Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 His childhood and youth
 The expedition into Spain
 Accession to the throne
 The king and his prerogative
 Archbishop Laud
 The Earl of Strafford
 Downfal of Strafford and Laud
 Civil war
 The captivity
 Trial and death
 Back Cover

Title: History of King Charles the First of England
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00064449/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of King Charles the First of England
Series Title: History of King Charles the First of England
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Abbott, Jacob,
Publisher: Simms and M'Intyre
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00064449
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ALG1851
alephbibnum - 002221626

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Half Title
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    His childhood and youth
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The expedition into Spain
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Accession to the throne
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    The king and his prerogative
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Archbishop Laud
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    The Earl of Strafford
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Downfal of Strafford and Laud
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Civil war
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    The captivity
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Trial and death
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Back Cover
        Page 193
Full Text







Cruzi1ss THU Fizur hID WSI AnUIOva BBlmz3.










Chapter Page
I. HIS CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH...................... 9
II. THE EXPEDITION INTO SPAIN.................... 23
III. ASCENSION TO THE THRONE ...................... 89
IV. BUCKINGHAM ......................................... 55
VI. ARCH3ISIIOP LAUD................................. 91
VII. THE EIAL OF STRAFFORD.........................107
IX. CIVIL vWA ........................................... 138
X. THE CAPTIVITY......................................... 158
XI. TRIAL AND DEATH ................................... 175


KImo CHaaLIS THr FIBRT was born in Scothla
It may perhaps surprise the reader that an English
king should be born in Scotland. The explanation
is this:-
They who have read the history of Mary Queen
of Scots, will remember that it was the great end
and aim of her life to unite the crowns of England
and Scotland in her own family. Sneen Elisabeth
was then Queen of England. She lived and died
unmarried. Queen Mary and a young man named
Lord Darley were the next heirs. It was unes-
tain which of the two had the stronger elaim. To
prevent a dispute, by uniting these claims, Mry
made Darnley her husband. They had a sm,
who, after the death of his father and mother, wa
acknowledged to be the heir to the English throne,
whenever Elizabeth's life should end. In the mesa-
time he remained King of Scotland. His name
was James. He married a princess of Denmark;
and his child, who afterward was Chares
the First of England, was born before he lef his
native realm.
King Charles's mother was, as has beea *1dy
id, a princess of Denmrk. Her sae was

10 xnmo CHILES I.
Anne. The circumstances of her marriage to Kh
James were quite extraordinary, and attract
great attention at the time. It is, in some sen
a matter of principle among kings and queem
that they must only marry persons of royal ran
like themselves; and as they have very little o
portunity of visiting each other, residing as they
in such distant capitals, they generally choo
their consorts by the reports which come to their
of the person and character of the different canm
.dates. The choice, too, is very much infaleno
by political considerations, and is always more
less embarrassed by the interference of other court
whose ministers make objections to this or th
alliance, on account of its supposed interferea
with some of their own political schemes.
As it is very inconvenient, moreover, for a ki
to leave his deinions, the marriage ceremony
ually performed at the court where the bri
sides, without the presence of the bridegroom,
s-ig an ambassador to act as his representative
SThisis called being married by proxy. The bri
i comes.to her royal husband's dominions,
.smpanied by a great escort. He meets her u
aly on the frontiers; and there she sees him I
he .first time, after having been married to -h
smie weeks by proxy. It is true, indeed, that s
AI generally seen his pidure, that being usum
moat to her before the marriage contract is ma
Thi, hogrer, is not a matter of much cor
4 emo, a the personal predilections of a prin
have generally very little to do with the quma
f her marriage.
,.Now King James had determined to propose

,ts ldest a aughter41of the Kng of Dnima nd
;ihatered into negsiadtis for this purpe. This
qla, however, did not please the govamu t of
ElaMad, and Elisabeth, who was then the ig-
lih quaen, managed so to embarrass and laerfre
with the scheme, that the King of Dnmmrk ave
hisdaughter to mother claimnt. James was a
man of very mild ad quiet temperament, ely
contacted and thwarted in hi plans; but this
dippointment aroused his energy, and he sent a
splendid embassy into Denmark to demand the
king's second daughter, whose name was Anne.
He prosecuted this suit so vigorously, that the
marriage articles were soon agreed to and signed.
Anne embarked and set sil for Scotland. The
king remained there, waiting for her arrival with
great impatience. At length, instead of his bride,
the news came that the fleet in'which Anne had
idled had been dispersed and driven back bya
storm, and that Anne herself had landed oa the
oast of Norway.
Ja~es immediately oneeired the design of going
himself in pursuit of her. But knowing very well
that all his ministers and the officers of is g
vemment would make endless objections to ha
going out. of the country on such an errand, he
kapt his pn a profound secret from them all. He
udered some ships to be got ready privately, sad
Dvided a suitable train of attendants, and then
asarked without letting his peopitmow where
he was going. He sailed aeros the erman
.Oam to the town in Norway where his bride had
landed. He foand her there, and they were mar-
ad. Her brother, who had Jst shoceeded t the

throae, having received latelligence of this, lavei
the yoang couple to come and spend the wetter
his capital of Copenhagen; and as the season,
far advanced, and the sea stormy, King Jam
decided on accepting the invitation. They W
received in Copenhagen with great pomp -r
parade, and the winter was spent in festivities a
rejoicing. In the spring, he brought his brid
to Scotland. The whole world were astonished a
the performance of such an exploit by a king
especially one of so mild, quiet, and grave a ech
racter as that which James had the credit of poe
Young Charles was very weak and feeble in hi
infancy. At his birth, it was feared that he wool
not live many hours. The rite of baptism wm
immediately performed,.as it was then consider
essential to thealvation of a child dying in infme
that it should be baptized before it died. Na
withstanding the fears that were at first fal
Charles lingered along for some days, and gradud
began to acquire a little strength. His feeblenes
was a cause of great anxiety and concern to those
around him; but the degree of interest felt in th
little sufferer's fate was very much less than i
would have been if he had been the eldest us
He had a brother, Prince Henry, who was ek
than he, and, consequently, heir to his father
crowns. It was not probable, therefore, th
Charls wold ever be king; and the importoa
of everything connected with his birth and N
welfare was very muoh diminished on that seems
It was only about two years after Charles's birl
that Quen Elizabeth died, and King James m

Oda to the Eaglish thres. A malr w
wi ~ l peed to Sootlad to anmonse the f
Harie night and day. He. arrived at the ki
p-lao in the iigt.: He gained admission to the
hkis. chamber, ad, kneeing at his bedside pro-
aimied him King of England. James immediately
ipared to bid his Scotch subjects farewell, and
to proceed to Enlad to take possession of his
new realm. Queen Anne was to follow him in a
week or two, and the other children, Henry and
Elisabeth; but Charles was too feeble to go.
In those early days there was a prevailing belief
in Scotland, and, in fact, the opinion still lingers
there, that certain persons among the old High-
lander had what they called the gift of the second
sight-that is, the power of foreseeing futurity in
soge mysterious and incomprehensible way. An
ieident connected with Charless infacy is related
in the old histories, which is a good illustration of
this. While King James was preparing to learn
Scotland, to take possession of the English throe,
an old Highland laird came to bid him farewelL
He gave the king many parting counsels and good
wishes, and then, overlooking the older brother,
Prince Henry, he went directly to Charles, who
was then about two years old, and bowed before
him, and kissed his hand with the greatest appear-
ams of regard and veneration. King James
idertook to correct his supposed mistake, by
,tsling him that that was his second son, and that
the other boy was the heir to the crown. "No,"
aid he.old laird, "Iam not mistaken. I kow
va whom I am speaking. This child, nowia his
wre's arms, will yet be geter than his bother.

ThL is the me who is to convey his father's Me
sad ties to suesseding geertion." This pm-
diction was fullled; for the robust sad healthy
Henry died, and the feeble and sickly-lookltg
Charles lived and grew, and succeeded, in due
time, to his father's throne.
Now inasmuch as, at the time when this predie-
tion was uttered, there seemed to be little human
probability of its fulfilment, it attracted attention;
its unexpected and startling character made every
one notice and remember it; and the old laird was
at once an object of interest and wonder. It is
probable that this desire to excite the admiration
of the auditors, mingled insensibly with a sort of
poetic enthusiasm, which a rude age and moun-
tainous scenery always inspire, was the origin of
a great many such predictions as these; and then,
in the end, those only which turned out to be true
wre remembered, while the rest were forgotten;
sad this was the way that the reality of such
pMopheti powers came to be generally believed in.
Feeble and uncertain of life as the infant Charles
appeared to be, they confered upon him, as is
customary in the ease of young princes, various
tides of nobility. He was made a baron, an ear a
marquis, and a duke, before he had strength enough
to lit up his head in his nurse's arms. His title
as duke was Duke of Albany; and as this was the
highest of his nominal honours, he was generally
aown under tat designation while he remained
in Sotland.
When his fther leA him, in order to go to
Englaad amd take possession of his new throne, he
appoie d govea ess to tae charge of the hel

dl edmOtiom e the lyaM duhs. This g aemM
a Ledy Cary. The reason wy she war ap,
Mole. wae, not because o her possessing y
pjlmr qualfication fir .suh a charg, bu tb*
Shear husband, Sir Robert Cary, had been the
nessenger employed by the British government to
oswmmnicate to James the death of Eliabeth, sd
o announce to him his accession to the throe.
The bearer of good news to a monarch must al-
ways be rewarded, and James recompensed Sir
Robert for his service by appointing his wife to the
post of governess to his infant son. The ofafi
undoubtedly had its honours and emoluments, with
ery little responsibility or care.
One of the chief residences of the English
monarchs is Windsor Castle. It is situated above
London, on the Thames, on the southern shore.
[t is on an eminence overlooking the river and thel
Ielghtful valley through which the river here
meanders. In the rear is a very extensive park
)r forest, which is penetrated in every direetie
by rides and walks almost innumerable. It ha.
been for a long time the chief country resideMse
)f the British kings. It is very specious, contak-
ing within its walls many courts and quadraaglus
with various buildings surrounding them, some
andent and some mode. Here King James held
bi court after his arrival in England, and in about
Syear he sent for the little Chares to join him.
Th child travelled very slowly, and by very
esy stages, his nurses and attendants watabeg
over him with great olisitude all the way. The
jomrey was made in the month of October. His
mothw awaited his aied with guat inoftr

Being so feeble saI helpless, he was, of ars,
br favourite child. By an instinct which vy
strongly evinces the wisdom and goodness whi
implanted it, a mother always bestows a dmae
portion of her love upon the frail, the helpl
and the suffering. Instead of being wearied mt
with protracted and incessant calls for watchful-
nae and care, she feels only a deeper sympathy
and love, in proportion to the infirmities which
all for them, and thus finds her highest happiness
in what we might expect would be a weariness
and a toil
Little Charles was four years old when he
reached Windsor Castle. They celebrated his ar-
rival with great rejoicings, and a day or two after-
ward they invested him with the title of the Duke
of York, a still higher distinction than he had before
attained. Soon after this, when he was perhaps
ive or six years of age, a gentleman was ap-
pointed to take the charge of his education. His
halth gradually improved, though he still con-
tined helpless and feeble. It was a long time be-
fore he could walk, on account of some malforma-
tim of his limbs. He learned to talk, too, very
lats and very slowly. Besides the general feeble-
une of.his constitution, which kept him back in
all these things, there was an impediment in his
speech, which affected him very much in childhood,
and. which in fact never entirely disappeared.
As soon, however, as he commenced his studies
under his new tutor, he made much greater pro-
gres than had been expected. It was soon ob-
arved that the feebleness which had attached to
him pertained more to the body than to the mid.

adranoed with eonsdersa rapidity in his
dig. His proges was, in fat, in me de-
k promoted by his bodily infirmities, which
I him from playing with the other boys of the
, and led him to like to be till, and to retire
Scenes of sport and pleasure which he could
'he same cause operated to make him not
eeable as a companion, and he was not a
urite among those around him. They called
Baby Charley. His temper seemed to be in
*e sense soured by the feeling of his inferiority,
by the jealousy he would naturally experience
Finding himself, the son of a king, so outstripped
athletic sports by those whom he regarded as
inferiors in rank and station.
'he lapse of a few years, however, after this
e, made a total change in Charles's position
prospects. His health improved, and his con-
ation began to be confirmed and established.
ien he was about twelve years of age, too, his
other Henry died. This circumstance made an
re change in all his prospects of life. The eyes
he whole kingdom, and, in fact, of all Europe,
a now upon him as the future sovereign of
land. His sister Elizabeth, who was a few
rn older than himself was, about this time,
rried to a German prince, with great pomp and
amony, young Charles acting the part of bride-
a. In consequence of his new position as heir-
*rent to the throne, he was advanced to new
lour, and had new titles onferred upon him,
if at last, wh he was sixteen years of age,
was made Prinee of Wales, and certain revenues

18 xnro ComBnS r.
were appropriated to support a court for him, that he
might be surrounded with external circumstane
and insignia of rank and power, corresponding
with his prospective greatness
In the meantime his health and strength rapidly
improved, and with the improvement came a taste
fur manly and athletic sports, and the attainment
of excellence in them. He became very famous
for his skill in all the exploits and performances
of the young men of those days, such as shooting,
riding, vaulting, and tilting at tournaments. From
being a weak, sickly, and almost helpless child, he
became at twenty, an active, athletic young man,
full of life and spirit, and ready for any roman-
tic enterprise. In fact, when he was twenty-
three years old, he embarked in a romantic en-
terprise which attracted the attention of all the
world. This enterprise will presently be de-
There was at this time, in the court of King
James a man who became very famous afterward
as favourite and follower of Charml. He is
known in history under the name of the Duke of
Buckingham. His name was originally George
Villier. He was a very handsome young man,
and he seems to have attracted King James's at-
tention at first on this aacount. James found him
a convenient attendant, and made him, at last, his
principal favourie. He raised him to a high rank,
and conferred upon him, amog other titles, that
of Duke of Buckl gha. The other pesons
about the court we var envious sad jeous of
his influese and powew; but they wre obliged to
meiit ta it Ha live in mA state and Dmln-

dour, and fr many yJr wm s looikedup.to By the
whoTe kingdom as one of the greatea persoagW
in the relm. We hall learn hereafter how be
came to his end.
If the reader imagine, fom the accounts which
have been given thus far in this chapter, of the
pomp and parade of royalty, of the castles and the
ceremonies, the titles of nobility, ad' the various
insignia of rank and power,,which we have allded
to so often, that the mode of lif which royalty led
in those days was lofty, dignified, ad truly great,
he will be very greatly deceived. All these things
were merely for show-things put on for public
display, to gratify pride and impress the people,
who never looked behind the scene, with high
ideas of the grandeur of those who, a they were
taught, ruled over them by a diWbe right It
would be hard to find, in any ass of soety, ex-
cept those reputed inhmous, more low, gross, sad
vulgar modes of life than have been exhibited
generally in the royal palaces of Euope hfr the
last five hundred yeaM King Jaes the lirt
has among Engh swerigs, rather a high
caractr for society and gravity of depormtam
ad purity of morals; but the g pm we get of
the real, every-day routine of il. domestLi 1,
ae such as to show that the pompand parade of
royalty is mre gltt erin =tim after
The historian of the day tell ch starf a
these. The king ws at one times very dmeted
and melancholy, whDn Bu wtag n am trivd tis
pan totsam- hL In tOe st pf1b, hweer,
we ought to say, I6 udertyb flslsraet tle rsaa

king always called Buckingham Steeny, which was
a contraction of Stephen. St. Stephen was always
presented, in the Catholic pictures of the asei
as a very handsome man, and Buckingham being
handsome too, James called him Steeny by way if
compliment. Steeny called the king his dad and
used to sign himself& in his letters, "your slave
and dog Steeny." There are extant some letters
which passed between the king and his favourite,
written, on the part of the latter, in a style of
grossness and indecency such that the chroniclers
of those days said that they were not fit to be
printed. They would not "blot their pages" with
them, they said. King Charles's letters were
more properly expressed.
To return, then, to our story. The king to
very much dejected and melancholy. Steeny, In
order to divert him, had a pig dressed up in the
clothes of an infant child. Buckingham's mother,
who was a countess, personated the nurse, dressed
also carefully for the occasion. Another person
put on a bishop's robes, silk gown, lawn sleeves,
and the other episcopal garments They also
provided a baptismal font, a prayer-book, and
other things necessary for a religious ceremony,
and then invited the king to come in to attend a
baptism. The king came, and the pretended
bishop began to read the service, the asistsant
looking gravely on, until the squealing of thbIg
brought all gravity to an end. The king was'sr
pleased; but the historian thinks the reason wtK
not any objection which he had to such a profio
tion, but to his aot happening to be in a mood far
it at that time.

There was a negottino going on for a log
ims%, for a marriage between one of the klnag
sm, fret Henry, and afterwad hObries, aod
prbes of Spain. At on e time the ing lost some
of the papers, and wa storming about the palms
in a great rage because he cold not find them.
At last he chanced to meet a seron Scotbaman,
a servant of his, named Gib, like a vexed
and impatient child, who lays th charge of a lot
plaything upon anybody who happens to be at
hand to receive it, he put the reaponsibilty of the
loss of the papers upon Gib. "I remember,"
said he, "I gave them to you to take care of
What have you done with them?" The faithful
servant fell upon his knees, and protested that he
had not received them. The king was only made
the more angry by this contradiction, and kicked
the Scotchman as he kneeled upon the foor. The
man rose and left the ptme, saying "I have
always been faithfl to/your majesty, sad have
not deserved sach trement as this. I cannot
remain in your service er sh a degradation.
I shall never see you again He left the palace
and went away.
A short time after this, the person to whose
custody the king had really committed the papers
came in, and, on learning that they were wanted,
produced them. The king was askmed of his
conduct. He sent fr his Scoth servant again,
and was not easy uatil he was fend and brought
into his presence He thn kneeled before him
ad asked his &trll soo, ad aid he should not
rise till he had forgive him. Gib was dipped
to evade the request, and red the king to rie;

U$ ziMnAM L-
butJamsne woatd *a del: l lie had mid h
fqarwe ia, is m m y wado&. Mhewboe ie
abo bow Bttd of dignity and noble besi
itm se was in the wmmoen and mnderu
the kigg in his daly life, Mough we ae aionm
nmd to overook the diulous childisha m
ly of hi falt, on soeount of the truly nohl
bfah ess and honesty with which he ackow
igad diL
Thus, though ereeything in which royalty ap
peM d before the public was oonduted with green
pomp and paade, this extend magnificenoe wa
then, and always has been, an outside show, without
anything orresponding to it within. The gres
mas of the people of Englnd saw only the out
ide. They gaed with admiration at the aspects
ole of magnifioeme ad splendour which royad
always presented to their eyes, whenever they be
hbd it from the distnt and' humble points a
viw which their position afforded them. Prins
Chakes, on the other hand, was behind the cm
taI. His childhood ad d yoh were expose
fay to all the real inldums of these sone
The people of England submitted to be goveme
br each mn, oat beooae they thought them qua
Mied to governs, or that the drcomtanees nde
which their oehamasr were foawed were sah a
mo calculated to.foam, in a proper manner, b
mids of the rulam of a Chritian people. Thb
did met ba what these ciMumances wereo
thir eomeepon thy rhad d ideas of Fae
chasrastr sad Jif, and isaud Mthe Asle m
palesi whih ame mw, ht. more -aly heard d
At Wesirinsitr, wonre lld with trM igaetem

da glory. hey I m eaRyfledwih mligmaly,
vie, amd hame. Jame wmasohm Klg Jams
h Pimt monarch of Great BhitaW, rneae, nd
Iland, and Oharie was Oha Prince of Wls,
mke of York, and heir-appaet to the tMs.
Whras, within the palace, to all who saw kem
d ew them the n end mrlly, so far as their
tre mron position was omermed, the tb er wa
" Old Dad," and the son, what his fthr always
called him, till he was twenty-four year old,
"Baby Charley."

Is order that the reader may understand fully the
nature of the romantic enterprise in whiob, as we
have already said, Prince Charles embarked when
he was a little over twenty years of age, we mut
premier that Frederic, the German prine who mar-
ried Charles's sister, Eliabeth, some year before,
was the ruler of a country in Gemany called t*
Palatinate. It was on the baks of the Bhia.
Frederic's title, a raler of tbhisountry, was letter
Palaine. There are a great may indepedet
stats in Germany, whose sovuNig have varie
ile, and are possesed of various pegative aM d
SNow it happened that at thi time, very fere
"iril war wee igig between the OCtholie an
thProatemats in Geamay. iDredesio Soe daaw
into these war on the Protestant side. Hismti~
uA- ot any dwke to pemate .te A pg of

n inreu m n. I.
what be eeideid the tre faith, but only a wL
to extend his own duidi, sad add to his
power; for he had been promised a kigd
addition to his Palatinate, if he would asiat .
people of the kingdom to gain the victory over
Catholi foes. He embarked in this enteep
without consulting with Junames, his father-iwm
knowing that he would probably disapprove of -
dangerous ambition. James wa, in fact, very so
afterward to hear of Frederic's having engaged
such a contest.
The result was quite as disastrous as Jam
feared. Frederic not only failed in getting his n
kingdom, but he provoked the rage of the Cathol
powers against whom he had undertakento conta
and they poured a great army into his own origin
territory, and made an easy conquest of it Freda
fled to Holland, and remained there a fugitive m
an exile, hoping to obtain help in some way frc
James, in his efforts to recover his lost dominion
The people of England felt a great interest
rederics happy fte, and were very desire
that James should raise an army and give b
some efficient distance. One reason for this w
that they were Protestants, and they wera lws
ready to embark, on the Protestant side, in t
continental quarrels. Another reason was t
interest in Elisabeth, the wife of Frederld, who h
so recently left England a blooming brid, a
whom they still considered as in some sense
taming to the royal family of England, sand
bavingaright to look to all her father's ab
fbr protection.
Bau Kng James himself had no inisation t

TaU XurmDrIM Nmo SArm 1a
s war in such a qumnl. He was ia tivl"
idS ad cHldi, and b had liBle taste for we
timrIpr". He ~6uooW, however, to moo-
as .t*he object in other way. The King f
flpl, being one of the most powrfal of the Osth
s weraigs, had great infloee in ll their
rancils. He had alo a b tifal daughter, Doma
Maria, called, the eldea Splnilh princesses tyled,
the Infats. Now James conceived the design of
proposing that his son. Charles hold marry Doma
Mari, and that, in the treaty of marriage, there
srhdd be a stipulation providing that the Palatnate
should be restored to Frederic
These negotiations were commenced, and they
wet on for two or three years without making
ay sensible progress. Donna Maria was a Catho-
lie, and Charles a Protestat. Now a Cathoio
meld not marry a Protestant without a special dis-
peMstion from the pope. To get this dispenatio
required new negotiations and delays. In the
midst of it all, the King of Spain, Donna Maria's
father, died, and his son, her brother, naaed
Phip, scomeded him. Then the negotiation bad
all to be ommneed maew. It was opposed tat
the King of Spain did not wish to have the sairi
coneloded, bat liked to have it in discussion, as it
tended to keep the King of Englad more or less a-
dsr his control So they kpt sending ambassadors
tek and forward, with draft of treaties, article
diti, ad stipulations without number. There
wes endless discussions about searing to Dona
Mlris the fel ajoym m t of the Outholic region In
Eagland, and express agressnts wer peoposd
nd dbletd in raeS to hL br a obir Oad

M2 aMn OLKM L.
priests, ad the driht to salebrte mass, ad &
eq7, in faot all the other privilege which sl
had been accustomed to eraidse in her native led
Jams did not object. Be agreed to everwthia
bt till, somehow or other, the arrangement moe
not be cosed. There wa always some pretext .O
At last Buci ngham proposed to Charles tha
they two should set off for Spain in person, and se
if they could not settle the affair. Buckingham'a
motive was partly a sort of reckless daring, which
made him love any sort of adventure, and partly s
desire to circumvent and thwart a rival of his, the
Eurl of Bristol, who had charge of the negotiations
It may seem to the reader that a simple joum"r
from London to Madrid, of a young man, for the
purpose of visiting a lady whom he was wishing tc
espouae, was no such extraordinary undertaking a
to attract the attention of a spirited young man tc
it from love of adventure. The truth is, however,
that, with the ideas that then prevailed in respea
to ryal etiquette, there was something very nnnsa
in this plan. The pine and Buckingham kew
wry well that the consent of the statesmen an
high office of the alm could ever be obtained,
mad that their only alternative was, cordingly, tc
go aff secretly and in diagnise.
It seemed, however, to be rather necessary to gt
the king's consent. But Bokingh m did not ani-
deipe anao difficulty i this, a he wes accustod
to manage James almost ligk a abild. He had.ut
however, been a wy good tems with Ob d,
Bhiqg beea ,ocutomed otr atshim in thekab h
sad hIperious ImUMr wh ic Janmes wld nsnal

lid to, bst whi ChariL was Jm Wim-ed to
ire ad raet Wham 4"eW atJeoh.
delved of this abme eof .,ging into Spai, he
aged his deportsent toward Charies, d a*-
APwomed, by artf diaimnlation, to grahis. kd
gud. He soonaneceeded, sad thea e proposed
He represented to Charles that the ole house of
a delays in MsliIn the question of his married
as because it was let so entirely in thehands of
sbaudo. negotiation, and steaMMa, who in-
Ived everything in endless mas. Tke the
hir into your own hands" sid he, like a man
It of with me, and go at onoe into Spain. As-
nish them with your sadden and unexpected
meance. The Infants will be delighted at sch a
oof of your ardour, corge, and devotion, and
ll do all in her power to oo-operate with you in
singing the affair at once to a dose. Besides, the
bole world will admire the originality and bold-
m of the achievement."
Chades ws eaily persuaded. The aet thig
s to get the kings oomnt. Charle and Buak-
ghm went to hi palace one day, and, watching
air opportunity when he wu pretty msrry wit
ine, Chrl told him be had a favor to ak, sad
anted his father to promise to gant it before e
ew what it was. James, after some bhitatimon,
if i jest nd half in ea s agreed to I. They
ade him pemise that he would Mnt tell. a me
hat it was, and thAnexplained their plan. The
i wa thaenruek; his mumaement sbered
Stone. e r racted his psmi e. Hmever
Old oneent to ay ach obum.

28 Zne C3ALWSi L
Bucktigham here interposed with his id. He
told the king that twas perfectly safe bfr the
prince to go, and that this measure was the only
plan which could bring the marriage treaty to a
lose. Besides, he said, if he and the prince were
there, they could act far more effectually than any
ambassadors in securing the restoration of the
Palatinate to Frederic. James could not withstand
these entreaties and arguments, and he finally gave
a reluctant consent to the plan.
He repented, however, as soon as the consent
was given, and when Charles and Buckingham
came next to see him, he said it must be given up.
One great source of his anxiety was a fear that his
son might be taken and kept a prisoner, either in
France or Spain, and detained a long time in cap-
tivity. Such a captive was always, in those days,
a very tempting prize to a rival power. Personages
of very high rank may be detained as captives,
while all the time those who detain them may
pretend not to confine them at all, the guards and
sentinels being only marks of regal state, and indi-
catlons of the desire of the power into whose hands
they have fallen to treat them in a manner com-
porting with their rank. Then there were always,
in those days, questions and disputes pending be-
tween the rival courts of England, France, and
Spain, out of which it was easy to get a pretext
for detaining any strolling prince who might cross
the frontier, as security for the falilment of som
stipulation, or for doing some act ofjustice claimed.
James, knowing well how much faith and honour
were to be expected of kings and courts, was
afraid to trust his son in French or Spanish do-

ions. He said he certainly could not oom at
his going, without ant sending to Fraoa, at
it, for a sfe-conduct-that is, a paper from
government, pledging the honour of the king
oto molest or interrupt him in his journey
Dugh his dominions.
3uckingham, instead of attempting to re-amure
king by fresh arguments and peruasions,
ke out into a passion, accused him of violating
promise not to reveal their plan to any one; as
knew, he said, that this new opposition had
a put into his head by some of his counsellors,
whom he had made known the design. The
g denied this, and was terrified, agitated, and
resmed by Buckingham's violence. He wept
Sa child. His opposition at length gave way
a second time, and he said they might go.
qy named two attendants whom they wanted to
with them. One was an officer of the king's
Lsehold, named Collington, who was then in the
e-room. They asked the king to call him in
se if he would go. When Collington came in,
king accosted him with, Here's Steeny sad
by Charley who want to go to Spain and fetch
Infant. What think you of it?" Collington
not think well of it all. There followed a new
ipse on the part of the king from his consent,
new storm of anger from Buckingham, more
tn obstinacy on the part of Charles, with pro-
* criinations and recriminations one against
other. The whole .ene was what, if it had
Orred anywhere else than in a palace, would
re been called a brawl.
It ended, as brawls ualy do, in the triumph

80 xm carMUz s r.L
of the most reasonable sad violent. Jama
threw himself upon a bed which was in the room
weeping bitterly, and saying that if they woad
go, he should lose his Baby Charley. Conider
ing that Charles was now the monarch's only chiNl
remaining at home, and that, as heir to the crown.
his life was of great consequence to the realm, it ii
not surprising that his father was distressed at the
idea of his exposing himself to danger on such at
expedition; but one not accustomed to what ii
behind the scenes in royal life would expect a little
more dignity and propriety in the mode of express
ing paternal solicitude from a king.
Charles and Buckingham set off secretly fron
London; their two attendants were to join then
in different places-the last at Dover, where theq
were to embark. They laid aside al marks o
distinction in dress, such as persons of high ran]
used to wear in those days, and took the garb o
the common people. They put on wigs, also, th
hair being very long, so as to shade the face ani
alter the expression of their countenances. Thea
external disguises, however, were all that the;
eeuld command. They could not assume the mo
det and quiet air and manner of persons in th
ordinary walks of life, but made such displays, an,
were so liberal in the use of their money, and' car
tried such an air and manner in all that they di
and said, that all who had any intercoure wi
them perceived that they were in disguise. Th
weresupposed to be wild blades, out on some fol
or other, but still they were allowed to pam alo~
without any molestation.

TUB uisDA or NuSiu mArT. I
lome way they attracted the attention of the
for of the towa. Dover is a the Chssl,
te to Calais, at the narrowest point It
i, of course, especially in those days, the po
nre the principal interiors between the two
ns centered. The magisrates of the two towns
e obliged, consequently, to be on the alert, to
rent the escape of fugitive and criminal, as
I se to guard against the efbrs of smuggel a
the entrance of spies or other secret enemies.
SMayor of Dover arrested our heroes. They
Shim that their names were Tom Smith and
k Smith; these, in fact, were the names with
ch they had travelled through England thus
They said that they were travelling for
moment. The mayor did not believe them.
thought they were going oross to the French
it to fight a duel. This was often done in
i days. They then told him that they were,
ed, persons of ran in disguise, and that they
a going to inspect the English fleet. He fiaBy
wed them to embark.
In landing at Clais, they travelled post to
I, strictly preserving their icognito, but
iming soh an air and being as to create the
reason that they we not what they pr-
led. When they reached Parib Bchingham
d not rst he temptation of showing Chari
se of lf, and he contrived to get admitted
Sparty at court, where arle saw, meong
r ladis who attracted Us ttentio, the Prin-
HBeaeta. He w s mit stnehk wih her
sy and pae, but he lltle thoeg that It wa
Tmwinmm Mls tal aW TaImrh im- lir ma

going in pursuit of who was really to become
wife, and the future Queen of England.
The young travellers thought it not prudes
remain long in Paris, and they accordingly left
city, and pressed forward as rapidly as posibh
ward the Spanish frontier. They managed, howe
to conduct themselves in such a way as to ati
attention. Although they were probably sinci
desirous of not having their true rank and cha
ter known, still they could not resist the tern
tion to assume such an air and bearing as to n
people wonder who they were, and thus incr
the spirit and adventure of their journey.
Bordeaux they received invitations from s
grandees to be present at some great gala,
they declined, saying that they were only ]
gentlemen, travelling to inform their minds,
were not fit to appear in such gay assemblies.
At last they approached Madrid. They :
besides Collington, another attendant who s]
the Spanish language, and served them as an
terpreter. They separated from these two
day before they' entered Madrid, so as to att
the less attention. Their attendants were t
left behind for a day, and afterward were to fo
them into the city. The name of the British
basador at Madrid was the Earl of Bristol
had had charge of all the negotiations in res
to the marriage, and to the restoration of the P
tinate, and believed that he had brought them ah
to a successful termination. He lived in a pi
in Madrid, and, as is customary with the amba
dors of great powers at the courts of great pow
in a style of the highest pomp and spledor.

u EXUS ar4so a,.s. 4
kBRiram tekw tht poie dir y to iato
w.ow Brtol w *ttely IoIr sdd at, ;nses
*& Nothing could be wors,.he said, in rpet
iake completion of thie treaty than the princes
xesmce in Madrid. The introdrtion so new
pduxtraordinary an eleapmn ito the affair wood
uido all that had been d ad lead the King of
Spfin to begin anew, and go ever al the ground
igu.-. In speaking ofth oorence to other,
said, that just as he was o the point of omi
a sa tisfactory coclusion of his long negotitio
md toils, demon in the shape of Prince Charles
aum suddenly upon the stage to thwart and de-
eat them alL
The Spanish court was fmous in those days-
odeed it has always been mom-for its puncti-
ious attention to etiquette and parade; and a
oon as the prince's aival was known to the
dog he immediately began to make preparation
o welcome him with all possible pomp and cere-
sony. A great procession was made to there
radio which is a street in Madrid famous for pro-
nadea, processions, and public displays of all
lads. In moving through the city on this ocar
ion, the king and Prince Charles walked together,
he nmareh thus treating the prince as his equal.
re ,-a a great canopy of state borne over their
a i W they moved along. This canoy was
qppesr by a large number of persons of the
ighet nuk. The streets, and the windows, aad
he balcones of the houses on each ide, were
nged with spectators, dressed in the ay and
pledid court drse of tho times. Wh they
Mshed te end of the mue, lp were bout to

5M XIB Wam Lt
e the gate of the palae, there wa a dela
decide which tmoud enter first, the king d
prince eack Insting on giving the precedena
theother. At lst was settled by their
gont~ together.
If the ie thus, on the one hand, der
som benft in the i tetion of his pride by
Spanish etiquette and ade, he suffered some
oovenience and dis ppontment from it on
edher hand, by its excluding him from all in
core or acquaintance with the Infn. It
not proper for the young man to see or to q
to the young lady, inauch a case as ths, nntil
arrangements had been more fully matured.
trmalities of the engagement must have prooew
beyond the point which they d reached, be
the bridegroom soold be admitted to a pera
interview with e bride. It is tre, he could
her in public, where she was in a crowd,
other ladie of the court, and where he could h
mo emonnieation with her; but this was
They arranged it, however, to give Oharim
any opportunities of this kind as possible. T
got up shows, in which the prince cold see
Ininta among the spectator; and they arrm
titaing and ridings at the rig, and other .h
sports, such as Charles excelled in, and hl I
perform his exploits in her presence. Hb h
bi these contests had not the faiivility to eoq
im, and his performaaues exited exprmea
least, f universal admiratin
But the prince and Baekagham dd t
willingly ubamit to the slless and trnaal
the Spanish ourt. As somm as hey s t

DI it oemM, atey beg8 Mt w ft, m
*h. At m tlwd. eapm learned tha f
W at w goag ertmy te mo ag, to fbsa
& Ia se priwte phan pIIMh, uao aMw
ue bI the ei ghbsbld f MrIlU, sad be
Mesied the a edp ef a ln uatervi wvt
r ter by steal. =m Ihgy -pdna r
s plM, got datmied *Ime way with aft
dctets of the pdaM rl outrived to cenb.
or a high wall which seprtel him rom do
oand in whidA fe batata wM wtiag, al so
Shelf down into kbr pearmsr The aeeU
mot taste whether she hnmlf ws plead a
m med, b the odou wto had hr In eobrw ,
I aMbm- was rmy amh arrmed, ad begd
spriMe to retr, s he iamlf wol be adse"
a vwy seve pame iff t we knoww th
had ablwel ah n hmtenrw.. FPndly thy
eed the deor sad tbe priae went ot. Mny
ople wee pbeed Wthi ae d ~ milar ad
rem of the pince nd of Baklgham, but t
ding persons amor the Mt were diaMphI e
Sth tea. Their prerie and formal ndeaols
opdriywere Yryasd o showed by sxh frileedo
Besides, it was soon found that the charamts f
me high-born visi, espeMy that of Boek-
alM wmere 4 mor d the r u i s very
eaghMgm was eomed t a rst RKi Mng
wvryboAld,tminer ad Iaperid man er, Ma
* I m oubly t hem h- l of BMiereem
lm osm t hi Spl The Ilesr rvem
it nise whith he a It s miebed, oef
MrMtr,mdb tmetam ,,l- gom Ias--ll/lb
UjL^jtt^IMa-jt^B& -d|^ft, r ^^^j^^l^^^^^ ^a^

e8 mne omKAaM I.
hld expected, very much put back by the p.
arrive The King of Spain formed new
and thought of new conditions to impose.
Cathlic, too, thought that Oharles's oomi
Into a atholio country, indicated some learn
his part, toward the Catholic faith. The
actually wrote him a leag letter, the obji
which was to draw him off from the ra
Protestantism. Charles wrote a civil, but i
an evasive reply.
In the meantime, King James wrote co
letters from time to time to his two dear bo;
he called them, and he sent them a great
presents of jewellery and splendid dresses, so
them to wear themselves, and some for the I
to offer as gifts to the Infanta. Among the
descdbes, in one of his letters, a little mir
in a ease which was to be worn hung at the I
-He wrote to Charles that when he gave this i
to the Infants, he must tell her that it was a
4are which he had imbued with magical vir
means of incantations and charms, so that 1
orer she looked into it, she would see sport
the most beautiful princess in England, Fi
or Spain.
SAt last the great obstacle in the way c
somelusion of the treaty of marriage, which
listed in the delays and difficulties in gettia
Pope's dispensation, was removed. The d
stion came. But then the King of Spain i
uae new guarantees in respect to the pdviil
Oatholic in England under preteae of r
An perfectly the rights of the Infants and
attrLsn when they should hae rived ii

Rau 31iamrei uuo OPAn. 9"
ty. The trth wa, he probably wanted
Himself of the oeeloa to gla some footeb
the Catholic faith in England, which eam-t
Sbeome almost entity Ptr st. At length,
wr, all obstacles s emet t be removed, mde
treaty as signed, Thke a ft was renervel
k great joy in England, an it meeed to aecem
rafnsnent allimane between the two power
tries of England and Spain. Great oeleta-
is took place in London, to do honour to the
mion. A chapel was built for the Infant, to
ready for her on her arrival; and a eet was
id out to convey her and her attendants to her
Sthe meantime, however, although the king
signed the treaty, there was a strong pary
ed against the marriage in Spain. Boklogha
hated and deepied. Charles, they saw, was
at entirely under his inlueos. They ail
r would rather ee the slasr in her grave thai
he hands of such men. Bekingham became
ated by the hostility he had awakened, and be
rained to break of the match entirely. He
to home to James that he had no idea that the
nih court had any intention of carrying the
gement really into eflot; that they were
aminating the adir on every possible pretext,
,at he was really afraid that, if the prince
a to attempt to leave the country, they would
q se sa detain him a a prisoner. King
s was vr muho alarmed. He wrote in the
iss trepidatien, urging "the lds," to come
y Imdtely, leaving a prexy behind them,
eMsyr ir the eisaiti.alsn ofthe meariapg

Tkns w wwhat eBuddI wanted, and h
do price began to mak prepeations for
The Kng of SFpal, &r fima itrpodlq
abmtaolea in the way, sly treated ths with
and higher marks of rspet as the tim of
Mspation from the woar drew nh He ar
Sranud pompous remonius to honour
He eompanied thm with al
randeesof th court, as r a the Esuril,
i a famo= royal palace not far fiem Madrid,
mad finished in the most snmpteous sa
masg Mo e od sendoi ar. Here they had p
feast and celebration. Here the prince toe
lhve of the Infant, l B servl g s inta
to tsnlate his parting speeehs into Spai
twA sh oold uderadta e. From the
ths prine and Buchkaghs wid a grns
glirhmbelemaswho had followed them toM

to melve them.
They embarked at a pst eaed St. Ai
They were very ear being o it an satam o
ad rain which came upon them while ga
to the ships, whioh wre at a distance fro
rbor, in small boats provided to oonvey
Baring escaped this danger, they arrived us
PWstemoUth, the great lading point of the I
HJy on the srothan shores of Englad, amd t
pseded to Lndom. They sent bark ide
te proxy should be used, sa the stal
n*y abandoned, essh party sees g the
of dplUsity and bad fesh. Krl Jams

irm T; 7 gultM g t htems iae ba*ek s,
I the people maeas asy b ee adierI.
olen to e sebrat the baking up of this CtMel
ch as they had dme boh to do home to. i
io ed celbrtio. As a hop d of wcoond
r Palatiate by egodtit was now pat, the
g began to prepm forth stampt toreq quw
y fre of arm

oK JAa made slow progpM in his military
ara He uoold t raSe the faeds without
i ometio of ParimUmt dtb: t e hous wm not
very good huno. The epasm-e of th prietds
it to Spain had bemeamru sMwad sehr
ing oat of the pomp md spmadour with w
rringements of the eourt wi e mitnsi. .
re theme a little holing of dis mtent T oy ad
r g ievaes of which they were dipod to
plain, and they beg to lok pon thi wamr
twithrtandig its Protastant ehnsctde, as o* i
iob the king was oly string to reoose hi
-in-law's dombAions, d comequaedy, as oae
jeh pertained mnre to ai personal interest th
the public welfare of the real.
While thingire in this stat the king fell doL
* mathr of the Duak of Buokighaom undertook
pasori fr him. It was udertood th*t
mkinghei hisMK who had, in the couse of the
iLk O sWsyia, se d gimK hiu tan, -asqia d
satha seendast m per CGhrl was uct ea-

wilg that his id mastr shadd leave the
utd the younger me reign hi s tead; and #r
ls mother etred in this feeling. At amy vM
her prescriptions made the king much worse. ;N
had the sacrament admiaitered to him in his elh
chamber, and said'that he derived great eaeM"
from:it. One morning, very early, he sent for 1
prince to come and see him. Oharies rose, drel
himself and came. His father had something to
say to him, and tried to speak. He could not.
His strength was too far goe. He fell back upon
his pillow and died.
Charles, was of course, now king. The theory
in the Edglish monarchy is, that the king new
di. So soon as the person in whom the royal
sovereignty resides, cessem to breathe, the prmipi
of supremay vets immediately in his snceaor, by
law of tranmismion entirely independent of the will
of man. The son becomes king by a divine right.
His being proclaimed sad crowned, as he usuay
is, at some convenient time early in his reign, ar
net ceremonies which make him king. They oaly
acknowledge him to be so. He does not, in safy
sense; derive his powers and prerogatives firm
these acts. He only receives from his people, by
means of them, a recognition of his right to the
high oAfce to which he has already been indted
by the fiat of Heaven. .
It will be observed, thus, that the ideas whiok
prevailed in respect to the natare and proviom4e
grerament, were very different in Eaglud at ht
tee from those which are entertained in Ametd
at the present day. In America, the ada WistAi
of overaent Is merely a buhiSus, treasse tr

>-pktef pop le by their a W-mo.uhowi
iput in powerfor this purpose, and who, l
r agets, are respoaibe to thir.principflar.er
Scanner in which. thy fuil their trutts. BK
miinent in England.wa, in the*days of te
mr--and it is a, to a grat. Mt et t~h
mat day-&a rigt which me family poesemd,
Which entitled that family to oertin in~mm
was, and prrogatives, which they held eati
dependent of any desire, on the prt oSt. e people,
a they should exerire them, or even their
eat that they should do so. The iAght: t
rn the realm of Gret Britain was a sort of
ite which descended to Charles from his anoes-
4i and with the possession and enjoymet of
kL the community had no eight to interfme.
This seems, at first view very aboard to us, w
is not particularly absrd. Ohles's lawyers
id. say to any plain proprietor of a piece oa
d, who might call in question his right to govem
,ooatry :--The king hold his rown by precisely
s ame ture that you hold yeur faim. Why
iuld you be the exclusive poseer of that land,
ile so many poor beggar are starving? Became
ha descended to you from you ameate ,.a
in ha descended to them. And it ipredciSl
that the right to manage the fleets sad are
I to administer the laws of the realm, has dee-
hdt under the nam of .rierity to him, aad
eask political power haa dasended to you .
True, the farmer would reply; but in matter
MnMent we are to esider what wi lpesamtt
general good. Thegreat oae to be aiaid
She wltanre and hsbses dc at cffoomunity.

U zin quanaza
Now, if this gmd Bwela lAems it Wope
wvi the supposed right of indiidala sa
6ba emh a prinAople a baeditary mnoceaau,
htter ought otainly to yield
SBut why, might the lawyer rply, sb dri
hnmsl on hereditary mccion yield any x
y in the eas of governmm than in the
dffipmyf The ditribationofproperty leo
h gmel wdefie qie as nmoh as the ma
meof pwer. Suppoe it wer proved that
lml welfare of your persh wodd be prmn
&h the division of your land among the deti
th You have nott to oppose to am
peeioe but your heditwey right. And
in h that to oppo to say pla of a dim
of s prrogativ and powers usog the ps
who wold like to bre them.
Whatever my be theht of this reaeso
at the present day, it wa em idered very.m
bery in EMglamd two or three entries"
Thb tee ad proer juriedi of an En
mo ch, as it kad existed from aeian til
v considered a an a hdu ricpt, rvetim
h smceamie inheritor of th crown, and wl
th conmmiity could not justly interfe witl
distrb, for any reuse Ies imperios than I
a would authorie an interfernce with the r
of peoesssion to private property. Indeed, i
pskbable that, with most m at that time, a
herited right to pom was Mu rded the
ned of the two.
'-s fiot semns to be, tLt the right of a s
oeminto the pace of his their, whether is m
to popaety, power, or soee mIk, is et a

ACC3MM-- mimouu. a
maul mAnd uIk, ') a PsAp
i ksodeiy asseml, am se of eComo mis
a eediey. aI Engl-d, np-die i, fh
whole, considsd to requin tdht A the ofI
M ting, namly, pwp rty, n ad pep
ertsia oome, dshl dodA braAMutr lesm
merHies, on the other hm4dg thbe hsolltk
oned to property, being abropated isb'omtr
Mk nd poww. In ndaibr mCs i --
l usy bsolat natural right, bat awr.
Sis allowed to take its pl in me, wor mi
ll of these partismier, sao ig to t6heqpifa
thwe commaiyi hao sepee to wh t lb t
mt ead he genera wedf, am (himu eb,
Sim '.- 1
he kings therelves o thi Start ee.swhi
i includes Mary Que of Seoar the n dther
ine, ad Jam L Chars L Chie IL a
ms IL-entertained very high idem of t
ditary right of their to gnra thereale
lnd. They flt a detminsat to mahita
M rigt ad powerlsa -aU Alhu a ColdM
ided the thron will thers feeling md th
if point of intewa in the hiuy of his rin i
mteWt a which he enpgaed with the Zgli
ple ma his attempts to maintain the.
Ihe body with which the king came nt imm*
ely into 0conies in ti long strugge w the
Sheou of Parliant. Ana hem Arinre i
dm Ma very liable. ll into a aista by
idering the hoses o Pariramt -mlag
the house of legilati in the vmria gW -
ie of their m-ry. In tho irgomm the
f mounitmaa h amr to esease daftlI d

44 e ovamus r.
written laws ad orlueass, passed by the I
laers, mad which the legislature may pass wi
without his comment; and when enacted, he
be governed by them. Thus the president e
gvrnor is, in a certain sense, the agent and a
f the legislative power of the state, to carry
deth its decisions, and this lgislive power
naly the control
By the ancient constitution of Engand, how
the Parliament was merely a body of counse
as it were, summoned by the king to give
their advice, to frame for him such laws a
wanted to have framed, and to aid him in r
funds by taxing the people. The king mighi
this council or not, as he pleased. There wi
necessity for calling it unless he needed more I
than he could rase by his own resources.
called, they felt that they had come, in a
measure, to aid the king in doing his will.
they framed a law, they seat it to him, and i
was issfled with it, he made itaw. It w
kiag who really enacted It. If he did not apn
the law, he wrote upon the parchment which
trained it, "The king will think of it," and
was the end. The king would cell upon the
asess a tax and collect the money, and would
to them about his plans, and his government,
the aid which he wanted from them to enable
to accomplish what he had himself under,
In act, the king was the government, sad
basm of Parliament his instruments to aid hi
ghaig efes to his decrees.
s SoblNes, that is, the heads of the
failes, and also the bishop, who were the b

AOOMuII 0o m amoWx. 4
is various diom es at the hstreh, foed m
sk of this grat ooeadi This was Ualed r
pe of Lords. Certain repnm atives of te
oie and of the towns bfamed smother breach,
i the House of Commos. These dleleg s
,to the council, not from say right whih the
Lies and towns were ppoeed to poses to a
e in the government, but simply beosme they
summoned by the king to com and give him
aid. They were to serve without. pay, a
Dr of duty which they owed to the svereip.
e who came from counties were called kight,
those from the towns brgesses. These la
held in very little esimation. The town, In
Sdays were considered as mre collections of
keepers and tradenmen, who were looked down
with much disdain by the haughty nobles
m the king called his Parliament together, ad
in to address them, he entered the chamber
et Houe of Peers, and the commons were
I in to stand where they could, with their
I uncovered, to hear what he had to say.
were, in a thousand other ways, treated s
ferior class; but still their counsels might, in
cases, be of serious, and so they were sUlb
d to attend, though they were to meet always
deliberate in a separate chamber.
i the king could call the Parliament together
ay time and place he' pleased, so he copid
ad or terminate their sittings at any tim
mid intermit the action of a Parliament r a
sending the members to their homes nati he
d summon them again. This was called a
tion. Or phe oold didWlve she- bod

s. ma aaasX I.
atinly at y thim, d mthem sqre new de
for a new pMtlirm t, whener he wanted to Ma
himself of th wisdom or aid of such a body ag
Thus eMytbg want on the suppostiorn
the real rapoibility fr the govnment was w
the king. He wa the monarch, and the
soereignty vested in him. He scaled his nob
ad a delegation from the mam of the people,
gather, wheneer he wanted their help, and
therwime. He was rpensible, not to them i
to the people at large, but to God only, for
ats of his administration. The dty of Prliam
was limited to that of aiding him in carryig 4
his plan of government, and the people had noti
to do but to be obedient, sbmaiselve, ad l
These wee, at any rate, the idea of te kh
and all the forms of the Engfish Contitutien, I
the amiceat phraseoloy in which the trnsodi
are expressed, corwepond with them.
We cannot give a better proof and ilstrati
at what has been aid than by trancribing I
substance of one of King James's meesage to
Parliamet, delivered about the close of his I
and, of course, at the period of which we
writing. It was as flows:-
S"My Lored spititl and tSmpora, *nd you the Oomm
In my last Parliament I mad long dscomuur, upeda
to )hem of the Lower Hou. I di epen the tnw thoby
f myheart. But I may y with our Saviour, 'I b
piped to you and you have not danced; I have morned
yeu and you have not lamented;' m all my sayings tmn
to me ain without my moor. Ad now, to tl I
smM of your s ling and of thi metig, qly it
yowlves, and sped not the time in long aeeb 0
&der that the Parliament s thing composed of hedl
ia hlve af MM-M ad aLh te aM A t -n #he

s hy, the, afer, a Fmrmn. Thme me an Ia
sets but in OieOblial gvUmmte; fbr in Veqtl
RtbaldMs, s Md their ft~ gov. themM
head Is to call the bdy together; and hr the dimF
bishop are che for hires their knight, for towns and
I their borgueses d etlsm. TIes M to trw t of
mt mattE, sad couml their ing with their breie
to make laws for the a mo weal; and the LoAw
se is also to petition the k and acquaint him with
Grievances, and not to meddle with the king's pnro-
r. They ae to eafr supply br lh neeemsly, mad he
IstriUte, in recompeps thMn )jrtis ad mme. As
11 Parliaments it s the hiy' olaoe to make goal laws,
e fundamental caues s the people's ill manner, o at
For a supply to my neesetles, I have reigned eight
s, in which I hae had pease, and I have relved br
upply that hath bee given to ny king sine the Oo-
t. The last qeen had, one year with another, above a
red thousand pounds per annum in subsidies; and in
y time I have had but four subeldet riad flfth
I tan yea sinoe I had a lsbeldy, I all whih time
i been ring to trouble you. I have turned mpel
ly to sae expenses a I may. I have abted mubh
iouehold expenses, in my navies, and the charge of my
Lfter speaking about the affair of the palati-
, and calling upon the Parliament to funiuh
with money to recover it for lii son-in-law, he
Consider the trade for the makog thereof better, ad
r me the reason why my mint, these eight or nine yeS,
Snot gone I confte I have been liberal n my grnae;
If I be formed, I will amend all hurtful grioanes


AMMu .a UKV M ajuur U U.Z u U, n - .
world may say well of our agreement"
This kind of harangue from the king to his P
lsment seems not to have been considered, at 4
time, at all extraordinary; though, if such a mt
sage were to be sent, at the present day, by
president of the United States to the Houses
Congress, we think it would make a sensation.
Still, notwithstanding what we have said, t]
"Parliament did contrive gradually to attain to t
possession of some privileges and powers of i
own. The English people have a great deal
independence and spirit, though Americans trav4
ling there, with ideas carried from this connt
are generally surprised at finding so little inste
of so much. The knights and burgesses of t
House of Commons, though they submitted p
tiently to the forms of degradation which the lor
and kings imposed upon them, gradually got pc
session of certain powers which they claimed
thelr own, and which they showed a strong disp
sition to defend. They claimed the excltsi
right to lay taxes of every kind. This had be
the usage so long, that they had the same right
it that the king had to his erown. They had
right, too, to petition the king for a redress of as
grievances which they supposed the people we
suoeing under his reign. These, and certain oth
powers and immunities which they had posseMs
were called their privilegea. The king's right
wre, on the other had, called his p.waia
The Parliament were always endeavouring to '

d, defins, and elablis their prilsges. The
Swas equally bent on maintaining his ameit
r-tives. ing Charle's reign derive it
t interest from the log and iane contest
ich he waged with his Parliament on this qua-
a. The contest emmenced at the king's aeuma
Lto the throne, and lted a quarter of a century:
mded with his losing all his prerogatives ad
This circumetane, that the main interwt in
ig Charle's reign is derived from his contet
h his Parliament, has made it neceeury to ex-
in somewhat fully, as we have done, the nature
tht body. We have described as it wa in
Sdays of the Stuarts; but, in order not to leae
r wrong impreesion on the mind of the reader,
pgard to its present condition, we mst add,
4, though all it external form remain the
me, the powers and functions of the body have
aly changed. The despised and contemned
ghts and burgesses, that were not worthy to
re seat provided for them when the king wa
ivering them his peech, now rule the world;
at leat come nearer to the pousesion of that
minion than any other power has ever done, in
ient or modern times. They decide who shal
iniser the government, and in what way.
py make the laws, settle questions of trade and
pmeroe, decide reay on peace and war, and, In
rrd, hold the whole control, while the nominal
reign takes rides in the royal parks, or holds
ing-room in the palaces, in eamy and power-
iprade. There i no quedo t the Brish
ue of Commu hab enerted a far wider infa-

MUw w M W UA W Mm MuMU Lava *Mt I
other governmental power that has ever exist
It has gone steadily on for five, and perhaps
ten centuries, in the same direction and toward
same ends; and whatever revolutions may thres
other elements of European power, the Bri
House of Commons, in some form or other, is
sure as anything human can be of existence i
power for five or ten centuries to come.
And yet it is one of the most remarkable of
strange phenomena of social life, that this bo
standing at the head, as it really does, of
human power, submits patiently still to all
marks and tokens of inferiority and degradat
which accompanied its origin. It comes toget
when the sovereign sends writ, ordering the se
ral constituencies to choose their representative
and the representatives to assemble. It coi
humbly into the House of Peers, to listen to
instructions of the sovereign at the opening of
session, the members in a standing position, i
with heads uncovered.* It debates these s
gestions with forms, and in a phraseology wh
imply that it is only considering what counsel
give the king. It enacts nothing-it eoly reoc
mends; and it holds its eistenoe solely at
discretion of the great imaginary power wh
called it into being. These forms may, very p
bably, soon be changed for others more true to
facts; and the principle of election may be chaag
SEven in the cae of a committee of coneftice bet
the two houses, the lords have mate in the committee-ro
and wwr their hats. The member from the common
rked, and be uncovered during the dehlberalto

as to mae the body rpmesmn m e fMlly the
menl peplatioo do t empire; bn the A bd
lf wll doubtless oontine is ation for a very
ag period to come
According to the view of the sabjeet which we
re presented, it would of ooose foliw, a the
li sovereignty was mainly in the king's. bad,
at at the death of one monarch, and the aoee-
)n of another, the functions of all oleers holding
eir places under the authority of the foIr
mid expire. This was actually the care. Ad
shows how entirely the Parliament was eomi*
red as the instrnuot and creation of the kng,
at, on the death of a king, the Parliament im
bdiately expired. The new moaoh mout make
new Parliament if he wished one to help him to
rryouthis own plans. In the amenmaeraldne
other offices expired. As it would be exteMi
sonveient or impossible to appoint anew all t'
icers of such a realm on a sudden emergency, it
usual for the king to issue a deoie renewing the
pointments of the existing incahents of then
ices. Thu King Chaes, two daos aft hI
her's death, made it his firstt a to rusew tA
pointments of the members of his father's p y
ncil, of the foreign aumbaador, and of dt
ges of the courts, in order thbt the affair d
b empire might go on without interrptien. He
o issued summonses for calling a.Pariamf k
d then made amrrngmentu fr the soisdma ai
s father's faunl.
Theo mee of these tmenmsi was ym what w,
thors days, ealle Warsainster Mhi r mni
iedral. A caahedm quvam had been bm l

51 nXmo OCAXLIS I.
sad an abbey founded, at a short distance 1
frm Londo, an the north bank of the Then
The chue was called the West minur, and
abbey, Westminster Abbey. The town aftem
took the same name. The street leading to
ity of London from Westminster was called
Stiad; it lay along the shore of the river.
gse by which the city of London was entered
this ide was called Temple Bar, on aooount o
biding just within the walls, at that point, wk
was called the Temple. In process of ti
London expanded beyond its bounds and apr
westward. The Strand became a magnpie
street of houses and shops. Westminster
filled with palaces and houses of the nobility:
whole region being entirely covered with stn
and edifoes of the greatest magnificence
splendour. Westminster is now called the W
End of London, though the jurisdiction of the <
ill ends at Temple Bar.
Parliament held its sessions in a building n
the river, called St. Stephen's The king's pal
called St. Jame's Palace, was near. The
eharch became a place of sepulture for she Engi
nge where a long line of them now repose. I
palace of King Jamee's wife, Anne of Denme
was an the bank of the river, some distance do
the Strand. She called it, during her life, D
mark House, in honour of her native land.
asme is now Somerset House.
King James's funeral was attended with p
pep. The body was conveyed from Somm
HOMe to is place of rpoe in the Abbey,
atteWed by a geat proesion King Cha

ad as chief moner. Two earls attad he,
a sekh side, ad the tra of h. mbsh w"a
a by twelve peen often n rs. The aspeesm
is iferal amounted to about ora thoama
do sterling.
me thing more is to be stated belre we en
ider Charles a fairly entered upon his ema r,
that is, the carcmUtance of his marrigs. His
a James, so oon as he fonad the negotiiai
Spain mst be finasly abndomed, opened a
negotiation with the King of Frane fr bhi
;hter Henriett Mari. After some delay, thi
gement was concluded upon. The treaty o
ge was made, and soon after the old khL
b, hurles began to think of bringing Am.his

e aooordingly made out a commission for a
emam, appointed for the purpose, to aotdn hb
a, in the performance of the ceremony at Pis
pope's dispention was obtained, Henritta
i, as well as the Infta, being a Catholl
ceremony was performed, as ach emameoai
ly were in Paris, in the fimmos chrch tf
re Dame, where Ohares's grandmother, Mary
m of Sets, had been married to a priane d
se about seventy years before.
hen was a great thestr, or platform, mete
roet of the altar in the church, which was
aged by the oonoouse of spectators, who
ed to witness the ceremony. The beautiful
ess was married by proxy to a man in another
dom, whom she had never mse, or, at lait,
r known. It is not probable that she obhrred
at the time h he was, for ene evening, is

4 name a3L3Ms I.
her pweere, ea Ms Journey through Paris.
Duke of B Minghm had been wnt over by Oha
to onduct bhome h bride. Ships ware waitdn
oulogMe, a port nearly apposite to Dover, to I
her and her attendants on board. She bade fi
wall to the palaces of Paris, ad set out on
The ing, in the meantime, had gone to Do1
where he awaited her arrival. She landed
Dover on the day after ceiling from Boulogne, a
sik and sad. The king resuved his bride,
wit their attendants they went by earriages
Crntrbry, and. o the flowing day they ant
adon. Great preparations had been made
mesding the king and his concert in a sulti
manner; but London was, at this time, in a a
of great dintre and fear on account of the pla
which had broken ot there. The disease
creased darng the king's abece, and the ah
and axbety were so great, that the rejoicing.
aonrt of the rival of the queen wer oml
Sh journeyed quetly, thefore, to Wetalm
and took up her abode t Somerset House, w
had been the rekideae of her predecessor. T
lhd ftted it ap for br receptie, providing foi
among other convenienes, a Roman ath
chapel, where she cold enjoy the services
religion n the forms to which she had been ai(

MLES oommmod his rigna 1625. He con-
Dd to reign about twenty-for years. It wil
it the reader to rsivre and retain i mind a
r idea of the ouase of events during his reign,
re regard it as divided into three periods.
ing the fint, whichcontinued about four years,
rules and the Paliamnt were beth upon the
a, contending wih each other, bt ot at open
Each party managed, and nmavered, and
ged to gain its own ods; the disagremat
ming and deepening continually, till it ended
a open rupture, when Charles abandoed the
of having Parliamente at all, and attempted
vern alone. This attempt to manage the m-
without a legislature lasted for ten years, aad
* second period. After this a Parliaent was
d, and it soan made itself independent of the
, and became hatile to him, the two powers
g at open war, which, constitute the third
d. Thus we have fear years spent in getting
the quarrel between the king and Pariamant,
years in an attempt by the king to govern
a and, finally, ten years of war, more or les
, the king on one side, and the Parliament on
he first four year-that i, the time spent in
ng really into the quarrel with Parliament,
Baciangbams woee, for during that time
gingham's inueace with the king was par-

6 xnA CAMAL 1I.
mount and supreme; and whatever was done th
was important or extraordinary, though dmea
the king's nane, really originated with him. I
whole country knew this, and were indignant th
such a man, so unprincipled, so low in charset
so recess, and so completely wider the sway
his impulses and passions, should have such an I
uenoe over the king, and, through him, a
power to interfere with and endanger the might
interests of so vast a relmn.
It must not be supposed, however, in consequem
of what has been said about the extent of the re
power in England, that the daily care and rep
sibimty of the affairs of government, in ts ordina
admllstration, rested directly upon the king. It
not possible that any one mind can even eo~
head, far le direct, such an enormous complicti
of interests and of action as is involved in'
carrying on, from day to day, the government
an empire. Offices authorities, and departed
of administration spring up gradually, and all t
ordinary routine of the dairs of the empire I
managed by them. Thus the navy was al eo
pltely organized, with its gradation of rank,
rules of action, its reoords, its ccount-books,
offices and arrangements for provisioment a
supply, the whole forming a vast system whi
moved on of itelf whether the king were press
or absent, sick or well, living or dead. It wasn
with the army; it was so with the courts; it
so with the general administration of the gova
met at London. The immense m- of btkb
which constituted the work of govesment was
syntimathed and arranged, and it moved O se

By, *i the i me a rules prudent
mi men, who sgoeasA, -miia, a by amount
he ad ages, and in most eases manage
]EwythUng however, was done in the king's
es, The ip wer his majesty' ships, the
mirals wre his majesty's servants, the war w
i majety's war, the eor was the Kisg'* Bemeh.
s idea was, that all these thousands of oficem,
all ranks and grades, wer only an enormous
ultiplloaltO of his majesty; that they might do
Swill and carry on his administration as he
mid himself ary it on were he personally capable
attendlag to such a vast detail; subject, of
Mri, to certain limits and restritions wi the
Is and ontoms of the realm, and the promises
d contract of his predoeaos, had imposed.
it although all this action was theoretically the
g's action, it ame to be, in fat, most wholly
ependent of him. It went on of itself n a
galar and systematic way, parsmg its own as-
stomed coue, ezeept so far as the king directly
erposed to modify its action.
It might be supposed that the king would cer-
inly take the gaseral direction of affairs into his
n hands, and that this charge, at least, would
eesarily come upon him, a king, day by day.
me moneehe have attempted to do this, but it
obvimu that then must be some provision for
ing this generalcharge, as well a all the srb-
iaate ftmabea of government, attended to ia-
dpdent yef the as his belg always in a
diitton ofio this dwy is not to be relied vpOM.

M8 KxI OAtLUs i.
oetimes he bis sick or absent; ad sometimes L
is too feeble in mind, or too indolent, or too devoted
to his pleasures to exercise any governmenal aa
There ha gradually grown up, therefore,, in all
monarchies, the custom of having a mental board
ooficers of state, whom the king appoints, and
who take the general direction of affairs off his
mind, except s far as he choose to interfere
This board, In England,.is called the Privy CounciL
The Privy Council in England is a body of
great importance. Its nature and its functions
are, of course, entirely different from those of the
two houses of Parliament. They represent, o
are intended to represent, the nation. The Paria.-
mens is, in theory, the nation, assembled at the
king's command, to give him their advice. The
Privy Council, on the other hand, represents the
king. It is the king's Privy Conil. They act
in his name. They follow his directism when he
chooses to give any. Whatever they decide upea
sad decree, the king signs-ofta, indeed, without
any ida of what it is; but he still sigr it, and
all such decrees go forth to the world as the king's
orders in council. The Privy Counil, of course,
would have its meetings, its offers, its records,
its rules of proceeding, and its various ages, and
these grew, in time, to be laws and rights; but
still it was, in theory, only a sort of expansion of
the king, as if to make a kind of artieiial being,
with one soul, but many heads and hands, became
no natural human being could possibly have eqp.
cities and powers extensive and maltifarious emouM
for the exigencies of eigning. Charl thus had
a coue il who went on with everything, except so

as he chose 40 intasoe. The members w
rally able sad eperfeced me. And yet
kiughma w among them. He hid heeI
Is Lord High Admirl of Bngand, whid
B him supree command of the mvy, ad
Fitted him to the Privy Conmil. Thme were
r high honou.
'his Privy Council now took the direetion of
lie affti, attended to everything, provided for
emergencies, and kept all the complicated
bhinry of government in motion, without the
eity of the king's having any personal agency
be matter. The king might lterpose, more
as, as he wa inled; aad when he did inter-
, he sometimes found obchlea is the way of
ediately asecmphlimig hi plans i the irmn
mges which had gradually grown it lws
or instance when the king began his reign, he
very eager to have the war the rthe recovery of
Palatinate to go on at once; and he wis, be-
, very much embarramed for want of money.
wished, then&for in order to mve time, that
aid Parliament whih King James had called
Id continue to act under his reign. But his
y Council told him that that could not be.
Swas Jame's Parliament, If he wanted one
iis reign, he must call upon the people to elect
w Parliament for him.
he new Paliament was called, and Charie
them a very dvil message explaining the
tgenoy widh had induced him to all them,
the remsn why be was so moh in want of
my. HiBW iaer had let the goveamm t a
t eal ia debt. Tire ha bee heam ex-

peases connected with the death of the for
king, and with his own accession and marri
Then there was the war. It had been eng
in by his father, with the approbation of the foi
Parlisaat; and engagements had been made
allies, which now they could not honourably ret
He urged them, therefore, to grant, without df
the necessary supplies.
The Parliament met in July, but the plague
increasing in London, and they had to adjourn, e
in August, to Oxford. This cityis situated upon
river Isis, a branch of the Thames, and was there
it is now, the seat of a greatmany colleges. TI
colleges were independent of each other in t
internal management, though united in one gen
system. The name of one of them, which is
very distinguished, was Christ Church Coi
They had, among the buildings of that collq
magnifeent hall, more than one hundred feet 1
and very lofty, built in a very imposing style.
Is still a great object of interest to all who
Oxford. This hall was fitted up for the us
Parliament, and the king met the two houses tl
and made a new speech himself and had ot
made by his ministers, explaining the stab
public afiais, and gently urging the houses to
with promptness and decision.
The houses then separated and each comma
its own deliberations. But, instead of prom
complyig with the king's proposals, they sent
a petition for redress of a long list of what
called grieancea These grievances were, a
all o them, complaints of the toleration ad
ouragement of the Catholide, th*ogh thae

te kin' Cathok bide. She had,tipii
hae a Catholic chapel, and Cathoics *saMdeta,
L after her arivl in England, de and BDok-
4a bad so much influence over the king, that
y were producing quite a change at court, ad
dAally through all ranks of society, in favour of
Catholics. The Commons complained of a
at many things, nearly all, however,originaing
his cause. The king answered these complaints,
use by chuse, promising redress more or less
tinctly. There is not room to give this petition
I the answers in full, but as all the subsequent
ubles between Charles and the people of England
se out of this difficulty of his young wife'
iging in so strong a Catholic influence with
Sto the relm, it may be well to give an abract
some of the principal petitions, with the king's
The Commons aid,
That they had understood that popish priests,
I other Catholics, were gradually creeping in as
hars of the youth of the ralm, in the various
inaries of leading, and they wanted to have
ded measures taken to examine all cadidas
such stations, with a view to the careful excla-
a of all who were not true Protestants.
King-Allowed. And I will send to the arch-
hops and all the authorities to ee that this is
Cobmaons-That more eRficit arrangements
mid be made for appointing ae and faithful
a in the Churec-.en that will really devets
msdlves to pushing the Gospl to the peoe
to a of confeing these places and salais o

&vouritas; sometimes, as has been the case, sevi
to the same man.
The king made some explanations in regard
this subject, and promised hereafter to comply n
this requisition.
Commons.-That the laws against sending a
dren out of the country to foreign countries to
educated in Catholic seminaries should be strip
enforced, and the practice be entirely broken ul
King.-Agreed; and he would send to the I
admiral, and to all the naval officers on the co
to watch very carefully and stop all children
tempting to go abroad for such a purpose;
he would issue a proclamation commanding all
noblemen's children now on the Continent to ret
by a given day.
Commons.-That no Catholic (or, as they as
him, popish recusant, that is, a person refusing
subscribe to the Protestant faith, recusant mear
person reisiqg) be admitted into the king's ser
at court; and that no nglish Caholic be admi
into the queen's service. They could not re
to allow her to employ her own Frnch attends
but to appoint English Catholias to the honour
and lucrative offices at her disposal was doing
great injury to the Protestant case in the real
The king agreed to thi with some condit
and evasions.
Commons.-That all Jesuits and Catholic prior
owing allegiance to the See of Rome, should
sat saway from the country, according to I
already existing, aft fair notice given; an
they wpuld ot go, that they shuold be impri
in euch a manner as to be kept from all co

oatio with other peons, so as net to disse-
their hale religion
Kging-Tbh laws on this subject shall be o-

The above are sumlcit for a sperlme of them
complaits and of the king's answers. The were
many more of them, but they have all the sam
character and end, namely, to stop the strong cur-
rent of Catholic inflene and ascendancy which
was setting in to the court, sad through the court
into the realm, through the influence of the young
queen and the persons connected with her. At
the present day, and in this country, the Commons
will be thought to be in the wrong, inamach as
the thing which they were conteming against was,
in the main, merely the toleration of the Catholic
religion. But then the king was in the wrong
too, for, since the laws against this toleration stood
enacted by the oosent and conourrence of his pre-
deoemor, he should not have allowed them to be
inracted and virtually annulled through the in-
ueone of a foreign bride and an unworthy favouris
Perhaps' he felt that he was wr~eg, or perhaps
his answer were all framed for him by his Privy
Council. At all events they wre entirely favo-w
able to the demands of the Commons. He pro-
mised everything. In many things he went evre
beyond their demands. It is admitted, however, e
on all bads, that, so far ashehimself had any agency
in making these reps, he was not really since.
Bi himself,and BDukghm were very eager to
getsuppliea Buckingham was admiral of the flee
and had a gat desire to enlarg the e at hi
ormmnd, _wih view to pteramla m great

qgl in. the war.. It is understood, there
that the king intended his replies a po
merely. At any rate the promise were m
The Commons were called into the great hall sa
at Christ Church, where the Pe assembled,
the king's answers were read to them. .mBoh
ham joined in this policy of attempting to conili
the Commons He went into their assembly
made.a long speech, explaining and justifying
condnet, and apologizing, in some sense, for w]
might seem to be wrong.
The Commons returned to their place of delib
nation, but they were not iaiieLad They wanl
something besides promises. Some were in favor
of granting supplies "in gratitude to his maj
for his gracious answer.' Others thought di*
ently. They did not see the necessity for. rai
money for this foreign war. They had greg
enemies at home (meaning Buckingham and popl
than they had abroad. Besides, if the king woi
stop his waste and extravagance in bestow
honours and rewards, there would be money enow
for all necessary nses. In a word, there was mu
debated but nothing done. The king, after a ah
time, sent a messenge urging them to. come to
decision. They sent him back a declaration whi
showed that they did not intend to yield. Thi
language, however, was of the most humble oh
rater. They called him "their dread sovereign
and themselves "his poor Commons." The ki
was displeased with them, and dissolved the P4
lilant. They, of course, immediately beaa
privar citizens, and dispered to their homes.
After making some ineeetual attempts toni

senames6a W
Sby his- .aw t pmmgi t *s-ad pmm,
t:ag eled f noW Paraiamt, Mtai -a
bes preomatl to keep eoa f it mok p -e
he tbkght wold oppow hi pbah. The Bkd
Bristol, whom Binaghm had bhL n a jaims
saddering im as his rival, was a iel i
aber of the Homes f Pee. Charis and B
ham agreed to omit him ia madig ot the
l writ t snmmon the peers. H petidoed
lament, dcisming a right to his mse Ohu e
a sent him his writ, but gave him a command,
his sovereign, not to attend the ssioa. He
> selected four of the prominent men l the
se of Coanmos, men whom he eomsidmu d m
until in oppoitio to him sad to BMinhm,
I appointed them to ofies which weod eadl
m away from London; and a it waste uder-
ading in those days that the soereign had a
ht to command the services of his subjects, thy
re obliged to go. The king hoped, by these a
ular means, to diminih the inMhame asaias
a in Parliament, and to get a aoity*in his
our. But his plans did not necoed. Suh
asures only irritated the Home and the country.
tor another struggle, this Parliament was dis-
red too.
Things went on so for four or fire years, the
each between the king and the people growing
der and wider. Within this time there were
ir Parliaments called, and, after various ontn-
as with thm, they were, one after another,
iolved. The original subject of disagaement,
L, the growing inmece of the Catholie was
t the only oee. Other points c ame up growing

m at e tho Ugwe ms o.f ih* pmFwe4lve% ma
o soft xa CN ,. nitm.
begaer ad, te t hought,M i al t '.p
mla fero wllkthkeir edeh of aodoa. Thok
ar, mn er6,kauh ghm Isag the MWg's
esrtoed te Il Me of omuleasMsm to s.uo
this oeeat. For itmm e, it hd l g been
omunl, in eem sy membs of the Hose of P
wm aibasm, or him to gie antbority to any i
of his, who was alo a member, to vote for
Ths authority was ced a projy. This won
msppWed to be derived from proeaacy, wi
means stio n the plaoe o4 and in behalf
another. Buadghai induod a great number
th peer to give bh thair prxdes He did
by wardsk hb rso, and varous ethar blm
sad be fud mo mmy willing to yield to those
duoeomta, ta at one me he. had thirty or A
proxies in his hands Thbu, on a question ari
It the Houe of Lords, he ould give a very
majory of voea. The House, A er nrmi
for time, and expre~ g much disoontent
Wxestion this sbte of tba, h y mads a
that no amber of the Hoes ehoald have 4
power to s mon then twao proxiea
On of the Parliaments wiohb rag Chs
assembled at length brought articles ot impe
meat against Bukinghaom, ad a long co
arose on thi subject. As impehmat is a t
of a high oago of state for malarminmrtiao
his oe. All morts of dsrges were bros
against BDkisngbm, most of whh ware ti
The king coi eed their inteWafng to cal
of his u stems to asoot a whe ly intoera
He set the ardws to dismas tlt Mbjet

.. ftm W
hek&HbareMr,' to -tbed Mmaiiy
h rfr Vc of h~igr Iit to ins aq, ,w
swmed Mm M O PYmadmi eh. had diue
* Be reMab"lsi tbob A Porsmet
me ="y "in his pow. d thdr cug, di-
m=d disimlbtbiml m hei md dtmer i*
ws for goode etil, WA heyWs"e to ema nt,
r oi tobsN" If thowould wand theireamvn
id do their di, amodorwrd he would forgive
w ps*; oherise tLey- mr to expect his Irre-
moilble hosrltsy.
This language irded muimd of ahEuwn
nm.* The Comnoms pmmijd is their pan of
Bpeehment. The kiog aya~ed the =a whom
*7 appehed g oUinagi of the impwchursa,
ad impriomd tham The Coftorinwmon-
ratedd, md Wdde that kiugham should be
kalnd froam the khmg'u ioiv The iag,
maud of damlaingW him, took mm u te o bhae
I apokidtimmiffii to ellhibotherosao,
Ihancellor of the Usiveuity of maubrkige, a vay
adisd atioam Naineat ranoamtsid. The
Ik& in reanlao diomulthe a iiumaal
Thu thigs went ma from Wd to worse ad
an Wasm, to rom asq h As, amue of th
WkUhhi ia a 0l" all. WM% biNg tmeedlS to
Wa&hhm kime MaAia b oomyedueL Be
= ounfLulily MUg sI g il te pursit Of
g OM Sd, hbythe zd MOd bLInM,ezerdel
F the vag porn em i amad to him, to make
Ietraive, and kaapsrable in tC At ome time
vordersd apot of-thdo use evutotdo cow of
PmnuO to eter the nLab Meis, the udln
q*eWg that yUm-t.. b mpby 26Aga

sW xli QOCmbi L
the Spisardl. They ad,.howver, thast,
stead of ga g agael the Spaniards, they mE
to be sent to Robeill. RBoele was a tewO
France in the posseon of the Protestants, m
the King of Franoe wanted to subdue them.
saior smt a remonstram e to their command
begging not to be forced to fight against th
brother Protestant. Th remonstrance was, .
form, what is called a JRoud Rbi.
In a Round Robin a cirle i drawn, the pet
tion or remonstrance is written within it, and th
nmes are written all round it, to prevent au
one's having to tak the responsibility of being at
nst signer. When the commander of the leet L
eelved the Round Rbbin, stead of being oends
he inquired into the faets, and finding that the Oe
was really a the Bound Robin represented it, a
broke away from the French command and n
turned to Englad. He aid he would rather t
hanged in England for disobreng orders than Ab g
against the Protestants of France.
Buokingham might have known that such
spirit as this in Englihme was not to be triple
with. But he knew nothing, ad thought of nc
thing, except that he wanted to pease and great
the French government. When the fleet, these
fore, arrived in Englad, he peremptorily order
it back, and he resorted to all sorts of pretezi
and miarepresentations of the facts to persuade t
officers and men that they were not to be emploby
against the Protestant. The feet saooorin
went back, and when they arrived, they ft
that Buckingham had deceived the. They we
ordered to Roohelle. On of the ship brokemwn

d Matenato amL, The oieem d -r a
desrtiedfi the do r c shi and i lhoses The
oiMiearommasit ms dorpoilA, al the EXum k
poptl, who took ides ih the sailors, wen eO-
Mnly exsasperated agebut Bokisg a for his
Mb d u i bladering imklesm and against the
ing for giving soh a man the power to do mis-
ohief on such an extenive scale.
At another time the duke and the king contrived
to fit out a fleet of eighty sail to make a deeeent
Ipon the eoast of Spain. It used them great
brouble to get the funds for this expedition, as they
hd to collect them, in a great measure, by various
methods depending on the king's preroaive, and
ot by authority of Parliaent. Thus the whole
umntry were diuantied and discotented in re-
Ilaect to the fleet before it was ready to sail
Fhen, as if this was not enough, Backingham
worlooked all the ofloeem in the navy in selecting
a commander, and put an offeer of the army in
charge of it; a man whose whole experience had
meen acquired in wars n the lad. The country
thought that Baukingbm. ought to have talen the
ammand himself as lord high admiral; and if not,
hat he ought to have selected his emnmander from
he ranks of the service employed Thus the fleet
toff on the expedition, all on board burning with
adignation against the arbiray and absurd man-
lmmnt of the favourite The rmlt of the expe-
etin was also extremely disastrous. They had
,. excellent opportunity to attack a number of
hp, whisk weld hae made a vory rich prise;
me the '!dir--,- I- ither did not know,
r did not dare to a Jli daty. He Aally, how-

'70 K]T~im ma
ever, e slsaodlhi k adh~sk iantwkrt
ios feeM d agrMs a fs ad iIb w lM sav,. ril
to drinking Md MM- g be-ig among al
diidpie The ommnd had to ap t am mr
board agaia hmasdh ad ams awam Thbe
ha oceied th pla of gding to iter pt whb
were ced the Speaish galwsomwhich we'n hip
employed to bring.home iew fror the mime ia>
Aaeri e, whiah *th 8piud then poui ed.
On further thoghtm be cmnaded to give up thi
ide, on aoount of the plague which, as said, n ha
broken out in his ships. S e eam bLak to Eg'-
land with his et disorgaiued, dmoralsed, ad
crippled, sad evered with military disrae. The
people of Enosad chagd all ths to Bckingham.
Still the king prsted in nretaiig him. It w
hi prerogative to do so.
Afer a while BMkinghas got into a persaal
qu el with Bicheli, who wa the leading m-
naer of the Fteno govmnseat, and he reoledv
tht Eagld hoM make war qpon Frnoe. To
aslr the whole poiMiled potia of aw n epir
as that ef Gret Britl, in wpette pease anwar,
and to chd ge smuk a mstn a Fse fem af ried
to an enmy, wmik -i to be quken a mder,
takig for a dingle m to attempt, and that, to,
wsieut having any sueam wh ser to smig,
except a permom quaml with a minister about .
lossdfir. But ste was& Beekingham
took it. It wn tbe hkin prmogadve to m .e
peae or war, "ad Baehhml 7led thie g. ,:
:Secorwived maisem of fssm tg iilu
Os w*, to sio *se midfts lag from ted
amm. riwmma l hi that sh ,ib s

.ag gAe sm m *o t saw 6&h io khhtd i 1w
a higa~ot as da mlis JbWi hli
uehe quaea' rsaiMae-r it is ad 1th.
ain kh life in IEro fir thr hbr d a
16 to have Mosparata *tam to IM a.
meastd har to semmo bar eah smato ito
a prsme; nd, whin they wmar inM..mihl wh
Id them that he had determined to send them. U
me to Franoe. Some of them, he id, had
iied pnperly enough, but then had been rd
ad Drward, ad tha he ha d onmideed it bat to
ad them all hoe. The Frenah king, am heaig
*thi, eind a abkMed ad mtwaty bgidih ship
ing in hi harbo in retalisaion fr thi at,
hieh he sid was a palpable vieaon of the mr-
age ceotnot, m it oeitainly was Up this, the
.g deared war against Frame. He did Mds
SPaliamlent toat i thian at alL Them
uno Parlmiamt. Pa liamt had beanlim ed
t a At of displaue. The rwbo air was a
crise of he.royalpreepta*r& H.did mtLda
Sea a Parliamnt to provide ans for carrying
L the war, but aet his pry asomail to daas
idea of doing it, fthiu tis saw paagnii,.
,1ih ainptje to amia se my h thaei w
da pet tronbla Th people s rited, aid m.
-oad ol pohi diflnieia. iawein, arnm
Nwemarn rlaaad adlea at a- badead mil4
id army of -Mwas tshaamr n, wr e. at
gathe B.Bma.h *Ia mkslite commanded
lzupdyiMan thb l:a hw a tee as Um h
is we *ispps.:stf b sl .eao

MlWr tothe lM Itrse n ltad-jm w
bho expAdd in s aM om f msvoi thom d 1
ad a badeilrls, .t m the wr .am
. d the Jhlh ih imla, ider the smmad
vaniy, rt and folly. The dbr ke
bhk to Englad in three moths, bringing h
em thid of his foe. The ret had been I
wthboat secoplhing anything. The m mn
public indignation pgeiat Buckingham was x
Buckingham himself walked as loftily
proudly a ever. He got up another fleet,
was preparing to set ail in it himwsf as
mB der again. He went to Portsmouth, aco
ingly, for this purpose, Portemouth being the gi
naval station then, as now, on the southern a
of England. Here a man named Felton, who
been an oieer under the duke in the former as
ition, and who had been extremely exasper
against him on account of some of his manage
there, and who had sine found how vimversal
the detestatio of him in England, removed to
the country of such a c a o nce He am
gly took his station in the paage-way of
house where Backingham was, armed with a Ia
Buckingham came oat, tadng with nome fe
mas in an angry manner, having had amie din
with them, and Felton thrut the knife into
id as he passed, and, leading it in the we
w*kd away, no one having nodoid who did,
ded. Bkinhim pulled out the kAif, fil *d
addled. The bysaadras were golo g to am
Sthe Freashman, wh Felto advanced ad a
"I the m who did the desded Imwan

l raiinsse" i. istma IAwG. F iS

Wthe tn amd ta s be *onld mf ailaubs
WLh nebler emase than by dliverlg hig coi
p*fom so gruet M- emy.
,King Cbarles was four mile of at this tie.
Btay arried him the nw. He did not appear a
all concerned or troubled, but only dirted that
ihe morderer-he ought to have said, pIlp, the
m.eutioner-should be secured, ad tht the fit
should proceed to sail. He lWp ordered the trea-
irer to make arrangements for a splendid fheral.
The treasurer aid, in reply, that a feral wold
mly be a temporary show, and that he could he
fer erect a monwment at half the oot, which
emid be a much more lasting memorial. Charile
meded. Afterward, when Charie spoke to him
iboot the monument, the treasurer replied, "What
would the world say if your majety were to build
& monument to the duke before you aret one for
rour father?" So the plan was abandoned, and
Buckingham had no other monument than the uni-
nrsal detestation of his countryman.

e great difficulty in governing without a Parila-
mn was how to raise fmada. By the old cautao
md law oft the rea, a ta apn the peoe could
ely be lehied.hb the Mtie of the Hou ses COm-
mn; and t. .eat objee of the k .g ad
iN during BiNAh Ms lKe In uming2

1diiam tsr1b a mis to tihes pma ot tMaitli i
in ah .p Jinlts mC riSad a ,oom PI
li at a er a r withaidd the gnrua, M
spent the ti ias ompldaing f his goveram t
he would dissolve them, enreivey, nater
hating all poile mesas of lingiag them to
complied with his wil. He wIold then b
thrown poM his own r4sou
The king had anm resom of his own. Them
were certain estates, end landI, and other property]
in various prts of the country, which bdonged U
the own, the income of which the king coli
appropriate. Bt the mount which could be de
rived from this sorce was vry mallL Then then
we certain other modM of raing money, whid
had been reortedto by former momne h, in eam
g ies, at ditant intervls, but still in instnee
so numerom that the king acoidered precedet
enough had been eablished to make the power t
resort to the e odes a pet of the preogtive a
the czm. The people, however, considered th
aatof former 1amme as kfrrglaritis or -ve
nations. They denied the king's iht to resort
these methods, and they threw so many dificultie
in the way of the execution of his plans, the
finally he would call another Pazlament, and mak
new efforts to lead them to conform to his wil
The more the experiment was tried, however, th
woa it nuseede; aend as lat the king deta
nmied to give up the. ids of Puimonet alte
thr, and to compel the peop to abmit to hi
pis of rising mes without thm.
i Ant duMislatioa of Padiament, by whi
Qhad eMtred upon his a-WrlmWg(vmmr

THI aL UW-- r l. WIt
w. a. i ul. answer eM* Ik4Ahea
nm d gut dMaleady. vb: eni 6t oe 'otf,
m bers, a certain Mr. Bolle, had haiss dimf
gepsisaled'fr ipymeatd eene .f the tlg's
irq t whiku he hbd znfued to pay wit.
linglyP New it had alway bee cons"ded th
lavWof the land ina Egld, tatt he peroan Mi
the property of a ember of Pfldiamet wie acred
during the msion, an the goed that while he
was giving his attudwce at a lonoall nma
cabd by his ovaaeign, he ought to be proteot
from moleattion on the part either of his fllow-
sutjt or his soveeign, in his person and in hi
property. The Houe of Common, considered,
therefore the aeiure of the goods of one of the
members of the body as. breach of their privilege,
and took up the subject with a view to pound the
offices who acted The kiag nnt a meage im-
mediately to the house, while they were debtiang
the subject, nying that the oier acted, in seeing
the good, in obediene to his owa direct command.
ThI produced great exiteust and lag debates.
Te king, by taking the reponsibilMy of the eimre
upon himself seemed to bid th houe deoimes
They brought up this question: "Whether the
seiin Mr. Ball's goods wa not a breach of pi-
vilege?" When the time ame for a decision, the
Speaker, that a, the presiding Acer, refeed to
pat the questio to vote. e said he had bee
emmuaded by liMhg o to do it The as
me indient, and Ir hrediely aduroned for two
dsy, probably hr At ppo of o osiderig, MlA
perhap consulting their cemntisteant on what dhy
M wr do in m enardiary e. .mrgeno a

th kinB s eno ikto their own body and li
ftleg with the fmtiemn of one o their ou
popor offimk
They met on the day to which they had M
joured, prepared to insist on the Speaker's puMY
the question. But he, immediately on the hem
coming to order, said that he had received thi
king's command to adjourn the house for a week
and to put no question whatever. He then wa
going to leave the chair, but two of the member
advanced to him and held him in his place, while
they read some resolutions which had been pro
pared. There was great confusion and clamour
Some insisted that the house was adjourned, siom
wre determined to pai the resolutions. The e
solutions were very decided. They declared thb
whoever should counsel or advise the laying a
taxes not granted by Parliament, or be an actor o0
instrument in collecting them, should be aeeounte
an innovator, and a capital enemy to the kingdon
and commonwealth. And also, that if say penar
whatever should voluntarily pay nuch taxes, h
should be counted a capital enemy also. Thee
resolutions were read in the midst of great sproa
The king was informed of the facts, and sent fo
the sergeant of the house-one of the highest
officers-but the members locked the door, m
would not let the sergeant go. Then the kini
sent one of his own officers to the houe with i
message. The members kept the door locked, am
would not let him in until they had disposed 4
the reoltions. Then the home adjourned for I
The next day, several of the leading member

Ua we sq setI to he bes ma tive thse
pmaeediags we mmosed to appear bets
couoL They refused to aswer ot of Piar-
s at fr what wM aid and daem by thL in Par-
I Te Teoonnel seat them to prison a the

The week paed away, and the time for the
re-umbling of the houses arrived. It had been
known, during the week, that the king had deter-
mined on.disolving Parliament. It i uuaal in
dissolving a Parliament, for the sovereign not to
appear in person, but to send his m age of dis-
solution by some person commiioned to deliver
it. This s called dissolving the house by commis-
sion. The dissolution s always declared in the
House of Lod, the Common being ummned to
attend. In this cae, however, the king atteded
in persn. He was dressed maganilently in his
royal robes, and wore his crown. He would not
deign, however, to send for the Common& He
entered the Howe of Pee, and took his seat upon
the throe. Several of the CommoM however,
came in of their own accord, and stood below the
bar, at the usual place @igned them. The king
then rose and read the following speech. The
antiquity of the language gives it an air of quaint-
neso now which it did not poses then.
S"My Lords,-I never came here upon so unpleant an
clon, it being the Dioltion of a Parliament. Th-
hs MmI may have some aue to wonder why I should not
other choose to o this by Comuls on, it belag. ( al
atof Kings to leave bash Commands their Mini-
Thmselves only executing pleasing things. Yetcon-
sidering that Jutee as well consist in Beward and Praise
rt ibm as Pnishing of TIo, I tboeg It is aeny to

".'-t8 e t mar.oSY

th It I wais t Ibatifal end seditioI Ca
he lower House ihat lath made the DiMloutio of
'Pallment. And yo, my Lordi, are so fr fnibm
my Canu ef it, that I take* much ecafem t n yl
*,tl peeamunur, a I a justy dieH vi i th
Proceedings. Yet, to avoid their Mistaking, let a I
jou, that it is so far fom me to aqudge all the ou all
guilty, that I know there are many there a dutiful subje
- any in the World; It befog but smie fe VIpem Im
them that did cat ths Mist d Undutifulns over mot
heir Eyes. Yet to sy Truth, there wq a good Nant
there that could not be infected with this Contagion.
"To conclude: As those Vipers must look fbr their I
ward of Punishment, so you, my Lorde may justly expi
fim me that Favor and Psotecieo that good King owe
to his loving and faithful Nobility. And now, my La
Keeper do what I have commanded you."
Them the lord keeper pronounced the Pari
meant dissolved. The lord keeper was the. kee
ao the great seal, one of the highest officers of t

Of coae this sair pedwced a f~er of escit
meant against the king throgheatbe whole real
Thi excitemaet wa kept up.and increasd by t
trial of the members of Parlmeat wh had be
imprisoned. The ooaota ddeided agist the
and they were setemeed to log imprisomamnt a
to heavy fines. The king now determined to ,
without Parliamenta entirely; and, of oouse, 1
had to raise money by his royal prerogative alt
gether, as he had done, in fact, before, a gre
deal, daring the intervals between the baeoMe
Parlaaent. It will not be very entertainig, b
It will be very usafS to the reader to peruse am
fully some of the prindpal methods resorted to 1
the king. Ia ordei however, t ditlisk t;


te-red te na 'mt p nlrm W i-'Ml ImlfL;
ed as thay, s wedll Blid,'; vresM tl d
,ith the war, th was emAl e & a .
On of the -enti adopted by the Mag vws
system of loau, a they ere called, thoual
Wbe loan diendr from thee made by gorm-
mats at the peent day, in b ing apprtooed,
pon the whole community acordg to their
ability to tuatio, sad k being ma in some
aspects, compalsory. The or was not to be
absolutely coleted by force, but all wre expected
a lend, nd if my refed, they were to be required
D make oath that they would not tell anybody ee
hat they had refed, in order that the indsenoe of
i example eight not opease iup ote. TBose
rho did refuse were to be reported to the gerns-
mnt. The odiers appointed to colleen tse loom
rere charged oat to makeunsecesry dctEulty, but
o do ali their power to indMe te people to co-
ribute feel sad willingly. This plan had bee
fore adopted, in the time of Beklnghm, bt it
Set w little amoess
Another plan which was resorted to was the
rating of what was called momopois: that ,
he gorenmmet would select some bportant and
mio ry article in gnrad use, mnd ge the es-
laie right of manuactefig them to certain
mnas, on their paying a pt of the proft to
be govmsamet. Soap was me of the articles
hus chose. The endlive right to meanafaut
& was g ivi to a s pny, an their paying l r it
is with leather, sk, ad varie other thing.
Mhee pereons, when they OeM peosene tdh ex-

80 nme mAZa 1.
dilve. riw to sneanetm m a rtin which h
people mt as, would abase their power by do
teicrating the aricl or charging enormon
prices. Nothig prevented their doing this, a
they had no competition. The efiet was, the
the people were injured much more than th
government was benefited. The plan of granting
suoh momopolie by governments is now univer
ally odious.
Another method of taxation was what w
called tonnage and poundage. This was an an
oent tax, asseed on merchandise brought inta
the country in ships, like the duties now collected
t our custom-houses. It was called tonnage am
poundage because the merchandise on which i
was aemed was reckoned by weight, vi.: th
ton and the pound. A former king, Edward III
&nt asemed it to raise money to suppress piraq
on the sea. He said it was reasonable that thi
merch-adise protected should pay the expense o
the protection, and in proper proportion. Th
prlimnt in that day opposed this tax. The
did not object to the tax itself but to the king'i
amming it by his own authority. However, thej
ugnted it themselves afterward, and it was re
glarly collected. Subsequent parliaments hai
granted it, and general made the law, once foi
all, to continue in force during the life of the no
narch. When Charles commented his reign, thi
Peers were for renewing the law as usual, to corn
tinue throughout his reign. The Commons want~
to enact the lawonly for a year at a time, so u
to keep the power in their own hands. The two
house thus disasead. and nothiar was done

T Krea m D s -10GATIym K
the tlg thea went on tble.de the ta wiath
.y washorey exep his owm:pwgn@atv.
. Another mede ao levyig mm y ropted by th
Ug was what was calJed S m 0. This was
pplaa for raising a navy by'sking every town
atrimbate a certain number of ships, or the moaey
aeeasay to build them. It originated in ancient
times, and was at first confined to seaport towns
which had ships. These towns were rbquied to
finish them for the king's service, sometimes to
be paid for by the king, at other times by the
country, and at other times not to be paid for at
ill Charles revived this plan, extending it to the
hole country; a tax was seessed on all the
ewas, each one being required to furnish moesy
soeugh for a certain number of ships. The num-
br at one time required of the city of London was

There was one man who made his name very
celebrated then, sad it has continued very eee-
brated sice, by his refusal to pay his ship money,
sad by his long and determined contest with the
government in regard to it, in the courts. His
name was John Hampden. He was a man of for-
tme and high character. His tax for ship money
was only twenty shillings, but he declared that he
would not pay it without a trial. The king had
previously obtained the opinion of the judges that
be had a right, in case of necesity, to ssess and
coBeet the ship money, and Haapden knw, there
fM6 that the decision would certbly, in the eam
be against him. Be kaw,. however, that the at-
tetioa of the whole couty woald be attracd to
the trial ad that the mammn nts wih he should

Ca to por e rat sQ vor colbeettag eh a am
on the part of the Ikg government was leas
sad tyrania, w lt be spnrd bebre te eisw
try, and wodd make a great impreseson, idhough
they certainly wel not daer the opinion of the
Judges, who, holding their offices by the kings
appointment, were strongly inclined to take his
It resulted as Hampden had foreseen. The
al attracted universal attention. It was agr
spectacle to see a man of fortune and standing
ike him, making ah those preparation, ad bt-
caring so great expense, on acoount of a refusal
to pay twenty killings, knowing, too, that he
would have to pay it in the end. The people ef
the realm were convinced that nampden was right,
and they applauded ad honoured him very greatly
for his spirit and courage. The trial lasted twelve
day. The illegality and njustioe of the tax were
fy exposed. The people concurred entirely with
him, ad even a part of the judges were cvinced.
He was called the patriot Hmpden, and his nae
will always be celebrated in Engish history. The
whole disoumsin, however, though it produced a
great eftt at the tim, would be of no intere
now, sine it turned mainly on the question what
the kings' rights actually were, according to the
ancient customs and usages of the reahn. The
question before mankind now is a very diffeTo
one; it is not wht the powers and preogatr
of government have boee in times paut, butwh~ i
they ought to be now and in time to come. *
The kings government gained the vtetay,
oasaldhi. in this anmt. mrd HamR nn had r

,eS KeeJM n,,meis AYii,. ,
li s iTmon am -AMlM o -eI oli
abo, fom oths byaimmat ag t fleet wn
ahed. Im pArfm adC1ipb-af tset
lad me hal- au i am ie e ami-s of a
-pme The bet wasto ge@et.mbk agd
Mad e posed. O ne iSf e mpl was at
mpl the Dh to paya lrge m for the pdi-
vilge of iahg ing i e marrow mee abd Great
Briti The Dutch hd s aysm malatai that
these m weon prlio, d open to at ll we ad;
and they had a aMt amber of &i-ybots,
caal ld hring-b had ned to sort to the
for the purpose of cashing erig, whieh they
mde a b esees of preserving rI maing al over
te word. The iag hlsp alettm d the B
of h ri-bease, iad dre thm off; nd the
Dateh were not tlog mangh to defied tham,
they agreed to pay a large mr auaBy for the
right to flh in de Me is quetiom, protesting
however, against it as an extortion, for they maim-
taimd theat **EIih had no entel ever any
seas beyond he bays ad eatrias of their own

One of the chief mma wdchbh Oharls depeadel
upon daring the lig od that he sgov ed
w oLut a Parlimt, was a certain fmou s tib.-
*nl aor cort aed the &ar OCam r. This court
was a very anist oe, havig been taMhaed a
som of the earliest reigns; but n ever attracted
ay spedl atetien until the time of Charles.
Sgovermmet eaaed it into atleo a great dei,
and etendel its power, and made it a marm
of eat iaesie and openasle, as the people
.1-- ...t3 -- t. -

_LL..!__ _J .L..

luwn were ~me rsU.U wiy U cuar ww I
more convenient and powerfl instrument in th
hands of the king and his council than any of th
other courts in the kingdom. First, it was, b
its ancient constitution, composed of members a
the couil, with the exception of two person
who were to be judges in the other courts. Thi
plan of having two judges from the common la
courts seems to have been adopted for the purpose
of securing some sort of conformity of the Sta
Chamber decisions with the ordinary principles c
English jurisprudence. But then, as these twi
law judges would always be selected with refh
resce to their disposition to carry out the king'
plus, and as the other members of the court wee
all members of the government itself of coen
the court was almost entirely under governments
The second reason was, that in this court there
was no jury. There had never been juries am
played in it from its earliest constitution. Th
English had contrived the plan of trial by jury a
a defence against the severity of government. I
a man was accused of crime, the judges appoint
by the government that he had offlded were i
to be allowed to decide whether he was guilty
not. They would be likely not to be impartial
The question of his guilt or innocence was to
left to twelve men, taken at hard from the ea
nay walks of life, and who, consequently, we
be likely to sympathize with the accused, if the

TIS sIN a e 01 ropM AT. o
I agelat him. with a tymmnies" gwgpbsA

l. English ha always arbed gres rho to
heir ytem of tri by juy. The pla is s U r-
aimed, though there is less nsessity for it wadF
sisting institutions. Now, in the Star Cha-
ir, it had never been the custom to employ a
ury. The members of the court decided the
whole question; and a they were entirely in the
aterest of the government, the government, of
ourse, had the fate of every person accused under
heir direct control.
The third reaon consisted in the nature of the
rmnes which it had always been customary to
ry in this court. It had jurisdiction in a great
varietyy of casw in which men were brought into
olliaion with the government, such m charges of
iot, sedition, libel, opposition to the edicts of the
Mncil, and to proclamations of the king. These
ad similar cases had always been tried by the
ear Chamber; and these were exactly the cases
which ought not to be tried by such a court; for
prons accused of hostility to government ought
lot to be tried by government itself.
There has been a great deal of discussion about
be origin of the term Star Chamber. The hall
whgre the court was held was in a palace at West-
imater, and there were a great many windows in
Some think that it was from this that the
Wlrt received is name. Other suppose t was
neause te court had cognisance of .a certain
ime, the L tin name of which has a close alit
Pith the word star. Another reason is, that r-
;i..doonMant, called aarra, used to be kept i

a2 tftmtlr &.
ats L ThirpNanio des ai se t Oml s
Ait thdwsemagatab rarlwusm
with 5e1 %ad t l -I riBuaee1 gcaS nG U
to the alh t sumppmiti, b mov aihe
tery, hmnas a ba r febdatie the At otausi
fr there we s Nar on the ellg in C ltWi
thne, ad there L. mnt bemn my fr a handed
ears; nor is there any peditire evdeace a
Here eve were. Howwer, in the abssee of my
Nrl reas for preerring one of those ideas aoe
the other, making seem to have wisely dete
mined on choosing the prettiest f them, so thal
t is generally greed that the origin of the name
was the anient decoraton of the ceiling of the
hIll with gilded star.
However this may be, the coart of the Sta
Chamber was an engine of prodigious power is
the hands of Charlee's government. It helped
them in two ways. They could punish their me
mies, and where these eemies were wealthy, they
eould fi up the treasury of the goenment by
apodng enormous fines pon them. Someathm
hke offenses for which tese fein were M poed
were not of a nature to demre nch severe pena
ties. For hltaee, there was a law agnst
taing tillage land into past ge. Lad that i
tled supports men. Lad that is pastwd sp-
ports cattle and sheep. Tb ormer were a burm,
iometdmes, to Iadlkrds, the latter a means
wealth. Heoe their was then, as then is nw,
a tendey in Eglad, is certain pats a tht
soe try, ir the landed proprebore to oabmng th
tlage ald to pmta uad thus drive te purss
Ap;..-.. Lah.3 U-. PL.- -- I

thk, but a 6MtasMOW p9 h d d6e16 i6 Mb
fcuOi- One eof O-" nlP w-s pi, A
4bWimemd ponds: mn mormmes m. sL
at were alamed, sad mia cope sim, M thy
w acld; that i, tbhy pd a am ac erta
ma on eenditMa of not being proms d. Thity
thoumMd pounds wee oaelstd in thi way, wibi
wa theA a very large ument.
The were in those days, a the are now,
certain trcts of lad i England called the king'
forests, though a large portion of them are now
without trees The boundaries of these land had
not been very well defied, but the government
now published decree specifying the Boundaries
and extending them so far as to include, in many
cases, the buildings and improvements of other
proprietors. They then projected these propri
tors for having encroached, as they called it, upon
the crown lads, and the Star Chamber assessed
very heavy fines upon them. The people aid al
this was done merely to get pretexts to extort
money from the nation, to make up for the want
of a Parliament to sess regalr taxes; but the
government said it was a Jut and legal mode of
protecting the ancient and legitimate rights of the

In these and similar mode, large sum of money
wre collected as fin ad penalties for offen
more oles real. In other ases very svene pu-
itunts were iicted for ariou sort of doeBme
m itted against the personal dignity of he king,
r the great lords o his overmnt. It wa oom-
idered highly important to rpemss all appen
Sdimrspect or hestilit to i hiMg. One m

IIs into msome.o ian wi~ t me of the kihng
ears, and ally. s ok him. He was feed tos
thousand lposdL. Another maa aid that a oe
ain archbishop had inerred the king's displeasurm
by wanting some toleration for the Catholim
This was considered a lander against the srh-
hishop, and the obfieder was sentenced to be goed
a thousand pounds, to be whipped, imprisoned,
sad to stand in the pillory at Westminster, and
at three other places in various parts of the king-
A gentleman was following a chase as a speo-
tator, the hounds belonging to a nobleman. The
huntsman,wkho had charge of the hounds, ordered
him to keep back, and not come so near the
hounds; and in giving him this order, spoke, as
the gentleman alleged, so insolently, that he struck
him with his riding-whip. The huntsman threat-
ened to complain to his master, the nobleman.
The gentleman said that if his master should jus-
tify him in sueach insulting language as he had used,
he would serve him in the same manner. The
Star Chamber fined him ten thousand pounds for
speaking so disrespectfully of a lord.
By these and similar proceedings, large sum of
money were collected by the Star Chamber for,
the king's treasury, and all expression of discon-
tet and issatisfaction on the part of the people
wa suppressed. This last policy, however, the:
sppression of expressions of disatisfaction, is
always a very duagero one for any government,
to Audertake. Discontent, silenced by fore Is
asperated d ended. The outward sigs of
itf aistence dounear,. but its inward wokinhgs

T2a KImsN ADm M P MAeeeArTr 81
beam widaprd nAd dangu kJ", u in pro-
psrtion to thB weigt by Meh shr saftywlae te
k3t d ,ow. hrt ea his eowt of the Star
Oamber rejoieed in the power end eaoacy of
t tremendous tribunaL Tey lInedproclnar
timew ad deres, and governed the county by
man= of them. They leaoed all mrmrsn.
But they were, all the time, disseminting through
the whole angth and breadth of the had a deep
and inveterate eamity to royalty, which ended in
a revolution of the government, and the decapitation
of the king. They topped the hiding of the steam
for the time, bat caused an explosion in the end.
Charles was King of Sootland as well as of
England. The two countries were, however, as
countries, distinct, each. having its own laws, its
own administration, and its own separate dominions.
The sovereign, however, was the same. A king
could inherit two kingdoms, just as a man can, in
this country, inherit two farms, which may, never-
theless, be at a distance from each other, and
managed separately. Now, although haries had,
from the death of his their exercised sove-
reignty over the realm of Sotland, he had not
been drowned, nor had even visited SBotlad.
The people of Scotland felt somewhat neglected.
They murmnred that their common monarch gave
all his attention to the sister, and rival kingdom.
They said that if the king did not consider the
Seottish rown worth coming after, they might, per-
hap, look out for some other way of disposing of it.
The king, sorordingly, in 1633, began to make
pmaratios for a royal pgre into Soand.
He lt issued a roNa-atin reairine a omper

apply of provsld to be sllesie at the sea
points of his popmsI reet M speifed
rate, ad the lgth of tasY w"ob he should e
ia each place. He set t on the 13th of I
with a spledid retinue. He stopped at the m
ofasemal of the nobility oa the way, to -ejoy
bspitalitie and etertainments which they ]
prepared for him. He preceded so slowly th
wa a mouth before he rahe fthe frtier B
all his English serants ad retinue retired fi
their posts, and their places were supplied
Scotchmen who had beea previously appointed, a
who were awaiting his arrival. He entered Ed
burgh with great pomp and parade; all Sooth
locking to the capital to witness the festiiti
The coronation took place three days after
He met the Scotch Parliament, and, for for
sake, took a part in the proceedings, so a actuo
to exercise his royal authority as King of Scotia
This being over, he was conducted in great at
back to Berwick, which is on the frontier, a
thence he returned by rapid journeys to London
The king dissolved his hist Parliament in 16I
He had now been eadeavouring for four or f
years to govern alone. He maceeded toleral
wel, so far as external appearces indicated,
to this time. There was, however, breath I
arface, a deep-eated discontent, which was oc
atatly widening and extending. ad, soon m l
the return of the king from Scotland seal di&l
ti gradually arose, by which he was in the e
compelled to call a Parliamet ai. What the
dietids were, will be plaimedin the sabse-

gettigo so deeply iavoed in difficutiesawihi
eb, King Charles did at cat alone. He 4ad
we have already expla a great deal of hp
are ere many men of Utelligeoe and rank who
ertained the se opinions that he did, or who
re, at let, willing to adopt them for the uik
office and power. TheM men he drew round
. He gave them ofice and power, and they
and him in the efforts he made to defend aad
large the royal prerogative, and to carry on the
vernment by the exercise of it. One of the
at prominent and diatngnihed of these men
i Lad.
rhe reader must understand that the Churck, in
land, is very different from anything that
Ss wander the ame name in America. Its
hopa and clergy are supported by revenues de-
od from a vast m nt of property which be-
g to the church itIelL This property is entirely
ependent of al control by the people of the
irhe The clergyman, am soon a he ap-
nted, comes into possion of it in his own
ht: and he is not appointed by the people, but
ome nobleman or high officer of state, who
I inited the right to appoint the clergen d
A partionlar padsh. There are bishops, ale,
o hav very large revenue, likewise indqe ,-
Is; ad over these bIlho is ee great diP
y, who pseides ia lety state over the wole

92 xZa CUAmZLA L
system. This offer is called the Arhbishop
Canterbury. There i one other archbishop, ca
the Archbishop of York; but his realm is mu
more limited and less important. The Archbish
of Canterbury is styled the Lord Primate of I
England. His rank is above that of all the pee
of the realm. He crowns the kings. He has t0
magnificent palaces, one at Canterbury and one
London, for his residences, and has very large r
venues to maintain a style of living in accordan
with his rank. He has the superintendence of I
the affairs of the church for the whole realm, e
cept a small portion pertaining to the Archbishopi
of York. His palace in London is on the bank
the Thames, opposite Westminster. It is cas
Lambeth Palace.
The city of Canterbury, which is the chief se
of his dominion, is south-east of London. TI
cathedral is there which is the archbishop
church. It is more than five hundred feet
length, and the tower is nearly two hundr
and fifty feet high. The magnificence of tl
architecture, and the decorations of the buil
ing, correspond with its size. There is a la
company of clergymen and other officials attach
to the service of the cathedral. They are me
than a hundred in number. The palace of t
archbishop is near.
The church was thus, in the days of Chares,
complete realm of itself, with its own property, i
own laws, its own legislature, and courts, ai
judges, its own capital, and its own monarch.
was entirely independent of the mass of the peo
in all these respects, as all these things woe

A in a LAd. O
bry eontroed by the bishop and olegy, d Ath
rgy wr generally appointed by the noblemn,
d the bishops by the king. This made the sye-
ao almor entirely independent of the community
Slarge; and u there was organized under it a
rt amount of wealth, and influence, and power,
he Archbishop of Canterbury, who presided over
he whole, was as great in authority as he was in
ank and honour. Now Laud was Archbishop of
King Oharles had made him so. He had ob-
erved that Laud, who had been advanced to some
dgh stations in the church by his father, King
lames, was desirou to enlarge and strengthen the
owners and prerogatives of the church, just as he
dimelf was endeavouring to do in respect to those
I the throne. He accordingly promoted him from
me post of influence and honour to another, until
Le made him at last Archbishop of Canterbury.
rhas he was placed upon the summit of ecolesia-
iea grandeur and power.
He commenced his work, however, of strength-
ming and aggrandiing the church, before he was
appointed to this high oice. He was Bishop of
aondon for many years, which is a poet, in some
aspects, second only to that of Archbishop of Can-
erbury. While in this station, he was appointed
>y the king to many high civil ofices. He had
great capacity for the transaction of business, and
br the fulflment of high trusts, whether of church
i state. He was a man of great integrity and
oral worth. He was ter and severe in man-
ls, but learned and accomplished. His whole
cal was bent on what he undoubtedly eonsidM d

As gFat di d hM f e, b pprtihg- Wa-
Analg the maturity df dte d poaer
md idn imes m Engli eplapIay. NOtwith
dnag rs high qMi n., hower, umy
person were jeam of the hanhnce which he
possessed with the kg, and mnmred against e
,ppotmwet of a chanrB m to nuch high ado
of state.
There was mother sores of hostility to LnAd.
There was large part of the people of Englmnd
who were against the Chrch of Eglud altoge-
ther. They did not ike a system in which all
power and inaeance ceme, s it were, from above
downward. The king made th noblemen, the
nobleme made the bhops, the bihops mad the
lergy, and the clegy roled their Soe; the- fede
themselves having nothing to my or do bat to
submit. It is very dWeent with episoopaey i
America. The people there choose the legy,
ad td clegy oheoee the ishops, that power in
the church, as in everything ele ther, e frm
below pwrd. The two mysteis, whi at mt,
look very sailar in the two eomiae ; but whb
in action, the curnt d life ew in oae my
dinotio, making the two disriely opposite
toeach other in spiit nd power. In Fagl d,
episeepacy is an nine by which the people ar
enuleiatically geoemed. In America, it is the
m hinery b which they govern. Whatever th
itef are, the ect mast be tat the people govem
New in Egland there was a large an in ssing
party who hated ad oppoed the whole episcopal
sysem. Laud, to oonteract this tendenay, at

- -~

Ir a far eadhlm as tmal e h a ms of
me weuah ede s o wr dp, an las einrwsd
her my. athe mesr Lk He d this won-
riruflo douct, aLdUag that ths Ivm of
otion wrm adapted to Iapgs the Iotl of t
rshUpper, and lead him to fa lan his heart, te
Wrence u"d bis outward Mason expre .
ay of the people, however, bitterly oppMed
so thing. They comailered it a return to
Mry. The more st Lead, ad those who
ed with him, attepted toe magnify the rites and
powers of the church, the more these pereus
an to abhor ervrythig the kind. They
stnd Christiasity teelM it Arpurty, Mneented-
ed, u they msc, by hese popish and idolatrou
na. They were aled Pwama&
These were a puet any hiag which sem
a at wpr ment day of very little onequens,
kh we the the subject of endles disputes,
I of the mot biter ainioeiy. For intanoe, o
at was, whether plaee were the semmniem
Sto be admrUidteed should be called the eom-
mae table or the dar; ad in what prtt of the
aok t should tand; and whether the person
elating shuld e oaeds a priest or a clergyman;
I whether he shodd wear one hind of dress or
other. Geat imperte was attached to these
ag; but it was not on teir own count, but
oonam of their beaang on the question who-
r the Lord's Supper wa to be oomidered omly
emmny comememntve of Chriss death, or
ethr it was, whevwrelebrated by~+ a egak

9s Kun OAMaM I.
anthorised priest, a real rusiwal f the aacrsrfwM
Christ, as the Catholics maintained. Calling As
communi on table an altar, and the eflitaeiu
minister a priest, and clothig him in a secrIdes-I
garb, oountenanced the idea of a. renewa of thL
sariiee of Christ. Ld and his Acod Utomr au
the adoption of all the and similar usage. The
Paritans detested them, because they detected and
abhorred the doctrine which they seemed to imply.
Another great topic of controversy was the sab-
ject of amusements. It is a very singular circm-
stmce, that in those branches of the Cbristiam
Church where rites and forms are most insisted
upon, the greatest latitude is allowed in respect to
the gaieties and awnsements of social life. (G.
tholic Paris is filled with theatres and damin
and the Sabbath i a holiday. In London, on the
other hand, the number of theatres is small, dame
ing is considered as an amusement of a more or
less equivocal character, and the Sabbath is rigidly
observed; and among all the simple democratic
churches of New England, to dame or to attend
the theatre is considered almost porally wrong.
It was just so in the days of Lad. He wished
to encourage amusements among the people, par
ticularly on Sunday, after church. This was part
for the purpose of counteracting the efforts of them
who were inclined to Puritan views. They I*
tached great importance to their sermons sad .ioo
tares, for in them they could address sad inf~nie
the people. But by means of these addresses,
Lead thought, they put idea of insubordinasti
into the minds of the people, and eneroaohedim
the authority of the Church and of the king. T(

mt this, the HighQd uk pr ty wt~d to
*l the prayer in the Ohmh rvice, d to
a as fitle place sad lakesee as possible to the
mon, and to draw of the attosn of the people
a the discussions and exhortation of the
h ers by encouraging games, dances, and
mmements of all kinds.
The judges in one of the cotles, at a regular
rt held by them, once passed an order forbid-
ag certain revel and carousals connected with
a Church service, on account of the immoralities
a disorders, as they alleged, to which they gave
e; and they ordered that public notice to this
bnt should be given by the bishop. The arch-
hop (Laud) considered thi an interferemac on
Spart of the civil magistrate with the powers
I prerogatives of the Church. He had the
iges brought before the council, and censured
re; and they were required by the council to
broke their order at the next court. The judges
I so, but in such a way as to show that they did
imply in obedience to the command of the kings
mnil. The people, or at least all of them who
me inclined to Puritan views, sided with the
ges, and were more strict in abstaining from all
h amusements on Sunday than ever. This, of
se, made those who were on the side of LaId
e determined to promote these gaieties. Thus,
neither party pursued, in the least degree,
merona or conciliatory course toward the other,
Difference between them widened more and
m. The people of the coury were fast be-'
ming either bigoted High-Churchmen or fanastial

lud empleed the power of the Star Obhia
Sgreat deal in the Mecomplishnm t of his pupam
of enforow g tire sabmisiosn to the ecdollamtl
authority of the Churah. He even had pem
sometimes pushed very severely fr words of dig
respect, or for writing in which they eenam
what they considered the tyranny under whie
they suffered. This severe punishment for thi
mre expression of opinion only served to ix th
opinion more firmly, and diseminate it more widely
Sometimes men would glory in their snferings fa
this case, and bid the authorities defisae.
One man, for instance, named Lilburne, we
brought before the Star Chamber, charged wid
publihing seditious pamphlets. Now. in all ordi
ary courts of justice, no man is called upon 6
ay anything against himself. Unless his crbe
oa be proved by the testimony of others, it am
net be proved at all But in the Star Chambe
whoever was brought to trial had to take a oati
t first that he would answer all questiem asked
even if they tended to criminate himself. Whe
they proposed this oath to Lilburne, he refused ti
take it. They decided that this was contempt c
court, and sentenced him to be whipped, put i
the pillory, and imprisoned. While they we
whipping him he spent the time in making
speech to the spectators against the tyranny
ishope, referring to Laud, whom he considered a
the author of these proceedings. He continued
d o the same while in the pillory. As he pase
alng, too, he distributed copies of the pamphist
whih he was prosecuted for writing. The 8t
Chamber, hearing that he was haranguing theta

n s a&m. U
WIor hiat be galed Thisdidai mbnl
a Be bgaato eta ip wihhboifotl udge.
ot; thas contming to apqes his iMa-diA B
it dhetility to the tyramy which he oppose
is single case would be of no gpes conseqme
me, bue it was not alie. The attempt to pa
burne down was a symbol of the expaimet o.
raion which Charles in the State, sad Ladai
i Church, were trying pon the whole nation;
was a symbol both in reeeet to the mum mF
yed and to the success attained by these.
One curious case is related, which turned out
re fortunately than usual for the parties aeeu d.
me young lawyers in London woe dziaing at
evening entertainment, and among orer toats,
ey drank confusion to the Arabbishp of C,-
buy. One of the waiters, who bead them,
Intioned the circumstance, and they were brought
onr the Star Chamber. Before their trial cam
, they applied to a certain noblema to know
at they should do. "Where was the waiter,"
aed the nobleman, "when you dank the toest?'
Lt the door." Okl very wl&then," a id 1;
aU the court that he y heard a part of th
it, as he was going out;' a that the wead
lly were, Confuaion to the Arbbishop of Caow
bary's enemies.'" By this ingenious pies, ad
meau of a great appear e of humiliy mad
erenoe in the presence of the archbbhai the
mers escaped with a reprimand.
Land was not content with tasiabing uad con-
ing throughout all snglad the atherit of
a Church, but he wanted to extend the m
ssm to Scotlad. When King Chades wet to

Iatland to be crowned, he took Land with hil
Me was pleaded with Lad's endeavour to.enlaq
sad confirm the powers of the Church, and wish
to aid him in the work. There were two reasm
for thi One was, that the same lass of m=
the Puritans, were the natural enemies of bot
so that the king and the archbishop were draw
together by having one common foe. Then, i
the places in the Church were not hereditary, bi
were filled by appointments from the king and tl
great nobles, whatever power the Church cou]
get into its hands could be employed by the kin
to strengthen his own authority, and keep his sut
jects in subjection.
We mpst not, however, censure the king an
his advisers too strongly for this plan. The
dobtless were ambitious; they loved power; the
wanted to bear sway, unresisted and unquestioned
over the whole realm. But then the king probabi
thought that the exercise of such a government
was necessary for the order and prosperity of ti
realm, besides being his inherent and indefeasih
right. Good and bad motives were doubdte
mingled here, as in all human actions; but then th
king was, in the main, doing what he supposed
was his duty to do. In proposing, therefore, I
build up the Church in Scotland, and to make,
conform to the Eglish Church in its rites aq
ceremonies, he and Laud doubtless supposed thi
they were going greatly to improve the govea
meant of the sister kingdom.
There was in those days, as now, in the Fa
Church, a certain prescribed course f prayers, q
palms, and Scripture readings, for each day, to j

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs