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Tales about travellers

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Tales about travellers
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Tales about travellers
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Bingley, Thomas.
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Charles Tilt

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TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.







TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS:

THEIR

Perils, Adbentures, and Wiscoberies.

BY

THOMAS BINGLEY,

AUTHOR OF “STORIES ABOUT DOGS,”—‘‘ TALES OF SHIPWRECKS,” ETC,, ETC.

EMBELLISHED WITH ENGRAVINGS.

LONDON:
CHARLES TILT, FLEET STREET.

MDCCCXL.



LONDON:

CLARKE, PRINTERS, SILVER STREET, FALCON SQUARE.



PREFACE.

Tags of the Perils and Adventures of the intrepid
men who have penetrated into new and unknown
regions were the delight of my own boyhood. I
loved to sit and listen to the accounts of their
achievements and discoveries, and grieved over
their distresses and disasters. Even now, I well
remember how deeply affected I was, when I first
heard of Park’s cruel treatment by the Moors,
(then a thing of yesterday,) and of his sufferings
in the desert after his escape from the hands of those
barbarians. The scene in which, descending from
the tree into which he had climbed for the purpose
of attempting to trace the extent of sandy desert
which stretched out before him, he takes the bridle



vi PREFACE.

from his horse, and, overcome by faintness, falls
on the ground, with the persuasion that the hour of
death is fast approaching, is imprinted on my mind
as distinctly as if I had been his companion in the
trying scene.

My own feelings and recollections, therefore,
prompt me to think that a volume of Tales on so
popular and interesting a subject cannot fail to
recommend itself to the estimation of my young
friends.

T. B.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IL.



UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS TALES, AND RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF
JOHN LEDYARD; HIS VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD WITH CAPTAIN COOK;
HIS TRAVELS IN LAPLAND, RUSSIA, AND SIBERIA, AND HIS SUBSEQUENT

MISSION TO AFRICA .. 900 000096 6600 55906008 08 00 95 0009 0 65 mn



CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF MUNGO PARK, DURING HIS
TRAVELS IN AFRICA; HIS CAPTIVITY AMONG THE MOORS; HIS ESCAPE
AND SUFFERINGS IN HIS WANDERINGS IN THE DESERT, UNTIL HIS
ARRIVAL ON THE BANKS OF THE NIGER.



CHAPTER III.

UNCLE THOMAS CONTINUES THE RELATION OF PARK’S ADVENTURES AND
SUFFERINGS ; TELLS ALSO ABOUT HIS RETURN TO ENGLAND; HIS
SECOND JOURNEY INTO AFRICA, AND THE MELANCHOLY FATE OF THIS
EXPEDITION... 00000000 ceeeeceeeee «.. 69



CHAPTER IV.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT BURCKHARDT’S TRAVELS IN SYRIA AND
ARABIA, AND HIS ADVENTURES AMONG THE ARABS OF THE DESERT., 97



vin CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE TRAVELS OF DENHAM AND CLAPPER-
TON; THEIR JOURNEY ACROSS THE DESERT; THEIR ARRIVAL AT LAKE
TCHAD; AND THEIR PRESENTATION AT THE COURT OF THE SULTAN OF
BORNOU ..cccccccccccceececscceecosscees seesee 126



CHAPTER VI.

UNCLE THOMAS CONTINUES HIS ACCOUNT OF THE TRAVELS OF DENHAM AND
CLAPPERTON; THEIR VARIOUS ADVENTURES IN AFRICA, AND THEIR RE
TURN TO ENGLANDs+ wee ccees eeccccee 00° 06 0000 000s cece 100s cece ceoss . 145

CHAPTER VIL.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT CLAPPERTON’S SECOND JOURNEY INTO AFRICA,
AND HIS DEATH AT SACKATOO; ALSO ABOUT THE TRAVELS OF JOHN
DAVIDSON; HIS ATTEMPT TO REACH TIMBUCTOO; AND HIS MELANCHOLY
FATE







TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

CHAPTER I.

UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS TALES, AND RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF
JOHN LEDYARD; HIS VOYAGE KOUND THE WORLD WITH CAPTAIN COOK;
HIS TRAVELS IN LAPLAND, RUSSIA, AND SIBERIA, AND HIS SUB

SEQUENT MISSION TO AFRICA,

Various circumstances occurred to prevent
Uncle Thomas from entering on a new series
of Tales so early as he had anticipated, or as
had been expected by his little auditors; it was,
therefore, with unfeigned pleasure that they at
length heard him announce that on the following
evening he intended to relate to them the first
of a series of TaLES aBouT ‘TRAVELLERS,
whose adventures and discoveries in various
parts of the world had gained them the admira-
tion of their fellow men. ‘He delighted,” he
B



2 TALES AROUT TRAVELLERS.

said, “to tell them of the fortitude and enter-
prise of those who had distinguished themselves
in the cause of discovery, and to hold up to the
admiration of his young friends their intrepidity
and perseverance, as he hoped thus to incite them
to habits of industry and application, and to
show them how much may be accomplished by
the proper exercise of the ‘talents’ with
which each individual is furnished.” ‘ Every
one,” continued Uncle Thomas, “is not en-
dowed with the genius of a Bacon or a New-
ton, or that of a Shakspeare or a Scott, but
there are very few who have not some peculiar
qualification, or who really know the extent of
their powers, because they neglect to bring
them into exercise. Had Mungo Park, for
instance, of whose adventures I will tell you
presently, remained at home in ease and in-
activity, he might never have suspected his own
powers of endurance; and how comparatively
little should we now know of the interior of
Africa? He died, it is true, leaving unsolved



INTRODUCTION. 3

the great problem in African geography — the
source and termination of the Niger; but his
example incited others to make the attempt,
and our knowledge of those countries and their
inhabitants has been gradually increasing.” —
“Tam glad that you are going to tell us
about Park,” said Frank, whose interest in this
traveller had been excited by an anecdote which
he had read a day or two before regarding the
consolation which Park derived from con-
templating the extraordinary beauty of a little
moss plant, when he was naked and alone in
the midst of an African wilderness, hundreds
of miles distant from the nearest European
settlement, and when every thing around him
was full of danger and difficulty; “Iam very
anxious to know about Park”—and he began to
relate the anecdote to which we have alluded.
“Stop, my dear!” said Uncle Thomas. “73
will tell you about him by and by, and, when
you hear the story of his sufferings previous to
this touching incident, you will be better able
B2



4 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

to appreciate and to understand it, and to enter
into his feelings on the occasion. Before we
begin with Park, however, I must tell you of
John Ledyard, one of his predecessors, and,
perhaps, one of the most singular men that ever
lived. But I must bid you good-by at present.
To-morrow evening | will be ready for you.”

On the following evening, when the Boys
had as usual seated themselves round Uncle
Thomas’s chair, he began :—

“ John Ledyard was born in Connecticut, in
North America, in the year 1751. Almost
from his childhood his character exhibited symp-
toms of that restlessness which marked his
future career; and, before he was twenty-one
years of age, he had with characteristic im-
patience alternately adopted and rejected the
professions of law and divinity. Nothing worth
relating has been recorded of him during his stay



JOHN LEDYARD. 5

in the lawyer's office, but his college life affords
some stories too characteristic to be passed over.

“Soon after he relinquished the study of the
law, it happened that an old friend of his
grandfather's, who had recently established a
school or college, at which young men were
educated as missionaries to the Indians, offered
to receive Ledyard into his establishment for
this purpose. ‘The offer was eagerly embraced ;
but Ledyard seems to have adopted the pro-
fession more on account of the novelty of the
scenes to which it would introduce him, and the
adventures which it promised to afford, than
from any proper feeling of the importance of the
cause in which he was about to engage.

“After remaining about four months. at
college, he one day suddenly disappeared with-
out communicating his intentions to any one,
and, as was afterwards discovered, penetrated
far into the country, at that time almost a
wilderness, and wandered about from tribe to
tribe among the Indians. After an absence of



6 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

three months and a half he again returned,
and resumed his studies; but it was now
evident that his heart was no longer set upon a
missionary career. Instead of devoting himself
to such studies as were necessary to fit him for
this arduous duty, he spent much of @s time in
acting plays. Calm study had no charms for
him. He delighted to engage in perilous under-
takings, in which difficulties were to be en-
countered and overcome. One of his college
frolics is thus related :—

“In the depth of winter, when the ground
was covered with snow, he persuaded a party
of his fellow-students to accompany him to the
top of a neighbouring mountain to pass the night.
The president of the college made no objection
to the project, as he thought it would help to
inure the young men to hardships, to which
a residence among the Indians would con-
stantly expose them. The party accordingly
set out, headed by Ledyard. He led them by
a pathless route through the thickets of a swamp,



JOHN LEDYARD. 7

and an all but impenetrable forest, till they
reached the top of the mountain, just in time to
arrange their encampment and light a fire
before nightfall. Exhausted with their exer-
tions, and benumbed with cold, to most of the
party the night was a sleepless one, and few
were there among them who did not greet the
dawn with gladness. Ledyard, however, was
delighted, and on the following day they re-
turned home, few of them feeling at all desirous
to repeat the experiment.

“The restless spirit of Ledyard could not
remain long unoccupied. Tired of the mono-
tony of a college life, and apparently abandon-
ing all idea of engaging in the missionary enter-
prise, he resolved to return to Hartford, where
his grandfather resided. On the margin of the
river near which the college stood, there grew
many majestic forest-trees. One of the largest
of these he contrived to cut down, and then set
himself to work to fashion it into a canoe. In
this labour he was assisted by some of his



8 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

fellow students, who were, however, ignorant
of the purpose for which it was intended. As
the canoe was about fifty feet long and three
wide, it required considerable labour to finish
it. At length, however, it was completed.
He stole out in the silence of night, and, wrap-
ping himself in a bear-skin, he launched his frail
bark upon the waters and pushed off, undaunted
by the dangers which surrounded him on a
voyage of nearly one hundred and fifty miles,
on a river of the navigation of which he knew
nothing, and on which in several places there
were dangerous falls and rapids.

“In one of these falls he nearly lost his life.
He was seated in the canoe, deeply intent on
one of the books which he had brought with
him, when he was suddenly roused by the noise
of the waters rushing among the rocks through
a narrow passage. In another instant the boat
would have been over the fall and dashed in
pieces. By great exertions, however, he
managed to gain the shore, and thus escaped.



JOHN LEDYARD. 9

Some peasants assisted him to drag his canoe
ashore, and to launch it again below the falls,
and he reached his destination in safety.

“Having thus finally abandoned all idea of
becoming a missionary, Ledyard next attempted
to get himself ordained, with a view to obtain
an appointment as a parish minister; but
his studies had been carried on in too un-
connected a manner to fit him for undergoing
the necessary examinations, and, after spending
a short time in this pursuit, he abandoned it
also in despair.

“His active spirit did not sink into des-
pondency. An old friend of his father’s, who
commanded a vessel which traded to the Medi-
terranean, received him on board as a sailor.
After a prosperous voyage across the Atlantic
they reached Gibraltar. During their stay
here, the captain was alarmed one day at dis-
covering that Ledyard was missing, and after
some time it was ascertained that he was in the
garrison among the soldiers, having enlisted



10 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS,

into the British service. The captain of the
vessel sought him out and remonstrated with
him; but all the apology which Ledyard
offered was, that he was partial to the service,
that he thought the profession of a soldier well
suited toa man of honour and enterprise, but
that he would not be obstinate, and, if the
captain insisted on it, he would return to the
ship, provided they could obtain his release.
This was without much difficulty procured, and
Ledyard accompanied the ship on her return
voyage to America.

“ A new project soon took possession of his
fancy. He had often heard his grandfather,
who had been brought up in a mercantile house
in London, speak of his wealthy connections
in England. Thither accordingly Ledyard re-
solved to proceed to claim their acquaintance,
and golden visions flitted before his eyes. He
set out for New York, and, finding a vessel
about to sail for Plymouth, he engaged himself
as a sailor. When he arrived at Plymouth he



JOHN LEDYARD. ll

was penniless, having, probably, for the sake of
obtaining a passage, served without wages.
He begged his way to London, and on his
arrival began to search for those whom he had
come so far to see.

“It is said that by accident he saw the
family name on a carriage, and, inquiring of
the driver to whom it belonged, he was told
that its owner was a rich merchant, and his
residence pointed out. Eager to grasp at the
good fortune which now seemed within his
reach, Ledyard proceeded instantly to the house.
The merchant himself was from home, but his
son listened to our traveller's story, and gave
him to understand that he disbelieved his state-
ments, and that he had never heard of any such
relations in America as those he mentioned. The
haughty spirit of Ledyard could not brook the
idea of being supposed an impostor: he abruptly
left the house and never went back.

“ At this time Captain Cook, the celebrated
navigator, was preparing to set out on his third



12 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

and last voyage round the world. Ledyard was
fired with the idea of joining the expedition.
To accomplish this object he enlisted into the
marine service, and managed to introduce him-
self to Captain Cook’s notice. Ledyard’s manly
form, and bold but unobtrusive bearing, found
favour in the eyes of the veteran navigator.
He took him into his service, and promoted
him to be a corporal of marines.

“Ledyard accordingly sailed with Cook on
his last voyage round the world, and several
times distinguished himself during the expedi-
tion on occasions in which he was intrusted with
important duties by his commander. He accom-
panied the party who landed with Cook when
he was cruelly murdered by the savages at
Hawaii, and was one of three marines who
escaped unhurt on that melancholy occasion.

“During his voyage with Cook, Ledyard
had an opportunity of seeing how profitably
the furs which they had bought, at Nootka
Sound and other places, for the merest trifle,



JOHN LEDYARD. . 13

with a view of using as articles of dress, could
be disposed of in China. ‘This suggested
to his active and enterprising mind the idea of a
regular trading voyage for this purpose, and
several of the succeeding years of his life were
occupied in endeavouring to prevail on some
person of capital to engage in the undertaking.
All his efforts, however, though several times
on the point of being crowned with success,
ended in disappointment.

“ After spending some years in various parts
of Europe in the vain pursuit of this object, he
began to turn his attention to the project of
traversing the northern regions of Europe and
Asia — to cross over Bhering’s strait to the
American continent, and to pursue his route
thence down the coast, or into the interior, as
chance might direct. He intended to start
from St. Petersburg, and made application,
through the Russian minister, to the Empress
Catherine, for leave to travel through her
dominions. He waited for five months with



14 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the utmost impatience for an answer to this
application, and was just on the point of start-
ing without it, when he was called to Lofidon
by a letter from Sir James Hall, who had pre-
vailed on the owners of a ship which was about
to sail to the Pacific Ocean, to give Ledyarda
free passage, with the promise that he should
be set on shore on any part of the north-west
coast which he might choose.

“ Ledyard was elated beyond measure. He
furnished himself with ‘two great dogs, an
Indian pipe, and a hatchet, and embarked.
The dogs he intended to use in catching wild
animals for his subsistence, after he had set
out on his journey, and the pipe was to serve
as an emblem of peace to the Indians; the
hatchet would serve many purposes of con-
venience and utility. At length the vessel set
sail. It was the happiest moment of his life,
but he seemed doomed to disappointment. The
ship was hardly out of sight of land, when in
consequence of some infringement of the revenue



JOHN LEDYARD. 15

laws, she was pursued and carried back to
London, and the voyage stopped.

“Thus disappointed, Ledyard once more turned
his attention to the Siberian expedition, and a
small subscription having been raised by some
influential gentlemen, wifo ytqgk an interest in
geographical discoveries, whom he had
become acquainted, hé. ut and arrived at
Hamburg with just ten‘guineas in his pocket.
Ill fitted as this sum was to enable him to travel
through the frosts and snows which he had to
encounter befoge he reached even Petersburg,
such was his ‘cénsiderateness that he parted
with nearly thé whole of it to relieve the
necessities ‘of a poor and eccentric traveller,
named Langhorn. But Ledyard was not of a
disposition to foresee difficulties. He freely
bestowed his money on Langhorn, and spent
some days in his society, and, when it was time
to resume his journey, he found he could not
do so without a supply of money. Fortunately
he discovered a person who advanced him







16 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

some, on the promise of its being repaid in
England.

“'T'o visit Langhorn and to relieve his distress,
Ledyard crossed from Hamburg to Copenhagen.
thus leaving the direct course to St. Petersburg,
and, as you shall hear, increasing the distance
many hundred miles. From Copenhagen he
went to Stockholm, intending to cross over to
Abo in Finland, and thus proceeding to the
place of his destination.

“The manner in which the passage between
Stockholm and the place I have just men-
tioned is made in the winter season is so
singular that I must describe it to you. The
traveller, muffled up in furs, is seated on a
sledge, which is drawn by two or three horses.
The ice is sometimes so smooth that the pas-
sage is comparatively easy; but, if the weather
is stormy, the ice assumes all the appearance
of waves, and immense masses, heaped one upon
another, offer the most fearful impediments.
The sledge is frequently upset, and the horses



JOHN LEDYARD. 17

sometimes become unmanageable and run away.
When, however, there happens to be an open
winter—one in which the frost is not sufficiently
intense to freeze the passage entirely over, the
water yet contains so much floating ice that no
vessel can sail through it. This happened to
be the case in the season in which Ledyard
arrived, so that he found it necessary either to
stay at Stockholm till the spring, or to proceed
round the gulf, a distance of twelve hundred
miles, over trackless snows, and in regions
thinly peopled, where the nights are long and
the cold intense, and all this to advance on his
journey only about fifty miles.

“ Appalling as the prospect of such a journey
was, the idea of remaining several months in
a state of inactivity was more so to the impatient
mind of Ledyard. He accordingly set out in
the middle of winter, alone, on foot, without
money or friends, on a road almost unfrequented
at that frightful season, and with the gloomy
certainty that he must travel northward six

Cc



18 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

hundred miles before he could turn his steps
towards a milder climate.

“ That you may judge of the intensity of the
cold to which Ledyard was exposed, I will read
to you the account given of it by a scientific
traveller, who thus speaks of the winter appear-
ance of ‘Tornea, a town which stands at the
head of the gulf:—

“*The town of Tornea, on our arrival on the
30th of December, had a most frightful aspect.
Its little houses were buried to the tops in snow,
which, if there had been any daylight, must
have effectually shut it out. But the snow
continually falling, or ready to fall, for the
most part hid the sun, the few moments that
he might have showed himself at mid-day. If
we opened the door of a warm room, the cold
wind instantly converted the air in it into
snow, whirling it round in vortices. If we
went abroad, we felt as if the air was tearing
our breasts in pieces, and the cracking of the
wood of which the houses are built, as the



JOHN LEDYARD. 19

violence of the cold split it, continually alarmed
us. The solitude of the streets was no less
than if the inhabitants had been all dead, and
in this country you may often see people that
have been maimed, and had an arm or a leg
frozen off. The cold, which is always very
great, increases sometimes by such violent and
sudden fits as are almost certainly fatal to those
that happen to be exposed to it. ‘The winds
seem to blow from all quarters at once, and
drive about the snow with such fury that in a
moment all traces of the roads are lost. Un-
happy he who is caught by such a storm in the
fields. His acquaintance with the country, or
the marks he may have taken by the trees, avail
him nothing. He is blinded by the snow, and
lost if he but stirs a step.’

«“ Such were the difficulties and the dangers
with which Ledyard was threatened in this
expedition. How many of them he encoun-
tered he has not recorded, but in seven weeks
from his departure from Stockholm he reached

c2



20 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

St. Petersburg, thus travelling, on an average,
two hundred miles a week, or nearly thirty miles
a day—an amazing progress for a pedestrian
in any country, but almost incredible under
such circumstances as those in which Ledyard
travelled.

“ After remaining nearly three months in St.
Petersburg, most of the time waiting for a
passport from the empress, to obtain which he
made many fruitless attempts, he at length pro-
cured it, and set out in company with a gentle-
man who was about to proceed to a place nearly
three thousand miles in the direction in which
Ledyard wished to travel. As his companion,
Dr. Brown, held an appointment in the service
of the empress, not only did he travel with all
the conveniences which were attainable in that
country, but Ledyard’s expenses, in part at
least, were thus defrayed by government,: a
point of no small moment to one whose resources
were so limited.

“Nothing in the shape of adventure happened



JOHN LEDYARD. 21

to Ledyard on this journey. He parted with his
fellow-traveller at Barnaoul, and continued his
route in a less ambitious style. The chief
dangers which he encountered were occasioned
by the rude unbroken Tartar horses which
several times ran away with the kibitka, or
carriage, in which he rode, and he was forced to
seek safety by jumping out and leaving the half
savage driver to reduce the brutes once more to
subjection in his own way.

“ At length he embarked on the river Lena,
and floated down the stream to Yakutsk, where
he arrived about the middle of September.
The distance from the place of his embarkation
is about fourteen hundred miles. The voyage
occupied twenty-two days, during which period
he passed from a summer climate to one of -
rigorous cold. When he left Irkutsk, the
reapers were busy cutting down the corn,
but on his arrival at Yakutsk the snow was
six inches deep, and the boys were whipping
their tops on the ice.



22 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“The governor of Yakutsk, to whom he was
introduced, received him with open arms, and
professed the greatest interest for his comfort
and safety. He assured him that the season
was too far advanced to render a journey to
Okotsk practicable, and begged that he would
delay it till the spring. Ledyard was dis-
mayed. His funds were nearly exhausted, and
the prospect of remaining at Yakutsk during
eight dreary winter months was insupportable.
He insisted on setting out, till at length the
governor introduced to him a trader, who, he
said, was constantly in the habit of passing
between Yakutsk and Okotsk, who joined in the
assurance of the impracticability of the journey
at so advanced a period of the season. Ledyard
suffered himself to be convinced by this evidence,
and reluctantly gave up his project of immedi-
ately proceeding on his journey.

“The dulness of Ledyard’s forced residence
at Yakutsk was relieved by the arrival of
Captain Billings, who was at that time in



"e-

era oe



“*He was hurried into a kibitka,

Moscow.”



and driven off towards

Pave 23.



JOHN LEDYARD. 23

command of a party which had been sent out
by the Russian Government to explore the coast
of the Frozen Ocean. Billings, with whom
Ledyard was acquainted, from having been one
of his fellow-voyagers under Cook, was then
on his way to Irkutsk, to procure some equip-
ments which were necessary to enable him to
resume his researches in the ensuing spring.
He invited Ledyard to accompany him to
Irkutsk, and, as our traveller knew that he
could not reach Okotsk before the period men-
tioned by Billings for his return, he consented.
Soon after their arrival at Irkutsk, Ledyard
was arrested by order of the empress, on pre-
tence that he was a French spy. He was
hurried into a kibitka, placed between two
guards, and driven off with all the speed
which horses could convey them towards Mos-
cow, exposed to the extreme rigours of a
Siberian winter. From Moscow he was con-
ducted in the same hurried and unprotected
manner to the frontiers of Poland, where he



24 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

was dismissed, with the assurance that, if he
presumed again to enter the dominions of the
empress, he would certainly be hanged.

“The reason for this strange and inhospitable
conduct on the part of the empress has been
explained in various ways. The most probable
seems to be that which assigns it to the in-
fluence of the Russian-American Fur Company,
which became alarmed lest the knowledge of
their proceedings, which Ledyard could not
fail to discover as he advanced, should be
thus published to the world, and _ incite
opposition to the very profitable trade which
they then carried on. That the governor of
Yakutsk was aware of the conspiracy, and lent
it all the assistance in his power, is highly
probable from his conduct in the affair. It has
been ascertained that the journey which he
protested so strongly was impracticable, and
called in the evidence of the trader to corro-
borate, is frequently made during the winter,
and various other circumstances of his conduct



JOHN LEDYARD. 25

to Ledyard seem to render the suspicion well-
founded.

« From Poland, Ledyard directed his steps
to England. In a letter which he wrote to a
friend after his arrival in London, he gives some
particulars of this journey :—* I know not how
I passed through the kingdoms of Poland and
Prussia, or from thence to London, where I
arrived in the beginning of May, disappointed,
ragged, penniless, and yet so accustomed was
I to such things that I declare my heart was
whole. My health had for the first time
suffered from my confinement, and the amazing
rapidity with which I had been carried through
the illimitable wilds of Tartary and Russia.
But, my liberty regained, and a few days rest
among the beautiful daughters of Israel, in
Poland, re-established it. His reference to
the kindness of the Polish Jewesses affords a
good opportunity to introduce a passage from
one of his journals, which has been often
quoted in praise of the kindness and humanity



26 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

of woman. It was written during his resi-
dence at Irkutsk. ‘I have observed among
all nations,’ says he, ‘ that the women orna-
ment themselves more than the men; that,
wherever found, they are the same kind, civil,
obliging, humane, tender beings; that they are
ever inclined to be gay and cheerful, timorous
and modest. ‘They do not hesitate, like man,
to perform a hospitable or generous action; not
haughty nor arrogant, nor supercilious, but full
of courtesy, and fond of society; industrious,
economical, ingenuous; more liable in general
to err than man, but in general also more
virtuous, and performing more good actions,
than he. I never addressed myself in the
language of decency and friendship to a woman,
whether civilized or savage, without receiving a
decent and friendly answer. With man it has
often been otherwise. In wandering over the
barren plains of inhospitable Denmark, through
honest Sweden, frozen Lapland, rude and chur-
lish Finland, unprincipled Russia, and the wide-



JOHN LEDYARD. 27

spread regions of the wandering Tartar, if
hungry, thirsty, cold, wet, or sick, woman has
ever been friendly to me, and uniformly so;
and, to add to this virtue, s0 worthy of the
appellation of benevolence, these actions have
been performed in so free and so kind a manner
that, if I was thirsty, I drank the sweet draught,
and, if hungry, ate the coarse morsel, with a
double relish.’

“That he was, during his wanderings,
frequently in situations to appreciate these
kindnesses is evident from his confession to
Mr. Beaufoy, when he was afterwards on the
point of setting out for Africa. ‘T am accus-
tomed, he remarked, ‘to hardships. I have
known both hunger and nakedness to the
utmost extremity of human suffering. I have
known what it is to have food given me as
charity to a madman ; and I have at times been
obliged to shelter myself under the miseries of
that character to avoid heavier calamity. My
distresses have been greater than I have ever



28 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

owned, or ever will own, to any man. Such
evils are terrible to bear, but they never yet
had power to turn me from my purpose.’ Soon
after Ledyard’s arrival in London, he was,
through the influence of Sir Joseph Banks,
appointed by the African Association to attempt
to trace the source of the Niger. In the first
interview which he had with the secretary of
that institution, he surprised him by the prompt
decision of his character, and the readiness
with which he was prepared to face the most
extreme dangers. The secretary, after tracing
upon a map the course which the committee
was anxious to have explored, asked him how
soon he would be prepared to set out? ‘'To-
morrow morning!’ was Ledyard’s reply, —‘a
reply,’ says one of his biographers, ‘affording
one of the most extraordinary instances of
decision of character on record. When we
consider his recent bitter experience of the past,
his labours and sufferings, which had been so
intense and so long-continued that a painful



JOHN LEDYARD. 29

reality had more than checked the excesses of
romantic enthusiasm that might be kindled in a
less disciplined imagination; and when we
witness the promptitude with which he is ready
to encounter new perils in the heart of Africa,
where hardships of the severest kind must
inevitably be endured, and where death
would stare him in the face at every stage, we
cannot but admire the superiority of mind over
the accidents of human life, the rapidity of
combination, quickness of decision, and fear-
lessness of consequences, which Ledyard’s reply
indicates. It was the spontaneous triumph of
an elevated spirit over the whole catalogue of
selfish considerations, wavering motives, and
half-subdued doubts, which would have con-
tended for days in the breasts of most men
before they would have adopted a firm resolu-
tion to jeopard their lives in an undertaking so
manifestly beset with dangers, and which, in
its best aspect, threatened to be a scene of toils,
privations, and endurance.’



30 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“ At length, the preparations for his journey
being completed, he set out on the 30th of
June. After remaining a few days in Paris,
he proceeded to Marseilles, whence he sailed
for Alexandria. After a short stay, he pro-
ceeded up the Nile to Cairo, where the difficul-
ties of his undertaking began to show them-
selves. At Cairo he was detained nearly
three months, waiting the arrival of a caravan
with which he intended to travel to Sennaar.
The day was at length fixed on which it
was to set out; when, the mental anxiety
which he had recently undergone, and the ex-
posure to the deleterious influence of the climate,
brought on a bilious attack, which proved fatal,
in spite of the best medical skill which Cairo
could afford. The precise day of his death is
not known. It is supposed to have happened
towards the end of November, 1788.

“Thus died John Ledyard, a man who, though
he accomplished few of the great designs which
he projected, has, for perseverance, decision of



JOHN LEDYARD. 31

character, courage, and fortitude, had few
equals. Few men have passed over so many
regions of the globe; and few ever met with so
many crosses and sufferings. ‘He accomplished,
indeed, says one of his biographers, ‘few of
the great enterprises which he planned; but it
was not his fault, but his misfortune. Why he
was defeated in respect to enterprises which
would have been useful to the world is hidden
from us, nor would we vainly inquire. Per-
haps he is equally entitled to the respect of
mankind as if he had accomplished all.’ ‘ His
genius,’ says another, ‘though uncultivated and
irregular, was original and comprehensive.
Ardent in his wishes, yet calm in his delibera-
tions; daring in his purposes, but guarded
in his measures; impatient of control, yet
capable of strong endurance ; adventurous
beyond the conceptions of ordinary men, yet
wary and considerate, and attentive to all pre-
cautions; he appeared to be formed by nature
for achievements of hardihood and peril.’



32 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“T must now bid you good night, Boys;
the story of Ledyard’s life and adventures has
taken up more time than I anticipated. To-
morrow evening I will tell you about Mungo
Park, of whom Frank is so anxious to hear.
I hope you have found the account of Ledyard’s
life not uninteresting.”

“Very interesting, indeed!” said Frank ;
“though his adventures are not sufficiently
perilous for my taste. I like those best where
the traveller has to defend himself from the
attacks of savages, and of wild beasts.”

“Very well, Frank, you shall be gratified.
Park’s adventures, unfortunately, afford too
many scenes of the kind you mention. So come
early: his story is along one, and I am not
quite sure that we shall be able to get through
it all in one night.”

“ Very well, Uncle Thomas. Good night.”

“ Good night, Boys.”



33

CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF MUNGO PARK, DURING HIS
TRAVELS IN AFRICA; HIS CAPTIVITY AMONG THE MOORS; HIS ESCAPE
AND SUFFERINGS IN HIS WANDERINGS IN THE DESERT,

ARRIVAL ON THE BANKS OF THE NIGER,

UNTIL HIS

THE early arrival of the Boys on the following
evening showed how much interested they
were in Uncle ‘Thomas’s Tales. When the
usual greetings had been exchanged, Uncle
Thomas began :—

“Mungo Park was a native of Scotland.
He was born at Fowlshiels, in the neighbour-
hood of Selkirk, September 10th, 1771. After
acquiring the usual branches of education
which are taught in the parish schools of
Scotland, he was articled to a surgeon, in
Selkirk, and on the expiration of his apprentice-
ship he removed to Edinburgh, for the purpose

D



34 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

of completing his medical studies. Having
received his diploma, he proceeded to London,
and, being recommended to the notice of Sir
Joseph Banks, was, through his influence,
appointed assistant surgeon on board an East
Indiaman, in which he made a voyage to
Sumatra.

“On his return to England, hearing that the
African Association was desirous of engaging
a person to replace Major Houghton, who, it
was feared, had fallen a sacrifice to the cause
of discovery in Africa, Park offered his services,
and was accepted. He left England on the
22nd of May, 1795, and after a pleasant
voyage reached Jillifree, on the river Gambia.
After a short stay at this place the vessel con-
tinued her course- up the river as far as Jonka-
konda, where she was to take in a part of her
cargo. Park, therefore, disembarked, and, hav-
ing a letter of introduction to an European,
named Laidley, who lived at Pisania, sixteen
miles higher up the river, he proceeded thither.



MUNGO PARK. 35

From this gentleman he received the greatest
attention, and was invited to remain in his
house till an opportunity offered of continuing
his journey into the interior.

“While waiting the occurrence of this oppor-
tunity, Park set about acquiring all the infor-
mation he could procure regarding the countries
which he was about to visit. He studied also
the Mandingo language, which is in general
use in this part of Africa. In the midst of
these labours, however, he was seized with
fever, having incautiously exposed himself to
the night dew while observing an eclipse of the
moon. Having ventured abroad too soon, he
had a relapse, which again confined him to his
bed. Fortunate indeed was it that he was all
this while under the hospitable roof of Dr.
Laidley. ‘The care and, attention of this
gentleman,’ says Park in his journal, ‘con-
tributed greatly to alleviate my sufferings ; his
company and conversation beguiled the tedious
hours during that gloomy season when the rain

p2



36 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

falls in torrents, when suffocating heats oppress
by day, and the night is spent by the terrified
traveller in listening to the croaking of frogs,
of which the numbers are beyond imagination,
the shrill cry of the jackall, and the deep
howling of the hyena—a dismal concert, in-
terrupted only by the roar of such tremendous
thunder as no person can form a conception of
but those who have heard it.’

‘* Availing himself of his restoration to health,
and the return of the dry season, Park now
resolved to set out on his journey. He was
attended by a negro, to act as interpreter, who
spoke both English and Mandingo, having ac-
quired the former during a residence in Kn-
gland, and a boy-slave of Dr. Laidley’s, who,
in order to stimulate him to behave well, was
promised his freedom on his return, in case
Park should report favourably of his conduct.

‘** His European friends, who had insisted on
accompanying him a couple of days on his

,journey, parted from him at Jindey, and here.



MUNGO PARK. 37

for the first time, Park found himself alone in
this great enterprise, and he rode off slowly
into the woods, indulging in the most gloomy
reflections. Before him spread out a boundless
forest, and a country, the inhabitants of which
were strangers to civilized life, and to most of
whom a white man was an object of curiosity
or plunder. Agitated and cast down by such
desponding thoughts, he rode on for about three
miles, when his reverie was suddenly interrupted
by a body of people, who stopped the asses on
which his attendants were mounted, demanding
in the name of the king of Walli payment of the
customs which are usually levied on traders
passing through his territory. Finding it in
vain to resist, and having presented them with
four bars of tobacco for the king’s use, he was
allowed to proceed.

“Nothing remarkable ‘occurred till our
traveller arrived at Fatteconda, the capital of
Bondou, where he had scarcely arrived before
he was sent for by the king, who was desirous



38 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

to see him. As Park had heard that this
monarch had treated Major Houghton with
great unkindness, and caused him to be
plundered, it was not without a feeling of
apprehension that he was ushered into his
presence. He found him seated under a tree,
and, after explaining to his majesty the object
of his journey, he presented him with a quantity
of gunpowder, some tobacco, and an umbrella.
With the latter article he was particularly
delighted, repeatedly furling and unfurling it,
to the great admiration of himself and his
attendants, who could not for some time under-
stand the use of such an article.

“ By way of preserving from plunder part of
his wardrobe, Park dressed himself in the best
coat which it afforded. This article, however,
ornamented as it was with yellow gilt buttons,
so captivated the king’s fancy that, after mak-
ing a long speech on the liberality of the whites,
he asked our traveller to make him a present of
the coat, assuring him at the same time that he





“ furling and unfurling it.”

Page 38.



MUNGO PARK. 39

would wear it on all public occasions, and
inform every one who saw it of his generous
conduct. ‘The request of an African prince in
his own dominions, particularly when made to
an unprotected stranger, is little short of a
command. Park knew very well that if the
king did not obtain the object of his wishes by
fair means he would do so by force, he, there-
fore at once pulled off his coat and laid it at
the monarch’s feet.

“From this place Park proceeded to Joag, the
frontier town of the kingdom of Kajaaga, and
during the night the house in which he slept
was surrounded by an armed band of horsemen,
who told him that as he had entered the town
without first paying the customs, or giving any
present to the king, according to the laws of
the country, his people, cattle, and baggage,
were forfeited; that they had orders from his
majesty to take him to Maana, where he resided,
and that, if he refused to accompany them
peaceably, they must bring him by force.



40 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

After some little delay, Park replied that, being
a stranger, unacquainted with the customs of
their country, he had infringed their laws from
ignorance, and not from any desire to violate
them, and that he was now ready to pay what-
ever they demanded. He then presented them
with some pieces of gold, but, not content with
this, they insisted on examining his baggage,
from which they helped themselves to whatever
took their fancy. In short, after robbing him
of half his goods, they left him.

“ Dispirited and desponding under such treat-
ment, Park and his companions passed the night
by the side of a dim fire, nor did the dawn of
another day bring to them any brighter prospect.
They were afraid to offer to purchase provisions,
lest the knowledge that they still possessed some
money should farther tempt the cupidity of the
natives. They had therefore resolved to refrain
from so doing during the day, and to ‘wait for
some more favourable opportunity of purchasing
or begging such necessaries as they required.



MUNGO PARK. 41

“Towards evening, as Park was sitting chew-
ing straws, to obtain such relief as this mise-
rable substitute for food afforded, an old female
slave, who happened to pass with a basket on
her head, asked him if he had dined. Park,
thinking that she put the question merely to
deride his misery, returned no answer; but his
negro boy, who was sitting close by, replied
that the king’s people had robbed his master of
all his money. ‘The poor woman, with a look
of unaffected benevolence, immediately took the
basket from her head, and, showing him that
it contained ground-nuts, asked him if he could
eat them. On being answered in the affirma-
tive, she gave him a few handfuls, and walked
away before he had time to express his grati-
tude for the seasonable relief.

*¢ On his arrival at Kaarta, our traveller found
that the king of Bambarra had declared war
against the Kartans, and that it would there-
fore be necessary for him to proceed thither by
a circuitous route through the Moorish kingdom



42 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

of Ludamar. Having therefore procured an
escort from the king of Kaarta, he set out for
Jarra.

“Their journey was undistinguished by any
particular incident, till they arrived at the
negro town of Funingkedy, which they found in
the greatest confusion, from the presence of
some Moors, who had come on a plundering
expedition ; and, though the inhabitants, to the
amount of about five hundred, stood collected
close to the walls of the town, such was their
fear of their lawless neighbours that these rob-
bers were permitted to carry off their booty
almost unmolested.

“ At Jarra matters looked so threatening,
from the disturbed state of the country, that
his attendants refused to proceed; they there-
fore all left him but his faithful boy, who
resolved to accompany him, and to face every
danger.

“ After travelling a few days, exposed to
great suffering from the heat of the weather



MUNGO PARK. 43

and the scarcity of water, they arrived at a
negro village called Samee, where they were
kindly received, and Park was congratulating
himself that he was now out of reach of all
danger from the Moors, when a party suddenly
entered the hut where he was, telling him they
had come by order of Ali (the Moorish king)
to conduct him to the camp. He was therefore
forced to accompany them. After a journey
of four or five days, they arrived at Benown,
where Ali’s army was then encamped. Here
Park was, during ten weeks, exposed to all the
insults and indignities which could be contrived
by some of the rudest savages on earth. ‘The
ferocity and fanaticism which distinguish the
Moors from the rest of mankind,’ says Park,
‘found in me a proper subject whereon to
exercise their propensities. I was a stranger,
I was unprotected, and I was a Christian.
Fach of these circumstances is sufficient to
drive every spark of humanity from the heart
of a Moor; but when all of them were com-



44 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

bined in the same person, and a suspicion
prevailed withal that I had come as a spy into
the country, the reader will easily imagine that
I had every thing to fear. Anxious, however,
to conciliate favour, and, if possible, to afford
them no pretence for ill-using me, I readily
complied with every command, and patiently
bore every insult, but never did any period of
my life pass away so heavily; from sun-rise to
sun-set | was obliged to suffer, and with an
unruffied countenance, the insults of these bar-
barians.’

“Tt would take up too much time were I to
attempt to relate half of the sufferings which
he underwent while he remained a prisoner in
the camp of Ali. At all times but sparingly
supplied with food and water, he was occa-
sionally so utterly destitute of both that he was
forced to beg from the negro slaves, for it was
only exposing himself to fresh insult to address
the Moors.

“ As he was anxious to escape from his



MUNGO PARK. 45

barbarous persecutors, Park applied to Ali for
permission to return to Jarra, but this was at
once refused. He therefore determined to seek
an opportunity to make his escape, but, as there
was little hope of doing so at this season of the
year, on account of the extreme heat, and the
total want of water in the woods, he resolved
to wait patiently until the rains had set in, or
until some more favourable opportunity should
present itself. But ‘ hope deferred maketh the
heart sick.’ This tedious procrastination from
day to day, and the thoughts of travelling
through the negro kingdoms in the rainy season,
which was now fast approaching, made him
very melancholy ; and, having passed a restless
night, he found himself attacked, in the morning,
by a smart fever. He had wrapped himself
close up in his cloak with a view to induce
perspiration, and was asleep, when a party of
Moors entered the hut, and, with their usual
rudeness, pulled the cloak from him. He made
signs to them that he was ill, and wished



46 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

much to sleep; but he solicited in vain: his
distress was matter of sport to them, and they
endeavoured to heighten it by every means in
their power. ‘This studied and degrading inso-
lence, to which he was constantly exposed, was
one of the bitterest ingredients in the cup of
captivity, and often made life itself a bur-
den. In those distressing moments, Park fre-
quently envied the situation of the slave, who,
amidst all his calamities, could still possess
the enjoyment of his own thoughts—a happi-
ness to which he had for some time been a
stranger. Wearied out with such continual in-
sults, and perhaps a little peevish from the
fever, he trembled lest his passion might un-
awares overleap the bounds of prudence, and
spur him to some sudden act of resentment,
when death must be the inevitable consequence.
In this perplexity, he left his hut, and walked
to some shady trees at a little distance from the
camp, where he lay down. But even here
persecution followed him; and solitude was



MUNGO PARK. 47

thought too great an indulgence for a distressed
Christian. Ali’s son, with a number of horse-
men, came galloping to the place, and ordered
him to rise and follow them. Park begged
they would allow him to remain where he was,
if it was only for a few hours; but they paid
little attention to what he said; and, after a
few threatening words, one of them pulled out
a pistol from a leather bag that was fastened
to the pommel of his saddle, and, presenting it
towards him, snapped it twice. He did this
with so much indifference that Park really
doubted whether the pistol was loaded; he
cocked it a third time, and was striking the
flint with a piece of steel, when Park begged
them to desist, and returned with them to the
camp. When they entered Ali's tent, they
found him much out of humour. He called for
the Moor’s pistol, and amused himself for some
time with opening and shutting the pan; at
length, taking up his powder-horn, he fresh
primed it; and, turning round to our traveller



48 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

with a menacing look, said something in Arabic,
which Park did not understand. He therefore
desired his boy, who was sitting before the tent,
to inquire what offence he had committed ;
when he was informed that, having gone beyond
the encampment without Ali’s permission, they
suspected that he had an intention of making
his escape; and that, in future, if he was seen
without the skirts of the camp, orders had been
given that he should be shot by the first person
that observed him.

“The heat was now almost insufferable—all
nature seemed sinking under it. ‘The distant
country presented to the eye a dreary expanse
of sand, with a few stunted trees and prickly
bushes, in the shade of which the hungry cattle
licked up the withered grass, while the camels
and goats picked off the scanty foliage. Day
and night the wells were crowded with cattle,
lowing and fighting with each other to come
at the troughs. Excessive thirst made many
of them furious; others, being too weak to



MUNGO PARK. 49

contend for the water, endeavoured to quench
their thirst by devouring the black mud from
the gutters near the wells—which they did
with great avidity, though it was commonly
fatal to them.

“ This great scarcity of water was felt severely
by all the people of the camp, and by none
more than Park; for, though Ali allowed him
a skin for containing water, and, once or twice,
gave him a small supply when he was in dis-
tress, yet such was the barbarous disposition
of the Moors at the wells that, when his boy
attempted to fill the skin, he commonly received
a sound drubbing for his presumption. Every
one was astonished that the slave of a Christian
should attempt to draw water from wells which
had been dug by the followers of the Prophet.
This treatment, at length, so frightened the
boy that he was afraid to venture near the
wells; he therefore contented himself with
begging water from the negro slaves that
attended the camp, and Park followed his

E



50 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

example, but with very indifferent success ;
for, though he let no opportunity slip, and was
very urgent in his solicitations, both to the
Moors and negroes, he was but ill supplied,
and frequently passed the night in the situation
of Tantalus. No sooner had he shut his eyes,
than fancy would convey him to the streams and
rivers of his native land: there, as he wandered
along the verdant brink, he surveyed the clear
stream with transport, and hastened to swallow
the delightful draught; but, alas! disappoint-
ment awakened him, and he found himself a
lonely captive, perishing of thirst amidst the
wilds of Africa!

“ One night, having solicited in vain for
water at the camp, and being quite feverish,
he resolved to try his fortune at the wells,
which were about half a mile distant. He
set out about midnight, and, being guided by
the lowing of the cattle, soon arrived at the
place, where he found the Moors very busy
drawing water. He requested permission to



MUNGO PARK. ~ 5]

drink, but was driven away with outrageous
abuse. Passing, however, from one well to
another, he came at last to one where there
was only an old man and two boys. He made
the same request to this man, and he imme-
diately drew up a bucket of water; but, as
Park was about to take hold of it, the Moor
recollected that he was a Christian, and fearing
that his bucket might be polluted by his lips,
he dashed the water into the trough, and told
him to drink from thence. Though this trough
was none of the largest, and three cows were
already drinking in it, Park resolved to come
in for his share, and, kneeling down, thrust his
head between two of the cows, and drank with
great pleasure, until the water was nearly ex-
hausted, and the cows began to contend with
each other for the last mouthful.

“At length part of Ali’s army prepared to
set out for Jarra, in order to assist in some
warlike operation in that quarter, and Park
was permitted to accompany it. From Jarra

E2



52 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

he hoped to find an easy means of escape from
the hands of these barbarians. His delight at
this prospect was, however, blunted by Ali’s
detaining his negro boy as a slave. Park
remonstrated against this, but all the answer
deigned by the omnipotent Ali was, that, if he
did not mount his horse instantly and be off,
he would detain him also.

“On his arrival at Jarra, Park found the
whole town in confusion, many of the inhabi-
tants were forsaking it, carrying with them
their little property, in order to escape from
the threatened invasion. Hoping to escape amid
the confusion, Park mounted his horse, and,
placing a bag of corn before him, mingled with
the crowd, and rode slowly along. This idea
was, however, quickly dispelled. Soon after
his arrival at the halting place, Ali’s chief slave
and four Moors came up, and he learnt from
two boys, whom he sent to overhear their con-
versation, that they had come to convey him
back to Ali’s camp.



MUNGO PARK. 53

“Park had been so barbarously treated by
the Moors in the captivity from which he
had thus fled, that he knew that, if again ex-
posed to it, he had nothing to expect but death.
He therefore determined to set off immediately
for Bambarra, and thus escape from the Moorish
kingdom. He waited therefore till midnight,
when Ali’s messengers were asleep.

“ About daybreak, his interpreter, who had
been listening to the Moors all night, came and
whispered to him that all was now quiet. The
awful crisis was now arrived when he was
again either to taste the blessing of freedom, or
languish out his days in captivity. A cold
sweat moistened his forehead as he thought on
the dreadful alternative, and reflected that, one
way or the other, his fate must be decided in
the course of the ensuing day. But to hesitate
was to lose the only chance of escape. So,
taking up his small bundle of necessaries, he
stepped gently over the negroes, who were
sleeping in the open air, and, having mounted



54 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

his horse, he bade his interpreter, who had
resolved to proceed no farther, farewell.

“He proceeded with great caution—survey-
ing each bush, and frequently listening and
looking behind, expecting every minute to hear
the sound .of the Moorish horsemen—until he
was about a couple of miles from the town, and
had begun to indulge the pleasing hopes of
escaping, when he was greatly alarmed to hear
somebody holloa behind him, and, looking back,
he saw three Moors on horseback, coming after
him at full speed, hooping and brandishing
their double-barrelled guns. He knew it was
in vain to think of escaping, and therefore
turned back and met them; when two of them
caught hold of his bridle, one on each side, and
the third, presenting his musket, told him that
he must go back to Ali. When the human
mind has for some time been fluctuating between
hope and despair, tortured with anxiety, and
hurried from one extreme to another, it affords
a sort of gloomy relief to know the worst that



MUNGO PARK. 55

can possibly happen: such was Park’s situation.
An indifference about life and all its enjoy-
ments had completely benumbed his faculties,
and he rode back with the Moors in apparent
unconcern. But a change took place much
sooner than he had any reason to expect. In
passing through some thick bushes they stopped,
and one of the Moors ordered him to untie his
bundle, and show them the contents. Having
examined the different articles, and finding
nothing worth taking except his cloak, which
they considered as a very valuable acquisition,
one of them pulled it from him, and wrapped it
about himself. This cloak had been of great
use to Park; it served to cover him from the
rains in the day, and to protect him from the
musquitoes in the night; he therefore earnestly
begged him to return it, and followed him some
little way to obtain it; but, without paying any
attention to this request, he and one of his
companions rode off with their prize. When
Park attempted to follow them, the third, who



56 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

had remained behind, struck his horse over the
head, and, presenting his musket, ordered him
to proceed no farther. Park now perceived that
these men had not been sent by any authority
to apprehend him, but had pursued him solely
with the view to rob and plunder him. Turn-
ing his horse’s head therefore once more towards
the east, and observing the Moor follow the
track of his confederates, he congratulated him-
self on having escaped with his life, though in
great distress, from such a horde of barbarians.
‘“‘He was no sooner out of sight of the Moor,
than he struck into the woods to prevent being
pursued, and kept pushing on, with all possible
speed, until he found himself near some high
rocks, which he remembered to have seen in
his former route from Queira to Deena; and,
directing his course a little to the northward,
he fortunately fell in with the path.
- “ Joyful, however, as this deliverance was,
Park had still many dangers to face, and
many difficulties to overcome, before he arrived



MUNGO PARK. 57

among the negroes. His journal is so minute,
and describes so admirably his feelings and
sufferings, that I will not attempt to diminish
its interest by relating the subsequent adven-
tures of this journey in other language than his
own.

“*Tt is impossible to describe the joy that
arose in my mind, when I looked around and
concluded that I was out of danger. I felt like
one recovered from sickness; I breathed freer ;
I found unusual lightness in my limbs; even
the desert looked pleasant; and I dreaded no-
thing so much as falling in with some wandering
parties of Moors, who might convey me back
to the land of thieves and murderers from which
I had just escaped.

“¢]T goon became sensible, however, that my
situation was very deplorable, for I had no
means of procuring food, nor prospect of find-
ing water. About ten o'clock, perceiving a
herd of goats feeding close to the road, I took
a circuitous route to avoid being seen ; and con-



58 TALES AROUT TRAVELLERS.

tinued travelling through the wilderness, direc-
ting my course, by compass, nearly east-south-
east, in order to reach, as soon as possible,
some town or village of the kingdom of Bam-
barra.

««¢ A little after noon, when the burning heat
of the sun was reflected with double violence
from the hot sand, and the distant ridges of
the hills, seen through the ascending vapour,
seemed to wave and fluctuate like the unsettled
sea, I became faint with thirst, and climbed a
tree in hopes of seeing distant smoke, or some
other appearance of a human habitation ; but
in vain: nothing appeared all around but thick
underwood, and hillocks of white sand.

“¢ About four o'clock I came suddenly upon
a large herd of goats, and, pulling my horse
into a bush, I watched to observe if the keepers
were Moors or negroes. In a little time I[
perceived two Moorish boys, and with some
difficulty persuaded them to approach me.
They informed me that the herd belonged to



MUNGO PARK. 59

Ali, and that they were going to Deena, where
the water was more plentiful, and where they
intended to stay until the rain had filled the
pools in the desert. They showed me their
empty water-skins, and told me that they had
seen no water in the woods. ‘This account
afforded me but little consolation; however, it
was in vain to repine, and I pushed on as fast
as possible, in hopes of reaching some watering-
place in the course of the night. My thirst
was by this time become insufferable; my
mouth was parched and inflamed; a sudden
dimness would frequently come over my eyes,
with other symptoms of fainting ; and, my horse
being very much fatigued, I began seriously to
apprehend that I should perish of thirst. To
relieve the burning pain in my mouth and
throat, I chewed the leaves of different shrubs,
but found them all bitter, and of no service to
me.

“A little before sunset, having reached the
top of a gentle rising, I climbed a high tree,



60 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

from the topmost branches of which I cast a
melancholy look over the barren wilderness,
but without discovering the most distant trace
of a human dwelling. The same dismal uni-
formity of shrubs and sand everywhere pre-
sented itself, and the horizon was as level and
uninterrupted as that of the sea.

“*Descending from the tree, I found my
horse devouring the stubble and brushwood
with great avidity ; and, as I was now too faint
to attempt walking, and my horse too much
fatigued to carry me, I thought it but an act
of humanity, and perhaps the last I should ever
have it in my power to perform, to take off his
bridle and let him shift for himself; in doing
which I was suddenly affected with sickness
and giddiness, and, falling upon the sand, felt
as if the hour of death was fast approaching.
Here, then, thought I, after a short but ineffec-
tual struggle, terminate all my hopes of being
useful in my day and generation: here must
the short span of my life come to anend. I



MUNGO PARK. 61

cast (as I believed) a last look on the surround-
ing scene, and, whilst I reflected on the awful
change that was about to take place, this world
with its enjoyments seemed to vanish from my
recollection. Nature, however, at length re-
sumed its functions, and, on recovering my
senses, I found myself stretched upon the sand,
with the bridle still in my hand, and the sun
just sinking behind the trees. 1 now summoned
all my resolution, and determined to make
another effort to prolong my existence; and, as
the evening was somewhat cool, I resolved to
travel as far as my limbs would carry me, in
hopes of reaching (my only resource) a watering-
place. With this view, I put the bridle on my
horse, and, driving him before me, went slowly
along for about an hour, when I perceived some
lightning from the north-east—a most delight-
ful sight, for it promised rain. The darkness
and lightning increased very rapidly, and in
less than an hour I heard the wind roaring
among the bushes. I had already opened my



62 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

mouth to receive the refreshing drops which |
expected, but I was instantly covered with a
cloud of sand, driven with such force by the
wind as to give a very disagreeable sensation to
my face and arms, and I was obliged to mount
my horse, and stop under a bush, to prevent
being suffocated. The sand continued to fly in
amazing quantities for nearly an hour, after
which I again set forward, and travelled with
difficulty until ten o’clock. About this time I
was agreeably surprised by some very vivid
flashes of lightning, followed by a few heavy
drops of rain. In a little time the sand ceased
to fly, and I alighted, and spread out all my
clean clothes to collect the rain, which at length
I saw would certainly fall. For more than an
hour it rained plentifully, and I quenched my
thirst by wringing and sucking my clothes.
“There being no moon, it was remarkably
dark, so that I was obliged to lead my horse,
and direct my way by the compass, which the
lightning enabled me to observe. In this



MUNGO PARK. 63

manner I travelled with tolerable expedition
until past midnight, when, the lightning be-
coming more distant, I was under the necessity
of groping along, to the no small danger of my
hands and eyes. About two o’clock my horse
started at something, and, looking round, I was
not a little surprised to see a light at a short
distance among the trees; and, supposing it to
be a town, I groped along the sand in hopes of
finding corn-stalks, cotton, or other appearances
of cultivation, but found none. As I ap-
proached, I perceived a number of other lights
in different places, and began to suspect that I
had fallen upon a party of Moors. However,
in my present situation, I was resolved to see
who they were, if I could do it with safety. I
accordingly led my horse cautiously towards the
light, and heard, by the lowing of the cattle,
and the clamorous tongues of the herdsmen,
that it was a watering-place, and most likely
belonged to the Moors. Delightful as the sound
of the human voice was to me, I resolved once



64 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

more to strike into the woods, and rather run
the risk of perishing of hunger than trust my-
self again in their hands; but, being still thirsty,
and dreading the approach of the burning day,
I thought it prudent to search for the wells,
which I expected to find at no great distance.
In this pursuit, I inadvertently approached so
near to one of the tents as to be perceived by
a woman, who immediately screamed out.
Two people came running to her assistance
from some of the neighbouring tents, and
passed so very near to me that I thought I
was discovered, and hastened again into the
woods.

“« About a mile from this place, I heard a
loud and confused noise somewhere to the right
of my course, and in a short time was happy
to find it was the croaking of frogs, which was
heavenly music to my ears. I followed the
sound, and at daybreak arrived at some shallow
muddy pools, so full of frogs that it was diffi-
cult to discern the water. The noise they



MUNGO PARK. 65

made frightened my horse, and I was obliged
to keep them quiet by beating the water with
a branch, until he had drunk. Having here
quenched my thirst, I ascended a tree, and, the
morning being calm, I soon perceived the
smoke of the watering-place which I had passed
in the night, and observed another pillar of
smoke east-south-east, distant twelve or fourteen
miles. ‘Towards this I directed my route, and
reached the cultivated ground a little befor:
eleven o'clock, where, seeing a number of
negroes at work planting corn, 1 inquired the
name of the town, and was informed that it
was a Foulah village belonging to Ali, called
Shrilla. I had now some doubts about enter-
ing it ; but, my horse being very much fatigued,
and the day growing hot—not to mention the
pangs of hunger which began to assail me—I
resolved to venture, and accordingly rode up to
the dooty’s house, where I was unfortunately
denied admittance, and could not obtain even a
handful of corn, either for myself or horse.
F



66 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

Turning from this inhospitable door, I rode
slowly out of the town, and, perceiving some
low scattered huts without the walls, I directed
my route towards them, knowing that in Africa,
as well as in Europe, hospitality does not
always prefer the highest dwellings. At the
door of one of these huts, an old motherly-
looking woman sat, spinning cotton. I made
signs to her that | was hungry, and inquired
if she had any victuals with her in the hut.
She immediately laid down her distaff, and
desired me, in Arabic, to come in. When |
had seated myself upon the floor, she set before
me a dish of kouskous that had been left the
preceding night, of which I made a tolerable
meal; and in return for this kindness I gave
her one of my pocket handkerchiefs, begging
at the same time a little corn for my horse,
which she readily brought me.

“ ¢ Overcome with joy at so unexpected a
deliverance, I lifted up my eyes to heaven, and,
whilst my heart swelled with gratitude, I re-



MUNGO PARK. 67

turned thanks to that gracious and bountiful
Being whose power had supported me under so
many dangers, and had now spread for me a
table in the wilderness.’

“ Continuing his course, Park arrived at
Wawra, a negro town, whence he travelled to
Sego, in company with some fugitives, who, un-
able to live under the tyranny of the Moors, were
going to settle in Bambarra. ‘The greater part
of the way he had to drive his horse before
him, as it had become too weak to carry him.
As he approached Sego, his heart beat with
expectation, as here he was informed he would
see the river Niger, one of the great objects of
his mission. At length, as they rode over some
marshy ground, anxiously bending his eyes in
the direction in which he expected to see the
river, one of his companions called out, ‘ Geo
affilli !’ —* See the water!’—and, looking for-
wards, Park beheld, with infinite pleasure, the
long-sought-for majestic Niger, glittering in the
morning sun, as broad as the Thames at West-

F2



68 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

minster. He hastened to the brink, and, having
drank of the water, he lifted up his fervent
thanks in prayer to the great Ruler of all
things for having thus far crowned his labours
with success !

“Tt is now more than time to stop, Boys.
I fear I have kept you too long; but the story
was so engrossing, | did not know where to
leave off. There are still many interesting
adventures to relate before we part with this
intrepid traveller. Till to-morrow evening,
however, we must leave him waiting on the
banks of the Niger for an opportunity to cross
the river, to visit the king of Bambarra, who
holds his court at Sego, the capital of his
kingdom, opposite to which town Park had
now arrived.”



69

CHAPTER III.

UNCLE THOMAS CONTINUES THE RELATION OF PARK’S ADVENTURES AND
SUFFERINGS; TELLS ALSO ABOUT HIS RETURN TO ENGLAND, AND HIS
SECOND JOURNKY INTO AFRICA, AND THE MELANCHOLY FATE OF THIS
EXPZDITION.

“ You will recollect, Boys,” said Uncle ‘Thomas
on the following evening, “ that we left Park
full of gratitude to God for having guided him
so far on his perilous journey in safety, waiting
on the banks of the Niger for an opportunity
to cross over to Sego, to: present himself before
the king of Bambarra. While he waited for a
canoe for this purpose, one of his majesty’s
chief men came to him and told him that the
King could not possibly see him till he knew
the object of his journey, and that he must not
presume to cross the river without the king’s
permission. He therefore advised him to go



70 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

to a village at some distance for the night, and
that he would come to him, and direct him how
to proceed in the morning. Discouraging as this
was, there was no help for it. Park therefore
proceeded to the village, but no one there would
admit him into their house, looking upon his
white skin and strange dress with astonishment
and fear. He was therefore obliged to sit all
day without food under the shade of a tree, and
with the prospect of being obliged to climb into
the branches to seek refuge from the wild beasts
during the night, when, about sunset, a woman
returning from her labours in the field stopped
to look at him. Seeing that he was weary and
dejected, she inquired into his situation. On
learning his distress she took up the saddle and
bridle, which he had taken from his horse,
that it might graze at liberty, and desired him
to follow her. ‘Having conducted me to her
hut,’ says Park, ‘she lighted up a lamp, spread
a mat on the floor, and told me I might remain
there for the night. Finding that I was very



MUNGO PARK. 71

hungry, she said she would procure me some-
thing to eat. She accordingly went out, and
returned in a short time with a very fine
fish, which, having caused to be half broiled
upon some embers, she gave me for supper.
The rites of hospitality being thus performed
towards a stranger in distress, my worthy
benefactress, pointing to the mat, and telling me
I might sleep there without apprehension,
called to the female part of her family, who
had stood gazing on me all the while in fixed
astonishment, to resume their task of spinning
cotton, in which they continued to employ
themselves great part of the night. They
lightened their labour by songs, one of which
was composed extempore, for I was myself the
subject of it. It was sung by one of the young
women, the rest joining in a sort of chorus.
The air was sweet and plaintive, and the words,
literally translated, were these : —“The winds
roared, and the rains fell. The poor white
man, faint and weary, came and sat under our



72 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

tree. He has no mother to bring him milk—
no wife to grind his corn.” Chorus.—* Let us
pity the white man, no mother has he,” &c., &e.
Trifling as this recital may appear to the reader,
to a person in my situation the circumstance
was affecting in the highest degree. I was
oppressed by such unexpected. kindness, and
sleep fled from my eyes. In the morning I pre-
sented my compassionate landlady with two of
the four brass buttons which remained on my
waistcoat—the only recompense I could make
her.’

“In the morning a messenger arrived from
the king to inquire whether Park had brought
any present for him; and seemed much disap-
pointed to learn that he had been robbed of
every thing by the Moors. Park wished to
accompany him to see his majesty, but this the
messenger refused to agree to, telling him to
wait till the afternoon, when the king would
send for him. In the afternoon, accordingly,
another messenger came to tell him that it was



MUNGO PARK. 73

his majesty’s pleasure that he should depart
immediately from the village, and that, as he
was unwilling to send away from his kingdom
a white man in distress, he had sent him a
present of five thousand cowries, to purchase
provisions in the course of his journey. These
cowries are little shells, which are there used
as money, about two hundred and fifty being
nearly equal to the value of one shilling.

“Park accordingly set out, and, after nar-
rowly escaping being destroyed by a hon, to
which he passed quite close as it lay con-
cealed under a bush, he arrived at Modiboo, a
delightful village pleasantly situated on the
banks of the Niger. Shortly after leaving this
place his horse, the worn out associate of his
adventures, fell, and finding all the efforts of
himself and his guide unable to set it again on
its legs, he sat down beside it, and waited for
some time, expecting it to recover. Finding,
however, that it did not revive, he took off the
saddle and bridle, and, placing a quantity of



74 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

grass before it, reluctantly left it, his heart
filled with the sad apprehension that he might
himself in a short time lie down and perish of
fatigue and hunger in the same miserable
manner!

“ He had now arrived at Moorzan, and finding
the people still hostile; his poor horse, as he then
thought, dead, and himself reduced to poverty ; his
clothes in rags, and the present of the king of
Bambarra nearly exhausted; and, moreover, being
informed that the farther he advanced in the
direction in which he was now travelling, he
was going more and more within the power of
the fanatic Moors, from whom he had already
suffered so much; he resolved to retrace his
steps to the Gambia.

“He accordingly set out, and was fortunate
enough once more to regain his horse, which
had in the interval recovered sufficient strength
to resume its journey. The same variety of
adventures awaited his return which he had
encountered on his journey eastward ; some-



MUNGO PARK. 75

times in danger of absolute starvation, and
frequently forced to spend the night in the open
air, or in some deserted hut ; fording or swim-
ming across the numerous creeks or tributaries
which intersected his way, pushing his horse
before him, or dragging it over by the bridle
which he carried in his teeth while he swam
over. From such adventures, fortunately, he
suffered no inconvenience. His notes and
memorandums were secured from wet in his
hat; the rain and dew kept his clothes con-
stantly wet, and the roads being very deep and
full of mud, such a washing was sometimes
pleasant, and often necessary.

“ Such adventures were not, however, the
worst to which he was subjected. Shortly
after leaving a romantic village called Kooma,
where he had been most hospitably treated, he
was overtaken by a party of banditti. Hearing
some one calling to him, he looked back and
saw six or eight men approaching. He stopped
till they all came up, when they informed him



76 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

that the king of the Foulahs had sent them
on purpose to bring him, his horse, and every
thing that belonged to him, to Fooladoo, and
that therefore he must turn back, and go along
with them. Without hesitating a moment,
Park turned round and followed them. ‘They
travelled nearly a quarter of a mile without
exchanging a word; when, coming to a dark
place in the wood, one of them said, in the
Mandingo language, ‘ This place will do,
and immediately snatched Park’s hat from his
head. ‘Though he was by no means free from
apprehension, yet our traveller resolved to show
as few signs of fear as possible, and therefore
told them that, unless his hat was returned to
him, he should proceed no farther. But before
he had time to receive an answer, another drew
his knife, and, seizing upon a metal button
which remained upon Park’s waistcoat, cut it
off, and put it into his pocket. Their inten-
tions were now obvious, and he thought that
the easier they were permitted to rob him of



MUNGO PARK. 77

every thing, the less he had to fear. He there-
fore allowed them to search his pockets without
resistance, and examine every part of his appa-
rel, which they did with the most scrupulous
exactness: at last, to make sure work, they
stripped him quite naked. Even his half boots
(though the sole of one of them was tied to his
foot with a broken bridle-rein) were minutely
inspected. Whilst they were examining the
plunder, Park begged them, with great earnest-
ness, to return his pocket compass; but when
he pointed to it, as it was lying on the ground,
one of the banditti, thinking he was about to
take it up, cocked his musket, and threatened
to lay him dead upon the spot if he pre-
sumed to put his hand upon it. After this,
some of them went away with his horse, and
the remainder stood considering whether they
should leave him quite naked, or allow him
something to shelter him from the sun.
Humanity at last prevailed: they returned him
the worst of the two shirts, and a pair of



78 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

trousers; and, as they went away, one of them
threw back his hat, in the crown of which he
kept his memorandums, and this was probably
the reason they did not wish to keep it.

“* After they were gone,”’ says Park, ‘‘‘ I sat
for some time looking around me with amaze-
ment and terror. Whichever way | turned,
nothing appeared but danger and difficulty. 1
saw myself in the midst of a vast wilderness,
in the depth of the rainy season—naked and
alone, surrounded by savage animals, and men
still more savage. I was five hundred miles
from the nearest European settlement. All
these circumstances crowded at once on my
recollection, and I confess that my spirits began
to fail me. I considered my fate as certain,
and that I had no alternative but to lie down
and perish. The influence of religion, however,
aided and supported me. I reflected that no
human prudence or foresight could possibly have
averted my present sufferings. I was indeed
a stranger in a strange land, yet I was still



MUNGO PARK. 79

under the protecting eye of that Providence who
has condescended to call himself the stranger’s
friend. At this moment, painful as my reflec-
tions were, the extraordinary beauty of a small
moss in fructification irresistibly caught my eye.
[ mention this to show from what trifling cir-
cumstances the mind will sometimes derive con-
solation; for, though the whole plant was not
larger than the top of one of my fingers, I
could not contemplate the delicate conformation
of its roots, leaves, and capsula, without admi-
ration. Can that Being, thought I, who planted,
watered, and brought to perfection, in this
obscure part of the world, a thing which appears
of so small importance, look with unconcern
upon the situation and sufferings of creatures
formed after his own image? Surely not!
Reflections like these would not allow me to
despair. I started up, and, disregarding both
hunger and fatigue, travelled forwards, assured
that relief was at hand, and I was not disap-
pointed. In a short time I came to a small



80 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

village, at the entrance of which I overtook two
shepherds who had started with me from Kooma.
They were much surprised to see me; for they
said, they never doubted that the Foulahs,
when they had robbed, had murdered me.
Departing from this village, we travelled over
several rocky ridges, and at sunset arrived at
Sibidooloo, the frontier town of the kingdom
of Manding.’

“The dooty, or chief man, of the town of
Sibidooloo, being a person of great benevolence,
commiserated the sufferings of Park, and no
sooner had the latter finished the recital of his
robbery than, taking his pipe from his mouth
and tossing up the sleeve of his cloak with an
indignant air, he said to him, ‘ Sit down; you
shall have every thing restored to you: I have
sworn it!’ and then, turning to an attendant,
he said, ‘ Give the white man a draught of
water, and, with the first light of the morning,
go over the hills and inform the dooty of
Bammakoo that a poor white man, the king of



MUNGO PARK. 8]

Bambarra’s stranger, has been robbed by the
King of Fooladoo’s people.’ He then invited
Park to remain with him till the return of the
messenger, and conducted him to a hut and
supplied him with food.

“ Park now began to suffer from attacks of
fever, and, fearful of tasking the benevolence
of his kind host too highly, he proceeded to
Wonda, where he was asked to remain till he
obtained some intelligence of the property of
which he had been plundered. After waiting
there some days, the messengers at length
returned, bringing with them his horse and
clothes, but unfortunately his pocket compass,
his guide in all his wanderings, was broken,
and he could not repair it.

“In the mean time his illness increased, and,
fearful of being a burden on his hospitable
entertainer, especially as there was then a very
great scarcity of provisions in the country—
little short, in fact, of a famine, he prepared
to resume his journey. As his horse was now

G



82 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

almost useless to him, the roads being in a
great measure impassable on horseback, he
presented it to his landlord, and requested him
to send the saddle and bridle to the mansa of
Sibidooloo, who had so kindly interested himself
in recovering his goods from the robbers.
“When Park reached Kamalia, his illness
had so much increased that he was subject to
occasional attacks of delirium during the night.
At this place he was fortunately conducted to
the house of a person named Karfa Taura, who,
though a dealer in slaves, was a man of kind
and humane disposition. Park found him
reading an Arabic book to several persons.
Karfa asked Park if he understood Arabic, and,”
on being answered in the negative, he desired
one of his attendants to show him a curious
little book, which he had brought from the
west country, in one of his excursions thither.
It was an English Book of Common Prayer.
He expressed great joy when Park told him that
he could read it. Perceiving from this that he



MUNGO PARK. 83

was an Englishman, Karfa promised him all
the assistance in his power, and told him that
it was impossible to reach the Gambia during
the rainy season; but that he himself intended,
so soon as the rivers were fordable, to set out
for that place with a gang of slaves, and advised
Park to remain and accompany him, adding
that, if it was impossible for a caravan of
natives to travel the country during the rainy
season, it was idle for an European to think of
attempting it.

“ Park had now indeed no alternative. His
money was all spent, so that in his farther pro-
gress he must either beg his way from place to
place, or perish from want. He therefore accept-
ed Karfa’s offer, and arranged with him how he
was to be recompensed on their arrival at the
Gambia. ‘Thus was I delivered, says Park,
‘ by the friendly care of this benevolent negro,
from a situation truly deplorable. Distress and
famine pressed hard upon me: I had before
me the gloomy wilds of Jallonkadoo, where the

G2



84 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

traveller sees no habitation for five successive
days. I had observed at a distance the rapid
course of the river Kokoro, and had almost
marked out the place where I was doomed,
I thought, to perish, when this friendly
negro stretched oyt his hospitable hand to
help me.’

* Karfa gave Park a hut to sleep in, and
furnished it after the simple manner of the
country, with a mat to serve him for a bed, and
a small calabash to hold a supply of water.
From his own table he sent our traveller two
meals a day, and ordered his slaves to supply
him with fire-wood and water. But not even
. the kindness of Karfa, or the quiet and security
in which he now was, could arrest the progress
of the fever which had been threatening for
some time to put a sudden stop to his career.
For five weeks after he took up his dwelling
with Karfa, he was so ill that he could scarcely
walk—far away from the kind assistance of
mother or friend, and seldom visited by any



MUNGO PARK. 85

one but his benevolent landlord. Sometimes
he would crawl out of the hut and sit a few
hours in the open air, at other times he was
unable to rise from his mat, and passed the
lingering hours in a very gloomy and solitary
manner. When the rains became less frequent,
and the country began to grow dry, the fever
abated; but it left him in such a debilitated
state that he could scarcely stand upright, and
it was with difficulty that he could carry even
his mat to the shade of a tamarind tree, which
stood at a short distance, to enjoy the refreshing
smell of the corn-fields, and delight his eyes
with a prospect of the country. At length he
had the pleasure to find himself in a state of
convalescence, to which the benevolent and
simple manners of the negroes, and the perusal
of the invaluable little volume with which his
host had supplied him, greatly contributed.
“The long wished-for day at last arrived,
and Park set out on his return to the Gambia.
The party with which he travelled consisted of



86 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

slave-merchants and their gangs of slaves, who
were travelling to Gambia with the poor crea-
tures to sell them to the traders, who sent them
to the West Indies. The miserable sufferings
to which these wretched beings were subjected
on their journey is almost beyond description.
Several of them died from fatigue, or, unable to
proceed, were abandoned to their fate in the
midst of the desert, where they were probably
soon devoured by the wild beasts.

“The sufferings of one poor creature, a
female slave, named Nealee, will be sufficient
to show you how much misery is sometimes
experienced during these journeys, now, happily,
less frequent than when Park travelled, but
still, alas, too common.

“Five days after they started the party was
attacked by an immense swarm of bees, which
they had disturbed in attempting to rob them of
their honey. Every one ran off as fast as he
could, but most of them were stung very
severely. Poor Nealee, who, from her previous



MUNGO PARK. 87

sufferings from pains in her legs, was unable
to escape, crept to a stream which was close by,
hoping to defend herself from the bees by
throwing water over her body. This was not,
however, effectual. She was stung in the
most dreadful manner.

“When the stings had been picked out, she
was washed with water, and then rubbed with
bruised leaves ; but the wretched woman obsti-
nately refused to proceed any farther, declaring
that she would rather die than walk another
step. As entreaties and threats were alike in
vain, the whip was at length applied; and, after
bearing patiently a few strokes, she started up,
and walked with tolerable expedition for four
or five hours, when she attempted to run away,
but was so very weak that she fell down
in the grass. Though she was unable to rise,
the whip was a second time applied, but with-
out effect, upon which Karfa desired two of the
attendants to place her upon the ass which
carried the provisions; but she could not sit



88 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

erect, and, the ass being very refractory, it was
found impossible to carry her forward in that
manner. Unwilling, however, to abandon her,
the day’s journey being nearly ended, they
made a sort of litter of bamboo canes, upon
which she was placed, and tied on it with
slips of bark: this litter was carried upon the
heads of two slaves, one walking before the
other, and they were followed by two others,
who relieved them occasionally. In this manner
the woman was carried forward until it was
dark.

“At daybreak on the following morning,
poor Nealee was awakened, but her limbs were
now become so stiff and painful that she could
neither walk nor stand ; she was therefore lifted,
like a corpse, upon the back of the ass, and
the attendants endeavoured to secure her in
that situation by fastening her hands together
under the ass’s neck, and her feet under the
belly, with long slips of bark ; but the ass was
so very unruly that no sort of treatment could



MUNGO PARK. 89

induce him to proceed with his load, and, as
Nealee made no exertion to prevent herself
from falling, she was quickly thrown off, and
had one of her legs much bruised. Every
attempt to carry her forward being thus found
ineffectual, the general cry was ‘Kang-tegi,
kang-tegi!’ ‘Cut her throat, cut her throat!’
—‘an operation, says Park, ‘which I did
not wish to see performed, and_ therefore
marched onwards with the foremost of the gang.
I had not walked above a mile, when one of
Karfa’s domestic slaves came up to me, with
poor Nealee’s garment upon the end of his bow,
and exclaimed, ‘ Nealee affeeleeta!’ ‘Nealee
is lost!’ I asked him whether the garment
had been given him as a reward for cutting
her throat; he replied that Karfa and the
schoolmaster would not consent to that measure,
but had left her on the road, where undoubtedly
she soon perished ! ’

“In this manner they proceeded, halting
occasionally for refreshment at the villages on



90 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the route, as opportunity offered. They were,
however, on one occasion obliged to alter their
course, in consequence of information which
they received that two hundred Jallonkas had
assembled near a town which they were ex-
pected to pass, with a view to plunder them.
Few adventures distinguish their farther pro-
gress. Park reached the Gambia in the begin-
ning of November, where he was received in
the same hospitable manner as at first by his
friend, Dr. Laidley. Karfa’s kindness and con-
sideration for him, not only during his stay at
Kamalia, but on the journey, had so far gained
on Park’s esteem that he paid him double the
sum on which they had originally agreed, and,
parting from him and his other friends with
mutual expressions of regard, he set sail in an
American vessel, on the 17th of June. After
a tedious passage down the river, and being
detained for some time for want of provisions,
they at length put to sea. Being an old and
decayed vessel, it became so leaky as to threaten



Full Text


TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS:

THEIR

Perils, Adbentures, and Wiscoberies.

BY

THOMAS BINGLEY,

AUTHOR OF “STORIES ABOUT DOGS,”—‘‘ TALES OF SHIPWRECKS,” ETC,, ETC.

EMBELLISHED WITH ENGRAVINGS.

LONDON:
CHARLES TILT, FLEET STREET.

MDCCCXL.
LONDON:

CLARKE, PRINTERS, SILVER STREET, FALCON SQUARE.
PREFACE.

Tags of the Perils and Adventures of the intrepid
men who have penetrated into new and unknown
regions were the delight of my own boyhood. I
loved to sit and listen to the accounts of their
achievements and discoveries, and grieved over
their distresses and disasters. Even now, I well
remember how deeply affected I was, when I first
heard of Park’s cruel treatment by the Moors,
(then a thing of yesterday,) and of his sufferings
in the desert after his escape from the hands of those
barbarians. The scene in which, descending from
the tree into which he had climbed for the purpose
of attempting to trace the extent of sandy desert
which stretched out before him, he takes the bridle
vi PREFACE.

from his horse, and, overcome by faintness, falls
on the ground, with the persuasion that the hour of
death is fast approaching, is imprinted on my mind
as distinctly as if I had been his companion in the
trying scene.

My own feelings and recollections, therefore,
prompt me to think that a volume of Tales on so
popular and interesting a subject cannot fail to
recommend itself to the estimation of my young
friends.

T. B.
CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IL.



UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS TALES, AND RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF
JOHN LEDYARD; HIS VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD WITH CAPTAIN COOK;
HIS TRAVELS IN LAPLAND, RUSSIA, AND SIBERIA, AND HIS SUBSEQUENT

MISSION TO AFRICA .. 900 000096 6600 55906008 08 00 95 0009 0 65 mn



CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF MUNGO PARK, DURING HIS
TRAVELS IN AFRICA; HIS CAPTIVITY AMONG THE MOORS; HIS ESCAPE
AND SUFFERINGS IN HIS WANDERINGS IN THE DESERT, UNTIL HIS
ARRIVAL ON THE BANKS OF THE NIGER.



CHAPTER III.

UNCLE THOMAS CONTINUES THE RELATION OF PARK’S ADVENTURES AND
SUFFERINGS ; TELLS ALSO ABOUT HIS RETURN TO ENGLAND; HIS
SECOND JOURNEY INTO AFRICA, AND THE MELANCHOLY FATE OF THIS
EXPEDITION... 00000000 ceeeeceeeee «.. 69



CHAPTER IV.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT BURCKHARDT’S TRAVELS IN SYRIA AND
ARABIA, AND HIS ADVENTURES AMONG THE ARABS OF THE DESERT., 97
vin CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE TRAVELS OF DENHAM AND CLAPPER-
TON; THEIR JOURNEY ACROSS THE DESERT; THEIR ARRIVAL AT LAKE
TCHAD; AND THEIR PRESENTATION AT THE COURT OF THE SULTAN OF
BORNOU ..cccccccccccceececscceecosscees seesee 126



CHAPTER VI.

UNCLE THOMAS CONTINUES HIS ACCOUNT OF THE TRAVELS OF DENHAM AND
CLAPPERTON; THEIR VARIOUS ADVENTURES IN AFRICA, AND THEIR RE
TURN TO ENGLANDs+ wee ccees eeccccee 00° 06 0000 000s cece 100s cece ceoss . 145

CHAPTER VIL.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT CLAPPERTON’S SECOND JOURNEY INTO AFRICA,
AND HIS DEATH AT SACKATOO; ALSO ABOUT THE TRAVELS OF JOHN
DAVIDSON; HIS ATTEMPT TO REACH TIMBUCTOO; AND HIS MELANCHOLY
FATE




TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

CHAPTER I.

UNCLE THOMAS RESUMES HIS TALES, AND RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF
JOHN LEDYARD; HIS VOYAGE KOUND THE WORLD WITH CAPTAIN COOK;
HIS TRAVELS IN LAPLAND, RUSSIA, AND SIBERIA, AND HIS SUB

SEQUENT MISSION TO AFRICA,

Various circumstances occurred to prevent
Uncle Thomas from entering on a new series
of Tales so early as he had anticipated, or as
had been expected by his little auditors; it was,
therefore, with unfeigned pleasure that they at
length heard him announce that on the following
evening he intended to relate to them the first
of a series of TaLES aBouT ‘TRAVELLERS,
whose adventures and discoveries in various
parts of the world had gained them the admira-
tion of their fellow men. ‘He delighted,” he
B
2 TALES AROUT TRAVELLERS.

said, “to tell them of the fortitude and enter-
prise of those who had distinguished themselves
in the cause of discovery, and to hold up to the
admiration of his young friends their intrepidity
and perseverance, as he hoped thus to incite them
to habits of industry and application, and to
show them how much may be accomplished by
the proper exercise of the ‘talents’ with
which each individual is furnished.” ‘ Every
one,” continued Uncle Thomas, “is not en-
dowed with the genius of a Bacon or a New-
ton, or that of a Shakspeare or a Scott, but
there are very few who have not some peculiar
qualification, or who really know the extent of
their powers, because they neglect to bring
them into exercise. Had Mungo Park, for
instance, of whose adventures I will tell you
presently, remained at home in ease and in-
activity, he might never have suspected his own
powers of endurance; and how comparatively
little should we now know of the interior of
Africa? He died, it is true, leaving unsolved
INTRODUCTION. 3

the great problem in African geography — the
source and termination of the Niger; but his
example incited others to make the attempt,
and our knowledge of those countries and their
inhabitants has been gradually increasing.” —
“Tam glad that you are going to tell us
about Park,” said Frank, whose interest in this
traveller had been excited by an anecdote which
he had read a day or two before regarding the
consolation which Park derived from con-
templating the extraordinary beauty of a little
moss plant, when he was naked and alone in
the midst of an African wilderness, hundreds
of miles distant from the nearest European
settlement, and when every thing around him
was full of danger and difficulty; “Iam very
anxious to know about Park”—and he began to
relate the anecdote to which we have alluded.
“Stop, my dear!” said Uncle Thomas. “73
will tell you about him by and by, and, when
you hear the story of his sufferings previous to
this touching incident, you will be better able
B2
4 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

to appreciate and to understand it, and to enter
into his feelings on the occasion. Before we
begin with Park, however, I must tell you of
John Ledyard, one of his predecessors, and,
perhaps, one of the most singular men that ever
lived. But I must bid you good-by at present.
To-morrow evening | will be ready for you.”

On the following evening, when the Boys
had as usual seated themselves round Uncle
Thomas’s chair, he began :—

“ John Ledyard was born in Connecticut, in
North America, in the year 1751. Almost
from his childhood his character exhibited symp-
toms of that restlessness which marked his
future career; and, before he was twenty-one
years of age, he had with characteristic im-
patience alternately adopted and rejected the
professions of law and divinity. Nothing worth
relating has been recorded of him during his stay
JOHN LEDYARD. 5

in the lawyer's office, but his college life affords
some stories too characteristic to be passed over.

“Soon after he relinquished the study of the
law, it happened that an old friend of his
grandfather's, who had recently established a
school or college, at which young men were
educated as missionaries to the Indians, offered
to receive Ledyard into his establishment for
this purpose. ‘The offer was eagerly embraced ;
but Ledyard seems to have adopted the pro-
fession more on account of the novelty of the
scenes to which it would introduce him, and the
adventures which it promised to afford, than
from any proper feeling of the importance of the
cause in which he was about to engage.

“After remaining about four months. at
college, he one day suddenly disappeared with-
out communicating his intentions to any one,
and, as was afterwards discovered, penetrated
far into the country, at that time almost a
wilderness, and wandered about from tribe to
tribe among the Indians. After an absence of
6 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

three months and a half he again returned,
and resumed his studies; but it was now
evident that his heart was no longer set upon a
missionary career. Instead of devoting himself
to such studies as were necessary to fit him for
this arduous duty, he spent much of @s time in
acting plays. Calm study had no charms for
him. He delighted to engage in perilous under-
takings, in which difficulties were to be en-
countered and overcome. One of his college
frolics is thus related :—

“In the depth of winter, when the ground
was covered with snow, he persuaded a party
of his fellow-students to accompany him to the
top of a neighbouring mountain to pass the night.
The president of the college made no objection
to the project, as he thought it would help to
inure the young men to hardships, to which
a residence among the Indians would con-
stantly expose them. The party accordingly
set out, headed by Ledyard. He led them by
a pathless route through the thickets of a swamp,
JOHN LEDYARD. 7

and an all but impenetrable forest, till they
reached the top of the mountain, just in time to
arrange their encampment and light a fire
before nightfall. Exhausted with their exer-
tions, and benumbed with cold, to most of the
party the night was a sleepless one, and few
were there among them who did not greet the
dawn with gladness. Ledyard, however, was
delighted, and on the following day they re-
turned home, few of them feeling at all desirous
to repeat the experiment.

“The restless spirit of Ledyard could not
remain long unoccupied. Tired of the mono-
tony of a college life, and apparently abandon-
ing all idea of engaging in the missionary enter-
prise, he resolved to return to Hartford, where
his grandfather resided. On the margin of the
river near which the college stood, there grew
many majestic forest-trees. One of the largest
of these he contrived to cut down, and then set
himself to work to fashion it into a canoe. In
this labour he was assisted by some of his
8 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

fellow students, who were, however, ignorant
of the purpose for which it was intended. As
the canoe was about fifty feet long and three
wide, it required considerable labour to finish
it. At length, however, it was completed.
He stole out in the silence of night, and, wrap-
ping himself in a bear-skin, he launched his frail
bark upon the waters and pushed off, undaunted
by the dangers which surrounded him on a
voyage of nearly one hundred and fifty miles,
on a river of the navigation of which he knew
nothing, and on which in several places there
were dangerous falls and rapids.

“In one of these falls he nearly lost his life.
He was seated in the canoe, deeply intent on
one of the books which he had brought with
him, when he was suddenly roused by the noise
of the waters rushing among the rocks through
a narrow passage. In another instant the boat
would have been over the fall and dashed in
pieces. By great exertions, however, he
managed to gain the shore, and thus escaped.
JOHN LEDYARD. 9

Some peasants assisted him to drag his canoe
ashore, and to launch it again below the falls,
and he reached his destination in safety.

“Having thus finally abandoned all idea of
becoming a missionary, Ledyard next attempted
to get himself ordained, with a view to obtain
an appointment as a parish minister; but
his studies had been carried on in too un-
connected a manner to fit him for undergoing
the necessary examinations, and, after spending
a short time in this pursuit, he abandoned it
also in despair.

“His active spirit did not sink into des-
pondency. An old friend of his father’s, who
commanded a vessel which traded to the Medi-
terranean, received him on board as a sailor.
After a prosperous voyage across the Atlantic
they reached Gibraltar. During their stay
here, the captain was alarmed one day at dis-
covering that Ledyard was missing, and after
some time it was ascertained that he was in the
garrison among the soldiers, having enlisted
10 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS,

into the British service. The captain of the
vessel sought him out and remonstrated with
him; but all the apology which Ledyard
offered was, that he was partial to the service,
that he thought the profession of a soldier well
suited toa man of honour and enterprise, but
that he would not be obstinate, and, if the
captain insisted on it, he would return to the
ship, provided they could obtain his release.
This was without much difficulty procured, and
Ledyard accompanied the ship on her return
voyage to America.

“ A new project soon took possession of his
fancy. He had often heard his grandfather,
who had been brought up in a mercantile house
in London, speak of his wealthy connections
in England. Thither accordingly Ledyard re-
solved to proceed to claim their acquaintance,
and golden visions flitted before his eyes. He
set out for New York, and, finding a vessel
about to sail for Plymouth, he engaged himself
as a sailor. When he arrived at Plymouth he
JOHN LEDYARD. ll

was penniless, having, probably, for the sake of
obtaining a passage, served without wages.
He begged his way to London, and on his
arrival began to search for those whom he had
come so far to see.

“It is said that by accident he saw the
family name on a carriage, and, inquiring of
the driver to whom it belonged, he was told
that its owner was a rich merchant, and his
residence pointed out. Eager to grasp at the
good fortune which now seemed within his
reach, Ledyard proceeded instantly to the house.
The merchant himself was from home, but his
son listened to our traveller's story, and gave
him to understand that he disbelieved his state-
ments, and that he had never heard of any such
relations in America as those he mentioned. The
haughty spirit of Ledyard could not brook the
idea of being supposed an impostor: he abruptly
left the house and never went back.

“ At this time Captain Cook, the celebrated
navigator, was preparing to set out on his third
12 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

and last voyage round the world. Ledyard was
fired with the idea of joining the expedition.
To accomplish this object he enlisted into the
marine service, and managed to introduce him-
self to Captain Cook’s notice. Ledyard’s manly
form, and bold but unobtrusive bearing, found
favour in the eyes of the veteran navigator.
He took him into his service, and promoted
him to be a corporal of marines.

“Ledyard accordingly sailed with Cook on
his last voyage round the world, and several
times distinguished himself during the expedi-
tion on occasions in which he was intrusted with
important duties by his commander. He accom-
panied the party who landed with Cook when
he was cruelly murdered by the savages at
Hawaii, and was one of three marines who
escaped unhurt on that melancholy occasion.

“During his voyage with Cook, Ledyard
had an opportunity of seeing how profitably
the furs which they had bought, at Nootka
Sound and other places, for the merest trifle,
JOHN LEDYARD. . 13

with a view of using as articles of dress, could
be disposed of in China. ‘This suggested
to his active and enterprising mind the idea of a
regular trading voyage for this purpose, and
several of the succeeding years of his life were
occupied in endeavouring to prevail on some
person of capital to engage in the undertaking.
All his efforts, however, though several times
on the point of being crowned with success,
ended in disappointment.

“ After spending some years in various parts
of Europe in the vain pursuit of this object, he
began to turn his attention to the project of
traversing the northern regions of Europe and
Asia — to cross over Bhering’s strait to the
American continent, and to pursue his route
thence down the coast, or into the interior, as
chance might direct. He intended to start
from St. Petersburg, and made application,
through the Russian minister, to the Empress
Catherine, for leave to travel through her
dominions. He waited for five months with
14 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the utmost impatience for an answer to this
application, and was just on the point of start-
ing without it, when he was called to Lofidon
by a letter from Sir James Hall, who had pre-
vailed on the owners of a ship which was about
to sail to the Pacific Ocean, to give Ledyarda
free passage, with the promise that he should
be set on shore on any part of the north-west
coast which he might choose.

“ Ledyard was elated beyond measure. He
furnished himself with ‘two great dogs, an
Indian pipe, and a hatchet, and embarked.
The dogs he intended to use in catching wild
animals for his subsistence, after he had set
out on his journey, and the pipe was to serve
as an emblem of peace to the Indians; the
hatchet would serve many purposes of con-
venience and utility. At length the vessel set
sail. It was the happiest moment of his life,
but he seemed doomed to disappointment. The
ship was hardly out of sight of land, when in
consequence of some infringement of the revenue
JOHN LEDYARD. 15

laws, she was pursued and carried back to
London, and the voyage stopped.

“Thus disappointed, Ledyard once more turned
his attention to the Siberian expedition, and a
small subscription having been raised by some
influential gentlemen, wifo ytqgk an interest in
geographical discoveries, whom he had
become acquainted, hé. ut and arrived at
Hamburg with just ten‘guineas in his pocket.
Ill fitted as this sum was to enable him to travel
through the frosts and snows which he had to
encounter befoge he reached even Petersburg,
such was his ‘cénsiderateness that he parted
with nearly thé whole of it to relieve the
necessities ‘of a poor and eccentric traveller,
named Langhorn. But Ledyard was not of a
disposition to foresee difficulties. He freely
bestowed his money on Langhorn, and spent
some days in his society, and, when it was time
to resume his journey, he found he could not
do so without a supply of money. Fortunately
he discovered a person who advanced him




16 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

some, on the promise of its being repaid in
England.

“'T'o visit Langhorn and to relieve his distress,
Ledyard crossed from Hamburg to Copenhagen.
thus leaving the direct course to St. Petersburg,
and, as you shall hear, increasing the distance
many hundred miles. From Copenhagen he
went to Stockholm, intending to cross over to
Abo in Finland, and thus proceeding to the
place of his destination.

“The manner in which the passage between
Stockholm and the place I have just men-
tioned is made in the winter season is so
singular that I must describe it to you. The
traveller, muffled up in furs, is seated on a
sledge, which is drawn by two or three horses.
The ice is sometimes so smooth that the pas-
sage is comparatively easy; but, if the weather
is stormy, the ice assumes all the appearance
of waves, and immense masses, heaped one upon
another, offer the most fearful impediments.
The sledge is frequently upset, and the horses
JOHN LEDYARD. 17

sometimes become unmanageable and run away.
When, however, there happens to be an open
winter—one in which the frost is not sufficiently
intense to freeze the passage entirely over, the
water yet contains so much floating ice that no
vessel can sail through it. This happened to
be the case in the season in which Ledyard
arrived, so that he found it necessary either to
stay at Stockholm till the spring, or to proceed
round the gulf, a distance of twelve hundred
miles, over trackless snows, and in regions
thinly peopled, where the nights are long and
the cold intense, and all this to advance on his
journey only about fifty miles.

“ Appalling as the prospect of such a journey
was, the idea of remaining several months in
a state of inactivity was more so to the impatient
mind of Ledyard. He accordingly set out in
the middle of winter, alone, on foot, without
money or friends, on a road almost unfrequented
at that frightful season, and with the gloomy
certainty that he must travel northward six

Cc
18 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

hundred miles before he could turn his steps
towards a milder climate.

“ That you may judge of the intensity of the
cold to which Ledyard was exposed, I will read
to you the account given of it by a scientific
traveller, who thus speaks of the winter appear-
ance of ‘Tornea, a town which stands at the
head of the gulf:—

“*The town of Tornea, on our arrival on the
30th of December, had a most frightful aspect.
Its little houses were buried to the tops in snow,
which, if there had been any daylight, must
have effectually shut it out. But the snow
continually falling, or ready to fall, for the
most part hid the sun, the few moments that
he might have showed himself at mid-day. If
we opened the door of a warm room, the cold
wind instantly converted the air in it into
snow, whirling it round in vortices. If we
went abroad, we felt as if the air was tearing
our breasts in pieces, and the cracking of the
wood of which the houses are built, as the
JOHN LEDYARD. 19

violence of the cold split it, continually alarmed
us. The solitude of the streets was no less
than if the inhabitants had been all dead, and
in this country you may often see people that
have been maimed, and had an arm or a leg
frozen off. The cold, which is always very
great, increases sometimes by such violent and
sudden fits as are almost certainly fatal to those
that happen to be exposed to it. ‘The winds
seem to blow from all quarters at once, and
drive about the snow with such fury that in a
moment all traces of the roads are lost. Un-
happy he who is caught by such a storm in the
fields. His acquaintance with the country, or
the marks he may have taken by the trees, avail
him nothing. He is blinded by the snow, and
lost if he but stirs a step.’

«“ Such were the difficulties and the dangers
with which Ledyard was threatened in this
expedition. How many of them he encoun-
tered he has not recorded, but in seven weeks
from his departure from Stockholm he reached

c2
20 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

St. Petersburg, thus travelling, on an average,
two hundred miles a week, or nearly thirty miles
a day—an amazing progress for a pedestrian
in any country, but almost incredible under
such circumstances as those in which Ledyard
travelled.

“ After remaining nearly three months in St.
Petersburg, most of the time waiting for a
passport from the empress, to obtain which he
made many fruitless attempts, he at length pro-
cured it, and set out in company with a gentle-
man who was about to proceed to a place nearly
three thousand miles in the direction in which
Ledyard wished to travel. As his companion,
Dr. Brown, held an appointment in the service
of the empress, not only did he travel with all
the conveniences which were attainable in that
country, but Ledyard’s expenses, in part at
least, were thus defrayed by government,: a
point of no small moment to one whose resources
were so limited.

“Nothing in the shape of adventure happened
JOHN LEDYARD. 21

to Ledyard on this journey. He parted with his
fellow-traveller at Barnaoul, and continued his
route in a less ambitious style. The chief
dangers which he encountered were occasioned
by the rude unbroken Tartar horses which
several times ran away with the kibitka, or
carriage, in which he rode, and he was forced to
seek safety by jumping out and leaving the half
savage driver to reduce the brutes once more to
subjection in his own way.

“ At length he embarked on the river Lena,
and floated down the stream to Yakutsk, where
he arrived about the middle of September.
The distance from the place of his embarkation
is about fourteen hundred miles. The voyage
occupied twenty-two days, during which period
he passed from a summer climate to one of -
rigorous cold. When he left Irkutsk, the
reapers were busy cutting down the corn,
but on his arrival at Yakutsk the snow was
six inches deep, and the boys were whipping
their tops on the ice.
22 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“The governor of Yakutsk, to whom he was
introduced, received him with open arms, and
professed the greatest interest for his comfort
and safety. He assured him that the season
was too far advanced to render a journey to
Okotsk practicable, and begged that he would
delay it till the spring. Ledyard was dis-
mayed. His funds were nearly exhausted, and
the prospect of remaining at Yakutsk during
eight dreary winter months was insupportable.
He insisted on setting out, till at length the
governor introduced to him a trader, who, he
said, was constantly in the habit of passing
between Yakutsk and Okotsk, who joined in the
assurance of the impracticability of the journey
at so advanced a period of the season. Ledyard
suffered himself to be convinced by this evidence,
and reluctantly gave up his project of immedi-
ately proceeding on his journey.

“The dulness of Ledyard’s forced residence
at Yakutsk was relieved by the arrival of
Captain Billings, who was at that time in
"e-

era oe



“*He was hurried into a kibitka,

Moscow.”



and driven off towards

Pave 23.
JOHN LEDYARD. 23

command of a party which had been sent out
by the Russian Government to explore the coast
of the Frozen Ocean. Billings, with whom
Ledyard was acquainted, from having been one
of his fellow-voyagers under Cook, was then
on his way to Irkutsk, to procure some equip-
ments which were necessary to enable him to
resume his researches in the ensuing spring.
He invited Ledyard to accompany him to
Irkutsk, and, as our traveller knew that he
could not reach Okotsk before the period men-
tioned by Billings for his return, he consented.
Soon after their arrival at Irkutsk, Ledyard
was arrested by order of the empress, on pre-
tence that he was a French spy. He was
hurried into a kibitka, placed between two
guards, and driven off with all the speed
which horses could convey them towards Mos-
cow, exposed to the extreme rigours of a
Siberian winter. From Moscow he was con-
ducted in the same hurried and unprotected
manner to the frontiers of Poland, where he
24 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

was dismissed, with the assurance that, if he
presumed again to enter the dominions of the
empress, he would certainly be hanged.

“The reason for this strange and inhospitable
conduct on the part of the empress has been
explained in various ways. The most probable
seems to be that which assigns it to the in-
fluence of the Russian-American Fur Company,
which became alarmed lest the knowledge of
their proceedings, which Ledyard could not
fail to discover as he advanced, should be
thus published to the world, and _ incite
opposition to the very profitable trade which
they then carried on. That the governor of
Yakutsk was aware of the conspiracy, and lent
it all the assistance in his power, is highly
probable from his conduct in the affair. It has
been ascertained that the journey which he
protested so strongly was impracticable, and
called in the evidence of the trader to corro-
borate, is frequently made during the winter,
and various other circumstances of his conduct
JOHN LEDYARD. 25

to Ledyard seem to render the suspicion well-
founded.

« From Poland, Ledyard directed his steps
to England. In a letter which he wrote to a
friend after his arrival in London, he gives some
particulars of this journey :—* I know not how
I passed through the kingdoms of Poland and
Prussia, or from thence to London, where I
arrived in the beginning of May, disappointed,
ragged, penniless, and yet so accustomed was
I to such things that I declare my heart was
whole. My health had for the first time
suffered from my confinement, and the amazing
rapidity with which I had been carried through
the illimitable wilds of Tartary and Russia.
But, my liberty regained, and a few days rest
among the beautiful daughters of Israel, in
Poland, re-established it. His reference to
the kindness of the Polish Jewesses affords a
good opportunity to introduce a passage from
one of his journals, which has been often
quoted in praise of the kindness and humanity
26 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

of woman. It was written during his resi-
dence at Irkutsk. ‘I have observed among
all nations,’ says he, ‘ that the women orna-
ment themselves more than the men; that,
wherever found, they are the same kind, civil,
obliging, humane, tender beings; that they are
ever inclined to be gay and cheerful, timorous
and modest. ‘They do not hesitate, like man,
to perform a hospitable or generous action; not
haughty nor arrogant, nor supercilious, but full
of courtesy, and fond of society; industrious,
economical, ingenuous; more liable in general
to err than man, but in general also more
virtuous, and performing more good actions,
than he. I never addressed myself in the
language of decency and friendship to a woman,
whether civilized or savage, without receiving a
decent and friendly answer. With man it has
often been otherwise. In wandering over the
barren plains of inhospitable Denmark, through
honest Sweden, frozen Lapland, rude and chur-
lish Finland, unprincipled Russia, and the wide-
JOHN LEDYARD. 27

spread regions of the wandering Tartar, if
hungry, thirsty, cold, wet, or sick, woman has
ever been friendly to me, and uniformly so;
and, to add to this virtue, s0 worthy of the
appellation of benevolence, these actions have
been performed in so free and so kind a manner
that, if I was thirsty, I drank the sweet draught,
and, if hungry, ate the coarse morsel, with a
double relish.’

“That he was, during his wanderings,
frequently in situations to appreciate these
kindnesses is evident from his confession to
Mr. Beaufoy, when he was afterwards on the
point of setting out for Africa. ‘T am accus-
tomed, he remarked, ‘to hardships. I have
known both hunger and nakedness to the
utmost extremity of human suffering. I have
known what it is to have food given me as
charity to a madman ; and I have at times been
obliged to shelter myself under the miseries of
that character to avoid heavier calamity. My
distresses have been greater than I have ever
28 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

owned, or ever will own, to any man. Such
evils are terrible to bear, but they never yet
had power to turn me from my purpose.’ Soon
after Ledyard’s arrival in London, he was,
through the influence of Sir Joseph Banks,
appointed by the African Association to attempt
to trace the source of the Niger. In the first
interview which he had with the secretary of
that institution, he surprised him by the prompt
decision of his character, and the readiness
with which he was prepared to face the most
extreme dangers. The secretary, after tracing
upon a map the course which the committee
was anxious to have explored, asked him how
soon he would be prepared to set out? ‘'To-
morrow morning!’ was Ledyard’s reply, —‘a
reply,’ says one of his biographers, ‘affording
one of the most extraordinary instances of
decision of character on record. When we
consider his recent bitter experience of the past,
his labours and sufferings, which had been so
intense and so long-continued that a painful
JOHN LEDYARD. 29

reality had more than checked the excesses of
romantic enthusiasm that might be kindled in a
less disciplined imagination; and when we
witness the promptitude with which he is ready
to encounter new perils in the heart of Africa,
where hardships of the severest kind must
inevitably be endured, and where death
would stare him in the face at every stage, we
cannot but admire the superiority of mind over
the accidents of human life, the rapidity of
combination, quickness of decision, and fear-
lessness of consequences, which Ledyard’s reply
indicates. It was the spontaneous triumph of
an elevated spirit over the whole catalogue of
selfish considerations, wavering motives, and
half-subdued doubts, which would have con-
tended for days in the breasts of most men
before they would have adopted a firm resolu-
tion to jeopard their lives in an undertaking so
manifestly beset with dangers, and which, in
its best aspect, threatened to be a scene of toils,
privations, and endurance.’
30 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“ At length, the preparations for his journey
being completed, he set out on the 30th of
June. After remaining a few days in Paris,
he proceeded to Marseilles, whence he sailed
for Alexandria. After a short stay, he pro-
ceeded up the Nile to Cairo, where the difficul-
ties of his undertaking began to show them-
selves. At Cairo he was detained nearly
three months, waiting the arrival of a caravan
with which he intended to travel to Sennaar.
The day was at length fixed on which it
was to set out; when, the mental anxiety
which he had recently undergone, and the ex-
posure to the deleterious influence of the climate,
brought on a bilious attack, which proved fatal,
in spite of the best medical skill which Cairo
could afford. The precise day of his death is
not known. It is supposed to have happened
towards the end of November, 1788.

“Thus died John Ledyard, a man who, though
he accomplished few of the great designs which
he projected, has, for perseverance, decision of
JOHN LEDYARD. 31

character, courage, and fortitude, had few
equals. Few men have passed over so many
regions of the globe; and few ever met with so
many crosses and sufferings. ‘He accomplished,
indeed, says one of his biographers, ‘few of
the great enterprises which he planned; but it
was not his fault, but his misfortune. Why he
was defeated in respect to enterprises which
would have been useful to the world is hidden
from us, nor would we vainly inquire. Per-
haps he is equally entitled to the respect of
mankind as if he had accomplished all.’ ‘ His
genius,’ says another, ‘though uncultivated and
irregular, was original and comprehensive.
Ardent in his wishes, yet calm in his delibera-
tions; daring in his purposes, but guarded
in his measures; impatient of control, yet
capable of strong endurance ; adventurous
beyond the conceptions of ordinary men, yet
wary and considerate, and attentive to all pre-
cautions; he appeared to be formed by nature
for achievements of hardihood and peril.’
32 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“T must now bid you good night, Boys;
the story of Ledyard’s life and adventures has
taken up more time than I anticipated. To-
morrow evening I will tell you about Mungo
Park, of whom Frank is so anxious to hear.
I hope you have found the account of Ledyard’s
life not uninteresting.”

“Very interesting, indeed!” said Frank ;
“though his adventures are not sufficiently
perilous for my taste. I like those best where
the traveller has to defend himself from the
attacks of savages, and of wild beasts.”

“Very well, Frank, you shall be gratified.
Park’s adventures, unfortunately, afford too
many scenes of the kind you mention. So come
early: his story is along one, and I am not
quite sure that we shall be able to get through
it all in one night.”

“ Very well, Uncle Thomas. Good night.”

“ Good night, Boys.”
33

CHAPTER II.

UNCLE THOMAS RELATES THE ADVENTURES OF MUNGO PARK, DURING HIS
TRAVELS IN AFRICA; HIS CAPTIVITY AMONG THE MOORS; HIS ESCAPE
AND SUFFERINGS IN HIS WANDERINGS IN THE DESERT,

ARRIVAL ON THE BANKS OF THE NIGER,

UNTIL HIS

THE early arrival of the Boys on the following
evening showed how much interested they
were in Uncle ‘Thomas’s Tales. When the
usual greetings had been exchanged, Uncle
Thomas began :—

“Mungo Park was a native of Scotland.
He was born at Fowlshiels, in the neighbour-
hood of Selkirk, September 10th, 1771. After
acquiring the usual branches of education
which are taught in the parish schools of
Scotland, he was articled to a surgeon, in
Selkirk, and on the expiration of his apprentice-
ship he removed to Edinburgh, for the purpose

D
34 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

of completing his medical studies. Having
received his diploma, he proceeded to London,
and, being recommended to the notice of Sir
Joseph Banks, was, through his influence,
appointed assistant surgeon on board an East
Indiaman, in which he made a voyage to
Sumatra.

“On his return to England, hearing that the
African Association was desirous of engaging
a person to replace Major Houghton, who, it
was feared, had fallen a sacrifice to the cause
of discovery in Africa, Park offered his services,
and was accepted. He left England on the
22nd of May, 1795, and after a pleasant
voyage reached Jillifree, on the river Gambia.
After a short stay at this place the vessel con-
tinued her course- up the river as far as Jonka-
konda, where she was to take in a part of her
cargo. Park, therefore, disembarked, and, hav-
ing a letter of introduction to an European,
named Laidley, who lived at Pisania, sixteen
miles higher up the river, he proceeded thither.
MUNGO PARK. 35

From this gentleman he received the greatest
attention, and was invited to remain in his
house till an opportunity offered of continuing
his journey into the interior.

“While waiting the occurrence of this oppor-
tunity, Park set about acquiring all the infor-
mation he could procure regarding the countries
which he was about to visit. He studied also
the Mandingo language, which is in general
use in this part of Africa. In the midst of
these labours, however, he was seized with
fever, having incautiously exposed himself to
the night dew while observing an eclipse of the
moon. Having ventured abroad too soon, he
had a relapse, which again confined him to his
bed. Fortunate indeed was it that he was all
this while under the hospitable roof of Dr.
Laidley. ‘The care and, attention of this
gentleman,’ says Park in his journal, ‘con-
tributed greatly to alleviate my sufferings ; his
company and conversation beguiled the tedious
hours during that gloomy season when the rain

p2
36 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

falls in torrents, when suffocating heats oppress
by day, and the night is spent by the terrified
traveller in listening to the croaking of frogs,
of which the numbers are beyond imagination,
the shrill cry of the jackall, and the deep
howling of the hyena—a dismal concert, in-
terrupted only by the roar of such tremendous
thunder as no person can form a conception of
but those who have heard it.’

‘* Availing himself of his restoration to health,
and the return of the dry season, Park now
resolved to set out on his journey. He was
attended by a negro, to act as interpreter, who
spoke both English and Mandingo, having ac-
quired the former during a residence in Kn-
gland, and a boy-slave of Dr. Laidley’s, who,
in order to stimulate him to behave well, was
promised his freedom on his return, in case
Park should report favourably of his conduct.

‘** His European friends, who had insisted on
accompanying him a couple of days on his

,journey, parted from him at Jindey, and here.
MUNGO PARK. 37

for the first time, Park found himself alone in
this great enterprise, and he rode off slowly
into the woods, indulging in the most gloomy
reflections. Before him spread out a boundless
forest, and a country, the inhabitants of which
were strangers to civilized life, and to most of
whom a white man was an object of curiosity
or plunder. Agitated and cast down by such
desponding thoughts, he rode on for about three
miles, when his reverie was suddenly interrupted
by a body of people, who stopped the asses on
which his attendants were mounted, demanding
in the name of the king of Walli payment of the
customs which are usually levied on traders
passing through his territory. Finding it in
vain to resist, and having presented them with
four bars of tobacco for the king’s use, he was
allowed to proceed.

“Nothing remarkable ‘occurred till our
traveller arrived at Fatteconda, the capital of
Bondou, where he had scarcely arrived before
he was sent for by the king, who was desirous
38 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

to see him. As Park had heard that this
monarch had treated Major Houghton with
great unkindness, and caused him to be
plundered, it was not without a feeling of
apprehension that he was ushered into his
presence. He found him seated under a tree,
and, after explaining to his majesty the object
of his journey, he presented him with a quantity
of gunpowder, some tobacco, and an umbrella.
With the latter article he was particularly
delighted, repeatedly furling and unfurling it,
to the great admiration of himself and his
attendants, who could not for some time under-
stand the use of such an article.

“ By way of preserving from plunder part of
his wardrobe, Park dressed himself in the best
coat which it afforded. This article, however,
ornamented as it was with yellow gilt buttons,
so captivated the king’s fancy that, after mak-
ing a long speech on the liberality of the whites,
he asked our traveller to make him a present of
the coat, assuring him at the same time that he


“ furling and unfurling it.”

Page 38.
MUNGO PARK. 39

would wear it on all public occasions, and
inform every one who saw it of his generous
conduct. ‘The request of an African prince in
his own dominions, particularly when made to
an unprotected stranger, is little short of a
command. Park knew very well that if the
king did not obtain the object of his wishes by
fair means he would do so by force, he, there-
fore at once pulled off his coat and laid it at
the monarch’s feet.

“From this place Park proceeded to Joag, the
frontier town of the kingdom of Kajaaga, and
during the night the house in which he slept
was surrounded by an armed band of horsemen,
who told him that as he had entered the town
without first paying the customs, or giving any
present to the king, according to the laws of
the country, his people, cattle, and baggage,
were forfeited; that they had orders from his
majesty to take him to Maana, where he resided,
and that, if he refused to accompany them
peaceably, they must bring him by force.
40 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

After some little delay, Park replied that, being
a stranger, unacquainted with the customs of
their country, he had infringed their laws from
ignorance, and not from any desire to violate
them, and that he was now ready to pay what-
ever they demanded. He then presented them
with some pieces of gold, but, not content with
this, they insisted on examining his baggage,
from which they helped themselves to whatever
took their fancy. In short, after robbing him
of half his goods, they left him.

“ Dispirited and desponding under such treat-
ment, Park and his companions passed the night
by the side of a dim fire, nor did the dawn of
another day bring to them any brighter prospect.
They were afraid to offer to purchase provisions,
lest the knowledge that they still possessed some
money should farther tempt the cupidity of the
natives. They had therefore resolved to refrain
from so doing during the day, and to ‘wait for
some more favourable opportunity of purchasing
or begging such necessaries as they required.
MUNGO PARK. 41

“Towards evening, as Park was sitting chew-
ing straws, to obtain such relief as this mise-
rable substitute for food afforded, an old female
slave, who happened to pass with a basket on
her head, asked him if he had dined. Park,
thinking that she put the question merely to
deride his misery, returned no answer; but his
negro boy, who was sitting close by, replied
that the king’s people had robbed his master of
all his money. ‘The poor woman, with a look
of unaffected benevolence, immediately took the
basket from her head, and, showing him that
it contained ground-nuts, asked him if he could
eat them. On being answered in the affirma-
tive, she gave him a few handfuls, and walked
away before he had time to express his grati-
tude for the seasonable relief.

*¢ On his arrival at Kaarta, our traveller found
that the king of Bambarra had declared war
against the Kartans, and that it would there-
fore be necessary for him to proceed thither by
a circuitous route through the Moorish kingdom
42 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

of Ludamar. Having therefore procured an
escort from the king of Kaarta, he set out for
Jarra.

“Their journey was undistinguished by any
particular incident, till they arrived at the
negro town of Funingkedy, which they found in
the greatest confusion, from the presence of
some Moors, who had come on a plundering
expedition ; and, though the inhabitants, to the
amount of about five hundred, stood collected
close to the walls of the town, such was their
fear of their lawless neighbours that these rob-
bers were permitted to carry off their booty
almost unmolested.

“ At Jarra matters looked so threatening,
from the disturbed state of the country, that
his attendants refused to proceed; they there-
fore all left him but his faithful boy, who
resolved to accompany him, and to face every
danger.

“ After travelling a few days, exposed to
great suffering from the heat of the weather
MUNGO PARK. 43

and the scarcity of water, they arrived at a
negro village called Samee, where they were
kindly received, and Park was congratulating
himself that he was now out of reach of all
danger from the Moors, when a party suddenly
entered the hut where he was, telling him they
had come by order of Ali (the Moorish king)
to conduct him to the camp. He was therefore
forced to accompany them. After a journey
of four or five days, they arrived at Benown,
where Ali’s army was then encamped. Here
Park was, during ten weeks, exposed to all the
insults and indignities which could be contrived
by some of the rudest savages on earth. ‘The
ferocity and fanaticism which distinguish the
Moors from the rest of mankind,’ says Park,
‘found in me a proper subject whereon to
exercise their propensities. I was a stranger,
I was unprotected, and I was a Christian.
Fach of these circumstances is sufficient to
drive every spark of humanity from the heart
of a Moor; but when all of them were com-
44 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

bined in the same person, and a suspicion
prevailed withal that I had come as a spy into
the country, the reader will easily imagine that
I had every thing to fear. Anxious, however,
to conciliate favour, and, if possible, to afford
them no pretence for ill-using me, I readily
complied with every command, and patiently
bore every insult, but never did any period of
my life pass away so heavily; from sun-rise to
sun-set | was obliged to suffer, and with an
unruffied countenance, the insults of these bar-
barians.’

“Tt would take up too much time were I to
attempt to relate half of the sufferings which
he underwent while he remained a prisoner in
the camp of Ali. At all times but sparingly
supplied with food and water, he was occa-
sionally so utterly destitute of both that he was
forced to beg from the negro slaves, for it was
only exposing himself to fresh insult to address
the Moors.

“ As he was anxious to escape from his
MUNGO PARK. 45

barbarous persecutors, Park applied to Ali for
permission to return to Jarra, but this was at
once refused. He therefore determined to seek
an opportunity to make his escape, but, as there
was little hope of doing so at this season of the
year, on account of the extreme heat, and the
total want of water in the woods, he resolved
to wait patiently until the rains had set in, or
until some more favourable opportunity should
present itself. But ‘ hope deferred maketh the
heart sick.’ This tedious procrastination from
day to day, and the thoughts of travelling
through the negro kingdoms in the rainy season,
which was now fast approaching, made him
very melancholy ; and, having passed a restless
night, he found himself attacked, in the morning,
by a smart fever. He had wrapped himself
close up in his cloak with a view to induce
perspiration, and was asleep, when a party of
Moors entered the hut, and, with their usual
rudeness, pulled the cloak from him. He made
signs to them that he was ill, and wished
46 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

much to sleep; but he solicited in vain: his
distress was matter of sport to them, and they
endeavoured to heighten it by every means in
their power. ‘This studied and degrading inso-
lence, to which he was constantly exposed, was
one of the bitterest ingredients in the cup of
captivity, and often made life itself a bur-
den. In those distressing moments, Park fre-
quently envied the situation of the slave, who,
amidst all his calamities, could still possess
the enjoyment of his own thoughts—a happi-
ness to which he had for some time been a
stranger. Wearied out with such continual in-
sults, and perhaps a little peevish from the
fever, he trembled lest his passion might un-
awares overleap the bounds of prudence, and
spur him to some sudden act of resentment,
when death must be the inevitable consequence.
In this perplexity, he left his hut, and walked
to some shady trees at a little distance from the
camp, where he lay down. But even here
persecution followed him; and solitude was
MUNGO PARK. 47

thought too great an indulgence for a distressed
Christian. Ali’s son, with a number of horse-
men, came galloping to the place, and ordered
him to rise and follow them. Park begged
they would allow him to remain where he was,
if it was only for a few hours; but they paid
little attention to what he said; and, after a
few threatening words, one of them pulled out
a pistol from a leather bag that was fastened
to the pommel of his saddle, and, presenting it
towards him, snapped it twice. He did this
with so much indifference that Park really
doubted whether the pistol was loaded; he
cocked it a third time, and was striking the
flint with a piece of steel, when Park begged
them to desist, and returned with them to the
camp. When they entered Ali's tent, they
found him much out of humour. He called for
the Moor’s pistol, and amused himself for some
time with opening and shutting the pan; at
length, taking up his powder-horn, he fresh
primed it; and, turning round to our traveller
48 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

with a menacing look, said something in Arabic,
which Park did not understand. He therefore
desired his boy, who was sitting before the tent,
to inquire what offence he had committed ;
when he was informed that, having gone beyond
the encampment without Ali’s permission, they
suspected that he had an intention of making
his escape; and that, in future, if he was seen
without the skirts of the camp, orders had been
given that he should be shot by the first person
that observed him.

“The heat was now almost insufferable—all
nature seemed sinking under it. ‘The distant
country presented to the eye a dreary expanse
of sand, with a few stunted trees and prickly
bushes, in the shade of which the hungry cattle
licked up the withered grass, while the camels
and goats picked off the scanty foliage. Day
and night the wells were crowded with cattle,
lowing and fighting with each other to come
at the troughs. Excessive thirst made many
of them furious; others, being too weak to
MUNGO PARK. 49

contend for the water, endeavoured to quench
their thirst by devouring the black mud from
the gutters near the wells—which they did
with great avidity, though it was commonly
fatal to them.

“ This great scarcity of water was felt severely
by all the people of the camp, and by none
more than Park; for, though Ali allowed him
a skin for containing water, and, once or twice,
gave him a small supply when he was in dis-
tress, yet such was the barbarous disposition
of the Moors at the wells that, when his boy
attempted to fill the skin, he commonly received
a sound drubbing for his presumption. Every
one was astonished that the slave of a Christian
should attempt to draw water from wells which
had been dug by the followers of the Prophet.
This treatment, at length, so frightened the
boy that he was afraid to venture near the
wells; he therefore contented himself with
begging water from the negro slaves that
attended the camp, and Park followed his

E
50 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

example, but with very indifferent success ;
for, though he let no opportunity slip, and was
very urgent in his solicitations, both to the
Moors and negroes, he was but ill supplied,
and frequently passed the night in the situation
of Tantalus. No sooner had he shut his eyes,
than fancy would convey him to the streams and
rivers of his native land: there, as he wandered
along the verdant brink, he surveyed the clear
stream with transport, and hastened to swallow
the delightful draught; but, alas! disappoint-
ment awakened him, and he found himself a
lonely captive, perishing of thirst amidst the
wilds of Africa!

“ One night, having solicited in vain for
water at the camp, and being quite feverish,
he resolved to try his fortune at the wells,
which were about half a mile distant. He
set out about midnight, and, being guided by
the lowing of the cattle, soon arrived at the
place, where he found the Moors very busy
drawing water. He requested permission to
MUNGO PARK. ~ 5]

drink, but was driven away with outrageous
abuse. Passing, however, from one well to
another, he came at last to one where there
was only an old man and two boys. He made
the same request to this man, and he imme-
diately drew up a bucket of water; but, as
Park was about to take hold of it, the Moor
recollected that he was a Christian, and fearing
that his bucket might be polluted by his lips,
he dashed the water into the trough, and told
him to drink from thence. Though this trough
was none of the largest, and three cows were
already drinking in it, Park resolved to come
in for his share, and, kneeling down, thrust his
head between two of the cows, and drank with
great pleasure, until the water was nearly ex-
hausted, and the cows began to contend with
each other for the last mouthful.

“At length part of Ali’s army prepared to
set out for Jarra, in order to assist in some
warlike operation in that quarter, and Park
was permitted to accompany it. From Jarra

E2
52 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

he hoped to find an easy means of escape from
the hands of these barbarians. His delight at
this prospect was, however, blunted by Ali’s
detaining his negro boy as a slave. Park
remonstrated against this, but all the answer
deigned by the omnipotent Ali was, that, if he
did not mount his horse instantly and be off,
he would detain him also.

“On his arrival at Jarra, Park found the
whole town in confusion, many of the inhabi-
tants were forsaking it, carrying with them
their little property, in order to escape from
the threatened invasion. Hoping to escape amid
the confusion, Park mounted his horse, and,
placing a bag of corn before him, mingled with
the crowd, and rode slowly along. This idea
was, however, quickly dispelled. Soon after
his arrival at the halting place, Ali’s chief slave
and four Moors came up, and he learnt from
two boys, whom he sent to overhear their con-
versation, that they had come to convey him
back to Ali’s camp.
MUNGO PARK. 53

“Park had been so barbarously treated by
the Moors in the captivity from which he
had thus fled, that he knew that, if again ex-
posed to it, he had nothing to expect but death.
He therefore determined to set off immediately
for Bambarra, and thus escape from the Moorish
kingdom. He waited therefore till midnight,
when Ali’s messengers were asleep.

“ About daybreak, his interpreter, who had
been listening to the Moors all night, came and
whispered to him that all was now quiet. The
awful crisis was now arrived when he was
again either to taste the blessing of freedom, or
languish out his days in captivity. A cold
sweat moistened his forehead as he thought on
the dreadful alternative, and reflected that, one
way or the other, his fate must be decided in
the course of the ensuing day. But to hesitate
was to lose the only chance of escape. So,
taking up his small bundle of necessaries, he
stepped gently over the negroes, who were
sleeping in the open air, and, having mounted
54 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

his horse, he bade his interpreter, who had
resolved to proceed no farther, farewell.

“He proceeded with great caution—survey-
ing each bush, and frequently listening and
looking behind, expecting every minute to hear
the sound .of the Moorish horsemen—until he
was about a couple of miles from the town, and
had begun to indulge the pleasing hopes of
escaping, when he was greatly alarmed to hear
somebody holloa behind him, and, looking back,
he saw three Moors on horseback, coming after
him at full speed, hooping and brandishing
their double-barrelled guns. He knew it was
in vain to think of escaping, and therefore
turned back and met them; when two of them
caught hold of his bridle, one on each side, and
the third, presenting his musket, told him that
he must go back to Ali. When the human
mind has for some time been fluctuating between
hope and despair, tortured with anxiety, and
hurried from one extreme to another, it affords
a sort of gloomy relief to know the worst that
MUNGO PARK. 55

can possibly happen: such was Park’s situation.
An indifference about life and all its enjoy-
ments had completely benumbed his faculties,
and he rode back with the Moors in apparent
unconcern. But a change took place much
sooner than he had any reason to expect. In
passing through some thick bushes they stopped,
and one of the Moors ordered him to untie his
bundle, and show them the contents. Having
examined the different articles, and finding
nothing worth taking except his cloak, which
they considered as a very valuable acquisition,
one of them pulled it from him, and wrapped it
about himself. This cloak had been of great
use to Park; it served to cover him from the
rains in the day, and to protect him from the
musquitoes in the night; he therefore earnestly
begged him to return it, and followed him some
little way to obtain it; but, without paying any
attention to this request, he and one of his
companions rode off with their prize. When
Park attempted to follow them, the third, who
56 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

had remained behind, struck his horse over the
head, and, presenting his musket, ordered him
to proceed no farther. Park now perceived that
these men had not been sent by any authority
to apprehend him, but had pursued him solely
with the view to rob and plunder him. Turn-
ing his horse’s head therefore once more towards
the east, and observing the Moor follow the
track of his confederates, he congratulated him-
self on having escaped with his life, though in
great distress, from such a horde of barbarians.
‘“‘He was no sooner out of sight of the Moor,
than he struck into the woods to prevent being
pursued, and kept pushing on, with all possible
speed, until he found himself near some high
rocks, which he remembered to have seen in
his former route from Queira to Deena; and,
directing his course a little to the northward,
he fortunately fell in with the path.
- “ Joyful, however, as this deliverance was,
Park had still many dangers to face, and
many difficulties to overcome, before he arrived
MUNGO PARK. 57

among the negroes. His journal is so minute,
and describes so admirably his feelings and
sufferings, that I will not attempt to diminish
its interest by relating the subsequent adven-
tures of this journey in other language than his
own.

“*Tt is impossible to describe the joy that
arose in my mind, when I looked around and
concluded that I was out of danger. I felt like
one recovered from sickness; I breathed freer ;
I found unusual lightness in my limbs; even
the desert looked pleasant; and I dreaded no-
thing so much as falling in with some wandering
parties of Moors, who might convey me back
to the land of thieves and murderers from which
I had just escaped.

“¢]T goon became sensible, however, that my
situation was very deplorable, for I had no
means of procuring food, nor prospect of find-
ing water. About ten o'clock, perceiving a
herd of goats feeding close to the road, I took
a circuitous route to avoid being seen ; and con-
58 TALES AROUT TRAVELLERS.

tinued travelling through the wilderness, direc-
ting my course, by compass, nearly east-south-
east, in order to reach, as soon as possible,
some town or village of the kingdom of Bam-
barra.

««¢ A little after noon, when the burning heat
of the sun was reflected with double violence
from the hot sand, and the distant ridges of
the hills, seen through the ascending vapour,
seemed to wave and fluctuate like the unsettled
sea, I became faint with thirst, and climbed a
tree in hopes of seeing distant smoke, or some
other appearance of a human habitation ; but
in vain: nothing appeared all around but thick
underwood, and hillocks of white sand.

“¢ About four o'clock I came suddenly upon
a large herd of goats, and, pulling my horse
into a bush, I watched to observe if the keepers
were Moors or negroes. In a little time I[
perceived two Moorish boys, and with some
difficulty persuaded them to approach me.
They informed me that the herd belonged to
MUNGO PARK. 59

Ali, and that they were going to Deena, where
the water was more plentiful, and where they
intended to stay until the rain had filled the
pools in the desert. They showed me their
empty water-skins, and told me that they had
seen no water in the woods. ‘This account
afforded me but little consolation; however, it
was in vain to repine, and I pushed on as fast
as possible, in hopes of reaching some watering-
place in the course of the night. My thirst
was by this time become insufferable; my
mouth was parched and inflamed; a sudden
dimness would frequently come over my eyes,
with other symptoms of fainting ; and, my horse
being very much fatigued, I began seriously to
apprehend that I should perish of thirst. To
relieve the burning pain in my mouth and
throat, I chewed the leaves of different shrubs,
but found them all bitter, and of no service to
me.

“A little before sunset, having reached the
top of a gentle rising, I climbed a high tree,
60 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

from the topmost branches of which I cast a
melancholy look over the barren wilderness,
but without discovering the most distant trace
of a human dwelling. The same dismal uni-
formity of shrubs and sand everywhere pre-
sented itself, and the horizon was as level and
uninterrupted as that of the sea.

“*Descending from the tree, I found my
horse devouring the stubble and brushwood
with great avidity ; and, as I was now too faint
to attempt walking, and my horse too much
fatigued to carry me, I thought it but an act
of humanity, and perhaps the last I should ever
have it in my power to perform, to take off his
bridle and let him shift for himself; in doing
which I was suddenly affected with sickness
and giddiness, and, falling upon the sand, felt
as if the hour of death was fast approaching.
Here, then, thought I, after a short but ineffec-
tual struggle, terminate all my hopes of being
useful in my day and generation: here must
the short span of my life come to anend. I
MUNGO PARK. 61

cast (as I believed) a last look on the surround-
ing scene, and, whilst I reflected on the awful
change that was about to take place, this world
with its enjoyments seemed to vanish from my
recollection. Nature, however, at length re-
sumed its functions, and, on recovering my
senses, I found myself stretched upon the sand,
with the bridle still in my hand, and the sun
just sinking behind the trees. 1 now summoned
all my resolution, and determined to make
another effort to prolong my existence; and, as
the evening was somewhat cool, I resolved to
travel as far as my limbs would carry me, in
hopes of reaching (my only resource) a watering-
place. With this view, I put the bridle on my
horse, and, driving him before me, went slowly
along for about an hour, when I perceived some
lightning from the north-east—a most delight-
ful sight, for it promised rain. The darkness
and lightning increased very rapidly, and in
less than an hour I heard the wind roaring
among the bushes. I had already opened my
62 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

mouth to receive the refreshing drops which |
expected, but I was instantly covered with a
cloud of sand, driven with such force by the
wind as to give a very disagreeable sensation to
my face and arms, and I was obliged to mount
my horse, and stop under a bush, to prevent
being suffocated. The sand continued to fly in
amazing quantities for nearly an hour, after
which I again set forward, and travelled with
difficulty until ten o’clock. About this time I
was agreeably surprised by some very vivid
flashes of lightning, followed by a few heavy
drops of rain. In a little time the sand ceased
to fly, and I alighted, and spread out all my
clean clothes to collect the rain, which at length
I saw would certainly fall. For more than an
hour it rained plentifully, and I quenched my
thirst by wringing and sucking my clothes.
“There being no moon, it was remarkably
dark, so that I was obliged to lead my horse,
and direct my way by the compass, which the
lightning enabled me to observe. In this
MUNGO PARK. 63

manner I travelled with tolerable expedition
until past midnight, when, the lightning be-
coming more distant, I was under the necessity
of groping along, to the no small danger of my
hands and eyes. About two o’clock my horse
started at something, and, looking round, I was
not a little surprised to see a light at a short
distance among the trees; and, supposing it to
be a town, I groped along the sand in hopes of
finding corn-stalks, cotton, or other appearances
of cultivation, but found none. As I ap-
proached, I perceived a number of other lights
in different places, and began to suspect that I
had fallen upon a party of Moors. However,
in my present situation, I was resolved to see
who they were, if I could do it with safety. I
accordingly led my horse cautiously towards the
light, and heard, by the lowing of the cattle,
and the clamorous tongues of the herdsmen,
that it was a watering-place, and most likely
belonged to the Moors. Delightful as the sound
of the human voice was to me, I resolved once
64 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

more to strike into the woods, and rather run
the risk of perishing of hunger than trust my-
self again in their hands; but, being still thirsty,
and dreading the approach of the burning day,
I thought it prudent to search for the wells,
which I expected to find at no great distance.
In this pursuit, I inadvertently approached so
near to one of the tents as to be perceived by
a woman, who immediately screamed out.
Two people came running to her assistance
from some of the neighbouring tents, and
passed so very near to me that I thought I
was discovered, and hastened again into the
woods.

“« About a mile from this place, I heard a
loud and confused noise somewhere to the right
of my course, and in a short time was happy
to find it was the croaking of frogs, which was
heavenly music to my ears. I followed the
sound, and at daybreak arrived at some shallow
muddy pools, so full of frogs that it was diffi-
cult to discern the water. The noise they
MUNGO PARK. 65

made frightened my horse, and I was obliged
to keep them quiet by beating the water with
a branch, until he had drunk. Having here
quenched my thirst, I ascended a tree, and, the
morning being calm, I soon perceived the
smoke of the watering-place which I had passed
in the night, and observed another pillar of
smoke east-south-east, distant twelve or fourteen
miles. ‘Towards this I directed my route, and
reached the cultivated ground a little befor:
eleven o'clock, where, seeing a number of
negroes at work planting corn, 1 inquired the
name of the town, and was informed that it
was a Foulah village belonging to Ali, called
Shrilla. I had now some doubts about enter-
ing it ; but, my horse being very much fatigued,
and the day growing hot—not to mention the
pangs of hunger which began to assail me—I
resolved to venture, and accordingly rode up to
the dooty’s house, where I was unfortunately
denied admittance, and could not obtain even a
handful of corn, either for myself or horse.
F
66 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

Turning from this inhospitable door, I rode
slowly out of the town, and, perceiving some
low scattered huts without the walls, I directed
my route towards them, knowing that in Africa,
as well as in Europe, hospitality does not
always prefer the highest dwellings. At the
door of one of these huts, an old motherly-
looking woman sat, spinning cotton. I made
signs to her that | was hungry, and inquired
if she had any victuals with her in the hut.
She immediately laid down her distaff, and
desired me, in Arabic, to come in. When |
had seated myself upon the floor, she set before
me a dish of kouskous that had been left the
preceding night, of which I made a tolerable
meal; and in return for this kindness I gave
her one of my pocket handkerchiefs, begging
at the same time a little corn for my horse,
which she readily brought me.

“ ¢ Overcome with joy at so unexpected a
deliverance, I lifted up my eyes to heaven, and,
whilst my heart swelled with gratitude, I re-
MUNGO PARK. 67

turned thanks to that gracious and bountiful
Being whose power had supported me under so
many dangers, and had now spread for me a
table in the wilderness.’

“ Continuing his course, Park arrived at
Wawra, a negro town, whence he travelled to
Sego, in company with some fugitives, who, un-
able to live under the tyranny of the Moors, were
going to settle in Bambarra. ‘The greater part
of the way he had to drive his horse before
him, as it had become too weak to carry him.
As he approached Sego, his heart beat with
expectation, as here he was informed he would
see the river Niger, one of the great objects of
his mission. At length, as they rode over some
marshy ground, anxiously bending his eyes in
the direction in which he expected to see the
river, one of his companions called out, ‘ Geo
affilli !’ —* See the water!’—and, looking for-
wards, Park beheld, with infinite pleasure, the
long-sought-for majestic Niger, glittering in the
morning sun, as broad as the Thames at West-

F2
68 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

minster. He hastened to the brink, and, having
drank of the water, he lifted up his fervent
thanks in prayer to the great Ruler of all
things for having thus far crowned his labours
with success !

“Tt is now more than time to stop, Boys.
I fear I have kept you too long; but the story
was so engrossing, | did not know where to
leave off. There are still many interesting
adventures to relate before we part with this
intrepid traveller. Till to-morrow evening,
however, we must leave him waiting on the
banks of the Niger for an opportunity to cross
the river, to visit the king of Bambarra, who
holds his court at Sego, the capital of his
kingdom, opposite to which town Park had
now arrived.”
69

CHAPTER III.

UNCLE THOMAS CONTINUES THE RELATION OF PARK’S ADVENTURES AND
SUFFERINGS; TELLS ALSO ABOUT HIS RETURN TO ENGLAND, AND HIS
SECOND JOURNKY INTO AFRICA, AND THE MELANCHOLY FATE OF THIS
EXPZDITION.

“ You will recollect, Boys,” said Uncle ‘Thomas
on the following evening, “ that we left Park
full of gratitude to God for having guided him
so far on his perilous journey in safety, waiting
on the banks of the Niger for an opportunity
to cross over to Sego, to: present himself before
the king of Bambarra. While he waited for a
canoe for this purpose, one of his majesty’s
chief men came to him and told him that the
King could not possibly see him till he knew
the object of his journey, and that he must not
presume to cross the river without the king’s
permission. He therefore advised him to go
70 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

to a village at some distance for the night, and
that he would come to him, and direct him how
to proceed in the morning. Discouraging as this
was, there was no help for it. Park therefore
proceeded to the village, but no one there would
admit him into their house, looking upon his
white skin and strange dress with astonishment
and fear. He was therefore obliged to sit all
day without food under the shade of a tree, and
with the prospect of being obliged to climb into
the branches to seek refuge from the wild beasts
during the night, when, about sunset, a woman
returning from her labours in the field stopped
to look at him. Seeing that he was weary and
dejected, she inquired into his situation. On
learning his distress she took up the saddle and
bridle, which he had taken from his horse,
that it might graze at liberty, and desired him
to follow her. ‘Having conducted me to her
hut,’ says Park, ‘she lighted up a lamp, spread
a mat on the floor, and told me I might remain
there for the night. Finding that I was very
MUNGO PARK. 71

hungry, she said she would procure me some-
thing to eat. She accordingly went out, and
returned in a short time with a very fine
fish, which, having caused to be half broiled
upon some embers, she gave me for supper.
The rites of hospitality being thus performed
towards a stranger in distress, my worthy
benefactress, pointing to the mat, and telling me
I might sleep there without apprehension,
called to the female part of her family, who
had stood gazing on me all the while in fixed
astonishment, to resume their task of spinning
cotton, in which they continued to employ
themselves great part of the night. They
lightened their labour by songs, one of which
was composed extempore, for I was myself the
subject of it. It was sung by one of the young
women, the rest joining in a sort of chorus.
The air was sweet and plaintive, and the words,
literally translated, were these : —“The winds
roared, and the rains fell. The poor white
man, faint and weary, came and sat under our
72 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

tree. He has no mother to bring him milk—
no wife to grind his corn.” Chorus.—* Let us
pity the white man, no mother has he,” &c., &e.
Trifling as this recital may appear to the reader,
to a person in my situation the circumstance
was affecting in the highest degree. I was
oppressed by such unexpected. kindness, and
sleep fled from my eyes. In the morning I pre-
sented my compassionate landlady with two of
the four brass buttons which remained on my
waistcoat—the only recompense I could make
her.’

“In the morning a messenger arrived from
the king to inquire whether Park had brought
any present for him; and seemed much disap-
pointed to learn that he had been robbed of
every thing by the Moors. Park wished to
accompany him to see his majesty, but this the
messenger refused to agree to, telling him to
wait till the afternoon, when the king would
send for him. In the afternoon, accordingly,
another messenger came to tell him that it was
MUNGO PARK. 73

his majesty’s pleasure that he should depart
immediately from the village, and that, as he
was unwilling to send away from his kingdom
a white man in distress, he had sent him a
present of five thousand cowries, to purchase
provisions in the course of his journey. These
cowries are little shells, which are there used
as money, about two hundred and fifty being
nearly equal to the value of one shilling.

“Park accordingly set out, and, after nar-
rowly escaping being destroyed by a hon, to
which he passed quite close as it lay con-
cealed under a bush, he arrived at Modiboo, a
delightful village pleasantly situated on the
banks of the Niger. Shortly after leaving this
place his horse, the worn out associate of his
adventures, fell, and finding all the efforts of
himself and his guide unable to set it again on
its legs, he sat down beside it, and waited for
some time, expecting it to recover. Finding,
however, that it did not revive, he took off the
saddle and bridle, and, placing a quantity of
74 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

grass before it, reluctantly left it, his heart
filled with the sad apprehension that he might
himself in a short time lie down and perish of
fatigue and hunger in the same miserable
manner!

“ He had now arrived at Moorzan, and finding
the people still hostile; his poor horse, as he then
thought, dead, and himself reduced to poverty ; his
clothes in rags, and the present of the king of
Bambarra nearly exhausted; and, moreover, being
informed that the farther he advanced in the
direction in which he was now travelling, he
was going more and more within the power of
the fanatic Moors, from whom he had already
suffered so much; he resolved to retrace his
steps to the Gambia.

“He accordingly set out, and was fortunate
enough once more to regain his horse, which
had in the interval recovered sufficient strength
to resume its journey. The same variety of
adventures awaited his return which he had
encountered on his journey eastward ; some-
MUNGO PARK. 75

times in danger of absolute starvation, and
frequently forced to spend the night in the open
air, or in some deserted hut ; fording or swim-
ming across the numerous creeks or tributaries
which intersected his way, pushing his horse
before him, or dragging it over by the bridle
which he carried in his teeth while he swam
over. From such adventures, fortunately, he
suffered no inconvenience. His notes and
memorandums were secured from wet in his
hat; the rain and dew kept his clothes con-
stantly wet, and the roads being very deep and
full of mud, such a washing was sometimes
pleasant, and often necessary.

“ Such adventures were not, however, the
worst to which he was subjected. Shortly
after leaving a romantic village called Kooma,
where he had been most hospitably treated, he
was overtaken by a party of banditti. Hearing
some one calling to him, he looked back and
saw six or eight men approaching. He stopped
till they all came up, when they informed him
76 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

that the king of the Foulahs had sent them
on purpose to bring him, his horse, and every
thing that belonged to him, to Fooladoo, and
that therefore he must turn back, and go along
with them. Without hesitating a moment,
Park turned round and followed them. ‘They
travelled nearly a quarter of a mile without
exchanging a word; when, coming to a dark
place in the wood, one of them said, in the
Mandingo language, ‘ This place will do,
and immediately snatched Park’s hat from his
head. ‘Though he was by no means free from
apprehension, yet our traveller resolved to show
as few signs of fear as possible, and therefore
told them that, unless his hat was returned to
him, he should proceed no farther. But before
he had time to receive an answer, another drew
his knife, and, seizing upon a metal button
which remained upon Park’s waistcoat, cut it
off, and put it into his pocket. Their inten-
tions were now obvious, and he thought that
the easier they were permitted to rob him of
MUNGO PARK. 77

every thing, the less he had to fear. He there-
fore allowed them to search his pockets without
resistance, and examine every part of his appa-
rel, which they did with the most scrupulous
exactness: at last, to make sure work, they
stripped him quite naked. Even his half boots
(though the sole of one of them was tied to his
foot with a broken bridle-rein) were minutely
inspected. Whilst they were examining the
plunder, Park begged them, with great earnest-
ness, to return his pocket compass; but when
he pointed to it, as it was lying on the ground,
one of the banditti, thinking he was about to
take it up, cocked his musket, and threatened
to lay him dead upon the spot if he pre-
sumed to put his hand upon it. After this,
some of them went away with his horse, and
the remainder stood considering whether they
should leave him quite naked, or allow him
something to shelter him from the sun.
Humanity at last prevailed: they returned him
the worst of the two shirts, and a pair of
78 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

trousers; and, as they went away, one of them
threw back his hat, in the crown of which he
kept his memorandums, and this was probably
the reason they did not wish to keep it.

“* After they were gone,”’ says Park, ‘‘‘ I sat
for some time looking around me with amaze-
ment and terror. Whichever way | turned,
nothing appeared but danger and difficulty. 1
saw myself in the midst of a vast wilderness,
in the depth of the rainy season—naked and
alone, surrounded by savage animals, and men
still more savage. I was five hundred miles
from the nearest European settlement. All
these circumstances crowded at once on my
recollection, and I confess that my spirits began
to fail me. I considered my fate as certain,
and that I had no alternative but to lie down
and perish. The influence of religion, however,
aided and supported me. I reflected that no
human prudence or foresight could possibly have
averted my present sufferings. I was indeed
a stranger in a strange land, yet I was still
MUNGO PARK. 79

under the protecting eye of that Providence who
has condescended to call himself the stranger’s
friend. At this moment, painful as my reflec-
tions were, the extraordinary beauty of a small
moss in fructification irresistibly caught my eye.
[ mention this to show from what trifling cir-
cumstances the mind will sometimes derive con-
solation; for, though the whole plant was not
larger than the top of one of my fingers, I
could not contemplate the delicate conformation
of its roots, leaves, and capsula, without admi-
ration. Can that Being, thought I, who planted,
watered, and brought to perfection, in this
obscure part of the world, a thing which appears
of so small importance, look with unconcern
upon the situation and sufferings of creatures
formed after his own image? Surely not!
Reflections like these would not allow me to
despair. I started up, and, disregarding both
hunger and fatigue, travelled forwards, assured
that relief was at hand, and I was not disap-
pointed. In a short time I came to a small
80 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

village, at the entrance of which I overtook two
shepherds who had started with me from Kooma.
They were much surprised to see me; for they
said, they never doubted that the Foulahs,
when they had robbed, had murdered me.
Departing from this village, we travelled over
several rocky ridges, and at sunset arrived at
Sibidooloo, the frontier town of the kingdom
of Manding.’

“The dooty, or chief man, of the town of
Sibidooloo, being a person of great benevolence,
commiserated the sufferings of Park, and no
sooner had the latter finished the recital of his
robbery than, taking his pipe from his mouth
and tossing up the sleeve of his cloak with an
indignant air, he said to him, ‘ Sit down; you
shall have every thing restored to you: I have
sworn it!’ and then, turning to an attendant,
he said, ‘ Give the white man a draught of
water, and, with the first light of the morning,
go over the hills and inform the dooty of
Bammakoo that a poor white man, the king of
MUNGO PARK. 8]

Bambarra’s stranger, has been robbed by the
King of Fooladoo’s people.’ He then invited
Park to remain with him till the return of the
messenger, and conducted him to a hut and
supplied him with food.

“ Park now began to suffer from attacks of
fever, and, fearful of tasking the benevolence
of his kind host too highly, he proceeded to
Wonda, where he was asked to remain till he
obtained some intelligence of the property of
which he had been plundered. After waiting
there some days, the messengers at length
returned, bringing with them his horse and
clothes, but unfortunately his pocket compass,
his guide in all his wanderings, was broken,
and he could not repair it.

“In the mean time his illness increased, and,
fearful of being a burden on his hospitable
entertainer, especially as there was then a very
great scarcity of provisions in the country—
little short, in fact, of a famine, he prepared
to resume his journey. As his horse was now

G
82 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

almost useless to him, the roads being in a
great measure impassable on horseback, he
presented it to his landlord, and requested him
to send the saddle and bridle to the mansa of
Sibidooloo, who had so kindly interested himself
in recovering his goods from the robbers.
“When Park reached Kamalia, his illness
had so much increased that he was subject to
occasional attacks of delirium during the night.
At this place he was fortunately conducted to
the house of a person named Karfa Taura, who,
though a dealer in slaves, was a man of kind
and humane disposition. Park found him
reading an Arabic book to several persons.
Karfa asked Park if he understood Arabic, and,”
on being answered in the negative, he desired
one of his attendants to show him a curious
little book, which he had brought from the
west country, in one of his excursions thither.
It was an English Book of Common Prayer.
He expressed great joy when Park told him that
he could read it. Perceiving from this that he
MUNGO PARK. 83

was an Englishman, Karfa promised him all
the assistance in his power, and told him that
it was impossible to reach the Gambia during
the rainy season; but that he himself intended,
so soon as the rivers were fordable, to set out
for that place with a gang of slaves, and advised
Park to remain and accompany him, adding
that, if it was impossible for a caravan of
natives to travel the country during the rainy
season, it was idle for an European to think of
attempting it.

“ Park had now indeed no alternative. His
money was all spent, so that in his farther pro-
gress he must either beg his way from place to
place, or perish from want. He therefore accept-
ed Karfa’s offer, and arranged with him how he
was to be recompensed on their arrival at the
Gambia. ‘Thus was I delivered, says Park,
‘ by the friendly care of this benevolent negro,
from a situation truly deplorable. Distress and
famine pressed hard upon me: I had before
me the gloomy wilds of Jallonkadoo, where the

G2
84 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

traveller sees no habitation for five successive
days. I had observed at a distance the rapid
course of the river Kokoro, and had almost
marked out the place where I was doomed,
I thought, to perish, when this friendly
negro stretched oyt his hospitable hand to
help me.’

* Karfa gave Park a hut to sleep in, and
furnished it after the simple manner of the
country, with a mat to serve him for a bed, and
a small calabash to hold a supply of water.
From his own table he sent our traveller two
meals a day, and ordered his slaves to supply
him with fire-wood and water. But not even
. the kindness of Karfa, or the quiet and security
in which he now was, could arrest the progress
of the fever which had been threatening for
some time to put a sudden stop to his career.
For five weeks after he took up his dwelling
with Karfa, he was so ill that he could scarcely
walk—far away from the kind assistance of
mother or friend, and seldom visited by any
MUNGO PARK. 85

one but his benevolent landlord. Sometimes
he would crawl out of the hut and sit a few
hours in the open air, at other times he was
unable to rise from his mat, and passed the
lingering hours in a very gloomy and solitary
manner. When the rains became less frequent,
and the country began to grow dry, the fever
abated; but it left him in such a debilitated
state that he could scarcely stand upright, and
it was with difficulty that he could carry even
his mat to the shade of a tamarind tree, which
stood at a short distance, to enjoy the refreshing
smell of the corn-fields, and delight his eyes
with a prospect of the country. At length he
had the pleasure to find himself in a state of
convalescence, to which the benevolent and
simple manners of the negroes, and the perusal
of the invaluable little volume with which his
host had supplied him, greatly contributed.
“The long wished-for day at last arrived,
and Park set out on his return to the Gambia.
The party with which he travelled consisted of
86 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

slave-merchants and their gangs of slaves, who
were travelling to Gambia with the poor crea-
tures to sell them to the traders, who sent them
to the West Indies. The miserable sufferings
to which these wretched beings were subjected
on their journey is almost beyond description.
Several of them died from fatigue, or, unable to
proceed, were abandoned to their fate in the
midst of the desert, where they were probably
soon devoured by the wild beasts.

“The sufferings of one poor creature, a
female slave, named Nealee, will be sufficient
to show you how much misery is sometimes
experienced during these journeys, now, happily,
less frequent than when Park travelled, but
still, alas, too common.

“Five days after they started the party was
attacked by an immense swarm of bees, which
they had disturbed in attempting to rob them of
their honey. Every one ran off as fast as he
could, but most of them were stung very
severely. Poor Nealee, who, from her previous
MUNGO PARK. 87

sufferings from pains in her legs, was unable
to escape, crept to a stream which was close by,
hoping to defend herself from the bees by
throwing water over her body. This was not,
however, effectual. She was stung in the
most dreadful manner.

“When the stings had been picked out, she
was washed with water, and then rubbed with
bruised leaves ; but the wretched woman obsti-
nately refused to proceed any farther, declaring
that she would rather die than walk another
step. As entreaties and threats were alike in
vain, the whip was at length applied; and, after
bearing patiently a few strokes, she started up,
and walked with tolerable expedition for four
or five hours, when she attempted to run away,
but was so very weak that she fell down
in the grass. Though she was unable to rise,
the whip was a second time applied, but with-
out effect, upon which Karfa desired two of the
attendants to place her upon the ass which
carried the provisions; but she could not sit
88 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

erect, and, the ass being very refractory, it was
found impossible to carry her forward in that
manner. Unwilling, however, to abandon her,
the day’s journey being nearly ended, they
made a sort of litter of bamboo canes, upon
which she was placed, and tied on it with
slips of bark: this litter was carried upon the
heads of two slaves, one walking before the
other, and they were followed by two others,
who relieved them occasionally. In this manner
the woman was carried forward until it was
dark.

“At daybreak on the following morning,
poor Nealee was awakened, but her limbs were
now become so stiff and painful that she could
neither walk nor stand ; she was therefore lifted,
like a corpse, upon the back of the ass, and
the attendants endeavoured to secure her in
that situation by fastening her hands together
under the ass’s neck, and her feet under the
belly, with long slips of bark ; but the ass was
so very unruly that no sort of treatment could
MUNGO PARK. 89

induce him to proceed with his load, and, as
Nealee made no exertion to prevent herself
from falling, she was quickly thrown off, and
had one of her legs much bruised. Every
attempt to carry her forward being thus found
ineffectual, the general cry was ‘Kang-tegi,
kang-tegi!’ ‘Cut her throat, cut her throat!’
—‘an operation, says Park, ‘which I did
not wish to see performed, and_ therefore
marched onwards with the foremost of the gang.
I had not walked above a mile, when one of
Karfa’s domestic slaves came up to me, with
poor Nealee’s garment upon the end of his bow,
and exclaimed, ‘ Nealee affeeleeta!’ ‘Nealee
is lost!’ I asked him whether the garment
had been given him as a reward for cutting
her throat; he replied that Karfa and the
schoolmaster would not consent to that measure,
but had left her on the road, where undoubtedly
she soon perished ! ’

“In this manner they proceeded, halting
occasionally for refreshment at the villages on
90 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the route, as opportunity offered. They were,
however, on one occasion obliged to alter their
course, in consequence of information which
they received that two hundred Jallonkas had
assembled near a town which they were ex-
pected to pass, with a view to plunder them.
Few adventures distinguish their farther pro-
gress. Park reached the Gambia in the begin-
ning of November, where he was received in
the same hospitable manner as at first by his
friend, Dr. Laidley. Karfa’s kindness and con-
sideration for him, not only during his stay at
Kamalia, but on the journey, had so far gained
on Park’s esteem that he paid him double the
sum on which they had originally agreed, and,
parting from him and his other friends with
mutual expressions of regard, he set sail in an
American vessel, on the 17th of June. After
a tedious passage down the river, and being
detained for some time for want of provisions,
they at length put to sea. Being an old and
decayed vessel, it became so leaky as to threaten
MUNGO PARK. 91

the safety of every one on board, and the crew
insisted on making for the nearest land. This
was the island of Antigua, in the West Indies,
whence Park found a passage to England in
one of the Leeward packets, and arrived at
Falmouth on the 22nd of December, 1797,
after having been absent from England two
years and seven months.

“Park remained in England for some years,
but he longed to complete the discoveries which
he had begun. He, accordingly, set out on a
second expedition on the 30th of January,
1805. ‘This expedition was undertaken under
the auspices of the British Government, and
every thing was supplied which promised to
contribute to its success. He was accompanied
by his brother-in-law, and had under his com-
mand about forty men, all of whom entered on
the expedition with the greatest enthusiasm.
Little did they foresee how soon their number,
worn down by disease, or the hostile attacks of
the natives, should be completely annihilated !
92 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“In this expedition, Park traversed nearly
the same route in which he had returned from
his former journey—for a considerable distance
travelling parallel to the course of the Gambia.
Unfortunately, various circumstances contri-
buted to detain the expedition until the rainy
season had almost commenced, and they thus
began their journey under the most unfa-
vourable circumstances. ‘The evils of this soon
began to show themselves. On the 8th of
June, two months after their departure from
Goree, one of the party died. Two days after-
wards they were overtaken by a severe storm,
and the ground was covered with water about
three inches deep, and on the following day
twelve of the party were ill of the com-
plaint of which the former died. Several of
the soldiers, unable to proceed, were, at their
own request, left behind under the charge of
the natives. One or two individuals strayed
from the party and were never again heard of ;
and some of the others were so ill as to be with
MUNGO PARK. 93

difficulty kept on the backs of the asses, even
with the assistance of their more healthy friends.
Several of the sick begged, again and again, to
be left by the wayside to die ; but not even
there could a peaceful death be hoped for, as
wolves and lions prowled around the party by
night and by day, ready to attack any straggler.
One night the asses were attacked by some
young lions, and one of these animals approached
so near one of the sentries that he cut at it
with his sword.

“Such was the mortality and the sufferings
of this unfortunate party that by the 19th of
August, four months and a half from their
departure from Goree, three-fourths of them had
died or been abandoned! And on November
17th, when the miserable remains of the ex-
pedition were preparing to set sail on the Niger,
to explore it to its termination, five men only
remained out of the forty-five who originally
formed it. Among the victims was Mr. Ander-
son, Park’s brother-in-law. Under this bereave-
94 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

ment even Park’s dauntless spirit shrunk. ‘No
event, he says, ‘that took place during the
journey ever threw the smallest gloom over my
mind till | laid Mr. Anderson in the grave. I
then felt as if left a second time lonely and
friendless amidst the wilds of Africa!’

“ Even at this time, when death had made
such fearful inroads on the party, and was
every moment staring the miserable remnant in
the face, its gallant leader remained full of
spirits and of hope. No event, however unto-
ward, could damp his determination. He pur-
chased a large canoe, and by dint of exertions
converted it into what he is pleased to term a
schooner, and prepared to set out to trace the
mysterious course of the Niger. ‘ I am afraid,
he says, in a letter which he wrote at this
time to Lord Camden, ‘ that your Lordship will
be apt to consider matters in a very hopeless
state, but I assure you I am far from despairing.
I this day hoisted the British flag, and shall
set sail to the east, with the fixed resolution to
MUNGO PARK. 95

discover the termination of the Niger, or perish
in the attempt. My dear friend, Mr. Ander-
son, he continues, ‘ and likewise Mr. Scott,
are both dead—but though all the Europeans
who are with me should die, and though I were
myself half-dead, I would still persevere, and,
if I could not succeed in the object of my
journey, I would at least die on the Niger.’
“What remains may be told in a few words.
Park and the four individuals who had been
spared set sail, and were annoyed by the daily
attacks of the natives, who followed them in
canoes. At one time no less than sixty of these
attacked them, but were beat off. At length
they came to a part of the river where it is
hemmed in by rocks on either side, through a
narrow passage in which the water rushes
with fearful impetuosity. At this place the
King of Yaour stationed a party of armed men,
who, waiting till the vessel came up, attacked
Park and his friends with lances, pikes, arrows,
aad other missiles. Park defended himself
96 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

vigorously for a long time; but at last, seeing
no chance of getting the canoe past, he took
hold of one of the men who remained to
assist him to escape, leaped into the river and
perished ! ”

Uncle Thomas then bid his young friends
good by, and invited them to resume their
visit on the following evening.
97 -

CHAPTER IV.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT BURCKHARDT’S TRAVELS IN SYRIA AND
ARABIA, AND HIS ADVENTURES AMONG THE ARABS OF THE DESERT,

“Goop evening, Uncle Thomas!” said Frank
when they again met. ‘1 was so interested in
Park’s adventures that I dreamt of him all
night ; and so was Harry too, for I overheard
him in the garden, to-day, singing to himself,
‘Let us pity the white man; no mother has
he!’ when he thought no one was near.”

“Ha! ha! I am glad to hear that you
are both so interested in these Tales about
Travellers,” said Uncle Thomas. ‘“ To-night
I am going to tell you about the adventures
of Burckhardt, who took immense pains to
qualify himself for a successful traveller in
Africa, but who, unfortunately, perished just

H
98 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

as he was about to enter upon this perilous
undertaking. He had, however, previously
spent many years in travelling through Nubia,
Syria, and Egypt, and saw many singular
scenes, and met with many singular adven-
tures.

“John Lewis Burckhardt was born at Lau-
sanne, in Switzerland, in the year 1784. He
came to England in 1806, and, being provided
with a letter of introduction to Sir Joseph
Banks, who, you will recollect, was the means
of introducing both Ledyard and Park to the
African Association, he soon imbibed so much
of this distinguished man’s ardour that he
offered his services to the association, and was
accepted.

“He, accordingly, began diligently to study
the Arabic language ; and, as it was thought he
would be more likely to proceed undisturbed
by the Moors, from whom you will recollect
most of Park’s sufferings proceeded, if he
travelled disguised as a native of the Kast,
BURCKHARDT. 99

the association instructed him first to proceed
to Syria, where he was to remain two years
for the purpose of completing his Arabic studies,
and to acquire oriental habits and manners
sufficient to make him pass unsuspected by
the Moors. He was then to proceed to Cairo,
to join one of the caravans which leave that
town for Mourzuk, and thus to proceed into
the interior of Africa.

“ Burckhardt sailed from England early in
1809, and arrived at Malta in safety. Here he
equipped himself entirely in the style of an
oriental, assuming the character of an Indian
Mohammedan merchant, and sailed for Acre,
whence he hoped to be able to reach Tripoli,
in Syria, or Latakia. After being twice duped
by the captains of the little trading vessels,
with whom he engaged a passage, by their
telling him, when he was fairly embarked,
that they were not going to the place which
they had represented, he reached the coast of
Syria, at Suedieh, Having bargained with

H 2
100 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the muleteers for the transport of himself and
his baggage to Aleppo, he was beginning to load
the mules, when he received a message from
the aga, or Turkish governor of the place,
requesting to see him. Our traveller found
this dignitary smoking his pipe in a miserable
room, and, pulling off his slippers, he sat down
before him. After having partaken of a cup of
coffee, Burckhardt asked his highness what he
wanted? ‘The aga answered by making a
sign with his thumb and forefinger, like a
person counting money, at the same time
inquiring particularly what was contained in
the chests of which our traveller’s baggage was
composed. Burckhardt, who had among them
several packets for the British consul at Aleppo,
told him that he did not know, but that he
thought there was a sort of Frank or European
drink (beer), and some eatables, which he had
brought from Malta for the consul. Not to be
thus eluded, the aga sent one of his people to
examine the contents. The messenger tasted


“The Aga tasted the raw potato, and instantly spitting it out
again.”

Page 101.
BURCKHARDT. 101

the beer and found it abominably bitter ; and,
as a sample of the eatables, he carried a potato,
which he took out of one of the barrels, to his
master. The aga tasted the raw potato, and,
instantly spitting it out again, exclaimed loudly
against the Frank’s stomach, which could
bear such food. After this sample he did
not care to investigate farther, and exacting a
fine of ten piastres he allowed Burckhardt to
proceed.

“ When the caravan arrived at Antakia, the
aga of that place, suspecting that Burckhardt
was only a Frank in disguise, sent his drago-
man to try to discover if such was the case.
After putting a great many questions, all of which
Burckhardt answered so as not to betray his
secret, the emissary, as a last resource, took
hold of his beard, and, pulling it, asked him
familiarly why he let such a thing grow 2
To pull his beard is one of the greatest insults
that can be offered toa Turk. Burckhardt at
once saw his object, and gave the poor drago-
102 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

man such a blow upon the face as soon con-
vinced him that the insult was duly appreciated,
and turned the laugh of the bystanders so com-
pletely against him that he did not trouble our
traveller any farther.

“From Aleppo, Burckhardt set out on a
journey to Palmyra, under the guidance and
protection of an Arab sheikh, or chief; but
during the absence of the latter, who had gone
to one of the wells for a supply of water, the
party was attacked by a hostile tribe of Arabs,
and our traveller lost his watch and his compass.
At Palmyra he was again plundered, and, his
guide pretending that it was unsafe to proceed
farther in this direction, he now directed his
steps to Damascus.

“ At this city he was obliged to remain
upwards of six weeks, in consequence of the
disturbed state of the country. He contrived,
however, to accomplish two journeys to places
of celebrity—one to Baalbec and Mount Liba-
nus, and the other into the Hauran, the patri-
BURCKHARDT. 103

mony of the patriarch Abraham. The latter
journey occupied him twenty-six days; but the
fatigue to which he was exposed was amply
repaid by the interesting scenes amidst which it
was accomplished. At every step he discovered
vestiges of ancient cities, the remains of ruined
temples, and other public edifices; and had
opportunities of copying many inscriptions
which serve to throw light upon the history of
this, at that time almost unknown, country.
“Burckhardt then proceeded to Aleppo,
whence he penetrated into the desert towards
the Euphrates. In this excursion he was
robbed and stripped to the skin, so that he
had to return to Sukhne, a village almost five
days journey from Aleppo, his body blistered
by the rays of the sun, and without having
accomplished any of the objects of his journey.
“With the true spirit of an enterprising
traveller, Burckhardt, as soon as the rainy
season was over, again set out towards the
Dead Sea. On this journey he encountered
104 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

many difficulties—was stripped of his money
by a treacherous Bedouin, to whose care he had
confided himself; and was at length obliged to
wander from one Arab encampment to another,
till he at last found a person who was willing
to carry him to Egypt. As they proceeded up
the valley of Ghor, Burckhardt was fortunate
enough to discover the ruins of Petra, the
capital of Arabia Petrea, a spot till then un-
known to Europeans. His conductor, how-
ever, allowed him merely a glance at these
majestic ruins, whose magnificence have since
astonished more recent beholders. Shortly
after leaving this place they fell in with a
small caravan of Arabs, who were proceeding
to Cairo with a few camels for sale. ‘To this
party Burckhardt joined himself, and travelled
the remainder of the way in their company.
“As no immediate opportunity offered for
entering on the great object of his mission,
Burckhardt next turned his attention to Nubia.
He purchased a couple of dromedaries, and
BURCKHARDT. 105

furnishing himself with a firman from the
bashaw, and several private letters to the Nubian
chiefs, he set out, accompanied by his guide,
on the 14th of February, 1813.

“ He travelled along the eastern bank of the
Nile, and proceeded, not only without moles-
tation, but, on the contrary, was generally
received in a hospitable manner at the Nubian
villages.

“ On his arrival at a place on the top of a
mountain called Akabet-el-benat, Burckhardt
witnessed one of the many ingenious stratagems
to which the Bedouin guides resort to extort
money from travellers. They alight from their
camels at certain spots and beg a present. If
this is refused, they collect a heap of sand, and
mould it into the form of a little grave, and,
placing a small stone at each end, they tell the
traveller that his tomb is made, meaning that
henceforth there will be no security for him in
this rocky wilderness. Most persons pay a
trifling contribution rather than have their
106 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

graves made before their eyes. Being satisfied
with his guide, Burckhardt, on this occasion,
gave him one piastre, with which he was con-
tent. On the following day, however, he
attempted to repeat the experiment, and, on our
traveller's refusing to give him any thing, he
descended and began the operation. Burck-
hardt also alighted, and, making another tomb
in the same manner, told him it was intended
for him, as it was but just, as they were fellow
travellers, that they should be buried together.
Seeing he was not to be thus imposed upon a
second time, the Arab began to laugh, and,
kicking down the materials which he had
gathered, remounted his camel, consoling him-
self by repeating a sentence from the Koran,
‘No mortal knows the spot upon earth where
his grave shall be digged.’

“Burckhardt continued his course without
any remarkable adventure till he arrived at the
Mahass territory, where he found two of the
principal Mameluke chiefs, with a band of
BURCKHARDT. 107

retainers, amounting to about a hundred and
twenty men, engaged in celebrating the capture
of the castle of Tinareh, which had surrendered
on the day preceding our traveller’s arrival.
Mohammed Kashef, one of the chiefs, is de
scribed by Burckhardt in the following terms:—
‘Born of a Darfour slave, his features re-
sembled those of the inhabitants of Soudan,
but without any thing of that mildness which
generally characterizes the negro countenance.
On the contrary, his physiognomy indicated the
worst disposition ; he rolled his eyes at me like
a madman; and, having drank copiously of
palm wine at the castle from which he had just
returned from taking possession, he was so
intoxicated that he could hardly stand on his
legs. All his people now assembled in and
around his open hut; the vanquished rebels
likewise came, and two large goat-skins of palm
wine were brought in, which was served out
to the company in small cups, neatly made of
calabashes. In the course of half an hour, the
108 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

whole camp was drunk; muskets were then
brought in, and a feu-de-joi fired with ball in
the hut where we were sitting. I must confess
that at this moment I repented of having come
to the camp, as a gun might have been easily
levelled at me, or a random ball have fallen to
my lot. I endeavoured several times to rise,
but was always prevented by the kashef, who
insisted on my getting drunk with him, but as
I never stood more in need of my senses |
drank very sparingly. Towards noon the
whole camp was in a profound sleep, and in a
few hours after the kashef was sufliciently
sober to be able to talk rationally to me.’

“ Suspecting that Burckhardt was a spy, in
the pay of Mohammed Ali, the bashaw of Egypt,
the chief threatened to send his head as a present
to Ibrahim Beg, the chief of the Mamelukes ;
and a long consultation was held with his con-
fidants to decide on what was to be done with
him. Fortunately, before they decided on such
an unpleasant experiment as the language of
BURCKHARDT. 109

the chief seemed to threaten, the arrival of two
of their friends, who had seen Burckhardt in
another part of the country, convinced them of
their error. They were still anxious, however,
to extort something from him in the way of pre-
sent, or otherwise ; and, when he went to take
his leave of Mohammed Kashef, he persisted so
much in desirimg him to defer his departure
that our traveller at last found it necessary to
tell him that as he was not permitted to act as
he pleased, he considered himself a prisoner, and
that he must take the consequence of his deten-
tion. ‘Go then, you rascal!’ at last exclaimed
this refined chieftain, in his usual brutal lan-
guage. Burckhardt did not require to be twice
told. In five minutes he had mounted his
camel and was out of sight of the camp, where
he had spent one of the most uncomfortable
days which had yet occurred to him during the
course of his travels.

“On his return from this journey, Burckhardt
witnessed one of those cruel acts of despotism
110 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

which are so common in the east. In walking
over a large field with about thirty attendants,
Hassan Kashef, brother to the chief above-
mentioned, told the owner that he had done
wrong in sowing the field with barley, as water-
melons would have grown better. He then
took some melon-seed from his pocket, and,
giving it to the man, said, ‘ You had _ better tear
up the barley and sow this.’ As the barley was
nearly ripe, the man, of course, excused himself
from complying with Kashef’s command: ‘Then
I will sow them for you! ’ said the latter; and
ordered his people immediately to tear up the
crop, and lay out the field for the reception
of the melon-seed. A boat was then loaded
with the barley, and a family thus reduced to
misery, in order that the governor might feed
his horses and camels for about three days, on
barley stalks.

“They had now arrived at Derr; and here his
trusty guide, who had accompanied him on this
journey, left him. At parting, Burckhardt pre-
BURCKHARDT. 11)

sented him with a woollen mellaye, a sort of
shawl which is worn about the neck and
shoulders by the Egyptians, and a small sum of
money, with which he was infinitely delighted.
“ Having provided himself with a new guide,
our traveller continued his journey, visiting such
remains of antiquity as lay in his route ; copy-
ing the inscriptions in the ruined temples, and
gathering much new and interesting informa-
tion regarding the details of these buildings,
and the history and manner of the ancient in-
habitants. On the 9th of April, he reached
Esne, where he remained for nearly twelve
months, waiting for the opportunity of joming
a caravan travelling towards the interior of
Nubia, in a more easterly direction ; but, as the
road was unsafe, from being haunted by a robber-
chief named Naym, who waylaid and plundered
the caravans, he had no opportunity of-doing so
till the following spring, when he heard of a
caravan about to set off. He hastened to jom
it; and, to prevent exciting the suspicion of his
112 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

fellow travellers, he resolved to accompany it
in the character of a poor trader.

“ Dressed in a loose brown woollen cloak,
such as is worn by the peasants of Upper
Egypt, with a coarse white linen shirt and
trowsers, and a woollen cap, round which was
tied a common handkerchief in the form of a
turban, he bargained with one of the camel-
drivers to carry his small supply of merchandise
and necessaries across the desert ; and, mounted
on an ass, our traveller set out.

“Two days after their departure, the caravan
was attacked by a party of wandering Bedouins,
who claimed tribute for allowing it to pass.
After much clamour and some hard fighting, in
which, however, no blood was shed, the chiefs
interfered on both sides, and put an end to the
dispute, and the caravan was at length allowed
to pass without paying tribute.

“ The weather was now excessively hot; and,
as they advanced into the desert, their sufferings
from want of water became daily more severe.
BURCKHARDT. 113

At length, on their arrival at the wells of
Nedjeym, finding them empty, and being thus
unable to replenish their stock, the whole party
was in the greatest dejection, foreseeing that
all the asses must very soon die, if not speedily
supplied with this necessary article, and none
of the traders had more than a few draughts
for his own personal use. After a long deli-
beration, they at length came to the only deter-
mination that could save them, namely, to send
ten or twelve of the strongest camels to bring a
supply from the nearest point of the Nile.

“They were not more than a journey of five
or six hours distant from the Nile, but its banks
being inhabited by a hostile tribe of Arabs, it
was impossible for the whole caravan to proceed
thither. It was therefore arranged that a party
should set out in the afternoon, so as to arrive
on the banks of the river during the night,
and, having filled the water-skins, to return as
speedily and stealthily as possible.

“Those who remained in the meanwhile

I
114 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

passed the evening in the greatest anxiety ; for,
if the camels should not return, they had little
hope of escape from either death by thirst, or by
the sword of their enemies, who, if they had
once caught a glance of the camels, would have
traced their footsteps in the sand, and thus dis-
covered and plundered the caravan. At length,
about three o'clock in the morning, the distant
hallooings of their watermen broke upon their
ears; and they soon refreshed themselves with
copious draughts of the delicious water of the
Nile.

“ On the 23rd of March, the caravan arrived at
Ankheyre, the principal town in the district of
Berber, whence, after resting fourteen days, they
again set out. Burckhardt was not at all sorry
to leave this place, for the character of its inha-
bitants is so bad that a stranger can never con-
sider himself safe amongst them for a moment.

“ Matters were not much mended on their
arrival at Ras-elewady, where the mek, or
governor, forced them to pay very heavy fines,
BURCKHARDT. 115

under the name of transit duties. Fortunately,
his contributions did not fall very severely on
our traveller, who, foreseeing the probability of
some such danger, had disposed of his ass,
which was the best animal in the caravan, to
one of his fellow-traders, taking in exchange a
less powerful beast, and a small sum of money.
The spirited animal soon caught the attention
of the mek, and he insisted on its being pre-
sented to him, much to the dissatisfaction of its
new owner, who had only gained possession of
it on the preceding day.

“At Damer, the caravan halted five days.
This place is chiefly inhabited by Fokara, or
religious men. The governor, or chief, is called
Faky el Kebir, or the Great Faky. The
family in which this dignity is hereditary have
the reputation of being endowed with such
supernatural powers that nothing can with-
stand their spells. So powerful are these that
the father of the present faky is said on one
occasion to have caused a lamb to bleat in the

12
116 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

stomach of the thief who had stolen it, and
afterwards eaten it.

“As there is no daily market at Damer,
nor any shops where articles can be bought
except on the weekly market-day, Burckhardt
was under the necessity of imitating his com-
panions, and going from house to house with
some strings of beads in his hands, offering
them for sale at about four handfuls of corn for
each bead. ‘I gained at this rate,’ says he,
‘about sixty per cent. on the prime cost ; and at
the same time had an opportunity of entering
many private houses, and studying the manners
and habits of the people.’

“So strong is the belief of the credulous
natives in the powers of the fakies that the
mere sight of them walking unarmed at the
head of a caravan is sufficient to protect it.
The services of several were therefore secured,
and the party again set out, and reached Hawaya
in safety. This village forms the northern
frontier of the territory of Shendy. As he

‘
\
AY
RN
SS

.

ifs



*« Burckhardt was under the necessity of going from house to

house, offering strings of beads for sale.’’
Page 116.
BURCKHARDT. 117

understood it to be a safe place, Burckhardt
took some beads to exchange for bread, in the
village. After a long and fruitless search, he
was met by some men, who invited him to go
home with them, telling him that their wives
would take the beads. Burckhardt accordingly
followed them, until they reached a narrow
unfrequented lane, when they turned short upon
him, snatched away the beads, tore off his cap,
and then, finding that, unarmed as he was, he still
made some resistance, they drew their swords.
Burckhardt then considered that it was time to
take to his heels, and rejoined his companions,
who laughed at his misfortunes. He after-
wards applied for redress to the sheikh of the
village, who recovered the cap and beads for
him, but insisted on being paid, as a compliment,
twice the value of the stolen goods.

“On their arrival at Shendy, Burckhardt
abandoned all idea of proceeding farther south,
and resolved to take the route for the Red Sea.
He disposed of all his little adventure of merchan-
118 TALES AROUT TRAVELLERS.

dise, and purchased a slave-boy, partly for the
sake of having a constant and useful companion,
and partly to afford him an ostensible reason for
going in the direction of the Red Sea, where he
might expect to sell him at a profit. He also
purchased a camel; and, having laid in a supply
of provisions for the journey, he set out on the
17th of May.

“In this journey the caravan was exposed to
a violent hurricane; ‘the most tremendous,’ says
Burckhardt, ‘that I ever remember to have wit-
nessed. A dark blue cloud first appeared ; as
it approached nearer, and increased in height, it
assumed an ash-grey colour, with a tinge of
yellow, striking every person in the caravan
who had not been accustomed to such pheno-
mena with amazement at its magnificent and
terrific appearance: as the clouds approached
still nearer, the yellow tinge became more
general, while the horizon presented the brightest
azure. At last it burst upon us in its rapid
course, and involved us in darkness and con-
BURCKHARDT. 119

fusion; nothing could be distinguished at the
distance of five or six feet, our eyes were filled
with dust, our temporary sheds blown down at
the first gust, and many of the more firmly
fixed tents followed. ‘The largest withstood for
a time the effects of the blast, but were at last
obliged to yield, and the whole camp was levelled
with the ground. In the meantime, the terrified
camels arose, broke the cords by which they
were fastened, and endeavoured to escape from
the destruction which appeared to threaten them,
thus adding not a little to our embarrassment.
After blowing about half an hour with increased
violence, the wind suddenly abated ; and, when
the atmosphere became clear, the tremendous
cloud was seen continuing its havoc to the north-
west.’

“ At length, on the 26th of June, they arrived
at Souakin, after journeying through a wild
picturesque country, and pitched their tents at a
short distance from the town. On the following
day they were visited by the emir, who came,
120 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

in person, to levy the customary contributions.
Understanding that Burckhardt’s camel was
famed in the caravan for its strength and
agility, he wished to secure it, telling him
that all camels brought from Soudan by foreign
traders were his. Burckhardt refused to com-
ply with this unjust demand, and insisted on the
matter being referred to the ‘Turkish custom-
house officer. He was accordingly carried be-
fore the aga, who, having been instructed by
the emir, addressed Burckhardt in a very
haughty and repulsive manner. Burckhardt
at first refused to answer; but at length told
him that he had come to hear from his own
mouth whether the emir was entitled to his
camel. ‘Not only thy camel,’ he replied, ‘ but
the whole of thy baggage must be taken and
searched ;’ and, affecting to treat him as a
Mameluke spy, or refugee, he continued: ‘ you
shall not impose upon us, you rascal; you may
be thankful if we do not cut off your head!’
Burckhardt, seeing there was no other way of
BURCKHARDT. 121

escape, now drew from his pocket the two
firmans or letters with which he had provided
himself before setting out, one of which was
sealed with the great seal of Mohammed Ali.
The change from haughty insolence to base
servility was instantaneous. The aga kissed
the papers, pressed them to his forehead, and
apologized for his conduct in the most sub-
missive terms. Nothing more was said about
the emir’s right to the camel, and Burckhardt’s
slave even was allowed to pass duty-free.
Afraid of the reports which our traveller might
make to the bashaw respecting his government
in Souakin, the aga tried every means in his
power to ingratiate himself with him. He in-
vited him to his table daily, and offered him a
present of aslave, and of one of his own dresses,
both of which marks of kindness, however,
Burckhardt thought proper to decline.

“From Souakin our traveller sailed for
Djidda, on the opposite shore of the Red Sea,
on the 6th of July, and after suffering much
122 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

inconvenience from the crowded state of the
vessel, and the inadequate supply of water, as
well as the unskilful navigation of the Arabian
sailors, they arrived at Djidda on the 18th of
July. More than three-fourths of the time had
been consumed in sailing lazily along the coast,
disembarking every evening, and passing the
night on shore.

“At Djidda Burckhardt was attacked by
fever, and for several days was in a state of
delirium. During his slow recovery from this
illness, he was reduced to the necessity of
parting with his slave, and, with the proceeds,
dressing himself like a reduced Egyptian gentle-
man, he resolved to wait in the Hejaz until
the time of the great annual pilgrimage to the
Holy Cities in the month of November, as,
besides the opportunity which it would give
him of farther studying the oriental character,
the title of Hadji, to which all good mus-
sulmen who have made this pilgrimage are
BURCKHARDT. 123

entitled, would be of great use to him in his
future intercourse with the Moors.

“Having obtained permission from the
bashaw, he accordingly set out for Mecca, and
witnessed and took part in the singular and
absurd ceremonial, at the performance of which
were gathered an immense crowd of people
from every corner of the Mohammedan world—
the principal men accompanied by long retinues
of attendants, their equipments vying with
each other in splendour and magnificence. He
also performed a pilgrimage to the tomb of the
Prophet, at Medina. On this journey, having
ridden on in advance of the body of pilgrims,
he narrowly escaped being plundered, and,
perhaps murdered, by a small band of Bedouins,
from whom, however, he was delivered by the
timely approach of his friends.

“ From Medina he travelled to Yembo, where,
on his arrival, he found the plague raging
with the greatest violence. Night and day the
124 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

air was rent with the piercing cries of those who
had been bereaved of the objects of their affec-
tion. In this town he was obliged to remain
exposed to risk of infection nearly three weeks,
from the difficulty of procuring a passage to
Cosseir. At length he embarked in a crowded
open vessel, some of the passengers in which
were ill of a disease which appeared to
be the plague, though only two of them died.
Unable, however, to endure the crowd and in-
convenience, he was put on shore at Sherin,
whence he agreed with some Bedouins to
transport him and his baggage to Tor, where
the bracing mountain air soon restored him to
health, which had been bad since his departure
from Medina. He arrived at Cairo on the 24th
of June, after an absence of nearly two years
and a half.

“Fyom Cairo he afterwards made one or
two unimportant excursions, in one of which he
reached Mount Sinai, and traced the course of
the Red Sea as far as Akaba.
BURCKHARDT. 125

“At Cairo Burckhardt remained for some
time, arranging the journals of his Arabian and
Nubian travels, and waiting the opportunity of
joining a Moggrebin caravan, to penctrate into
Africa. While thus engaged he was attacked
by a disease which carried him off after an
illness of eleven days, notwithstanding the
best medical attendance which the place could
afford.
126

CHAPTER V.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT THE TRAVELS OF DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON
THEIR JOURNEY ACROSS THE DESERT; THEIR ARRIVAL AT LAKE TCHAD;
AND THEIR PRESENTATION AT THE COURT OF THE SULTAN OF BORNOU.

‘“ NOTWITHSTANDING the failure of so many
attempts to explore the interior of Africa, and
the many valuable lives which have been lost
in such expeditions,” said Uncle Thomas to his
young friends, when they again met; “ the
desire to ascertain what seemed hid by almost
insurmountable obstacles had taken such a
firm hold on the public mind that, in 1821, the
British government was induced to appoint a
new expedition, under the command of Major
Denham and Captain Clapperton. ‘They were
accompanied by Dr. Oudney, a surgeon in the
Royal Navy, who possessed also a considerable
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 127

knowledge of natural history. The British
government was induced to send out this new
expedition in consequence of the favourable
relations in which it stood with the bashaw of
Tripoli, who, it was found, was not unwilling
to bestow his protection on any mission which
the English government might appoint ; and, as
his influence, and the terror of his name, ex-
tends far into the interior of Africa, it was
hoped by this means to penetrate into that part
of the world, and to set at rest many of the
questions with regard to the geography of
Africa which had long agitated the public mind,
as well as to open up new channels for the com-
merce and manufactures of England.

“The expedition arrived in Tripoli on the 18th
of November, 1821. They were introduced
to the bashaw, and found him sitting cross-
legged on a carpet, attended by armed negroes.
After having treated them to sherbet and coffee,
he invited them to a hawking party, where he
appeared mounted on a milk-white Arabian,
128 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

superbly caparisoned, with a saddle of crimson
velvet, richly studded with gold nails, massive
gold stirrups, and trappings of embroidered cloth,
hanging down to the ground, on each side. He
was accompanied by about three hundred atten-
dants, including several of his most distinguished
officers, who were dressed in a similar style of
magnificence.

“ After spending some time in ‘Tripoli, the
expedition set out for Mourzuk, in the beginning
of March, and encountered the usual incon-
veniences to which travellers are exposed in
crossing the sandy deserts of Africa; sometimes
for several days toiling along without a supply
of water, and, when they reached the wells,
finding such as they yielded either muddy,
bitter, or brackish.

“As they crossed the desert they were ex-
posed to a sand-storm, which, though in this
case it was not very severe, sometimes over-
powers and destroys whole caravans, or
kafilas, as the parties are called who unite to
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 129

traverse these almost trackless wilds. The wind
raises the fine sand with which the surface of
the ground is covered, and so completely fills the
atmosphere that it is impossible to see beyond
a few yards: the sun and sky are entirely
obscured; and at times the camels are invisible,
though only a few yards in advance. The
horses hang their tongues out of their mouths,
and refuse to face the torrents of sand which
keep pouring on sometimes for hours together;
the whole party, in the meantime, suffering all
the inconveniences of a suffocating thirst.

“When the expedition arrived at Mourzuk,
they were received by the sultan of Fezzan with
great affability ; but, notwithstanding the letter
from the bashaw, which our travellers pre-
sented, he gave himself little trouble about for-
warding the expedition, and even hinted that it
might be necessary for it to remain at Mourzuk
till his return from Tripoli, to which he was
about to set out.

“To submit to this arrangement, and to

K
130 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

remain inactive in a place so unhealthy as
Mourzuk, was to defeat the objects of the
expedition. Major Denham, therefore, at once
returned to Tripoli, and remonstrated with the
bashaw on account of the delay ; and, as he did
not receive immediate satisfaction, he determin-
ed on taking the decisive step of returning to
England to lay his complaint before the British
government. Such energetic proceedings
alarmed the bashaw. He immediately sent
three vessels to different ports after Major
Denham, to say that a merchant named Bhoo
Khaloom had been appointed, with a retinue of
about two hundred Arabs, to conduct the ex-
pedition to Bornou, and to beg his immediate
return. One of the bashaw’s messengers over-
took the major at Marseilles, and, accordingly,
on his return to Tripoli, he found Bhoo Kha-
loom already on the borders of the desert, wait-
ing his arrival to proceed.

“On the 29th of November they left Mour-
zuk, and soon entered on a desert plain, where
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 131

they frequently travelled whole days without
seeing a living thing that did not belong to
their kafila—not even a bird or an insect was
discernible. During the day the sun shone
down upon them with intense power, and his
rays, reflected by the sand on which they trod,
were almost unbearable; but the stillness and
beauty of the night in a great measure compen-
sated for these inconveniences. ‘The burning
heat of the day is there succeeded by cool and re-
freshing breezes, and the sky is ever illumined
by large and brilliant stars or an unclouded
moon. By removing the loose and pearl-like
sand to the depth of a few inches, the effects of
the sunbeams of the day are not perceptible,
and a soft and refreshing couch is easily form-
ed. The ripple of the driving sand resem-
bles that of a slow and murmuring stream ;
and, after escaping from the myriads of
flies which had tormented our travellers day
and night in Mourzuk, the luxury of an
evening like this was an indescribable relief.
K 2
132 TALES AROUT TRAVELLERS.

“‘ On their arrival at Tegerhy, the expedition
halted a few days, to lay in a stock of dates,
and to afford a short respite to the invalids, in
which number was now included nearly the
whole of the principals of the expedition. Dr.
Oudney had been so reduced that he could
with difficulty walk a couple of hundred
yards, and Clapperton was not in much better
condition.

“On the 13th of December the expedition
left Tegerhy, and again entered on the desert,
where, for many days, they may almost be
said to have traced their course by the dried
and withered skeletons of those who had fallen
down and perished. On one day’s journey of
about twenty-five miles, they counted one
hundred and seven skeletons; and near the
wells they sometimes found several hundreds
scattered about, some of them with the skin
still remaining to the bones, and not even a
little sand thrown over them! The miserable
creatures whose remains are thus left exposed
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 133

to whiten in the desert are generally slaves
who fall down and perish from hunger or
exhaustion on these tedious and protracted
journeys. At the wells of El-Hammar, the
number that lay about was countless. Those
of two women, whose perfect and regular teeth
bespoke them young, were particularly affecting.
Their arms still remained clasped round each
other as they had expired, although the flesh
had long since decayed from being exposed to
the burning rays of the sun!

“ After a painful and fatiguing march over
this dreary desert, many days without see-
ing signs of vegetation, on the Ist of January,
1823, they reached Wadey Ikbar, where they
found a few trees, and grass in abundance:
they rested a day to refresh themselves—a most
seasonable relief after toiling so long over the
parching wilds which they had passed.

“So fatiguing was the journey across the
desert that many of the camels broke down,
unable to proceed, and were abandoned. On
134 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the day after leaving Wadey Ikbar, no less
than four fell: two of them it was hoped would
be able to follow the route in the night, when
no longer oppressed by the burning sun; but
the others it was necessary to kill on the spot.
On these occasions the Arab attendants waited
with savage impatience, with their knives in
their hands, ready to plunge them into the poor
animal as soon as its owner should give the
signal. Major Denham, who attended the
slaughter of one, describes the manner in which
it is effected. ‘Despatch being the order of
the day, a knife is stuck in the camel’s heart
while his head is turned to the east, and he
dies almost in an instant; but before that in-
stant expires a dozen knives are thrust into
different parts of the carcass, in order to carry
off the choicest parts of the flesh. The heart,
considered the greatest delicacy, is torn out, the
skin stripped from the breast and haunches,
part of the meat cut, or rather torn, from the
bones, and thrust into bags which they carry
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 135

for the purpose, and the remainder of the
carcass is left for the crows, vultures, and
hyenas, while the Arabs quickly follow the
kafila.’

“On the 28th of January they entered the
territory of a negro sheikh or chief, named Mina
Tahr. From him they received a supply of
camel’s milk and a sheep,—a most grateful ad-
dition to their table after being without fresh
animal food for fourteen or fifteen days. The
Tibboos are an active race of men, but exceed-
ingly ignorant and superstitious. They look
upon the warlike Arabs as invincible, and have
the greatest terror of their guns. Five or six
of them will sometimes go round and round a
tree where an Arab has laid down his musket
for a minute, stepping on tiptoe as if afraid of
disturbing it, talking to each other in a whisper
as if the gun could understand their exclama-
tions, and, I dare say, praying to it not to do
them any injury, as fervently as ever Man
Friday did to Robinson Crusoe’s musket.
136 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“To Mina Tahr, the chief of the tribe, Major
Denham showed his watch, which pleased
him wonderfully at first, but after a little time
it was found that what gave him greatest satis-
faction was to look at the reflection of his face
in the bright part of the case. The major,
therefore, made him a present of a small look-
ing glass, and he took his station im one corner
of the tent, for hours surveying himself with a
satisfaction that burst from his lips in frequent
exclamations of joy, which he also occasionally
testified by sundry high jumps and springs in
the air.

“ At length they arrived within sight of the
great interior sea of Africa, Lake Tchad. ‘On
ascending the rising ground on which the town
of Lari stands,’ says Major Denham, ‘the
distressing sight presented itself of all the
female and most of the male inhahitants, with
their families, flying across the plain in all
directions, alarmed by the strength of our
kafila. Beyond, however, was an object full


‘‘Tle took his station in one corner of the tent, surveying

himself in the glass with great satisfaction,”’
Page 136.
DENHAM AND CILAPPERTON. 137

of interest to us, and the sight of which con-
veyed to my mind a sensation so gratifying and
inspiring that it would be difficult for language
to convey an idea of its force or pleasure. The
great Lake Tchad, glowing with the golden rays
of the sun in its strength, appeared to be within
a mile of the spot on which we stood. My
heart bounded within me at the prospect, for
I believed this lake to be the key to the great
object of our search, and I could not refrain
from silently imploring Heaven's continued
protection, which had enabled us to proceed so
far in health and strength, even to the accom-
plishment of our task.’

“They now bid adieu to the desert, and
entered on a fertile country, intersected by
luxuriant forests, inhabited by herds of
elephants, antelopes, and red cattle, while
the lake abounded with wild fowl of every
description, whose varied plumage beautified
and diversified the scene. Birds of the most
gorgeous plumage were perched on every
138 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

tree; Guinea fowls were everywhere to be
seen in flocks of from eighty to a hundred,
and several monkeys chattered at them so
impudently that, separating one from his com-
panions, they chased him for half an hour, but
did not overtake him.

“After a few days they were invited by
the sheikh to visit him at Kouka. They im-
mediately proceeded thither, and Major Den-
ham, anxious to ascertain what degree of civili-
zation he should find at the court of the sheikh,
confused as he was by the various and conflic-
ting reports which he had heard—some repre-
senting the sheikh’s attendants asa set of naked
savages, and others as fully equipped and
well disciplined cavalry—pressed on before the
main body. He was, therefore, not a little
surprised to see, amid an opening among the
trees amongst which he approached, a bedy of
several thousand cavalry drawn up in line,
and ‘extending as far as his eye could reach.
He halted till his companions came up; when
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 139

they appeared in sight, the sheikh’s people, with
a loud shout, or rather yell, and, without con-
fusion, galloped towards them at full speed,
nor checking their horses till close upon them.
They shook their spears over the heads of the
travellers and their retinue, shouting, ‘ Barca!
barca!’ ‘Blessing! blessing!’ The Arabs
did not at all relish this mode of salutation,
hemmed in as they were on every side, and in
danger of being trampled to death by the horses,
or knocked on the head by the spears of the
Bornouese soldiers. Bhoo Khaloom, indeed,
was much enraged ; but all to no purpose ; he
was only answered by fresh shrieks of ‘ Wel-
come!’ and the continued rattling of the
spears.

“At length Barca Gana, the sheikh’s first
general, a negro of noble aspect, clothed in a figur-
ed silk tobe or shirt, and mounted on a beautiful
horse, made his appearance, and relieved them.
He conducted them to the gates of the town.
Bhoo Khaloom, our travellers, and about a dozen
140 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

of his followers, only were at first allowed to
enter within the walls. After passing along a wide
street completely lined with soldiers, they were
conducted to the sheikh’s residence, where, after
some delay, Bhoo Khaloom alone was _per-
mitted to enter. After a farther delay, our
travellers were admitted. They found the sheikh
in a dark room, sitting on a carpet, plainly
dressed in a blue tobe, and a shawl turban.
‘Two negroes were on each side of him, armed
with pistols, and on his carpet lay two more
of those weapons. His personal appearance
was prepossessing. His age was apparently
not more than forty-five or forty-six, with an
expressive countenance, and a benevolent smile.
After receiving the bashaw’s letter, he inquired
of the travellers what was their object in coming?
Major Denham told him ‘that he had come
merely to see the country, and to give an
account of its inhabitants, as his sultan was
desirous to know every part of the globe.
After telling them that they were welcome, and
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 141

that, when they were recovered from the fatigue
of their journey, he would be glad to see them,
he appointed one of his people to accompany
them to the huts which had been prepared for
them. The huts were little round mud build-
ings placed within a wall, at no great distance
from the sheikh’s residence, and into their
grateful shade our travellers crept, to recover
from the fatigue of their presentation to the
sheikh of Bornou.

“ After a short stay in Kouka, Major Denham
received the sheikh’s permission to visit the sultan,
the descendant of the ancient sovereigns of the
country, who holds his court in great state at
Birnie, a large town about sixteen miles distant
from Kouka, though the real power is in the
hands of the sheikh. He received our travellers
soon after day-light, in an open space in front
of the royal residence. Every thing was con-
ducted with the greatest form and ceremony ;
the courtiers first riding past on horseback, and,
having dismounted, prostrating themselves be-
142 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

fore him, and then seating themselves at the
distance of about a hundred yards, with their
backs towards his majesty, which in Bornou
is considered the most respectful position.
Nothing could be more absurd and grotesque
than the figures of the courtiers. Large bellies
and large heads are indispensable for those
who serve the court of Bornou; and those who
do not naturally possess those advantages of
person must make up the deficiency by stuffing
their garments till they assume the proper size.
This is not a very difficult matter, as most of
them have from eight to ten or twelve shirts of
different colours, which they wear one over the
other. The head is also enveloped in folds of
muslin or linen of various colours, but mostly
white, so as to increase its size as much as
possible. The heads of those courtiers whose
turbans seemed to be worn with the most
studied effect appeared completely on one side.
To add still more to their ridiculous appearance,
they are hung all over with charms, enclosed in
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 143

little red leather parcels. Their horses are also
ornamented with these badges of superstition.

‘** When the courtiers, to the number of about
three hundred, were all duly seated, the strangers
were allowed to approach, and desired to sit
down, when the ugliest black that can be
imagined, the chief eunuch, the only person
who was permitted to approach close to the
sultan, asked for the presents which they had
brought. ‘These were produced, tied in a large
shawl; and the whole was carried unopened to
the place where the sultan sat, in great majesty,
enclosed in a sort of cage of cane or wood, on a
seat which seemed to be covered with silk, and
with a turban more monstrous than those of any
of his subjects !

“When this ceremony was over, Major Den-
ham visited various other Bornouese towns,
where his dress, and the whiteness of his skin,
excited both the pity and the astonishment of
the natives. He afterwards returned to Kouka,
and set out on an expedition to the Mandara
144 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

country, which lies to the west of Bornou. His
adventures on this expedition, however, I must
leave till we meet again.”

The boys then bade Uncle Thomas good
night, and the little party broke up for the
evening.
145

UNCLE THOMAS CONTINUES HIS ACCOUNT OF THE TRAVELS OF DENITAM
AND CLAPPERTON; THEIR VARIOUS ADVENTURES IN AFRICA, AND THEIR

RETURN TO ENGLAND.

“Tur Arabs who formed the escort which con-
ducted our travellers across the desert,” con-
tinued Uncle Thomas on the following evening,
“now. determined on a ghrazzie, or plundering
expedition, into the mountains of Mandara,
for the purpose of attacking a village of the
Kerdies, or unbelievers, and carrying off to
their own country the people as slaves. Bhoo
Khaloom long resisted their importunities ; but,
at length, to prevent an open mutiny, he was
forced to consent to lead them on this nefarious
expedition; and, although Major Denham
was aware that it was an undertaking of both
L
146 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

difficulty and danger, he resolved to accompany
it, that he might observe the military tactics of
the Africans, and take advantage of so favour-
able an opportunity to penetrate into the country.

“For a long time, however, the sheikh re-
fused to give his consent to this arrangement.
He was anxious, he told Major Denham, to
comply with his request to be allowed to accom-
pany the expedition, but that, as he did not
know how to ensure his safety in case of a re-
pulse, he must refuse his sanction, as the bashaw
would never forgive him, should any harm hap-
pen to his English friends. It was evident, how-
ever, from the tone of the conversation, that the
sheikh had no wish to prevent Major Denham —
from proceeding: he, therefore told him, with
a smile, that if he intended to stop him he had
better order the silsel, or irons which are put
round the necks of refractory slaves, to be put
on at once; for that he should certainly go, as
he could not think of losing such an opportunity

of seeing the country.
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 147

“ About midnight, accordingly, of the day
following that on which the preceding conversa-
tion took place, Major Denham set out to join
the expedition which had left Kouka some days
previously. He was accompanied by his own
negro Barca, as well as one named Maramy,
who had been appointed for this purpose by
the sheikh. They overtook the Arabs a short
distance beyond Angornou.

“The expedition now entered on a wooded
country ; the road through which consisted of
several narrow paths, passable for only one
horse at a time, and these greatly obstructed
by branches of tulloh and other prickly trees,
which hung over them. The party was, there-
fore, preceded by twelve pioneers, who cleared
a way through the thick underwood, and with
their forked poles kept back the branches,
cheering their companions as they advanced
with extempore songs, some of which having
reference to Major Denham’s appearance among
them seemed to delight their chief excessively,

L2
148 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

and kept up the spirits of the whole party.
One verse Major Denham has translated :—
“<¢ Christian man he came,
Friend of us und sheikhobe.

White man, when he hear my song,
Fine new tobe give me !’

“The precise destination of the expedition
was at this time unknown even to its leaders.
When they arrived at Mora, the capital of the
kingdom of Mandara, they had an interview with
the sultan, an intelligent little man of about
fifty years of age, with a beard dyed of a most
beautiful sky-blue colour. From him they
expected to obtain permission to attack some
of the tribes of Kerdies, or unbelievers, as they
were called by the Musselmans ; but, after some
days delay, he excused himself, saying that
the people around him were quite peaceable.
and were becoming converts without force
He, however, pointed out to them the Fellatahs
whose kingdom lay at a short distance, and
who, being a warlike and turbulent people, wer
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 149

constantly making predatory incursions into his
territories. These he proposed the expedition
should attack. ‘This arrangement was far from
satisfactory to Bhoo Khaloom. The Fellatahs,
besides being dangerous enemies to contend
with, were all Musselmans ; and, as it is for-
bidden for one follower of the prophet to hold
another in slavery, even in the event of success,
they could only secure such slaves as the Fella-
tahs possessed. ‘There was, however, no al-
ternative, and, joined by several hundred Man-
dara troops, the expedition again set forward.

“ After a painful and fatiguing march of
several days, they at length arrived at the
object of their attack. This was a Fellatah
town, named Dirkulla, which, offering no re-
sistance, was quickly burnt, as well as another
small town near it; and the few inhabitants
which were found in them, chiefly children, and
aged persons unable to escape, were with
savage cruelty put to death, or thrown into the
flames.
150 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

“‘ They then proceeded to a third town, occu-
pying a strong position on a rising ground
between two hills. It was vigorously defended,
and its inhabitants knowing well what their
fate would be if they were defeated, fought with
great bravery. ‘Their arrows, which, according
to the barbarous custom of some of the Afri-
can nations, were poisoned, they poured on
their assailants with unceasing determination :
even the women were engaged in supplying
their protectors with fresh weapons, and in
rolling down from the hills large masses of
rock upon their assailants.

“The struggle was for a long time doubtful,
but at length the Arabs, unable to withstand
the shower of arrows which continued to pour
upon them, gave way. Seeing them driven
back, the negro troops at once took to their
heels, and the flight became general.

“ Denham, who had pressed on with the
assailants, had been slightly wounded in the
face, and his horse had been struck by arrows
DENHAM. AND CLAPPERTON. 151

in two places. When he saw the turn which
affairs had taken, he began to lament his folly
in thus exposing himself, ill-prepared as he was,
for such an event as defeat. If either of his
horse’s wounds were from poisoned arrows he
felt that nothing could save him. There was,
however, no time for reflection. He joined the
mass of fugitives, and pressed on as fast as he
could in the steps of one of the Mandara horse-
men, who he observed kept a good look out,
his head being constantly turned over his left
shoulder, with a face expressive of the greatest
dismay. ‘The cries behind of the Fellatah
horsemen, who had now joined the pursuit,
made them both quicken their pace. Denham
put spurs to his horse, but, instead of urging it
on, the effort stopped it altogether. The arrow
by which it had been wounded had reached the
shoulder-bone, and in passing over some rough
ground the horse stumbled and fell. Almost
before Major Denham could get again on his
legs, two of the Fellatahs were upon him: he
152 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

had, however, kept hold of his bridle, and
seizing a pistol from the holsters he pre-
sented it at two of these ferocious savages, who
were advancing towards him with their spears.
They instantly went of ; but another, who came
on more boldly just as he was endeavouring to
remount, received the contents in his shoul-
der. Once more the major was enabled to
place his foot in the stirrup, and, regaining his
seat, he continued his retreat. He had not,
however, proceeded many hundred yards when
his horse again fell with such violence as to
throw him against a tree at a considerable dis-
tance, and, frightened at the noise of the horses
behind it, got up quickly and escaped, leaving
its rider on foot, and unarmed.

‘“‘Within a few yards of him Major Denham
now saw the person in whose steps he had _fol-
lowed, and four of his attendants, butchered, after
a very slight resistance, and their bodies imme-
diately stripped. ‘Their cries were dreadful, and
years afterwards Major Denham confessed that
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 153

the agonizing feelings of this moment remained
fresh in his memory. His hopes of life were
too faint to deserve the name. He was almost
instantly surrounded, and, as he was unarmed,
and incapable of making any resistance, he was
speedily stripped. Whilst attempting first to
save his shirt and then his trousers, he was
thrown on the ground, and received several
thrusts from the spears of his pursuers, and the
same cruel death which he had seen inflicted
on those who had already fallen into their
hands now stared him in the face.

“No sooner, however, had they torn the shirt
off his back, and thus left him absolutely naked,
than the plunderers began to quarrel about the
division of the spoil. At this instant the idea
of escape darted like lightning across Denham’s
mind, and without a moment’s hesitation he
crept under the belly of the nearest horse and
started off towards the thickest part of the wood.
Two of the plunderers pursued, and were rapid-
ly gaining on him, for the prickly underwood
154 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

not only obstructed his passage, but tore his
flesh in the most miserable manner. The de-
lightful relief which the sight of a mountain
stream gliding along at the bottom of a deep
ravine at this moment afforded him cannot, he
says, be imagined. He ran towards it, and
seized the young branches issuing from the
stump of a large tree which overhung the ravine,
for the purpose of letting himself down into the
water, as the sides were precipitous, when, close
under his hand, as the branch yielded to the
weight of his body, a large liffa, the most poi-
sonous kind of serpent which the country pro-
duces, rose from its coil, as if in the very act of
striking! Poor Denham was horror-struck,
and for a moment deprived of all recollection.
The branch slipped from his hand, and he tum-
bled headlong into the water beneath. ‘The
shock revived him; with three strokes of his
arms he reached the opposite bank, and, crawl-
ing up with difficulty, here for the first time felt
himself safe from his pursuers.
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 155

“ Searcely had he congratulated himself on
his escape when his mind reverted to the forlorn
and wretched condition in which he was.
Naked and unarmed in the midst of enraged
savages of the most ferocious description, he
had already began to plan his night’s rest in
the top of a tree, to escape the panthers, which
he knew abounded in these woods, when the
idea of the liffas, almost as numerous and
equally to be dreaded, excited a shudder of
despair.

“ Looking round he saw some horsemen,
through the trees, and, advancing towards them,
discovered with feelings of gratitude and joy that
it was Bhoo Khaloom, and some of the leaders of
the expedition, making their retreat. They were
pursued by a party of the Fellatahs, but ma-
naged to keep them in check by means of their
guns and pistols, and thus to allow such of the
people on foot as were able to keep up with
them an opportunity of escape. Fortunately
Maramy, the negro to whose care Major Den-
156 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

ham had been confided by the sheikh, recognised
him, and riding up assisted him to mount be-
* hind him, while the Fellatah arrows whistled
over their heads. ‘They then rode off as fast as
the wounded horse could carry them, and con-
tinued their flight.

“When they had retreated a mile or two Bhoo
Khaloom, happening to see the miserable state
in which Major Denham was, his neck and
shoulders blistered by the burning sun, and his
flesh torn by the wounds which he had received in
his passage through the wood, ordered one of his
Arabs to throw a cloak over him. Soon after
this act of kindness, Bhoo Khaloom, overcome by
the effects of a poisoned wound which he had
received in the foot, dropped from his horse into
the arms of his favourite Arab, and expired.

“Denham was now parched with the most
intense thirst. He could not even utter a word
in answer to the directions of his conductor to
hold tight when they came to breaks, or in-
equalities in the ground; and, when it seemed
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 157

impossible for him any longer to support the
agonizing feeling, they fortunately arrived at a
rivulet. The horses rushed into it, the blood
streaming from their nostrils from the violence
of their exertions; and Denham, sliding from
behind his companion, knelt down amongst
them, and felt as if he imbibed new life by the
copious draughts of the muddy beverage. Hav-
ing sated his thirst, he staggered across the
stream in a state of almost insensibility, and
fell down at the foot of a tree on the opposite
side, and when, after a quarter of an hour's
halt, he was awakened from a deep sleep by
his faithful negro, he found his strength wonder-
fully increased.

“The party continued their retreat till
after midnight, when they again arrived in the
territory of the sultan of Mandara. There
they had time to take a short rest from their
fatigues, and to contemplate the losses which
they had sustained in this deservedly unfortu-
nate expedition. Forty-five of the Arabs,
158 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

amongst whom was Bhoo Khaloom, their
leader, were killed, and nearly all the others
more or less wounded ; their camels and every
thing they possessed lost, and the survivors
reduced to the most miserable state of desti-
tution, being obliged to beg of the negroes a
little corn to keep them from starving. In this
abject state they arrived once more at Kouka,
and it was some time before Denham reco-
vered from the effects of this expedition.
“Major Denham, who sought every oppor-
tunity of making excursions into the neighbour-
ing countries, soon after his return to Kouka,
accompanied the Bornouese troops on an expe-
dition against the Mungas, a rebellious tribe
which had lately thrown off all restraint,
declaring themselves independent of the sheikh
of Bornou, and refusing to pay the customary
tribute, which had at all times been collected
with difficulty and bloodshed. Fortunately,
however, the breach was, on this occasion,
made up without coming to blows. It having
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 159

been reported, in such a manner as to reach the
rebel army, that the sheikh, who possessed
great fame as a writer of charms, had spent
three successive nights in this occupation ; such
was the effect upon the superstitious minds of
his opponents that each morning they fancied
their spears were blunted, their arrows power-
less. Some of the rebel chiefs were seized with
sickness, and fear began to exert its sway
over all. ‘To complete their dismay, some sky-
rockets which Major Denham had carried with
him, and which were set off in the darkness
of night, struck terror into the whole army.
When the rockets burst in their descent, their
alarm was extreme, and, in the morning, the
rebel chief made his submission to the sheikh,
declaring that to withstand a person who per-
formed such miracles as these was not only
useless, but sinful. He appeared superbly
mounted on a white horse, attended by fully a
thousand followers, and, dismounting at the
door of the sheikh’s tent, humbled himself in
160 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the dust, and would have poured sand upon
his head in token of submission, but this was
prevented by order of the sheikh; and, when
the rebel, no doubt, expected to hear the order
for his execution pronounced by his conqueror,
he was raised from the ground, clothed with
eight handsome tobes, and six turbans from
Egypt wrapped round his head, till it exceeded
in dimensions those of six ordinary mortals.
By these acts of moderation and kindness, the
sheikh at once converted this rebellious tribe
into warm and zealous friends.

“ After passing the rainy season in Kouka,
Clapperton and Oudney set out on an explor-
ing expedition into the country to the west of
Bornou. They left Kouka in the middle of
December, and, travelling along the banks of
the Yeou, entered Katagum, the most easterly
of the Fellatah provinces. Here they found
their white skins and strange appearance less
objects of terror than in Bornou. On their
arrival at Murmur, Dr. Oudney, whose illness


DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 161

had been gradually increasing, died. In an
.early period of the expedition he had been
seized by inflammation of the chest, in con-
sequence of sitting down in a current of cold
air while overheated, and had been ever since
wasting away in a slow consumption. His loss
was severely felt by his companion, labouring
as he was also under disease, and now left
alone amid a strange people, exposed to un-
known dangers, and traversing a country which
had never been trod by European foot.

“From Murmur Clapperton proceeded to
Kano, a large town containing a population
of perhaps 30,000 or 40,000, and where there
are regular markets for various articles. It is
famous also for its slave market, where great
numbers of these poor creatures are constantly
on sale.

“In travelling from Kano to Sackatoo, Clap-
perton found the country in a high state of
cultivation, extremely romantic and diversified
with large clumps of luxuriant trees. The
M
162 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

manners of the people were pleasing, and every-
where was he treated with kindness. Some of
the valleys through which they passed were
delightfully green, and clear springs of fresh
water gushed from the rocks. At these they fre-
quently found the young women belonging to
the villages employed in procuring water. By
way of an excuse for entermg into conversation
with them, Clapperton used to ask them for a
gourd of water. Bending gracefully on one
knee, and displaying at the same time teeth
of pearly whiteness, and eyes of the blackest
lustre, they presented it to him, and appeared
highly delighted when he thanked them for
their civility.

“Clapperton found Sultan Bello, the chief
of the Fellatahs, a person of much intelligence,
and of considerable information. He asked
many questions about England. He was very
much surprised to learn that there were no
slaves in this country, and had at first some
difficulty in understanding how we were sup


fi T.WeA RW ST MOM.

‘Bending gracefully on one knee they presented the gourd
to him,”
Page 162.
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 163

plied with servants. Clapperton told him that
English servants were hired for stated periods,
and paid regular wages, and that even soldiers
were fed, clothed, and paid, by government.
This intelligence greatly excited his surprise,
as, whenever he wishes to go to war, he sends
round a crier to proclaim his intentions, and to
command the attendance of his subjects, with
provisions for the length of time which the
expedition is expected to last. ‘ God is great!’
he exclaimed. ‘ You are a beautiful people!’
“Though kindly treated by Sultan Bello,
Clapperton could not prevail upon him to sup-
ply him with a guide to enable him to continue
his journey through the western countries to
the gulf of Benin. At first the sultan was
not averse to the proposition, but he subse-
quently retracted his permission, assigning as
reasons the rapid advance of the rainy season,
and the war which raged between the Fellatahs
and several of the neighbouring kingdoms,
which would render it very unsafe for any one
mM 2
164 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

coming out of his dominions. In short, as
Clapperton soon discovered that no escort
would be furnished, nothing remained for him
but to retrace his steps to the Bornou territories.
On his return journey, Clapperton was exposed
to many dangers from the disturbed state of
the country, and the precautions which it
was necessary to take to avoid the marauding
parties, which were traversing it in all direc-
tions. So harassing were the forced marches
that the party which he accompanied found it
necessary to make, that, on the fourth day after
their departure from Sackatoo, it was found that
nine men and six horses had perished from fatigue.
Fortunately, however, the strength and perseve-
rance of Clapperton overcame every difficulty.
He rejoined Major Denham at Kouka, whence,
after a short stay, they once more recrossed the
desert, participating in many of the fatigues
and privations of their previous journey. At
the different towns at which they halted, after
passing the desert, they were cordially received
DENHAM AND CLAPPERTON. 165

by the people, who expressed the greatest
pleasure at their safe return. ‘To go and come
back from the black country! Oh, wonder-
ful!’ they exclaimed. ‘You English have large
hearts! [that is, are brave, determined people].
God bless you! Now you are going home!
Well, good fortune attend you! How all your
friends will come out to meet you with fine
clothes !—and how much gunpowder they will
fire away !’

“At Tripoli the bashaw also received them
in the kindest manner, and honoured them by
attending a féte given by the consul on the
occasion of their return. Shortly after, they
embarked for Leghorn, and, proceeding to Flo-
rence, crossed the Alps, and arrived in England
in the end of May.

“ Notwithstanding the dangers which he had
encountered,” continued Uncle Thomas, “Clap-
perton, like his predecessor Park, resolved to
return to Africa to make still farther researches,
and to attempt to trace the course of the Niger.
166 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

But I must leave the account of his second ex-
pedition till another opportunity, and bid you
good by for the present.”

“ Good by, Uncle Thomas!”
167

CHAPTER VII.

UNCLE THOMAS TELLS ABOUT CLAPPERTON’S SECOND JOURNEY INTO AFRICA ;
AND HIS DEATH AT SACKATOO; ALSO ABOUT THE TRAVELS OF JOHN
DAVIDSON; HIS ATTEMPT TO REACH TIMBUCTOO; AND HIS MELANCHOLY
FATE.

“Goop evening, Uncle Thomas!” said the
boys, when they were once more assembled.
“You promised to tell us about Clapperton’s
second journey to night. We hope he was as
fortunate as on the first occasion, and returned
home in safety 2?”

“No, boys, he was not,” said Uncle Thomas;
“but we must not anticipate. When Clapper-
ton returned from his first journey, he was the
bearer of a letter from Sultan Bello, the chief
of the Fellatahs, to the king of England, pro-
posing, amongst other things, to establish a
friendly intercourse between the two nations,
168 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

and the prohibition of the exportation of slaves
by any of the merchants of Houssa—as the
district is called over which he rules. This
was thought too favourable an opportunity of
opening up a communication with some of the
finest countries of Africa, whence civilization
and commerce might spread over the whole
of the interior, to be overlooked. Clapper-
ton volunteered once more to proceed thither.
Having been furnished with suitable presents
for the sultan, and also for his old friend the
sheikh of Bornou, he set out, accompanied by
two companions, and arrived in the Gulf of
Benin on November 26, 1825.

“On making inquiry for the towns where
the sultan had promised to have messengers
waiting to conduct the expedition to Sackatoo,
Clapperton and his associates found that no
such places were known on that part of the
coast, nor could any intelligence be obtained of
such messengers. Not discouraged, however, by
these circumstances, the travellers determined
CLAPPERTON’S SECOND JOURNEY. 169

to seek their own way to Sackatoo; and on the
7th December they began their advance.

“They had not proceeded far before Clapper-
ton was seized with fever and ague, in conse-
quence of imprudent exposure during the night;
he and his companions, with the utmost incau-
tion, having slept in the open air on the banks
of a river, exposed to all the evil influences of
an African climate. 'T'wo days afterwards, the
whole party was ill, and on the 27th December
both of Clapperton’s companions died, leaving
him to pursue his journey alone. Fortunately,
however, his servant, Richard Lander, who
accompanied him in all his subsequent suffer-
ings, was able to attend him.

“As he advanced, he was everywhere received
with the greatest kindness by the natives, who
were highly amused and delighted to see white
men. At Jannah, one of the towns where they
stopped, they were followed by immense crowds
of people; the men taking off their caps, and
showing other marks of respect. The old cabo-
170 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

ceer, or chief of the town, gave them good
lodgings, and sent presents of hogs, ducks,
pigeons, plantains, yams, and whatever the place
could afford, while his wives, in number about
two hundred, welcomed them with songs of joy.
He and his whole court, particularly the ladies,
laughed immoderately when they learned that
an Englishman had but one wife. In this part
of Africa, they seem to measure a man’s great
ness by the number of his wives. ‘The king of
Yarriba afterwards told Clapperton that he did
not know how many he had; but said that, if
linked hand in hand, they would reach entirely
across his kingdom! ‘These African queens,
however, are not quite so dignified as their title
would imply. They generally serve as body-
guards to the court; and their majesties were
observed in every part of the kingdom, acting
as porters, bearing on their heads enormous
burdens, and having nothing in their dress or
appearance to distinguish them from the hum-
blest of their countrywomen.
CLAPPERTONS SECOND JOURNEY. 17]

“ After crossing a range of hills, Clapperton
arrived at Tshou, a town belonging to the king
of Yarriba or Eyeo, where he was met by a large
escort to conduct him in proper state to his
majesty. ‘This body-guard consisted of a great
number of bowmen, on foot and on horseback,
accompanied by a band of music, and followed
by an immense multitude of men, women, and
children. Arrived at Katunga, a large town
fifteen miles in circumference, they found the
king seated under a verandah, dressed in two
long cotton tobes, ornamented with three
strings of glass beads, and wearing a pasteboard
crown, covered with blue cotton cloth. He
received our traveller with great cordiality,
shaking his hand, and calling out, ‘Ako! Ako!’
‘how do you do?’ After an interview of about
half an hour, Clapperton was conducted by the
chief eunuch to handsome and commodious
lodgings, and a good dinner was prepared for
him and his attendants.

“His majesty invited our traveller to witness
172 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

a theatrical amusement. It was exhibited in
the open air, in a space surrounded by clumps
of trees. The first act exhibited men dancing
in sacks, who performed their part to admiration.
One of the bags opened, and forth issued a
figure like a boa-constrictor, fourteen feet long,
covered with cotton cloth, coloured and striped
so as to resemble the original. ‘Though rather
bulky in some places, it presented nearly the
form, and imitated well the actions, of that huge
animal. The mouth opened wide, probably by
the hands of the performer, to devour a warrior
armed with a sword, who advanced to contend
with it, and who struck it repeated blows, till it
writhed as if in agony, and finally expired.
The festivities concluded with the exhibition of
the white devil, which came out of another sack.
It was a meagre, shivering figure, so painted as
to represent an European. It took snuff, rubbed
its hands, and attempted in the most awkward
manner to walk on its naked feet. The spec-
tators were delighted; and testified their admi-
CLAPPERTONS SECOND JOURNEY. 173

ration by shouts of laughter, while his sable
majesty appealed to Clapperton whether it was
not well performed. As the caricature was far
from despicable, Clapperton joined heartily in
the mirth which it occasioned.

“ Clapperton at length reached Kano, which,
you will recollect, he visited on his first journey,
He found every thing in confusion. War had
broken out between the sultan of Bornou and
the Fellatahs, and the province was threatened
with inroads from various hostile tribes. Leav-
ing his baggage at Kano, Clapperton proposed
to proceed to Sackatoo, carrying with him the
presents intended for Sultan Bello. Finding,
however, that the sultan was encamped before
Coonia, the capital city of Goobur, which had
rebelled against him, our traveller proceeded
thither. Bello received him kindly, telling
him that he would receive the king of England’s
letters and presents at Sackatoo, as he intended
to attack Coonia on the following day. The
number of troops collected round this devoted
174 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

city, Clapperton estimates at from fifty to sixty
thousand, forming a dense circle of about two
hundred yards all round the walls. Clapper-
ton expected to see some brilliant exploit per-
formed by the united force of this great army,
commanded by the sultan in person. Nothing,
however, could be more laughable than their
assault. The whole force, both horse and foot,
kept carefully out of reach of the arrows, which
the enemy directed against them with sure and
steady aim. From time to time, indeed, some
valiant warrior, well covered with armour, would
gallop up to the wall, brandish his spear, taking
care to cover himself with his large leathern
shield, and return as fast as he went, generally
calling out when he found himself once more
safe amongst his friends, ‘ Shields to the wall!
Why don’t you come on?’ To which reproach-
ful exclamation some voice would reply, ‘ Oh!
you have a large shield to cover you!’ Evening
closed without any thing being effected by this
band of heroes; and, in the middle of the night
CLAPPERTON’S SECOND JOURNEY. 175

an alarm being raised that the garrison had
sallied out to attack them, the whole army began
a tumultuous flight, tumbling over each other,
and upsetting every thing in their way. The
retreat continued during the whole of the ensu-
ing day and night. Clapperton, by the sultan’s
advice, found his way to Sackatoo, and took up
his abode in the same house which he had
occupied on his first journey.

“Soon after his arrival, Clapperton discovered
that the feelings of the sultan and his friends
had changed very much since his former visit.
He was told that some one had written a letter
to the sultan, in which our traveller was de-
nounced as a spy, and that he was conveying
arms and ammunition to the sheikh of Bornou,
with whom the sultan was then at war. His
baggage was seized, and the letter which he car-
ried to the sheikh from the king of England
demanded. This, Clapperton having refused
to give up, it was taken from him by force.
He exclaimed loudly against these proceedings,
176 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

telling them that they were acting as robbers,
and in defiance of all good faith. His remon-
strances were in vain; every thing which could
be supposed to form part of the present in-
tended for the sheikh was carried off.

“ Discouraged and dispirited by such unwor-
thy conduct, Clapperton was shortly afterwards
seized with fever, which confined him to bed.
He soon became alarmingly ill; his sleep short
and disturbed, and even in his dreams still
haunted by the treachery of the Arabs. For
twenty days he lingered; and, from being robust
and vigorous, he became weak and emaciated.
At length he called Lander to his bedside, and
said, ‘ Richard, I shall shortly be no more: I
feel myself dying.’ Almost choked with grief,
Lander replied: ‘ God forbid, my dear master—
you will live many years yet.’ ‘Don’t be so
much affected, my dear boy, I entreat you,’ said
Clapperton ; ‘it is the will of the Almighty ; it
cannot be helped.’ He then gave directions
about the disposal of his papers ; and taking
CLAPPERTON’S SECOND JOURNEY. 177

Lander’s hand between his, and looking him full
in the face, while a tear stood glistening in his
eye, he said, in a low but deeply affecting tone—
‘My dear Richard, if you had not been with
me, I should have died long ago; I can only
thank you with my latest breath for your kind-
ness and attachment to me: God will reward
you!’ ‘This conversation, with minute direc-
tions as to his conduct in his homeward journey,
occupied nearly two hours, in the course of
which, Clapperton fainted several times. In the
evening, he fell into a slumber, from which
he awoke in great perturbation, saying that
he had heard distinctly the tolling of an English
funeral bell. Lander entreated him to be com-
posed, observing that sick people frequently
fancy they hear and see things which can have
no existence. He made no reply.

“ A few days afterwards, Lander was alarmed
by a peculiar rattling in his patient's throat, and,
hastening to the bed side, found him sitting
up, staring wildly around. He replaced him

N
178 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

gently on his bed. Some indistinct words
quivered on his lips; he strove, but ineffec-
tually, to give them utterance, and expired
without a struggle or a sigh.”

* Uncle Thomas paused, and, looking round,
was not displeased to observe more than one of
his little auditors wiping away a tear.

“Poor Lander,” resumed Uncle Thomas,
“left thus alone and unprotected, did not sink
into despondency. He asked permission of the
sultan to bury the remains of his dear master.
Bello accordingly ordered four slaves to dig a
grave ata village about five miles from Sacka-
too. ‘ When all was ready, says Lander, describ-
ing this trying and affecting scene, ‘I opened the
prayer-book, and, amid showers of tears, read
the funeral service over the remains of my valued
master. This being done, the body was slowly
lowered into the earth, and I wept bitterly as I
gazed for the last time upon all that remained
of my generous and intrepid master.

“<7 then returned, continues Lander, ‘ discon-
CLAPPERTON’'S SECOND JOURNEY. 179

solate and oppressed, to my solitary habitation,
and, leaning my head on my hand, could not
help being deeply affected with my lonesome
and dangerous situation —a hundred and fifteen
days’ journey from the sea coast, surrounded by
a selfish and cruel race of strangers, my only
friend and protector mouldering in the grave,
and myself suffering dreadfully from fever. |
felt, indeed, as if I stood alone in the world,
and earnestly wished I had been laid by the
side of my dear master: all the trying evils |
had endured never affected me half so much as
the bitter reflections of that distressing period.
After a sleepless night I went alone to the grave,
and, finding that nothing had been done to-
wards raising a building over it, which I had
agreed to give two thousand cowries for, and
knowing that it would be useless to remonstrate,
I hired two slaves at Sackatoo, the next day,
who immediately set to work, and it was soon
finished.’

“Lander now began to trace his steps home-

n 2
180 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

ward. He returned to Kano; and, keeping to
the east of the route by which Clapperton had
reached that city, he directed his course south-
ward, expecting to reach Fundah, where he
hoped to gain some informiation respecting the
termination of the Niger. In his way he passed
over the vast and beautiful plain of Cuttup, near
the river Coodoonia, where, he says, nearly five
hundred villages are clustered together. Thence
he reached Dunrora, and was congratulating
himself on soon being able to reach the Niger,
when four armed men, on foaming steeds, rode
into the town, and coming directly up to him,
told him that he must immediately return to
the king of Zeg-zeg. Remonstrance was in
vain; he therefore complied with the best grace
he could. On his arrival, the king told him
that he had ordered him back because, on
account of the war between Bello and the
king of Fundah, the latter would certainly
have murdered him, coming as he did from the
territories of that monarch. From this reason-
JOHN DAVIDSON. 181

ing there was no appeal; Lander was therefore
obliged to make his way back by his former
route. In all the places through which he
passed, anxious inquiries were made after
Clapperton, whom they styled his ‘ father ;’ and
when his death was announced, they raised loud
lamentations. Lander at length reached Badagry
in safety, whence, after some delay, he arrived
in England in the end of April, 1828.

“ You see, boys,” continued Uncle Thomas,
“how many valuable lives have been lost in
exploring the deserts of Africa; to those I have
already mentioned, many more might be added.
I fear, however, that I have now only time to
tell you about the adventures of Mr. Davidson,
the latest sufferer in the cause of African dis-
covery.

“ John Davidson was a native of London.
He was educated for the profession of medicine,
but a violent illness, brought on by exposure to
intense cold during a journey to Edinburgh,
whither he had gone for the purpose of com- ©
182 TALES AROUT TRAVELLERS.

pleting his medical studies, forced him to
abandon this design, and to retire for a time to
the more genial climate of Italy. He after-
wards visited Styria and Carniola, and made an
extended journey through Poland and Russia.
Returning to England, after a short stay, he
proceeded to Malta, thence to Alexandria, visit-
ing the pyramids of Thebes, and, proceeding to
Cosseir, embarked for India. His intention at
this time was to pass through Persia, but an
attack of cholera caused him to retrace his
steps to Cosseir, whence he made an excur-
sion through Arabia, Egypt, and Syria, visited
Constantinople, the Greek Isles, and Athens;
and, returning once more to England, again set
out for America, where he visited Niagara, the
Canadas, and, travelling through the United
States to New Orleans, proceeded to Mexico.

“ After again returning to England, and re-
maining nearly three years, his passion for travel-
ling once more seized him, and he resolved to
attempt to penetrate into the interior of Africa,
JOHN DAVIDSON. 183

and to visit the famous and mysterious city of
Timbuctoo, so long an object of curiosity to
the inhabitants of Europe.

“ Davidson set out on this perilous under-
taking in the month of August, 1835. He was
accompanied by a negro, named Abou Bekr,
a native of Timbuctoo, who, having been taken
prisoner by a hostile tribe, was sold as a slave,
when he was about fourteen years of age. He
was carried to the West Indies, where he remain-
ed nearly thirty years, exposed to all the evils of
slavery. Abou was the grandson of an alkaid,
or magistrate, and the son of the king’s wit-
ness, one of the principal law-officers of state,
and had, before being stolen, received a good
education. After passing through the hands of
several owners, his superior intelligence attracted
the notice of his master, who employed him in
a situation of some little trust, and afterwards
liberated him. He was subsequently brought
to England, and, being able to speak and write
the Arabic language, he was engaged by Mr.
184 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

Davidson to accompany him, and to act as in-
terpreter on his African expedition.

“ Our traveller reached Gibraltar on the 10th
of September, on his way to Morocco, but many
difficulties had to be overcome before he could
obtain permission to pass through that kingdom.
His resolution was however not to be easily
shaken. In spite of the lukewarmness of some
of those whom he met with at Gibraltar, and
the dissuasions of others, he determined to
persevere. He proceeded to Tangier, and the
sultan of Morocco, in answer to his request to
be allowed to proceed through his territories,
invited him to repair to court. No sooner had
he arrived than he was besieged by patients ;
morning, noon, and night, his attention was taken
up with this employment. On an average, fifty
persons a day claimed his advice ; and, as he had
to perform the duties of both physician and
apothecary, his hands were quite full. During his
stay in Morocco, no fewer than twelve hundred
patients passed through his hands, including the
JOHN DAVIDSON. 185

sultan, the principal ladies of his harem, the
whole of the ministry, as well as the judges,
besides other persons of distinction. ‘The whole
kingdom seems to have been suddenly seized
with illness, for the luxury of being prescribed
for by an English doctor.

« At length he was permitted to continue his
journey. After attempting the ascent of Mount
Atlas, which he was forced to abandon, in
consequence of an unusual accumulation of
snow, he traced his steps to Mogador: here he
received the emperor’s permission to proceed to
Wadnoon, having previously arranged with the
sheikh of that place for his conveyance across
the desert to Timbuctoo in safety.

“ Wadnoon is a large town on the borders of
the Sahara, from which it is separated by a line
of hills. From this place four kafilas proceed
annually, each consisting of from three hundred
to a thousand slaves. Unfortunately, from his
lengthened detention at Gibraltar and Morocco,
Davidson did not reach Wadnoon till the end of
186 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

April, and the last kafila for the season had left
a fortnight previous to his arrival. From the
intense drought it is impossible for travellers to
cross the desert during the summer months, the
springs being at that time dried up, and the
camels unable to sustain the heat.

“ During his stay at Wadnoon our traveller
was exposed to the most trying difficulties.
Anxious to proceed on his journey, he plied the
sheikh with unceasing importunities ; but all his
proposals were artfully evaded, first on one pre-
text and then another. At one time he painted in
strong colours the dangers and privations which
our traveller must suffer if he started, except
with a kafila, and, at another, promising an
immediate escort to convey him across the
desert. Inthe mean time he was daily harrassed
by the ridiculous demands of the natives, all
asking for medicine to cure them of illness, real
or imaginary. Some of the ladies wished to be
fattened up to thrice their present size, and many
wanted charms to cause people to love them.
JOHN DAVIDSON. 187

Most of them were disgustingly filthy, both in
their dress and habits. As a Christian, too, he
was exposed to unceasing annoyances from the
Moors. His situation was truly miserable, yet
he was forced to submit through the fear of
making enemies, and thus altogether defeating
the objects of his journey. At times, indeed,
unable longer to bear the insults to which he
was exposed, he had to threaten to shoot some
of the barbarians, and had great difficulty in
restraining himself; at others, sick at heart, and
unable longer to bear these indignities, he all
but resolved on an immediate return to Mogador,
and to seek the means of accomplishing his
journey in some other quarter.

“ The sheikh of Wadnoon was a person of
considerable sagacity, and most contradictory
character; at one time arrogant, austere, despotic,
and occasionally savage; at another, low and
grovelling ; now punishing his slaves with the
utmost severity, and again lavishing on them the
greatest kindnesses. He was, moreover, of a most
188 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

penurious disposition, and, though possessed of
great hoards of treasure, he thought nothing of
asking Davidson for the refuse of his tobacco
leaves to fill his pipe. He had a numerous
family, four wives, forty female slaves, and a
great number of children, many of whom were
covered with vermin and clothed in rags.

“ Filthy as were the persons and habits of the
inhabitants of Wadnoon, they were better than
those of the Damanis, a portion of which tribe
at this time arrived with a kafila from Soudan.
‘ Never,’ says Mr. Davidson, ‘did I meet with
any people who gave me so complete an idea of
savages. ‘Their bodies are a mass of dirt, and
their wan eyes are sunk in their heads ; their
teeth of pearly hue seem starting from their
gums. They wear their hair long and in large
quantities, some curled and others plaited. Half-
dyed blue with the khoart, and half famished,
they present a revolting exterior, but never did
any people improve so much upon acquaintance.
I had seen the Pindari horsemen in India, the
JOHN DAVIDSON. 189

Leoni savages in Arabia Felix, the Wahabi in
Yemen, the Ababdeh and Bishare in Arabia
Petrea and Egypt, but all these have a great
advantage in appearance over my friends the
Damanis.

‘** ¢ As soon as the camels were unloaded, the
twenty Damanis came to the sheikh’s house,
where they devoured a sheep with nearly half-
a-hundred weight of kuskusu, and a camel load
of ripe mashmash (apricots), and then all lay
down to sleep. In about an hour they got up,
and then came in a body to see the Nazarene
(Mr. Davidson). 1 had some difliculty to keep
myself from being smothered by them. The
sheikh came to drive them away, when one who
seemed to have some command said, ‘ Nazarene,
we are wild Arabs; none of us have ever seen a
Christian; we know you are a great man; if our
coming thus to you offends you, we will go, if
not, astonish us. You are a magician, show us
some fire.’ I lighted some tinder from the sun
with my glass, and then showed them my small
190 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

globe, telescope, watch, pistols, &c., afterwards
a lucifer match, and, lastly, I set fire to my fin-
ger, dipping it in spirits of terebinth: this was
too much for them, they became alarmed. I
then got my sword, and afterwards gave them
snuff; they all smoked my pipe, and, when that
was finished, and I had examined all their eyes,
and given many of them medicines, and would
not take money for it, | was told I had only to
to say ‘Resuli Mohammed, (My prophet is
Mahomet,) and go any where.’

“ At length, after a delay of seven months,
Davidson was enabled to set out. His departure
had been delayed from time to time for the
purpose of joining a kafila, but as all the tribes
on the usual caravan route were at war, and their
progress thus rendered almost impossible, it
was determined to leave the usual track, and
push on with the utmost speed, and with only
such delays as were absolutely necessary. In
this hazardous expedition he was accompanied
by an Arab of the Tajacanth tribe, named
JOHN DAVIDSON. 191

Mohammed El] Abd, Abou Bekr, and two atten-
dants. So rapidly was it intended to proceed,
that the camels were to drink only six times,
though the journey, even when made in this
hurried manner and by the shortest route,
usually occupies from thirty to thirty-six days.
“ Before he left Wadnoon, our traveller felt a
strong presentiment of the failure of the expedi-
tion, and of his own untimely fate, which were
unfortunately too fully realized. ‘ My mind,’ he
says, in one of his letters from this place, ‘is
made up to the certainty that I shall leave my
bones in Soudan;’ and in another he writes—
‘Before this reaches you, I shall be wending my
way over Africa's burning sands to a sort of
fame, or to the sad ‘ bourne from which no
traveller returns ;’ if to the former, truly happy
shall I be to renew your valued friendship, but
if to the latter, think sometimes of the poor lost
wanderer.’ As he advanced, however, his pro-
spects seemed to brighten, and his spirits to rise.
‘Every step we have taken from Wadnoon,’ he
192 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

again writes, ‘ we have found the people better,
more liberal, more hospitable, and, although
somewhat savage, having yet a little mildness of
character, of which there is none at Wadnoon.’
In the same letter, he says, ‘In conclusion,
I beg to assure you, I flatter myself with the
hope that the intrepid traveller may pass a
merry new year’s-day at the famed city of 'Tim-
buctoo, which event I hope to have the high
pleasure of announcing to you in about three
months, Sheikh Mohammed £1 Abd having
promised to be the bearer of a letter which he
‘s to deliver for me, and to say, ‘There is a
letter from Yahya Ben Daoud, (John, son of
David): the Tajacanths have kept their word!’

“ These bright anticipations were not destined
to be fulfilled. After proceeding some distance,
his little party was met by one of the tribes
of wandering Arabs, by which the desert 1s
infested. After robbing him of some money,
however, they allowed him to proceed. Three
days afterwards, Davidson and E] Abd, having


“One of the Arabs took up the musket, and shot poor
Davidson dead,”

Page 193.
JOHN DAVIDSON. 193

outstripped the remainder of their party, were
overtaken while waiting for them, at a place
named Swekeya, by a band consisting of fifteen
or sixteen Arabs of the tribe of El Harib.
After the usual salutations, and a few words of
conversation, the chief of the party asked El
Abd to conduct him to the watering-place.
Unsuspecting treachery, EK] Abd, leaving his
musket behind, proceeded with the Harib
chief over the sand-hills, the remainder of the
tribe sitting down at a short distance from
Mr. Davidson. No sooner were they out of
sight than one of the Arabs took up the musket,
pretending to examine it, and, taking aim, shot
poor Davidson dead. Hearing the report of
the gun, El Abd asked his companion what was
the matter, when the Harib replied, that his
party had shot the Christian. Mohammed El
Abd complained bitterly, saying that he would
rather they had murdered himself. The work
of death done, the Haribs carried off every thing
belonging to Mr. Davidson, and then allowed
oO
194 TALES ABOUT TRAVELLERS.

the party, including Abou Bekr, to proceed on
their journey.

“Such was the end of poor Davidson, and
thus,” said Uncle Thomas, “ was another victim
added to the long list of those who have for-
feited their lives to advance the cause of dis-
covery in Africa!” After telling the boys that
he hoped before long to have the pleasure of
inviting them to listen to another series of
Stories, he affectionately bade his little auditors
good night, and the party dispersed, wondering
what would form the next subject of Uncle
Thomas's Tales.

THE END.

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LCllustrated by one of her WPainters,

With many beautiful Embellishments engraved on Steel, in'an entirely
new style. Post 8vo, cloth, 14s. ; morocco elegant, 18s.

——

MAY YOU LIKE IT,

BY THE REY. C. B. TAYLOR,
Author of “ Records of a Good Man's Life.”

New Edition in one vol. fep 8vo,7s. 6d. very neat in cloth, gilt edges ;
10s. 6d. morocco.

LIFE’S LESSONS: A TALE.
By the Author of ‘‘ Tales that might be true.”
Fep &vo, cloth, 5s.

LACONICS;
OR THE BEST WORDS OF THE BEST AUTHORS.
Three volumes, embellished with Thirty small Portraits.
New and very cheap Edition, price 8s., cloth.

“There is a world of wit and wisdom in these three little volumes.” —Lit. Gaz.

—

SHARPE’S DIAMOND DICTIONARY
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE,

ith Forty-five Illustrations, engraved by Thompson, from Draw-
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Size 2 inches by 34, price 4s. 6d. bound in morocco,
or 3s. 6d. cloth, gilt edges.
TILT’S

HAND-BOOKS FOR CHILDREN,
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LONDON SIGHTS FOR LITTLE FOLKS.
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SURREY ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS.

The whole of the above Works may be

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THE LITTLE FORGET-ME-NOT:
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DRAWING BOOKS FOR BECINNERS.



THE LITTLE SKETCH BOOK.
A Series of very easy Studies in Landscapes, Figures, &c., by G. CHILDS
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FAIRLAND'’S JUVENILE ARTIST.

Figures, Landscapes, and Shipping. Eight Nos., 1s. each, or bound in cloth, 8s



HARDING'S EARLY DRAWING BOOK,

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COOPER'S STUDIES OF ANIMALS.
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LESSONS IN FLOWER PALNTING,
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TILI!'’S NEW PROGRESSIVE DRAWING BOOK
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HARDING'S DRAWING BOOK, 1837.

Advanced Studies, printed on India Paper. Six Nos., 3s. each; 21s. bound.



HARDING'S DRAWING BOOK, 1838..

Advanced Studies, printed in Tints. Six Nos., 38. each ; 21s. half-morocco.

CHILD’S EASY DRAWING BOOK.

Studies from Nature, in Progressive Lessons, Eight Nos., 18. each ; or cloth, 8s





HARLEY’S LANDSCAPE DRAWING BOOK.

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PROUT’S ELEMENTARY DRAWING BOOK
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