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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
JAN 6 j978
/ Ft. Pierce ARC Research Report RL-1977-6 October 1 7
I.F.A.S.. Univ. of Florida
Reaction of tomato lines selected for resistance to southern bacterial
wilt in a field naturally infested with the pathogen, Results 1977.
R. M. Sonoda and J. Augustine 1/
Seventy-two tomato lines were screened in two field tests in Oldsmar
fine sand soil naturally infested with Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F.
Smith, incitant of southern bacterial wilt at the Agricultural Research
Center, Fort Pierce. No plants of Hawaii 7981, CRA-66 selections or PI
126408 selections were killed by the pathogen in Test 1. One % of
Hawaii 7997 plants were killed. Hawaii 7997 produced a heavy set of
well-formed small fruit even under the high ambient temperatures of the
test. Three % of the cultivar Saturn, used as the standard resistant
line were killed. All plants of Walter PF, used as the standard sus-
ceptible line were killed in Test 1. Two Hawaii BWN-21 selections had
15 and 19% dead plants. A fourth generation selection of a cross bet-
ween PI 126408-6 and Florida MH-1 had 37% dead plants. In Test 2, PI
365930, PI 212441, and PI 263722 had 2, 4, and 10%, respectively, wilted
plants. Ninety-nine % of Florida MH-I and 70% of Walter plants were
wilted. Fifty seven % of Saturn and 60% of Venus, the varieties used
as resistant standards were killed in Test 2.
Bacterial wilt of tomato incited by Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F.
Smith causes perennial localized losses on tomato farms in south Florida.
No adequate measure against this pathogen is available in Florida. All
tomato varieties grown commercially in Florida are susceptible to the
pathogen. Resistant varieties have been developed in other areas of the
world (2) but these varieties have proven susceptible or unsuitable
horticulturally under Florida conditions (2).
The following is part of a continuing search for sources of re-
sistance to P. solanacearum indigenous to south Florida.
Materials and Methods
Test 1 planted on April 20 '77 included fifteen promising lines
selected from a cross (breeding line '54') made by the late J. M.
Walter (2); selections made from crosses between PI 126408 and several
Florida varieties; five lines from the Dominican Republic; fourteen
lines obtained from J. C. Gilbert, U diversity of Hawaii; Saturn, and
1/ Associate Plant Pathologist and Assistant Geneticist, respectively
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Research Center, Fort Pierce and Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Bradenton, respectively.
five miscellaneous Florida lines (Table 1).
Test 2 planted on July 12 '77 included 22 PI lines that were iden-
tified as resistant to southern bacterial wilt in Taiwan (1), Saturn,
Venus, Walter, Florida MH-1 and two numbered Florida lines (Table 2).
Seeds of the tomato lines were sown, grown, and transplanted as
previously described (2). The plantings were in randomized complete
blocks with five replicates of six plants each in two areas in a field
on Oldsmar fine sand soil at the Agricultural Research Center, Fort
Pierce where losses of Florida MH-1 due to bacterial wilt had been bet-
ween 84 to 99% in preceding tests.
Results and Discussions
Wilting of plants due to bacterial wilt was noticed about 3 weeks
after planting. Disease incidence was greatest in the south and east
portions of the plot in Test 1. Disease incidence was relatively uni-
form throughout the plot in Test 2.
In Test 1, all plants of Hawaii 7981, the CRA-66 selections and
selections from PI 126408 survived (Table 1), while all of the sus-
ceptible standard, Walter PF, were killed. One o of Hawaii 7997 was
killed. Three % of the resistant standard, Saturn, died. Hawaii 7997
looked very good horticulturally as it produced a heavy set of well-
formed small fruit even under the high temperative conditions of the
test. Hawaii 7997 may sevre.as a source of resistance and also as a
commercial salad type and home garden variety without further crossing.
Additional testing of this tomato is in progress.
Some of the BWN-21 (762524) lines from Hawaii were less affected
in Test 1 than the F1 BWN-21 line screened in a previous test (2).
These selections are more homogeneous than the Fl hybrid and may have
a higher complement of resistance genes. The average temperature
during Test 1 (Table 1) was slightly lower than that during the test
reported previously (2). J. C. Gilbert (University of Hawaii, per-
sonal communication) reported that the resistance in these lines
breaks down under high temperatures. The BWN-21 lines produced medium
to large fruit, slightly irregular in shape, and had only poor to fair
Several of the fourth generation selections from crosses between
PI 126408 selections and Florida commercial varieties (e.g. 760204-BK)
survived better than Walter PF (Table 1). None of these lines, how-
ever produced fruit that were horticulturally acceptable.
All of the selections from breeding line '54' made by the late
J. M. Walter were highly susceptible under the test conditions.
(708-3 to 729-11 in Table 1).
In Test 2 (Table 2), PI 212441, PI 263722 and PI 365930 had better
than 90% survival, while almost all plants of one of the susceptible
standards, Florida MH-1, were killed by the disease. The ambient tem-
perature during Test 2 was higher than during Test 1. Test 2 was the
first test of five conducted since March 1974 in which a large per-
centage of the resistant standards Venus and Saturn were killed by
Results obtained over the past several years include an interesting
observation that Florida MH-1 appears slightly more susceptible to bac-
terial wilt than Walter, the most widely grown variety as of this pub-
lication. The % plants killed by bacterial wilt for three tests where
these two varieties were used as the susceptible controls are 1) Walter
87%, Florida MH-1 99%; 2) Walter 74%, Florida MH-1 98% and 3) Walter
70% and Florida MH-1 99%.
The results of this test show that there are several possible
sources of resistance to the P. solanacearum strain or strains present
on the ARC-FP grounds in the Tomato lines currently under testing.
Future work will be aimed at incorporating these sources of resis-
tance into horticulturally acceptable tomato lines.
1. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center. 1976. Tomato
Report for 1975. 51 pp.
2. Sonoda, R. M. 1977. Behavior of tomato lines, selected for resis-
tance to southern bacterial wilt, in a field infested with the
pathogen. Ft. Pierce ARC Research Report RL-1977-3.
Table 1. Incidence of bacterial wilt in-)5 at o accessions transplanted in
Pseudomonas solanacearum iafested .soil 0o Apr 20 '77 at the Agri-
cultural Research..Center, Fort-Pierce. 1/
760204-Bk (PI 126408-4
761055-2 (Wild cherry)
760193-Bk (PI 126408-4
760187-Bk (PI 126408-4
761055-1 (Wild cherry)
3 ab2/ Hawaii 7845
100 g 760206-Bk (PI 126408-6
0 a x MH-1)-Bk-2-6-1-Bk
762524-6 (STEP 624-BWN-21)
0 a 729-11 54-11-3-1-Bk-Bk-ll
0 a 701-14 54-2-1-l-lB-Bk-Bk-14
0 a 729-1 54-11-3-1-Bk-Bk-1
0 a 727-6 54-11-2-11-Bk-Bk-6
0 a 714-5 54-10-2-1-6-Bk-Bk-5
1 ab 761056-1 (Wild cherry)
15 abc I. Gondol (S. E. Asia)
19 abc 728-3 54-11-3-1-1-Bk-3
37 bcd 726-9 54-1l-l-Rl-Bk-Bk-9
761055-Bk (Wild cherry)
37 bcd RHH # 5
39 bcde 708-3 54-5-1-DI-Bk-Bk-3
41 bcdef 728-8 54-ll-3-1-1-Bk-8
42 bcdef 761056-2 (Wild cherry)
61 cdefg 708-6 54-5-l-D1-Bk-Bk-6
64 cdefg 712-2 54-10-1-Dl-Bk-Bk-2
65 cdefg 714-4 54-10-2-1-6-Bk-Bk-4
73 cdefg 729-6 54-11-3-1-Bk-Bk-6
74 cdefg 728-9 54-l1-3-1-1-Bk-9
1/ Mean daily maximum and minimum temperature 85.8 and 64.3 F, respectively.
Rain recorded on 10 of 69 days of experiment (Total 18.5 inches).
2/ Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5% level (Duncans multiple range test). Analysis of variance conducted
on data transformed to arc-sine.
Table 2. Incidence of bacterial wilt in 28 tomato accessions transplanted
in Pseudomonas solanacearum infested soil on July 17, 1977, at
the Agricultural Research Center, Fort Pierce. 7/
1/ Mean daily maximum and minimum
Rain recorded on 26 of 71 days
temperature 92.0 and 72.1 F, respectively.
of experiment (Total 17.47 inches).
2/ Means followed by ths same letter are not significantly different at
the 5% level (Duncan's multiple range test). Analysis of variance
conducted on data transformed to are-sine.