Citation
Comparison of flat fan and hollow cone spray patterns on 'Morgan' melon diseases

Material Information

Title:
Comparison of flat fan and hollow cone spray patterns on 'Morgan' melon diseases
Series Title:
Ft. Pierce ARC research report
Creator:
Sonoda, Ronald M
Hayslip, Norman C ( Norman Calvin ), 1916-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication:
Ft. Pierce Fla
Publisher:
University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
2, [1] leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Melons -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida ( lcsh )
Pesticides -- Application -- Florida ( lcsh )
Nozzles ( jstor )
Diseases ( jstor )
Fan mail ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 2).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"October 1978."
Statement of Responsibility:
R.M. Sonoda and N.C. Hayslip.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
69419597 ( OCLC )

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:/j Ft. Pierce ARC Research Report RL 1978-7


COMPARISON OF FLAT FAN AND HOLLOW CONE SPRAY PATTERNS Oi~1MR.GAQ ^.
MELON DISEASES o 9 /

R. M. Sonoda and N. C. Hayslip-


Abstract

Hollow cone nozzles (Tee Jet D-4-23 and D-5-23) were compared with flat fan
nozzles (Tee Jet SS8002 and SS8003) on 'Morgan' melon. Three different concentrations
of Dithane M-45 80W suspensions were used. The amount of Dithane M-45 applied,
however, was the same per unit area. The severity of a foliar disease complex
(powdery mildew, downy mildew, and gummy stem blight) was generally lower on 'Morgan'
melons sprayed with nozzles forming a flat fan spray pattern.



Previous work (1, 2) indicated that fungicides applied with nozzles forming a
flat fan spray pattern reduced severity of 'Morgan' melon diseases more than the same
fungicides applied with hollow-cone-forming nozzles. Only one size of nozzle aperture
for each of the two types of nozzles was compared in the previous tests (1, 2). In
this report we compare disease control provided by two sizes of apertures for flat fan
patterns and two sizes of apertures for the hollow cone pattern.


Materials and Methods

'Morgan' melon and 'Charleston Gray' watermelon were seeded on March 30, 1978,
on 42" wide beds in Oldsmar fine sand at the Agricultural Research Center, Fort Pierce.
Each plot consisted of eight hills of 'Morgan' melon planted 2 ft apart and 8 hills
of watermelon planted 2 ft apart. The rows were 12 ft apart to minimize the effect
of spray drift. There was 5 ft down row between the two types of melons in each plot.
The plots were fertilized as needed and watered by sub-irrigation. The melons were
sprayed at 4-5 day intervals with a tractor drawn spray rig, beginning on May 1.
Three Tee Jet (SS8002 or SS8003) were arranged in tandem in the following manner:
the forward nozzle facing forward, -450 below horizontal, the middle nozzle at -900
below horizontal, and the hindmost nozzle facing backwards at -450 below horizontal.
The spray patterns from the three nozzles were in planes perpendicular to a vertical
plane in the direction of tractor movement. Hollow cone nozzles, Tee Jet D4-23 or
D5-23, were arranged singly in the standard manner in a plane perpendicular to the
direction of tractor travel to cover the same swath width as the flat fan nozzles.
As plants grew, the number of sets of three flat fan nozzles was increased from one
set of three nozzles, to three sets of three nozzles 19 inches apart. The number of
hollow cone nozzles was increased from three to seven. Three concentrations of
Dithane M-45 80W were used (0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 lb/100 gal.). The amount of fungicide
applied was less than that normally used for good control of the 'Morgan' melon
diseases. Tractor speed was adjusted to apply 5.3 g active ingredient per 100 ft
at 200 psi for all nozzle types and for the three concentrations of Dithane M-45.
The order in which nozzles were used was changed each spray day. When heavy rains
fell before a scheduled spray was completed, all plots were re-sprayed when weather
cleared on that day or the following day.




1/ Associate Plant Pathologist and Horticulturist, respectively, University of Floride
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research Center,








:/j Ft. Pierce ARC Research Report RL 1978-7


COMPARISON OF FLAT FAN AND HOLLOW CONE SPRAY PATTERNS Oi~1MR.GAQ ^.
MELON DISEASES o 9 /

R. M. Sonoda and N. C. Hayslip-


Abstract

Hollow cone nozzles (Tee Jet D-4-23 and D-5-23) were compared with flat fan
nozzles (Tee Jet SS8002 and SS8003) on 'Morgan' melon. Three different concentrations
of Dithane M-45 80W suspensions were used. The amount of Dithane M-45 applied,
however, was the same per unit area. The severity of a foliar disease complex
(powdery mildew, downy mildew, and gummy stem blight) was generally lower on 'Morgan'
melons sprayed with nozzles forming a flat fan spray pattern.



Previous work (1, 2) indicated that fungicides applied with nozzles forming a
flat fan spray pattern reduced severity of 'Morgan' melon diseases more than the same
fungicides applied with hollow-cone-forming nozzles. Only one size of nozzle aperture
for each of the two types of nozzles was compared in the previous tests (1, 2). In
this report we compare disease control provided by two sizes of apertures for flat fan
patterns and two sizes of apertures for the hollow cone pattern.


Materials and Methods

'Morgan' melon and 'Charleston Gray' watermelon were seeded on March 30, 1978,
on 42" wide beds in Oldsmar fine sand at the Agricultural Research Center, Fort Pierce.
Each plot consisted of eight hills of 'Morgan' melon planted 2 ft apart and 8 hills
of watermelon planted 2 ft apart. The rows were 12 ft apart to minimize the effect
of spray drift. There was 5 ft down row between the two types of melons in each plot.
The plots were fertilized as needed and watered by sub-irrigation. The melons were
sprayed at 4-5 day intervals with a tractor drawn spray rig, beginning on May 1.
Three Tee Jet (SS8002 or SS8003) were arranged in tandem in the following manner:
the forward nozzle facing forward, -450 below horizontal, the middle nozzle at -900
below horizontal, and the hindmost nozzle facing backwards at -450 below horizontal.
The spray patterns from the three nozzles were in planes perpendicular to a vertical
plane in the direction of tractor movement. Hollow cone nozzles, Tee Jet D4-23 or
D5-23, were arranged singly in the standard manner in a plane perpendicular to the
direction of tractor travel to cover the same swath width as the flat fan nozzles.
As plants grew, the number of sets of three flat fan nozzles was increased from one
set of three nozzles, to three sets of three nozzles 19 inches apart. The number of
hollow cone nozzles was increased from three to seven. Three concentrations of
Dithane M-45 80W were used (0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 lb/100 gal.). The amount of fungicide
applied was less than that normally used for good control of the 'Morgan' melon
diseases. Tractor speed was adjusted to apply 5.3 g active ingredient per 100 ft
at 200 psi for all nozzle types and for the three concentrations of Dithane M-45.
The order in which nozzles were used was changed each spray day. When heavy rains
fell before a scheduled spray was completed, all plots were re-sprayed when weather
cleared on that day or the following day.




1/ Associate Plant Pathologist and Horticulturist, respectively, University of Floride
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research Center,






-2-


Plants were rated for
ranged from 1 = no disease
were harvested on June 30.
differences were separated


disease severity on June 23. The disease severity
to 6 = plants completely defoliated. The 'Morgan'
All data were subjected to analysis of variance.
by Duncan's multiple range test.


Results and Discussion

No diseases were observed on 'Charleston Gray' watermelon. The collective effect
of powdery mildew, downy mildew and gummy stem blight on 'Morgan' melon was severe
and it was difficult to separate the effect of one disease from that of another.
Disease severity ratings were based on condition of plants rather than on the intensi-
ties of the individual diseases. Most of the plots treated with nozzles producing a
flat fan spray pattern were less severely affected than plots sprayed with nozzles
forming a hollow cone pattern (Table 1). There were no differences in yield between
treatments.

These tests and the preceding reports (1, 2) indicate that nozzles producing a
flat fan spray pattern, used in the manner described above, provide better disease
control on 'Morgan' melon than nozzles producing a hollow cone pattern. Further
experiments on a larger scale will be needed to determine any yield differences be-
tween plots treated with the two nozzle types.





Literature Cited

1. Sonoda, R. M. and N. C. Hayslip. 1977. Comparison of two spray nozzle arrange-
ments for control of 'Morgan' melon diseases, 1976. Fungicide and
Nematocide Tests, Results of 1976. 32:87.


2. Sonoda,


R. M. and N. C. Hayslip. 1977. Flat fan vs. hollow cone spray patterns
against fungus diseases of three vegetable crops. Ft. Pierce ARC
Research Report RL 1977-5.


ratings
melons
Mean






-2-


Plants were rated for
ranged from 1 = no disease
were harvested on June 30.
differences were separated


disease severity on June 23. The disease severity
to 6 = plants completely defoliated. The 'Morgan'
All data were subjected to analysis of variance.
by Duncan's multiple range test.


Results and Discussion

No diseases were observed on 'Charleston Gray' watermelon. The collective effect
of powdery mildew, downy mildew and gummy stem blight on 'Morgan' melon was severe
and it was difficult to separate the effect of one disease from that of another.
Disease severity ratings were based on condition of plants rather than on the intensi-
ties of the individual diseases. Most of the plots treated with nozzles producing a
flat fan spray pattern were less severely affected than plots sprayed with nozzles
forming a hollow cone pattern (Table 1). There were no differences in yield between
treatments.

These tests and the preceding reports (1, 2) indicate that nozzles producing a
flat fan spray pattern, used in the manner described above, provide better disease
control on 'Morgan' melon than nozzles producing a hollow cone pattern. Further
experiments on a larger scale will be needed to determine any yield differences be-
tween plots treated with the two nozzle types.





Literature Cited

1. Sonoda, R. M. and N. C. Hayslip. 1977. Comparison of two spray nozzle arrange-
ments for control of 'Morgan' melon diseases, 1976. Fungicide and
Nematocide Tests, Results of 1976. 32:87.


2. Sonoda,


R. M. and N. C. Hayslip. 1977. Flat fan vs. hollow cone spray patterns
against fungus diseases of three vegetable crops. Ft. Pierce ARC
Research Report RL 1977-5.


ratings
melons
Mean








Table 1. Disease severity on and yield of 'Morgan' melons sprayed with
nozzles producing flat fan and hollow cone spray patterns.


Tractorl/
speed Cone. Dithane2/ DSI-3 Yield4/
Spray pattern Nozzle size mph #/100 gals June 23 T/A

flat fan SS8003 1.90 1.0 3.7 a5/ 10.2
flat fan SS8002 2.48 1.3 3.8 a 12.5
flat fan SS8003 1.25 0.7 3.9 a 11.4
hollow cone D4-23 1.04 1.3 4.1 ab 11.1
flat fan SS8003 2.48 1.3 4.3 ab 10.8
hollow cone D4-23 0.82 1.0 4.4 ab 10.4
flat fan SS8002 1.90 1.0 4.5 ab 11.8
hollow cone D5-23 1.65 1.3 4.6 ab 10.3
hollow cone D5-23 1.25 1.0 4.9 b 10.1
hollow cone D5-23 0.82 0.7 4.9 b 10.0 NS


1/ Tractor speed for 9 flat fan or 7 hollow cone nozzles.
2/ Although concentrations of the suspensions were different, 5.3 g active
ingredient of Dithane M-45 was applied per 100 ft2.
3/ Rating system: 1 = no disease to 6 = complete defoliation.
4/ Yields are tons per acre based on rows 12 ft apart.
5/ Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
(DNMRT P-.05).









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