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SVE ESTER'S DICTIO11 RIES.
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SThe Baldwn Library
,ESE' DIC I',]ARI jdES.
ROBINSON'S
PR O RE SSIYE
FOrf YOUNG CHILDREN.
EDITZD BT
D. W. FISH, A.M.
NEW YORK:
IVISON, BLAKEMAN, TAYLOR, & COMPANY,
138 & 140 GRAND STRnET.
CHICAGO: 133 & 135 STATE STRIET.
1871.
 ,
SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.
THE author, in the preparation of this little book, has aimed
to present the first principles of Arithmetic in such a form as
to interest and instruct the pupils of Primary Schools and
classes.
The first lesson taught the child, in numbers, is to count,
which, with the fundamental operations of adding, subtract
ing, multiplying,, and dividing, can be easily and successfully
taught, by the apt teacher, by the proper use of the Numeral
Frame, a box of beans, or marbles, or similar objects,which
should always be found on the desk of the teacher of young
children.
Only a few suggestions, methods, and applications 6an be
presented in so small a work as this, as specimen lessons; and it
is expected that the teacher iill increase the number and
variety, of the exercises on each page, orally, as the circum
stances, and the capacity of the child, seem to require.
Examples should be multiplied under each lesson, for the
purpose of fixing in the mind of the pupil the table, which
should be thoroughly committed to memory. In order to insure
this object, the tables should be repeated not only in the direct.
order, but promiscuously, and in a reversed order. Thus the
chiS1oUld4oedbmado to Tj!1.. r il,i tL:;II :; .!,ld r is the same
asa nd1; that 3 tmes't : i,:i n,:r : '* hi' 3 ; that 5
and 5 and 5 is the same as 3 times 5; that if 3 is contained
in 15, 5 times, 5 is contained in 15, 3 times, &ec.
The hints and exercises on pages 10 and 11, as well as those
on pages 24, 25, and 26, should be thoroughly understood and
applied.
The pictures introduced are to interest the pupil, and also
to illustrate some of the processes of Arithmetic, without the
reasoning.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 186C, by
DANIEL W. FISH, A.M.
Inthe Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the
SNorthern District of Now York.
Eltctrotyped by Sml&r & McDounoA, 84 Boelman Street, N. Y.
 ..
ARITHMETICAL TABLE BOOK.
LESSON 1.
1. What is a.single thing called ?
ANs. A Unit, or one.
2. If another is put with it what is it called ?
ANs. Two.
.3. ne dll a nd nd dbll are ]ow many?
One and one are how,.u ? 
S4. TwNv qj'! aud one quail are how many?
Two and one are how iany?
.... .. ri1:v_ _ __= ._ ._ ___
5. Three dogs and one dog are how many?
Three and one are how many ?
4 ARITHMETICAL
6. Four tops and one top are how many ?
Four and one are how many?
..****? < <7'' Ii.t.TJ 7
7. Five roses and one rose are how many?
Five and one are how many ?
8. Six crowns and one crown are how many ?
Six and one are how many ?
9. Seven hives and one hive are how many ?
Seven and one are how many ?
C .__1 f'f ._, fk,' .1.. ,, f.,," _ .U I'
10. Eightflowers and one flower, are how many?
Eight and one are how many ?
11. Nine chairs and one chair are how many ?
Nine and one are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 5
LESSON II.
1. What do the words, one, two, three, four, &c.,
express ? ANS. Numbers.
2. What is counting?
ANs. Expressing numbers by words.
3. What is a number?
ANS. A unit or a collection of units.
4. How many ways to express numbers ?
ANs. Three.
5. Name them.
ANs. By words, figures, and letters.
6. Which is the most common method ?
ANs. By figures.
7. How many figures are used to express num
bers ? ANS. Ten.
8. Name them.
Naught, One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Seven, Eighli," e.
ANs. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
9. Here is a picture of some birds, count them.
How many are there? ANs. Ten.
10. Write on your slate the following figures:
/, ,, 4 i /, e, ,! a
11. How do you express ten by figures?
ANs. By placing thefigure 1 before the cipher
0; thus, 10.

6 ARITII HMETICAL
LESSON III.
1. Count the drums in each row, and tell the
number.
One . 1
Two 2
Three 3
Four 4
Five 5
Six, &c. 1 6
P1 0
o P P Q
2. How many are 1 and 1 more ? 2 and 1 more ?
3 and 1 moreO 4 and 1 more? 5 and 1 more?
6 and 1 more? 7 and 1 more? 8 and 1 more?
3. How many drums in the first and second
lines counted together ? In the second and third ?
In the third and fourth ? In the second and fifth ?
In the third and seventh ? In the first and ninth?
TABLEBOOK. 7
LESSON IV.
1. What is the method of expressing numbers
by figures called ?
As. The Arabic Method.
2. Why is it so called ?
Ass. Because it was first used by the Arabs.
3. How many letters are used to express num
bers ? ANs. Seven.
4. What are they?
ANs. I, V, X, L, C, D, and M.
5. What does I stand for ?
ANs. One.
6. What does V stand for ?
ANs. Five.
7. What does X stand for?
ANS. Ten.
8. What does L stand for ?
ANs. Fifty.
9. What does C stand for?
ANs. One hundred.
10. What does D stand for ?
ANs. Five hundred.
11. What does M stand for? 4
ANs. One thousand.
12. What is this method called?
Ass. The Roman M1ethod.
 13. Why is it so called ?
ANs. Because it was first used by the Romans ?
8 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON V.
1. What is the effect of repeating a letter ?
ANS. Its value is repeated as many times as
the letter.
2. If I stands for one, how many do two I's
stand for ?
ANs. Two.
3. What is the effect of writing a letter of a
less value before one of a greater ?
ANs. It diminishes the value of the greater.
4. If, then, V stands for five, how many does
IV stand for ?
ANs. Four.
5. What is the effect of writing a letter of a
less value after one of'a greater?
ANs. It increases the value of the greater.
6. If then, X stands for ten, how many does
XI snd for?
Acs. Eleven.
NTMBERBS PRINTED WRrITnHN ROMAN
FIGU RESa. FIIGUREB. LETTERS.
Naught 0 0
One 1 / I
Two 2 2 II
Three # 4 III
Four 4 4 IV
Five 5 / V
Six 6 6 VI
Seven 7 7 VII
TABLEBOOK. 9
LESSON VI.
Eight 8 VIII
Nine 9 9 IX
Ten 10 /O X
Eleven 11 XI
Twelve 12 /2 XII
Thirteen 13 /3 XIII
Fourteen 14 4 XIV
Fifteen 15 / XV
Sixteen 16 /d XVI
Seventeen 17 // XVII
Eighteen 18 /Y XVIII
Nineteen 19 19 XIX
Twenty 20 20 XX
Thirty 30 o XX
Forty 40 0M XL
Fifty 50 dd L
Sixty 60 Ka LX
Seventy 70 70 LXX
Eighty 80 o LXXX
Ninety 90 go XC
One Hundred 100 voo C
Two Hundred 200 200 CC
Five Hundred 500 o0o D
One Thousand 1000 o000 M
10 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON VII.
Here is a picture of a frame, with some balls
on tl% wires, it is called the Numeral _Frame.*
How many vi.res are there ? How many balls
are one ball and one ball? Two balls and one ball?
Three balls and one ball ? Four balls and one
ball? Five~alls and one ball ? Six balls and one
ball? Seven balls and one ball? Eight balls and
one ball? Nine balls and one ball? IHow many
balls on each i' ?
The apt teacher, by a judicious use of this frame, may
easily teach a child a great variety of mental exercises; to count
from one to a hundred, and to add, subtract,,nultiply, and divide,
with facility. The counting and other operations should be
done silently by the eye, and results only, given by the voice.
Adding or counting by ones, twos, threes, &c., up to tens, is an
important exercise and easily performed by the use of this frame.
TABLEBOOK. 11
LESSON VIII.
Is there any figure that stands for ten ? How
then do we write ten ? What does the 1 mean
when it has a 0 on the right of it ?
How many balls on the upper wire? How
many on the second wire ? How many on both
together? Twenty. How then shall we write
twenty ? The figure 2 and a 0 at the right of it.
What does the 2 mean, when it has a 0 at the
right of it? Two tens, or twenty. How many
are twice ten ?
How many balls are there on the three upper
wires? How many tens make thirty? Three
times ten are how many ? Write thirty: 30.
There are ten balls on the upper wire, and one
by itself on the second wire; how many are ten
balls and one ball? Eleven. Write the figures
for eleven: 11. What does the 1 on thl left
stand for? On the right? How many are 10
and 1 ?
There are ten balls on the upper wire and two
alone at the left on the third wire; how many are
ten and two? Twelve. Write the figures for
twelve: 12. What does the figure 1 stand for ?
The figure 2 ? 10 and 2 are how many ?
Write thirteen in figures : 13. Write fourteen:
14. Fifteen: 15. Sixteen: 16. Seventeen: 17.
Eighteen: 18. Nineteen: 19. What does the
figure 1 stand for? The figure 9 ? 10 and 9 are
how many ?
A
12 ARITHMETiCAL
LESSON IX.
1. What does ADDITION teach ?
ANs. The process of collecting several numbers
into one.
2. What is the result called?
ANs. The Sum or AMOUNT.
3. One rabbit and 1 rabbit are how many?
1 and 1 are how many ?
4. One fish and 2 fishes are how many fishes ?
1 and 2 are how many ? 2 and 1 ?
5.rOne horse and 3 horses are how many ?
1 and 3 are how many? 3 and 1 ?
4 TABLE.
1 and 1 are 2 1 and 4 are how many?
1 and 2 are 3 1 and 3 are how many?
1 and 3 are 4 2 and 1 are how many?
1 and 4 are 5 5 and 1 are how many?
1 and 5 are 6 1 and 7 are how many?
1 and 6 are 7 1 and 10 are how many?
1 and 7 are 8 1 and 1 are how many?
1 and 8 are 9 1 and 9 are how many?
1 and 9 are 10 6 and 1 are how many?
1 and 10 are 11 8 and 1 are how many?
TABLE*BOOK. 13
LESSON X.
1. Two ships and 1 ship are how many ships ?
2 and 1 are how many ? 1 and 2?
Two birds and 2 birds are how many birds?
2 and 2 are how many ?
3. Jane has 2 tulips, and Ella has 3. How many
have they both ?
2 and 3 are how many ? 3 and 2
++ ++ + + + + + ++
4. 2 and 10 are how many ? 10 and 2 ?
TABLE.
2 and 1 are 3 2 and 6 are how many?
2 and 2 are. 4 2 and 4 are how many?
2 and 3 are 5 2 and 2 are how many?
2 and 4 are. 6 2 and 7 are how many?
2 and 5 are 7 1 and 2 are how many?
2 and 6 are 8 3 and 2 are how many?
2 and 7 are 9 5 and 2 are how many?
2 and 8 are 10 10 and 2 are how many?
2 and 9 ,are 11 2 and 9 are how many?
2 and 10 are 12 2 and 8 are how many?
I'
( .: x
14 ARlITHMlETICAL
LESSON XI.
1. James has 3 flags, and Harry has 1.
How many are 3 and 1 ? 1 and 3 ?
2. Charlie had 3 doves, and his father gave him
2 more. How many doves had he then ?
How many are 3 and 2 ? 2 and 3 ?
3. How many are 3 and 5 ? 5 and 3 ?
4. Iow many are 3 and 7 ?'7 and 3 ?
i TABLE.
3 and 1 are 4 2 and 3 are how many?
3 and 2 are 5 1 and 3 are how many?
3 and 3 are 6 4',and 3 are how many?
3 and 4 are 7 3 and 6 are how many?.
3 and 5 are 8 3 and 4 are how many?
3 and 6 are 9 3 and 10 are how many?
3 and 7 are 10 3 and 7 are how many?
3 and 8 are 11 3 and 9 are how many?
3 and 9 are 12 3 and 8 are how many?
3 and 10 are 13 3 and 5 are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 15
LESSON XII.
1. A man made 4 barrels of sour cider,
and 1 barrel of sweet cider.
How many are 4 and 1 ? 1 and 4 ?
2. Jane picked 4 pinks on one stem, and 3
on another. How many on both stems ?
How many are 4 and 3 ? 3 and 4 ?
3. 4 soldiers and 5 soldiers, are how many?
How many are 4 and 5 ? 5 and 4 ?
4. How many are 4 and 8 ? 8 and 4 ?
TABLE.
4 and 1 are 5 4 and 6 are how any?
4 and 2 are 6 4 and 3 are how many?
4 and 3 are 7 "4 and 1 are how many?
4 and 4 are 8 5 and 5 are how many?
4 and 5 are 9 10 and 4 are how many?
4 and 6 are 10 4 and 9 are how many?
4 and 7 are 11 8 and 4 are how many?,
'4 and 8 are 12 4 and 2 are how many?
4 and 9 are 13 7 and 4 are how many?
4 and 10 are 14 4 and 4 are how many?
A
16 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XIII.
1. Five horses were in one field, and 2 in
another. How many horses in both fields ?
How many are 5 and 2 ? 2 and 5 ?
2. Five acorns and 4 acorns, are how many
acorns? 4 and 5 ?
3. How many are 5 shields and 5 shields?
5 and 5 ?
4. How many are 5 and 8 ? 8 and 5 ?
A TABLE.
5 and 1 are 6 7 and 5 are how many?
5 and 2 are 7 3 and 5 are how many?
5 and 3 are 8 4 and 5 are how many?
5 and 4 are 9 1 and 5 are how many?
5 and 5 are 10 8 and 5 are how many?
5 and 6 are 11 5 and 2 are how many?
5 and 7 are 12 5 and 10 are how many?
5 and 8 are 13 .5 and 9 are how many?
5 and 9 are 14 5 and 5 are how many?
5 and 10 are 15 5 and 6 are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 17
LESSON XIV.
1. Six pineapples and 1 pineapple, are how
many ?
6 and 1 are how many? 1 and 6?
2. Six and 2 are how many ? 2 and 6 ?
3. James picked 6 bunches of grapes, and Lillie
2. How many did both pick?
6 and 2 are how many? 2 and 6 ?
4. 6 and 4 are how many? 4 and 6 ?
TABLE. ,
6 and 1 are 7 4 and 6 are how many?
6 and 2 are 8 5 and 6 are how many?
6 and 3 are 9 1 and 6 are how many?
6 and 4 are 10 3 and 6 are how many?
6 and 5 are 11 6 and 6 are how many?
6 and 6 are 12 6 and 9 are how many?
6 and 7 are 13 2 and 6 are how many?
6 and 8 are 14 10 and 6 are how many?
6 and 9 are 15 6 and 7 are how many?
6 and 10 are 16 6 and 8 are how many?
18 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XV.
1. Seven fruitbaskets and 1 fruitbasket are
how many?
7 and 1 are how many? 1 and 7 ?
S 2. A soldier rode 7 miles in one
hour, and 6 miles the next; how
many miles did he ride in two hours ?
7 and 6 are how many ? 6 and 7?
3. Edgar caught 7 butterflies, and s
Annie 3; how many did both catch ?
7 and 3 are how many? 3 and 7?
4. A man paid 7 dollars for a chest of tea, and
S8 dollars for a barrel of flour; how
many dollars did he pay for both ?
7 and 8 are how many ? 8 and 7 ?
4 TABLE.
7 and I are 8 7 and 3 are how many?
7 and 2 are 9 7 and 1 are how many?
7 and 3 are 10 4 and 7 are how many?
7 and 4 are 11 7 and 6 are how many ?
7 and 5 are 12 7 and 7 are how many?
7 and 6 are 13 10 and 7 are how maiy ?
7 and 7 are 14 7 and 2 are how many?
7 and 8 are 15 9 and 7 are how many?
7 and 9 are 16 5 and 7 are how many?
7 and 10 are 17 8 and 7 are how many?
TABLEXBOOK. 19
LESSON XVI.
1. If a cluster of grapes cost 4
cents, and a pineapple 8 cents;
:' how many cents did both cost ?
S 8 and 4 are how many ? 4 and 8 ?
2 There were 8 soldiers in one rank, and .6 in
another; how many in both ranks ?
8 and 6 are how many? 6 and 8 ?
i. ". i .
3. Emma found 6 tulips in the bud, and 2 in
blossom; how many in all ?
6 and 2 are how many ? 2 and 6 ?
4. 8 and 10 arehow many ? 10 and 8?
TABLE. ,
8 and 1 are 9 5 and 8 are how many?
8 and 2 are 10 3 and 8 are how many?
8 and 3 are 11 1 and 8 are how many?
8 and 4 are 12 8 and 6 are how many?
8 and 5 are 13 8 and 10 are how many?
8 and 6 are 14 8 and 8 are how many?
8 and 7 are 15 7 and 8 are how many?
8 and 8 are 16 4 and 8 are how many?
8 and 9 are 17 9 and 8 are how many?
8 and 10 are 18 2 and 8 are how many?
.88
r
20 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XVII.
1. Anna paid 9 dollars for instruc
J tion on the piano, and 3 dollars for
music; how much did she pay for both ?
9 and 3 are how many ? 3 and 9?
2. In a poultryyard there were 9 hen
turkeys, and 5 gobblers ;. how
many of both?
9 and 5 are how many? 5 and 9 ?
' ... ..3 5.er .r30 .i1 .D.9 1
3. Jane picked 8 roses and 8 buds; how many
did she pick of both ?
8 and 8 are how many ?
::.:: :; 3 :: : : :: :: : i:*: ir 55 8 % g iS8> S
4Y 9 and 10 are how many? 10 and 9?
J TABLE
9 and 1 are 10 9 and 9 are how many?
9 and 2 are 11 9 and 10 are how many?
9 and 3 are 12 1'and 9 are how many?
9 and 4 are 13 9 and 3 are how many?
9 and 5 are 14 2 and 9 are how many?
9 and 6 are 15 7 and 9 are how many?
9 and 7 are 16 9 and 8 are how many ?
9 and 8 are 17 4 and 9 are how many?
9 and 9 are 18 9 and 5 are how many?
9 and 10 are 19 6 and 9 are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 21
LESSON XVIII.
if ;' 1. A balloon sailed 10 miles the first
hour, and 5 miles the next hour; how
many miles did it sail in two hours?
10 and 5 are how many? 5 and 10 ?
2. A pitcher cost 10 cents and a r
tumbler 6 cents; what was the cost of
both ?
10 and 6 are how many ? 6 and 10 ?
3. A car containing 10 persons took in
7 more; how many did it then contain ? 
10 and 7 are how many ? 7 and 10 ?
i._4. Robert paid 10 cents forpainting
.:_ his sled, and 8 cents for repairs; how
Many cents did be pay for both ?
10 and 8 are how many? 8 a,10?
TABLE. L
10 and 1 are 11 6 and 10 are how many?
10 and 2 are 12 7 and 10 are how many?
10 and, 3 are 13 10 and 4 are how many?
10 and 4 are 14 10 and 10 are how many?
10 and 5 are 15 8 and 10 are how many?
10 and 6 are 16 2 and 10 are how many ?
10 and 7 are 17 10 and 3 are how many?
10 and 8 are 18 5 and 10 are how many?
10 and 9 are 19 9 and 10 are how many?
10 and 10 are 20 1 and 10 are how many?
22 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XIX.
S 1. There is a cottage with 10 win
T.tT'.: dows in the upper story in front, and
i 6 in the lower story; how many win
dows in front ?
2. There are 4 in the end; how many in the
front and end? 10 and 6 and 4 are how many?
3. There are 2 in the cupola, how many in all?
10 and 6 and 4 and 2 are how many ? 4 and 0
and 10 and 2?
4. Paid 12 dollars for a. picture, and 3
dollars for a frame to put it in; how much
did I pay for both ?
5. Henry paid 6 cents for an inkstand, 3 cents
for some pens, and 7 cents for a writingbook;
how many cents did he pay for all?
6 and 3 and 7 are how many?
a% 6. Willie paid 6 shillings for a pair
S' iy of does, and 9 shillings for fitting up
a house for them in which to roost;
how much did lie pay for both ?
7. A boy traveled 5 miles one day, 8 miles the
next day, and 10 miles the next; how many miles
did he travel in three days ?
5 and 8 and 10 are how many?
S 8. Martha picked 4 yellow roses, 6
white ones, and 8 red ones; how many
:'* roses did she pick in all?
4 and 0 and 8 are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 23
LESSON XX.
V 4
1. Carrie read 4 pages in her new book, one
day, and 6 pages the next; how many pages did
she read both days ?
2. George's dog Dick caught 5 ground
squirrels, 4 red ones, and 3 gray ones;
how many did he catch in all?
3. Carrie's cat caught 7 mice one day, and 4.
the next, and 2 the next; how niqny mice qd she/
catch in three days ?
4. Joseph had 7 rabbits, and
his uncle gave him 4 more; how
many had he then?
5. Henry gave his sister Allie 5 pears, and
his sister Nellie 4, and kept 6 himself; how
many had he in all ?
S 6. Clinton paid 3 cents for an orange,
8 cents for a pencil, and 5 cents for some
paper; how many cents did he pay for all ?
24 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXI.
The following are all the combinations that can
be made, with the nine figures, except with the
unit 1. The pupil should be required to commit
these thoroughly to memory, which will very
much facilitate the adding of long columns, and
of large amounts with ease and correctness.
2 and 2 are 4 3 and 6 are 9
5 and 7 are 12 7 and 9 are 16
4 and 4 are 8J 2 and 6 are 8
5 and 6 are 11 8 and 9 are 171
8 and 8 are 16 2 and 7 are 9
6 and 7 are 13 3 and 3 are 6
6 and 6 are 12 6 and 9 are 15}
2 and 9 are 11 and 8 are 11
3 and 5 are 8 4 and 5 are 9
9 n;d 9 are 18 4 and 8 are 12
*2 and 3 are 5 4 and 7 are 11
2 apd 6 are /J 7 and 8 are 15
7 and 7 are 14 65 and 9 are 141
4 and 9 are 13 3 and 7 are 10
5 and 5 are 10 2 and 6 are 8J
6 and 8 are 14 2 and 4 are 6"
3 and 4 are 7 3 and 9 are 12
5 and 8 are 13 J 4 and 6 are 10
Let the above combinations all be learned in the
reversed order; thus, 6 and 8 are 14; 8 and 6
are 14, &c. The whole comprising 24 triplets,
and 72 combinations.
TABLEBOOK. 25
Direct the attention of the pupil to the fact,
that the same figures when added, always give the
same unit figure in the result. That is 3 and 5
are 8; 3 and 25 are 28; 3 and 45 are 48, &c.
If m adding any of the higher numbers he hesi
tates, he should be referred to the primary sum
of those numbers. Thus, if the pupil hesitates on
68 and 5, he should be asked: "What do 8 and
5 always give?" (Ans. 3.) Then 68 and 5 must
give the next three above 68, that is 73.
In adding, learn to pronounce the partial results
without naming the figures separately. Thus,
instead of saying 5 and 4 are 9, and 3 are 12, and
6 are 18, &c., simply utter the results, 9,12, 18,&c.
Observe the same practice in subtraction and
multiplication.
Place an example upon the blackboard, as the follow
267189 ing. Call upon some pupil to commenclWho
485736 will begin with the right hand column and sa,
918753 "9, 17, 24, 27, 33, 42, wrr; l ho 2 under the
592847 column added, and carry the 4 to the next
703928 column." The next pupil will without any
564789
3533142 delay take up the' process, beginning with the
4 to carry, and say, "4, 12, 14, 18, 23, 26, 34,
write the 4 under the column added and carry 3." So
in quick succession let each column be added upwards,
then downwards, then from right to left, and from left
to right, until the whole class have been exercised upon
it. Very young children may easily be taught, in this
way, to add long columns of figures with astonishing
rapidity and correctness.
26 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXII.
In the following table the single figures are
combined in pairs, which will also help the learner
to add with facility.
1 and 2 are 3 4and 4 are 8 3 and 9 are 12
1 and 3 are 4 1 and 8 are 9 5 and 7 are 12
2 and 2 are 4 2 and 7 are 9 6 and 6 are 12
1 and 4 are5 3 and 6 are 9 4 and 9 are 13
2 and 3 are 5 4 and 5 are 9 5 and 8 are 13
1 and 5 are 6 1 and 9 are 10 5 and 9 are 14
2 and 4 are 6 2 and 8 are 10 6 and 8 are 14
3 and 3 are 6 3 and 7 are 10 7 and 7 are 14
1 and 6 are 7 4 and 6 are 10 6 and 9 are 15
2 and 5 are 7 5 and 5 are 10 7 and 8 are 15
3 and 4 are 7 2 and 9 are 11 7 and 9 are 16
1 and 7 are 8 3 and 8 are 11 8 and 8 are 16
2 nnd 6 are 8 4 and 7 are 11 8 and 9 are 17
5 are 8 5 and 6 are 11 9 and 9 are 18
1. Name all Aie coupling figures that make 4.
2. Name all the coupling figures that make 5.
3. Name all the coupling figures that make 6.
4. Name all the coupling figures that make 7.
5. Name all the coupling figures that make 8.
6 Name all the coupling figures that make 9.
7. Name all the coupling figures that make 10.
8. Name all the coupling figures that make 11.
9. Name all the coupling figures that make 12.
10. Name all the coupling figures that make 13.
11. Name all the coupling figures that make 14.
TABLEBOOK. 27
LESSON XXIII.
1. What does SUBTRACTION teach ?
Ass. Subtraction teaches the process offending
the difference between two numbers.
2. What is the larger number called ?
ANs. The Minuend.
3. What is the smaller number called ?
ANs. The Subtrahend.
4. What is the result or answer called?
ANs. The Difference, or .Remainder.
5. Of 3 pinks growing on one stem,
only 1 was unbroken; how many were '.
broken? 1 from 3 leaves how many?
6. One of these 4
s'* ~ chickens has a worm;
how many are running after it?
1 from 4 leaves how many?
TABLE. ho a
I from 1 leaves 0 1 from 2 leaves how many ?
1 from 2 leaves 1 from 3 leaves how many?
1 from 3 leaves 2 1 from 5 leaves how many ?
I from 4 leaves 3 1 from 4 leaves how many?
1 from 5 leaves 4 1 from I leaves how many ?
1 from 6 leaves 5 1 from 9 leaves how many ?
1 from leaves 6 1 from 10 leaves how many?
1 from 8 leaves '7 1 from 6 leaves how many?
1 from 9 leaves 8 1 from 8 leaves how many ?
1 from 10 leaves 9 1 from 7 leaves how many ?
A
28 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXIV.
1. A hunter caught 6 squirrels; he gave 2 away,
and kept the remainder. How many squirrels did
he keep ? 2 from 6 leaves how many ?
Six are how many more than four ?
2. Four eagles were confined in a cage, but 2
escaped; how many remained ?
2 from 4 leaves how many ?
S 3. From a stage containing 5
.Sl_.'. s persons, 2 left; how many re
mained in the stage?
2 from 5 leaves how many?
41 TABLE.
2 from 2 leaves 0 2 from 4 leaves how many?
2 from 3 leaves 1 2 from 3 leaves how many ?
2 from 4 leaves 2 2 from 6 leaves how many?
2 from 5 leaves 3 2 from 2 leaves how many?
2 from 6 leaves 4 2 from 7 leaves how many?
2 from 7 leaves 5 2 from 9 leaves how many?
2 from 8 leaves 6 2 from 5 leaves how many?
2 from 9 leaves 7 2 from 8 leaves how many?
2 from 10 leaves 8 2 from 11 leaves how many?
2 from 11 leaves 9 2 from 10 leaves how many?
TABLEBOOK. 29
LESSON XXV.
1. There were 7 trees standing in a park, 3
were maple trees, and the others were elm; how
many were elm? 3 from 7 leaves how many ?
7 less 3 are how many?
Three and four are how many?
AL"
2. A man fired his gun at a group of 5 snipe,
and killed 3; how many were unharmed ?
5 less 3 are how many?
3. A farmer having 8 pigs, sold 2
y of them : how many remained ?
2 from 8 leaves how many?
Five and three are how many ?
TABLE. ; '
3 from 8 leaves 0 3 from 8 leaves how many?
3 from 4 leaves 1 3 from 4 leaves how many?
3 from 5 leaves 2 3 from 9 leaves how many?
3 from 6 leaves 3 3 from 5 leaves how many?
3 from 7 leaves 4 3 from 10 leaves how many ?
3 from 8 leaves 5 3 from 7 leaves how many?
3 from 9 leaves 6 3 from 6 leaves how many?
3 from 10 leaves 7 3 from 12 leaves how many?
3 from 11 leaves 8 3 from 3 leaves how many?
3 from 12 leaves 9 3 from 11 leaves how many?
Lj
80 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXVI.
1. An old hen had 5 chickens,
and the cat caught 2 of them;
how many had she left?
l_ 2 from 5 leaves how many ?
2. Mary placed 6 cups upon the table, and then
took away 4 of them; how many remained ?
4 from 6 leaves how many?
Four and two are how many?
3. 4 from 10 leaves how many ?
4. 4 from 12 leaves how mani ?
A TABLE.
4 from 4 leaves 0 4 from 6 leaves how many?
4 from 5 leaves 1 4 from 10 leaves how many?
4 from leaves 4 from 8 leaves how many?
4 from 7 leaves 3 4 from 12 leaves how many ?
4 from 8 leaves 44 from 9 leaves how many?
4 from 9 leaves 5 4 from 4 leaves how many?
4 from 10 leaves 6 4 from 5 leaves how many?
4 from 11 leaves 7 4 from 13 leaves how many?
4 from 12 leaves 8 4 from 7 leaves how many?
4 from 13 leaves 9 4 from 11 leaves how many?
TABLEBOOK. 81
LESSON XXVII.
1. Emma had '7 dolls, and gave 2 of them
away; how many had she left ?
5 from 7 leaves how many ?
2. A person having 9 dollars gave 5 II1
dollars for a trunk; how many dollars a
had he left?
9 less 5 are how many?
3. A shopman had 8 small drums, he sold 5 of
them; how many had he left?
5 from 8 leaves how many ?
TABLE. .
5 from 5 leaves 0 5 from 10 leaves how many?
5 from 6 leaves 1 5 from 12 leaves how many?
5 from 7 leaves 2 5 from 9 leaves how many?
5 from 8 leaves 3 5 from 6 leaves how many?
5 from 9 leaves 4 5 from 7 leaves how many?
5 from 10 leaves 5 5 from 14 leaves how many?
5 from 11 leaves 6 5 from 8 leaves how many?
5 from 12 leaves 7 5 from 11 leaves how many?
5 from 13 leaves 8 5 from 5 leaves how many?
5 from 14 leaves 9 5 from 13 leaves how many?
32 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXVill.
1. Seven guns less one gun are how many guns ?
1 from 7 leaves how many ?
I"6.t2 2. Homer having 10 cents, gave .
: i! cents for a bunch of grapes; how
many cents had he left?
6 from 10 leaves how many ?
3. There were 10 little snowbirds on a limb;
6 sitting on one branch, how many on the other?
10 less 6 are how many ?
10 are how many more than 6 ?
S TABLE.
6 from 6 leaves 0 6 from 7 leaves how many?
6 from 7 leaves 1 6 from 12 leaves how many ?
6 from 8 leaves 2 6 from 6 leaves how many?
6 from 9 leaves 3 6 from 14 leaves how many?
6 from 10 leaves 4 6 from 9 leaves how many?
6 from 11 leaves 5 6 from 11 leaves how many?
6 from 12 leaves 6 6 from 8 leaves how many ?
6 from 13 leaves 7 6 from 15 leaves how many?
6 from 14 leaves 8 6 from 10 leaves now many?
6 from 15 leaves 9 6 from 13 leaves how many?
TABLEBOOK. 33
LESSON XXIX.
1. Grace picked 10 flowers; 7 were pinks and
the others were tulips; how many tulips did she
pick ? 10 less 7 are how many ?
2. Bought 8 locks, and but 7 were good; how
many were bad ?
8 less 7 are how many?
8. 5 from 12 leaves how many ?
4. 11 less 7 are how many ?
TABLE.
7 from 7 leaves 0 7 from 14 leaves how many?
7 from 8 leaves 1 7 from 10 leaves how many?
7 from 9 leaves 2 7 from 15 leaves how many?
7 from 10 leaves 3 7 from 11 leaves how many?
7 from 11 leaves 4 7 from 7 leaves how many?
7 from 12 leaves 5 7 from 9 leaves how many?
7 from 13 leaves 6 7 from 16 leaves how many?
7 from 14 leaves 7 7 from 13 leaves how many?
7 from 15 leaves 8 7 from 8 leaves how many?
7 from 16 leaves 9 7 from 12 leaves how many?

84 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXX.
1. Oscar spelled 8 words, and
Hattie 14; how many more words
did Hattie spell than Oscar ?
8 from 14 leaves how many?
8 and how many make 14 ?
2. A farmer having 15 sheep sold 8 of them;.
how many had he left ?
15 less 8 are how many ?
8. A saddle cost 16 dollars, and a
bridle 8 dollars; how much more did
the saddle cost than the bridle?
8 from 16 leaves how many?
fiS ^ 4. Austin caught 17 bass, and sold 8
of them; how many had he left ?
8 from 17 leaves how many?
S0) TABLE.
8 from 8 leaves 0 8 from 15 leaves how many?
8 from 9 leaves 1 8 from 12 leaves how many?
8 from 10 leaves 2 8 from 10 leaves how many?
8 from 11 leaves 3 8 from 14 leaves how many?
8 from 12 leaves 4 8 from 17 leaves how many?
8 from 13 leaves 5 8 from 11 leaves how many?
8 from 14 leaves 6 8 from 8 leaves how many?
8 from 15 leaves 7 8 from 9 leaves how many?
8 from 16 leaves 8 8 from 16 leaves how many?
8 from 17 leaves 9 8 from 13 leaves how many?
TABLEBOOK. 35
LESSON XXXI.
1. Frank rode down the
hill 12 times, and James
S9 times;. how many more
," times did Frank ride down
.. the hill than James?
12 less 9 are how many ?
9 and how many make 12 ?
2. Fourteen less nine are how many?
9 and how many make 14 ?
*MES ffiffif f EiWWWW
3. Thirteen less nine, are how many ?
9 and how many make 13 ?
4. Seventeen less nine are how many?
TABLE. .
9 from 9 leaves 0 9 from 16 leaves how many?
9 from 10 leaves 1 9 from 12 leaves how many?
9 from 11 leaves 2 9 from 10 leaves how many?
9 from 12 leaves 3 9 from 17 leaves how many?
9 from 13 leaves 4 9 from 18 leaves how many?
9 from 14 leaves 5 9 from 9 leaves how many?
9 from 15 leaves 6 9 from 15 leaves how many?
9 from 16 leaves 7 9 from 14 leaves how many?
9 from 17 leaves 8 9 from 13 leaves how many?
9 from 18 leaves 9 9 from 11 leaves how many?
36 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXXII.
S1. The conductor of a railroad
train collected 17 dollars for fares,
in one car, and 10 in another; how many dollars
more did he collect in one car than in the other ?
17 less 10 are how many ?
2. Bought a watch for 10 dollars, V
and sold it for 15 dollars; how much .
did I gain?
10 from 15 leaves how many?
000000 0000000000
3. 16 less ten are how many?
4. 17 pens, less 10 pens are how many?
5. 10 from 18 leaves how many ?
STABLE.
10 from 10 leaves 0 10 from 10 leaves how many?
10 from 11 leaves 1 10 from 11 leaves how many ?
10 from 12 leaves 2 10 from 12 leaves how many?
10 from 13 leaves 3 10 from 13 leaves how many?
10 from 14 leaves 4 10 from 14 leaves how many ?
10 from 15 leaves 5 10 from 15 leaves how many?
10 from 16 leaves 6 10frorm 16 leaves how many?
10 from 17 leaves 7 10 from 17 leaves how many ?
10 from 18 leaves 8 10 from 18 leaves how many?
10 from 19 leaves 9 10 from 19 leaves how many ?
TABLEBOOK. 87
LESSON XXXIII.
k I'
it
in all ? How many more on the chair than on
the floor ?
2. Three of the birds are singing birds, the
others are not; how many do not sing ?
3. Ella had 11 tame birds, and she gave them
all away but 6; how many did she give away?
,. .1 I I 11 i IM I i A
LESSON XXXIV.
1. Wlhit 41%'.> MULTIPLICATIhN t'c'h ?
ANs. iMultiplication teaches the process of
taking one number, as many times as there units
in another.
2. What is the number multiplied, called ?
Ass. 1Te Multiplicand.
3. The number you multiply by?
Ass. The Multiplier.
4. The result, or answer?
ANs. THe Product.
5. At one cent each what will 4 apples cost?
4 times one are how many?
S 6. At 1 dollar a pound, what will
5 pounds of tea cost?
TABLE.
once 2 is 2 4 times 1 are how many?
once 3 is 3 3 times 1 are how many?
once 4 is 4 7 times 1 are how many?
once 5 is 5 8 times 1 are how many?
once 6 is 6 2 times 1 are how many?
once 7 is 7 10 times 1 are how many?
once 8 is 8 5 times 1 are how many?
once 9 is 0 9 times 1 are how m iiny ?
once 10 is 10 6 .times 1. are how niramy?
N v .. ..* .*.
SA BL E 13BOO K. 9
LESSON XXXV.
1. A wheelbarrow has 2 handles; how many
handles have 2 wheelbarrows ?
2 times 2 are how many ?
2. If an elephant have 2 tusks, how many tusks
have 3 elephants ?
3 times 2 are how many? 2 times 3 ?
3. If there are 7 men in a boat, how many
men in 2 boats ?
.2 times 7 are how many? 7 times 2 ?
TABLE. .B
2 times 1 are 2 2 times 4 are how many?
2 times 2 are 4 2. times 3 are how many?
2 times 3 are 6 2 times 1 are how many?
2 times 4 are 8 2 times 6 are how many ?
2 times 5 are 10 2 times 2 are how many?
2 times .6 are 12 2 times 5 are how many?
2 times 7 are 14 2 times 7 are how many?
2 times 8 are 16 2 times 10 are how many ?
2 times 9.are 18 2 times 9 are how many ?
2 times 10 are 20 2 times 8 are how many ?
40 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXXVI.
1. A lion has 4 legs; how many legs have
3 lions? 3 times w many ?
3 times 3 are how many ?
3. How many eggs in 3 nests, if there are 7
eggs in each nest ?
3 times 7 are how many? 7 times 3 ?
TABLE.
3 times 1 are 3 3 times 8 are how many ?
3 times 2 are 6 3 times 4 are how many?
3 times 3 are 9 3 times 2 are how many ?
3 times 4 are 12 3 times 3 are how many?
3 times 5 are 15 3 times 6 are how many?
3 times 6 are 18 3 times 1 are how many?
3 times 7 are 21 3 times 5 are how many?
3 times 8 are 24 3 times 10 are how many?
3 times 9 are 27 3 times 7 are how many?
3 times 10 are 30 3 times 9 are how many?
L W
TABLEBOOK. 41
LESSON XXXV11.
1. If 2 fowls make a pair, how many fowls
make 4 pairs ?
4 times 2 are how many ?
2. If 4 girls have 3 pinks apiece, how many
pinks have all?
4 times 3 are how many?
3. A leopard has 4 feet; how many feet have
4 leopards ? 4 times 4 are how many ?
TABLE.
4 times 1 are 4 4 times 2 are how many?
4 times 2 are 8 4 times 4 are how many ?
4 times 3 are 12 4 times 10 are how many?
4 times 4 are 16 4 times 5 are how many?
4 times 5 are 20 4 times 3 are how many?
4 times 6 are 24 4 times 1 are how many?
4 times 7 are 28 4 times 9 are how many?
4 times 8 are 32 4 times 7 are how many?
4 times 9 are 36 4 times 8 are how many?
4 times 10 are 40 4 times 6 are how many?
__
42 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XXXVIII.
1. 5 times 2 are how many?
. 2. 5 times 3 are how many?
3. At 5 cents apiece, how many cents must be
paid for 5 tumblers?
5 times 5 are how many?
4. 5 times 6 are how many ?
TABLE.
5 times 1 are 5 5 times 3 are how many ?
5 times 2 are 10 5 times 4 are how many ?
times 3 are 15 5 times 2 are how m;iitu ?
5 times 4 are 20. 5 times 1 are how many ?
5 times 5 are 25 5 times 10 are how many?
5 times 6 are 30 5 times 8 are how many?
5 times 7 are 35 &" times 6 :,re lhriv many?
5 times 8 are 40 5 times 9 are how many?
5 times 9 are 45 5 times 7 are how many?
5 times 10 are 50 5 times 5 are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 43
LESSON XXXIX.
1. A butterfly has 2 wings; how many wings
have 6 butterflies ?
6 times 2 are how many?
2. At 3 cents apiece, what will 6 oranges cost?
6 times 3 are how many ?
3. If one house rent for 5 dollars
a week; for how much will 6 houses
of the same kind rent ?
6 times 5 are how many ?
TABLE.
6 times 1 are 6 6 times 6 are how many ?
6 times 2 are 12 6 times 8 are how many ?
6 times 3 are 18 6 times 1 are how many?
6 times 4 are 24 6 times 3 are how many ?
6 times 5 are 30 6 times 10 are how many ?
6 times 6 are 36 6 times 2 are how many?
6 times 7 are 42 6 times 9 are how many?
6 times 8 are 48 6 times 4 are how many?
6 times 9 are 54 6 times 7 are how many ?
6 times 10 are 60 6 times 5 are how many ?
44 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XL.
1. How many are 7 times 2 ? 2 times 7 ?
2. If there are 4 cherries in one
bunch; how many cherries in 7
bunches?
7 times 4 are how many? 4 times 7 ?
3. If one sled cost 6 shillings, how
many shillings will 7 sleds cost ?
7 times 6 are how many? 6 times ?
4. If a steamboat run 10 miles an
hour, how far will it run in 7 hours?
5. 7 times 4 are how many?
TABLE.
7 timts 1 aie 7 7 times 8 are how many?
7 times 2 are 14 7 times 10 are how many?
7 times 3 are 21 7 times 3 are how many?
7 times 4 are 28 7 times 2 are how many ?
7 times 5 are 35 7 times 1 are how many ?
7 times 6 are 42 7 times 4.are how many?
7 times 7 are 49 7 times 9 are how many?
7 times 8 are 56 7 times 7 are how many?
7 times 9 are 63 7 times 5 are how many?
7 times 10 are 70 7 times 6 are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 45
LESSON XLI.
1. A chicken has 2 wings; how many wings
have 8 chickens?
8 times 2 are how many? 2 times 8 ?
2. Howv manv dollars will 8 globes
cost, at 5 dollars apiece ?
8 times 5 are how many ? 5 times 8 ?
3. At 7 dollars a barrel, what will be
the cost of 8 barrels of flour ?
8 times are how many? 7 times 8 ?
4. If a horse travel 8 miles an
hour, how far will he travel in '8
hours ?
8 times 8 are how many ?
TABLE. 4
8 times 1 are 8 8 times 5 are how many ?
8 times 2 are 16 8 times 7 are how many?
8 times 3 are 24 8 time 6 arehow many?
8 times 4 are 32 8 times 1 are how many?
8 times 5 are 40 8 times 8 are how many?
8 times 6 are 48 8 times 4 are how many?
8 times 7 are 56 8 times 10 are how many?
8 times 8 are 64 8 tiines 2 are how many ?
8 times 9 are 72 8 times 9 are how mak?
8 times 10 are 80 88 times 3 are how man
46 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XLII.
1. An owl has 2 eyes; how many eyes
have 9 owls?
S9 times 2 are how many? 2 times 9?
2. At 5 cents apiece, what will combs cost?
9 times 5 are bLwj iin.my ?
3. A fly has 6 legs; how many legs!.'.,, 9 flies ?
9 times 6 are how many? 6 times 9 ?
4. If 9 girls have 3 roses each,
"I,!: how many roses have they all?
"9 times 3 are how many? 3 times 9?
TABLE.
9 times 1 are 9 9 times 3 are how many?
9 times 2 are 18 9 times 4 are how many?
9 times 3 are 27 9 times 1 are how many?
9 times 4 are 36 9 times 8 are how many?
9 times 5 are 45 9 times 7 are how many ?
9 times 6 are 54 9 times 6 are how many?
9 times 7 are 63 9 times 10 are how many?
9 times 8 are 72 9 times 2 are how many?
9 1. es 9 are 81 9 times 5 are how many?
times 10 are 90 9 times 9 are how many?
TABLEBOOK. 47
LESSON XLIII.
S 1. If a .,iI sails 6 miles an hour,
^ $s how many miles will she sail in 10
hours?
2. At 10 dollars apiece, how many dol "
lais must be paid for 10 stoves ?' ,._
10 times 10,are how many? ML
3. Ifi other are 5 chickens in one
brood, how many would there be
., in 10 such broods ?
10 times 5 are how many?
4. If one wagon has 4 wheels,
how many have 10 wagons ?
5. At 5 cents a yard, what will be
the cost of 10 yards of shirting?
10 times 5 are how many? Z
TABLE.
10 times .1 are 10 10 times 7 areiow n*y ?
10 times 2 are 20 10 times 6 are how many?
10 times 3 are 30 10 times 2 are how many ?
10 times 4 are 40 10 times 3 are how many?
10 times 5 are 50 10 times 1 are how many ?
10 times 6 are 60 10 times 8 are how many ?
10 times 7 are 70 10 times 9 are how many?
10 times 8 are 80 10 times 10 are how many?
10 times 9 are 90 10 times 4 are how many?
10 times 10 are 100 10 times 5 are how many?
J
48 ARITHMETICAL
1 L LESSON XLIV.
MULTIPLICATION TABLE.
2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12
times times times times times times times s tis times times times
are are are are are are are are are are are
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 4 6 8 10 1I. 14 16 18 20 22 24
3 6 9 12 15 j.2 21 14 27 30 33 36
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 2 36 40 44 48
5 10 15 20 25 3q 3 5 A4 4 50 55 60
6 12 18 24 30 39 42 48 56 60 66 72
7 14 21 28 35 42 49 6 3 70 77 84
8 16 24 32 40 48 56 .64 80 88 96
9 18 27 36 45 54 63 172 8L 90 99 108
10 20 30 40 50.6 70 .a lQ.1. 120
Tl Y2T 33 44 55 66 77 88 ..al 110 121 132
12 24 36 48 60 72 84 9 JIS1 128 _1L3. 4
1. At 7 miles an hour, how far
will a stage drive in 8 hours ?
2. What will be the cost of 8 pounds of
ho"be at 12 cents a pound?
u time 12 are how many? 12 times 8 ?
S8. What will be the cost of 6 vases at
12 shillings apiece?
6 times 12 are how many ? 12 times 6 ?
4. If 1 banner cost 12 dollars, what
will be the cost of 7? Of 8? Of 9? '
Of ? '0 ?
9 times 12 are how many? 12 times 9?
TABLEBOOK. 49
LESSON XLV.
S1. Herearetwo
littleMayQueens.
SFlora is 12 years
S old, and Lillie 9
years; what is
the difference in
their ages ?
2. Both, are
dressed alike;
IFlora's dress con
tains 6 yards of
silk, and Lillie's 5
yards; how many
o yards do both
contain ?
3. Whatdidthe
silk cost at 8 shil
lings a yard?
4. It took 9 yards of ribbon to trim both
dresses; how much did it cost at 10 r a
yard ? i
5. There were in each crown, CiT
or headdress, 7 roses, 5 buds,
and 10 other flowers; how many roses, buds, and
other flowers in each ?
6. If 9 grass pinks bloomed on a
Single root, how many pinks would
bloom on 6 similar roots?
6 times 9 are how many? 9 times 6 ?
4
50 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XLVI.
1. What does DIVIsION teach?
Ass. Division teaches the process of finding
how many times one number or quantity is con
tained in another.
2. What is the number to be divided called?
ANs. The Dividend.
3. The number to divide by? Ars. The Divisor.
4. The result or answer? Ass. The Quotient.
5. Frank had 5 pears and he gave 1 apiece to
his companions; to how many did he give them ?
6. How long will it take a carpenter to make
3 wheelbarrows, if he make 1 a day '
~,(, TAB LE.
1 m 2, 2Ttimes 2 are how many times 1 ?
I in 3, 3 times 3 are how many times 1 ?
1 in 4, 4 times 4 are how many times 1 ?
1 in 5, 5 times 5 are how many tires 1?
1 in 6, 6 times 6 are how many tia.:s 1?
1 in 7, 7 times 7 are how many times 1 ?
1 in 8, 8 times 8 a'e how many times 1 ?
1 in 9, 9 times 9 are how many times 1?
1 in 10, 10 times 10 are how many times 1 ?
rft
TABLEOOK. 51
LESSON XLVII.
1. Three men owned 6 dogs; how many did
each man own?
6 are how many times 2? 2 in 6?
2. It takes 2 skates to make a pair; how many
pairs will 8 skates make?
8 are how many times 2 ? 2 in 8 ?
8. How many pairs will 10 gloves make?
10 are how many times 2 ? 2 in 10 ?
TABLE.
2 in 2, 1 time 2.are how many ti,i. 2?
2 in 4, 2 times 4, are how many times 2?
2 in 6, 3 times 6 .are how many times 2?
2 in 8, 4 times 8 are how many times 2?
2 in 10, 5 times 10 are how many times 2 ?
2 in 12, 6 times 12 .are how many times 2 ?
2 in 14, 7 times 14 are how many times 2 ?
2 in 16, 8 times 16 are how many times 2 ?
2 in 18, 9 times 18 are how many times 2.?
2 in 20, 10 times 20 are how many times 2?.
a.
52 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON XLVIII.
1. 6 are how many times 3 ? 3 in 6 ?
  /
2. A chairmaker made 9 chairs in 3 days; how
many chairs did he make each day?
3. Jennie picked 12 pinks, and 3 pinks on a
stem; how many stems did she pick ?
4. 15 are how many times 3 ? 3 in 15 ?
TABLE.
3 in 4:, 1 time 3 are how many times 3 ?
3 in 6, 2 Vmes 6 are how many times 3 ?
3 in 9, 3 times 9 are how many times 3 ?
3 in 12, 4 times 12 are how many times 3 ?
3 in 15, 5 times 15 are how many times 3?
3 in 18, 6 times 18 are how many times 3 ?
3 in 21, 7 times 21 are how many times 3?
3 in 24, 8 times 24 are how many times 3 ?
9i. 27, 9 times 27 are how many times 3 ?
3 in 30, 10 times 30 are how many times.3 ?
TABLEBOOK. 53
LESSON XLIX.
1. Willie gave 8 bunches, of grapes to his
sisters, giving them 4 buh; how many
sisters had he ?
8 are how many tim 4 in 8?
2. If a wagonmaker have 12 wheels, how
many wagons can he build, each having 4 wheels?
12 are how many times 4 ? 4 in 12 ?
3. Albert having 16 cherries tied l, ~id.:,'
bunches of 4 cherries each; how many bunches
had he?
TA BLE. s l
4 in 4, 1 time 4 are how many ties 4?
4 in 8, 2 times 8 are how n;ny times 4 ?
4 in 12, 3 times 12 are how many times 4 ?
4 in 16, 4 times 16 are how many times 4 ?
4 in 20, 5 times 20 are how many times 4 ?
4 in 24, 6 times 24 are how many times 4 ?
4 in 28, 7 times '28 avr how manjftimes 4 ?
4 in 382, 8 times '32 are how many times 4 ?
4 in 86, 9 times 86 are how many times 4 ?
4 in 40, 10 times 40 are hov many times 4?
K
r
54 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON L.
1. If Edgar read 5 pages a day, in how
many days will he read 25 pages ?
25 are how any times 5 ? 5in25?
JS. J LL
2. If a pair ot boots cost 5 dollars, how many
pairs can be bought for 20 dollars ?
20 are how many times 5 ? 5 in 20?
3. At 5 cents each, how many
7,iu, lemons can be bought for 30 cents ?
30 are how many times 5? 5 in 30?
4. If you put 10 pigs into 5 pens, 
ho~many pigs must you put into
each pen ?
35 are how many times 5 ? 5 in 35 ?
M TABLE.
5 in 4, 1 time 5 are how many times 5 ?
5 in 10, 2 times 10 are how many times 5?
5 in 15, 3 times 1.5 are how many times 5 ?
5 in 20, 4 times 20 are how many times 5 ?
5 in 25, 5 times 25 ate how many times 5 ?
5 in 30, 6 times 30 are how many times 5 ?
5 in 35, 0 times 35 are how many times 5 ?
5 in 40, 8 times 40 ar'e how many times 5 ?
5 ir 45, 9 times 45 are how many times 5 ?
5 in 5.0, 10 times 50 are how many times 5?
TABLEBOOK. 55
LESSON LI.
1. At 6 shillings each, how
many baskets of flowers can
be bought for 12 shillings ?
12 are how many times 6 ?
2 times 6 are how many ?
2. Mary paid 24 cents for 8 yards
of ribbon; how much did she pay a
yard? 24 are how many times 8?
3 times 8 are how many ?
3. At 6 shillings each, how many
knives would 30 shillings buy ?
30 are how many times 6 ? 6 in 30 ?
Ut. tu$ t+ ++ ++#
4. 36 are how many times 6? 6 in 80?
TAB L E.
6 in 6, 1 time 6 are 'how many thues 6 ?
6 in 12, 2 times 12 are how 1rany times 6 ?
6 in 1,, 8 times 18 are how many times '6 ?
6 in 24, 4 times 24 are how many times 6 ?
6 in 30, 5 times 30 are how many times 6?
6 in 36, 6 times 36 'are how many times 6?
6 in 42, 7 times 42 art how many times 6 ?
6 in 48, 8 times 48 are how many times 6 ?
6 in 54, 9 times a 54 are how many times 6?
6 in 60, 10 times 60 are how many times 6 ?
t6 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LII.
'. j 1. If a hen's nest have 7 eggs
in it how many such nests will
II contain 21 eggs? ,
21 are how many times 7 ? 7in 21
2. Gave 28 oranges to 7 little girls; how
many did each receive?
7 is contained in 28 how many times ?
A l 3. If 7 men are required to man
one boat, how many boats will 35
Smen serve?
35 are how many times ? 7 in 35 ?
4. Paid 42 cents for 7.quarts of berries? how
much was that a quart ?
42 are how many times 7 ? 7 in 42
6 times 7 are how many?
St"ABLE,
7 in T, 1 time '7 are how many times 77?
7 in 14; 2 ties 14 are how many times 7 ?
7 in 21, 3 times 2,1 are how many times 7 ?
7 in 28, 4 times 28 are how many times 7 ?
7 in 35, 5 times 35 are how many times 7 ?
7in 42, 6 times 42 are how many times 7 ?
7 in 49, 7 tin.,s *49 are how many times 7 ?
7 in 56, 8 times 56 are how many times 7 ?
7 in63, 9 times 63 are how many times 7 ?
7 in 70, 10 times 70 are how many times 7 ?
. __ *
TABLEBOOK. 57
LESSON LIII.
1. How many kites at 8 cents
each, can George buy for 24 cents ?
8 is contained in 24 how many
times ?
3 times 8 are how many ?
2. At 8 dollars apiece, how many center
tables can be bought for 32 dollars ?aL
32 are how many times 8 ? 8 in 32 ?
3. A sportsman "shot 8 times and
Zi killed 40 woodcock; how many did he
kill at each shot ? ? t
40 are how many times 8 ? 8 in 40 ?
8 times 5 are how many?
4. Paid 16 cents for 8 apples; how much
was paid apiece? 2
TABLE.
8 in 8, 1 time 8 are how many times 8?
8 in 16, 2 times 16 are homOnany times 8?
8 in 24, 3 times 24 are how many times 8 ?
8 in 32, 4 times 32 are how many times 8 ?
8 in 40, 5 times 40 are how many times 8 ?
8 in 48, 6 times 48 are how many times 8 ?
8 in 56, 7 times 56 are how many times 8?
8 in 64, 8 times 64 are how many times 8?
8 in 72, 9 times 72 are how many times 8?
8 in 80, 10 times 80 are how many times 8?
*
58 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LIV.
1. At 9 dollars each how many clocks
i can be bought for 36 dollars ? .
36 are how many times 9 ? 9 in 36 ?
4 times 9 are how many ?3 e
2. How many tops, at 9 cents each, will
45 cents buy ?
9 is contained in 45, how many times ?
3. A horseman rode 72 miles in
9 hours; how many miles an hour
did he ride ?
72 are how many times 9 ? 9 in 72 ?
8 times 9 are how many?
:_ 4. Paid 27 cents for 9 pounds of
S rice: what was the cost of a pound?
27 are how many times 9?
/ TABLE.
9 in 9, 1 time 9 are how many times 9?
9 in 18, 2 times 18 are how many times 9?
9 in 27, 3 times 27 are how many times 9?
9 in 36, 4 times 36 are how many times 9?
9 in 45, 5 times 45 are how many times 9?
9 in 54, 6 times 54 are how many times 9?
9 in 63, 7 times *63 are how many times 9?
9 in 72, 8 times 72 are how many times 9?
9 in'81, 9 times 81 are how many times 9?
9 in 90, 10 times 90 are how many times 9?
' L
TABLEBOOK. 59
LESSON LV.
for a box, in which she
and her sister Jennie
might keep their needles,
thimbles, and thread;
how many such boxes
could be bought for 50 cents ?
50 are how many times 10 ? 10 in 50?
2. Jennie gave 10 cents for a thimble; how
many 6ould she buy for 40 cents ?
3. At 10 dollars a barrel, how many
barrels of beef could be bought for 60
dollars? How many for 70 dollars ?
4. How long will it take Carlos
to earn 80 cents, if he earn 10 cents / *
a day? y )
80 are how many times 10 ?
TABLE.
10 in 20, 2 times 20 are howAiiany times 10?
10 in 30, 3 times 30 are how many times 10 ?
10 in 40, 4 times 40 are how many times 10?
10 in 50, 5 times 50 are how many times 10?
10 in 60, 6 times 60 are how many times 10 ?
10 in 70, 7 times 70 are how many times 10 ?
10 in 80, 8 times 80 are how many times 10?
10 in 90, 9 times 90 are how many times 10 ?
10 in 100, 10 times 100 are how many times 10?
60 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LVI.
DIVISION TABLE.
Say 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12
tiim in i i i n in in in in n in in in
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72
7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84
8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96
0 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 99 108
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132
12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144
p 1. At 9 shillings each, how
many singing birds can be
bought for 63 shillings ?
63 are how many times 9 ?
2. At 12 shillings each, how
much would 6 birds cost?
6 times 12 are how many?
S3. How long will it take a steam
boat to run 88 miles, if she run 11
miles an hour ?
88 are how many times 11? 11 in 88 ?
4. If one appletree produce 8 bushels
of apples, how many bushels will 9 such
trees produce?
9 times 8 are how many? 8 times 9?
hI.
TABLEBOOK. 61
LESSON LVII.
f !
1. Martha had 4 little kittens; 2 were white
and 'the others were gray; how many were gray ?
SIe j\ .av away 3; how many had she left ? /,
2. If she pay 5 cents a week for ..
milk to feed them, how many weeks J ;
will 25 cents worth of milk last \i., /
them? ? _
25 are how many times 5 ? 5 in 25 ?
3. At 4 shillings apiece, how many
geese may be bought for 36 shillings? C
36 are how many times 4? e,
4. At 4 dollars a pair, how many
dollars will 6 pairs of skates cost? 2 4
6 times 4 are how many ?(4 times 6 ?~ i
62 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LVIII.
1. Allie has cut
an orange into two
equal parts, and is
giving her brother
Eddie one part.
What do you call
one such part? Y/
Ass. One half of
an orange.
2. How many
halves of an range
make a whole orange ? N s. Two halves.
3. If she had cut an apple into two equal parts,
what would one of the parts be? p
ANs. One half of an apple.
4. How many halves of an apple, make a i whole
apple? ,
Axs. T'oo halves.
5. Howv. many halves of any thing make the
whole of that thing ? ANs. Tvo.
l. If Allie gahe one half the orange to Eddie,
what part had she left ?/,. ANs. One half.
7. If there are 2 halves in one orange, how
many halves are there in 2 oranges? In 3 oranges ?
In 4 oranges? $
8. How many halves of a dollar in I dollar?
In 2 dollars ? In 3 dollars? (
9. How many halves of a bushel in 1 bushel?
TABLEBOOK. 63
LESSON LIX,
1. James
Si I has just cut
an apple into
three equal
parts, and
passed one
part to each
of his two
sisters. What
lo you call
one such
part ?
ANs. One third of an apple.
2. What are two such parts called ? ,
ANS. Two thirds of an apple.
8. How many thirds make a whole apple ? 3
4. How many thirds make a whole pear ? 
5. If James gave two thirds of his appl o his
sisters, what part had he left ? V
6. How many thirds of any fning make the
whole of that thing? ,
7. If there are three thirds in one apple, how
many thirds in 2 apples?( In 3 apples? ;
8. If you give 3 boys one third of an orange
apiece, how many thirds will you give to all ? .
How many whole oranges?V
9. Six times one third, are how many thirds ? ?
How many whole things?
64 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LX.
1. Willie has cut
up 3 melons; the one
at his right hand into
2 equal parts; what
is one of the parts
called ?o How many
halves make a whole
melon ?
2. The one at his left hand he has cut into 3
equal parts; what is one of the parts called ?
Two of the parts? %How many thirds make a
whole melon ? ,
3. The one before him he has cut into 4 equal
parts ; what is one of the parts called? ? ,'
ANs. One fourth of a melon.
4. What are 2 of the parts called ? 23 of the
parts ? 5
5. How many fourths make a whole melon ? 4
6. ~ow many fourths make a whole orange? 1
7. Mr you have a whole melon and give away
one fourth of it how many fourths will you have
left ? 3 If you give away two fourths ? e/Three
fourtlhsi four fourths? .
8. Which is most, one hilf or one thirdcQOne
third, or one fourth ?/,
9. If you should divide an orange or melon, or
anything else into five equal parts, what would
one of the parts be called ? : As. One fifth.
10. How many fifths make a whole thing ?
TABLEBOOK. 65
LESSON LXI.
1. When a thing or number is divided into
equal parts, what are the parts called ?
Ais. FnA.TINs of that thing or number,
2. How are fractions expressed, oi: written ?
Ats. By two numbers, one over the other and
a short line between them ; thus, , .
3. What does the number below the line show ?
ANs. How many parts the thing is divided
into.
4. What does the number above the line show ?
ANS. How many of those parts you use.
5. Into how many equal parts i, the melon at
Willie's right hand divided ? Ass. 2.
6. Write the fraction that would express one
of these 2 parts? .... s. I"
Y. If each of those 2 halves were cut into two
equal parts, into how many parts would the whole
melon be divided? l4 AiS. 4.
8. Express one of those parts by figure*
ANs. 1. .
S One Kaf. I 7
One fourth. I Onefourtha. k1 I
9. Write on your slate the following fractions ?
one half. 4, one seventh.
one third. , one eighth.
one fourth. one ninth.
I, one fifth. y, one tenth.
I, one sixth. , nine tenths.
RdpjA JJlds 3 
66 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LXII.
TABLES OF MONEY, WEIGHTS, MEASURES, ETC.
UNITED STATES MONEY.
The Denominations are, the Eagle, Dollar, Dime, Cent,
and Mill.
10 mills (m.) make 1 cent, marked ct.
10 cents 1 dime, d.
10 dimes, or 1001cts. 1 dollar, dol. or $.
10 dollars 1 eagle, E.
United States or Federal rqoney is the legal currency of
the United States.'
NOTE,The mill is not a coin; it is used only in computations.
CANADA . >IEY.
Tlo? 3 and denominations are the same as those of the
United States money.
NOTE 1. The decimax'.urrency was adopted by the Canadian Parlia
ment in 1858, and the Act took effect in 1859.
2. Previous to the year 1859, the money of Canada was reckoned in
pounds, shilings, and pence, the same as In England.
PAR T8 or ONE DOLLAR.
5 cents = tbf a doll. 25 cents =2 'ofa doll.
: 61 cents = y1 of a doll. 331 cents = of a doll.
S8 cents = Ia of a doll. S37 cents = of a doll.
10 cents = of a doll. 150 cents =i of a doll.
<12 cents= of a doll. 625 cents = of a doll.
S16 .cents= = of a dollJ75 cents = of a doll.
2o0 a cents = g of a doll. 87 cents of a doll.
I2 ce t s
y
TABLEBOOK. 67
LESSON LXIII.
ENGLISH MONEY.
The Denwminations are, the Pound, Shilling, Penny,
and Farthing.
4 farthings (qr. or far.) make 1 penny, marked d.
12 pence 1 shilling, s.
20 shillings 1 pound, .
5 shillings make 1 crown, c.
20 shillings 1 sovereign," Sov.
21 shillings 1 guinea, G.
English or Sterling money is the currency of Great Britain.
VALUE OF SILVER AND GOLD COINS
An English shilling is worth 0 24
" crown 1 2)
sovereign 4 I
pound .4 84
guinea 95 .1)
A frane of France "0 10
A fivefrano piece 0 94
, TROY WEIGHT.
The Denoninations .are, the Pound, Ounce, Penny
weight, ac cira;.
S4 gi':.i '.n n:,kIe pI nnywei,_i't, marked pwt.
: 2.) .: y ..i lt ] t:.int, .' oz.
12. ounces I ..i lb.
Troy weight is nsed in weighing gold, silver, and jewels.
\ "
68 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LXIV.
APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.
The Denominations are, the Pound, Ounce, Dram,
Scruple, and Grain.
20 grains (gr.) make 1 scruple, marked so. or 3.
3 scruples 1 dram, dr. or 3.
8 drams ." 1 ounce, oz. or .
12 ounces 1 pound, lb. or lb.
Apothecaries' weight is used in mixing medicines. But
medicines are always bought and sold by avoirdupois weight.
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.
The Denominations are, the Ton, Hundred, Quarter,
Pound, Ounce, and Dram.
16 drams (dr.) make fIounce, marked oz.
16 ounces 1 pound, lb.
25 pounds 1 quarter, qr.
4 quarters 1 hundred pounds cwt.
20 cwt.,or20001bs." 1 ton T.
Avoirdupois weight is used for all the ordinary purposes of
weighing.
T..r Th :. ;.',' r gross ton, In which the q'rrter becomes 28
r .I v weight 112 pounds, and the ton 2240 pounds, is
.. .. .W u..I .cept in estimating English goods, at the U. 8.
S............. i. fighting and wholesaling coal from the 'ennsyl
vania mines, and in th' wholesale iron and plaster trade.
The following denominations are also in use:
56 pounds make 1 firkin of butter.
196 1 barrel offlour.
200 1 beef, pork, or fish,
280 1 saltatNT.Y.saltworks.
56 ." 1 bushel of "
32 1 oats.
48 1 barley.
56 1 corn or re.
60 r" 1 wheat.
~4 1 J
TABLEBOOK. 69
LESSON XLV.
LIQUID MEASURE.
The Denominations are, the Hogshead, Barrel, Gallon,
'QstfPintsad ill. 
4 gills (gi.) make 1 pint, marked pt.
2 pints 1 quart, qt.
4 quarts 1 gallon, gal.
31. gallons 1 barrel, bar.
2 barrels, cl 63 gals." 1 hogshead, hhd,
Liquid Measure is used in measuring liquids; as, liquors,
molasses, water, etc.
NOTE.The tierce, hogshead, pipe, butt, and tun, are the names of
casks, and do not express any fixed or definite measures.
Ale or Beer Measure, formerly used in measuring beer,
ale, and milk, is not a standard measure, and is almost en
tirely out of use.
NOTE.When this Measure is used,
36 gallons make 1 barrel of beer.
54 or 11 barrels 1 hogshead ."
DRY MEASURE.
The Denominations are, the Chaldron, Bushel, Peck,
Quart, and Pint.
2 pints (pt.) make 1 quart, marked qt.
8 quarts 1 peck, pk.
S4 pecks 1 bushel, bu.
36 bushels 1 chaldron of coal, "wchal.
Dry Measure is used to measure all ''sds of grain, fruits,
roots, coal, salt, seeds, etc.
LONG MEASURE.
The Denominations are the Mile, Furlong, Rod, Yard,
Foot, and Inch. (
12 inches (in.) make 1 foot, marked ft.
3 feet 1 yard, yd.
5 yards, or 16 ft. 1 ; 1 r pole,/' rd.
40 rods 1 furlong, / fur.
8 fur. or 320 roA, 1 mile, m.
Long Measure is used in measuring lines or distance
or30 o, I ie,'
'0 ARITHMETICAL
LESSON LXVI.
NOTE.Long Measure is used to measure cloth, and other goods sold
by the yard, the yard being divided into ha I. I.. ...i... .. nd
sixteenths. The old table of Clot/ ieasresre k r..r u '
The following denominations are also in use:
4 inches make 1 hand.
6 feet 1 fathom.
1.15 statute 1 geograplfical mile.
3 geography. miles," 1 league, inarked L.
60 geography. 1 degree, deg.or .
69.16 statute dg. or
360 degrees make a great circle of the earth.
SQUARE MEASURE.
The Denominations are, the Square Mile, Acre, Rood,
Square Rod, Square Foot, and Square Inch.
144 sq. in., (sq. in.) make 1 sq. foot, mk'd sq, ft.
9 square feet 1 sq. yard, sq. yd.
30 square yards 1 sq. rod, sq. rd.
40 sq. rods or perches 1 rood, R.
4 roods 1 acre A.
640 acres 1 sq. mile, sq. m.
51'i.,. Measure is used in measuring surfaces; as, land,
boar. mastering, paving, etc.
SURVEY<_9RS' SQUARE MEASURE.
The Denominations are, the Township, Square Mile,
Acre, Square Chain, Square Pole, and Square Link.
625 square links, (sq. l make 1 pole, marked P.
16 poles 1 so.chain, sq. ch.
10 square chais 1 acre, A.
640 acre 1 sq. mile, sq. mi.
36 sq. milts (6 mi ,, eq.) I township," T.
Suryeyors' Afasure is used by s"'vors, in computing the
area or contents lands.
A square ~ile of land is called a section.
i\ ... .: _.
TABLEBOOK. 71
LESSON LXVII.
CUBIC MEASURE.
The Denominations are, the Cord, Cord Foot, Perch,
Ton, Cubic Yard, Cubic Foot, and Cubic Inch.
1728 cubic in. (cu. in.) make 1 cu. foot, mk'd cu. ft.
27 cubic feet 1 ou. yard, cu. yd.
40 cu.ft.roundtimberor ton d,"
50 hewn 1 ton or load," T.
244 cubic feet make 1 perchof stone, Pch.
16 cubic feet 1 cord foot, mk'd e. ft.
128 cord feet, o cord of wood," C.
Cubic Measure is used for measuring solids; as, timber,
wood, stone, etc.
NoTE.A pile of wood 8 ft. long, 4 ft. wide, and 4 ft. high, contains
1 cord.
MEASURE OF TIME.
The Denominations are, the Century, Year, Month,
Week, Day, Hour, Minute, and Second.
60 seconds (sec.) make 1 minute, marked m.
60 minutes 1 hour, h.
24 hours 1 day, da.
7 days 1 week, w.
4 weeks 1 lunar month, Io .
52 weeks 1 year, I yr.
12 calendar mo. or 365 da. 1 year,, yr.
100 years make 1 century, C.
Time is the measure of duration, and is used to measure the
exact periods in which events occur. '
The following table gives the names of the 12 calendar
months, in their order, and the number of days in each.
1. January has 31 days. 7. July < has 31 days.
2. February 28 days. 8. August 31 days.
3. March 81 days. 9, September" 30 days.
4. April 80'days.10. October 31 days.
5. May 31 days. 11. November" 30 days.
6. June 80 days. 12. December" 81 days.
I,. it
N
72 ARIT1IMETICAL
LESSON LXVIII.
CIRCULAR MEASURE.
The. Denominations are the Circle, Sign, Degree, Minute,
and Second.
60 seconds (") make 1 minute, marked '
60 minutes 1 degree, 0.
30 degrees 1 sign, *S.
12 signs,or360deg." the circle of the Zodiac, 0.
Circular Measure is applied to the measurement of circles
and angles, and is used by surveyors, navigators, astronomers,
etc., in making their calculations.
MISCELLANEOUS TABLES.
COUNTING.
The Denominations are, the Hundred, Score, Great
Gross, Gross, Dozen, and Unit.
12 units or single things make 1 dozep.
12 dIlzn, or 144 units 1 gross.
12 gross, or 144 dozen I great gross.
20 units or single things 1 score.
5 score 1 hundred.
APER .
*.lhe Denominations are, the Bale, Bundle, Ream,
Q i Sheet.
'4~il s of paper make 1 quire.
*,) qr.. of paper 1 ream..
2 reams 1 bundle.
5 bundles 1 bale
S00 ItOOS.
The Denominations are, Folio, Quarto, Octavo, Duo
decimo, etc.
A sheet folded in 2 leaves is called a Folio.
A sheet folded in 4 leaves a Quarto,
or 4to.
A sheet folded in 8 leaves an Octavo,
or 8vo.
A sheet folded in 12 leaves aDodecimnio,
or 12mo.
I ,vis, l ,.
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