Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 A young prince of commerce: A dark...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Some successful women: Juliet...
 Ways to do things: Baby's shoe
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: Fairs;...
 Some successful women: Mary Louise...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Ways to do things: How to write...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: On...
 Ways to do things: One lady's way...
 Some successful women: Frances...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce:...
 Some successful women: Mrs. G....
 Ways to do things: A home-made...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce:...
 Ways to do things : A collection...
 Some successful women: Mary Virginia...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: A talk...
 Some successful women: Margare...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A yong prince of commerce: The...
 Ways to do things: For the summer...
 Some successful women: Ella Grant...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: A propitious...
 Some successful women: Rachel Littler...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: Voting...
 Some successful women: Candace...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: A victory...
 Some successful women: Clara...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: A railroad...
 Some successful women: Alice E....
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 A young prince of commerce: Fortune's...
 One of the pleasant authors: Annie...
 Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi,...
 Ways to do things: Our condens...
 Search-questions in Greek history:...
 Back Cover

Title: Our young folks at home
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055806/00001
 Material Information
Title: Our young folks at home
Alternate Title: Young folks at home
Physical Description: 200 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: D. Lothrop & Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: D. Lothrop Company
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: c1888
Subject: Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1888   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1888   ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1888   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1888
Genre: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: fully illustrated.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text and on endpapers.
General Note: Frontispiece printed in colors; illustrations on endpapers.
General Note: Contains fiction and non-fiction.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055806
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224415
notis - ALG4679
oclc - 19471753

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Front Matter
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Title Page
        Page 7
        Page 8
    A young prince of commerce: A dark dawn
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: Wonderful fliers
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Some successful women: Juliet Corson
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Ways to do things: Baby's shoe
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Search-questions in Greek history: Prehistoric and early Greece
        Page 24
    A young prince of commerce: Fairs; and at the fair
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Some successful women: Mary Louise Booth
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: The birds of the sea
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Ways to do things: How to write a composition
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Search-questions in Greek history: The time of the despots or tyrants
        Page 40
    A young prince of commerce: On the rounds of the ladder
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Ways to do things: One lady's way of teaching "how to write compositions"
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Some successful women: Frances E. Willard
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: Fresh-water turtles
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Search-questions in Greek history: Early history of Athens
        Page 56
    A young prince of commerce: A test
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Some successful women: Mrs. G. R. Alden
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Ways to do things: A home-made hobby-horse
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: In the coral country
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Search-questions in Greek history: The Greek colonies
        Page 72
    A young prince of commerce: A recognition
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Ways to do things : A collection of pictures
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Some successful women: Mary Virginia Terhune
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: Homes underground
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Search-questions in Greek history: Conflicts with the Barbarians
        Page 88
    A young prince of commerce: A talk about banks
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Some successful women: Margaret
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: How animals protect themselves
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Search-questions in Greek history: From Pericles to the Sicilian War
        Page 104
    A yong prince of commerce: The young bank president's A. B. C.
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Ways to do things: For the summer cottage
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Some successful women: Ella Grant Campbell
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: Feathered sentinels
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Search-questions in Greek history: The Athenian decline and the Theban supremacy
        Page 120
    A young prince of commerce: A propitious day for the Williston Bank
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Some successful women: Rachel Littler Bodley
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: Animals and their friends
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Search-questions in Greek history: The Macedonian and Roman conquests
        Page 136
    A young prince of commerce: Voting the bonds
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Some successful women: Candace Wheeler
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: Animals and their young
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    Search-questions in Greek history: Greek architecture and sculpture
        Page 152
    A young prince of commerce: A victory in Wall Street
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Some successful women: Clara Barton
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: How animals talk
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Search-questions in Greek history: Grecian mythology
        Page 168
    A young prince of commerce: A railroad syndicate
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Some successful women: Alice E. Freeman
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: The sports and games of animals
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Search-questions in Greek history: Greek literature : Poetry
        Page 184
    A young prince of commerce: Fortune's crowning gift
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    One of the pleasant authors: Annie Keary
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Wonder-wings, mullingongs, colossi, and others: Giants
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Ways to do things: Our condensed-hand
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Search-questions in Greek history: Greek literature : Prose
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Back Cover
Full Text

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If you had the stories that go with these pictures, curbstone, going to Sunday School. The sidewalk
they'd be twice as interesting. The first one is can't be icy; for they have summer clothes on, and
about top boots. The second is full of the capers of one of them has a parasol. Pictures are mysteries
that little dog- but what do you think of snow- without the stories they belong to.
flakes in the air with leaves on the trees, and trund- These are c.lt of Our Little M2en and Women. Send
ling a hoop in a fur cape? The picture needs the five cents to D. Lothrop Company, Boston, for a copy
story. of it. It is made on purpose for children just begin.
And those five little girls are trying to walk on the ning to read.

-El __The Bald.Lhba -ir
- ..

The Bald% LFndry


A wedding-party at a church door in Exchange
1 Place, New York, two-hundred years ago. The en-
graving is out of a historical book by Elbridge S.
Brooks, "In Leisler's Times," which was first pub-
4 lished as a serial in Wide Awake. English dress is
beginning to take the place of the l)ut,i; as may be
judged from the bride and groom -also from the
dandy in front as compared with the less con-
spicuous persons farther back. That Dutch gable on
the left is perhaps on Broadway -it was not called

Everybody knows what sort of a man Peter Cooper
was but not everybody knows how he looked. This
is he. on the left as he appeared ten or fifteen years ago
as he sat in Dr. Bellows' church in New York. Tall and
spare, bent with age, long thin gray hair and whiskers.
So intentwas he on his main purpose of life, he grew

much, for fashion. This also is out of W~ideAwake.
By the way, if you would like a sample copy of
that excellent magazine, send five cents to the pub-
1 lishers, D. Lothrop Company, Boston.

0 ...--*,'

HIe thought it was a worm But it was a turtle


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CHAPTER I. person holding a mortgage, in case the person who
gave it fails to make payment as agreed, may
A DARK DAWN. recover possession and become the rightful owner
of the property mortgaged. This, in law, is called
W HEN the steamship Encounter went down "foreclosing a mortgage" and is accomplished
at sea there were on board, among the through proceedings in court.]
passengers, a gentleman, his wife, and two small When the doctor advised that Mrs. Vangrift
children, Vangrift by name. should be taken to Europe, to remain there a year,
Mr. Vangrift was a highly respectable merchant it seemed at first to her husband that such, a
doing business in a Western city of pote in the change in their home-affairs would be almost im-
United,States. His wife being in delicate health possible. With a family of six children, in moder-
he was taking her to Europe under the advice of ate circumstances, and with a business requiring
her physician. He was not a man of large means, his daily attention, it is not strange that such a
but at home was doing a good business and grad- change should appear to him so difficult.
ually becoming prosperous. Like most country But he was determined upon sparing no effort
merchants in the United States almost his entire towards saving the life of one so precious. After
capital was invested in his business; that is, in mature reflection Mr. Vangrift decided upon plans
his stock of goods and outstanding accounts. for taking her to Europe. The four eldest children
His limited means had not as yet enabled him to he would leave at home under the care of a very
become the owner of his store-building. He had, kind lady whom he knew would come and remain
however, made some payments on a comfortable with them. The two little ones should go with
home for his family. Mr. Vangrift had purchased their mother. He would accompany his wife to
the home property and received a deed for it, but Europe, see her comfortably settled and return at
being unable at the time to pay in full the pur- the earliest possible moment.
chase-price, he had given a mortgage as security Gathering together as much of his available funds
for future payments. as could be spared from his business the merchant
[It is a common practice for people of limited took his wife and two youngest children to New
means to buy real-estate in this way. Mortgages, York and there all embarked for Liverpool on the
like deeds, are placed on record and operate as ill-fated vessel.
security, as they prevent the purchaser from sell- [Although the real meaning of the word fund is
ing the property and giving a clear title to the new something put aside, or laid up for a specific pur-
purchaser, until the debt for which the mortgage pose -as a sum of money especially put by for
was made has been paid. Mortgages too, are not some direct object -yet in business-terms it also
limited to this purpose. They may be, and often denotes money in its various forms. The "avail-
are, give to secure the payment of borrowed money able funds" of a merchant are his cash in hand,
or other indebtedness as well as for purchase or in bank, or possibly, such securities as he may
money. They are security for money because the readily convert into cash at any time.]


The four children left at home were, Albert a tied down to try and be as contented-and happy as
fine-looking, active and intelligent boy fourteen possible.
years of age; "Tama as she was called, her full The Vangrifts aad been absent about two weeks
name being Tamora, a beautiful and charming girl when the telegraph announced the loss of the
of twelve; Mitty a happy good-natured and frolic- steamship Encounter on which they had sailed.
some boy about ten, and sweet little "Tossa," This startling intelligence was kept from the
nicknamed from Atossa, who was yet in her seventh children until special telegrams could be sent to
year. Little 'Tossa was named by her mamma who New York for further particulars, in hopes there
when the child was the tiniest kind of a little crea- had been some error in the dispatches. But the
ture devoted much time, aside from her many terrible news was confirmed. "Lost off the coast
duties, to reading Pope's beautiful poems. She of Africa with all on board. No tidings, as yet,
found the name in these lines: that any were saved," was the response. The
children were then told of what had happened.
But what are these to great Atossa's mind The news was softened with hopes that there was
Scarce once herself but turns all womankind." a possibility of a more favorable report ;, that they
might yet learn of the safety of their father and
The name seemed so beautiful to her that she at m f nd
mother. Every possible effort was made by friends
once decided upon giving it to her little baby
Sto comfort them, but the scene was indescribably
daughter. sorrowful. The pain and anguish of those four
Mr. Vangrift's business was entrusted to his s T
wh little hearts can scarcely be imagined.
faithful employee, Mr. William Colgert, who had little hearts can scarcely be imagined.
faithful employee, Mr. illiam Colgert, had A sudden transformation in the condition of
been with him, as a clerk, many years and to whom immediate too ace at
affairs immediately took place at Mr. Vangrift's
he now gave a power-of-attorney. business establishment. Mr. Colgert had carefully
[A power-of-attorney is a writing by which one per- closed and draped the doors in mourning. That
son called. the principal gives authority to another
rson called the n t to do and perform ertn surely was a sad enough proceeding, but it was by
person called the agent to do and perform certain no means the worst of what very soon happened.
no means the worst of what very soon happened..
acts, which are properly the acts or business of the The Judge of the Probate Court sent a note ask-
principal; as for example, signing the principal's ing that Mr. Colgert should call at once at his
name to important business or legal papers. The
St papers.] office. To this summons Mr. Colgert very promptly
authority given to Mr. Colgert was, no doubt, even responded. Meeting the Judge in the office ad-
more than to sign his employer's name, but also joining the court-room Mr. Colgert was informed
joining the court-room Mr. Colgert was informed
to buy and sell goods, to contract and pay debts, that he must do no further business in the name
and, as the law usually provides, "such other need- of Mr. Vangrift.
ful and lawful acts" as would enable him to con- "According to reports," said the Judge, "which,
duct the business without interference or interrup- under the circumstances, are the best authority we
under the circumstances, are the best authority we
tion. In signing the name of his employer Mr.
on. ii te n are able to get, Mr. Vangrift, the proprietor, has
Colgert would write : deceased through an accident at sea, therefore, as
CHARLES AN FT, Judge of the Probate Court, it is my duty to see.
by William Cg that the business is properly closed up in the in-
by Wi" terest of the heirs. Did Mr. Vangrift leave a will ?"

He executed this legal form that there should continued the Judge.
be no lack of proper authority for conducting the [A will, or as it is sometimes called, "will and
business. He carefully arranged for all details at testament," is a document in which a person directs
the store and under Mr. Colgert's good supervision what shall be done with his property in case of his
everything was passing along smoothly. The chil- death. It is drawn either the person himself,
dren soon dried their tears over the parting and his lawyer, or friend, ad to be in legal form must
with perfect affection among themselves had set- be witnessed by competent persons. After the
death of the person whose property and 'affairs it
*This name was a poetical title given by Pope to Sarah, Duchess of thlates to, the will i te Curt
Marlborough, a great friend of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, whom
Pope calls Sappho "in his Moral Essays Ep.. II and there placed on record ; and it is the duty of


the court to see that the directions of the testator edge, and you are therefore bound to so consider
(as the one is called who makes a will) are faith- it. If no harm will result from delay I shall be
fully carried out.] quite willing to wait a reasonable time before
'" There is no will that I know of, Judge," an- taking any active measures towards administering
swered Mr. Colgert. upon the estate. Certainly we all hope, as long
"Then you must make diligent inquiry to ascer- as hope is possible, that the facts are not as bad
tain if any will was left and cause a thorough as we now believe them to be. It is a very sad
search to be made in Mr. Vangrift's house to see if affair."
one cannot be found," were the instructions from A thorough search was made to see if a will
the Judge. could be found, but none was discovered. The
"I will do that, sir," answered the clerk, "and fact that Mr. Vangrift had said nothing about such
report to you within a day or two, if that will be a thing before he went away was almost conclusive
satisfactory." evidence to Mr. Colgert that no will had been
"And you understand, Mr. Colgert," added the made. This was a most unfortunate circumstance.
Judge, that with Mr. Vangrift's death your author- As no will had been made it would be left with the
ity to transact his business ceased. You are no Judge of the Probate Court to appoint an adminis-
longer his agent or attorney, and you cannot, there- trator and a guardian for the children. He would
fore, legally represent him or attend to his busi- also appoint an attorney, or allow the administra-
ness. If there are perishable goods or if there tor to appoint one for his assistance and council.
should be any business demanding immediate at- The business would be closed up at a great sacri-
tention and which, if neglected, will result in loss fice and the children be left with far less than
to the estate, let me know and I will give authority they by right ought to receive from their father's
for having it attended to. You must neither col- estate.
lect accounts nor pay bills-You understand, do Here was the instance of a man wise and careful
you, Mr. Colgert ?" in business but who, over-confident of life, had
[The law says that where authority is given neglected a most important consideration for his
to the agent, as in this case, wholly for the family. He was excellent in management, keen
benefit of the principal and the principal dies the and active in every detail of his shop, prompt and
authority is, from that fact, immediately revoked, reliable in every engagement, but, like many others,
or set aside. But any "acts done in good faith in in this essential particular he had fatally delayed.
discharge of the agent's duty, before knowledge of Before leaving home Mr. Vangrift should have
the death of his principal, and which inures to the carefully prepared a will stating who he desired
benefit of the principal's estate, are binding upon should conduct his affairs and settle up his estate
his personal representatives."] in case of his death, and who he preferred to be-
I will follow your advice, Judge," said the gen- come guardian for his children.
tleman who was now dismantled of his authority. He could have provided a way for his son, with
"But we have no proof that Mr. Vangrift is dead. the aid and assistance of his faithful employee, to
We only know that the ship was lost and that there continue the business, and thus have left a sure
are no tidings of any on board having been saved, support for those who were dependent upon him.
yet that is not to say but what some may have As he failed to do this, the whole tide of affairs
been rescued in some way." must change.
"That will do very well for an argument," said Mr. Colgert was directed to step aside. The
the Judge, "but it will hardly hold good in law. public administrator came in and took possession
Although there is no positive proof, in this case, of the business. He also immediately took charge
that your principal is dead, yet the best obtainable of all the property and effects of the lost merchant.
information says so, and as agent you are bound The goods at the store were inventoried and soon
to believe it to be true. It was that belief which after disposed of at a great loss.
prompted you to drape those doors in mourning. [An inventory is a list of goods or property giv-
I think without doubt, it would be said, in law, that ing the number and name of each article with
information of his death has come to your knowl- price or value carried out. It is commonly used


in trade by merchants and others to designate a final decision of the court, Albert called the little
catalogue of goods on hand at any particular time. ones together, as he said, "for a conference." He
"Taking account of stock is a term equivalent had been studying over their situation and trying
to taking an inventory." The word is particular- to decide in his own mind what would be best for
ly applied, in law, to a schedule of a deceased per- them to do. Now he wanted to try and learn
son's estate, upon which are enumerated all articles from each what they thought would most please
or species and classes of property. It is more them.
directly applicable to the personal estate of a The brave boy knew that his mother had a sis-
deceased person.] ter living in Massachusetts. She was the only rela-
The money was held by the administrator sub- tive of which he had any knowledge, and he had
ject to the order of the court. The home which was been studying over the question of the four going
mortgaged to the person from whom it had been to her, and of asking the Judge to appoint her
purchased, must be disposed of. By arrangement their guardian. He knew her only from what his
it went back to the mortgagee, he paying over to mother had told him about her, but he had formed
the administrator only a small part of the money a favorable opinion, and he thought now, if they
Mr. Vangrift had paid on the property. could only be with some one so nearly related it
[The mortgagee is the person who holds the would be a-wise thing to bring about.
mortgage, the mortgagor the one who makes it.] "The Judge," said the boy, "has told Mr. Col-
The children were permitted to remain in the gert to ask uis if we have any choice about who
house where they were until the estate could be should be appointed our guardian and to find out
settled. if we have any relatives who would be willing to
Before any settlement could be made all the take care of us, and -"
" debts, dues and demands against the deceased The boy stopped for the little listeners had
merchant must be paid. The lawyer must have broken out in a good hard cry and were sobbing
his compensation; the administrator his commis- sorrowfully. He wiped the tears from his own
sions and numerous expenses; the court must eyes and going to them gave them a warm brotherly
have its fees, and the orphan children well, kiss and bade them be cheerful for he had some-
if there was anything left they could have that. thing very nice to propose.
But how long must they wait to know whether Little 'Tossa with her beautiful curls of brown
or not anything was to be left? The law makes hair glistening in the sunshine, and her large blue
no great haste in such matters, but good opportu- eyes full of love and confidence, had ceased her
nities are offered for delay if such be the wish of sobbing, and as though some new thought had
its agents and officers. Those children may be in pierced her childish brain threw up her little hand
anxious suspense, but the workings of a cumber- and cried out:
some court, the notions of an easy-going judge, and Oh, Bertie I most forgot. I dreamed some-
the time of an erratic administrator, are considera- thing good last night, and I don't believe mamma
tions to be most respected. For the present the and papa is dead any more !"
children will be supplied with bare necessities, and What was it, 'Tossa? cried Tama and Matty,
must do their mourning with a patient resignation. and Albert looked into little 'Tossa's face to learn
And so the little Vangrifts did. what she had to say.
The terrible shock caused by the first sad news "Oh I dreamed a nice long dream that mamma
wore gradually away to a resigned melancholy, and papa came home, and bringed us whole lots of
The little hearts were still sorely afflicted, but at presents and everything, and they loved us and
times they were apparently forgetful of their kissed us and was glad to get home, and they
troubles. One day when they were all in cheerful wasn't hurt, only just a little, but mamma's clothes
state, and while trying with patience to await the was wet."




I. teeth; but through the exertions of Professor
Marsh, of Yale College, vast numbers of allied
WONDERFUL FLIERS. forms have been discovered in our Western coun-
try, which range in size from a snipe up to gigan-
OME astrono- tic fliers having a spread of wings twenty-two
/- mers assume feet! These aerial creatures differed from the
...' i that the planet Old World forms in not possessing teeth; they
Mars is inhabi- probably relied upon their immense size to terrify
ted, there being their enemies.
''many reasons The scene in North America in these days, can
i' " for believing perhaps be imagined. Flocks of these strange
This, and that bat-like animals with long extended jaws, and
owing to the dif- enormous leathery wings gathered about the lakes
ference in the of the time and undoubtedly dashed into the clear
--_7 ;. force of gravity waters in search of prey. When a flock left their
its people can roosts and soared away, they must have darkened
jump over a the earth and terrified the human hunter, did he
2-' house as easily then exist. A dozen, each with a spread of twenty-
as we make an two feet, flying together, must have presented a
THE DRACO VOLENS. ordinary leap; formidable spectacle, and few animals then living
hence it is supposed that life in the air is the rule but would have been alarmed at their approach.
on Mars, and that the majority of forms there are While the Old World can boast of no flier as
provided with wings, or else with some substitute large as our Pteranodon, it had some which were
adapting them to what would appear to us a very more remarkable in structure, and more grotesque
curious condition of things. in appearance. The Rhamphorhynchus, which
Some of the animals which people our own stands at the head,'was discovered some years ago
planet have hollow bones, and numerous air-sacs, in the slates of Germany, and is remarkable in
and the weight of their bodies is reduced to the being the only specimen ever found that shows
minimum, so that they leap into the air with ease, perfectly preserved the membrane of the wing.
their fore-arms being modified to suit aerial prog- The animal possibly died and fell into the water,
ress. Such are our birds; and there are many thus becoming covered with the material which in
other animals which to a greater or less degree intervening ages turned to slate and formed its
are fliers, though moving by different means. tomb. Professor Marsh secured the specimen for
Some of the earliest and most remarkable fliers Yale College, and it stands to-day one of the most
were not birds, but reptiles; huge creatures, stu- wonderful fliers ever discovered. This animal had
pendous and uncanny. It has been known for not only the long jaws of the Pterodactyls, and the
many years that such fliers existed in the early large wings, like those of a bat, but the hind legs
geologic days; but only within a short time has it were connected by a membrane as in these ani-
been understood that they attained to such gigan- mals, and the tail, instead of being short, was
tic dimensions. Skeletons of Pterodactyl, as these nearly if not quite as long as the entire body, ter-
flying reptiles were called, are found in many minating at its tip in a veritable rudder, with which
European collections, and terrible creatures they this living craft guided itself through the air. The
must have been, their jaws armed with sharp tail, separated from the body and taken individu-


ally, would look like an ordinary canoe paddle, can take a long leap from tree to tree, not only
with the end of the blade rounded. The mem- passing safely, but also carrying its little ones,
brane of this rudder was supported by spine-like which cling to it, and when the mother walks
bones, extending on either side. Its appearance in about find ample concealment in the folds.
the air must have been exceedingly curious. There Very similar in its methods of flight is the beau-
are no reptiles of this kind now in existence; the tiful lizard, called the Draco volans, or flying draco.
only forms resembling them being the bats, which This charming little creature, which resembles
belong to the mammals a totally different class, in the air some brilliant butterfly or gorgeous in-
One of the most remarkable and interesting of sect of the East, is only about a foot long, and
the mammalial fliers is the flying fox, so common in has a web-like arrangement on each side which is
some of the islands of the extreme East. They boomed out when occasion requires, or supported
have a fox-like head, sharp teeth which they use by bones called false ribs. Like the flying squir-
in eating fruit, and are such great pests that in rel it darts to the summit of lofty trees, and boldly
some places nets have to be placed over fruit- launches itself, sailing gently down, supported by
trees. These creatures hang to the limbs of trees the curious parachutes which so act against gray-
like bats, and in this position would be taken by ity that it generally alights at the selected place
strangers for the fruit of the tree, so much do they with the greatest ease. The parachutes are not
resemble it. in any sense used as wings; that is, there is no mo-
From these animals which have a wing-like mem- tion up and down, though the draco takes extraor-
brane stretched from elongated fingers, we may pass dinary leaps into the air after insect prey.
to a group which move through the air by means of The appearance of a group of these lizards
a parachute-like arrangement- a membrane which moving through the air is indescribably brilliant.
hangs loosely when the animal is at rest, but when Their color is a rich pale blue on the back, other
the limbs are extended, forms a veritable parachute, parts being a bluish-gray, while the back and tail
connecting the space from the wrist of the fore-limbs are ornamented with many transverse dark bands.
to the ankle of the hind ones. Our common fly- The so-called wings, which are of course very
ing squirrel is a familiar example, and in the East prominent when the animal is moving, are marked
there are many large and interesting forms illus- in black, white and brown, and bordered with a
treating this curious modification, which adapts the white line. Many different species are known,
little creatures to a semi-aerial life. some of them being disagreeable in their aspect;
The motion of these so-called flying squirrels is and undoubtedly from them the old writers ob-
not true flight, but rather the action of a parachute, tained their inspiration when describing the drag-
as they cannot raise themselves in mid-air, and all ons which the brave knight had to conquer before
the movement is a downward one. They ascend he released the beautiful maiden.
to the tops of trees, and boldly hurl themselves Among the swimming birds we notice that the
into space, instinctively holding out the claws which toes are connected by a web which presents a
spreads the membrane parachute to the breeze. broad flat surface to the water, open only Nwhen
Thus buoyed up they glide downward, then up a the foot is pushed back. It would not do to as-
few feet, alighting upon the tree which was the ob- sume from this that all animals with webbed toes
ject of the flight; then quickly mounting it to again were swimmers, as we find in the island of Borneo
hurl themselves down. In this way long journeys a little tree-toad, whose toes are connected by
are made with remarkable celerity, and in some of webs, so that each foot is a parachute, supporting
the large Eastern forms flights of one hundred feet the creature in its flights from tree to tree. This
and more have been noticed, curious flier was discovered by the naturalist Wal-
A very remarkable flier is found in the islands of lace. He was walking through the forest when
the East Indian archipelago, and is known as the one of his men noticed a curious object sailing
flying lemur or galeopithecus. Not only are its down through the air and secured it, when the
limbs connected by a membrane, but a part of naturalist found to his amazement that it was a
the tail is also included, as in the bats. The side veritable flying-toad, which used its webbed feet
membranes are exceedingly large, and the animal as wings to transport itself from one tree to an-


other. This animal, though a small delicate crea- colored, blue, purple, red, and yellow, and marbled
ture, has a very long name, R/acop/orns votns. with striking spots and bands of darker hue, they
Some years ago a party of gentlemen were sit- are the veritable birds of this ocean summerland.
ting in the cabin of a vessel bound for Cuba. We do not wonder that they can fly when we ex-
They had passed Cape Florida, and were speed- amine their fins, as the side ones are so elongated
ing through the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, that they are comparatively useless in the water,
which finds an outlet between Cuba and Key the tail being the motor there. But when alarmed,
West. The party were gathered about a table, or in play, they leap from the water, the wing-like
and one of them reading a paper, when with a fins are spread, and they dart along, using them
crash and a splutter a strange body darted through as parachutes, and attaining remarkable distances.
it, passing by his face, and fell with a thud upon There are several kinds of these fliers, one quite
the floor. It is needless to say that the gentlemen common about New York harbor, probably find-


',i: '- *

.'\ ~ .' -:


started to their feet in astonishment, and it was ing farther east a cousinship with the quaint and
not lessened when the victim held up his torn homely gurnards of the New England coast.
paper, and a moment later picked up from the The several species of flying fishes proper, Ex-
floor a fish about six inches long, with long pec- ocetus, are even more remarkable, and take long
toral or side fins, and a hard-armored head. The flights, some that I have observed being certainly
fish was the well-known flying gurnard, common one eighth of a mile. They are frequently seen
in Southern seas, and had either been attracted bounding from the waves in schools, and some-
by the light, or had accidentally dashed through times the wind takes them and they are hurled
the open port. aboard ships, striking the sails, and falling to the
I have often watched these beautiful creatures deck. They are beautiful creatures, though dif-
darting over the waters of the Mexican Gulf. Par- ferent from the gurnards. The latter resembles
ticularly where the great patches of sea-weed con- some gorgeous insect, in their gaudy dress and
gregate they are numerous, and as they are richly metallic lustre, while the exocetus has a garb of


shining silver, with a bluish tint upon the back, a breeze ; but it seemed possible at any time, and
and the extended wings or pectoral fins, which it was rarely that a buzzard could be seen moving
are without color, look like lace. its wings unless near the ground ; the motion
No question to-day is discussed more widely while in the air being produced by pitching down
than that as to whether the flying fish is an actual or turning the body to either side. I have seen
flier or not, and an army of observers is arrayed the man-of-war birds remain motionless in the air,
on either side. I have seen great numbers of four hundred feet up, during a gale of wind, and
them in Southern waters, and consider that their with wings outstretched they would literally rest
flight is comparable to that of other animals which on the wind; remaining in the same position a
use parachutes. The specimens which I have ob- long time, there evidently being an enjoyment in
served in confinement never moved the side fins, it, their only movement as observed from the top
or so-called wings, under water, the tail being the of a lighthouse, over which they were poising,
motive power in every movement; and I think that being an occasional pitching down and subse-
when leaving their native element they probably quent rising. The bird might be compared to a
acquire great momentum by a vigorous movement kite; gravity being the string. The gale strikes
of this organ, and I notice that when once above its breast, and tends to blow the bird before it;
the surface, the broad fins, extended to their ut- but by pitching down slightly it overcomes this,
most, are held at such an angle that they present and so remains stationary. This explanation may
a slight resistance, the rush of air tending to press not be accepted by my mathematical or philosoph-
them up, and I conclude that when the momentum ical readers, but there seems to be no other.
is exhausted this upward pressure is relaxed, and Many young people would probably be aston-
:, iiii! -i1 the fish falls back into the sea. When ished if told that air is not the only element in
the wind is favorable the flights, as I have said, which flying can be practised. Flying under
are extremely long. Many observers state that water is not only a possibility but a fact, and the
they have seen the fins moved up and down; but water ouzel is one of the most interesting of all
I am inclined to think that this was simply the birds in this respect. Most of the water birds.
fluttering of the wings as they moved quickly are fitted with appliances adapting them for a
through the air. The advocates of this flying marine life; but the water ouzel seems to have
theory are, I think, as a rule, those who have not been neglected, as it has no webbed feet, and is as
examined the muscular development of the flying little prepared for a dive as a robin ; yet this does
fish which seems totally inadequate to produce not deter it from taking submarine voyages. It is.
such movement, generally found along the banks of rocky streams,
The true fliers are, of course, the birds. In and, curiously enough, seems to prefer to seek its
their entire structure, the hollow bones, the air- food under water, boldly plunging in; and once
sacs, and feathers, we see an adaptation to a true under it actually flies along, moving its wings in
aerial existence, and in some, as the eagle, the the water just as it does in the air. In this way
condor and others, the power of sustained flight the little flier proceeds along the bottom, now
reaches its greatest perfection. The birds which flying, now walking, hunting for the worms and
spend most of the time in the air make the least shells which constitute its food.
exertion. In other words, they depend almost The penguins have rudimentary wings which
entirely upon soaring, and do not expend their appear like fins, and are used as such; the illu-
strength upon a continued flapping of the wings. sion being still farther carried out by the feathers
I noticed this particularly among the mountains in which are so small that they might readily pass
Southern California where buzzards are common, for the scales of fishes. These birds spend a
and I have seen these birds under the glass and greater part of their time in the ocean, and in
near at hand moving about, rising and falling, their movements under water greatly resemble
now swooping into the cahons, then rising to fishes. They cannot fly in the air, but they have
great heights by circling, without a single move- wings perfectly adapted for submarine flying, and
ment of the wing, the fore-limbs being perfectly assisted by their powerful webbed feet they dart
rigid. This was most successful when there was along with surprising speed.


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I. she lived and played in that shady retreat till the
family moved to New York, when she was six years
JULIET CORSON. old. The mother was a quiet, cultivated woman;
the father was absorbed in his wholesale commis-
IN the winter of 1884, the Cleveland Educational sion business.
Bureau, which was organized to give the best The child spent most of her time with the family
entertainment and instruction to the people at the of her uncle, Dr. Alfred Upham, brother of the
lowest possible prices, decided to have a series of writer on Mental Philosophy. Under the loving
lectures on cooking, in addition to its regular course. care of two of her mother's sisters, and her uncle's
We hoped that some of the women of the city, es- guidance, she studied Latin and Greek history and
pecially the wives of working men, would appreci-
ate and appropriate this special instruction.
Who should be engaged to give the lessons? '
Naturally we turned to Miss Juliet Corson, Super- .L'
intendent of the New York School of Cookery.
At the hour appointed, on Saturday afternoon,
what was our amazement to find three thousand '' '',,
persons present! On the platform a gas stove / -
had been arranged, while a man in white apron
stood before a butcher's block ready to cut his ,
quarter of beef as the teacher might direct. *
Miss Corson, with sunny face and pleasant voice,
mixed her bread or prepared her meat as she talked.
A dozen newspaper reporters were at their tables, i
while ladies all over the vast audience were taking
notes, or writing receipts, as she gave them. The
men among her listeners seemed equally interested
with the women; and why not, since good food,
like good air, is vital to one who would do able and
telling work in the world? ?,
Women were present from the most elegant
homes of the city, and from the plainest, all equally
interested. Each newspaper gave from one to three JULIET CORSON.
columns daily of Miss Corson's sensible talks about
food and health and of her directions for making classical poetry. She read daily in Mr. Upham's
soup, tea and coffee, bread and pastry; and we large library, and was quite content to be his little
trust that the city was helped considerably in the companion book-worm; for until she was' almost
matters of digestion, economy, comfort, and good twelve years of age, nearly ten months of every
sense. I became myself deeply interested in Miss year were spent on the sofa or the bed; neverthe-
Corson; I found her highly educated, refined in less the little invalid was amassing great riches
manner, one who dignified and elevated labor, and from her books, and doubtless this early study pre-
who had gained her success by her own exertions, pared her mind for her broad work in the future.
Born in 1842, in a Boston suburb, Mt. Pleasant, When Juliet was eighteen, the. gentle mother


died, and, after a time, the father brought a new proud of writing for the Quarterly, on the staff of
wife to the home. As he was a man of comfortable which she was the only woman-writer.
means, there was enough for all, but as the brothers In 1873 some ladies in New York started a
had gone out into life for themselves, the new in- noble charity. There were thousands of young
mate requested the daughter to do the same. Un- women who needed to earn a living, but, unlike
used to labor, still frail in health, what could she their brothers, they had been taught neither profes-
find to do? Yet do not commiserate her. But sion nor trade. Probably their mothers reasoned
for being forced to earn her living, Miss Corson that they would marry early, and therefore a trade
would probably have done little for the world. would be useless; but knowledge never remains use-
Miss Elizabeth Power, a member of the editorial less to man or woman, married or unmarried. The
staff of the New York Times, then under the man- free training-schools for these young women, first
agement.of Henry Raymond, had been instrumen- opened in Miss Corson's own home, were soon lo-
tal in founding a library for working-girls, in a large cated in a large room in Wheeler and Wilson's sew-
room in the New York University building. Young ing-machine building, and this company, and others,
Mrs. Upham was interested in this work. Could loaned scores of machines, free of charge, for ap-
not her cousin be useful here as librarian ? Only plicants to learn upon. In nine months over one
a small salary could be paid, four dollars a week, thousand womeai had been taught thus to sew, and
but this the eager Boston girl was glad to obtain, situations had been obtained for three fourths of
It seemed a gold mine," she once said to me; them. Book-keeping, proof-reading, and short-
but she little knew how quickly four dollars would hand, with which Miss Corson's avocations had
vanish when room-rent, board-bills and washing- made her familiar, were also taught free of charge.
bills were to be paid out of it. Often by the time Early in the spring of 1874, it was decided to
the week was half through, she was out of money, also teach domestic service. A larger house was
and then she lived by means of pitiful economies, taken, where the basement could be used for a
She says laughingly now that she would often have cooking-school, and meals could be provided at
been glad of one of the fifteen-cent dinners she cost to working-girls employed in neighboring
devisedlater. Finally it was arranged by the kind- stores. The upper rooms were turned into a dor-
hearted founder of the Woman's Library that she mitory, for many young women came hither with
should sleep there on a sofa in the library, and no money to pay for either shelter or food. A
thus save a portion of her expenses; the library's laundry was soon added.
finances did not warrant an increase of salary. When this cooking-school was started, being the
She made a little money, too, now and then, by a first in the country, no one knew just what was spe-
poem or a sketch in the newspapers, cially best to be done. As Juliet Corson was the
At last she became acquainted with several of secretary of the society- no wonder she was in-
the staff of the Leader, of which Oakey Hall and terested in working-girls from her own trying
Harry Clapp were then editors, and the arrange- experiences she wrote to the South Kensington
ment was made that she should write one first-page Cooking-School in London; but it proved that they
article each week, upon the new books, pictures, too were just beginning and could give little assist-
music, and matters of interest to women; for this ance. She then decided to obtain the best books
column she received five dollars. This seemed on cookery, in the French and German languages,
another "gold mine," and life actually looked lux- and the result was that admiring the thoroughness
urious with nine dollars a week; four hundred six- of the German and the delicacy of the 'French, she
ty-eight a year! Presently Dr. Sears, editor of 'the combined the ideas and reasons of their methods
National Quarterly Review, wished a half-yearly into a philosophyofherown. Next a trained French
index made, and this she did for him accurately, cook was employed who could carefully carry out
Then he gave her points of articles he desired, Miss Corson's directions as she gave the lesson
told her to make researches and write, "and he before th'e class. At first she was nervous as she
would see what sort of stuff there was in her." stood before her pupils; but this timidity was over-
The young librarian was tired and worn, but glad come as her interest in her work increased. For
enough to earn. the money and, moreover, very several years she carried forward this department.


In 1876, several wealthy ladies said to her, but generally the poor felt grateful for this assist-
"Miss Corson, can't you open a cookery school at ance in making a dollar go as far as possible.
your home ? We wish to come and learn, as well The six thousand dollars eventually spent in cir-
as the cooks." culating the book, came from Miss Corson's own
So, in St. Mark's Place, near Cooper Institute, hard work, with the exception of one hundred dol-
the famous New York Cooking-School was opened. lars, which was given to her one day at the school
From the first it was a success; over one thousand by Mrs. Robert L. Stuart, with the remark, "Do
persons came each year for a course of lessons. what you wish with this, Miss Corson." As all
Those in good circumstances paid ten dollars for that came then was grist for Fifteenl-Cet Dinners,
twelve lessons; wives and daughters of working- this hundred dollars went into the mill.
men, fifty cents a lesson; while, says Miss Corson, Almost immediately all over the country the
I never have let a person go who wanted to learn, press and people were talking about the novel little
and had no money. I gave to all what I could dinner-book. The Baltimore Daily News gave out
teach." But how different these bright years of over its counters one thousand copies in less than
well-paid work from the four-dollars-a-week life in a week to meet the individual calls of working-
the library! people. The Philadelphia Record re-published it
In 1877, on account of the railroad strikes and entire in its columns. The New York Heraldsaid:
the unsettled condition of business, there was much
suffering. Miss Corson well knew what poverty When we consider that the breakfast of niany a laboring
brought to women and children, especially when male's family in these times (of the railroad strikes in 1877)
poverty came because husbands and fathers were frequently consists of bread alone, we cannot give too much
Praise to the book that teaches how to make savory and
out of work. She believed rightly that if she could healthful dishes at a cost of from ten to fifteen cents. .
show the poor how to live comfortably on a small There is no use in extending our arguments: the book speaks
income, she would be conferring a blessing. for itself and needs no vindication: for its earnest author,
It was then that she prepared that little book she has nothing to make: indeed, for charity's sake, she is a
called, Firfeen-Cent Dinzersafor Workinpenz's Fan- great loser. The interest we have is in the pamphlet, which
Shas secured wide attention, and which is valuable for the
lies. She had tested the receipts in her own very poor. Economy is not a crime. If a poor man can get
family of five adults, and found that while delica- more from ten cents than he is used to getting he is better
cies could not be provided, plain substantial food off.
could be, if the teachings of the book were implic-
itly followed. Upon its completion, she offered The letters of the working-people themselves
the book to any Charitable Society which would were pathetic, because they testified how the poor
print and give away fifty thousand copies, but no struggle to live, and how warm their hearts are
organization was found willing to undertake this toward those who aid them. Here are extracts:
beneficence. Then Miss Corson said, "I will do
it myself," though she did not know where the If I understand the papers that you help the poor by let-
money that was necessary for the work, would ting them have a cook-book free of charge, that they may
learn the way to cook for themselves and live cheap by the
come from. When the book was ready, she an- good advice therein, pray send one to me, for I am greatly
nounced through the leading papers that all per- in need of something of that sort. If I was to write for all
sons who called at her house could have the book .the poor people in E that would be glad of a chance
free. Before seven o'clock the next morning, her to get a book it would take two dozen to supply them, for
hall was filled with people waiting to receive the we are in hard luck for the last four years. Very little
money. Very little work at any price. And what is worse
little pamphlet, than all, winter is coming. Then all work stops. And the
So wide-spread was the demand for it, that calls store-keepers stop trusting us. So you see we are very much
came even from India, China, Australia and South in need of a book to teach us how to cook what little we can
America. Countless letters have reached her from get in a proper way.
all parts of the world concerning this book. Some
Kind friend Juliet, for the last six months I have not
Socialists ardently blamed her for writing it, be-
earned $i.5o a day. Times are very hard. There are plenty
cause, they said, If capitalists think we can live in our factory no better off than myself, with five to seven
on fifteen-cent dinners, they will lower our wages; in a family. Please send us books.


MY DEAR MADAM: I read in the Sunday papers some- mid-day dinners. This "Dietary" was prepared
thing of more importance than I ever read in my life, under at the request of Hon. John Eaton, U. S. Coin-
the head of The Food Question." My wife read it, and was m r of Ed
very anxious to know how it could be done. I work in aucaton, an ordered published by
shop where we are getting So cents to $1.44 a day; there are the Secretary of the Interior.
about 90 men working there. I would suggest that you send In 1878 Miss Corson's well-known Cooking Man-
us each a copy, that we may learn to feed ourselves economi- ual was published. It is one of the best books
call. If any person with an intelligent eye would walk possible to put into the hands of a young house-
through our shops and take notice of our lean, haggard,
worn-out faces and bodies, he would come to the conclusion keeper. Over eight thousand copies have been
we need some advice, sold. Meals for the Million, a small book, for
twenty and thirty cents, has had an immense sale.
There is five of us women and a little boy, and I earn a dol- After this her Family Cook Book was published in
lar a day. I sew lace. But my eyes are poor, and it is hard. one of the cheap libraries, and has gone into thou-
We don't have much to eat many days. We want your book n r
so bad. sands of homes. She has recently completed Prac-
tical American Cookery and Household Mfanagement,
Besides this little book for the poor, Miss Cor- and is also preparing two books to be published by
son has given lessons to the workingwomen of the the Harpers, one of which is upon Sanitary Living.
Five Points House of Industry, the 7th Ave. This she means to make "the work of her life."
Chapel, the Episcopal Orphan Home, the Alexan- These later books are more carefully written than
der, the Holy Trinity, and Olivet Chapels, New were the others in time stolen from her work as.
York, Dr. Vincent's Mission, Dr. Hall's Mission teacher and lecturer, often after midnight to meet
Class, the Wilson Mission, the Sheltering Arms, demands for copy. She is also preparing a cook-
Cooper Institute, the Workingmen's School, the book for working-people, to be sold at about the
Brooklyn Industrial Restaurant, the Soldiers Or- cost of publication.
phan's Home, and latest at St. Augustine's Chapel Has not this been a busy life ? And nearly all
of Trinity Parish, New York. her important public work has been done in the last
She had now become so widely known that re- ten years, done too with frail health, and often in
quests came from many cities asking her to give much pain of body, and literally under the doc-
courses of cooking-lessons and to help open cook- tors' sentence of death.
ing-schools. In Montreal, she gave the first les- The lesson of this life is for all women. Miss
sons in cooking ever given in public schools, to Corson would undoubtedly have succeeded in other
the girls in the high-school; she also gave a directions, with the putting-forth of the same en-
course before the Ladies' Educational Association, ergy and ability. A Christmas story of hers writ-
and evening classes to the wives of artisans. In ten for one of her child favorites, the daughter of
Concord, Northampton, Hartford, Pittsfield, Peo- a neighbor of Thomas Nast, has been promised
ria, Minneapolis, Baltimore, Chicago, Washington, illustration by that versatile genius; she is some-
Syracuse, Plainfield, Brooklyn, where she gave what of an artist herself, and an enthusiastic lover
courses, the working-people had free lessons. of music, an ardent student of the harmonic mys-
Nurses were taught cookery for the sick at the teries of Wagner.
State Charity Hospital, the Brooklyn City and And now unable to lecture on account of ill
Maternity Hospitals, and at the New York, Brook- health, her physical inactivity tends to mental ac-
lyn and Washington Training Schools for Nurses. tivity, and permits her to put her experience into
Before 1878 she had prepared a Text-book and written words which can reach thousands, where her
Housekeeper's Guide, which has now gone through spoken words could reach but hundreds. "This is
six editions, and this was at once used in the the silver lining, I suppose," she says cheerfully,
Montreal Cooking-School. This book also con- and she adds:
tains a Dietary for Schools," showing what food
trains a Dietary for Schools," showing what food If I am laying up any reward for myself I hope it may
and beverages students need, and most useful come in the shape of strength to complete my work, as yet
suggestions are given about early breakfasts and only outlined.




L. centrates the personal care of owner and trainer
and special skilled farrier.
BABY'S SHOE. A country baby may go without any shoe in
warm weather, and very loose ones after. A city
A," sole and lower sides of shoe. "B," front of shoe. ba ared to Mrs. Grundy, ad its tity
"C," heel and upper sides. baby is sacrificed to Mrs. Grundy, and its tightly
Join I and I, "A," glove-seam, to make back of heel; join buttoned little black boots hang numbed and
2 and 2, "' A to 3 A to shape heel; gather from 4 to 4 chilled as i:arse carries it. It knows better than
"A," in loose whip gathers. Then join 5 and 5 A to 5 ,' try even to toddle on those balls of discomfort.
and 5 B," making smooth joins along to 4 and 4 A"; Either on nurse's arm, or strapped down in its car-
then collect gathers and complete the join between 4 and 4.
Then join 6 and 6," C," to 5 and 5, A and B "; remain- rage, the feet cannot be properly warm in those
der of "C folds and laps under B [not over as in dia- unaccommodating boots. From cold feet to head-
gram], which stands up, overlapping C." The string passes ache, to disturbed stomach, to irritated nerves and
through slits 7 and 7, C," tying snugly over B." that malaise which the plantation people called
The light outline of diagrams gives full working size for a misery all over," is a quick process.
girl one year old; the heavy outline gives size for boy of And there is worse. For any easy use this shoe
m aAnd there is worse. For any easy use this shoe
practically ends the leg at the top button. The
H AVE you not all heard the crying, and seen hinge-like joint which works the heel is too se-
the ineffectual angry attempts of a baby to curely imprisoned to work forward freely. Its
free itself from the unelastic fixed restraint of its lateral movement leads to the danger of the child's
first shoe ? A beautifully-shaped buttoned-boot avoiding the use of its foot and ankle, and as nature
- a miniature of its mother's walking-boot com- pityingly accommodates itself to wrong conditions,
ing well above the poor tender-boned ankle and you will see a baby acquire strange dexterity in
even made with a suggestion of a heel! queer sidewise motions, and make the leg below
Have you ever seen these modern boots taken the knee and the knee itself do duty for the ankle
off? and seen the violet-pink flesh and felt the and the flexible toes. From this follow many last-
clammy cold skin of impeded circulation ? Have ing forms of hurt. And, at once, come falls and
you seen the same feet, reviving after a little rub- awkward habits.
bing and soothing warmth had restored their nat- In my limited province I came to the rescue
ural condition until suddenly Baby feels itself with an adaptation of the Indian moccason. Mak-
again; and the supple little creature makes sure of ing them of chamois leather for the very first shoe,
an old pleasure by putting his toe into its mouth? at six and eight months; then getting a thicker
Even a worse shoe I see now advertised: "THE but always pliable skin, dogskin or buckskin, and
CORSET SHOE toform the ankle !" Those gelatinous in time adding a sole of morocco. When the
bones, that tender flesh, are best formed by the adventurous two-year-olds would make off to the
simple methods nature provides. Judicious letting stable and chicken yard, and find that pebbles and
alone, and all the motion and restlessness a baby sticks and chestnut-burrs and frozen ground
can give way to, are its right, changed their mirth to wailing, then cricket shoes
The shoeing of cavalry horses, and proper shoes were substituted.
for infantry, determine the full efficiency of sol- Neighbors and visitors have been shocked, and
diers. There is a whole literature on this; the argued that these moccasons would "leave their
best thought of military men has been given to it, ankles weak !" It was in vain to point out our
in England more especially. While you know how erect swift Indians -all the strong field-hands of
the recurring operation of shoeing a race-horse con- the South who never had shoes in childhood-


and the Arabs, and the lithe and graceful Hindu, on his kicking feet and that he was alone against
and that marvel of endurance and agile strength, the crowd, he just calmly sat him down and would
the Zulu. And the barefoot lads of all countries, not move at all. The cat, the coal-scuttle, his
What "shapes" all these ankles? india rubber bath-tub, all his most desired and
forbidden delights were vainly of-
fered him. No. With the stoi-
cal resignation of an Indian he
ceased to make vain attempts, but
sat quite still on the floor, look-
ing at those two new black shoes.
Coming overland I had brought
from Cheyenne some little moc-
casons, because they were pretty
and "baby." We put these on
him and lo! a transformation--
the little toes worked cautiously
S '' andfound themselves free! Jack's
I' face was lighting up with cour-
'' : age; with a swift dart he scut-
ted off and found he could begin
his busy mischief.
S. Then and there I was promoted
/ to the post I have filled since for
I' Jack and his sisters of Shoe-
I --.. -maker to the Babies." Many
_and many pairs of pretty chamois
moccasons have I made them;
and in other young households
they have been adopted and ba-
bies rise up by chairs and step
along safely and gracefully and
their fathers and mothers call
me "blessed" for thinking of
the safe moccasons.
And, girls, they are so easy
and nice to make for gifts to
your baby friends. It is such
comfortable sewing, soft to the
fingers and no edges to turn in;
no ravelling, or thick seams, but
just a smooth glove-seam and
FIG. A. some embroidery.
You get a large and evenly
I am ashamed I never properly noticed this evil dressed chamois skin -in shop-language Sham-
until it touched my Small-Jack." His discomfort, my," this size, one dollar." That and some
his touching looks and gestures of appeal against threads of embroidering silks make the outlay.
the hampering of his squirrel-like activity, finally "Like the setting-hen you charge nothing for your
his recognition that he was helpless, and his way time," and as a large skin makes five pairs of moc-
of meeting the inevitable, quite broke me up." casons you see the result is .. et pas c~kr"
Finding that his shoes were constantly put back as the shop-phrase goes in Paris.


My diagrams will, I hope, be clear. If you will And we have--
first outline the patterns on the wrong side of the found the ankles '
skin, fitting the different parts to the shape of were not "left
your mate- weak," for at four
rial, there years old Jack
will be no could take a
0- waste, and standing jump of
Syou can go four feet clear, of-
1C about your ten some inches
work with beyond. It was
B the rolls all good to see how
ready to be every limb and
S taken up at muscle answered,
S .- odd times, true as fine ma-
: i It is very chinery, to its ap-
pretty work pointed use.
to do baby- You can show
/ shoemaking affectionate re-
as you sit membrance of a
at evening young married
around the friend by keeping
large table The Baby" in
j and a shad- pretty and whole-
/A ed lamp some shoes for a
g- ives good year, for the five
light on the or six dollars you
/ tan-colored would spend for
goat skin; some ready-made
and while present she might
F.3some cut, never use, a fan
G. B. the girls or a glove-box or
who embroider can do the little front piece, those a thousand stupid
who cannot embroider can make the neat glove- things.
seam-joinings of the pieces and in less time If you want to
than you could fancy the shoes are finished, be very complete
Nurse Katy sometimes would write me: "Please, and are making
Naamah" (Jack for Grandma), "we have had a mis- a special "first
fortune with our shoes and Jacky is barefoot; and pair," work them
back, by mail, the next day, would get to her the with forget-me-
letter with a pair of moccasons inside. nots, or small dai-
I would be begged not to make them too pretty sies or rose-buds,
to wear, so it would be a quick outlining in black and make a
or red sewing silk of a hissing goose on one foot shoe-bag of
and a waddling duck on the other, a cow's head or sash ribbon
a doggie something to please the little wearer to harmonize
- and quickly bound with a narrow ribbon. Red in color./ '
washes. Another good in these shoes is their Divide it,
cleanliness. A little borax and warm water--no for the
soap--and they can be made purely fresh. Dried two moccasons, '
on the pine form used for drying little woollen first working a FIG. C.
stockings they keep their shape, flower or initials


on each pocket. Into the small shoe put the per- and shape of those I make for a year-old baby.
mitted bonbon of infancy, a peppermint drop, done With one difference belonging with their climate;
up in silver paper and tied with narrow ribbons, the heel piece is not open as our Indians wear
Wanting to make quite sure of my idea of the them, but sewed together with a little gore to give
usefulness of the moccason, and the risk of the play to the ankle. This shortens the front piece
buttoned boot, I asked some questions of a physi- which is sewed-a glove-seam with fine sinew for
cian who is wise in surgical treatment of injured thread-up to the top-piece. And the heel is
limbs, telling him what I had been asked to gathered in to that also.
write of and that I must be sure of no mistakes. The standing piece is nearly two inches high
He showed me plates and models and explained from the sole. This part of the shoe has been
as only a full mind can, briefly and convincingly, made from five different irregular pieces -scraps
that from the time a child tried to use its feet neatly pieced together, the sole and front are of
they must be kept free from any hard or cramping one piece each. Evidently it is nothing but a
covering. He explained to me that lateral move- very poor person's work and yet there are traces
ment of the heel machinery. I am not in the of mother-love in the attempt to curve and give
least informed on such matters except as I have grace on the front piece. Poor greasy mother
been "house-nurse" to the inevitable surgical and oily baby-the little shoe seems to bring
cases in a family of boys. them out of the Arctic darkness and within our
What came more in my scope was a poor little warm homes, for they too are of "the little ones "
greasy, baby-moccason he showed me -brought to of whom we are told to harm them not."
him among other Eskimo objects by Col. Gilder My little shoes are carrying me too far, for here
of Arctic fame. It is of almost exactly the size we are at the North Pole.



I. composed, and why was it established?
o1. What is meant by the phrase the return
i. With what event did the Greeks begin
I. By what name are the primitive inhabitants their chronology?
of Greece known? 12. Name the most ancient city of Greece.
2. What was the ancient name of Greece ? 13. Which was the most important of the Pel-
3. Name the god at first most honored by oponnesian states, and who its greatest statesman ?
the maritime nations of Greece. 14. What unwalled city in this state resisted the
4. Was the coast or the interior of the country various attacks of its enemies for eight centuries ?
the scene of the earlier Greek myths ? 15. Who were the Helots?
5. Name the two main races who colonized the 16. What city once called Cecropia was after-
shores of the .Egean Sea. wards named in honor of Minerva ?
6. Designate which of these settled in the 17. How many Messenian Wars were there?
mountain regions in the north of Greece. 18. What people invented the triremes?
7. Who was Minos, and why is his name an 19. What city was the home of the leader of
important one to remember? the Grecian forces in the Trojan war?
8. What city was called the seven-gated and 20. What small state guarded itself from over-
by whom was it founded ? population by frequently sending out colonies, one
9. Of what was the Amphictyonic Council of which founded Byzantium ?

ssy =-".=sa= ^ ----"_ v-- -- =- Y -__----~ *t-~--=-- -- : ^ ^ ....



CHAPTER II. "No, sir. I have no parents. They were lost
at sea, sir, a few months ago. I have two sisters
FAIRS; AND AT THE FAIR. and a brother who are with an aunt, and I hope
to earn something to help them along. I have
R AP, rap, rap. never worked much on a farm, but I think I should
"Somebody's at the door, Amos," said like it."
Mrs. Wharton. It was all Albert could do to finish this sen-
Come in," called a man's voice. tence. His heart was heavy, and a few tears
The door opened and there stood a boy, a stood in his eyes.
stranger. Good morning," he said, lifting his cap. Well, I guess p'raps I can give you work for
Good morning," slowly responded Mr. Whar- a while, and maybe for the summer. You may
ton, as he eyed the boy. Come in, my lad, and stop anyway, and we'll see in a day or two what
have a cheer," he added, raising his spectacles to kind of a bargain we can strike."
see more clearly. "All right, Mr. Wharton, I'm very thankful to
"Thank you, sir," said the boy, walking toward you. I'll stay and I hope I shall please you."
the seat. Is this Mr. Wharton? The home of Amos Wharton was at what is
That's my name, but I'm sartin I don't know now an important commercial centre in New Eng-
who you be. If I've met you afore I can't re- land. At the time he lived there, however, it was
member you now." a little hamlet. He owned a small but well-tilled
You never met me before," said the boy. farm which yielded a modest living. He was a
"My name is Albert Vangrift, sir. I was told hard-working farmer, but favored by nature with
you wanted to hire a boy, and I am looking for a taste for investigation and study. Rough on
a place to work." the exterior, blunt and outspoken in conversation,
You're looking' for a place, be you ? Well, I he still had a warm heart and a generous dispo-
did want a boy to help me plant 'taters last week. sition. Though his language was unpolished he
But I guess I don't need anybody jes' now. was by no means ignorant; instead he was well
Might want a boy arter a while. Where do you informed on the affairs of the day. His house
live ? was kept in farmer-like style; plain and unpre-
I came from Weed's Corners here, sir, though tentious. But whoever came within its doors was
I can't say that that is my home. I have no made at once to feel that he was in the house of
home at present except at places where I find a friend, and where he could speak and act with
work ; but I can work, Mr. Wharton, at least I ease. The house itself was beautifully situated
am willing to try." beside a broad sparkling stream, in the midst of
I should be right glad to give you some work, a group of tall maples and wide oaks, with well-
my lad, for I like to encourage a boy who says as tilled fields stretching out right and left.
.how he can try. Where are your folks ? Do The young man who had entered this cheerful,
they live about here ? homespun family had but recently arrived in New


England from his home of terrible sadness in the Why, in Boston. That's where the fair is,
West. The Probate Judge had appointed Mrs. isn't it?"
Vangrift's sister guardian for the four orphan chil- Now, it was more than fifty miles to Boston;
dren as they had wished, and she had brought and that in those days was a long distance wher-
them home and was doing as best she could to ever there was no railroad. It was the journey of
provide for them. a day from their town, as farmers usually travelled
Albert was a remarkably fine looking boy, with their wagons laden with products for the
straight as an arrow, with fair complexion, regular market. Some thought it necessary to take even
features and dark brown hair. He was not a more than one day, though with good roads and
sprightly lad, but what he lacked in activity he such horses as Farmer Goodwin drove, it was not
made up in perseverance. He had something of an exceedingly tiresome undertaking. But Bos-
a will of his own, and his force of character was ton was not the nearest market for the farmers
accompanied with strong desires to do as he about Williston, and few of them were in the
pleased, which sometimes got the advantage of his habit of going so far except upon special occasions
judgment. But this was only a temporary turn like "fair week."
of mind soon righted by his good sense. Be- Young Vangrift had many times wished for an
sides he had an active and sensitive conscience. opportunity to visit the great city. He had heard
Farmer Wharton continued to be pleased with from acquaintances what they had seen there -
Albert and within a few days made arrangements the large and elegant buildings, beautiful streets,
for him to remain at least several months. wonderful stores, factories, the harbor, shipping
But I must tell you," said Albert, I cannot and many other features. He had long wanted
bind myself to stay excepting from month to to witness these sights with his own eyes and
month. I have two small sisters and a brother judge for himself of their grandeur. No wonder
and I must provide for them as soon as I can find that he came in excited at so near a prospect of
a place where I can earn enough. I shall also doing it.
want to go as often as once a month, to see them." Do you think, mother, you can get him ready
"That's all right, my boy," said Mr. Wharton, on such short notice ? asked Mr. Wharton of his
more pleased than otherwise. You may take wife.
Bob and the buckboard whenever you think you I will try," said Mrs. Wharton; "but I should
ought to go." have liked at least a few days notice, especially
Albert found in the Whartons firm friends and as he is going to the fair."
he soon felt they were interested in his welfare. Albert went early to bed and his motherly
Mrs. Wharton, although she had children of her friend sat up late arranging the many little details
own, had a motherly interest in the lad. He was for his journey. The Sunday suit was brought
not only paid for his services, but was given time out, the clean linen was put in readiness for a
to study and provided with books. He remained hasty dressing, the luncheon was prepared, and
with the Whartons during the summer and went all was made ready for an early breakfast. And
frequently to see the little loved ones at his aunt's as the first rays of the sun were shooting up the
home. sky Mr. Goodwin and Albert were setting out on
One day as Mr. and Mrs. Wharton were dis- the long and wonderful journey.
cussing the subject of placing Albert in school Neighbor Goodwin was a talkative and well-
for the winter, the boy came rushing into the read man. Albert was anxious to know some-
house quite excited. Forgetting himself he in- thing about the great fair he was to visit on the
terrupted the conversation : morrow, and as he found his companion ready to
Mr. Goodwin is going to the fair to-morrow, give information, he plied him with questions.
and says he will be glad to have me go with him. "I wonder how they happened to have the first
He is to stay only one day. I have never been fair, and who it was that first thought of such a
to a fair in my life, and I should like dreadful thing ?" began the young philosopher.
well to go. Can I ? Fairs are pretty old institutions," said Mr.
Fair where ?" said Mr. Wharton. Goodwin. They originated with the ancients


long before the Christian era, many hundred "The kings granted permits for holding such
years in fact. But I don't suppose any one knows institutions, and none were allowed except such as
just how or when." had the sovereign's authority. Yes, kings, queens,
Do you suppose the religious festivals of an- princes, and noblemen, often took part in the fairs
cient times had anything to do with bringing fairs or honored them with their presence."
into existence, Mr. Goodwin ? "And who was it, I wonder, who 'got up' the
Perhaps so; most likely in fact. The pilgrim- fairs in those days?"
ages that the Israelites made three times a year Oh! various persons. The permits were usually
to Jerusalem and also every seventh year might granted to towns and sometimes to favorite noble-
well have been instrumental in building up fairs." men. There was at one time a law which said
I think I have read somewhere in history, that people attending a fair or festival were not
Mr. Goodwin, that traffic between nations was for the time subject to arrest for debt, nor while
largely kept up through periodical fairs and fes- they were going to or coming from the place. This
tivals. Is that so, do you suppose ? law, if we are correctly informed, granted a very
"Yes. But they were not instituted as our great relief to a large class who were generally in
fairs of to-day are. Fairs and festivals owed their fear of imprisonment for owing what they could
birth then to some important event which they not pay. But it was during the tenth and twelfth
were established to commemorate. When a city centuries that fairs somewhat, or rather more
was founded, for instance, the occasion was me- closely, resembling the institutions as we now
morialized by a fair or festival held every year know them, were first established. Among the
thereafter. In ancient Athens a great many fairs earliest were those of Flanders. At the time
and festivals were held. Besides the local gather- America was discovered they were common
ings which were numerous throughout Greece throughout Europe. The custom was brought to
there were many of a national reputation. Some this country by our earliest ancestors. But the
were called games, such as the Olympic games, fairs and festivals first known on this side of the
the Pythian games celebrated every fifth year in Atlantic were rather different from such an expo-
honor of Apollo at Delphi, also the Nemean sition as you shall see before many hours.
games." "And, I should suppose the objects of fairs
But those were not like the fairs we have now, now are different too, from what they were sev-
were they, Mr. Goodwin ? I suppose, though, I eral hundred years ago. They were then more
shall know something more about what a fair is like places of amusement, were they not ?"
myself by to-morrow night." "Yes. Fairs are now maintained as means for
"In some ways they were not, and in others fostering and encouraging industrial pursuits.
they were. The games consisted of all sorts of With the money received for admissions a fund
sports popular at that time, such as running, is formed out of which prizes are purchased and
wrestling, boxing, horse-racing, chariot-racing and given as premiums. Money is also often given
regattas or boat-races. Philosophers came to these as the prize. Thus people are prompted to excel
resorts to read their books, for printing had not in skill and ingenuity, and in raising stock and
been thought of, and to instruct the people upon growing fruits, vegetables, grains and other things.
the topics of the day. Merchants and manufac- The granting of patents by the Government has
turers brought their wares and goods, and those worked harmoniously with the system of premiums
who desired came to buy. Those institutions, and prizes offered by fairs for inventions."
you see, were something of the nature of our "I was reading last night of the fair of St.
State fairs, but did not resemble our mechanical Bartholomew which is held in London; I suppose
institutions which are designed more especially that is or has been one of the most noted ever
for the exhibition of inventions and of the prod- known," said Albert, bent on gathering all the
ucts of mechanical skill." information possible.
And did the kings and other sovereigns attend Yes. St. Bartholomew's fair was founded in
the games and fairs, do you suppose, Mr. Good- the twelfth century, and for a long period was one
win?" of the greatest assemblages for trade and com-


merce known in Europe. For many years the held annually for eight weeks at Nijni Novgorod
chief articles of trade at this fair were wool and about two hundred and sixty-five miles nearly
woollen goods; but the traffic in many other cor- northeast from Moscow at the confluence of the
modities must have been very great. During the Oka and Volga rivers. This fair is one of the
eighteenth century the great annual gathering great wonders of the Russian Empire. There are,
had drifted into a rendezvous for politicians, and if I remember rightly, more than three thousand
also had become a huge museum with all sorts of distinct stalls or departments for the sale of goods.
shows and comic performances." These are so divided into districts that every
Then, Mr. Goodwin, there is the Donny- special class of merchandise is given its proper
brook Fair about which Pat McKiverty talks so locality ; one for silks, another for tea, a third for
much, though I don't suppose he ever did really furs, a fourth for iron and so on." *
attend it, did he ? Oh! I should be so delighted to visit some of
Pat may have been there for ought I know, the great fairs of the old world," said Albert,
Albert. Donnybrook is a village about two miles "but I shall probably never be able to get nearer
southeast from Dublin and is chiefly celebrated for one of them than Boston. I think I would espe-
this institution, which was granted by King John. pecially like to see the fairs at Mecca in Arabia
Originally it was intended as a fair for the sale of and that one in Hindostan- at Hurdwur, is it
horses and black cattle, but it became notorious not, Mr. Goodwin? "
as a place of riot and drunkenness and grew to At Hurdwur, yes, in the northern part of Hin-
be a resort for the hard cases of Dublin. After dostan. Those are indeed most wonderful gather-
repeated efforts the officials succeeded in restor- ings, and the numbers which assemble, according
ing it to respectability and have suppressed much to reports, are so great that I am sometimes al-
of the lawlessness for which it was noted, most inclined to doubt their accuracy. It is said
And there are equally as important fairs on that as many as three hundred thousand people
the Continent, are there not ? pursued Albert. often congregate at the Hurdwur fair which takes
" Our Jake often told us about the fairs of Leip- place annually, while at the one which occurs
sic and Frankfort. I think he said the fair at every twelfth year there are more than a million
Leipsic was held three times a year ? and a half. Not so many are to be seen at Mecca,
"The German fairs have been considered of but the sight is extremely interesting. These
more importance than any others of Europe," said places afford a good favorable opportunity for study-
Mr. Goodwin. "The most prominent of these ing those peculiar Eastern peoples. Religion,
are the fairs of Leipsic, Frankfort-on-the-Main, business, and pleasure, are curiously intermingled.
Frankfort-on-the-Oder and Brunswick. The The men, women and children are decked out in
Easter Fair of Leipsic is widely known for the their national costumes, and visitors say the sight
book trade which centres there. The sales of is indeed deeply attractive."
books at the Leipsic Easter Fair often exceed six Mr. Goodwin knew that he was talking rather
million dollars. The attendance is fifty to sixty "like an encyclopaedia," but the boy by his side
thousand, and they come hither from nearly all was all interest.
parts of the globe." "I suppose there is no other part of the world
"I have read somewhere, Mr. Goodwin, of a where fairs and festivals are held in such high
fair in some part of Europe which is often at- respect, nor where there are very ancient institu-
tended by three hundred thousand people or more. tions of that kind," queried Albert, eager for more.
Where is it do you remember ? "We can have nothing in the United States to
Mr. Goodwin drew a long breath at the per- compare with the great fairs of those old Eastern
sistence of his young catechiser. But he pro- countries and probably never will have," said Al-
ceeded to answer: bert, with a patriotic sigh which amused Mr.
I presume you have in mind the Russian fair The United States Consul at St. Petersburg in a recent report to the
Secretary of State says that the sales effected at this fair in 876 amounted
A very interesting little book is one entitled Ofenzoirs of Bar olo- to 150,000,000oo rubles, or $75,00o,o00. He expresses the opinion that the
mewu Fair, written by Henry Morley and published in London in 1859. great fairs of Russia, and there are several of national importance, are in-
It is well worth a perusal. curious to the trade of tie country rather than helpful to it.


Goodwin. "But what in your opinion, Mr. Good- During the evening Mr. Goodwin took him out
win are the most important fairs we have ? for a stroll through the streets and for the first
It is not safe to predict what may or may not time Albert's eyes feasted upon the sights in the
be accomplished in this country even in our own shop windows of a great city. At daylight the
day, Albert," said Mr. Goodwin. But the most next morning the boy was in his clothes and out
important fairs in the United States, I should say, in the streets trying to find his way to Faneuil
are these at the Mechanics' Institute in Boston, Hall and Quincy Market. Before the breakfast
the American Institute at New York, and the hour he had discovered these noted localities,
Franklin Institute at Philadelphia. These are strolled through the walks between long rows of
the oldest of note. Then there are the State fairs marketmen's stalls, and was back to the hotel
in every State, and the county and town fairs are ready to relate his experiences.
continually growing in importance." After breakfast Mr. Goodwin took the young
"Are the State fairs owned and managed by farmer down to the docks where he gazed with
the States, and do the Governors and State officers wonder upon the ships and busy tug-boats, and
have charge of them ? inquired Albert. then they hastened away to the fair. Here Al-
No. They have no connection with the State bert sought out from among the multitude of nov-
government, nor have the State officials anything elties those things which were newest to him and
to do with their control. They are much like which demanded most study. But his mind was
many other private enterprises, though not or- divided between the endless variety of inventions
ganized especially for speculation or profit. As in the fair and the wonderful stores and shops
a rule they are managed by an association of per- of the great metropolis of which he had got but a
sons interested in promoting the interests of the' glimpse and which had appeared to him like a
commonwealth and encouraging manufactures, moving panorama. He walked around among
agriculture and all the useful pursuits of the peo- the machinery which was in full operation. The
pie. The associations are formed in most States manufacturers of some steam engines had placed
under charters issued by the State legislature or one of their most powerful machines on exhibi-
under some general law. In order to have as tion and were supplying power with which a va-
large a number of people as possible interested riety of mechanical inventions were set in motion,
in the enterprise memberships in the association and Albert could not tear himself from its neigh-
are sold and the influential people of different borhood.
parts of the State are induced to purchase them. But by mid-day young Vangrift began again to
The members hold meetings every year and elect feel that though there was much to be seen within
officers such as a president, vice-president, sec- the mammoth halls yet he really would prefer to
retary, treasurer and superintendent. The asso- be out and to see more of the business part of the
ciations offer awards or premiums to exhibitors city, and to enter some of the great shops and
and charge a small admittance-fee both to ex- stores he had passed on his way to the fair.
hibitors and visitors." He was about setting out to look for Mr. Good-
Here the conversation was interrupted, by the win when he heard a shrill scream of fright. He
first sight of Boston. As the wagon came to the rushed forward in the direction of the cry. A
top of a hill they beheld church spires in the dis- young lady passing through a narrow aisle had
tance, and huge volumes of smoke were seen ris- been caught by her dress in the machinery and
ing up from the mills and factories. The waters was being wound in among the revolving wheels.
of the broad bay and the shipping of the harbor People from every direction came rushing up, but
presented a majestic sight. Albert from this time Albert was ahead, and with a bound he was over
viewed with intense interest the passing scenes, the shaft. Seizing the fainting figure in his strong
until he was landed upon the steps of the large, arms he held fast his hold while the grinding
and to him, magnificent-appearing hotel. wheels tore the fine satin flounces into threads. A
moment, and the danger was past.
We may understand from this remark that this conversation must
have taken place before our own world-famed Centennial in 1876. (TO BE CONTINUED.)




II. father. So eager for books was she that before
she was ten she had read Hume, Gibbon, Alison
MARY LOUISE BOOTH. and other historians.
It was not probable that such a girl would grow
T ALENT does not always make a home de- up frivolous and useless, fit only to exhibit fine
lightful, nor a character lovable. No one, gowns upon. Rather such a girl would become
save Boswell, thought the great Johnson attractive the companion of educated men; a noble mem-
for daily companionship, and Jane Welsh Carlyle ber of society. It was fortunate her parents saw
found Craiggenputtoch cheerless. But where tal- that a woman must be very considerably educated
ent and taste combine, where sweetness and if she would accomplish anything important and
strength round out a character, where the grace noteworthy, that the education of the usual board-
of love and the dignity of mind unite, there one ing-school would not answer her purpose, but that
obtains rest and companionship. she must be given such as a young man receives
In the upper part of New York, there is one of at our best colleges.
those ideal homes, well-known these many years Her tastes inclined her toward the study of
to those who follow literature and art. Its owner, the languages and the natural sciences, and in
Miss Mary L. Booth, is a woman in middle life, these directions she worked earnestly, in con-
who, though in independent circumstances, is proud nection with general training.
to labor, and believes in so doing like all sensible It was not at all strange that she began to write
Americans. Does she remain in her dainty and early for publication. With a father able to sup-
beautiful parlors through the day, doing fancy-work, port her, she yet enjoyed earning money for
or reading the latest novel, or receiving calls, or herself. What girl possessing both force and
driving in Central Park? She goes regularly to a independence of character does not enjoy money
down-town office, where from morning till night she which has come to her from her own effort ?
superintends every detail of the work on a large With a remarkable knowledge of French and
and popular newspaper-HN~ aer's Bazar. German, such as a lover of those tongues would
At night she is found in her home with her gain in enthusiastic and diligent study from seven
friends about her, happy because her life is full years of age to womanhood, Miss Booth naturally
of noble effort. A beautiful woman, indeed, with turned to the congenial work of making transla-
gray hair, gentle manners, and generous heart, tions of the finer literature of both languages-
Eminently successful herself, like Whittier she thus putting her readiest knowledge to use first.
delights to help others, her kindly face showing Among her earliest translations were Mdry's
how genuine is her helpful spirit. Andre' Cienier, Victor Cousin's Life and Times of
Miss Booth was born in the little village of Madame de Chevreise, Marmier's Russian Tales,
Yaphank, N. Y. Her family removed to Brooklyn and Edmond About's Germaine, and King of t/e
when she was thirteen. Her father, a man of Mountains.
education and nobility of nature, organized the All this was close hard work for a young
first public school ever established in that city. woman, but Miss Booth never sought nor wished
The parents were both deeply interested in for easy or trifling tasks. Light labor never
their little girl who at five years of age had read develops character, and the development of thought
the Bible through, and Plutarch's Lives, and at and character is surely the great purpose of both
seven, Racine in the original. At this age, seven, literature and life.
she was also taking lessons in Latin from her One day a friend suggested to her that a history


of New York City would be of great use and ben- in New York. A collector in Chicago has ex-
efit in schools, and as a complete one had never tended his to twenty-two volumes. Miss Booth
been written, it might be wise for her to attempt has in her library a large paper copy presented
it. Many a trained literary man would have been to her by an eminent bibliopolist, which contains
deterred by the necessary labor ; but an energetic, over two thousand illustrations on inserted leaves.
educated girl, what could deter her? She was What should she do next? for such a young
thorough, by all her habits, also accurate, patient woman has no thought of stopping her work with
and persevering; an essential equipment if one one great success. Her publishers proposed that
would write history. she should go abroad and write popular histories
Turner said he had "never known any genius of London, Paris, Berlin and Vienna, but the
but that of hard work," a statement that most suc- Civil War came, and its matters soon filled her
cessful workers have found to be true. Miss mind.
Booth not only had no dread of toil, but she was She was most earnestly opposed to all the ideas
possessed of a will and a wish to do only noble and outcomes of slavery. Her brother, a mere
and important work. Still, would she not tire of
this task when she should find how long, how
slow, was even the preparation for doing it?
Well, she did not tire, though she worked for
years at gathering together her materials ; search-
ing public and private libraries, talking with lit-
erarians about books, talking with specialists and
antiquarians about events, dates and localities,
talking with statesmen and public-minded men
about the significance of this act, that policy, and '
a multitude of occurrences-and enterprises. To I
be sure her pleasant manners and her scholarly de-
votion made this comparatively pleasurable work. .
Those who possessed the knowledge she sought
helped her gladly, appreciating her intention to do ''
thorough work, and, above all, her patient and
careful preparation for it. Then followed the *1. .
slow toils of sifting, of comparing and collating.
All this before she wrote the first page of her -
At the publisher's suggestion the small school-
history first projected was laid aside, and only MARY L. BOOTH.
served as the preliminary study for a large octavo
volume of about a thousand pages, which was the youth, had entered the army. Could she not help
first complete History of New York City ever pub- also, in the cause of liberty?
listed. The reception of the book everywhere Just at this time she received an advance copy
was cordial. The style was clear, graphic; simple of Count Agenor de Gasparin's Uprising of a Great
as is all good writing. Second and third editions People. She took it at once to Mr. Scribner and
soon appeared; the last one, in r880, brought urged him to publish a translation; but he told her
down to date. A large paper edition of one hun- the war would probably be over before there was
dred autograph copies was also published, so time to bring it out. Finally he said that if the
popular was the work, and book-collectors en- manuscript could be ready in a week, he would
large their copies with portraits and autograph publish it.
on interleaved pages. She hurried home; and writing twenty hours
One copy, extended to nine volumes of several out of twenty-four, in a few hours less than a
thousand maps, letters, and illustrations, is owned week the book was ready for the press. This


work was read from one end of the country to the cluded the leading writers of Europe and America.
other. Charles Sumner wrote her, It is worth Meantime her home has been a literary centre
a whole phalanx in the cause of human freedon;" for cultured people. Evety Saturday evening one
in a large and famous collection of autographs may meet in her parlors, authors, statesmen, ar-
in Miss Booth's library are the grateful letters tists, the gifted from all the professions. The
of Abraham Lincoln, Edouard Laboulaye, Henri rooms are cheerful and light in color, and the
Martin, Edmond de Pressense, Galusha A. Grow, hostess and her adopted sister, Mrs. Anne W.
with scores of others, both from America and Eu- Wright, are as cheery as the home they brighten.
rope, thanking her for this and subsequent books. Here are countless tokens of friendship : vases
From the most prominent European authors from Japan, old silver from Norway; jewels from
she now received pamphlets on the questions of the neck of the Queen of Montezuma; unique
the day, which with advance sheets of their books things from Mexico and the Indies; and the hair
she translated and published without asking or of Shelley, of Keats, fine and brown, of Byron,
wishing remuneration. This work she was doing dark, and of Leigh Hunt, in the same case. The
to serve her country in its great work of regenera- pictures on the walls are the gifts of famous
tion. friends.
She soon translated Gasparin's America before As we sit in the back parlor looking through
Europe, Laboulaye's Paris in America and two the handsomest album I have ever seen, Russia
volumes by Augustin Cochin, Results of Emancia- leather with silver clasps, a birthday gift to Miss
tion, and Results of Slaver-i. Later, she translated Booth from the friends who attend her Saturday
Laboulaye's Fairy ial/cs, Jean MacI's Fariyv Book, evening receptions, "Muff," a great ii-,I. ..- cat,
which were published by Harper & Brothers, walks in, and apparently enjoys the faces with us.
and several of the books of the Countess de Gas- This seems like a bit of English home-life where
parin, including Camille, Vesper, and Human Sor- a cat is always a petted member of the family,
rows. One book-case in her large library contains either in high life or among the lowly. In this
some forty volumes of her own translating. What album one sees refined Harriet Prescott Spof-
an amount of work from a single pen! More lord, merry Grace Greenwood, artistic Richard
recently she has translated Laboulaye's later fairy Watson Gilder, handsome Whitelaw Reid, bril-
tales, beautifully illustrated, liant Mary Mapes Dodge, and scores of others,
After the close of the war, her next great task each contributing an original poem, or words of
was to translate six volumes of Henri Martin's appreciation. A great cage of canaries, and a
Unabridged History of France, and then in con- mocking-bird, in the window, help to make this
nection with Miss Alger, the historian's abridge- New York stone house like a bit of country life,
ment of the large history. On the library walls in its kinship with nature. Flowers, too, tell that
of Miss Booth's home are the kind faces of these Miss Booth is as refined as she is scholarly.
Frenchmen, Henri Martin, Gasparin, and Labou- Miss Booth receives a large salary, proving that
laye, in company with Julia Cameron's beautiful a woman besides making friends and fame can
autotype of Tennyson, and the portraits of Dick- make money, and this brings her into striking
ens, Alice Cary and other celebrities, contrast with the helpless women who are obliged
In 1867 the Harpers desired to start a new to depend upon relatives, largely because they
family journal, and they asked Miss Booth to were not educated in early life to be self-depend-
become the editor. She hesitated to assume so ent, and were not brought up to have a special
great a responsibility, also involving daily and sys- pursuit or some definite and engrossing aim.
tematic labor throughout the year; but, accepting, Miss Booth, notwithstanding her constant work
she proved her fitness for the work. Hayper's within daily confines of office hours," notwith-
Bazar soon reached an immense circulation, paying standing the many-sided superintendency devolv-
its way from the first, a thing unusual in journalism, ing on her, notwithstanding the outgoes of vitality
For more than nineteen years Miss Booth has made into the work of originating, criticising, deciding
this paper bright, fresh, pure, reliable, sensible, and upon and bringing into symmetry the plans and
a great success. Its corps of contributors has in- details of a great, bright weekly journal, has

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excellent health. Probably her daily and syste- is scrutinized by her. You can see that she can
matic labor is one secret of this health. For it is have had few playtimes, and that her work must
now admitted that where the mind is fully and be thoroughly systematized; no time wasted in
regularly occupied and exercised, the body is in looking up what has been done or what remains
far better condition. She has had but one serious to do. "Editorial work," she says, "like woman's,
illness since she was a child, a rheumatic fever is never done; and the planning of which it
which she thinks she could have avoided with largely consists goes on day and night without
a little care and less confidence in her impreg- interruption. It is not what the editor writes, but
nable good health. Her mother is still living in what he chooses for his paper, that makes or
superb health, a handsome old lady with spark- mars his success. It is the judicial capacity that
ling black eyes and unwrinkled face, in her eighty- marks the true editor." She has shown herself
sixth year, residing in Brooklyn, with Mrs. King, to possess the rare talents that go to make suc-
Miss Booth's only sister. This mother comes from cessful editorship : a comprehensive outlook as to
a long-lived family. Her grandmother was born the needs of a cultivated people, variety of method,
in 1744 and died in 1844, a century old, retain- well-nigh unerring judgment, and a capacity for
ing her faculties to the end. I remember when hard labor.
a child," says Miss Booth, hearing her tell of To work for the world and not to become
the days when the country was covered with for- soured by its indifference, to have strong convic-
ests. swarming with wild beasts and game, and tions and yet be charitable toward those who
thickly populated with Indians, for she was grown think differently, to correct the faults of humanity
at the time of the French and Indian war, and without bitterness or personality, to keep a sub-
married at the Revolutionary epoch. How young lime hope in one's heart, to be as unostentatious
it makes our country seem thus to stretch hands as though she were unknown to fame, and to do her
to the middle of the eighteenth century, and to work as thoroughly and regularly as though she
have stood face to face with those who knew the depended on her labor for her daily bread-all
primeval forest! these lessons belong with Miss Booth's public
It is easy to desire Miss Booth's success for work.
one's self, is it not? But how many women To show other women that a woman may have
would be willing to start upon the years of un- consummate ability, and yet be gentle and refined
tiring toil that has gained it? How many would and warm-hearted, that she can be accurate,
serve her apprenticeship ? Let us review the prompt, and thorough, and yet think out beyond
details of her work simply as an editor : the thousand details of everyday life, reaching for
For nineteen years Miss Booth has been habit- all beauty and grace, and that if one woman can
ually at the Bazar office from 9 A. AI. to 4 P. At. stand at the head of a great journal it must be
daily, usually taking a light lunch in the office ; logically true that other trained women may come
permitting herself only a brief vacation at mid- to stand at the head of the business they select-
summer. Every line of manuscript in the paper, these, too, are public lessons of a life and a char-
and its proof, is read by her. Every illustration acter worthy of study by our noblest girls.


W HAT does a Mermaiden pack in her trunk ? In case she works" slippers, she puts in the soles;
Sea-feathers, sea-fans, and pearls ; A cape trimmed with scallops (to wear on the shoals),
Some pretty sea-tatting A bright pair of skates,
To work at when chatting, Some sponges for slates,
And coral sprays red for her curls. And sand-tarts to give to the girls.




II. or alarmed. When swimming along, the side or
pectoral fins are almost entirely used, producing a
THE BIRDS OF THE SEA. peculiar, even, gliding motion.
We know that some land birds often take to the
.. iVN ordinary ob- water, the duck, penguin, and ouzel being exam-
S. ers have re- ples; so the birds of the sea sometimes venture
i' l '. i ked the resem- upon land. The majority of fishes make such pro-
II ,lce of fishes to tests when taken from the water, and so soon die,
tLi.IS which is so that it is difficult to understand how a fish would
Sparked that they willingly thus jeopardize its life ; but it must be
are often named remembered that it is only certain families of fishes
-. after them; as the who do it, just as with the birds. A robin or
S. snipe and parrot- sparrow would be drowned quickly in the centre
S_' fishes. It is in the of a pond, while a duck would be perfectly at
THE CLIMBING PERCH. southern waters, home. So a stickleback would die if placed on
"in gulfs enchanted, where the siren sings, and land, while some of the gobies would not mind it
coral reefs lie bare," that these striking similar- in the least; having with various other fishes cer-
ities can best be seen. There the water is clear tain modifications of structure that enable them to
as crystal, so that small objects can be observed 'exist out of their native element.
distinctly fifty or sixty feet from the surface ; and This modification consists of a set or series of
in shallow water, from ten to twelve feet in depth, cavities that are no more or less than air-store-
the inhabitants seem exhibited as in an aquar- houses, and do not hold water, as is sometimes
ium. stated. In other words, when on shore these
Among the most attractive and curious forms fishes breathe air directly, and when in the water
are the parrot-fishes ; so called because instead of obtain it from that liquid.
having small teeth, which we see in other fishes, The best-known of the amphibious fishes is the
their entire dental apparatus seems to have been climbing perch, which was discovered many years
fused together, forming a hard and large pair of ago by the naturalist Daldorf in India climbing a
bills, or mandibles, calling to mind the beaks of a tree. The movements of these fishes on land are
parrot. With this pair of nippers the parrot-fishes extremely slow, the side and lower fins being the
can crunch the ends of branch coral, bite through organs of locomotion; by moving them alter-
large shells to obtain the soft interior, and prey nately and with great deliberation it proceeds
upon various animals which are safe from the at- slowly along.
tacks of ordinary fishes. In their coloring they The natives of India have long been familiar
also vie with the gorgeous parrots, and as in the with this peculiarity of the perch, or Anabas, and
large macaws the effect is startling. Some are all they esteem them greatly for the market, as they
blue ; others have a variety of colors, blue, brown, can be carried for two or three days in a dry
and green, arranged in stripes or in remarkable de- basket without injury. Undoubtedly the object of
signs. The parrot-fishes are found in nearly all their leaving the water is to avoid the drouth that
tropical seas, and are recognized by their brilliant prevails in India at certain seasons when the water
decorations. Their method of swimming is also supply fails. Evaporation soon changes the pools
peculiar. The tail-fin, though powerful and broad, into dry baked mud ; and at the first intimation of
is not much used except when the fish are startled this these fishes bestir themselves, and often a


wonderful scene is beheld; thousands of fishes interesting hot springs whose temperature varies
crawling up out of the pools and in a solid phalanx at different seasons from 85' to 115. When at
struggling over the grass, and by some wonderful the latter temperature several fishes were caught-
instinct heading for distant water, a loche (Corbetis thermalis) and a carp (Nuria
There are fishes which crawl upon dry land to thermoicos) were also taken in this spring where
feed, as the ouzel or duck takes to the water for the thermometer indicated 1140 Fahr. and a roach
food. These wonderful creatures are found in the when it denoted 1220 Fahr. Another spring at
Fiji Islands and on various shores of that latitude, Pooree, with a temperature of 112i Fahr. also
and are known as the Boleopthalimus and Peri- afforded fish, and at Manilla when the tempera-
opthalmus. Those long-named fishes themselves ture was 1870; while Humboldt records hav-
are quite small, being only five or six inches in ing seen live fishes thrown from a volcano in
length, with large heads, prominent curious, mov- South America, the water about them being 210,
able eyes, and colored a deep olive hue. I know or two degrees below the boiling point. Whether
several gentlemen who have seen these quaint am- they were living in water of this temperature pre-
phibians hopping about on dry land, but the most vious to being ejected was of course impossible to
remarkable account was given me by Col. Nicholas determine ; the probability is that they came from
Pike, a devoted naturalist, and late consul at the a cooler subterranean river.
island of Mauritius, where he obtained some val- The birds of the air are more or less at the
uable specimens for his collection. In his walks mercy of the wind. During their migrations they
upon the beach he often saw the Periopthalmi, are blown long distances out to sea and are lost.
but they were too nimble for him to catch; so Almost every outgoing steamer forms a haven of
he adopted the novel method of gunning for the rest for many lost land birds. Remarkable in-
fishes, taking those which he desired for speci- stances show that the "birds of the sea are also
mens with a rifle. the sport of the wind. Some years ago a party
The gobies of the Mauritius and Fiji Islands were travelling upon elephants in India, and when
spend half their time out of water; crawling along near the town of Kallywar they were overtaken by
by using their powerful arm-like side or pectoral a terrific storm. It being in the month of July,
fins. Once upon the beach they progress by leap- the time for floods, they were afraid to camp, and
ing, and when stationary rest with the head ele- pressed on until they reached the neighborhood
vated, ready to jump like a frog at the slightest of Rajkote. But the storm grew more severe,
warning. The rapidity of their movements may almost blinding, and all at once the travellers
be imagined from the fact that it is difficult for a became aware that something besides rain was
man to capture them. descending. Heavy objects were falling; and to
The presence of fish underground is another their astonishment they found themselves a mo-
surprising fact. In Gambia a fish called the Pro- ment later in a veritable shower of fishes ; live
topterus, descends in the dry time and remains in ones, too, that fell upon them and the elephants
the mud of the banks until the water rises or in great numbers, sliding off into the grass, and
returns. The natives in many parts of India presenting a curious spectacle.
literally mine for the torpid fishes which thus To return to our comparisons between the birds
sleep away the dry season. An English officer and fishes, we find that the latter are also nest-
reports watching the natives of Kottiar dig out builders. True, the fish-mothers that display solic-
fishes with shovels on the banks of the Vergel itude for their young can be counted on the fingers.
River. A shovelful of firm clay was lifted up and But if the mothers lack this care, the fish-fathers
dropped heavily, when the fish, which were from have an unusual amount, and assume family respon-
eight to twelve inches in length, would be dis- sibilities. In their constructive ability, or the
closed, extremely lively as soon as the sunlight instinct which prompts them to erect homes, we
struck them. Some of these fishes were found a see striking resemblances to the birds. The long
foot and a half from the surface, nest in the gravel of the salmon, or the smaller
We find other fishes living in hot water. At one of the trout or sun-fish well compares with
Kannea, near the bay of Trincoinalie, are some the sand-hollow of the gull, while the shapely


structure of the robin or sparrow finds a proto- stickleback-father darts at them, inflicting dan-
type in the nest of the stickleback-the officious, gerous wounds with his sharp dagger-like spines,
bombastic inhabitant of the streams of both con- and soon putting them to flight.
tinents. Finally this careful watchfulness is repaid by
It is the male stickleback that cares for the the appearance of the little ones, and the sharpest
coming young; and as the season approaches he eyes are necessary to distinguish them. Now the
assumes a gorgeous garb of pink or red. Now if father's attentions are redoubled, and every mo-
we have the little nest-builder in an aquarium ment is taken up in preventing the baby stickle-
let us drop a napkin ring into the water, suspend- backs from straying. I have seen him dart at
ing it from a string. He dashes at it, biting it the straggling little ones, and draw them into his
with ferocity until he is sure it is not an enemy; mouth, and then violently expel or shoot them
then the strange object is carefully examined. If in the direction of the nest. But the older they
we have attached threads or bits of grass to grow the farther they wander, and finally the dis-
the ring, and the rest of the aquarium is not pro- tracted parent gives it up and deserts them, and
vided with them, the chances are that he will the nest soon becomes a moss-covered ruin, the
adopt the ring as the foundation of the future resort of shells and other quiet loving creatures.
nest, reminding us of the wren, that is seen at the While the resemblance is perhaps not a strict
nesting season examining the nooks and corners one, the nest of the little South American serra-
about the yard. Presently we see him (presuming salmo calls to mind the swinging home of the oriole.
him to be the Apel/cs qiiadracis) devoting great at- The rivers of South America are often lined with
tention to the grass or threads, nosing them about a dense growth of verdure. Palms and other trop-
and pressing his body against them, and if we ical trees often bend far over the water, cast-
could approach close enough we should see that ing a welcome shade for the fishes. These palms
he is binding the threads or material together with are sometimes encircled and connected by innu-
a delicate silvery thread issuing from a minute merable vines, or lines, which wind in and out,
pore in his body. and bind the vast forests in a maze. As the
Now other threads and grass should be thrown vines climb the palms and reach out, they con-
into the aquarium, just as you provide the tame tinue to grow until they drop down in long ropes
weaver-birds with string. These the little stickle- into the water. The end which dangles in the
back will collect and pile upon the nest within the current throws out numerous shoots and roots,
pendant ring, until finally the nest assumes shape, which soon form the lodging place of :!.',i
half or entirely filling the ring. In the final matter from up stream, so that in the course of
touches, the little builder reminds us of a bobbin; time we see attached to the vine a miniature
indeed his shape is not unlike one, as into the island blooming with flowers grown from seeds
nest he darts head-first, repeating the operation that in turn throw out roots themselves. This
indefinitely until he wriggles through; then we arbor catches the eye of the little fish, and is con-
have a ring within a ring. verted into a nest and nursery. In among the
Next the mother-fish is hunted up and driven roots of the floating bower the eggs are laid, the
to the nest, and there in the little cavity the eggs parent fish taking its position beneath to guard
are laid. Over them the patient father now takes the spot. When the young appear they find refuge
his stand, holding himself steadily in position, for some time among the roots and stems, where
and fanning them gently with a vibratory motion no other fish would suspect their presence.
of his fins, thus producing the requisite aeration. In the East there is a remarkable bird called
If he was pugnacious at first he now is positively the Megapodius, which heaps up enormous piles of
mad; darting at everything that can be possibly material in which its eggs are deposited. Some
considered an enemy. Place a hand against the of the penguins and other water birds roll pebbles
glass, and the thud of his sharp nose is heard in and stones together as a protection for their eggs.
a vain effort to get through. If other fishes hap- Is there not a finny bird of the sea or river that
pen to be in the tank it is best for them to keep a has a similar habit ? I made the acquaintance of
safe distance, for no matter how large, the proud such an one a few years ago on the beautiful St.


Lawrence. In rowing along in the little bay in Thousand Islands I found many more, telling of
the southern portion of Westminster Island I the perseverance and industry of the builders.
noticed on the right hand side of the rift a pile of These nests are known to the St. Lawrence
pebbles and stones that must have been nearly a oarsmen as "chub heaps," and the chub, or scien-
cartful. They looked as if a tip cart had backed tifically Semotilus bularris, is the builder. I was
and dumped them on the edge of the little chan- fortunate in finding the nests in all stages of con-
nel for some definite purpose. So artificial was it struction, from a mere outline to the complete
in appearance that we concluded it was a lot of nest that undoubtedly took several seasons to
clinkers which had been thrown from a steamer build. The newly begun nests seelmcd to show
or that some small boat had here cast over a load a plan of construction ; thus the stones were
of ballast. Several days later in rowing along dropped in a rude circle at first, as if the finny
shore just at the entrance of the Lake of the architects outlined the work before carrying out


Isles, opposite Westminster Park, I came upon the design. The nest is made by one or more
three or four similar heaps, in shoal water. One chubs, each stone being brought in the mouth
of them was about ten feet in circumference and and dropped in the selected place until it assumes
three or four feet high, approaching to within a large proportions, the pile sometimes being high
foot of the surface, so that I readily reached enough to stop a boat. How such a heap of
some of the top pebbles. There were thousands stones can be used as a nest would seem an
of stones, and I estimated that the largest heap enigma, but the rocky castle contains innumer-
must have weighed nearly a ton, some of the able nooks, corners and crevices in which the
stones that I secured weighing two ounces, while eggs and young find refuge from the cat fish,
others at the bottom were nearly twice as large. perch, and other forms which prey upon them;
These curious heaps were the nests of fishes, the eggs being deposited on the nest, the current
and along the sandy and gravelly shores of the washing them into the various snug harbors."
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~Ia~. .. "",':#,' i-'

and along the sandy and gravelly shores of the washing them into the various snue, harbors."


But perhaps the most interesting and bird-like it has eyes like veritable gems, and capable of the
builder is the famous Gourami of the East which most astonishing movement. But the chief in-
sometimes attains a length of five or six feet. terest about these little flat fishes is that they
At the nesting-time these fishes pair off and join persist in lying upon their sides, and that nature
forces in forming a nest, generally utilizing a makes a remarkable attempt to enable them to do
grass known as Panicum jumenitorum. As a rule so with ease. To understand this thoroughly we
the nest is erected on the bottom, but if the build- should have several flounders, representing differ-
ers are provided with the limb of a tree or a ent ages or stages of growth. Taking an in-
branch the nest will be placed in it, so that in fantile one we shall find that it is not disposed to
this respect it has a striking resemblance to that be a flat fish; but swims about after the fashion
of the birds. The blades of grass are rudely of fishes in general, not confining itself to the
woven in and out, fastened together with mud bottom. This continues for some time, until sud-
and in various ways until a solid compact nest denly the fish shows an inclination to sink to the
is the result, in the interstices of which the eggs bottom and lie upon its side. This habit seems
find a resting place and the young are ensured to grow upon the flounder with astonishing results.
protection. For all this time, it must be remembered, the
The fishes present the greatest contrast, as do flounder has had the general shape of ordinary
the birds, in their movements. Some are always fishes, and an eye upon each side; but as this
soaring, or at the surface of the water. Such are habit of lying down continues to grow, it is evident
the star-fishes of the South. I have watched scores that one eye must fare badly not only from be-
of them, and had them under observation for ing rubbed against the sand, but being deprived of
many consecutive hours, but never saw one leave its exercise as an organ of sight. But Nature ob-
the surface beyond several inches in chase of some jects to useless members, and if we watch the little
smaller fish, and then it was to return immediately. flounder we shall see wonderful changes. First
They may be compared to the swallows which are the mouth is attaining a remarkable twist; then
nearly always on the wing. the underneath eye is seen to have altered its
Quite the reverse are the flounders and their position, and, finally, it moves around, so that in
allies. Who ever saw one swimming about in the adult flounder as we see it in the market the
open water? One would as soon expect to see a eye is quite near the other, both being on one side
quail or domestic fowl soaring a mile up in the of the fish and of equal use. The mouth is also
air. They are the ground-birds of the sea, and twisted to suit the new position. The entire modi-
in all salt-water aquariums the flounder should fiction as it is termed presents a curious in-
have its place, not for its beauty, perhaps, though stance of the effect of habit upon animals.



LI. cook," always seemed to me so funny that I never
thought of its truth.
HOW TO WRITE A COMPOSITION. I dare say a great many boys and girls will be
just as much amused when I say, in order to write a
W HEN a child, I was much interested in Mrs. letter, composition, essay, newspaper article, WIDE
Wales' Complete Housekeeper; especially AWAKE story or book, the only really important
in the chapter, How to Cook a Dinner," where thing is to have something to say.
the direction, First, be sure you have a dinner to It is easy enough to see it does not matter how


you cook a dinner if you have no dinner to cook, than either, while its form is that of a vase, which
and it is not difficult to understand that it is of no rising from a slender stein spreads widely at the
consequence how you make a gown if you have no top.
cloth; but when it comes to writing, many people Its exquisite blossoms grow in clusters at the
act as if it were outside ordinary laws -a matter ends of its branches, and as we look into them,
where practice goes for little, material for less. we notice a soft fuzz, which, thickly set like down,
But the truth is, the first, second, third and last lines the inside of the throat. But we see likewise
requisite for a good composition is to have some- stems and leaves so odd.
thing to say. Growing close to the ground, its tough stem is
Do I hear that you have nothing to say upon protected by tiny hairs, likewise brown, while its
any particular subject? A little reflection will bright green leaves are stout and strong in text-
show you such an assertion is nonsense. You, ure; round or shaped like a heart, and not set
who can chatter like a magpie, have nothing to say ? opposite each other as are those of many plants.
And if it were so, it would be nonsense all the Thinking about the last point, we see the reason;
same; for information is as free as air or water, the stem lying on the ground frequently roots in,
But the truth is you try to write about subjects therefore all the leaves must be on one side.
outside your knowledge if not far beyond it.
Teachers are often more to blame than pupils Thus we have covered its appearance, so far as
for this part of the trouble. When I see ordinary is necessary.
students of fifteen or sixteen years, confronted Next, Why called Trailing Arbutus ? We may
with, The Roman Catholic Church in America," find the answer in botany, dictionary, encyclo-
and, "The Position of the Jew in History," I can- padia, or better still in all three, for it is never
not wonder they are discouraged, well to be satisfied with a single authority.
But supposing you have a subject in which you
are genuinely interested, supposing you have con- When first shown to early English botanists, they
suited the books bearing upon it which you can thought it resembled the arbutus, or strawberry-
obtain, have perhaps talked with intelligent friends tree, which Virgil describes, and which really is its
and above all have thought about it -what is the first cousin, belonging to the same order, but to a
next step ? different genus. They considered that trailing
Obviously : how long an article is required, arbutus--Virgil's arbutus was upright-would
We will assume, inside five hundred words, mak- do for a common name, while they put down in
ing in ordinary handwriting four or five pages of their books, epigea-repens, or ground laurel,"
commercial notepaper; and it being easier to which is its correct title, as it means lying upon
show by example than by dogmatic rules let us the ground.
take for our subject: But as often happens the wrong name clung to
it, while the right had to take a back seat, and it
THE TRAILING ARBUTUS OR MAYFLOWER. is pleasant that we know it by a prettier than
either, the Mayflower." Everybody understands
Holding a spray before the mind's eye, what is that name !
most noticeable about it ? Even before the earliest Mayday, from North
Hard to tell; form, color, and fragrance im- Carolina to Nova Scotia it has lifted its sweet face
peratively demand attention, to the sun, and its delicious fragrance is borne by
So much the better. It is always well to choose the idle south wind to every returning bluebird
a subject with many prominent characteristics ; but and awakened honey-bee.
we begin: Then, where does it grow?
Often close to the crumbling stone wall, or
The trailing arbutus is a charming flower vary- dilapidated board-fence, separating pasture-land
ing in tint from cream-white and the tender pink from field or meadow, where the light snows of
of a sea-shell to a deep rose, with a fragrance sug- capricious April must be pushed one side before
testing hyacinths or lilacs, though more delicate it can be found, frequently where the dry leaves


which the rustling partridge has disturbed, and in little girls, and rosy-cheeked little boys. They
many a stony wood, on hundreds of rough hill- bring a certain number of bunches to a specified
sides, at the roots of pines, spruces, and firs, on place at appointed times, and often assist in pack-
the sandy wastes of Cape Cod, in the great forests ing them in wet moss for their railroad trip.
of Maine and Canada, and by the vast lakes of the As the season advances, the bunches sell for
far distant Northwest, but never outside the bound- less and less, and at the last for so little that all
aries of America. but the very poor may buy them.
And last, why do we know it so much better,
why do we hear so much more about it than we do Here is a specimen composition, where the
about other flowers perhaps equally beautiful ? writer had something to say and said it under four
Because as it is the first wild flower to appear heads :
after the long and bitter Northern winter, and as i. What it is.
it endures gathering and transportation better than 2. Whence its name.
the tender hepatica, or fragile wind-flower, it has 3. Whence it comes.
become an article of merchandise and is sold in 4. Why it comes to everybody.
the shops and on the street-corners of many towns It' is said too, within the limit specified, and
and cities, when written out legibly, and upon one side of the
In order that a sufficient supply may be pro- page only, will so delight the teacher, that next
vided the flower-dealers have agents in localities spring she will give the whole class a holiday to
where it abounds who buy directly from blue-eyed go after the Mayflower.



II. 30. What form of verse was during this period
made the Corinthian public choral song, and by
THE TIME OF THE DESPOTS OR TYRANTS. what poet and musician ?
31. What philosopher flourished in Corinth at
21. What state remained a kingdom longest? this time ?
22. As the Grecian states gradually abolished 32. What despot obtained power in Megara?
royalty what form of government succeeded it? 33. To what party in the state did the Mega-
23. By what persons were the oligarchies over- rian poet Theognis belong ?
thrown, and about what period ? 34. Why has his verse historical value ?
24. What city was governed longest by the 35. By what people were many of the despot-
despots ? isms subdued ?
25. Name the most noted of its despots ? 36. How did the Greek mind regard the one-
26. How long did Corinthian despotism last? man power" ?
27. Which of the Corinthian despots is num- 37. In which of the states were the evil results
bered among the Seven Wise Men of Greece ? of despotism most apparent ?
28. What rank did Corinth attain under his 38. Had the despotisms continued could
sway ? Greece have attained importance as a nation ?
29. What Milesian despot on receiving a Cor- 39. What state gradually extended its federal
inthian ambassador sent to solicit his advice, led authority over the Peloponnesus ?
him through a cornfield, cutting off as they went 40. What northern state became its most for-
the tallest ears of corn ? midable rival ?

CHAPTER III. "I am glad you did not," answered Albert,
warmly, "for she might have thought it was done
ON THE ROUNDS OF THE LADDER. for the purpose of some reward."
I don't know about that. And it might be that
W HO was the young man?" asked an excited the lady would be greatly pleased with an oppor-
elderly gentleman dressed in broadcloth, tunity to reward you, and especially if she knew
He had reached the scene of the accident, after your condition and circumstances."
Albert and Mr. Goodwin had left the department, But Albert's cheeks glowed at the idea. I
to find that it was his own daughter who had so did nothing more than my duty, and I see no rea-
nearly lost her life in a horrible way. son for rewarding a person for a duty done. I
I can't tell you," answered a bystander; "but should be glad, of course, to know who she was."
I saw the reporter yonder speak to him and also Well, you probably never will."
to a gentleman with him." Though various subjects came up and were dis-
"Then will you have the kindness to ascertain cussed as the fine horses paced along over the
if the reporter secured his name and address ?" good roads, young Vangrift was absorbed with
The gentleman, going over to the reporter, thoughts of the fair, the shops and stores and
in a few moments returned and handed him a shipping among which he had been the day be-
card with the desired address ; and as the father fore. Through his mind danced visionary hopes
and daughter went out to their carriage, the re- of how some day he, too, would be a merchant or
porter said: "Well, probably that young man a great manufacturer. He did not think so much
has laid the corner-stone of his fortune to-day." about the pleasures and excitements of living in
How so ? asked the other. a great city like Boston, as of the active business
"Why, that gentleman who sent you to me, the life he had glimpsed in the mills, factories and
young lady's father, is Crosby the millionaire; he is warehouses. His mind was all astir, though mys-
a generous old fellow, and is not likely to forget seriously and vaguely, for of course from the scenes
this occurrence." of a few hours the farmer-boy could form but a weak
Meantime Albert and Mr. Goodwin had started conception of the influence of commerce upon the
out on a tour of inspection about the business parts social conditions of a people and upon the history
of the city; and at an early hour on the following of a nation. He had no idea, for instance, of the
morning they were on their way homeward, immense army of workers in this broad field--an
It's very strange," said Mr. Goodwin, recur- army composed indeed of numerous communities
ring to the accident for the first time, "that no one -standing between producer and consumer.
felt enough interest to ascertain for the young lady [We often speak of producers and consumers
who it was that rescued her from a violent death, as though they were two entirely separate classes,
I presume it would have been the proper thing as though a producer could not be a consumer,
for me to have given her your name, but it did not nor a consumer a producer. But that is a mis-
occur to me." take. A producer of one variety of commodities


is a consumer of a different variety. A farmer leather according to quality, the hides coming
who produces meats, grains and fruits is a con- from the Western, Southwestern, and Northwest-
sumer of manufactures and perhaps of a large ern States, from South America, and from India.
variety of agricultural product which he does not These ever-busy traders travel through the chief
produce. A planter produces, cotton, or sugar, cities of Europe, Asia, and Africa to search out
or rice, or tobacco, but he is a consumer too of and bring to the doors of the well-to-do pur-
the fruits of farm-agriculture, the products of the chaser beautiful china, glass, wood, metal and
dairy, of manufactures. The miner produces iron, willow wares of every known device and descrip-
coal, copper, etc., but he is a consumer too of tion. They load ships with rich gems, marvel-
what the planter, the farmer and the manufact- lously-woven mats, rugs, shawls, and carpets,
urer produce.] delicate laces, and fun-making toys, peculiar orna-
It is the province of the merchant to buy from ments, melodious instruments, warm furs, and
one class his surplus products and sell them again attractive feathers, and transport them across the
to another class who pays an advance upon seas that who desires may be given an opportunity
the first price. From all quarters of the globe the to buy, but they oblige no one against his wish
things most needed to add to his daily comforts and taste to purchase or examine. Of course
and pleasures the merchant brings to the very door Albert could have no conception of this great
of the consumer and parcels them out in quanti- network of commerce, of the intricacies of the ser-
ties great or small with the greatest consideration vice performed by merchants and dealers; nor
for convenience and economy : his tea from China, could he weigh the importance of commerce to
Japan, and India; his coffee from Brazil and every person, the rich and the poor.
other South American countries, from the island But in the absence of the tradespeople let us
of Java, from Arabia and India; his sugars and suppose the washerwoman who must procure a
syrups from New Orleans, West Indies, Central dime's worth of indigo to find an accommodating
America, and from the Hawaiian Islands; his person who will undertake to procure it for her.
flour fiom the great grain fields of the Central, What is necessary for him to do? He must
Western and Northwestern States; his beef from charter a ship and despatch it to India. On arriv-
the grazing lands of Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, ing at Calcutta a messenger must be sent into the
Montana, Kansas, Iowa, Illinois and many other interior where he shall find the indigo growing.
States; his bacon and lard from Cincinnati, St. Here, as no one was expecting a buyer, he waits
Louis, Louisville, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New for some plants to be gathered and the leaves put
York and other cities; his pork from Chicago, through the regular process of soaking and fer-
Kansas City, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Milwaukee, mentation in a vat. After waiting ten to fourteen
Toledo, Cleveland, Buffalo and elsewhere; his hours, during which time the proper manipulation
rice from the South Atlantic States and from has prepared the leaves to be taken out, the
China; his spices from the East Indies, India, liquor is drawn off, filtered and distilled. At the
Central and South America, the West Indies end of two or three days the messenger procures
and the Philippine Islands; his cheese and butter an ounce of indigo and returns to the ship where
from the dairy farms of New York and many he and his purchase are taken safely on board
of the Middle and Western States, but the choic- and conveyed back to the United States. Reach-
est varieties from Germany and Switzerland; his ing New York, he must see his dime's worth of
cotton and woollen fabrics from the busy looms indigo through the hands of the custom-officers,
of England, Germany and the Eastern States ac- and he then may convey it to the waiting washer-
cording as he may select style and quality, from woman. Should she not feel that somebody has
the cheapest prints at six cents a yard to the fine done her a remarkable service for a dime ? But
broadcloth at as many dollars ; his silks andsatins the merchant foresees the want of the washer-
from China, France, Japan and of late years from woman and procures in advance of her need the
looms in the many cities of the New England and very article she wants, and keeps it until she is
Middle States ; his linen from Ireland, Germany, prepared to buy.
England, Scotland and some other countries; his Such is the special province of that vast con-


course who are looking after the wants of their fel- name ; though that can't be. I'll open it anyhow."
low members of society of that all-pervading Carefully breaking the seal he took out the
class, from the small establishment at the country- sheet of paper, unfolded it, and read:
cross-roads where the farmer purchases from the
same dealer food, raiment, books, medicines and an B -- EACON ST. BOSTON.
endless variety of commodities required upon the 27th September.
farm and in the home, to the immense establish- MASTER ALBERT VANGRIFT
ments of the importers, exporters, wholesalers, Enclosed herein you will find my cheque to
ship-owners, railroad corporations, telegraph and your order for one hundred dollars. This is but a partial
insurance companies, bankers, brokers, and fac- acknowledgment of your brave and thoughtful act in res-
tors of many kinds. What a vast array of corn- cuing my daughter from a perilous danger at the Fair.
plicated machinery What an amount of human I shall be glad to hear from you and it will afford me a
Great pleasure to see you more fittingly rewarded.
agency constantly at work! It meets one every- When you or any of your family come to Boston it is the
where, on land, on sea, in the air and under the wish of Mrs. Crosby and myself that you would make our
mountain, so intricate, that the mind shrinks from house your home while in the city.
an effort to encompass it But Albert's thoughts, My daughter recovered very soon from her fright, and
,alto h stirred some dim lea f these vast desires to express her heartfelt gratitude to you that she is
although stirred by some dim idea of these vast .
now alive.
activities of commerce, turned upon his own for- Hoping for a prompt response,
tunes. He felt it was possible that he should Your sincere friend,
succeed in life, and make a comfortable home for JOSEPH CROSBY.
his little sisters and brother.
Yet although everything had passed off so hap- Albert was astonished. He looked from the
pily, and the family at Farmer Wharton's were so letter to the check, from the check back to the
kind and so thoughtful of his pleasures and enjoy. letter. Father," said he at last, handing the
ments, and though his ambition had been awak- small piece of paper to Mr. Wharton, "do you
ened, Albert was sad and melancholy that night. suppose this is meant to be the same as a hundred
It was when he fully realized these kindnesses that dollars ? "
he thought most about the loss of his own dear father It is a check for a hundred dollars, sure," said
and mother. It had now been more than a year Mr. Wharton, examining the paper closely, but
since the ship was lost, yet the boy had never I don't understand what it all means, Albert."
been able to reconcile himself to fate, and he often Then Albert explained more fully than he had
dropped to sleep in tears. done before about the accident at the fair. He
However, the next day he was up brisk and had alluded to it so casually that it had not been
early and went to his work with a new earnestness especially noticed, and he had not told many par-
and enthusiasm, even though it was no step to- tigulars about the rescue.
ward that employment which would be congenial. "What had I better do about it, father," he
He felt full of courage and energy and patience ; asked, as he turned the check over and over. "I
and though his work was husking corn, instead of suppose I must return it, must I not ? and what
buying and selling corn, he husked with a will. should I say as to not wishing to take a reward ? "
A few days after that Mr. Wharton, who had "I think, Albert," said Mrs. Wharton, "that it
been to the village, brought Albert a letter, would not be proper for you to return the check.
A letter for me ? queried the boy as he took You may rest assured it is a great pleasure to that
it, giving the envelope a look of astonishment. man to give it. You should write to say you have
Perhaps it would explain itself if you should received it, and at the same time tell him you
open it," said Mr. Wharton as the boy still stood were sufficiently rewarded in your own feelings,
holding it, trying to imagine who could have writ- and that you had never thought for a moment that
ten a letter to him. he had been placed under obligations. Write him
"It isn't from the children sure," he said. "No your thanks for the gift and tell the kind man that
one there writes like that. Perhaps it is for the money will be of great service to you and to
somebody else, Mr. Wharton, who has the same your little brother and sisters."


"Will I be able then to get the money for the I believe I should like it very much indeed,"
check here, do you suppose ?" asked Albert, "or was the reply. "I have often thought I should
must I send it to Boston to get the cash. I won- some day be a merchant, but as yet I feel I ought
der why he sent a check anyhow? to try and get a better education."
O, no, Al, you can get the money for the check "Then how would it suit you to work in my
at the Corners. Mr. Harwood, the merchant, will store mornings and evenings and attend school
give you the money for it. He can remit the during the day? I don't know as I could give
check to Boston instead of money in payment for you much more than your clothes and board for
goods. It is really better to him than money the winter, but perhaps such an arrangement as
for that purpose. Mr. Crosby knew this, or he that even, would prove an advantage, consider-
would have sent you the money by express." ing your future prospects."
[Checks are frequently sent in the mail instead Well, I can't give you an answer to-day, Mr.
of money which, to be secure, should go by ex- Harwood," was Albert's thoughtful response. I
press. But they are not always preferable to must first talk with Mr. Wharton, and see if I can
money for use in remitting. In this case the be spared and if he thinks it would be best."
check was better than the money, because it could But the arrangements were made. The fact was
be sent at less expense by the country merchant, that Mr. Wharton and Mr. Goodwin had proposed
who must forward money to Boston if he had this idea to the merchant, the three men in com-
nothing to send which would serve the same pur- mon with many others in the community being
pose. But if no person at Williston Corners greatly prepossessed in favor of the stranger-lad
desired to send money to Boston it would be who little dreamed of the hands that were ready
necessary to send the check there for collection to help him on, should opportunity present no
and have the money sent out. This is an instance boy of sterling qualities misses of the notice and
where we get an idea of what is meant by a "bal- appreciation of sterling men.
ance of trade." The balance of trade in this case Young Vangrift had sent the hundred dollars
was in favor of Boston. We mean by that, that received from the check sent by Mr. Crosby to
there was more money naturally going from this his aunt, in whose care were his sisters and
place into Boston than was coming out, and con- brother; and now he added to this nearly as much
sequently the business could not be done by a more given him in his settlement with Mr. Whar-
simple exchange of checks. Boston was shipping ton. He was inducted into his duties at Mr.
more in goods to the country merchants than they Harwood's store and pleasantly settled at the
were sending in produce and supplies to Boston. Academy in Williston's Corners and he had a
Had it been the reverse, as it often is in country glad feeling that he was the right boy in the right
places, Boston checks would have been plentiful place. His work in the store the first year
and persons who accepted them would then charge was waiting upon customers and making up pack-
a small commission for collecting the money in ages. But by the second year he had shown such
Boston. This commission is called in banking business tact and judgment that Mr. Harwood
" premium on exchange."] had promoted him to a position in his office. In
Albert wrote a courteous reply to Mr. Crosby's this new field he at once begun upon the study of
letter, and, by the advice of both Mr. Goodwin and business principles and methods. His employer
Mr. Wharton, gave in it a brief history of himself, was a clear-headed business man, who had estab-
To this he received a fitting answer, which as- lished himself upon a good foundation of resolu-
sured him that he would always possess Mr. tions and views made in his most calm and reserved
Crosby's friendship, and that at some future time hours of thought. His ventures had been gener-
a personal acquaintance must follow, ally successful, and he was quietly accumulating a
It was shortly after this, that an interesting ques- fortune. Advanced in years, he was now begin-
tion was put to Albert. ning to feel the need in his enterprises of just
How would you like to work in a store, young such young, fresh, eager life and spirit as he
man ?" asked the merchant Harwood one day believed young Vangrift would eventually develop.
when Albert was in his store. "Albert," said Mr. Harwood one day, do


you still think you would like to become a mer- the cash trade forms but a small part of the whole
chant ?" business. Credit, I may say, is the foundation
"I do; yes, sir. At least I would like to be an of commercial enterprise. It is an element which
active business man of some sort-a merchant, underlies all business transactions. Buying on
or a manufacturer. I should prefer such a life to credit has been the prevailing custom so many
that of a farmer or to following any of the learned years that it has become one of the fixed condi-
professions that I know anything about." tions of trade. It might be better for the people
"Well, sir, to be a successful business man if it were not so, but it is not the plan of shrewd
there are many things you must study; and not business men to undertake a reformation of the
only study, but which must be engrafted into your customs and habits of the people when the re-
habits and character. I am interested in you former must inevitably suffer a pecuniary loss by
because I believe you can succeed, and in many of his reform measures. The work of political econ-
these things I shall try from time to time to instruct omists is not profitable employment for merchants.
you. And one of the first to which I call your I accept this state of business, therefore, with my
attention is the subject of credit. It is a most fellow-merchants, and the next generation of mer-
delicate intricacy, and it has to be considered by chants will probably do the same."
a business man until his wisdom in that direction "How often do customers generally settle their
amounts almost to intuition. You have probably accounts, Mr. Harwood, in country stores? I see
noticed that of every one hundred dollars worth that many of ours do not settle oftener than once
of goods sold out of my store about eighty or ninety in six months. Isn't that a long time ? "
are charged to somebody. There is comparatively It is far better now in that respect than when
little business done in a general country store of I first engaged in business. Then, say twenty to
this kind for immediate cash." forty years ago, no person in a community like
But would it not be better, Mr. Harwood, to this thought of paying his account oftener than
refuse goods to people who do not pay cash ?" once a year; and in many cases it would stand
Ah, there is a question. It might be true of two years without a settlement. We got down
some buyers. But it has been found that a purely after a while "
cash store is never well-supported in a farming Mr. Harwood," sang out a voice in the front
community. There are, in fact, but a few places part of the store, "messenger here with a tele-
where merchants can hold themselves strictly to gram !"
a cash business; never in agricultural communi- Right back that way, in the office, you'll find
ties. In the large cities a good share of the retail him," came from another voice in the central part
business is upon a cash basis. But even there of the long building.



LII. certain old country tavern, will ever forget the
captivating and novel way she had of initiating
ONE LADY'S WAY OF TEACHING HOW TO WRITE her pupils into some of the mysteries of putting
COMPOSITIONS." words and sentences together. She did not say
it was writing compositions," and they did not
ROBABLY not one of the pupils of a laugh- know it; if they had, no doubt every idea would
ing-eyed, brilliant brunette who once taught at once have fled from their brains, and they
a select school for girls in the dancing-hall of a would have said they could not do it, they did not


like to, they did not know how, and they wished the beautiful country which was my old home, where I was
that compositions could be abolished from the wont to play with my dear brothers and sisters when we
S e r d y ere innocent children. I take a comfortable carriage as
school system-for did you ever know more than
soon as I can, late in the afternoon, and reach the place
one pupil out of ten, who did not detest, or in just at the time most pleasant to me, at the twilight hour
the pupil's language, "hate the very word ? when the shadows of evening are beginning to fall.

She began by giving us a few simple words, That was thought in the school (the teacher's
mostly nouns and adjectives, asking us to make opinion not expressed) to be equal to anything
at least a single sentence. That was a mere in Irving's Sketch Book, and we were sure that
nothing, we thought; and it was nothing to ana- girl would become a distinguished writer.
lyze what we had written, parse the words and give One more:
the grammatical rules; nothing to explain the
a r s t e One beautiful afternoon in spring, when everything was
construction, and criticise it. It never entered
Sso fresh and green that we liked to be out doors, we took a
into our heads that we were being led on with long walk to a cottage where there were some children who
reference to future essays and sketches ; that in were our cousins. They were at play under the shadow of
this artful, insidious and progressive manner we the trees in front of their home, and as soon as they saw
were being taught how to write compositions," us, they all called out 0, how glad we are you have
come! "
the use of words, and the meaning of language.
Soon she increased the number to eight or ten, The teacher here called our attention to the
taking several parts of speech, requiring us to circumstance that one had written in the shad-
write as many lines (and more if we wished to), ow," and the other under," and asked if both
in which they should be used, and used properly; were proper.
and it became fine entertainment to us to hear The first really perplexing exercise was when
the specimens read by the several authors or ex- she required us to write a paragraph in which
perimenters. It was one of the regular school- should be the words "meadow," "farmer," "ex-
exercises, and we all were delighted and eager ceedingly," "day," "occurrence," noticed,"
when the hour came for it just after the afternoon working," dog," sunny," unexpected."
recess. The compositions "- for they speedily We began as bravely as possible, about a farmer
attained that dignity-were not very brilliant, working on a meadow, but presently every one
but we were young and without much experience, found a hitch in the skein that had at first been
and in those days it was not the case that girls run off so smoothly.
had such a gift of writing as they appear to have After about five minutes of writing and erasing,
now. of trial and cogitation, of bewilderment and final
Here is one of the moderately easy samples : desperation, every hand went up.
she gave the words "cottage," "ga" "a chil- "What is it ? the teacher asked, with mischief
dren," as soon as," home," play," come," in her eyes.
"shadows." Trouble about the "unexpected," and "occur-
Now," she said, "you have places, persons, rence." It was not possible we said to use them
time ; you have nouns, adjectives, and one verb, both, unless we wrote a whole book, or at least a
or two, as you choose. What will you do with good long chapter of one. We could not say an
them ? unexpected occurrence occurred? 0, no "
One girl disposed of the matter as briefly and Or that "an unexpected occurrence took place?"
with as little adornment as possible: "No, that will not do Or that an unexpected
occurrence transpired'?" "O, no, no!" Or that
How glad the children are as soon as school is done to occurrence no, no" Or that
come home to the beautiful cottage and play in the an unexpected occurrence happened" No, no,
shadows of the trees no Or that an unexpected occurrence come
to pass? Worse and worse, and worst, if
Another wrote :possible "

Whenever I can find the opportunity I am very glad to Then she explained the meaning of each of
come away from the noisy city to the peaceful cottage in those words and showed us why they could not


be put into any of the relations we had proposed; The teacher criticised this production, and said
that one who wished to use the English language that an experienced writer would have found
correctly and with good taste would hardly have some better way of telling us that the farmer was
an occurrence occur, take place, transpire, hap- haying; however, it was a very good piece of
pen, or come to pass. But, why," she asked, work, and we could see that the story might be
"did you all take it for granted that 'unex- made to expand still more. The other pieces
pected must necessarily belong with occur- were taken in turn and fully discussed. Our in-
rence ?' That is the most amusing thing to me ventiveness was encouraged, and we were advised
- that twelve girls should have thought alike and to use the simplest and most direct words in de-
stumbled there. Why need you put the words to- scribing anything. "Avoid," said she, "what is
gether? As you find it so troublesome to manage calledflowery writing. To illustrate what I mean :
them in that way, why not use them separately ? if you saw your neighbor's house all in a blaze
And we were given another quarter of an hour. you would not be likely to say 'That mansion is
At the expiration of that time the compositions enveloped in flames,' but That house is on fire.'
were read; eleven of the twelve pupils had made Then write it so."
very pretty incidents, but lo! five had left out To vary the exercise, and teach us to be dis-
" unexpected," and six, "occurrence." The criminating in the use of words, she used to give
twelfth read as follows: us two or three verses from some poem, omitting
most of the adjectives or descriptive words, and
One sunny day as a farmer was working on his meadow we were to fill the blanks with such as we thought
he suddenly noticed that his dog was acting in a strange the meaning required. In the course of those
manner. Though exceedingly busy, for he had been de- two terms of school there was a good deal of
played by some occurrence at home, he dropped his scythe
and went some distance to the place where the animal was botching of some of the lines of Mrs. Hemans,
to be seen running about in great excitement, as if some- Byron and Sir Walter Scott which would have
thing unusual and unexpected had happened. driven those authors frantic. I remember that
one girl presented her slate with the line
Here it came to an end.
Well, what did happen ? asked the teacher. I have had my share of thunder shocks,"
"Why, nothing, only I put all the words in." as a substitute for
"To be sure; but really you have begun a
story, something mzist have happened ; something "I have had my share of earth's rude shocks,"
did. Now invent something. I know you can if
you try. Surely you will not leave that dog acting and how the school as well as teacher laughed
so strangely. We shall never know whether he when she read it at the top of her voice.
had gone mad, or found a treasure, or was only Mrs. Hemans was new to us and, as she abounds
barking at a woodchuck." in descriptive epithets, we fairly revelled in her
Now the result was that each of the other girls, poems, and vied with one another in our en-
inspired by the success of this one, set to work deavors to catch the sense with the many words
and actually wrote a sketch of moderate length in left out. After the teacher had explained the
which all the words came in properly, while the purpose of the verse given, we tried our skill at
fortunate first one produced a fresh little narra- supplying, making more misses than hits. Once
tive which was quite thrilling, telling how the we had the verse beginning:
little boy from the house had followed his father I have sent through the wood-paths a glowing sigh
unobserved, and dropping asleep among the bushes And called out each voice of the deep, blue sky;
on the edge of a brook, would perhaps have been
drowned but for the dog. To heighten the effect, and there were all kinds of sighs but the right
she pictured the meadow with its tall grasses, and one; the sky was "sapphire," was "azure," was
lilies in bloom, and also introduced the fact that "bright blue," was "dark blue," was "clear blue,"
the house was in sight, that it was a red house anything but "deep."
and that it had a latticed porch over the door. It was very amusing, it was very delightful, it


was helpful; and, looking at the subject after so And, instead of adjectives every verb was left
many years, I am positive that those most artistic out, and besides supplying them, we must have
and poetic among the girls did sometimes (Oh them rhyme, but we succeeded admirably, and
shade of Mrs. Hemans, dare I say it?) fit a more from that day on we loved Scott. How his lines
appropriate adjective or participle in more than used to ring out, as she would recite them, after
one line of The Voices of Spring and similar hearing our versions, and all of chivalry and ro-
poems than the author herself had selected. mance were in the air.
New to us was Sir Walter too; and our intro- It was a profitable kind of exercise in many
duction to him was through MJarmion, thus: ways, for it opened a new world to us, stimulated
us, made us fastidious about the poetry we read,
Day set on Norham's castled steep, besides helping us to a critical judgment-though
And Tweed's fair river, broad and deep, to this day, let me confess, I can never read any
And Cheviot's mountains lone: of the special poems we maltreated in those
The battled towers, the donjon keep,
The battled towers, the dojon keep, school days without falling to questioning whether
The loop-hole grates, where captives weep,
The flanking walls that round it sweep, this adjective or that is the better one.
In yellow lustre shone. To have dared meddle with Scott, you will ex-
The warriors on the turrets high, claim How could you ?
Moving athwart the evening sky, But try for yourselves. Have some older per-
Seemed forms of giant height: .
heir armour, s i ht the r, son give out line by line, on the above plan, verses
Their armour, as it caught the rays,
Flashed back again the western blaze, that you are not acquainted with, and you, too,
In lines of dazzling light, will dare, and be delighted with this novel way."



III. sent sprigs of evergreen from the old tree in front
of the early Willard home in Oberlin. Joseph
FRANCES E. WILLARD. Cook sent Congratulations to the mother on the
daughter's life, and to the daughter on the
A LITTLE way out of Chicago, in a pretty mother's." Mr. Moody, Roswell Smith of the
home called "Rest Cottage," at Evanston, Century Magazine, Dr. Vincent, Maria Mitchell,
lives Frances E. Willard, one of the best-known and hundreds of others, sent cheering words.
and best-loved women of our country. No one of all the company was so proud and
Another woman lives in the cottage, Miss Wil- glad as Frances. No one knew, so well as she,
lard's mother. In her eighty-second year she is how this good mother who had toiled for her three
still the inspiration of those who are much with children, was deserving of this honor. And yet
her; still a reader of the best poetry and prose, it came because the noble daughter, by her own
and interested in the leading questions of the day. life, had made the mother known to the world.
On January 3, 1885, this venerable woman had a Miss Willard has had the rich blessing of Chris-
charming birthday celebration. The cottage was tian parentage. Not all who gain success are so
fragrant with flowers, the South sending japonicas fortunate, and yet it is rare to find eminence
and hanging moss ; the North, white carnations where there has not been at least an able mother
and roses. Some four hundred friends gathered and of high principles. Her ancestry enrolls
to do her honor, and messages and gifts came names of many who have toiled for the public
from all over the country. President Fairchild good. One of the Willards was a president of


Harvard College, another a pastor of the Old bluffs, so characteristic of Wisconsin, rose about
South Church in Boston, and still another the it on the right and left. The beautiful Rock
well-known educator, Emma Willard of Troy, N. River flowed at the west side; to the east a prairie
Y. Miss Willard's great-grandfather was a min- stretched away to meet the horizon, yellow with
ister at Keene, N. H., for forty years, and a chap- grain in summer, fleecy with snow in the winter."
lain in the Revolutionary War. But there were all sorts of intellectual feasts in
Her father, a native of Vermont, and a promis- this plain home. Frances, and her lovely sister,
ing young business man, after marrying an intelli- Mary, each not far from twelve years of age,
gent girl, also a teacher, started Westward to found organized an "Artist's Club of two. They would
a home. The daughter, Frances Elizabeth, was lead up the willing goat, put panniers on his back,
born at Churchville, near Rochester, N. Y. When packed with lunch and a bottle of spring water,
she was two years old, the young parents moved and then with two shepherd dogs in the proces-
to Oberlin, Ohio, where for five years they both
devoted themselves to study, and then bought a
large farm at Janesville, Wis., called "Forest
Home." Here for twelve years the girl basked j A' *
in the sunshine of nature and health. She says
of herself:
"Reared in the country, on a Western farm, I
was absolutely ignorant of tight shoes, corsets or
extinguisher bonnets. Clad during three fourths !
of the year in flannel suits, not unlike those worn
at gymnastics now by young lady collegians, and
spending most of my time in the open air, the
companion in work as well as in sport of my only
brother, I knew much more about handling rake
and hoe than I did of frying-pan and needle; Jj
knew the name and use of every implement han-
dled by carpenter and joiner; could herd the sheep
all day and never tire ; was an enthusiastic poultry
raiser; and by means of this natural out-door life, / I4
eight or nine hours sleep in twenty-four, a sensible 4
manner of dress, and the plain fare of bread and. ,
butter, vegetables, eggs, milk, fruit and fowl, was
enabled to store up electricity for the time to
We three children were each promised a library
to cost one hundred dollars apiece if we would sion, wander off to the river bank where they
not touch tea or coffee till we became of age. would sketch the whole day long. Sometimes
Subsequently I used both for. years, very moder- the frolicsome girls tried "to train a calf into a
ately, but have now entirely discarded them. A riding-horse," but were not rewarded with great
physician was almost an unknown visitant to our success in this novel undertaking. At other times
home." they caught Jack, a favorite horse, among the
The common-sense mother said, "Let a girl hazel bushes and enjoyed a horseback ride.
grow as a tree grows-according to its own sweet At fourteen when a new schoolhouse was built
will." in their locality, Frances went to school for the
Forest Home," says Frances, was a queer first time, the parents and a bright young lady in
old cottage with rambling roof, gables, dormer- the family having been her teachers heretofore.
windows, and little porches, crannies, and out-of- She writes in her journal:
the-way nooks, scattered here and there. The Sister and I got up long before light to pre-


pare for the first day at school. We put all our which the young teacher began her labors. Then
books in mother's satchel; had a nice tin pail full a position was offered her in Evanston, as teacher
of dinner. Stood next to Pat O'Donahue in spell- of natural science in the college whence she had
ing, and Pat stood at the head." graduated. After this, she was called to the
Next the girls started a newspaper, with poems, Female College at Pittsburg, Pa., and later on
essays and stories. The news must have been became Preceptress in Genesee Wesleyan Semi-
meagre, but such as it was it was greatly enjoyed nary at Lima, N. Y.
by the public; which public consisted of the Meantime a great sorrow had come into her
father and mother At sixteen Frances received life the death of the beautiful and gifted sister
a prize from the Illinois Agricultural Society for Mary ; and a few years later, the father and only
an essay on Country Homes." Mr. Willard was brother, Oliver, died, and Frances and her mother
deeply interested in agriculture, having been pres- were left alone.
ident of the State Society, as well as a member of While teaching in Pittsburg, Miss Willard wrote
the State Legislature, and was of course pleased her first book, a memoir of Mary, called Nine-
at his daughter's work and success in this field. teen Beautifui Years, which was published by the
On her seventeenth birthday she says in her Harpers in 1864. This book has made thou-
journal: "This is the date of my martyrdom. sands better from reading it, and will continue to
Mother insists that at last I must have my hair do its elevating work in the years to come. A new
'done up woman fashion.' She says she can edition has lately been brought out with an intro-
hardly forgive herself for letting me run wild so duction by the poet Whittier.
long. My 'back hair' is twisted up like a cork- In 1868, a great blessing came to Miss Willard.
screw ; I carry eighteen hair-pins; my head aches, Her friend, Kate A. Jackson, took her abroad for
my feet are entangled in the skirt of my new three years as her guest. They travelled in
gown; I can never jump over a fence again so nearly every European country. In Greece and
long as I live. As for chasing the sheep down in Palestine and Asia Minor they found much to
the shady pasture, it's out of the question, and to study and enjoy. They climbed the pyramids
climb to my 'Eagle's Nest' seat in the big burr- and visited the treasures of art in Italy and Ger-
oak would ruin this new frock beyond repair. many. While absent Miss Willard devoted more
Altogether, I recognize the fact, that 'my occu- than a year to study in the College de France
pation's gone.'" and the Petit Sorbonne, attending the lectures of
A year later she was sent to Milwaukee Col- Guizot, the historian, and other famous men; she
lege, founded by Catharine Beecher. The Wil- also studied in Berlin and Rome. Her training
lards now saw the necessity of going to some went constantly on. Whenever she could coin-
town where the children could.be more fully edu- mand time she wrote articles for the New Yorke
cated. The farm was therefore sold, with a Independent, Haiper's Monthl/y, Christian Union and
reluctant good-by to the goat and the poultry, and the Chicago journals. It was probable, of course,
the family moved to Evanston, the seat of the that a girl who thus preferred work to pleasure,
Northwestern University, where Mr. Willard be- would become a successful woman.
came a partner in the Chicago banking-firm of On her return home, a new point of departure
Preston, Willard & Kean. almost immediately confronted her. She spoke
Both daughters entered the Woman's College, before a Woman's Missionary Meeting upon the
and graduated with honor. For a girl with Fran- Christian work done abroad, and so impressed
ces's energy, the ending of school was but the was a prominent gentleman with her ability as a
beginning of a career of work. She had a pleas- speaker, that he proposed to her that she should
ant home, and a father able to support her, but give a lecture, promising her a large and appre-
why need she be dependent upon him? Should ciative audience. Hesitating much to try her
she stay at home and wait for marriage ? No; she powers, she laid the matter before her mother,
would earn money for herself, and marry or not, asking if she should accept. "By all means, my
as her heart prompted, child," said she; enter every open door."
A country school was found near Chicago, in At the expiration of three weeks, and with


no manuscript visible," says Miss Willard, I ap- States which numbered ten thousand inhabitants
peared before an elegant audience in Centenary and she afterward included many of five thou-
Church, Chicago. The manuscript was with me sand -in order to organize a Woman's Christian
in portfolio, ready for reference in case of failure, Temperance Union in each if it had not one
bit I didn't fail." So pleased were the people already.
and the newspapers, that she at once received invi- Was this a possibility? She had little money
stations to lecture from all parts of the Northwest. and a constitution not robust. But she had what
Honors now came fast and thick. In 1871 she was better, a heroic purpose, and great faith in
was made President of the Woman's College at God working with man.
Evanston, her Alma Mater, and two years later, For ten years she spoke, on an average, once a
when the college became a part of the University, day, staying at Rest Cottage only three weeks
she was made Dean of this college, and Professor during each year; sent out in the later years
of /Esthetics in the University. She adopted a twenty or thirty thousand letters; travelled some
plan of self-government for the pupils, novel then, years, from twenty-five thousand to thirty thou-
but since used, substantially, at Amherst College sand miles, accompanied by her invaluable private
and elsewhere. When any girl had shown herself secretary, Miss Anna Gordon, whom she truly
worthy, she entered a Roll of Honor Society," calls her "right arm," writing nearly all her
and if her record was good for a specified time, speeches and articles for the press on the cars.
she joined the corps of the self-governed with The wonder is that she is not a broken-down
a pledge to act her best. Miss Willard, the woman, which indeed she doubtless would be
teacher, has proved an inspiration to more than were it not for her sunny disposition, her common
two thousand pupils; her always recurring ques- sense, her power of holding herself at an even
tion to them being, What are you going to be in pace, and nature's early gifts and endowments in
the world, and what are you going to do ?" the free life at Forest Home.
In the winter of 1873 there was a remarkable She herself says: The chief wonder of my
uprising of the Christian women of the land, life is that I dare to have so good a time, physi-
known and remembered as the Temperance Cru- cally, mentally and religiously. I have swung
sade. Tens of thousands, in praying-bands, vis- like a pendulum through my years 'without haste,
ited the saloons, and awoke the whole country to without rest.' What it would be to have an idle
the peril of a drinking habit well nigh universal, hour I find it hard to fancy. With no headache
and to the sin of the liquor traffic. why should I not think right straight ahead ? "
Miss Willard was asked to join the movement. It is largely through Miss Willard's efforts that
She was already a successful teacher, author and in the whole thirty-eight States and nine Terri-
lecturer. Would she now please give up literary stories, W. C. T. U.'s have been organized. In ten
and educational reputation, and the brilliant pros- thousand towns and cities a great body of women
pects of her life, and enter upon a lowly and un- are at work to make liquor-selling and liquor-
popular work? Better than art or literature she drinking, with their consequent ruin to men and
had always loved to see a human being helped their families, hateful and disreputable before the
upward. She once had said, The deepest thought world. Especially have the people of the South
and desire of my life would have been met, if my become enthusiastic over the settlement of the
dear old Mother Church had permitted me to be temperance question. Miss Willard has made
a minister." Yes, she was immediately and wholly four campaigns in that great section of our coun-
ready to aid the temperance women. try since 1880 and has been welcomed into the
She was made the National Corresponding most important pulpits, and sustained by those in
Secretary of the movement, and at once began the highest positions.
the work that has been an astonishment in its The Woman's National Organization has now
breadth and a blessing to hundreds of thousands. over thirty departments. It has for its organ the
Her grand faculty for organization developed and Union Signal, a bright sixteen-page weekly paper,
made itself manifest. She determined to herself with a large subscription list. In twenty States,
to visit and speak in every town in the United temperance text-books have been introduced into


the public-schools by law. The press department tious is she in her correspondence for the National
reaches over one thousand papers, and sends out Society that altogether she sometimes has ten
annually over five million pages of printed matter, secretaries at work; even an envelope or a sheet
The W. C. T. U. has commissioned Mrs. Mary C. of paper is never wasted. This cannot always be
Leavitt, of Boston, to journey round the world said of men in the Government or Church or Mis-
perfecting kindred organizations in India, China, sionary employ! .. She is heart and
Russia, Scandinavia, and other countries. Many soul and body, given, a living sacrifice, to the
of the States are working for Constitutional work of saving men. She invites to her home
Prohibition already obtained in Maine, Kansas, those who have been overcome by temptation.
Iowa and Rhode Island, and for the ballot for Rarely is a social invitation accepted, although
woman, in the power of which Miss Willard invited by the best and the greatest, unless it be
heartily believes, since the liquor-power would where she can do some work. She is a marvellous
thus be met by the force of numbers." Miss woman, great, and will be greater." She receives
Willard has now been the President of the National no remuneration from the Society except that it
Association for seven years. furnishes postage and stationery.
For the next ten years, Miss Willard hopes, if The White Cross League, instituted by the
she lives, to use her pen even more than her Bishop of Durham, in England, pledging equal
voice, remaining much of the time at "Rest Cot- purity for man and woman, bids fair to be one of
tage." Here she has fitted up a great workshop; Miss Willard's grandest lines of work. She has,
and to a friend who asks what she is doing now, with all her other labors, been writing some excel-
she replies, "I have the care of four departments lent articles to girls, in the Chauztauquan, on the
of the National W. C. T. U., and the general super- subject, "How to Win." She says:
vision of the whole, viz.: the World's W. C. T. U.,
National Literature, White Cross League, and the Keep to your specialty, whether it is raising turnips or
extension of the organization. Each would be too tunes; painting screens or battle pieces; studying political
much for seven women ; I only make a dash at economy or domestic receipts. Have in place of
each." But those who know Miss Willard, know aimless reverie, a resolute aim. The first one in the idle
her thoroughness. She is usually at her desk from stream of my life was the purpose, lodged there by my life's
Best friend, my mother, to have az education. Mar-
nine till six, with a half-hour for dinner, and another garet Fuller Ossoli was another fixed point-- shall I not
half-hour for exercise in the open air. rather say a fixed star?-in the sky of my thought, while
A well-known lady in Evanston, Miss Willard's Arnold of Rugby, to one who meant to make teaching a
home, writes me concerning her: "To human ob- profession, was chief of all.
"If my dear mother did me one crowning kindness it
servation, here, Frances Willard is without fault. f my dear mother did me one crowning kindness it
was in making me believe that next to being an angel, the
Her liberality is unbounded, or would be if her greatest bestowment of God is to make one a woman. .
purse were as big as her heart. Her own private If I were asked the mission of the ideal woman, I would
expenditures she reduces to a minimum, going reply, It is to make te e whole world homelike. .She
without what she actually needs, in order that came into the college and elevated it, into literature and
hallowed it, into the business world and ennobled it. She
those in want may never be refused.
will come into government and purify it, for woman will
In her immense and ever-increasing correspon- make homelike every place she enters, and she will enter
dence, there are the usual number of cranks and every place on this round earth."
bores. But every letter is answered, and cour-
teously. When remonstrated with on account of Miss Willard has come to her grand success
the time and strength it takes, she replies, I like chiefly because of a high purpose. Life has been
to have them write to me. I want to get at the for her a constant work-day since she sketched
temperance work in every possible way, and at with Mary by the riverside at Forest Home, and
the hearts of people. Perhaps it cheers some every day has told upon the future of our people.
poor soul to write to me and get a reply. Let us For constantly working in advance of all party-
comfort one another all we can.' lines, she has helped more than any other woman
Another prominent lady writes : Miss Willard's first to make a great issue and then to hasten it
life will bear the closest scrutiny. So conscien- into national consideration.




III. ally found in ponds and streams, resting on logs
or sand-bars, while some wander far into the woods
FRESH-WATER TURTLES. in search of food. Their eggs are, as a rule, ob-
long, and buried, as are those of the marine forms,
l- OME interesting in the sand alongshore, to be hatched by the sun.
i features are pre- Perhaps the most familiar form is the box-turtle,
sented by turtles. Cistudo, found almost everywhere in the United
They differ entire- States east of the Mississippi River. It is inde-
l. y from all other pendent of the water, and commonly discovered
~~''.r animals. They roaming through the woods in search of mush-
are enclosed in a rooms and toadstools. It is particularly interest-
-l shell, into which ing from the fact that it can shut itself completely
THE HYDRASPIS. many withdraw in its house or shell, the plastron having two lids
entirely. If we ex- joining like a cover.
amine one we see that it has two distinct shells ; In the winter all the northern fresh-water turtles
the upper, or carapace, and lower, or plastron, retire beneath the surface; some in the mud, oth-
which united form the box or house in which the ers into holes which they excavate in the soil, and
animal lives. The backbone, or vertebra, is there they hibernate until warm weather returns,
joined firmly to the upper shell, consequently has neither eating nor drinking, all the functions being
not the flexibility seen in other animals. The at a standstill.
ribs also are immovable, and the carapace, or While the box-turtle is extremely mild and peace-
upper protecting shell, is really formed by the ful in its disposition, the snapping turtle, Chelydra
widening of these bones. In the mouth of the tur- serpentina, is a veritable bull dog in its nature;
tle we find two horny beaks in the place of teeth striking with its powerful head, clinging to its
so that they nip and crush, instead of cutting their enemy with persistency, and to show the force of
food. Their eyesight is acute, these organs hav- its bite, one has been known to cut through a
ing a third lid, or what is called a nictitating mem- board an inch thick with its horny jaws.
brane. In America, north of Mexico, we have Though the snapper has a very snake-like head
about forty species of these interesting animals, it is exceeded in this respect by the strange Hy-
and they are found in almost every country that draspis which has a slender neck nearly as long as
will support life. its shell; so long, in fact, that it does not draw in
The true fresh-water turtles of the world belong its head like ordinary turtles, but places it on the
to the order Emydide, and are represented in vari- side of the body. When these turtles, swimming
ous climes by over sixty species, or different kinds, just under the surface, lift their heads above water
They differ materially in appearance from sea to reconnoitre, the observer would consider them
turtles. They have a more or less depressed shell, snakes. They are confined to the rivers and
though in some cases it is convex. The toes are streams of Brazil where the curious bearded or
distinct, and provided with webs, and the limbs imbricated turtle, Chelys matamata, is found, the
are organized so that the turtles can lift them- most remarkable of the entire tribe. This turtle
selves some distance from the ground and travel attains a length of three feet, has a long neck orna-
with considerable speed. The shell is often bril- mented in a most wonderful manner with barbels
liantly ornamented, and a thorough protection, and fringes of flesh, so that one can well imagine
being made up of horny shields. They are gener- that it had been overgrown with moss or weed.


On each side of the head are two curious prom- erable noise, at the same time uttering a loud hiss.
inences that look like ears; above the mouth is a Their size and strength can be imagined when it
pointed nose-like extension of the skin; add to is known that two men could sit on the back of
this a shell resembling rough rock, and we have a one, the animal carrying them with ease. I have
creature which certainly must find much protection stood upon the back of a young one hardly two
in its resemblance to moss-covered rocks, and a half feet long, and the animal moved with-
Some remarkable turtles, as regards size, are out difficulty. These huge creatures are very fond
found on the islands of the Galapagos Archipelago; of water, and go periodically to the springs, evi-
these are known as elephant-turtles. There are dently obtaining a supply sufficient to last them
several species, and when the islands were first some time. Undoubtedly they are not dependent
discovered they existed in great numbers, but since upon it, as on some of the islands no rain falls ex-
then many have been killed, and vessels stop there cept during a few weeks, and there are no springs,
to capture the huge creatures as a marketable yet the islands are inhabited by turtles that feed

--- A

.. .
1 i,,

commodity. These islands are of volcanic origin, upon the cactus. Besides the hiss that all turtles
and contain many extinct craters and cones, in have these roar loudly at times.
and about which a growth of cactus is found. Some years ago," said friend, who was famous
When the original discoverers visited Chatham traveller, and with whom I was exchanging turtle
Islands, they found curious paths leading up to experiences, "I found myself up the Amazon so
the mounds, winding in and out among the cacti; far that I imagine I was the only really white man
by following these up they soon came to a number in the country. The natives and half-bred Por-
of large springs, in a muddy basin, wallowing in tuguese held undisputed possession. I was well
which were scores of monstrous turtles. Some received everywhere, the people being extremely
were drinking, while others had evidently just fin- hospitable, and among the curious things that I
ished and were walking slowly away down the noticed was that almost every family kept turtles
well-travelled paths. When approached they sud- just as we do pigs. In other words, attached to
denly drew in their legs and dropped with consid- nearly every little house was a pen or corral in


which one or more turtles were confined as the as I glanced down I saw that it was almost dry,
family meat-supply, and killed as occasion required. the channel dividing, one branch flowing on one
The turtles, PoEdocnemys expansa, were extremely shore, and one on the other, the middle portion
large, some weighing two hundred and fifty pounds, being entirely made up of sand banks and shallow
and were three feet in length, and proportionately stretches of water. These banks c. ,;1 ii may
stout and bulky. I found that they formed one of have been white, but now they were fairly black
the most important articles of diet in the country, with the great turtles which we were in search
and many of the natives earned a living by catch- of. If I had been told beforehand that such a
ing and selling them to the richer people, vast number would collect I could hardly have
"My first glimpse at these huge turtles was at believed it, but here they were before my eyes,
a small hut where I observed a child sitting in literally covering the flat; not singly, but in piles
a bath tub made of the shell of one, and this led and heaps, as many as five and six in some cases.
to my becoming acquainted with the originals, "The men enjoined silence, and proceeded care-
for my host observing my interest in the ani- fully to the water's edge, then dividing; one half,
mals told me that a regularly-organized hunt was perhaps thirty men, taking a net and going above
to take place in a few days, and as his men were and around, while the others remained opposite
going he invited me to join them. On the morn- the unsuspicious animals to wait until the other
ing of the hunt we went to a little settlement party had reached a spot directly in front of them,
about five miles up the river, and there waited for the method of procedure being for both parties to
the entire party, the members of which were arriv- advance on the horde from opposite sides of the
ing every minute in their canoes in fours and fives. river carrying the nets, which were ordinary seines,
Having some time to wait I went ashore and and so prevent the turtles from reaching the water.
strolled about, and at one of the houses I found At a signal both parties crept to the edge and
that the turtles in their usefulness were not re- gradually spread up and down stream with the
stricted to food but were utilized by the native nets, and when the latter were stretched to their en-
children as perambulators. Hearing a shouting tire length word was given and all the men dashed
in one of the corrals I looked over the fence and into the shallow water and ran toward the centre
there were two little urchins, each mounted on a or each other. The moment the turtles heard
large turtle, and evidently racing, as each rider the noise and saw the men, it seemed as though
sat astride of the shell, and with a piece of barn- the entire bottom was moving away, as they scram-
boo split at the end urged the phlegmatic steeds bled in indescribable confusion toward both par-
along at a pace which might have been a mile a ties, instinctively knowing that water was in that
week, as the turtles aroused at the noise of the direction, while many went up and down; but by
blow, would scramble ahead a foot, for it certainly far the greatest number ran directly into the two
could not be felt; but the moment their heads nets that were soon connected at the ends, corn-
protruded far enough to see the diminutive rider pletely surrounding the reptiles. Themen shouted
they would take alarm, draw in neck, tail and feet, with excitement, dashing after those which crept
and stop suddenly to recover courage and repeat under, or moving the net to avoid the turtles
the manceuvre a moment later -the riders varying which piled themselves up against it. But escape
the performance by standing upon the backs of was well nigh impossible; they were entrapped,
their steeds and frisking about like circus riders, and that, too, without injury, and after many fran-
I was recalled from this diversion by the cap- tic endeavors to reach the adjacent water they
tain, and soon a fleet of twenty or thirty canoes seemingly became reconciled to their fate. The
was moving up the river. A mile above they men then entered the trap and seizing the turtles
turned up a branch, and the water shoaling the tied them up with great skill and rapidity, while
canoes were hauled upon the bank at a point of others took them out, often two men being required
land, and a detour made through the forest until to carry one in the direction of the canoes. Only
finally one of the men beckoned me to look down those of a certain size were retained, all the small
through the trees. We were on an elevation of ones being released to grow larger and perhaps
perhaps one hundred feet above the stream, and be caught another year."




III. 59. On what condition did the Persians offer
their alliance to the Athenians ?
EARLY HISTORY OF ATHENS. 60. How did the Spartans propose for the third
time to overthrow the Athenian democracy?
41. What legendary hero is said to have united
the twelve districts of Attica into one state ?
42. What early Athenian king is said to have i. Pelasgi.
sacrificed his life for his country, and in what way? 2. Hellas.
43. What title was substituted for that of king 3. Poseidon.
immediately after this event ? 4. The coast. See Wm. Morris's Life and
44. Into what three classes were the early Death of fason.
Athenians divided ? 5. Dorian.
45. Why was the establishment of the annual 6. The Dorians.
archonship an event of great importance ? 7. Minos was an early king of Crete (now
46 What lawgiver punished with death all called Candia). A famous code of laws was as-
crimes from thieving to murder? cribed to him and his epoch marks the real begin-
47. Why were the Alcmoeonide expelled from ning of Greek history.
Athens? 8. Thebes, founded by Cadmus 1493 B. c.
48. What Athenian lawgiver was counted one 9. This council consisted of twelve wise men
of the Seven Wise Men of Greece ? sent from various parts of Greece for the manage-
49. What punishment did his laws inflict upon ment of public affairs. Its primary duty was the.
those who took sides with neither party in any care of the Delphian temples and oracles.
civil strife ? 10. The Heraclide, or descendants of Her-
50. To what famous king did he say that no cules, who were driven from the Southern penin-
man should be called happy till his death? sula of Greece about 1200 B. c. reconquered it
51. What usurper showing to the people his about r109 B. c. and the term is used for the-
self-inflicted wounds declared they had been re- Dorian migration into the Peloponnesus.
ceived in defending the rights of the Athenians ? 11. With the fall of Troy, dated as the year i.
52. Which of his sons invited such poets as 12. Argos founded about 1856 B. c.
Anacreon and Simonides to court? 13. Laconia. Lycurgus was its greatest man.
53. What two conspirators were counted as the 14. Sparta.
first of Athenian political martyrs ? 15. Originally the inhabitants of Helos, a city
54. Name the first important reform instituted captured by the Spartans who reduced its citizens
by Clisthenes. to serfdom. The Helots were serfs of the commu-
55 How did his reforms affect the Senate ? nity and never became the property of individuals.
56. How were public crimes tried at this time ? 16. Athens.
57. What peculiar system of punishment was 17. Three.
instituted at this time? 18. The Corinthians.
58. Narrate briefly the way in which judgment 19. Mycena. See Schliemann's Mycene.
of banishment was passed. 20. M. -- i

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E .. ... LL -- '-. .------ ~ '-- .-.



CHAPTER IV. grow on every bush," added he quite energet-
A TEST. "Well, then," repiled the old gentleman, "you
may get ready, Albert, and take the night express
A YEAR has passed since Albert and Mr. from Chestwick. I believe I will leave the whole
Harwood were interrupted in their talk on thing in your hands."
credit by the telegraph-boy. The message was "But," began Albert in some astonishment at
from a firm of commission merchants in New his twenty-thousand-dollar responsibility.
York, Messrs. Sherwin & Co., and it related to a "No time for discussing. I'll risk you with the
large consignment of goods from a factory in affair," said Mr. Harwood. "Go and get ready.
which Mr. Harwood had a controlling interest. You've only two hours and a half to eat your sup-
During the intervening time young Vangrift has per and get to Chestwick, and the roads are bad."
applied himself both in school and office, and At nine o'clock the next morning young Van-
has been rewarded by a promotion to an impor- grift walked into the office of Sherwin & Co.,
tant post in the merchant's service. Again in the commission merchants in New York. The book-
office, almost at the same hour, they are discus- keeper was at the desk, but neither of the firm
sing business methods, and Mr. Harwood is speak- had yet arrived. It seemed strange to the young
ing of a movement on foot to establish a bank in countryman that business men should not be at
Williston. At present the nearest banking house their store before this time in the day. He learned
is ten miles distant, at Chestwick. And again that nine o'clock was an early hour for most city
they are interrupted by a telegraph-messenger merchants to be found in their places of business.
who hands Mr. Harwood a despatch which he When Mr. Sherwin came in young Vangrift
read as follows: presented his letter of introduction from Mr.
Harwood, and though with many a shrewd glance
Cannot meet your draft owing to financial embarrassment, at so young a representative of his most important
Can you come and see us ? creditor, Mr. Sherwin gave him a full account of
SHERWIN & Co. how it had happened that the firm was experienc-
ing financial difficulty. They had been convinced,
He passed the message to Albert, who said, as he he said, for some days, that it would be necessary
glanced it over, I rather expected something of to make an assignment.
that kind when they got the postponement a month [A person owing debts which he cannot pay
ago. What do you propose to do about it?" may make an assignment of his goods or other
I hardly know. What do you think we had property, that is, pass them over to another per-
better do, Albert ?" son to be held in trust, so that whatever prop-
I think it must be looked after at once and erty the person (bankrupt or assignor as he is
I should say you had better go and see them, called) owns will be converted into cash and di-
as they request. Twenty thousand dollars don't vided pro raita, according to his indebtedness,


among his several creditors. This releases him want," replied Albert; "but if I may have the
from any further legal obligation. The principle privilege of examining your books I can soon tell
is an old one at common law, though the different you how I would like to modify your offer."
States have statutory enactments regulating such You have our consent to do so certainly, and
proceedings. The General Government had a we will place all the information you desire at
Bankrupt Act which was in force from 1867 to your hands."
1876 which substantially put aside all State laws "I will return within an hour," said the young
on the subject, but when the Act was repealed man as he took his hat and walked out of the
then the States legislation came into force again, office.
Efforts are being made for another general Bank- He at once sought the advice of a lawyer, an
rupt law.] acquaintance of his employer, with whom he
"And what is it your purpose to do now, Mr. talked the business over, and then finding an
Sherwin ? asked his young listener, experienced accountant to accompany him re-
"I hardly know, at this moment. We were turned to the office of Messrs. Sherwin & Co.
hopeful that Mr. Harwood himself would come," The accountant was set to work and in a few
he added frankly, and we had expected to make hours, with the assistance of Messrs. Sherwin &
him a proposition by which, if accepted, we would Co.'s bookkeeper, had completed a superficial
get the necessary assistance and continue our busi- examination of the books. A summary of what
ness. We need about twenty thousand dollars the books showed was made up and put into
now and I believe Mr. Harwood could and would the hands of young Vangrift. A private confer-
have helped us through." ence between the young man, the lawyer, and the
"How much, Mr. Sherwin, do you owe ?" asked accountant then took place. As a result a propo-
Albert, without remarking upon this. sition was drawn up in substance as follows:
About a hundred thousand dollars." As the representative of Mr. Henry Harwood,
"Will you tell me briefly what you have got, I propose, for him, to loan the firm of Messrs.
provided you are given time, to meet your obliga- Sherwin & Co. the sum of twenty thousand dol-
tions with ? lars upon the following conditions: I am to re-
We have a large shipment of grain en route for main in their office as general cashier for the term
Europe, against which we have drawn only a part of sixty days if I so desire, and am to have full
of its value. There is owing us about eighty and exclusive power of attorney to handle all
thousand dollars, and besides that we are expect- moneys during the said term, and am to be con-
ing within ten clays a bill of exchange from Liver- suited upon all important contracts. I am to be
pool for nearly twenty thousand dollars. If we permitted to withdraw from the money of the firm
had time to turn ourselves I'm sure, and I think within the said sixty days the sum of forty thou-
Mr. Harwood would see it so too, that we would sand dollars, the same being in payment of the
come out all right." said loan of twenty thousand dollars and an addi-
I think I understand something about how tional twenty thousand dollars now due and owing
things are," replied Albert. Now, you will give to Mr. Henry Harwood. I am also to have the
me your proposition and before three o'clock to- additional sum of five hundred dollars for services,
day I will let you know whether I can do anything and interest."
to assist you." The proposition was accepted. A formal con-
We will propose then," said Mr. Sherwin, tract was drawn up by the lawyer and signed by
speaking as succinctly as had Albert, "that if you, the parties. For the twenty thousand dollars
as Mr. Harwood's representative, will loan us young Vangrift filled up the blank draft given
twenty thousand dollars we will place our notes him by Mr. Harwood. The draft was deposited
and accounts in your hands and transfer warehouse in the bank to the credit of the firm, and with it a
receipts to the amount of forty thousand dollars, power-of-attorney giving young Vangrift the ex-
which will pay the loan and the twenty thousand elusive right to draw checks as provided in the
we owe Mr. Harwood." contract.
That would not be precisely what I would [A draft, as it is termed in business parlance, is


in law known as a bill of exchange. No particu- "Accepted Clayville Mills, E. C. H. Treasurer."
lar form for it is necessary. He was treasurer of the Clayville Mills and the
The following is the usual form: debt for which the draft was drawn was for those
O. 2 mills, but the draft was drawn not on E. C. H.
Williston, Oct. 27 -
Treasurer, nor upon the Clayville Mills. The
At sight (or at such and such days after sight)
court held that it was not an acceptance by E. C.
for value received pay to the order of Albert Van- t an
H. and in the absence of protest and notice as
grift twenty thousand dollars and charge the same
to account of the law required the drawer was discharged. The
bill of exchange brought by young Vangrift is
Henry Harwood. .
e n. H & oo considered in law afor-ezvn bill. It was drawn in
To Winslow, Brown & Co.
New York. one State upon a person or firm residing in an-
other. A bill of exchange drawn upon a person
A mere order to pay money, written in the sim- living in the same State with the drawee is called
plest form possible, is equally as good in law. an inland or domestic bill. A bill drawn against
Thus: the following form has been held to be a one living in a foreign country is called aforeign
valid and binding bill of exchange. bill the same as one drawn against a person resid-
ing in another State. In accepting a bill of ex-
Messrs. Winslow, Brown & Co.-Pay Albert
essrs. Window, Brown & o- A change it is advisable to write upon the face, in
Vangrift twenty thousand dollars.
r Haddition to the signature, the amount for which it
Henry Harwood.
SH is accepted thus:
Before a draft is negotiable it must be accepted. Accepted Oct. 28-S-for twenty thousand
"Accepted Oct. 28-I8-for twenty thousand
Until it has been accepted it is a mere order or dollars. Winslow, Brown Co."
dollars. Winslow, Brown & Co."
request, but does not bind the person upon whom
it is drawn. There are three parties to this form By endorsing a bill of exchange is meant writing
of a bill of exchange. They are the drawer, the simply the signature of the payee across the back.
drawee, and the payee.] Bills of exchange frequently have a number of
In the draft used by young Vangrift Mr. Har- endorsements, as each person through whose
wood was the drawer, Messrs. Winslow, Brown hands they may pass usually endorses them. An
& Co. the drawees, and young Vangrift the payee. ordinary bank check is considered in law as a
The draft having been presented to Messrs. Wins- bill of exchange. But, with this, it is not cus-
low, Brown & Co. and by them "accepted," it tomary to present it to the drawee, that is, the
became negotiable like a promissory note. But bank, for acceptance. It is presumed that a bank
before depositing it in the bank it was necessary check will be paid upon being presented to the
for the payee to "endorse" it. drawee rather than accepted. Accepting a check
[By accepting a bill of exchange is meant writing by a bank is called "certifying." That is, the
across its face the name of the drawee and the bank certifies that the check is good for the
date of acceptance. It has been customary to amount specified, and that the maker has funds
write the word "accepted" over the signature on deposit to meet it. It is the duty of the bank
but this has been held in law as not necessary. as soon as a check has been presented for certifi-
If the drawee wishes, in accepting a bill, he may cation to charge it up to the depositor's account.]
specify a place where he will pay it, and when The bill of exchange used by young Vangrift
this is clone the bill must be presented for payment before it was deposited to the credit of Messrs.
at the place specified. In having a bill of exchange Sherwin & Co. had to be endorsed by them after
accepted it is well to notice carefully and see being endorsed by young Vangrift.
that the acceptance corresponds to the manner in In the office of Messrs. Sherwin & Co. young
which the drawee is addressed. In an instance Vangrift had most excellent opportunity for ac-
where it did not so correspond the payee was quiring a thorough insight into business affairs
unable to collect and thus lost a large sum of and especially this branch of business.
money. The bill was drawn upon E. C. H. but Commission merchants are persons intrusted
when he accepted it he wrote across the face with merchandise or other property to sell for


their principals, persons who ship to or place the study by those wishing to acquire a knowledge of
merchandise in their hands. The compensation business. The law provides that factors are
they receive is called a "commission." In law bound to follow the instructions of their principal,
commission merchants are termed "factors and and are responsible to him for neglect or violation.
their acts are treated under that division of law Where a factor, in the hope of obtaining a better
called Agency. Where these merchants reside price, held the goods a few days beyond the time
in the same country with their principals they are when he was directed to sell them, and the price
termed home, or domestic factors; when in another went down instead of up, as he expected, the law
country forei'n factors. They may also be agents said he must pay damages to the owner for the
to buy goods for their principals.* loss. In another case (though fortunately, it was.
In the large cities commission merchants are not the same factor) a commission merchant who
very numerous and are engaged in a large variety had goods shipped to him, with instructions to
of trades. There are those who handle only grain; hold them until further directions, sold them be-
others flour, meal, etc.; others, butter and cheese; cause he thought they would bring a better price,
and, others vegetables only. Some deal only in and did not wait for the further directions. The
fruits, and others only in provisions. Then there shipper sued and the factor was made to pay dam-
are commission merchants for the sale of dry ages. But when there are no particular instruc-
goods, others for boots and shoes, and others still tions a factor must exercise his judgment. He
who deal only in cotton, and others again only in may, when the state of the market renders it for
paper. There are many other classes of goods the advantage of the principal, send the goods to
sold largely by factors, but those named are the a neighboring market for sale there. The factor
most common. Many commission merchants also is protected against liability for loss when he acts
buy and sell on their own account the same as in good faith, and according to his best judgment,
other merchants, but not contrary to positive directions.
When a person sends goods to a commission These are a few of the many things it became
merchant to be sold for the account and risk of necessary for young Vangrift to learn while with
the owner it is called a shipment. The shipper or Messrs. Sherwin & Co. as the representative of
owner is called the consignor. The commission his employer.
merchant is called the consignce. The goods while He was attentive to his duties and gave all the
in the possession of the commission merchant are details of the business which came under his
called consignments. Thus if Mr. Harwood ships notice careful study. As the creditors came in
merchandise to Messrs. Sherwin & Co. he, Mr. they were paid their money, and a strong exertion
Harwood, terms it a shipment," but Messrs. was made to collect in all that was owing the firm.
Sherwin & Co. term it a consignment." The The prices of grain and produce were "firm and
goods may be reshipped by Messrs. Sherwin & Co. trade was brisk so that even before the sixty
to another factor, in some other city. They then days provided for in the contract had expired
become a shipment" with Messrs. Sherwin & Co. young Vangrift had drawn out of the business the
and a "consignment with the factor to whom they forty thousand dollars and deposited it to the
are shipped. credit of Mr. Harwood. He then made a settle-
The laws of the various States which govern the ment, received his five hundred dollars for ser-
acts and prescribe the duties of commission mer- vices, and took the train for Chestwick, having
chants or factors form an interesting subject for written his employer in advance the day he should
See Storey on Agency ~fo. be there.




IV. In their influence, as compared with that of the
usual Sunday-school book, or work of light fiction,
MRS. G. R. ALDEN (" PANSY "). lies the difference that exists between waltz and
IAM going to write a sketch of 'Pansy,'" I said It was years ago that I read Ester Ried, and
to one of the young ladies in our Public cried over Ester's death, as I suppose thousands
Library, "and I would like to take several of her of others have done. After that I was always
books home, to look them over." wondering how the author of that most magical
"There are none in," she replied, book talked and looked and if I should like her if
None in, when I see by your catalogues you I ever saw her.
have several of each of her more than fifty vol- One day I heard that "Pansy" was to conduct
umes ? "
"Oh there is one in Mrs. Harry Halper's
Awakening, but that will probably be taken out -- "
during the day." ,
"What is the reason 'Pansy's' books are al-
*ways in demand?" ,- i
"Because they are bright reading for young
people, and as pure as they are bright, and we
like to specially recommend them. When hun- -.
dreds come to us, and ask what they shall read, -
among those of the few unexceptionable writers we
can always speak well of the Pansy books,' and .L.
the boys and girls always come back pleased, and A.. -.
.ask for others by that author." i.. -
What is true of "the Pansy books," in the Pub- '
lic Library of Cleveland, I doubt not to be true of
them in the libraries of other cities.
I have just been reading Mrs. Alden's One Coa- .m .---
monplace Day. I have been with poor Kate Hart- -
zell to the picnic, and felt ashamed of Fannie
Copeland, or any other girl who is too proud to AIRS. G. G. ALDEN (" PANSY").
associate with a noble-hearted young woman be-
cause she helps to wash dishes and make bread. the primary department of the Sunday-school
I have felt a great liking for Mildred Powers, who, Assembly at Framingham, Mass. So I went out
though her father was a judge at Washington, from Boston to hear her.
put on no airs, and was thoroughly kind to every- When I arrived, I found a crowded house lis-
body. I have followed Kate to the home of the tening to a sweet-faced woman, in early life, much
drunken father and drunken college-brother, .and younger than I had supposed, with a rich, pleasant
have seen how a girl really can be a ministering voice, heard in every part of the house, and with
angel. I understand, I think, the reasons for the a most attractive and womanly manner. She was
perennial popularity of the "Pansy books." They natural, interesting and earnest. It is unneces-
waken the music of the noble chords of the soul. sary to add that I liked her.


And now what has been the history of this very the 'patties' as it came from the oven, and was
successful woman ? refused. Disconsolately I wandered back to
Born in Rochester, N. Y., in 1842, she had two father's side. He was busy with his annual ac-
blessings, perhaps the greatest earthly gifts : a counts. Our home was in a manufacturing town,
father and mother who were wise, patient, tender, where the system of exchange, known as due-
helpful under all circumstances. The father held bills,' was in vogue. Something caught my eye
wonderfully pronounced convictions on all the great which suggested the term to me, and I asked an
questions of the day; he was a strong temperance explanation.
man, a strong anti-slavery man, a leader in every Father gave it briefly. Then I wanted to
moral reform, and pressing forward alone often- know whether people always earned the amount
times, for public opinion was not educated up to mentioned in the due-bill, and my father replied
his standard, whereas now he would have hosts of that of course one had the right to issue a due-
co-laborers. The noble man standing solitary upon bill to a man who had earned nothing, if for any
advanced positions, upon high lonely look-outs, reason he desired to favor him, and that then the
lived half a century ahead of his time. The sum would become that man's due, because of the
mother was a sunny-hearted, self-forgetful woman, name signed.
devoted to all that was pure and of good report." "I remember the doleful tone in which I said,
Their little girl, Isabella, received her now 'I wish I had a due-bill.' My father laughed, tore
famous name of Pansy," from an incident in her a bit of paper from his note-book, and printed on
baby-life. The mother had a choice bed of great it in letters which his six-year-old daughter could
purple and yellow pansy blossoms, which she was read, the words:
treasuring for a special occasion. One morning
the wee child, being in a helpful, loving mood, DEAR MOTHER:
sallied out, and picked them every one, and bring- PLEASE GIVE OUR LITTLE GIRL A PATTY-
ing the treasures in her arms showered them in CAKE FOR MY SAKE. FATHER.
her mother's lap, with the generous statement
that they were every one for her." I carried my due-bill in some doubt to my
They were to have been used on the evening mother, for she was not given to changing her
following, and the good mother was much dis- mind, but I can seem to see the smile on her face
turbed; but the father mounted his baby in tri- as she read the note, and feel again the pressure
umph on his shoulders, and called her his own of the plump warm cake which was promptly
little pansy-blossom; and from that time the sweet placed in my hand.
name clung to her. Thus gentle was the man of "The incident took on special significance from
strong thought, over a thing that could not be the fact that I gave it another application, as chil-
helped, and which was done in innocency. A less dren are so apt to do. As I knelt that evening,.
thoughtful parent might have punished the child, repeating my usual prayer: 'Now Ilay me down to
and then wondered as she grew older that she did sleep,' and closed it with the familiar words: And
not develop lovelier traits How often we spoil this laskforjesus' sake,' there flashed over my mind
the flowers in our home gardens! the conviction that this petition was like the 'due-
A little incident which I have heard Mirs. Alden bill' which my father had made me to be claimed
relate, shows not only the love within that early because of the mighty name signed. I do not
home, but the skill of the father in the character- know that any teaching of my life gave me a
forming of his child. I recall," said she, "a stronger sense of assurance in prayer than this
certain rainy day, when I hovered aimlessly from apparently trivial incident."
sitting-room to kitchen, alternately watching my Pansy began to write little papers very early
father at his writing, and my mother at her cake- in life, which she called "compositions," and which
making. She was baking, I remember, a certain were intended for her parents only. From her
sort known among us as 'patty-cakes,' with scal- babyhood she kept a journal where the various
loped edges, and raisins peeping out all over thei: events of the day were detailed for the benefit of
puffy sides. I put in an earnest plea for one of these same watchful parents. There could have


been little that was exciting or novel in this girlish and has exerted the most beneficent influence
life, but the child was thus trained to express her of all her works. Of this book, Mrs. Alden says :
thoughts, and to be observing -two good aids in "The closing chapters were written while I was
her after-life. She was also encouraged to send watching the going out of my blessed father's life.
long printed letters each week to her absent sister, To the last he maintained his deep interest in it,
telling her of the home-life, and describing per- and expressed his strong conviction that it would
sons and places. "Pansy" was very happy in all do good work. It went out hallowed with his
this work, stimulated by gentle appreciation and prayers, and is still bearing fruit which will add
criticism, to his joy, I believe, in heaven. The last chapter
When "Pansy" was perhaps ten years old, one was written in the summer of 1870 with the tears
morning the old clock, which she "really and dropping on my father's new-made grave."
truly supposed regulated the sun, suddenly The titles of Mrs. Alden's books are familiar in
stopped. Such an event had never before oc- all households: Four Girls at Chautauqua, with
curred. She considered it worthy of a special its charming sequel, Chautauqua Girls at Home,
chronicle, and forthwith wrote the story of its Ti Lewis and his Lamp, Three People, Links in
hitherto useful life, and the disasters which might Rebecca's Life, Julia Ried, Rult Erskine's Crosses,
have resulted from its failure in duty. This clock The King's Daughter, The Browning Boys, From
was very dear to the father and mother, being as- D '.. Standpoints, M3rs. Harry Harper's Awaken-
sociated with the beginning of their early married ing, The Pocket-Measure, Spun From Fact, etc. -
life. When "Pansy's" story was read, she was star- titles familiar in all Public Libraries, and to
tled, almost frightened, over this discovery- that Sunday-school librarians in all denominations.
it drew tears to her father's eyes. He said he Though she is an adept in the arts and peculiar
would like to have the story in print, the better to fascinations of the novelist, a master-analyst of
preserve it, and that she might sign to it the name the subtler workings of the human heart, she has
of "Pansy," both because that was his pet name from the outset dedicated her work to the advance-
for her, and because the language of the flower ment of the Christian religion in the home-life and
was "tender and pleasant thoughts," and these in the business-life; to making alive and impor-
she had given him by her story. tant and binding and "altogether lovely," the laws
How pleased the little girl was that she had of the Bible. The glittering prospects of other
made him happy, and that when a real story of fields in literature have not allured her aside.
hers was in black-and-white where the world But Mrs. Alden's books are only a portion of
could read it, none would know the real author her life-work. Her husband, Rev. G. R. Alden,
except the family. How her heart beat when the is the pastor of a large church, and she works
little ten-year-old author looked upon her first faithfully at his side, having a high ideal of the
printed article, all those know who have ever duties and peculiar opportunities of a minister's
written for the press. wife. She is president of the missionary soci-
Her first book, Helen Lester, was not published eties, organizer and manager of a young people's
until ten years later. She wrote it in competition branch, superintendent of the primary department
for a prize, and was so fortunate as to gain it. of the Sunday-school, and the private counsellor
This greatly encouraged her, though her best of hundreds of young people. While she enjoys
encouragement was, as she says, the satisfaction her literary work, she makes it subservient to her
which the little printed volume bearing the pet- church and Sunday-school work.
name, 'Pansy,' gave to my father and mother." She says, "My rule has been to write when I
Following upon that first little book, Pansy's can get a chance, subject to the interruptions
literary work has been constant and most success- which come to a mother, a housekeeper, and a
ful. She has written between fifty and sixty vol- pastor's wife."
umes, of which over one hundred thousand copies Yet for seventeen years Mrs. Alden has been
are sold annually. They are in every Sunday- under contract (never broken) to keep a serial
school, and in well nigh every home. It is be- story running in the Herald and a Presbyter, through
lived that Ester Ricd has had the largest sale, the winter; and for ten years she has given her


summers largely to normal-class work at all the Mamma says I ought to tell you at the commencement that
principal Sunday-school assemblies, having been I am eleven years old, but a poor penman, and she is afraid
several times at Chautau Framigha and you cannot read my letter, but I will try and do my best. I
several times at Chautauqua, Framingham and
have taken T/e Pansyt for two years and enjoy it very much.
Florida, and is under engagement to do the same After reading it I send it in a mission barrel to the children
work in Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin and Ten- in Utah. I had rather keep them, but mamma thinks I
nessee. onght to let some one else enjoy them. I have read all
One would suppose that with all this work, your books except one or two of the last. From reading
hands would be full to overflowing. Bt Pocket Mleasure I learned how nice it was to give. Mamma
especially likes Mrss. Solomon Smith Looking On. I would
she finds time to do more than this. For twelve like to become a member of the Pansy Society. I have
years she has prepared the Sunday-school lessons tried for a week to find the fault that I want most to over-
for the primary department of the W'eshminster come, but I do not know which one it is, I have so many;
Teacher, the organ of the Presbyterian Board, and it seems to me as if everyone else had but one fault. One
has been for o or more years the editor of their is my not obeying quickly when mamma speaks. 1 had
has been for two or more years the editor of their
rather read your books and magazine than do what I ought.
Primary Quarterly. I do like to read very much. Another is my temper which
And there is more to tell. For eleven years is very quick; when anything is said which irritates me I
she has edited the Pansy, the well-known Sunday speak quick even to my dear mamma. I pray over it and
magazine for boys and girls, and there is always work hard to overcome it. .I have a picture of you
which papa is going to have framed and hung up in mv
in this a serial story from her pen and a continued cham so tht an oo at it ad thin of
T s chamber, so that I can look at it and think of you.
Golden-Text story, besides innumerable short
stories, which now, collected, make a complete
Primary Sunday-School Library of about forty Letters come, too, from mothers and teachers,
volumes, telling of the beautiful work of the Pansy Socie-
One of the most interesting things in connec- ties. One mother writes of her own home club
tion with this magazine, is the Pansy Society," formed of her six children. She says:
composed of those children who are subscribers,
and who are pledged to try to overcome some We are trying to make its influence for good extend far
besetting fault, and who take a whisper-motto: and near. At Christmas we got together a large lot of old
" I will do it for Jesus' sake." All who join, have toys, picture-books, etc., with boxes of cake and bon-bons,
Sbadge, a beautiful pansy painted on white satin, and sent them to some poor children in our community who
were not able to buy new ones. We also sent a box of
and fastened at the top by a silver pin. Christmas goodies to each of the real old ladies and gen-
The members of this society from Maine to tlemen living near us, who were likely to be overlooked in
Louisiana, write to "Pansy," and mother-fashion, the overflow of young life surrounding them. Also sent
she answers them, a hundred or more a week. out some suitable presents and eatables to needy colored
Already there are thousands of members, who are families.
For St. Valentine's Day some valentines were prepared
trying to stop fretting, to obey parents, to be pa- and sent to such children as would be likely to be forgotten
tient, to say only kind words of others, to over- on this festive occasion. The Pansy has been a regular
come carelessness, and to make somebody happy, visitor here for the past four or five years, and we would
The amount of good done by this beautiful, simple feel very much as if one of the family were gone, if we were
means to form correct habits in early life, is sim- deprived of it.
ply incalculable.
The letters from the little ones among the mem- Mrs. Alden is still in the fresh prime of her
bers are full of naive interest, many written with strength. She carries her work with quick step
a hand just beginning to do its first work with the and sunny uplook. She is so wise and so friendly,
pen. so good an interpreter-let us be glad that the
One older child writes: eloquent pen is a swift one and tireless.




LIII. half inches wide and twenty-five inches long (fig.
2, B), and two others eighteen inches long and
A HOME-MADE HOBBY-HORSE. two and one half inches wide (fig. 2, A). The
top of this latter is pointed, affording a rest for
HIS illustration shows the back of the seat. Glue the parts of the horse
S. a useful home-made together, and also cover the face of the battens
plaything, which is with glue. One long and one short batten are
very easily constructed then securely screwed to the side of each horse-
by an older brother, shape, with three quarters or seven-eighth inch
say; affording the lit- screws, placed six inches apart. The forward edge
tle children hours of of A is twelve inches from the rear end of the
amusement, which rocker.
ought to well repay the The horses are to be separated eighteen inches,
time used in making. and a seat with back and foot-rest secured between
11 ll The materials neces- them. Fig. 2 shows how they are to be placed.
sary are some smooth The pieces CD and EF must be made of boards
S half-inch boards three three fourths or seven eighths of an inch thick,
THE HOBBY-HORSE. feet long. If possible nine inches wide, and eighteen inches long. Be
have them fourteen careful and saw the ends of each square, and have
inches wide, so as to have but one joint, them exactly of equal length. The seat is seven
Get a smooth piece of brown paper a yard long, inches wide, and eighteen inches long, and may be
and twenty-seven inches wide. Divide the surface of half-inch pine, as well as the back, which is the
of it into squares, measuring each one foot, using same length, and eight inches wide. The foot-rest
a straight edge and lead pencil. Sub-divide these
squares each into four smaller ones measuring six --. .--- --- -
inches -as shown by the dotted lines in (fig i). ------ -- -- ----
Commencing at the ears, the outline of the horse
can easily be followed from one square into another
until the design is completed. With a pair of scis- -
sors cut out.along the outside line, including the /
rocker, as shown by the dark outline in (fig i). -
Place two boards together, the edges having
first been planed to make a good joint.i '
Mark out the horse and rocker, by laying on __-- _--- --
the paper pattern, and pinning it in place, follow-
ing the outline with a soft lead pencil. The two Egl
boards must be separately sawed with a compass L-- L- -
saw, with which it will be easy to follow the out- METHOD OF DRAWING.
line, as shown by the dark line in (fig. i).
Upon two similar boards another horse is drawn is six inches wide. This may also be made of the
and sawed out in the same manner, same material.
Prepare some hot liquid glue and also four bat- Take one of the thick pieces, and place it in
tens of half-inch pine -two of them one and one position against the battens A of each horse, and


secure it by driving two-inch nails through the Another board, MAl' nine inches wide, should
horses from the outside. Secure the second thick be nailed across, between the horses, and secured
piece, DC, in the same manner, allowing six inches to the strip B, with one and one-quarter inch finish
space between the two. The tops must be on a nails. It is also nailed to the edge of the lap board
level with each other. Between the upper edges at points not less than three inches apart. A
of each on both horses a batten six inches long and raised edge may be a useful addition to suggest
one and one half inches thick must be screwed, to for the border of the tray to keep any small play-
afford a rest for the ends of the seat. things from rolling off to the floor.
Having rounded the forward edge of the seat, Take the brown paper pattern upon which the
design is drawn and finish the legs of the horse,
then cut out the animal entire.
Pin it upon the outside of one horse and repeat
the outline upon the wood by marking round it
S-with a soft lead pencil.
Draw the outline upon the outside of the other
horse in the same manner. Smooth with sand
paper and paint the horses any desired color.
The rockers and space between the legs must be
SIof some different color. A granite gray is a good
Stone. Mix with your paint a small quantity of
| IJapan varnish to give the surface a smooth bright
S- finish. When dry use a round pointed brush with
black paint and draw the outline of the legs, tail,
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION. neck, ears, mane, etc., following the design in initial
picture. The inside of the horses, seat, lap board,
nail it in position with one and one-quarter inch etc., may be painted any pretty color. Tack on
finish nails. Next nail on the back with similar strips of red leather for bridles.
nails, driving them into the top of the batten A. The seat and back may be upholstered, if desired.
A short strip, similar to the one across the end A strap to fasten a young child upon the seat may
of the seat, is screwed to the inside of each horse, be found very useful. A skate strap twenty-two
at the bottom edge of CD, on which to nail the inches in length may be cut in the middle. Fasten
foot board. After this has been secured in posi- one end of each part to the sides at the point X
tion, put on another short batten HL, for a rest (fig. 2). The ends can be buckled and safety for
for tray, made of half-inch pine seven inches wide. the little one be ensured.



R ED leaves and purple leaves covered the Buttercup smiled, for a flaring sun-flower
seeds- In a fair garden, she saw herself tower.
Some were of flowers, and some were of weeds;
Soon they were dreaming, safe under the ground, Grass-seed imagined itself a broad rush;
Soon the snow's coverlet wrapped them around. Burdock a briery blackberry bush,
Pansies and peonies saw themselves lilies,
Daisy-seed dreamt that a tea-rose was she; And plain ragged-sailors were daffydown-
Thistle-seed fancied himself a great tree; dillies.

T -i:;^;J3. [^"..r .

i V-:

I J' -^^.:'6.^

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j | y'






IV. find pillar-shaped objects of brown or other hues,
varying from two to four inches in height, and in
IN THE CORAL COUNTRY. some cases resembling a beautiful flower; the
upper portion spreading out and seemingly divided
.^ C O ME years ago a into myriads of petals often colored with rare and
friend who was beautiful tints. If we touch this seeming flower it
interested in nat- shrivels; the petals draw in, and the living pillar
ural history, ac- or column seems a brown inconspicuous mound.
S ...cepted an invita- This animal is an anemone, or actinia, and one
2-/t- i'.l -tion to lecture in of myriads found in nearly all waters, sometimes
-one of the large simple in color, sometimes gorgeous, sometimes
Eastern cities, scarcely an inch in length, sometimes a giant two
SThe subject was feet across.
the corals; and If now we try to take up this anemone we shall
he suggested that find it a difficult operation; in fact, it adheres to
--- "' as there was a the rock tenaciously. Upon examination we learn
SOME NEWI ENGLAND CORALS. very general mis- that the anemone has a sucking-disk by which it
understanding as anchors itself. By prying off a specimen and
to the nature of these interesting animals he would placing in a glass jar, we can see it adhere yet
give particular attention to that part of the sub- gradually move along; so the sucking-disk not
ject. The announcement, "A Lecture on Corals," only is an anchor but is also a locomotive organ.
by Professor was given to the secretary of Examining the other portions, we find the anem-
the society for publication, and before handing it one in its structure to be a simple sac with a suck-
to the printer he corrected what he considered a ing-disk at its lower end; the edge of the upper
slight mistake, so the announcement read that end divided off into lobes called tentacles which
Professor would lecture upon the "coral in- may be long or short, and are hollow, and connect
sect much to the Professor's indignation, as it with an opening in the interior of the bag formed
was the idea of the coral insect that he wished by the outer wall and the wall of the stomach
to correct. which hangs in the animal; there is no mouth or
The coral insect" is a growth of several poetic throat, a simple opening in the centre of the tenta-
imaginations, and the descriptions of its toiling cles performing this office.
and building are equally freaks of fancy; so be- We see that the anemone is one of the simplest
fore discussing these animals and their homes let animals to be imagined. The food is caught by
us obtain an idea of the true nature of corals, the tentacles (which are provided with innumerable
While the white, bleached, dead coral is by no stings or lassos, which benumb small animals) and
means rare, you may not have seen a live coral; drawn by them down into the simple stomach
though a very beautiful one, astrangia, is found in where digestion by the aid of sea-water is carried on.
Long Island Sound and in adjacent localities. Now if we should make a section of one of these
But while not familiar with living corals we may anemones, we should find that the body is divided
find all along the New England coast a cousin of up by six partitions reaching from the outer wall
theirs- the sea-anemone, which will afford us an and seeming to support the stomach or mouth-
idea of the coral animal. In any pool at Nahant, cavity. In the centre of each of these rooms is
or wherever there are rocky shores, we shall another partition, which, however, does not extend


to the centre, and there are many other small across, and from three to four feet high. When
ones. The large partitions are perforated, so that approaching them they seem to be ornamented
the food taken in at the mouth circulates from one with flowers blooming all over their surfaces.
room to another, somewhat as blood circulates in These seeming flowers are boring-worms which
the human body. have penetrated the coral; their breathing organs
So we see that the anemone is a simple sac resembling the petals of brilliant blossoms. At
divided up into partitions; and I am sure that the slightest disturbance they disappear, leaving
none of my readers will for a moment confuse it the orifice of a tunnel visible.
with a beetle, or a butterfly. The great coral-heads are sometimes exposed
Now try to imagine that this Nahant anemone at extreme low tides, the polyps upon the surface
has the faculty of taking lime from the water that then dying; and finally the dead matter washing
passes through the rooms just described, and of or wearing away, a huge vase is formed, its sides
depositing it in and about itself heaping it up covered with living polyps, while the interior is
gradually, and we shall have grasped the whole a great hollow-the home of fishes, crabs, cray-
coral idea; for this absorption or reception of fish and sea-urchins.
lime, and its subsequent secretion, constitutes It is known that the corals which are recognized
the only great difference between the corals and as reef-builders, the branch and head-corals, do
the anemones. One is a polyp which cannot not flourish at great depths; in the Gulf of Mexico
secrete lime, and the other is a polyp that does. at about forty or sixty feet. In localities farther
There are other differences, but this study of a south this limit may be extended ; but reefs in very
polyp is sufficient to show that corals cannot be deep water do not exist. They do not commence
classed as insects; but as polyps which secrete to grow until the sea-bottom has been elevated to
lime, not building it up, but secreting it just as within sixty feet or so of the surface. The bottom
we secrete our bone material, of the ocean in its contour differs in no respect
To more forcibly illustrate this: if we take a from the land; there are the same hills, valleys,
piece of dead star-coral, or astrea, we shall find mountains, plains and plateaux. Wherever in the
it made up of many little cells of lime each with a coral-reef belt (which may be considered to lie be-
hollow in the centre for the mouth, and with radi- tween 35 north and south) the top of a sub-marine
eating partitions all around which have been se- mountain approaches within sixty or one hundred
created in the little apartments. feet, more or less, of the surface, there we find
The corals or lime-secreting polyps are of many coral-reef in some stage ; and according to their
kinds. Some are single and are a foot or more form or method of approaching the surface they
in length, as the faigia; others by building and are given different names, as barrier-reefs, atolls,
branching form communities, as the branch-corals; fringing-reefs, etc.
others again assume the form of enormous heads But it is evident that the bottom must have
eight or ten feet across, while many more imitate been elevated to reach this zone where reef-mak-
leaves and assume various beautiful shapes, and ing corals commence their growth, and the methods
in the aggregate constitute reefs, shoals, and by which this elevation is accomplished are among
islands which are important factors in strengthen- the most interesting features of the subject.
ing the world. So that insignificant as it appears, If we take a handful of material brought up
the simple coral animal wields a mighty power, by the dredge from the Gulf Stream between Log-
and has ever been an important agent in building gerhead Key and Havana, we shall discover the
up continents. secret. Separating the material we find a strange
The branch-corals, which flourish in all seas assortment. A large proportion is fine mud which
where coral is found, constitute but a small pro- we put aside for microscopic examination; but
portion of the group. Next in importance came here is a mass of tubes formed by a worm; there
the coral-heads (astrnas, etc.). These grow on the ground shells of sea-urchins, the hard por-
the reefs in the Gulf of Mexico on the edges of tions of crabs and shells of various kinds, all
the channels, and attain enormous size. Some mixed in a conglomerate with the remains of in-
that I have seen at Garden Key were six feet numerable other animals. So we see that the


inhabitants of this submarine world do important crust." If we go to the Straits of Dover we shall
work in building the plateau upward toward the find in the Dover Cliffs the practical results of
surface. untold centuries of these shell-rains assisted by
Now let us examine under the microscope the crust elevation. The Dover Cliffs are made of
soft mud or sand which largely constitutes the bot- chalk, which is really lime, deposited upon the
tom. A revelation! Instead of ground shell we bottom of the ocean in just the way we have de-
see it is made up of numberless minute shells, scribed. After ages of shell-deposits, an elevation
many of them entire, and some of beautiful design. of the crust occurred-that is, the bottom of the
They are not mollusks, however, but the shells of ocean was thrust by some convulsion high into the
some of the lowest of animals and plants, known air, giving us the white Dover Cliffs of to-day.
asforaminifmra and diatoms. In some parts of the The stones of which the great pyramids of Egypt
ocean tese shells are of great depth, and form a are made are formed of a species of foraminifera;
thick sediment on the bottom, called
the globigerina ooze.
But where do all these shells come
from ? From the open water above.
We find every drop alive with won-
drous forms, so many that it has been
estimated that if they are as numerous
at a depth of six hundred feet as they 1 i- 9
are near the surface, there must be '
sixteen tons of them in the upper one' I
hundred fathoms of every square mile -
of the ocean. How many billions of -
shells are required to weigh sixteen -
tons, when each shell is almost invis- -
ible, would be difficult to even imag- -.-
ine, but in this unaccountable number -
of shells we see an important factor
in the preparation of a platform for
reef-building. Enormous quantities ; ----
of these minute organisms are con- .* ''
stantly dying, their shells sinking; so .; -.'- --''
that in the ocean-if we can but im- 'f' .- .'i
agine it as it would appear through a .. '..
huge magnifying-glass there is a CORAL VASES.
constant shower of shells falling upon
the bottom. Many are dissolved, but vast num- the blocks are liter- HIERMT-CRAB WITH CORAL-
bers, as we see by the globigerina ooze, reach the ally sections of an GROWTH.
bottom whole, piling one upon another, the in- old ocean bed. How
creasing weight crushing those beneath into a many shells there are in these great monuments
powder, ever accumulating and growing upward; it is impossible to conceive. The pyramid of
so that we can see that in time the top of the sub- Gizeh measures seven hundred and sixty-four
marine hill will surely be elevated until it pro- square feet at the base, has a perpendicular height
jects into the zone of reef-making corals, of four hundred and eighty feet, covering about
But before we follow the history of the reef let four acres; and seventy-nine million twenty-eight
us contemplate again the rain of shells. In the thousand cubic feet of these fossil shells were con-
deep ocean or in the valleys, there is little chance sumed in its formation. An English architect
of their ever, without help, building up to the sur- has recently had the patience to figure the cost of
face. This help comes in "elevations of the erecting such a monument to-day, and his estimate


was one hundred and forty-five million dollars branches, wash them up in lines or circles, accord
Along with the shells of foraminifera in the sub- ing to the shape of the platform, until finally the
marine depths we find vast. numbers of forms dead coral rock is dry even at high tide, and the
equally beautiful, known as diatoms. These are coral key or island formed. Seeds, always drift-
assumed to be minute plants, and they also are im- ing about on the ocean, are washed upon the bank,
portant factors in building up ocean-bottoms. They and soon palms or mangroves take root and grow.
not only rain upon the bottom of oceans, but the The birds discover it and make their nests there,
fossil forms are caught up at times from the ele- and as the key becomes larger and more habitable
vated beds along-shore and whirled through the man takes possession -probably without a thought
air in vast showers. When the late Professor Dar- of the little creatures whose lives have gone to
win was at St. Domingo he noticed one morning build his home.
that the air was filled with a thick dust. Some of The rate at which coral grows has also been as
it was collected from the rigging of the vessel and much mistaken as the method of reef-formation.
sent to Professor Ehrenberg, who found that in it The general idea is that it is extremely slow. I
were represented the silicious shields of sixty- have observed branch coral which grew four or
seven different organic forms ; two being marine, five inches in a year, and in certain localities on
the rest fresh-water organisms which were being the Florida reef it is even more rapid. A brick
borne out over the ocean to unite and join the sub- bearing a small head of meandrina was kept under
marine rain of shells. Some idea of the enormous observation a year, and the coral found to have
numbers of these plant-forms can be gained when grown an inch during that time. This was in
it is known that the dust-clouds or showers are an aquarium; the growth in open water with a
sometimes so thick that on account of them vessels more abundant food-supply would be more rapid.
have run ashore just as they would in a fog. The In the Keeling Atoll a channel was dug through
dust-rain descends upon vessels a thousand miles to admit the passage of a small schooner. It was
out at sea; South American forms are carried to not used for ten years, and was then almost corn-
Africa by currents, and African species transported pletely filled with growing coral. On the Mada-
to South America. gascar reef masses of branch-coral were fastened
One of these showers fell in Lyons, France, in by stakes three feet below the surface, and seven
1846, and it was estimated by Professor Ehrenberg months after were found almost at the surface-
that over seven hundred thousand pounds of ma- an astonishing growth.
trial fell, of which ninety thousand were the shells Corals often assume curious shapes. A speci-
of microscopic organisms. One shower observed men of Eastern coral was formed almost exactly
by Darwin at sea had an estimated breadth of six- like a base-ball bat, and six or seven feet in length.
teen hundred miles and an area of over a million Leaf-coral often assumes the appearance of plants,
square miles. Sir John Ross describes a bank, and one branch that I saw resembled a huge pair
called Victoria Barrier, four hundred miles long of antlers. Some heads grow in a perfect oval,
and one hundred and twenty miles wide, composed while others are flat. Often they seem to imitate
almost entirely of these shells. The city of Rich- groups of plants, and a piece that I brought up
mond in our country is built on a stratum of them from about thirty feet in the Gulf of Mexico re-
nearly twenty feet in thickness. sembled a bouquet of flowers.
Having shown some of the remarkable agencies While individual heads andbranchestake strange
that are helping to build up platforms under the forms, the configuration of reefs and keys is equally
sea, let us return to the history of the coral-reef, interesting. Long Key, of the Florida reef, for
Years go on and this accumulation reaches within many years was nearly a mile long, and not over
sixty or seventy feet of the surface; then a new one hundred and fifty feet wide. This form was
factor is noticed. Corals begin to grow, and soon produced by the prevailing northeast winds throw-
the top of the ocean-mountain has a crown of ing up the white sands of an extended lagoon.
beautiful forms-corals, fans, plumes. These The key was pure white, and composed almost
grow rapidly, die down, adding to the mass until entirely of ground bleached coral, broken shells,
the surface is reached. The waves grind up the and the leaves of a lime-secreting seaweed. At


every storm the key changed, and some years alcyonarian, found in the Mediterranean Sea,
after my observations a friend who visited the where the business of collecting it is of great im-
spot told me that it had almost disappeared, and portance, over eighty thousand pounds being taken
now I understand it is forming again, every year. Algeria sends out about three hun-
This reef almost approaches the atoll form, dred vessels, and over thirty thousand men are
which is found in all its perfection in the South employed in the fisheries, the entire catch of coral
Pacific where almost circular ridges of coral are being valued at considerably over a million dol-
seen with a central lagoon often affording a fine lars.
harbor, while the outlying ridge is covered with a The coral is collected principally by nets formed
luxuriant growth of trees, generally palms or man- of cross-pieces of wood to which are fastened
groves. The atoll is formed by dead coral rock tangles of rope. This contrivance is weighted
thrown up by the winds, the action of the waves and dragged along over the bottom ; the branches
grinding up great quantities into sediment, which becoming entangled and so brought to the surface.
washes into the interior, there sinking and forming In some localities the men dive for the coral, but,
a flat or lagoon upon which seaweeds and corals as a rule, nets or drags are used.
grow, while currents form deep channels, until we When first collected the coral does not present an
have a central lake surrounded by a fringing island attractive appearance, and it is only when the
often only a few feet in width. In some cases.the outer portion which contains the cells is removed
lagoon finally becomes filled up or partly so; in that the red and beautiful axis is seen. The red
others the dead calcareous matter, as the branches coral is quite different from the reef-builders. In
,of coral, etc., are carried away in solution by the the latter the animals rest in cells in the very
carbonic acid of sea-water, and thus the lagoon body of the branch, as it were, but in the red
for years retains about the same depth. But each coral they are in what might be termed the bark,
atoll is acted upon by different winds, currents, so that when a branch is scraped no evidence of
etc., and has a history more or less its own. a cell is seen.
While the reef-making corals are confined to In a number of sections in New York State,
certain limits near the surface, this is by no means as the Helderberg Mountains, large coral reefs
true of all corals; for instance the fungia, or can readily be traced, and the specimens though
mushroom coral, a single polyp, is found at great hardened in the solid rock still show their form
depths. Ten genera have been found living at a and structure. These entombed skeletons tell a
depth of one mile from the surface, four at nearly wondrous story of the changes that have taken
two miles, while the Fungia symmetrica has been place, and show that in years gone by coral-reefs
discovered in localities ranging from one hun- grew and formed in the far North. In those days
dred and eighty feet to three and a half miles. the State of New York was under water; a differ-
In these greater depths the pressure is enormous, ence in zones existed, and Boston, New York and
and the temperature presumably but little above the adjacent country had a temperature presum-
freezing. So it will be seen that the popular be- ably like that of Southern Florida to-day, and a
lief that all corals require warm water is subject very similar state of things existed. In the Cats-
to some exceptions. kill Mountains I have walked over ledges where
Coral is often found in curious places. A crab almost the entire surface was made up of sections
was once caught which had a small bunch cover- of crinoids somewhat similar to those now found
ing its shell. When the Atlantic cable, or a por- in East Indian waters. Here also were sponges
tion of it, was taken up for repairs a coral was entombed in the solid rock, trilobites or crabs;
found growing upon it, and I have visited an old and in one glen, a veritable moss-covered arbor,
wreck where the interior was fast filling up with a not a stone or rock but concealed shells and vari-
rich growth of beautiful polyps, ious forms telling of the old ocean that rolled over
The most valuable coral is the red variety, A. the spot many ages in the past.




IV. 78. What Greek city founded the colony of
Naucratis in Egypt?
THE (;REEK COLONIES. 79. What city was the home of the boldest
navigators and extended its settlements as far as
61. Mention the principal causes which led to the coast of Spain ?
the founding of the m of the of the Greek colonies. 80. From what people did the Greeks learn
62. Did the colonies usually remain subject to navigation?
the mother-city ?
63. \here were the earliest Greek colonies ANSWERS TO JANUARY SEARCH-QUESTIONS.
founded ?
64. State in a general way what portions of 21. Sparta.
this territory were occupied by the iEolians, loni- 22. An Oligarchy. In this form Grecian re-
ans and Dorians. publicanism first appeared.
65. Name the two most important Ionic cities. 23. By the Tyrants or Despots who first ap-
66. Name the two most powerful Grecian col- peared about the middle of the seventh century
onies in Sicily. n. c. The tyrants were usually ambitious nobles
67. Which of the Grecian cities in Sicily was who made the discontent of the common people
governed by a despot reported to have burned his with the oligarchies the pretext for making them-
victims alive in a brazen bull ? selves supreme rulers.
68. What African nation was most hostile to 24. Sicyon. The reign of its despots lasted
the colonies in Sicily ? for one hundred years.
69. Where was Magna Grmecia ? 25. Clisthenes.
70. What is the most noteworthy event in the 26. Seventy-four years.
history of Magna Grcecia? 27. Periander.
71. What city of Magna Grecia is yet remem- 28. It became the wealthiest and strongest of
bered for the extreme luxury of its inhabitants? the Grecian commercial cities.
72. Name the city of Magna Grmecia in which 29. Thrasybulus.
the proposer of any new law was obliged to appear 30. The dithyrambus, a lyric form of verse in
in a public assembly with a rope about his neck praise of Bacchus, was developed by Arion into
which was at once tightened if he failed to con public choral song at this time.
vince his hearers of the need of the law in ques- 31. Anacharsis.
tion. V 32. Theagenes.
73. Mention a noted Spartan colony in Magna 33. To the oligarchical party.
Gracia. 34. It gives an account of the political strug-
74. What was the most important Grecian col- gles of the time.
ony in Gaul ? What is it now called ? 35. By the Spartans.
75. What Grecian colony in Northern Africa 36. With utter abhorrence. Even the mildest
was governed by kings for eight generations ? despots were unpopular.
76. Between what mother-city and her colony 37. In Corinth.
was fought the first recorded naval battle ? What 38. No, because the rule of the despots tended
is the colony now called ? to disintegrate rather than to unite the Greeks.
77. Name an important Milesian colony on the 39. Sparta.
Black Sea. 40. Attica.




CHAPTER V. on hand that require capital. I have signed for
ten thousand dollars worth, however."
A RECOGNITION. "Would it not be better to organize with the
fifty thousand capital than to delay, in case the
W E can imagine the hearty welcome given other fifty cannot easily be secured ?" asked Al-
young Vangrift at Williston, when he bert.
walked into the store and handed over to Mr. I believe I shall recommend it; yet I should
Harwood the bank's receipts for forty thousand greatly like to see the thing start off with a hun-
dollars, and besides, over four hundred dollars in dred thousand," replied Mr. Harwood.
cash; having used for his two months' expenses Monday came and the merchants of the busy
less than a hundred dollars. Mr. Harwood corn- town assembled at Waldo & Brown's to try and
plimented him and words of praise for his re- complete arrangements for organizing the bank.
markable success were heard on all sides. A few minutes before the appointed hour a gen-
This manifestation of business insight, energy tleman drove up in front of the store, alighted
and dispatch proved one of the important stepping- from his carriage and walked hurriedly in. Step-
stones to Albert Vangrift's future brilliant achieve- ping up to the counter he asked if Mr. Harwood,
ments. He accepted the praises with many grains proprietor of the large store up the street, had
of good sense, possessing sufficient force of char- been in. He was told that Mr. Harwoodwas then
acter to keep himself properly balanced, and he there, in the office in the rear part of the store.
at once settled himself down faithfully at work "I should like to see him," said the stranger.
in Mr. Harwo'od's office as though nothing of an Mr. Harwood was called out and the unknown
unusual nature had transpired. gentleman approached him with extended hand:
You were speaking of a movement to start a Pardon me, Mr. Harwood, for interrupting you.
bank here, Mr. Harwood," said young Vangrift, But I wish to make inquiry concerning a young
referring to the conversation between them on the man in your employ. You have a young man with
day the lad was so unexpectedly sent to New York. you by the name of Vangrift, I believe ?"
" Has there been any developments ? I have."
"Yes, I am glad to say, and the prospects are "I am a little interested to know something
favorable. The merchants want to see the bank about him. He is an orphan boy I understand ?"
organized with a solid capital of a hundred thou- He is. At least I believe he is."
sand dollars. They have something like fifty "Would you object to telling me what you
thousand pledged, and they are going to hold a know of his character? You have always found
meeting at Waldo & Brown's store next Monday him perfectly correct, have you ? "
afternoon to see what can be done." Perfectly so, sir. I believe he is the soul of
I suppose you will attend ?" honor. I have always found him so."
"I expect to, though I don't feel I can take any I am many times thankful for this information.
more stock, as I have several heavy enterprises I want to meet the young man before I leave the


place and shall probably give him a little assist- and shouts of Good enough, Mr. Crosby!"
ance if he needs it. I understand you are to have "good enough "go on go on from many
a meeting here this afternoon for organizing a voices.
bank in your city. I should think it a very wise And the person I shall nominate for the posi-
movement." tion, and who I shall name to manage my interest
"This is a preliminary meeting merely, to talk is Albert Vangrift, a clerk in the store of your
matters over and canvass the prospects. Will fellow townsman Mr. Harwood."
you not step inside the office and wait a few mo- When he had taken his seat another roar of
ments ? I shall be going up to my store very applause went up and the delighted Williston mer-
soon." chants and manufacturers rushed eagerly forward
The two went inside the office where a lively to shake the hand of him whose name was as
talk among those present was going on. Mr. familiar as that of their best friend. Nearly all
Waldo was just reading over the names of the present had had business dealings for many years
the subscribers to the capital of the proposed bank with the firm of Crosby, Fuller & Co., though
and the amounts pledged by each. they did not know the face of the distinguished
It amounts in all," he said, to forty-eight visitor. After a fair opportunity of welcoming
thousand dollars. I should like very much to see Mr. Crosby, inquiries began to be made as to his
the sum raised to a hundred thousand dollars. interest in the young man Vangrift.
How many of those present will double the I suppose you know the man personally," pre-
amount they have pledged ? As the speaker sumed one.
paused the room was silent. Each seemed to be He is a relative ? queried another.
waiting for some one else to speak. After a mo- A splendid young fellow, anyhow," suggested
ment's stillness the stranger arose, a third.
Gentlemen," said he, "if you will permit a "Gentlemen," spoke up Mr. Crosby, "if you
stranger a voice in your meeting I have a word to will hear me a few moments I will make an ex-
offer. Possibly I can help you along in this planation of my previous remarks. Young Van-
enterprise." grift knows nothing of what I have done here to-
"Go on, go on," said half a dozen voices as the day. He does not know that I am here. He is
speaker paused. not a relative, and I can't say that I have a per-
"Then if you do not object, I shall propose to sonal acquaintance with him. But he is more than
furnish the amount you seem to feel that you a relative, more than an acquaintance His bray-
would like to obtain. I will add my name for fifty- ery and thoughtfulness saved the life of my daugh-
two thousand dollars. This, gentlemen, will give ter as she was about to be torn to pieces among
me a majority of your stock. I do not desire es- the wheels of a powerful machines! The invest-
pecially to control the organization, and shall ask ment in this enterprise which I offer to make, I
only one favor. I shall want the privilege of nom- intend for the sole use and benefit of this young
inating a citizen of your town for a good position man. If my proposition is acceptable you can
of some kind in the bank. But the position he have my check for the amount at once."
shall have will be left entirely with the directors It is perfectly acceptable," said a dozen of
after they are chosen." the men.
The stranger then sat down. All eyes were Nothing could be fairer," came other voices.
closely riveted upon him. A brief pause and Mr. He may have any position you name, so far
Waldo arose. as my influence goes," emphatically announced
Will the gentleman have the kindness to in- Mr. Waldo.
troduce himself, and also name the person he re- At this point the tall trim figure of Mr. Har-
fers to?" wood, with his snowy locks and flowing white
My name, gentlemen," said the stranger rising beard, was among them.
slowly, "is Joseph Crosby, of the firm of Crosby, "Gentlemen," said he, "I want to add a few
Fuller & Co. of Boston, and words. This is a grand surprise to all of us. But
But he was interrupted with clapping of hands I feel it my duty to say something concerning the


young man whose name has been so prominently "Gentlemen and friends: How can this be
mentioned. He is a remarkable young man! possible ? I am here almost a penniless waif I He
Remarkable for his honor and integrity! During who stands before you is but an inexperienced
his employment with me he'has displayed more clerk working upon a salary only sufficient to sup-
than ordinary talent for business enterprise. It port the three precious orphans whose lives
has been my hope that he would remain in my dearer than his own have been most unfortunately
service and eventually assume the management entrusted to his care and protection. Is it strange
of my business. However, believing it would not that my astonishment is so great, and that I doubt
only be good for him but good for the stockholders the possibility of such a circumstance coming into
also that he should have a prominent part in the my lot ? But looking into your faces, faces I have
management of our first bank I shall now move, learned, during my short citizenship, to look upon
Mr. Chairman, as a sense of this meeting that with feelings of confidence, I cannot believe you
when the board of directors of the First National would choose to thus ridicule me. I know your
Bank of Williston have been chosen they shall honor would not permit such an act. However,
meet and elect to the position of president of that before I dare go so far as to express my thanks
bank, Albert Vangrift! I believe him in every for this mark of confidence and regard I must beg
way competent to fill that position." a further explanation."
This was a rather remarkable proposition; but, Almost exhausted with surprise the young man
" Good good responded half a dozen voices, took a seat near his employer. There was scarcely
"I heartily second that motion," said Mr. Waldo. a dry eye in the assemblage. His well-chosen
Those in favor of the motion please manifest words had touched a tender chord in each heart.
by saying Aye," said the chairman. These remarks were further evidence of his char-
"Aye aye! echoed from all parts of the room. acter and his ability. Naturally retiring in his dis-
"Contrary, No. The vote is unanimous," said position no one would presume at first acquaintance
the chairman amid the excitement over the result, that he was a brilliant or a fluent speaker, but he
"I appoint Messrs. Waldo, Bucklin and Harwood was of that make-up which always proves equal to
a committee to wait upon Mr. Vangrift and escort the emergency. As he took a seat Mr. Crosby
him before this meeting." arose and slowly walked towards him. Reaching
Within a few minutes the committee returned out to take the young man's hand Mr. Crosby said:
accompanied by young Vangrift. As they came in Master Vangrift: Having learned accidentally
the chairman arose and addressed the young man: of the movement on foot by your fellow townsmen,
"Master Vangrift: It affords me great pleas- I have made a special effort to be here to-day.
ure to inform you that by a unanimous vote of the What I have done for you has been only a par-
gentlemen present, who are to be the stockholders tial recognition of your great service to me. I
and directors of the First National Bank of Willis- see you do not recognize me. It is true we might
ton, the capital of which has been fully subscribed, have met upon the highway and passed thought-
you have been named as the person who is to be lessly as two strangers; as I should not have rec-
the first president of that institution ognized your face as one I ever saw before. But
The young man looked about him in amaze- it affords me an unspeakable pleasure to introduce
meant. He could hardly recover sufficient assur- myself to you in the presence of these gentlemen.
ance to make a reply. After a pause of a few I hope you have not forgotten Mr. Crosby of
moments he broke the perfect silence with the Boston. He has not forgotten you!"
following response to the chairman : The young man was unable to say a word; over-

"Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: Is this a dream? come with surprise. And as the old gentleman
Can it be possible that I am not laboring under and the young man stood looking each other so
the influence of a prodigious hallucination If earnestly in the face with firmly clasped hands, a
this be a reality, I must pronounce the marvelous thrill of admiration and thankfulness ran through
stories of the Arabian Nights' commonplace fic- the happy gathering. It was a sight not soon for-
tion as compared with it I am incapable of ex- gotten by any person who witnessed it.
pressing my wonder and astonishment. (TO BE CONTINUED.)



LIV. a dozen of them, every one with its story: Undine
riding through the woods, where elves sit with
A COLLECTION OF PICTURES. squirrels in the tree-tops, while her uncle, the
fierce water-spirit, Kiihleborn, tries to frighten
N O matter how rich I am, or how many better her, and her husband gallantly defends her; Ariel,
pictures I have in my house," said a friend swinging in a morning-glory vine, and singing
of mine, "that one shall always have a place of
1 o n o .' MMerrily, merrily shall I live now,
honor." He pointed to a landscape, not nearly Uerthe blossom that hangs on the bough.
Under the blossom that hangs on the bough.
so good as the other pictures in the room, and
went on: It is the first painting I ever bought, Genevieve of Brabant, driven into the woods with
and I paid sixty dollars for it when I was a clerk her child, by her cruel husband, and protected by
on four hundred a year." a doe; poor little Louis xvii. in prison; his sister
A young man must love pictures and know sweeping the floor of her cell; and Gdr8me's
something about them before he is willing to give famous Death of Caesar.
almost a sixth of his income for one, and to deny When a large stock of heliotypes was damaged
himself the dollar a week which he might spend by fire and water a few years ago, it was bought
for cigars and theatre-tickets. by the ton and sold at a five-cent shop. Here
The love of pictures is one that does not usually was an occasion," as the French say, for picture-
grow suddenly or pass away quickly. It is a taste lovers! Many of the heliotypes were in excellent
that must begin when a boy or girl is very young. condition, and most of them were from the Gray
Indeed, no one is too young to make a beginning collection of engravings of rare portraits or pict-
of what may one day be a gallery of paintings, or ures by the greatest masters. One friend of mine
a fine collection of etchings or old prints. bought three hundred. Think of that for fifteen
A good way to begin is by saving every wood. dollars! I did not hear of the sale until all the
cut from illustrated newspapers on a subject that best heliotypes were gone, but I have fifteen or
interests you. I have seen a scrap-book of such twenty, among which are some Hogarths, that
woodcuts, illustrating London scenes which the make the life of a century and a half ago as real
collector said that he had never been able to find as the life of to-day. One, "The Indian Emperor,
in photographs. Any one who has such a scrap- or the Conquest of Mexico," represents four chil-
book as this feels at home the first time he goes dren, in the costume of the day, acting a prison-
to London, for the Punch-and-Judy shows, the scene before an audience of their friends. The
boys eating oysters at street-stalls, the children faces are all portraits, and the little actors were a
building grottoes of the shells, the Seven Dials lord, two titled ladies, and the daughter of the
on a Saturday night, the cats'-meat men, and all Master of the Mint, at whose house the play was
the other street sights, are as familiar as the faces given. One of the sons of George it., the Duke of
of old friends. Cumberland, who was afterwards commander at
Another good collection is of pictures illustra- Fontenoy and Culloden, is looking on with two
ting favorite stories, poems, plays or scenes in of his sisters, and the rest of the audience are of
history. There are always such pictures in the noble families.
English or American weekly papers which you can You can begin a collection to illustrate the styles
buy for almost nothing at the second-hand shops, of different artists. If you have friends who are
You will find there, too, magazines at five cents going abroad, and wish to send for something that
each that yield woodcuts worth keeping. Steel will give you the largest return for the money ex-
-... I ;n_ from art-journals are often for sale at pended, ask for photographs from pictures. They
these shops for ten cents apiece. Here are half are much cheaper in France and Italy than here,


and may be sent home free of duty unmounted, period. One of the five-cent heliotypes of which
on wooden rollers. They usually come uninjured, I have spoken, is from a rare engraving of a stiff
although they once in a while show signs of hav- full-length portrait of Mary, with her son by her
ing been opened in the custom-house. If you side, a strange little figure in a high hat and skirts
cannot send abroad, you can find copies in cabi- touching the ground.
net-size at the salesrooms of photograph compa- A long time ago, more than twenty years, cer-
nies in the large cities, which send catalogues all tainly, I saw in a shop a framed engraving of Sto-
over the country, and fill orders through the mails. thard's Canterbury Pilgrims," a picture which
One of the pleasantest collections of photo- pleased me so much that I should have been glad
graphs that you can make is of illustrations of to own it. It was, however, quite beyond my
some favorite book. At one time, everybody who means, and I never saw it again until it appeared
went to Rome brought home photographs to illus- in wood last year in a London architectural paper.
trate The Mfarble Faun; and no traveller left Flor- A proof copy, not folded, was for sale for a shil-
ence without a collection of the scenes of Romola. ling at the office of the paper, and now I can look
These collections were for sale in the shops, every day at the jolly company, knight and squire,
There is, however, more pleasure in buying one priests, nuns, wife of Bath and the rest, smiling
or two photographs at a time, as a friend of mine out of a plain oak frame.
bought them for two or three years, until she had You may like to look into a portfolio that be-
enough to illustrate Henzry Esmond. She then had longs to two young collectors. It is a plain, large,
a large, fine edition of the book bound in two vol- well-made one, only a little rubbed and shopworn,
umes instead of one, with cabinet photographs that was bought for fifty cents when a picture-
inserted, mounted on cardboard. The faces of dealer was selling out," and in it is a large lith-
William and Mary, Louis xiv., Queen Anne, Ad- ograph of one of Rosa Bonheur's strong work-
dison, Steele, and many another famous character horses, that cost ten cents at the same sale. Here
look out from the pages, and views of Temple Bar, are half a dozen colored prints from the London
the Temple Garden, St. Paul's, Chelsea, Trinity illustrated papers, most of them of battles and
College in Cambridge, Winchester Cathedral, the horses, that the boys will be tired of and give to
Church of Saint Gudule in Brussels, and, indeed, younger children before many years. Two of the
all the scenes which could be found, make the story Hogarth five-cent heliotypes have come from an-
a real chronicle of historic events. Westward Ho! other portfolio, because they are illustrations from
is another good book to illustrate with photographs Don Quixote, that we are reading just now. One
of Devonshire scenes and portraits of the poets, is the adventure of Mambrino's helmet, the other
sailors and statesmen of Queen Elizabeth's time. the funeral of the verse-making shepherd. Next
Raleigh, Spenser, Sidney, Drake, the queen her- comes a photograph of one of the great portraits at
self and Mary of Scotland are only a few of the Versailles--a group of Marie Antoinette and her
procession of historical characters that moves three children. The baby was the poor little Louis
through its pages. xvii. of whose prison-picture I have spoken, and we
The South Kensington Museum publishes for have read the sad story of his life in Harriet Mar-
the English Government photographic copies of tineau's Peasant and the Prince. To keep these
portraits from Henry vii.'s time down, at two little royal people company is another five-cent
shillings each, and has, I think, a catalogue of heliotype of Velasquez' Infanta Marguerite, a dear
them. A money-order for fifty cents will bring child, the daughter of Philip iv. of Spain. A
back a portrait of any favorite character in Eng- photograph of the Parthenon makes the history of
lish history for three hundred and fifty years. I Greece more real to the older boy, and some
have seen a life of Mary, Queen of Scots, bound French farm-pictures appeal to the country-loving
in four volumes, instead of the original two, and tastes of both. One is' of massive farm-horses
illustrated with copies of every portrait of the with great sheepskin collars, another of a flock of
queen herself which could be found, and also por- lambs, a third of a girl feeding a calf, and the last
traits of the celebrated characters of her time, of a pig and some fowls. They are the most ex-
and colored prints showing the costumes of the pensive pictures of the collection, for they cost


fifty cents apiece. Here is a real etching, taken a bird cage, which you must pull out and clean
from an art-magazine, "A Straggler of the Cheva- every day. Make this drawer of a sheet of tin.
lier's Army," a weary, ragged Highlander, looking Any tinsmith will turn up the sides for you, leav-
fiercely at the rabble following him through a little ing the front a little higher than the other side and
English village on a rainy cay. There is a great ends in order to overlap the netting on the out-
deal of history in this etching for a boy who thinks side.
that there is no writer like Scott, and is fresh If you can procure the wire netting only of a
from Rob Roy, 'fT'Le'ycr, ARedgauntlet, and a life of certain width, grade the length of your cage ac-
Prince Charlie. cordingly.
i.... are history and poetry, too, in these If you can get a stout branching bough of some
views of Melrose Abbey and the Border castles, hard wood, fasten it securely from end to end of
Victor Hugo's grand head, and a portrait of Gen- the cage before putting on the wire covering, as
eral Gordon, a knight as stainless as Sir Galahad your pet will enjoy climbing about on it much bet-
in the woodcut next him, are all the other pictures ter than running in a revolving cylinder, which is
especially worth mentioning, neither healthy nor natural exercise for a squirrel.
if your collecting is anything more than a child's The end boards should also be lined with tin if
fancy, you will like to read a paper by Philip Gil- they are not hard wood, as the sharp teeth of your
bert Hamerton called "The Poor Collector," in pet will soon make havoc with them.
Loingman's Airagaszine for September, 1885. You Now for the door: Cut a neat, square door four
will also enjoy a great deal in the same author's by four inches, and about three inches from the
Graphic Arts and Etching and Etchers, which I bottom, in one of the end pieces ; you can fasten
hope may be the beginning of many years of art- it by hinges and a strong button.
reading. For the sleeping apartment cut a round hole in
-C. if. Hezoins. the other end board near the bottom, about three
inches in diameter, and then fasten upon the out-
LV. side a neat little tin box, the bottom of which
must be level with that of the cage, so as to pre-
A SQUIRREL CAGE. sent the appearance of a tiny extension. In this
box, there must be a hinged door large enough to
T HOSE boys who would like some quick, easy, allow you to change the bedding frequently, which
cheap carpentry, may make a good sub- should be of clean dry moss or of cotton-wool.
stantial squirrel cage in the following manner: You can also cut a small hole in the wire net-
Take a piece of board an inch thick, eighteen ting at the top of the cage large enough to admit
inches wide and three feet long for the bottom, a nut, and your squirrel will soon learn to climb up
Fasten upright boards about three feet high at and take food from your hand. After cutting the
each end, with the tops rounded. Now buy from hole, bend back the ends of the wires, so as to
any dealer in hardware, a piece of coarse strong leave no sharp edges. Give the squirrel a little
wire netting long enough to go over your wooden milk occasionally. You can put water in a dish
frame ; nail it securely to the end pieces, and like a canary's bathing-cup, which is low enough
to the bottom board on one side, bending it over to slide in and out with the drawer. The squirrel
the rounded top. If you nail with stout tacks, the will soon learn to eat bread, wheat and corn, and
fastening will be strong enough, and there will be if gently handled will soon learn to come when
no danger of splitting the wood of the ends. called and run over his master. If you are in-
Along the front of the cage the netting should genious, you can make a neat and comfortable
stop within three inches of the bottom, so as to cage from these directions at a trifling expense.
leave room to put in a drawer, like the drawer of Car/os Shelton.




V. "I wrote the rough draught three years ago.
Within a year I have written it out in full. I
MARY VIRGINIA TERHUNE (" MARION HARLAND "). should like to publish it."
So the manuscript of A/one, a very famous novel
T O be a successful writer of novels and of in its day, was taken to a Richmond publisher for
cookery books, the helpful wife of an emi- examination. The young author waited for days
nent pastor, a leader in all the benevolent work and weeks and months. Finally, the father asked
and social life of a city parish, and a most careful that the manuscript be returned, and with it came
and responsible mother, show, to say the least, great this note :
versatility of talent and great executive ability. I regret that the young author's impatience to
Such a woman is Marion Harland." regain possession of her bantling has rendered it
Born in Amelia County, Virginia, of a father impossible for me to read more than three pages
descended from Puritan stock, Samuel Hawes of of the story. From what I have read, however, I
Dorchester, Mass., and of an equally intelligent judge that it would not be safe to publish it on
and refined mother, whose ancestor was the brother speculation."
of Captain John Smith, the young girl came natu- Mr. Hawes believed in the ability of his daugh-
rally into an inheritance of marked traits and tal- ter, however, and at once assumed the expense of
ents, energies and convictions, publishing. Bring it out in good style, printing
At ten years of age the little Mary Virginia and binding," he said; advertise it properly, and
was absorbed in Rollin's Ancient History, having send bills to me."
read to the fifth volume. The faithful, thoughtful Alone was published when Virginia was twenty-
mother encouraged her children to read to her one, and at once made a genuine and wide sensa-
while she sewed, and thus Virginia and her sister tion. It was a pure and beautiful story, and it
went through Pollock's Course of Time, Pilgrni's was written in clear, fine English. Marion Har-
Progress and Plutarch's Lives, and knew by heart land," for thus she signed her literary work, sud-
whole pages of Paradise Lost, Cowper's Task, and denly found herself famous. In less than two
Thomson's Seasons. For light reading they in- years a Tauchnitz edition appeared, and in these
dulged in Godey's Lady's Book and Graham's _.' thirty years since over one hundred thousand
azine. copies of Alone have been sold, a record attach-
Beginning to write for the press at fourteen, ing to very few books.
Virginia had a story accepted at Godey's when The following year, 1855, a second novel, The
she was sixteen, called "Marrying Through Pru- Hidden Path, came from her pen, and that also
dental Motives." This story was copied into an met with a large sale.
English paper, translated into French for a Paris- Meantime another great happiness had come
ian journal, re-translated into an English periodi- into her life. Edward Payson Terhune, the son
cal, and finally copied in America as an English of Judge John Terhune of New Brunswick, N. J.,
tale. About this time, too, she won a fifty-dollar had been licensed to preach by the Presbytery,
prize for a story; and so pleased were the editors and had accepted a call to Charlotte Court House,
that they advertised to learn the real name of their Va. This is a place abounding with historical
anonymous contributor, associations. Here Patrick Henry made his last
Thus encouraged, the young Southern girl de- public speech and John Randolph his maiden ad-
termined to write a novel. When it was finished, dress. Both these statesmen are buried in the
she broke the astounding news to her father, neighborhood. Here, when Marion Harland"
How long have you been writing it ? he asked. was twenty-three, she came as a bride. The mar-


riage was a love-match, and has brought her a do- In 1863 Husks was published; in 1865 His-
mestic life of unusual happiness. It is said, in bands and Homes. in 1867 Sunnvbank and Christ-
proof, that for nearly thirty years, whenever Dr. mas Holly; in 1868 Ruby's IHusband, dedicated
and Mrs. Terhune have been absent from each To him who for many years has been to me adviser,
other, they have never failed to write daily letters, co-worker and best earthly friend"; in 1869 Phemie's
"Marion Harland did not lay down her liter- Temptation; in 1870 At Last; in 1871 The Empty
ary work when she assumed her household and ZHeart: in 1873 fessamine; seventeen novels in all,
church duties. She merely "economized time," pure, and elevating books which have had a wide
and found hours for each. In 1857, a year after reading.
her marriage. Ml7oss-Side was published. When Marion Harland" was married, friends
The next year Dr. Terhune was called to the thoughtfully bestowed upon her five different cook-
First Reformed Church in N.ewark, N. J., where books. Each was unlike the others, and often
contradictory; and the more the young house-
keeper experimented, the more perplexed she be-
came. At last, however, as good receipts proved
t themselves, she laid them aside for future use.
These choice and reliable receipts in fifteen
Years had grown into a useful collection. Think-
1ing she might benefit young housekeepers, in 1870,
-r ,she visited Scribner & Co. and offered to them
te *the MS. of her now world-famous Common Sense in
the Household.
They hesitated about accepting. "It will not
Amount to much," remarked Mr. Scribner to his
e partners, it is said, but perhaps by taking it we
can obtain a friendly hold upon her and so be
Given the publishing of her other books."
But Marion Harland was already known to
S.the women of the land as a true-minded Christian
S-woman, and they said, "We can depend upon
S hat she states." It followed that the sale of the
A. R -i \ N book was an astonishment to the publishers, and
S '., probably to the author as well. Since its publication
one hundred and fifty thousand copies have been
sold in America, and half that number abroad. It
MARY VIRGINIA TERHUNE ("MARION HARLAND"). has been translated into Arabic, French and Ger-
man, and a special translation is soon to be issued
he and his family spent eighteen happy and useful for the use of German residents in America. This
years their home a centre of delightful influences. Mrs. Terhune considers a worthy and precious
The pretty children, of whom there were six success.
finally, evidently did not hinder the mother's liter- Other kindred books have since come from
ary work. The writing of Nemesis, a novel which her pen, constituting a Common Sense series:
appeared in 186o, was attended by amusing cir- Brealfast, Luncheon and Tea, and the Dinner
cumstances. Mrs. Terhune's writing-table stood Year-Book. The first is made up of entirely
near a favorite window; and to the leg of this table fresh instructions, with some admirable Familiar
she tied one end of a string, the other end being Talks on the need of every woman to have a
attached to the railing of a cradle, set in a dark- trade or profession, and on various other home-
ened corner where Baby Christine took her long topics. How many women," she asks, could,
forenoon naps. When Baby moved, the mother, if bereft of fortune or support to-morrow or next
without distraction of thought, touched the string, week, or next year, earn a living for themselves,


to say nothing of their children ?" The latter merchant. He came to the curb-stone and she
book contains a bill-of-fare for the dinner of every stated the case briefly. He cast one look at her
day in the year, besides twelve company dinners, pale face and her mourning dress, and his eyes
In 1883 The Cottage Kitchen, composed of inex- filled with tears.
pensive receipts, was published; in 1885 Cookery "Wait a minute," he said, as he turned back
for Beginners (D. Lothrop & Co.), and a Common into the office.
Sense Calendar, with a receipt for each working- Re-appearing, he handed her a check for a large
day in the year, and some helpful words of counsel. amount, and notes to half a dozen wealthy men
Notwithstanding all this practical work with her which would, he said, "save her voice from the
pen, Marion Harland's benevolent and church- strain of telling the story."
work has yearly grown more extensive. During Within an hour, Mrs. Terhune was making her
her husband's pastorate in Newark, Mrs. Terhune way through the rows of anxious sewing-women,
became the President of the Women's Christian to the hall where twenty pairs of shears were fly-
Association, holding the office until her removal ing through the rolls of cloth, and laid before the
from the city. The Society had five different treasurer a package of bills sufficient to pay the
branches of labor. One "hard winter" they gave poor workers for three weeks, and to provide ma-
work to more than three hundred sewing-women, trials for a month's operations. So heroic can a
opening and conducting a store for the sale of gar- woman be who has strength of character and a
ments made. So skilful was the management tender heart.
that while thousands of dollars were paid out, and The same winter the Association netted a thou-
thousands of articles sold, in the spring a small sand dollars by a single performance of the cantata
balance remained in the treasury, even after all of The Haymakers. The chorus of fifty voices, and
their generous giving of money. the members of the orchestra gave their services;
One incident will perhaps illustrate Marion but each represented one or more, and sometimes
Harland's force of character as well as nobility, a half-dozen calls from the President, but she
In January, 1874, she buried one of the most found time for the work. She often says she has
gifted of her children, the Ailsie of her book become an optimist in charitable undertakings,
entitled My Little Love. A month before this she for she "has found people ready to help in every
had ruptured a blood-vessel in her right lung. good work, provided they are approached in the
The grief and excitement of the child's sudden right way. Tact in this respect goes as far as
death resulted in a hemorrhage, and she was con- energy."
fined to her bed. Two days after the funeral the While in Newark she taught a large Bible class
chairman of the cutting-out committee of the of young girls, and was also superintendent of the
Association, called and desired to see Mrs. Ter- Infant Department of the Sabbath-school. After
hune on pressing business. Two hundred women Dr. Terhune was called to the First Congrega-
were at the work-rooms waiting to return home tional Church in Springfield, Mass., she took
with work. The treasury was empty. There was charge of a class of young men, beginning with
not a yard of material to be cut up. The women eight. When they removed to Brooklyn, N. Y.,
were depending upon this work for bread. What five years later, Dr. Terhune being called to the
could be done ? First Reformed Church, there were sixty-eight
Mrs. Terhune, ill as she was, determined to see young men on the roll, and a noble body of work-
her; and she has often said that she thinks this ers they were. They had their own class-rooms
visit saved her reason, and perhaps her life. She adjoining the main Sunday-school rotunda, which
was obliged to forget her darling child and think they fitted up as reading and sitting-rooms, and
and act for others She sent her friend to a store these they kept open during the week.
where she had previously made purchases, and Mrs. Terhune has a similar class in Brooklyn,
asked that a number of pieces of cloth be deliv- N. Y., who call themselves "her boys," and for
ered immediately at the work-rooms. whom she has an affection largely akin to that
Then she arose, dressed herself, took her car- felt for her own children. She says:
riage and drove to the office of a kind-hearted "My heart yearns unspeakably over all young


things that need love and training. I think two speak her mother-tongue the better for having learned the
thirds of me is 'mother.' This was the motive one; the breadth and grasp of her mind be improved by the
study of the other.
that induced me to accept the editorship of Baby-
hood. Letters from all parts of the country ask She has carried out this idea in the education
what are my methods of managing classes; and of her own children. Her eldest daughter, though
of making friends of boys and girls. I know but married, fitted herself for the chair of English
one secret: to love and sympathize with them. Literature in any college, and reads and converses
God bless them one and all! 'My boys' are in five languages. Among other literary tasks,
scattered far and near, all over this and other she and her mother have charge of the Household
lands, but they still write to me, telling me of Department of a syndicate of fifteen papers.
their prospects of business and happiness, ask How has Marion Harland accomplished so
congratulations when they marry and sympathy much work ? By economizing time; using spare
when they bury their dead." hours and minutes to shape articles, and carry on
In Brooklyn, Mrs. Terhune is one of the man- stories, and while cooking or sewing, watching for
agers of the Training School for Nurses, a mem- the opportunity to write. All her life has been
ber of the Local Visiting Committee of the State subject to interruptions; her best working-hours
Charities' Aid Association, a Vice-President of a years ago were when her children were in bed.
Musical Association and First Director of the Now she is usually at her desk from nine o'clock
Ladies Association of her husband's church, until one, never writing or studying in the evening
The broken blood-vessel above mentioned did if she can avoid it.
not heal. In 1876 a consultation of physicians She says: Domestic duties have never ham-
said Mrs. Terhune had not three months to live. pered me. On the contrary, I work better than if
Her husband with his usual promptness and deci- I had not thus had time to think over a composi-
sion, sent in his resignation to the Newark Church tion before rushing it into print. I have knit a
by whom he was greatly beloved, sold his home, pair of cradle blankets for my grandchild in the
furniture and horses, burned the bridges behind intervals of composition, thinking out page by
him," as he said, and took his wife to Europe, page, as the needles played, and laying them
where they remained for two years, he acting as down now and then, to commit the digested thought
Chaplain of the American Chapel in Rome the to paper. One learns contentment and concentra-
first winter, and the second supplying the American tion of thought by such discipline of daily life, and
Church in Paris. Mrs. Terhune became entirely to manage temper and mind together."
restored to health, and now, a little past fifty, She once said to me: "I love my kind and
seems in the very prime and full joy and activity have tried to help women. If the lowly places of
of a vigorous womanhood, life are brighter, daily burdens that must be borne
She has learned how with no appearance of lighter because I have lived and worked, I am sat-
care to constantly care for her health, varying isfied. I believe it is possible to elevate house-
her occupations to relieve one another, and giv- hold 'drudgery' into a Mission; to make Home
ing full time to sleep and to out-door exercise, the centre of thought and duty, and yet help the
especially to walking. toilers in other homes."
On her return from Europe she wrote .Loiterings Truly, this woman has glorified the common-
hi Pleasant Patlis, a most interesting and delight- place. In behalf of domestic home-making women
ful book combining fine description with much of everywhere, in cottage and in mansion, she has
history, and evincing wide reading and culture, bestowed shaping thought and refining care upon
One of Marion Harland's most valuable vol- a thousand details of household comfort; through
umes is entitled Ever's Daauter-s, devoted to hy- her influence countless women have learned to
gienic common-sense for maid, wife and mother. look upon cookery as a fine art. Her influence
She urges broad education for girls. She says: upon the home will endure for more than this gen-
ar may not "ee p" her Latin after se leaves eration indeed it may be regarded as one of the
Mlar- may not "keep up" her Latin after she leaves
school, and her German may, from the same date, become forces of our time that determine what shall be the
to her as truly a dead language. But she will write and beliefs and ideals of the woman of the future.




V. its flesh was remarkably cooling and wholesome.
Nor does Miiller's story lack confirmation if we
HOMES UNDERGROUND. may believe the account of certain Chinese litera/i,
who not only described the tien-shu, but explained the
N the last century shocks of the earthquake by saying that they were
a Swedish prison- caused by the movements of the great rat under-
S'i er-of-war named ground. But my readers will have suspected what
.- Miller, who had the origin of this curious belief was, and will agree
-- .,"-- been confined in that it is no wonder the simple people of the North
"/ -.'** ';"--- ;- Siberia, returned believed the huge mammoth to be an underground
::- --- from that cold and animal. Did they not always find it beneath the
....' J desolate country, surface? Had not their fathers and grandfathers
.-~~i' bringing with him seen it washed out of tundras and torn from cliffs
many curious tales and ice-heaps during the spring floods ? and had
SNOUT OF STAR-NOSID MOLE.. from the North, they not fed their dogs on the flesh, and even
which caused no eaten it themselves ? What was there impossible
little wonder and excitement in the quiet city of in the story? all the facts pointed to its truth. For
Amsterdam. For a long time he entertained his many years the ivory of the mammoth, the great
old neighbors and friends gathered about the even- hairy elephant of the North, was collected and
ing fire, rehearsing his experiences and relating sold; the natives supposing that they were taking
stories. Among the latter was one which seemed the tusks of an animal which bored about in the
to fascinate his listeners more than all the rest. earth just as does the mole to-day. Nearly all the
This favorite story was simply about a rat; but a mammoths which have been found, appeared at
rat enormous, and very terrible to look at. Miller first in the side of immense cliffs frozen in a solid
did not profess to have seen the animal himself ; mass with gravel, earth, and ice, and where they
but he had talked with many natives who had, had been imprisoned and preserved for ages.
and one and all averred that this tien-shu, the A large number of animals make their home un-
gigantic underground rat, was the most marvel- derground. As a rule they are provided by nature
lous of all creatures, with means which perfectly fit and adapt them to
Miller's informants told him that the animal was such an existence. The fore-feet are strong and
never seen above ground, and that they had often powerful ; the claws greatly developed, so that the
crept into crevices of the earth formed by it as it earth can be thrown out quickly; and we find that
ploughed along in the Ural Mountains, digging out some have veritable sacks or bags in which the
the soil with two huge horns which were fastened material is carried out.
to the head just above the eyes. These horns the One of the most familiar of our underground
natives valued very highly, and sold them as ivory; livers is the common mole, whose work can be
but they could only be taken when the animal was seen all over our Northern orchards of a morning;
dead. Many horns were obtained, however, as the showing that their tunnels, like those of the fabled
rats often perished by trying to burrow in soft tien-s/h, have been made with remarkable celerity.
sand, when the treacherous material would pour But however well the mole is known by its ridges,
in and smother them. Some had seen the animal there are comparatively few people who ever see
alive in grottoes on the other side of Beresovsk, moles alive, for the simple reason that the little
and all concurred in the belief that it died as soon creatures are extremely timid and shun the light,
as it saw the light. They stated, moreover, that coming out only at night. The only one that I


have ever seen moving about during the day was these little creatures are a valuable ally of the
one which a cat had caught in the deep grass of an farmer is evident from the fact that it is estimated
orchard, that a single one devours twenty thousand insects
The mole is a thorough subterranean worker. a year. Actual experiment has shown that one
Its entire make-up tells of a life underground. It will devour four hundred and thirty maggots, and
is, comparatively speaking, blind, its eyes being two hundred and fifty grubs in four days. One
mere specks; the smallest.black bead will repre- under observation ate eight hundred and seventy-
sent them. It is often stated that the mole has two maggots and three hundred and forty grubs
no eyes, but this is an error; and as insignificant in twelve days; and in another instance two of
these voracious little animals ate in
-nine days three hundred and forty
-- -- grubs, one hundred and ninety-three
earth worms, twenty-five caterpillars,
S and a mouse, skin, bones, and all.
S. -The most remarkable mole in this
-. country, as far as appearances go, is
:. the star-nosed mole; so called from the
-' fact that from its nose radiate a num-
ber of fleshy points, which are of use in
S aiding the little animal to obtain its
All the moles are noted for their
burrows; but in the elaboration of its
home and the architectural skill exhib-
ited, the English mole, Tal4a ez-_opea,
S-- is without a peer amongst all under-
ground animals ; and when we consider
-that this habitation is built in the dark,
S' and by a creature presumably low in
Sthe scale of intelligence, it is most
SI wonderful.
...- :- .Although the ridges of the English
Smole are seen extending in every direc-
_tion, the little creature really confines
-- its maraudings, if so its excursions here
Sand there can be termed, to a compar-
atively limited space. The fortress or
"THE GIGANTIC UNDERGROUND RAT." nest is at one end, and is a most com-
plicated affair, generally built near the
as are these little organs they are present, the lens roots of a tree or under a prominent hillock which
consisting of a small number of minute cells. The is firm and well packed, and when finished is a
retina is not so elaborate a.s seen in other animals; room surrounded by two galleries supported by
and probably some moles are blind from the fact five pillars which are separated by as many pas-
that the optic nerves, which carry the picture to sages leading above and below. In the centre of
the brain, have become degenerated by disuse, the lower gallery and beneath the upper, the nest
But if it has poor eyesight, the mole possesses is formed, and the young reared. The upper gal-
a remarkable nose and a powerful scent, which lery can be reached from this by three passages,
fully make up for any optical deficiency. This and there is another which extends downward at
scent enables it to capture all the worms and in- first for some inches, and then rises again, join-
sects which lie in the path of its burrows; and that ing a high road which, next to the nest, is the


most important feature of this subterranean home. sessed. Moreover, it was a swimmer, a water-
It extends in nearly a straight line from the for- loving animal, and formed extensive burrows deep
tress, and is the highway from which all the roads in the ground for the preservation of its young.
lead. It is just wide enough for a single mole to An animal having the characteristics of bird and
pass, and when two meet, and both are determined, beast would certainly be a novelty; but finally the
a contest ensues; but usually one will retire into mullingong was discovered and found to be no less
some of the numerous passages which branch off a wonder than the description of the natives im-
from it. These radiations are the hunting-grounds plied.
of the little animal, and wind about, crossing and This strange creature is now known as the duck-
passing each other in a wonderful manner, and bill or Ornithorhynchus, and really combine the
are continually being added to by the hungry hunt- features of several different animals. It is an
ers. From the high road at least nine branches aquatic milk-giving animal, about eighteen inches
lead to the upper or lower gallery of the nest, and long, covered with a rich chestnut-brown fur. Its
in making these tunnels the little worker is careful mouth projects into a horny bill as perfect as that
not to have the doors or openings of the upper of a duck, and is furnished with several hard
gallery over those of the lower; in fact, everything rounded teeth. Just back of this are the shining
is arranged to render escape easy in time of dan- bead-like eyes. The toes on the front-feet are
ger; the runs, alleys, and by-ways, all are con- webbed, as in a duck, and the hind-feet of the
structed with that end in view. males are armed with a perforated spur. In fact,
While the mole is apparently a clumsy creature a stranger combination could hardly have been
on the surface, its movements are extremely rapid conjured up by the most vivid imagination, and as
underground. Some curious experiments have if this were not enough, it is now known that this
been made to test its speed. Thus a French nat- milk-giving, bird-billed little creature lays eggs
uralist, having ascertained that a mole was at the like a reptile, from which the young are hatched.
end of the high road farthest from the nest, in- These quaint creatures are quite harmless, and
serted a horn into the tunnel near the end, the are easily tamed, making exceedingly interesting
mouth-piece being out of the ground, and then pets. An English naturalist, who spent a number
placed several little flags which penetrated the tun- of years in Australia in order to'study their habits,
nel, along the route, hoping that when the mole kept many of them about his place. They would
darted away it would knock them over in succes- climb upon the furniture in the room and upon his
sion, and so its speed be determined. The ex- shoulder, and go to sleep on his lap coiled up in
periment proved a perfect success. When the a perfect furry ball. In their native state they live
little animal was supposed to have reached a lo- upon insects and small animals, which are found
cality near the end of the road the naturalist blew on the bottom of streams, to obtain which the lit-
a loud blast upon the horn, which undoubtedly tie creatures swim along, overturning the stones
reverberated through all the tunnels and passages, with their curious bills.
sadly frightening the mole, which started at a tre- The home or nest of the duck-bill is far under-
mendous speed down the road toward its castle, ground, and is, as a rule, begun under water at
the spectators observing the flags go down in such the bank, so that it is extremely difficult to find.
rapid succession that they expressed the opinion Usually the natives' method is to ii. 0i.-.i,. the side
that it was travelling as fast as a horse could trot. of a river or stream, and pierce the ground with a
When the first white travellers penetrated Aus- long sharp stick. The burrow is gradually worked
tralia they heard many curious stories concerning upward until it is perhaps four or five feet from
an animal the natives called the mullingong or the surface of the water, or at least above the
tambreet. So remarkable were the descriptions possibility of a flood when the river is high, and
that the creature was considered fabulous. One then runs down for a number of feet, finally lead-
Australian endeavored to describe it by showing a ing into a large room. Here grass, leaves, and
duck's bill, a cock's spur, and the fur of a cat, to other material are taken by the duck-bills and the
which combination he added the webbed foot of a nest made, upon which the eggs (as a rule, too)
duck, all of which, he said, the mullingong pos- are deposited. Very little is known concerning


their habits or those of the young; but that the feet away, and snap its beaks and shriek with
parents are very skilful in hiding their home from rage, showing all the petulance of a spoiled child
intruders is evident. The discovery that these annoyed at being disturbed.
animals laid eggs is one of the most remarkable In riding through a caflon in the Puente Hills,
and interesting of modern times, foot hills of the Sierra Madres, the sides were seen
Some years ago a curious underground home to be burrowed every few yards with the nests or
was discovered in the islands known as "The homes of two species of owls, which presented
Chickens," off the east coast of New Zealand, a comical appearance, especially one, called the
which gave shelter also to three entirely different monkey face," as they sat on the heap of dirt in
animals, which seemingly lived together in friend- front of their doors and blinked wisely at us.
ship; perhaps for the reason that they were all The most interesting underground home in this
harmless and not particularly aggressive. The country, however, is that of the great tarantula or
owner of the home was a little bird, a petrel; trap-door spider. Some of these, which I have
better known to us as the Mother Carey's chicken, seen farther South, if placed in a saucer could
In these bleak islands the birds had made their rest their legs on the edge all around, and are the
nests, burrowing into the soil in such vast num- veritable giants of their race. An ally in South
bers that in certain places the ground seemed en- America captures small birds, but the one first
tirely honeycombed by them. At the end of the mentioned is a subterranean dweller, living on
long tunnel, a room was widened out, and a soft small animals and insects. The nest is built in
bed made of moss or grasses, upon which the eggs adobe ground, which is a hard clay-like soil. When
of the petrel were laid. On the other side of the a place is selected, the spider proceeds to excavate
room was another occupant a disagreeable-look- it in a circle with its mandibles, taking it out piece
ing lizard, known to science as the SpienodoJn p/unc- by piece, until finally a well from six to eight inches
talits. The latter never ventures out during the deep is seen. It is now rounded off so as to pre-
day, and lives to a great extent upon the food sent a regular surface, but is even then too rough
brought in by the petrels. According to some au- for the tender body of the spider to rest against,
thorities the lizards sometimes make the burrow and may be compared to a house all finished but
and the birds become the intruders. The third the door and plastering. The latter is quickly ac-
member of the trio is a rabbit-a strange family complished; the spider attaching a thread of silk
certainly, to the top, spins on, passing round and round
It is a common saying in Southern California until a perfect sheet of shining silk covers the
that the rats live in trees and the squirrels in the whole interior, hanging on the wall like a delicate
ground. This is true to some extent, as a wood- lace or silk tapestry, and forming a veritable lad-
rat builds a large nest in the trees, and certain der for the spider, whose sharp claws catch upon
squirrels burrow, it with the greatest ease.
In a small field in the San Gabriel Valley I The lining finished, the patient worker turns its
have counted the heaps of twenty or thirty of attention to the door, which is the most remark-
these squirrels; the little animals darting about able feature of this curious home, being fastened
here and there, or standing upright, and so re- to the side by a hinge, and so perfectly adjusted
sembling the soil in color that it was often difficult that it closes itself after the spider has passed out.
to distinguish them. The holes of these squirrels The door is made by attaching silk upon one side,
are very large, and are sometimes inhabited by a after which the tarantula moves as before round
small burrowing owl. These owls are very comi- and round, gradually forming a silken door, rang-
cal fellows and very social. In riding through ing in size from a silver dollar to a fifty-cent piece,
the valley where their holes were a characteristic depending upon the size of the opening. As it
feature, I was obliged to be constantly on the approaches completion this door is, of course, ex-
lookout to prevent my horse from falling into them ; tremely light, and so the spinner weights it down
and .-... -'.-...',ii when a bird would appear, and I with adobe until finally, when finished, it is flat on
would gallop in chase, it would fly a few yards, top, the exact color of the surrounding soil, and
and when routed again hover overhead not twenty fits the opening so perfectly that the sharpest eyes


fail to see it, and, moreover, it is absolutely water- and everything in the town was more or less in-
tight. The little owner has no difficulty in opening jured. The government stores, though packed in
it; and in returning to the nest deftly lifts up the tight tin cans, were entered, and thousands of
cover, and slips in so quickly that many a pursuer pounds destroyed. How they gained entrance
is mystified. If an enemy does discover the secret into these cans was long a mystery ; but finally it
the spider will often turn and seize the lower part was found that the moisture on their feet as they
of the door, which is a soft cushion, and by brac- walked, had corroded the tin so that it had rusted
ing back, with feet against the side of the tunnel, through, leaving small openings. These insects
hold it so strongly that considerable exertion is work out of sight; hollowing out the legs of tables
required to lift it; when all efforts fail the spider and timbers of all kinds ; and large supports, which
will sometimes allow itself to be pulled out, and had been supposed to be solid, have been found to
then makes a desperate leap at the enemy. A be simple shells.
gentleman in Los Angeles informed ine that one of Their homes are a maze of tunnels, among which
these spiders sprang nearly two feet at him. various apartments are prepared for the young;
In South Africa a very curious subterranean and in the centre of all is always found a small
home-maker is found. The natives call it the room which contains the queen-ant, who is watched
ground-hog, from its resemblance to one of these and attended by the ants of different grades with
animals, but it is better known as the aard-vark. the greatest solicitude. Some years ago some
Like all the diggers it has powerful claws, and American gentlemen were lunching in the City of
has, perhaps, more of a motive to dig than many Mexico when a dessert was served which looked
others, as its food consists almost wholly of ants, like currants, but was found to be ants swollen
which it digs out of the ground. Some idea of the with honey. Later they learned that these remark-
rapidity of its movements underground can be ob- able little creatures were veritable bottles, which
stained from the fact that one that was once observed had been hung by ants upon the walls of a subter-
by a hunter walking along, succeeded in d;;l a ranean home as a winter supply of food, to be
burrow and disappearing before he could reach it. taken down and used, or rather, the honey which
Their homes generally lead downward at a sharp they held, as occasion required.
angle, and are then enlarged into a commodious In the far northern country of Nova Zembla the
chamber in which the family of the aard-vark re- mountain fox, Vu/ies lagopius, perhaps to escape the
sides, rigors of the Arctic winter, constructs its home
The ants which constitute the food of these underground, a maze impossible to follow. The
curious creatures, are themselves perhaps the most naturalists of the Vega expedition, found the lanes
ingenious and interesting of all underground min- and alleys leading to the rooms often crowded and
ers, and the skill and ability displayed in some of packed with birds which had been caught by the
their works show something more than instinct, little hunters and stored away for use.
The homes of the Termites, or white ants as they Our common jumping-mouse, Zapius, is an inter-
are incorrectly called, having little affinity with testing burrower, and when caught upon the surface
true ants, are perhaps the most remarkable. The it has been known to leap quite over a man's head.
nests are enormous mounds, often ten or twelve It has been found in the winter at the end of its
feet high, and twenty-five or thirty feet in circum- burrow, coiled up in a ball of grass, apparently
ference, and so solid that man and large animals dead ; but in reality in the strange condition of
can mount them with perfect security. But woe insensibility known as hibernation; a state into
befall the animal which should chance to fall into which many animals pass at the approach of win-
one as in a moment it would be attacked by ter to enable them to bridge over the cold season.
myriads intent upon vengeance. These are but a few instances taken from many,
To give some idea of their numbers, in St. Hel- illustrating the boundless resources of nature, and
ena, where they were accidentally introduced, the showing that not only are the air and water the
greatest damage was the result. Jamestown was teeming homes of many forms, but the solid earth
literally devastated by them ; the cathedral was is bored and tunneled to give them sustenance and
destroyed, few books of the public library escaped, protection.





42. Codrus. An oracle having declared that
81. What monarchy had its capital at Sardis? the Dorians would conquer Athens if they spared
82. What monarch subdued the Asiatic Greeks? his life he went in disguise to the Dorian camp,
83 How di'd this affect cities of Asiatic Greece ? and provoking a quarrel with the soldiers was killed
84. What noted Samian despot was crucified by them.
by a Persian satrap ? 43. Archon, or Ruler.
85. What was the result of the Ionic revolt? 44. The Eupatridre, or nobles; the Geomori, or
86. What event shows the recognition by the husbandmen, and the Denmizrgi, or artisans.
European Greeks of a common political interest? 45. Because it really ended the Attic mon-
87. At what place near Athens did the Greeks archy and this period, 683 B. c., is the first trust-
defeat the Persian army? worthy date in Greek history.
88. What noted Athenian general laid siege to 46. Draco.
Paros merely to gratify private revenge ? 47. Because the sacrilegious act of Megacles,
89. Name the two leading citizens of Athens one of their number, in putting to death the ad-
during the ten years following the battle men- herents of the rebel Cylon at the altar of Minerva,
tioned in Question 87. was supposed to have drawn down upon the city
90. What Persian monarch beholding his troops the anger of the gods.
on the banks of the Hellespont is said to have 48. Solon.
wept at the thought that in a hundred years none 49. Persons remaining neutral on such occa-
of them would be left alive ? sions were declared dishonored and disfranchised.
91. At what mountain-pass were the Persians 50. Crcesus, king of Lydia.
resisted by a Spartan king with a small force ? 51. Pisistratus.
92. At what battle with the Persians was the 52. Hipparchus.
fate of Greece practically determined? 53. Harmodius and Aristogiton.
93. What queen was distinguished for her 54. The re-distribution of the people of Attica
bravery on this occasion ? into ten tribes.
94. At what place were the Persians under 55. The number of its members was increased
Mardonius defeated the next year by the Atheni- from 400 to 500, its sittings became constant and
ans and Spartans ? the scope of its action was enlarged.
95. At what place did the Persian navy suffer 56. By the Helicea, an assembly of all the
disastrous defeat at the same time ? citizens above 30 years old.
96. What Spartan commander plotted with 57. Ostracism.
Xerxes to betray Sparta to the Persians ? 58. Upon an appointed day the citizens wrote
97. What Athenian leader was suspected of upon a shell or tile the name of the person they
treasonable communication with him ? wished to banish. If 6000 votes were recorded
98. What famous Hellenic confederacy fol- against any one he was expelled from the city
lowed the Persian wars? within ten days. If a less number nothing fur-
99. Through the agency of what noted Athe- their was done in the matter.
nian was this established ? 59. On condition that the Athenians should
100. Where were the Persians finally defeated send earth and water to the king of Persia.
by the Athenian leader Cimon ? 60. By reinstating Hippias as despot of Athens.



CHAPTER VI. plied himself to business study that he might ac-
ceptably fill the position.
A TALK ABOUT BANKS. Tama's question as to the bank had not much
sooner been asked than bright little Mitty, who
BUT I thought Williston was a small city, Al- had been quietly listening to all that had been
bert I don't understand why the people said, and feeling himself quite competent to an-
should want a bank in so small a place. Small swer easy conundrums volunteered a response :
towns don't usually have banks, do they ? "Why, of course, Tama, they need a bank in
Her questions were directed to Mr. Albert Van- Williston if they can get one. Don't they get
grift, the newly-made bank president of Williston, money out of a bank ? And of course the people
and in the midst of an interesting conversation can have more money, can't they, Allie, if they
going on between himself and several younger and have a bank there ? Then turning from Albert,
a few more elderly people in which all were deeply to whom he had looked for an endorsement of the
engaged. And who was it that asked this ques- assertion, he again faced Tama and in an assur-
tion ? It was Albert's oldest sister, Tama, who had ing tone continued: "Don't you know that banks
changed much from the little child she was when make money and give it out to the people ? That's
we last met her in that far-off Western city amid what banks are for, isn't it, Allie ? "
the thrilling scenes of sorrow and mourning. "0, you funny little fellow!" chimed in the mu-
Tama was pleasing in her manners, refined in sical voice of little Tossa, who, up to this time, had
her nature, graceful in appearance and, happily, been a silent auditor, but to whom the conclusions
possessed of a sunny and even disposition. She of Mitty seemed quite unreasonable, "people can't
was "good-looking" rather than handsome, but get money out of a bank by just going in and ask-
she would never fail to attract attention from her ing for it, can they, Al ? Do tell us please, Allie,
quick intelligence and rather queen-like appear- what are banks for anyhow," she continued, and
ance. She was, in short, a charming girl, and one tell us just what nol are going to have to do with
intended by nature for a leader among her a sso- the one in Williston ?"
ciates. Then the last little speaker carefully edged her
The conversation from which we have caught a seat still closer to the side of her big business
few words was taking place at the home of aunt brother and patted him gently on the cheek with
Mary, where Albert had come to visit for a day her small rosy hand, as she caught a glimpse of
or two with his sisters, Tama and Tossa, and his the smile that lighted his face and twinkled in
little brother Mitty. his large brown eyes.
This was his first visit to the family-circle since "Well, now," said the young Bank President,
he had been honored by his townsmen with the "if Tama and Mitty-boy will listen, I'll try to tell
important position of trust in Williston. He was Tossa 'what I know about banks.' You may all
relating to his happy listeners what had taken hear something that will be new to you and inter-
place since he last saw them, and how he had ap- testing too or hat too, for what I shall tell you was, I am


sure, very interesting to me the first time I was who do business often require to have, where they
told, or learned by reading about it. can use it at any time, large amounts of money and
"In the first place I want to say something this they can leave in the care of banks. For the
about the importance of banks to the people, es- safe keeping of money, then, these banks have
specially to those engaged in business. You all built within them large and strong iron vaults and
understand how useful stores in the country towns safes wherein the money is securely locked and
are to farmers and mechanics who depend upon barred, and watchmen are employed to guard
such places for their goods, their groceries, cloth- these safes and vaults day and night. If, while a
person's money is in the care of a banker, it is
DEPOSITED BY stolen the banker is held responsible and must
make it up to the owner. The person who thus
leaves money with a banker for safe keeping is
-IN B NE called a depositor,' and a bank is often called also
COMMI ERCIAL BANK a depository.' To place money thus in a bank
of Williston. is termed 'depositing' it."
I Willistoi.................. i "And did you say, Albert, that the banks take
care of people's money in that way and charge
DOLLARS CENTS nothing for it? How can they afford to spend

ills............ their time ?" queried Tossa.
Checks ......... Yes, Tossa ; and yours is a very natural ques-
tion. I will tell you. It is because while the
money is in their hands for safe keeping they have
the privilege of using it the same as though it
were their own; that is, they may loan it out to
persons who want to borrow and who will pay some-
Fig. 1. A DEPOSIT-SLIP. thing for the use of it. What they make upon such
loans well pays for their trouble and all the costs
ing, tools, medicines, machinery, and many other of taking care of the money."
necessities. Any little person can see, at once, But suppose, Allie, after the bank has loaned
that stores are a great convenience, and that the out a man's money which was deposited,' as you
people would hardly know how to get along with- call it, the man should come and want it- want
out them. Now, banks serve quite as important a it that very minute, you know-what would the
purpose to business people of a city as do stores bank do then ? Would they go and get it back
to farmers and working people of the country, for him ?" very earnestly inquired Mitty.
Banks perform for business people two kinds of Oh, they would just give him the amount he
service and both are important. One is furnish- wanted out of some other person's money that hap-
ing a place of safety for money without expense opened to be in the vaults. It would make no dif-
to the owner, and paying it out upon order, being ference with the depositor so long as he got the
responsible for losses and mistakes if any occur; amount. And you must understand here that
and the other is that of loaning money to those who money when deposited in a bank loses its identity
want to borrow and can afford to pay for its use." -that is, it all goes into the cash drawers, safes
"Wait a minute, Allie," interrupted Mitty. and vaults together as one large amount. Smith's
"'What did you say about furnishing a place of money is mixed up with Brown's, and both are
safety for money ? How is that ?" The little ques- town in with Dusenberry's. A depositor, as you
tioner couldn't quite take possession of the idea. see, is not at all likely to get the same money back
"Well," answered Albert, "even a little boy can that he puts in ; but that is of no consequence."
see that it isn't safe for people to carry large sums Can't you explain to us all, Allie, how people
of money in their pockets, or keep it in their places do when they go to put money into the bank? "
of business. There would be a constant danger suggested Tama, seeing that this point had been
of losing it, or of having it stolen. Yet people overlooked.


O yes that's what I was going to ask," said and, for the convenience of the teller, who receives
little Mitty. the deposit, the amounts of the checks are put down
"Very well," was the reply. Suppose Tama separately. You see, now, Tossa," continuing the
had five hundred dollars and she wanted to put it explanation, "after the words 'deposited by' Tama
into the Commercial Bank at Williston. She would would write her name, then, on the line after Wil-
go to the bank with the money and ask to see the listen,' the date of the deposit. Now, if her de-
cashier. To him she would say she desired to 'open posit was in bills, that is, paper money, she would
an account' and state who she was, and who she write the amount in the money column under dol-
could refer to as to her responsibility, etc. If the lars' and 'cents'; if she had checks she would set
cashier was satisfied he would furnish her a small down the amount of each check separately and care-
'deposit-slip' upon which she would write her name fully, so that the amounts could be easily added
and place the amount she wished to deposit. Then together. After having the amounts written she
she would be introduced to the receiving teller' would draw a line underneath and add them up,
and at the same time be required to write her name showing at the bottom the total amount of the de-
in a large book called a 'signature-book,' in the style posit."
and manner she would adopt for signing her checks. "And then, you say, Allie, Tama would get a
The teller after receiving her money would give book from the man with her name written in it
her a small leather-covered book called a 'deposi- showing how much money she had put in the
tor's pass-book,' in which would be written her bank ? asked Mitty.
name as depositor and the date and amount of her "Yes, banks furnish their depositors with small
deposit." pass-books, which usually are about four or four
And what is a deposit-slip, Allie ? queried and a half inches wide by six or seven inches long,
Tossa. with the pages ruled for entering upon one side
It is a small sheet of paper, usually about three the deposits, and upon the other, the drafts or
or four inches wide and from four to eight inches checks paid by the bank, and having printed upon
long, upon which is printed the name of the bank the first page for the deposits the name of the
with blank-lines
the depositor and
the datepositor andIN ACCOUNT WITH Tama Vani zft Cr.
wors 'l' ad Payable in Current Bank Notes.
words Bills' and
'Checks,' and op- T oo 7
a 01- Nov. a2 T 500 75 50 30 80
posite these
13 C oo100 .. 20 .. 20 50
words monev-col-
15 T ooo000 .. 40 6o 50 35
umns to write in
37 50 I Vr. Ret. 318 to
the amounts of
42 85 1 Bal, 1281 | go
each, which make- -- 5 al. -- -S o
r 600 o00 6oo 00

like this- I will Nov. s5 lialance
show you one."
Taking a piece
of paper Albert Fig. 2. A DEPOSITOR'S PASS-BOOK.
proceeds to make
up a form for illustrating his explanation (fi. I). bank and the words 'In account with,' following
"Sometimes," he continued, "the words 'specie' which upon the other page is a blank for writing
or 'gold' also appear and would properly come the name of the depositor like this:" -and Al-
between those of 'bills' and 'checks.' The largest bert very quickly produced a neat illustration
space is left on the slip for the amounts following (fig. 2).
the word 'checks' because the depositor often has "Here," he said, holding up the piece of paper,
a large number of checks to deposit at one time ; "is a small representation of Tama's pass-book


after it has been 'balanced by the book-keeper are commonly furnished in the form of books with
at the bank and returned to her. I have imagined stubs at one end so as to be torn out and a mem-
for the purpose of explanation," said Albert, "that orandum retained in the book. I will make one
Tama has made three deposits, that is on Novem- that will explain better what I mean. Here it
ber 12 five hundred dollars, on the i3th one hun- is (fig. 3):
dred and on the r5th one thousand, and then "There," he continues, "that is a plain bank
check. You see
there are two
S........ W ils .... .8 parts. The dot-
S. To The C(o 727 e 7 ia B ac7, :, ted line repre-
............. sents the perfora-
of W7i//is o, tion which sepa-
Paay to the order .... .. .. ....... .. rates the stub on
the left from the
D/al .. ........ ...... . .. .... .. .. .......... D dollars. t
check on the
.. $ right. A blank
Fig- 3. A BANK-CHECK IN BLANK. line after the
words 'Pay to the
presuming that she gave eight checks which, to- order of' is for the name of the person who the
gether amount to three hundred and eighteen dol- depositor wishes to get the money, and then comes
lars and ten cents, she leaves her book at the bank a blank line for writing in the amount to be drawn;
to be, as the book-keepers say, 'balanced up.' By this amount is also to be made in figures after the
that is meant the amounts of the checks being dollar sign at the bottom. Then comes the signa-
entered on the right hand or credit page of the ture in the lower right-hand corner."
book and added up; the difference between the "Then the person who gets the check can go to
two sides, called balance,' is put down, first with the bank and get the money, I suppose, presumed
the amount of the checks, so as to make it agree Tossa.
with the other side, and then it is written upon the "That depends," replied Albert; he can get
left hand, or debit page showing the amount she the money if he is known at the bank, but if he is
still has on deposit. The words '8 Vr. Ret.' means not then he must be identified by some person who
'eight vouchers, or checks, returned,' and that is to is acquainted with some officer of the bank and
say, at the time the pass-book is balanced and re- who can say that he knows him to be the person
turned to its owner, the checks she has drawn and named in the check. Banks must know that they
which the bank has paid are returned along with do not pay money to the wrong person. If it were
it." not for that precaution, and a check was lost, the
"But these checks you tell us about, Allie finder could go to the bank and get the money.
where do they come from ? How did the bank You see the words order of' in the check place a
get them ? philosophically queried Mitty. responsibility upon the bank to see and know that
"Oh, I did not explain about the checks. They the rightful owner of a check gets the money."
are the orders made by the depositor on the bank "But the man who gets a check must not neces-
for the payment of money. Whether a depositor sarily go to the bank himself and get the money,
wishes to draw the money himself, or whether he must he ?" asked Tama. He can turn the check
wants some other person to get it, he must write over to some one else, can he not? "
an order upon the bank, requesting the payment, Yes, certainly, and that brings up an impor-
and these orders are called bank 'checks or as tant feature about checks. If Tama should make
the English spell it c-h-e-q-u-e-s. These bear the a check payable to Mitty, Mitty could turn it over
signature of the depositor and that signature must to me and I could transfer it to Tossa, and so it
correspond to the writing in the signature-book. could keep going until some one at last put it into
Checks are usually printed forms, furnished by a bank as a deposit, or took it to the bank on which
the bank, and, for the convenience of depositors, it was drawn and got it cashed. In passing from


one to another as checks usually do in the course tify, that is, introduce him. Such an endorsement
of business, it is customary that they be 'endorsed' is what is termed in business parlance an 'endorse-
by each person through whose hands they pass. ment in blank.'"
Thus when Mitty turned the check over to me he [There are three common forms for endorsing
would endorse it, and in transferring it to Tossa I bank checks: (i.) endorsement in blank," where
would endorse it. By such an endorsement I mean the endorser's name only is written ; (2.) endorse-
writing across the back: 'Pay to the order of Tossa ment to order" as shown in the illustration ; and
Vangrift,' and then sign 'A. Vangrift.' That would (3.) endorsement "for deposit." This last form
make it necessary for Tossa to place her signature of endorsement is made by writing or stamping with
also across the back when she should part with it." rubber plates or otherwise, the words, For deposit
"Wait a minute, Allie," sang out Mitty, "please to the credit of" and then attaching the signature.
let me take that check and see if I can 'endorse' Some business firms, in endorsing in this manner,
it. There," taking the piece of paper. I am to specify the bank in which the check is to be deposi-
write on the back here," turning it over, "' Pay to ted as, For deposit in the Commercial Bank to
the order of,' and sign my name here -" the credit of," etc. It is not essential that the
"Hold on there," interrupted Albert, "you have name of the bank should be given.]
got it wrong side up-a very common mistake- "You see from what I have told you," Albert
business men often do the same thing-but turn continued to explain, "that in some respects bank-
it the other side up. You should always bear in checks are really preferable to either paper money
mind that in writing on the back or across the or gold. If they will get paper money or gold
face of business papers the eft-hand end, looking when presented at the bank they are just as good
at the face when right-side up, should be the top as either; then they may serve as a receipt, which
when turned over, or up, so as to write crosswise, many times is an important consideration. If you
It looks very awkward and unbusiness-like to see pay a person a check and he endorses his name
a note or check endorsed with the wrong end, upon it, it is good evidence that he got the money,
which with the face towards you is the right-hand and in courts of law it is often admitted as evidence
end, turned so as to be at the top when the paper of that kind. Then,
is turned over (fig. 4)." besides that, if you re- Pay to the orer (f
Well, there," said Mitty, turning the supposed ceive a check payable ,
check over as directed by Albert, and writing across to your order and you
the back at the top the words, Pay to the order lose it, or have it sto- Mitty Vangrift.
of A. Vangrift," and signing his name underneath len from you, you can
then holding it up, how's that for an endorse- stop payment to the
ment ? finder or thief and re-
"Good," replied Albert, "and I hope, young sir, cover the loss by get-
you will always remember what you have learned ting the money or an-
here when you have endorsements to make on other check. Checks
business papers." are used largely by
"Now, tell me," asked Tama, would the check many people in trans-
be good if Mitty had simply written his name mittingmoneybymail.
across the back without the other words ? Would They are, in fact, as
it then be paid at the bank, or must the words you will learn, some-
'Pay to the order of always be on ? time, one of the most AN ENDORSEMENT.
That would do just as well so far as getting important and com-
the money; but it is not probable that they would mon forms of money known to the commercial
know at the bank whether or not that was Mitty's world."
signature; so, whoever went to get the check cashed [Money is thought by many people to mean
would be required to place his name there, and too, only bank-notes (paper money) and gold or other
if that person was not known at the bank he would coin. In the commercial world, however, what-
be required to have some one who was known iden- ever is used in transacting business to serve the


purpose of bank-notes, greenbacks, gold and silver have bank-accounts. Mr. Waldo says he knows a
certificates, specie, etc.. is termed "money." These boot-black in New York who keeps his bank-ac-
other means or forms are checks ; either cashier's count and almost always has several hundred dol-
or depositor's drafts, and bills of exchange. It is lars on deposit. I presume there are many others
estimated by careful authorities that not more than whom he don't know."
five or six per cent. of the money-transactions of "Well, who is it that says whether or not a per-
the world are made with current funds, or bank- son may be a depositor or not ? Is it the teller as
notes and specie: that is to say that ninety-four you call him, the one who takes the money?" won-
to ninety-five per cent. of the world's commercial dered Mitty with much earnestness.
exchange is effected by the use of commercial "I believe the president or cashier would be
papers, as enumerated, which are made for the the proper persons to decide about that. In one
occasion and are destroyed as soon as the purpose case I know of that came into court, the judge in
for which they were made has been served. Two his opinion said that the cashier had a right to de-
to three hundred millions of dollars in money," cide such a question."*
says Mr. Walker in JMoney, Tadle aiin/ Banking, are But you are to be president of the bank over
made each day, doing the work of money for the in Williston aren't you, Allie, and would you -
day, and are destroyed at night.'] Gentleman at the door wants to see Mr. Van-
Well, Allie, can any person who wishes make grift," interrupted aunt Mary. That means you,
checks on a bank ? or is it only business people, like Allie, I suppose."
merchants, who are allowed to do that? thought- Albert arose and excusing himself went into the
fully inquired Tossa. front hall to meet the caller. As he approached,
I don't think I would ever have thought of that the gentleman handed him a note, opening which
question," laughingly replied Albert, but it's a he read :
proper one. The right to make checks is confined
to no class of persons; but the law restricts the MY DtAR MR. VANGRIFT :
right to those only who have money in the bank If it is possible I wish you would return to Williston
immediately. I am going to New York on important busi-
upon which to draw against. Ev.erv person has a ness and from there to Philadelphia. Would be glad to have
right to deposit money in a bank, and, of course, you accompany me, and believe it will be to your advantage
must then have the right to make checks for its to do so. JAiMES WALDO."
withdrawal. But banks have a right also to say
whether or not they will receive a person's money. "Mr. Waldo said if you could not return with
They may select their customers, and may refuse me," remarked the gentleman in waiting, as soon
any person as a dealer or depositor if they so wish. as he saw Albert had finished reading, "he would
In large cities, they say, banks are much more par- like me to bring your reply."
ticular as to their depositors than are those in small "I shall go with you," replied Albert. It will
cities and towns. There is greater need for such take me but a few moments to get ready. Do you
particularity in large cities. The privilege, how- return immediately?"
ever, is confined to no class. Farmers and me- "I am waiting only for you or your answer."
chanics as well as merchants and millionaires may Thatcher v. Bank of State of New York 5 Sanford p. 130.

I THINK it's very curious," And when I ask what makes the rocks,
Said little Tommy Knox, She says, 'Why, don't you see ?
My teacher always says that sand They're made of grains of sand packed close,
Is made of ground-up rocks ; As close as close can be '"




VI. or she to know their love, for both parents died
of yellow fever, leaving the helpless child to the
MARGARET. tender mercies of the world at large. Fortunate-
ly, some friendly people, Mrs. Richards and her
N EW ORLEANS, with its orange-trees fra- husband, had crossed from Wales on the same
grant with white blossoms and golden fruit, steamer as the Gaffneys, and though Mr. Richards
with its verandaed homes overgrown with roses,with had just died also of yellow fever, the stricken wife
its house-lawns bordered with sweet blue violets, is took the wee child into her own home.
a city long to be remembered by a stranger. The girl grew to womanhood in this shelter; and
I was glad to see all this ; I was glad to touch
the warm Southern hand with its genuine hospi-
tality; but I was especially glad to see remem-
bering what it represented to New Orleans -the
marble statue of Margaret." It stands in a
large open square, and is the first, I believe,
erected to a woman in this country. "Margaret"
is represented sitting in a rustic chair, dressed in i
her usual costume -a plain skirt and loose sack,i' '
with a simple shawl thrown over her shoulders; .. --
her arm encircles a pretty orphan child. '
The face of the woman is very plain but very -
kindly. There is no indication that Margaret "
was a woman of great power or of great fame; the -, I
statue is simply the thank-offering of a whole city ,'
for a beautiful, unselfish life lived in its midst. -- -
Many men and women have possessed millions- ._. '
and have spent all upon themselves; Margaret
spent her small riches for others. Thousands -- --
about her had unlimited opportunities for educa- __
tion ; Margaret" could scarcely write her own .-
name. Yet to her, of all our countrywomen, ___- -_ --
stands the beautiful memorial. THE STATUE TO "MARGARET OF NEW ORLEANS."
Who was this Margaret" so honored above
others ? while she knew the privations and wearinesses of
More than a half-century ago, there came to poverty and lowly labor, she knew also from the
Baltimore, among the Irish emigrants, a young man good teachings of Mrs. Richards, that the best of
and his wife, William and Margaret Gaffney, to all things in the world is loveliness and truth of
seek their fortunes in the New World. They were character, and this precious seed was to bear fruit
poor of course, but they loved each other, and were in later years.
happy to struggle together. By and by a little In due time Margaret was married, to young
daughter came into their home, whom they natu- Charles Haughery. They commenced life to-
rally called Margaret, after the mother, gether, as did her parents, with empty purses and
They were not long to enjoy the little daughter full hearts. But shadows soon began to steal over


the little home. The husband's health failed, and monument now stands), and in ten years Marga-
they decided to move from Baltimore to New ret and Sister Regis, working together, had freed
Orleans. But this change of climate did no good. it from debt. For seventeen years Margaret had
Advised by his physician that sea-air might prove lived in the asylum, managing the large dairy,
beneficial, he said good-by to his young wife and and doing any and every kind of work that would
baby-child, and sailed for Ireland. The good-by aid fatherless and motherless children.
proved to be the final farewell, for he died soon In 1852, she decided to open an independent
after reaching his destination. dairy in the upper part of the city ; in this enter-
Though this loss was hard, for the wife to bear, prise she soon demonstrated her financial ability.
a second loss followed, the hardest a woman can Never wasting a cent upon her own wants in-
ever know the loss of her only child and Mar- deed she never seemed to have any she scrupu-
garet was alone again, poor, yet warm-hearted, lously devoted all profits to her beloved work.
and loving all children tenderly the more, it may Everybody knew Margaret's milk-wagon, and her
be, that her own arms were empty. kind plain face as she went from customer to cus-
Did she sink in despair? No. She could feel tomer.
the hand that was leading her, even in the densest Then she added the old D'Aquin bakery to her
darkness of her sorrow, and she never lost the full- business. The former proprietor, who had always
ness of her divine trust, or the tenderness of her been generous to the orphans, had become finan-
human love. As ground is made mellow by har- cially crippled, and borrowing from Margaret, her
rowing, so ofttimes are hearts made fruitful, creditor at last was obliged to take the bakery
What should she do for self-support, and to fill into her own business. That she succeeded in
her lonely life ? She who was an orphan herself, making money out of the new branch, was due
a widow and childless, wished that she might to economy, sterling integrity, and to the fact that
work for orphans, and to this end she entered the everybody knew and respected and relied upon
domestic service of the Poydras Orphan Asylum her and liked to buy of her.
for Girls. Here she toiled early and late, some- She opened her bakery in 860o. Says George
times doing housework, and sometimes going out W. Cable, who knew her: But long before that,
to collect food and money. How she was dressed, as well as long and ever after it, any man might
or whether she had ordinary comforts, seemed to say to you as a strange woman passed in a dingy
her of no moment. Her life was centred in the milk-cart-or bread-cart in later years-sitting
asylum. alone, and driving the slow, well-fed horse, There
One day when she appealed to a large grocery goes Margaret.' Margaret who ?' Margaret,
establishment for aid for the orphans, one of the the Orphan's Friend.' I suppose we should have
firm laughingly said, We'll give you all you can forgotten her married name entirely, had not the
pile on a wheelbarrow, if you will wheel it to the invoices of her large establishment kept it before
asylum yourself." us. Go to Margaret's' was the word when a coun-
Margaret promptly agreed to this, and in a short try order called for anything that could be bought
time returned with her wheelbarrow, filled it to its of her; but the invoice would read:
utmost capacity, and trundled it home along the
sidewalk. The young man surprised at her cour- NVew Orleans, Mn-arch 15, 1875.
age, and admiring her noble spirit, insisted on MESSRS. BLACK, WHITE & Co.
wheeling it for her, but Margaret politely refused, 7 McnARGARET'S BAKERY (Margaret Haughery) Dr.
saying she would cheerfully wheel a barrow-load
every day for the orphans if it were given to her.
2 Bbls. Soda Crackers, etc.
Sister Regis, the Superior of the Siste.r of Char-
ity, much beloved for her self-sacrificing life, in
time became Margaret's warmest friend and ad- "And what had she done, what was she doing,
viser. When it was necessary to erect a new Or- to make her so famous ? Nothing but give, give,
phan Asylum, a large and commodious one was give, give to the orphan boy and the orphan girl,
built on Camp street (in front of which Margaret's Catholic, Protestant, Hebrew, anything. Yes, one

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