VOL. 1--NO. 32: JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 10, 1887. RIRCE 2 A YEAR.
EXPERIMENTS WITH GRASSES.
Notes on Teosinte, Guinea Grass
and Indian Clover.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
S-I give you below ,mry experience
with Teosinte and Guinea grass. On
the 10th: of February I planted thir-
S Iy hills of Teosinte three feet apart,
two steeds in each. -. They all .ger-
minated and were up in two weeks,
S' They "ere planted in my gar-
den, an old bay-head clearing, very
S rich, black and moist (not wet) land. By
so :*-ime mistake most of the hills wee e
-, p16w-d up:. The others grew vety little
for fi'e weel;s-catmse, want of rain.
Then tlti-v grew off well, nndat present
(five months after plantin-i they average
S:. six feet hieli and have tullered finely.
They have. hal nest to ni attention-
t: wo lioeings ani a very light top dress-
inc of comci, cial fertilizer. "
Again. onC tle last of May I received
--. sorile moite eeds from voo. I planted
.' thirty hills in th same piece of land and
S twenty on pine land. 'The former bad a
little fertilizer mixed writli the soil, and
the latter was given stable manure com-
post to each alternate hill. Seeds came
up. every one, and started growing vig-
rously, the pine land having: the ad-
vantage of two days in earliness over the
dark soil. The bay-head hills were
S, scalded to death, except those on the
S diyc-et part The survivors are doing
S: well. Thie f-itilized hills on pine land
are doing well, tbe -others poorly, but
they ha-ve not grown much these three
w; eeks for want of rain. They are much
delighted in by hosts' of insects-ants,
S flies, midges; enrcu'io (very numerous),
S hornets, yellow-jacket.s, etc.. I don't
: kno,, what they find toattractthem (Is
.. the juie of the leaf sweet, and does it
exude, thou.h invisible to the eye?Fi
-- However, Lhv do not seem to do much
-'"r'ldl"'T is'-t'raie tbat the bay-tead
plants, especially the ol ones, are almost
free from these swarms.
Mv conclusions are that Teosinte
should not be planted before April or
even May. Wait till the weather is
quite warm. Then. it' you have fertilizeld
well icompoit tif stable manure, night
soil and all slops and refuse, I fouLid in
answer very well), the young plants will
be six inches hibh in fifteen days. Next,
S compost is better than commercial fer-
tilizers, though these may be used after-
S wards as a top dressing. Last, plant in
:: dry land or in land- that is moisr and
well drained, but not wet.; I might have
S. saved my bay-head plans liad-i shaded
or mulched themi
Now asto, Guineagrass. Every owner
of horses or cattle ought to have some of
this It is the easiest thing in the world
to transplant and take care of,furnishes
splendid grerten feed, and is ea.-ily cured
for hay. Let me give a few facts: May
24th. planted fifty seven hill on ordinary
pine land, no fertilizer. May '2.th. six-
teen hills with conip.-st. June trh,
about 1.0 more hills with compost. Jiine
27ith. fertilizedi lills were twtic'e as long
and twice as thick a; the unfertilized.
July 4th. made first cuttin- from half
the hills. Now note the difference. All
the roots when planted were of same
size. Soni I fertilized by digging a
trench two feet wide tvy one an.J a half
feet deep, filling witli one foot ot com-
post. then six inches of surface s-,il.
For some I made. the tienc-h only twelve
by fifteen inches. Some I did not feitil-
jze at all; t''ese I call Nos. 1. 2 and 3.
Well, when I cut them No. 1 was thirty
inches long fire weeks" growth, and bad
stooled from one stem 'oa massten inch-
es through. No. 2 wastwenty inches long
and had also stooled finely, though not
so well. No). 3 was only twelve inches
long and had stooled only in a fewv in
stances. It may seem a great labor to
dig such a trench, but it pays, and well,
We' have had dry weather li here. For
three weeks no rain has fallen on my
0.- grass, and yet it has grown all the time.
In tact, as yet I much prefer it to Ten-
sinte. I think that, with thesame culti-
vation. Guinea grass will out yield Teo-
sinte, as the latter seems to be slightly
affectedd by drought is this the expe-
r- ience of others whio have planted it in
"" Florida'i. and as it is much infested by
insects I planted Guinea grass in rows
.ree feet apart and about eighteen inch-
s in th e row. I put it thus close so that
t might save hoeing. At this date,
bhree weeks after last cutting, it com-
pletely covers theground, meeting across
I have discovered much more Indian
'. clover kDesto,:liudih triflorum'i on our
S. la6d. It is now growing finely and
i makes a very pretty sward. I have seen
"i.-cat.tle eating it. Would it be worth
plantingntig as a pasture? There must be,
:.'_. ;altogether, four or five.square rods of it
oS". ,n ourt place.
'Srr. *I will experiment with the other
isAgra-ses eyou sent me iJohnson, Fescue,
; 1 TalIOat grahs and Alsike clover'i and let
M ',-ou knlo* how they t-urn out.
it-. -^- '-' JOHN M. G. WATT.
T. Pi-NELLA-. July 23, 1887.
-'-A' ..-t- .- ,%- -. -
Brazilian Flour Corn.
Editor S olorida Farmer and FuiWt-Grower:
I was much struck on inspecting the
Brazilian flour corn growing on the pine
land of Mr. S W. Kuster. at Lenard, the
junction of the Orange Belt railroad and
its Brooksville branch. This corn was
planted one grain to the hill, four by
three feet apart, and stood almost ten
feet high. I counted as many as six
stalks and twelve ears to the hill. Most
of them had five stalks and eight to ten
ears to the hill. The ears are smaller
than field corn, but filled out to the ends,
the blades almost as long as field corn
and a good half bundle cf fodder on
many of them.
If this corn will make light bread
equal to wheat flour, or anywhere near
equal, it will be a God-send to Florida,
and many a dollar will be saved to the
poor of our State.
If planted on rich land or fertilized
-well, I think it will meet over the rows
in a sollid mass of blades. It is almost
as good when eaten in roasting ears as
the best sugar corn. -
Our' corn crop is very good. Have
some here on hammock land, grown
without tertilizing of any kind, the ears
of which are two feet above where a
man can reach; on pine land, as high as
one can reach, with two to four ears to
* I inclose sample of rice that I have
plowed to-day. Planted it just two
weeks ago today, on land that was in
the woods a month ago.
I would like much to hear from others
that Have raised Brazilian flour corn.
Will report to you as soon as the corn is
hard enough to grind, how it bakes.
Editor Florida Farmer and f-wit-Grower:
The articles, on palmetto fibres in the
-FARMER AND FRr/ir-GRORWER reminds me
of the fact that during the war tbe plan-
tation negroes made ha.ts. baskets and
mats of bulrush rrass.
They prepared'the fibre by gathering
the grass when green anid fully matured,
anrl ,.ilnimri n.r i ir n a. rnnna or-crper
HON. A. N. COLE.
A New Accession to Florida's
We have the pleasure of presenting
herewith the likeness of Hon. A. N,
Cole, a distinguished agricultural (as
well as political), reformer, who, from
his "Home on the Hillside," at Wells-
ville, New York, is teaching the world a
grand system of farm economy. This
consists simply in utilizing the fertiliz-
ing elements of rain water, and at the
same time preventing, in great measure,
the waste caused under ordinary circum-
stances by the wash of falling rain. This
system, where it can be carried out suc-
cessfully, both saves and adds fertility
to the land, and only robs the ocean bot-
tom of its ever increasing sediment.
Mr. Cole's system, which is a combi-
nation of drainage, irrigation and fertil-
ization, is covered by a patent-a small
royalty is charged for the use of it-and
HON A. A. CouC.
allowing it to remain for six or eight is described in his book entitled "The
weeks, then washing it thoroughly. It New Agriculture, or The Waters Led
made a light and very durable hat. Captive." Several of the leading agri-
R. R. VARNER. cultural journals are advocating, this
B,'-,iFAv, Washington county. system, foremost among them being
Julvy-2. 1,';. Colman's Rural World. From a late
SI-Bulrushes are still used to some ex- number of the latter we learn-that'"Mr.
tent in this country, and extensively in Cole was l:orn in C.attaraugas county, N.
Easterncountiie-.wheresmalleronomieq Y.. in t21. He commenced lite in the
are more practiced. The great bulrush seconidI quart-er of the present century, a
and cat-tail flag are used in the seams time wlhch is remembered as producing
of casks to make them air-tight. Tlhe many of the great.et men that bave fig-
buliushs proper may be ditiiiguihled ilredJ ,'in the history of thiis country, and
from other similar species by their lav. be hias been ot thlm a part tleir,d ily
ine lejfl-ess, round stems without parti- associate and correspondent, and a co-
tions. The large and small bulriushes worke.'with thiemn in making history and
lboth have their flowers in tassels at te the nation 's geatunest-. W ith a memory
summit ot the stem. 'Tbhose of the small of extraordinary retentiveness, and a
rush IJd.ici.t effaeflm.) ate oise singly, more than ordinarily active and vig,:r-
while in the large ii, p s '/alii',i tl,ev ous mind, he naturally retains all r.t thie
arle agregted in oral,. browu spikes.- pa-. and when the occasion recui.res,
A. H. C.' p:ouis it forth in a volley and volume
Salx.icli.h, foe' force and fervor, is seldom
Bu a in P c equailted. He reminds one, indeed, of his
Buckwheat in Pasco County. .,,oIl and iife-longsfriend. Horace Greeley,
r,., F'i.r;.iit F-i--ti-r .i F,' ,t--irs.'r- foi ni-Irlier his tongue or pen are capa-
Pl.'a'e ac.-ept thanks for s,-o.is re- ..le of idlieness, not even when asleep;
ceived. indeed, we never met so prolific a writer
In a laIte number ofv yoir paper in1iiiry or one having greater facility of expres-
was male about buckwheat growing. I sio.u.
sowed one pounds of sved April 15[ltI for "'This, then, is the author of 'The New
experime:ut. on ordinary" tnfertilzed pine Ar c.iltuie, or TI-te Waters Led Captive,'
land. It grew vigorouly and seeded b y whose genius and indomitable perse-
well. verance we believe the desert is to be
it would no doubt do better if sowed made to r,l,ssom as the rose, the fruit
earlier or later, in order to hardest it be. an' vegetable gardens to produce three
tore or altter the rain season, or four times the quantity and two or
JAMcs Mo:iNEY. three times thie size heretofore known.
DA'Fe Ctry. and the waters to be so saved and held
-.- as that drouths shall be unknown so long
Saving Lespedeza Seed. a ains fall or rivers run. We have
heretofore expressed the opinion that
The Lespedeza ripens its seed in Sep- there was no more sense in permitting a
temper. and, if cut at the proper time waste of waters whlien they came as one
an conveyed to a barn brother huildiing of nature's largest and bestgifts to man,
with a tight floor, it &an easily be than in allowing thle crop of corn or
threshed out, and tie seed swept up and a heat, of fruits or vegetables, to rot
winnowed. From personal obEservationu where they grew. W% are of that opiu-
we should not advise any one to sow ion still. 'And whilst we read of the
Lespedezi on a very poorly soil with the many advances in science and scientific
expectation of making hay. In good commerce, in art and literature, in edu-
land or land well fertilized, it has been cation and morals of the Victorean era:
known to make a growth from two and whilst we enumerate the wonders of
a half to three feet, while in very poor steam, of electricity, thie printing press,
land it grew only a corresponding uum- andi of agricultural and commercial
her of inches. It may be valuable as a progress of the past fifty years, we look
short pasture, however, in the lattercase, to the remaining years of the century
and we understand that sheep eat it to perfect-this still more magnificent,
greedily and thrive upon it.-Times- this grandest of all enterprises, the
Democrat. new agriculture, or the waters held cap-
-The tobacco crop around Lake City "Six years ago Mr. Cole's neigh-
still holds forth the same flattering pros- bore were astonished by the growth
pects of a few weeks ago. Mr..Geer, of of fruits and vegetables of mar-
thbat place, who is in constant comuni- velous size, beauty, profusion and
cation with the tobacco raisers, says the perfection on the "heretofore barren
outldok is generally good throughout thle and rocky hillside of his suburban home.
Stait. He was understood at first as making
experiments in under drainage; nor did
-Several farmers near Lake City this his nearest neighbors and most intimate
year planted one or two acres in'plan- friends have au intelligent conception of
tains. Taey report a plentiful supply of the methods under which he was pro.
green food for the cattle, but prefer to let ceeding-those of sub-surface, subter-
a large proportion of the leaves remain ranean or underground irrigation-but
on thle stalks for winter pasturage. b he brought that rocky hillside into sutich
- 4.- --
a state of fertility that finer fruits and
vegetables than were ever seen, and in
greater profusion, were produced there-
from: then and not until then did he
patent the system, and give to the world
thegrandest idea that man in agricul-
ture ever conceived. In thus writing
we are conscious of the fact thai many
otherwise excellent men and nabl writers
have both ridiculed the system and vili-
fied the man, but he will live to see them
take it all back, and acknowledge that
he is not only right, but the benefactor
of his age and people.", :
Mr. Cole visited Florida las. winter.
and was as much plea-ied% with the State
as was Judge Keltey. In a letter'-just
received from him, he says: "You can
safely set me down as a citizen--soon to
be-of your State. I am in love with
Florida, and am doing all in my power
to induce people of capital, brains, en-
terprise and intelligence, to find homes
there, especially of winters."
On his favorite theme, Mr. Cole writes:
'From all parts of the world comes in-
telligence that the work of s'tving and
using the waters, is attracting attention.
No country on earth can be sub-irri-
gated as cheaply as Florida. Your lakes
alone, of different levels, can be connect-
ed with numberless canals', navigable
where desirable, and diffusive every-
where of the waters. Artesian wells are
obtainable in all parts of your State. I
soberly believe Florida will become'
within a decade, the empire State of t he
Mr. Cole will be welcomed to Flarida
by all who are interested in progressive
agriculture. It is to be expected that he
will make a special studly of the soils of
Florida, their requirements and adapta-
tions as regards irrigation; and it is to be
hoped that he will succeed in devising
means by which our superabundant
waters may be '"led captive" and made
to become aids, instead of obstacles, to
cultivation. --- A. B. -,---
The following valuable notes on the
persimmon and grape were communi-
cated by Mr. G. H. Norton, of Eustis, to
the Florida Tobacco Leaf:
Some months ago, in looking over the
editorial columns of the Dispatch, I
found the following statement, which
seemed to me somewhat remarkable.
'The Japan persimmon cannotbepropa-
gated by buddii'. The low of sap is so
great that trhe buds aie invariably
drowned out." I quote from memory
and may not have the exact words, but
the idea ex pressed was exactly the same.
The stateruent seemed remarkable.to me
from the fact that I have been propaga-
tiug Japan per.immons for the last five
or sis years, entiely.v by budding on na-
tive stocks. I grow the stocks from seed
in nursery rows the same as peach.
Seted ;grown in winter, if well attended,
can, many of them. ib budded the fol-
Iowinig August and topped, making a
fine growth of bud: others can be dor-
mant buddbd in September or October,
and the smallest the following- spring
and summer. I bud exactly as I do the
orange except that lthe woc.d is removed.
They bud readily from early inr March to
October, but take bet when the sap first
starts in the stocks, at which time buds
of thle previous year's growth must be
used and set w;th wood.in. I generally
get about tlie same p-r .-ent. to live as I
do of orange buI'C. Last spring I tried
gitafting a little, but out. of about three
hundred only one giaft t',:cok.
I have several times noticed the rtate-
ment tlat the vari,0us'sorts of bunch
grapes could not be worked on the Vilis
rottidifolhi or Bulliace family of grape.
Last spring a friend of mine dug up and
grafted about fifty roots of the wild Bul-
lace. The grafts u.ed were various kinds
of Vinifera, mostly Black Hamburg.
They all took and are growing finely.
Later, some three or four weeks since, I
budded some large Scuppernong vines
with eye buds of Black Hamburg, Mus-
cat Fiontignan, Muscat Hamburg and
other varieties; nearly every bud took.
In one Scuppernong vine about one inch
or more in diameter I set five buds of
Black Hamburg. They all took, and ten
'days after budding I girdled the vine,
taking a deep ring out, of the wood,
nearly cutting thle vine off above the
bud. At this time the buds are all well
out and growing finely, and the top of
the'Scuppernong is still green. I shall
cut it entirely off in a few days, when
the buds get out about a foot. Some of
them I bulded I cut entirely off, and I
find they do not. bleed to any extent.
-A grove of 2,000 aces of oranges
and other fruits is now talked of as a
certainty in the near future, on Lake
Panasoffkee. Northern capitalists will
fuipish the funds needed.
Farming, in safety andstability, is ab-
solutely the best thing in which the
masses can engage-but it is not a sine-
-Cotton is opening rapidly in wash-
The period ot incubation, during
wlicl the eggs are depcr,,ited and batch-
t,.i under tIe 'fully foii med scale. varies
greatly- in ditiatiu, depending upon the
season and temperature. In February, "
with uninterrupted warm w-eatier, the
females of the Long Scale t,.nutnue to
dr.iosit their eggE diuiiin- sxten i:rn i
eighteen days. The e'gg batch in sum-
mer in a weekor ten days. in v. int-li thu
time is extended ind&fin tely by cold
which is. however, never ,of "ufticiently
long continvane to causi.s- a entire sus-
pensiol ,,if th e prir.o:-Es. Tlie young. after
hatchiun, remain marv ,:lays iun.ier the
[parent sale, if t e weather i uifavota-
UTi to thlie t me cf the first. molt the
bark lice ate ea,-.i!y destroyed by insecti-
cides otr moderate strength, tbut during
the remainider oif the-ir existen,:e they aie
prottected bi the sale, t. a horny covering
excited i.v the inse.-.t, and entirely t cov-
ering its 'ody above. The jrider laver,
or ventral scale, -. I ,moeiwhat thinner.
anu, although perhaps a separate piece.
is friuly united to thle upper scale at the
dges. ',:, that tlie irtter appi-ais to be
turned underat the :i:l-Is. In Muttilu.ie
tb- vential s-ale forms flanges along the
sides, wlhith do nott quite meet aloug the
centre line, but in P'irlaitoi t it forms an
unbioken shield, which entirely sepa-
rates the body of the jinect fiohm contact
with the bark. This more perfect pro- '
tection, from below renders' the Choff
Scale more diffic-tdt to destroy by means
of external applications. 'IThe scale is
permanently fastenc-d u.on tihe tr:e, and
so clo-sly molded to its. surface that the
pores of the bark, ot the stromata of the
leaf, are seen plainly stamped upon it
As the stale. like the shellut the snail.
is fot cmed by successive additions, -and
keeps p ce in itsgiowthi with that of the
body of the insect within, its vulnerable
point ,is the growing end, and there are '<..,-
tin'ies dii ing its'formation where ti e -.""
terior extremity of the insect projects
slightly beyond it and becomes exposed
to the action of penetrating liquids. This
is particularly the case at the critical pe-
riods when th: coccid sheds its skin.
But when lie -cale is fully completed
and tightly sealed at all po nts, no in-
sect is more difficult to reach and to
destroy. .o. w .. t h .
The' substance of Which tie upper
scale is composed is impervious to mcsic : :
liquids, and is not soltibl? in acid or al- ?
kaline soluti ns strong enough to injuie
the plant. It r-siisti; the ercti6n of oils
and of lisuulphiiie of caibonu. an almost
universal solvent. Many insecticides are
therefore.inoperative, and all insoluble
substances, such as sulphur. etc.. are :
clearly useless, as they do not reach the
eggs or niatute insect:. The thinner .
ventral scale is not inipeivious to the
more, volatile oil., or 10to alcoholic solu-
-tions, some of which r ach and kdl the
insect by penetration through the bark.
Characteristics of Kinds Most
Common on the Orange.
The following notes on scale in.-.t0.
together with the accompanying cuts,
are taken from Prof. HH.G. Hubbard's
report prepared under direction of the
U. S. Department of Ai'iculture:
The Scale-armored L-iaspiair are most
destructive in their ravages, and their
astonishing powers of reproduction fre-
quently enable them to outstrip their
natural enemies. Owing to their pro-
te'ive coveringet they are but little af-
foteld Lby mo't of thle wvashesand insect-
icides in, general ue. Of this group
three species are kno;-n to me. and aie
universally dis-rtiuted in orange 'groves
itroutighb.ut southeastern Flo rida.
MyJlfi/us'--'k Ghl-,riI'i iPackaidI. the
common "iLong Scal." or "Oysts--shell
Scale," is familiar to r.- irane growers as
a dark brown, o:r yellov:ish particle, very
elongate inforra. which ioteits the twigs
and branches, appearing finally upon
the leaves, and, more rarely, upon the
main trunk of the tree.
M MVilI".?pL's d in'.olei i Packard), to
which the name "Purple Scale" may be
given, is somewhat larger than the pre-
ceding, which it. resembles in general
form, and with which it is commonly
confounded. It is, however, usually
daik purple in color, individual scales
varying to red brown. Like the Long
Scale it- is found upon the twigs and
branches. and' it is apt to infest the
lemon, citron and thoqe varieties of or-
ange w which have large oil cells (Tangier-
Parlatoria Prgaamdii (Comsfock i is a
small thin scale, nearly circular in out.
line. in color it so closely resembles the
bark that it very often escapes notice.
In fact, many persons whose groves are
suffering fromu the attacks of this scale
are unawareof its presence. It infests by
preference the trunk and larger
branches, and to these it generally con-
fines itself until every portion of their
surface is thickly coated and the young
bark-lice can no longer find places to
plant themselves. It is alsi., frequently
seen upon the fruit. The young often
form their scales underneath or over the
mother, and are found piled upon one
another, in a mariner never seen in, the
other'scales. From their resemblance to
a coating of fine chaff, or bran, upon the
trunk of the tree, I have called this the
"Chaff Scale." These three scales are so
universally distributed that it is safe to
say no bearing orange tree exists in
Southern and Middle Florida upon
which one or the other cannot be found.
The Long Scale is the most destructive
while it is the most' readily destroyed.
The Purple Scale is in my experience
rarer, although not less injurious' than
the Lonz Scale, to the trees which it in-
fests. It is somewhat more difficult to
kill than the latter. The Chaff Scale is
hardly, less common than the Long Scale
and is very frequently associated with
it. Of the three it is decidedly the most
difficult to exterminate, owing, in part
SOALEzINSzCTS ON Ozt.eNzB
Shooting under ilde Withli Irasct at snilher end.
t. Purple S,.:ale. aint-iil at ze aand maguifle-d.
2. Lour Scale, nitri l size ftiod niagouled.
5. Orafl'Scle, male rai female, mtagnulded.
at least, to its habit of piling or lapping
one over the other. Except upon very
young trees it seldom does permanent
injury, and is much less to be feared
than the other two species. Its th.binner
scale renders it liable to the attacks of
enemies to a much greater extent than
the Mytilaspis Scales, and they often
cause its complete disappearance from a
DEVELOPMENT OF SCALE INSECTS.
The period of migration, during which
the newly hatched larva are possessed
of legs, and wander over the tree, lasts
but a few ours, or at most one or two
days, after which the young coccids fix
themselves upon the bark and begin to
suck the juices of the plant.
The period of growth, during which
the insect loses its legs, undergoes sev-
eral molts, and excretes a scale, varies
in duration according to the season of
the year, from one to two months, and is
lengthened by cool, and shortened by
warmi weather. -
-s-St ~- -
-- -' .0' -- -
Pruning Peach Trees. :
The tendency is well known to throw
out long branches which lose their side
shoots and become bare poles, with fruit
and leaves near the end ouly. Referring
to this tendency., sonimecultivators do not
allow any of the branches of their trees
to extend more than five feet from the
centre, as hardly more than two fei, at
the Outside, ever bear fruit. With this
care, the trees at any age feed never
have a spread of more 'than ten feet un-
der the management of careful pruning.
Large orchardists, however, in- regions
of the country where mthe trees do not
live long after coming into full bearing,
let the trees take their own course, and
do not give them this attention. Finer
fruit would be had with good pruning,
and when the trees continue healthy
their vigorous growth and good bearing
condition may be indefinitely prolonged
by judicious pruning and proper cultiva-
tion.-Spirit of the Farm.
SThe English Sparrow.
We learn from the Swiss Cross that
the forthcomiing report of the Depart-
mcnt of Agricultureon theEnglish spar-
row will be a ery interesting document.
It will contain about 400 rinted pages,
in which will appear the experiences of
about 3,200 people with this destructive
biped. Dr. Merriam, the ornithologist
of the Department, who has charge of
the preparation of the report, says that
the indictment against the sparrow is a
terrible one, and it has scarcely a friend
in the whole country. Farmers who de-
vote their time to the cultivation of
grain, report that the sparrows, where-
ever they are thick, do frightful damage
to cereals. Market gardeners and raisers
o rma I fruit'in the vicinity of cities say
that since sparrows began to multiply
the profits of market gardening have -
almost vanished. The only known use
for the sparrow is as a substitute for reed.
birds. One man in Albany, N. Y., re-
ports that he sells hundreds of dozens of
sparrows every month to the restaurants
In that city for reed birds. They miake
excellent'table birds. -
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. AUGUST 10, 1887.
THE ORANGE IN CALIFORNIA.
Facts and Impressions Record-
ed by an Impartial Observer.
Editor Florida Farmer anad Frui- Grower:
The following letter is from an old
university friend, a gentleman of un-
usual intelligence, who spent several
months in traveling over Florida last
winter, thenr, went to California and jour-
neyed about in it an equal length of
time. As a trained observer arid writer
for the, press, he sets down his observa-
tions with a ca'r-eful conservatism which
givesthem a high value. The letter was
dated Saciamento, May 9th.
... We s pent but a few days at
Los Angele%, but weie fabouit a mnionth
at Pasadena. eiF.=rh-'irs eas," fi-the-San
Gabriel valley, which was a sheep ani:hIt
- when ou were in California, and indeed
S until ten years ago or so, bo' now is an
orange grove and te scene of a real es-
tate speculation which reminds one of
the tulip manii-business lots 25.'xli in
'a town of 5,000i people s-elling for $li.i0i0,
and residence lots at $100 per front foc.t
and more. while almost the whole San
Gabriel valley, and, indeed, the Santa
Ana valley, too, is being cut up into
town lots and sold at prices which make
the owners of'little ranches rich mer. I
was on one of sixty acres, where I-arlev
was still the chief crop. th- ownei of
which asked $1,000 an acre, which was
thought a moderate pi ice.
"There is no place in Florida where
one can see at once or in a day's drive so
great a number of orange trees, as in the
San Gabriel valley. Fronm the mound ou
which the Raymond Hotel isL-uilt, which
commands the whole valley, yti can see
thousands and thctisands of acres, almost
universally thrifty and loaded with
fruit. In some places there are vine-
yards larger than the orange groves, but
of decidJuous fruit ti-es, efi:-fly peaches
and apricots, I 'hink. the nlmb.er i3 much
Jes- than in other partsof the State. The
orange trees are mostly young, few, I
should sav, as much as ten years old;
but apparently they bear two years ear-
lier than in Florida, and it is nct uncom-
mon to see a tree five feet high pretty
well cov-ered with oranges. For several
years past scarcely anything but the
Washington Navel orange has been
planted, and these seem to bear earlier
th in others and to bear as freely a atny.
which, I understand, is not the case in
Florida. I am told that it does not pay
to grow aieedilings, an the great quanti-
ties of them one sees drying tip on the
ground m'fkes it easy to believe this.,
"Apparently, it is much easier to cul-
tivate a grove in California than in
Florida. The absence of rain prieventl
the rank growth of weeds an'd 2iass.
which you must always ti flyhting. and
n fertilizers asere reinrei:i. One man, I
am toll. -an easily Lake i are of fifteen
acres, al ut gathering d a lmost u" uni-
versally theebippers bigy the crop on'the
trees. A friend of mite. an invalid not
able toi follow the plow, brought up a
grove of ten acres, with the help of one
Chinaman, antd sold the ten acres for
$l3,51.0 when it hiad got fairly to bear-
"'The fruit is almost univeisally fair;
I do nor remiember seeing one russet or-
anlge. But it is very apt to be dry, and
the best Florida oranges are very much
superior to the best California oranges I
have anywhere seen. I doubt, however.
whether the average is better in Florida.
I think there is more sour fruit and cer-
tainlv less fair fruitthere thi tan here, and
the Catifornia average is sure to improve,
because a larger and larger proportion
will lie Navel oranges hereafter, well
flavored and seedless, though dryer than
thie best Floriida. ft u it.
'Great numbers of you ng trees have
been set out here this year, largely inl
the northern part of the State. la in told
but the imaresdion I get from otsera-
tion is that there are here not nearly so
many trees within two to tieve years af
the time of bearing as there are in Flor-
ida. There it seemed to me that within
five or six yearn the crop must be ten
times as great as it is now, and that the
problem ivwouldl then be, as a very itel.
iitent railroad offi-'ial said to me. how
to get a quarterr oft a cent apiece for or-
ai'ges. There can be no doubt, however,
that preparations are making to increase
the production immensely here. The
immigration into Southern California
has been immense for a year or so, anti
there oranges and grapes are their only
resoarce. and I do not learn that the
new comers plant grapes to any extent
near Los Angeles. I *
--At present prices of land in the San
Gabriel valley, scarcely any one pretends
that a profit on the investment can be
made by growing anything. *
With the prospect of an immense in-
crease in the Florida production. I do
not feel at all certain thiatCalifornia can
sell oranges at all east of the Mississippi.
Apparently, the growers have been get-
ting very satisfactory retiutrans forthie last
year or so. and it is sodifficult to dispose
of many of the other California fruits,
because> they will not bear transporta-
tion, that there has been a greater ten-
dency to grow oranges than there would
have been otherwise. I suspect
that, in the long run, ithe great crop of
California will be grapes, and that apri-
cots, prunes. plums, pears, almonds,
walnuts and olives will be more profita-
ble here than oranges. Much will de-
pend on improvements in transportation,
-and it looks as if this year a large part of
the crop of some of these fruits would
go to waste. A large area will
be set- to vines this year. The people
-are learning how to make sound wine,
but probably do not, on the average, get
twenty fives cents a gallon for it the fit-st
year, much going for fifteen cents or
less. The raisin industry is already
gi-ear. and- is gi-owing greater, for it
prospers, in the hot valleys."
-* Leon county has produced this year
more corn than it needs. The cotton
crop is also very good.
A Farmer's Flower Garden.
The following article written by Chas.
L. Sieber, of New Orleans, and published
in the Mississippi Valley Farmer is
thoroughly applicable to Florida:
Although a farmer's life is necessarily
toilsome and his time very limited, there
is no reason why he should not be able
to have his humble home surrounded by
a nicely arranged garden, the mainten-
ance of which would take but a few
hpurs of his valuable time. A well kept
lawn, a few well blooming shrubs and
rose bushes, judiciously -planted, a few
beds tastefully arranged, with bedding
plants, will add much to embellish and
beautify his home, ; which otherwise
would look dreary and monotonous.
The exrent tf t 1-'.e flower gidleii de-
pends jointly iu tlie .-neral calk of the
ivsidence anld the piiti,:-ulr taste of the
owner., but shiiilI he :.-tiir-'eutly large
enough to) admit rf pI:nii-ti a variety of
hi1 u lbbery il a ti i,:,e.-as-wei-as different
well t [looJiiu.-I ahl -iwvy annuals and
e.e'hlding planlt. In lIylini out such a
place eaLe-i suild li.. taker that the
larger iowtg shiubs and trees are
placed in the rear as much Ias possible,
so as to foitm a I..ackh- 1ioud, thereby
s-reeniig off the initi of tlhe place, and
making it appear rather larger than it
The lawn;in our climate here are best
planted with Bermuda grass, Cynocdon
lar-tyio, as this stands our hot summers
better aunil grows den-.er than any other
variety of giass. and will, if close cut,
be easily Lept in gool condition; As our
climat'amnwit- of-plauting a good many
beautiful HI',-'Oiun -hrubs, hardy as well
as, semi-tropical, a good effect can' be
produced hy ai ranging them in such a
manner, in combination with ros-es, as to
have a euccessiouc ot flowers during the
whole season. Thet-', for instance, we
have thle sw.et olive, which isone of our
earliest bloomers and ht-rdy eiiougli to
stand our winter; 'v itbout piotectIon,
the Magnolia fu-_taa.r with us banana
scented iflwetis. the fi azi-aut Cape Je-sa-
min,, the Bottle Bri-Luish Met-i-iid-ros
flo:riblu nla, the Escallo)nia, the different
varieties of Oleander,. the Grand Duke
and Arabian ,Iessammines. the Tree Migno-
nette and the beautiful ,'rape Myrtles in
different colors. Ai summer bloomers
the single and double Hybiscus cannot
be surpassed for brilliancy-, and in the
fall t'e Poinsettia, with its large bracts
of brilliant scarlet gives the garden a
As there are h hundreds of varieties of
roses, some of which are, although valu-
able tor the florist, of very little service
in a small garden. I will give here lhe
names of a few of the best bloomers:
Reine Marle Heutiette,IMarechal Neil,
Lamart.lue, Solfataire and] tI'loth of Gold
aie good ruuniug roses. and, could either
be trained up on the house, or planted
ag-iu-t a fence or frame, and will pro-
duce flower't in ait:indan:e.
Duche-se de Bra.anut, Souvenir de la
Malmaison. ''onimbrieil. Empress Eu-
,enie, C.ramoiisi, Si perieur, Louis
Philippe,, lI-atella S*tpiunt, Bon Silente,
Safrano, Paul Neyron, Geneial .Jaque-
minot, Pi incEsse Helene, General Taylor,
Mme. Souchette. (iiti-en of the Bedders,
Mllme. L;-m iarl, Americwan Beauty, Marie
van Houtte, etc,., adie all good bloomers
and to be reconumended.
Scarlet Geraniums, if planted in a bed
and bordered with e;th-r Lobelia er;-
nus and Sweet Alys'um i.r Basella and
Lobelia, will proiluce a pleasing effc-t
during spring and early pirt of summer;
and C(oleus, in different varieties, massed
together as a c.irpt bed, and bordered
either with Alteruantheras. Basella or
Pyrethrum Selaginoides will add much
to beautify a garden. Dahlias and the
difterent varieti s of Cnrysanthemums,
Japanese as well as Chinese. are good
fall bloomers, and the flagrant Tube-
roses ("-an be planted among the roses
and Gladiuolus as a bordering to shruli-
With little caret- and expense a small
garden can be laid out and kept in good
conditions, and will pay am-ply in flove.rs
and thi? pleasure it affoids ti -,the farm-
er's wife and f.miy.
Fuchsias and Mealy Bug.
-,i1.i1 FTr.i --.iu F1, *i I IF ,, li.,'e
Can you or any of ihe ieaderd if the
FARMER aND FRrir-GRi-jWER gi-ve me a
cure for the following- I have tried
several years to grow fuchsias. but
always in the end fail. When plantsare
fresh from the North they have grown
right along and bloomed profusely, too
much so i have thought. After a few
months they begin to wither, and then
on examination I find them coated with
a white feathery insect, just as if you
had dusted them with light snow. This
insect sticks to them till they die. I nowiv
notice also that it. is extending to other
tender plants., such as coleua, etc.
MONTCLAER, Fla., July 25,. 187.
A.NSVER BY M5R. H(u. -'tMrER.
The insect complained of by N. is the
meaty bug, a very common pest in green-
houses, which, if not kept down, will
soon spread over the house and kill
every plant they are partial to. There
are several insecticides recommended to
destroy lthem. The best means I find is
to use a little sott soap and after r with a
slight sprinkling of kerosene, using a
soft paint brush, and washing them off
Fuchsias, after blooming, should be put
in as cool a place as possible, giving
them just enough water to keep them
alive until November. Then cut them
back intoshape. giving them warmth and
moisture until they show signs of start-
Ing. They should've shaken out of their
pots, all the soil to be shaken off their
roots, and put into as small pots as the
roots will conveniently go tnto. Keep
close for a few days, and as required re-
pot them into larger pots. Give them
as slight shift each time as possible. The
best soil Is a sandy loam, enriched with
one-fourth part of old cow manure.
JACKSONVILLE. Fla..-July 30, 1887.
-Farmers at out Peru, Hillsliorough
county, are planting broom corn.
MARSH LAND GARDENS.
What and When to Plani and-
How to Fertilize.
Editor 7lorida Fmarmer and Aiei'ut-Grower:
In regard to the inquiries of C 0. P. L.,
of Daytona, I would tsay, if the land he
describes as having drained, is genuine
"salt marsh," that is, land that is occa-
sionally overflowed by stormni tide, it Is
practically worthlesso ni at,.,.u t iof t he
quantity of salt left by each ti-. A
levee with automatic tile altes% woul.
prevent overflow fr-iimi t-iles, aud culti-
vation in sorghums, P.ra g rass ao0 pd ts -8i-
bly corn, wonld reduce the a(u:-lit -of
salt by washings of rains. Ap.ai;ni;.isi
especially adapted to such i.-inJ if die
tidal overflow is not too constant, i.ti
not knowing the amount of salt in tIh:
soil of the marsh, no calculation car. lie
prade on it, and everything must be ex
On the other hand, if it is a, fresh-
water marsh, we can speak definitely.
The marsh lands of the State consist
mainly of vegetable matter in various
stages of decay, from the brown peat to
the fine, black humus or pure carbon
of vegetable matter. The capacity of
these lands for producing most crops de-
pends entirely on the amount of potash,
phosphoric acid, lime, soda and sulphuric
acid thit is combined with the humus or
held by its great absorptive powers. As
the substances named are deposited in
these soils only by the decay of plants
that drew them up from the subsoil be-
low, it is easy to see that the productive-
ness of these lands will vary greatly, ac-
cording to the nature of the plants and
surrounding local causes.
Now, as to cultivation and crops. If
there is any amount of peaty matter that
will burn, we would use only superphos-
phates of lime and potash. The peat is
overloaded with nitrogen, which will
appear as ammonia during cultivation;
but in. the absence of positive knowledge
we would advise the use of a "complete
soluble fertilizer," such as is furnished
by Bowker's or Mapes' Fertilizer compa-
nies, using 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre,
and well harrowed in, though a part
may be saved to apply directly to plants
later in the season.
Cultivation will bring out the natural
strength of these lands in a season or two,
but fertilizing with soluble chemicals is
necessary at first, because ninety-nine
per cent. of these lands are not in a con-
dition to show their full productive
power the first season, and it does not
pay to run over land for one-half of a
We insist on working these lands into
fiat beds three feet or three and a
half feet apart and three to four inches
high. Then plant Irish potatoes, wax
beans, English peas, cabbage, cauli-
flower, turnip beet, lettuce, radishes, on-
Seed sowing must commence .in the
first part of August for all named in
preparing a fall garden. Tlises land;
ate so much cooler and loiister, that
when irs,5ii-d agawust o-i-i flow, they will
produce vegetables al, though the snm-
mer months. 'Ihe:only fault they have
is greater liability to frostthan the dry-
er lands. With thermometer at 45 de-
grees at 8 p. min., frost will get ours every
time, unless the wind changes. Start
everything in August, and cabbages,
turnips, beets and lettuce will probably
all-pull through December and January.
From January 15th to February 15th,
plant Irish potatoes for shipping. March
1st, plant them for home use. Spring
vegetables need to be started early and
protected. In fact, it pays to have
things prepared to protect quite gener-
Seeds sown in the fall need to be pro-
tected from beating rains an.l the hot
sun, which kill small, tender plants. Our
plan for protecting is to, make seed beds
eight or ten feet wide and as Ioong at
necessary, then drive stakes oin both
sides of the beds, six to eight fee-t apa-rt.
rising eighteen inches from the ground.
Tack lx2 or ix3 strips on top of the
-takes. on the two : lon-ig side of thi- -d
Then take thin clheee cloth or tii'ulin
and cut into pieces as i,,ug as the bted i
wili. '[heln tack each piece to t'wo:- 1x'.'
or lx3 sttitips of b-:,aid cut a little iorl.r
thin tlie cloth and to bl e ui-ed a- stret,.h-
ers. Now, resting these -tra-etcher oi-n:.
the strips on each side of the .bed, we
have a movable overr that will not wh;p
in the wind and that is easily handled in
cultivating otr wivatering.
Cultivate all vegetables on these lands
every ten da3s or two. weeks with h,-se
or hand or horse cultivators. Do this,
weeds or no weeds, unless the soil is
very peatty, iu which caFe too much cul-
tivation, especially in a dry spell, will
cause the peat to overheat from too rapid
All the vegetables we have named are
heavy feeleis, like plenty of moisture,
and will assimilate large quantities of
fei tilizers if they aresupplied with-them.
Every one should leave a strip unfertil-
ized, and then lie will have a chance to
condemn our puff of commercial fertil-
ize s., especially if lie does not use more
than 1511 pounds per acre. Stable ma-
nure or trash of any kind is a positive
damage to these lands, at least for a
number of yeas, for vegetable matter is
already in excess. Cotton-seed meal is
useless for the same reason.
Plants are machines for converting
raw materials into food products, and
the more perfectly we prepare these raw
materials for their use, the greaterquan-
tity they will use in a given time, and
the greater bulk of product, be obtained.
Also, the advantage of growing whilt
the season is favorable is secured by
chemical manures, instead of long .wait-
ing for vegetable matter to decompose.
In gardening in the North, we always
used ten to fifteen cords of the best sta-
ble manure per acre each year. There.
the decomposing vegetable matter is
needed to warm up the soil in tile
spring; here, it is the reverse. Stable
manure plowed under here during Au-
gust is almost certain ruin to vegetables
for that season on most lands, owing to
its heating, driving off all moisture and
yielding of itself nothing but ammonia.
1 will thoroughly and carefully explain
the theory of fertilizers in their relations
to plants, both the chemicals and stable
manure, in a future article.,
iARA5C.-rA. FLA, July 27, 1887.
Destroy Fallen Fruit.
The Mobile (Ala.) Reg sister advises- thm'
the young friit that tails troin the trtes
hi-,ill t.i- d,<-r,:oyed ec eiy daiy. If hiog-
iun utder the tees the fallen fruit will
i.e taken careof by tIeni, but if uot rtheu
very speciiien i.,iuld be gathereil arid
juried each morning. The.-3- f iilen
-eaclhes have worms t-urculioi) in tli-i
-tl.i is what ca.is-d tliniem ii fall. In a
-eiy short time tli,- w,-rm, w ill -onime out
and-go into the grolundi. wvhiete ,the. will
p.tisthiroughtheihr titt-,imlato)n andJ
-iii come ftortl' as C minute ilyinl beetles.
Evry fallen p-ails "ill be apt to turo
ionl o-ne beetle ait, lest. Tte i e,.:tleis ill
fly upl, into tin- tree, stin in1nure peaches.
ni.:i worms will hatch and more fruit
wv il fall, and so on till the peaches are
ripe. By the time they are ripe the
beetles will be so numerous that nearly
every specimen in the tree will be stung
and have a worm in it. That's how you
come to have wormy peaches. But if
you destroy the young fruit daily .you
prevent an increase of the insects and
thus save most of your peaches.
Measuring the Height of Trees.
Drive a stake in the ground 100 feet
from the tree, and another in line with
the stake and tree, seven feet distant.
Take two pieces of light lathing, seven
feet in length, and nail them together
so as to make an exact' right angle.
Nail an arm of the square to the two
stakes on a' dead level, the upright arm
nearest to the tree. Now let one person
sight from the extreme end of the, level
arm to the top of the tree, and another
person, with pencil in haud,- hold the
pencil against the standing arm to mark
the spot where a line from the eye of
t lie one who sights to the top of the tree
would cut across the arm. Now meas-
ure from the pencil mark to the base or
corner of the angle. Suppose" it to be'6
feet. Then, if in 7 feet base you have 6
feet elevation, what elevation would 100
feet give? Answer, 85.6 feet.-Pica-
A writer in the Gardener's Monthly
says that most of the lilies abhor ma-
nure and will rot at the touch of it, and
that the speciosums especially detest it.
They need one of two things, either
good garden soil, or a mixture of rich
soil with sand and swamp earth. Our
native lilies prefer a moist swamp soil.
The white lily does best in a loose clay,
well worked, with no manure. The rule
of this writer is to feed his roses well, but
to let the lilies -diet on nature's provis-
T. B. Terry, of Ohio, says that it takes
thirty hours to cultivate six acres of po-
tato.s where the field is square, an.i
only ten hours where the'rows are sixty
rods.long. Thus we see the. advantage
of having our rows as long as possible in
all crops that need to be plowed. Where
the rows are very short, at least half
the time of the day is consumed in turn-
ing around at the end of the rows.
HOW OUR PAPER IS REGARDED.
A Few of Many Expressions of
Mr. W. W. Dewhurst, of St. Augustine,
writes of the FARMER AND FRUITGROWER
under date of July 18: "Its character is
greatly in advance of anything ever be-
fore printed in Florida of its class, and
its aim is so near what we have- long
needed that I feel it a duty to give'it aid.
The farmers and others holding the in-
terie- ts of tie State above privatespecula-
tion, must organize to control the Legis-
lature anid the need a newspaper to
educate them and prepare to work out
the subject its; for legislation' and secure
tunity ot actiio ." -
Mr. J. R. Cimpheiil. of Paisley, writes
to uS as follows: "COut of five papers I
tat;-, :your- is tbe cluy one I read .eveiy
wrid of." '"
GV. XVW. W. writes : "-The FAYMFR AND
FRUiT GRiOwER I believe i destined to
be a power. Being centrally located, as
a medium of communication between
different section, anil interests its worth
cannot be estimated." -
Mr. John A. Germ6nd, of Keuka,
writes, under date of July 5, as follows:
"I consider the FAiMER AND FRaIT
GROWER tlie peer of any agricultural
paper published in the South."
Mr. WV. C. PIlyley, oif Orange Heightq,
writes, under date of July 2: "You can
not imagine the solid comfort I get from
the sensible advice given in the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER, in all matters per-
taining to the farm, from your able
corps of contributors and tlhie logical
views of the editor. The paper is a God-
send to the granger whio is threading
the labyrinthan ways of Florida farming
and fruit growing."
Mli-. P. C. Minnich, of Waldo, writes:
'-The new paper is just lihat all engaged
in tilling the soil should have. We like
the style in which it. is managed. Facts
and not boom talk is what is needed for
the advancement of Florida."
Mr. Charles F. Oliver, of New York
City, writes: "I have seen but two
copies of your paper, but am much
taken with'it, as I believe it is honest.
You have no idea what trouble we have
to find out anything about Florida that
can be believed."
Mr. Percival Brewer, of Monmouth.
Ill., writes, under date of April 9th: "'I
think your paper the best agricultural
paper published in the South."
Hon. J. C. Pelot, of Manatee, writes as
follows: "'I look upon your paper as
one of the most valuable additions to
our agricultural interests. It is ably
edited, practical, directs attention to
matters of primary importance in the
development of our various industries,
and carries with ita spirit of energy and
enterprise thar mumt adJiess itself to ev
ery searcher after information."
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola. ex-
presses himself as follows: "'Tli e F.nRI ER
AND FRuIT-GROWER is the best thing in
its way I have seen. It is USit thel paper
nee-ded, aind if you keep it up to the priea-
cr't Etaujr- i of "e-'?elience must becom'ei
T.oruiar wnitli the people, I can't see.
where you have left any room for.im-
Mr*. Thomis M1.e-iar., the distinguished
hi, tic u timut and' ,ropi ieto-r of theGer-
mainto-ii nilIeetie;. in a letter dated-
MarcLh 'th, Nreiie-: --I am very much
ple:i-.d 'with tie FARMER AND" FRpUI -
GR:,"'iR. a ,i 'h.il io-'id it reuiarly.
whih yodu Lii,.w is a high co, mjpmerti
for anu eJt..I ti p t,.:tv. an ex han:'e.'"
1Mr. L. H Arrniir.-ng. ot St. Nidiolas.
Dual coiity. v.-iites un-.:er date of
April '2i.th : 'T'i FL:RDA. FARtnER AND,
FiRUT t-ROWi, R-hfs Otar -'urpa,-ed expec-
iation it ihe,.l; light on in iv i ,L',',uie
pages in the tv.:k of FI.iii4.I 's po-,;,iili-
ties inI n9i t, fora,.:- li i' e t- .Lk anrid iu the
development of her vast s.toi t hIidden
Mr. Irving Keck, of the Bowling Green
Land and Improvement Company,
writes under date of May 2d: "We
think THE FARMER'AND FROIT-GROWER
the beOt to 1- l:ilad for farmers in Flor-
ida. We aIlwa\ g-et new ideas from it."
Mr. E. W. Amsden. of Ormond-on-the-
Halifax, whites as follows: "I am tak-
ing ten papers on agricultural subjects,
and if asked to surrender the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER, I Would tell them
to take the other nine, but leave me-
that. May peace and plenty and years
of grace be given you to continue the
Rev. T. W. Mo,:.i-e, of Marion county,
writes: "I be-ieve your paper will do a
good w,.ik iu disseminating new ideasin
regard to fiuit raitini, farniin.g stock
Mr. H. G. Daniels. of Amelia Island:
"Judginiug ifro:,mn what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRuIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
South. I predict immense success for it."
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
tural College of Florida, writes as fol-
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has
exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the
Mr. Charles W. Stevens, of Orange
county, writes: "Your paper far ex-
ceeds the hopes of the most sanguine
in its good work. It fills a want
long felt in this part for a good ag-
ricultural paper. Success to you."
Mr. It. A. Ward, postmaster at Mala-
bar, writes: "I am delighted with the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, and rec-
ommend it to all on account of its com-
plete adaptation to the wants of this lat-
itude. Other agricultural papers con-
tain only an occasional article.of inter-
est to the farmers of Siouth Florida, who
care little for dairy news or general
fa win-g in the N,:.ith. but heart ':les ii
til. F.Aki'jTI ,.NE. FRuITIGROWER are
good'., 'vi- good. and I wislih you the sue-
cess you de--r'e fo)r furnishing Florida
farmers paper that just 'fills the bill.'"
Mr. C. H. (roodri.?h, of Orange Park,
writes: "I must say that the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER is decidedly the best
publication of the'kind in the State. I
take thiem niall and can compare their
Prof. D, L. Phares,; the eminent pro-
fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
Live Stock Journal: "His [the editor's]
valuable paper already appearing in the
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
tio and nipridiKtiori. They may be fully
relied upon for conscientious correc-
ness of statement and scientific accur-
acy of detail."
Hon. J. Wni. Ewau, rit.iig from
Miami. ['ad- county, ays : 'Certainly
you dare ,Iiiong. a g.oc.d work in e.ial)h.Ih-
Ing an eniilighiterned andil Ecientific sy-teni
of[ a2r;cultuie. whIic'hi heretofore hlas
been ieriou-ly nrelected. Your paper is
iuvnii ri- iin prpearance. puie in senti-
meut. aInd prcgieiiice iu principle, and
Surely mu-it succeedd."
-Mr;. A. H. 'H..of WViunenisset, Fia.,
writes as f.lis.v: "''W-e aie uew comers
and have much to learn, and your paper
is just what we have wished for ever
since we at iird hliere. 'Our Cosy'Cor-
ner'contains just what every womanin
Florida ought to read, words of encour-
agement and comfort to the homesick,
weary, struggling sisterhood. God
bless *H. H.' May she live to write
many words of cheer. Her recipes, too,
are so well suited to Florida. As obur
resource- in the country are limited.
they fill a large want."
Mr. F. C. Cochrane, a bookseller and
stationer of Palatka, writes, under date
of June 1: "Your FLORIDA FARMER AND
FRUIT GROWER is a perfect success. It
is far ahead of anything of the hind in
the State, and every one interested in
horticulture or agriculture should not be
Capt. R. E. Rose, president of the St.
(C'loud Agricultural and Improvement
Co., writes from Kissimmee, under
date of June 10th, as follows: "The
FARMER continues to improve, aud, as I
predicted, is becoming the standard ag-
ricultural journal of the South."
Mr. 0. M. Whetston, of Mikesville,
Columbia county, writes under date of
June 17: "I enclose $3 for the FARMER
AND FRUIT GROWER. 1 will try and get
some more subscribers for your paper. I
have seen two or three copies of it, and
think it is the best paper of the kind I
have ever seen, and the only one suited
to our county."
Mr. F. S. Sprague, of Federal Point,
expresses his opinion as follows: "I have
taken agricultural and horticultural pa-
pers for years, and unhesitatingly pro-
nounce the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER far superior to them all. You
need not entertain fears for its success.
[ts merits will win its way. Pleasesend
me an extra copy to send to a friend in
Michigan, who will probably wish to
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^ / AND -
HOUSEHOLO ECO NO ifY -
This journal will have for ic e lin-sing't-i iPet
the promotion (.' i-n'i incTi--in Floriia, .andl
will advocate especially a more diversified, and
intensive system of airicultarea nd greater
economy of home resources. .-
i uiin., lthat th, airicniruro ladipiati'n Or --
alare p'r,:,i-,.,n of Florila are a&. yet butl Imper- -
fectlyvmderstcod, a special aim Wathibi i. u-rial
will be to describe tie ,- tr results which have
been accomplished, wiIh ihe exact Imetht E 'm-
pl:l-'id. ind all iaflu lnci3s affi-cuian inch ren--lt.,;
.11i-1 [111y9- 0e.1- t p rin-nt. de1-.rilinc ewi or Ltlle
known crops, ifLiii-., i: ,., a'] rf c-:rd Teprogress -
of agi i ilio-E it r ,-gti, hlh.riig, Iae. --- -e
C*: 1.1ii1 i L ig iih [ineC lrtl iniber and COD- '-
tint.rrg tin :,uh- i iii ":c&:,-n i'r
Tlcr.. .-ii L,,-i a ,-rr- o a 'i-i,.le on -ruits--ther
ir h i... ,: rLt.:., i t[ui r .. ,--. i. t i tve
irc.rvol ii:6&i i -c1..e l dl [in ib iie. EariIi va-
w} B i be ,'.i ,i ..:.j f rind,
And-herc wvil l L.- -rs, from perkonS who hare
had extl..-cri-'l in t cis rivation. Tuis w.il be
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And ic-,t et-Lijects w-lIi tiillurrat'edi to la ,mited
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iiiiuii who fr- iit rii i cited a lae depanuient
Turf, Field and Farm.
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SPECIMEN COPLE3 FWRE.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. AUGUST 10, 1887.
How the Elements of Plant Fo od
are Made Available.
BY D. R. GEEEN.
Humus being the only'- form in which
vegetable matter can exist in a drained
soil for any length of time, we now come
to consider its effects on the soil.
The specific heat. of silica ur sand and
alumina or clay, is A l1: otf carbon or
S humus, 0.45; of water, 1. This means
: that a soil composed entirely of humus
S and exposed twelve hours to tie full
heat of the sun will be only about one-
third as hot as the sand or clay under
thesama conditions, and as evaporation
-; would evaporate only about orfe-thlrd as
: much as the sand or clay.
-:. I have proved this by exposing 103
: square inches of a soil containing one-
": fourth its weightof humus and an equal
S surface of common sand. I found that
the sand evaporated two ounces more
-. water between sunrise and] sunset bhan
S the soil that contained one-fourth of
humus. : .-
S-. I also found that a cubic foot of sand
weighed eighty pounds -and held, with-
S out dripping, twenty pounds of water.
S .-. A cubic foot of the humus soil weighed
sixty pounds and held, without dripping,
forty-fiye pounds of water
I also found that 103 square inches of
soil surface during an exposure to the
:" dew for three'n rights in May, and shaded
- / during the day, received two ounces of
Moisture frum tie dew alone, equal to
317 gallons per acre for each night.
Cultivation burns up humus by admit-
: tinig oxygen of the air,which forms car-
"--. bonic acid and sets free the mineral ele-
.. ments forming the ashes, thus hasten-
S ing the chemical processes by which
plants obtain their proper food. The
marked deficiency in humus that is
S found in the light hammocks and scrubs
and light pine lands is due to the fact
S' that the loose drt soil allows a 'much
freer circulation of oxygen or air, which
burns up completely all vegetable mat-
ter, This rapid destruction of humus
-can be prevented in a great measure by
S deep plowing, to put the vegetable mat-
ter down where it oxidizes slowly and
S: forms a much greater percentage of
-, h:: umus. .
The secret of success in the cultivation
S of a soil that is rich in mineral fertility,
S: lies in the systematic return to the soil
of veg-etable matter. which, by its decay
in the soil,. generates organic acids that
act on the mineral elements and render
Drainage renders a soil more product-
ive because it admits oxygen to'decom-
pose vegetable matter and prepare it for
use. It also permits the organic- acids
to penetrate deeper into the soil, thus
making av-ailable a greater amount of
mineral food. in a drained soil the sol-
ubre parts are carried down and fixed or
absorbed, while in an undrained soil
they are brought to the Eurface and
washed away. One hundred gallons of
live water contain 1.5 to l.-s'; gallons of
nitrogen. Plants that take up the most
nitrogen always grow" best ,on moist
A plant is exhausting to a soil in pro-
portion to the quantity and value of the
mineral elements that it takes from the
soil. Florida has just as much nitrogen
as any other State. but she lack- in pot-
ash. phosphot ic acid and lime in many
places. Nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and
hb drogen have far greater feeding values
than the mineral elements.
It is a useless waste of time to try to
grow lover and alfalfa on the lands in
this State. b,-caute they draw too heavily
on the mineral elements, and a part of
each year is unsuited to their growth
from the excess of moisture. A compar-
ison of analyses of clover and v.-w pea
vines shows'the following facts:
CLOV17 R. 1C10 W E A';.
11-:. V l .it, Vtili- .
N itrogen. ,. ',,i : ....... I",. 4_ I ",5 '- '&.i ii i
P.Ita-l 1 .r .. ........... i'. I .1; ';' 4
P h,:. a.: t'I, ',-. 'iu .... ... ) *_ .
T,:t. l ralutic .................. '. ; '
The fertilizers and labor that produce
a ton of clover in this State, would pro-
duce five tons of cow pea vines, which
contain in equal weight-., the same
amount of nutriment. This statement
applies equally to alfalfa. It draws
-heavily on mineral elements and sends
its roots down deep to obtain them.
We can here produce abundantly of
short season, surface feeding plants,
which, combined with a very inexpen-
sive plan of housing forage, will furnish
as much feeding value as any other sec-
tion. The greatest drawback is that
nearly all are trying toget something out
Let no one suppose for an instant that
because we have used] the orange tree to
illustrate our remarks that they apply
only to the orange tree. There is no dis-
tinction in the manner of growth be-
tweeu the mighty oak and the common
turnip, only one is perennial and the
Two plants are placed side by side ou
-the same soil and receive the same cul-
ture. One ot them grows to perfection
and the other fails.- There are only two
causes, outside of proper degrees of heat
and moisture, that can insure this supe-
rior growth. The plant, that succeeds
either does not take as much from the
soil, or*it has stronger digestive and ab-
sorptive powers. This difference in di-
gestice and absorptive powers is well
shown iu wheat and rye. Analyses of
them show that they take from the soil
- "almost exactly the same amounts of the
same elements, yet rye will produce good
~.__' *crops on. lands where wheat fails.
Sir J. B. Lawes, of Rothamstead, En-
gland, has for forty years been conduct-
- '- : ._. ". ing experiments' in adapting scientific
:.-.- -. discoveries topractical-agriculturO; and
._-.;. ..... .-.we 'give.'his pdintsas rioted on cdyver..
-* : ..-,o:'-' He found that lands that were.too inegt
^*;~--.~. -.t .o'produce clever, would still .produce
t,_..L' _: : _... -. r-' ; .. .- .
.: : -.-: : -- : --: -; = .. -. -. -
i.n a ,-, r .. .-. -.. .. -
paying crops of wheat and barley. This
shows that clover has weaker solvent or
digestive powers than wheat or barley.
He also-found that after growing other
crops on the land for a time that the
clover would again grow freely.
Some one with little wit and less wis-
dom claimed that the patron saint of ag-
riculture stored up small supplies of-a
special food for clover, or words to that
effect. The simple explanation is that
the roots of the other crops, decaying in
the-soil, created the organic acids needed
to render the proper mineral elements
soluble for the use of the clover. Culti-
vation produces improved varieties of
plants, at the expense of constitution
and digestive powers. This is well
shown in the difference between the
sweet orauge and its ancestors, the sour
orange and rough lemon.
Reviewing again, we find that decay-
ing vegetation creates acids that act
on the mineral elements in the soil and
renders them soluble in water for the
use of plants; that no part of any veg-
etable matter can be absorbed by plants
until it has been decomposed; that the
gases of vegetable matter are first set
free by decomposition, and that the min-
eral elements are not available or soluble
until the carbon or humus has been re-
duced to carbonic acid by action oi the
jir or oxygen.
Plants absorb water through their
roots and evaporate the greater part of
it through their leaves. Carbonic- acid,
ammonia, nitrogen and chemically dis-
solved mineral elements, are all soluble
in water and are taken up by plants
when -dissolved in it. Plants have the
power to separate these various com-
pounds into their elementary forms and
place each in its proper position, but how
they do this we do not as yet know, and
it will probably be a long time before
science will find an Alexis St. Martin
Among the points noted above I have
independently proved the following:
First, that in the absence of decaying or-
ganic matter all soils are more or less
inert; Second, the important office of
the products of decomposition in render-
ing mineral elements of a soil soluble;
Third, the direct absorption of nitrogen
mixed with water by the roots of plants;
Fourth,-the existence of a perfect system
of chemical digestion and absorption,
acting through the roots of plants, the
strength of which varies .in different
species and in varieties of the same
species; Fifth, that bacteria or microbes
have no other office in decomposition
or plant nutrition than that of mechani-
cal separation and dessication of organic
matter. Plants require all their food to
be chemically soluble in water, the ab-
sorption tubes of the roots being too
srr-all to admitany mechanically divided
Pond Mud and Muck.
In many localities it is not practicable
to obtain thes-e fertilizing substances ex-
cept ar the .irtelst s-a.cn ,.f tie year
when-that they usually contain ha& I'een
evaporated. The va-t amount of pc.nd
mud 'und swamp muck that exist in
many parts of the South. while the
scant _rons of the adjacent fields show
how much manure is needed, ought to
stimulate a greater number of ,our far-
mers to take advantage of the summer
season to cart them to their fields Many
are disappointed in the twe of these sub-
stance.s because their effects are less
striking than thc.'e of stablle manure or
compost. This is not because they con-
tain leFs inherent 'ricchness. hut because
thlie p-jrts are les solutible, and conse-
quentl' y impart, their strength more
slowly to growing crops. 'iThis quality,
however, makes ilthem mote enduring,
and in tlhe end more valuable.
Disappointiuent results also from lack
of thorough intermixture with the soil.
If mud or muck is merely spread in
masses upon the surface of the land and
then plowed in, it rarely proves of much
benefit the first year. but shows its ef-
fects after several years of tillage, when
it has be,:ome thoroughly mixed with the
soil. To prevent scih failures, it should
be well harrowed before it is plowed
under, s0 that all lumps may lbe broken
and the mass well p.,l-erized. By Eu.,h
treatment, with liberal supplies .1 f hese
substances, heavy soils may be greatly
improved and made much more fertile.
inently valuable wiheu shoveled out and
dried, to be mixed with farm-yaprd ma-
nure as recipients for its liquid part.
They should be dried, becau-e if already
saturated with water, of which ,hey will
often absorb four fifthli of their natural
weight, they cannot abs.:.rb any more
liquid. But it 'well dried beforehand,
they will then absorb the drainage from
the manure and become more valualble
fertilizers. The chief reason that the
application of these substances to barn
yards has been often disappointing
is that farmers have used them wn hen al-
readv saturated with water so that they
could not absorb, any more liquid. For
this reason summer is the best time tor
digging pond mud and muck, when it is
naturally drier than at any other time.
And especially if the have to be hauled
any distance, 'the drynesspa is of the ut-
most importance, as it w-ill obviate the
necessity of hauiingseveral tons of water
with every ton of the desired stuff.
In July and August. when the crops
are laid by, there, is -abundant opportu-
nity on most farms to lay in a full sup-
ply of these substances. They are gen-
erally highly fertilizing substances, and
especially where the materials that
streams deposit consistsof road washings
or the drainings of barnyard, they con-
stitute a manure of the most valuable
kind. The same may be said of the con-
tents of stagnant ponds, which havebeen
much frequented by _animals,but have
become dry. The farmer who controls
a supply of mud or muck has the means
of restoring fertility to his fields, even if
he has but little stable manure and can-
not buy commercial fertilizers. All ihe
scrapings, of fence corners, ditches and
shaded places- about the yard contain a
great- deal of fertilizing material, and
should be saved cai-efully" and given to
the fields.- If not appl16d directly,'they
Ashes in Compost.
Editor Florida Farmer and .rutt-Grower:
Having noticed in the F.AEMER AND
FRuTu-GROWEE occasional articles upon
thevalueof ashes as a fertilizer, I was
prompted to save abcut half a ton of
oak and hickory ashes from a piece of
hammock land which I have recently
cleared and fenced. Now, I desire to
know how I shall proceed to utilize these
ashes for a next season's coru crop-
whether I shall compost with pond
muck, stable manure, or how can I ap-
ply them to secure the best possible 're-
sults? .I desire an answer from some
practical and experienced farmer.
A. M. WILSON.
MIAKKA, Fla,, July 24, 1887.
[We shall be glad to hear from any
one whose experience witl ashes or oth-
er special fertilizers, or with composts,
has been such as to lead them to positive
conclusions. Some object to composting
ashes or lime with nitrogenous ingredi-
ents, like stable manure and cotton seed
meal, but prefer to apply it directly to
the land in advance of seeding time. A
good method is described by Mr. Cole-
man, in'an article on figs, which will
appear in next number. The danger of
liberating ammonia in a compost he3p,
may be counteracted by the use of gyp-
sum i land plaster, which is a wonderful
absorbent of ammonia.
Where cotton seed is to be had, aishes
can te used to nest advantage for reduc-
ing them to proper condition for plant
food. Mix in Lbe proportion of 10i)
pounds of ashes to 31.) pounds of seed,
keep moiet and turn occasionally. This
treatmrueut saponifies the oil of the seed,
as Mr. Underhill. of Mauatee, hIs ex-
plained. Phosphate within cotton e.--J,
seems to act the revet-ise of ashes. When
the seed is thus educed., then the
mixture may be used in a general corm-
:,;.-st heap, consisting of manure, litter.
muck, et-. Let us have experiences
from practical farmers in all quarters.-
*A. B. C.]
Sorghum for Feediing Stock.
The following interesting report of
seven yeaits' experience wit timorghum,
appears in tle Breeders' Gazette, the
%%riter being Mr H. A. Ensign, of New-
I lavecultivated and handled sorghum
exclusively for forage pui poses, for the
past seven yeais, but since the fir-st
four years were largely experimental
and dotted all along by mistakes, I will
not occupy your time relating them.
Commeuecing with tie spring of l.X?, I
broke tip ten acres of sod ground. The
soil was sandy loaum. About May 10th,
I went over it thoroughly with a sod
cutter, after which I sowed the piece .to
amber cane, putting on one and one-
eighth bushels of seed per acre. In a
brief period of time I was rewarded by
an excellent stand of sorghum, which
giew rapidly, notwithstanding the latter
part of May and a portion of June were
quite dry. About July -20th the heads
began to show.:- Having learned front
experience that this was the best tiune.to
cur the crop, I put the mowingmachine
into it, cutting five acres, leaving the re-
mainder to srand a tew days until I could
handle it. At this juncture my sorghum
stood about seven feet high, and was as
thick as the ground could hold. For
three days after cutting my sorghum
there was very-little sun. The weather
was damp aid showery, so that I was
not able to take' it, iu'Lo windows for
may be spread over the compost pile,
when they will add greatly to its value.
-Home and Farm.
Ashes for Fruit Trees.
In complaints going up on every hand
in condemnation of first one commercial
fertilizer and then another, we see proof
that our orange growers are beginning at
last to pay closer attention to that most
important subject. But as long as there
is no trustworthy inspection of these ft-r-
tilizers, as long as these uingrdieuts may
be changed by the manuLif.rtotuier -hlisn
sweet will or profit may dictate, z.) loiu
will purchasers find them in many casr-s
unreliable or worthless or even lui rt t u I
to his orange trees.
As long as these things are so. thi
search for thesimplest Mrnaterial tat will
do the most good for the least- Imw:ne'
will continue. And one we thlitjk lias
been found, has been proved always re-
liable, and is cheap. That is simple ashes
from hard wood. One of our most careful
orange growers is 'Mr. Daniel Darling,
of Drayton Island, and he has tried
ashes on his bearing trees, nursery stock,
cabbages, strawberries, potatoes, beets,
and cucumbers with equal success, It
is a most excellent fertilizer, in his opin-
ion, and is also in great -degree a protec-
tion from insects. He thinks unleashed
wood ashes should be used around fruit
trees, they being a natural food as taken
by the tree from the soil rightly prepared
and proportioned by nature for the tree
and its fruit. It gives to the tree a
healthy condition, preparing it to resist
diseases of all kinds, such as the yellows
and blight, among peach and pear trees,
diseases which are unknown where un-
leached ashes have been used from the
setting out of the tree. They are also
a great prevention to the ravages of the
borer. The fruit, also, will be large,
sweet, fine grained and of a bright color.
Many trees are ruined and the fruit
rendered almost worthless where manure
or ammoniated fertilizers are used, mak-
ing a heavier growth of wood and giv-
ing to the fruit a coarse, wooded texture,
often cracking open, and an insipid
taste. Ashes give it the necessary food,
both for the health and the growth of
its wood and the perfection of its fruit,
as well as increasing the quantity which
the tree may bear. Those who have had
the largest and most valued experience
in the use of unleached ashes with fruit,
say that they would rather pay from
forty to fifty cents per bushel, or twenty-
five dollars per ton, if they could not be
got at a less price, for grass, strawber-
ries, peaches, oranges and all kinds of
fruit, than purchase any other fertilizer
or manure for these" uses.-Palatka
R N. ELLtS,C. E. A. i. MCLORE, Architect
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects & Civil Enineoors,
HOTELS, PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
rN uS, ANITARY ENGINEERING, &0.
P 0. ox 761. Rooms 7-and A Palmetto Block
FREE, ONE SAMPLE COPY.
Before yo.n decid' wber 1to go In SOUTH
FLORIDA, send tor a sample copy of
S- THEORANGE GROVE.
Y.:nu will flnd better and cheaper bargains In
.ANATrE Cc i ,rvr in groves, farm1, ranches oi
any s-ie. Budldng I.OiU on railroad, river or sea-
siafe. Tuw pr.:.pnmetor of -The Orange Grove Is
an "old tinier," but neither moss back'ld or bide I
bontid ; he Ls here to star and "There i mulions
in it." Tbree.lulhllon- of Acres on b;s Books.
-Address, TERE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.
- v-.:. ""i
some ten days, when it remained for! D nO n THE MAU iiTB PAIH CONSI(N NTSoIr ANDEG
several days longer to dry out. In the PUIB UD S llD O T lHUM ll-tlPEblHl .C .HILKENFRUITRANDE
meantime the balance of the piece was Fat n .ihei at iI pi unhndii.i ,,er ihouns1,l, SOLICITED BY
cut and put min process of curing. When t lv I -. ndro .. J. H. SiTHERLAND,
my crop had become thoroughly dried '' i. 1 ... .. WB'LE.ALE PRODUCE
out, it was put away, and I found that I Ad-irr-ie... (-OMMIhSION 11,N MRHANT
had-eighty-seven and a half tons of as P.,. M INNIH, tE StEE, ,, .
good winter fed mi. one could ask for. 'die,lFi J ,'VFLA.
which, with the addition of nine ton orf .-
prairie hay, three ton. of millet. anl the FLORIDA GROW NT EAC-1111 TREIS_
r^^iugh FLuf,*ORID A GROWN PEACH TREES
corn-stalks off of eight acres of gr,-und. I f 0T Ti flrn.e.Jm Tn fl,rnnn
fuinrished thew rough feed for -eventy. us -'lr P u s lv m [ ][ S I.' r n P o n ,
^ ^ ^ ^^ S s Kolsev Japni Plumts, Olive Titus, Oraupgs5 N-91, Lenioiis, Focaus.
t-: hia,d LF cattle, nine lwad of ho, sesI l[u, w uLILUII[b
and torty ,0 p t.,tswuld shee, fur that By tn. ,ozrl, boundrd-, o:,r thL.o .'tid., uiLo i full t,.i. ci r other NLir.cr.y -itoCk aduptied to
winter, and i y tock nerer came Fioria noi d th- Guri .th,.'s. Am no'-,v r...,kiain ',.1-i5 '.:.r Faill d,:l'.-i-7 se:t,.n
thrl ,u h.a winter in better condition.; ,:., ls-v-. '\\ r i, l, i-'ri,.,:. 'At.'a ,,,_.-, is fr, ',- ,: .p ii.torn.
This. it app,=rrs to, me, is ,ood show- G-LE[, T MARY 1ORIIEI G. L G Tder Prop., ln 01 M01'1MT Fla
ing for ten acres eo sorghtim, Lbut we "
ale ut t1hr31A e. That ten acres of -
,orhuntfurnijaiue'-Iabuaani'eof good'- _T
wture fcrtr-IvLV..i*-f,,ur'minchcowsflaomd TH HE LAK ,ELAND NURSERY -OM PANY
ete.,cIst. over ) tw lo ,nths, and a' .. ....r xJ .... -.--r Ja
until t flt ame. TI-he onil unusualpre- .ti, in -. i,.-i. tt.- Miad FREE, .:.;. ar4Pit,-1r1..
cautir-i, observed were to letthem feed
ashorttime upon the pasture atfirst, A P T iR UMMER PRICE LIST
fearing they might bloat thens-eves. A COPY OF TH............ .... L....
and during the whole pasture sea-.L i ,-e n E. i. T N. Mi r, Lk -i, P.ik Fi
cows were turned off, after 6tlilig theiu- I r7 -l .e ,, ,,u,,t t i. Tl'.N. M:uiuu .,Lu- r *,,iP i -.. l:,
selves, in order that they should not n se .10o1ioo 0'T A I'',' o .le insl. a o.. on ..
waste the feed by treadingit under foot. | V SS" 'i lo ie l*- A_,- V _iW,, choicEe ,imaeire rCa.t Cor an ORANGE
Thistenacres of sorghum not only | *ItOE COSS Wl,%b Salnbrious Cl.,, '.,. ,,.
I Hi Ii rolling Pine Lands; Salubrious Cl "in-ite,.,A oo-t
furnished me- eighty-seven and a half mnient. end2-cent stamp lor Maps, or.: .:.r .i,L P. ..i.r ...r i
tons of most excellent winterfodder, Bank Draft to JOHN T.T ALBOTT, .nii Wurr D|:.,T FLT Ia- IDAB i
much superior to prairie hay, especially I perfect, from the ..
for milk purposes, but it also furnished -n''- -r- C. -T "-'r
pasture for twenty-four cows for over :_.J .-l-...-..-ZA j -.-.i-T _.. OI. _.-J L ,
two months, until frost came, when our P. O.Box 158,Jacksoniville, Florida. 39 W. Bay St.
native grasses were thoroughly dried out,
keeping these cows in full flow of rich -a -. ~ D S
milk. -0 T -._.y_1 P -
The following season I sowed the same
number of acres of sod ground, treating NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEA MNISHIP LINE.
it as above described, with the excep- TRI-WEEIE.Y SERVICE BETWEEN .
tion of mowing the crop twice instead of T E SR EB .ET
pasturing it. The two crops yielded me NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE
over thirteen tons of cured fodder per
acre, the last cutting affording the best Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every. Tuesday, Thunrsday
feed. and Saturday, at
The past season I sowed twelve acres FROMJACKSO VI` E-C-RO-OEE (n:w'. .ii..i .fE,3frTXOL F(fi.wlevery FRi DAY
,f seond sod to sorghum. Six acres, for FROM FERNANDINA--DELA WARE and ,i}'EXfi.S.EE )Ir" MNDtY, 1). .., ("ITY
of secon disd nto t o eu up well, anr OFA TLANTA and CITYOF-COLUMIBIA, -- WEL.NE'EAr n...m.
some reason, did not come up well, and The Freight and Passenger Accommodations- L.- n Li ur.n t ,,iri-.--ur I iy any shipsin
for this reason did not furnish so good the coastwise service. For further information..q. "i,,i
feed or so much of it as I should have CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A LESLIE, A gt., an.
had. The other six acres stood well, THEO. G. EOERF. Traffic Mana.er, : .....i.. l.. 'P CL.YDE &B og.
and yielded about as large a crop as i.hB.yi..i Y. .;-,,,rii x::,. l-..iEinxu;. \. T.
former seasons-possibly not quite, ow- ER D O
ing to our unusual drouth. Part of this
cane I-mowed the second time, and a
portion I pastured with satisfactory re- ~ -- "" '*. ...: :_
Such having been my experience with
sorghum as a forage plant, gentlemen, ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
vou will hardly be surprised that I have -
great faith in its capabilities. What
other food plant is there that would have Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.: .: :-
given equal results? I know of none. Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-flve arnl mirt y iw .:,-ues.
Corn sown'for fodder purposes, held in A Church, Scho,.. -,y mails, stores, bakery, sawmill and hotel. L',r. i'e t., i,:ady planteed
very high estimation by many, is found in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten. t-w.-,iy and
wanting in every respect when placed Efor acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
by the side of sorghum. It will not Call on or Address,
withstand the extremes of heat, drouth J. W. GROVES, *: CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
or insect ravages as sorghum will. Corn Oriole, Florida. .Jncksonville, Flo rida
fodder is more subject to injury while
curing, yields but one crop a season, and 7 F
when cured is not equal in its nutiiticus I % N. i UST
properties, pound for pound, with -.:.r
ghumuand for pasture purposes corn Is W wholesale Commission MI erchant,
not. entitled to be mentionedin the san-,.
day with -orghum. As already sug- NO. 313 NORTH WATER STREET. PHILADELPHIA.
gested, sorghum fed to milch cows in a .,(,iaii.r.:-: :iOTHFERN FRittr AND VEGETABLE5. ",.',._u-n- ._'.itI. Retairu
green condition before the seed has uIiu-1'i.: *i.7 0:*- ahI.
ripened, is an excellent milk-producing --- --
food. not only causing a laige flow or f .. 0- 1T-. Q OUlOTU T \T ,
lacteal fluid, but also of excellent ;qual-
ity; and this statement isequally true of T y"Jr "l = 6 I" S-
the well-cure-d fodder. It is truly the BARTOW. FLORIDA.
dairyman's friend, and supported by a -rane,.r T,,n L.ts ;n Barv, ntr a-.t Hal. Pta :,rt ant Cbarloe
few pounds of corn meal and wheat Rarb'r. r i Sale. a'nL, ,:nd Laro,'n.tm mahadre rra,:[ta Ha F-rl.P re, ';r.:,c.t ea
bran, will give the ver% best result-, at aDd i.rti aere- rati -A :.ord, high roiblr.g Pine Land'-. rnear S F R R opor., att $0u toi 5 per
the saame time maintaining the vitality acre. A'llpro.porry g Eramnt u to De as repre-s.ntd ,:.r ,:.eT ruot ,-Lnded
of your milk herd in-full force and oy Los. v ,:d, u.ae at pr et. nt t th lnder
A. few more suggestions relative to the
treatment of thiscrop, and I'amthroug PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL PRINTING,
After testing several varieties of so-N-I
ghum. I have selected the amber cane, E
everything considered, as probably the'
best. variety for forage purposes. It t V M '3 C1 9
is sweeter, earlier, will stand thicker, FiI -
handles easier, and feeds better than the /r -t
larger varieties. Whatever variety you' o n mn 3
may choose, however, test your seed _7 -.
thoroughly, and be certain it will grow r'- som P g .
before sowing. It is often difficult to f "F e5rS-
tell worthless ased from good by its ap- 2 1 z_- -"
rearauce. Sow your cane seed with a M a -
liberal hand,. neier lv-s than a bush- I .e
per acre. By &o doing vou'will obtain a w a .
hitter yield, a better quality of fodder, VP p to
an., Nour growing crop will starve. n .5 3 t ,
smother or crowd out every nosious W O .
weed, leaving yvour ground clean and tP B5 ^
uce to follow with any crop -y9ou may r
Cut your sorghum early, before the on
sitalk becomes mougli and woody; the a
cn.,p will hbridle eaiier, you will get on ^ ^ .4 0 ^ 5-t2
mote ffted from the acre in the end, and ,r -"
your stock will eat it ,ttetr. and they Q oA T c ". ,
are supposed to know what they want. 000 2 a
However long it may take, be sure that 6
vou rso-gliutm is thoroughlly dried out P -"
betore putting it away, otherwise it will > a
molt.. -and moldy 6or'ghtina is about.as ex 5
\v,:,rtbhless stuff as you canu have about --1 9 I E H
y:u. Observing the above rules, gentle- 5
glum upon th poorest soil in the State, m r
men,~ ~ ~~~~t yoaannowapyigcrpofst
therc-bv Supplying your stock %vt ju m-- 0B2 &g V J. ^ ^ S
abundance of cheap, wholesome and nu g J
thetby spplyng oui'stoc wih anr. a-
tritioug food, both for winter use and for o S .
pasture purposes. Let those who doubt. | 0
it try it. and become convinced; those . -0 w a
who believe it will be likely to. A
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. AUGUST 10. 1887.
The Florida Parmgr anW Fruit Grower
A. H; CIURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PtBLISHEzS.
Office Cor.Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial Interests of Florida. It is published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year ........... S 2.00
For six months 1.00
Clubs of five to one address..................... 7.50
With daily TIMES-UNION one year...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6.00
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year-........ 2.75
A'-Subscritptlons in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
ex-spiratiion of the time-paid for. The date on
the prInte-d Iael with which the papers are
addi esgsei I'. the date to which the subscrip-
tion Isp iId anDi Is equivalent to a receipt for
payment -to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
:'ORRESP':,NDEN,:'E s|i.:lt.l c:mii t'i so 1.
jeets ii-t'sp it in eo tr o 1 re i pl,':-: i lealt w it h ii
thl paIetr h"rit." r .' n y ifl: sIfl'p slg-iain i.r?
to th6lr arntil,-?i.a 'hev may i.-c i,.,e-, -Ut nmus t
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
ofgood faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned..
ADVERTISE HENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check
Postal Note Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of*
G. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FIRST PAGE-Experiments with Grasses; Bra-
zilian Flour Corn; Bulrushes; Buckwheat in
Pasco County; Saving Lespedeza Seed; Hon.
A. N. Cole (with portrait); Horticultural Ex-
perieaces; Pruning Peach Trees; Scale In-
Ssects (1Rust-rated); A Summer Crop of Or-
anges; The English Sparrow.
SzCOND PA.GE-The Orange in California,; A
Farmer's Flower Garden; Fuchsias and Mealy
Bugs; Marsh Land Gardens; Destroy Fallen
Fruit; Measuring the Height of Trees.
TIRD PaoE--Agri..'rr,ri "Cheti]i-try; Pond
tui, and, tik'k; Ah'-e f'-r Frtit 'rees; Ashes
in C.:,'-ii,:.t; Si:rchuiJn for F.',:ia&ii Stock; Su-
matra Tobacco in Florida- .
Foura lPAGaE (Editorial)-Business Corres-
pondence; Those'are Our Sentiments; To Con-
tributors; A Free Advertisement; Unexpected
Compliments; Replies to Correspondents; In-
dications of Progress; Georgia and Her Fertil-
izers; The Florida of the Future; The Farmers'
FiFTEi Pai-,i Edited by Helen Harcourt); Om'
Hofn, CreiLe; Cosy Corner; TheFamily Friend;
Answers to Correspondents; Our Young Folks'
-SIXTHx PAGE-Charlbon; Bots in Horses; Edu-
cating Colts; Management of Cows; Enstlage
for Cows; Salting Milch Cows; Profits in Poul-
S try; Geese; S5aly Legs; Sieil:d Crop; Bee
' I KE.elnr-"' ,ii-?itr-'ri. t r *' -".
SEVENTH PAGE-Farmn- Miscellany (ltZustratecd;
: Serial Story, Three Eton Boys, by W. E.
S No '- rris, :
Etoas 'P.%o.-FIor,rJ- iNI-: .rn Brief; On The
S.,itbvrn .'o.i-t; A Tlilt Wtin Boys; A Bath
Sin the Morning; Bounty to Sugar Growers;
Weather for i Aa'u6 t; Latest New" York and
'. .J..i: I ,:,rn-c t IMf 'rk t-_" -''"
: BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE.
We will thank those who have occa.-
-sion to write on -matters pertaining to
subscriptions, adlvertisements. iliauges
of address, s.peciaieu copies and tlie like.
to ad,:lres Mc.srs. r. H. -Iones & Bro.,
publishers. Communications for tie
S editorial i:lepartIm zunt shul.l be adiidresseld,
-"Editor FLORIDA FARMELR AND FRUIT-
G ROWER. By this meant a con-ideia-
ble amount tO inc,:nvenieace and delay.
S will be avoided.
.. TO CONTRIBUTORS.
In -writing of agrictulturaIl matters,
don't allow enthu-tiasm to, lea,] yru t1 in-
dultge in hyperbole. If, for example.
you are an enthuelastic admirer orf Fur-
man's compost, don't write for publica-
tion that you had ten times rather have
it than Peruvian guano. If you do.
some Argus-eyed son of Adam, with a
Painter's aid, will give a false coloring
to the sense of" your article, and will tell
the readers of another agricuiltural jour-
nal that the FA'RMER AND FRItT GROWER
holds Furman's compost to be worth
$450, per ton. Be sure of your facts and
cautious In your statements, for thlie cap-
tious critic is always ready to catch you
Certain surviving members of the F. F.
G. A. find a melancholy satisfaction in
contemplating the memorial tablet which
appears over the portals of the' Florida
Dispjach and in applauding that jour-
S nal's loyalty to past-timed and institu-
tions ("-Official oiga"' isthe way some
people translate 'in m m-itoriaitn. Two
well preserved representativess of the age
when the.F. F. G. A. flourished, wri'e to
the Diapant'h-as itr readers are confident-
jilly informned-that, although they must
..: acknowldge'the distinguished ability of
th'e FARMER AND FRUTT-GROWER, never-
S theiless, as induty bound, theycliUng tothe
old Dispatch even as the ivy clings to An
S old.wa.ll.-If the wall fall, down tumble
._ 'iv ;tablet and all! .-
... ..Gentlemen,. we cannot censure you for
your dutiful expressionsof regard for the
1 t--:emorial sh rine -of departed .greatness,
is neutral and in others-including the years past we have urged the employ-
crab grass-it is a mere rudiment, ment of it for tanning purposes. This
but really, if you continue gazing at the
past so intently you will be very apt to
share the fate of Lot's wife. Don't
waste your time in pining -for the past.
The living present calls for your ser-
vices. Look at the- present andl future
as the FARMER AND FR'T-GROWER
shows it to you, and your mental hori-
zon will so expand that you will think
yourselves in a different State. You
knew from the outstart that this journal
would not be organ grinder for any
person or persons. We knew you knew
it, and did not expect any material sup-
port from you. Therefore it is as much
a surprise as a gratification-to us to find
such handsome tributes from you where
least we expected to find them. It is far
more than we ever hoped for, "even in
dreams." We expect soon to establish
another standing column headed, COm-
PLIMENTS FROM THE DISPATCH,
REPLIES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
FRUIT GROWER inquires relative to
figs-what varieties are "best adapted to
Florida, considering at the same time
the demands of the market, and what
soil they require."
Several columns of the FARMER AND
FRUIR-GROWER have been devoted to the
fig and if Fruit Grower has the back
numbers we would refer him to that of
May 11th, in which Mr. J. H. Girardeau
tells about all there is to learn of the fig
in Florida. As to varieties his prefer-
ence is as follows, and in the order
named: Brown Smyrna (called also Ce-
leste, Celestial and Sugar), White Smyr-
na, Brunswick and Brown Turkey. For
local market the firsf three are best. The
first is the only one suitable for drying.
In the next number there will be an in-
teresting article on the Sugar Fig, by
Mr. Matt Coleman. In that or the fol-
lowing number we expect to have an il-
lustrated article on evaporating fruits.
The soil for fig trees should be rich,
deep and well drained. They succeed
best when planted near out buildings
and along old fence rows. They delight in
back door yards, where the soil is not
disturbed much and there is a constant
accession of fertilizing matter, especially
from running poultry. The Biblical ex-
pression in regard to sitting under one's
own vine and fig tree, refers, undoubt-
edly, to the usual proximity of these
fruits to dwellings. Ordinarily the fig
tree is not a handy tree to sit under, but
it would accommodate a Turk squat-
ting on a mat much better than an
American sitting in a chair.
S GRASS FOR LOW LAND.
J. W. D., of Homeland, Polk county,
wishes to know what grass is best for
"low, springy land, and where seed of it
may be obtained; also, when land should
be prepared for strawberries, and how.
Para grass is best for wet lands. It is
p.r.p.pa-iLated from cutting, or "joints,"
like Berriluda and many other grasses.
If not obtainable nearer home, -apply to
P. W. Reasoner," of Manatee, who
has it, and who contributed a valuable
article on this grass to the FARMER AND
FRUIT G ROWER of May 4. As to land f.or
strawberriec-, it should be ready for
planting by September-1. Fo:i directions
see Mr. Power's articles and others
which will aipear from v.-telc to wee-k.
CAB' :'R-B:RA. SS. -
L. H. A., of Oc-an Groric, N. J., asks
for "'a short br.tminl-.al lesrorn on crab
grass, especially in reference- to its sod-
ing, alio: why itr neier appears in wild
land until cultivation benins?"
WVe hard ly knuow trcoi, what direci-tion
to approach this nubject, or bhow to say
anything on it without boring the aver-
age reader, and we aim not to 6ay any-
thing that may not be of some value to
the average reader. Ciabgrass isone of
many hundred plants which hiave emii-
giated with the wh'te man from the
eastern to the western continent Bota-
nists term such plants "adventltious"
when they fist appearon our shores, and
"naturalized" when they give good evi.
dence that they hare coiume to stay. Yet
very few of then ate truly naturalized,
for as a rule they thrive only near man's
hibitations, or on land that has been
tilled. If this country could revert to its
aboriginal condition, it is probable that
most of the naturalized plants would
soon disappear. It is a curious circum-
stance that toevery American plant that
has established itself in Europe. a hun-
dred European plant have become nat-
uralized in this country. "Westward
'the course of empire takes its way."
Some of the naturalized plants preferto
grow in the waste places of towns, some
on road sides, some in meadows and
some in ft'eshiy cultivated ground.
With 'egard to the. seeding of crab
grass, we can think 6f nothing very pe-
culiar. All panicums hare a character-
istic which would seem to furnish an ex-
ample of wasted energy. With every
perfect, seed-producing flower .there is
developed-an imperfect flower. In some
pecie.s the;latter is staminate, in some it
F. S. M., of Milton, Pa., wishes to
know if the silk worm and mulberry
thrive in Florida and if silk can be pro-
duced profitably. We answer, yes, ex-
cept as to the latter particular, which is
not yet decided. Commodore Norris, of
Spring Garden, Volusia county, has
established a silk colony and seems to
be succeeding very well. The superin-
tendent of the silk works, Mrs. Lucy M.
Fox, will give all desired information.
J. S. P., of Harvard, Marion county,
suggests that we establish an exchange
column. If half a dozen others will
signify the same desire, we will take the
matter iuto serious consideration. Cer-
tain Northern journals with from a hun-
dred thousand to a million readers,
make the exchange column quite an
amusing, and prehaps a valuable feature,
but we doubt if it could be maintained
n any Florida journal. -
C. P. L., of Daytona, is referred to Mr.
Green's article on second page.
J. H. R.'s inquiries relative to grapes
have been referred to Prof. Dubois, from
whom we expect an answer soon, N. is
referred to article on "Fuchsias and
Mealy Bug," on second page, and A. M.
W. to "Ashes in Compost," on third
The grass sent by A. L. is Bermuda
grass (Cynodon Daetylon).
INDICATIONS OF PROGRESS.
Under the above caption we treated in
the last number of the status of Florida's
leading industries, showing that there
is good ground to believe that they're
making a new and healthy growth,such
as justifies our farmers and fruit growers
in taking fresh courage and working
with renewed confidence in the future.
Let us now turn our attention to what
at present rank as minor industries.
The growing of fruits other than the
orange, has received a great impetus
from the introduction of Asiatic vari-
eties, which are found to be more easily
acclimated than those derived from the
more northern States. An excepti.in
may be made in the case of grapes, of
which many varieties of northern or-
igin succeed admirably in this State.
Under the leadership of Professor Du-2
bois, of Leon county, the grape growers
are coming to the front, and in a few
years we apprehend they will be disput-
ing titles with the orange growers.
Grapes are exempt from thp numerous
diseases and casualties to which the or-
ange-is subject. Their chief product is
as staple an article of commerce as
wheat. All that is needed to bring them
into extensive cultivation is more gen-
eral information in regard to manage-
ment and the adaptation of varietie.-.
Professor Dubois shows unlimited con-
fidence in this industry and is constantly
enlarging his operations. We expect him
to ml;e thile FARER -NEFRIriT-GPIrO-ER
the medium of futitlier contributions to
'the knowledge of this delightful indus-
try. In plantingyouncg gove- we think
it ,would be au excellent plan to plant
rows of grapes between the orange rows.
Thus-the land may be made to yield a
revenue within two yceai., and water
gro" ing togetlcer for six or eight yeais
(lite one may ieli to the outler accorling
to c IrcmuLI-Qtan'D(,es.
Allied to andi connected with fuit
rowiwiig i the business of preserving
fruit by canning, evapoiating, etc. Here-
tt'oic little its been aittimpted in this
line except in the making of jellies, and
as far as fruits are concerned we do not
know that much more is being done tliis
year. Factories for [lie canning of oys-
teis and fish. have been established re-
cently at Apalachicola, BonifacLo and
St. Lucie, and we believe some parties
are operating with fruits. At any rate,
a new interest is being awakened, and
within a few years we expect to see
most of the canned goods that are needed
for home consumption supplied by home
production. On this subject we shall
express ourself more fully within ashort
Florida's unlimited capacity for fibie
prodtuction.only awaits for development
an improvement in mechanical appli-
ances. These have been afforded in the
case ot palmetto dfire, tbe manuta,:.tuie
of which, as was shown in a recent issue,
is becoming quite an important industry.
The manufacture of moss is being un-
dertaken on a larger scale at Jacksonville,
Sanford, Bonifacy and other places.
Both of these fibres are derived from na-
tive plant;, which:are obtainable in vast
quantity and which serve no other pur-
pose than to beautify the landscape.
Another valuable native resource is the
red mangrove of thb Southerntcoast and
keys. The bark of this tree or shrub. is
wonderfully rich in tannin, and for
industry has been set on foot at Fort
Myers, and the results reported are such
as to encourage the production of this
tanning material for home use, and per-
We have urged for many years past
that Florida's vast supply of timber could
be. made many times more profitable by
manufacture into a great variety of
wooden articles which are imported from
the North. It is gratifying to witness
an increase of enterprise iu this direc-
tion. During the first six months of this
year, according to the Manufacturer's
Record, there were established in this,
State a spoke and handle factory at
Belleview, a bucket factory at Oka-
humpka, a broom factory at Peru and
at Jacksonville, a fenoe factory at San-
ford, wood working factories at Dutton
and Longwood, besides numerous mills
for tho production of shingles and lum-
Besides these manufactories of wood,
we learn from the same authority that
there have been established within the
same period a manufactory of saw-mill
machinery at Tampa, and of hosiery at
Silver Springs. The enterprising people
of DeFuniak Springs contemplate the
establishment of a woolen factory at
that place. This is a promising industry,
for, a large quantity of wool is produced
in Western Florida, and sheep raising
would receive a great stimulus with the
creation of a home market for wool.
The mineral resources of the State,
likewise, are becoming better appreci-
ated. A pottery has recently been estab-
lished at Lake Butler, and brick and tile
works at Tampa. Lime works have been
established at Ocala and Brooksville,
and the shell mounds near Mayport are
being worked again. In Wakulla county
preparations are being made for the
manufacture of the valuable phosphate
rook of that region on a large scale, and
it is not improbable that Florida may be-
come as noted for this valuablesfertilizer
as South Carolina now is. Florida can
produce all the superphosphates and
cotton seed that are needed for home
consumption, and undoubtedly will rd,.
so within a few years.
From what we have shown in this and
the preceding article, we think it is man-
ifest that Florida is on the high road to
prosperity, and that there was never so
much cause for encouragement as now.
We think, t(o'.o, that.the fa, ts ahove citel
prove what we have so persistently
urged, that the destiny :of thle State is
not to be worked out by men of olie idea.
The men of a single idea have had their
day-have done the State good service,
perhaps-but a new era has dawned, an
era of plain and practical ideas, which
though not so alluring and dazzling as
some, are just the ones that will advance
Florida to a cieditabll- position amoug
her sister States.
A FREE ADVERTISEMENT.
If any one can supply what is wanted
by the writer of the subjoined letter, it
will be best to notify him before sending.
It wouldI be rather eml.arta-c-iug to have
copies sent in duplicate.
Editor ,, F ,,,n ,," iii ,, il 'uit-Grower.:
When you started Ihe FARulER AND
FRUiT-GROWER I luckily receive-d one b.of
the first numi)ers as a ample copy."
Later, wile ini Jickl;ousitilie,. I subscribt-ed
for it f.:r one year. but hiad to beliu with
No. 4. 1 never have ecue No-. '. aid 3,
and, as I save every paper and guard
then' as I do my Chamber's Encyclope-
dia, I am willing pay anbbodvy$1 for
these t\onumbeis. "-
Appiteciating thoroughly the great
iter't of youti paper and wishing it lthe
-'greatest circulation."' I am
You-trs respect fully,
CO'NANT, Fla., July 2. 6 ', .
TE FL DA OF THE FUTUE chenists' salaries amount to .$i10,20u
THE FLORIDA OF THE FUTURE, Total amount paid into the treasury from
inspection of fertilizers $78,307.
The Rock Bottom Foundation of Georgia pays a high price to protect
Substantial Prosperity. her farmers against frauds in fertilizers,
S Rond a Pert Fre but it would cost the State and ihe farm-
der FIrt.t Fiie. ,,c."u;t-loiu'e':. ets ten times as much were all the
Viewing Florida in futurity we must swindlers let loose upon the farmers,
no longer indulge in the extravagance of without restraint, to cheat and swindle
the past, picturing oranges and all man- without any' restraint from wholesome
nepr ot tropical fruits as growing almost laws.-Picayune.
in a day, and filling the pockets of the '.
thrftless and indolent with money. We
murt go slow, seeing our way clearly, A Summer CrPOp of Oranges.
We must expect to make our living at The Hernando News reportsas follows:
home. We must grow such truck as Siuce the rainy season set in, a good
may be used at honie, if it will not pay many orange trees in this vicinity and
the producer, the railroad and the corn- on the pine lands of Sumter have
mission man. And that is not all. bloomed out in full. The same phenom-
There are three more fellows to nip at enon has occurred iu other sections of
that truck. You buy some '-sto' bo't" the orange belt, notably a: Or ando.
provisions, and the railroad, the home About Bamboo, Wildwood and Oxford
merchant and all rhe foreruuuing deal- in Sumter, the trees which are in bloom
ers and jobbers, have to have a slice, are old ones, which for. some reason
Now where goes your labor? failed to bloom in the'spring.
I doubt if there be many of you who Representative Chapman, of Sufiter,
realize how enormous is this drain on whose treesarecovered withbblooms,told
this country. We must make a living at this scribe that the fruit from these blos-
tome or we are slaves. You may say soms wopld stand the coming winter
you can't do it wheie you. are. Then better than the mature fruit, and would
leave and go where you 'can, is my remain on the treB. and ripen in May,
honest advice. If we could keep our or- thus giving us a summer crop of oranges
ange money at hbme. Florida would in a. that would sell at fancy prices. Mr. C.,
few years "show up" equal to any of the who has a ip endid grove a Batboo;
Southern States. What made the says he has had a few trees to do this
Southern States? It was cotton. While way before-and that lie wishes all of his
they made "hog aud hominy" at home, trees would do the'same thing'every
the .monied crop was used in making' year, as it would enable him to realize
magniJficent improvements. Buit when twice as much as on winter fruit..' ..
."-..,5 . ,
they quit making bread at home, the
tolls and' interest and profits to Tom,
Dick and Harry, eat up their substance
and came near ruining the land, though
middle men prospered and grew fat
The lesson has been learned a nd tihe
nbw dispensation is at hand. Stoc'-. gr.uss
and grain, is the watch word. Fl:ii.la
orange growers must realize the neces-
sity at once of a* new departure.
Oranges must be a secondary considera-
tion. Speculators must go to the wall.
Middle men and sharks must obey the
injunction, "Earn thy bread by the sweat
of thy face." Merchants can no longer
charge 30 to 60 per cent. on the goods
they sell to us, for we can not pay it.
We can only indulge in the necessaries
-such as we cannot ;,ao',-an.i we
must buy these from first 1,a1n-Is. TheiIE
is no margin that we can spare.
Do you agree with me, and ask how
to begin the reform? Well, here it is.
Let each family at once procure two
cows at least, twenty-five is better, but
you need not feed but two. Now don't
buy commercial fertilizer, but buy ;u. h
cow feed as you cannot grow. Fill your
pens with litter and make compost.
Keep cow peas growing in your grove
and make pea vine hay. Plant chufas
for cows, chickens, pigs and children.
Cabbage is good food for man or
beast, and will grow anywhere. If
you can sell them, do so; if not, be
independent and feed them. Keep a
brood sow or two and keep her gentle
and learn them to expect to be fed every
night. Wild razor backs are "no good."
A flock of twenty-five hens will give
enough eggs for one small family, and
the feed must be raised at home. A few
goats are a good source of fresh meat,
and can be kept easier than sheep. I
know several parties who keep goats to
pen land in place of cows, and a large
breed I would as soon have as cattle.
If a stranger to the way we live reads
this; he will be surprised to think that
we don't all keep this stock, and he will
wonder why. Yes, echo answer;. Whi?
Now, there will not be more whyimg
about it, for we will have it to do. All
other rural districts have come to it. It
is the way to live in the country, and
the only way to prosper. It looks
"small" to some people when they first
come to Florida, but they live to find it
"large" in the end. In this country,
with all its oranges and delightful
climate, a comfortable home is only thus
to be made.
Yours for the new way, -
Wt. P. NEELD.
The Farmers' Alliance.
The National Farmers' Alliance and
Co-rpt rati'. e tTuin ;n Laling ralid
stri.ie- in the Souith. oveilhad.:,'wiin e--
er'ithinge il=e in that line. As we have
received numerous inquiries regarding
the aims and purposes Of the order, we
applied to E. B. Warren, Esq., the secre-
tary of the National Alliance, at Waco,
Tex., for information, which he gives in
tie form of a circular, from which re
COuiJeni-e as follows:"
.1, It is exclusively, a whiti- man's
order, and is also a secre-t society.
2. No pt-ion is eligible to meritetiship
\rli;.e'-bust re- d,,es it. itn arro uuize w ill.
and operate as an auxili-irv to fatninug.
The order aims to labor for the educa-
tion of the agricultural cig se;, in the
science of ec.-Jnouical govet irueut, in a
strictly n-n.-partisan spirit, to develop a
better state, mentally, morally, socially.
and financially.- To create a better un-
drtandiiudg f,.,r sustaining civil rfficer;-
in maintaining law and order. Tocon-
stantiy strive to secure harmniv and.
good will among ai. To suppress all
l,,al, sect;orial aadI. national pi-judiker:
all uLnhealthtfli t-iralV and ambition.
Its laws are reason and equity, its car-
dinal doctri'nes inspii pu ,IIty of thought
aud life, its intitention is peace ou entli
and g,:i:d will to men.
A sutficieut number- of subordinate
alliances having been organized in the
State ct Missisiippi. a pioclamnation from
tile National Alliance has been issued au-
titorizing them to inaugurate a State
J APAN CLOVER AND TURF GRASS.
(Lespedeza striata and Paspalum platyeaule.)
Illustrated and described 11 FLORIDA FAnMxa
AND FRUIT OBOWER.
Supplied at 81.00 per thousand,
T. K. GODBEY; Waldo, Florida.
. Genuine Washington and Double Imperial Navels
MAITLAND NURSERIES. "
Order Now if you wish to be in time. -
We offeror Fall and Winter Deliver a. choIce'
Jot -of GENUINE WASHEINGTOK AAVELS
Also, the VILLA-YFRANOA,bestand bardiest ot
Lemons. Also, Early Spaanish, Jl'a, Majorca,-. *
Malta Oval, and nearlyrall varieties of Orange, .. "
Lemon.. and Lime We also offer for he ..
drat time to Florida orange growers tlhe. : .
DOUBLE IMPERIAL NAVEL,
Most Prollfc Navel known, and the. .. :... .- ."
ATWOOD'S SEEDLESS 'NA'VEL.::-.- "
KED..EY CAR-.EY. -'. ..-.
Winter Park, Orange dounfyT, Fla '.:..'
S END YOUR .:..- _: ,- ...
.* TO TarE TiMe~-_0 NI JOEB^OO. :- 3'
." ". -,, .
., : : .,.. -. .+ ,-
Hints to CorreDspondents.
Thereader, of the FLOLRIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROW WER are re.pe':tt(dly in-
vited toL-citriiut, to its colunns articles
a rid n>.te3 ..:'i all su ,j'ctt pertaining to
tie fai', garden. or'abard anid house-
hoid daair';. The Iange of topic' which
will ie 'iscussedl in tiis journal may be
!athiered from the':ubjjiueid table, which
ima v'.-i re tOtutgesl wh_,at might other-
1i.se escape attention :
Cleaith:1_ l.od, ldrainii,- land, cri:ops for
new laud. -.:u:ee`io'n orf crops, inte-sive
farming, treatment of different soils,
irrigation, s..ili.- \s. pasturing, cow-
penning. gre-u uanuiring.
E" tiL I,:' A.NMAt..
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs. sheep,
goats, poultry-Breeds, feed, di.eagees,
treatment.. : :
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, acid-
perplhosphAte, gypiuim. lime, kaiuit,
alies. marl, muckh leaf mrouid, com-
FORAGE CROPS. -
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass -
Guinea: grass, Terrell grass, or-rcitard
grass, red-top grass. J.ohbuson grass. Texas' -,
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
millo maize, -affir corn. tec,,inte. oig-I
hum, f:.dder cu'ri, cow p-as, det'moldi-
um, Mexican clover, lesptieza, alfalfa,
Corn, oats, rye, wheat, rice-VYarieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment. .
Cotton-Long and Short Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, inaiketing, manage-
ment of seed, products from the seed.
Sugar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobw.o-Varieties, histoTy in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture, manu-
S FRUITS. .
Citrus Frittim-Comparison of vaiie-
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, method s of planting ,-
dud cultuie, c:,umparative e-ffect- 'if fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit, wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plim. Kelsey plurm, native plum, mul-
berry, qjuince, apricot, guava, banana. :
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada
pear, cocoanit, pecan, English walnut,
almond, .pomegranate olive, grape,
strawberry, bla:kiberry, raspberry-Va-
rieties, effects of soil, weather, etc.
methods of culture.. -
NATIVE tREE*- AND HERBS.: : -
Planting trees fo.r ornament or utility,
the burningo over of forest lands,, the
lumber and turpentine industriiep. the
t.inuiug ihIlusty. :hein-Mena of plant
life. weels and1 noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimuens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is -
.lesiret-d rei-recting popular names and
Plants adapted to this climate, o'bt-
dooi cuitui,, management of green-
INSECT ENEAuIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES
Nature tf damage done and remedies.
Bee; and bee plants, silk culture and
the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
and dog laws. fences anI roads, legisla-
tion fior farmers, homestead laws, trans-
portation, a-arketing produce, experi-
mental farms, agricultural education,
homet maniufactutes, natutial history
of Florida. historic point.s. sanitary ad-
vice, taim buildings, house furnishing,
farm macbiuerv, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
cipes for cooking, home decorations
household economy. mineral, and earths,
climatology, hints on the care of chil-
dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
In tre-ating of the above and related
subjects, practical experience is much to
be reterired to theoretical knowl-
edge; yet there are topics needing dis-
cussion which have to be treated of
from a somewhat theoretical stand-
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly iun praise of special localities unless
claims s to favorare based on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animate.] or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
concise and as much to the point as pos-
All communications for the 'editorial
department should be addressed to
EDITOk FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
Georgia and her Fertilizers.
According to the report. of the Coim-
luiisiouer of Agriculture for IG 86';,
Geor'gin lias had inspected in the la'-.t
year lI6'i7i tons of fertilizers, Y2- man-
Tb,., cost of inspecting her fertilizers as
r-poited, amounted to $,4.';30-this in-
cludes luspectors' tags, expi-ess charges,
drasage, etc. The receipts coming to tLue
State Treasury from all inspections
amount to $,i3,i;39. Inspectors' and
. __ .
-... ... .-
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. AUGUST 10, 1887.
H, EIEN HARCOURT-
SWithl a helping hand and a Weic
Who wish to be friendly and mak
With words of good counsel for o
Who come to us seeking the best
All questions of general int
.answered through these column
Personal'inquiries will be ans
when accompanied by stamp fo
Subscribers are cordially lnn
seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex
experiences and recipes of m
S"Belp ye one another."
Communications intended fC
must be brief, clearly written,
Sone side of the paper..
All matter relating to this
*-should be addressed-to
EDITOR OUR HOME]
S Fla. Farmer and Fru
Our Cosy .Corn
.. ;. ": 'OPEN SESAME,"
Sand in walks our first visit
ferior sex., "a quiet, well bel
man," however, sisters. a
him to a-seat within our cha
and allow him to "speak up
just like the rest of us. He
hut not the iast, for others
knocking and asking permits
their hearts and polish up
inside Our Cosy Corner, and
have so much warmth and
liancy to spare, we will e'en
inious, and let those poor:ni
portion of our surplus, a: co
for which they will doubllt
SEditor Our Home Circle:
-. 'Shut the door" is heard
mou t hs in the yearat the NO
eat becomes accustomed to
Sand, like the roaring of a cal
Shum of a factory, k it situd
he who ib asleep will awak
.. ida, for most ot the time,
Needed to keep out the cold,
the col and refreshing bre-
flies and mosquitoes take a
t he openings, so every w
House has from one to ad
self-shutting, banging and t
: machines called "screen
had one between kitchen
room, and by actual count
fifty-four times while suppe
[We sympathize fully w
re4pondeni. The head-spli
tearing, slam-bang cof th
c. reen door i- terrible to the
mate, and a po-.itive injuI
vous or to the invalid. Bu
remedies for it in a g-teat m
is, ,to train each inmate of
l.olMi on to the door unti
: cl.-sed, not to let it fly b
a: in:ither is to tack ntiipsof
or "list" along the edge of t
Another, to tack io the con
door-framie or door small p
InJia rulb'er shoes todeade,
I have taken it down, and
several pounds in weight. i
up to'my usual "hLeft."
I want something theap a
stop this banging, and' w
recipe or opening a dloor.I
why any one can open a d
have one that binds a little
damp weather. I have -een
eous try three or four times
and almost break it fionm
when if they would oulytic
a little downward pressure
come the difficulty, and there
door is bound at the bottn
Examine the door and rub
binds with a piece of hard
[Better still, ease the bin
or chisel: close the door. aiud
not see exactly where it p
visiting or other card alone
mark the sinner. S-ometim
door sags and rubs on tb
hinges are the trouble, and
ing of a screw is the remedy
To open a screen door wh,
are full is more difficult.
knob with your teeth, and
til you can introduce one
opening; give it a flop side
troduce as much of your
possible before it dies'back
a kick and make another
not too far; now bend your
Fully forward at an angle of
Five degrees, which will
doorfrom hitting your hee
or.two-steps forward and V
If you are going out. form
. I fSave another suggest
Sutdlize.some of our tin cans
I punch several small hol
tornnot larger than one-el
'inch. -Set the cans- by the
-- plant which needs "water,
S.. inches in the ground. --.The
..water; thelsoil 6v-er bakes
can waiter diny time of day,.
much less time and betterI
"than-tO 6hae it applied o 0-t
S- TANGERINT: July 20, 1887
i..Andlherejis -our Soutf-. F
(-co "e tookeep her promise-
ivarof" making a. mosquito
:to acknowledgdrthht. ne nee
in-Florida,..bht we do-just
~ ~ outg:>.% -F1
-nnp MICC-o, Breva
*'Dea-6 fQoicSt-- Thi'.-en- '- ',.en
i.-' Tfisi;s howJI make "a" not
:- comfort- -.Take forty .leet
.ton -; abou-t- tweni ty-eight., i
-s^ew two'.sixteen-feet strips
"ahdtftie 6ther beight lteet: pi'
"sa&w.on the side,'1 so'as-tio-gi
*cloth seventyincehes B~y sist
"onfe*ead~iof~thjsmak a heni
Tdaep,;etght 'feet from- hem
*iohneiinck:defp across the wii
.forthe. roofatn'h'head'end o
I take a whole. piece of mc
eight yards-long and tw6"-r
fr tom of the bar; this answers for a weight "can give the name of a real good churn
(t, to keep it down. By having the curtain -first-class." We are on that very trail
plain at the foot (along the hem), you in the Family Friend below, and while
have some fulness for the sides. Join to we describe such an one, those who de-
Editor. the head-piece square. If a strip of cot- sire full particulars must send us one cent
ton is tacked on the wall the width of, stamp for circular.
,omo for all
Sus a cal; the bar and seven feet high, it is easy to Mrs. C. H. B., Lawtey, Fla.: Your
ld friends and pin the bar to it by the tuck. In the favor received and welcomed. See next
new, hem I have a stick, and at each end a issue.
war to do-
erest will be cord .to fasten it to the ceiling. This
ns. size bar is for a double bed. Give me a The Family Friend.
weredbymail bar that I'm not afraid of letting a toe DAIRY UTENSILS
)r rely. DoutUT N f
vited to take a peep out from the covering this hot We are ready now to empty our corn-
,change views, weather.
mutual benefit. Under the bar I have a little lamp ucopia of-dairy utensils at the fet f out
.or publication stand, made of a biscuit box on end, and "anxious inquirers," and to answer the
, and only on with a shelf in. It is covered where not question as to the best and- most labor
open with three fringed flounces of white saving for family use. The celebrated
a department cotton. It is handy to keep your book "rec
fl-CIRCLE, etc., in if you want to read after retir- it is not needed except by those whose
E-liCt-Growe, ing business it is to make butter extensively
[ontclair, Fla. -I wish the Florida sisters would put for sale.
their wits to work and see what useful There are several churns that have re-
rarticles they can make of palmetto. It cr-ived numerous medals at fairs and ex-
is-le,-- surprising what things can be maIde of hibitions, and are-well worthy that dis-
it. I am willing to give l y way of mak- tinction.
ir of the in-ing baskets, mats,-etc., at any time.- But for all that, unless we are much
have inen bake Yt ts, at a d Ti e mistaken, and (l ike other folks) we are
*hayred gentle- Yours truly,
o we invite rais. W. J.hN. sure we are not, a rival'has of late en-
at-med circle, right! Let our teters "put thideir Wit tered the arena that must 6utstrip all
ai meet in'ce tope tv-i t ur Sitter "wspe s- ti competitors; be they who or what they
in. me.etin" 'to w7,I"-and their hand, ditto, in this may
is tie at a t palmetto business-there is a real indus- It is a recent invention, only patented
have beDe try there waiting to be developed. The a year ago, jet it hasalready elicited the
vision to war I trouble is, that there are more scholars wonder and astonishment of all who
their rvioA taeLb iers n hi beir.n wode An astonishe ntu ofpalatu whoc
their bains than teachers in this branch, and we have testedit, or seen it in operation.
as we sisters ihope-that our Sister N. will speedilyfas- It was on exhibition at the recent New
sto, much. bril- sume the latter role, and tell us all she York Dairy and Cattle Show, and this is
be magnan- knows, about it. from the gathering and what the New York Record, a journal
enr imbibe a curing the palmetto to the grand finale, devoted to inventions and manufactures,
condescension p has to say about it after a personal ex-
ss bACheering Letter. aninati6n: "We chronicle to-day the
e icnes tt itetter e w no te ho o advent of a wonderful apparatus which
-o o We confess that it is with no plittleson-makes the finest butter from milk in two
so often eight est i pride-notof egotistical self-satisfac- minutes, with little or no labor, and our
north, that the tion, but that properpridethat the work- joy over the announcement is tempered
o the sound, 'antakes in a piece of work well done- with regret that we were not born later,
tract or busy that e comply with the writer's request or the invention earlier."
idenly stop, and publish the following portion of a At the exhibition at the American In-
ke. In Fo:,- letter lately received from one of our stitute, 1886, the wonder attracted much
doors aie not subseribers a gentleman), to us person- attention, and was made the subject of
, but to let in ally unknown, and hence an impartial elaborate and extended tests by a eom-
ze. But thie critic. mittee of the Institute-resulting in the
advantage of Both the Home Circle and the FLORIDA fullest endorsement, and the award of
veil-reg elated FARMER AND FRUIT-GROwER return the "Medal of Excellence." In the re--
ozen rickety, thanks for the generous dkindliness ex- port of the committee the following facts
,eadl-spli ti-T pressed: b are brought out:
dool.-" W e e* Te buwineshh eof e eo I g ing ac- "The claim of the inventor thatbutter
and (lining- complished, I cannot refrain fro a lit- can be made from sweet milk in two
t it slammed tie chat and to add a few words appre- minutes. and from crsweetam inless time,
ar was being ciative of the manner in which you are -was fully sustained. In this test the
conducting the Home Circle. Rarely are Wond r-was used in competition with
;ith our cor- the useful, pleasant and bright more several of the best churns in the coun-
itting, nerve- happily mingled. The stories, for in- try." Expert butter makers agreed that
e prevailing stance, ofuPicaro and Jack are charming the quality of the butter was equal to the
e healthyiin- idyls. The bird hero and the feline he- best. For ease.and quickness in gather-
y to the" er- roine are invested with some of the high- iug and removing the butter, the Won-
it there are eat, purest and best of human traits. der greatly excels the churn. It is more
eaare. One Everything they did was done as per- easily kept clean and sweet, andinvolves
the house t-,, fectly as if dictated by a high intellect, much less labor in every way.
"u the n I e am suvrtle ifwe trieae ourdomtesticaniO-- ffadcfeo te oetcue
I it is almost I a sure we treated our domestic an- One advantage of the facility in pro-
ack at wvill- im s. with -the tenderness and consid- during butter from sw eet -milk is that a
thick flannel eration you gave your pets, we should farm-that only-keeps one or two cows
he door; still generally firndJ i; t-r the same wonder- can turn the milk into butter at once
r-ers of the ful intelligence., afe(tion and fidelity without waiting, f-r the cream to rise,
ices ot ol d which. t isiuch limited iu, anepe, are, leaving tthe imainder sweet enough for
i thE nosie.- neve thele- troru tjanife tatiou- of tea and coffee, or other domestic use.
mind and heart. If the cream has risen on the milk, or
I havegain-d *- Such wtitiugz please. ie old as-wellas -if even the milk has soured, the sour
but still am the ,s cung. the effect i-on the young milk and ream, or sour and sweet milk
must certainly be to mate. tli .tnior'e cand hrecutnedatogtlior, and theebutter
a id pcltunnem t o ig the r and t he butter-
auI simple to careful observers of the habits and will all be iwe-et, and in flavor superior
i ,ive my harateritics of animals, and al so to t,, that of any other butter. It, will pr,-
It is simple- make them rnore gentle towards them, duCe it to i topeIr ,ent. mot e butter trom
oleer well. I While the Fa-rtm'R aNt, Frtumr-G(- wIRnR. itk arIl .'a to .6 pr cent. more from
at the top in is leading its in the evety-day paths of cream tian any other churn. It is not
a d ,r, agriculture. it is alcconst .,ty showing neewsary .to 1:-ring the milk tea very low
st ti(pen it. Ls the many new and good things in temperatule. az the buttertwill form per-
the hinr.es, store for Florida. its home dEpartment tectsi at the temperature of weil water,
)p and think, is not -lesc atlve in its n u-isi-ou ot imi- tIuiSavtiug tie expenseeoh ice. Fur this
would ovEr- proving and sweetening domestic life. r-aiorn the vstemn s especially adapted
reverse if the Of course, shelter, food and raiment, ate tr,,pical t l'imates.
revese i Lbetotropical climnateE.
i, ra;se it up. the first tequisite,; but the family re- Now ,ur readers wil easily see that
the part that quir'es itiellectnal and moral tooe albo. this is thie very churn we want in Flor-
soap or tal- "Man s-hall not live by btead alone, but ida, no-t only because it is a labor and
Ly every word that ptioceetletl, out ot tiW,-. aver ithe best butter iu two miu
d with plae the mouth of God." Besides the Book ute. just- think 1f it!. but also because
Sith poulcan :'f Books.? the whole realm of nature, all t milk dues not need to be brought to
SCh'sf you can- that is put- in art', thought, feeling. sen- a certain ,degre of coolness, whider with
inches. ron timeut are God's words, and home, be it many of u is simply impossle
g-thlat n-ill .-- a -~oc' many of us is simply impossible
-- when the r so homely, is .-ue ,:f the choicest in summer, where ice cannot be had,
*e hill, loose places wherein t fee, upon- them nad where it can be nO one wants to he
the tighten- o e Biddig you and yoiu'r o-wo kers God de-pendent: on it, if it canr, be h-dped: it is
th-Ei I renian the -hurn we want also. becau,-ei the
'n both hands Yours respectfully. milk cau be churned sweet, and that is a
Giasp the AL.P__ L. great gain where the quantity is limited
pull back u- ad thesamemilk isneeled to make but-
foot into the Answers to Correspondents. ,ter. and also for the table.
wavys and in- H. Von L., Earlto:n, Fla.: Application In raising cieam for butter, the milk
anatomy as for girl placed on file: t-it for boy al- sours and can only be used! as sour milk,
- then give it ready on file. Many thanks for your but in the wonderful churnr the butter is
advance, but kindly expressions. n made. and the milk is sweet andgood for
body grace- Mis. J. D. P.. Fernaudina: Applica- drinking. for coffee, baking, puddings,
C about forty lion for two giris fled. Inquiries an- or whateveryou like.
prevent the sweredl y mail of the 24th July. And it is just the name--butter comes
'is, then one L. H. A., Ocean Grove, N. J.: Your in twio or three minutes, winter or sum-
you are safe. favor at hand, but ciowided out of this mert; the wonder has a most perfet con-
Syour angle issue b& pressure of earlier tuatter. Ac- tempt for thle weather, so its owner can
cept our hearty thanks. Truiist you re- afford to feel the same.
ion-how to ceived letter mailed July 21?st. And then it makes ice cieam just as
R. J. W., MountDora: Yoursat hand. well as it does butter, almost as quickly
eo in the bot- See next imsue. Your second "call" as too: put the cream in the machine, sur-
ighth. of an welcomed as the first: come again, round it with ice, let it stand a few mo-
side'-of -any Dr. J. C.. N., Archer, Fla.: "-Purple ments to ,eol, then turn the crank five
, one or two Mattress" w.il be for the next time. Glad minutes and you are done, so is the
-se fill with to hear from you. cream.
0i top. Y'ot i- Mrs. W. J. N.. Micco, Fla., who sent You may think this wonder worker is
and do. it.i us the directions for the plate rack, pub- very expensive; it is not, that is oneofits
for the plant lished. in- our issue of the 13th July, strong points. Thie priceasked for it islese
he surifae. w'vlits: "I see in the description of the than for an ordinary one purpose churn.
UNCLE Jo. plate rack a misprint, viz: instead of The smallest, No. 1, holds five quarts,
. : taperingg to five inches at the bottom.' churns from one pint to three quarts
,lorida sistr-, it should '.be -at the top.' I'm afraid of milk or cream, and costs -$. The No.
to fel us ber there.would bie a fall in crockery if the 2 churns from one to eight quarts, and
o bar. Sorry b'odd end w-ere at the top." costs $10l.00l. There are others that
sll-'u-htings" : Aslthe Dutchman said. "I'm afraid so churn up to thirty quarts, hut few of us
once a year neider." -,We trust thnt tbe bottom has in Florida have any use lot- these.
--.- -_....hnor vet-fal]eoiur .c-f the crockery retail So much for the churn that is "first-
rdCo Fla business in consequence of the mistake best:" 'e feel that there is no need to
-o. .o-, "a. alluded to. Somebody did it. but whether look further, so we move on to the next
:-'., -- the' na'ughty'printers" or the "naughty point, the "butter worker."
iquito bar-for editot," wdcannot.'sa-, and we don't like There are several makes of these, all
of-light cot- to say whathwe-f&ar, "cause- excellent, but there is one that disinter-
inches wide- ..F. B; C; '*oorriaburg, Ontario, Canada: ested parties acknowledge to be the
aside.by side, Inquities answered fully bv mail of *27th nearest perfection. "tor pressing out the
ece spltt and July;. .'= -= _' buttermilk and working in the salt,"
re-a-piece, of -., Mrd.-C._W.'RT,' Monterede. Fla.: Ap- says our report, "they sut pass every-
,eda feet.,On ) licat.ion filled. -Replied by huail of 24th thing; they combine all the best points
[l ti-o.nibhes Jtuly.,-: We-believe-that most of the re- of the level afid roller workers, with
put a- tuck cent-bdckntumbers of the FLORIDA FAR- none of their objectionable features."
dth. -This isa 5R AND-Fn'T.GRowgO can be-had. The smaller sizes, for family use..costing
f bar.-"NowA F. A. F., New York: .Thanks for in- from $6.00 to $10.10, and working ftoiu
asquito -et4 *foirmatioh'ent.-;;._ eight to forty pounds of butter at a time,
ards'wide-(I B..J."H;,,Maitland, Fla : Application have, -folding legs, _so as to be easily
temQqaqitoes fort .lrl receivdd.- Replied--by mail of folded away when not in use, and making
it's.wa-wid'th. tbe;2th 'JtlybJu'ndweawait johr further their own bench when.they are in use.
^'s^.the 'oof, directions.,.---'.'.-"' :"- -" _. Everyone who mtkes enough butter for
t.for-th'e."hot' -.L, N..G. N "ForItvets, FIa ,asks if we family use ought to have one of these Im-
-f - : .-=?=-; ,- "'- .'* .'r -/_ -. .. .> : -
--str!' .--' '': ' : % ; 2 --f s.. ., -, i _... _* -
- .- -
. -- = L -- -- .. :- -
Bees and Queens.
Oriider- whli :L- booked na or dto, lldrlvry dur-
inj Aprill. May or June, -:r' iuy auplrior race
of pure : ..
:: Italian t0sanl QilOOII8.
proved Eureka Butter Workers to save'la-
bor and make the best article. They are
easily and rapidly operated. There is an
old style Eureka, but you don't want
that. Then you must have a butter
ladle and spade: the ladle costs twenty-
five cents, and the spade thirty cents.
If you want to press your butter -into
bricks and print it, there is a neat little
machine to do that,Atoo (really, what is
there not?), a lever press for pounds and
half pounds, with a self-gauger, which
'veivhs the butter, presses it and prints
it, all at once; not expensive are they
either, the half pound press costing
$ t5.ii. the full p,-trin press, .: s .5$.51
Anyvthing m:-rer Yes, to be sure, the
milk pail. Tlii-re t: a "best" here, lo,
in a recent tiiventioi, which hasa core-r
on the pail, and forms a seat for the
milker, and a spout with a funinel end.
tti-:ugii which the milk flows into the
pail, hence keeping dirt out. This is the
perfection of a pail, price $2.25.
And, well, that's all. We sent'out our
white winged messengers when the "big
cousin came pleading for help (the first
of several, as it happens), and we prom-
ised it, Have we kept our word?
S. HOMINY FRITTERS.
Cook the hominy well; let ;'t boil down
pretty thick before using; add to -ne
quart of boiled hominy about ha.If-.a cup-
ful sweet milk, one egg. a little salt and
flour enough to fry and turn without
running, only enough lard required in
frying to prevent burning; too much
milk and flour toughens them.
Our Young. Folks' Corner.
ITS STANDING OFFER.
A nice picture book each month to the boy
or girl who sends usthe largestlistof subscrib-
ers for "THE FLORIDA FARMER Am)N FRuIT-
GROWER" during that month.
A beautifully bound copy of the famous
children's -oagazine, St. Nicholas, to the boy
or girl whe sends us the largest number of
subscribers daring six months.
Write us letters descriptive of places, things
or doings; write us on one side the page; give
The best letter received will be published
Now go to work and see who wins.
We're all glad to hear from our Uncle
Doctor again. This- time he tells.. the
true story of
THE PURPLE MARTIN.
These useful summer visitors leave us
next week. They have been talking of
the trip for a month, and at full moon
they will start on their long journey of
perhaps four thousand miles southeast.
Two weeks ago they left boxes and
gourds and literally took to the woods,
for about a month's drill and review.
The little birds began flying in June, at
first short trips early and late, but
always returning to the boxes at night.
Now they are on the wing most of the
day under the watchful care of the older
birds, who usually fly above, apparently
cheering the babies by 'encouraging
chirps and cries.
Let-a "killyhawk" venture around, the
whole colony assails the intruder, peck-
ing viciously at his eyes as they swiftly
pa.s him-no use yelling "Killy, killy,"
the only safety is in ignominious flight,
aud the unwieldy crow is an object of
almost pity -when the margins attack
All over the United States the martins
of each neighborhood will assemble, on
the evening of the 8d ofAugust, in the
top of some dead tall tree, or on a house-
toot', and itf you are listening it will
oundl like a- feminine tea-fight-beg
pardon-or a caucus of very effusive
pai tisan politicians. No doubt they dis-
cuss t he routes and lunch places, as well
as the various destinations. It is a long
two weeks' journey, flying nearly ctn-
While nesting the martins live in iso-
latrd pairs, but in July they change their
habits and flock together, roosting on
dead trees in the country and in trough-
ing ou root's iu cities. Morning and
night they practice a "squadron drill,''
wheeling in regular lines, flying in long
oval iicti-ts-like tcavairy driil in the
air. At this time, too, they change their
notes-nio mnire chatter or French talk,
but plaini 'hirpin- without.'giace notes."
Tlie morning of the 4th only a few
feeble, or lat- hatched birds will remain
and they will oou go. I remember one
morning in August long ago. I had been
out viitiiing a parieut, and at daylight i L
heard tihe familiar chirps of a martin.:
He was ten clays late. I answered the
call, the bird swooped down for an in-
stant and then. with a shrill cry,swiftly
continued his journey to the southeast.
ThIey return pretty regularly to their
northern homes. Inu oune instance there
was a martin box over an old fashioned,
swinging hotel sign, and the martin bad
a deformed claw that marked her plainly,
for ten years that bird occupied the
same box, and on the 4th of Marbch,
about noon, a crowd of villagers used to
gather to see her come flying slowly and
low from the earth, to her box. Many a
time I have watched that old bird and
wondered what stories she could tell of
lauds beyond the sea.
In 197) tihe first martin was seen Feb-
uarv 20; in 18,9 Feb. 26; in lii80, Feb.
24; in 1'381. March 4: in 18-?. Feb. 20; in
l1$3, Feb. 15; in 18V4, Feb. 16; in 1t85,
Feb. 14; in 1886, Feb. 2?; in 1887, Feb.
1': about as regular as most of our win-
These birds are nearly invaluable to
the'good housewife who raises chickens
the old way. No hawk ventures to in-
trude if there be a strong colony of mar-
tins near by.
Martins are choice as to nesting places,
oddly preferring a few gourds hung on a
tall pole to a fine box perched on a board
teof. They fear cats and rats, I pre-
As insect eaters they-have-few equals,
and for this reason alone, they" deserve
our care. They do not always discrImi-
nate between the "apis"- and the
"musca,"-aud prey upon our friends,
the dragonflies, but. who of us are free
from faults? Let us kindly wish our
martins a pleasant trip and a safe return
nest year. -- UNCLE DOCTOR.
Su-rYsrtg, July 20, 1887.
Give me- a trial order : .
For prlI'c or oti., r i t':'riM aii',n. address
H. 0C. HART,
En%li. Orantge Co., Fla.
Missii iYalloy Poilty Yars,
SJ. FLEIC1IER HI'URLEY, Prop'r,
Breeds Prize Winsiing
Plynmotli hRtoeks, Wyandottes, Brown
Leghoriis and Bronze Turkeys.
GOOD FOWLS FOR SALE AT ALL TIMES.
EGGS IN EA.,CON .
Won nil tlie Leadinig Prizes aI ihe
Norlh M inisisippi Poultry Show at
Water Valley, Feb. 9 to 12,1887.
Farmers wishing to improve their stock can
gri SPECt tL BARGAINS of me. I also sell a
. Fi.rst-Class Incubatrj
Poultry Journals and Books at Reduced Prices.
Iend for Catalogue and Price List, free; or
write for wants.
Please mention this paper.
Pancy Poultry an Hunting Dogs,
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated- Land
and Water Fowl.
-$I rPEE, 13-
Also Thoroughbred Young Setters andRHounds.
Address VILLA ZZA POULTRY-.YARns, -
Suited to the Soil and Climate of
Grown and for Sale at
SAN LUIS AND ANDAJU1IA
Near TALLAHASSEE, Fla., ,
E. DUBOIS, Manager.
Send for Catalogue and order early. Send, also,
* for Price List of
", ALL VARIETIES OF
bRiAGE AND LEMON TREES.
Buds not placed on small .stocks, but on extra
S large and fine ones. .
W e i--ae a. els. .'ei ilti of tue
-- -EARLY SPAN1ISHI .RANGE----.
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and -
and can show trees ol .the latter that stood the
cold last wlnlt- ri a weLl as tna, C ,'- i&i, an :-.
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
<;~ f.i ( t(i:. Eue \ -
Ef;.,r Cats gee "-
KEDNEY & C.EY,.
Queens by mLail a apeISlii:tl.
$1 a Year; 50 cents for
AU'Sample Copies of all Free to any
.* .*,' .**. /. ) '..
W"'Send ror circular siring description of the
Princely Premiums offered o su6b-
scribers to the
ROYAL PALM NURSERIES.
Rare rin-pical, c.,naInetai and fruit l'entu! c
Openn antu-:iLtlU' in Fji:i,.Ja, r ao fr the ort-nb-r
ariouLlou6 e. AIo, a fULLL hn of semi--tronpi:t
ir,-,-, plants ando ,rasses, anti general auU-'eC:;
Sro3'k adapted to Florda find the Sontn
Exr-llea from Inliha, AWtferalba andi tbe Wc.i
lndies, mhny of teem n-yer before ,rtroduco
Ino) theb ULnitd States.
Tuile ci't ciample-e desi.Iu'e cstali:-: o0.
tr-ploal and cimi-iroi.ical plaInts piuolh-- u
Aiesict. Catatlog'le luile-, po,1t-p.,ai0J, cn i.-
ceipl_ of I- cents. 1-re tc. all customers-.
Nurseries of the Milwaukee-Florida Orange Co.
DUNEDIN, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, FLORIDA.
We nui kr a s-ecialtyof dthe distictive varieties or Citrus Nursery Trees, such as Double
Impert;l, Riverside Ibuddc personalUy selected by a member of our Compsacyin Califorima'i, and
Washington Navels, Maltese Blood, Hart's TardLff, Du Rot, Jaffa, Starlk's Seedless, Tangerine, .
etc. In Lemons we hare Villa Franca, Bela'r Prenium, Sicily Genoa and Eareka. Alao, Tahiti
Limes Pennaes (Biriweal's Earla, etc.), Plums, White Adratic Figs, etc., etc.
6Our Stock Is Ilarige and complete, thj-idfty and clean. Calalowne free on appU cation.
Address, A. L. DUNCAN, Manager, Danedin, Da.
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.,
JA.OICSO r-VILLE-, FLA--., : ..' -F:T
PRODUCE AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
DEALERS IN GARDEN AND FIELD SEEDS.-
We are now prepared to furnish ...- '
FRESH TURNIP AND CABBAGE SEEDS. .': : ..
To any quantity desired, and as the season advances will have a full supply of-'-- .:.
all seeds used in this climate; ." .' -... -
.Catalogue sent. free on application. ;' -: --.:
.-- - .- -- .
"- ... --- -." '. -f.t .- .- ."
": .- -:. -K j- -.:-, u. '% ---
_.-- -. = ---- -.. -i~ r ~ ,,t .,.-S
:41 ..- .-: -- .- -.. Q,, ~ w -
-- *' .- -v : -."- fir-. -:..- L' ;-=, = .-w 'r
. ., .
WG- TL- O-'.EA.T -W-
--.' r= j _' -
FOR THE PEOPLE. -
./ AN EIGHTF-PAGE PAPE. .?
Has the Exclusive`Franchise oi t n
ASOCIATET PRESS KDESPATCDES,
thi- LargeEt an.- OrJdy Ell-,e:r News Ac rx-ice ta
A SPECIAL TELEGRAPHIC SERVICE
and the most complete
FROM ITS OWN CORRESPONDENTS.
from all the Leading Cities of the tUnion, dur-
ing the season, are indispensable to every
Fruit Grwer, and- are worth io Ea.:b one
who naa ; -ad7 mn-i twenty rimes ;.
t [ e p i-,'-i -i the i.ajer. -Its .:.
are also full and complete.
One Tear. S10. Six BIlontuhs,5. Three
.Lonlhs.82.50. One -Moulh, I1.
*_.- : -- m ':. ^ '*":
FLORID# WEEKLY TlltES.
* '. EIGHT PAGES .'.:. ',
Lstne Belt aa'i Cluap'e.a- Weeklr in the b SouthL
C.ntains the C.'ream ot the Dadly for teu week.. -
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. AUGUST 10. 1887.
A disease which' seems to be quite
prevalent in the Southwest is thus treat-
ed of by a correspondent of the Pica-
As the carbon has just made its ap-
pearance in some portions of New Or-
leans, and has been working a great
damage in other sections of the State of
late, I inclose the following method of
treating the disease, that has been tried
by Dr. Tichenor, of this city, and found
very effective. In speaking of the sub-
ject, Dr. Tichenor writes follows:.
This disease is caused by septic poison
introduced into the system by flies feed-
ing upon a diseased carcass and imme-
diately after attacking the first passing
animal. If the fly succeed in drawing
blood the animal is vaccinated with the
poison remaining on its probe. In proof
of this theory we find the disease usually
located wheie the animal has the least
chance of brushing away the fly.
-To cure the disease, take a lancet or
penknife and scarify the swelling enough'
to draw a little blood, cutting several
small hulesisay half adozenithrougb the
skin. Then take an ounce of perman-
:ganate of potassium, dissolve in one gal-
lpn of rain water, and apply with sponge
S or cloth three times a day. One gallon
is generally sufficient for half a dozen
cases. Before applying it is best to heat
the quantity used, but not enough to be
painful. This is the only necessary ex-
ternaltreatment. Give internally four
tablespoonfuls of Dr. Tichenor's anti-
septic three times daily, until the swell-
ing subsides. This treatment has been
tested in many cases, and I have no
knowledge of the loss of one under it. I
hope the public will give it a trial, save
their stock and stop the cruel treatment
usually prescribed in this disease.
SBots in Horses.
S The Rural New Yorker says:
There is nothing that will kill the bots
in the stomach of the hor.e, since they
are able to resist the action of any med-
icine that can be safely administered to
the horse. At th;s season of the year,
however, when the 'bots are passing
away, their exit may be hastened by a
S g ood dose of aloes or other physic. In
the fall, when the young bots are being
taken into the stomach, they may be
killed by an occasional dose of one .or
two ounces oil of turpentine or benzine.
Prevention is the best and surest method.
A little prevention during late summer
.Lnd autumn will prevent the introduce
ion of any great number of the bots.
('-'lip all of the long hair from the throat,
-. breast and limbs of the horse, then wash
l .aily with warmsoap-suds to remove all
eggs of the hot fly that have been laid
.: luring theday. A little oil applied to
S the throat, breast and fore-hmbs will
prevent the eggs from readily adhering
to the hair when deposited by the fly.
S Educating Colts.
SA horseman gives this advice through
S the columns of Farm and Home:
Having taught the colt to walk briskly
--and fearlessly, to stop at the word
S ""Whoa," and to start promptly at the
command to "'Get up,"' you may now
teach him the next lesson-to trot. So
far you will hate occasion to use only
the term "Get up," "-Steady"' and
'"Whoa." You now want' the colt to
trot. Use the "Chick"and start on a run
an-I the colt will follow your example.
It i..t, a whip may be carried in the lett
bhauli and the colt touched lightly on the
hirnd legs. for while I lepiecate the use
of t whip as a means of punishment, it
may be used as a. help in educating a
Ti.e best position, and in fact the only
sat'- ,id proper position to take in head-
ing mi colt or a horse is in t ronc ofthe left
shoulder. You can then take the halter
in the left hand, and placing the right
band on the colt's neck, just in front of
the top of the colt's hllouldet, you will
find it a great help when the colt is
moving on a sharp trot. Iu training the
colt to trot it should beenc'ouraged to in-
crea-:e its speed, but never allowed to
break If it breaks, it should be stopped
and taken back and started over the
same ground at a more moderate pace.
All tlit is required now is to repeat the
lessor.s and make no muLtakes Kind-
ness .aind patience in rhe halter training
of a c'blt are of the utmost importance.
One more halter ieoson is yet to libe
given and a very important one, namely.
to te i-li him to stand tied without pull-
ing on the halter. See that the halter is
strong in every part and that the ring or
bar to which it is to be fastened cannot
be puille-d out or broken. In the case of
a colt tvo or three yeats old, it would be
adviii.:'lbl to have, in addition to the
halter, a strap around its neck, with a
strong rope and fastened the right
length to receive a portion of the strain.
But this is' not necessary with the colt
we are now training.
Having adjusted the halter, lead tlie
colt into the stall and make the halter
fast and pass out quickly. The colt will
naturally want to follow, and when he
feels the restraint will be likely to pull.
If the floor is plank and a little slippery
so that he falls, all the Better. Let him
get up when he chooses to. He will not
be likely to make the second trial. Leave
him, but keep within hearing distance
and occasionally take a look to see that
all is right. When he bas become rec-
onciled tohissiluation, passquietly up to
his head and give hima little feed. Do not
leave him tied and goout of hearing dis-
tance, nor leave him tied at night until
he is quite, reconciled_'to his*new condi-
Now you may tie him alongside of an-
other horse in the team and drive them
till he becomes accustomed to the sight
and sound of the wagon. You will also
"eadhiha.p to'objects that. you want to
get him, accustomed to. Put a blanket
.' .... on him quietly, handle his foee" mnd get
him accustomed to brush and curry
- comb. A good time to do [his'is when
he is a little warm and his ekin itches, at
the close of his lesson. His halter edu- 14 'n ,
cation is now finished, and if no mis-- -l a- .'
takes hnve been made, a good founda- N o n ,
tion is laid for future harness training.-- ,
W. L. Rutherford, St. Lawrence Co., Profits in Poultry.
N Y Editor Florida Farmer and -_it- Grower:
MANAGEMENT OF COWS. I have just finished summing up my
poultry account for the first six months
S of 1887, and this will answer the ques-
The Advantage of Stable Feed- tion so many are asking, "Will poultry
ing Over Pasturing, pay in Florida?" I take it for granted
ing Ove assuring what I-have done others can do,:and
BY ARGUS. : with more capital they ought to show
The best test of the good qualities of a much betterresultl. f.orwith m,,rf-means
cow is the quality rather than the quan- I am certain I cotIl liave nma.le a far
tity of her milk. It is also very desira- better showing.
ble that she does not dry off early, as First, I would- enlarge my yards, and
some cows will, while others give milk have fewer fowls to the pen; would have
to within a week or ten days of their a run in the rear of all of them, where I
"coming in." It is desiral:,e that they could keep some green crop growing,
should dry off that length of time, or and give each flock an opportunity to
perhap" two weeks would be better, graze an hour or two every other day, or
Be gentle with a cow. No ill-temper- every day would be better. I would
ed person should milk her, for if roughly have pipes from a flowing well enter
deal t with she will hold back her milk, each yard, to supply fresh water at all
and the richer part be left in the udder, times.
causing her t6 "dry off." But if kindly I am satisfied from' past experience
dealt with there iill be a great differ- that, with White Leghorns and Wy.nu-
eue in the milk and the udder will be dottes, each hen of six months and over
left clean. should lay eighty-four eggs fiom Febru-
SThere are so many profitable cows ary 1st to June 1st. My present flock
that it is poor policy to keep one that is was hiattlied June 24th, and up to iJuly
not so. and the ooner" such a one is got 1st this year, haveaveraged eleven dozen
rid of the better. The cot -of keeping a eggs each, and the average price has
cow at the North is estimated at $45 per been twenty-five cents per dozen, or $3
year. We think one can be kept for per head; and for two years it has coit
much lessahere, under favorable condi- $1.25 per head per annum for feed.
tions. With a silo to furnish green feed at'all
Cows should not be milked in the times, the cost can be materially re-
stable when it can be avoided, and when duced. Here is my account for six
done so, it should be carried out as soon months, ending July 1, 1887:
as possible, as the cooler it gets the more Jan. 1,8-., i .k.. I.-uli,,, 5,,.. ,,
readily it absorbs the gases that arise in Iy-'. ,, ..I ,
the stable be it ever so clean, but of To i-vs1...... ........... ...'1.3
course the cleaner the better. Place a I.. i kii,-.) i.y ia-ke ..
pan of milk in the stable for a short t i.: :t,, ..:,,lr,... '2.,~
time and then try to drink it, This will T.:,i, i:.-i i... ,.,ii-,,...... ..::
give you the true idea of "how it is." i- ,-.s s-n r..;.......... '.
If it is desired to raise the calves, oil for incubator, 6 gal.25c... .c..
make a milk gruel for them after they $140.65
are a week old, and it is very easy, to
teach them to eat after putting a few Jnlyl, l88T-Old Stock on handl,105@oc...,$52.50
spoonfuls in their mouth. One taught, 6cowls sor table 40c....8.002
8 fowls for table @ 40c .......... ...- 8.20
to eAt in this way will become very do- 150 chicks from 5 weeks old to
oile andi gentle-very desirable qualities :4 months old, pure breeds,
-@ 300 45.00
in all domestic animals, and we, want 6,702or 558y dozen, eggs sold,
the cow as domestic as possible. 1 @35c .do 1,7.6g
It is desirable to have clean water $248.
easily accessible to- cows, for they will Deduct 140.65
often suffer from tlhirt before going far.
to obtain it, and the want- of it will di- Net income for 6 months....'..................$105.57
minisli the quantity of milk. Any ex- I have under rather than over-esti-
ertion they are obliged to make to pro- mated on the credit side of this account.
cure food or water will divert just so a o -nt
-much of their energy from milk produc- My young flock onsists mostly of White
tion. Do you wonder that the scrub Leghorn aud Wyandottes. I have'apen
cow does so little in this direction? It of forty four months old, that a $50 bill
has been proved beyond any doubt that would not buy. Twenty-nine of them
stable-kept cows do better than those are pullets, and will lay nextmonthand
which hare clover fields to roam in.keep it up while the old fowlsare moult.
Thisiay seem almost incredibleat first. ing and eggs are scarce and high. I
but the fact is, the cow has no apprecia- have sold a numer of the old flock at
tion of the beauties of nature. A clover seventy-five cents t invaoiced at iftey
field is to her only a place where she can cents) I have a pen of sixteen hens
get something to eat byroaming around, (iBrown Leghorn) that $1.501 each would
and in the stable she can get it by stand- not buy. I have not taken into account
ing in the shade, and this she seems to thelaboror interest on the investment,
prefer. nor h ave given credit for thedroppings,
A daiiNrymaun in Chester county, Pa., nor for the grove they keep hoed and
says, "I keep my cows in the stanchions fertilized, I am satisfied to let one bal-
twenty hourseout of the twenty-four, let- ane the other, and think I have the bes
ing them out in the smalloyard for water end of the barga i.
and sunshine. The question has often :,- E W. AMSDEN.
been asked, will your cows give as much ORMOND-ON-TR-HALAf._X, -
kept in the stable as they wou d in the July 4, 1887. "
field? For the sake of satisfying myself qi
on that point, in August last I turned Geese. fre
thirtyahead of cows into a forty-acre lot
well set with clover and green grass, Thereseems to be generally awaken-
The first day they fell off thirty quarts iog, writes Mrs. W. W. Stevens, of.Sat
in their milk and I could not get them lem, Ind., to. the Farmers'"Review, of
to give their average quantity until they Chicago. in regard to goose farming all
were back in the stables, showing, I through the country. We ireivise so
think,,conclusively under which system .many inquiries about the management
they will do bes t.- This is not all. and profits of. geese, that we take this
When. the great savitg in fertilizer is method of answering a few of them. In
considered, we think the "kept up cow" the first place, geese' can be made more
will take the palm. I profitable on a farm where there is a
ha .ee wet supply o f water than perhaps an other i
E g ed for Cows. dfowls. They are strit'lv a farmers' fowl
Accoring to pdo fe ano n, ao requiring as they do large gra-s range.
Adceendiugh to profe Sanborn, a eow Theease with which the farmer can
will eat from twenty-seven to thirty draw surplus pro-duets to market is quite
pounds of ensilage a day, and a ton trill an item in thn favor. s % "
last sixty-two aed two,.thils days On A great many shoit-sighted farmers
any fairland in the S:,uth. one ought to tell us that geese eat so muh grass and
rai-t. ten tiins of ensilage per acre. :if clay make so much noise that it does not pay
pea, sorghum. co-rn. milloniaize and to keep them. It is true they eat grai.
other crops. Ten tons would feed one andquite a quantity of it,'but that is
cow 026 days. ten cowssover twou months: about all they need for ten mouths in
twenty cows a little ,ovetr a month. The the year. and we speak advisedly when
sane and, if it iproduaced tenu tons of en- we assert that they iI not halrm tbe
silage. would probably produce two tons roots of the griss any more than any an-
of bay. How long wi,:-ulid two tons of imal that grazes. The reason they are
bay feed twenty cows? accused of eating both grass and roots is
From goo authority it has been Etated they are driven to it by starvation.
that land producing enough dry grass iv'e them a fair acreage to feed upon
hay) tTO feed onee cow one month, would and there is ho thariU done.
produce enough eusilageto feed the same
animal even mouth. -Texas Stokmaui. Gos-ings are no harder to rear than
chihkeus: ate not. subject to gape or lice.
` The breeding gtese are very long-lived
Salting Milch Cows. oand can be kent profitable for years. On
The following is from City and Con- farms where chickeus die off d with chol-
try: Some farmers feed excessivequanti- _eraevery few years. geese would thrive
ties of sat eri s to ich cows to induce thei anddo well. If there lives a farmer whc
tioe of s tomheilyind s he to ind wther- thinks there is no money in geese, let
to drink heavily, and thus hoping to in- him reflect the next time he hauls a load
crease the do%% of milk. This often actshoflbcntoemarkt,frich he wlloge
in the opposite direction. The philoso- of ba con to market, efor whiht he l get
phy of it is that the cow suffers in the from seven to eight cets, thathe could
effort of nature to throw off the irritating aseasily draw a load of feathers that
substnce a t the fw would bring fifty or sixty cents, or that
substance, and meantime the flow of ,rse es ol rn-bu wc
milk is diminished edsmallr doses of ssedgeese would bring about twi ce
stimulate secretions of all the fluids a:kmuch as pork, and that it would not
<* witaera mtuh corn hao make ae poeds aed
of the body, of course including milk. gowe asmu corn to me a pound ohse
When the supply of salt us withdrawn goose asraepund oopork
the milk supply falls to its usual stan- If the farmer's wife or daughter'wants
dard. There is no way for making a to earn their own pin money, there is uc
cow give more milk for any length of surer or quicker way of doing it on the
timebry compelling her to drink water, term than bf y keeping a flock of Tolouse
On thbeether hand, if" the cow is fed with geese. If they want something that is
green or: steamed food, or that contain- really comfortable, let them try a "'bed
ing a due proportion of moisture, the an- comfort" stuffed with feathers. They
creased fibw of milk may be kept up so are not only pLeasant to sleep under, but
Iotigas the cow will eat it or until other are "'just the thing"-in point of styli'.
demands-divert her feed-to 'different Sell off all the old feathers, and with the
uses, proceeds buy geese, and before another,
igwinter ybu can have nice new beds and
To cure pip o~r sliht colds in hens, pitlows. Persuade the head of thle house
after a damp spell or sudden change in to give you one goose for every hog he
winter or spring, give a piece of gum of keeps, and one ear" of corn for the geese
asatfr.ida as larce ass nets un to the size out of every hundred he feeds the hogs.
-of a-. hickory nut. If rgive when the a.... ..d if the
ot a-hickory nut. If- given when the abd if the
trouble is first noticed it will generally cared for s
help their breathing in a few hours; repeat marketed
the. next day. if necessary to relieve, at the end
-C. E. Chase. in Farm and Homne. I profit as II
geese and goslings are well
and the feathers plucked and
carefully, you will have made
of the year as much clear
BEING ENTIRELY VEGETABLE, Dr. Pierce's Pellels operate without disturbance to the system,
diet, or occupation. Put up In glass vials, hermetically sealed. Always fresh aud reliable. As a
LAXATIVE, ALTERIATIV'E, or PURGATIVE, these little Pellets give the most perfect satisfaction.
,A 0 Dilioms Headache, Dizziue7 Coni-
[., N t lipation. to id i o, iou. Bilious
t -/ &. A lat ks. iud ilDl .:rang,:.-mnts o :,f time
S"' c-ni' ,t.:..u0:r, ait br-iwos. are promptly r,.crve',
7 J-i a"rad p-rmuune-nti7 tli.-'d -y the auCe .:'f ti'.
/ .9 "fi ~ i'c o:-'i I'l,:. i.nrt Pul eatirve Pellets. II I -x-
plaCpits.-: -ot [the rm',taiJ power of itb-'e
P,l,'ItsI ver o p-retl a variety of diseas-,
it mav truthfilly be sauid that tlber-nct,,',n Upon the system it
OUrnetJ. Dot a bJand or t.sue estapsLEw tiiir sanaUve inOluvosA-.
Sold bv ,Jrueg ate'. r 2:3 ,rc-n6s a vial. hanimutacturnd at toe Chem-
- i.aL Lib-,-iat-iry of WORLO'k DiSPl.EN.%R Mr'iCu.I ALiOCLT.ON,
BuffaJo, N. .
-^ WrWLLUIA RAMICn Esq.. of Mitmdci Ei:.Arni,:l toitnlg,
DOIL ,S lt,r,,'c.i.'-r;t>:s: "I wac troubled with boils for
tii.-ty years. l.-ur years ago I was E.:, afflCted with
I O[EU tm nthet I coiud not walk. I bought two bottles
o| Dr. P.Er,:e's Pic-asant Purirative Pellet, and took
S'one Pelkit after each meal tiu all were goue. By
thbt tiime I had no bod.Is. and have had none- sine-. I have also
tcn troutleia wit s Eick beada:tie. Wuen I feil it coming on,
i iLke one or two *Peiets,' and am leheved of the heada-be."
a- rs. C. W. BROWN, of Wapahopicta, Ohio,
THE BEST |says: "Your 'Pleasdant Purgative Poilets' are
II. IETI witThout question the beet cathartic ever
DAT"TI M I old. 'Ibhey are also a most efficient remedy
HA ,fl | fr to:.rp9or of the hver. We have used them
for years in our family, and keep them in
tLc bouco all the time." .
SYMPTOMS OF ATARRH.
Dull, heavy headache, obstruction of the nasal passages, dis-
charge-s falling from tane head into the throat, sometimes pro-
fuse, watery, and acrid, at others, thick, tenacious, mucous
purulent, bloody and putrid: the eyes are weak, watery, and
inflamed; there is ringing in the ears, deafness. hacking or
coughing to clear the throat, expectoration of offensive matter,
together with scabs from ulcers; the voice is changed and has
a nasal twang; toe breath is offensive; smell and aste are Im-
paired: there is a sensation of dizziness, with mental depression
a backing cocugh and general debility. However, only a few of
the above-named symptoms are likely to be present in any one
case. Thousands of cases annually, without manifesting half of
toe above symptoms, result in consumption, and end in the
grave. No disease is so common, more deceptive and dangerous,
Tess understood, or more unsuccessfully treated by physicians.
By its mild, soothing, and healing properties,
DR. SAGE'S CATARRH REMEDY
CURES TH WORBST'CASM Or
Oatarrh, "Cold in the Head," Coryza, and Catarrhal Headache.
SOLD BY DRUGGISTS EVERYWHERE.
mie o, BO C.J -S. .
s ,, 1Prof. W. HAUSNSIM, the famous meamer-
MTn/n AR.V I st, of IthaccaI... ., writes: "Some ten
UN L AGON |years ago I suffered untold agony from
WhDro PiTDD I ronic nasal- catarrh. My family physi-'
FrnOm UATARnnI. cian gave me up as incurable, and said I
1. 'u die. My case wasuch a oabad one,
that every day, towards sunset, my voice would become so hoarse
I could barely speak ove a whisper. In the morning my cough-
ing and cieanng of my throat would almost strangle me. -By me
use of Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy, in three mobth, I was a well- -
man, and the oure has been permanent.' ,-.
C II^ TaoMAsA J. RBUSmHINGOsI.., Pine Street,- .: :'
DONSTANTLY ISt. lorui, o., rwnte: "I was agreat-uf- --
,," "" ieier from catfarrh, for three years. At --.
HAWKING AND times 1 could hardly breathe, ahd'was con- .
SITIR n G. sutanly hawking and spitting, and fort the. .-
.DITTM last eight montha.could,.not breathe through .- h
S11nB, the nostrils. I thought" notng'- .could be '-.
done for me. Luckily, I was'ad-vl"sd to try
Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy, and I am now a avell-min. .' be-
lieve it to be the only sure remedy for catarrh now manufao- -.
tured, and one has only to give It a fair trial to-experience -- '-:: :
astounding results and a permanent cure." ......,;, ,'"
,. ^" . ii BaoBBIB, Runyan P. 0^ Ooliwma.<..- n i.....
'THREE BnvnTL F Pa.,says: "My daughter bad catarrh when'. -.
Inn' 807 IL1d she was flive years od, very badl. saw .:.. -
DIUN ATAlRnU Dr. Sags's Iaarh-Remedy adv'atsed, a .:
CURE un AAl n,. prooured, a bottle.for 12er, ad~soon'saw"-***:;- .
-that it .belprd.-.hr';. a third bottlefef'e.; ,.-,.:_
a permanent cure." She Is how eighteen years ,old and sound" '.... -sc;
and hety -
;" **/ ** '- *** ,. ...,^
: ; .- :. : .-^* ^ J ^ S f..
. ... -. : -_' -: -._. ._ .. . ...-. -._ ..
. ...- .... .- ".*.- .-i.-,i/ :.-
= ~--. Ni :--.t..r.A .. -.. .".; : ..
-" ''. -:r-- : : .'"5i" .. .. .. t '. _2. "-l$ "
^BT unflflfrCc T:HE. ORIGINAL
X'flS LITTLE LIVER PILLS.
P LLET.W 3 at\ BEWARE OF IMITATIONS!
0 0Q -k 11\ t & Always ask for Dr. Pierce's Pellets, or Little
:)0 0 & \ D Sugar-coated Granules or Pills.
FOR A CASE OF CATARRH WHICH THEY CAN NOT CURE'
Fowls that have scaly legs hliould re-
ceiveimmediate attention, fior the sooner
it is attended to the easier it is to cure.
It is a quite common affliction at this
time of the year, and takes away fr'm
the beauty of the fowls, The scales are
caused by inntitmerAble very small para-
sites wh;,:h gather together in thle form
of thin scales. It canbLe easily cured at
first by the application of a mixture of
sulphurand laid. but if it is delayedl the
scales will increase in size and will soon
have a white,wartish appearance. They
will theu have to bIe b.thed, several times
with waim Esoapsuds, or an oil of some
kind, until they be-.ome soft. They can
then be picked ,off quite easily, after
which the sulphur and lard should be
applied two or three times., This will
cure scaly legs, and keep the fowls free
from this trouble for some time to come,
as thie sulphur is very obnoxious to in-
set: ts of all kinds. -Times-Democrat.
4, '. : ^ *
A correspondent of Faim and Home
writes-I had a hien with 12 chicks, and
her crop seemed to me as large as the
rest of her br.dy. I .iupglit her at night
and examined it. finding it as hard as a
piece of wo.d, Thinking she had to die
anyway, I commencedt an operation by
cuttinva slit iu theslkiii over the crop 1\
inches-long and a corresponding though
smaller one in the maw. The contents
were so hard I had to pic.-k them with
the knife. I relieved her of aiout
two-thirds of the mass and then softened
the inside of the crop with lard, a piece
about the size of a hickory nut. I then
sewed up the crop and the outer skin,
and fed heron softfoodfora.,,-iut a week
and she is now healthy and well
Bone dust for mixing in poultry food
should be on an average aboutthe fine-
ness of fine oatmeal. There are usually
large pieces interspersed, but these need
not be taken out, as any too large will be
rejected, though the meal may be sifted
from any larger than peas if desired.
The price never being much more per
pound than good meal, it should be used
liberally with all the soft food, and about
one ounce mixed with e\ery half pint of
drymeal beforeadding the milk or water.
A piece of fish skin placed in each tray
of the incubator isagood moistuie guide.
If'should be moist enough to bend, neither
wet nor dry, and when kept in this state
eggs will have all the moisture needed.
Bee-Keepers' Questions. :, empty set be put ou the under side r on
We present our readers, through the top'j? n
courtesy of Mr. Ueo. H. Knickerbocker, tiOunder side, always.
Secretary of the -New York State Bee- Q.-Should passages in combs bemade
Keeper's Association. with a copy of for out-door wintering, if so. where in
ome i of the questensandansbers taken comb, and of what size? Should a pas-
from the oiustion dtawel at the last con- cage over the cobs be made? Should a
vention. Theyare exce,-itiugl instruct- passage be made for wintering in-doors?
lye and can be relied upon, asthe corn- A-Passages through combs re not
mittee was composed of A. I. Root, F. necessary it they are allowed to pass
C.' Beneict and F. L. Smith. all three over frames.
m.en who ought to knoF w. hat the ly are e .-Are uot queens more apt to enter
eonarrow than wide sections. Top storing
talking about: "exclusivelyv I
Q.-Whieh is preferable to feel bees A.-Do'not think they are.
for stimulating. sugar or honey? ., -` -Bee-Kepers' Maazine
A.-Honey. although circumstances B
may admit of sugar.
-WVhat kind of wood is the most de- A hone meal mill is to b established
sirable for honery Ections? at Orlando.
A.--Vhite poplar and basswood.
Q.-Is it protiahle to use full sheets of .,
foundation in the brood chamber when hrdl['A I k\ II (q.
working for honey? ".
A .- N o T R AD. U1U
Q.--1. In how long a time after the MARK \-
la 'ying of the egg will. the queen cell he
sealed over-" don'tT
Q.--?. Howv long after the sealing of
the ceil before the queen hliatches? DIE N THEH U is
A.-From 7 to IS in b':th cases. ..
Q.-W\Vhich is tle most profitable for
the production of comb honey, to take Gone where tho Woc.dbine-TWineth.
increase or nott Rats..ir snmrr, but RC:.POB ,ii: RaTs" beats
.-Increase, i not carried too far or Clear. out Ratis. Mice. Roaches. Water
A.-Incree, iR not carried to tar or Eetle. Mths. Ants. IMc-6quITcese,
to extremes. Bc,.bcS. i..,Ot:, Porar. BugE, Sparrows,
Q.-How ninany colonies can bIe k.pt in 1-t.: Weasel. loph..rs. r hipmunks. Moles,
one location, with the most profit to the u tk &t. Relis irri.i &'il.
bee-keeppei? s H E N L I CE
A.-L-Depends upn the locality and H E N L IC RE," an1 r
ex.peri-_oe of the apiari-t. Rcrooa or RATo" is a ,:,ple te r, rerenrre
l'x,^'ll*-J',>: ot t o a~lill l j 1.1. jitr.,%-,r or B.?n Lic-. iM is a -".c bos of
Q.-What paying use can be made Qof aR,:soy eN RaT to a ai h:.f box nash
propolis? Pavi- -h ", ke I B. irri ul, wil, abiHrv. Wihse-
A--Do not know of any.. s ra-_ tb h.l. tr,,:,r. 0 1 'er1 eu.icry: ticje
ani -rz, o ,,u .J :.f i the ra .t-.T. "lhe e I:. radieat
Q.-If you keep your breeding queen ad c : OMPIE.
in a full olouv she will sometimes dis-a c'p POTATO BUGS
appear. W hy is it? n .r-. .. ,&,r t:,S ub. E 1E, i p S-an
A.-Cannot answer--because she is ,:.rh'crif.t cr-E i .4f a i.C")
subject to common mortality of all ani- hs b..- f.:"re.(; B IN RA-"" Agri-
mallife. ? c rural S.ui t i,:' 'he thoroihs ly
Q.-I want to know of this convention -r pi ,-i-r.-.:.r ,nat is, abeirair
what we shall do with the foundation Ei. ei' hui Much dep-rds
that Was put in sections last season, and ap r. th:,rh* -Eb:rj.u mLdn a: aspre
that wa putph krnl'buitrbe Ab--c.,'su:n. Sp:rinlke
not used] ou he hive, or may hare been it ,. Fplitt."irets or S. iLr-us o he damip .:.r
set on the hire arid the bees nrot done vet, t t and ,.lai rl-..,iu vwhna ,inxsi mwith
anything on them. Shall we use them r line, dusted on without moisture.. While in
It[F t a,,I_LJY rg,[ [a ir iz the 1-t:no t nCtirO
as they are, or what shall we do with I ro. ncnrg-: .t:i a.lI Bsip, F,surs; when mixed
the in Ie ] i Uas at:&.'- is .1.3 -m.' 'aTc-ly harlhss tito ani.
S m t t s mais or p,-sn.-;, I any quasriry Ltheyv would
A.--Use theu just the same as any tak s-. tinreerre:d touse in liquidfrm'.attable-
other. 'pO :.a t' fh rll etingti "Ro'GsE ON RA s'"
Q.- -Ias any one present met with P,:,,Jder, weil shak-r. in a keg of wsts-r and
in applied o'eh ,r er.p nlkiirc t:-.sr st -ra ge
success in artificial foundation otf r i-whs br..<.m, irli be routd rerT effeiige.
queen;? Keen it well sitrre-d up whtle uEisg. SoloJ t-y
A.-WVe think not. '..I ,'rui t-:r 'im.l Sre,'kerpurs. .'.c .e d il.
C.--In tierinog up sections should the E. S. WLLs. Chemist,. JT-rey (ry. N J.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROW ER, AUGUST 10, 1887.
4ariq 4iss' lbnv.
FODDER CORN-THE VENTILATION
OF STACKS AND ,MOWS.
Symptoms of and Cures for Roup, Indi-
gestion and Crop-Bound Fowls-H]ow
to Feed a Working Horse-Tlie Poor
Man's Barn in Arkansas.
Our cut shows the plan for a cheap barn
which has been tested by an Arkansas
farmer who considers it worthy of imita-
tion. He has named it "'The poor man's
barn," and gives in *Southern Cultivator
a descripti.n of it, wlichl i here repeated
for the Leneriet of readers who 10 i:lt a con-
venient and at the. same time a cheap
I =- ', -'.--
.. .. .. .
i ti ll fill II l|lllllilli liiil i iiiiil iIiiiiii
Te-m aiii bildmingm Yis2x4f ewta
-. fet 9 o-o s n
feet, and is built .as follow... Get out eight
large white oak posts, fifteen feet long,
i,-'*5 -- --* :':**-: ';
and set them in thegrond three feet, One
at each corner and two between on the
A POOR MA-N'SBAIRN. -="
Sides of main building This 040feet, witbe a
shedquarfifteen feet wide onall one side andl; onthe
si enp,- paci the entire sbuildinchesg 85x55
andfeet, hend is buit as crfollows:ed rGetmout eight
t o one on the opposite side; then put in
sm- lage white oak posts, fifteen feet from side to endg,
p..: and setsfor them msed; the grshound thre seven feet, one
above th,.- ground. By putting posts
wat each corner and two between on their inc
pieces will do for places. Now put up
your rafters nof main buldlding These ust be
Ssquarpike theeon top anshed all on ft level; on the
-/. side pu.-ts. place hewn plates .-\'i inches,
can d then four pieces closed 'ikingm each post
pito onees on the opposite side;to nl the siding to; in
maller p.:s-.r, fifteen feet, fr'om side t~o end
Sposts, for the nshed; they should tobe swteven feet's
above the e.ground. By putting pots
In there markedn shown in the plan, theG ainch
pieces ,will do for platesd Now put upide
E h.-! h m a granary l3sfl feeot,sfind si~x
tyour rafter horses on main buldthrea, and theu
spikethe a sex of shed ratec.rs, t heads; it
can be inclosed by spiking f3x4 or-*3x6
pieces nn the posts to nail the iding to;
rthe mn e can be arranged to st one's
covepence.ts in the
anti nadcina boards on, the inside, and
mIn the bartitin shown ieen the cut the main
npart, x-.feet, h used for hayat the end isidr
-r hc w; there a mar15x5ger madet, hd -i-
Sthli for horses or nml~les,, three Oh e:-,ch
tinienkotb f oi othe season, the hrset in theas
ground, which conic- up highi eno-ugh toi
tbeith nexttle to t here aiagre To partitignrs
betee manthe cby battle, and there rin te ground par-
and nadli, boards or, the iisiide, and
iahc partitiorsbweentween the buldtalnls in theds,
exept at the granshed at the eryd fr
fivOne Receipt for Pickl a manger made thgg. en-
W orld correspondent, says: "For
stirev ienth of the shedon piosts edt in thesur-
plground, which cs from up ih ennery, alstn
tie the cattue to. There are no partitionis
frbetomeen the cattle, and thegsere rthe chnoepar-
tesit.n FIotwien main buy rdinecipt, and shedsa
except at the granary.gg wil float, only
sound one Areeipt faraway: Two pounds
of A rWorld correup:nds of finest sayslt, 8 gal-"For
ons of ater.Usseve enoughave .picold mywater to
: pluser the lime and salt;my second day putalso
on_. frm the rest of t, when waters werehich must bep-
hoest. FWlloheing is my poreceiofint, and asbowl and
cracked or rotten egg wdil float, only
sound one.? are- put away: Two pounds
.of rock hmne, 4 pounds of fine salt, 8 gal-
/ lens of- a,. 'e. Use enough -cold water to
: :-.cove~r the lime and salt; ..second day put
-on the rest of the water, which must be
." hot.- 'When cool poutr. off into a bowl and
Sadd a little of the thick liming water as.
you proceed to fill the bowl with eggs.
SFodder corn, both for feeding green and
: in a dry state, has become one of .the
staple crops.- Sweet. corn is a sort very
generally grown for foddrlier. Sweet corn is,
however, more difficult to cure, being
liable to mold, and for this reason some
tfarrmers practice sowing field corn when
the fodder is required for winter use.
Blount's prolific corn, owisg to its large
yield, has proven a popular sort in some
sections for fodder.
Corn for fodder is sown broadcast by
some, but progressive farmers contend
that better results are gained when the
seed is drilled in, with sufficient space be-
tween the rows to insure the air and sun-
shine having free access to the plants.
For early feeding, the first planting of
corn for fodder should be early, of course.
Much seed is put in. however, during the
latter part of June and early part of July,
with good results, for winter use.
FIG. 1-FRAME FOR VENtILATOR.
The diftculty of caring fodder corn in
Its immature state tempts many farmers
Into permitting it to become too ripe be-
fore cutting. The stage of flowering is
considered the best time to cut other
forage crops, and corn appears to be'no
exception. The rule very. generally ob-
served among experienced- growers is t6
cut fodder corn for drying in the early
blossom of the tassel. .At whatever stage
i. -." .
the fodder is harvested, it is cise to have
the crop cut before it. has been touched by
Stacking is considered the safest method
for preserving the fodder. There are three
requisites for keeping the fodder- in good
condition: Bottom ventilation, thorough
central ventilation, and such an arrange-
ment of the bundles in the stack-that rain
or snow cannot penetrate, but must run
off as the rain falls from the roof of a
... 31[,,.^ .
FIG. 2-vENTiLATOR FOR STACKS.
A useful arrangement, common in
many sections, for the ventilation of
stacks and mows in barns is also appli-
cable to the curing of -fodder. Fig; 1
shows a frame made of strips of wood,
put together with small carriage bolts.
The length of the section is three or four
feet. Fig. 2 illustrates the manner in
Which the sections are put together. A.
small stack may have a column of these
ventilators in the center; a large one may
have three or four of them; in a mow in
the barn there maybe as many as are use-
ful, two or three or more, a% the case
-: In stacking fodder corn it is safest to
mniake the stacks smnll. Throe of these
sections placed together in a column ias
seen in Fig. 21 are sufficient for a stack
containing three tons of fodder, and which
would be about fourteen feet high. -The
sheaves should be small and the stack
somewhat open at the bottom, so as to
freely .aldit currents of air. The top of
the stick may be finished off with straw
Ar i3"Ay ap.
------ --------- --.'_.-...._-.-.'- .-.-.----___. __-..--.--.-_-.----------
-TiH*S '.t' C
TRREH ETON BOYS.
BY W. E. NORRIS.
Lord Staiues was a-weak man, and, like
most weak men, was exceedingly per.
emptory when roused to anger. It was
certainly not poor Mr. Turner's fault that
Bracknell had" been brought within an
ace of umaling an egrerious ass of him-
self, f, ,r, as everybody 'dy knew, Mr. Turner
had no more control over his daughter
than he hail over the empress ,if China.
StWJ, thi:.c- who are invested will, nouni-.
nal authritc .7 should : expect t, ic-,- held re-
sponLible -lien .li-ast--rs occur, and a sad
pi!ty it is that this excellent rule is not
more frequently made to apply to certain
high functionaries; whim ',n-,r ui.A-ht name.
Lord Staines, hiring ot hol..l Af Hilda's
ostensible superior, led the unhappy man
into his study and then and there gave
him a tremendous wigging. I made a
point of calling upon the Rev; Simeon in
the course of the afternoon, and found
him quite shattered. Never in his life be-
fore, he aidl piteous.ly, hadi 'lI:i language
been u.ed t: himn, ianri afilrhouh it was his
duty as a Curi-stian to forgive Lord
Staintues' words, he- feared that it would be
longbefore he would be able toi f:ir. t luin.
As for Bracknell, he was packed oiff by
the first train with a flea in bis ear, an.],
I dare say, a check c his r'c':iket. He
wrote a letter to Hilda, in which, I under-
stand,'he represented himslc-f to he broken
hearted, hut powerless. His father
n-,.uJldn't hear of the engagement, and,
since lic- was entirely dependent upon his
father, there was no more to be said.
Upon reflection, I feel quite sure that he
must. have received a check. Lord Staines
possessed a fine old fashioned temper, but
he worshiped his son, vihose will was a
great deal stronger than his own, and if
Bracknell had really been d-etermined
upon marrying the cook, I doubt not but.
that he would have snapped his finer in
his father's face and married her. Such
may not probably have been also the opin-
ion of the fair Hilda, whose wrath at find-
ing herself thus coolly left in the lurch
was, as I gathered from her father, very
Her disappointment might have been
easier to bear, and the whole affair uught
have blown over quietly, if only Lord
Stalnes had had the sense to hold his
tongue about it. But I suppose he- was
flushed with victory and cou'ln't hold his
tongue. First he told L.ly MUillredJ,
which was perhaps unavoidable; later in
the day, by which time he had -iuliy re-
covered his good humor, ho marchc-'i down
to see my mother and boaEsted a littleof
the facility with which hoe had nipped this
folly and nonsense in the bud.
"Rely upon it, my dear Mrs. Maynard,"
said he, 'there is nothing Lhike prompt-i-
tude and decision in these cases. People
tell me that I have over indulged B:-ack-
nell, and possibly I have; but I believe he
understands pretty wivell that thor., are
certain limits which ha had better not.
transgress. I can't afford to have a
pauper daughter-in-law, and there's an
end of It."
My mother said it was all very worldly
and shocking, and that if Lod Stamnes
had nothing worse thbrin lack of fort-unc, to
urge a-.rnsti-t HIlit:, i- ,uii:zht tc, it-
ashtiic.id :,f himdn--If. Hw:-ve-.er, l Ie -was
not ashamed of himseli, an lI ta.ku i -lthat
he must have gPone a-.-ut fiCeiy exto:.linu
the virtu- f proniliitiu,.k- and di'-,.'un
forin a few days the w'.vijole eit rh.--c,.
was in possession:-of the .fr: .', t-:-'-th-.-r
with such emendations and ;uiJi. i,-ti-,
individual taste had grafted on to them in
the-process of. transmission. Among ti,
first to be informed of what-had occurred
was Jim, who-rode over-to-our house in a
great state-of.heat to ask me w'-i.ibher I
had heard whathe ;;was pleased to call
"nii itif,-i nil ly-ing r.:port." When I wcs
ol.,h c--1 ,l til huim thit tfc r,-p.:.rt alluded
t,, i.,-iv.-.-r fteirnil it mcighlit ie, was sub-
stautn ilv:,:.-:c.rrect, I rciUi:y thou--Ai fcor a
mcument I-co %-s gegir-; t,:, hit Lt iii.?.nweeD
the-eyes. But he r-niunc-ed that ilten-
tion, if he had ever eiitertincd.l it, and
only drop:-,.d iito a i.a 'ilr -nl a l.:,k ,of
'pain anrd reir-i.ch ,iIn i._ tari.e vibch hurt
me almost as nluchasii I had dc-sc'rv,?., it.
"And you-knew that BrackiellU was
humbugging me all thiis, tinte" he ex-
I had not said so, but thi fLnct was utin-
deciI.iblc. I fancy that, uipor:,u th, l-.t
bLiush -.f tic thuitl, he wi4s more -rn-ved
by Bickin:ll'.s ti'reachrry than by, Illda's
incu'tanicy, anrd I cordil nit get hIm to
pay nU'.h attiertrin to the cc-,use which I
made lorth fer the culprit and tor my-cLf;
though i ve-ntiimo t- tbiuk that these were
neither intrinsically poor 'nor badly put.
But. when, in the plentitude of my gener-
osity, t began to make excuses for Hilda
too, he stopped me at once-
"That's enough, Harry," he inter-
rupted. "'You mean well, but you don't
seen tru see that apologizing on Hilda's
behalf is implying that shec i- to blame.
I can't admit that- for au instant. She
never gave me anything in the shape of a
promise; and if I chose to imagine that
she cared for me, the more fool L" "
"Well, perhaps so," I agreed. "Any-
how, it's very evident that she did not
care for you." I
"Yes," he replied, sighing; 'that's evi-
dent, I -suppose. And yet I can't help
thinking that she might have cared for
me if Bracknell hadn't come down. 'But'
there's no good in talking about that now.
I shall be off somewhere for the next few
months, I think. You couldn't be per-
suaded to come with me to Switzerland,
and perhaps spend the winter in Italy,
I reminded him that I was not a man
of independent fortune, and that my win-
ter would have to be spent in the less
agreeable atmosphere of Lincoln's inn,
where I had already taken chambers; but
I strongly advised 'him to go away and
travel. He had so many friends that he
was iot likely to be left long without-a
companion. I fear that he did not find
me very sympathetic; and in truth it was
all I could do to restrain myself from
openly congratulating him upon his es-
Prieentl. he said that if my mutbc-rhr
was weLl enc:u-,h to receive him, h,:- would
iiLt gc mani ay -ci.dio lutorLnito to itr, and
I knev .1,-ttecir tl i'u t, fcoruii'iv Lim to
-her room_. From- that. -iiiurr,-rr thojr.n who
were afflicted in mind, i:b.y or estate
could always-cawnt upn obt',iiin sy-m-
pathy, if uot cown_,fort, aunt sure ei_,:-ugh,
w-hen dJon eergc-ed, after an interview of
hnif ii, hu hlie t -0l ..i ,: ui:l I ,less in-
c'uir-hi t, han_, himself tchit I was afraid
rny nittic-r h;adi c-mmitteid -he iiprudence
of advising him to try again. But that,
it appeared, was a groundless alarm.
"Oh, no," he.said, quietly, iu answerto
my inquiry, "s-he didn't giv.-e nmeany lipe.
She was awfully klind, thoiiu'h, an.i I be-
lieve it's quite true that. I -hall :et over
this some day. Only I wish Bracknell
had been a little more straight abaut it."
Well, ,up-li the whole, that seemed to
be a very ,i'tr. per spirit in which t:c meet
advier.ity, ali I a'ccompanied my friend
hnwn. st.uJls, hlpiing tlat, titer all, he
miit nit be qnute a' hard hit as I had
su.pp,~,''. 'Butwhen we reached : thi,- fr.:oint
door, whom shouldwe fihd talki,_n- affabtly
to the groom and care-_-ilnc din': hirse
but Miss Hilda Turner in p, u' :- !
Jim started violently, while I, frr ni
part, inwardly commended hen to the
devil; for could not doubt her purpose
in waiting outside in that uncernIIy way.
"Why did youc not come ii '" I 'Qked,
wi'th n touch ,if asterity. "I pres.umee you
called toi see my m,:tier, di'ln't yo.,"
"'I did," she replied cmly, andnl never
so much as chanrieil color; "but when I
saw Jim's horse at the door, I thought I
would wait fior hilu and call on Mis. May-
nard s-me other day. I know it tires her
to lihavre more thnn (-., visitor at a time.
Jim, if y.:'u have nothing bettert.to do, you
might wvalLk home with me."
"Go:-,,d heavens!" thought I to myself,
"is sihe going to propose to him." I to-k
th.) hlLertLy of raising my eyebrows osten-
tatiously, .ait I d,'ubt whether any evolu-
tions wiich I could havo induced my eye-
brows to perform would have disturbed
her equauiaiiiiirty. She met my gaze ,with
perfect couiporsure, and it was I, not she,
who had to iok the other way.
The countenance of that foolish Jim
expressed mingled surprise, plea-sure, and
doubt. What was the good of uy giving
him a surreptitious dig in the back and
making grimaces at hm when he turned
around? Hil-la had but to beckon him
and he would have gone with incr to the
worlild's end He went with her unbesi-
tatimi-_ly to ti--s end of our short avenue,
le:,lhu _is hirse: and there they were
lost iti my gaze But it was not nec-ssary
to I.'- gifted icth second sight in orilcr to
feel tolerably sure of what, was takiug
place between them after they had can-
hslied; nuit I returned to the study >.f the
l.W c-il'h nims-ivnjg3 which were only too
soon Io ri? l uitiit[edl. An hour or s-o later,
while I was immersed in pleadings, and
wets c,.unbc-ring my brain with the absurd
jargon of replications, rejoinders, surre-
jolnders, rebutter,, .and the like, I heard
someboi'ly ride full gallop up to the house,
imnure-aately after which ruy door was
burst opin, as by a charge of dynamite,
and .lin, victorious and triumphant, si.t,,,,d
betore me otice more. One glanine at Iis
f-ctc was sufficient to show me thnt it was
all up with him.
"You needn't, go into ecstasies," I said
snappishly; "I know all about it."
"Now, ny dear Harry," he remon-
strated, "how can you possibly know all
i I.:,.:,," s-,il I, "I know ti_ v you
a',.- n_.i,'-el t.:. H i,-i. Turner."'
l-.: .Z^-aie ti:, iind.-r-riul in reply that
such was indeed his good fortune. "And
d.:, ,:,ii h.,iv," ,:- ,,iiinii.:-,:, ,the -ruth
i.; --ir'. ;,:, .2l,:,r;,:.ii; tlii't I cani h ~~l,~i'JI be-
lhi It- .,,, 1 :.t I :.,i Sic al''.' :'- if 1
it. il'- :, i.:- sur- e i:, t it- hi- truth .h
thi. -thie _.s l-,v -il me nil tilii,,!"
i'i In," I i,:,il h i ,',t rell) re.mirkitni ,
'"-i. ti-,; ltl,: very ol.lest w',ly cif -howing
h,:r a :.t,,:c n that I ever ihe.a l ,,f."
Jril :..,, "N%'t Iat :iU odd:; ch. sInme
l:iil ii t t.it I i -L:- oirn iIatipeiel i-ei':re,
iit .v- :,-....l ku:,v- s it nll :iroize .,ut of
il'" 'i i-I i.,ii-i fulies1 s. .he nitur.ailly
tb:ili --hlt tI, i.:.til,'l1't csrn'i, mte1 ']:,,,iit
her, ~,- (- I wvriil.lu't p'fi, 5 out, anil] iSO
w ih,-n Bi'.rii:kuil n ,iti i: s .uiff.-r slit tic-
cepted himi. She says she would. have
arc.lt.ilted' nn;-ilb,- utider the '.irtr-Irr
it.t ]'-.-hil I ,:Iiii qiite undertarinil it "
C)i.,vi.:1, LI rN ( .-oniur" 'Ti:,) i.;l I..L-. thr.owrn
aw 'l [ ili":' si.':,h a lu'iitic; nervi -rthetc:s,
ti .et loy--,lf -t-rricht with n-y co-nascience,
I eUlife II,,, l to:' ri,- '-..n with him
"It ai_.nr:, thenn" said I, "thiit she
tsu' t ;,'. i t iL':it crier t' avow her I-': .
it hi-e v;i no:,t t.:. p,,;uil t: I:i, that to-
(i,I, wh,y i r the w,:.rlI-icoullLdu't L-.h have
dulG.U it a fr- week a-''.
"G.(-,,.1 Loril!" ejacLilated Jim, "what a
tIw Opiii;:.!u yVit haive of your f-il.i'.w
cr',eaiires! S,,uglit iue out indeed! "Why,
umy il:;.' r t-li-:,, you w,:.ailn.'t beli:.-e
whalt tr.:,ubie I hliad to extort the truth
fi-.:m h.-r. What -lie so.,uht In,- cIit-for-
r,:.t ttiii. slie 'lidi s,-ek mo ,-iut-wvii to beg
me to try an.l mnke lpence between her
falher ri,,l oli ] c-taimi-e. That, of course,
leIl I.E to) s,','k ,About Branknell, andi then
I c.iiinkl't help telling her how long'l ib.ad
loved her, and then at last she admitted
that she-had only promised to marry hIm
out of pique. But she was very uuwill-
ing to accept nir, I can tell you. Harry,
old chap, you i n:u't. know Hildai she's the
sweetest gu'l ini England!"
If liei wa;, I lertaiuly -did not know
her; but to make such a rejoinder as that
would only have been to expose myself to
a sirrri,--nr,e-r which it would have been
alt-geti-:t' nitiih, to attempt to rebut; so I
said, what was expected of me with as
good a grace as I could command, and as
soon as Jim was gone I kicked those -odi-
ous law books to the other end of the
room, in token alike of my abhorrence for
them individually, and of my disgust with
a state of things which I was powerless to
SThe young couple were, to all appear-
ance, thoroughly satisfied with- one an-
other, and their. satisfaction was very
commonly, if not quite udniversally", sh..,rcd
by their friends cnd relatives. Ol' Tur-
ner rubbed his plump white hondi-., and
declared that the wish of his heart was
now fiilfc'di,; Lord Stn-nei r c --o ie-
h-jt,-d tbit he could not rest ntim he hadl
vai-;.el I-,'->r to the rectory and aut i.unnrcd
his ii.Iit, an:idn my miotber, thouii-h
ec-rectly a little disappointeid fitr .Jim was
S-L'ret ft',.:-rlte o' f bersi, did u:,t htsitate
t .: a-r tinthit -ti vra- tor tir liet It is
true thqat hbe w-o.ld have said and thought
the silf -rane thiug ii she had just heard
flie -:euteu't.uil t,., be handed Ly the Deck
until I w.-. diead-such beina her si;mrple
,'eel. Takuiig- her stnud upou cr-rtcaiu
p-is.s-5e ,Of ScriptAure, she billy :.serted
that it wAis ,:.t f:.' uis ti judge whether
this or thtit e;-ent would be pr'i-diictive of
ultimate -:-:'1 or nut, and, iu short,
adipteil with-:ut resrvation the doctrine
thnt w0atei-.vr ii s ri-zhl.
T'o f-illi in cIth my dear mother's views
In thL.- respect has never been possible to
me, andiil fil the general chorus of ap-z
,ro,- I fI:i.ii]l some comfort in listening
to a di-sentin' voice which harn,odized
w-ith ay.- own. It was a very quiet little
VOieL, bult it wasi a sweet one, and was
eelui,:m i-i-l to, utter disp'aracinr remarks
al.iO.t arc I.,,.,J7. S*tiLn'.e yOu a k inue,"
L.I'. I MiJrel siid, "I am nr:ot pial,, I am
snrr',- it seems to mie that HUdla is not
goi:,,jd e,:'rii for MIr. Leigh."
"That," I obser-ed, "is beyond allques-
'Yes; andil I don't understand her chaig-
rinz; her rrmind so quickly. Of course it
was' impossible that Bracknell should
mairry her; but if it had been possible
theLy might have got on together well
en':,ugh, perhaps. I am fonder of Brack-
nell thfin of anybody else in the world,*
anil I d--a't know that she is e:xac tly ._:d
-nou.hli for him either. But be is differ-
ent from Mr. Leigh. 'I mean that if ihe
had found out afterward that Hilda was
not quite-lqui;te whatt he had'fancied her,
I don't tiirikl hi would have taken it so
much to hb-itt.'"
These were- precisely my sentiments;
but as no one hadi the remotest intention
of consulting either meor Lady Mildred,
we coal,l iOtrIk, better than keep them to
ourselves, and we- kept them to ourselves
Of Bracknell I heard nothing, nor, I
suppose, did Jim receive congratulations
irom that quarter, although I did not like
to ask him the question. No doubt he
had forgiven his old friend, as he could
well afford to do, being more or less in
the ps.itiou of a conqueror. His marriage
was appJntedl to take place in the ensu-
ing month of January, and soonri after
heari, of this arrangement I left home
to:. be formally called to the bar and to
take possession of my chambers, where, I
ant tianknul to say, that. my legal library
ans renamaed unconsulted from that day
to this. For then it wvas that I received
a-m first substantial encouragement to
persevere with those literary labors which
hive since made life pieaisant to me, and
have even es:ibl,?d me to afford an occa-
sional pat if butt, r w;.h my bread.
A fo-w days before Christmas I seated
myself in the down eTpress from Padding-
tou, being bolind for Cranfeld, with the
twofold object of spending that festive
season at home and assisting at Jim's
Subsequent nuptials. Just as the train
was starting: a young man of fashionable
exterior junipeii into the carriage, tumbled
over my legr, apologized, and then said,
"Oh, it's you, Muynard, is itt .Going
down to the old shop?-'
I replied that such was my destination,
but- that I presumed it wasn't his-not
that I really presumed anything of the
kin)i, but because I thought that, taking
everything iuto consideration; BrackneUl
wouitI have ahown -better taste by re-
rnruliiiiii, ilheiut from tie [,itertial abode
a.It 11,t i.irrii(LiJr] juncture.
-1 ,, ;>..-, I'm i:c in: t,:, St.cLn s .S C ULU't,"
hi- retinriil. "'\\'hV -_hi..iii.] 't I""
"it ;--i ilcin't kLiC.w, I'Fm ure I.don't,"
I answered. -... ..
" "My dear fellow," said 'Eraini c"ll,
lighting a cigar, "if you wr.r-c t-: be
bi-til to av-:.i.1 every w.:ianu .-I w-th niom
yOU li:ve eer I:,beer ,i, t v.,-ve, your tile
v. 6ul.i i.:- a p erFettual ginm -: n bd.l- and
Set=k. IL t.it, [the tILtt rti.dlly C,:.ulrin't
be -in.l, i- iuv i s t dhat e,.ar c-.I.I lii'.r
Jimt i-e tti t m n Lor.:, w hab t iii e- .:i i.i ,:e
he hli:.- I:t., ui' him! It .-as i:.a 1 ,lay t.:i-
hint v. liii thie g)..eeriiii'ir tlu -i.ld tI let
lne takeil Mis-. HIlila oi 1 li-s haul.I.. T''ar.
rirl will nui by breaking- his ietirt, yiouu'l
"Si.. ,lc-, tr,'or," I observed, "a.r-pear tc
have beok-i,: yours."
BrackiiLell 'smleI., 1but it st'ruciK me
tb.nt i,.- .-UIo I vicce.Il eier .1c' siichtly.
"'-Voi,-,n tirc cill the same," .:aud he; ";
u.nou vhr uii ci:,,d One of thli:-m to :.reak
hs heart w,.,uld he a great uooi. Jim is a
"If u.-:iu-. to chivnlr.,-us f,:r the world
thit hie r. in is l-inz a fi:.:,l, Ic, cert:ilily
I -onii,"1 I a;r- n tI.; rund I i[IrCI'lty kinoi
n lic, preroruidi'- me to adl: "I hope ytiu
wv.-iL :il.'ii i be as lri al to tim i s he is to
yc-u, Birsi. 'll."
It wvas theirr a silly speech toi make,
:iud perlihaps ilso rather an impertnueut
ou:,u. but Br:icil:iell lii not appear to rie-
.:ent it. Hel itnred for a inomenti and
then said: "I suppose he didn't like my
c(itting i1um a-Ut, eh' It ViC-I rough upon
him, I aidiuit: but. how the deuce was I to
help it ,'
B.-icui unable to make any concise reply
t:, tClin:t ilueti]n,, I ordy answered: "Well,
it is :ill over now, and the less said about
it t-br better."
So, Ly way .,f changing the subject, my
conipari, ii began to entertain nie with on
nc-.ooint of a .tti.ilecha-e in wvh, Ili he had
i.-cently taken part, rind this, n-th occa-
sional breaks, lasted us to our journey's
I should have liked to witness the meet-
ing between Bracknell and Hilda, but that
pleasure was denied me. On Christma.
day I dined at Staines Court, my mother,
who wvis% unable to leave her room,-insist-
ing.-upon my accepting the invitation
which had been sent to me to join the
party assembled there. The house was
full of Ht;lcys and Beau:hamups, relations
of Lord Stcounes', who were unknown to
me; but the very first, tbing that I saw on
entering the.drawhie room was a little
group, composed of Hilda, Lady Mildred,
Bra-,: knell anl Jin. They were cc-nversing
ti:,?tler in thie u>:ot friendly mainer, and
had evidently made up their minds to let
bygones be bygones. Jim beckoned to
me, and very soon drew me aside t,
whisper, "Isn't Bra,-:.knell a guiod fellow1
I don't .e'Lc-rve there'; another marn in
En AinLui who would ha-e taken trdnas as
io- ha.s 1,:-ne nnd come do-wn here just to
i-ho.-.- tic tha.t he i-ear' no msh:e'
It n.ti-lt i. that BrAckn,:-l huad comre? to
&St,-I.; Cotu'rt utr t hat imiil.hle purpose,
i.u i I -t*i omrue ilidifficilty in supposing it.
In the first place, he can, hardly have
thought that any one would suspect him
of bearing iu'ilice, and in th.- .-,c:,u(I, he
nilht ,i ,ca.il% bnve- written a i-.rer .c-al-
culi Ctei t,:, allay scuch aippretitnsicn;
There, ho'n'ever, he Wi-s, hatti,, t: H -.lita
Cs unn.:,tcarnidiy as ever; anil even if he
.''S j,_s bent upoun nirchief-wilich, after all,
ilid nit ceeni very likely-it was certain
that Jim would never believe it of him.
At a Ilte hour sotmebody-I suppospi it
must h:avi been Bracknell--iiu-estd a
game of pl Ajbout ten of us, including
ltw:. or three la,LUes, adjournc-d tI, the bld-
liard roni, aind then it wvas thaIt I w-as
able ,:- t o i:e a few mental notes of Hilda's
drmi-anor toward her former lover. Her
i-sitian woi not a very comfortable one,.
hecnli" everyb-dy in theroomn ktew that
she h-ad consent'-d to marry Bracknell only
a te-w :ni-nthi. I.efare, andl she must have
kniv,-n quife well that they knew it. Her
serenity, however, was not ruffled, nor
did she fall into any of the mistakes
which she min.ht siaslly have made, and
which a woman of more feeling could
hardly have avoided making. She neither
-.hmunedt Britcknell nor thrust herself
upon his notice; she was, neither over-
frienudlywith him nior the reverse;, When
he -puke t.: nc-r she answered him civilly,
and once or-twice she even addressed him
first, but indeed she was in an unusually
quiet mo--:I cnd spoke very little to any-
body. if there wa a criticism to be made
upon her, it might have been that she
was just a iI'fle too affectioniIte with Jim,-
Vln_1permniit I world or too in his ear occa-
sionally, as she passed -rounid the table,
and glancing quickly at him for applause
wheuc'ver she had achieved a brilant
Strek,?. o "' -
After the game had been going on for
some little time Bracknell came and
threw himself down on the sofa beside
me. "By George!" he exclaimedr, in an
iinderti.ne which had a ring of vexation
'n it, "that girl has no more heart than a
"That," replied I, "is no news to me
and no business of yours."
"'And to think," he went on, without
needing my renuark, "that she has spent
the whole oCf her life in a country parson-
acel So cnuch for rural simplicity! Why,
thhere isn't one of these Belgravian women
who coui.l hold a candle to her for cool-
I dou't know what. he had expected her
to say or ilo, but he was evidently an-
noyed, and added that. he wouldn't be in
Jim's shoes for a trifle. He was obliging
me with his views upon feminine nature
in general, which, I am sorry to say, were
too disrespectful and too crudely expressed
to bear repetition, when somebody called
out to him that it was his turn to play.
He-had a long and rather difficult shot
to make, and at the instant when he was
drawlna back his toe H-lalda all of a sud-
den stepped close behind him, so .that he
struck hIcr sharply in the side with the
outt end of it. She gave a little cry and
fell back upon the sofa where I was .it-
ting. Bracknell, full of apologies and
alarm, dropped his cue and peered anT-
iously at the blanched cheeks of the suf-
ferer; Jim came tearing up from the other
end of the room; someboiyran for a glass
of water; the rest of the played's crowded
round the 'ofa, and we had ulite 'a little
scene. At length. Hilda got back lir
^,, = ,;1 .'::.: .. =. ';* '" *
= = . .' .-
.l'. -.- .- -=. --. !" t - -. .- -a -, -,
t .t. -
- I ~ A~- -- *-z
it 2-~. .n-.~ is '5i~i~j7
breath, arnd, rniling fnintl3, an-ured us
that she- vic h,-t really hurt.
"It is n,.,tna_2--iithing at all," sher
said. "It ti;-. mcy o.wn fault entir-ly, and
I sliall be afll rini.t in a fe-w mLaiites.
P[kase g, :c0u with the game au il don't.
l,,-k cit Ue."
Tl, thi- iday I c.li't 't'f.-l sure that hlie did
it on piurpoise. If she ilid, I ri-I -l' to
titri thit _she rt-r:itve .l a ci sl'.i iik nbly
sunimrer dii: iu the nI'i.'s tbui Sile lad bar-
g-aici.-,. f-:r. Ii- any case, tlhis trilthig inci-
di.nt hri ti,.' -ie'L-vt of pIrodlui'ii- r, co lm-
pli're :Htrni.-..-u i, Braclo_>-ii't iron'ior He
v.s is httii'.Ully canrtru,-d at havlini iurt a
I'tl" ai ti.l it i ; ',"f- c' tilat hi- s-lt rc:Dproach
:-t ii:.ret-_:.l, .i:,- the reio lle:it i:u tlhait he
had i.iecni i.. i, ; iharL thirds, L iof ih-r the
minute i.lc,:i-. He remnaue-i i.:ttii.- bie-
Eldc- her afti:r ishe si-il gently puihvdl Jim
away, nn- tit:- iorit-s, nlt lih r reqict-t, liad
resin, -il. i th.n, ir _ti e, irid I ,v. Lin t a
rapil ini l iJai e ,: f -,:.r.': t::'k l- latce lie-
twcen them 'l hen- CllI',i.,' '."i S;,'on in-
tcrrlpteil; iUtit br h.1- 1 .i.tccJ ,ii1i enough
to bring a -hhiliy iiirt:cid c'.l,:.r intO -
Braickuell'. ch-cuks aindl :a p heii'ive o,:,- itritO
his eyes. i:tirinow wuliat I did of Miss
Hil-a, I w. c-LiVinnceil that she must
either wi-h c, sul,,;iucaie.him once more or
t,; avenue -he.cu ii.ori himn; and, all -
thiugz- consi-,rcd, there -teemed to be a -
vCt-i' fair chinuce o:f her succeeding in ,her
am, whiate"er (hat might Ie; -b.
Whc-n I sid as much to my other on
the foilcown-s." morning, after gi-ine her
bthe ull account which she always likes to
ave of what had taken place at the din-
ner party and after it, she shook her head.
"Ali, my ilear Harry," she sighed, youngn
are tor.- ready tv seek for bad n-iotives and
study bad people-that is, if poor Hilda is
reaLly biad. If I were you I should find it
much more interesting to stuly Mildrl'ed.
Is Sihe tco g,,od to be attractrive"
Are you suggesting that I should fall
in live iw-ilth LalJ y Mildre:," I inquired.
"My dear boy, no! What would Lord
States say.' Besides, I am afraid you
would he a day too_ late. Have you really
not discovered Mildred's s,:,re:t, Harry,'-
you, who are so quick s.ilitei'"
We all have our weaknesses; antf
amongst the many to whiih- T should have
to plead guilty, iif rpinced upon nay oath. is
that of fiancyny_ hiilt lean read the hearts -
mu.il minds o uy neughbiris with some
facility. Now, i truth, it lhad no-.t ,:c-
cured to me until then that Lady Mildred
had lost her heart toi Jim, but as I could
not bear to ailiuit my stupidity, I made
no direct reply, merely observing that there
was a -difference between what was at-
tractive and what wa: interesting to study,
and that bad pec-ple were more interesting-'
to study than good ones because, as a .
rule, their motives of action were more
"I suppose so," '--agreed my. mother
alsenty "Poor Jim!" -:.- .
"Reially," said I (because I was pro-
voked tv-ilth her for having seen what. I
had filed to detect, "I do not under-
stani- -by yocu should pity him. All is
for the best in the best of possible world.,
"I believe that all is ordered for our
:god- ," li'- ta,-wrefl simply, "-t.h:.ugh I
fear ti:t yo u do u-Lot. We must nut pre-
illlme tu -uCy that it would have been
better f.:.r our friend to marry Mildred
than Huilla, who, after all, bhas a great
der i that is nice about her. Poor Jim!"
My dear mother permits herself a touch
o-f dry hiuor at tLimes which, I think, re-
freshes her. She glanced up at me half
deprecaticigly after this last ejaculation,
and we had a httle laugh together. I
suppose she perceived as plainly as I did
that there was trouble coming, but she
dl nout choose to talk about it before it
came, and probably she wasquite right.
[TO BE, rC.,N-it, VD I
Food Required by a Working Bor-e.
The amount of food required by a work- :
ing horse must be adapted to the work
performed. Food is needed to sustain life
first, and then tc repair the waste of the
muscular system caused by the work.
Henry Stewart, good authority in such
matters, says that to sustain the v-itl d
action' and force a. horse of 1,200 pounds
requires about twenty-five pounds of hay,
per day. If the animal is working hard
there should be added to this a certain .
quantity of grain-food, easily digestible
and containing a sufficient amount of al- -
buminous matter to -repair the waste of
the muscles, and enough starch- or other
carbonaceous matter to sustain the accel-
erated respiration produced by the work.
A great many experiments and practical
experience have shown that a 1,200 pound
horse worked to. his full capacity will need
at least twenty pounds of digestible mat-
ter, consisting of sixteen pounds of car-
bonaceous matter and four pounds of al-
buminous matter. As about three-fifths
of the food -consumed is digested, the -,
whole quantity given should be about .
twenty-seven pounds in all, of which 40"-.
per cent. should be hbuy of the bestquality.
Without going into details Mr. Stewart
tells, in Rural New Yorker, that the six-
teen pounds of grain food may be made
up of eight pounds of corn and oat meal,
three pounds of linseed cake meal and .
five pounds of mill feed. To secure the
best digestion of this food the hay should
be' cut and wetted slightly and mixed
with the other feed finely ground. Lin-
seed oil cake meal mew process) is highly
albbmindus, containiug 27.8 par cent. of
digestible albuminoids, and must there- ;
fore be fed with caution. Three to five
pounds per day may be' given safely. If
the meal Is old process it contains 10 per
cent. of fat or oil, which is health-
ful In Its action upon the animal, and by
a proper mixture with corn and oatmeal
five to eight pounds per day may be given
with advantage. ....
According to statistics recently pub-
lished by the superintendent'of agriculture
at Washington, In New York state three-
tenths of the farms are moflgaged and
one In twenty of the farm proprietors are
hopelessly in :debt. Mortgages run to
neighboring farmers and merchants and
to insurance agents and trust, companies. "
Of the'humdreds of leaks ou every farm
but few, If any, are more damaging than
a leaky table floor. Have the floor tight,
and some kind of absorbent on Itto'take..
up and hold the liquId manurd." -This-I
for men who hbve no cellar. -- '
.. L ." i
..-." ;" .-'-" .L-.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT'GROWER.: ATGUUST ]0, 1887.
.1 H root vwas impeded in any way. Here,
g w.UW+ the discovery was made of a huge stone
f' coffin or box seven and a half or eight
feet long. containing the bones of a
State News in Brief. Seminole Indian and a variety of aborigi-
Micanopv is 'to hare a large mo-s nal curiosities. The lid of the co-dn or
fMcno r lg box was in two pieces and similar to the
factory soo lime stoe now being found in such
-A cigar-box factory is1 one of the large quantities near Mascotte.
possibilities of the near future at Lake
City. ON THE SOUTHERN COAST.
-LeConte pears' over twelve inches in -
circumference are common about Talla- Diary of a Summer Cruise in
-Preparations are being made for a Florida Waters.
heavy fish and oyster business at Cedar -
Key this fall. BY P. W.REASONER.
-Kissimmee got both the lumber and CHAPTER TV.
brick contracts for the St. Cloud sugar P TATIONS-
works. KEY L.RO--P[NE-APPLE PL&NTATIONS-
-Sumter county will make more corn HOMEWARD BOUND.
this season than has been done for two June X3.--Like old Dan Tucker, we
years past. were too late toget ourtsupper last night,
-A Leon farmer planted a second crop as a phalanx of mosquitoes followed usc
of corn the last of June, and it is now ia aboard, and "an army ten thousand
silk and tassel. strong" followed them up, compelling us
-A large shingle mill is to be built on to take to the bar immediately, with no
Escambia River nebr Canor Creek todeal supper, and the kipper within his cu-
with Northern market-. One of the best proofs that mosquitoes
-Orange county has secured three scent their prey, is in the curious fact
young Russian bloodhounds for use in that, when a boat is anchored through
hunting criminals when they grow up. the night to the windward of the land,
-Osceola county was formed entirely even with a stiff breeze, they will come
from Orange and Brevard. NoneofPblk out in force, sometimes a qtia.irter of a
wastaken. asisstated by someexchanges, mi leor more, but under the lee of the
-The South Florida Tropical Fruit land one is usually unmuoleitcd.
Company, at Fort Myers, will plant The nmurder,:.us little vwietches have
60,000 pineapple slips,'of which 37,000 made existence a buiden t> icu all day,
have been receive ed. ther-e being c-u little breeze that they iol-
lowed 'o.. ar'.undI evcn -n deck, and we
-ThIe cottonr, crop of Columbia'count I.y -avri-d ,ff I.,, ic,-ati tii o ,t ,iuc inwg.
is fully three to four week later thiss We have cta-ted to-day alo,:ngUpper
year than last, though on many farms Mstacombe. Plantation Key and Key
it has begun to open. Laigo. stopping orsionailv. and are to-
-William Cannon. of Kissimmee has night at Newpoit, a little settlement
a pumpkin which mearure:s fire feet, ten al,,ut halt way iup, on Key Largo. The
inches in. circumference and weighs absurld quarantrue mi-un're- taken at
ninety five pounds. the first breaking out of the yellow fever
--The glass for the new lighthouse at in Key \West. in ,ecnex c nreilyruined
Mosquito Inlet has arrived at New the frait rgrowei.s .n these keys. Whole
Smyrna This glass was received from boat loads -of rpie apple.. v lhich they
France. iand weighs 10.000 -ounds, were n,-t all,,w-l to p,. were given
-A good imanv Columbia county peo- away and thrown away in Key West,
ple are devoting their attention to stock- while-they are still rotting by the thou-
raising. The grazing tn the south- sands in thefields. Within the last week,
ern part of the county is said to be ex- however, the people having had time to
cellent. recover breath, shipments have been re-
sumed, and, perhaps, most of the re-
-Tbe steamer Rockledge. while pass- mainder of the crop will find a market.
ing through the Haul,.ver on Indian Pines just fit for shipping are sold now
River lately ran against the bridge cross- at twenty-five cents per dozen on the
ing that stream and completely detfolf
ing that scream and compel de l wharves, while the ripe, yellow pines,
ished it. just right to. eat, but too ripe to ship,
-The orange crop promises to be un- are given away by the hundred.
usually large throughout the Waldo sec- Mr. Sylvester Pinder's plantation here
lion, but the proportion of russetd will at Newport, is, perhaps, a fair example
be largely in excess of any preceding ofthe many fruit farms that skirt the
year. outside beach of Key Largo. The cleared
-Work on tlie Orange Belt Railroad and cultivated land covers perhaps 80 or
-Is steadily progre.siing. and it is confi- 100 acres. Every yeat a new tract is
dently asserted that cars will be running cleared and set out to pine slips, and
to Brooksville by the middle of No- usuallyaboutthesametimeplantedwith
member. lime trees, alligator pears, sappodillas or
-The Micanopy bran,:c-h of the Florida sugar apples. The soil consists of here
Southern Railroad will be extended and there a pinch of the richest leaf
through the Williston nieghborhood by mold scattered about in the hollows of
next winter. Preparations are now the rough and omnipresent rocks. The
being made to begin work. pine slips, are set here, there and every-
where, wherever a hole can be found in
-Darbv's mill, at Palatkra. has the con- the rocks that will sustain a pine slip in
tract for the lumber to be used on the an upright position. Everything is "hop
bridge across the St. Johns at that place. Scotch," straight rowsbeing an inpossi-
The greater part is already cut. This ability. a i
disposes of all rumors that the bi idge is After three or four years of cropping,
not to be built. Ttie iron work is nearly the pine-apple plants die out, leaving
ready, being prepared by Murphy's foun- the land held in possession by the fruit
dry in this city. trees, which, by thistime, have obtained
-A perfect, stone spear-head, nearly a firm hold in the rocks. The pine-apple
six inches in length, was taken from the plants after planting soon cover the
furnace at the Sanford ice factory Fri- ground with a mass of leaves, among
day morning. It had evidently been which theonly cultivation possibleis
imbedded in some of the wood bLurned. the occasional pulling of the tall weeds
but how long since the savage band had by hand. No horses, no cultivators of
cast it into the woo-: of the tiee. which any sort are used; even hoes are altn,.st
had. no doubc, entirely grown over a'nl unknown, as there is no s-oIil to stir, atnd
hidden it from view, will never be nearly allthe weeding must be done by
known. hand. After beiug cut, the pine-apples
-A party of capitalist Ihave advertised are all carried tc-5. the wharf in large
'in Brevard'county their intention to baskets without iTt:l<.: ot.-trjp of the
form a-stock cot-tpany under the cor- head. Sometimes thl field is a quarter
porate name of the Banana and Indian or even a half mile from the water, and
River. Canal Company, for the purpose all the fruit is carried off in this way.
of constructing a canal. It will corn- Though the various sorts of fruit
mence at or near the mouth of Banana trees produce heavy crops for a few
Creek. on Indian River, and run in'an years, still, it is a question with Ius
easterly direction over the most ad- whether their fruitfulness will be of long
vautageous route to the Atlantic Ocean duration unless some fertilizer is em-
and to the head of- Banana River, at or played. Nowhere did we see such fine
near that part of Banana Rivey kn6wn healthy trees as those ovi Mr. Collier's
as Seventy. The capital stock, $15,000,' deep. rich laud at Marco, and in many
is to be divided into 150 shares at $100 cases the care and attention given to
each, them would fill a thorough, careful po-
1 huolo9lst with -despair. -Lime trees in
--It may not be generally known tr
visitors cnd to the outside world at laige particular, though i'aled v.ih fruit, in
that a 'o man"vcases showed half a top of dead
that there is around Orlando a class of limbs and branches, where a little prun-
cowboys asgenuine as those of thc Texas ing and
prairies. Bionchos, with huge saddles heand fertilizing, would produce a
healthy tree and limes three timesas
and trappings nott lees curious to a large as the diminutive specimens most
stranger than their owners, are common of them show. Mr. PinderS'fruit trees
on onr streets, and the cattle industry is seem
one which employs many men. Last em n exceptionally good condition.
Friday quite a crowd gathered near the however, and he has many acres of
them, and will market hundreds of bush-
academy building to see s6me wild po- els of ruit this season, It seems to us
nieslassoed. They were not disappointed, -th t m r r l -ul t to a d i n
and the circus which followed would hat more c"fareul cultivation aad "in-
have done honorto Buffalo Bill's London tesiev" farming, is whlat Ksy Laigo
have, donehonorto B alo wants, as well as the rest of Florida.
sbow.-Orlando Sedtinel. juie 2.-Sailed several hours last
-Only a short limeago Monroe Brown night, and most of the tinle to-day. Are
organized a syndicate in Chicago with a anchored to-night off M3r. John Rus-ell's,
capital of $200,11.Oit1, and purchased a large Upper Metacombe. We saw to-day, at
body of land on the lake and outlet, and Mr. Samuel Johnson's, Key Largohalf
at the present time arrangements are a dozen fine young date palms, one of
being made by them to plant out one which contained three large clusters of
hundred acres in superior orange trees, fruit. It is only seven years old. and
Besides this, Colonel Jim Harris is clear- Mr. Johnson informed us that it had
ing up land, and will soon have out one produced fruit every year tor four years.
hundred acres on the lake, and we have commencing when only three years o~l.
just learned that Mr. Lewis, of Virginia, Two most beautiful species of -/dihes
who purchased the Clark property on are in bloom now on these keys, one,
the outlet will put out a new grove of echifes umbellata, producing umbels of
cixty acres this season. Eichelberger, creamy white flowers as large as and re-
Conoverand Pike, widely known as large semblng those of a single white olean-
and successful orange growers, are con- der, faintly, but exquisitely fragrant,
stantly adding to their already fine especially just at dark. The other, ayel-
grove6.--Sumterville Times. low-flowered species, is scarcer, but is a
-Saba.l Johnson, residing a few miles taller climber, with glossy, very beauti-
west of Oakland, and. about three- ful leaves, and flowers resembling those
quarters of a mile south of the home- of an ailamocMaid, though somewhat
stead of Peter Goodrich, found that an smaller. .
orange tree, twenty years old, in his On Plantation Key are some of the
grove was not doing well. Remedies oldest, large cocoanut groves on the
were applied in vainm and finally the tree keys, theirinvariableaccompaniment the.
died. Being inclined to investigate the same low, two or three roomed, almost
matter he dug down a distance of six or hurricane-proof house, which, besides
eight feet to see if the growth of the tap- affording security, harmonizes admira-
bly with the landscape and th[lie waving
plumes of the palms. The tiumlilest.
low, pairm-thatchd cottage is in ll-tter
taste among grove i ot palr1 tree: than
any tvo-storied atnd stilted villa could
possiblyI be, it seems to us.
Jiw ,;.- --We lay at anchor off Upper
Metaombe last night. weathered a squall
and a hard rain, .by which the
skiff was two-thirds filled with water.
some box covers were blouwn over
board, in company with sundry gar-
ments belonging to the cook, which
hie had washed and hung on the main
boom to dry. By ten o'clock everything
was rnady and we were once mole
afloat, bound up through tie mud banks
for Cape Sable. When thiLngs were
stowed away more snugly, and the last
lingering mosquitoes smoked out of tihe
boat, for almost Lhe first time during the
last week we experienced something
like peace, which time we improved by
a steady war on the pine-apples.
i7To be Continued.)
A Talk With Boys.
A bank president offers the following
sage advice to boys. on a very moment-
Every boy beginning to think, should
also begin preparation for -some business .
which in after years he proposes to fol-
Io:,w. This is important for three r'ea-
son-. Fs-t, a- a rule, no person uhder
the" most tavoiable cir'cumstan'.'-ie can
expect anU iCouilderablle ruce-" in iL r,'e
thau one ralliu; second. in tlie age of
sharp compe-titi',.n, no peieoucan sand in
the hout i aInk among tLi:.:e engaged in
any particular business, who has not had
all the training that his years from li;s
youth up could give hi.u; third, and
most important, by thinking -largely in
one line, the portion of the mind thus
brought into constant activity grows in
grasp and power, and thus eminencebe-
In choosing a business or calling, two
things that pertain to each boy's person-
ality should be considered. First, in
what department of the world's work
are you most likely to have the best
health? second, to what line of Work do
you most naturally incline? ,-
As to the first question, it maybe said
in general and with reference to all busi-
ness, that health is everything. One of
our most eminent business men, being
asked what is the first necessity of success
in any calling, replied,' 'Health." 'What
is the second?" "Health." "What is
the third?" "Health." The boy, there-
fore, who begins life with a body com-
plete in its make, strong in its fibre, and
perfect in its working, possesses power
which, other things being equal, will give
Incidentally, it may be said here that
everything taken into the body and every
use made of the body should strengthen
and vitalize, and not weaken and vitiate
it, and that, therefore, poisons, however
seductive their form or common their
use, should never be inhaled or swal-
lowed; and that any practices which
worse than waste needed nervous force
should, never be begun, and if begun,
should be abandoned at once and for-
ever. Thus a boy, thoughtful of the
needs of oncoming years, who develops
and conserves all his bodily powers, is
making for himself a locomotive engine
of the best material and heaviest weight,
with which he will be able to draw life's
load up grade and down, until, after A
world of good work, she needs to be
made over, while he who wastes instead
of saves and builds, will be left in the
upward and onward hopelessly behind,
So much forhealth as applied to all de'-
partments of life's work.
But in the selection of a business with
healthfulness in thought, a city-bred boy
would hardly think of some forms of
farm-husbandry, where brawn is essen-
tial and exposure the rule; nor a country-
bred boy of some forms of city work,
where delving at a desk in a n, riow,
close room takes the place of I'reshi ai
and free limb.
As to the second question--to what
line of work do you naturally incline?-it
should be the plan of every boy to choose
that business and prepare for it to which
his thought when considering the subject
spontaneously turns. If it is tools, take
them; if books, take them, remembering
that it is always true tiat it is better to
be successful ni a melhanhic than a fail-
ure as a clergyman. plhyscician oCr lawyer.
' These are tbe two nmosl important per-
sonal matters that are to be considered
i n choosing a calling. Going beyond
and outside of these, each boy should
ask: In vwhit business, with my bodily
powers and natural bias, am I amost cer-
tain of getting, first, an honest liviniig;
second, laying by something each year
for future' needs; and thiid, having all
the time over and above the cost of liv-
ing. and additions to estate, the where-
with to help oti"ers in this great world
of want,. and that calling. whatever it
be. should be clioeu.
A Bath in the Morning.
In your dressing room you have soft,
cold water and a sponge, probably placed
there over night, so that it is in the
morning of the same temperature of the
air; then you have a nice, soft, Turkish
washing glove and a piece of plain Cas-
tile or ivory soap-not scented, that were
dangerous'to health. Then, standing be-
fore a basin of hot water, the whole body
is quickly lathered and rubbed thor-
oughly, this ought not to occupy more
thau, say three minutes, and after this
comes the cold sponge bath, which need
not take more than a minute and a half.
A moderately coarse towel should be
used, and the skin should be thoroughly
dried. Remember thattue towel should
not be rough enough to irritate the skin,
but only to produce a pleasant glow.
Remember, too, that there must Ie no
dawdling over the bath-ddawdle as much
as you please while dressing, but bathe
with judicious celerity; and remember,
thirdly, that you must never neglect to
wet the head with cold water, else disa-
agreeable sensations will be the result,
The bath is to be taken on an empty
stomach, and immediately after getting
out of bed. The slight shock caused by
a .8 a
1872 99 74 81
1873 95 74 81
1874 100 66 79
1875 95 66 79
1876 98 70 82
1877 95 70 81
1878 68 68 83
1879 968 68 81
1880 96 70 81
1881 96 70 .82
1882 96 69 82
1888 94 70 81
1884 94 64 80
1885 94 70 81
188i 94 70 80
3a c5 pta
6n 6n on
6 20 5
11 19 1
4 2-2 9
12 15 4
17 8 6
6 18 7
12 12 7
8 17 6
10 16 5
12 15 4
11 15 5
6 18 7
8 17 6
5 20 6
J. W. SMITH,-
" Serg't. Signal Corps, U.. S. A.
- Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co.
Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
Eshoppiin under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
tug to sec re any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
19 G(stes Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grttr de fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
"We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table grocweis of Florida that they can-
not use anyllthing Eo good as Brddley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We knpov
by experience, what we say iegaiding
W'OFFrORD & WILDER.
S -Ft. Mason. Fla.
SOpinions of the Press.
[From the Southern Cultivator.]
"'The Success of the FLoRtiDA FAR-
MER AND FROIT-GROWER, of Jackson-
ville, surpasses that of any similar
publication in America. The publishers
seem to be over-liberal iu giving the
mechanical part every attraction possi-
ble, while Editor Curtiss is doing the
best work of his life. It is a combina-
tion thatcanuot fail of abuudaut succesIs.
The Cultivator is never sorry to see such
enterprise rewarded, as we have no
rivals to be jealous of, but wish all suc-
[From the Gardeners' Monthly]
"WVe are continually receiving new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest
to the intelligent class of horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' Moonthly has to
cater. We were, therefore, agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
of exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this
to find it of a very high order of intelli-
gence, and one -which must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
[From the Texas Farmer.]
"Florida is not behind hersister South-
ern States in material progress. It
the cold water w ill be succeedle.-I hr feel-
itv..s vervy ieliglttful, indeed-feelhngs
which I m iglirt clescribe if I co-se, ibut
will not. a; I I aUnt yout to experience
theui. There are sp-nuge lat.ti and
plunge baths and shliower baths, all of
whljich may le taken at home; but of all
forms of household bathing commen'i
me to the onue I hIE julet tried tot de-
Bounty to Sugar Growers.
Much has been ,aid -of late iu tihe Ipress
about a bounty being gtven to sugar
planters in liEu of a duty on sugar, but
we have beeu opposed to it because it
would be manifestly unjust to dis.crimi-
nate in favor of one cliss of agricultur-
ists. If a bounty were given sugar
planters, all other cultivators of the soil
would clamor for like encouragement.
Recently. however, this que-stion nhas
assumaed a new phase-. Senator Jo:hI
Sherman alluded to it in his Springfield
addrc-ss. He said: "Nearlyall the arti-
cles, except sugar, from which this large
revenue is derived are articles of lux.
ury. mainly consumned by the rich. A
protective duty has been placed on su-
gar for the benefit of the sugar planters
of Loui.iana. but. we now propose as one
means of reducing s-urplus re'enue, to
largely reduce this tax. and ats a protee-
tion to sugar growers: ,orme propose to
paiy out the duties ou sugar as a bounty
for tie home produce tion of all kinds of
sugar from tcalne eot beets or cor.-hin'."_
This ipr'op..itiou. we learn, ti-t ,rcaice
from a Lcuiciarua ge-tleuan. not a
interte, but. ,lentifitd v.itL the inte-r-'t.
Instead of taxing., the people dire.. t to
l:av uolt'li bountv it is propose.-I t: us.-:
tbEh iereue .Iiiveed from the duty on
sugar as a bounty to stimulate the f,, h-one
production of all kinds of sugar, from
cane or beets or sorghum." Thus the
surplus revenue would be reduced by
putting that amount in another channel,
where, in a very few years, it would
build up our American sugar industry-to
an extent that it could supply our entire
wants in that line, and as our produc-
tion increased, the revenue from foreign
sugars would-decrease. Thus it would
cure the evil complained of (surplus rev-
enue), build up.our home sugar industry,
and gradually put it in a position to sus-
stain itself without protection. The prop-
osition is a very feasible one.-Sugar
The following table compiledfrom the records
of the Jack onville Signal Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall and, direction of wind for
the month of August, as observed at the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years:
u-1 I ,.II, po d
JAcKSOINVILLE, August 5,1887.
MEATS-D. S. short ribs, boxed. 89 15: D: S.
long clear sides, $9 12; D. S. bellies, 89 12y;
smoked short ribs, 89 75; smoked bellies. 9 7o;
S. C. hams, canvassed fancy, 135c; S. C. shoul-
ders,canvassed, Syc; California or picnic hams,
9Mc. Lard-refined tierces, 7Tc. Mess beef-
barrels, $10 50; half barrels, 85 75; mess pork,
$17 00. These quotations are for round lots
from first hands.
BUTTER-Best fable, 23@28c per pound;.cook-
uing, 15@20c per pound.
Grains, Flour,l Hay, Feed, Hides, Etc.
GRAIN-Corn-The market higher and firm.
The following figures represent to-day's values:.
We quote white born job lots, 65c per bushel;
car load lots, 63c per bushel; mixed corn, job
lots 59@60c per bushel; car load lots, 57c per
bushel. Oats quiet and firm at-the following
figures: Mixed, in job lots, 40c; car load lots,
38c; white oats are 3c higher aftll-around. Bran
firmer, $18@19 per ton. -
HAY-The market is higher and very scarce.
Western choice, small bales, $19 00@20 00 per
ton; car load lots, $18 50 per ton; Eastern hay,
$]9 per ton.
PAML GRITrs AND MEAL-Grits $3 40; meal
$3 30 per bar-el.
FLoiR--Wealer; best patents, $535@5 50;
good family, $4 90@5 00; common, $4 25.
PEAs-Mixed $8125, whips $1 35, clays $1 30.
GROt0ND FEED-Per teoi, $24 00.
CoFFEE-Green Rio, 21@24c perpound; Java,
roasted, 32@35c; Mocha, roasted, 85c; Rio,
roasted, 25@28c. '
COTTON SEED MEAI-Demnand light. Sea
Island or dark meal, $19 00@20 00 per ton;
bright or short cotton meal, $21 50@22 50 per
TOBACCO STEmS-Market quiet but firm at
$18 00@14 00 per ton.
LIME-Eastern 500 barrel lots $1 80, 100- bar-
rel lots $ 40, less.than 100 $150. Alabama lime
1 15. Cement-American 12 01; Eigicn $325
RIcE-The quotations vary, according to
quantity, from 5%9@6Y cents per pound.
SALT-Liverpool, per sack, $100; per car
oad, 90 cents.
HInEs-Dry flint, eow, per pound, first class,
13 ,jents; and country dry salted 11 cents;-
butchers dry s:cit-... .: eni.i. Al1 Ias-Deer flint,
20 cents; salted 1i ct. FnUt is-Otter, winter
each 25c@$1 00; i- a.:,:.),:u INI5 cents; wild cat
10@15 cents; fox 10@15 cents. Beeswax, 'per
pound, 18 cents; wool, free from bars, 18@23
cents; 'burry, 8@15 cents; goat skins 10 cents
CHESEs-Fine Creamery 16 cents per ound.-
Li\t. P',r.TL'R--Limjitd stipply ind good
du-iaud oi ll,:iws: Ht:-LS 41) ctial; mixed30
eu[t.; irh lh t.-,- a'n lb -:tU s. r ue arieScarce
Eanl i U Lr.,t'.I-erurtiud.
EO,;s"-i-L''.'fl Counnty 14 c-nt; prdozen with
g- dr &rumaud and liral.-d snpplyV.
banel, TToun-iseI- potatoes, $A,.
ON10N W-cw.stI'ero pIi- n'l tird i &35), Ne-w York
S-i *; i~e; iper I .
,New Clrk ,ablaca-sg; lti, t2o per h-cad.
NEW BEaT.s-New 6ic, 8275 per barrel.
To. IOEas-FioI Ida, per crate, kuie.
NORTrnn'E, Tur.n-rs-Good supply at 225
;Qt.ASH-Per cr-ate, 31 25.
(UCUOcoIBERs-Pe bbox, .100.
Foreign anid Domestic Fruds.
PIN E .APPLES---il 75'..u2 00 per dozen.
LEMrrNs--Mr(.olns, 51, 75,:(7 On per box.
FEra-Itt leaves, Itic.
D.itar-SPislan-Boxess c; Frails, 7c.
NLs--Almonds ilc: Braatls 12c; Filberts
iSlcilyli 12c; English waintits, Oreoobles, 18c;
Mcarbots lIc; Pecans t2c; Peanuts de; Cocoa-
nutsS&iu pc-r hundred.
RatsiN--Loudon lacers, S2.50 pr box.
BuTrarniNt-E-c'reameIry .; Extra Dairy 16c;
CBErSE-Haif skIm 10.: cream 13c perpound.
PA.cnHEs-Georgta, 50,'s75c per crate.
APPLrES-Georgias, 60&,756c per crate.
LE CoN- E PEaRs--i 2c) per crate, $500 per
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
iromi quotations i'urisiabed by dealers In the
New York Cabbage wholesale at$. $250a300
per barrel, and retail at 12@1l5cedtas.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at tL 50 per bushel
and tetatl at two quarts fior 15 cents.
Parsnips wholesale at 60 cents per hundred,
and retail at four and flve for 10 cents.
Eggs are in fair demand. Duval county egg3
are quoted at wholesale at 14@-15 cents per
dozen, and retil at 20 cents. -.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
62 00 per barrel, and retail at 5,10 and J5 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at 62 50%
2 76 pert barrel, and reLall at 10 cents per quarL,
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Live poultry-chickens wholesale at 80@85
oug.hit to be called the land of fruits andti
flowt-rs, for each of these grand divis-
ions of hot ticulture are equally at hIome
theieO. The FLORID A FARMER .IND) FRUir
G 'POWER is au ably conducted and ele-
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topicc, to which we refer the reader
for further inuforuLation."
fFiom thie Time" Democrat.]1
"Editor Cturtiss. Of the FARMER ANt'
FRUIT-GROWER. evidently struck -the
popular fa'cy when he established that
jotrual. Its suc':ess is phbenonienal.d all
although .only a few months old. lina al-
readly taken the lead in all matters per-
taining to Southern hort'icuJture."
iFrom the Florida Baptist Witness. i
The FRnMuER AND FR[TIT-LiROWER
comes to our table regularly and
promptly, and is full or, interesting andi
instructive matter. It certainly excels
any paper 've have ;een, for Florida
especially. Send to Jacksonville f'or it.
Address as above, and read it awhileaud
iFret, thecGcinmesrlue Morning lic,-ri
"We are in receipt of thie FLORIDA
Fa.RMiER AND FRUIT-GROWER., published
by C. H. Jones & Bro., at the Times-
Union office, and edited by Prof. A. H.
Curticsi. It is flist-ilass in every respect.
and is a piper which every farmer and
truit giow-er should have. Its articles
are full of plain, good. commo- seuse.
We hope io0 give our eader;s the benefit
of m'inLyr of its articles. Succec-s to the
tli te rpr ie."
[Froin the So. Live Stock Journal.
W Ve rcgltet that the first number [of
the FARMER AND) FRtnr-G''wrWER] failed
to reach uw; but the second shwov.- a vry
handsome she-.t a to paper, typ.ogiraplcy
and general make up. wliile the addi-
iou:ail depat-ar -rt isi aLl we expected of
the diStil-cuishe,.l editCir. MatY cOf onin
rc.rdei.; aie mtereI ted dJirc:.tiva td.l Ie:.-
cl'ariiv in eVerl3thliug coinetleted with1
Florida, and -e cordially commend this
new atnd excelIlent perio;.icl as u'orthy
of their pstroioage. Witlc Ij.-, t wise;
for its nie':c.ss. -,re vc-lcomec this new a"-
pirant tLr public tavor ciunI pittonagLe,
feeling i.',sured of the good %%,irk it will
aecomplhhij i and out of Florida.
SAVANNAH, Auu..td .T-r.'t Upiarad Cot-;:
ton market closed cqlt.-iI at e i f:,ilonw.,a quo-
tations: ... .
MiddliniSi fqir ... ......... -111 .
G :>1 cidh z-. g. .... .........
Lown rui D tan -.... ..... .. .... l .. -
GO ood orinr ry ......... .. ..........".. ... n -
TnI u,-t r': :it.: wetc i bale; gross re-
ceipts 1 bales;, sales 8 bales; stock at this
port 797 bales.
SEA isLAND C roT'ON.
The market Is quiet .and nominal at un-
changed qi.ictatloui. Little stock Lfor sale and
scarcely .auy arri.'ing.
Common Floridas -15
M edium ........ .... .... ...... ......... ......16
eod M lteA im ........ .... ... ................. .17
Medium fin e I
Fine ... ....... .................. .. .... 9@ 2
E xt., F'' -'- ...... ............
Choiec-- --. "... '..'..... .." ...... -:1
TAT A N TED
A tenant who understands the remain g and
ch;|iuc-nt c: gprdc-n truck niilc truat, to clitirastc
a ja igIe i.Uar'til Iml oori rig love ou hares. Bet
-itf licccucmic cild cndi hu i noaidl product of
ab:-itlt liiu,icii.orrricge- A ucin with rvwor three
boys large enough and not afraid to work can
hear of a rare chance by application to the un-
dersigned, at Manatee, Fla.
References required. T.H. VISER.
FO:R S A T i-M
SThe pure Nmnan. mte m.:.--t pr,.itaIc variety
forFlorida. 1'er .,,,i, t,.., caret h packed
and shipped bn receipt o"f pr" r e
cAdi'r,:.. ', 'WK. JAME
P. 0 Box j ,J, i:k-.-,nvi lle, Fla.
RILEY, GREOVER a CO.,
1 -.JacksojiTvale, Fla
STATE AGENTS FOR
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S ',
SOLUBLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
Get our Prices before buying.
Know all men by these present, that C. H
Jones, G. W. Jones, J. W. Abernathy, and F. "
W. Hoyt under anid mn accordance with the pro- -
visions ot the Actor the Legislature of the State
oa Florida, providing for the creation or corpora-
tions, have associated themselves under tbename .
of the "Times-Union Printing ad Publishing
Company," with place or bLusiness at Jackson-
vWle, Florida. The object of the company will
be to carry on a general printing and publishing
business and to rn'ansaot asuch-other- busines'as -
may be necessary for the welfare of the com-
pany. The capital smock of said company is '
One hundred Thousand ($1000 0) .Dollars, the
shares to be paid up in -fall when issued. The
company begins Its business from- the date of
the iling of its Articlehof Incorporation, namely
July .18th, 1887, and will run. for nianety-nme
years from said date. Its offleers shall consisted ofa
President, Secretary sand Tresiurer, and five (5)
Directors, to be elected on the second Monday
In Julyin eaoh.'yeair. .rhe highestItamount of .
indebtedness the corporation a a at-anytime
subject itself to Is' twenty' (20)'aer cent of the'
oap1tal'took, namely Tcenty Thousand ($20,00J
'(Signed) 0. H.. Jo ,ES, -
G. W JOrjES .. '
J W:. ABIiRNATHY. ,'
..Fl B. W. H o.".. .,:n ..
9 --'8~-" -
-- .- -
-t.-car ..- -- -a-a- ,. ,-~ --- --,c- --- -. -~- -,' ,St-ut#~~ti cc -
-- --- -- ,.i,,.iSa c.-.~t
;-- -- a -.'r:------r-.-. -. --
-l.~. -- ~45a-ZtaC'~v, a
Ti ill p 'd, r ne '- varIes. A marvel t
Snurity ,'trro and w.oh-somenss. More
cc,6,mni.mcsil tihnt,. oidluary uds, 'and
farjtiul r:.--L '1- 1 In, i IrnpetithI- vwiLh the
nr.iLctt.!ln, Ie '_, [,I % teat .l'b,,tl t cefihr alum or
,. c '- rI,-tt t at e,',.iTt c MLbDi.E qd-
p',it,, t r p Ci_ hinIL- L 3i, ri, re'(-iJ. ,ent.r
Nc,rct_.,-lL m,-., i ,t,- i ,c- l'Olh:.cr: I:lji,.tei.
h.-l" 1c' i.' 0.K ut0 -i'r--'-.,,nd; Fi,:.i ida haep-" ,-i,1
i-,ntz; m i. :,n an.." ie l ct. mn _, co rte
Cl'2 ." i o Ve- b-,t.1.1. 72i-,.Ln dte l" !0 Ent
eoni.udit nd' 'ij.ic b. ci U tb:Ir. ttu itla
n: L -r wn h :i c-L ii La e it- 7 .ru ir anl dni -o
eL-i",, t! l .- >b t>0!,i .[-) .nU -n ,, 5 l t t. llV
R:.Y.cII -i.i a..-- c. ,t -t' 7-.'. bro-
E>: MaYur,- L
-i. _L!' I-a i -: I t t] t t .: AC h.s
',r -. l'.-u whi :t. .a r l 13 ,...u ) re,
No .:ieWj. an retal at- I a- ,,r .,s.
tiiri -l upw._-d.,i .I- i.'d,,_n,,: hi-.e p .r ad 3l 5 and
rtc:QIli; ,1 'i'i t-- i.i', tO-" l.& '1iiulU'In" Ii -I Ct-O ti.
E .lc- i. Pa :d L-l--yit .- it ', .I.
RN i(' 1 t .:%1 0ND, .- t n'E'51'' pe ttor-n,.i-
LEAkF TOEI-CCI_ MIiJBULTS.
NEW Y'',RE A'~u .t k-TheeiS '30 Sbiobte-
mei n c in-te rl1i the t11,1 r;,) mTar k'.ru -
Pri,:e, .t~ ..itcI tn-liLne" upl;ward, .rnd thei.- t
r1i,'HE I'-,Nr,, Autcust 5.-L.cdt t.-ac', ara s
fi' na. Pt- ,. ',nr,- [ccc B hut'~ }' icit i-ele' rcnd buI
ers seem t: fI ,..- t : t-it i t,) the
unsetl,.d raci.ei in N,-w York.
LOUISVILLE, Auo.ta; .5-Tbe m:arkc-t i3
ralm an-i plch, -eoni~0 t rwar't. ALKnuon
E ",A eX ,[" !'tudgCl,i a ['laU l o 2ioit '5 per hun-
,ij d dd.-- t o,, ,.
Appk-Itt. l rait -l e. Iay. i .- impro;-'cd acd
e.c-ry pai -l. ith[ t .' .7 r- Lr,: l t ,n -b -,ed aind
LU,- ,Eii ,c il 1; r. il 'i -,:,in .aln Irh r -l bu CVan r -
h .e ,6," 1.-. J". l -l ca,: awt n'- tsh,-e'int
Cordial and Blood .,iii__. e.
SAVANAH (OTTON MARKET.
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