Florida farmer & fruit grower

Material Information

Florida farmer & fruit grower
Uniform Title:
Florida farmer & fruit grower (Jacksonville, Fla. 1887)
Alternate title:
Florida farmer and fruit grower
Place of Publication:
Jacksonville Fla
C.H. Jones & Brother
Creation Date:
March 30, 1887
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
3 v. : ill. ; 50 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Florida ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 5, 1887)-v. 3, no. 3 (Jan. 16, 1889).
General Note:
A.H. Curtiss, editor.
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
000454290 ( ALEPH )
11040152 ( OCLC )
ACL6442 ( NOTIS )
sn 95026760 ( LCCN )

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Florida dispatch (Live Oak, Fla.)
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Florida dispatch and farmer and fruit grower


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Full Text

VOL. I---NO. 13.

Japan and Mexican Clovers.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit- Grower :
I am requested to give through you
paper a few words in regard to th
above forage plants. They seem b
some to be regarded as the same. Neither
are true clovers, though "Japan clover
belongs to the same family as the tru
Mexican clover (Rickardsonia scabra
also known as Florida clover and. Spar
ish clover, belongs to the family Rubia
ceme, which includes the cinchona an
coffee and our common bedstraws. It i
a native of Mexico and South Americs
out has become extensively naturalize.
throughout Florida and along the Gul
coast. It is of "considerable value as
forage plant, p efers sandy soil, and i
often a troublesome weed irt gardens
The name clover was probably given front
the general appearance of the plant, and
from the fact that its flowers grow ii
heads. The fact that the leaves are single
and entire, however, is sufficient to dis
tinguish it from the clovers.
-Japan clover (Lespedeza striata), intro
duced from Asia, has a more northeral
and greater range, growing on all soils
but more especially on heavy clay. It i
comparatively little known in Florida as
yet. Like the Mexican clover, it is at
annual, but starts earlier in the season
is less troublesome in cultivated ground
and where it will grow well- is of mon
value as a forage plant. Each leaf con
sists of three distinct leaflets, and the
minute purplish flowers are borne single
at the base of the leaves.
Figures and descriptions of both ol
these plants appear in the report of the
department of agriculture for 1878, and
a more complete account of their value
will be given in a bulletin soon to be
published by the department on its for-
age plants of the South.
DEP'T OF "AGRIOULTuE, Washington,
Mexican Clover in Florida.
The first Mexican clover which atract-
ed attention in this country was found
growing at a place called Belle Fontaine,
a stage stand near Mobile, Ala. For a
time the popular name for the plant was
"Bell fountain." How it received the
name of Mexican clover, I am unable to
It is very susceptible to frost but revels
in the heat of the hottest summer day.
The tap root must descend deep into the
earth,as it is not affected by drought. It
begins to come up as soon as settled
warm weather is assured and' continues
to come -until frost. The plant is easily
killed by the cultivator, but if the land
be well seeded with it-oue crop is no
sooner destroyed than it is succeeded by
Another, .nd when the cultivation ceases
it quietly takes possession and keeps it.
Mexican clover is peculiarly free from
disease and is avoided by all insects, ex-
cept that the bees gather honey from its
flowers. It begins to bloom' and ripen
seed at an early stage of its growth and
continues to do so until cold' weather.
The seeds Ishould should say (not having any
Sby me so as to be exact) are about. one-
rfourth the size of a grain' of wheat and
about the color of. amber wheat,
single plant, growlnalone on fair
land at maturity would cover a space of
Sat least three feet in diameter, and is
mostly recumbent, but when growing-in
Smasse", as it usually does, the stems sup-
porting each othei-rise toa height of a
foot and a half. .
It can be cut three or four times ina
season. The hay sells for the -highest
price in this market. It is an admirable
crop for green manring; in fact,I know
of nothing equal to it for that purpose
which grows in-this climate.
Lssj year, after housing my Irish po-
tatoes, I turned under three successive
crops. of the clover before frosn, and you
will remember it was a remarkably dry
season. -
The same land is -now. bringing for-
ward a crop of cabbages and turnips,
-whose deep green foliage and luxuriant
growth show unmistakably the great
benefit derived from the green manur-
"Upon that same land this season, I ex-
pect to grow a crop of corn and beans,
after the turnips and cabbages are off,
and then .a heavy crop of Mexican
NErwTFTi near Pensacola, Feb. 8.

.Texas Blue Grass With Peas.
Concerning the subject of our last il-
lustrated article on forage plants we find
the following communication in the
Southern Live Stock Journal, written
from Griffin, Texas, the. -28d of Feb-
For Texas blue grass break your land
well. Lay off your rows three feet
with a small bull tongue plow; plant
your sets in furrows eight or ten inches
apart and press the dirt well around the
roots; cultivate with a bull .tongue
sweep. .
Wten you lay by,"plant running peas

in the centre furrows, cover with a sma
bull tongue, harrow them off to lev
land. The peas will cover the grass, b
e will not smother it. It will will kee
e green all summer, and will- multip
y much faster. The sets can be put oi
r, from October till 15th of March; the fa
season is the best.
To prepare seed for planting, u
leached ashes. You will find them dan
enough; and if too damp sift in som
( dust. Do not make the same mistake
d did, and sprinkle water on your seed
. If you do you will pay for it; I lost m
s first sowing by dampening unleache
1, ashes and rolling my seed in them. TI
* ashes killed the seed.
The great drawback to Texas bl
a grass is it takes too long to get ready fc
s pasture-at least two years. The seed
. sowed last fall has made, a splendid
stand. Idid not cover the seed. I ha'
n tried several varieties of grasses. Text
e blue grass is the best, but there is to
much work about it for us Texans.
-3 have been. trying to give my neighbor:
some Texas blue grass plants. When
began telling them how to work i
Y "Well, there is too much work about
, for me." After slowing one of min
neighbors some over knee high I su
- needed in giving him 1,000 pants.
n will not do we.l on wet land; will mak
' a beautiful lawn; stock of all kinds lik
e it, and will not tramp it out.

e Yellow Millo Maize.
This variety of the forage sorghum
f deserves to be tested by all who are ex
e perimenting in this line. J. H. Alex
I ander, the Augusta seedsman, describe
e it as attaining a height of nine to twelv
e feet, stooling from the ground like th
- white '"Branching Dhoura," or Mill
Maize, but not so much. It sends ou
shoots also from the joints. The see'
heads grow to great sizo on good land
often: weighing three-fourths of a pound
sometimes a full pound after being full:
ripe. These heads are set close an
solid, with a large plump graini, double
- the size of White Millo, and of deei
golden yellow color. Weight, sixty
pounds per bushel.
"In shape, the seed head is thick, wel
- shouldered, solid, never long and nar
row, and by reason of size and weight
)each head is the full equal in grain to
fine ear of corn. The heads begin to
turn down usually as soon as formed
and when ripe, it hangs on a short
gooseneck stem. The plant possesses al
the -vigor and vitality of other sor
ghums. It is non-saccharine, useful
only for the large amount of forage,
green feed or cured fodder that it fur-
nishes, and for its grain which is so fine
in appearance, abundant, and well eaten
by mules, horses, cows and hogs."
One of Mr. Alexander's correspondents,
writing from Winterville, Ga., says:
"I have bad but little experience with
kaffir corn, planted it this year for the
first time, anfd had -I hever grown the
yellow millo maize, l should have
thought this a great thing, but it
certainly does not compare with the
former in its yield of forage and grain.
I like the appearance of kaffir corp. its
head, stalk, and blade; still I cannot re-
commend it as the. best forage plant,
when from actual test on same quality
of land, and same culture, it yielded me
only one-half as much as the yellow
millo maize. I will test kaffir further
the coming year-wish to try it for
bread, think it may make nicer looking
bread, from the simple fact that the
grain is white; but whether. it is any
more palatable or not, I am not able to
The yellow mllow milo maize makes delight-
ful batter cakes; in taste and appearance
strongly resembling buckwheat, and one
fond of the latter will find this a most
tempting substitute. One head of yel-
low millo maize- is, almost, or quite, as two of taffir corn, which is
long and slender,, while the head of yel-
low millo maize is formed in sections of
smaller heads, lying very close and com-
pact, which makes it very heavy, and is
I think, what causes it to turn down
goose neck, as we express it, on the
stalk. The stalk is as tall again as Kaffir
corn, and filled all the way with fodder.
"I have been experimenting for three
years with every variety of the sorghum
family, with a view of finding what
would pay the farmer best for the least
amount of time.and labor. We farmers
will ere long be reduced to the necessity
of depending entirely on our own labor,
and one point of vital interest is,to get the
greatest possible yield from the smallest
number of acres. My experience is, that
yellow millo maize and amber cane are
what we need."

Ground Moles.
Take a small piece of fat pork, make a
hole in the mole's trail and drop it in; then
cover the hole with a piece of bark or
something so the dirt will not fall in.
Put several pieces in different parts of
the garden and the moles will disap-
pear.-Ex. "



all RICHARDSONIA SCABRA. or clusters at the ends of the branches INTENSIVE GROVE CULTURE. How to Prune.
el and in the axils of the leaves. The It is, indeed, safer to prune t all
t A Source of Wealth Found in lowers are funnel-form, white, about Present and Future Require- than to have asarp knife in the hands
et A Source of Wealth Found in half an inch long, with 4 to 6 narrow
py a Mexican Weed. lobes, and an equal number of stamens ments to be Considered. of an ignorant man. Much of the indif-
ference the culture of the dwarf pear'has-
ut In a country where the need is so well inserted on the inside of the corolla B ference the culture of the dwarfpear has
ill recognized of plants suitable for forage tube. The stem is somewhat hairy, the BY H. BaUk. eninto came about from e bad
and-for the renovation of soil as it is in leaves opposite and, like other plants of The great expenditure of time and miaaes 0o ignorant pruners. ite isnot
se Florida, it seems strange that a plant so this order, connected at the base by money required to bring an orange at all uncomon to see a dwarf pear tree
ip well adapted to either or both of those stipules or sheaths. The leaves are ob- grove into profitable bearing condition, with all its young, vigorous growth ct
Ie purposes as the Mexican clover, should long or elliptical and one or two inches debars many from entering into this -away-noting hut nt ul h 'ioiurs ein. All
I have been almost entirely neglected. long. Mr. John M. McGehee, Milton, fascinating pursuit, and is a ruitful the fconditiocen isn th spent into the floeris are
s. Not only has its usefulness been ignored, Fla., writes as follows: cause of failure with planters of limited condition ins of snow-white blossomtrees ar; but
iy but it has been treated as an enemy on I send you a small sample of what we means. mountan fos snow-white blossoms ; but
ed account of its very luxuriance of growth, here call Florida Clover, others call it Any method by which this expense ew fruit follows. Ajudicious thinking
he at least by the cotton planters, who re- Water Pars'ey, and others Bell Foun- may be lessened, and a living made from outo t weak branches, so as- to get a good
gard it as a pernicious weed. ta'n. This plant is now attracting more the land while thegrove is coming on, ingrequired. If there is tenden
ue So far as we know, it has not been interest in this section than any other must be a matter of interest to all who ing required. If thereis a tendency to
or utilized in any county of Florida except article of farming interest. It is very are engaged in fruit growing, and produce an overproportion of fruit spurs
I Escambia. Around Pensacola, as has troublesome to farmers in the cultivation particularly fo.those who are working cut out a good portion of them. .
id been described in several articles in this of their crops; its growth is very rapid. with limited means. The apple often requires prunin
ve paper, persons not interested in cotton It contains a great aeal of water, and is The views entertained herein are not wolden stunmewhat advances should in years cut ouhe
as have made it very serviceable, both as a hard to cure as a hay. Some call it very merely theoretical, as the feasability of old stunted branches should be cut out -
no forge plant and green fertilizer. Though good hay, others say it is worthless, the p'an has been fully demonstrated in now and ti en, whenever a young and
I a native of Mexico and South America, For the last 50 years it has been regarded practice. vigorous shoot is inclined to take its
rs it has proved to be perfectly adapted to as a great pest to farmers. It is now Orange trees, whether budded or seed- place. Peach trees especially love- this
I the climate and soil of Florida, though, coming into notice as an element in ling, should never be planted closer than sort of pruning. The grape vine, when
t. like other so-called weeds, it grows only green-soiling, which has never been thirty feet apart. The tendency of the trained on lattice work or trellises, is
it on land which has been disturbed by practiced in this section before. times is towards the use of budded very liable to have its strong branches at
y man. Mr. Matt. Coleman, Leesburg, Sumter stock; but it is not the province of this is ever on the alert to good pruner
3- As a proof of its hardiness we may Co., Fla., writes as follows: article to enter in'o a discussion of that strong branch up from near the graoung
It matter. strong branch up from near the groun
:e In this section there are sweet seedling When he can get this he often takes out
ie trees between 25 and 30 years old, whose an older one weakened by age or bear-
branches already cover spaces thirty feet ing and replaces it with youth and
- generally believed, that budded trees The rule in pruning grape--v.nes is to
will never attain the size of seedlings, shorten th shootsin proportion to their
i7s ^still this theory has not been demon- strength ; but if the advice we have
-s strated yet in Florida practice. Fruit in former summer hirtri has been at-
h bearing is always at the expense of wood tended to this matter, as summ title dispropor-
?s growth, and, vice versa, strong wood tion in this matter, as summer pinching
e growth precludes heavy fruiting; conse- of the str vinng shoot hos equalized the
e quently the budded tree coming into rngth of the vine. Those who are
e bearing much sooner than the seedling following any particular system will, of
ot J- eimust make comparatively slower course, prune according to the rules com-,
Sgrowth, and the chances are there will prising such system. As a general rule
be no great difference in the sie of the we can only say that excellent grape
Stwo at full maturity of each. eithszcan be had by any system of pruning;
S.-' Some of the largest trees in the State for the only object of pruning in any
y are sweet buds on sour stocks, and when case is to get strong shoots to. push
d .+- are sweet buds on sour stocks, and when where they may be desired, or to add to
ae 1 i SAit is borne in mind that an abundance of increased vgor of the shoot, which pired or to add to
Sair and light is essential to the success increased vigorllof ollow t he sich pin-
P of the orange tree, the great folly of ningcreased supposizes will follow th beact, in-
y^M f -close planting can be readily under- creased size in the fruit it bears.
Sstod ting can be readily under- Blackberries, raspberries and currants
It is much to be regretted that some of are also much assisted by having the
our best writers have advocatedcloser weaker canes thinned out, and: those
a -planting than a just appreciation of thetheftshortength.Ged a fourth or fifth
a {//^ ^ m ^ Fmatter would seemtowarja, -Iaqlian .i their length.-GardenersiMenthly.
S precedents will n6o y-1 y i~v -,dr.,- Grafting the Fig. '-
t Florida practice, any "moreF'han theirra g t -F g
f g stunted trees will compare with our the limb and split it through
magnificent growths. the center. If the limb is two to four*
1 Close planting is undoubtedly better inches in diameter, put in two grafts:
for the grove while young, but will we one next to each side or bark. Cut thi,
not be leaving a heritage of disappoint- wedge-like taper about 4 inches long anf;-
ent for our children, have one or two buds only. The scion
SI will now try to show how the benefits should be i inch, or less, in diameter
Sr of close planting may be secured with- When the grafts are: both forced-into
out lessening the. future utility of the utility of the split there will be considerable space
Grove, unoccupied. Fill this space with hot
Supposing the young orange trees to grafting wax hot enough toflow readily.
be planted thirty feet, or. more, apart, Then with a paddle cover the over the end of limb
then plant peach trees in the orange around grafts, also. ends of grafts and
rows both ways, and in the centre of edges of graft and limb. Take a strip of
each square formed by four orange trees strong muslin, 1 inch wide and 3 feet
t. Plant a dwarf orange, lemon, loquat, long, and wrap the limb and graft, com-
'Japan persimmon, or plum-the Kelsey menacing an inch or two below the lowest
plum seems very suitable, since it is a extremity of the split, wrapping and
uue t rapid grower, and retains its foliage well drawing the muslin very. tight, at tthe
ee t into the winter, same time waxing each turn of the cloth
o tll p" eThus, if your orange trees are thirty with the hot wax, using the. paddle.
S p r o feet apart the various trees will all stand When wrapped to the top of the stub,
.. v at equal distance of fifteen feet, and wrap the -muslin, between and around
S t i Ov i you will have a total of 192 trees to the each scion, waxing careful and through-
ME o m o eXICAN CLOVER. aicrtarniti .acr t.e." ndrg ey. The whole secret is is keep the air
r cite the fact that the Richardsonia grows- I- inclose a specimen of a plant called The peaches and Kelsey plums will be- exludfromthecut
luxuriantly during the hottest months 'Spanish Clover The tradition is that gin bearg aer one year, the perm- Fi s hat theorqftcha so q t
on the deepestanddrist sands in Jack- Whien the Spanish evacuated Pensacola mos in two, and you will have profi- ttake before the bark is drawn away
Ssonville. A severer .test than that ought'this plant was discovered there by the abe crops rom itese sources oraand the sap channels are dry. The
not to be asked. It has a long period of cavalry horses\ feeding upon it eagerly. b ohf nd ea nt ho waxois the onfy perfect way to r re-
- growth and produces seed in abundance. -FTie years ago, hearing of it, I procured growth of the orange tree necessitates hot wax is the on y perfect way to pro-
It is best est abolished in the nortilern, some of the seed and have been planting the removal of theothers. tight wrapping is the to prevent shrinking
especly the nor-western potion ot or eltivatng iT in my orane rove l a to be removed first, but the tight wrapping is to prevent shrinking
S t nor th-west r port ion or cultiva ing it in my orange grove ersimmons ma remain of the bark. In other respects the rules
the State. but it be even mor&e f-tn that time to the presents a forage "u" dp may remain for ordinary grafting hold good.
at home in the southern counties. t lalit antl vegetable -fertilizer. I find it muca longer. th the rt A. M. GAa in Rural Calfom .
The name commonly bestowed on it 'ampl6'and sufficient. It-grows on thin In carrying out this plan mthe varieties .. i Rr ..lf
is parsleyy," yet it bears but slight, -pie'land from four to six feet, branches of intermediate, trees may be variedale Bug
resemblance, to the true purslane-an- -dd spreads in every direction, forming eaches, Kelsey plums and persimmons Pasting w Scale Bugs.
other example of the reckless -misappli- daethick matting an shaodet h meaith, are recommended as probably being the Some time ago we published some
cation of popular names which so pre- and affords all the mulching my trees most profitable, novel methods of dealing with the red
judices botanists against their use. In a require. One hand can mow asmuo h in This method of intensive culture has scale which have been devised byt the
previous article we have designated h one day as a horse will eat in a year two several advantages: l1st, the shade Californians. One of these methods
plant as the Richardia scabra. Prof.' day's sun will cure it readyfor housing afforded by the close planting will consisted of spraying the trees with a
Gray has ascertained that that is the nr sacrkinh aprn it maea sgweft, benefit the land by protecting it from the very thin paste, which it was claimed
nam st,'r appied,.t this pln th apdrh heasacpnt-i a ed, hat horse s san dwct hot sun in the summer, and also by re- would cause the scales to cleave off. The
name ef cirstoappl nd to ies pant and" ple asal averedhay. hres. ad ctt e phrpe
therefore must be recognized by botanists bth relish it. The bloom is white, al- tarding radiation of heat from the earth Orange bune, referring to this dis-
according to the accepted laws of' ways open in the morning and closed in in the winter; 2d, the high fertilization cover, says
nomenclature. ut as ichari a' the evening. Bees and all kinds of but- requisite for the peaches will benefit the Paste the bugs. Several of our fruit
name applied to the calla lizy, as thetfoe suc te end. hi ...... orange trees; 3d, the three different growers have been experim eating with
name pichardsoniaeca o hardlybe asper- th varieties of trees will probably not ex- the paste remedy for the scale-bug, an-
ceded in agriculturalliteratie, ana haust the soil in the same degree, or so far we have not heard of an instance
the original name was intended to ne ofthe best means of preventing manner that the orange, closely planted, where it has not worked in a satisfactory
memorate a certain Dr. Richardson, we the too often disastrous desire of yonng would do. manner. The general opinion seems to
shall adhere to the common spelling. people in the country to join the crowds Clean, thorough cultivation, with high be that a thorough spraying with paste
In the report of the Department ofof the town is to lead them to appreciate fertilization are essential to success in will kill more scale-bugs than all the
Agriculture for 1878 we find the follow-' the far greater and more satisfying following out this plan. Peas may- be soap washes in the valley, and the paste
ing account of this interesting plant- beauty of nature. Every teacher should, planted in'drills the first year or two; Is harmless, doing no damage to the
This is an annual plant of the Naturral each day of the present spring-time, give after that the whole surface should be leaves or fruit. Trees treated with paste
Order Rubiacee, which contains thf the pupils views into the mysteries of cultivated, and I have seen nothing in before the rain now present a .beautiful
coffee, cinchona, and ipecachuanhd life all about them.--Ex. my experience which does this work green-glossy appearance, and are ahnlmost
plants. Itisa native of MexicoanTi better than the Acme harrow, entirely free from the pest. The best
South America, and has within a few-' Sulphate of potash is a special manure HoMELAND NuRSERIES, advice now is, "paste the bugs."
years become extensively naturalized h? 'for beans, peas, etc,, and this form of Brandon, Polk Co., Fla., March 24,1887. The Cattley guava will be made the -
some parts of the South. Under favor-, potash is better for these crops than the subject of illustration in the next num-
able circumstances it grows rapidly" muriate of potash, or kainit. Good un- The best method of protecting fruit ber or number following, with accoh-
with succulent, spreading, leafy stems," leached wood ashes, which are rich in trees from insects is to keep them in a paying notes. It deserves to be gener-
which bear the smallrflowersin heads' potash will do-Ex. vigorous state of health, ally cultivated. '


S ffman inclines to the plan of sending
W lffthq d S WWn everything to the New York houses. My
idea is that the auction plan should be
adopted anyway. I would prefer to see
DELAYS IN SHIPPING. it arranged in this way: One house in
Chicago, one in St. Louis and one in
Cincinnati. These would supply all our
Much Loss Due to Carelessness markets. What is the use of sending to
of Railroad Employes. New York? It costs more freight, and
has only to be shipped back again to the
It cannot be doubted that our perish- points I have named.
able products usually arrive at points of "The objection to auctioning the fruit
destination in better order than is report- here is this: If we send the bulk of our
ed, but the commission men have their crop to three such points as I have
trials and they with the shippers have named buyers will be plenty here to take
common cause for complaint against our surplus. And then, the best buyers
the transportation companies. One of will not come, they are accustomed to
the New York commission men ex- buying at auction, and it is cheaper to
presses himself thus in the last number accede to their wants than to try to force
of Popular Gardening: them to come to our wishes.
Promptness in the arrival of fruits in "Auctioning fruit makeshealthy com-
the market is not appreciated as it petition. Human nature is the same
should be. There are instances where all the world over, and if you or I, or
producers strive to get low rates of anyone is in the commission business,
freight, but how often is any mention we are going to sell as much as we can.
made of the time fruit should be deliv- The completion between the commission
ered at its terminus. Yet of the two men is to the disadvantage of the ship-
the latter is really the more important pers; they want to sell quick, and sell
item. against each other. Here I send a car-
A reduction of one cent per quart on load to one house in Chicago and Mr.
berries would be thought very fair, but Chapman sends a car to another house.
I have known a loss of two cents- per The result is that buyers run from one
quart to take place day after day by house to the other, jew the dealer down
late arrivals, and even reaching four to the lowest point, and we both suffer.
cents. I believe that during the past We have to pay a large commission stor-
season the loss created by" late arrivals age for the decayed fruit, and a lot "of
on one of the largest carrying roads into other charges which we can tell nothing
this city amounted to two cents per about, and then have to wait sixty or
quart regularly. ninety days for our money. By the
My experience with transportation auction system the fruit sells for just
companies shows me that the manage- what it is worth; we are charged five
ment of fruit carrying by rail is left en- per cent. commission and get cash. In
tirely with those who have the care of fact, the situation can be stated in one
the trains, the head officials knowing proposition: Commission sales tend to
nothing of the delays occasioned, unless depress and auction sales to elevate
complaint is made to them direct. Even prices. Men are cowards and the mere
then it is rarely one can gain admittance fact that a commission merchant has
if it is known that you have complaints competitors, will frighten him into sell-
to enter. ing lower than he should. By the auc-
The indifference of those in charge of tion system a staple price for the vari-
the trains is owing largely, no doubt, to ous grades of fruits will at once be es-
the belief that complaints cannot reach tablished. If a man ships the best, he
superiors. That an effectual system of will get the biggest price and so on."-
threats is made use of by the employes is Rural Californian.
evident from a remark made to me by _
one having quite a high position on the
line. I sought aid in breaking up a bad Cotton ,Seed Meal and Worms.
habit of some yard officials in drilling Editor Flornda Farmer and Fruit-Grower.
the cars, when he quietly said to me. .. ..p o c
"Please don't ask my aid, for if it was In your paper of March 9th, in an ar-
known that I did so my position would tiole entitled Points About Cotton
be most disagreeable; go to the head of Seed," you ask for the experience of any
ficial." He gave me his name, I made parties using cotton seed meal, particu-
the complaint and had the difficulty re- larly with egard to the grub worm I
moved. will give you that of myself and a few
I suppose some shippers would open neighbors. In September I set out, in
their eyes in surprise to hear that entire lygood sandy land fifteen hundred
carloads of fruit are at times lost between strawberry plants. I trenched the
the starting point and its terminus. Yet ground and used as a bottom fertilizer
this is a fact, and to be accounted for cotton seed meal. After they had been
only on the plea of indifference on the set for three or four weeks and were
part of trainmen. An instance: Last growing nicely I gave the ground a
season, on July 23d, my cartman faileddressing of cotton seed meal and ashes.
to make his appearance with the fruit The plants made a fine growth and by
until hours after the usual time. On in- by the middle of December were full of
quiring the cause. he gave this state- blossoms. About the first of January I
ment: "Me and other carters were wait- noticed they were not so green and
ing as usual for our fruit train It came, thrifty, and the leaves showed signs of
but there was u o car from the point x- being eaten by something. I went over
pected. I asked the yard-master if that them but could find nothing but a few
car was in; he replied:- 'No, nor do I grass-hoppers.
know where it is; go ask the superinten- I then scattered ashes over the plants,
dent.'" The carters did so, but while hoping to drive away the hoppers and
that official had the manifest of the other insects. The plants continued
fruit in the car, he could tell nothing of from bad to worse, and within three
frthein the car, e could tell nothing of weeks' time looked miserable.
An engineer who was sitting in the One day my father voluntured to help
office and overhearing this said: "Boys me look over-the strawberry beds, and
if you will treat nicely I will take you on while lifting up the leaves of one of the
my engine and look up the car." The plants we noticed a small gray worm
Offer was accepted, and all mounted the drop to the ground. We knew it to bea
engine and proceeded on the search, grub or cut worm and so followed up
enneeand tpresaden an the search. the scent, and buried just beneath the
Between the station angered the ar on a sidext surface of the soil we found hundreds of
town theydiscovered the car on a side them measuring f
track where it had been switched and inch a from a quarter to alenth
left by the conductor of the train that inch and a half m length.
started with it. However, the men con- Iduc spite of aiftee I can do, they have re-
tinued their trip until they reached the duced mylants Four neighto aboutrs who used mre
town, run the engine on a side track, plants. Four neighbors who used more
entered a saloon, played three games of or less cotton seed meal have gone
pool, took three rounds of drinks, then through the same siege. I take it to be'
took the back track, hooked on the te genuiness cutwe a-worm wth whl acichuainted
missing car, and took it to the main de- doubtless, we are all acquainted
pot where it shouldloong have been Do not use cotton seed meal until
Ypot where tshrsould long have been. to thoroughly rotted. It would be better
accept the loss on the sale of that fruit, cop C. S. HAR .
all owing to the company's inefficient HOLLY HILL, Fla.,
Another common cause of delay is that March 12th, 1887.
empty cars are left standing over night *
on tracks that are needed to run out Comparative Values.
cars loaded with fruit. Then when the The American Garden's last market
trains arrive the engineers must leave The American Garden's last market
their trains on an off track while they report indicated the standing of different
take up precious time (if they do it) to varieties of oranges kin the ofNorthern
drill the empty ones off the others they iarketi Is not the packing of orange
are after. Of course if the yard-master intin foil a new idea? Russets will in-
was to do his duty he would see that crease in value as their merits come to
was to do his duty he wouldff see that be better appreciated. We quote as fol-
every empty car was taken off as soon lows':
as unloaded. I suppose that he, like his lForida havel oranges, which are
superiors, really suffers nothing by such F havel oranges, which are
c arelessness; hence leaves the cars n seedless, are the finest fruit of the kind
the way for some others to remove if they in market They cost from 40 to 60 cts.
will do it. If fruit shippers would look a dozen, retail. Valencia oranges are
deeper into these maIf fruit shippers, they might be 25 cts. a dozen, and $4 and $5 a case,
surprised to hear how much money containing 420. Indian River oranges
they lose in this way. Seemingly they bring from $2 to $4, wholesale, a box,
do not care. How seldom is this impor- containing from 188 to 200. and costre-
ant feature broached in the hmporticul- tail, from 80 to 50 cts. a dozen. Russet
tant feature broached in the horticul-
tural societies. Shippers seem to be oranges bring from $2 to $2.50 a box,
impressed with the idea that it cannot wholesale, and sell for 30,cts. a dozen,
e cured, so must bthe enduthat it cannredretail. They are very good and sweet,
Yet it could soon be cured if the ship- and are the only oranges served on first-
pe would unite with the determination class hotel tables at the South at this
to cure it, for if these roads were made season. Messina oranges cost from $.50
to pay the losses sustained they would to $4 a box, of 300 and 860 They are
soon run the trains on time, and instead 25 cts. a dozen retail. Mandarin oranges
of these head officials coming to their bring 60 cts. a dozen, retail, and Tanger-
office at 9 or 10 o'clock a. m. you would ine, 50 cts. Mediterranean oranges
frequently see them there at 2 and 8 in rolled in tin-foil and put up in 2 lb.boxes
the morning, looking after the train cost 75 cts. a box, retail.-Gardiner'sMo.
hands. -Try it! *
l Mandarin and Tangerine.
dSelling Oranges. Fdlrtor ida Farmer and ruau-Grower:
At arecentmeetingof the Orange Grow- I note the inquiry of Mr. Campbell, of
ers' Union, in Los Angeles, the question Acrbn, as to the difference between the
of disposing of the crop was under dis- Mandarin and Tangerine orange. The
cussion, and Mr. L. J. Rose, in speaking Tangerine has a dark red fruit larger
of the proper method to be pursued in than the Mandarin, the foliage and
disposing of the crop by the auction sys- growth being much like the sweet or-
tem, said: ange. It has the peculiar aroma of its
"There can be no difference of opinion class.
as to its advantages. There is some lit- The Mandarin has a willow-like
tie question in the union as to how it growth-less vigorous than the other-
should be done. Mr. Dobbins, for in- and the fruit is smaller.
stance favors the idea of an auction CuAs. A. McBRIDE.
house here taking the crop; Mr. Chap- JAOKSONVILLE, Fla., March 11, 1887.



This Year's Prices Compared
With those of Former Years.
Strawberries have been grown sporad-
ically in a small way in this State for
some years, but the business of produc-
ing them in quantities for shipment to
the North is of comparative recent or-
igin. It is only a few years since a
Philadelphia firm sent a man down to
North Carolina to plant a few acres as an
experiment for shipment to that city,
and it was regarded as a hazardous ven-
ture. But it succeeded, and at the next
step the business advanced as far south-
ward as Charleston. S. C. Next, it
reached Florida, and for several years a
grower named Carter is said to have
raised strawberries in the vicinity of St.
Augustine, selling a good many early in
the season at $2 or $3 a quart, and ac-
quiring a fortune.
About 1880, Mr. C. S. Durling, of New
York, had some four or five acres plant-
ed at Hammock Ridge, near Gainesville,
the berries to be shipped to the commis-
sion house of which he had long been
the head, and he is now the leading're-
ceiver of Florida fruits and vegetables,
and entertains a project for pushing
strawberry culture still farther south,
that is, down to Lake Worth.
In 1883, Mr. M. Knickerbocker, of this
place, without any knowledge of what
others were doing, set about 3,000 plants
as an experiment. The autumn of that
year was exceptionally dry, and he had
to water his plants to save them, which
he did by boring little wells along the
dead furrows between his beds, and
drawing up the water with a very long,
slender valve bucket, about like a section
of stove-pipe. But he did well; his 3,000
plants yielded him about 700 quarts,
which netted him about 25 cents a quart,
They were mostly sold at home; a few
sent North brought $1 a quart.
Next year there were about three acres
in the colony. The first shipment was
February 10th, and the berries netted
about 30 cents a quart for the season.
The growers were inexperienced, and
were discouraged, and would probably
have abandoned the business but for the
success of Mr. Knickerbocker, whose
larger experience gave him the advan-
In the spring of 1886, there were about
eighteen acres from which shipments
were made to the North. The extraor-
dinary severity of that winter-the win-
ter of the greit freeze-killed a good
many plants outright on light sand. The
growers were again profoundly discour
aged; some planted Irish potatoes in the
missing places. But the plants rallied
wonderfully. The first shipment was
made March 19th, and brought $1.50 a
quart, netting about $1.35. March 23d,
the price obtained was 75 cents; on the
26th, 60 cents; on the 30th, 50 cents.
The shipping season ended May 10th,
though nearly as many berries ripened
on the plants after that date as before it.
The lowest price obtained was 8 cents,
net, and the'average for the season was,
about 22 cents net. One grower clearedI
$413 on an acre; another, $392, etc.
Much enthusiasm was awakened, and
preparations were made for the planting
of a largely increased acreage. Fully
100 acres were set last fall, but a large
percentage were planted late, and the
protracted drought of last fall kept
young plants back to such a degree that
it is very doubtful whether there was
over fifty acres of good, bearing vines in
the settlement when picking time .came.
Practically, the first shipment was
made February 25th, and brought 40
cents; February 26th, 35 cents; March
3d, 50 cents; March 5th,. 35 cents; March
7th, 35 cents; March 10th, 25 cents. At
this writing (March 17). some have sold
as low as 20 cents gross,; others, by ex-
press, going even down to 15 cents.
Of course, it:is too early to forecast the
outcome of the whole season. But many
growers are not even hopeful any longer;
they are laboring to recover their ex-
Spenditures for labor and; fertilizer, and
beyond that, expect to accomplish very
little, if anything.
What has caused this great falling off ?
It is not the failure of the plants to yield
where they were property fertilized and
cultivated. For instance, E. L. Stafford,
had last year 48,009 plants; this year,
between 61,000 and 62,0p0. In a week,
at the-height of the season, he shipped
thi. spring seven times as much, lacking
180 quarts, as he did in the flush week
last year I
More than nine-tenths of the berries
were sent by refrigerator car to the New
York dealer, C. S. Durling. In his let-
ters are frequently found such expres-
sions as these: "Buyers don't want
green berries, or one-quarter green?.
"The berries they have been shipping
[were] too green, and green berries are
hard to sell at any time, and with snow
on the ground, buyers don't want them
as a gift." "They have ruined the mar-
ket by shipping their, berries so green,"
These and many other similar expres-
sions seem to cast a serious imputation
upon. the Lawtey growers, who are a
very reputable and intelligent set of men..
They are anxious to please the dealers,
and their customers, and they can only
plead that this gentleman's. letter, an-
nouncing the arrival of the earliest ship-
ment, stated that it contained "a great
many soft and worthless berries." In
seeking to avoid Scilla; they seem to
have run into Charybdis. The refriger-
ator car prevents berries from ripening
in transit, and when the growers picked
them at a stage which they believed
would prevent them from becoming
"'soft aud worthless," they forgot that
the ice would preserve them as they
were when gathered, Then, too, the un-
usual cold at the North has hindered the
dealers from ripening up greenish ber-
ries, as they have been accustomed to do,
by setting such berries out doors a few
hours. -
But this discouraging depression in
prices has probably been caused less by
the greenness of the berries, than by the
unusual abundance. Impartial observers

to the intelligent class of horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' Monthly has to
cater. We were, therefore, agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
of exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this,
to find it of a very high order of intelli-
gence, and one which must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-

report that they never before saw the
markets of New York and Philadelphia
so full of fruit and vegetables as they
are this spring. The spread and growth
of production in Florida is a factor in
the situation which the truck farmer
will have to face.
Later on, I shall recur to this subject,
after the season's report can be made
up, and endeavor to show that this "in-
fant. industry," though shaken, is not
LAWTEY, Bradford Co.

To Strawberry Shippers.
From a Northern commission house
we have received a circular which indi-
cates that the strawberry growers, hav-
ing gone, as our Lawtey correspondent
tells us, from Scylla to Charybdis, have
now got back to Scylla again. Probably
the safe channel will not be understood
until the vexed question of ventilation
and refrigeration is solved. The follow-
ing circular is published for the benefit
of shippers and commission men in gen-
eral :
Too many strawberries are arriving in
bad condition-soft, settled and slushy
-so as to hardly pay expressage. Too
many, we say, because it is not neces-
sary for any to arrive in such sloppy
condition; it is wrong. The wrong lies
either with the grower and shipper or
the express companies. If the berries
are picked, packed and loaded right, in
the "Virginia ventilated" packages,
then they will be delivered to us in sat-
isfactory condition, if the express com-
panies handle them right.
We want every shipper to us to pick
his berries after the dew is off and be-
fore the berries are full ripe. Pick 'just
when the berries are turning-just when
fairly of a pale red color-a dark red
berry is too aged, too dead to last long-
don't ship a dead ripe berry. Better
throw your berries away than to wash
them, or to cool with ice, before ex-
pressing-because water, or ice either,
destroys all the keeping qualities in the
berry for expressing.
Keep the picked berries out of the sun
and handle very carefully. Use the 32
quart packages. Smaller packages are
apt to get tumbled about and abused.
Comply with these directions and we
will soon see if the express companies
are to blame for damaged berries.

Observations on Rose Pruning.
A French grower of roses offers the
following statements deduced from facts
under his observation:
1. If in the spring some rose bushes
are pruned, and, on the contrary, some
others are allowed to remain without any
suppression of the branches, the latter
will come into bloom about a fortnight
before the others; their flowers will be
more numerous, and at the same time
less beautiful.
2. If some rose bushes are completely
pruned, and upon some others are left
only some twigs,. these latter will have
the same advance in. time of bloom.
3. ,If two rose bushes are pruned alike,
one at the end of September, the other
in February, the one pruned in autumn
will flower first.
4. If, toward t'e-nmiddle of Septem-
ber, the branches of'a rose bush are laid
down horizontally, andi those of another
bush in exactly the same condition are'
left in the natural position, and in the
spring both be pruned alike, the bush
with the branches laid' d&wi will bloom;
5. In pruning rose bushes- before'
vegetation starts, that iasto'say, in early
spring, bloom on them will be obtained
in advance of that which will appear on,
bushes pruned later.
6& Pinching the young shoots as they
start on bushes after pruning retards
blooming very much. Bi> this case the-
pinching should be done. before the-
flower buds appear, or when, the shoots.
have only three or four leaves..

The Blue Rosa Story.
lI the notice of "A N13moir of Father
S. J. Barbetin," of Philadelphia, which
appeared in a leading Philadelphia paper
recently, appear these words: "His bio-
grapher gives a -pleasant description eo
the old Lorraine homestead, surrounded
by fruit trees and hardjr flowers, a flbra,
which included Blue -Rosest. a variety .n-
known to the usualP Fnnsylvania.gar-
This notice was sent to. us byourwide-
awake correspondent ",l'l with, some
decidedly just comments as follows: "I
cut this from one of the leading Phila-
delphia papers, a pager whose owner is
known as a special patron of horticul-
:ture, and yet such silly credulity is al-
lowed to go out unchallenged to its
quarter of a million readers, indorsing a
credulity almost akin to superstition, for
all intelligent people interested in horti-
culture nowadays laugh at the 'Blue
Rose' story, just as they would laugh at
the story of a 'bWue' cow or a 'scarlet'
horse. There is, just about us much
chance of ever seeing the one as the
other. But it cannot be %too often told
to our young readers so as to keep them
out of the hands of sharpers, swho are yet
occasionally found to offer these absurdi-
ties for sale, that there is no such thing
in nature as blue, scarlet and yellow in
varieties of the same species. Thus we
have blue and yellow in Hyacinths but
no true scarlet; scarlet and yellow
Dihlias, Chrysanthemums and Roses;
but never blue, and so on through the
,whole category."

\ Tomato Packing.
The tomato pack of 1866 reached
2,868,760 cases of 24 tins each. In 1885 the
pack was only 1,434,000. In 1883 the
pack was 3,000,000 cases. Tomato pack-
ing was very profitable last year, and at
the beginning of 1887 there was very
little.stock in the country, so there will
be a demand for a large crop the present
Persons who have cultivated both the
red ad yellow Cattley guava report that
the yellow is much the hardier.


Few of Many Comments by Cor-
respondents and the Press.
Judging from the expressions of ap-
proval which are coming to us daily
from correspondents and the presp, and
from the rapid increase of our subscrip-
tion list, it,is evident that the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER has met with a more
favorable reception than we had ven-
tured to expect.
In a few instances we can give the sen-
timent of a letter by quoting one or two
sentences, as in the following examples:
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
tural Col'ege of Florida, writes as fol-
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has
exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the
Mr. Thomas Meehan, the distinguished
horticulturist and proprietor of the Ger-
mantown nurseries, in a letter dated
March 5th, writes: "I am very much
pleased with the FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER, and shall read it regularly,
which you know is a high compliment
for an editor to pay to an exchange."
Prof. D, L. Phares, the eminent pro-
fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
Live Stock Journal: "His [the editor's]
valuable paper already appearing in the
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
tion and prediction. They may be fully
relied upon for conscientious correc-
ness of statement and scientific accur-
acy of detail."
Hon. J. Wm. Ewan, writing from
Miami, Dade county, says: "Certainly
you are doing a good work in establish-
ing an enlightened and scientific system
of agriculture, which heretofore has
been seriously neglected. Your paper is
inviting in appearance, pure in senti-
ment, and progressive in principle, and
surely must succeed."
Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county,
writes : "I am in love with your paper,
but am taking so many now that until
some subscription runs out I.can't take
more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
your paper soon."
Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond-on-the-
Halifax, wi ites as follows : "I am tak-
ing ten papers on agricultural subjects,
and if asked- to surrender the FARMI R
AND FRUIT GROWER, I would tell them
to take the other nine, but leave me
that. May peace and plenty and years
of grace be given you to continue the
good work."
Mr. J. V. Dansbyof Pensacola, whose
eminent success *in truck gardening, as
well as his able writmgs topics,
entitle his opinion to, respect, expresses
himself as follows: "The first number
duly received and is the best thing in its
way I have seen. It ie- just the paper
needed, and if you keep it uptothe'pres-
ent standard of excellence must become
popular with the people. I can't see
where you have left any room for im-
Mr. Charles .W.. Stevens, of Orange
county, writes: "Your able paper fills a
want long felt in this part for a good ag-
ricultural paper. Success- toyou."
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Maarion county,
writes: ''I believe your, paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
raising, etc."'
A veteran nurseryman, who, objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
Himself thus*: "I like your paver first-
rate, and believe it will be the -agricul-
tural paper of Florida. u1 hope after a
little while to give youi an article every
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of' Amelia Island:
"Judging from what I' have seen of the
best agricultural paper published in the
South. I predict immense-success for it."
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging by the copy
sent me the paper is- 'A Not. 1,' and I do
not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. A. F. Brown, of Putnam county,
writes: "I am very much. pleased in-
deed with the new- paper.. It is just
what we have needdi forv a long time.
Success to it."
Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffioer, Florida,
writes: "If you continue to make the
equal to the first number;, you will cer-
tainly furnish the agriaultuirists of Flor-
ida with a paper that wilk please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the farmers, and, in every way
that I can assist you. it will be cheerfully
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mei-
chant of Philadelphia., writes: "Having
received the first issue- of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its.
tone, we wish you. to. insert our card for
six months."
IFrom the Timas Farmer.]
Florida is not behind her sister South-
ern States in material progress. It
ought to be called the land of fruits, and
flowers, for each of these grand divis-
ions of horticulture are equally at home
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topics, to which we refer the reader
for further information.
[From the So. Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number [of
to reach us; but the second shews a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
and general make up, while the addi-
tional department is all we expected of
the distinguished editor. Many of our
readers are interested directly and sec-
ondarily in everything connected with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy
of their patronage. With best wishes
for its success, we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor and patronage,
feeling assured of the good work it will
accomplish in. and out of Florida.
JFrom the Gardeners' Monthly]
"We are continually receiving new
agricultural ventures, buit useful'as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest








This journal will have for its leading object
the promotion of rural industriesin Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of
a large portion'eut Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aimr of this journal
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed, and all indfuences affecting such results;
also to suggest emaperiment, describe new or little
known crops, fraite, etc., and record thepregres
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencingewith the first number and een'-
tinning through the season for

Tree Planting,
Them will be a series of articles on fruits-other
than tho e or the. citrus group-which hhe'
proved most suecessfal in this State.: eau kva-
riety will be described and
And there willMbe notes from persons who have
had experience-in its cultivation,. This wif be
followed by a similar series on

PFot UISge Pl ant'
And other subjects will be illustrated toa lBmie*
Much attentionswilltbe devoted to

Live. Stock

zers, two economies which are essential tosue
cessful farming.,
Questions relativea- to ailments of domestic
animals will bh answered by an able. veterinary
surgeontwhoionmenls edited a like department
of the

Tuirf, Field and Farm.
A. due amount of space will be devoted
householdtecononiq and to reports. oAthe mar
kets, andithe.dpanirtments of
Truck-Gardening, -
Practice, etc.
willbe-,etributed to bypessoaewho have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.
tiader no circumstances will thisjournal be-
come the "organ" of any association or locality,
It will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute in-
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.

One Year *
Six MonthR 105
Three Months ;'-

Address subscriptions and other business com-
munications to

Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to
A. H. CU4TISS, Editor
-JaoksonvIe Fla.


the phosphoric acid of the bone is soluble, and gatherings give him the knowledge to the acre are of the intensive sort and were decayed an inch or more in thick- S. L'E11ZE & C.,
f garm and the effect is immediate, while that he must have toiwork to advantage, can make it for less than eight cents. ness; those coated with a thick white-
of ground bone is more lasting. Super- He works no more land than he can The intensive system is the right one. wash were better preserved, but were
or b i r ts* quite seriously attacked by worms; the
phosphate is made as follows: The fertilize well and cultivate properly. quiFR T FIRES AND CLIMATE. posts coated with hot tarby were perfectly STOVES,
RECLAIMED SAW-GRASS LANDS. ground bone is put into a wooden or He does. nothing simply because others FOREANDCLIMATEwhen put in the ground; those VES
leaden vat and is thoroughly wetted; have done it before him, but he has a sound as when putnthe ground; those
IV--The Best Crop for the First sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) is then good reason for whatever plan he would How our Climate May be Im- ere equallywith soundetrand asnd good as new.CROCKERY
Year'sPlanting. poured on at the rate of 120 pounds to carry out. proved by Wise Legislation. In. the future I shall let all my posts (LASSWARE
Year'S Planting. 480 pounds of bone. The mixture foams He never uses inferior seed because p o EN get the future I shall let all my pan
BY D. R. GREEN. up and the bone is changed in character; they are cheaper, but secures the best, BY H E. LAGERGREN. get thoroughly dry, and then with a pan MSSW R
In the States of New York, Michigan the phosphoric acid is released, and the and takes plenty of time to get them, Florida's glory is her lovely climate. ofcheap keroseneandda whitewash brush LAMPS,
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and others lime of the bones unites with the sul- that they may be on hand when wanted. To it she owes her immense and unpar- give the lower third of the post (the
where the Irish potato crop is as muhers phuric acid and makes sulphate of lime, He plans his work beforehand, and to allelled progress, and without she would part that goes in the ground) two or OIL STOVES,
a staple as cotton or corn in Florida, the Of plaster. The bone is then in a pasty get good help gives two or three dollars be an unproductive wilderness, fit only three liberal applications of the oil, let-
varieties in cultivation are innumer- condition, andis dried b mixing dry a month more than common hands de- for the hunter and lumberman. Buttingitsoakin welleach time.byPosts so BAR GOODS,
able, but these varieties can be easily wood ashes or plaster with it. It is then mand, and so saves many a dollar dur- causes are working for the degeneration or insects of any kind, and will resist
able, but twohese varieties known as Earlywhat is called dissolved bone. A ton of ing the year in extra help, in waste, in of this temperate climate, tending rather decs oa iad re sis WOODENWARE
reduced toLa two cases, nown as dry bone will make about 2,500 pounds delay, and in ruined implements, to produce extremes of heat and cold. decay to a remarkable degree. This is WOODENWARE.
The characteristics of theearly var e- of superphosphate; 300 or 400 pounds of He keeps no useless and unprofitable If, on a cold, windy day, you enter a the simplest, easiest, cheapest and best
The care, that being dug and stored in this is generally used ver acre in seed- stock, but turns off such and replaces dense woods, you will feel littleof either met
the same cellar or storage room along ing down. Clear bone lust is an excel- them with the best breeds. cold or wind. The latter is broken and ome. PRICES THE LOWEST.
withe samte cellvarieties, and so exposed lent manure, and nothing is needed He watches what the market demands, dissipated by the trees, and the warmth *
to the same degree of emperaturethe with it to make a perfect fertilizer but and raises a variety to -meet such de- always rising from the earth upwards is About Cotton Seed Meal. c. L'ENGSE a CO.
early varieties will commence to sprout some potash-either wood ashes or the mands; thus he is sure of some prof- intercepted by the tree-laps and confineti
6 to 8 weeks ahead of the late ones, thus German potash salts. Oyster shells, itable crop, and can depend upon an in- near the surface. If, on a similar day, The following question is answered by JACKSONVILLE, FLA
showing their power to germinate and when burned, make the best of lime; come. you walk through high grass, you will Dr. Jones in the last number of the JACKSONVILLE, L
showin a much lower temperature than they do not need grinding.-Times-Dem- He reads and studies, and is able to soon be very warm. True, the exertion Southern Cultivator:
grow in a much lowertemr to herseas ton orat. use machine whenever it can be profit- has something to do with it, but it is I write to ask what proportion of cot- AITLAND NURSERIES.
the late varieties. Then, too, their season ably used, thus dispensing with much mostly because the heat from be'ow is ton seed meal to use with acid phos-
from planting to maturity is much Sugar Making Diffusion of the heavy toil and drudgery. caught by the grass, and given out, a lit- phates, on second and third years ground,
shorter than the latevarieties. fact Suga Making by Diffusion. His eyes will see the possibilities of a tie at at a time, to the wind. also on first years ground, then on old
here ? While it is universally conceded At a recent meeting of the Louisiana a swampy field, and by drainage will .In a thin forest the trees do not stand land. 'The land is gray, the growth is ALL VARIETIES OF
that the average winter temperature of Sugar Planter's Association Prof. H. W. make it the most productive part of the close enough to hinder the warmth from. pine, oak and hickory mixed, with a
Florida t the average winter tempera d Wiey, the director of the experiments farm. rising into space, and if theground there good clay (called pine clay) subsoil. I ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
mature the summer products of the in sugar manufacture which have been He realizes from the beginning that is clad with low, thin herbage only, the want information now, in order to begin
more northernlatitudes, yet, at the same in progress for some years, made an ad. crops must be fed, and does not expect wind can reach it, and by that means preparations for my next crop earlyin the
time, owing to the obliqueness of the dress explanatory of the progress of the to keep land productive unless he gives greatly hasten evaporation, of which season. Plans and arrangements ought
sun's rays, the actual amount of heat work inhand. The essential portions of to it as well as takes from it. there is very little when the earth is cov- to be made in advance of operations, in
received here is much less t of heat sum- his address are as follows: He works by a system, but it is a sys- ered with thick, high grass. Evapora- order to be successful. This I am doing, Buds not placed on small stocks, but on bxtra
mer heat of those States. This fact is We may consider it settled that the te that is elastic, bending to emergen- tion chills the ground and the air is and want to know. what quantity of
well shown in those slow growth of c oblem of slicing sugar cane and ex- es, taking the advantage of favorable chilled in turn. these ingredients to buy. Please add the large and fine ones,
well showntakes months to mature h ere, tracting therefrom the sugar by diffusion, circumstances, governed by a skillful, We often hear old people praise Flor- quantity to be used per acre for cotton,
while we have matured it in 3 months has been satisfactory solved by the et- industrious, master mind. ida climate of former days-her warm of this mixture that the plant will take We make a specialty of the
while we have mature ason the early periments already made. What need is He is successful, as a matter of course., winters, cool summers and congenial up the first year. It is for cotton I make
varieties, which germinate ad grow athe early there, then, of further experiment? It Everything about him shows it. His seasons. Their reasons for the changes the inquiry only. I have other manures -EARLY. SPANISH RANGE---
the lowest temperature, are best adapted will take long to answer this question. neat buildings, clean yards, his substan- to the worse, as far as concerns the tern- for corn -S. G. R.
to the January planting, and then their As is well known, the process of diffusion tial horses, his sleek cattle, his contented perature, is, that "the country is settled Answer.-Cotton seed meal is a high- (the earliest variety known),
orr ea nsuretr readiness delivers to ihe evaporating apparatus a and happy family. uptoo much"-meaning that so much ly nitrogenous manure, lends to make TOHITI LIMES and
soer sea n n e their reading juice much less rich in sugar than the We call no man successful if he fails more land now is- cleared. Now, the abundant foliage, and other things being
Beauty of Hebron and Early Rose normal juice of the candy. In the ex- to make everything around him happy, clearings in proportion to the wild lands equal retards maturity. As failure to. VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
have given us about the same results, periments made at Fort Scott, this di- from the chickens which flock to his here are so infinitesimal, that on a map mature is one of the defects of first years
others have spoken very highly of the lution of normal juice was equal, to the call, to the dear ones who gather around they would seem mere fly-specks, and newground, large, doses of cotton seed and can show trees of the latter that :stood the
Red Chili addition of 39 pounds of water to each the table in the evening in loving con- could one ascend a mile up in a balloon meal does not seem indicated.. But, on cold last winter as well as the Orange, and .
Seed potatoes obtained from near 100 pounds of juice. This is certainly a tentment and peaceful joy.-Ex. and glide across the State in any direc- the other hand, as cotton grows off slow-
their northern limit of growth, and much greater dilution than should be ob- tion, one would scarcely be able to see ly on such land, something to give it a NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
brought farther South have greater vi- tain, ed. Ground Peas for Forage.' te clearings t all. Much tmberha good start-off is desirable.Phosphates -
tality and produce better and in a It will, therefore, be one of the prin- of course, been cu or sawmis an moderate quantities seems to hasten
shorter season than seed rown in south- cipal objects of the future experiments Some time ago there was an article railroads, but in the former case only maturity in virte of its seed producing
latitudes to reduce this dilution to a minimum, in your excellent paper treating on the largest trees, whose days were al- tendency. Hence a little meal and a fair Send for Catalogue.
The next point to be considered is How, you may ask, is this to be effect- peanuts and their relative value as a ready numbered, and in the latter, only amount of phosphate seems indicated for end for ataloe
large or small seed. While small seed ed? I answer, by constructing the cells hay producing crop. Now, I have been some of those within three mile from first years newground. Thirty pounds KEDNEY & CAREY,
is chea and under favorable circum- of the battery in such a way as to secure raising them all my life, and I don't the tracks have been cut. of meal and one hundred and fifty p o Winter Park Fla
stances will p reduce fair crop, still the the greatest eight of chips in a given think that our people can find anything But the useless, destructive, insane .unds of phosphate for an acre might
very finest marketpotatoes are space,thusaturally making the diff- that willproduce as much forage per burningof the forests as here done every used. For the second and third ears
for seed in thelong run. Small seed sion ljluices more dense. We -have some acre as they will, wivithout any extra year, should be stopped by legislation. .ewground, no special difference i the OVE CO...
consist of inferior culls, and also are oh- hope, by ineans of the apparatus now fertilizer. In fact, they do the best with- One may walk in the woods sometimes a proportion between meal and phosphate STATE AGENTS FO.,
trained from blighted or diseased hills building, to reduce this dilution to 25 or out any fertilizer, for if they are fertil- quarter of a mile without seeing any is called for. Fifty pounds of meal andATE AGENTSFO
The best results areobtained by landing eve 0 per cent. If this can be accom izedthey grow too much vine, the pas young tree to take the place of any 150 pounds of phosphate per acre ill RASIN FERTIIZER O'S
re seed cuto one e yetoe tn e pshed. iti do much toward leading not having any kernelin themfor them; for while of the hundreds of dead trunks scat- answer. For old, worn land the quantity FERTILIZER CO S .
andro ineg them while fresh cutinto a successful issue of the whole the vines are excellent feed, the nuts tered everywhere. The last two years of meal may be largely increased; say 100
mot sothat hasbeen made asfertile problem, take the place of grain, and are very the pines had abundant mast, and mn pounds of meal to 150 pounds of phos- SOLUABLE SEA ISLANd GUANO
.. asoi. Another matter of importance which strong and fattening. One acre of pea- winter and early spring millions of little phate. '"
ahe method for obtaining these con- must be considered is the question of nuts will feed a horse six months if they pines showed their blue heads among the DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKAL
Sditions in New York State was asfol- fuel. Much of the steam used in the do well, and if you have any pigs they wiregrass, only to serve. as food forDiIN MiVENTS OF' EGS -
lows: Sod-land that had been pastured sugar houses of Louisiana is furnished will get fat on the nuts that are lelt in the flames a little later on. ONSIGN CHOME EF AND O F PHOSPH ATE,
for a year or moe was fertilized with by burning the bagasse from the mills, the ground. They should be planted Tnuthe spring, the woods burn from one oJ COU'NTRY PRODUOE -
for ayear orhmoe, wastertilizedwih The waste chips which come from the the first of April, if convenient. The end of the State to theother. The heated SOLICITED BY AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
20 cords of richstable manure to each anLC....BoANW OE E A ..H.s.,, :
acreo spread evenly over the surfaceand diffusion battery aremostly water, fully best way to prepare the land is to bed air from the flames expands andcauses *E ILESUTHERLAND,
then plowed under to the death of six90 per cent. It is useless to talk of it up as for potatoes or cotton, but not winds, carrying head-splitting smoke COMMISSION MERCHANT, A ITS AND. PRODCE.
hens. Aftplwer plune ing, the lan wasburning them inthisstate Before they too high, and then open the bed with arid twisting and wrenching the tender ss OCEAN STREET, -
pcd downwith roller r weighing can be burned they must be either dried a small scooter, drop seed two feet apart plants in the garden and field, and dry- JACKSOnIL Get our Picesbefo uying.
500pods. This was Preventthe or passed through a press. In either case in drills and cover with a board. The ing the ground; although clouds aire of-
sod being torn up by ths e harrow, which there is additional expense, and it is by rows should not be over three feet apart. ten seen, very little rain falls, for the air -
was kept at work until'a perfectly mel- no means certain that diffusion chips can Use the small, tight hulled pea (as the is too. much heated to condense the va- "IO .-'
low soil was obtained to the depth of ever be profitably used for fuel. We Georgia farmers call them), for the large pors. The cattle, almost too weak to V V. ..L Z-..L...L .J..TL -0-WV7V
four inches In this soil the seed was have then, to face the difficulty of using Virginia peanut will not do in Florida move, stagger over the black, naked C
dropped and covered by a double ridg- greater quantities of coal. Will this nor even in Georgia. After the pea has ground, picking here.and-there I straw F IT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
ing device at the rate of eight acres per Increased consumption of fuel be comrn- come up and is large enough to work, which has escaped the general destruc- AC V H .
day. at g pensated by the increased yield of sugar? take a turning plow and bar off close as tion. At last comes a rain. No ob-
The fermentation and decay of the This is a question to be answered by fu- practicable (the closer the better), on ac- structions in the way of the torrents of FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
soil and stable manure, furnished the ture experiments. count of making light,work for the hoe, water rushing do0vn every incline; all ---- o---- .
potatoes with the necessary heat during Next in the problem must bo consider- for they want to be cleanly cultivated organic matter which can float and so-
the-cool spring months, and after their ed the treatment of the diffusion juice. until they begin to put out runners,then lutions of the rest, are carried along toUsully have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROPT RETURNS
decay te resultingohumus retained an. It is useless to try and clarify it by the let them be. After they are hoed and the nearest pond or branch. The ground ExtnrSiVe Facilities for Repacking
abunda tce of moisture for the plants usual methods of adding lime and rais- all-the little grass has been taken out, is wet and naked. Strong winds follow .e .aciear
during the hot, dry summer. ing a blanket of scum. The high tem- run a sweep around them, first a smAll and cause rapid evaporation- and conse- for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
It is owing'to is power of assimilating perature at which the diffusion takes one, then, after two or three weeks, run quent fall of the temperature, injurious SHIPPING ORANGES,, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
raw and undecomposed vegetable mat- place has already coagulated much of a larger one. By this time they will be to plant life. The poor cows, starved both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, ete
ter, that makes the Irish potato so suit- the albuminous matter and left it on the getting too large, and putting out too and chilled, work their weary way to Best of location, viz:. WHA
abla a crop to plant on our drained chips. Hence, there will be no blanket many runners: for further cultivation. therailroad track-the only spot fit to lie S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF ,
marshes or sawhgrass lands w hn they formed, and the depuration will be im- Then, after two weeks more run a centre down on-and are often killed by the Circulars and Stencils on application.JACKSONVILLE, LA
are freshly broken up and being brought perfect and unsatisfactory. The process furrow between the rows with a sweep, engines. TI 1t 'iR. -ey- s ys:
into cultivation. Of course the marsh of carbonatation has been tried ondiffu- and the work of cultivation is over, and In thesummer, the grass is too thin to Wt 3 1r. eyer says. pla
lands will produce them equally as well sion juice from sugar cane, and with in the first of September. they, will be hide the ground from the hot sun. The -- bestthank forthesplendid eeds received from your rm."
in successive yearsbut in reclaiming highly gratifying result. But this pro- ready for harvesting. The best way I thousands of blackened stumps and logs Itwouldbearatherlengthyistifsouldname all,but
marshes it will sometimes be found that cess tends to blacken and spoil the mo- have found for this is to take tha sweep absorb and give out a great deal of heat,I dVth aweaytharatohr ngth irs in t Isdinae alnlu
they are about the only croD that can be lasses, and hence is open to many ob- and run around them, and let the wing which is not intercepted by the scatter- SouthernMichigan,28firstpremiumswereforvege-
growney successfully the first season. The sections next to the vines run deep and close ing tree-tops, but rises upwards and S tables raised from our seeds. What firm can beat
bnly successf-ul plan of planting them on.Perhaps these objections can be over- enough to cut the stems and tap roots, keeps the clouds from condensing before th St erdo hs?"is 2AU..y Ia rStrBERSo.Befonelnd.e
marsh lands is to throw up beds about come, and I have pointed out in Bulletin and let a band follow the plow, raise tbey have accumulated in very deep whotd tisa farm or plants a garden, se~ ingthemnR dnmy
four inches high and three and one-half No. 14 some of the methodsby which each bunch and shake the dirt out ofit. strata, and finally, by a long hiding of Oegetableand Flower Seed Catalogue, Oldacustome
feet apart; then drop the seed oa the top this can be accomplished. It is possible This should be done when the ground is the sun from the earth, liquify and come ed not write forit. I catalogue bis season the native wild
of this bed'every fifteen inches andcover that the process may be made to work dry, so that the dirt will not stick to down in sheets with a roar as if the potato. JAB. J. H. GREUOBY, Seed Grower, Marblehead, Mas
it by throwing up more soil with plow with perfection. At least it is worthy them, and always stop plowing up and t world wasecoming to an end. Where
or hoe;, then Ikeep the young potatoes of further trial.- In this locality the shaking out by ten o'clock a. in., and let.1 the grass is thick it holds water 'almost' F. P. 6,nUBERLAIN. A.W..oUSOADX
well covered through the seas-on with scarcity of limestone is a serious ob- the vines lie in the sun, taking them up like a cup, and its weary way through it SO U '_' 1--1. B1ORI :[ )A.
soil worked out of the trench between jectionto carbonatation, but it has been late in the afternoon. Have long strips is very slow; but where it is young, it
,each row, andat the same time keep a suggested that limestone may bebrought fixed up in the barn or racks and string offers few obstacles to the water on its A
connectionOpenbetween these trenchesfrom Alabama by rail, or-from points up the vim son them, letting them hang in road down hill, so that water courses A
and theregular drains re the river by barge. It wi.Lrequire 2. or the shade until thoroughly dry, and then In our next we will give the quickest, 3 pounds of limestone for each 100 pack away, so as to make room for more. selves into ditches at the time when such TAMPA, FIORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
cheapest and best way to prepare pounds of cane worked. This is not more In this way our farmers can fill their are needed the most.
drainedsaw grass lands for the greater than one-quarter as much as is required barns with the best feed there is without There is little doubt, if proper steps *T
variety of crops, together with good and by the sugar beet, and yet no one now much cost or trouble, and thus save were taken to apprehend and punish
sufficient reasons : for each step in the attempts to make beet sugar without thousands .of dollars that is sent out of anyone who sets a fire, that the evil L i
proceedcarbonatation. the State for hay every year. The pea- would soon beat an end. The least fir-
pr LAIMED LANDS EXPERIMENT FARM. Another method of purifying diffusion nut is a crop Jthat never fails; one ing is done by stockmen; they almost
Sarasota, ]Fla. juice is known as Kleeman's process. can depend on them every time. I universally agree that pasture would im- 0 IOLE HERNANDO COUNTY.
This consists in mixing powdered lignite agree with the writer of the former prove if let alone, and, besides they do ORIOLE, HERNANDO
Bone Manure. with the juice and then passing it article.-J. E. W in Eustis Semi-Trop- not need to do mch of it, for, in burn-
through a filter press. This process has cal. ing around their fences, people either
Bones are ground more readily after been tried on a small scale by the De- cannot control the fires, and so let them Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriottle ament; between twenty-five and thirty new hous.oad.
having been steamed, as steaming ren- apartment, andwith sufficient success to Intensive Farming, spread, and frequently will not take the Lands all high and dry. News, settlement; between twenty-mlve and ho tel. Large area houselreadyplnte
ders them more brittle. The steaming warrant further experiment. The Newberne Journal says anybody trouble to extinguish them, thinking. A Church, Sho .. y ma ils, st ores, bakery, saw mill andnter ho tel. Lar g sale archeap. Ten, twenty :planted
takes out the fat, and, if long contued, Again, I should state that sugar juicesod t the land w
some of the gelatine. The gelatine con- have lately been very successfully treat- an e a good crop with good land tha e la l e burned off anyway In orange groves. Choice building los for winter homes for sale cheap. Te, twenty an
tains the nitrogen of the bones, which is ed by acid sulphite of alumina. This good cro notwithstanding excessive keep away snakes, others, mostly chil- W.all on o r Addre LARKSON OB T
matter: Bone contains, when dry, method also demands a trial, rains or c roughts, requires skill, od- dren, just to see it burn. Locomotives, J W GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
wma ser y Bne cotarly the n cmposi It is thus seen larghel roncerned judgent and plenty of pluck and in- campers out and hunters also cause many Orole, Flordd.
,fwooch hai r aerd harln a cimsmitin with finding out what todo with diffu dut i hiave had eryunf vor yetthanks chiefly to gophers, sal- dh. u. J STI
f wool, hair and horn, rand rich sn juice than in obtaining it. All years, but occasional we find a farmer amanders and crawfish, by covering up
.nitrogen; the 55per cent.remaining con- these various factors of the problem wh'mkesgocropjst s humus, the woods afford wiregrass. -S
sists of phosphate of limte with a'little tbe worked out successfully before homterday, wie in conversation with Bu even that must have an end, for W 016 0 Ommissio M rcha t,
carbonate of lime, magnesia, soda and diffhsion can be said to be a final suc- Mr.Thos. H. Malison, from near Croa- t htrs, was and he NO. 81 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
'affected by boiling, it is the organic part cess tan,we learned that he made last year on to support sl tgeasven Specialties: SOUTHEN R TS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. etu
which is partly dissolved, and, of course, ccful Farmer thirty-four acres thirty-four bales of a Florida cow anot suchlivherbage as evenn madeS on day ofUTH sale. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
lost in the cleaning. The liquid from A Successful Farmer cotton, averaging four hundred pounds STARKE, Fla., Marclh 5, 1887. m ad on d l,
the steamed bones makes a valuable fer- It is the lesson of advanced agricul- each, and it cost him less than eight S A F Mr.. 0" -,l- -'-INJ
tilirer. Steamed bones, however, decay ture that success turns upon knowing cents per pound. If he had cultvated Preserving Fence Posts. A T. ESi L 'J33 I L 3I
sooner in the 'soil, and conseqpently what you do and how you do it. The one hundred acres to make the thirty- ES J I M -O.v--
have a more active effect than fresh successful farmer stands in this position four bales, as many farmers do, it would In building a fence around my oBARTOW, FLORIDA.
bones. On the whole, the Amall loss re- in relation to his farm, his crop, his have cost him nearer ten cents per chard several years ago, I tried many Groves Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven. Haskell, Punta Gord and Charotte
suiting from moderate steaming is bal- tools, his labor, his income, and Lis ex- pound instead of less than eight. The plans for preserving the posts. Having Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven ask, a Punta Gorda arnd .Charlotte
anced by the bone which is treated with penses. farmer whose cotton cost over eight occasion to remove the fence this winter Harbor foc Sale. Unimproved Lands In small and ar gatracts, .at $2.50 per acrepot, tp. Choice t8 per
sulphuric acid and thus madse into u- Heis smart enough to know that agri- cents er pound is apt to be one of the I noted he condition of the poss as fol acre. Allroper guaranteed to beas represented ormoney refunded.


The Florida Farmer a Fruit Grower,
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.


Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.

GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted 'to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial interests of Florida. It Is published
every Wednesday.
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Jacksonville, Fal.

FiRST PAGE-Japan and Mexican Clovers;
Mexican Clover in Florida; Texas Blue Grass
with Peas; Yellow Millo Maize, Rich ardsonia
scabra illustrated) ; Intensive Grove Culture;
Pasting Scale Bugs; How to Prune; Grafting
Sthe Fig; Preserve Your Papers.
SECON-D PAGE-Delays in Shipping; Selling
Oranges; Cotton Seed and Worms; Compar-
active Values; Mandarin and Tangerine; The
Strawberry Market; To Strawberry Shippers;
Observations on Rose Pruning; The Blue Rose
Story; Tomato Packing.
THIRD PAGE-Reclaimed Saw-Grass Lands;
Bone Manure; Sugar Making by Diffusion; A
Successful Farmer; Ground Peas for Forage;
Intensive Farming; Forest Fires and Climate;
Preserving Fence Posts; About Cotton Seed
S FOURTH PA&E (Editorial)-Florida's Nalural
Advantages; Adapting Agriculture to Climate;
Railroads and Live Stock; Marketing Florida
'Cotton; An Encouraging Outlook. *
S FIrFTH PAGE-(edited by Helen Harcourt);
Our Home Circle; Cosy Corner; Family
Friend; Young Folks' Corner.
SIXTH PAGE-intermittent Fever; Change of
-Feed for 'Cows; Sheltering Swine; Managing
a Kicking Horse; Be Kind to Your Horse; The-
S Bee Plants of Florida; Sex in Eggs; Houses
tfor Fowls; An Ailment of Chickens; To Test,
Eggs; Silk Culture. .
SEVENTH PAGE-Golden Queen Raspberry;
How and When to Plant Seeds; Drill Plant-
S. g; Age of Seeds; Manures for Garden Pur-
poses; Oat or Wheat Straw;*. 'ansplanting
Native Trees; A Cow's Tail while Milking;
Cause of Barren Vines; Cultivation of the
Peach; Facts Worth Knowing; Hints for
Vegetable Growing; Literary Miscellany.
S EIGHTH PAGE-State News in Brief; Comn.
Norris's Sitk Colony; A Device for Improving
Roads;'. The Los Angeles Country; April
Weather; Rea-orts of the Cotton, Tobacco and
Orange .Markets, and of the Jacksonville
Wholesale and Retail Markets.

We reproduce in this number the ad-
dresses of Commissioner Colman and
Professor Wiley, recently delivered be-
fore the Sugar Planters' Convention in
New Orleahs, because they afford a clear
insight into the. present status of the
great sugar industry and of the experi-
ments which have been going on 'for
several years with the object of cheap-
ening the production of sugar. It ap-
pears that the latter have not afforded
any encouraging results thus far, but
perseverance may bring out new meth-
ods not yet thought of.
As regards sugar production, Southern
Florida possesses great advantages over
ether States, having a season for cane-
growing two months longer than in
Louisiana. A prominent Congressman,.
whohas been'traveling in Florida re-
cently, writes. us as follows:. "I have
visited most of the farms and gardens
on the reclaimed lands and have a new
"and enlarged view of the agricultural
possibilities of Florida. I now believe
that her staple crops will not be oranges
and early vegetables, but sugar, rice, to-0
bacco and cotton."
The present indications for Florida .are
very encouraging. The rivalry of Calf-
fornia can never interfere materially
with Florida's interests. On this sub-
ject we have able articles from Judge
" Knapp and Mr. Powers which will ap-
pear shortly, and we present some evi-
dence from other sources in this issue.
-Commissioner Colman's statement of
the agricultural situation North and
South is very flattering to the latter seo-
tion; in fact, it would not be a bad immi-
gration document. We think it well
worthy of the space given to it in these
columns." "
Coming .to Florida from a region where.
red clover was considered essential to
successful agriculture, and finding that
thaci crop could not be growii in this
State, it. seemed to us for many years
-that farming could not be carried- on

here as a continuous pursuit with any
adequate return; and as a State so defi-
cient in mineral resources and water
power as this is has no other reliance for
substantial prosperity, we believed that
they who were investing in Florida
property through mere faith in the
fruit growing industry were destined to
Fruit growing can be but a minor
source of income in any State or coun-
try. If any one doubt this let him
examine the statistics' of the produce's
and exports of the most noted fruit pro-
ducing regions of the world. Orchards,
for a term of from five to fifteen years,
are a source of expense instead of profit,
and when they come into bearing they
are a precarious source of income, on

that man can hardly restrain it. This
is the very means which Nature affords
in this sub-tropical region for supplying
the essential vegetable elements to' a
depleted soil.
There is no need to mourn the lack of
red clover, orchard grass and timothy.
There are many other plants which will
fully supply their place both as sources
of humus and forage. We have only to
adapt means to the ends in view. We
should make the most of the choice gifts
of Nature, which we possess, but bear in
mind'that there are vast resources in re-
serve in the way of untried products and
methods of cultivation.

account of the perishable nature of their Most of the railroads of this State
products and the many and complex would find it to their interest to fence
difficulties which at'end the marketing against live .tock, and by doing so they
of them. would place themselves in a much more
For this reason, and for others proper attitude towards the public.
applying especially to orange pro- "Might makes right" is not the motto of
duction, which have been sufficiently the present age, and if any individual or
discussed, we have regarded the corporation acts on that principle it is in
period of the orange fever as an era opposition to well established principles
of land speculation which could not be of right and justice. The mere posses-
of long continuance. Taking this view sion of money and influence should not
of the situation and looking forward to enable the millionaire to override and
the time when this period of inflation trample down the rights of .the poorest.
should end-whether gradually or sud- In passing over the J., T. & K. W.
denly, according to circumstances not Railroad recently we observed that its en-
to be foreseen-we felt there would be tire line is fenced, and we were informed
a crisis, just as there is in monetary af- that it was done as a measure of econ-
fairs, a period when things must be read- omy At a station where we toppe we
justed and restored-to an equilibrium, a were informed that previous to the build-
period' of depression, stagnation, dis- ing of the fences the railroad, company
couragement,. a'period when thousands had paid for stock killed within six miles
would find their hopes blighted and of that station the sum of $700, or over
their financial resources inadequate to $100 per mile. This was for- a brief pe-
financial resources inadequate to o ro
their maintenance without applying riod, of course, for the road has been
themselves to new lines of industry. built but a few years. Along some other
Believing such revulsion to be inevit- lines the loss would probably be still
able we felt that the sooner it came the greater.
better, that the longer it were deterred Leaving the interests of the railroads
the greater would be the loss.-Moreover, out of the question, it is plainly a duty
we felt that the work most needed for which the Legislature owes to the people
the good of the State, the building up of to take measures to project the people
a stable system of agriculur was being from this source of loss, which, in the
wofully neglected. The orange belt was aggregate, counting lost time, litigation,
being built up like a showy edifice with- etc., is very great. Th's subject is sug-
bi.. u.. i e .f -gested by the following communication
out foundations, and was in a condition tested by the following communication
of unsubstantial prosperity. At the same from a resident of Sumter county. Wesal
time the cotton belt was suffering great sk for it a thoughtful perusal:
ly from the orangefever, beior FloridaFaieand ruit-Gr-oer .
ly from the orange fever, because im- You ask for the views of your readers
migrants were brought under influences on subjects likely to be acted on by the
which steadily diverted them from the coming Legislature. I think one thing
section which is specially adapted 'to that will remove much friction between
mixed farming. They were habitually the railroads and .people is some fair,
mi. farm -in .......wr.a i lly prompt and equitable manner for set-
taught to seek the land of golden promise tling for stock killed by their trains.
and to shun the "black belt." In point The railroads should be held liable for
of fact there never were enough blacks all stock killed on their tracks, and if
in that region to supply the demand- forheailroadsthink this too great bur-
for den, let them fence their tracks. Where
labor which a moderate increase of stock is killed, I think the section bosses
white population would create-but and the owners could agree-on the value,
phrases and crazes do much toward or if either could -not be found within
shaping the course of human events.- forty-eighthours, or if they could not
shapingagree, then let two disinterested parties
Having this view of the future in upon their personal honor, fix the value;
mind,we have looked forward with much this value when fixed, unless appealed
anxiety to the time when the problem of from within ten days, to be binding on
e a both parties; if appealed from to the
the future should press for a solution, CircuitCourt, to be tried at the earliest
as it now does. We feel that the people term practicable; if, on trial before the
are now brought' face to face with Circuit Court, the judgment rendered
questions whose consideration has been against the railroad company be equal to
--- .-...v. .... .. ... or.greater than the value fixed by. the
too long deferred. Foremost among or gries who were valledfixed by .the
these are the two following: first, how value, then the judgment to be double
shall humus be supplied to the soil of and the railroad taxed with costs. If
that large portion of Florida which is there is no appeal from the valuation
,.... .. fixed by the owner and section boss or
exceptionallydeficientinhumus?Second, parties called in their stead within ten
how shall forage be supplied adequate in days, then within thirty days the rail-
quantity and quality to the demands of road must pay the amount or be liable
such vast numbers of horses and' cattle .for double the valuation fixed.
m.s .b s t ..i a s f Why this doubling The roilroads
as must be supported if a system.of have their attorneys employed by the
genuine agriculture is to be established? year. My cow is killed. I notify them.
Twelve or even six years ago we were Yes, they will.refer it to the proper offi-
disposed to say, without clover and grass cer, and often I have been called from
... my work two or three times, and spent
farming cannot be made to pay; without as many days and waited a year. They
these there is nothing to meet the con- decide not to pay it. Then comes long
tinuous and urgent demands of soil and and tedious litigation. The railroad
live stock. But we underestimated the don't care. Their attorney may as well
c- t-, r .-ti e th be trying a case as idle. It costs the
vast resources of the vegetable kingdom. railroad no more one way than the
We were reasoning like this: if farming other. So finally I become disgusted and
be made successful in a temperate lati- let the wholebusinessgo.
pursuing-certain methods, those If they kill my cattle it is an easilyeas-
tudebypr gcertained fact, and there should be no
same methods must be adapted to. this trouble in arriving at the value inside of
sub-tropical latitude: and made 'profit- forty-eight hours, and then there is no
able, or agriculture should- be regarded reason why. they should not pay the
as a pursuit unsuited to this portion of damage within thirty days. If there is.
as a pursu unsue to portn o an attempt to do the railroad injustice
the world t hle tecourts are open, but no premium is
Most new comers, we think, have en- offered fOr them to wear me out by say-
tertained these very illogical ideas, and ing their attorneys are employed by the
their attempts to put them in practice year. K.
have cost them dearly. There is nothing Marketin Florida Cotton
so-satisfying, as experience, and if the Marketing Florida Cotton.
people are satisfied that there needs to GREENVILLE, MADISON Co., FLA.,
March 8th, 1887.
be developed a new, sub-tropical agri- dtor Florida Farmer anrd rui-Gro er:
culture, -then we stand firmly on the seeing from the 'Times Union that
threshold of a better era. there is an effort being made for the es-
We may rest assured that with more tablishment of a market for long cotton
than a hundred thousand species of in your city, I would ask, why not
veetaton to select from e handle short cotton also'? The wrongs
vegBetatlon to select from .we ndn +_ _. ......-.. __. __ V

-o-... .- 7. hat. na have been perpetrated on our farm-
enough to meet the agricultural needs of ers of Middle Florida by Savannah comn-
Florida. Soil is a thing to be made in mission men are almost too numerous to
great degree, and constantly to be re- mention. I will mention a few cases.
plenished, by the farmer in any country In the winter of 1867 I had shipped
pushed by the farmer in any countryand sold most of my crop which only
The mineral elements can be obtained sold for a little over $50 per bale, less
cheaply, when we have adopted measures the tax of 21 cents a pound. Had 82
whereby farmers may be protected 'bales, however, which' I requested the
f p ...i l s" e .T h factors to hold over for a better price.
from professional swindlers. The vege 1st of February, 1868, cotton
table elements may be obtained almost began to run up rapidly and in a few
without cost. During the summer and days was active at 25 or 26 cts.
early fall vegetation that is adapted to I wrote to my factors to sell at the last
. .. r inentioned price and in a short time an
this climate grows with such luxuriance account of sales came, a month old or



more, reporting sales 'at 12 or 13 cents
about the lowest prices of the season.
could not see into the matter at once bu
learned afterward that the firm mad
several hundred thousand dollars on th
season's business, as mine was only on
p rhaps, of a thousand instances.
A neighbor of mine, a merchant, wa
served the same way, and his amount o
cotton was about 200 bales, which at $5
a bale, the difference between price o
cotton when he ordered it sold and
when the sales were dated back, would
make ($10,000) ten thousand dollar
gobbled from this one individual. I can
give the names of all parties.
Several years after that I shipped
lot of cotton to a factor, and when it wa
all sold took the account of sales and
compared weights at Greenville, an
found a difference of some 700 pound
between the weight of bales (30) an
weights in Savannah, against me, how
ever. The factor claimed a balance o
$25 against me, but as he run away
some time afterwards for some shady
transaction about turpentine, I did no
pay the balance; in fact, I thought h
shoulti account to me for at least 600 lbs
of cotton which, after we had struck
balance, would have put him in my
Some years ago almost every farme
and merchant you would see wa
grumbling, about the loss in weight ii
cotton. You might complain to you
factors and they would send you an en
velope full of affidavits of city weigher
-that u as all you would get. But one
season the shipment of cotton fell shor
to an extent alarming to Savannah -A
.meeting of the 'Board of Trade wai
called and committees were appointed to
investigate the reason-why Savannal
was losing her trade.
It came out that one of the grievances
that these committees discovered was
that there were, I know not how many
regularly licensed junk shops which
bought loose cotton which was stolen
from the bales lying on wharves, -ware-
houses, etc., in different, parts of city
This accounted for our loss of weights in
our cotton.
I do not think that a merchant or
farmer in Middle Florida ought to 'givt
Savannah one cent of trade, the mer-
chants particularly, for it is susceptible
of proof that she has tried to build up
and has used every effort in that direc-
tion, Thomasville, Bainbridge, and
Quitman,at the expense of Quincy, Talla-
hassee, Monticello and Madison.
Georgia is a great State, and I admire
and love some of her people, but there is
just a little leaven of the first settlers
who are excessively clannish, I. do not
find fault with Georgia on that account,
'but will rather do her the com-
pliment to copy after her and have ev-
erything belonging to Florida for the


The Advantages of the South
for Industrial Development.
(An address delivered by Hon. Normian J.
Colman Commissi6ner of Agriculture,before
the Louisiana Sugar Planters' Association,
at New Orleans, March 10, 1887.)
thank you for the honor of the invita-
tion to address you, but have not come
here prepared for any such purpose. I
can say, however, it gives me great
pleasure to meet the members of this
Association. I have dbme here to coun-
sel and confer with you on a subject of
very great interest 'to you and to the
people of this country, for all of our
people are interested in the development
of all of our resources, and in the success
of every important industry in this
country, and there is none more impor-
tant than the sugar industry. Our peo-
ple are paying over $100,000,000 a year
to foreign nations for sugar, that ought
to be produced at home, on our own
soil, and the money distributed among
our own people. And this drain upon
our people will continue in still greater
volume as the country grows older. In
one hundred years from now, unless the
production of sugar is largely increased
in this country, the output for sugar will
be nearly $1,000,000,000 a year. Some
may ask how I arrive at these figures.
By a simple mathematical calculation.
The population -of our country has
doubled every twenty-five years since
our nation declared itself free and inde-
pendent of all other, nations.
With a population of 8,000,000 in 1775,
in 1800 we had 6,000,000; in 1825, 12,000,-
000; in 1850, 24,000,000, or really 25,000,-
000; in 1875, 50,000,000, and if our popu-
lation increases in the same proportion
(and there is no reason why it should
not), we shall have, in 1975, 800,000,000
of people, more than ten times-yes,
more than twelve times-the population
we now have, and all these will have to
be fed, and ten times the amount of
sugar will be. consumed that is now
consumed, and a thousand millions of
dollars will go out of this country yearly
for sugar, unless it can be supplied
The debt created by the late civil war
is but a trifle in comparisonto to he strain
put upon our country for this one arti-
cle of food. The most of our war debt
was due to our own 'people, and when
paid to them again went into circulation
here, but the vast sums' that yearly go
out to foreign nations, go out never to
return, exhausting the vitality
of our country; taking so much blood
from the system never to be restored.
Wise statesmen cannot contemplate the
coming situation without concern, and
Congress, with a liberal spirit, has pro-
vided funds to enable the Department
of Agriculture to conduct such experi-
ments as may prove of value to the
development of the sugar industry of
this country.
Of courseyou are all- aware that the
work will be experimental, and I am
lot here to make large promises as to
what the results will be. I can say,
however, that they will bo made in .the
aest of faith, to do all that is possible to
test the diffusion process and "o compare

s, it with the milling process, and with the Hints to Correspondents.
I fondest hope that it may ptove to be of
it great advantage to the sugar industry The readers 'of the FLORIDA FARMExR
e of Ameri'a. If such a saving can be AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
e effected by the new process as is hoped; vited to contribute to its columns articles
e if practical work will confirm theoretical and notes on all subjects pertaining to
tests and expectations, it will the farm, garden, orchard and house-
is hope and life to the Southern sugar hold affairs, The range of topics which
)f planters, and, it is believed, give them will be discussed in this journal may be
0 a fair margin of profit, which certainly gathered from the subjoined table, which
f their enterprise, their labors and their may serve to suggest what might other-
d capital merit, wise escape attention:
d There has been a great overproduction FARM MANAGEMENT.
s of sugar from the beet abroad, owing to e dangn
a the high bounties offered by the Govern- Cearing land, draining land, crops for
ments of France and Geimany on all new land, succession of crops, intensive
a sugars exported, and this overproduction farming, treatment of different- soils,
s has so reduced the price of sugar that its resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
d manufacture has ceased to be profitable penning, green manuring.
d anywhere. But I do not think this DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
s state of things will long continue. These Horses, mules, .cattle, hogs, sheep,
I matters sooner or later regulate them- poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
- selves. People or governments will not ment.
f long continue a practice that does not S.PEIAL FCERTILLZERS.
y pay. A reaction has taken place abroad Cotton seed. cotton seed ea, b .rn-
y already in regard to this bounty, and, if Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
t withdrawn, a fair and living price for yar manure, guano, ground bone, su-
e sugar may be expected. per-phosphate. gypsum. lime, kainit,
G. entlemen, you cannot be' more ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, :com-
a anxious than I am that the experiments posts-
y to be conducted in your State shall be FORAGE CROPS. '
thorough, practical and exhaustive. I Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass--
r have come here to consult with you, to- Guinea grass, -Terrell grass, orchard
s be advised by you, to ask you to take a grass, red-topgrass. Johnson grass, Texas
n share, and a good large share, of the. blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
r responsibility in conducting thee ex.- millo maize. kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
- periments. I want an advisory board of hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
s some of your best qualified sugar um. Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
e makers to co-operate with us and see melilotus.
t that these experiments shall be such. as STAPLE CROPS.
. will settle this question of difftision for wa -
Sall time to come. I shall depend upon Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Yarieties,
o you to select the plantation on which. yeld per acre, coil and season, difficul-
h the experiments shall be couduicted, and ues encountered. general tr.atmenL.
if you, Mr. President, will appoint a otton-Longaind.lhort Staple-Plant-
s committee, I-will visit plantations with ing and cclru e: marketing cop, man-
s that committee to consider which is agement of sefd, products' from the.
, best adapted for the purpose-taking all seed. ,
h things into consideration. I wish to Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,
have this matter settled before I return culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
- to Washipgton. I have already con- tion of market.
traced for a battery and cutting ma- Tobadco-Varieties, history in Florida,
chine to be here for operation long be- recent experiences, seed, culture maniu-
fore the cane will be ready for use. facture.
For the courtesy that has been shown FRUITS.
e me by all the sugar planters whom I rt-Comparon of va
- have met, and by this Association, ties, Cthardiness and prusoductiveness, of arimeth- .
I return my profound thanks, and I hope ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
P that when our experiments shall have ods of propagation, methods of planting-
- been concluded, the same cordial rela- and culture,- comparative effects of. fer-
I tions may exist between us that exist at tof izers, marketing of fruit, preservation
Sthe present time. O f fruit wine and other products.--.
I wish to see sugar making made so Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
profitable that every acre of sugar land plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
s in this country shall be put into cane. berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,
The truth is that we have overproduc- pieapple, sapodilla, mango, avocada,
tion of almost everything in the North. pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
Wheat is produced so cheaply in Minne- almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
- sota and Dakota, and. along the Red strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va
River Valley, that our people in Mis- rieties, their characteristics, effects of,
souri, Illinois and Indiana cannot com- soil, weather, etc., best methods of
pete with the Northwest. Great syndi-, culture.
cates buy up 80,000 or 40,000 acres of FLOWER GARDEN.
wheat lands, and put on their plows and Plants adapted to this climate, out-
improved machinery, drills, reapers, door culture, management of green-
threshers, etc.Some of these syndicates house.
plant 20,000 to 80,000 acres in wheat.
The farming operations are conducted -NATIVE TREES AND HERBS. -
with military precision. The horses are Planting trees for ornament or utility,
fed and harnessed at certain hours; the' the burning over of forest lands, the
drivers get their breakfast so as to be lumber and turpentine industries, the
ready at 6 o'clock for work. They work tanninigindustry, phenomena of plant
until noon and rest for an hour, and life, weeds and noxious plants.
continue their labors until 6 o'clock. N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
And so it is with the other hands. The editor for identification. Information is
wheat is sown in April, harvested in desired respecting popular names and
August, threshed in September, and uses.
goes on its way to New York. The INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES.
farmers of Missouri, and the West gen-
werally, will have to abandon wheat rais- Nature of damage done and remedies.
ing, because there is overproduction, and MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS.
because Great Britian has seen proper Bees and bee plants, silk culture and"
to encourage wheat raising in India and "h -' -' .. .
Australia, where, with cheap lands and the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
cheap labor, they can put it down in and dog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
Great Britain at a lower rate than tion for farmers, homestad laws, trans-
American farmers can do it. Hence, portation, marketig produce, expert -
nearly all of our exportation of wheat mental farms agric cultural education,
has been abandoned. Nor is it in wheat of Floida historic points, sanital history ad-
alone that we have overproduction. ofFl '.poi sanitary a&
Pork has been selling in the West at. 3 vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
cents a pound, and corn at 15 or 20 cents farm machinery, farm implements,
bushel. That don't pay. All farm water supply, cooling appliances, re-
a bushel. Thadon't pay. All farm cipes' for cooking, home decorations,
produce ave become very cheap. We household economy, mineral and earths,

sugar industry. Look at the millions of In treating of the above and related
dollars we are paying out for jute and subjects, practical experience is much to

produced here to great advantage. These edge; yet 'there are topics needing dis-
industries can be developed, We ought cussion which have tobea related of'
to be independent ofhevery nation on from a somewhat theoretical stand-
God's earth in everything. It is to en-
courage these andto open new lines of pointed i .
.. .. ... .n d ",In describing any method of ep ert-
tphe productive industries that I shall fluences be explained; fo r example, i
strive, while at the head of the Agricul- the case of a crop, the character of the
tural Department, and I shall lend an, ea o o e
willing harnd wherever it can be done, season, of the soil, of the sub-soil and
willi handlahe..uereitcntedon, the method of planting and cultivating,
i congratulate you here in the South all have an important bearing on the re-
at thefinerospects that are rising be- sult 'Bare statements of results areof
foe you. You are prospering ina far little value, though they may be worthy
greater ratio than our people in the of mention.
North. You have a more favorable o mention.
climate; you have a larger number of We do not desire letters written mere-
products; your manufacturing industries ly in praise of special localities unless
are going to surpass ours at the North. claims to favor are based on the products
Already the Eastern manufacturers and or productiveness of the soil. -Articles
capitalists are complaining at the com- of an animated or vivacious style are de-
petition they encounter here at the sirable by way of variety, but practical
South, especially in cotton manufactures statements and descriptions should be
and in the production of iron. concise and as much to the point as pos-
You have your iron and 'coal side by sible.- .. ..
side; your climate is such that you can .All communications for theu editorial
work all winter, and the cotton is at department should be addressed to
your doors. You have thousands of EDITO. FARMER AND ErUIT-GEOWER.
giles of rivers, affording the best water
power in the world. Everything favors a o ae
the South, and it has a brig t pros- .
pect. A .fSHE lt i
I am glad to see that capital and en- ASHES!
terprise are coming down here. I was t Cheapest trrylir r in use, and tree o al m nox-
pleased to see, as I traveled through, e aions weeds. Sup d i oar lots or 2 or more
development'of, the fruit industry and barrels. Price and analysis free on appoBnuon.
in the raising of early vegetables, etc. Addrcis, CHaSi STEVENs
When you come to look at all these in- o.i 1 Naiane. dutrio. Canado.
dustries in the aggregate, you will be ,
astonished at the amount of wealth you FREE, ONE SAMPLE GOP
are drawing from the North, and how Before yon decide where to in SOUTl
yours is increasing in greater and greater FLOlIDA. send for a samle copy of
n n twill fpid bo-tcer and cheaper bargalints Ii
We would like to hear rom any 'one aysle. Buld ng o nrroad river or s
who had experience with the Satsuma side. The proprietor of **Te Orange Groveri
orange as to the success which has at- an "old timer," but neither moss ack'd or e.
nd is lr in Fri taere to say and a There Is millions
edwed its culture in Frloyida, itsg quaoi-rsii.. Three MUilonsof Acres on his Books.. ,';-
ties, etc. Addresa, THE GROVE, LiVERPQOL, FL-.:


nr editor's hands ten days before it reaches Venetian red, quarter pound lamp- little mocking bird has avery large FLOR FERTILIZING GO. AI FOR SEED PE, '
+ the public), we received notice that ow- black. mouth) until he was old enough to pick IDA ING GTFR D OSES
O ur N os fifcming tounfoteseen circumstances,a change Slake the lime, cut the lamp-black up his food and feed himself. Wenever E T PAINE, AMBER CANE SEED.
had been decided upon in the time of with vinegar, mix well together, add the confined himto the cage, but opened the E. T. PAINET PRESIDENT. GERMAN MILLE
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor. bringing more boys to find homes in cement and fill the barrel with water, door every morning, when he hopped out Florida Orange Food per ton ...........0 PANSH PEA-NTS,
Florida. Let it stand twelve hours before using, and went anywhere about the house he JOHNSON GRASS, ETC.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all A company of fifteen left New York and stir frequently while putting it on. pleased, or flew in the pine trees or on Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 28.00 Everything-to Plant. Address -
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call; on the 15th of this month, to be placed This is not white, but of a light stone the house top and chicken coop, or about Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime 30 I SO. SEED CO., Maceon, Ga.
With words of good counsel for old.friends and at Jacksonville, Palatka and Gainesville, color, without the unpleasant glare of the grounds, just as he willed. He cent.; Sulphate ofPotash12 per cent. R.Ellis, President.
Who come to us seeking the best way to do "and," writes the agent of the society, white. The color may be changed by always came when we called him; his nesia. 6 per cent. Lime Soda and other val- OTICE.
to "this will be the last company till next adding more or less of the color named, bright eyes twinkling, and chattering, as nble ingredients.
All questions of general Interest will be fall; if, by any chance, another is de- or other colors. This wash covers well, much as to alk, "What do you want?" 'OVT P'?-A.S, TO WHOM ITMAYCONCERN:
Personal inquiries will be answered by mal ded upon, I shall take pleasure in needing only one coat, and is superior to He crowed just like my little rooster, RED ROVER, WIPPOORWIL AN CLAY Sixty days after the first publication of thi
when accompanied by stamp for reply, informing you. I have some fifty ap- anything known, excepting oil paint, and whistled like mamma's monitor OV WIPPOOD LAY notice alcation will bthe made to the egis
Subscribers are cordiallyinvite to take a plications on hand from points in South I have known a rough board barn coffee pot. nature o lorlda, for the assage o a charter
eaterin our Cyrec and exchange vie~ Florida, but as the expense is much washed with this to look well for five Before I got Tommy I had a large Send for treatise on Culture of Orange the c ap ital stock maybe increased to ah
"Help ye one another." heavier to those points, I shall, of course, years, and even longer, without renew- black cat that we called Pussey, and a Tree. greater than Fifty Thousand Dollars; the par
Communications intended for publication fill those near Jacksonville first. [South ing. kitten named pet. One morning I found value of shares to be reduced from One Tin-
on be rsidef early written, and only on Florida will receive its quota in the fall. The cement hardens, but on a rough with Pet five kittens. We taught Pet low thred Dollars to Teion to pullars er sh are; tonvel-
All matter relating to this department k-Ed.) Several of the boys of the first surface will not scale.-Cor. Scientific and Pussey not to molest Tommy. We such real andpersonal property as maybe
should be addressed to party have written to me, and they seem American. also taught Spunk, the puppy, that Q deemed necessary to its uefuless, elud
FlEDITOR OURdHOECIRCLE, well and happy, and we feel much en- G. C., Liberty, N. Y.: "Please give a Tommy was one of the family, and Bees and Queens. S straospttora eaS nd
Montclair, Fla. f b recipe for polish, to be used in brighten- must be treated as such. Hiram, a little advance on produce; to mannfacture and setl
Apropos of this subject, and that our ing up some old pieces of oiled, furni- pet chicken, ends my list of pets. When such materials as mrray e useful to fruit grow-
O C boys themselves m ty feel hopeful and ture." A preparation much used and Pussy, Pet, kitten and Spunk were about Orders will be booked now for delivery dur- ers and gardeners,and generally L transact,
Our Cosy Corner. encouraged to try and do their best, we probably as good as any, unless it be a the house, Hiram and Tommy would ing April, May or June, of my superior race ~.rdote a cs may d thn frt grof -wing
WILD FLOWERS OF FLORIDA. quote below an extract from a letter fine French polish, is a mixture of equal hop all over them, perch on their heads ofpure and kindred pursuits, and for sue other
(Concluded.) received from a well known Floridian: parts of boiled linseed oil and turpentine, and take a nap. We called them the powers and privileges as may be deemed
(toncluded.) t "My father, while in Boston, got an It should be rubbed on with a piece of happy family., Our neighbors were Italian B s an nsr eR FAIRBANKS,
climbers weast, not leastam ongse the yellow essour native Irish boy, brought him South, ad to-day soft woolen cloth and the furniture then highly entertained with our menagerie. GEO H. NORRIS,
with its wnxuriant tangle of evergreen e iount ofhe best c tain's ofc in tal polished with a similar piece to remove At our south porch mamma had a bal- Queens by mail a specialty. D. OREN LE AF,
wif thagea the yearia round tangled its evellrgreen county, held a captain' s office in the any superfluous oil that would gather sam apple vine growing, on which Tom- NI. J DOYLE,
foliag all the year round, and its yellow United States army, was elected to the dust and shortly cause the furniture to y used to delight to sit and peck Give me a trial order. J D. M LL,
glory of fragrant blossoms in February Florida egisature, and has one of as become dingy again, beautiful red apples and- eat the seeds. For prices or other information, address W M E. SIANTON.
Anything more beautiful good orange groves as there is in Duval TO RENOVATE VARNISHED FURNITURE. By accident Pussy and Pet lost their o BE LLOCK ,
glossy, delicate green leaves, gemmed all So there, boys, is an instance and an First of all, take it to a room where stead we had a new cat, Pete, which Firna Fruit Exebange
over from th e ground to the roof of a example for you to follow, of one who you can keep it .free from dust and lint. would not become so well educated asE Orane Co., a. Jacon Fl
porch,and hanging down from the lat- commenced life in Florida just as you If the old varnishis very much defaced the others. One morning, much to our
ter in graceful masses of. yellow and are doing to day. orthickand cracked, use a small piece dismay, Pete caught Tommy and anD A
green, it would be difficult to find. of window glass to scrape it off with; if under the house with him, doubtless ex-
Thr no litt bese grand native climbers "The Rural alifornin." it is only rough and 'scratched, use me- pecting to enjoy a delicate breakfast. *U-MO DN I H -A LIFAX,
dium grade sand paper, and follow this But he was disappointed, for papa fol- O O
of our own out-door home, graceful al- We find upon our table the March with a thorough rubbing with very fine lowed him under the house, caught him
ways, and in summer furnishing a most issue of this valuable and comely jour- sand paper, or emery paper; do not con- bythe nape of his neck, causing him to
Grateful shade; up thelattice, in and out' nal, with the following, paragraph sider that it is "done enough" until the drop Tommy into papa's hand, then
along the eaves, lying on the roof in marked: surface is perfectly smooth and free from he put a few drops of water into Tom- FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
-dense masses, and peeping saucily over "Helen Harcourt is the editor of Our scratches. my's bill, but, alas, after few gasps, all
the edge to see what we are doing below, Home Circle in the new FLORIDA FARMER Rub it down with a soft woolen cloth was over with our pet bird. We all feltl
our yellow jessamines runriot and grow AND FRUIT GROWER, and the depart- until all the old varnish dust is removed very badly. I made a grave under a.
and flourish to their own delight and ment over which she presides is decid- and it is then ready for either varnish Catley guava, put in some leaves, and --ALL ON OR ADDRESS
ours. Like the priest, "all shaven and edly interesting." (copal) or polish. The latter is the best, gently laid Tommy on them, then co -'
shorn" would be our front porch without We thank the Rural Californian for and this is the way to make it for furni- ered him with leaves, and, made a pretty
its luxuriant green drapery. its kindly compliment, and can honestly ture that has been varnished-not oiled: mound over him, after which papa
Turning now from the native climbers return it, not only as regards "The Equal parts of rw linseed oil and tur printed on a slab: JA M E S CA R N E L L ,
of Florida, the honeysuckle, yellow jes- Home," but the Journal in its 'entirety. pentine, mix and shake well, apply with Here lies Tommy, "A M E S A R N E L L. ,
'samine,evening glory, bona nox, creepers 4 a flannel, rubbing in hard; follow this whose life was ruthlessly destroyed .
and many others, let us take a parting The' Family Friend. with a good rubbing with fresh flannel by Pet.
glance at the flowers that all through or chamois skin. Put on plenty of "el- Louis C. VOGHT.
the year, some in the dead of the coldest A reproachful voice at bur elbow de- ow grease;" if you have not enough of Aged twelve years. Orm ond Land An y, Orrno d.
hitterss, are strewn here and there all lares: "You ought t6have told others your own, call in the children or a su- Now this is
over the State. about it long ago!" And we plead guilty, perfluous masculine-there are always Now, this is a very good letter, as I
Thos- who are useZ to looking upon most abjectly; we have known a good plenty about,especially during the-"mel- saidbefore, and contains a plaoor littleEessCon ast nf Va
Slie sea of bloom that clothes the Western thing and have kept it to ourselves. ancholy days." The furniture will take forourcousone andal .oor lreinds me of ia
prairies during the months of June and "Better late than never," however, so on a beautiful lustre if properly done. Tommy His epitaph reminds me of
-July, or the frequently profuse fields of here are directions, plain and simple, for another written by me when I was a C -i
Stove wil no rust if kerosene be ap- little girl, over the grave of a pet kitten, ... C __ J_ I I
wild blossoms in the Northern States, making the best soap we have ever, seen plied to them previous to their being put who "tgirl, over the grave of a pet kitten,
will unquestionably be disappointed heard of, for dish or clothes wash- away for the summer, "tookHere lies poor Dot, NEW YORK & FLORIDA LSTEA "SHIP LINE.
away for thedi sumer "Here lies poor Dot, NE:.NE YORK & FLORIDA sSTEA lvSHIP LINE.
ere -For making theformer shne, for keep- If brooms are wet in boiling suds once Who died after a dangerous Ti-WEELY SERVIE B ETWEE
When a man of moderate means gives ing silver bright, as ,though freshly a week they wilbecome verytough, will And- Fatal Illness t .. FE AND.JAC. S
a dinnerparty once a year, he does-his polished, and for whitening the clothes not cutthe.carpet, last much longer and Don'tlaughc It was certainly true, NEW YORK, FERNANDI-NA AND JACKSONVILLE
best and uses all -his resources for that when a little of it is put into the wash always look like a new broom, at all events, surprising as it may seomV.
-one occasion; but when he prefers to in- boiler, we do not know its equal. TO CLEAN TINWARE. oeti. .mes, o b ramrs are p r,,oted a -au rom Per B9 E. R., N. Y. ever s Tesda Th ursda
vite his friends to tea or dinner fre- We cannot auite use the words of a The best thing for C.leaning tin'ware Is able to speak to othl very conen are at a dis- FROM n 'ONILE-CHEROKEE mw' nd EM OLE new), every FRIDAY.
Suently, he doe not crowd his reourtces well known advertisement of a certain common soda. -Dampen a cloth and dip t F EER Ta WARE and .E v MONDAY, p. .i., OTY
- lie does n- give everything at one medicine, and say of this soap, "The in soda, and rub the ware briskly, after reachc, and a great deal of roubile and a ".gb.jF.:4. T NT.4 and 'P-cr Ace -.AaEo. ; 6T bi"a, Ler e are n-,urpaDAd by any ships .
time -and nothing at another, children 'cry for it,t"-bbut we can truth- which wipe- dry. Any blackened' or great many steps may e saved by such tte-c',naswieservice. '-,r-t r'cb.r'.niotn'aL.c,a, i e apt.-,
Stats. In the latter, climticconditins cook cries. for it and the w ... r"wan as new.' c can easily make: E rnanina, Fla., Jie.on-ile, F"la.. S. W. cor. Bay and Hogan. '
S eity of iower's, as well as crops, while supplyrunsiut," Carpets may be cleaned by pounding A BOMEMADE TELEPHONE. 3 Broadway,, Y. General Agentst, 35broadway,-N Y- -
ity of flowers, as well as crops, while supply runs out," ica them in soapsuds nd washing the soap The Aerican me gives the follow I Best. e I LesBOC -
Florida, with her short, mild winters It does niot injure the mostly welotof the. The suds must' be -- -- h
-and long season of gi owth, can well af- hands or clothing,.but rather the con- very strong and *This i don by ingdirections fcr making acheapi ome- dn on 1139Lot lorIdSohr-.
ford to deck her -rState with flowers trary, and is a genuine blessing to the Cutting down bar soap and dissolving it mniade telephone: To make a good and is on the Lineof the Florida Southe.
nearly the whole year round, without housekeeper who is also "maid of all cutting serviceable telephone, good from one
c r osWd n g t h e m a l l tO g e t h e r i n a fe"o r i n w at e r..-s i bt.. .po e g o o d r' o n e
crowdg them all together in a few work.! r -. farm house to another, only requires Unsurpassed bv any other section for the production of Frtuts and Vegetables. If ou are comr- /
short months. Wahope that our readers will try it, TO REMOVE OIL FROM CARPETS. enough wire and two cigar boxes. First In to Florida, whatever may be r-ourrmeans or condition, you w,L moit assuredly be please with
Those who have come to Florida, and and if they do, we are sure they .will Put on plenty of wheat flour or whit- select your bodies and,make a hole about th entire of Lake Region. Fr .irther arriularaadres, a.
have gone away declaring that her floral never be satisfied again without keeping ing as soon- as possible. The next day half an inch in diameter in the centre of REED.., Fla.
produ-tions are overestimated, are not a supply on hand. In dish washing; sweep up all the flour with a stiff brush the bottom of each, and then place one T size 40x10'.LA V11'W on Lake Kingsley. clay- Co., only 88. A
ew, but m.ny: yet bad these hakty, especially, it is invaluable, doing away and put on fresh flour. If grease is on in each of the houses you wish to con- GROVE osts but $50. e -acre tract for an ORANGE
would-be critics pursued their invesga- entirely with the tiresome rubbing of the floor be careful to remove it before nect; then get five pounds of common | High rolling ine Lands, Salubnrio Cimate, a g).-, i.
-ions a little further they would have soap on the cloth. A tablespoonful or putting the carpet down again. iron stove-pipe wire, make a loop at orie ment. end 2-cent stamp lr Ma, etc., or reinat P. Orger or i LOa I
'recognize their mistake, and Bank Drart to JOHN TALB cad FLORIDAN
recgze their mistake, and acknowl- so thrown into the diishpan will make a TO REMOVE GREASE SPOTS FROM CARPETS. end and put it through the hole o in your perfect, from HNT., and get Warranty Deed, Titee
S-edge tat "loria well deserves her splendid suds, the dishes and silver will M little sa it g cigar box and fasten it with a nail; -then
ae, ar dthat t eu hnd of the emerge from it bright and clean. water and add half an ounce of boa draw it tight to the other box, support- TROPI _ATL ILA1FD OO1 PA1 'rY
Creator has been gracious in bestowing We have never heard any name given Wash the part wls a clean cloth i itwhen necessary with a stout cord.o.. B S
upon her so lavishly His beautiful gifts to this particular soap, but we will call and rub wl wha u drysn c oh You can easily run your line' into the P. 0. Box I18, Icksonville, Florida, 39 W. Bay St.
of flower gems, it the and r* ... wl ... cloth. house by boring a hole through the glass
Strewn about in the piney woods, as GEM SOAP. *or boards. Support your boxes with *
-the summer months roll on, we find To make it, slice up three pounds of Our Young Folks' Corner. slats nailed.across the window, and your L I II
talla, .srmps -ye owfloers, son common laundry soap, "bar soap" is ITS STANDING OFFER. telephone, is complete. The writer has II IM
sder stems, like. the familiar o that isuS11 20E y s lg a
"black-eyed Susan" of ourn the cheapest, in ten quarts of water, add A nice picture book each molath to the boy ne that is 200 yards long and cost forty-U
arden its cetr b l, Nwi one' and a half ounces of borax, and set orgirlwhosends usthelargestlistofsuberl b-ve cents, that Will carry music when
.garden, its Centre bei T whie it back on the stove where it will get er for "T FLORIDA FARER AND FRUIT- the organ is played sixty feet away in
the petals are bright yellow. Then come rm w i GROWER" during that month another room
.Other yellow flowers, some delicate little you want S to A beautifully bound co y of the famous PRINTIN P B I
-tiyes ol er some delica e litle th roughly dissolve the soap; stir it oc- children's magazine, St, Ncholas, to'the b oy FEATHER RUGS.AND PUBLISHING HOUSE
aines proudly up t igrassothe sun, more tall, casiontially, and as soon as the luhimps are or girl whe sends us the largest number of In a country like Florida, where hunt
looking -prouy up o e sun, morersurg six moths. In a country like Florida, where hunt- i s
like dwarf sunflowers than any other lgo sop i r fur Wrteus letters descriptive of paces, things ers abound feathers are easily obtained
we now; and mingled wior less water makes it harder or softer, or doings; write us on one side the page; give b n eopl kn w t mf"ke
-w._ e know; and mingled with them,-tall as p .U P it it a s yourae -but notmanyp peo o how tom a
beads ot white, feathery flowers, almost a tpnerrdcer it it stifne otThe beat letter received will be published use of them, so our Corner welcomes the I
like an ornamental" piume, with a pow-- Increr box b r it s n.' eahweek. following hints on this subject, and will Nw go to ;r ad "
erfu sweet-scented perfume, I c an ns =p awr Nwgoworkandseewhowins. be pleasedtohave some more of the same lh
h tre a u quite as well as whiting; rub it onwith or B t u pped Office In he Souh
Northern meadows. piece of flannel, then wash off in hot We heartily welcome the writer of the We have all some beautiful feathers
Then, too, there are tufted clusters of waer. following interesting letter, and hope that we would like to make the most of
purple lowest, resembling nothingso of the better class of that he and many others like-minded and these mats and rugs would be uefu FO -
much as bunches of eaint hings o soaps, such, -as Colgate's, and half the may visit us in our corner very often as well as handsome.
when i he delicate petals open and the quantity of water, pouring the mixture and tell us all about their pets. That E. H. B., Lafayette, Ind., writes
flowers begin ic fade it has only to be while warm into shallow pans, so that it the invitation to do so was missing for a friend living-in the country sen111t ie 1
plucked and addedd to a b nt'ue of similar lle bscap ins obtasedqua, a far less price men's, but mu lt be laid atthe door ofusi lately a beautiful mat and a rug made n h la b t p i o a a fa l pric e bu ms b
ththe sweet s ted boo rerredthe same quality can be bought naughty printers. They have reformed willtry to describe it for the benefit of I
the sweet scented bloom refrre'at Of-course the addition of a few drops of now,,though, so we will forgive thbm,. : thfose wotavi O+-the amateralNs mND ,, ,,ma--y
-abe anda dozed ors, ha "meval scent of some kinmdimproves-it, but it is I hope that every boy and girl who wish to mke one. The foundation of V "
betiliedas. dried grass, or 'er just as effective without.. reads this nice letter of Louis Voghts the matwas heavy unbleached cotton ii "
In fact, look whereyou may and when. "The melancholy days have come, wiil follow his example and make, pets that of the rug gunny bag. The feathers J J
Fl i olda's bosom, not in And-scour ng far and near." makes good hearted e n w The circular mat has a border of the tips o __w __of white "
So ine aud and ammockn ld Melancholy days, need, while th The grl or boy who loves animals and se lfeatheren e o
or swamp, delicate little blosso nt- turmoil continues, but when all the s kind to them, thegirloroy would feathers from a drake's neck The
hel. gay heads proudly at your side. 1 nen is a pt to term it, is over, how great son who disliked pets who would not also with the initiafnsi n eetd ieceisofeblac velt r
-Conspicuous among this latte class is sthe satisfaction of sittmg down with be sometimes guilty of unkindness or the wings of birds. The rug is lined
- the Yucca. o "*Spanishb bayonet," with the restful feeling that all the accumu- worse to human beings. with woollen cloth and thd border is of
its intensely tropeal asspetand ites ma lated dirt and rubbish is gone, and the Nodreally good, honest man or woman scarlet flnnel pi et- Th "
nificent spikes of large, pendant white h ters forming -the ground work are com- A T PRICES BELOW COMPETITION
They are the natives of the hammocks ays which are now close upon us, The you have begun. It is the good and spersed with others of bright colors
and the saudy hills ofthe coast line, but Famly Friend is on hand with some sea- straight road upward. some of natural tints, and some bril-
they flourish when transferred to a home o hi. THE STORY OF TOMMY." liantly colored with aniline dyes. The J a .
in the piney wods, as we well know, A DURABLE WHITEWASH. EUSTIS, March 18 1887 appearance of the rug is very rich and oh /i elr if f
Sfor we have at our door two splendid In relation to whitewashig, I believe My Dear Cousin Helen: '.bright." i o ad S te a ma/t/
spemens, and we never tire of gazing 1 have triedevery known wash. The so- I have been very much interested in Next week we will "interview" the
fot her, hutey dazzling in the sun- Nedi thhhn allnaordinary wtewasn, would write you a story of Tommy, my Mrs. E. W. A., Ormond-on-the-Hali- .A. -i9 A .LL .'rl TqDS 0 -
light. No brick wall that is ever intended to mocking bird. fax--Sixty cents for soldering casket
Why "Spanish bayonet?' Stumble be painted should be whitewashed. All One day, coming through the woods, I mentioned in Our Home Circle recently,

Just to late for' insertion inour three ekshydrauli cement,ten pound sawyers, then inch off their heads and doubtless valuable to e timer L
--.Ast issue (Our Home Circle leaves its umber, ten pounds ochre, one pound putthem in his mouth (bythe way, a. will receive it all right. .A. SPECIALTY


Ad* yCows, as well as other grazing animals,
i Relish an occasional feed of something
besides grass, even when the pastures
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic are in their best condition. They will
animals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon, eat dry corn meal, bran and even old
Jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them hay, and appear to derive much bene-
through this column. fit from them. Milch cows should be
fed liberally during hot and dry weather
INTERMITTENT FEVER, even if the feed in pastures is tolerably
good. They should not be required to
Treatment of a Disease to Which walk about 'all day in search of food.
Jersey Cattle are Subect. If they are continually on the move
Jersey Cattle are Subject. their blood will become heated and their
The following cases reported from this milk in poor condition. They should
State to Dr. D. L. Phares, of the Missis- be fed so liberally that they can lie at
sippi A. & M. College, are thus prescribed rest a considerable part of the time.-Ex.
for by him in the Southern Live Stock
urnal P es: Sheltering Swine.
Dr. D. L. Phares: '
I desire your advice in the treatment It may appear to be a rash assertion
of Jerseys, purchased last November, of that any class of farm animals suffer
Mr. Noah Scales, Brooksville, Miss. more from shelter than from lack of it,
Have recently lost two, and fear I will and yet I doubt if this may not be safely
lose all, unless I can find a remedy at said of swine. We have been told so
your hands for their ailment, to-wit: long-for years-of the hurt done to an-
bloody urine. I opened both-the 'first imals by exposing them to severe weath-
a young bull, found the manifold packed er, that we are fully convinced that ani-
with very dry food, melt blood-shot, mals are made to suffer much because of
bladder filled with bloody urine, lungs the lack of shelter; but only lately has it
and brains congested; died in two and a become understood by the most progres-
half days. sive that the darkness and foul air of
Next, heifer eight months old; found many shelters are more hurtful to the
melt blood-shotten and bladder much animals than exposure, which would in-
enlarged and filled with bloody urine; sure them light and pure air, would be.
lungs and brains normal, and balance of The lower animals are as much hurt by
stomach apparently healthy except the darkness, foul air and sudden exposure,
manifold, which was unnaturally packed as are human beings; and from these
and some. dirt recently taken into it. causes hogs suffer more than any other!
After she became sick she craved water, farm animals. This is because, first,'
but drank only a swallow or two at a their shelters are the most carelessly
time, refused to eat after first day; died planned and constructed; and, second,
in three days. Up to time of sickness they most rapidly foul the air in their
both were in fine order and sprightly. I shelters. A shelter for a horse or a steer
have fed them since November on boiled is made of a decent height, at least; but
and raw cotton seed, sweet potatoes and the shelter for the swine is made so low
bran, with access to running free-stone that they can scarcely get into it, and
water at all times, salt three times a in this low shelter the foul air and
week. The kidneys seemed healthy; the moisture must collect. No ray of sun-i
blood in the bladder is the cause or occa- shine can penetrate, no current of,
sion of death. Now what produces this cleansing air. No effort is made, in
is where I am at sea. Both cases were ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, to
attended with constipation. To move ventilate swine shelters; nor is any pro-
the bowels was the only thing I did, vision made for the entrance into them
giving lard oil, linseed oil and epsom of the blessed sunshine. The construc-'
salts freely-also used injection. Bowels tion of these shelters is such as to make
slightly moved. Bull died in convulsions, them damp, dark and- filled with foul
'heifer from prostration; both suffering air.-
great pain seemingly. The evil is made all the greater by the
Would like you to give me a preventa- characteristics of the animals. We
tive for those in apparent health, also a have never been able to see wherein the
,remedy for those that may be attacked, hog is more filthy than the horse, ox or
ANSWER-Your animals had splenic or sheep. It is the only domestic animal
intermittent or hmematuric fever and died we know of that does not deposit its ma-
I presume, in the-third chill. There is nure in its shelter. Notwithstanding
always one daily intermission or remis- that I think the filthiness usually attrib-
sion,sometimes two, which careful at- uted to the hog is a.slander, the exhala-
tention will detect. There is also always tions from its lungs and skin are unusu-
congestion of one or more organs, the ally fowl. -This proceeds from the food
spleen in every case, often liver, 'one or 'and the bodily composition of the ani-
more stomachs, or bowels, kidneys, or mal; and as a result the air about it, if
lungs, or brain. The normal tempera- "confined, is rendered very foul. Unless
ture of the cow is 101 degrees Fahrenheit, its shelter is well ventilated, it is sure to
and should be taken at least twice a day breathe very foul air.
in well as in the sick. If found at 102 Often swine are made too warm. The
degrees, or above, the disease- has com- bodies of hogs are compact and composed
menaced and in this way may often be. largely of fat, and the animals lie close-
detected many hours before any ordinary ly together; hence they do not require
symptom of illness occurs and thus much as warm shelters as do sheep or horses
precious time gained in treatment. As or cattle. When more than two are ih
soon as an attack is recognized give cal- the same shelter they will very rarely
omel, 30, 50, 70 or more grains mixed need litter. Where -the shelter is too
with cooking soda, one to four tea- warm the hogs become very warm while
spoonfuls-the smaller dose for younger in it, and therefore are sure' to suffer
smaller animals. The cathartic action from congestion and its attendant ills
of the calomel may be aided with when they come out into the cold air.-
enemas of warm water. Give tincture Maryland Farmer.
"of aconite root 40 to 80 drops and quinine ,
40 to 100 grains every six or eight hours
till fever subsides and brain and lungs Managing a Kicking Horse.
are relieved. Aconite must always be The American Cultivator gives the
given much: diluted. As the animals following directions for preventing a
will need sustaining treatment the medi- vicious horse from kicking while in the
cines may be given in broth, gruel or shafts: A kicker is a dangerous piece of
milk from one to three pints. A table- property, and when the habit is con-
spoonful of powdered salt-petre may be firmed it will be better to consign the
given twice a day with the other medi- subject to the horse-car stables. The
cine or in the water. When the brain habit can sometimes be broken up by the
suffers apply freely to the head ice or following method:
ice.water till relieved, renewing as often Take a small cord about two-thirds the
as necessary. When the lungs stuffer, size of a man's little finger and twenty
use over the affected part hot fomenta- feet in length; double it; place the center
tions or hot poultices, covering and upon the top of the head, back of the
keeping in place with rubber cloth, and ears; bring down on each side of the face,
keep the legs stimulated and wrapped place the.cords in the animal's mouth
in woolen cloths. Often on running the and cross them, biing them up between
fingers with some pressure along the the eyes, cross again, and slip both ends
side of the spine a tender place will be through a small ring or loop and carry
found-and if so, use stimulatinT fric- the ring down the point where the lines
tions, as hartshorn and turpentine each cross between the eyes so as to hold
one ounce and oil or lard two ounces them in place. Have two small rings
and cover. sewed to the headstall about two inches
If much prostration and difficulty of apart, and one ring an inch or so in di-
breathing give whisky or brandy from ameter fastened to the backstrap of the
two to six ounces made into milk toddy harness at the print where the hipstraps
or punch every two to four hours as pass through. The latter can be slipped
needed. This saves many animals that over the crupper against the hip straps, i
without it would die. After convales- which will keep it from slipping forward.
cence begins the patients must. be care- Pass one end of the cord through each
fully protected against bad weathers ring on the headstall, bring the ends to-,
damp, cold draughts and sudden falls.of gether, carry them along the neck, pass
temperature for two or three weeks, as them under the saddle, extend? them a-
relapses easily occur. During the at- long the back and through the ring over
tack, one ounce doses of sulphite of the hips' then bring one end down to the
soda and boric acid alternately may be right shaft and the other to the left, and
given two or three times a day as anti- fasten securely to the shafts,. leaving
septic and paraciticide. The patient slack enough so the animal can travel
must be as patiently and carefully man- easily. When rigged in this manner
aged as a human being suffering with every attempt to kick will bring a,
yellow fever or yellow .-chills. strong pressure upon the cords crossed
Prevention-Give daily for three or in the mouth and divert, the attention
four days each fortnight one ounce of of the frisky subject. ,
sulphite of soda and one-half to one
ounce chlorate potash, .'The alternate
weeks give for three or four days boric Be Kind to Your Horse.
acid one ounce, quinine twenty grains, Few creatures possess in a greater de-
and powdered opium five grains. Keep
under shelter in as elevated a place as gree the virtues of gratitude and natural
possible from an hour before sunset till kindness than the horse. He is slow to
dew is off next morning. Never allow forgive an injury, but neverforgets con-
grazing onrank, luxuriantgrasses, espe- tinued kindness. How often every
cially in bottoms or where shaded thoughtful horseman has. observed
touching evidences of the friendship of
_his horse. The gentle,-caressing nose,
Change of Feed for COws. the kindly eye, the neigh of welcome,
After a decrease of milk has corn- and the outstretched neck speak as elo-
inenced on account of insufficient food quently as words of a noble thinking
it is very difficult to recover the shrink- nature. Yet this same animal can by ill
age, however well the cows may be fed. usage be transformed into a vicious,
This is the experience of almost all dairy dangerous brute. We have found, as a
farmers Great pains must be taken to rule, that the man who loves and cares
prevent this shrinkage. It is generally for his horses, and is studiously, interest-
advisable to feed some cut food before ed concerning their welfare, is a man
the pasture's begin to fail, so that Ihe cows full of the deepest affection for his fanm-
w ill become accustomed to eating it. A ily and sympathy for his fellow beings.
sudden change-from one kind of A child brought up in the country with
another generally leads to unfavorable a fondness for birds, cattle, dogs, horses,
results, etc., generally becomes a kind-hearted
The change should be made gradually, man.-Maine Fairmer.


How Bees Thrive without Clover
Buckwheat or Basswood.
BY J. 0 NEAL, PH. C., M. D.
The honey interest in Florida depends
upon the supply of proper bee food and
honey-producing plants. Like nearly
everything else, it has been a venture,
but after four years of trial, I can safely
say .that, for this section, it is an assured
success. A neighbor of mine, Francis
Trueblood, now has forty swarms of
Italian bees, and averaged forty pounds
of extracted honey from each, though
he obtained over 200 pounds (average)
from a few strong swarms. The quality
was superb, lacking the acidity and un-
pleasant flavor so common in Northern
From lack of knowledge as to our re-
sources for bees, I am satisfied many
apiarists have acted as did a friend from
Northeastern New York, who thought of
bringing" bees to Florida, but on finding
out that there were no fields of buck-
wheat or clover, nor forests of basswood,
gave up the enterprise.
I am not aware that any attempt has
been made to classify the Florida flora,
with reference to bee-likings, and this
list may not suit all localities, but it is
the result of several years' observation,
and is arranged as near-as can be in rela-
tive order of honey-producing value:
A-Cultivated.-Melia Azederach, Chi-
na Tree; Zea Mays, Corn; Dolichos, Cow
Pea; Gossypium, Cotton; Vitis, .Grapes;
Prunus, Plum, Peach; Eriobotrya, Japan
Plum, Loquat; Vitex, Sage Tree; Auran-
tium, Orange, Lemon, etc.; Citrullus
Cucumis, Melon, Cucumber, etc.; Fra-
garia, Strawberry; Pyrus and Cydonia,
Pear and Quince.
B-Native or Wild.-Sabal, Palmetto;
Monarda, Horsemint; Ceanothus, Red
Shank Bush; Rubui, Black and Dew-
berry; Cratsegus; Red Haw; Psoralea,
Sampson Root; Chrysobalanus. 'Possum
Plum; Viburnum, Black Haw; Robinia
viscosa, Clammy Locust; Gelsemium,
Yellow Jessamine; Chrysopsis, --- -;
Mimosa, Sensitive Plant; Thysanella,
---; Myrica Cerifera, Wax Myrtle;
Yucca, Beargrass; Diospyros, Persim-
Hibiscus, Okra; Rhus, Sumac; Zea,
Corn; Ricinus, Castor Bean; Solidago,
Goldenrod; Pyrrhopappus, Florida Dan-
delion; Castanea, Chinquapin; Stilitngia,
Queen's Delight.
Asimina, Pawpaw; Lepidium, Pepper-
grass; Sida, ; Ascyrum, St.
'Peter's-wort; Oxalis, -; Calli-
carpa, French Mulberry; Erigeron
nedicaule, Indian Collard; Oratia, Indian
Club; Xanthoxylum, Prickly Ash; Ptelea,
Hop Tree; Polygala, ; Lupinus,
Lupine; Passiflora, Maypop; Opuntia,
Prickly Pear; Pterocaulon, Blackroot;
Elephantopus. .. .
It is safe to assume that the China
tree, corn, palhietto, cotton and cow pea
furnish the bulk of the honey produced
in this section.
Bees in early spring seek a wide range
and are not particular. The loquat,
Ceonothus, huckleberry and blackberry
are eagerly visited, then. later on the
China tree, grape, cherry, peach and pear
fill the honey bags rapidly, The Vitex
'is hardly equalled from its profusion of
bloom, and the long period of production
-often four months.
Corn blades usually afford a syrupy
exudation, probably from insect attacks,
and this bees delight in gathering. One
year this formed the principal source of
the honey crop.
The saw palmetto is really our finest
honey plant, and bees appreciate it.
This year I saw Italian bees four miles
from their home gathering from it as
fine honey as I ever saw.
The honey glands of the cow pea and
cotton give a long harvest in abundance
of a very pleasant-tasted product, espe-
cially in the dry autumn months.
As I write, the fields are gay with the
goldenrod and horsemint, and the bees
are out in full force for pollen and honey.
When the Sumach is in bloom the bees
find its pollen especially .valuable and
carry nothing else to the hive for
Itfwill b? seen that there is an abun-
dant food supply, and when our groves
of oranges -and plantations of peach,
pear, persimmon and plum trees arrive
at bearing age, and the vineyards are
full of bloom, then Florida certainly will
rank high as a honey-producing State,
even if basswood be scarce and clover
fields are not to be found.
ARCHER, Alachua Co., Fla,
[Much basswood and some clover is
found in the Chattahoochee region; the
former is frequently met with in the in-
terior of the peninsula. The titi (Clif-
tonia) of Western Florida, and the penny-
royal (Satureia), of the peninsula, are fa-
vorites of the -bees, also the black
mangrove on the southern coast. The
various species of petatostemon'ware
reputed to be good bee plants; if iso, we
would suggest the name of bee clover.
The Florida laurel (Symplocos) is eagerly
sought by the bees in March and even
February. The various shrubs in the
holly genus, including the cassena and
gall berry, are visited by bees (query, do
they visit both the staminate and pistil-
late shrubs ?)-A. H. C.]
Sex in Eggs.
SA correspondent of the London Journal
of Horticulture says in reference to this
question: Last winter an old poultry
keeper told me he could distinguish the
sex in eggs I laughed at him and was
none the less skeptical when he told -me
the following secret: Eggs with the air
bladder on the center of the crown of
the egg will produce cockerels: those
with the bladder on one side will pro-
duce pullets. The old man was so cer-
tain of the truth of this dogma, and his
poultry yard so far confirmed it, that I
determined to make experiments upon
it this year.
I have done so, carefully registering

Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
,L. B. CULLEN, Propr.
Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
Only one variety kept (J.Boardman Smith's
pure stock) Eggs for sale at all times; Clicks
after June lst. Write for what you want, en-
closing stamp for reply. No circulars.

ernando County, Elorida,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
vile, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Hack Line.


'Rare tropical ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. 'Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses and general nur-
sery stock adapted to Florida and the South.
EJxotics from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published in
America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 15 cents. Free to all customers.
Manatee, Florida.

R. N. zLLIS, 0. B. A. E. MCOLUIT, Architect.

ArcHlitocts & Civil MEninoors,
Plans for
P. 0. ox 784. Booms 7 and 8 PalmettotBlock;
Bay Street.

the egg bladder vertical, or bladder on
one side, rejecting every one in which it
was not decidedly one or the other, as
in some it is only very slightly out of the
centre. The following. is the result:
Fifty eight chickens were hatched, three
are dead, 11 are yet too young to decide
upon their sex; of the remain! g 44,
every one has turned out true to the old
man's theory. This, of course, may be
an accidental coincidence, but I shall
certainly try the experiment again.
Houses for Fowls.
In Florida, the hen house should be
very light and in such a form as not to
allow any direct draughts of air to strike
the fowls, especially about the heads.
The more air and moisture you ean safely
allow a coop or chicken house in this
country, the less you will be troubled by
vermin. They should be so arranged
that the cold northwesters cannot blow
through and chill the birds, yet there
should be perfect ventilation, so that the
southern and summer northern breezes
can have full force.
The old "cracker" way of building a
hen house-and they are usually success-
ful in raising the common Florida dung-
hill-is to build a house out of fence
rails, with no roof save a few rails to
keep out 'possums, etc. We are only
troubled by vermin in the rainy season-
June, July and August-and a house
built in that way allows the rain to
come in and kill the vermin. Such*a
modus operandi, however, we do not ad-
vocate, because the rain also gives the
"brass," and for various other reasons.
We use movable houses, built very
light, of half-inch lumber, from four to
six feet high, with north side and half of
each end tight, the balance sided with
wire netting, two-inch mesh, so they are
protected au night from any animals
that may happen around. Among the
intruders we occasionally find the two.-
legged ones; they are the most destruc-
tive. We use tight roofs, made of half-
inch lumber, planed, eight inches wide,
overlapped two inches and painted.
Whitewash should be used often, with
carbolic acid mixed in, fully a table-
spoonful of strong, pure acid to the buck-
et, to the wash, which is.generally only
two-thirds full for safe carrying Use
more acid in extreme cases. By the
constant application of the above mix-
ture with our insect exterminator, we
are not troubled by lice.
An Ailment of Chickens.
Young chicks are sometimes troubled
with a disease that, for lack of a better
name, we call indigestion. They lose
their appetite, "bake up behind," mope
around and die. It is caused by feeding
sour, uncooked food, lack of gravel and
green food. The preventive are ob-
vious. Feed only looked food, provide
gravel and plenty of green food. Onion
tops or lettuce chopped and mixed with
the soft food is excellent for young
chicks and turkeys. A little pulverized
charcoal added to the food twice a w eek
'tends to keep the digestive organs of
young fowls in good order.-N. Carolina
To Test Eggs. -
Dissolve one ounce of salt in ten ounces
of water; add the eggs. Good ones will
sink, indifferent eggs will swim, and bad
eggs will float, even in pure water.
Fresh eggs are more transparent in the
centre. Old eggs are transparent at the

Silk Culture.
With all due deference to the opinions
of those urging the feeding of the silk
worms and making silk in Florida, and
believing that many poor persons, women
and children, may thus find profitable
employment, and that it will be a health-
ful employment for many women and
girls whose stock of worldly wealth may
not require manual labor from them,
yet sometimes one feels like giving a
word of caution to all, that they do not
repeat the morse minultcaulis craze of
former years. Many large mulberry
trees planted more than forty years ago,
attest to the failure of that craze. There
are enough of those left to experiment
with. So go ahead. K.


There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, 16 to-
per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained -both.
Town and Farm Property.

Situated on a hill, altitude 828 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,.'
is properly called
The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen wvelD
stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,,
Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded, by beautiful 'old
bearing Oanhge Groves, presents to the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at-
tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills-are to be found the largest and
most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State, heavily timbered with giant
Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State
offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,-
Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty-
and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in any section of the State.
Special attention is called to the
A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 820 acres-- .
of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river one of"
the most beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its western boundary- *
for one mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F. &. &
N. Co's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Pemberton's, Ferry,
from which it is' distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation,
competing lines.
There are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100"
acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees,' some of them being from 20 to 8' 0
years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
all be in bearing very soon, many of them bore this year. Three-fourths of these.'
trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown<
from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing bout.
20,000 trees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on.
this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,.
from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they are protected on the-
north, east and west by woods and by the-waters of the river and a beautifuldlake. '
The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
built. The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of'the river, the
neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange trees. No prettier sites for
winter homes on the.Peninsula. The property being susceptible of division, will
be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the present season,.
we will take .

One-half cash, the balance on time to suit purchaser. What do experienced'
orange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price for such a
property? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in
grove form are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
it. The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of it.





fig'Don't Fail to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or
invest elsewhere.
Awarded First Prize, 8250, for Best General Exhibit at South Florida
Exposition February, 18b7.



Improved and Unimproved Town Lots, Orange Groves, young or m
bearing, Truck or General Farming Lands, High or Low
Hammock Lands, and every grade of Pine.

Pay Taxes for Non-Residents, Manage Property and Collect Rents, and'
do a large business in Loans.


How and When to Plant Seeds to Insure
Good Crops-A Raspberry of Promise.
Some Points About the Way a Garden
Should be Situated.
The vegetable garden ought never to be
in an orchard, or have trees or shrubs
within it, for best results. The vegetable
garden on a farm should be placed, when
practicable, so as to be easily reached from
the barn, to facilitate house cultivation.
A gentle inclination to the south and east
is the warmest, will give the earliest vege-
tables, and be best for corn, melons,
tomatoes, etc., but it suffers more from a
spring or early fall frost, because of re-
ceiving the direct rays of the morning
sun. An inclination to the north and
west is later, suffers less in a drought, and
is the best for peas, cabbage, lettuce, etc.
So it is an advantage in a large garden to
have both these exposures, but for small
gardens a gentle Inclination to the south
and east or a level surface is the best.
The arrangement of a small garden,
when most or all of the work is done by
hand, is a matter of taste, but on the
farm it is quite Important to have the
garden so arranged that most of the work
can be done by horse power.
Golden Queen Raspberry.
Numbered with new varieties of fruit
prominent the present season among fruit
growers everywhere that raspberries can
be raised is the Golden Queen. This is
supposed to be a seed of the Cuthbert.
The claims made for it are that, while
hardy and therefore adapted to the north-
ern states, it also finds favor at the south,
where heretofore only the Black Caps
have succeeded well, the heat being too
-great for the red varieties. Flattering re-
ports, it is claimed, have been received
-from Maine and Minnesota to Florida,
Louisiana and Texas.

lgrtq M*Istfilany.

nrtT-n~r \TTEw V tvmmv "*t """t B'-"""1t '"" uc unuJ uu litnvo 1-
GOLDEN T QUEEN RASPBERRY. .a .. igiardnwl fertuc oit. aVr
Vick describes this berry as of large ____gained its original fertility.
: size and good quality and golden yellow in Oat or Wheat Straw.
color. The canes are said to be strong o -e o
and productive. Mr. Theo. F. Baker, The question often arises among f _rmers
formerly president of the New Jersey as to the relative value of oat and wheat
Horticultural society, expresses himself straw for feeding purposes. To make an
as pleased with the Golden Queen, which accurate comparison between these straws
he has found will bear transportation with it would be necessary that each kind should
the best of the raspberries. J. T. Lovett be cut at exactly the same stage of ma-
laims that it bears draught admirably, turity, while in practice oats are usually
and -produces fruit in abundance. It cut at an earlier stage of ripeness than is
seemsto besufficientlypromisngto justify wheat. Wheat straw in an average con-
atrial, at least on' a small scale. edition, according to the analysis pf as high
_____ an authority as Dr. Volckner, contains
How and When to*plant Seeds, between 1 and 2 pet cent. of fatty matter,
The first important step taken toward from 2 to 8 per cent. of nitrogenous corn-
the cultivation of a crop is the obtaining pounds, 4 to 6 per cent. of sugar and
of .good seed. Next come considerations mucilaginous matter, soluble in water,
of soil and depth of planting. The tern- and about 20 per cent. of fiber in a suffi-
perature and moisture of the ground have ciently soft state to yield to the action of
more to do with the successes and failures digestive liquids. Oat straw was found
yearly recorded than is generally acted to be somewhat similar in composition as
upon. Wheat and barley, for Instance, far as the proportions of oil and nitro-
while they struggle through the ground genius compounds are concerned, but it
at the extreme-temperatures of 41 degrees contained more sugar and extractive mat-
and 100 degrees, germinate most rapidly, ter and a miuchlarger proportion of digest-
other conditions being equal, at about 84 lble fiber. While in the case of wheat
degrees. Corn, does best at say 90 de- straw rather more than one-fourth of the
grees, though it will germinate at from 50. total fiber is digestible, in the case of oat
to 115 degrees. The squash bean and pea straw considerably.more than one-half of
all germinate quickly at about the same the fiber is soluble., Oat straw, then, as a
temperature as that given for corn. rule, is superior in feeding value, because
Clover seed often fails because sown at a it contains a much larger proportion of
time of Insufficient moisture, while mil- digestible fat forming and heat producing
: let, for instance, under similar conditions properties.-World.
of dryness will secure a good catch.
Every one who plants at all understands Transplanting Native Trees.
that the size of the seed has much to do Nursery grown trees give, as a rule,
with the depth of covering required, and better satisfaction than do those taken up
farmers with one-accord place corn deeper from their native localities. This is prin-
Than the small grains, and the small cipally owing to the fact that the roots of
grains deeper than the grasses, but all plants growing wild extend further from
farmers do. not vary these respective the stems than those raised in nurseries,
depths to suit the different soils into which where they have been once or oftener
the seed are placed, and yet it requires transplanted. Yet, with a little extra
only a moment's consideration to see that care, native trees may be transplanted
a heay', soil which lies close to the seed successfully. The American Agriculturist
admits of slighter covering than a shifting, advises that specimens growing in dry and
sandy'ne. Manyinterestingexperiments open situations should be selected. As
have been made from time to time in test- many and as much of the roots, especially
ing the germinating powers-of seed under the fine, fibrous .ones, that can be dug up
different de ths of covering. In a table should be preserved, and care must be
prepared by"Professor Petri, showing the taken not to expose these to the sun and
germination of wheat at certain depths in winds more than is unavoidable. The
the ground, it appears that about three- tops have to be cut back severely, remov-
fourths of the seed planted will come up ing one-half or two-thirds of all the
at a depth of three inches, and nearly all branches, and this is best done before
"at from one to two 'Inches. planting the trees. The holes should have"
These and similar facts point to the im- been dug previously, and whenever prac-
portance of every planter's acquainting ticable the trees should be taken up and
himself- with the requirements of the seeds planted on a cloudy or damp day.
to be planted, "and regulating time and-
depth of sowing to. suit the same. They A Cow's Tail WhileMllking.
also explain many failures which have A goodway to keep a cow's tal still
-been laid to the quality of the seed; but whle w ay s to keep a cow's tail still
this should not lessen the zeal of farmers The Country Gentleman, is to provide a
in their endeavors for good, pure article, rope strap long enough to pass over the
Drill Planting-Shallow Cultivation. animal's hips and hang down over her
It Ist nineteen years since Mr. E. S. Car- tail, as showii in the cut.
man first began the advocacy of planting i
sorn in drills instead of hills; of sowing
fertilizers on the surface and merely har- \ /
rowing them in; of surface cultivation-
that is, shallow cultivation; and of keep-
ig the-land:as level as possible-that is, /
not chilling up, There were then, as in-
deed there were, many years previously,
,advocates of one or the other of these
methods,; but none who favored all simul-
At thevpresent time there are many pro-* J
gressive farmers who have tried this
method,' and fewi if any, of them would TYING DowN A cow's TAIL.
rturn to the old way,'vi..: plowing under The rope Imay be ever so old, as strength
ae manure, .antng; I. n h-llh,.illoq. up is not needed, but. should be three iqhes


and deep cultivation, until the corn is
Mr. Carman also says: All farmers who
have planted corn very early know that
after the plants sprout and have grown
two or three inches there usually comes a
cold spell, and the plants stop growing and
often assume a yellow, sickly appearance.
Is this due, as is generally supposed, to
the cold weather altogether, or to the fact
that nitrification ceases? If inquiring farm-
ers would sow a little nitrate of soda upon
a small portion of the field when planting,
thus supplying nitrogen in an immediately
available form, it might appear that the
"standstill"' was due rather to a deficiency
of nitrogenous food than to the cool
Age of Seeds.
Corn will keep well on the cob, if it was
properly dried, for several years longer
than when shelled In buying seed corn,
If shelled, select If possible that which is
only one year old. Some seeds are never
to be depended on when more than one
year old, as parsnips, onions and leeks;
but if kept properly in an atmosphere of
even temperature and humidity, most are
good for a longer time. Among those safe
for only two years may be named all kinds
of peas and beans, egg plant, carrot, sage,
salsify, spinach,' peppers and most of tib
grasses, while parsley, lettuce, asparagus,
radish, etc., maybe relied on at three
yeats old, and celery, turnip, cabbage and
cauliflower for at least four years. Squash,
tomatoes, beets, melons, pumpkins and
cucumbers retain their vitality from five
to ten years.
Manures for Garden Purposes.
For garden purposes there is nothing
better than well rotted stable manure,
with which tobacco stems, bones, leaves
or any refuse vegetable or animal matter
may be composted with advantage. This
should be plowed in unless the soil is
quite sandy and the manure very fine,
when it may be applied on the surface,
and simply harrowed or raked in. Plaster,
salt, wood ashes, guano, ground bone, all
are valuable and can be used to advantage
in connection with the stable manure.
Plaster should not be applied until the
plants are well up. Ashes and salt should
not be mixed with the other manures, and
may be sown broadcast and raked in just
before planting. Guano, ground bone
and superphosphate give better results if
one-half is sown broadcast at planting and
the balance when the vegetable's are' half
grown. In some cases sand, leached
ashes and peat on clay soils, and clay and
muck on sandy soils, will prove as valuable
as manures. Occasionally a spot. which
has been used for a garden for many years
will become unproductive in spite of
liberal manurings. We know of no other
reivedy than to abandon it for a garden,
seed down to clover and allow it to remain
two years, when it may be plowed under,
wnrl^ +1.,t* -nxilmi xv11 h.n fm-l f 4nd tl 1VArn wn

or more in circumference, as it must have
weight. It can be changed from cow to
cow as fast as you can walk.

Professor Augur, who has made a study
of questions pertaining to the physiology
of plants, explains the chief cause of bar-
renness of some wild vines to be unsexu-
ality. In sonic cases the anthers are de-
fective, with a good stigma, in which case
planting a fertile vine which is perfect in
bloom and that is bisexual, like the Con-
cord, will induce full productiveness by
cross fertilization; if, as is sometimes the
case, the stigma is defective, the fertile
male pollen will be wholly inoperative
and no influence of culture or pruning
will reach the case with any certainty,
and the vine had better be abandoned and
a better one put in its place.
Cultivation of the Peach.
While the peach can be successfully
cultivated out of doors anywhere south of
42 degrees north latitude and under an
altitude of 9,000 feet, yet It is not a sure
crop north of 40 degrees. But south of
this, even to Florida and Texas, it flour-
ishes with the greatest luxuriance, The dif-
ference of latitude must determine to con-
siderable extent the value of a variety, yet
experience has proven that some varieties
do well wherever the peach will succeed at
all. These varieties are justly regarded
as most valuable for general cultivation.
Pre-eminent among these hardier sorts
stand the Crawfords and Mixon, high
types of the white and yellow varieties,
A diversity of opinion exists among in-
telligent growers in regard to the height
of the'head of a peach tree, or rather at
what height the head should be allowed
to begin to form. The arguments ad-
vancect by advocates or low neaas are two:
First, that the fruit is nearer the ground
and more easily picked; second, that the
low heads withstand the storms better
and are not so easily blown down. Grow-
ers opposed to low heads claim that the
lower branches die for want of sufficient
air and sunshine, and that low heads pre-
vent convenient cultivation. J. A. Ful-
ton, a well known authority in the peach
growing district of Delaware, thinks three
feet the proper height from which to start
the head, as this admits of room enough
to cultivate around the trees with a mule
or low horse.

Facts Worth Knowing.
One thousand women own and manage
farms In Iowa.
All fowls that feather slowly are, it is
claimed, hardy.
Too large pots account for many fail-
ures in flower culture.
The Herefords have proven a popular
breed on the western cattle ranches.
Progressive growers no longer feed lit-
tle chicks an exclusive diet of corn meal.
Fine butter is a luxury and will always
command a good price In every city mar-
k et. -
The Augusta Rattlesnake water melon
is favorably known in both northern and
southern markets ..
Tomato, cabbage and other tender
plants are often saved at time of trans-
planting by dipping the roots into manure
water and rich earth mixed to about the,
consistency of thin mush.
Profltable culture requires that care be
taken in setting out plants to give sunny
exposure to whatever delights in heat and
sunshine, reserving partially shaded spots
to plants that will thrive in the shade.
No lawn can be long maintained in good
order without successive rolling. Mow-
ing alone will not secure a good bottom
without that compression which the roller
tends to give. Rolling ought to be done
early, before the ground becomes dry.
W. D. Philbrick believes that soaking
seeds, as a rule, does more harm than
good. He says: "The only chemical stuffs
that have proved useful, so far as I know,
are the blue vitriol to destroy germs of
smut, strychnine to destroy crows and
blackbirds and smearing of tar on corn-
seed for protection from these birds."
William Crozier, New York, says: "I
estimate the average value of mangel for
feeding stock'to be $4 per ton, or $120 per
acre; two tons-the average crop of hay-
would be only $30 per acre. The seed,
manuiand cultivation-of a crop of man-
gels need not exceed $80 per acre at the
utmost, leaving a clear profit of $40 per
acre over the labor."
Tne rruit trade of Boston asks for cheap
fruit -baskets which need not be returned.
The average in sugar cane has beep
much Increased in Louisiana.
Iti is claimed for the Industry goose-
berry that it will not mildew.

Things Farmers Tell One Another.
Stable manure, says Professor Chamber-
lain, of Iowa, is the best fertilizer on earth.
Professor Roberts favors a free use of
cottonseed meal for cows, on account of its
being a good milk producing food and the
fertilizing properties it leaves in the drop-
pings. i
P. J. Berckman, Augusta, Ga., who
ias tested many varieties of strawberries,
numbers the following rich sorts that
thrive in moist soils: Sharpless, Wilson,
Downing, Kentucky and Monarch of the
W e s t \ "
Josiah Hoopes says. that Crawford's
Loto, Druid Hill, Mountain Rose, Old
Mixon, Pinock, Reeves' Favorite and
Stump. are the cream of a long list of
peaches certain to produce crops wherever
peaches can be grown at all.
An experienced stockman tells that a
uon of bran fed with two tons of hay is
vorth as much as four tons of hay fed
lone to either horses, cattle or sheep.
'he feed cutter is necessary to make bran
1o profitable a feed.
Vick says: "The practice of spraying
Zpple orchards just after the fruit has set
with Paris green or London purple is coin-
ng more and more into favor, as it proves
o be effective for the destruction of the
odin moth, and with no injurious effects
o fruit or trees."



Directions for Building a Convenient and
Economical Piggery-Hints Worthy ot
Consideration Whierever Vegetables Are
Grown, Either for Home or Market.
When plants are removed from the soil
in which the seed germinated, a consider-
able shock is experienced unless great care
is exercised in transplanting them to their
new bed. The important operation of
transplanting is properly performed when
the equilibrium between the functions of
the roots and the leaves is soonest re-es-
tablished. If plants are transplanted to a
wet and particularly heavy soil, the part
pressed to the roots will bake and con-
tract, leaving open spaces near the roots.
The earth into which plants are to be
shifted should be freshly dug, as this
seems to encourage an early emission of
young rootlets; and it should be as fine as
possible, so that every part of the roots
may come in contact with soil and
If the earth has been freshly stirred
and is moist enough to allow planting
holes to be made by the dibble, without
caving in, and the soil is not very sandy,
new roots will soon begin to grow, and
the warm soil will push these rapidly for-

Out, out, ye gnashing, hungry pack,
And scour the desert salt and wide,
But what yie take bring straightway back,
And toss it hither up the tide.
From main to main ye coursing go,
Ye bring the deep hulled ships to bay;,
And then returned with sure reflow,
Your captures on the beach ye lay.
Is it Iberian grapes ye bring,
Or slender length of Indian cane?
Or is it some old sovereign's ring.
That long in secret gulfs hath lain?
Ye will not bring me these to-day?
Then cast me here upon the shore
A mast the storm hath shorn away,
SA rudder, or a broken oar.
I build my boat-a fisher's smack,
I build it well, ye seamen gone!
With what the waves have yielded back-
The timbers from your vessels drawn.
I build my house on seaboard ground,
I build it well with far-brought trees,
With blanched drift made smooth and round
By the swift lathe of circling seas.
To whom shall I a salvage pay?
To you who drank the mortal deep,
Whose craving hands reach thro' the spray,
Whose voices sound within my sleep.
S-Edith M. Thomas in Brooklyn MagazInq

Oysters at the Bottom of the Bay-Hav-
ing Pun with a Big Sea Turtle.
Smithville is thirty miles from Wil-
mington, N. C., at the mouth of the Cape
Fear river.. In the front of Smith-
ville is Coon island, which is inhabited by
an infinite number of raccoons. Nobody
takes the trouble to hunt them, because
nobody cares to eat them. Not even the
darkies down there know how good roast
'coon is. Almost all the bottom of the
great bay is covered with enormous natu-
ral beds of the largest, fattest and most
deliciously flavored oysters Imaginable.
Successive generations of oysters through
ages past have piled their shells upon
those of their predecessors until they have
made solid masses of shells, like rock or
coral reefs, as much as twenty-five feet in
depth. In many places they have builded
until now they are out of water at low
tide, and the boys of Smithville find it
handy and amusing to build fires on them
when the tide is out and roasting them in
their beds, flirting each oyster out of' his
shell as he is cooked and swallowing him.
The tide rises and falls about five feet.
Monster green turtles, some weighing
as much as 1,500 pounds each, frequent
the beach all the way down to Fort Cas-
well, four miles below the town. People
eattheir eggs, but do not eat the turtles.
Beach parties of young folks go down
there, gather beautiful shells, have dances
on the hard sand in the moonlight, roast
oysters and have fun with the turtles.
When a female turtle wishes to lay her
eggs she crawls up the sandy beach to a
place that suits her fancy, digs with her
flippers a big hole in the sand a)id lays in
the hole 200 or 300 eggs. The eggs are
not dumped in a pile, but laid out smoothly
and neatly in. rows. When she com-
mences laying it makes no odds to her how
big a beach party stands around superin-
tending the process. She attends strictly
to business, and if the eggs are taken from
the hole as fast as she lays them it does
not at all discourage or frighten her.
SWhen she. gets through she scrapes the
sand back into the hole whether the eggs
are there or not and then starts back for
the water. That is the time for the beach
.party to have fun with her. As many of
them as can mount her big, dome like
back do so, and she carries them right
down to the water's edge, where they
jump off and she goes on. She does not
seem to mind their weight or shbw any
disposition,,to resent their good natured
familiarity. Sometimes they turn her
over on her back, but after she has help-
lessly pawed the air a little while they
right her again and she waddles off. Of
course, there must be something wrong
mentally in a people who can fumble
around green turtles in that way without
ever thinking of eating them.
And they don't eat, soft clams either,
though the beach sand is packed full of
those excellent bivalves. Indeed, the
very idea of- eating them seems to
-awaken feelings of disgust and loathing
among the darkies. Nor do they eat the
mussels, which are abundant. Hard
clams, of which there a few millions in
pretty much every place where anybody
might look for them in the bay, they do
eat, but not with any particular enthusi-
asm, though their hard clams are really
very fine.-New York Times.

A Drove of Cows Tobogganing.
A rare and amusing incident occurred
on Saturday last. The Messrs. Everhardt
own it large farm on the road leading from
Newport to New Bloomfield, Ferry
county, and a short distance from the
latter place. They keep a large number
of cattle and on the day in question the
bovines were roaming about in one of
the fields in which there are a number of
high hills, and these latter were covered
with ice which rendered them as slippery
as glass.. Along the top of one of these
hills the cattle were moving along- slowly
when one of the cows slipped and fell, but
toboggan like, never stopped until she
landed at the bottom. Then another and
another followed suit until five or six had
performed a similar feat. It remained
for the last of the cows to perform the
crowning feat. She sat down on her hind
legs and ereet on her fore feet and started
down the incline. All went well until
near. the bottom of the hill, when her
front feet caught in the Ice, causing her to
perform an acrobatie feat which would
make a gymnast turn green with envy.
The cattle seemed to enjoy the Impromptu
slide and when, they brought up at the
base of the hill would gingerly get on to
their feet and move off as though It was
nothing unusual, Altogether it was an
amusing sight.-Altoona Tribune.

Miseries of the Rich.
"The miserable rich!" Some would
think the expression almost a contradic-
tion in terms, but it is not, for the rich
have many things to render them unhap-
py. The poor in sleep forget their misery,
but too often the rich are tortured by
sleeplessness. They suffer, from ennui-
"that awful yawn which sleeo cannot dis-


peL" The French financier exclanme1.
"Alas! why is there no sleep tobe sold?"
Sleep was not in the market at any quota-
tion. Bacon said that money is "like
muck-not much use unless spread." It
is nothing to him who does not know how
'to use it wisely; and, on the other hand,
poverty is nothing when-it is not felt. If
you mix with people better off than your-
self you feel poor; but it may be only by
contrast, for perhaps you do not really.
want more than you have.
In one of his stories a well known
writer describes the effect upon a poor
teacher of a legacy of X1,200 a year.
Suddenly the cottage he has lived in for
so many years seems to have grown very
small-the furniture looks old and worn;
Claire had never remarked the fact be-
fore, but she now perceived clearly that
there was no longer any .possibility of
tracing the pattern of the carpet, that the
curtains were dingy, the coverings of the
chairs faded, the table rickety. "The
poor old furniture" said Claire, ,."must
that go? Yet it's frightfully shabby.'.
"The poison is eatinfig into our souls," her
father went on with deenier doom. 'For
twenty years and more I nave thought
this little salon a model of good' taste.
Claire, when we go into a large house, we
will keep the old furniture all In a room
by itself, whither we can go and remind
ourselves of the past. If we are to be
rich, we must never forget that we were
once poor and happy."-TheQuliver.

A Picturesque Description
The picturesque is always a feature of a
woman's description of anything. She
talks grandiloquently of colors, and if you
hear her describe a tablecloth you faney
it's a gorgeous thing of tapestry or soiae
equally effective picture.
"My- wife," says the husband to Mte
man in the store, has sent me for some-
thing she looked at yesterday." "
"This is the description of it," and he
pulls out a piece of paper which has in it
a full description of an elaborate pattern
of myriads of colors, and all in nomen-
clature that'sounds like some elaborate
picture. "You'll excuse me; I can't re-
member the blamed thing.". :1...
"That's all right. I kAow what she
"You'll please wrap it up very carefully,
S-for if it gets spoiled before it gets there
she'll be mad." .
S"Certainly." .
Then the man goes to a shelf and pulls
out roughly a piece of something.
"Hold on," says the husband; "that
can't be the thing. That's chintz, oz
damask or something, ain't it?"'
"This is the article, sir." .
"'What does it cost?"
I "Forty cents a yard."
"Great Scott! Forty cents a yard 1
thought from the description it would
come to about a hundred dollars."-San
Francisco Chronicle "Undertones."
How literary Men Die.
Literary men, as a rule, die nobly. They
seem to meet death with philosophical
quietude, as did the great Victor Hugo.
r not long ago. Rousseau, it is said, when
dying ordered his attendants to place him
before the window, that he might once
more behold the setting sun and take his
farewell of earth. Petrarch was found
dead in his library, with his head upon a
book. We are not told that that book wag
a Bible. Barthelemy was reading Horace,
we are informed, when, his hand becom-
ing cold, he dropped the. book, his'head
inclined to one! side, and he seemed only
to sleep. His nephew, however, discovered
that he was dead. Bayle expired while
correcting the proofsheets of his dictionr
ary. Waller died repeating some lines o6
Virgil. Although taken away in the
"midst of life," Keats' end did not come
so suddenly. When near death he was
asked by a friend how he felt. "Better,
my friend," said he; "I feel the daisies
growing over me." Disraeli, too, describes
Sir Thomas More's execution. "Stli
Thomas," says he, "did not forego his
love of jest, even when mounting thq
scaffold." The stout hearted knight, i1
appears, disturbed the oppressive solemni-
ty of the scene by exclaiming: "I pray
you see me safe up, and for my coming
down let me shift for myself. "-Chicago
Mrs. Kate Chase Twenty Years Ago.
The senator was in a reminiscent mood,
and he continued:
"I was in Washington every winter
then. Lord, how Kitty Chase did bull-
doze Mrs. Lincoln, though! As Gen.
Badeau says, Mrs. Lincoln was a little off,
even then, but Kitty Chase, with her
beauty and her sharp tongue, managed to
take the pas of Mrs. Lincoln, and every-
body else for that matter, when she chose.
I can see her now, at a president's recep-
tion, sailing in on her father's arm, with
a corporal's guard of men after ltr. She
did not'allow anybody but herself to play
first fiddle in those days. Ah, mustn't
she feel like a ghost in a graveyard when
she comes to Washington nowl"
Meanwhile Mrs. Kitty stood up near
Mrs. Mullett and talked with something
of her old manner to the people about her
-and with ambition and money and
power and position gone, and deserted by
her son, and a stranger and a pilgrim
where she was once queen regnant, she
was still the Kitty Chase in beauty and
charm of twenty years ago.-New York
Mail and Express.
Physicians in Germany.
The large number of medical students
in Germany has set to thinking the great
statistician, Professor Conrad, of Halle,
who declares that the time Is past when the
medical career offers chances for lucrative
success. The country now contains about
18,200 doctors, according to this learned
authority, while Borner's Almanac for
1887 puts the total still higher-16,292.
To fill the vacant places in the profession
8,500 to 8,600 would be a sufficient num-
ber of medical students, which was the
case twenty years ago. But the last re-
port shows that there are now 8,465 stu-
dents in the German medical schools.
In Prussia 250 new doctors would fully
supply the usual demand, but instead of
that 431 were graduated last year. It
this continues nobody will be left to be
oured.-Berlln Cor. Inter Ocean.


A. Oemler, in -some very sound advice
given to truck farmers of the south,
--furnishes directions that may be safely
followed in any locality where vegetable
and strawberry plants are grown. Fol-
lowing are some of his suggestions: In
transplanting such plants as the straw-
berry, the fibrous roots should be opened
out as much as possible, while the root of
the tap rooted plant, as the cabbage, beet,
etc., should' be placed regularly up and
down and not bent upon itself. If such'
root is bent, the nutritive matter in de-
scending from the boxes will be Inter-
rupted at the bend, and new rootlets will
be slow to appear beyond it. In trans-
planting, the soil ought to be uniformly,
but not harshly, pressed to the roots their
entire length, from the extreme lower
point upward. .
-.- With the exception of asparagus, horse
radish, onions and such plants as. emit
new roots along the lower portion, of the
stem, as tomatoes, cabbage, etc., it is
a safe rule to put down the plant to the
depth of which it originally grew. In
sandy soil it sometimes becomes necessary,
in a drought, during anentire transplant-
ing season, to water the plants after they
are set out. In this case the watered
surface should be'covered with dry soil to.
prevent baking.
In a loose, fine, light soil, free from sticks,
stones, pebbles, etc., the hand alone is
often used In. transplanting on a small
scale, but either the planting stick or
dibble, or the trowel, is preferable. The
trowel is the' safer implement in the
hands of an unskilled workman. In using
the dibble, it is thurst into the soil to
at least the full depth at which the plant
is to be inserted, the hole is then widened
by a rotary motion of the implement.
To insert the plant properly, it is held
between the thumb and the index finger
of the left hand, and thus placed in the
hole; the dibble is then plunged into the
ground two or three Inches from the plant,
in a direction with its point toward and a
little below the end of the root. The en-
graving, taken from Truck Farming,
shows the hole made by the dibble with
the root of the plant within it. The dib-
ble is thrust into the ground, ready to fix
the root In place, by using the point (a) as
a fulcrum and moving the handle of the
dibble from b to c the soil will be pressed
to the root for its entire length from a to
c. If this be done with sufficient force, it
will fix the delicate plant firmly in the
soil. If, on the other hand, the dibble is
Inserted perpendicularly or parallel with
the plant Instead of at an angle, or if itbe
partly withdrawn before the movement
from b to c is completed, the soil
will only be pressed to the root at the top,
leaving its more important part loosely
'suspended in an open excavation of the
,. Planting proceeds- most conveniently
from left to right. When the trowel is.
employed the operation is the same, ex-
cept that. the Implement is inserted in
front of the plant instead of at its side.

Horses That Sell Well.
There is no branch of the stock industry
that, with judicious management, pays
better than rearing horses. Farmers may
come In for their share of 'profits in this
Industry if they will but. exercise common
sense. There are enough trottrs;.- re-
member this and leave their rearing and
training to professional breeders. The
farmer's opportunity, the production
of good, serviceable animals, which will
sell at a remunerative price. Such horses
always pay, and there is not half the risk
in raising these there is with the lighter
and more nervous trotters. It is only
about one trotter in 500 that amounts to
anything-at least that makes a sufficient-
ly good record to pay for his trouble' and
brings a big sum extra. When a trotter
falls below a certain standard he is the
most valueless of horses to own.
There is always a ready sale, for half-
bred persherons, as is there Indeed for
any good shaped horse that will weigh
from 1,200 to 1,500 pounds. The quick
stepping ones prove excellent coaches and
are in demand as carriage teams, while the
more clumsy, slow going animals prove
valuable as cart and truck horses.




State News in Brief.
The surveying and engineering corps
for the Gaminesville and Tallahassee Rail-
road will soon start on the work.
Arrangements are being perfected to
start 'a citizen's bank at Daytona in a
short time with a capital of about
The laying of iron on the Silver
Springs, Ocala and Gulf Railroad is pro-
"ressing rapidly. Another cargo is ex-
pected soon.
S The artesian well at Key \V est has
Reached a depth of 425 feet, and has
ftruick soft quick-sand. Thisais consid-
ered a good sign.
SThe Tallahassee railroad fund has
-reached $86,000; thus far Monticello has
-subscribed $16,000, and the enterprise, it
is believed, will be a success.
SVoblusia county is out, of debt, fur-
nishes a seven months public school, and
her paper is at a premium. Ten 'years
ago her scrip was selling for fifty cents
on the dollar.
The cattle range wants no division of
the county. Remand the county to the
= primitive state of pasture lands is the
shibboleth, says the Manatee River Ad-
The Gainesville Advocate is informed
that ironfor constructing a horse cai
line from Gainesville to Newnan's Lake,
to connect with steamer for Windsor,
has been ordered.
*The large saw mill of George W. Rob-
inson, at Millview, valued at $60,000,
and 3,000,000 feet of lumber was de-
stroyed by fire last Thursday. The loss
is partially covered by insurance.
SUnder the laws of Florida it is illegal
to set fire to any wild' woods except be-
Stween the 15th of February- and 81st of
March, unless permitted at other times
by the Board of County Commissioners.
SThe farmers of Key Largo are ener-
getic and progressive. Besides having
a school-house they have succeeded in
having the Methodist Conference send
them a .minister, the Rev. Mr. Smeat,
who has already endeared himself to his
There arrived at Pensacola, Monday,
the smacks Estella, with $2,000 fish; H.
S. Rowe, with 1,000; J. W. Wherren,
with 700; Laurel, with 2,000 pounds;
Emma B., with 14,000 pounds; Haley,
with 7,000 pounds; a smack for Warren
& Co., the exact catch not ascertained.
The cutting of the new Haulover canal
is having a marked effect in making In-
dian River more salt than before. Water
dipped up from the channel opposite
Titusville is salty to a marked degree,
whilst the water increases in salt to-
wards the opening of the new canal. -
Over eight hundred water oak trees
havebeen set out along the streets of
Green Cove during the latter thirty
day s, prompted b. a rpsol u ion of the
town council giving '5 cents for setting
out, and 25 cents additional, twelve
months hence, for all that are living at
that- time.- .
: We have some very fine specimens of
phosphate,. obtained near the headwaters
of Spring Creek. Traces of phosphate
can be found in any section of Wakulla
County, and -we are led strongly to be-
-lieve that there is a bay of many miles
of it on the St. Marks and Wakulla riv-
ers.-Wakulla Times. -
Mr. Wallace S. Jones, United States
Consul to Messina, is in Tallahassee. Mr.
Jones saw Florida oranges from the cele-
brated Harris grove, opened at the
Chamber of Commerce in Messina, where
after being throughly sampled,all freely
admitted that the Florida orange was
superior to any grown in Italy.
The Champion bull, Magruder, 13,014
A. I. C. C. H. R. arrived in Tallahassee
from Msqsisisppi last Sunday morning, to
head the registered Jersey herd on the
St. -.Lambert farm of W. I. Vason. Mag-
ruder is the only standard Jersey bull in
Florida. He is the double grandson of
Champion, of America, imported from
the island of Jersey by Colonel Montgo-
mery, of Mississippi, and presents great
individual merit in addition to his high
Strain of blood.
The citizens of Melrose are enthusias-
tic on the question of having a new
county, with that hamlet as the county
- site. They are desirous of striking off a
portion from each of the four counties
in which the town is now situated, to-
Swit: Alachua, Putnam, Clay and Brad-
Sford. Hawthorn also aspires to be a
county site by taking slices off Alachua
, and Putnam. The citizens of Grove
Park- and vicinity are very much op-
posed to being stricken out of old Ala-
chua and will' oppose the move with
might and influence. When the costs
incident to starting a new county are
considered, we are of the opinion that
the many plans will drop like sand bags
from a balloon.-Gainesville Advocate.
Following are the exports from the
port of Fernandina the past week: Per
Mallory line steamer Carondelet--100,000
feet lumber, 500 logs cedar, 200 cases
cedar, 78 barrels cotton seed oil, 11 bales
cotton. 1,700 pounds fresh fish, 80 pack-
ages merchandise. Per Clyde steamer
Seminole-750 boxes oranges and vege-
tables, 85 bales cotton, 368 boxes cedar,
57 barrels oil, 75 packages merchandise.
Per Clyde line steamer Yemassee-
1100 boxes fruit and vegetables, 150 tons
cotton seed, 80,000 feet lumber, 100 pack-
ages merchandise. Per Clyde line steam-
er City of Columbia-500 boxes fruit and
vegetables, 65,000 feet lumber, 50 tons
cotton seed, 50 packages merchandise.
The first beans-two crates-were ship-
ped on Friday from Micanopy for this
season. Evinston followed close in the
wake with five crates on Saturday
morning,, shipped by Mr. Shuttleworth.
Mr. Shuttleworth has nearly an acre of
white and red Bermuda onions, which
are now over two inches in diameter.
He expects a yield of 800 bushels from
his acre, all of which he raised from the
seed. Mr. Whittlemore takes the lead


on cucumbers, having shipped several with any more aversion than hens and
crates last week, and from which he re- chickens. They are, in fact, exception-
ceived $10 per crate for the first five ally good looking worms; being smooth,
crates. These cucumbers were grown rather slender and of flowery whiteness.
under the protection of glass frames. The profits are not great, but at present
The dry weather is delaying- shipments almost any rural industry has to be re-
considerably, but by next week it ,is garded somewhat in the light of virtue,
expected shipments will be quite lively, as "its own reward." The average
Three Spanish smacks on the 4th in- farmer in any State cannot make a liv-
stant were fishing at Tortugas, between mg unless both he and his better half
Middle Key buoy and Sand Key, in the are willing workers, and the children
Evening. One of them anchored inside should work too when not in school,
the harbor within fifty yards of the fort. both for their common support and for
SSince the release of the three Spanish their industrial education. But in
Smacks caught fishing in our waters the many families there are members un-
Ssmacks from Cuba have kept on fishing able to perform any but the lightest
just the same as American vessels.-Key labor, and -to such the silk industry offers
SWest Democrat. a means of earning something with but
8 little exertion.
A meeting was held at Oviedo Wednes- Commodore Norris may justly be re-
Sday to take steps to secure the building guarded as one of the pioneers in Florida's'
of the Orlando, Lake Jesup and Atlantic industrial development,and it is to be
road.. A committee was appointed at expected, now that sericulture is well
That meeting to aid in soliciting sub- established, that the colony at Spring
Sscriptions, and the prospects are very Garden will receive large additions to:
good for a large donation at that place, its number during the present year.
as ~ ~ ~ ~~ t thncmmteeweteowok during the present year.
.as the committee went to work at once. In conclusion, we would urge all wih)
That region is greatly interested in this are interested in this subject to visit
i connection, as it will give it a compe- Spring Garden, where they can see and
Station of routes and open up a new field judge for themselves.
for trade and develop a large area now A. H. C.
Remote from transportation. The desti- SPRING GARDEN, Fla, March 24, 1887.
nation of this road is the Indian river
and the Atlantic coast, giving Orlando THE LOS ANGELES COUNTRY.
direct communication to the ocean, a
distance of less than forty miles through ival Atrati s f S th
a rich country, which will be made to The Rival Attractions of South-
contribute to our benefit as well as those emrn California.
r along the line. The residents all along- Southern California owes its develop-
, Indian river are alive to their interests, ment in a very large degree to6 land colo-
, and contribute freely to its aid.-Or- nies. Being almost without exception a
land Record. country where irrigation is essential to
agriculture, the large expense of bring-
CO0M. NORRIS' SILK COLONY. ing water from the mountain streams to
~ the valleys has first to be met, and this
SA Promising Industry Estab- explains the fact of tardy progress in
hed on^ a P t Bas+, is this extensive region. The old Mexican
lished on a Practical Basis. residents, who were chiefly occupied
Most persons are aware that silk, the with stock raising, dug a few long
f fabric which in all ages has been most ditches here and there where they would
s admired, is composed of an animal fibre', till the soil-a wasteful way of carrying
emitted from the body of a worm. Phi- water in a hot and dry country. When
losophers like Sturm,. may claim that enterprising capitalists from San Fran-
Sthe silk worm was created for man's oisco (foreseeing the great agricultural
especial benefit, as a natural spinning future of the region) took hold of the
machine, and theywho assert that man problem, a new method was adopted.
himself is but a "vile worm of the dust," Expensive aqueducts.of concrete pipe
ought to be content with such a provision were built, conveying the precious liquid
s for protecting his sensitive person from without loss from its icy-cold mountain
the extremes of cold and heat. Be these bed to the distant colony. But why
, things as they may, silk and humility should not the' natural channel of the
are but remotely associated and the stream serve to convey the water, since
Swearers of silk concern themselves but all streams ultimately reach the valley?
; little about the origin of their fine ap- To ask that question is to forget that
parel. If a lady were to be suddenly the gravelly soil (immensely absorbent
* confronted by the tens of thousands of in this dry country) soon drinks up the
worms that have spun her dress, if of av smaller streams, leaving their beds
I erage feminine temperament, she would empty.
- faint or scream, or give some demon- A new land-colony is.a curious sight.
* station of extreme disgust. I have in mind Ontario, 85 miles east of
S We have always had a special aversion Los Angeles.- The projectors of Ontario,
to all manner of creeping things, and a stock company of capitalists, built
Especially to the grub or larva of insects, their six miles of aqueduct a couple of
ID their winged state insects are almost years ago from the mountains to the
Small beauttiful, in the chrysalis they are town of Ontario (a town visible only to
seldom repulsive objects, but the crawl- the eye of faith); they laid out their
* ing, squirming, cadaverous grubs we colony in a township six miles square,
never could view without a sentiment of sub-divided in beautiful rectangles; they-
loathing. What, then, were our feel- constructed roads, set out trees, built a
ings on being invited, while at Spring pretty railroad station, a hotel, a school
Garden recently, -to perambulate a house, and they actually, though some-
building almost literally alive with hun- what later, founded a college of agri-
dreds of thousands of these objects of cultural And this in the center of a
our special aversion? To say that we vast dry plain of gravel, brushcovered,
* entered means that we followed, and to as lonely as the sea, with scarce a house
say that we followed means that a lady in sight save some far-off Mexican's hut,
Swas in the lead. But when this lady, a place more like a desert than a home
this gentle and most estimable lady, of- for men. It requires faith.and pluck to
fered us a handful of the finger-long do such things. But the Ontario corn-
worms we could not bring ourself to pany had the successful example of
accept them, even out of her own deli- other land-colonies before them; they
Scate hand. On leaving the building we knew that this gravelly soil was rich, that
felt that we had become sensibly bar- orange and lemon, apricot and peach,
dened, anda few more lessons by the almond, olive and fig orchards would
same teacher might render us so thor- flourish on it, and they reckoned with-
oughly hardened that we could handle out mistake on the great westward tide
the ugly grub like so many flowers of emigration which reaches Southern
plucked by the wayside. California now by no less than three
From the foregoing it may be inferred overland routes. In fact, one is surpris-
that the silk industry has struck root in ed at the price, from $40 to $100 an acre
Florida. So it has, and it is flourishing -at which they hold their barren look-
like a green bay tree, and now we will ing land.
proceed to tell who planted this exotic A few miles west of Ontario one may
tree, and who has tended it carefully and visit Pomona, and learn the condition
brought it into bearing and who now of a colony after a few years of growth.
invites all people to gather under its A populous town, Pomona, though like
branches ana partake of the fruit new and rapidly growing towns, a little
thereof. His faith is manifest in his unkempt, Driving away from the centre
works, and by his works we can judge one comes to the region of orchards, in
better than by any- other means now plots of 25 or 50 acres, neatly inclosed
afforded of ihe prospects of sericulture with hedges many of them, many of
in Florida. them with flower gardens, surrounding
Seven years ago Commodore A. Hart pleasant cottage houses, whose wide
Norris, of Gennessee county, N. Y., pur- verandas suggest a comfortable home
chased a large tract of beautiful rolling life. Thus for about three miles; then
land in Volusia county, 9 miles north of comes the old desert of brush and gravel
DeLand and 99 miles south of Jackson- such as Pomona once was, a great plain
ville, measuring by the line of the J., rising in gradual slope towards the
T. & K. W. Railroad. Since then quite picturesque Sierra Madre mountain
a settlement has grown up in this local- range, whose ragged summits are
ity, which is known as Spring Garden. white with a snow that never reaches
Four years ago Commodore Norris con- the valley.
cluded to attempt silk culture, and un- Of these land colonies the well-known
like most others who have attempted it town of Riverside was the pioneer; now
he has persevered, increasing his opera- there are a dozen of them. They all
tions from year to year, and gathering have certain characteristics in common.:
increased confidence with each forward The irrigated lands are devoted to fruits,
step. His mulberry orchards have been especially the sub-tr6pical ones, and to
extended till now they cover at least 80 -vineyards. In winter sufficient rain
acres of ground and the cocoonery has falls on unirrigated lands to mature a
been enlarged proportionately. The crop of barely, which is the hay of the
business is now managed by two ladies, country. There are many apiaries.
Miss Lucy M. Fox and Miss Carrie Wood is scarce; coal costly. Railroads
Douglass. and towns are developing rapidly; every-
Commodore Norris is encouraged to thing is new.
believe that a large silk industry can be Despite its magnificent mountain
built up here at Spring Garden, and in ranges, the aspect of the country is de-
order to stimulate its development he pressing to one accustomed to the green,
offers to any one who will join the col- rural loviness of New England valleys.
ony and build, two and a half acres of Fertile as it is, Southern California in
land and fifty mulberry trees of suita- summer is a desert-like region. From
ble age for planting. All will receive April till November sun and drouth rule
full instructions in sericulture and enjoy the world, and the eye finds no relief in !
the same advantages for marketing as the vast, treeless plains that stretch I
does the central cocoonery. The prices from mountain range to mountain
now realized are remarkably good. lange. The landscape appears to have
It seems to us that this is an excellent been baked in an oven. The settler
opening for persons who have not much must expect to find the inconveniences t
means to invest and who wish of'a new country; the necessities of I
to earn a living by light labor, Where civilization come first, afterwards its I
there is a large family this industry comforts-and graces. One may attain I
.could be made to aid materially in its some idea of this from the way farm t
support, its otherwise idle members, help' is treated in California; the man
whether incapacitated for hard-work by brings his own blankets, and does not
youth, old age or ill health, being able to think it strange if he is expected to sleep
perform all the'manipulations required. in the stable on a cot which he makes I
Those who have tho habitual handling with his own hands from a few boards.
of the worms soon cease to regard them There is in the towns the rough element t

which one always expects to see in the
population of new countries. There are
of course one or two towns, such as Los
Angeles, which, with- their neighboring
country, have the advantage of older
settlements, but in the main Southern
California is a land yet ,in the first
stages of growth.-Zenos Clark, in Farm
and Home.

A Device for Irnproving Roads.
An invention of very great importance
as effecting the interest not only of the
towns and communities of Florida, but
of all cities in the State, has recently
been patented. The patent was granted
the 22d of last February to the inventor,
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Fruit Cove, Fla.
It is a device for the improvement and
construction of roads or streets. The
materials used are the most abundant,
cheapest and most eaily handled in all
nature. The materials are sand and
water. The sand is consolidated and
kept in a compact condition by being
kept in a moist condition by the constant
application of water distributed through
perforated water pipes. A fair illustra-
tion of the quality of the road is found
in the wet sea beach. There is no finer
pavement in the world for a carriage
than a recently wetted but drained sea
In constructing the road according to
the device, the road bed is so graded
as to be highest in the center and thus
cause the water to flow from the center
to the side drains. When the original
road is of clay or other material fairly
impervious to water- the. grading is the
only cost of the road bed. A perforated
water pile of metal or wood is laid a-
long the highest point, or central ridge
of the graded road bed and from six to
twelve inches of"sand is spread 'over the
road protecting the pipe and road bed
and furnishing the wearing, surface.
This sand is kept wet by water flowing
through the waterpipe under only such
pressure as will cause an easy flow. The
same takes the water by absorption, and
as long as it continues wet' is quite as
solid as a granite pavement' in resisting
the pressure of wheels. Where the sub-
soil is of such sand as to allow the water
to sink too rapidly, a road-bed of planks
or preferably of cement, is necessary be-
fore putting on the sand for wearing sur-
face. In Florida where there is hard
pan, or the road runs through aflat sur-
face, the road bed. is already furnished
by nature.
A pavement of this kind has many ad-
vantages over all others ; first in point
of cheapness; second durability, third
dustlessness, fourth noislessness, and
fifth healthfulness. The two former are
of great momentary value, the three lat-
ter of vital importance to cities ; espec-
ialy the last, as the water absorbs the
gases deleterious to health and conveys
them through the sewers from the city
or sinks them beneath the surface. In
the vicinity of the seacoast cities can use
the saltwater, and this under the influ-
ence of sun and oxygen manufactures
sufficient ozone to make them as health-
ful as a beach hamlet or a ship's deck.
Where artesian wells can be constructed
as cheaply as they can in Florida the
water supply for any community de-
siring good roads would cost very little.
The invention solves the problem of good
drives in Florida and good streets for'
the rest of the world.
SW.H. in Times-Union.
The following table, compiled from the records
of the Jack onville Signa Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall and direction, of wind for
the month of April, as observed at the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years:


________1 1 1 11

1872 90 5668 8 15 7 2.43 NSS
1878 89 5269.1 14 10 6 2.56 SW
1874 91 4270 11 12 7 1.60 SW
1875 86 4467 18 7 5 2.98 SW
1876 88 47 68 13 13 4 7.89 NE
.1877 85 4568 9 12 9 3.01 SE
1875 87 5071- 11 9 10 5.38 NE
1879 88 3968 17 8 5 2.97 NE
1880 91 4271 10 14 6 1.50 SW
1881 88 8767 16 9 5 4.57 SW
1882 85 5671 12 12 6 5.28 NE
1883 88 5270 5 20 5 4.48 NE
1834 88s 47 69 14 11 5 2.3S SW
1885 88 4768 11 17 2 1.24 NE
1886 86 4466 14 10 6 3.08 NE

Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebron and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red........per barrel $3.50.
Early Rose................. $3.00.
Beauty of Hebron......... $3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
potatoes promptly.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with 'other high grade fertil-
zers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
this year.
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
lot use anything so 8ood as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience what we say regarding
his fertilizer.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
aste, enjoying the best facilities for

shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-'
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.

Groves where Williams, Clark .&.Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
looking finely.

JACKSONVILLE, March 26,1887.
MEATS-D. S. short ribs boxed, $8 87%; D. S.
long clear sides $8175; D. S. bellies $8 87Y;
smoked short ribs 9 62Y; smoked bellies 9 75;
S- 0. hams,uncanvassed-hncy,13, S. 0. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed, 8c; S. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvassed, 9c; .California or pic-
nic hams, 90c. Lard-rifined tierces 734;
Mess beef-barrels$1050 halfbarrels $575; mess
pork $17 50. These quotations are 'for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7y;
dressed hogs 8rtc; sheep 8Y2c; pork sausage 9c;
loins 10c; long ologna 7c; head cheese 6yc;
Frankfort sausage 10/,c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER-Best table 28@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
1BurTTERIE-Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
i6c; Dairy 15.
CHEESE-Half skim 10c, cream 13c per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
GRAIN-Corn-The market'quiet but firm.
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
60c@... per bushel; car load lots 570 per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 57c per bushel;
car load lots 55c per bushiel. Oats quiet
and firm at the following figures: mixed,
in job lots, 42c car load lots 41c; white
nats are 3o higher all round, Bran steady
and higher, $20 per ton, job lots.
HAY-The market is firm and better de-
mand for good grades. Western choice
small boles, $18@...per ton; car load lots $16 75
to $17 50 per ton;. Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GBITS AND MEAi-$2 90 to $3 00 per
barrel.. -
'FLouR-Dull and lower, best patents $5.60;1
good family $5 10; common $4 25.
PEAS-Black Eye, $1.50 per bushel.
GROUND FEED-Per ton $24. -
COFFEE-Green Rio 16@206 per pound.
Java, roasted, 30@33e; Mocas, roasted, 30@38c;
Red, roasted, 23@25c.
COTTON SEED MEAL-Scarce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal $2150@22 50 per ton.
TOBACCO STEMS-Market quiet but firm @
813 00 per ton.
LIME-Eastern, job lots, $100 per barrel, Ala-
bama lime $115. Cement-American $2 00,
English $4 75 per barrel.
RICE-The quotations vary, according to
quantity, from 3@6'2c per pound. -
SAT--Liverpool, per sack, $1 00; per car
load, 85@90o.
Country Produce, Hides, ,Skins, Etc.
CHEESE-Fine Creamery 16c per pound.
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 35c; mixed 80c; half-
grown 2ec.
"EoGs-Duval County 20 per dozen with a
limited demand and good supply.
IRKSH POTATOES-Northern potatoes $2 50
per barrel; Early Rose $2 60; Chili Reds $2 75.
ONIONS-New York,. $3 25; Yellow Denver
6850 per barrel; White Onions, $3 75 per bar-
Florida cabbage, $2 50 per barrel.
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $2 50 per
NEW BEETS-Florida, per crate, 2 25.
CAUvLIFLowEES-Per barrel, $3 00, and 8125
per crate. .
CELERY-Florida, per dozen, 60c, -
LETTucE-Per dozen, 25c.
ToMATOES-Florida, per crate, S3 50.
NORTHERN TuRNIps-Good supply at $225
per barrel.
GREEN PEAS-Per box $125.' '
HIDES-Dry flint, cow,' per sound, first
class, 12@13cy2;. and country dry salted 11@
lrc; butchers dry salted 9@9yc. Skins-Deer
flint, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
each 25c@$4; raccoon 10@20e; wild cat- 10@20c-
fox 10@20c, Beeswax, per pound, 18c; wool
free from burs 22@25c; burry, 10@15c; goat
skins 10@25c apiece.
Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
PINE APPLES-Per barrel $6.
LEMONS-Messinas, $4 25 per box.
APPLEs-New York $4 75 to $5 00 per barrel
FIGS-In layers 13c; in linen bags 6c.
DATES-Persian-Boxes 9c; Frails 7c.
GRAPEs-Malagas, $5 00 per keg.
ORANGES-Florida-Per barrel $4 00; per
box $2 75 to $4 50.
BANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to $2 00
per bunch.
NUTs-Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts
( Sicily) 12e; English walnuts, Grenobles, 18c;
arbots, 15c;- Pecans 12c; Peanuts 6c;
Cocoanuts $450 per hundred.
RAISINS-London layers, $275 per box.
CRANBERRIES--2 75 per crate; $1000 per
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
City Market.
Carrots wholesale at $3 00 per barrel, and
retail at, 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents per
hundredand retail 5 cents per bunch.
Florida';Cabbage wholesale $2 00 per barrel
and retail at 5 to 10 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $2 50 per box, and re-
tailat two and three for 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at 75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart;
Lettuce wholesales at 15@20 cents per dozen
heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 75 per barrel and
retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size. .
Eggs are in fair demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 18 to.20 cents
per dozen, and retail at 25 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at$2 40 to
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are worth wholesale '$2 50
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts ior 15 cents.
Radishes bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 35
to 40 cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry per pound-chickens retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys wholesale, 1.00 to
$1.75 each, and retail at 20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 1$ to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cents;
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 50 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart

NEW YORK, March 25.-The Western
eaf market is dull, owing to the light de-
nand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the t
lavana leaf is in active demand. New I
(ork, Pennsylvania and Western sell at from 1
4 to $15 per 100 pounds. Havana, 60 cents to 1
1.05 per pound. Sumatra, $1.20 to $1.50 per
ST. LOUIS, March 25.-The~ demand for
eaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
rather encouraging.
BALTIMORE, March 25,-The market Is ..


Absolutely Pure.,

This powder e'-r'r '=a.rle A marvel of
purity, strength and wbolesoMn.IncEEss. More
economical than the ordinary kinds, afid
cannot be socid in .ompeitlkin with the
multitude of i.:,-w el, oburr wi-laht alum or-
pho:.iphbte p,:.-wd :,Y.AI B,%KIN. POWDER CO., 108 Vall St...
New York. -

dull, very little' desirable stock being on sale. -
M-iryl mnd laf ibquoedl dfIrom $i5o 10 1i per'
100 pounds.
LOUISVILLE. Mar.-b J.5-There i
go.d:.d, drun n., Escpe-,aiiy for j be oetc-r gradesde
of wnwcb ihbet i a cireyV.
RICIMOND. MNr.h "-'5.--Thbe- market -is."
Improving v. i [i'v.jidble \ eaill r I'for En- p- --
ping. Ttc ettoe-r gralces of -termming leaf
L,'ll rapldily at from u lto 13 cents per p- ;lid..
Brgitt wai.ippers or piugs command from .18-
to 20 cents. .. .. -
DANVILLE March 25.-Business is im-
proving rapidly and prices have an upward
tendency. There is a better feeling, among-
planters, manufacturers and business menr_
generally. -.
Special to the TIiES-UNION: -
SAVANNAH, March 26. The Upland -
Market closed firm at the following quota-
tions: .
Middling fair ...........................-.....-.. -
Gcod n- ddrhng. l .1
Mlddhing ....... -
Low nild. LDh ...................... ............. 9 --y
Good oraILuary .. S3-16 "
Inbe net receipts were W, bales: gross re-
eipit r.i baie.; saies 7 bales; stock at this.
port, 11161 bales. -
Exports to the Continent 327, expo-i. coast-
wise 86 0.

Medium' 16
Good Medinm-.,17
Medium fine ..r th -k i) bales; gross
Fine, 4,< b19e0; al ,:0al .
E, xpo~rt.- to Grat BrI'taio 2y)i baleS: e"s- "
pOl'[. to [hi? C'cl',i~e [ h,'Xn bsale?; expOr's.

.sExtralnit f:,ie ae.
The market continues quiet at unchanged,
quotations. L .
Common Florfdas 15 -
Mediumr 16
Good Medina 17"
Medium fine 18 .
Fin'e- l 9@20:. .
*Extra firie 22: -
Choice -.2..3 _. .

1887. -

Daily Ti es6UiiiO!.
(Published every day in the year,).
and enlarged to an

As a newspaper the TIMES-UNION now stands
without a rival in Florida, and the peer of any
the South. Having the exclusive. right to the
Associated -Press Despatches, its own correspon-
dent in Washington, and special correspondents-
throughout the State, its State and general news
is complete, comprehensive, accurate, and trust-
worthy. No Floridian who wishes to keep
breast of wh at is going on in his own State and
in the world -at large cai afford to be without it.
Terms [in advance) $10 per year; $5 for six
months; $2.50 for three months; $1 per-month..
THE DAILY TIMES-UNION (without thlie
Sunday issue), by mail, six months, $4'; one ydar,
$8. The Sunday TIMEs-UNION by marl, one
year, $2.

1 Tle Weekly Tirpes+

The FLORIDA WEEKLY TIMES, thie weekly edi-
tion of the TIMES-UNION) is admitted 'to be the.
best dollar newspaper in the South and one of'
the best family journals in the country. It is a
great 56-column paper, eightpages, filled to the.
brim with State and General News, Market and
Weather reports, etc. Its Agriculturrl Depart-.
ment, edited by Judge KNAPP, agent of the $a-
tional Bureau of Agriculture, is written with
special reference-to Florida's climate, soil and
productions, and alone worth ten times 'its
subscription price Also, a large colored map ofi
Florida to all yearly subscribers free. Terms.
(in advance), $1 a year; 50 cents fob six months.
Remittances should be made by draft, money
order, or postal note, or registered letter. "
C. H. JONES & BRO., Publlshers, -

General Business and Real Estate Agency bt

If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or-
wild lands in this rapidly improving section,
or if you have taxes to be paid, or property to.
be improved, or money to be invested, write-
to this agency. -
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a .
Margin on iwo-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Write for -
further information and send for list of prop-
erty for Sale. -
Tampa, Florida.,
RzFERENC-zs-Ex-Governor Drew, Jack8n-.
ville; First National Bank, Tampa, andHon.
rohn T. Lesley, Tampa .. "

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