VOL. 1---NO. 7..
JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1887.
PRICE $2 A YEAR.
*NEWLY INTRODUCEp FRUITS.
Notes by a Japanese Horticul-
turist on the Oriental Plums.
E-dito-r Floria Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
DEAR Sim:-I have received your favor
asking for some information about the
Japanese plums. About a year ago I
wrote a brief note on the same subject
and sent it to the Rural New Yorker. It
referred especially to an article in that
paper, by a lady who claimed to have
been in Japan for a number of years.
She said: "Japanese plums are not good.
They are only used for pickling there,
and whoever passes the shops where
they are so'd will lose the sense of
smell." I replied: "Whenever the sense
of smell is lost by smelling the pickles,
Sit ma. be restore d by smelling the fra-
grant white flowers."
The flowers of these trees are highly
esteemed by our people on account of
their earliness. They bloom even while
snow is on.the ground in February and
March Some admirers of them have
over 800 different varieties of the flowers.
This "Kelsey plum" is already dis
tinguished by botanists as Prunus
mume, after our common name Mu-me.
The description 9f the mume is given, I
believe, in some botanical works. There
are several of our prunus fruits which
-may not be known to your horticu'tu-
ists. Their critical study by our botai#.
ists is not accomplished yet.
You have so many fruits called Jap-
anese plums that I can hardly tell which
is which. I presume Mr. Van Deman,
pomologist of the Department of Agri-
culture, will some day give a more satis-
factory explanation of them. Every-
body knows that Loquat does not be-
long to the plum family, although it is
called plum in Texas and other Sou hern
: Stat .
S Now, as to such fiuits as Kelsey's
plum, I will refer to our common claasi-
fication at home. There are two distinct
kinds or species. One is called Smomo,
and the other is called Hadankio, both
comprising many varieties.
The Smuomo grows fifteen to twenty
feet high and has a spread ing top. The
fruit is round, ftrom- to 21- inches in.di-
ameter, the skin and pulp being either
purple or greenish white. Prunus-db-
mestica may be inclu led under this
class, bat thefruitof Ikumin, Honsmomo,
etc., which belong to this class, are deep
purple in pulp and. rather stringy, yev
very sweet. If a specific name should
*be applied, Prunus smomo may be prop-
er. If I remember aright; the Japan
plum exhibited from California at the
New Orleans Exposition was a Smomo,
but notone of purple pulp. -
The Hadankio of southern Japan is
called. Botnkio 'in the central region o
Tokio. The trees grow upright with
slends r bi aches. The fruit is large anc
heart-sha'ed, about 3 by 4 inches -ir
size, often free-stoned. The pulp it
greenish white, like translucent amber
when ripe. The skin is uncolorec
or very slightly purple on the. surface
facing the sun.
The Kelsey's Japan plum which is so
often talked of, may come under tfie
present class, according to the stae-
ient in many .nurserymen's catalogues,
but at the same time I find another vari
ety called Botan. This Botan-kio, or
Hadan-kio, is, as I mentioned before
a specific came distinguishing this from
the common plum or Smonao, and at
home it inclrfdes several varieties. So
Sas far as I know, you have four differ
ent fruits under the naiirebf Japanesi
plums, namely, the Mume, Smomo, Ha
dankio and Loquat.
Yours respectfully, K T:o
Qualities of Kelsey's Plum.
The following account of the Mume
as Mr. Tamari would have us call ou
Latest acquisition fronm his country, ap
peared.`n : the Pacific. Rural. Press ii
This remarkable plum was importer
from Japan in 1871 by the late Johi
Kelsey' of Berkely, California.
S, The trees at first received little atten
tion; the merits of the fruit not bein,
-. known. They were allowed to stand i:
the nursery rows until they fruited, afte
which they were transplanted to 4h
orchard, where there'areqat present up
wards of one hundred trees, which hay
. been in bearing since i'1876, and hav
never failed to produce all the fruit the,
The following points of excellence ar
claimed for it: .
1st. Its wonderful productiveness i
unsurpassed by any other plum, eithe
native or foreign.
-24. It comes into bearing at the age c
two"to three years, blossoms appearing
frequently on yearling trees.
3 d.The fruit is of very large size, bein
from seven to nine inches in circumfer
Seance, aud.-specimens weighing six and
-: half o tes _each ; Jt has a remarkable:
small pit. "
4th. It is- very attractive in appeal
ance, being of a rich yellow, nearly
overspread wi:h bright red, with a love-
ly bloom. It is heart shaped. It ripens
from first to last of September.
5th. It is an excellent quality, melting,
rich and juicy; its large size renders the
paring of the fruit as practicable as the
Speach, which is quite a novelty, and it
excels all other plums for canning.
As a dried fruit it is destined to take
the lead, equal to, if not surpassing the
best dried prunes. Experiments resulted
in yielding nineteen and a half pounds
of dried fruit to the one hundred pounds
of fresh fruit.
In texture it is firm and meaty, and it
possesses superior qualities for shipping
to long distances; it remains solid longer
than any other variety.
Notes on Popular Grapes.
BY PROF. E. DUBOIS.
Concord very seldom ripens evenly,
and suffers greatly from mildew and
rot. Even if it should ripen well it would
not be profitable- to raise, .as it is too
tender for shipment, and makes a very
I think that from a proper start de-
pends the future of grape growing in
this State, and feel assured that the
Concord were the leading grape to be
planted here, as it has been in the North-
ern States, this industry would result in
a complete failure.
Hartford Prolific ripens a little dre
evenly than Concord, but still the; ber-
ries drdp .off before they are perfectly
ripe, anid if shipped all the berries will-
drop-off the stems.
Herbemont is affected with dry rot
.wherever it has been tried in this State.
SIt would be a mistake to, induce people
to plant largely of any of these varie-
ties simply because some party may. nave
grown in his garden one or two vines.
from which be gathered a few bunches.
-which seemed to him to be perfect, after
he had pulled off i he dry. rotten or green
t kind. It is not one or two vines, grown
with special care that can establish the
merits of a variety for general cultiva-
S Tves Seedling and Delaware, and espe-
cially the '4attei. are both valuable
Grapes, because of their shipping oluali-
ties; but, above all ot hers. are Cvnthikiia
and Norton, which, besides being en-
S'tirely adapted to our soil and climate,
are everywhere considered the. best
American -rapes for red wine. -
Planting and-h Pruning the
Rev. James P. DePass, the well known
s peach culturist, proprietor of. the Shell
f Pond Nurseries, near Archer, and editor
Iof the Christian Advocate, has recently
I issued a valuable little treatise on the
a history and culture of the peach in
S Florida, which he will send to any one
r specially interested i this subject. .We
I take the liberty of quoting the following
e passages on the culture and pruning 'of
r The orchard should be plowed in Jan-
e uary, and be kept by hoe, plow and har-
row free from grass and weeds until the
first of October, when work should
cease. By working the" orchards until
r October you keep the tree in a growing
, condition, and. it is not as apt to mature
a its fruit buds and spring them as early
t if the work of the orchard stops as early
, as June, which is usually the time.'
The peach' tree in Florida grows rapid-
e ly. It makes wood with amazing swift-
T ness. Unless the tree is pruned back it
produces large and long branches, which
in a very short while ceases almost en-
tirely to put out lateral branches, and
grows mostly at the ends. In this con-
dition any tree will become unreliable
bloomers and fruit bearers. Pruning
I should be done before the tree puts out
' 'its blooms. At least half or all of the
;fall growth should be cut back. The
n_ :trees should be carefully watched dur-
Sing the growing season, which is a long
; onIe, adid whenever there is a tendency
in any one or more limbs or branches to
:grow rapidly, they should with prompt-
-ness be cut bFck. This will make the
limbs suticker and will bunch the tree.
g '-Among peach grow ers there is a'dif-
n ference of opinion as to whether the
r tree should he allowed to branch low
from the ground. My opinion is that if
"the body is allowed from three and one-
re half to four feetit is -best in our State.
e The opinion that the body of the treb
y should be protected from sun by letting
re the tree branch low, is a fanciful idea of
inexperienced pretenders. No branches
i should be allowed to grow towards the
r ground. All dead branches, small or
large, should be cut off as soon as dis-
3 covered No suckering from the ground
tg should be allowed.
g The worrd-renowned Rothschilds as-
r- cribe their success to the following rules;
a. Be an off-handed man; make a bargain
y at once; never have anything to do with
an unluckyman or plan; be cautious
r- and bofd."
THE PECANS OF RIBERA.
An Account of an Interesting
and Valuable Grove.
E. lior Florida Farmer and MFuit-Grower:
In compliance with your request I will
now give you the history of my finding
this old place, and a description of the
pecan trees and nuts, from my own ex-
perience and heresay evidence of re-
ponsiblo people. living in Santa Rosa
and Escambia counties. In traveling
through Florida I accidentally heard of
this place, which is situated on. Black-
wate. Bay, two and a half miles from
Milton, just across the bay from Bagdad,
twenty-five Wiiles from Pensacola by
water and eighteen miles by rail, with
depot at' Milton. Desertion was plain-
.ly seen in everything, and towering far
above all objects and nestled amongst
thickly clustered myrtle and other
shrubs, bushes, cedar trees, etc., all cov-
ered with honeysuckle and other vines,
I found thirty-two old pecan trees in bear-
ing and several others not bearing, but
quite large and fine looking. All of them
were covered with moss and caterpillar
nests, and plainly showing neglect of
the worst kind; but the nuts were the
largest and best flavored I had ever seen.
From all I can learn these trees are
from twenty-five to forty years old, and
were raised from seed brought from
Texas and Mexico. The largest are fif-
teen to one hundred feet high, with
Commissioner to be sent to the Exposi-
tion, in behalf of Santa Rosa county.
I never knew what became of them at
the closing of the Exposition. but have
received letters from different sections
of America and have sold nuts to the
writers, who had obtained my address
from the lables on the pecans shown at
the-Exposition in New Orleans. These
pecans attracted general attention, and
I have received many complimentary
letters pronouncing them superior to
any ever seen before. Their large size,
smooth shell, thin envelope to be crushed
in the hand, and delicate, sweet flavor,
proved to the many -visiting the Exposi-
tion that Santa Rosa could and did pro-
duce as fine, if not the finest .pecans
raised in America.
They are named and described as fol-
TURKEY EGG.-Very large and long,
with mottled marks and black stripes;
very distinct when first gathered, sweet,
tender and delicious in flavor.
GEORGIA MELON.-Very large, rather
round at one end, flat at the other, dark
stripes over the entire nut like the farm-
er's Georgia watermelon, hence the
name given it; tree remarkably beauti-
fill. Meat of first quality in every re-
. REPTON.-Large, shell rather whitish,
one end round, the oilier decidedly
pointed, with black points; meat sweet,
tender, tree remarkably beautiful. From
one Repton tree, said to be forty years
old, over 500 pounds of nuts were gath-
ered in the season of 1885.
S 3 .- -.-
, J t. -
'"ARIETiE F "fTECA.-NS
l--Trx .9. _
.--Tu, lid- T.
'3 Uele i,-U ir,.-.urt
Branches extending out some twenty
or more feet, and resemble somewhat
tie sugar and ash of Kentucky. By the
liberal use of money and hard wvoik
this orchard of old and new pecan trees
now stands, ut in bold relief, and to-
day the oivner points with pride to the
hundreds of yonng trees raised from
nuts gathered therefrom, in lthe differ-
ent sections of the South, and especially
in Florida. When I look back and re-
member it as it was before I bought aud
then see it as it now stands, I can
scarcely believe my own eyes, and es-
pecially do I notice the marked improve-
ment i'n the yield of nuts. With all the
desertion and gross neglect of this
grand collection of pecan trees being
left to take careof themselves for twenty
years, and at the mercy of cattle, hogs
and hundreds of negroes and irresponsi-
tle whites, who gathered the nuts by
throwing sticks and stones at the trees
instead of shaking them, their present
production is simply wonderful and
very -significant, proving the hardi-
hood of the tree, as well as the true
home of the pecan.
The different varieties growing in this
place are unlike any I have ever seen,
and the meat is far superior in taste as
the nuts are in looks to any raised in
America, so far as I know and believe.
Whether this particular locality, or Flor-
ida air, etc., causes this difference, I do
not pretend to know. I only know it is
the most delicious nut I have ever eaten,
and the Handsomest I ever saw.
* During the New Orleans Exposition
the commissioners for this county re
quested me to furnish samples of nuts
to show what this county could do in
pecan culture. I full well knew that I had
several distinct varieties, and after re-
peated efforts to learn if any one else
had different varieties and their names,
-failed entirely, as no one seemed to
know that there could be different vari-
eties of the nut. I was not satisfied,
however, and determined to settle this
question. So 1 picked out six distinct
varieties, named each and described
each, and delivered them to the County
ORPIGI TED IN FLORIDA.
rt--Er. Side view.
i--Petite. i .
At B~~Ra.- Lamge.A'- I'feblcmaik
RBEI RA.-Larg 'with few black markE
and pb;nted at 1 h ends; meat very
TEXni.- Quite li ,e, some very lone
with white hull an black points
PETITE.-Small aud plump with whiti
hull; vary desirable-.
In adflition to these I have several
large and excellent varieties but havi
named only two of them, to-wit:
HKar.a HARC:rURTtT.-Very large, flat a
one endiand round at the other with
black b'ints, and resembling somewhat
the Georgia Melon; shell very thin; mea
ex-tr#-.ai and like the Turkey Egg
The Jgison of 1886 is the sec
ond d tlis fine young tree has borne
This rises to be a very superior nui
in eve' ay.
FAVOLtTE.-Medium size; dark with
black marks, shell very thin; meat sweet
I havq now some seventy trees in bear
ing, ano quite number that will be bear
ing in five years, and several hundred
planted in grove form.
"RIBERA," Blackwater, Fla.
Prof. C. S. Sargent, in his report or
the Forest Trees of North America, de
scribes the Carya Olivceformis, or pecar
tree, as growing "near Davenport, Iowa
in Southern Illinois and Indiana, North
western Kentucky,. South and South
west, through Missouri and Arkansas tu
Eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory
and rough Western Louisiana and
Texrto the valley of the Concho river
"A te 80 to 52 meters in height, with
trunk 0.90 to 1.80 meters in diameter
borders of streams in low, rich soil; veri
common' and reaching its greatest de
development in the bottom lands o
Arkansas and the Indian Territosy th
largest and most important tree of West
Edward Everett said: "The worl
estimates men by their success in life
and, by general consent, success is su
- A -1
ORANGE GULTURE ABROAD. the culture of this fruit. The treesdso
near the sea are more liable to disease,
IV--The Situation of Groves-- and the quality of the fruit is not as good
as that of the orchards more distant."
Proximity to the Sea, Etc. In Sicily fruits are cultivated from
In continuing our summary of the the sea shore to an altitude of 1,000 feet.
consular reports on foreign orange cul- The lower slopes of Mount JEtna, con--
ture. we will depart from the numerical sisting of disintegrated lava, are so ex-
order of the original questions and an- tremely fertile that population of 1,424
swers, and try to present what informa- to the square mile here finds support
tion can be gleaned from the latter in as from the products of the soil. The
natural an order as possible. In the first oranges and lemons produced in the
place, we will consider the mountain region are desig iated as "mon-
SITUATION OF GRO tano," in distinction from the "-marina,"'
SITUATION OF GROVES.r fruits of the coast region, The "mon-
The questions bearing o, this point tano" is the choicest and commands the
were as follows: "Are orchards, in'and best prices in the markets, but the crop
or on the sea coast, hillside, valley or is not so sure, owing to the frost.' The
upland ? Where do they yield best re- "marina" orchards bear more abund-
sults ? How near the seashore are the antly, and the crop is considered a cer-,
orchards ?" t-inty. -e
As nearly all oranges are produced in The Consul at Acaputco gives a similar
maritime regions, the object of this in- report of the adaptability of the orange
quiry evidently was to obtain some in Mexico. "It is planted,". says 1e,
exactinformation in regard to the in- mostlyly in moist places along small
fluenceof large bodies of salt water on steamlets or galcks on the hill sides, in
orange production. The various reports low bottoms along rivers, or near the sea
coincide-in this, that-groves need to be shore. In sandy black loam -they yield
within the influence of such bodies of the best results. The sweetest andl thin-
water,.as they present in a measure the skinned oranges usually grow on hill
great extremes of cold and hea) expe- sides, whilst the fruit of lowlands is gen-
rienced inland. For example, we are rally thiek-skinned.
told that in Spain orange culture is car- In Italy orange culture succeeds at an
ried on successfully as far north as lati- altitude of 2,000 feet. In Jamaica orch-
tude 42 degrees on the Mediteranean ards succeed at same elevation, but do
coast, but in the interior, not north of best in fertile valleys on a calcareous,
latitude 370 80', a difference nearly equal ochery soil. In Porto Rico the orange is
to the length of Florida. found in cultivation 2,500 feet above the
As to the effect of the immediate sea, mostly two to five miles from shore.
proximity of the sea, the reports from "Even in the highest points of the
different countries seem somewhat con- mountains, among the rocks, the oran
tradictory. In some regions the citrus trees grow wild. Lemons are abundant
groves are planted by the sea side; and' the entire -year round, 'but the trees
in others not inerer than two miles to mostly grow without cultivation,
the sea. As all agree that protection San Domingo oranges grow wild, wit.h
from trost and violent winds is of first out any care or attention. During th
importance, we feel warranted-in the sraso they are gatbheed justthe Came
conclusion th the sea iin itself exerts any- their wild fruit and brought tom m
no injurious influence unless it be byket." .. -
allowing a free sweep of winds inland. The followingremairks by the Consul
here groves are ot plated are not plant near the at Cadiz correspond well wih or
sea it may be inferred that there is a observations in oFlorida. He finds thatp
prevalence of high winds from the di- in Spain groves do not thrive when elx-'s
rectiou of the sea. posed to strong winds, nor on steep hlL
SThe Constil-General for Italy states sides, nor on low, -poorly-drained land.
that range groves succeed best -nearthe '-Whenever," ays he, "an imlperviousd
sea, even within a few yards: of the stratum is reached while the vertica.
shore, and onsan sands deposited by the sea. ,development of roots is going iethe's
"They are protected,"he s ,ys, "from the frees suffer, and inh many r-asei -risb.
cold sea bre-ze by close hedges, walls or Fine orchards, composed ot'f (.4ees of
netted terlises of cani, or by a thick from ihirtle to forty.yars "of ag, have
growth of trees, espec'aLly poplars.. ben know t phus to'waste a1way.y
The cane and poplar referred to are- A. H. HC.
probably thie Arundo Donax and Popu- ..,.
/us alba Propagating the Pecan. t:
On the-other hand, we are told that ARTin tr ocROWN .
in Marsala (inrnar i Soeilc), they "do t BY. ArTHUR t BROWe -ee
bestat a distance from thefrom sea.e No The most important thing is to.-get,
orange orchard'thrives near the sea, and. fresh nuts. These are cheap at any price,
no trees ought to be planted within a whilst stale nuts axe dear at any price.
mile or two of the seashore. Select a piece of ground rather damp,
In the Azores the best groves are two but easily drained, wi h clay sub-soil 'if
miles from lie sea; in Malaga there are possible. Manure with stable m na,.
noue nearer than four or-five miles. In at thesrate of 60 car loads utper acre.
Porto Rico and, Jamaica it has -been Spread evenly and then turn it all under
found that the citrus fruits, epeciallv -with a two horse plow;-harro dia- y
S the orange do not thrive-near tce. 'wt- .ills two feetapart a nd about two or'
s coat. he same has beenfound to beJthree inches deep; plant the nuts in these
the case iu Venezuela, Ecuador Sorfora I'drills, laying them flat, and cover.-with-
an Lower (alifornia, and. the same re- arth and then mulch from two to four
port conies from Australia Inches with leaf rotted leaves or grass.
SThe seven Consuls who report from The nuts will sprout and the tap root
Countries bordering the Meditteranean shoot down from four to eight inches,
on tire south and east agree that the before the young tree will show its head,
Suaritine region is most favorable for which willbe in from four to six weeks.
citrus fruits. In the countries of North- I never cut out the grass, as it shades
e ern Africa groves are sometimes planted the young trees and does not in the least
close to the sea shore, "some within two retard their growth. Let all grow to-
h hundred yards on the sand." "Theyyield gether until the latter part of October,
best results in well-drained, low-lying wen a the grs isuled up and the
Islands, sheltered from the cold north ground well hoed, and then mulched,
Windss" and "in alluvial soil mixed with using the gi ass that was pulled up.
s gan-." At one year old the trees ought to be
S The Consul-Genera] to Turkey says: from six to twelve inches high with a
"Although it is not the best suatioi- good sound tap root twice as long as the
for them, both lemons and oranges can tree is high. In transplanting,I like each
, be grown close to the sea coast, espe- tree to have as mnch tap root as pos-
' cially lemons, which are more hardy sible, and use extra pains to so get them
r than oranges. They are strongest in the up.- Sometimes their root will snap off
- A ipelago, and ih some of the islands in spite of the extra pains, but, as agen-
Sthey flourish almost any where as l ong eral thing, if the. ground has been tor-
as the roots do not come in contact with roughly prepared and well mulched after
salt water." planting the nuts, careful pulling- and
In Syria it appears that the citrus digging will get up the tap root without
trees are planted near the sea for the injury thereto.
sake of the sandy soil, which is found Should two year old trees be wanted,
most favorable to their growth. I would suggest heavy mulching and no
The Consular Agent at Sidon says: ,I grass be allowed to grow the entire see.
Snow of no extensive successful cultiva- ond year. But, with allcare, it isahard
n tion more than four nrles from the sea, job getting up the entire tap root. to a
Sand son- e of the orchards are within two-year old pecan tree. I preferplant-
Stwenty rods of salt water." ing the nuts in January and February,
SEvidently the locality governs in this and likewise min transplanting the trees.
o respect, and no universal rule can be laid Choose those two months, but have all
down. It appears that in Sicily the ex- transplanted by March. ..
d tremes meet; there orange and lemon BLAKWATE, Santa osa Co., Fla.
r trees make beautiful the upland and [We enquired of Mr. Brown, recently,
a mountain side with their vivid green, if he could supply the nuts of his named
. They grow luxuriantly in the valleys, varieties. He replied that it was too
y and fringe the sea coast almost to the late for nuts (we beleve they need to be
- water line. Those orchards yield the best kept in damp sand in order to retain
f results which are most distant from the their vitality), but that he had one-year-
e sea, and are not of such an altitude as to old seedling trees which he would sell at
- be affected by the frost. The rich val- ffteen cents each, or $10 per hundred.
leys above the sea level, where an We would like to see these varieties ex-
abundance of water can be had for irri- tensively planted.-A. H. C.
d gation, abound in the best orchatds. *
e, Some orchards here reach down to the Charcoal (powdered) is a good "sweet-
I- sea, within 880 feet of the shore. Such ener" of a stomach oppressed with flatu-
a location is of course not desirable for lence from indigestion.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBRUARY 16. 1887.
(qhad andf afdqa
Tangerine and Mandarin.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower :
I beg to ask through the columns of
your paper for a full and certain de-
scription of the. Tangerine and Manda-
rin orange. Please don't ask, me where
J was brought up, or how long I have
lived here, or say that any Cracker
could answer me that question. I have
lived in Florida for eleven years and
have been in the orange business for
nine of them. I have seen about all the
different oranges that have names, and
grow a few of the best.
When I came here there was grown
near by what was called the Tangerine.
The growth of the tree resembled that of
the willow, but was very strong, the
fruit being small, of a reddish color out-
side, rind and segments parting very
freely, very sweet, juicy and highly
flavored. Later, Sanford's imported
thornless orange superceded it in our
section. Then we were all sure we had
the genuine article.
Col. Whitner, of Fort Reid, (now de-
ceased), of whom I got my buds, assured
me his buds came from the Belair nur-
sery and was therefore the genuine im-
ported Tangerine, and further, for two
years previous had received returns of
from $7.00 to $9.00 per box for his Tan-
gerine oranges. They were thornless, of
a willowy growth and leaf, fruit more
solid than the first mentioned, not so
red, skin and segment parting readily,
quality about the same as first men-
tioned, but to every appearance a de-
cidedly superior shipper.
With this latter the country has been
filled with buds so far as was desired to
plant Tangerines, everyone supposing
they had the genuine. Now there is an
orange very much resembling the Tan-
gerine, called the Mandarin, but a little
inferior, it would seem, as quotations
for Mandarin oranges are from $4.00 to
$6.00 per box, while for Tangerine or-
anges the quotations are $2.00 per .box
in advance, or from $6.00 to $8.00 per
Sbox. Be this as it may, the gentleman
referred to, Col.Whitney, is the only one
I have ever heard say they had been re-
turned for. Tangerines at the prices men-
tioned.' All else I have heard of has
been for Mandarins at from $1.50 to
$8.50 per box, save in one instance. Re-
cently I saw the returns to Mr Thomas
Simmons, of Altanmonte Station, Orange
county, of a single box of our supposed
imported thornless Tangerine orange,
shipped through the Fruit Exchange,
which put him in full possession of a
check for 64 cents for his oranges, pick-
ing; seasoning, box packing and hauling
to station from grove.
Now, Mr. Editor, this is not a selfish
whim of my own, -but the facts and so-
licitation of Dr. J. K. Webster, of Al-
toona, Mr. Thomas Simms and myself,
all subscribers to your valuable paper,
all orange growers and all desirous of se-
curing and planting out several acres
more of the real Tangerine.
' Let us all know the difference be-
tween these two varieties. Theh when
we ship we will know who is getting the.
$4.00 to $6.00 and $6.00 to $8.00 per box
S Very respectfully yours,
J. R. CAMPBELL.
[Our citations from consular reports
show that the -term Mandarin is
of rather loose application in the
eastern continent, and we appre-
and that it is so here. We be-
lieve the term Tangerine applies prob-
ably to a fruit of dark color and high
flavor, in other respects resembling the
Mandarin. We would like some one
like Mr. Bidwell,' Mr.* Beach or' Mr.
Houston, of Belair, to give the exact
and unvarying distinctions between the
wo, if the same be known to them.
Our opinion has been asked as to the
advisability of budding groves of the
comnfen orange with the Tangerine,
with a view to making such groves
more profitable, We shall be glad if
some of our specialists in orange culture
will give their views on this question.-
A. H. C,]
Is It Mal de Goma ?
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower:
While looking over a neighbor's orange
grove to-day, I observed that numbers
bf trees, some as large as eight inches
in diameter, had been nearly girdled by
ants. -A series of holes, from an eighth
to a quarter of an inch in diameter, had
been eaten through the bark at regular
intervals of a half inch or so apart, com-
pletely encircling the trunk of the tree.
In some cases, after the tree had been
thus girdled, the ants had eaten larger
holes at regular distances apart, forming
squares or right angle parallelograms.
No gum is exuding from these wounds
yet. The ants are the common small
lack, or dark brown, stinging variety.
This is something new to me, and I
can account for it only on the supposi-
tion that the trees are about to be afflict-
ed with gum disease, and that the ants
are deliberately working to kill them,
for .if gum disease should appear now it
will surely rot the bark between the ant
holes, and thus effectually girdle the
This grove is on pine land, usually dry
enough, but too flat. to insure good
drainage in an excessively wet season,
such as we had last summer and fall,
and the trees had suffered from this
cause, as well as from the freeze of Jan-
I have suggested to the owner to wash
the trunks, of the trees with a strong so-
lution of whale oil soap, and to fertilize
them at once with bone and potash, and
also to give the ground a thorough
working in order to admit plenty of air
to the. roots of the trees.
Can any one. suggest better treatment,
or give us light on this subject ?
.R. H. BURR.
HoE : HO LANDiNURSERIES, Brandon, Polk
County, Fla., Feb. 1st, 1887.
[We see no indica.ionsjn.the,above of
"gum disease, which, as we understand,
manifests itself; by an exudation from back, and they all had equal advan-
the bark of a grayish, sour-smelling tages otherwise.
gum. We hear of no cases of mal de CURING THE FRUIT BY SUN-DRYING.
goma in Florida, and sincerely hope we The best method for curing the fig in
never shall. Caa any one explain the the sun is to pick it when it has just be-
case described by Mr. Burr ? A. H. C gun to wilt;place it on trays, in a tight
room, put a slow sulphur fire under it
Two- Methods of Culture. (say half pound of best sulphur to two
At the last convention of the Cali- hundred pounds of figs), let the sulphur
fornia Fruit Growers' Association one burn slowly till consumed, the flames
member described as follows two divine ascending among the fruit until entirely
methods of cultivation. exhausted. This will require, say ten or
In Riverside they trim the tree very twelve hours. The fruit should be kept
high and plow right up to the trunk of in the sulphur bath. The object of, this
the tree, and that cuts all these little sulphuringof the green fruit is to pre-
fibrous roots, and the tree loses strength vent fermentation and souring in the
in a short time by taking them away. In process of drying, to preserve the nat-
San Gabriel they leave their limbs right ural flavor and the qualities of the fruit,
close to the ground. In irrigating them. to soften the skin, and at the same time
the trees are never plowed near the trunk to bleach or whiten the dried product.
(I do not believe they are plowed nearer After the sulphuring it should be taken
than four feet), and in that way they out and placed on trays or a scaffold
require less irrigation and look better They should be turned over several
than any othersg there. Where they times while drying-care should be
plow near the tree and the limbs run up taken not to let them get too dry and
high, the sun bakes the ground, the roots hard. This, of all the mistakes, is the
will plow up and the tree suffers, and most common with the amateur in fruit
wherever the orchard is raised in that drying. All that is wanted is to simply
way you will see yellow trees. evaporate the water from the fruit. The
softer and more flexible it is, the better,
THE FIG. and the more salable the product will
*__ be, and the heavier it weighs the more
profitab'e it is to the producer, and the
Managing the Trees and Pre- more palatable and satisfactory to the
paring the Fruit for Market. consumer.
The operator should not wait until the
At the last meeting of the California whole batch is dry before taking it up,
Fruit Growers' Association, Mr. R. R. but should watch it carefully, and- as
Williamson read an interesting essay on fast as a portion of it is dry enough to
the fig, from which we make the follow- pick out and take up all such specimens
ing extracts: as are sufficiently cured. The sense of
In treating this subject I shall not at- feeling, aided by a little common sense,
tempt a. description of the methods of will tell him when it will do. It most
cultivation and preparation practiced by localities it will pay well to cover the
the people in the old countries, where figs at night to keep off dampness. With
figs are extensively raised. The fig is favorable weather and proper care, it
the most ancient fruit we cultivate; it will usually take from four to seven
has a history dating back farther than days to dry the sulphured figs, and
any otherfruit we grow. Thousands and eight to twelve days to dry the unsul-
millions of .people in all ages of the phured, for-they dry much quicker-after
world have subsisted largely on the fig. being sulphured.
In many of the old countries the failure After they are thus dried they should
of a fig crop means not only stagnation be dipped in a boiling hot solution, com-
in business, but almost starvation and posed of, say, thirty gallons of water,
famine, one pound of concentrated lye, and
AN IMPORTANT ARTICLE OF FOOD. three pounds of best rock salt thorough
The late B. B. Redding told me, not ly dissolved. The figs should be held
long before his death, that while travel- under this boiling water about two
ing in Europe he learned that a very seconds, and then taken out, dripped or
large per cent. of the inhabitants of Asia dried until the water is gone, a.nd
Minor, Greece, Portugal, Italy, and thn packed away in large boxes
many of those old countries lived mainly about the same as used for raisins (coy-
on the fig and olive; that travelers and ered up so as to keep out insects), and
shepherds, when starting off on trips left to sweat from two to four weeks be-,
with their stock or otherwise, would fore packing for market.
carry with them as their supplies of The object of the dipping is to kill.all
provisions little else than dried figs and insect eggs and soften the skin. This is
pickled olives, and that they would not done by the alkali, while the salt pre-
only live for weeks and months on these, serves the fruit and materially add ito
but grew fat, and endured almost untold the flavor of it by destroying that flat,
hardships and exposures, enjoying mos t greenish taste which is perceptible in
robust health all the time. the fresh dried' fruit. It also assists the
It is a well known fact that the fig granulation and crystaization of the
possesses more nutrient and also more natural sugain the fig, and assists in
medical properties than any fruit we bringing out a white, flowery bloom,
Cultivate, excepings possin blyth olive which adds much to the appearance e of
ltice, edput win t -thprbduc. It also epelthods ottil f
I is a healthy and substantial article th product. It also repels attar' f
food, either for man or beast, and is at nsees. t
the same time a fine, delicately flavored DRYING BY ARTIFICIAL HEAT.
luxury, and can readily be brought into So much for the sun-drying process.
general use by almost the entire human But I think the intelligent grower, will
family, when it is once brought to their 'not much longer waste his-precious time
notice and put within their reach with old-time methods, but will find a
COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE. much speedier and more perfect way to
One of the' chief barriers to their success by employing artificial heat.
general use now by the American people From recent experiments made I am
,is the high price at which a good article thoroughly convinced that the employ-
can be obtained. Some idea of ment of artificial heat in curing the fig
is the dawning' of a new era4 in that
THE MAGNITUDE OF THIS INDUSTRY. s ae d rowing ind r that
in the Old World can be gleaned from the The samples'before us demonstrate
fact that, according to the report of th6 that it cannot only be dried by artificial
American Consul, there had been deliver- heat, but that it makes a most beautiful
ed for export at Smyrna alone, for year and delicious product. I think it hard
1884, 21,600,000 pounds of dried figs, be- to equal, and impossible to surpass it.
sides, possibly, as much more from Italy, I dried these samples during the State
Hungary, Dalmatia and other fig-pro- Fair, in the Acme Steam Heat Evapor-
ducing countries, making a grand total ator. I do not know whether the ordi-
export of fully 40,000,000 pounds, besides nary dry hot-air evaporators would pro-
supplying an enormous home consump- duce the same results or not; but I do
tion. Of this large export, Fngland, Ger- know that the steam dryer was aJgreat
many and the United States take the success in this case. The best sample
bulk of it. e was dried in nine hours at a tempera-
PLANTING AN ORCHARD. ture of 180 degrees, the other at 120.
I would recommend planting fig trees I am satisfied 'that by this process we
from 26 to 82 feet apart. Then fill in can dry and make a fair merchantable
with grapevines, berries or some other product of almost any of the varieties
fruit trees, such as peaches, plums, prunes we have, and thus turn to profit what
or quinces, something that can be taken has usually been considered of no value.
out at the end of ten or twelve years, or yielding from 600 to 1,000 pounds of
so soon as the fig tree needs all the room. elding fr I have a small orchard of
Thus a quick and constant return can dried figs Pnrave a snall seveorchar
be realized from all the land. The fig and fig trees at enryn, hatnly seven years
grape do well together and I should prefer old from the cutting, that' yielded 150
filling in with grapes to anything else. pounds of dried figs to the tree this sea-
It the land iswell adapted to grape grow- son, that a epect 6 cents per pound wyiould o be
ing, the vines can remain in the fig $9 teased at least 20 per cent. per an-
orchard fully as long, if not longer, than increased at least te per cent. per an-
most anything else; but I would not num for the next terl years and when ar
plant them too close' to the tree. Then my figsal areproperly tcuret (by atoi-
in thinning out take out those nearest .fieal eat) I expect to get to 15
the tree first; they need not all be taken cents per pound instead of 6, as y
out at once. Culture f Mignonett
PRUNING THE TREE. Culture of Mignonette.
Most all trees do best if cut back No flower garden or border, be it
heavily when planted, but the fig is an ever so small, is complete without that
exception to that rule. It does not need most valuable of flowers, the mignon-
to be cut back much, though it should ette. It has been said that it cannot be
be shortened in some. It often has a grown in Florida, but I find it is one of
mass of fine fibours, moss-like, roots; the most easily raised of annuals.
these should be trimmed off. leaving only In the first palace the land must be
medium size roots All the bruised or thoroughly enriched in order to secure
mutilated roots should be pared off, also; success. With five parts of Florida soil
then, if carefully planted, it will grow. use one part of very old cow manure.
It does seem strange to advise the re- In-the first week of February take some
moving of the fine fibrous roots, but small flower pots, with some loose ma-
experience has demonstrated that they trials at bottom for drainage; fill the
do best deprived of these roots.. After pots with potting compost and press it
the tree is established in the orchard it well down with the bottom of another
needs but little pruning, except to give pot. Drop into the pot six or eight seeds,
it shape, until it gets to that age when it cover them with an inch of compost,
is growing but little and making but and press it well down. Water slightly,
little new wood; then it is a good idea to put the pots under glass and shade from
head it back quite heavily. This renews the direct rays of the sun. ,.i
the tree and causes it to throw out a In two or three weeks the planthwill
large amount of new wood that will bear. appear above the surface. Thd! let
large crops of fine fruit. I had occasion them have all the air possible, keeping
three years ago to head back an old tree off heavy rains. As the plants begin to
quite heavily; it threw out the first year grow thin to two plants. By the mid-
a large number of new shoots two to die of March they will be ready for
to threefeet long, and they were literally planting out.permanently. In doing so be
loaded with much finer fruit than the careful not, to break the ball of'earth:
other trees that werenot so headed back, Water them when planted.
and it has continued ever since ti bear In about a month from thetimeofplant-
much larger crops and finer fruit than ing they _will commlence to flower and
animy of the other trees that were not cut will continue to do so until destroyed by
hot weather. To have the mignonette
in flower through the winter, sow the
seeds as directed above in September,
When the small pots are filled with
roots change them into pots two sizes
larger, but make the compost richer by
the addition of more cow manure, and
mix with it, if it is to be had, a little
broken lime scraps or old mortar aboul
the size of peas. In potting press the
soil as firm as possible.
PLANTING IRISH POTATOES.
More Testimony in Favor of
Cotton Seed Meal.
BY S. POWERS.
I grew potatoes thirty years in Ohio,
but I find the conditions of success are
radically different here.. This cold, min-
eral sand is less responsive to the sun
than the more humic or vegetable soil
of Ohio. It takes more heat and longer
continued heat to make seeds or roots
germinate here than it does at the
North. Hence the necessity of greater
care here, for in the North the grower
feels tolerably secure after he has once
committed the potatoes to the ground,
until they come up 'at any rate; and
even then he stands less in danger of
frost than here, because the soil retains
during the night the heat received dur-
ing the day, while this sandy ground
parts with it quickly.
In Florida, on the other hand, the
grower of early potatoes is.in a state of
anxiety before the plants come, up lest
the seed should rot in a cold rain; and
after they come up. lest they should be
nipppd by an untimely frost, which
sneaks in so easily on this cold sand in
January or early February. But the
rewards of success here are enough
greater to justify and repay all this in-
creased care and outlay. .
As yet I have never tried the ordinary
commercial fertilizers, and I hold in
abeyance any opinions as to theirjvalue.
I have tried horse manure, ashes and
cotton seed meal, each separately, and
all of them the same season, and on the
same soil, under the same general con-
dit'ons. I will premise here-.what I
wish all contributors to the FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER would do-by giving the
latitude, soil and time of my operations.
Tne soil of this part of Bradford coun-
ty is what the natives call a "flatwood
soil," a level, sour sand, as is evidenced
by the amount of "redweed," or sorrel,
which it produces. It is rendered black
by the very considerable percentage of
vegetable mold or humus which it car-
ries when first plowed and heavily
drenched with rain the mold runs
away in a black current, leaving the
sand white. There is enough df this
mold .to render the soil retentive of
water, and compel the digging of sur-
face drains. ..;
As my stable manure was not rotted,
I applied it to the ground in October
preceding the planting, scattering it
along liberally in akdrill made with a
,ummon hoe. It w's4 then- covered up
and left to leach arid rot through the
fall and winter.. The cotton seed meal
was put in the same way and at the
same time. It underwent a powerful
fermentation, hearing and diffusing the
ammonia until it stained the soil a snuff-
color quite to the surface (it was covered
two or three inches deep) and for some
distance around. .A large number of
maggots were generated in it, greyish-
white fellows, about three-fourths of an
inch long; but they seemed to have
about run their career when planting-
time arrived, and they gave me no
trouble. At that time I was ignorant of
their destructive effects on crops, which
I have subsequently learned from the
columns of the FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER. I run very shallow drills, not
deep enough to upset the cotton seed
meal-which was now in cakes-and
planted the potatoes right over it I
never saw or heard from the maggots
I planted the Early Rose, cutting the
tubers to one eye. The right way to cut
a potato is to begin at the stem end and
with a thin, sharp blade slice off an eye
at a time with a downward stroke,slant-
ing in to the middle of the potato.
This gives a certain uniformity to the
pieces, and makes neat work, As the
eyes are thick at the seed-end the pieces
would be too small if cut strictly to one
eye, and here I allow two or three. I
dropped the pieces with the eyes upper-
most, but this would be too fussy for'
The sprouts on the cotton seed meal
came up stronger than on the manure,
and kept ahead all through. They were
on ridges too high to be plowed much
(higher than was really necessary), and
the cultivation was all performed with a
hoe. They were nothilled up at all, the
ridges being already sufficiently high,
about such as are made for sweet pota-
toes. The pieces were about a foot apart
in the row. On the cotton seed meal the
plants grew strong and dark-colored,
covering and shading the ground so that
it remained cool. On the manure they
were small and yellow, they did not
shade the ground much, and it grew
hot during the day and dried out. Here
the tubers were small and specked with
little pits of soft rot. On the cotton
seed they were much larger and sound;
they kept sound for weeks after digging,
until they were eaten up in fact. I can
not but think that the heated sand and
the lack of potash and lime in the ma-
nure, caused the rot in those rows. All
the rows were treated just alike except
in the fertilizer applied.
I make no attempt to estimate the
yield per square rod or per acre; it was
only a garden experiment. From the
cotton seed part I often obtained from a
hill a good double-handful of nice,
smooth tubers of a merchantable size.
The manured hills yielded very few of
this size, and certainly not over one-
third of the weight of potatoes, row for
row, that the cotton seed did.
I offer no advice to any one on this sub,
ject; the above is simply .a bit of experi-
ence, good for what it is worth.. On the
strength of it, however, I am this winter
.Daily Tien -,iom*
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pEACH HILL- NURSERY.
PEACH TREES ADAPTED TO FLORIDA,
Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May
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Honey and Peen-To varieties. The peaches I
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For descriptive catalogue and price-list, ,ad-
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ONSIGNMENTS OF EGGS
CCHICKENS FRUIk, AND
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I T H. SUTHERLAND,
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planting nearly two acres on cotton seed,
some on commercial fertilizers and with
such modifications of the system as to
adapt it to larger scale.
I forgot to mention that the ashes
(pine) produced a result too insignificant
From the fruit house of Pancoast &
Griffiths, we have received the following
circular, in which objections are urged
against the popular method of shipping
strawberries in refrigerators. We would
like to hear the. opinions of our berry
growers on this subject:
Our system of keeping berries, etc.,
from spoiling in long shipments consists
in removing the -injurious fruit-heat,
sweat and moisture; while the old re-
frigerator system aims to destroy this
heat, sweat, etc., with a low tempera-
ture, which does not always do it, but
which always injures the fruit, causing
it to turn gray as soon as exposed for
sale; and decay quickly follows.
This new system of shipping strawber-
ries, that we inaugurated so satisfactori-
ly in Middle Florida, March, 1886, de-
pends solely upon the thorough ventila-
tion of the fruit by a complete and con-
tinual permeating circulation of fresh
air amongst and through the fruit to
carry away all the injurious fruit-heat
and sweat as constantly as it is elimi-
nated from the fruit; and this result is
nearest accomplished by using the light,
open, slat-built, ventilated packages
made by the S. S. Manufacturing Co.,
Petersburg, Virginia, and shipping by
all-rail fast express.
During later hot weather the packages
should occupy an airy position in the
express car, in the draft between open
doors; the berries should not be left to
grow dead ripe and should not be the
least damp when shipped.
We have demonstrated that such dry
ventilation-ciboulation of natural air
through the berries to carry off the fruit-
heat, moisture, etc, is far more deserv-
ing (delivering the berries here sounder,
dryer and brighter), than the artificially
low temperature of the confined
and damp air of the refrigerator or ice
box system. -
The expense of expressage added to
the cost of the non-returnable package
(given with the berries) is not nearly so
much as the single cost per quart of
shipping in refrigerators; and the time
is about ohe-third.
DEVOTED TO THE
A0 e HCU RTSS
This journal will have for its leading object
the promotion of rural industries in Florida, aiid
wial advocate especially a more diversified and '
intensive system of agriculture and great
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations o
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, .a special aim of this journa
twill be to aescrie the beat results wtuch hare
bcen accomplished, with the esact methods em-
ployed. and all influc-uces afilcting such results;
also to suggen experiment. describe newor Little
known crops, ruits, et!., and record the progress
ge agriculture in neighboring States. .
Commencing with the jis numniber Fnd con-
tinuing through the season for
There will be a series or articles on truns-other
than tho'e of o ho citrus group-which have
proved most successful in this State. Each va-
riety.will be described.and ,
And there will be notes from persons who hav
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on
And othqr subjects will be illustrated to limited
Much attention will be devoted to
And to the home productionofforago andfertll
zers, two economies which are essential to sue
Questions relative to ailments of domestic.
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted;
household economy and to reports of the ma >
kets, and the departments of
will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will thi journal be-
come the "organ" of any association oloality
it will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute im-
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesda
of elh week.
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Communications for the editorial department
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A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
^ .- Jacksotville, Fla Fl
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBRUARY 16, 1887.
along from the time it is knee-high till
arN it is fully matured, when it is prettier
auUF^-F -.-than ever.
The directions for planting were, drop
Forage Plants. three or four grain.- twelve or fourteen
inches apart, if the land is good let it all
Editor 1lorida Farmer and Fruit-Grower: stand, and if poor, thin out to one stalk.
I observe in your "Hints to Writers" The heads are from ten to fourteen inches
that you give a range of topics to be dis- long, and several of my neighbors who
cussed under different headings. Under have seen it say that two average heads
that of forage crops you mention, among will equal one large ear of corn, and ac-
others, Para grass, Guinea grass, Or- cording to the best estimate that we
chard grass, Red Top 'grass, Texas Blue could make, there are eight average
grass, Mexican clover, Lespideza, Alfal- heads where one good ear of corn would
fa and Melilotus. Now are you quite grow; besides, if the heads were cut off
certain that all of these can be profitably when matured, there will come out a
cultivated elsewhere, or cultivated any- new crop, which, if it rains, will be
where, in the State of Florida? Many equally as heavy as the first. The stalk
of the things you mention are well grows about six feet high, and has
adapted to the climate of this State, but more fodder on it than anything of the
you want to find out concerning those kind I have ever seen.
things that will not only do well and Wanting as much grain as possible, I
succeed under all climatic conditions, ha'e not cut any stalks, but pulled an
.and which may be safely recommended armful of fodder to see if my cattle liked
to the farmers of Florida for their use. it; and I have never seen them eat any-
If there be any of them that will not thing so greedily. The grain is said to
grow,only in certain portionsof the State, make a splendid flour, and from its ap-
those portions should be pointed out, and pearance I do not doubt it. To sum up
if possible, the reason given vwhy they its advantages, I think it will make more
'succeed or do not succeed. For example, grain and more fodder than anything I
-can the Para and Guin'a grasses, the have ever seen, and the quality I think
'Teosinte withstand the cold of the north- is not excelled by anything; again, it is
western counties of the State ? On the affected less by 'dry weather than any-
*other hand, will the Red Top grass, the thing I ever saw growing.
Texas Blue grass, and the Orchard grass Our gardens, cotton and all late corn
-survive the wet, hot summers of any are parched up, but my Kaffir is green
portion of the State. from the ground up. The few rows that
The Bermuda grass and Crab grass, I have. is all that I know of in this part
the cow-peas and beggar weed may suc- of the country, but everybody that has
-ceed in all portions; but again it is ad- seen it say they are going to plant it an-
visable to. experiment further with the other year. I intend having a little
Mexican clover; the Melilotus and the ground into flour just to try it, and if it
Alfalfa, anywhere in the State; also, will is good I will report.
the Lespedeza or Japan clover thrive ,
anywhere in the State? I have my own
opinion as to all of these, and yet should Millo Maize.
be willing and even desirous of obtain- This variety of the fodder sorghums
ing the opinion of others in regard to seems to rival the Caffir in public favor.
them. We hope that these and other varieties
Last month the Department of Agri- will be extensively planted the coming
culture atWashingtonissuedacircularin spring. Meanwhile we shall give our
relation to grasses and forage plants, readers such evidence as we find con-
which had been highly recommended' corning these interesting grasses. In re-
for various parts of the Southern States, sponse to an inquiry the Southern Gul-
and desire to know more of their agri- tivator speaks thus of Millo Maize:
cultural value, and the extent of terri- Millo Maize came originally from
tory to'which they were adapted. The South America. Crop grown from im-
plants mentioned by the department ported seed matures very slowly, and,
were the Spanish clover, Japan clover, except under favorable conditions, will
Alfalfa, Lucerne, Texas Blue grass, not ripen seed before frost in Middle
Texas millet, Guinea grass, Johnson Georgia. When grown from seed raised
grass, Beggar tick, Paspalum Dilitatum, in this country it gradually acquires an
Paspalum Platycaule, Rescue grass, earlier habit, and we have seen strains
American canary grass, Velvet grass, of it which would mature about as early
Smut grass, and Tall Oat grass. This as the ordinary varieties of sorghum. It
paper I have answered according to my belongs to the sorghum family, but is
own observation, and the best informa- more disposed to sucker or tiller than
tion I could obtain upon the following other members of that family. It grows
points-: Is it a native of your locality ? quite tall and has a fair quantity of
Is it cultivated, and if so to what extent? leaves which partake of the tough,
,Is it hardy? Toes it withstand drought? leathery character of sorghum. These
(Does it withstand the great rains of the make a fair quality of fodder. The
Florida summer?). For what soil or lo- stalks are much like those of sorghum
cation is it best adapted ? About what in all respects but in sweetness; the
is its yield per acre? (How many tons Millo.Maize is barely sweetish. When
%. of fodder?) -Is' it easily subdued by cul- 'green and cut up stock eat the stalks
tivation? Is it:a good pasture plant? Is pretty well; when dry they are hard,
-. it especially valuable for fertilizing pur- pithy, tasteless and of little value-as for-
poses? How many years may ,it be age; Whilst Millo Maize is a hardy
profitably grown from one seeding ? To plant, standing drought well and pro-,
these were added some specialquestions: during a very large yield of forage, the
Do you'know of any localities in the latter is quite poor. Ordinary forage
United States where either Bermuda corn and the sorghums are superior to it.
grass, Guinea grass or Teosinte ripens But the strains of Millo Maize which
its seed? Can you state the compara- mature seed early are valuable for the
tive yield of Al falfa, with, and without grain they produce. The yield is large,
irrigation? How many years can it be and the quality nearly, if not quite, as
successfully grown without renewal? good as corn. It may be used as a sub-
Is Alfileria or Pin clover, (erodium cicu- stitute for the latter, and has the ad-
tariuM), grown in your locality? What vantage over it that it l withstands
can you say regarding it? Has burk drought better, and- will make a crop
clover been grown in your local- where corn would entirely fail. It would
ity, if so to what extent, and what is be well for every farmer to plant some
thought of it? of it on the poorest and thirstiestt land
It certainly would be of great interest intended for corn as a substitute for
to the Agriculturists of Florida to have corn, The fodder could be saved like
'full information as to those points, and that of born. and the stalks and roots
might save to them much expense and be used to fill up washes. The heads'
labor, and anxiety, in making experi- can be fed whole without grinding.
ments with those plants, also settle the Millo is planted and cultivated like
question whether the different portions sorghum--rows about four feet wide
of the State do not require the cultiva- and hills eighteen inches to two feet in
tion of different fodder plants adapted diill, one or two stalks left in a hill. It
to those portions. The.Teosinte has ma- suckers freely. Is ploughed and hoed
tured its seeds in Hillsborough and Polk like any other crop. It can be cured by
counties during the last year, and there cutting and shocking like forage corn,
is good reason to believe that this most but our advice is never to cure it; feed
valuable and productive of all fodder green or else let it mature and save fod-
producing plants; although a native of der and seed. Cut just before frost and
tropical America, may not only be grown piled closely out of doors without shel-
in all parts of the State, but that in the ter, we have kept it green for some
Southern half it may mature seed insuf- months.
ficient quantity to supply the whole de-
mand therefore in all the States. E sila t
J.G. KNAPP. Ensilage.
[Thr grasses enumerated in our list The preserving of forage in a green
are those which we know to have been condition, which constitutes the process
grown in Florida with some degree of called ensilage, will be of immense value
uegrown. Many of them, we know, are to this State, if it can be successfully
ot well suited tothi State. We desi k re carried out, and we see no reason why
Information concerning each, hoping tmay note. It is a simple method
ultimately to arrive at an exact knowl- and ought to be tested in Florida. The
edge of its adavtations.e-A. H.C.] agricultural papers discuss this subject
after the following manner:
: fi C. 'Why is ensilage better than the same
K affair Corn. stalk dried? Why is a ripe, juicy ap-
A correspondent of Home and Farm ple, better to eat than a dried one? The
writing from Alabama, gives his experi- one has not had its cellular struc-
ence with this new forage plant: ture turned- into wood by drying,
S Seeing a great deal said about Kaffir and it goes into the system in a soluble
corn in different agricultural papers last condition, ready to be actec upon by the
winter and spring, and an advertise- 'fluids of the stomach, and without very
ment appearing in Home and Farm, by much preparation is ready for assimila-
a house in Atlanta, Ga., offering it for tion. The cellular tissue of the dried
sale, I concluded to try a little. So I plants must be first softened or broken
sent 25 cents for a very small package of down, so that the starches, sugars, ni-
one-half ounce (I think it was), and re- trogen, lime, etc., can be liberated, all
ceived it just in time to plant it the 1st calling for an increased expenditure of
of. June. I planted it about the centre animal force to accomplish; exactly
of a small piece of second year's new what nature has done in the succulent,
ground; thie rest of the field I planted in undried fodder.-Ohio Farmer.
common corn the same day, which, un- When the testimony keeps rolling' in
til it commenced to silk, bid fair to make from all quarters of the country, that
twenty-five bushels to the acre, but a about 60 lbs. of sweet ensilage, made
drought of six weeks struck it then from nearly matured corn, is all that
(which still continues), and if I get eight the average sized cow can eat per day,
bushels now I will be glad, while it is and that 50,000 Ibs. of it can be easily '
very different with the Kaffir. The raised on each acre of first-class corn
drought has never seemed to affect it at land, thus giving a cow better forage
all; not a parched or burnt blade on it. food than the average hay and pasture
SBy the 15tn ,of August, one-third of it ration our best dairymen provide for 888
Swas fully matured, and now (the 24th of days; or more than enough fortwo cows,
'* August), it is ready to harvest, except a summer and winter, for a year, what is
head here and there that is too the use or sense, in taking at least six
". green. I have never seen anything that acres of the farm for pasture and
i, comes as near making good every claim meadow for a year to feed the same two
S'made for it by various writers. 'It is the cows? Here is a way to meet and van-
Sprettiest grain I ever saw grow, all quish low prices for milk, butter and
cheese, and make oleo go into bank-
ruptcy. But the sleepy can't be made
to see it, till after the wide awake have
made their pile.-Hoard's Dairyman.
Rye is a favorite ens:lage crop in Eng-
land. It gives a good deal of color to
the 'butter in winter. Here in the South
rye can be sown in the fall and pastured
all winter, and then furnish a heavy
crop to cut for ensilage in the spring.
By the way, Mississippi farmers, as well
as those in adjoining States, ought to
raise more rye for seed. There is always
a greater demand for our home grown
seed than the supply, and at prices too,
considerably above Northern and West-
ern grown seed; the latter not usually
reliable to sow, in this section and if
sown, twice the quantity of seed re-
quired, owing to so very many not ger-
minating-Southern Live Stock Journal.
RECLAIMING SAW GRASS LANDS
How to Build a Wire Fence in
BY D. R. GREEN.
In the building of a barbed wire fence,
which is by all means the most easily
constructed, cheapest and most durable
fence in use, the first consideration is
the posts. These..imay be either cedar,
lightwood, or live oak, cut 6 feet long
aad set 2 feet in ground, leaving 4 feet
above ground as height of fence. .The
posts may be set anywhere from 10 to 20
feet apart, according to, one's notion
and supply of posts.
The best barbed wire is made by
Washburn& Moon, Worcester, Mass.,
and is double barbed, with barbs set
from 8S to 7 inches apart. Their wire,
with barns set 8i inches apart, stretches
12 feet to every pound; the same, with
barbs 7 inches apart, stretches 14 feet to
Our plan is to use six wires, disposed
as follows, commencing at bottom wire,
15 inches from ground: For first wire,
with 4 inches to second wire, 4 inches to
third wire, 5 inches to fourth wire, 6
inches to fifth wire, and 17 inches to
sixth wire, making 4 feet in all. Stretch
the sixth wire first, placing it 4 feet
from the average level of .the land, and
fasten it to each post. Then make a
guage to suit each space below, by cut-
ting two deep notches the proper dis-
FENCE BUILT IN MARSH.
Showing how to brace corner post, &c.
tance apart in a board. Hook the guage
into the fifth wire and then on the sixth
wire, which will bring the fifth wire in-
to proper position to fasten td post.
Continue thus, guaging each wire
from the last one fastened up, until
through, when the fence will be found
to.follow the level of the topwire. The
12 inch space under first wire is filled
up with a bank of soil, either thrown
out of 'ditch On outside of fence, or
plowed up from inside. Our posts are-
set 2 feet from margin of ditch, which
is cut exactly on boundary line between
any two tracts..
Our practice is to place straining posts
every 330 feet or thereabouts, and in
soft marsh the corner posts must be set
as follows: Posts are cut 8 feet long and
a tenon-formed on larger end 4 inches
square and 8 inches long. Green pine
logs, 8 inches in diameter and 10 feet
long, are barbed at larger end for 12
inches and mortised out 4 inches
square. A trench is then dug, at pro-
posed corner of fence, 3 feet deep and
extending 10 feet with each line of posts.
Into this trench lay the green logs, with
their halved ends and mortices joined,
and place the tenoned end of corner
post in the mortise and fasten it secure-
ly; also place stout braces from end of
log in trench to top of corner post and
fasten them in place. Then fill up the
trench, packing soil in firmly. ,Strain-
ing posts on line to be set in same man-
ner, only they need but one log 20 feet
long, to allow braces to be set on both
,sides of posts.
This is the only manner in which that
all-important thing in a wire fence, a
perfectly firm corner post, can be se-
cured in marsh land.
In our next we will give the best
method of reeling off wire, and, our
method of stretching it taut for the
length of 33880 feet.
RECLAIMED LANDS, EXPERIMENTAL
FARM, Sarasota, Fla.
[In ordinary fence building we find it
best to stretch the lowest wire first. If
the uppermost be stretched first it is very
apt to lift one of the end posts.-A. H.
Liberal Feeding of Crops a
Source of Economy.
BY J. N. W.
It is interesting to observe the very
decided differences of opinion among
agriculturists regarding the proper use
of fertiliers, while all are seeking the
same ultimate end.
If the soil upon which each individu-
al operated' were unlike that of any
other, and the attending conditions of
cultivation dissimilar, there would be
some show of reason for the numerous
and conflicting formulas scattered broad-
cast over the country. That, however,
is not the case. The features of the soils,
whether physical or chemical, to which
special reference is made, may be in-
cluded in two or three classes.
The present is a favorable season for
the principal distribution of manure on
farm, grove and garden,' nd a brief in-
vestigation -of a few points connected
with fertilizing agents may bring to
light some facts that will be of service to
It is well known ihat the elements of
food to be supplied to our cultivated
plants consist chiefly of nitrogen, phos-
phoric acid and potash, in combina-
tion with various other substance. And
that mixture of plant food, by whatso-
ever name designated, which contains
these ingredients in the most Hvailable
form to be acted upon by the proper
solvent, and in the relative proportion
required by the deficincies in the soil, is
the best manure for use.
But how, it may be asked, can this
deficiency be determined? Not by ana-
lyzing the soil. For that is practically
impossible. The only reliable way of
getting at the kind and quality of fertil-
izer required, is by repeated trials.
Analyses of plants have been made with
sufficient accuracy to be used as a guide
for the special agents to be employed.
Then by experiments with a few rows
on which the indicated ingredients are
constantly varied, or, after the plan of
Geo. Ville, by excluding one and another
from the mixture and carefully noting
the result, the desired information may
be obtained. '
By pursuing such a course the intel-
ligent cultivator will be able to provide
precisely the food his several crops need.
And by purchasing the constituents (if
not prepared to make any at home) he
can at least mix with his chemicals,
muck and other organic matter from
the farm, by which his supply of man-
ure will be greatly increased. A liberal
application of such matter and especially
on dry sandy lands like many of our's,
rarely fails to be beneficial. Besides
possessing elements of fertility them-
selves, they absorb and fix the volatile
fertilizing agents, which also in their
turn act as powerful solvents.
When strong mineral manures are ap-
plied entirely destitute of organic mat-
ter, the manures are frequently found
undissolved, and the "failure of favora-
ble results is charged to the manufac-
turer or dealer. But the fault was the
cultivator's, the natural consequence of
there being nothing to absorb and re-
tain carbonic acid and ammonia so nec-
essary to assist water in its great work
of preparing the food for ready appro-
priation by the plants; and indeed for
completely reducing some combined
fertilizers on which water has no effect
It is the large proportion of vegetable
matter composing barnyard manure,
and its fine mechanical action upon al-
most all kinds of soil that makes it prefer-
able to commercial fertilizers in many
respects. There is, however, good rea-
son why abundance of vegetable matter
should not be produced on the spot for
use with mineral manures, and it is be-
Their consumption is rapidly increas-
ing every year. .It must be so. There
is no- alternative. For aside from the
greater inconvenience of handling and
transporting stable manure to a distance,
the supply is altogether inadequate. As
the diffusion of light is extend d among
tillers of the soil, ,and the positive ad-
vantages of intensive farming become
more widely known, and the area for
growing the more valuable products is
enlarged, the use and manufacture of
standard fertilizers will be vastly in-
', Those possessing the means and facili-
ties-,should not fail to turn to good ac-
count all material on the farm, grove or
garden, capable of being converted into
plant food. By a little effort in this di-
rection, and at a trifling pecuniary ex-
pense, from one-third to one-half of the
requisite amount of manure of superior
quality may be collected during the
If the experiments with fertilizers,
which any cultivator of the soil may
have made for the purpose of ascertain-
ing the quantity needed to produce the
very best effect possible, the result
showed a much larger amount to be nec-
essary than is generally believed to be
on land of average quality. Especially
if the conditions of under-drainage,
water supply, thorough pulverization of
soil, etc., were judiciously complied
Liberal manuring does undoubtedly
pay,,and pays best on lands that.many
w.ld think could do very well without
an No farmer or gardener who looks
to the soil for a support, can afford to
cultivate land insufficiently fertilized.
Labor is too expensive and products too
cheap. A wealthy amateur might in-
dulge such a fancy, but a poor man
should find less costly amusement.
Market gardeners must manure heavily
if they would realize the high prices
which early vegetables command. By
hastening maturity toward which stim-
ulating fertilizers would largely'contrib-
ute, the quantity of marketable pro-
duce from the same area would be pro-
SThere is a reason for the free use of
fertilizers, which if it possesses any prac-
tical weight at all, bears directly upon
producers of extra early market crops,
namely, the more rapid growth of plants
in. higher latitudes. It is said that the
wheat harvests in Southern England and
Upsala, Sweden, came off at the same
~tfie, though Upsala is 10 further north,
We have active competitors for the
rich rewards of early market products
all along the route north of us. Being
nearer to the market than we are they
have the two-fold advantage of cheap
rates and quicker transportation and as
a consequence of the latter are able to
deliver their products in a fresher, more
attractive condition. .
Jg Don't Fail to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or
THE HERNANDO -
REAL ESTATE AGENCY,
-OFFER FOR SALE-
Improved and Unimproved Town Lots, Orange Groves, young or in
bearing, Truck or General Farming Lands, High or Low
Hammock Lands, and every grade of Pine.
Pay Taxes for Non-Residents, Manage Property and Collect Rents, and
do a large business in Loans.
There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, 0o to
15 per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both
on Town and Farm Property.
Situated on a hill, altitude 328 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,
"THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA."
The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well
stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic, communication,
Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
bearing Orange Groves, presents to the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at-
tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
most fertile bodies of Hammock.Land in the-State, heavily- timbered with. giant-
Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No. County in the State,
offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,
Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty
and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in any section of the State.
Special attention is called to the
A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 820 acres
of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river, oue of
the most beautiful in the state,- abounding with fish, forms its western boundary
for one mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F. R: &
N. Co's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Pemberton's Ferry,
from which it is distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation
There are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100
acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to. 80
years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
all be in bearing very soon, many' of them bore this year. Three-fourths of these
trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings.grown
from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about .
20,t0)0 trees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on
this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they are protected on the
north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
built. The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the
neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange trees. No prettier sites for
winter homes on the Peninsula. The property being susceptible of division, will
be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the present season,
we will take
One-half cash, the balance on time to suit purchaser. What do-experienced
orange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price for such a
property? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in
grove form are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
it. The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of it.
L. Y. JENNESS. J. C. PRESTON -
Tropical and Subtropical.
.Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs, Peaches. Grapes, Pears, P.mus. Oriental Plums and Persim-
mons, Limes, Lemons Guavas, Bananas, Pineapples, Avocado Pears, Anona, Acacia, Nerium,
Caladium, Poinciana, Palms, etc.TOUSE
W.' G. TOUSEY, -
" Seffner, illsborough Co., Fla.
.0. JT. O'O. BLO-OTITT,
E= A T=. ESTALTE3 3SFLE ,
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, for Sale. Unimproved Lands in small and large tracts, at $2.50 per acre,up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high. rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. H. depot, at $20 to $5 per
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
MS- oney Loans, well secured, negotiated at15 per cent, net, to the lender. _-
. P. CHAMBERLAIN. A. w. OUSOADEN
SO U 'L'L- iJLOI1?,ID- A
'Real Estate Agency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Offlee: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, Scho~.-,...,y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already[planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or W. B. CLARKSON, .
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
Usunlly have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for '
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEfGETABLES,
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, eto
Bestof location, viz: S F. & W. R. R. WHARF;
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
W N. JUSTICE
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 818 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA. .
Specialties: SOUTHERN. RUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Itolllted.- Return
madeon dayof sale. -
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 16, 1887.
The Florida Farmer and Fruit irowr,
A. ff. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial interestsofFlorida. Itis published
Terms of Subscription.
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CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
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C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FIRST PAGE-NewlyIntroduced Fruits; Quality
of Kelsey's Plum; Notes on Popular Grapes;
Planting and Pruning the Peach; The Pecans
.- of Ribera, (Illustrated); Carya oliveformis;
Propagating the Pecan; Orange Culture
Abroad, Chapter IV.
SECOND PAGE-Tangerine and Mandarin; Mal
de Goma; Two Methods of Culture; The Fig;
Planting Irish Potatoes; Shipping Strawber-
ries; Culture of Mignonette.
THIRD PAGE-Forage Plants; Kaffir Corn; Millo
Maize; Ensilage; Reclaiming Saw-grass lands,
illustrated) ; Fertilizers.
FOURTH PAGE-Distributien of Seeds; The Cali-
fornian Fever; Who Takes the Lion's Share;
The Other Side of the Question; Inquiries and
Answers; Homes for the Homeless; Farmers'
Institute; Two Weeks of Progress; Result of
the Orange Crop.
FIFTHPAG-Our Home Circle (Edited by Helen
Harcourt), Cozy Corner, The Family Friend,
Our Young Folks.
SIXTH PAGzE-Roomy and Clean Stalls; Care of
the Hoofs; Warts on Cows' Teats; Bloody
Milk; Injurious Food for Hogs; Hog Cholera;
Raising Poultry for Profit; An Apiarist's Ex-
perience; Florida Oysters; Noted Leaders of
the Indian War.
SEVENTH PAGE-Farm Miscellany (Illustrated);
Serial Story (Conclusion) by S. Baring Gould.
EIHTnH PAGE-Florida News; Arbor Day Ob-
servations; Florida and California; A trip to
Nassau; The-Pinellas Peninsula; Reports of
the Cotton, Tobacco and Orange Markets, and
of the Jacksonville Wholesale and Retail
- ".,, Markets.
DISTRIBUTION OF SEEDS.
We have sent 'out during the past
week about a bushel of the seeds of
cherry-laurel which we offered some
time ago, and we think all applicants are
supplied. As the robins have now near-
ly harvested the remaining berries, we
cannot promise more.
SWeare now prepared to furnish ber-
ries of theUmbrella China tree of which
we spoke in the last number. These
have been forwarded from Pensacola by
Mr. Dansby, who sends some notes for
that I from the soil, and if they cannot be con-
perhaps, gain it in New England-they
are doomed to disappointment sooner
or later. We counsel thoughtful con-
sideration on the part of those who have
the California fever, before taking the
steps that lead that way.
* WHO TAKES THE LION'S SHARE?
How to make the orange groves a re-
liable source of income to their owners,
is now a question of leading importance
in this State.
The sale of groves has been a source of
much profit, many transportation com-
panies and commission houses have de-
rived handsome incomes from the or-
ange crop, but taking groves as they
average, their product has of late years
yielded their owners an extremely small
margin of profit.
Our fruit and vegetable growers have
come to the conclusion that the trans-
portation companies and commission
houses have been taking the lion's share
of the profits and have done this by
means more or less unfair. A wordy
warfare has taken place in which the
complainants have had things all their
own way so far as words are concerned,
while in other respects the railroads and
commission houses have had things all
their own way.
The coastwise railroads have made a
single concession, and that was not to
the people but to a new coastwise line of
steamers. The Clyde Line proved to
these railroad lines what all the fruit
and vegetable growers of the State
could not, namely, that they could af-
p-UblUU.oU non Ite propagation orfhe fQrd to carry perishable freight for 25
tree from the seed onward, per cent. less than they had been doing.
As to the cherry-laurel seeds,we would As to the inland lines, thei& vulnerable
recommend that they be planted in seed point has not yet been found, and noth-
beds so situated that they wi'l be shaded ing but competition or legislation will
during the middle of the day, being kept in it. They will bear any am nt of
moist and free from weeds. The seeds rd-pelting with-as much indifference
should be covered.with about an inch of word-pelting with-as much indifference(
firm oil. In the course of 'time they as an iron-clad man-of-war would bear
firm soil. In the course of time they a snow-balling.
will germinate, butit must be remem- nCorporationscannot be dealt with
bered that tree seeds demand time for like individuals An individual man
carrying out their purpose and are in has an emotional nature, by appeals to
no hurry to come up. A year later the which his actions can be influenced to a
young trees can be transplanted to the great extent; but a railroad corporation
lawn or hedge row. It is better to treat reetn bu arlroad cportin
lawn or hedgem thu than to ant this better to treat is not emotional; there is nothing like
them thus than to plant the seeds where sympathy, charity or generosity about
the trees are intended to remainit. Its all-pervading and controlling
sentiment is policy. Any change that
THE-CALIFORNIA FEVER, is likely to reduce its annual profits a,
It seems strange that the affairs of hundred dollars is 'pronounced bad
one corner of this great country should policy and vice versa.
be considered of momentous importance Viewing the subject in this light it
to another corner three thousand miles might seem that the people have wasted
distant. When ballast shifts unexpect- a great amount of time and energy in a
edly from one side of a boat to the other contest as unequal and useless asSancho
it 'causes the occupants.of the boat a sud- Panza's battle with the wind-mill.. We
den uneasiness, to say the least. So do not take this view of the matter.
when there are indications that winter We believe that the voice of the people
travel is going to shift from one side of still rules in this free country, that is,
the continent to the other, the residents the voice of the majority through its
and property owners of the two sections representation in the halls of legislation.
find that their temporal. interests are This being the case, if- a majority of the
materially and very differently, affected. people seek to reform a certain abuse,
It must be admitted that the current such as discrimination in freight rates,
of winter travel has found, a better chan- let them select honest law makers to
nel to the westward than heretofore. It represent them and enact such measures
has found its way to the extreme south- as will compel reform.
ern end of California and is pouring out Let the voice of the people- con-
its golden flood around Los Angeles. tinue to he beard through the press.
The people of the Sacramento region ap- Public grievances must be agitated until
pear to view -the changed conditions public interest is sufficiently aroused
with some degree of jealousy, and still to become in itself the remedial agent.
more are the people of Florida affected If the transportation companies are ab-
in this way. We believe, however, that sorbing an undue amount. ofthe profits
lude is so great that we think it is best
unquestionably to deal with the nursery-
men of that region, whose special study
is the adaptations of soil and climate.
We are glad Mr. Thompson .has
brought thismatter to our attention, for
we aim to deal justly and impartially
with all persons and sections. It gives us
an occasion also to call attention to the
great caution which is needed on the part
both of writers and readers in dealing
with subjects of this character. The
variety of soils is so great even in a sin-
gle county that all directions as to cul-
tural methods need to be -well qualified,
in order to guard against misapprehen-
INQUIRIES AND ANSWERS.
J. H., writing 'from Orange Bend,
"Many thanks for the vine cuttings,.
which came safe to hand by mail last
night, and which I have (I hope success-
fully) grafted on good stocks. I enclose
postal order for $1.65-$1 for six months'
subscription to FLORIDA FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER; fifty cents for twelve
copies of Times-Union Trade Edition;
fifteen cents for Cherry Laurel seed.
"I have had a capital crop of mush-
rooms this winter. Is there any sale for
them at remunerative prices ? Is there
any secret in packing mushrooms for
transportation? They are extensively
imported into Eng'and from France."
. We had not heard before of any at-
tempts with mushrooms In this State.
Our neighbor, Mr. Thomas Sumter, who
is an experienced English gardener, is
confident that they can be grown -very
successfully in Florida, and he thinks
they can be shipped safely a moderate
distance, perhaps one day's journey by
rail. For this purpose they should be
gathered in the button stage, and packed
carefully in small crates, with some soft
material like peat moss (spagnum). They
ought to sell readily to our winter
Mr. Sumter has written an article on
mushroom culture, which will appear in
found next to the pea family.
P. W. R., of Manatee, sends five plants
which we name as follows : 1-Celtis
occidentalis. 2-Clerodendron siphon-
anthus. 8-Polypodium pectinatum,
4-Vittaria lineata. 5-Ipomoea com-
GUM DISEASE AND MANDARIN ORANGE.
Inquiries under these heads have re-
ceived attention on the second page.
Ned E. Farrell, Esq., writes from
Waldo, under date of January 29. (This
and other communications should have
been given an earlier insertion, but have
been allowed to be crowded out by edi-
torial matter. Hereafter we shall give
prompt attention and a good allowance
of space to inquiries, comments and
We have regarded the fruit tree re-
-ferred to by our Waldo correspondent as
being a very healthy one, and regret to
hear of so bad a case of disease. If any
of our readers have had any similar ex-
perience-we hope they will favor us with
their ideas as to cause, prevention and
We are expecting Mr. Tamari to tell
us what he knows of the medlar in its
native country. Mr. Farrell writes as
Editor Florida Farmer an a i-u'it-Grower:
I have a few very fine so-called Japan
plums (Eriobotryta), six and seven years
old; same fruited well two years ago.
They are planted on dry, porous, sandy,
yellow sand, with clay subsoil four to
five feet beneath. -Three trees have
died within the past three years, from
rotting at the root. The leaves first drop,
then the bark dies near the surface, and
on examination the roots are rotten.
I apply to you for points as to cause
and remedy. I consider the fruit prof-
itable if the trees will live and the ice
king keeps far enough nor' h.
Of course I am pleased with your
paper, and shall do all I can for it.
BURNING LIME STONE.
A. A. D., writing from Jacksonville,
under date of January 27th, makes an
inquiry, which can be answered better
Snext num L TXT BOOKS. by some one residing in the limestone
.BOTANICAL TEXT BOOKS region:
Mrs. S S. C., of Brevard county, and Will you please inform me how to con-
Mr. W. D. G. wish to know what.books struct a cheap lime kiln. My son has
will be of most assistance in studying found a rich marl bed on his 160 acres ;
botany in Florida. also limestone. He has burned some of
Chapman's Florais the standard wrkthe stone, and the result is fine quality
ard work of lime, and he would like to know how
on Southern botany. With the supple- to make a kiln. I amn a subscriber to
ment which has been added recently, it your paper, and 'am~ in love with it
describes, with few exceptions, all the already, and hope you will have great
plants known to grow in Florida. The prosperity. -
price of the book is $4.00. Wood's class Farmers' and Gardeners' Insti-
book (price, $3.50), describes the more in- tute.
teresting plants of our flora, besides most Under the auspices of the Florida
of the commonly cultivated plants. It also Chautauqua, a Farmers' and Gardeners'
embraces a section on structural botany, Institute will be held at DeFuniak
which one must study before he can Un- Springs, Florida, March 8th, 9th and
which one must study before hecan 10th. Professor J. N. Whitner, of the
derstand analytical .botany. With a State Agricultural College, at Lake City,
work like Dr. Chapman's it would be will have charge.' The following sub-
necessary to use another like Gray's El- jets will be considered in carefully pre-
pared papers and addresses:
ements. Wood's book is generally pre- 1, Truck Farming; 2, Tobacco Culture;
ferred in academies, but Chapman's is 3. Orange Growing ; 4, The LeConte
far more complete and reliable. Pear; 5, Fig Culture; 6, Crop Rotation ;
J. V. D., whose letter is mislaid, in- 7, The Cultivation of Cocoanuts and other
qufired for a botanical book in which Other subjects of interest to farmers
plants are designated by popular -names, will be presented, and ample opportuni-
Botanists are inclined to ignore popular ty given for discussion. Among those
names, because there are but few n already engaged to present papers are
names, because there are but few in ac- p, Houston, Esq., of Tallahassee; E. B.
tual use, and because in any consider- Bailey, Monticello; A. H. Manville,
able extent of territory the same name Jacksonville; Rev. J. P. DePass, San-
in very many instances is applied to ford, and 0. P. Fanning. Members of the
widely different plants; therefore their West Florida Agricultural and Horticul-
widely different plants; therefore their tural Society will participate in the dis-
introduction into scientific books would ,cussion. Persons attending will be able
result in "confusion worse confounded.' to enjoy the rich attractions of the
this is only a temporary craze and that from the soil, and if they cannot be con- Porcher's Resources of the Southern
Floridians need never fear any serious vinced that it will be good policy for Fields and Forests, compiled under di-
rivalry on the Pacific side. them to do more foi he encouragement reaction of the Confederate Government,
As between the two sections it would of production, then they must be re- contains a great amount of information
be presumptuous in us to pass judgment. strained by a power which they cannot r, lative to the economic properties, pop-
For an impartial judge one would be but obey. a___ lar uses and popular names of many
better satisfied with one of those sensi- THE OTHERSIDEOF THE QUESTION hundreds of thetrees, shrubs and herbs
ble, level-healed New Englanders like --- of the Southern States. This valuable
George Cary Eggleston or the editor of Editor Forida Farmer and nuit- Grower:
orge ary gleston or the edto I take it your paper is not exclusively work is sold for $4. The three books we
the St. Johnsbury Caledonian. Let us I for Florida. If so, there is no use for have recommended- may be obtained
hear what the latter has to say on this Georgia nurserymen to advertise in it. most handily of H. Drew & Bro., Jack-
subject: I will say right here that the advice sonville, who will send them by mail
-Tie exodus of Vermonters to Cali about using only Florida grown peach so e who end them bymail
-The exodus of Vermonters to Call- seedlings .for planting in Florida is all for the prices mentioned.
fornia is not greatly to be wondered at. bosh. Many groves of the peach in PLANTS NAMED.
The temperate climate attracts, and the Florida from trees procured in Georgia G. W. W., of Volusia county, sends
desire for a change is often too strong to will bear me out in this.ensof to very common and
bevecoe It iAny peach seedling, when grown specimens of two very common and
be overcome.It is well, however, to re- wet or low land, will have knotty ex- pretty plants with clover-like heads of
member that all is not gold that glitters. crescences on the roots, whether grown flowers, and with smooth, rather thick
George Cary Eggleston writes home to in Florida or anywhere else. These often spatulate leaves mostly proceeding from
the New York Commercial Advertiser, repeated assertions about Florida grown the root. The low species with lemon-
stock being best are from parties inter- the root. The low species with lemon-
from Los Angeles, that the present boom ested in Florida grown trees. yellow flowers, which are never raised
in Southern California, which has blown Respectfully, W. W. THoMPSON. higher than three inches from the
Los Angeles into a city of 45,000 inhab- LE CONTE NURSERY, Smithville, Ga. ground, is the Polygala nana, or dwarf
itants in a few months, has the flimsiest We find that the'statement referred Polygala (accented on second syllable).
of supports-the hope of a steady influx to by Mr. Thompson is credited to Major The taller species with orange colored
of consumptives from the East. He be- 0. P.- Rooks, a nurseryman of high flowers is the Polygala lutea.' The flow-
lieves that that part of the world has a standing, who resides in the heart of the ers of the first named dry green, those
fine future, but that it will have to re- orange belt, the soil of which is wholly of the second dry yellow, while those of
veive a collapse, different from that of Georgia. \Ve a third (P. Rugelii), which is similar to
The same is true of othar growing sec- recollect that the article was copied from the second, but much larger and very
tions. Those who go there to settle, to a clipping from a Leesburg paper, which showy, turn brown in drying.
take California for better, for worse, some one sent to us for publication. Our numerous polygalas are among
who prepare for the dropping down that We presume that Major Rooks' state- the most interesting of our spring and
must inevitably follow the present boom, ments were intended for the orange belt, summer flowers. They are all delicate,
who accept the fact that no portion of and so far we think them correct, but, as smooth plants with variously arranged
the country has immunity from the regards the northern counties, they need heads of white, yellow, orange or pur-
downs as well as the ups of business of qualification. Wherever the Georgia pie flowers. Their roots have a flavor of
everyday life--these 'will find homes clay is found within a foot or two of the winter-green, but leave an acrid tas'e in
wherever they may happen to be. But surface there is no serious objection to the mouth. The small family to which
the others, who go West with the idea the planting of nursery stock grown in they belong is allied to the mignonette
that permanent success can be gained Georgia. In the true orange region, and violet families, though in all but
there without the same effort that would, however, the difference in soil and lati- the nlstwor+ k, o n h rn W v iill, ho
Florida Chautauqua programme after-! company with a capital of $3,000,000
nn.on and night. Reduced rates over all has been organized to erect three iron
the roads. For full programme of the furnaces, and another company with a
Florida Chautauqua, write C. C. Banfill, capital of $500,000 to vork the cotton
DeFuniak Springs, Fla. mill there. -These are a few of many
*- enterprises springing into life in Ala-
bama within the short time of fourteen
HOMES- FOR THE HOMELESS. days.
In Tennessee one of the striking events
Miss Helen Harcourt's Colony is the establishment of the big $200,000
of New York Boys in Florida. Perry Stove Works of Albany, N. Y., at
Nashville. This company, finally com-
[From the Times-Union of Feb. 10.] pulled to acknowledge that Albany,
Some weeks ago Miss Helen Harcourt, which has hitherto stood king of the
editor of the Ladies' and Children's De manufacture of stoves, was no longer
Dartment of the FLORIDA FARMER AND able to compete with the South in their
FRUIT-GROWER, gave notice through the manufacture, pulled up stakes and
Times- Union that she had undertaken as moved to Tennessee. Besides this cor-
a p rt of her work for "Our Young portion, there has been announced the
Folks," as her children's department is organization of a $5,000,000 company to
entitled, to add to the young folks of manufacture iron, steel and wood alco-
Florida by bringing directly from New hol, several coal and coke and marble
York a small colo .y of homeless boys quarrying companies and various other
and providing for them homes in this enterprises.
State. It would require too much space to
The Times-Union gladly gave its aid to go over the entire South in this way.
this novel and noble enterprise, believing It is sufficient to say that the story told
that Florida is the best abiding place for of Alabama and Tennessee could be told
any one, and that it could do the young of nearly every other Southern State as
folks no better service than by bringing well; and that in the past half month
them within the influence of such papers more money has been invested in the
as the Times- Unioi and the FARMER AND development of Southern resources than
FRUIT GROWER, whereby they may be during any corresponding period of
enabled to grow up into bona fide far- time.
mers and fruit growers, instead of sink- *
ing into those depths of degradation to Hints to Correspondents.
which the homeless children of crowded The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER
cities naturally drift. AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
In order to carry out this laudable plan vited to contribute to its columns articles
Miss Harcourt entered into -correspon- and notes on all subjects pertaining to
dence with Mr. A. Schlegel, agent of the the farm, garden, orchard and house-
New York Children's Aid Society, and it hold affairs. The range of topics which
was decided that he should start with a will be discussed in this journal maybe
first installment of ten boys so as to ar- gathered from the subjoined table, which
rive in Jacksonville by the noon train on may serve to suggest what might other-
the 9th inst. The Times Union gave no- wise escape attention:
lice to this effect from day to day, invit- FAR MANAGEMENT.
ing all who might desire to secure such I d d ai l r
boys to meet Mr. Schlegel at that hour at Clearing land, draining:land, crops for
the Waycross depot, new land, succession of crops, intensive
At noon yesterday our reporter was in farming, treatment of different soils,
waiting at. the depot and promptly to the resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
minute the train arrived. The parties penning, green manuring.
who had gathered there to inspect the DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
boys, soon had the pleasure of seeing ten Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
sturdy, honest-faced youths file out on poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
the platform after their attendant, Mr. meant.
A. Schlegel, who is a very agreeable SPECIAL FERTILIZERS.
gentleman and evidently well adapted SPECIAL ctTILIZEeS.
for the important mission entrusted to Cotton seed, cotton seed meal; barn-
him. Our reporter first had the pleas- yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
ure of introducing to Mr. Schlegel, Drs. per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
Neal and Solace Mitchell, who, having ashes, marl, muck, leaf- mould,, com-
the first choice, selected a German boy posts.
of genteel appearance named George FORAGE CROPS.
Schiele. Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
.Next, Gen. William Baya reviewed Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
the nine boys remaining, who were grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
seated in a row m the waiting room, and blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
his choice fell upon Master Jerome millo maize, kaffir corn; teosinte, sorg-
Campbell. Then Mr. William G. Castell, hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
our Bay street confectioner, select-d um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Master Henry Shepard, and Mr. E. G. melilotus.
Stokes chose Master Henry Hawley. STAPLE dROPS,
Each applicant was required to fur- Cr
nish references, or at least to be vouched Cori, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
for by our reporter, but this matter was yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
easily disposed of, as nearly all were t oencoun gathered g4orl teatmenP .
parties well known and of high standing. l -- "ug "-t ant-
.s to the boys, little choice was left to mg and culture, marketing crop, man-
them, but they all seemed well pleased agreement of seed, products from the
with the issue of the adventure, and seed.na e ad orgm-V ieies,
walked off with a cheerful step with Sngar Ca and Sorghu m-Varieies,
heir new-found protectors. culture, making syrup and sugar, coidi-
Mr. Hollinger, of the clothing house of tion of market. -
A.. C. Hollinger & Co., after consulting Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
with his partner on Bay street, decided recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
o .take Master Charles VanRonk, and facture.
two of our well known suburban far- FRUITS.
ners, Mr. E. H. Mason and Mr. W. L. R. i u o e
Tyler selected respectively -Masters Citrus Fruits-Comparison of vane
George Harrison and Julius Allright. ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
r. Mitchell Renz, of Bridgeport, had ods of propagation, methods of planting
Mr. Mitche llRenz, of Bridgeport, h and culture comparative effects of fer-
come down the river to meet the party, tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
but arriving late his choice was confined of fruit wine and other products,
to three. He was pleased io take Mas- Peach, pear, fig, persimmon,Japan
ters Louis Btherek and Parick Cosg rove, plum. Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
whom Mr. Schlegel had a place in view rry, quince, apricot, guava, banana,
when our reporter parted with him at 4 le sapodlla, mango, avocaa,
p. m. pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
Mr. Schlegelleaves this morning for almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
Palatka and other points up the river, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va-
alad expects to have applications for r'eties, their characteristics, effects of
soil weather, etc., best methods of
nany more of his homeless boys. One culture.
party has already offered to take ten of u
hem. All who desire in this manner to FLOWER GARDEN.
help the homeless and themselves at the, Plants adapted to this climate, out-
same time, should apply directly to Mr. door culture, management of green-
A. Schlegel, Box G, Station D, New house.
York. The Times-Union and the FAR- NATIVE TREES AND HERBS.
iER AND FRUIT-GROWER will cheerfully Planting trees for ornament.or utility,
aid in the furtherance of this noble the burning over of forest lands, the
work, and Miss Harcourt will un- lumber and turpentine industries, the
doubtedly work for the cause with re tanning industry, phenomena of 'plant
viewed zeal after knowing the highly life, weeds and noxious plants.omena of plant
successful issue of her initial effort. lfe weeds and noxious plants
We congratulate Miss Harcourt and N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
Mr Schlegel on their success, and we editor for identification. Information is
feel that all who have been instrumental desired respecting popular names and
n this work of charity may feel much uses.
satisfaction in having provided for so INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES.
many unfortunate youths good .lmes Nature of damage done and remedies.
in a goodly land. We trust that these MSCELLANEOUS SUBTCTS.
boys will make the mcst of their goodSCELLANEOUS SUB T.
fortune, and that they will grow up to Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
be useful citizens of the State which has tha mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
adopted them. and dog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
Two Weeks of Progress portation, marketing produce, experi-
Two Weeks of Progress. mental farms, agricultural education,
The rapid progress of the South in in- home manufactures, natural history
dustrial development has attracted the of Florida, historic points, sanitary al-
attention of the world. The manufac- vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
during industries are attracting a great farm machinery, farm implements,
amount of Northern and foreign capi- water supply, cooling appliances, re-
al, and never before were such heavy cipes for cooking, home decorations,
investments made as during the first household economy, mineral and earths,
half of last December. The following climatology, hints on the care of chil-
record is from the Baltimore Manufac- dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
turer's Record : ments, etc.
Alabama and Tennessee lead in the In treating of the above and related
itory of progress; indeed the boom now subjects, practical experience is much to
amimating the South seems to have be preferred to theoretical knowl-
reached its greatest development in these edge; yet there are topics needing dis-
States. The Ensley Land Company, cussion which have to be treated of
with a capital stock of $10,00,0000, pro- from a somewhat theoretical stand-
poses to construct a new manufacturing point. .
own near Birmingham; and to evi- In describing any method of experi-
dence the excitement in real estate ment it is desirable that all external id-
around that town and the investments fluences be explained; for example, in
.n it, four other companies, with capi- the case of a crop, the character of the
als running from $150,000 to $800,000, season, of the soil, of the sub-soil and
have been organized at Birmingham for the method of planting and cultivating,
similar work. At Florence, which has all have an important bearing on the re-
hitherto remained somewhat quiet in suit. Bare statements of results are of
he ,midst of the great excitement ex- little value, though they may be worthy
tending throughout North Alabama, a of mention.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBRUARY 16. 1887.
flashes a gleam of green and gold and per, mustard, lemon juice, chopped only wonder had never occurred to us L'3L.e B St I ela llt ::leSOl ;t
!ur Oh1 white; a noble orange tree, loaded with pickles, minced onion, or anything pre- before; we put some crumbs out on the
fragrant yellow fruit, and the pure, ferred. Pour this dressing over the dish window sill for him. Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
waxy blossoms, that tell of mole good of salmon and cabbage, and garnish Did he eat them! Well, I should think
HELEN ARCORT- Editor. things to comes, the future altogether with a little of the finely shaved white he did, and asked for more. Unsurpassed byany other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. Ifyou are com-
as beautiful a sight as one need wish cabbage. That was the way the real taming of fing to Florida, whatever may be vour means or condition, dou will most assuredly be pleased with
a atiful a sight as one need wish cabbage. CAKES.our Picarro commenced, as we shall see this Centre of the Lake Region. 'For further particulars address, Fla.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all to see. next week.
Who wish tobe friendly and make us a call; And then, almost within reach of our Take the remnants of a cold boiled Here are two recipes that will please
With words of good counsel for old friends and nook, sits a mocking bird in his neat, ham, fat and lean together, and chop "a'l hands," big children and little ones;
Who come to us seeking the best way to do. trim gray suit; he turns his saucy head them finely, or pound them in a mortar, try them: A general line of Fruit Trees adapted to Florida, including the
to one side, winks at us, and then soars Soak an inch thick slice of wheat bread FIG-cANDY. LAlR li-- T ST I P FiTr n F P A r, H nTuEiEgtS
All questions of general interest will away and sits on the chimney top, sing- in a half pint of warm milk, and whenFIG-CANDY. -E T STOCK OF ACH -TRE
be answered through these columns. ing as if his dear little throat would very soft pound it with the ham. Add Delicious fig-candy is made by boiling To be found in the State,
Personal inquiries will be answered by burst, and what a sweet song it is, so two well beaten eggs to the mixture and one pound of white sugar with one pint PEEN-TO AND HONEY PEACHES A SPECIALTY
mail when accompanied by stamp for full of joy and melody that one's heart a little pepper, and catsup or Chili sauce of water. When it hardens in cold PEEN-TO AND HONEY PEACHES A SPECIALTY.
reply. rises up and thanks God for the gladness Roll into cakes, dip into beaten egg and water pour it over figs which you have Alo, several other choice varieties of Peaches. y stock of elsey's-Japan Plum Trees con-
Subscribers are cordially invited to of it. bread crumbs and fry in pork fat, or put split and placed on buttered plates. Just 1,00 PICH oLINE OLIVE TR EES (2 to 8 feet high); i0 000 ORANGE TREES ( to 4 years
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex- The sweet hymil is ended, and the it into a baking dish and cover it with before you take the candy from the fire old). A full supply ofLeConte, Kieffer and other Pear Trees, Japan Persimons, Figs, Quinces, .
change views, experiences and recipes singer comes sailing down-where, bread crumbs, and bake in the oven for add a small lump of butter and one Apricots, Nectares, Japan edlars, ulberries, English Walnuts, Pecao, Almonds, Japan
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an- think you ? fifteen minutes tablespoonful of vinegar. If you prefer ChesataloguesRaspberrieon application examination toof stock solicited
Otherr" Fearlessly the little fellow hops upon it, the figs may be chopped and mixed r. Lr TABER,
Communications intended for publi- our window sill, upon a shelf fixed there Our Young Folks Corner. with the candy. GLEN ST. MARY, FLA.
cation must be brief, clearly written, on purpose for him, as well he knows; CANDY STICKS.
and only on one side of the paper, he taps at the glass, at first gently, peep- M PETS. CAWhNt DY SKe
Al mte rari oto this department ting in to see if w re coming; then i- Well, here we are just starting away Delicious candy is made by eating r er saae
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE, out our hand with oatmeal (his*favorite at the very start, I pause, hesitating)ly hap the candy to sticks sugarthatyoups wouildbaythatamongtyflrst, ands second premeul,
hol bea e othed e c aponfectionerssugao pe t Wae
hapoitithap it is milk that we essay to pour into to tell you is true, really and honestly the w oith vanilla; instead of choo- tables raised from 2our seems Weh r for v-at
his own little dish, but he prefers to true, every word of it, I fear it will not ayou f ith ALO eed ofhis quaty I am now read e to ee one
From Our Study Windows. enter a stay of proceedings by perching bebelievedl cocoanut; in this case flavor wit lemon. who tills a farm or pants a garden, en g them FE
"I wish," writes a friend from the in- on our finger and drinking from the And I am not the only one, there are HOW TO MAKE MOSS BASKETS geble ndlower atal 188Old stom
clement North. "That you would send saucer, others, who live here in my home, who Very beautiful baskets for holding potato JAS.J.H. SdeeO ataeedlrower,Marble he nad,Maaers
us a measure-of your-bright sunshine; Incredible?. No, it is true, step into know all about my pets, which are theirs flowers can be made of the longer and *
how I wish that we could drop down our Young Fo'ks'Corner, and you will as well, and they say the same thing. It more feathery kind of mosses. A light *_n size 40x100 oo a W on Iake Kingsley, Clay Co., only S8. A
into your sunny nook and spend the see there that this little tame, free bird will not be credited, frame, of any shape you like, should be e UTR feet in S- S, choice 5-acre tract for an ORANGE
winter." has a habitation and a name, Piccaro. Yet, after all, there is no reason why made with wire and covered with com- OVE costs but 50. ood inve
Oa one among many, and no won- Is not this Florida February better, it should not be, the only wonderful mon pasteboard or calico, and the moss, mentHir ingne Land alubrus tat, go0.rdior E R
der Raising our eyes from a newspa- just a little, than that of the bleak thing about it at all, to my mind. is that which should first be well picked over Bank Draft to JOHN T.T LBOT, and get Warranty Deed, Title LU .
per which tells of terrible storms, of icy North and West ? more people do not try what gentleness and- cleansed from any bits of dirt or perfect, from the
winds, of trains blocked for days in the and kindness will do, in making ani- dead leaves which may be hanging L..T AyNTY
midst of rsnow-drifts, of telegraph lines Friend Mas and birds happy and intelligent, about it, gathered into little tufts, and TOEI=O-'L.A.'I", I-A3LFjD' OOIVLJ-S-F.lX Y ,
lying prone on the ground, because of The Family ri It is so much better and nobler, and sewed with a coarse needle and thread to p. o. Bex 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 39 W. fBay St.
the weight of ice encrusting them; of Our Florida housekeepers, owing to more manly, too, to be kind and gentle, the covering, so as to clothe it thickly s
rivers rushing madly beyond their limited means or transportation, are fre- whether dealing with your fellow be- with a close and compact coating, taking v d i ,
banks, because of the sudden breaking quently put to sore straits for want of ings, or with the poor, helpless animals care that the points of the moss are all a
up of an ice gorge; of human beings proper or sufficient "store furniture." and birds that our Heavenly Father has outward. A long handle, made in the -
perishing of cold, or lost in the midst of In such cases, directions for supplying given us to take care of, and use for our same manner, should be attached to the
the dreaded blizzards ; raising our eyes the deficiency, in home-made articles, good and comfort, but never to ill-use basket, and a tin or other vessel, filled
from such chilling reports as these, and are very "handy to have in the house," and make them suffer. with either wet sand or water, placed
looking out from our study windows, and therefore we propose that Our Fain- When a boy or girl is so unfortunate within to hold the flowers. By dipping s q m
whado we see? ily Friend shall become the "friend in as to be left in the power of some one the whole structure into water once in n
Not snow, or ice, or that half-thawed need," and tell, from time to time. how who is unkind and harsh to them, giving three or four days, its verdure and elas- PRINTIN G AN UD L onL u UU :
"slush," which is worse than eilher-ah, to add comfort and beauty to the farm- them lashes beyond their strength, they ticity will be fully preserved, and a t
no ily home. never grow large or strong, and they are block of wood about an inch thick, and
That is the February outlook of the For instance, where is there a woman apt to become dull and sluggish, and stained black or green, if placed under i K |g I C o li
bleak North and West, but it hasno part who will not welcome the knowledge of stupid. the basket, will prevent all risk of dam- n
in sunny, balmy Florida; neither now how to make It is just the same way with animals age to the table from moisture.
or at any other time. A DRESSING TABLE, and birds; be kind to them, make friends ENIGMA NO. 1, U U
What dowe see? The foundation for the table is a long of them, and you will be astonished to I .woehow I e h :
peope whousty d upake thoe g onash thir ie nd, low enough t usr e with a see how bright and happy they.will, be- wo rhomany o eatdsav e rI ,
. peletho chair. In The pic of furniture I have come, and bow much more there i in t grey trying t sov .e-eniga No : FO
e window a ab oi for e l ered pink silk material, but I should but beharsh and ouh and the will The printer (naughty boy tried to
ownywindpows w intherond a sg ofeFa ityFreand-
ill agin never! We know all we wish floral designs ; the fabric is nearly as intelligence that s in them, wll be and read bat for hat, and bll for hall, in||
to avut the poasures of he cwise ra u etas king nmuah toren afr durable. seaend upbanw ouHe awnt ya stone or a then perhaps the mystery "will.tadAlogh
leave them to others less wise. sum. A soft cushion is nailed down all ''chunk" a harmless, happy little bird, is out." .ell.... ....... .h.
Sweo d nd l our i'. '... in ho -e-mdagoreancmfortbtonev iIt is all very well, perhaps, for led
They lowe ta gentlebreeze; s hes ,net ver ae t op and to the w ve thehoust- dam t msthersy eol m! w j prn teri to call the North and West I rT -
wind rises the bananas rise also in the i e material. A flounce fthefe o bsame, Hw wefol the we ir if he oo et e re to
wreath and fight iom, lashing ito with e an t th flhor, is gathered o walking along quietly, ding no harm, r a o t e -
o ng leaves, with a res lonre ed i hon d troiect from he wce aled by a bul t only sintome tha great giant, see- ,e msLv,. and toha WseAr AWtDI w e
sumst beour reaoeino arslemosti toe-ah ,o uadch h eom e on eatch edge ior bing hib, were to thow r heavy rocs or e aid o ur. oPn opni nPs," when c t xa -
made.double... nAev.rgtloo saed t tt at him" Whatost Would h think? pyrie c .e Ewa wrie. n, bt we h i.
Thsaw! Instead of he e broad sut mother, ac an t And now I wll the onrwajs o t re oc e. t i uld ll, e ta
thebroadleavesgraesented before they ll curtains selected over the whole frost and then w see how.co- A Trainsun by oth p erian time central .
winrisesto baction, thrise rema in h e rnowhe z..T h od i ay e fo I Dis exactly the way he treats awthea poor lits a ELe N f ist.
row of browned, dilapidated fringes a bottle et cannot e can be made,ust by treating them ac- N Orlens nd he
W deavet s wdihoat resting ote dc thiided hp ieas he draper thrown over nit e te bi rdo, h mself I rul ean r' "o -..w. -_
hand eae wheipnth for su meu dacihose ioncealsit, should redctfromthe e wall It seems o to me that God would be ywlbet- .. ....
tae o rleaot el, eN for s bas mhe aith r h anleo, and terminate in an bter pleased to see that boy throwing, the gorI t l a .d
aeth W thuc a gre-thas you ntrreprorokwhead or pine cone, birdthat he created some crumbs, -in-- NAVIGATIO COMPANY. T Bo ICOMPET TION
glossy surfacetheypresentedithlace, over foraplain sateen, te, u hl story, and then you ill see how con- Train un y5th eian me (Central). "
we rnto action, th reremains double beareou in teoilte inmensn aiding and loving even birds and lean1imals "a 1 WESTERNlone.....Ar Iss. I I
ro ofn browned, dilapidre ated fringes, A rap re o hang on thwall ha toussyet bytreatin them acl Shrtetani Quickest Route to N e.fisand th lp e. I T ,
ater w lent r ylowo pear- to match ithe table. A pockets formed had come to othersay, a s thyou would be saydone "a"s ,earA l me P M .
Ain the, handseo ar tenfore i t ow e by covering another, and pieces of the same had "hung up hisa." s 12. a pLouis m iAl. r a 2
utre rile k bnea rut ulot anl covered shade, half t lco resong acd iLettusbeginojust that whnte cool days o s... :.. ... 7 as. I -p
adthe lo eas l n the A x f the c and h to an THE STORYand winter, the mock- 8 p LvChicago.............B....Ar l1 30 a 8 o I
l es tso v first. A stick h on ing bird that are with us all summer ei oni.nak etyi UL
S n r o eatoove r the dressing table can be covered Picarro, that whenich is the Spool days chwordme, the rtet a esth te tO anle,
..ni yo ur"pls of, h tois," withlace, overaplainsateen, anddecor- "lttlerascal, andispronounced Peek- o, .,3prMontic'll.. r 1pO 1 l I
it iloftetimas cal ooled o ated wia ribbons; and the pi cusnins aero. PWtcarro is a saucy tte mocking s osa as p Ar Talaassee-.Aer 27 p
And turning to the other windows? mate ae sheltering Jcreen f heboep 4: 0a Lv wy..---Al O OB AD S--
Jack Frst, like the ",dogaintthecma- can be made in holster shape, withe a bird. iitiolda tionwarittnmbt ; when ip1
t to l cordi fastened on both ends to hang it on Ithisquitegthreewyearsgnowosinceheain-rta istops akAr eiar main'a- rfs'n45a | "|-
ger that he is, spoke rather ro gy lookitona glass.t.rond mce hslf? M to our. n otice, a h 0 ms to ia Lv.ecunak prlnga...Ar 7 92p 8 sO "
thesMore an renan ren guavas, a grace- and stocking bags. but a scratching too. u o p a LvGaine8iacola..............Ar 40 Op 645a
ful umbrella tree,waking up in gleeful EE TOOTHACHE. Ad therewase ...............
a ond we taretnot su re tha ot her ide sb the shallus ee i-a --- --- r bIesoa
of the poroh traveling along its whole can be made in the shape of a pajm leaf where his ho me used to be, lor why he so pa LvNew O ...Ar Ol a -J- -- "
lengthand eaching over our windows hot- fan, of pasteboarsoothe d, co vered with s ateen left it, but we soon found out that e p vMontgomer Ar a .
until itrunround the cornerand shakes sleep will natural pocket for had come oto say, and, asthe saying is, E aLLeesbur............... Ar a 2 43
hands with the ape vine, i a magni- covgett ring aup, another patient will feel very glass withung up his beek and ever and anon p a uiville ............. p
,shade, halfthe length anda little mr e e You know that when th cool daya 5 ioa isp Lnnti- Ar 740a 60ip =
cent wistria, loadd down with great much refreshed and the toothache gone. fyiup, and scratch the ass with 0p L ..................Ar 7 7 4 and A en Orm nd.
purple bunches of blossoms. For what is known as "jumping" tooth- eriploes as he cam own again! ra T rouma sR&ein Car Y&sND.n3 nd i. i
Some p people say wisterias will e .not do ac he, hot, dry flannel apliedn to the face the del a nd winter, themock p p aiyce ... I
elephant;" runiigver the porches, up or by stick wound with ribbon will anything bdsthat are withus all summer .Sleeping Cars No.e. No I
o eave and tieny r endsu t s upon ybnho or the handle, and a ribbon bow usually depart, seeking a warmer o Ne eoansF.9 .and N.l n ais o Ie. -
a..e unt it comes out on the other mportoopl o dset o e uth a sratcm"ttere ra s. W naST N.r.A NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEA.SHIP LINE.
And there, peeping around the corner, ouptels ore tditrdoere is t .he, t ng e i,, rigtn ota r p a d EY SEVICE BETWEEa
u V dinih crp tat of c sthe aiace wilIseve toru noa Jng eat ealng, Soelev t ao ,uridelaOrT HO ACKSONVILLE
al ndwaipthle i nth cotsge mas, hlsey ahang,plited cthen bye.er fan dsits oati o td a ng hn thei ol denysr centh shItes. cand uicet Rnoute" insvlle, oa
te once a tearinkf tloeo w-ild ham- Break the i salmon into small pieces, thg e ground, t which ou the murderer L DA -s olNE FORO BESOFA OO.LAtND BEA OAN pEr mG
mock lands, but now quite content to be picking out all bits of cxin and bone; dropped on seeing me coming itwasha aop ea asnnda w oeom OFT AwTt 6P'mY OFoL a o is Line ofeunspaipd by any sha Ain
tamed, and to dwell in living compan- shave some firm, white cabbage very mocking birdp and I carried it i e SEA ILADOTE. the coasieservie. or her information, apply to A a i i
S lonshieep with another of its old friend thine. Sprinkle e ss of this cabbage on house, where I was note heardr queer h i pso aLvBadin-JAronl 1 is i A.sHogans
a beautiful coral honeyuckle, than the bottom ofa salad-bowl, add a layer mourned over then cruel death oe urln....- wd p an satur Ja conv.il le.- .p 4. rD &9 isa s
nd whichfew vin more glorious caw be of the salmon, then another layer of t e friend, for it died in my hands on p a s Lv ace ........... r p a. General Agent 8 Broadwa T.
found cabbage, and on untilzthepdish is suLa- kew momentse- more, h.aelphia, New Yorp anwd Aoston.r
Looking out again from u sthe open door oientlyful. Have ready a dressing made But it was not long before we heard )UMBERLAND ROUTE. .... ST. HEs iTr R EVPORT
uen ubtere-aind ua p icdn digreea ou berLeF t anF steoothpaCHe. oet .gal, and there was eal tr l a 7 s0 pI? 6Ta Lvr Car K 7 1...............A.. p 1 ft O RN
roleifr oune tsof lonu rios of the p; st o aro n t; ddoo othne n ch mspaoing-birad, hTisliu eyeg1w eni ltg r ngrang Les 1t45en moa ^1P r further p -rioelE E
b o it .. f the o sd is .... b th nervous s hi lon g ta i it chn g, s h w es i i a O LvSive piiag A r 4 p "
aof tepr t srav tlsn al is W hle .ofu. ofhe mordke r orynd c eax o e ths s aie e fatig i wa on .. tigh twore wud phav eT^ 8da. i eTeA. p. asasv lydw cpt-. r Sund p 4
telatFlridutomIanse9ors,;apncksryeffcm n d r of l t h. ws ru g p. anSO- A -
lingt nreaing over our ano o batai so t the wh a were a og e mer do a
itruwns ron throhe cann sthae e sla ee will natrnadly feolw indth sa ton an. te f now t i pinat te I tCaten.
c hen. wseria, r oad thedd owihlgeat mu ch refreshed.. an th. tnoothache g.ione fly ing upand scratchig te gssithan 7l .. Po a LAp Ar 5 07p. 4
Funny,.qtimaikap gavrwloe aingcklasvi- l arndakOSpngsl...e.... N 700 aa
andswell iroraeibut cam e and lsee eors; ran pecek iverytef o r co mmon, e n statrueltlebrdkonngfr't' ye....... mly m' or a 0al.Nslan.d 4"daiye.c.ept 0 1Sun 59p"ay. 8
oet growns it thres ou t o n thelo othe-ca cphoreo wich is cshau g sotlondy hmoaaf wherekait.hougtonbe, osayneh thewinertheily.)...da.a..E.s to. Ooa..To V'olua CoODnt25a
eleathearnt; ru ing t, ounththe porches, byof astebord, wered, aitnypthing o mci brd, abtwesoo .out;dmoethan f rdo h agint.h..up...
tote oa ematchtoohable.Afothetootis a muhis .. ..h.mewasspentDtapngasth ourwin-is,755p ar Mat Ale0p70a
greunti itcomes ot y on teo thers a iton Prnoilof rcesal odurneameldy'reection4tallah vanswitleo.......rIidaa
Aidet he Caredoinnthe-diettespeciallywhenthefashin, wito hisowan. o-in5th e h1.oad orSalvannahMounstlanltaha.rltoranf, Steameareppo..tedt YORK & ORIDr S,..,
Andtrhleirs peeping arundr iotheal corvner boesh a re, disorderlengtadaishel tmoglass! wWashington, Bal more, New a. o CincinnatinSt. T WEatLCSni...E..ExWEE5p.
higr .. the roof andoner end poflethe anthetothach.nI tew itoo thim cone od in the ea winte rdrer idm Chic- ag(or pandCaloint..Nrth a nt.and NLnSOrth, .
liea onves, and tenany fruitblossomsthe wild ham-Bireas t. he stickmwound with ribbonotell smgbirdsthatareall psecesmer Atslv.-.CerESpngs, Ewit OcKandah LORIAe Steaers..
goen, leavie hands y w iftlthOberst and ti-phenoloiandJour bonam studyu oseeindow, andrneeing out, was a roeksveiletp t tomeandN Tpa. Snday 1a0, Wedesdy9 for'd10daily.I.ORaO NEWONT- EA A DN VIeALL
......rg ...acreeinrime to. see that a"sarrow-hawn had At J raconio rithdSouthyFla fo ralrorand for anvorkn STeamers areh nassrtdt
ialls andg thde soeairwth eliisaWAY TOim SEiRVe a Madeon seedy mocakin bird, and htec ayscd. it on e andortestandQuicksalRo anetho a ee saifo a, .lt ",N.evileery Tues.ay, Thra
Ponshi pewachantreerroayetsod',from stop in.chSmrinlerscaleondhavisnaagtheon usewne r andTampa.s FnROMteAfl OwGNaaLERandhowLenewrand..... ...itnw)euery 'lorid-a-...
me"oine, on ca tenant o t he wlbreaoke the tinfoi salmn tomaleswl, pieooes, th ed ouned whicdthe murderer nead ad orda upRead.A Y e.mo..
amocklandsebuttowhquitetcontentetibetpickinghouthal bitstofyshine d d on s ing meing; it was a steam Fernandinas S ade Ruede f ro mn C, ....
u ofnshigwthanotherhorditsorins thin.e slomothen aothri cabber on lehinouse, whre Iwasdot tdhed onlytonerwho p-45a ClanD.. .th....si.Fo...nonan2plyGto nera6 A.4LSL, BAd
found, cabbage, and sco on until the' dish is suffi- few moments. Dare, Savannah, coNectw okwih steamersf5 oawnal,.
thermometer stands at "4 degrees--a flourand butter to a smooth paste. PUt again, and there wasapeek! touhorim't-le-'0a'1.anst"edsnKey..r. IS-.ONTEEINE.OFT FL7OpIDA SUTHERN..
wealth of green vines and white and this paste into a pint of boiing cIeam A few other birds were beginning .to uroa... .... and1B. andW.
buff flowers meets our gaze-eThan- and cook aboud two minutes. Pur this come back, and it was one ofnthose the WALTERG...... AN,-- IL" -.,e, -" Unsyurpassed b any g otrooort he pouton ,,anti Veb.
vin.,screen' entwined over oursarbeor. of butter, stirring until the wolehis well Wge were all. so gladto see the merry F' B. PY," ..' P-rr..., FLoR.4
And all through the arch ofuthe latter mixedand cool. Season witthe satIpep-littlefeheoiethat we did what we could ra anrot.d nraUc Mae m1'or ,.te p o, ". I.- '.
bad it h iaevn, samanf- -etn utepain wl el eygas ih ekadeeradaon p615aL avrs............A 5 0
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 16, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of do-
mestic anima's may be addressed to Dr.
D. 0. Lyon, Jacksonville, Fla., who will
answer them through this column.
Roomy and Clean Stalls.
Considering that the farmer's chief as-
sistant, the horse, has to be confined for
half the time in a stall, it is evident that
a proper care of the stall is a matter of
considerable importance. If a horse is
cramped and half choked by improper
haltering, bedded with damp filth and
subject to strong draughts while thus
confined the owner may exp ict to find
him ailing at any time. Put yourself in
-his place This is the style of argument
adopted by the N. E. Farmer:
How would you like sleeping in a box
so narrow that you could not turn over
without knocking the skin off from
your elbows, nor curl up your legs unless
-you lie squarely on your back ? Then con-
sider how you would feel if a'l night
Long you had a halter on that would
not let you lay your head down on your
.pillow, or what answered for a pillow.
Then, to add to your misery, suppose
you had to breathe an atmosphere loaded
with effluvia from decayed manure, and
-fermenting urine. We believe that if you
thoroughly take in all this misery and
annoyance, you will straightway provide
'your horses with ample and clean stalls,
well littered with straw, and that you
will see that the stable has good ventila-
tion, 'as' to furnish your horses with
air as pure as nature made it to breathe.
Perfect repose and pure air are nature's
restoratives for the tired body. It is true
of the horse as well as of man.
Care of the Hoofs.
Rightly viewed, but very few hoofs
should be cut off at the toe, yet not
more than one blacksmith in ten can
resist the temptation to set' the shoe back
upon the hoof, cutting off the projecting
portion. Horses that have been driven
barefooted for a time, invariably wear
the foot off in front, all "it will bear,
hence the smith should be told to set the
shoe forward, flush with the toe. The
average smith does not like to be told
anything about shoeing, but the personal
interest of the owner should take prece-
dence over the ideas of the smith, no
matter how deep-rooted these are, nor
how difficult to yield to the interest of
the party most concerned about the
present and future of the feet of his
horse. In shoeing young horses for the
first time, the size of the feet should be
carefully looked after, and on no pre-
tense whatever should the smith be per-
mitted to narrow or shorten-x the hoof.
-Live Stock Journal.
Warts on Cow's Teats.
The following advice is given by Dr.
Wm. Horne, veterinary surgeon, in the
Jersey Bulletin: If the warts are
large, with a reasonably narrow or thin
neck, tie a waxed silk thread tightly
_--.around each; then touch the surface
with ,butyr, of antimony); touch
morning, noon and night, if convenient.
at all. Care must be taken not t-o touch
any portion of the natural skin anywhere,
If the warts are flat-I mean much sur-
face-and no defined neck tie a small
piece- of, sponge to the end of a
small stick about the size of a com-
mon pencil, dip this into the butyr of
antimony, and with considerable pres-
sure rub all over the surface of each wart.
This will surely and effectually remove
the excrescences. This cannot be done
without a proper tube for running ouit
the milk, so as to prevent handling the
teat and squeezing, which is necessary
in the usual way of abstracting the milk.
The appearance, f. blood in the milk is
very often due to a rupture of some of
the blood vessels of the udder, sometimes
due to a coigested condition of the ves-
sels. This may pf tn because by bruises,
or it may be due to changing the animal
from light food to rich nutritious food,
ina rather sudden increase in the
flow 6r milk. Eating of some poisonous
plant is also sometimes the cause, though
a very rare cause.' It would be advisable
to remove the animal from pasture for
Sa few days and give' her a mild laxative,
say about three-fourths pound of Epsom
salts, and feed sparingly; give bean
mashes four or five days. Administer
twice a day half ounce doses of nitrate
of potassium, dissolved in cold water,
and if you find that blood is still passing
you may give one-half drachm doses of
fluid extract of prgot every four hours.
If your cow is pregnant, omit the ergot,
as it is dangerous. Bathe the udder twice
a day for a week with cold water, and
S rub dry after bathing. -Cotton Plant.
Injurious Food for Hogs
The diseases of swine are due in large
measure to improper food that is often
S-given to themor found by them. Because
hogs will eat anything, they are given
all sorts of refuse and allowed to eat-
anything. that comes in their way. A
eorrespondent- of Home and, Farm
states that he had found hogs killed by
;, jeqting China berries which were, blown
by st~ rirm it '` their pen. '
In the same journal we find the fol-
lowing bearing on this subject: Question
What is the matter Iwith my hogs, and
what shall I do for them? The symptoms
are:. They lie about in the litter; are
stupid ; put their noses to the feed and
root it about, but refuse to eat; circle
round as if affected with blind staggers;
.- .move slowly-all of a sudden drop down
Sand quiver, as if having spasms; they
seem 'to want to dabble in the water;
their'urine is nearly as red as blood or
as dark as strong lye. They have been
''_, running in the woods, where there was
plenty of bitter iastr. Answer.--The last
sentence in your note lets out the secret
-, ;.j.of-the wbole trouble. They have eaten
indigestible, and perhaps, in a measure,
poisonous food, which has deranged and
enfeebled their digestion, the quivering
RAISING POULTRY FOR PROFIT.
Experience in Volusia- County
With Various Breeds of Fowls.
BY E. W. AMSDEN.
I shall not endeavor to answer the
question-does poultry pay, and give
the reasons, in one article, for a good
deal can be said on the subject, and
should be confined to experience,_ or
known facts. Our agricultural papers
contain too much theory and not enough
SThe first question we will consider is
the breed best adapted to our climate.
In this article the profit is supposed to
be derived from eggs and table fowls,
and not from any breeds at high prices.
My first experience was with the com-
mon fowls, bought of the natives, be-
cause I could not get the pure breed
when wanted. I soon pronounced them
"no good," and bought a few Brown
Leghorns, not entirely pure, and a'so a
few Plymouth Rocks.
This was an improvement, but I con-
cluded to try a cross with a light-colored
Plymouth Rock cockerel on Brown
Leghorn hens. For ggs they' are equal
to either of the pure breeds; less active
than the Brown Leghorns and more
docile ; not as heavy or as lazy as the
Plymouth Rocks, and fully as good table
fowls. They mature earlier,' though not
as early as the Leghorn; but there is this
objection, they require a good stock of
patience and high fences if kept in
small yards. I prefer them, however, to
either of the pure breeds.
This year I am having some expe-
rience with- the Wyandotte, and as far
as my experience goes-which is quite
limited-I should say it was,well adapt-
ed to our climate and conditions, being'
docile, easily confined to small quarters,
a fair layer of medium sized eggs, and
a good table fowl, of medium weight. It
is not as easily fattened as the Plymouth
Rock, being more active, and with all,
an ornament to the yard.
We all unite in- awarding the Leghorn
the premium for egg producing, and we
all know that it.is.not profitable to' keep
a fowl through more than one moulting.
If you are keeping a hundred hens, each
year, after the first eighteen months
you have your hundred hens to sell for
table use. .
Those who are posted do not care for
Leghorn meat, and you have some trou-
ble to close out the old stock, and at the
best they will not bring much,,for there
is so little of them-not more than half
in weight of the cross or the Wyan-
dotte, and I do not see that it requires.
much less to keep them than those' of
medium size. What we want in Florida
is a fowl of medium size and lightly
feathered, and I believe the Wyandotte
will fill the bill.
AN APIARIST'S EXPERIENCE.
Sources of Discouragement to
a Novice in Bee Culture.
BY J. Y. DETWILER.
-We are now entering upon the labors
of another year, and as residents of Flor-
.ida, realize by past experience that there
are, but few days, when out-door labor of
some kind'cannot he performed. ijWhile
our friends in their Northern homes are
clustered around their firesides, we'are
comfortable 'in our light suits of cloth-
ing. Having so many days of prospec-
tive labor before- us, it may be well to
look back over the year just past and in-
quire if we cannot profit by the experi-
ences had during that time.
A few possibly may have made no
mistakes, or failed to observe when they
could have. managed to better advan-
tage,but I fear there are many of us who
can truthfully say, were I to perform
the same: work over ,again, I now per-
ceive where the samee.labor-could be per-;
formed to better advantage, both physi-.,
cally and financially. Many of us can,
if we are not too self-confident in our"
own abilities, profit from the mistakes
and failures of our neighbors. This sug-
and spasms resulting from the distened
nerves of the stomach. Our advice is,put
them on a high and dry land pasture,
where they will have plenty of grass,
and clover if you have it; feed them slop
made of equal parts bran and corn meal
allowed to get just a trifle sour, but not
too much so. See that they have, too,
plenty of pure water, a dry bed to lie in
of nights, shade from the heat, and
shelter from cold rains. It is nearly im-
possible to drench a hog-that is, to give
him medicine. All that can be done is,
to give him something that will not
flatter his appetite. Provide a trough,
place it under cover, and fill with equal
parts of fresh wood ashes, salt and
broken charcoal, and let the hogs have
free access to it, and lick and eat at their
pleasure, fresh water being near, where
they can quench thirst at will. A portion
of the lot will-recover in'course of time.
A writer for the Times-Democrat de-
scribes the symptoms of this prevalent
and dangerous disease, and gives his
treatment for the same :
Symptoms: Coughing, -falling off in
flesh, diarrhea, vomiting, especially soon
after eating; failure of appetite, red and
watery eyes, ears droops the back is
humped, head hangs low reddish or
purplish spots on skin along the belly
and the inside of the. thighs. The hog is
sensitive to the touch, as if sore. At
times. constipation instead of diarrhea.
Hog seeks the shade and lies flat for
hours; no disposition to move.
As long as they will eat there is hope
On first sight of symptoms give each
hog a tablespoonful of magnesia, We
have cured several slight attacks
with this simple remedy. A little later
give quinine, ten grains in a little meal
mash. Force the food down if the bog
will not eat.
gestion will apply especially to.the new
arrivals to the State of Florida, who
propose to locate among us, 'o build up
their homes by their industry and labor,
and who, notwithstanding they may be
specially well informed in the methods
employed in thtir former homes in re-
gard to the raising of various crops, the
knowledge possessed may not, in the
soil and climate of Florida, prove of the
value they expected.
This has specially been the case with
some of the Northern apiarists who
have located in this vicinity. Realizing
the adaptability of the climate for api-
culture, the un'imnited honey resources
when in their prime, and being encour-
aged by former experience in the North,
they imagine there can be no chance for
failure when the wintering problem has
been done away with.
A year or two of experience will either
cause them to change their programme
or they return disgusted with all that
pertains to Florida apiculture. There
are several reasons that can be given,
all of which have come under my ob-
servation since I have made my home
in this State, though I confess I was in
ignorance of them previous to my com-
For the past ten or twelve years I have
been a constant reader of the various ap-
icultural journals published in this coun-
try. No one was more interested in the
reports from Florida and California than
I, and I endeavored since 1872 to arrange
my affairs so that I could Yemove to
Florida. Finally the spring of 1883
found me in quest of a place, and not
until December of the same year did I
secure my present location.
In the interior I traveled over the east-
ern and central portions of the State ac-'
quiring information from various-sources
relative to the best location for success-
ful honey production. The Black Man-
grove was then in its prime and this lo-
cality was all that could be desired.
After securing a sufficient number of
colonies to begin operations, I soon
found that- bee-keeping, queen raising
and the production of honey in the cli-
mate of Florida was an entirely differ-
ent thlng from that to which I was ac-
customed in Northwestern Ohio. ;
After losing a number of colonies and
gaining my experience in Florid& been
keeping at the expense of my pocket, I
made a radical change in my manage-
ment, and since that time have' been
making advances slowly, though surely.
The result of the frost of a year ago
was quite a serious drawback the past
season, but we have lived through it at
the expense of a few of the weaker col-
This has been my experience in Flori-
day apiculture, and instead of feeling.
humiliated at my poor success in. start-
ing, I am happy in being able to inform
those Intending to' engage in the api-
cultural industry of my disappointments
and hope the readers of this article may
profit by my statements.
After passing through my experiences
I furnished several articles to various
papers, relative to the facts in the case,.
cautioning the readers not to take too
much stock in the flowery statements
appearing in the Northern bee journals.
For this I was censured by resident
apiarists; who "for motives best known
to themselves, thought proper to con-
vey misleading statements, barely
clothed with a shadow of truth, which
would no doubt draw immigration to
I do- not deny that there have been
large yields of honey produced by indi-
viduals in this immediate locality, but I
fail to see the profit of taking all the'
bees gather simply for the sake of report-
ing a larger yield than other apiarists,
and then returning the same, by feeding
afterward. These are facts and can be
substantiated, and are practiced for the
express purpose of creating a reputa-
tion abroad as the most successful
honey producers of this locality. ;:
I have known parties to ship bees to
New SmN rna from New York State
thinking it more profitable than'pur-
chasing them here. Though amply sup-
plied with bees and 'sufficient honey,
they came through in such bad condition
that but few survived. Within the last
sixty days a.car load of bees, consisting
of from seventy to eighty colonies, was
shipped from Iowa. They were several
weeks on the road. and from all accounts
were amply supplied with honey. They
are at this writing, with but few excep-
tjons,dead.The supposition is that as they
approached the humid climate of Flor-
ida, the honey contracted moisture, the
heat of the bees caused fermentation to
take place in the honey, which, when
consumed by the bees, caused dysentery
and in their state of confinement, being
unable to void their their, forces, caused
their death. ,When it is taken into con-
sideration that the party was cautioned
as to the -result by an experienced
resident apiarist, last season, he is
to be -more blamed' tha 'pitied.
Experience is paid to be a dbar
school, and it certainly has "proven
itself so in this instance. I could men-,
tion other cases, but the 'foregoing are
ample to show to those contemplating
a change of location from North to
South, .the possible results attending
Northern management in this climate.
NEW SMYRNA, Fla, Jan. 10, 1887.
Ithas been estimated that there are
more than 12,800 square acres of edible
oysters in the waters of Florida.
They occur in natural beds in the salt
and brackish waters of the bays of the
northern parts of the State, on the east
and west coasts. Along the shores ,of
the southern part of the peninsula are
large reefs of a small oyster known as
"coon oyster," or '"tree oysters," the lat-
ter name referring to their habit of grow-
ing upon the tide-washed roots of the
mangrove tree. These oysters are of no
commercial value, because of their di-
minutiveness. .-:' : -: ,
s The only method of gathering oysters
ini Floi'ida.is that of the use of the ordi-
lary" 6yter-tongs,-;ledges or other im-
proved apparatus have not yet been re-
quired. Apalachicola, Cedar Key, Jack-
sonville, Pensacola St Andrews Bay and necessity of leavi, g the country, and
Tampa are the principal oyster markets, promised to assemble his band and make
Apalachicola has recently been doing a an effort to bring them to the same con-
thriving business in canning the excel- clusion. Fort Pierce, on the Atlantic
lent oysters of that vicinity. coast, was fixed upon as the place of
meeting, and during the next two
Smorths he went often to the fort,- ac-
companied with other warriors. He said
he was anxious to emigrate, but found
it hard to collect his men ; but that a
Noted Leaders of the Indian council would soon be held near Lake
Wars. Okeechobee. by Holatter-Mieco, Haspe-
BY C. M. B. tarke and Arpeika, when he would be
.' present, and would use his influence.
IV. cAOCOOCHEE (CONTINUED.) However, Major Childs, who was in
Caocoochee and his band joined command at Fort Pierce, began to doubt
Arpeika-then on his way to an inter- the sincerity of his professions, and to
view with General Jesup-and persuad- suspect that the object of his frequent
ed him to relinquish all thought of visits to the fort was merely to obtain
capitulation, and even of an interview, provisions and whisky for the summer,
He then persuaded the other chiefs to that he might again seek refuge in the
make renewed efforts; and'thus the war swamp; he expressed his apprehensions
was prolonged for several years. to General Armstrong, who then gave
Arpeika was more than seventy years orders for the seizure of Caocoochee and'
of age, but as determined and fearless his companions when 'hey should next
as Caocoochee himself. He was more visit the fort. In obedience to these
dangerous from his association with orders, Carocochee, his brother, uncle,
other chiefs than from the strength of and thirteen warriors were seized and.
his own band, which was small and en- put on a ship, which was to take them
cumbered with many women and chil- to New Orleans, whence they should
dren proceed to Arkansas. But when news of
The most important of his associates this step was received at headquarters,
was Otulke-Tholko, or the Prophet, the Disbursing Agent of Indian Affairs
whose influence over the minds of the was sent at once to New Orleans to bring
Indians was powerful. Even those In- back the prisoners.
dians who had emigrated held religious
festivals to protect themselves' from his .
evil influences, for they believed that he How Our Paper IS Regarded.
held communion with the Great. Spirit, -
and could, by intercession, bring-to pass Judging from the expressions of ap-
any desired result. Hewas' a Creek', 'and proval which are-coming to us daily from
said that during the troubles of 1886, he correspondents and the presp,_and from
was imprisoned in Georgia, and the the rapid increase of our subscription
Great Spirit had released him, corn- list, it is evident that the FARMER AND
manding him to come to Florida to FRUIT-GROWER has met'with a more'fa-
avenge the wrongs of the Seminoles. vorable reception than we had ventured
The headquarters of Arpeika were on to exp.ect.
Lake Okeechobee. Otuike inhabited In a few instances we can give the sen-
the Big Cypress Swamp, where, writes tirment of a letter by quoting one or two
Sprague, "the vegetation is so. dense sentences, as in the following example:
that ,the sun never penetrates to the Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the. Agricul-
earth, and the water stands the whole tural College of Florida, writes as fol-
year round, from six inches to two feet lows: "I can say in all sincerity, it has
deep, covered with 'a green slime, which, exceeded my most sanquine expectations.
when disturbed, emits a most noxious Already it's without a peer in all the
vapor. Snakes and alligators are here South."
found in great abundance. In the centre Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
of the swamp there are a few ridges or eminent success in truck gardening as
islands, where the ladians lived and well as his able writings on farm topics,
planted." This was the retreat of the entitle his opinions to respect, expresses
most dangerous Indians, and here the himself as fol'ows : -'The first number of
white men could not come. the FARMERAND FRETIT-GROWER was duly
Otulke had little, fondness for con- received and is the best thing in its way
flicts, and usually found some ingenious I have seen. It is just the paper needed,
pretext for remaining in the swamp, and if you keep it up to the present stan-
while he sent out his men to do battle dard of excellence must become popular
.The chiefs associated with him were with the people. I can't see where you
Micco, Parsake, Assinawar, Fuse-Hadjo, have left any room for improvement." .
Holatter 'and Hospetarke. Wonderful Mr. Chauncy W. Wells, of Tampa,
was the effect produced upon these men writes: "I have looked it over and find
by the recital of Caocoochee's story, and much valuedinformation and consider
with burning indignation, they renewed it worthy to be placed ,side by side.with
their vow never to surrender to the any other like paper published."
white man. Mr. Charles W. Stevens, of Orange
The Indians, now desperate, gave their county, writes: "Your able paper fills
whole strength to the- struggle, and, a want long felt in this part for a good
spread terror over all the land; Homes agricultural paper. Success to you."
were burned, and wh6le families were Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
murdered. Osceola was dead, and no one writes: "I believe your paper will do a
now-said: "Spare'the women and chil- good work in disseminating new ideas in
dren." It seemed as if the war would regard to fruit raising, farming,- stock-
never end; the people, the soldiers, the raising, etc. -, ...
government were "sick, with the long- veteran nurseryman, who objects to
ing of hope deferred." the publication of his name, expresses
At last, in the spring of the year 1841, himself thus: "I like your paper first-
affairs took a more favorable aspect for rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
the whites. General Leigh Reid, who tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
commanded east of the St. Johns, cap- little while to give you an article every
tured, in the Everglades, Micco, one of week.
Otulkee's associates. After a short period Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island,
Colonel Worth sent a messenger to Cao- "Judging from what I have seen of the
coochee with a "talk" and present's. One FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, "it is the
might suppose that Caocoochee would best agricultural paper published In the
have had little 'faith in his enemy's South, I predict immense success for it."
talks or presents, but he sent the Colonel Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
eight sticks, representing the number of county, writes "Judging by the copy
days that should pass before his coming sent me the paper is 'A No 1,' and I
to the camp. On the appointed day he do not wish to miss a single number."
arrived, with some friendly Indtians and Mr. W.,S. Moore, of Alachua county,
seven of his own men. writes: "I have read withmuch inter-
Some months before Caocoochee had eat your FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
attacked a traveling party of actors and am much pleased' with' it. It is
on their way to St. Augustine, and had much needed and can be made of much
taken possession of their wardrobe. In value to Florida."
some of those garments he and his fol- Mr.'A. F. Brown, of Putnam county,
lowers attired themselves on the present writes : "I am very much pleased in-
oc asion, and strange indeed must have deed with the new paper. If is just
been the appearance of the warriors in what we have needed for a long time.
their fantastic array, walking boldly ,Success to it." .. .
into the cfmp. Caocoochee himself wore Mr. S. L.Culler; of Seffner, Florida,
the dress of Hamlet, and faithful writes: -If you continue to make the
Horatio walked by his side; the others FLORIDA FARMFR AND FRUIT-GROWER
of the party were adorned with various equal to thefirst number, you will cer-
bits of finery which pleased their taste tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
Caocoochee's bearing was modest, but ida with a paper that- will please them.
fearless. He shook hands with' the I am traveling through the country
Colonel and the other officers, and said among the farmers, and in every way
that he had come to the camp of the that I can assist you itwill be cheerfully
white men, trusting to their honor and done." '
truthfulness. It is said that by his sin- Mr. H.-W. Greetham, of Orlando,
ple dignity, courage and manliness, he writes: "I am greatly pleased with the
commanded the respect of all about sample copy of your paper, and iel sure
him. He spoke briefly, but with emo- it will prove a valuable additiOi to agri-
tion, of-the events of the pastfew years. cultural literature devoted especially to
"The whites have dealt unjustly by me," Flo ida."
he said. "I came to them. They do- Mr.W. 'N. Justice, commission mer-
ceived me. I love this land; my body is chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Htving
made of its sands; the Great Spirit gave received the first issue of youragricul-
me legs to walk over it, eyes to see its tura paper, an being delighted with
ponds, rivers, forests and game; then a its tone, we wlsh you to insert our card
head, with which I think. The sun, for six months.
which is warm and bright as my feel- [From the Citra New Era.]
ings are now, shines to warm and bring We have received the first number of
forth our crops, and the moon brings, the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
back the spirits of our warriors, GROWER, published at Jacksonville.
our fathers, wives and children." It is an elegant publication and deserves
"The; white man comes. He grows to succeed, and we trust it will.
white, and pale and sick. Why can we [From the Texas Farmer.]
not live here in peace ? I have said that Florida is not behind her sister South-
Iam an enemy to the white men. I ern States in material progress. It
could live in .peace with them, but they ought to be called the land of fruits and
first steal our cattle and horses, cheat us, flowers, for each of these grand divis-
and take away our lands. The. white ions of horticulture are equally at home
men are as thick as the leaves in the there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUT-
hammock ; they come upon us thicker GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
every year. They may shoot us, drive gantly printed paper devoted to these,
our women and children everyday, they ve toics, to which we refer the reader'
may chain our hands and feet, but thefor further information.
red man's heart wmll be always free. ..
I have come here in peace, and will [From the Southern Live Stock Journal.]
take you 'by the hand. I will sleep in We regret that the first number [of
your camp, though your soldiers stand the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER] failed
around me like the pines. I am done. to reach us; but the second shows a very
Whenwe know each others' faces better handsome sheet as to paper, typography
I will say more." -.. and general make up, while the addi-
SCaocoochee remained in camp :several .tional department is all we- expected of
days, and had many conversations with the 'distinguished editor. Many of our
the Colonel; finally he admitted the readers are interested directly and sec-
PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD,
Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
L. B. CULLEN, Propr.
Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
Only one variety kept (J. Boardman Smith's
pure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks
after June 1st. Write for what you want, en-
closing stamp for reply. No circulars.
C L'E1~ULEtS & Co.,
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C. S. ,'ENxMe 4 A 00.,
- JACKSONVILLE, PLA
-ROYAL PALM NURSERIES'
R Rare tropicals ornamentaland fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses, and general nur.
sery stock adapted to Florida and tbe South.
Exotica from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before itroduced
into the United States. .
The. most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants publiaed in
America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 15 cents. ree to all customers.
The largest grower of these Pears from Cut-
tings. Buy no other and avoid Blight. Cata-
logues free. W. W. THOMPSON,
&Name this paper. Smithville. da.
S END YOUR'
TO T JOb pripti .
TO THE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS.
I 0& 0411k' a t+* H
Ssra I^f^ ff firi fl a
ondarily in everything connected with-
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy,
of their patronage. With best 'wishes
for its success, we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor and patronage,
feeling assured for the good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida.
[From the Mariana Courier.]
The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER, published by 0. H. Jones&
Bro., proprietors of the Times- Union, at
Jacksonville, is now on our table. The'
initial number of this. publication proves
plainly its aim and purpose, and it will
be of vast importance to the fruit grow-
ers and farmers of the Slate. 'It is neat-
ly printed and contains some valuable
information in regard to the fruit grow-
ing interests. Send your address and
get a copy of ,it free and then subscribe.
[From the.Baker County Sentinel.]
The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWRR, just out from theTIME.S UNION
office; has just -been received at this
office. It is a. handsome six-column-
eight-page paper, and is perfect in gen-
eral make-up and typographical appear-
ance. Among its crops of contributors
are numbered the most learned and pro-
gressive men of our State in matters of
which the paper will be an exponent,
That the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT ,
GROWER will meet wihb favor and re-
.ceive a hearty support from Florida.
growers there is no -question. .
IGH GRADE JERSEY CATTLE.
To purto hase Grade Jersey Cows trom one,
hbnlfl toseven-elgbhths. sired by registered buU
some with calves and some to calf sbortly
rp Ices I Su o10 40. Apply to
RUDOLPH GETZLAFF, .
References given If desired.
ALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
Bidslnpt placed on small stocks;-but on extra.
large and flne ones.
We make a .pecialiy of the
--EARLY' SPA-NISH ORANGE--
4the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMESand .
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show trees of the latter that atood the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KIDNEY & CAREY,
P. O. Winter Park, Fla.
SVery coliTHtor inm ID
Sll Uje .s'o,.lim rbhnlid nave a
e- contamng n6 pnaes
SOUTHERNu o el in lfOCmIatlnon.
a iaaia address kIOBERT
ALMANAC nrjs~T, Jr., PhA&,
ALMANAC S,Sd Fa,-. Rose.
For 187. dale a d Wairford..
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBRUARY 16. 1887.
VENTILATED BARRELS, ALSO BAR-
RELS MADE OF ONE STAVE.
Homemade Contrivances for Tightening
Wire-Crop Statistics and Other Agri-
cultural News-Advantages of the Japan
Chestnut Over Other Foreign Varieties.
Considerable interest has been mani-
fested of late in the Japan chestnut,which
has thus far seemed to thrive better here
than other members of the European
chestnut family (castanea vesca).
Our nurserymen generally are ready to
speak a good word for this tree, and are
recommending it, not only for its fruit,
but as a pleasing object on the lawn.
Thye pctureidered gieas an aveagmseiraben
one of ten burs
to ripen in last sea-
son's crop at the
ry, Little Silver,
N. J.. where the
has been tested
along with other
The out shows- a t s
b u r containing
three nuts, and APA CHESTNUT.
may be considered as an average specimen,
though some burs contain as many as
In regard to this tree Mr. Lovett, pro-
prietor of the nursery where the burr
shown inthe cut was grown, says: "The
tree seems to be a good and thrifty grower
and nicely fitted for a place on the lawn,
as it branches out low and forms a close
compact head. It should he understood,
however, that the Japan chestnut varies
as much iii size of tree and nut and in
bearing quality as our native sweet chest-
nut or the English walnut."
About the fruit of this -tree Mr. Lovett
very frankly says that it is neither as
brittle, tender nor sweet as our native
chestnut. But since, when roasted, it
compares favorably in quality with the
Spanish chestnut so largely sold in cities,
he has no doubt but that the Japan
chestnut crop, if produced in this country,
would find ready sale for the purposes of
the now imported Spanish nut and prove
profitable to the producer.
MThe great advantage the Japan chest-
nut has over other foreign varieties of the
chestnut family seems to be its more
dwarfish habit of growth, remarkably
e early fruiting, its apparent hardiness,
which so far appears to be equal to our
Practical Sheep Culture.
Statistics make it appear that.medium
'wool commands a better price now than
fine wool. In consideration of this fact a
Michigan shiee breeder, at the late meet-
ing of the American Meino Sheep Regis-
ter association advises: First, -the _,com-
mon breeder of the native ranger-raising
sheep for the market--couple his flock of
coarse wool ewes with a good selection of
thoroughbred merino rams, and thereby
increase the weight and improve the quasl-
ity of fleece without decreasing the weight
of the carcass. -
In crossing the breeder further, advises
thatno onCe.be led by any false notions of
economy to use anything but a thorough-
bred sire on the flock. In case one owns
the common: natives of the country, the
use of a well bred sire is all the more im-
portant for sowhert else will the evi-
dence of his power to transmit his charac-
teristics bhe seen than on common stock.
The experiment of crossing coarse wool
rams on fine wool ewes produces disas-
trous failures, the result being so far as
the works concerned, a grade not desir-
able, owing to its variety. The result is
generally a light, dry, tough wool to cut,
and frequently a surface on the sheep of
little fine wrinkles, over which it is diffi-
cult to shear.
In considering the asubjct of public
shearing matches, and the infatuation for
producing a heavy fleece without due re-
gard to quality, this Michigan grower be-
lieved that the ambition to produce heavy
fleece cannot receive too much encourage-
ment, provided the standard of excellence
can at the same time be improved; then,
and not until then, should this depart-
ment of the enterprise be considered
worthy of attention. For what can be
the object in producing twenty-five to
thirty pounds of wool which shrinks so
much in cleansing that fewer -pounds of
desirable wool are obtained than from a
lighter fleece that has gained greater
length of staple. It is often the case that
a dense, short and very oily 'feece weighs
more than another that will cleanse out a
greater quantity of wool of superior
New Inventions in Barrels.
Numbered with novel productions in
way of barrels is a ventilated barrel intro-
duced to public notice by Isaac A. Kerr,
of Muscatine, Ia., the inventor. This
package is described by those who have
seen it as a bulging barrel, having its
sides constructed of straight parallel edged
staves or slats, convexed longitudinally.
The staves are secured by woven wires in
position to form between the staves, ven-
tilating openings, enlarged from the ends
to the middle of the barrel. There is an
inner pervious- lining adapted to admit
ventilation through the openings.
I: "I L I-
ONE STAT E'"BABBEL.
SThe cut here give represents a one
st- ave barrel from the factory of the Anchor
Manufacturing company, Detroit, Mich.
It Is sufficiently plain to be understood
without any written explanation.
,.. 'p_ s'..' ;,. '. Cereal Crops of 1886.
,''.a -Tehg area, product and value of the
crops (f coru, vieai and oats last year, as
prepared for permanent record by the Na-
tional department of agriculture, is as fol-
The corn crop, in round numbers, ag-
gregates 1,665,000,000 bushels, grown on
75,000,000 acres, and has a farm value of
$610,000,000. The yield is 22 bushels per
acre-4 1-2 bushels less than last year.
There is an increase of area of over 3 per
cent., and a decrease in product of 14 per
cent., while the average price has in-
creased 12 per cent., or from 32.8 cents to
36.6 cents per bushel.
The aggregate product of wheat is
457,000,000 bushels, from an area of nearly
37,000,000 acres, having a farm value of
$314,000,000. The average value is 68.7
cents per bushel, against 77.1 for the pre-
vious crop and 64.5 cents for the great
crop of 1884. This is 35 per cent. reduc-
tion from the average value between 1870
and 1880. The general average for winter
and spring wheat is nearly 12.4 bushels
The product of oats is 624,000,000 bush-
els, 5,000,000 less than last year, from an
area of over 23,000,000 acres, producing a
value of $186,000,000. The average yield
is 26.4 bushels, against 27.6 last year.
The average value is 29.8 cents per bushel;
last year, 28.5 cents per bushel.
Advantages of the Jerseys.
The advantages of the Jerseys over other
breeds, according to The Live Stock
1. Jerseys make more butter annually,
compared with the food they eat, than any
2. Jerseys make better butter than any
other breed-better grain and better
3. Jersey milk is the most profitable
because it contains more butter per quart
than that of any other breed, its cream
rises quicker and its butter comes quicker.
4. Jersey butter brings from two to, ten
cents more a pound than any other, as a
rule, throughout the United States; hence,
on ninety farms out of a hundred where
butter is a specialty the introduction of
Jersey blood will change butter making
from a dead loss to a net profit.
5. Butter farming is more profitable,
healthful and refined than truck farming,
beef farming, poultry or pig raising.
6. For every cent" lost on account of the
Jersey's small carcass, there are two cents
gained on account of her better butter and
larger annual yield.
We want Holsteins and Ayrshires for
the general cheese and milk supply; we
want Shorthorns and Herefords for their
beef, but the country wants the Jersey
for her butter-so let us have an end to
the opposition which this breed has "met
with for forty years. He who specializes
wins. The "general purpose cow" is an
impossible animal. Let each farmer de-
cide whether all circumstances point-to a
beef, a milk or a butter breed, and choose
his stock accordingly.
Good Cider Vinegar.
Good cider vinegar can be made easily
and quickly if the following directions are
-followed: When the ciuer is made, save
the pomace and put it in tight barrels or
hogsheads, with one head out, and put
in enough rain water to cover it. After
it has begun to ferment, draw off from
the bottom all that you can, dilute the
cider with it, and nearly two barrels
of vinegar can be made of one of
cider. Do not fill the barrels in which the
.cider Is to be made quite full, as there
should be a space for air. Leave the
bung hole open, but protect it from flies
by a covering of wire screen or gauze.
Put into each barrel one or two pounds of
bread dough, in the condition it is in when
your wife is kneading it out into loaves.
Once a day, for a few weeks, draw out
from each barrel a gallon of the cider
and pour it into the bung hole, so as to
get air Into it. A quart or two of
molasses are recommended as a help,
and beech shavings and brown
paper are often used to hasten the
acetic fermentation; but we think the
bread dough is best. If the vinegar is
made in summer, it may be made out of
doors, but late in the fall it should be in a
room where the temperature can be kept
up to 70 or 80 degs. by stove heat. The'rb
is a good demand for cider vinegar, and
the making ofit will be found quite profit-
able if due attention is given to it and an
article uniformly good, produced.-Rural
New Yorker. .
Potassium for Mildew.
John Hunter, Tivoli, N. Y., in Vicks'
Popular Monthly, says: It may be useful
to know my experience with sulphide of
potassium. In a cold grapery, through
neglect, on a very hot day in August, and
not sufficient air having been given,
I attribute the cause of mil-
dew, which I found gaining rapid head-
way when I went into the house a
day or two afterwards.. My first thought
I cannot describe, for the vines were set
with an abundant crop of fruit. A deci-
sion to stop the ravages at once was
quickly formed, as the use of sulphide of
potassium occurred to me. Therefore,
at 6 o'clock next morning I went Into
the vinery with a pound of the sul-
phide. I put a quarter of an ounce into
two gallons of water and commenced to
syringe the vines. As soon as I had gone
all over them with the solution I com-
menced to wash the foliage with clear
water by turning it on through the hose,
in order to be secure against any evil that
might occur from too great strength. I re-
peated this two mornings more. The grapes
at the time were three parts colored, and
to-day they are in perfect condition. I
may say that sulphide of potassium is the
quick dispatcher of mildew, and the friend
of the gardener. -
Facts Farmers Ought to Know.
A. W. Cheever, excellent authority,
says that one ounce of carbolic acid dis-
solved in five gallons of water and sprayed
upon grape vines when the fruit is small
has been found to check the disease known
as grape rot.
A small dash churn Is easily made by
fitting a cover and a dasher to gallon
crock. This will churn two days' cream.
None of our domestic' animals' furnish
more healthful meat than the sheep.
BY S. BARING GOULD.
HOW SHE SAW THE SILVER BARROWS
Trip returned to the half villa angry,
unhappy, distracted. The house, of which
the lodgings occupied by her and her
husband formed half, was in a row of de-
tached villas. Two or three were let,
others were to be let, just built, others in
course of erection. The half house ad-
joining the lodging of the Beauforts was
unoccupied. Beaufort house, Piccadilly,
had resolved itself into No. 4, Woodbine
Cottages, Lower Norwood. That where
she was was Lower Norwood Trip did not
know. She knew she was somewhere in
the suburbs of London, but on which side
of the Thames she was unaware.
She retreated to her room, and locked
herself in. She was very indignant at
the treatment to which she had been sub-
jected, at the deception that had been
played on her, resolved to come to an ex-
planation with her husband, and insist
on being allowed to communicate with
What was Mr. Beaufort's business?
That he had some she made no doubt.
Who were his companions? On what
were they engaged at night? Why did
she see no one? Why did none of her
own sex visit her? Why was she watched,
and every effort made to keep her a pris-
oner in the house? These were questions
that worked to the surface in her mind.
They were questions that must be an-
swered; she would insist on having them
satisfactorily answered.. ,
Trip may have been foolishly brought
up, reared to love show, to think much
of herself, to be greedy of admiration,
but there was character in her-good
stuff that had not been brought out. She
had shown determinationin the matter
of the ride on the sails of the windmill.
That showed how she could stick to an
idea when she had got hold of it, and
carry it out.
For the first week Trip had been be-
wildered, and unable to take her bear-
ings. Cast into a new world, she had
been inclined to lean on her husband, to
trust him, though disappointed. But she
speedily found that he was not to be
trusted, that she could trust no one but
herself. If she leaned on him, he would
let her fall. She must gather up all her
resolution, and under the strange cir-
cumstances in which she found herself,
act for herself.
She sat in her room thinking, but un-
able to decide on her course further than
to wait her hubsand's return and seek an
explanation. What steps to take should
that explanation not be satisfactory, she
left for the futuree to decide.
Hours passed and-he did not return.
She asked the woman when he was likely
to be home, and then was angry with
herself for having asked the question-
for having admitted that this person was
more in his confidence than herself. The
surly woman gave Trip 'her meals as
usual, and the poor young wife made
vain efforts to swallow them.
Ten o'clock came, and her husband had
Trip ran down stairs, and told the
woman, Nelly, not to sit up, she would.
"Sit up!" sneered Nelly. "You'll
have to sit pp all night, then. He won't
be back till morning, if he comes at all,
and when he comes he won't want you."
Trip flared up. "You Insolent woman,
how dare you speak to me like that?
You know where Mr. Beaufort is? Where
Then the woman put her hands on her
hips, looked at the poor girl, and burst
into derisive laughter.
Unable to endure her offensive conduct
longer, Trip ran upstairs and threw her-
self on her bed, and burst into bitter
weeping through humiliation and dis-
Now she remembered Joe's warning,
how he had bid her beware of the man
who had bewitched her with appeals to
her vanity. Now she felt what'afatal
mistake she had made in rejecting faith-
ful solid Joe's offer. It was too late. As
she had made her bed, so must she lie in
It. But, ohI what a bed of thorns it
was already proving itself to be. I-
Oh, that dear old windmillI The
happy hours she had spent in it, the
creaking of the timber in the stress of the
wind, the whirr of the wings, the grind
of the wheels, the throb of the shifter,
the rattle of the inking box. How all
these sounds came back to heroin the
night. She had lowered the gas to a pea,
and lay on her bed thinking, her brain
wide awake in nervous excitation.
Ohl the pleasant smell of the flour,
and the bean field In June in full blos-
How sweet Joe's honey had been! No
honey like it in the world. He kept in
the mill some bread and a plate of comb,
and he had allowed Trip always, when
she came to the mill, to eat his bread
She thought of the little house with
its tile roof, and the sunflowers and
hives; and the willows ab ut the garden
growing out of the edge of the dike, and
of the duckweed, and the white shining
flowers studding the water like stars
studding the sky. Then she left the bed,
and in the half darkness groped in her
work box till she found her whistle; and
now she took a piece of string and fas-
tened it to the whistle, and hung it round
her neck. It should hang there, a dear
remembrance of happy old times, of in-
nocent, sunny childhood, when she had
no sorrows, no dark and dreadful future
She threw herself on the bed again
and found her pillow wet with tears.
She put the whistle to her lips, not to
pipe loud on it, but to try it, to call up
old associations. Alas! the whistle would
not act, the. back was split. She had
piped the last call on it that night In the
park when .Joe, had refused' to return,
piped' hler last chance away; now the
voice was gone from the whistle, and
with its failure it appeared to Trip
as if every hope was gone from her.
Who could help her now? Algernon Beau-
fort was her lawful husband and protec-
tor. What could Joe do for her? or-her
father and mother?
Oh the shame of having to return to
Ringwood with the confession that she
had been duped! How could she face
Joe? How bear the jeers of those who
had encouraged her, yet had secretly en-
vied her, and would rejoice over her dis-
Eleven o'clock had struck. Twelve-
midnight was past. One o'clock. Still
her husband was not returned. She
knew that the woman Nelly was below,
awake and waiting for her master's re-
turn. What was more, she was making
up a great-fire in the stove in the dining
Nelly was much older than Mr. Beau-
fort, very ugly, but her expression was
much more ugly than her features. She
certainly was wholly in his confidence;
and 'he must assuredly be afraid of
offending her, or he would not have
suffered her to behave rudely to his wife.
Trip was sure that Mr. Beaufort loved
her; she'was quite assured that she did
not love him, never had loved him-and
she was linked to him by her own act for
Nelly was at the fire stirring It, adding
coal and coke. Then Trip heard a soft
step on the stair, or rather the creak of
the stair under an ascending heavy tread,
and once the rattle of a loose bar in the
banister. Trip heard the step at her
door. Nelly had come there to listen if
her mistress were asleep, to see if the
room were dark. Apparently satisfied,
Nelly descended with less caution than
she had mounted. The woman thought
Trip a young, vain, pretty fool, not re-
quiring much watching, incapable of
giving much trouble.
Still no signs of the return of Mr,
Beaufort. Where could he be? What
could he be doing? Why should he con-
ceal his movements from his own wife?
Trip rose from the-bed and went to the
window; at the head of .the row was a-
gaslight, none lower. Another would be
added, may be, when the row was com-
pleted and the houses let. The road was
bad, furrowed with the wheels of carts
and traction engines that brought build-
ing materials to the newly erecting houses.
Surely the new day was dawning.
There was a raw light behind -that house
opposite which was uninhabited. Surely
there was some discerning of the bushes
and rails of the little garden!
All at once, as Trip was considering
this, a conveyance stopped at the gate,
and four men jumped down, one stood by
the horse, and three lifted something
from the trap and carried it to the house.
Nelly had opened the door, no bell rang.
Trip heard steps below in the little hall.
Then the horse and trap departed; the
door of the house was bolted and 'locked,
and Trip heard the tread of the three
men who had entered the house go Into
the back parlor. What they carried was
heavy, that she knew by the weight of
their tread. She had opened her door,
and held it ajar, listening.
Not a word was spoken ,to Nelly or by
the men, one of whom was probably Mr.
Trip seated herself on the side of her
bed considering what she should do. Her
heart beat fast and spasmodically. She
was.she felt on the threshold of a discov-
ery which might bring on her unuttera-
ble wretchedness, and yet-it would be a
relief to the unendurable suspense to
know the truth. What should she do?
Wait till morning, and then question her
husband, telling him frankly what she
had done and seen? Then he might evade
her questions' as he had evaded them'
Would it not be better for her to act at
once,' go downtsairs and confront him
with his'friends and Nelly, and.demand
an Immediate explanation? "
Trip stood up. Her determination was
made. Softly, silently, as Nelly had
stolen up the stairs, did Trip now steal
down. There was no lighting the passage
below; but a little gray dawn crept in
through, the staircase window., She
reached the hall and saw a light under
the back parlor door. She rested her
hand on the handle for one moment of
Irresolution. Then, as she had had the
strength once to launch herself on her
aerial.flight, so did she now launch her-
self on this excursion into the mystery
that 'went on Ina he own house. She
opened the 'd6or and stopped boldly in.
Before her, with terror on their faces,
stood three men In rough coats, and one,
though disguised, she recognized as her
husband. There also was Nelly. The
fire In the stove was glowing red and
over it was a crucible.
On the table was spread out a quantity
of silver plate-kettles, candlesticks,
cream jugs, spoons, forks, platters, and
ranged as though In mockery, one after
the other, all round the table rim,
twenty-four little silver wheelbarrows,
Trip. uttered a cry, "The Ringwood
OAcn xO n.
A fortnight had passed since Trip had
made the discovery that her husband was
one of a gang of burglars, and that this
gang had taken the Blngwood plate.
It was night. The wind was high,
blowing from the northwest over the
clayland level, and roaring in the trees of
the park. The only light visible is in the
mill. Although night, the sails are flying,
the miller is at work, the stones are
grinding, the shifter is shaking out the'
fine flour from. the thick. The'light from
the mill traces a broken thread of fire in
the dike, broken because of the duck-
weed which covers the water.
There are stars in the sky, no moon;
but the stars suffer eclipse from the
great clouds that are rolled over the
heavens by the wind, then shine forth
again bright and frosty. Away in the
direction of London is a dull, red, anroral
glow, the reflection of the great city in
the haze that overarches it. .
Along.the. London road from'the city
creeps a female figure, feebly, limpingly.
As she comes to the, gate leading -to the daiw herself up maiiny. She got, per-
mill she looks up at the light and stands haps, half way up, and then fell on the
trembling and sobbing-then she creeps stairs, fell sitting on one step. with her
on again, foot-sore limb-weary, toward bandaged head on another,:- and her
the park. bleeding feet on a still lower step. Then
Half an hour after she is at the keeper's all her power left her. She tried to lift
lodge, knocking timidly, then louder, but herself to her feet, but could not. She
ever in vain at the door. Then she goes could not reach and grasp the rail; she
to the window and looks in, and can just sank again.
make out that the interior is bare, no As her head rested on the step, the -
curtains, no blinds, no sign of the house smell of the flour came into her nose,
being inhabited. She falls on the doorstep from the white dust on it, and it brought
,and weeps, and vainly knocks again, but a dim, faint sense of pleasure to her. She
the knock sounds hollow. There is, had her face turned to the sky, and. saw.
thera can be no response. Mr. and Mrs. the clouds drive by: now a star appeared,
Redfern are.no longer there. After the then went out, then sparkled again. ,-
burglary at the hall, the keeper fell under Even so her senses seemed to come and
suspicion for having introduced Mr. go, her consciousness to drift away and
Beaufort, whom the detectives pro- then become intensely clear. She could
nounced to be the head of a well known not call, but she pulled her whistle from
gang which the police have been unable her bosom, where it hung since on that
to break up or apprehend.. terrible night she suspended it there, and -
Mr. Tottenham was a peremptory man, put it to her lips, and tried to blow a
and, when he saw that the keeper's famn- summons on it. She had forgotten that
fly had facilitated the execution of the it was split and voiceless; she had the.
robbery, Redfern was dismissed immedi- end between Jier lips blowing, and the
ately, at a week's notice, without a string looped round her hand, and even
character. The same fate attended the the effort to blow was too severe for her,,
butler, Mr. Thomson, and the house- for, instead of blowing a call, she blew
keeper, Mrs. Podgings.- her remaining consciousness momentarily.
STwo hours later the same feeble, foot- away. Only momentarily. In another
sore figure retraced her steps, and came moment she was caught and lifted, and
against the gate leading to the mill held fast in strong arms, once again, as"
Trip it was; but, altered, broken in long before after that flight on the mill
spirit and in body; Trip, now utterly wings, and she heard a voice.
alone in the world. "I knew it! I knew itl She has come
She could walk no further. Her house to me: Oh, little, Tu'penhy l Little
shoes were worn off her feet; her stock- -Tu'penny."
nlug soles, the soles of her feet worn When Trip returned to hersenses, iftter,
through. She was in her crushed straw- a long lapse into darkness, she was in '
berry gown, with a dark cloak, over it, the miller's cottage, in the arm chair by
the crisp, clean, bright dress of a few the fire, without her cloak, in the bat-
weeks ago was now crumpled, soiled, tered pik dress, that seemed fresh dyed-
draggled, like the.spirit of her who wore y g heartfre that
it. in the rosy glow of the hearth-fire that'
it. vr t
From'the moment she had uttered that fell over it.Wt wa sani h'
ry, "The ngwood plate!" conscious Mrs. Western was standing by her
cry, "The Ringwoodplate 1? conscious- Joe was kneeling, raking the-coals to-
ness had deserted her. She could recall gather, and looking into her face,
a fierce face, white, with glistening eyes, She could not spea, b ut the widow
and a pair of false whiskers half fallen he rol/o Ispeadfr1Je
off, before her, and a hand raised, grasp- gavhe wa with the fragrance of the'
-ing a silver candlestick, a vivid, horrible, honey, sweet witht. he fragrance of the'
haunting sight, and she remembered Jeknew even more than did Trip He
nothing more till she woke in her bed- Jkew the real name of the fellow T who
room with an aching head, that was ban- had come to stay about Ringwood. His
daged, and with a smell of vinegar in her name was Paice, but he went by many
nse. on he bed sh turned her an alias-Jameson, Davenant, Spencer,,
She was on her bed; sr h nd Jeffries. He was well known to the
hnead and saw blood on the pNlow, and police, who, however, had been hitherto
turned again and saw the face of Nelly to take him. Joe knew, also,
"You're come round at last, are you?" ;what Trip did not, that he was already
said the woman. "Well, you'll have to married, and had a wife and children
get round quick. I ain't going to nurse living in Manchester. Consequent.ly,
you forever. You never ought to have the marriage in Ringwood church with
been brought here." I Trip was invalid.
By degrees poor Trip learned that she From the moment that the burglary
had been knocked down and stunned; had been discovered Joe rushed to the,
that a quarrel had been the result be- true conclusion.
tweenher husband and his "pals" who "My mind all along mistrusted that
had struck her, and that the three men! man. Iknew Beaufort was a swell mobs-
had made off with 'the plate', out of the man sent down to learn the ways about
country, or, at all events, into sae quar- the house.. Poor Trip! Trip will return."
ters. The house had been cleared of Then .every night he worked in the
what little f-urntiure there -: was, only mill, and had his lgbt in the flour cham-
Nelly remained to watch Trip. Mr. her.
Beaufort, as he called himself, and who ,edfern was dismissed.
really loved the poor girl, had ordered "She'll have no -borne to come to;
Nelly, one of the gang, to be with Trip- she'll return and find her house empty.
till she recovered, not only forTrip's sake, She'll come to the old mill, I know she
but for the safety of the party. She was will, and I'll be ready to receive her."
to be kept under guard, not allowed to B e was right; she had come as a final
leave the house for some days, till the refuge to the dear old windmill, and the
gang had escaped, and danger of pursuit strong arms hadl caught her to holdfher
from.information furnished by Trip was fast, and not let her go again.
over. .. "Tripl" said Joe, "I'm off now. You
Accordingly Nellyhad nursed and at- shall remain with mother. The man will
tended to Trip till she was sufficiently mind the mill. I'll follow that scoundrel
recovered to leave, and then had turned Beaufort, or Paice, or whatever he calls
her out of the house, which sh-also de- himself, if it be round the world. He
serted. The house had been taken under shall not escape me." .
a false name with false references, and Then Trip 'put out .her hand and
had been-made the headquarters, of the grasped Joe's arm.:
gang, where they had defaced and melted "Joe, dear friend," she said, and her
the silver and jewelry which they ob- voice went straight to his heart, as did
tamined. After the great burglary at the look out of her sunken eyes, "Joe,'
Ringwood, it was advisable to shift quar- leave him alone. He wronged me, not
ters. you. I forgive him for this-that he has
This, then, was the end of poor Trip's brought me down out, of my folly and
ambitious flight. She was married to a pride!. Joel It was my own self which
ruffian who, if he came into the hands was my worst enemy-not be; no not he.
of justice, as was inevitable before long, If I had not been vain and giddy f should
would suffer 'penal servitude. That the never have-have cast away a jewel to get
name of Beaufort was false she was well a sham.". She suddenly dragged off the
assured; what his real name was she did diamond ring (value, according to Mr.
not know. The wife of a professional Beaufort, 150) and threw it into the fire:
burglar now, the wife of a convict here- "I-I only am to blame." *: .
after She had flown high, and great Then Joe took the hand, and, holding
was the fall. it in both 'of his, said, in earnest tones,
Trip stood at the gate of the mill. still kneeling on one knee, with the rosy
She could go no further. She had no glow of the fire shining over him and her:
money. She had no shoes. She had no "Oh, little Tu'penny-- .
friends, no home,' no food-no name "A bad penny-an utterly bad penny,
even; only a little feeble pride in her still that has come back," said she, sadly..- _.
held her together. She had passed the "Not sol" he spoke with ashout, and
Rose; she had felt half inclined to go in sprung to his feet. "No, not sol, A
there and cast herself on the pity of the battered Tu'penny, sore defaced, that has
landlady, but her pride withheld her. come, back to the proper mint to be
No; there was one, and one only who melted, and milled, and molded again.
could help her efficiently, to 'whom she Come, throw away the old broken, split.
could appeal, who would not upbraid whistle. I always said Irwould come to
her, who would screen her and deal pru- you when you needed me without whist-
dently with her. ling, and now-now I will ever be beside
She must go to her friend-to Joe. you, and you will never need to whistle
She might do that without loss to her or call. Is it not so?"'
self respect. She was a married woman, 'Be more quiet, Joe," said his mother.
and could be nothing henceforth to Joe. "She has fainted again with overmuch
A weak, broken friend appealing for help joy."
to return to her father and mother, that "Motherl" he would not be quiet. He
.was all she was and all she wanted. He put his arms under Trip and lifted her
could tell her where her parents were, out of the chair, held her aloft, then clos -
and he would restore her to them. to his heart. "Motherl The little
So she entered through the gate and Tu'penny of brass is come back to, be
wearily crept to the foot of the stair. minted in gold! I cannot help Myselt
She recalled Joe's words. Was she, as ..Imust shout, and sing, and talk, an
he had said, coming there to revisit the laugh." .: .. /.:*:
mill in her splendid equipage, with brass THE END.,
mounted harness and liveried servant, BEARING GROVE,
In pink sill and feathers and lace. .) I G.
She came in the old, stained crushed
strawberry gown, with a bandaged head, IN PUTNAM COUNTr
and a tear-stained face, and a broken
spirit, her feet wayseore, and her pride Three quarters of a mile from St. Johns River
in the mire. 75 feet above the river.
The great black mill stood up against
the far-away red glare of London, but ALSO, ,
not altogether dark, for above was a light. ONE LOT IN KEUKA.
Joe had a paraffine lamp in the flour 2o,ooo Nursery Trees, of all varieties and sizes.
chamber, and it was so placed as to shine All at bargains. Write or call at"
through the door, and down the ladder F. C. COCHRANE'S Book Store,
stair. Palatka, Fla. '
She held to the rail, and tried to climb o,
the stair. She would reach the. well B .,-. ,:
known chamber, and throw herself in a &s Hernando County, Elorlda, r
corner beside the flour box, or between .. .
the sacks, and wait till Joe came. But Sxteen mlles;west of Hemnsndo HotelBrooks-
Trip's st-ength was not equal to the ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
effort. She pulled herself up one step, beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
then another. The steps were wide and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weeky
aDart. and abe had _not the strength to Hak Line,
Strawberris are being shipped daily
from Plant City.
Two men went out in the suburbs at
Fort Ogden last Friday and killed five
Six blackfish, the largest 18 feet in
length, were blown ashore at Osprey re-
The fishing boats arriving in Cedar
Key last Monday and Tuesday brought
about 15,000 fish from Sara Sota.
Parties have been prospecting in
Cedar Key for the past feW days with a
view of establishing a sanitarium at that
Miss Rose E. Cleveland, sister of the
President, is expected in Orlando some
time this winter to visit a Mrs. Duncan
A resident of Orlando has a Mexican
chocho on exhibition. It is similar to an
egg plant, and it is his intention to ex-
periment with the seeds in Florida soil.
The people of Mount Dora have raised
$1,800 for the building of a Congre-
gational Church at that place, and
work on the building will soon be com-
SRailroad projects continue to spring up
throughout the Statt. The latest is the
St. Johns, Lake Weir and Gulf Railroad,
an enterprise undertaken chiefly by
citizens of Sumter county.
A young man reports from Lake Helen
that when the strawberry shipping
season fairly sets in there the aggregate
number of boxes to be shipped daily
will amount to about 80,000 quarts.
The excitement over the great right of
dower claim to a one-third interest in
the town of Orlando is subsiding. The
claimant, for -the sum of five dollars,
has forever relinquished all claims.
The instigators of the plot will be held
in remembrance for a long time.
The proprietors of the Magnolia Hotel
property, on the St. Johns, have engaged
a manufacturer of carbonated water to
bottle the same from their artesian well.
The water has been proved to be well
adapted for this purpose, and a large
quantity has been carbonated and
Mrs. A. Lee, daughter of Mr. and Mrs.
R. C. Ivory, left Enterprise on Saturday
last, for the St. Lucie river to join her
husband, who has been at the St. Lucie
for some time past surveying the lands
for a large canning factory.- He is now
engaged in laying out a new town, to
which large quantities of lumber are
being shipped for the immediate erection
of business blocks, etc.
The Highland Press, Sorrento, Fla.,
says: 'Before the orange'shippinxg season
opened the crop was estimated at 500,-
000 boxes.- As the season progressed and
the fruit went to- market by the train
load, the estimate gradually went up
until now some of the best informed
railroad men place it at 900,000 boxes.
Where is the man who said all the orange
trees were killed last year."
S:Boctor Wiley returned from his
garden in the hammock just north of
the town with a basket on his arm last
Saturday, He opened the lid and
showed us fine specimens of newly grown
Irish potatoes and English peas, which
he intended for his Sunday dinner.
This : on the 29th day of January, is
ample proof of what can be done in
vegetable raising on Indian River.-Ti-
The HernandoTournament Association
announces that arrangements have been
completed for holding at Brooksville, on
* Wednesday, March 2d, the largest
tournament ever witnessed in the State.
Fifty knights in costume will compete
for nine valuable prizes, the successful
knight to crown the Queen of Love and
Beauty, who, with her maids of honor
and their gallant knights, will lead off
in a grand ball in the evening.
South Florida real estate is not dead
by any'means, as is shown by the Tampa
and iBrooksville papers. In Hernando
county, from the 17th to 26th January,
forty-three transfers of real estate were
recorded and twenty-one additional
transfers filed for record, as shown by
the Hernando News. In Hillsborough
county, for the week ending January
81st, the number of real estate transfers
filed for record numbered twenty-four,-
as shown by the Tampa Journal.
Arbor Day Observances.
Arbor Day was pretty generally ob-
served in the city and suburbs of Jack-
sonville, and proved to be an occasion
of much pleasure to all who participated
in the various exercises. It is estimated
that no less than 2,000 school children
celebrated the day within sight of the
Court House tower, and that several
hundred trees, mostly oaks, were set out
to adorn public streets, roads and
grounds. These trees will be carefully
protected and cared for, and it is ex-
pected that the greater number of them
will take root and beautify the grounds;
as well as afford a welcome shade for
future generations. Duval High School
and the Jacksonville Grammar School,
which are located in the city proper,
both observed the day.
At Tallahassee, Arbor Day was cele-
brated at the Leon Academy. The ser-
vices were opened with prayer by Rev.
H. E. Hartridge, and Mr. George Fair-
banks delivered a salutatory. After
this the following trees were planted as
memorials : To Gov. E. A. Perry, a bi-
ographical sketch of his life being read
by Cadet Leon Fish ; one to ex-Gov-
ernor W. D. Bloxham, with sketch by
H. F. Shine ; one to ex-Governor D. S.
Walker, with sketch by Thomas A.
Barnes; one to Col. George T. Ward,
sketch by J. W. MeGriff ; one to Gen.
W. D. Barnes, sketch by T. Whitfield;
one to Maj. A. J. Russell, with letter
from Major Russell, read by Prof. H. N.
Felkel ; one to Mr. W. W. Woodward,
with remarks upon his life by Prof. H.
N. Felkel. Letters were read from dis-
hinguished persons expressing regret at
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 16, 1887.
not being present. i he exercises were both the islands and this State. It af-
quite a success, and credit fords a new excursion from points at
on the superintendent each terminus, and will be greatly ap-
preciated by tourist travelers and gen-
Florida and California.
W. D. writes to the Times-Union from THE PINNELLAS PENINSULA.
St. Augustine, under date of February --
3d, as follows: Features of the Region Between
The City of the Angels will never be- F t et e
come a dangerous rival to the cities of Old Tampa Bay and the Gulf.
Florida for one reason alone. The dis- BY D. G. WATT.
tance is too great even for the great cit- n considering any correspondence
ies of the West, whence the greatest from Point Pinellas, your readers should
number have been drawn this winter, have regard to some physical peculiari-
causing a flutter among the feeble ones. ties of the district. It is a peninsula of
When the curiosity to see tho country a fewmiles average breadth, washed by
has been gratified, all will return to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico on one
their first love. The bait offered in the side, and of Tampa Bay on the other.
low rate of the roads was too tempting There are no hills, but there is a sort of
to be resisted by our novelty-seeking ridge from which the ground slopes to
people ; that being satisfied, there will either sea. This position gives free soepe
be no longer any danger to Florida. to the sea breezes and makes a climatic
There is nothing in the climate to draw condition which is, perhaps, unequalled
invalids to the great distance from home in Florida for healthy elements.
and friends, when they have a more The soil is on the whole moderately
congenial air in Florida, and much more good, interspersed with poor pieces like
accessible, other parts of the State. There are not
I have witnessed wonderful changes a few lakes and ponds, and some good-
in many who sought relief here as a last ^sized creeks, which are not so useful as
resource. There are individuals here they might be, bacaiuse the sea fills their
to-day who came to this place never ex- mouths with sandbanks. Moisture is
pecting to return, who have built houses well^ retained by the soil.
and remain, several of them until late As ye corn and sugar have not given
in the season. With proper precaution, anything like the returns per acre which
there is no finer climate in this country; th;y give elsewhere.. Upland rice, when
in fact, it is marvelous how imprudent well attended to, proves productive.
many are, and to what extremes even Sweet potatoes do well. Irish potatoes
the sick go with impunity. They could are scarcely tried, but I had a fair crop
not do this were not the climate almost .from a small patch cultivated last win-
perfect. Some one asks, how at out last ter. Cucumbers and tomatoes thrive,
winter? I answer, it was a most un- bearing early, but cabbages have not
usual exception, occurring once in a succeeded well. Certain kinds of fruit
century; it may not again in many do well, and it looks as if they should be
years. our main dependence.
To guard against unusual cold and The "freeze" of last winter injured
keep from feeling chilly, the undercloth- scarcely a single orange tree. I did not
ing of the North ought to be worn, and .......~ a singl orange-- tree.. -* did no
ing of the North ought to be wor, and see one that lost its leaves, and this win-
the hotels ought to be able to heat every term's crop does not appear hereabouts to
room from top to bottom, as thoroughly be much, if at all, below the average.
as the Northern houses, and in milder An unusual number of the oranges split,
weather an openfire-place. why, I cannot tell. A large portion also
Never fear for -the future of Florida, were russets. On the whole, it strikes
with the finest oranges in the world, a me that if the growers carefully attend-
climate unsurpassed, with comfortable ed to the trees, there would be .few
hotels and boarding houses well kept, places where they would flourish and
and daily improvements in railroad produce better than here.
travel, there cannot be failure, producebetter.han.her....
travel, there cannot be failure. The "freeze," however, wrought no lit-
But the great attraction of the coun- little damage to other fruit trees. Lemons
try will centre hereafter in the health- were blighted, though here and there
giving property of the wonderful artesian some of the fruit was produced. The
wells, the waters of which will be sought Guava trees were killed to the ground,
after as eagerly as Saratoga in summer, but they have all sprung up again from
or any of the German springs. The val- the roots and appear sound and vigor-
uable quality of the sulphur waters of ous, so that we calculate on having a
Florida is only in its dawn; when the crop next summer. Our bananas were
public are fully awake to the invaluable much put back. Avocado pears, sapo-
benefit to ber derived from the drinking dillas, tamarind, etc., have gone through
of this water there will be no longer any almost similar processes to the growers.
fear of a free ride to California drawing Mangoes were all cut down, excepting
off the people from seeking to imbibe some seedlings. I am not sure if one of
them as eagerly as any health-giving the old trees has shot up again, but a
waters of the world. goodly proportion of the younger ones
have, and a number now have been set
A Visit to Nassau. out. The tree .does not seem to have
A special correspondent of the Times- received anything like the care that the
Union recently made a trip. to the Baha- orange has, but it will prove more prof-
mas by the new steamship line running table. One man who had a very few
between Jacksonville and Nassau. Start- mature trees, realized $240 from them,
ing out one morning from the hotel, he and another, from a tree of a few years
thus describes the objects of interest met old, took $67 worth of fruit. Is it a
with during a drive over the island of wonder that the people risk the chances
New Providence, on which Nassau is sit- of-a freeze?
uated: There must, however, be more care
We visited various parts of interest taken in treating the trees, and efforts
and saw many strange sights. The New put forth, to secure better varieties.
Providence roads always- hard and Those that are cultivated here seem a
smooth are in many places hewn out of poor sort compared with the Indian
solid rock and shaded by tropical trees Mangoes. They Ire like the crab apple,
and branches which meet overhead and compared with the Baldwin. To taste
form a perfect archway. In driving a Bombay Mango, as one variety is
along this beautiful country road, ele- called, is a thing to be remembered
gant suburban villages, surrounded by through a lifetime! I ordered- some
immense stone walls are frequently grafts of them from Calcutta, they do
passed. Churches and schools are nu- not grow true from seeds. The major.
merous in the country as well as in the ity died on the passage, and the three
city. During our drive we passed many that survived, alas I succumbed to last
groves and gardens. All the fruits of winter's cold. I doubt, however, whether
the tropics flourish in New Providence. they will stand this climate, but; it is
oranges, limes, lemons, sugar apples, worth trying. It is the fruit of the fu-
cocoanuts, and many others. The milk ture if it could be grown safely here.
of the cocoanut when fresh is far supe- I understand that Mr. P. W. Reasoner,
rior, and very different from the liquor of Manatee, is engaged in strenuous ef-
found in the nuts that are sold in our forts to get the best specimens from In-
market. dia and elsewhere, and the two varie-
We stopped during our drive at Wa- ties have come up from seed which he
terloo, went over the grounds and saw procured from the Government Garden
the lake famous for its phosphorescent at Saharapere. So this city is in the
beauty. We viewed the Banyan tree, Northwest of India, not very.far from
the roots of which turn straight up and the Himalaya mountains, and its climate
twine around the branches, is more akin to that of South Florida
Mr. Mosely asked me to drive while he than that of Bombay or Calcutta, it is
gave his attention to some fruit.- Meet- probable that Mr. Reasoner will some
ing another conveyance, I turned to the day let us know that he can supply us
right in the usual United States manner, with a more valuable Mango that we yet
The result was almost a collision. I then have in Florida. We may all wish that
discovered in the Bahamas drivers al- his efforts may prove fully successful,
ways turn to the left, instead of the for I fancy that the climate of Point
right, as in our country, Pinellas will suit the finest sort of Man-
While in Nassau I visited the Sea Gar- goes, tettter than that of Manatee.,
dens, which is composed of six acres of There is no large population 'and no
tropical water plants plainly visible at a cultivation on a large scale in this. dis-
sounding of twelve feet. This is one of trict. The reasons for this are different.
natures freaks, and worth'to the curios- The price of land is high. Men i search
ity seeker a trip across the Atlantic. of a property to work on who have come
The water over this garden is as clear with the intention of settling here,
as crystal; the white sandy bed lending mostly have gone away. without. pur-
additional transparency to the view. chasing, complaining that the charge per
Brain coral, fan coral, shells, and many acre was greater than in other parts of
other wonders of the sea, form an irreg- the State where the'soil was richer and
ular border, ornamenting many differ- the mdans of communication far better.
ent colored fern-shaped plants and vege- We hope that the land-holders are be-
tation.This veritable fairy grotto is inhab- ginning to see their mistake, and that
ited by colored fish of every description "to sell the climate" is to put a veto on
and variety. Among them are Spanish the sale of their land.
angle fish, blue fish, and gold fish, which Another obstacle to development is
in sparkling beauty swim about the the inadequacy of communications with
gentle current-fanned foliage that sur- the big world outside. We have no reg-
rounds their coral home. ular means of conveying passengers or
f TH cLIMATE, freight, except a small sailing ooat
I greater difference in the which carries the mails twice a week
climate of Jacksonville and Nassau than from Tampa--a distance of 22 miles, tak-
I expected. Ordinary clothing worn at ing from four to 24 hours to eifoss. The
home was exceedingly burdensome, and Florida Southern Railroad is bound to
on the day of my arrival in Nassau, Jan- make a line through Pinellas, but ap-
nary29th, the very lightest of summer pern r to take for its maximum, "on
wear would not have been uncomfort- slow I" The district has been surveyed
able. Gentlemen guests at the hotel by two other lines, but as we cannot
wer cld i witelinn sit an stawtravel 6r send our trunk and fruits by
weeh adt nwitsie.sisan ta surveys alone, we are none the better
The polo ground and p ark at Nassau off.
are made very attractive by a rich green I am surprised that no more energy has
lawn and tropical shade trees, been displayed in pushing forward some
The establishment .of regular trans- railroad. At Point Maximo. the South-
portation between ^Florida and the Ba- ernmost headland of the Pinellas dis-.
hamas will operate advantageously to trict, it is said that an outlay of $20,000
would secure fourteen feet of water for
a harbor which would be open to the
sea, without the tortuous channels
caused by sandbanks. In the offing lies
Mullet Key, where the U. S. Govern-
ment would find, if it acted for the in-
terest of the country, and not in the in-
terest of individuals, a fine rendezvous
for the navy, infinitely to be preferred
to Tampa or Pensacola, and having imme-
diate communication with both the At-
lantic and Gulf of Mexico.
Owing to our imperfect means of con-
veyance, we are heavily handicapped,
but wonderful advances have been made
during the past three years, and we hope
in due time to share in the facilities of
other parts of the State. We want
some men of capital to come amongst
us, and in developing the district, add to
their own profits. We want also visi-
tors from the North to come down here
and breathe our salubrious atmosphere.
They would not have the luxuries which
large hotels supply, but they would
have at any rate, the comforts of an
unconventional life and a fine climate.
PINELLAS, Fla., Jan. 1887.
Mr. Charles Stevens, Napanee, Onta-
rio, who has advertised "Canada Un-
leached Hardwood Ashes" for many
months in the Country Gentleman, is-
sues a pamphlet of 48 pages, containing
matter of interest to farmers, gardeners
and country residents generally.
Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co.
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by expe-ience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from -
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebr'n and other varie-
ties, and-the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in afew days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
SChili Red....!...per barrel $3.50.
Early Rose..... ............ $3.00.
Beauty of Hebron......... $3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
The following table, compiled from the records
of the Jack onville Signal Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall and direction of wind for
the month of February, as observed at the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years:
TEMP. WEATHER. '
~^- ~ Hs
YEARS. ^ |? II
1872 79 38 54 9 12 8 2.70 NJB
1873 .79 38 59 7 '18 3 .59 SW
1874 81 37 59 8 9 11 7.833 NE
1875 82 82 85 11 7 10 8.93 NE
1876 88 85 60 7 12 10 3.45 NE
1877 75 87 56 8 13 7 1.09 NE
1875 74 32 56 9 10 9 5.32 NE
1879 79 35 54 9 8 11 3.51 NE
1880 81 42 60 12 5 11 6.17 NE
1881 78 84 58 11 8 9 1..12 NE
1882 79 38 62 18 10 5 1.09 NI|
1888" 88 40 64 11 18 4 48 NE
1834 79 87 62 11 12 6 2.45 NW
1885 73 3 82 54 11 11 6 5.23 NE
1886 73 24 54 12 10 6 1.87 NE--
Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.
JACKSONVILLE, February 11, 1887.
MEATS-D. S. short ribs boxed, $7 90; D. S.
long clear sides $8 10; D. S. bellies $7 90;
smoked short ribs 8 50; smoked bellies 8 50;
S C. hams, uncassed fancy, 133 ; S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed, 9c; S. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvassed 73/c; California or pic-
nic hams, 834c; ard-rifined tierces 6 c;
Mess beef-barrels$1050 halfbarrels $575; mess
pork $1450. These quotations are for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7y,@7/4;
dressed hogs 8c; sheep 9c; pork sausage 8c;
loins 9/c; long bologna 7c; head cheese 65c;
Frankfort sausage 10c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER-Best table 23@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
.BUTTERIN--Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
16c Dairy 15.
dHEESE-Half skim 10c, cream 13c per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
GRAIN-Corn-The market is steady.
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
60c@... per bushel; car load lots 58c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 57c per bushel;
car load lots 554c per bushel. Oats are better
demand, firmer at the following figures
mixed, in Job lots, 41c, car load lots 40c; white
oats are 3 to 4c higher all round, Bran steady
and higher, $19 50@21 per ton, job lots.
HAY-The market Is firm and better de-
mand for good grades .Western choice
small boles, $18@...per ton; car load lots $16 75
to 817 50 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GRITS AND MEAL-$2 90 to $3 00 per The net receipts were 95 bales; gross re-
barrel. ceipts 1871 bales;sales none bales; stock at this.
FLOUR-Firmer and higher; best patents port -no bales.
$85 60; good family S5 10; common $4 25. Exports to' Great Britain 2387. --"
GROUND FEED-Per ton $24. SEA ISLAND COTTON.
HIDEs-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, 12@13cy; and country dry salted 11@ The market continues -quiet at unchanged
llrc; butchers dry salted 9@9yc. Skins-Deer quotations. -
flint, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter, Common Floridas 15
each 25c@$4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c Medium. 16
fox 10@20c, Beeswax per pound, 18c; wool GoodMedium 17
free from burs 22@25c; burry, i@d15c; goat Medium fine 18
skins firstname.lastname@example.org apiece. Fine 19 20
COFFEE-Green io 16@20C per pound. Extra fine ,i..........i..22
Java, roasted, 80@33c; lMocas, roasted, 80@8c; Choice 2a
Red, roasted, 232 25c.
CTTON SEED MEAL-Sdarce and higher. rTHEE. MOULIE FL(ORIDA FLORAL PER.P
Sea i land or dark meal $20 per ton, bright 'L. fumeryCoiiany 'ill i ,. .c'-n l,,;
or short cotton meal $21 50@22 50 per ton. pound for Yello."w .1m ,e BI_-om-, dihrere.-
TOBACCO STEMis-Market quiet but firm @ at 5 East Bay tr,.:,: PurncS a c v an i.,,k-
$13 00 per ton. Flowers for the ,,.re (',:,n 'uy" will piease c.:.r-
LIMF-Eastern, job lots, $ 00 perbarrel, Ala- i, -o r,.n ,n [he.
bama lime $115. Cement-American $200, Canada H..ard-Wood Unlie..hed
English $4 75 per barrel. anaa ar-woO u eu
RicE-The quotations vary, according to A E U '
quantity, from 3%@6%c per pound. A O 1 *.- -
SALT-Liverpoo1, per sack, $100; per car Cheapest fertilizer in ue6, ind iree from n.:.c-
load, 85@90c. ions weeds. Supplied in car lo,.s )f \:' ior ru.,'.re
Country Produce, Hides, Skins,-.Ete. tons. Guaranteed free of rubbing. Put up in
CEES-ine Creamery3ycr pound. barrels. Price andanalysis free on appl-,,'an.n.
CHEESR-Fine 2ramr oprpuu Address C!HAS. STEVENS,
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good ox 437, Napanee, ntario, anado
demand as follows: hens 33c; mixed 25c; half- 8 a dnta -- nad.
own 20 to 25c. ILEY, GROVER & CO.,
EGGs-Duval County 20 per dozen with a .
mited demand and good supply. STAT EnT"
IRISH PoTAToES-orthern potatoes 82 i0 STATE AGENTS FOER
per barrel; Early Rose $2 60; Chili Reds $2 75.
ONIONS-New York, 8325; Yellow Denver RASIN FERTILIZER C O'S -
83,50 per barrel; White Onions, 8375 per bar-
rel.SOLABLE SEA.ISAND GUANO
Florida cabbage 9 to 10c. Imported from SOLABLE SEA ISLAND GANO
Germany 183c, '
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $2 50 per DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI .
NORTHERN TuRNiPS--Good supply at 62 25 P S T E- -
per barrel. iAObPIAIE
GREEN PEAS-Per box $2 25. .
EGG PLANTS-No demand at $250 to $275 AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN .
Foreign and Domestic Fruits. FRUIJITS AND PRODUCE.
PRUNES-French, lOc; -- -
PINED APPLES-Per barrel 86. G ur Pri"ces before in
LExoNs-Messinas, 34 00 per box. Get ur res eore uyg.
APPLES-New York $4 00 to 84 50 per barrel. WESSELS & CO., -
FIGs--In layers 13c; n lin en bags c
DATES-Persian-Boxes 9c: Frails 7c. sieCsIvr OT
GRAPES-10c per pound, with oor demand. '.
They are of very fine quality. Malagas, $600 R A N G E S
per keg. -N '
ORANGEs-Florida--Per barrel 00; per 218 an Washington Street,
box $275 to $4 25 .218 and 220 Washington Street,
SBANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to $2 00 NEW YORK CITY .
per bunch. E R T
NUTs-Almonds 20c; Brazils 121/c; Filberts (Estabished8
(Sicily) 12c English walnuts, Grenobles, 18c; (Established 1853.)
Marbots, 1 c .; Pecans 12c; Peanuts 5_c@6c;
Cocoanuts 5 wc. -
RA^ sNs--London layers, $6 20 per box. -,,
C..I.BE.$. 50 per crae $1000 per Prompt Returns Rendered. Stencils on *p-.
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
Carrots wholesale at $2 50 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per peck.. 10
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents to 7b
cents per hundred, and retail 5 cents per
Florida Cabbage wholesale for 9 to 10 cents
each, and retail at l5 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $2 50 to $300 per box,
and retail at two and three for 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at $1 00 per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 50 to 55 cents
per bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 25 to 30 cents per
dozen heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 50 to $2 75 per bar-
rel and retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 70 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are in poor demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 18 to 20 cents
per dozen, and retail at 30 cents.
Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 8
to 9 cents per head. They retail at from 15 to
20 cents. .
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$250 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.'
Northern beets are worth wholesale $2.25
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart, or
two quarts for 15 cents.II
Radishes bring at wholesale 20 to 25 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents. -
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 30
to 35 cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry, per pound-chickens retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys wholesale, K1.00 to
$1.75 each, and retail at 20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cants;
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 60 to 75 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart
.The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex
change, are-sent to the TIMES-UNION by the
agents of the Fruit Exchangeoin the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate:
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
NEW YORK, February 13 -The market
continues about the same. Choice, sound
fruit is in good demand, while common
quality and that with decay is only sold at
low prices. The Cherokee landed some in
very bad order. There is no steamer here
with Mediteranean fruit, and the market is
clearing up well. The prospects are favorable
on truly prime Florida oranges.
SGOBEL & DAY.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
CINCINNATI, February 13.-Bright oranges
email@example.com; russetts 81.25@2. The market is clear-
ing up and prices will advance.
LOWHEAD, DALE & CO.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
BALTIMORE, February 13.-The market
is the same as last reported.
Dix & WILRINS.
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
NEW YORK, February 13.- The Western
leaf market is dull, owing to the light de-
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the
Havana leaf is in active demand. New
York Pennsylvania and Western sell at from
84 to 415 per 100 pounds. Havana, 60 cents to
$1.05 per pound. Sumatra, $1.20 to $1.60 per
ST. LOUIS February 13.-The demand for
leaf is light, but Improving, and the outlook
is rather encouraging.
LOUISVILLE, February 13.-There is a
good demand, especially for the better grades
of which there is a scarcity.
RICHMOND, February 13.-The market is
improving with favorable weather for ship-
ping. The better grades of stemming leaf
sell rapidly at from 9 to 13 cents per pound.
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
to 20 cents.
DANVILLE, February 13.-Businessis Im-
proving rapidly and prices have an upward
tendency. There Is a better feeling among
planters, manufacturers and business men
BALTIMORE, February 18.-The market is
dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from $5 to $15 per
SAVANNA1H COTTON MARKET.
Special to the TIxMES-UNION:]
SAVANNAH, February 14.-The Upland
Market closed quiet at the following quota-
Middling fair 91
Good middling 98
Middling 9 1r-16
Low middling 8 9-16 .
Good ordinary 8W
(Published every day-in the year,) i
and eelaTfged toan
EIGHT PAGE PAPER,
As a n,?w-paper itun.TiSr-UN'ON now stands
withnodt a rival in Fjonri. alI the peer of any
theb Soutb. Ha' [the excluaive rghlt to tshe
-4 isoeiaied Press 'DEspatTes, its own correspon-
rient Hi WahngtDn,'and special correspondents
throughout the State, its State and general news
.is complete, comprehentive, accurate, and trnust-
worthy. No Flor;dian who wislies to-keep
Lreast of w h at i gn.:ing on in his own State and
,n the world at large can afford to be without it.
Ternin [in adrauce; f10 per year; $5 for ixz
ma:nih-:; $2') ) forr thr,'e nionth; fil-permonth.
THE DAILY TIME-i-PUNON (without the
Sunday itae), by mnit', dix months, 34; one year,
i,$. Tee o ,iaay Tptzs-UPiol by mail, one
year, $2. .
The FLORIDA WEEKLY TIMES, the weekly edi-.
tion of the TIrES-UNzoN) is admitted to be the
best dollar newspaper in the -South :and one of.
the best family journals mn the country. It is a
great 56-column paper, eight pages, filled to the
brim with State and General News, Market and
Weather reports, etc. Its Agr-cultrrl, Depart-
ment, edited by Judge KiAPP, agent of the Na-
tional Bureau of Agriculture, is written with
special reference to Florida's climate, soil and
productions, and 'lone worth ten times its
subscription price Also a large colored map of
.Florida to al yearly subscribers free. Terms
n advance, 1 a year; 60 cents foi six months.
Remittances should be made by draft, money
order,_or postal note, or registered letter.
C. H. JONES & BRO., Publishers
TAMPA, HILIABOROUGH COUNTY,
General Business and Real Estate Agency of
If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands In this rapidly improving section,
or if you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be invested, write
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on Iwo-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
FREE OP CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for In mortgage. Write for
further information and send for list of prop-.
erty for Sale. W.N.CONOLEY,
REFEREBNCES-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
ville; First National Bank, Tampa, and Hon.
John T. Lesley, Tampa
ALBERT FRIES, A
A-L ST. NICHOLAS, FLODIDA,
SAgent for GEORGE W. BAKER'S
Rotted Bone Manure,
DECOMPOSED WITH POTASH.
Price $25 per ton free on board in Jacksonville
Bone Flour, for cattle and poultry, 43.00
Ground Bone Manure, 1st quality. 85.00
.... 2d 82.00
Ammoniated Phosphate, .. 82.00
Budded Orange Trees and Texa .m-..
brella Trees, from 25 cents to $1.00 each. -