VOL. I---NO. 4. -
THE PERSIMMON IN JAPAN. rice-cake. A monkey, who was just fi
-- fishing a persimmon, met the crab, Pi
HOW the Kaki is Regarded in Its offered to exchange its seed for tht ri
NativeLand. cracknel. The simple-minded crab a
Native Land. cepted the proposal, and the exchange
BY PROF. E. WARREN CLARK. was made. The monkey eat up the ric
My first introduction to this luscious cake, but the crab backed off home, aw
planted the persimmon seed in his ga
fruit was in Yokohama Bay, just after den. A fine tree grew up, and the crn
our steamer, the Great Republic, cast was delighted at the prospect of soon e:
anchor. joying the luscious fruit. He built
The journey of twenty-five days across nice, new house, and used to sit on tl
he Pacif had been somewhat monot balcony watching the ripening persim
the Pacific had been somewhat monot- mons. One day the monkey came along
onous, and the chief diversion consisted and, being hungry, congratulated th
in eating three square meals a day, with crab on his fine tree, and begged fl
a few lunches in between times. some of the fruit, offering to climb an
few lunches in between times. gather it himself. The crab politely
By the third week out at sea fruits and agreed, requesting his guest to thro'
vegetables became scarce, so that the in- down some of the fruit that he migl
stant we reached Japan- our steward re- enjoy it himself. The ungrateful rasci
plenished the table with an abundance of a monkey clambered up, and, after
of fresh vegetables and fruits, filling his pockets, ate the ripest fruit i
As we came to the table for our fare-' fast as he could, pelting the crab wit
well meal, I noticed a dish of curious- the seeds. The crab now determined t
shaped fruit in front of me, which I outwit the monkey, and. pretending t
almost mistook for small yellow squash- enjoy the insults as good jokes, he dare
es. or some new variety of tomato, the monkey to show his skill, if he could
On peeling one of the mysterious ob- by descending head foremost. The mon
jects-as a person would peel a tomato- key accepted the friendly challenge, anr
I found the consistency of a peach, the turning flank, not tail-for Japanes
juiciness of a melon, and a large, flat monkeys have no tails-he began to corn
stone for a kernel, the like of which I down headforemost. Of course all th
had never seen. persimmons rolled out of h's pockets
The taste of the fruit I did not like at The crab, seizing the ripe fruit, ran off t
first, but four years' residence ini Japan his hole. The monkey, waiting till h
made me so fond of it that nothing did crawled out, gave him a sound thrashing
I miss more on leaving the shores of Dai and went home.
Nippon than the persimmon. Just at that time a rice-mortar wa
This'fruit, like-the mango, which I traveling by with his several apprer
afterwards enjoyed in its perfection at tices-a wasp, an egg and a sea-weed
Penang -afd .Singapore, is something After hearing the crab's story, the
that the traveler becomes very much at- agreed to assist him. Marching to th
tached to in the far East, and which he monkey's house, and finding him oul
greatly misses when he returns to the they arranged their plans, and disposed
SOccident. their forces so as to vat quish their foe on
The persimmon is to the Japanese his return. The egg hid in the ashes at
what the orange is to the Floridian and the hearth, the wasp in the closet, th
the apple a tp the average Yankee. Per- sea-weed near, the. dopr and. the mortar
- simm-ions are grown ii great variety, and ove? the lintel. When the monkeycam
are seen of various shapes and sizes, but hone he lighted a fire to steep his tea
the most popular is a luscious, egg- when the egg burst, and so bespatterea
shaped fruit, as large as one's fist, from his face that he.ran, howling, to the wel
which all the "'puckery" and astringent for Water to cool the pain.. Then th(
properties have been taken by allowing wasp flew out and stung him. In trying
i to ripen very late (as it is always best "
after frost), and by keeping it in "saki"
(wine) tubs, which imparts to it a pecu-
liarly delicate flavor. .
The most popular present in the Mika- .'
do's domain is a tray of persimmons, a .
box of sponge cake (called "Castera"
from the Spaniards who taught the
Japanese how to make it), and a small .
basket of Satsuma oranges. Every day M. '
or two I received these presents from
my students, accompanied by a piece of ..*..
sea-weed done up in a piece of red aind '. '
white paper, which always signifies a ... e.'
Persimmons and sponge cake would ...,-',. .
frequently accumulates fastin my pan-
try that I was forced to give them away '-,,.'
by the wholesale. For this reason I
always preferred the dried persimmons, '
which keep very well. and are pressed,
sugar-coated and put up in boxes like
figs. In fact, many persons prefer them
to figs." They are nutritious, healthy and r
of excellent flavor, and are the moat ex-
tensively used variety of dried fruit that
the Japanese possess. In the tea-houses ,
and way-side innsaof Japan the traveler
will see strings of dried persimmons .
hanging from the rafters of the ceiling A. .
in the same way as they string up dried 1
apples in the farm-houses of New Eng-
In the temples of Shidzuoka, a large
city where I resided in the interior of
Japan, the Buddhist priests gave great '
attention to horticulture land fruit cul- -
ture.- 'Their displays of cherry blossoms
in ihe spring, and of fresh and preserved
persimmons in the fall, were very fine. "
The fin uit is plentiful and cheap. I fre-
quently bought two or three large and
: ripe specimens for quarter of a "boo"' "- -
-(six cents). But my eyes dilated some- .
what awhile ago. when, walking down JAPANESE PERSIM
Bay street, in Jacksonville, and seeing to drive off his sh enemy he sipped
grsuite Jis leian t p trsi mo n ke the t ot drivehougesh enemy he slipped.
ine J pan t persimmons aske. on the sea-weedft and the rice-mortar fell
price, and rthe reply was 50o cents I on him, crushing him to death.
thought I would wait till next season Wasn't thatsplendidI The wasp, and
before ordering a bushel at that rate. twe mortar and the sea-weed lived hap-
The native Floridapersimmonissmall, pihely together ever afterward, and the
and very unsatisfactory to one accus-, price of persimmons declined, and
tomed to the finer and larger fruit. After t d p druit .
frostt t is pleasant to the taste, though Grafting the Persimmon.
rather too sweet and insipid. I recently the r
beguiled a Northern friend into climbing BY CHAS. A. MCBRIDE.
a pers mmon tree on my plantation and The Japanese persimmon seems to do
trying my -'Florida persimmon," but he well on almost any land. However, the'
ate so many (never having seen them richer the soil, the more vigorous and
before), that I buhad to pay for the joke productive the trees will be, and not so,
by attending a first-class case of colic all apt to drop their fruit.
the succeeding nighl. It is advisable to graft or have grafted
The Japan variety can be grafted on irees. Although buds succeed to a cer-
the native stock-by root-grafting-and tain extent they are prone to brdak off
-there is no reason why the finest Japan sooner or later, owing to the fact that
Fruit should not be extensively cultivated the Japanese grows, faster than the na-
here. Live stock.
The persimmon is regarded as a na- Where there is a native growth the
Stibonal fruit in Japan, and many strange trees can be readily grafted where they
legends and fables abound, in which the stand. The graft or scion must be cut
fruit plays an important part. Thefol- in the winter and covered with etrth.
lowing is oneof the most popular: j The grafting can be done most suc-
SOnce upon a time there was a crab cessfuAlly just as the sap begins to start.
which lived in a hole on the sbady side Remove the earth from around the
of a hill. One day he found a bit of stocks to be grafted and saw or cut off a,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 26, 1887.
* PRICE $2 A YEAR.
n- few inches below the surface. Then with a large proportion live, while at other '- The American Olive.
nd a sharp knife split the stock as in cleft times, when all the conditions seem fa- T sj v w h s
ce grafting, cut the scion about six inches vorable, fr6m some unaccountable cause The subject which we have selected.
,c- long, the lower end tapering and smooth, few or none will take. On stocks of for illustration is one of the most cop-
ge See that the bark of scion and stock are equal size, buds heal over at* point of spicuous ornaments of the hammock
e- joined well and replace the earth. junction much more readily~ than grafts forests of this and neighboring States,
ad When the fruit drops I would recom- When it is desired to bud or graft on ad yet, though it is well kno*n to
,r- mend the application of land plaster large trees, the better plan is to cuit off every one who is acquainted with our
ab (gypsum) and a solution of common the tree at the surface of the ground, and hammocks, there are very few persons
n-. washing potash. It Is well to fertilize work the Japan bud or scion on one of who know any name for it or anything
a where fruit drops as that is a sign of lack the suckers coming up from the old fits natural relationship.
he of vigor. stump. In some localities it is known-aldevIl-
he of vigor, stump. wood, a name most inaprroprna for
a- The Imperial sorts seem to be most in Large trees grafted above ground in- woo a name lost aproprite or
g, demand and probably are most profit- variably die. To insure success the Ja- anythi mg that belongs o the olive
he able. Nursery grown trees bear earlier pan Persimmon requires the same care. family. In our botanical text books it
or and more heavily, but do not make large and attention requisite for success with s given as Ole Americana, but Professor
d trees as soon. This will undoubtedly be- other improved fruits. Thorough culti- Gray now places it in the next related
ly come one of Florila's. 'most profitable ovation, and in most cases, fertilization genus, Osmanthus. There are but slight
w fruits and is worthy of extended cul- are essential to success. distinctions, however, to separate-it from
it ture. Let no one imagine that he can graft the true olive. .-
al LA VISTA NURSERIES, Jacksonville, an old persimmor-tock standing in the Other members of the olive family
r Florida. fence corner, and~hen leave it to work which are found in Florida are the
is out its own destiny. The results would fri ge-tree or old-man's beard (Chion-
h THE JAPAN PERSIMMON. be commensurate with the care be- ,
o Well rotted stable manure, with an '
d Its Adaptation to Southern abundance of potash added, will give -e
l ida ec good results. Any good commercial -fer-
n- Florida,etc. tilizer- put up for use on orange trees,
d R. H. BURR. and abounding in potash, would prob-
e BY R. H. ably answer the purpose. A chemical
ie This remarkably fine fruit has now analysis of the fruit, leaves and wood
.e been bearing in this section for the two might aid us very materially in deter
s. past seasons, and the success of its culti- mining the best and most economic -
o nation here is an assured fact; yet there methods of fertilizing. ,
e are some points in regard to its propa- This fruit seems peculiarly liable to the
;, nation and cultivation not yet fully un- depredation of birds, mocking birds es-
derstood. pecially, and unless raised in la.ige quan-
s The native persimmon does not seem titles, it will be absolutely necessary to
I- to grow and bear so spontaneously in protect it in some way.
1. Souh Florida as it does furl her north in Some trees were covered this season
y the State, but where the trees are stand- with mosquito netting, but this remedy -
e ing in old cultivated fields, they grow.to was only partially effective, since the S -
, a large size, and bear heavy crops of birds would alight bn the netting and "
d large andfinely flavored fruit, peck through at the fruit, thus destroy- AMERAN OLIVE -
an The Japan Persimmon on foreign ing all they could reach in this way. (Osiu_..nericanm,,
1i stocks makes a weak growth the first A plan suggested since will proba aTbly sm eranu.)
e year after transplantffg, but, if well prove more effective, that is, to envelope
r cared for, grows off'-well-and usually each fihltwithasmall manillapaperbag. anhi;s), whose delicate, fringe-like
s shows fruit the second, year. The much vexed question of nomen- white flowers are conspicuous in han-
, When'-worked on native persimmon clkture ll probably hae to be worked whmocks fow isboar onpiuounty, north-
d stocks and not transplanted, they make out by American fruit growers them- wack from and nillsborough county, norh-
1 a very vigorous growth the first season selves, as it seems to be useless to look of orstir (including the oprivet" of
e and usually fruit the second season, for help from a foreign source Some- of Fortstiera (including the "privet" of
The first year's fruit, whether on na- time since it was suggested to the U. four ntspeciese of ashn river swampte)r belandg
D- be marte to scAgur from Japtan a full de- to a different tribe from the- others, alf
be made to secure from Japan a.full de-- of which have oval, blue-black berries.
cripti.~ve list of vare ties, but the depart- The Amer icao olive, in some parts of
Sdid see its way clear to ac- Florida-for example, near Gainesville
.. ... 'complish tbe matter. It ius rely rea- and Mayport-becomes quite a tree,
e sonable to suppose that a people capable ipeasuring even a foot in diameter; but
.of perfecting such valuable fruit, must as a rule it is a slender under-growth of
have correct descriptive lists of the the hammocks.
same. .. .The bark is white and smooth, and the
H. OMIL ND NuRSERIEs, Brandon, Polk wood is of light color and fine grained.
county, Fla. The flowers, which appear in El e axils
-.. "of the leaves in March and April, are
.-.TN Plainting Grape Cuttings. small and inconspicuous. The ovalberries
If you intend to plant a vineyard are seldom over half inch in length,
there is difficulty in propagating Con :and are little larger than the single seed
L.. cords, .kr in fat any of its type, from within. They ripen late in the tall, and
cuttings. Varieties that do not "strike" are not often seen.
well nay generally be coaxed to grow, There is nothing of special interest
if a little o the old wood is taken wiai about this tree or Abrub except the
the wood of the presentseason's growth, foliage, which is next in beauty, among
whidh -alohe should be used for cuttings. our native evergreens, to that of the
S The 'old wood at the base assists the Magnolia. The leaves are borne opposite
starting of the roots. Cut the oanes lnto each other on the stem, are three to six
S- *even lengths of two or thlee buds with inches long, similar in texture to those '
a, slanting cut. Dig a slanting trench of the iragnolia, very smooth on both
Sandiplace the cuttings in this, six inches sides, shining above, and may best be
apa t, and so the top bud will .be e*en distinguished by the gradually tapering t
with ,the surface. In filling the trench base, as sown in the accompanying
tramp the earth firmly about the base of illustration. A.
the cuttingss, and the most of them A. H. C.
Sh- bould grow. Keep them carefully boed dm
and -entirely free of weeds. It will niot HINTS ON TREE PLANTING..
4 be necessary to tie up the vines. In tbe P
... uooeeding spring they will be ready for Methods Adapted to the Climate f
V.'y *'^Biy plaiting in the vineyard, being cut back of Flr .
r. .to two eyes each, only one of which of florida.
should allowedd to finally grow.-Ex. In the valuable catalogue of sub-trop-
"* .. .ical trees and plants recently issued by d
S* Rsty Oranges the Best. P.W. Reasoner & Bro., of the Royal f
It rFppeas that the superior qualities Palm Nurseries, Manatee, we find the s
of rusty dianges are coming to be recog- following treatise, on the transplanting o
nized at he North. as they long have of palms and other trees. The direc- se
MON (Diosp.os Kaki). een ia- 71orida. The resinous coating tions are adapted especially to the cli- in
[ .MON (Dospyros..., .'of the skin prevents, in a measure, decay mate of Southern and Central Florida, h
tive or foreign stocks, is sure to shed off and the escape of juice by evaporation, but the general priniiples'laiddown arLg
more or less, and I can see no difference Hence such fruits keeps longer on or off equally applicable to the Northern por- 't
in this respect between the two kinds of the tree and bears transportation better. 'tion of the'State.
stocks, someshedding all the fruit, while After Felbruary we'had rather have, for A method of transplanting palms not w
others shed a part only. Further obser- our own dse, fifty pounds of rusty than mentioned by Mr. Reasoner is as fol- sI
vation may account for this difference, a hpfdred pounds of bright fruit. The lows: Cut off all the roots on one side, th
but the testimony of those having longer INe%,i-n(U.' .)Independent speaks of this and after some months have elapsed cut (i
experience shows that this -shedding subji, as fol ows: off those on the other side, reducing the r
habit lessens as the trees attain greater I Thiz -ery sweetest and richest oranges leaves each time. Afterward, when young e&
age.. are nkiblack or rusty-coated fruit. Pick roots have beei formed, remove the re- n
Ithas been contended recently thatthe out t lingiest oranges in the box, and mining leaves, lift carefully and trans- ti
Japan persimmon worked on the native, you get the best. Another way to plant. Mr. Reasoner writes from prac- g
stock is more liable to shed fruit than choe anges is by weight. The heav- tical -experience of many subjects not
the imported trees, but other experience Jett bhe best. because they have the generally understood, and we'advise all S.
besides my own, refutes this Idea, and, thibq:. k' and more weight of juice., who read this extract to send for this t
inasmuch as the native stock gives a far Thiou ffedorang's are apt to be dry; catalogue: -
more vigorous growth, it is on that ac- theyp.-pg weigh less because of having As a general rule in regard to time of w
count preferable. so muDhc.kin, or because of the poverty transplanting trees and plants we prefer w
It has also been contended.that the, of 'jult ese particular specimens December, January and February; or
fruit grown on native stocks is inferior A sligg on the tree causes this une, Jul and August, according to the th
in quality to that bt.rne b imported condition otherwise fine fruit, classof rntos In
tes This" ..orted. '-ll- w For all.citr.s trees-two years old ,or de
treesThis does not vetally with my ex -Prof, is, of Andalusia and Fort over, for Mulberries, -Peaches, Pears,r d
perience, and I believe that the quality San Luis!,e'-yards and Nurseries, Leon Persimmons, Umbrella China Trees, and
of this fruit, as well as others, depends county,- with'less than seven acres in all deciduous hardy trees, of course we ed
very largely on careful and intelligent bearing, "fit this season made 2,200 gal- prefer the winta months. Little orange m
management of the trees. ,ons of Fl~tida wines, worth in New trees, from seed planted in the winter w
This fruit is propagated most readily York, at wholesale $1$00 per gallon, and spring, we.transplant the following wl
by grafting. Buds will take in young, making the- yield worth over $800 per summer with the best result, sometimes as
rapidly growing stock only. Sometimes acre. not losinghalf dozen outofa thousand, ur
JThey stand the shock better if trans-.'
planted While srfa4, and the warm
weather, and frequent showers start
them to growing in a few days-without
even a wilted leaf.
Most topical trees too,recover quicker
if carefully plailtid out in tne rainy
season. "In thle case of the .4nonas, .
which are deciduous, the v. inter months .
would be preferable, or rather the dry
season, if;we oere within the tropics., :
If the tropical plaits are planted out
in the summer, by the following winter
they will be well established, and better
-conditioned to withstand a, cold" snap.
With care and& atiention,-i he last of.
February is'albo a'good time to more
tiV ei-after danger of killing frosts is
over, and beforerthe long spring'sdrouth
comes on. The spring's drouth to us
his almost as great, terrors as a .freeze.
We never transplant in March, April
and May, if it can 'possibly be avoided
as it frequently gets "so dry in these!
months that well established planishave
trouble to hold their own."
4' NSPL&ANTLNO PALMi.
Most people, in trinsplantiii, are too
much afi aid of the use of the pruning
knife. Date palms (or any other palm)
that have been grown in the -open
ground, 'should be deprived of every
leaf. (The roots Qf the palm dislike to be
disturbed, and so pot-grown plants are
preferable, as they can be moved with-
out mutittion of'the roots.). But de-
prived'of the leaves, there is no d fficul-
ty in transplanting ahy palm, even
from the open ground, though they are
generally slow in starting. We have
safely transplanted Oreodosas and
Thrinsa palms from five to ten feet in
height in this mariner.
Very small palm plants and very large
one-, with considerable trunk, stand
transplanting better than medium sized
ones. In Ibthe case of the little ones, the
roots can be tiken up entire, without.
losing any of the rootlets; with large
trees, the trunk seems to sustain the life
of the tree.for a long time, until the tree
recovers from the shock and sends out
new roots. j
We have seen a cabbage palmetto .tree-i
cut down, leave trimmed off tndetrunk-
thrown upon a bruih.pile; soon after, a
new leaf appeared at the.top, which was
green and a ive 'nine months 'after.the
In the case of the Thrinazx palms, they
had formed truriks four to six feet high.
They were taken up on the lower Keys,
in May; the leaves were all cut off. and
in digging up the roots had been all cut
off within six inches of the bottom of
the trunk-making them almost rootless
and leafless. The roots were unsatisfa'c-
torily wrapped in grass and grey moss,
there being no better packing material
at hand, and after a voyage of more than
a week they were set out here at Mana-
tee. By November each tree had from
two to five strong, healthy leaves, (one
in the meantime had sent out several-
blossom spikes). They passed through-
the two December frosts unharmed, but
were killed by the-"big freeze" (January
9, 1886). In the spring, when sure that -
they were entirely dead, we dug them
up and found that during the previous,
summer all the old roots had rotted, and
hundreds of strong, healthy new -roots
had taken their places. .
Wo have seen Cabbage Palinetto trees
ifteen feet high,. so heavy ',hat it. took
ten or twelve men to move them, trans-
planted in the same manner. The trees
Ire now flourishing luxuriantly, with a'
ull crown of leaves.
TREATMENT OF FRUIT TREES.
Frequent transplanting, if properly
[one, tends to increase the number of
ibrous roots-and to make the top more,
tocky and vigorous. In transplanting
range plants, anonas, etc, from the
eed-bed, at a height of six to eighteen
inches, we sort and count 'out- into
bundlps of one hundred, just about a
good handful; we are careful to make
he bundles as even as possible, with
'collars" of the little plants even; then .
we hold them-on a block, and with a
harp hatchet cut off about one-half/of
he tops, and one-third, of the roots
principally tap-roots, as smaller fibrous
oots are farther up). This makes them .
asy and convenient to set out, and al-
uost.sure to live, in good weather. The
rimming off of the roots encourages the
growth of more fibrous roots.
Other plants, such as the Mango and
apodil'a,: require but little pruning of
ze leaves if transplanted when small -
-but care should generally' be taken toW:
after them when they are planted out- "
ith shade for several days afterwards.
Another most important operation is
he "firmingof the earth" around a p!sait.:
I almost every case, even with quite
elibate plants, the dirt should be firmly
essed down around it with the feet.
o0 much importance cannot be attach-
d to this operation-so neglected by
any.. After this "firming" of the-dirt,
e water(if at all) and then cover the
hole with loose dry dirt, which acts
a mulch, in keeping the ground
underneath it moist.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. JANUARY 26, 1887.
The Superior Qualities of Bud-
ded Orange Trees.
(from the proceedings of the Dunedin
Editor Florida Faner and Pruit-aower:
At the last meeting of our Horticul-
tural Society, the committee on fruit
culture gave in a report on the advan-
tages of budded stock over seedlings,%.
also the best stocks to bud on, and va-
rious other matters of interest to orange
growers. The members of the society
having discussed the report, requested
the committee to revise it and send a
copy to the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROwER.
In asking for space in your columns,
we are not altogether actuated by dis-
interested- motives, as we trust that some
eft the points we -have touched on,.and
some of the queries we have given, may
elicit information that may be of benefit
The advantages of budded stock over
=-.seedlings claimed -by the committee,
briefly stated, are certainly earliness, and
regularity of bearing, increased produc-
tion and better quality of fruit, freedom
.rom thorns, and less labor in gather-
In planting out a grove the preference
should be given touch varieties as have
some part cular characteristic, either as
regards time of ripening or some peculi-
arity of form, as shpwh in the navel,
tangerine, mandarin, etc. By this means
competition with-'the bulk of the crop
shipped may be avoided.
.For our locality the Florida rough
lemon is considered the best stock to
use. It .is vigorous and is an early,
heavy, and regular bearer, 'withstands
either drought or excessive moisture,
and when the bud has caught up with
the stock there is but little if any more
danger of its being injured by frost than
the bud in any other stock. The freeze
of last year demonstrated that bearing
buds in this stock put on a better growth
and more beautiful crop than the seed-
Next to the rough lemon came the
bitter-sweet, being vigorous and healthy
and an early and good bearer. The im-
munity from the disease mal-de-goma is
a point in its favor. For low, wet land,
or land containing much vegetable mat-
ter, the sour stock was considered pref-
erable to the sweet, but for ordinary
Spine land the latter was thought more
The lime, if budded near the ground,
especially in localities exempt from se--
vere frost, offers a vigorous and early
bearing stock, both in time and season.
It will grow on very poor and thirsty'
land, and the fruit of buds on this stock
is generally thin skinned and bright,
.matures early in the-season, and for this
reason it might be used with advantage
to bud the early ripening varieties, such
as sweet Seville, early oblong, Parson
Brown and each's No. 1.
Passing from the, orange to the con-
sideration of the lemon, the committee
advised the culture of such good varie-
ties as Villa Franca, Genoa, Sicily and
POINTS FOR DISCUSSION.
The following queries wert submitted
to the meeting :.
Does the stock affect' the hardiness
of the bud?
'2. Does spring pruning promote bloom-
3. Does nitrogenous manure -produce
coarse, pithy fruit? .
4. -Does poiash produce fine grained
and sweet fruit ?
5. Is the Mediterranean sweet a slow-
grower,, and for that reason undesir-
6. Is there much danger of the fruit
of different varieties being changed in
form and flavor by bees carrying the
pollen of the blossoms of one tree to
those of another.
DUNEDIN, Hillsborough Co., Fla., Jan:
THE LeCONTE PEAR.
General Directions for Pruning,
Cultivating, Fertilizing, Etc.
: A resident of Thomas county, Geor-
gia, which is the home of the LeConte
pear, gives the following instructions for
the management of this tree in the
The LeConte requires a treatment in
pruning peculiar to itself, by reason of
its habits of growth, its tendency to run
up like aLombardy poplar, and the un-
usually large size the tree attains at an
: early age. -
The tree will thrive and fruit without
pruning, but may assume an ungainly
shape; some of the branches will run iup
too high, the fruit on them will be inac-
cessible and liable to be whipped off-by
the winds. The LeConte bears phenom-
enal crops.of fruit, anl should therefore
S, be stocky, with large sturdy limbs, and
have a well-balanced head, so that -the
fruit will not be beaten off by storms,
and be convenient for gathering.
In general terms, the required trim-
ming consists of an annual shoi tening in
of the longest branches, and removing
the inside limbs so as to cause the tree
to spread and form a symmetrical top.
Thomas county is headquarters for the
LeConte pear. Our orchard trees can' be
.counted by hundreds of thousands, rang-
ing from one to seventeen years-old. The
knowledge of this management, that
S comes of experience, should be worth
S-, something to the novice. -
'.'" Begin with one year old trees, which
are,really the best for orchard planting.
.. : They are trained m the nursery to one
stem, are about two inches in circumfer-
-" ence at the collar, -and about five feet
high. Three feet of the top should' be
S cut off before or at planting, In other
S" words, thetree should be cut back to
;.. twofeet. : :- .
o : ." During the spring and summer some
; 0fthe lowr buds. should be rubbed off,
S "f;. "throwing the growth in the upper bud.
: This upper or top bud should make a
growth of five to eight feet, and during
UPd.T dND de
the winter should be cut back to four
feet from the ground.
Subsequent pruning consists in annu-
ally cutting back the leader and the
longer branches, and removing the in-
side branches. This should be done in
such manner as to cause the head to
spread uniformly from the center stock
ir leader. A LeConte tree should, at
five years, be about fifteen inches in
girth above the collar, fifteen to eighteen
feet high, eight or t'en feet across the
branches at the widest part, and of sym-
metrical cone shape. There should he
a leader in the centre, and the limbs be-
gin at two feet from the ground and di-
verge at intervals to the top. If the long-
est limbs, including the leader, are an-
nually cut back, leaving the leader some-
what the longest, and the useless buds
and limbs removed, the tree naturally
assumes the shape described above. At
five to six years old the tree commences
to form fruit buds, and will require but
little pruning thereafter. The weight of
the fruit causes the branches to spread,
and the tendency to grow tall measura-
bly ceases, although the rapid growth of
the tree continues for several years.
An average twelve-year-old tree is
thirty inches in circumference above the
collar, twenty feet high and twenty
wide. Neglected trees would not be so
large at that age. We find them profit-
able, and so we treat them generously.
I have heard men say that they would
not lake $100 apiece for their trees. And
the reason they gave was that the sales of
the fruit had averaged them .15 per cent.
annually on that sum since they were
nine years old. .
The cultivation consist in stirring the
soil near the trees during the growing
season, breaking the crust after- every
rain, and allowing no weeds or grass
near them. Any annual crop can be
grown between the rows that requires
frequent stirring of the soil. The Le-
Conte throws out no surface roots until
it commences fruiting: consequently, for
the first four years all fertilizer should
be applied within a rrdius.of four feet of
the tree. If the land be poor a few ap-
plications of stable 'or lot manure, or
woods earth, annually, will be found val-
uable. Wood ashes or kainit in the
spring and stable manure in the fall will
cause a surprising growth. If, for any
reason, the soil near the tree cannot be
stirred, a heavy mulching of any coarse
material makes a very satisfactory sub-
stitute. Chip manure from the wood pile
makes a good- mulching for trees in the
lawn or front yard.
As said above, until the LeConte com-
mences bearing, it has few or no lateral
roots (unless it is a grafted tree, and
then itis no good with us), and the ma-
pure should be applied within a radius
of about four feet from the tree, so that
it does not require a large amount of fer-
tilizing for a young orchard. But in time
the roots will occupy all the interven-
ing ground, and if the soil 'be poor it
should be gradually improved by grow-
ing peas and other renovating crops, as
opportunity offers, while the trees are
A word about grafted trees. We find
them a complete failure here; and the
same may be said concerning bastard
trees, i. e.,. trees grown from cuttings
taken from grafted trees. I can give no
instruction as to their management, and,
what I have said is applicable only to.
the genuine pedigree LeConte tree.- It
is claimed that grafted LeConte trees do
pretty well in somelocalities.
The Peach In Sumter County.
The following are Major 0. P. Rooks,
views of peach culture in South Florida,
as reported recently -in a Leesburg pa-
Nature has given this section prece-
dence in the time of ripening the peach
over any other section north of us, there-
by doubling its market value. Upon the
hill-sides of Fruitland Park the Honey
and Peen-To peaches and their hybrids
blush and ripeq their luscious fruits two
or three weeks sooner than any other
northern section of the United States.
This gives them an enormous advantage
over all other varieties in' the market.
These varieties never fail to produce
annual crops when properly cultivated.
Their fruit being marketed in April,
May and June, gives ample 'time for the
new wood to mature their fruit buds for
the ensuing year, which is not the case
with later varieties.
The Bidwell, Peen-To, Honey and
Home's Hybrid are the peaches at pres-
ent most in favor, although it is proba-
ble .other hybrids and seedlings of these
varieties will yet, be found to equal, if
not surpass, them. These, we find, pro-
duce abundant crops with the unfailing',
regularity of the recurring seasons.
Be sure and plant stock budded upon
Florida- grown seedlings. Georgia and
Northern grown stock is mostly diseased,
having knotty excrescences on. their
The peach grower here need not feel
loss in the future' fromnglutted markets.
Should the market at ang time become
fully supplied, ilthese peaches' can be
evaporated and readily turned into cash.
"Don't carry all the eggs. in one
basket." Plant more peaches. Plant
peach orchards. Plant between the
orange trees. Plant in every vacant
corner. Remember,. to insure success
plant only such trees as have been bud-
ded on Florida grown seedlings. Our
lands at Fruitland Park have clay sub-
soil. Last season my peaches yielded at
the rate of 100 bushels per acre the sec-
ond year from the planting, and netted
me $8 per bushel. This beats orange
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS-, CLARK & Go. .
: Geo. E. Snow, Esq., of East Lake,
says: "'That he is better satisfied with
Williams, Clark & Co's Orange Tree
Fertilizer thanany he has used in eight
years' experience with orange tree fertil-
Nutritive Qualities and
Method of Cultivation.
BY S. POWERS.
This is one of the by-products of Flor-
ida which has been too much neglected,
and which deserves -to be promoted to
the rank of a staple. It is often called
the white rice, and has smaller grains
than the other two varieties, which are
grown on the lowlands. It answers ev-
-ery purpose for which the rice of com-
merce is used, and it certainly seems to
deserve a high place in the list of Flor-
ida cereals, as a substitute for, and su-
perior to corn, and almost equal* to
wheat and oats, not only as human food
but as a feed for stock and poultry.
Before proceeding to the practical part
of the subject, I will make a brief com-
parison between the nutritive values of
the four cereals nimed.. Rice contains
0.13 per cent. of fat; wheat, 1.5;
oats, 5.6; corn, 8.9; corn having
nearly twice as much as oats and
more than seventy times as much as
rice .In this sub-tropical climate there-
fore corn is the worst food, in this re-
spect, and rice the best of the albumin-
oids (which more particularly support
the muscles and give vigor and motion)
rice has a lower per centage than either
of the other three. But this is more
than compensated by its superior diges-
tibility, which is a great desideratum in
a warm climate. Rice is the most easily
digested of all the other cereals, for
which reason it is customary to give it
to children and invalids-a fact which
has unjustly prejudiced many people
again t its use. On the other hand, corn
is so heavy and oily that it is exceeding-
ly difficult of digestion; and in Mexico,
where it is very largely consumed, the
traveler-as I can testify from personal
observation---will everywhere see the
people eating it in connection with red
pepper, the latter serving as a stomac-
tric stimulant and a promoter of diges-
I have observed that the Southerners,
especially the rural population here in
Florida, are inclined to take rice in con-
nection with their corn-bread, about "alf
and alf," as the Englishman would say,
which is a judicious combination, but
susceptible of improvement by making
the rice to constitute three-fourths and
the corn one-fourth.
Observe how nature has wisely as-
signed these cereals their places. Rice
grows in a sub-tropical climate ; corn
does best a little further North, lapping
well on to the wheat.belt; while wheat
and oats succeed best well up in the tem-
perate zone. "In the "frozen North"
man needs muscle and vigor; in the
South his blood needs dilution and cool-
ing. The albuminoids are the princi-
ples of food which chiefly nourish red
muscle. Of these principleaf- oats. has
'12.6 per cent.; wheat, 1.4; corn, 10; rice,
7.5. Here again rice show itself to be
best adapted for the food of people liv-
ine in a hot climate. '
The native Floridians in the rural re-
gions subsist on corn-bread, sweet po-
tatoes and pork, all of them rich in fat
and,very hard to digest-a total trinity.
They give the heat and fat so objection-
able in this climate, easily running into
-fevers of various kinds, with an anemic
condition and a pallid, sallow conplex-
ion. Rice, fruit and vegetables would
be far better. This is shown, among
other ways, by the fact that the medical
profession prescribe rice water as a nu-
tritive and cooling beverage in fevers
and inflammatory affections of the
stomach, lungs and kidneys.
The alleged fact, asserted by some
Southern physicians, that. the eating of
rice -produces short sight and other dis-
orders of the eyes, is probably Without
foundation, or due rather to malario or
filth. I have not observed that the.rice-
eating Chinese of California are particu-
larly afflicted in this way. On the other
hand, the Germans in the great sugar-
beet districts south of Magdeburg are
much troubled with diseased eyes. New
rice is said to produce indigestion and
diarrhoea, and should not be eaten until
it is six months old.
Now, for the cultivation of it. Mr. J.
W. C. Peters, of this place, has grown a
crop of it for several years,. and his
method is about as follows: He breaks
up the sod with an ox-team, turning a
furrow about four inches deep. He har-
rows it well to level the surface and se-
cures enough mellow soil to cover the
seed. He is in no hurry to sow the seed;
any. time from May to July will answer,
though he prefers to soew,it early in the
season, for the sake of the aftermath
which the stubble yields. About 1i
bushels per acre is sowB, and it is cov-
ered with a harrow. On a light sand it
is desirable to sow just before or after- a
The rice is out with a cradle and bound
in small bundles like wheat. As yet it
has to be threshed 'with a flail, but it is
to be hoped-. that the time will come.
when -there w ill be machines both for
tresh'ng and hulling. If the rice is cut
in the proper stage, the straw. will be
very- acceptable fodder for cattle and
horses after they become wonted to it.
After the crop is cut the roots sprout
again and, furnish excellent pasturage
for several months, very good for pro-
longing the season for milch cows.. It
wi!lt bridge over the autumn drought
and carry the milking stock well over to
winter oats or green rye. .
. On his raw sod, withoutlany manure,
Mr. Peters harvests about twenty bush-
els per acre. On better land he has re-
ceived-forty bushels .or even more. As
there are no hulling .mills yet in the
neighborhood, he gives it mostly to
horses and poultry. Hie finds it profit-
able, -however, to send it over to Green
Cove Springs, where there is a mill. at
an expense of 23 cents a bushel for
freightage for -use on his table. His
horses eat readily both grain and straw.
Before he began to grow rice bis poultry
was a constant expense to him; now he
throws it out of the barn d6or liberally, -by a machine, having,stout'briishes like'
and has fat liens and : plenty of, eggs .a cottoh-gin, which brushes the pods off
without cost. the vines. The pods are then carefully
LAWTEY, FLA. assorted by hand and packed in sacks
*h ready for market.
Sorghum. The vines are very susceptible to frost,
Do not plant your sorghum too early, and while they should be allowed the ut-
Wait until the ground has become warm. most length of growing season, in order
The weeds will have started ere that, to mature the pods formed last, the crop
and can be eradicated with the harrow should be harvested as soon as it is hip-
and cultivtor andthe ground thus put ped by the first hoar-frost. If the vines
ii, a desirable condition for the success- are allowed to remain aftertheyare kill-
ful starting of the sorghum crop. The ed by the cold, the pods are very apt to
ground should be thoroughly pulverized, break off and remain in the ground.
Sorghum is a tender plant in its infancy, foThere is then another implement use
and requires a petted child's care. n for taking out the pods that may have
a fair start the crop is assured, the se been broken off and- left in the ground,
favorable. Don't cease harrowing sand but generally, on a small farm, the hogs
favorable. Do n't cease harrowing and are turned into the field to do the glean-
cultivating till cane is above knee-high; ing, and they fatten rapidly on what
and one or two plowings and hoeings af- they ing, and the y f atten r apidly on whatils
ter that is essential to success. But once theyfinbes Lt adaptoose, sandy and loamy sols
the plants have made a good start, don't arebest adapted to ths crop.
plow too near and break the rootlets *
that are spreading up and down to gather Greens.
moisture and food. Weedsl Weedsl The desire for fresh- vegetables in
Watch them closely; they are death to spring is not a mere fancy, but a craving
young sorghum.. For the first six weeks of the system for a healthful change in
you must choose between a crop of the diet. It is well known that sailors,
sorghum anda crop of weeds. Sorghum who on long voyages subsist largely, if
don't begin to grow till knee-high (from not solely, upon salted and dried meats,
six to eight weeks after planting). If in are'attacked by a dreadful disease-the
proper condition it will then double its scurvy-for which fresh vegetables area
height in ten or twelve days, and often ready cure. The families of.many farm-
in less time.-Sorghum Grower's Guide. ers are confined 'during the winter
#, months to a diet of salt meats, almost
PEANUTS. as exclusively as are sailors upon a pro-
tracted voyage. Salted meats are con-
-venient. They afford a supply of animal
How and Where the "Pindar" iS food with little trouble, and.the pork
Grown, etc. barrel and the smoke-bouse are drawn
upon from day to day with little thought
The peanut crop is not generally re- of the effect upon the health. As spring
guarded as a profitable one in Florida, the, approaches the desire for fresh vegeta-
product not being of prime marketable bles becomes intense. The farmer is
quality. In some localities, however, it fortunate if he has a good supply of cab-
is planted in considerable quantity. The bage well preserved. These, if eaten
-best method' of treatment is to plant it raw, as salad or cold slaw, will go far to
in alternate rows with corn, the latter offset the scorbutic effects of continuous
being planted farther apart than usual, salt meat. A well regulated farm gar--
which results to its advantage. den will supply an abundance of spin-
After the crop is harvested, the nuts, ach, the best of all greens; also, the
roots, etc., remaining in the ground af- German greens, or kale, an excellent
ford excellent feed for hogs. When a non-heading cabbage, which is all -the
drove of hogs is kept in such a field it better the more it is frozen. If cabbages
results in benefit both to the hogs and are wintered in trenches, or in a cellar,
the soil, and by both means the farmer in such a manner as to preserve the
is benefited. The subjoined article from stumps, these stumps, if set out in a shel-
the Times-Democrat will interest all who tered place in the garden, as early as the
care for "goober nuts," whether engaged ground can be worked, will soon produce
in their cultivation or not: an abundance of tender shoots, which
Among the diversified industries of are most excellent greens, and may be
the farms that are well worthy of at- cut over several times.-American Agri-
tention, the cultivation of peanuts has culturist.
an important place. Thus far Virginia,
North Carolina, Tennessee and Texas The Growing' Interest in To-
produce most of what is marketable. bacco t
These "ground nuts," gooberss," 'pin-
dars," or, however they may be locally BY J. G. K.i
called, have much more important use Editor Ilorida Farmer and ruit-Grower:
in the world than to be munched by leg- A correspondent from Madison county,
isWative solons. They have a recognized who had received tobacco seed from the i
place among the important exports of U. S. Agricultural Department, writes f
this country. that he last year cultivated some small w
They are among the best of oil produc- patches of Cuba seed, and being. a
ing materials, yielding about 40 per cent. smoker, -has found it the best he ever P
of oil, which is in no respect inferior to used. a
olive oil for cooking and table purposes, We observe a great interest is growing
and superior for lubricating delicate up on the subject of tobacco growing O
machinery. This oil was formerly used among the farmers of this State. This
largely in France and Spain for adul- is all right if it be not carried so far as t
terating olive oil, but lately cotton seed to neglect the growth of grain, fodder,
oil, being much cheaper, has al-most and vegetable crops. Let tobacco be-
entirely taken its place. Many thousands come an additional crop and it will be-
of t6ns of these nuts are imported into all right, and an improvement upon the t
the ports of France annually for the one money crop of other days.
manufacture of oil, and the residue, 'af-
ter the oil is expressed, is used for adul- DEARINGGROVE,
terating cocoa in the preparation of B :
chocolates, and It is freely asserted that
often all cocoa is omitted, and peanut IN PUTNAM COUNTY
cake used alone in the manufacture of _
so called chocolate confections. Three quarters of a mile from St. Johns River,. f
The cultivation of these nuts is not a fret above-thefrover.
confined to a few of the Southern States,
but extends all a'ong the east and west ALSO,
coast of Africa, as well as elsewhere. A
And it was from Africa that they were ONE LOT IN.KEUKA. e
first introduced into the South. They- 20,000 Nursery Trees, of all varieties and sizes.
are not indigenous, to the South any All at bargains. Write or call at.
more than the negroes, by whose ances- F. C. COCHRANE'S Book Store,
tors they were originally brought. ". l -alatka, Fla.
Peanuts are a fairly profitable cropr '
but rather troublesome to harvest. On n m. m ii ztvator. i.
ton per acre they will produce about TH N nniforroati-,.
fifty bushels,- and the product can be in- SOUTHERIN pree on applicati a.
creased in proportion to the quantity of ALMANAC ..1.. Pil
manure put upon the land. Prices vary B ,Fo 18S7. Pa Sed Farms: U-F .. f
according to the size of the .crop and daleand watert,
other causes that affect the. quotations -" r
of articles of commerce; but the usual pEACH HILL N(URSERY.
range is from $1 to $2.25 per bushel in
the markets of Charleston, New Orleans, PEACU TREES ADAPTED TO FLORIDA,
Wilmington and Norfolk. In the mar- a Specialty. -
kets the nuts are divided into several Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May k
Se nts ...... ve. evera.. till last of October, with the exception of the
grades, each having as distinct a, quo- Honey and Peen-To varieties. The peaches I
station as any particular grade of cotton offer have been obtained by CAREFULSBELECTION
or other staple, ohly the largest, most from a large nunibbr of'varieties adapted to the
best filled andcleanes. South with which I have been experimenting for
evenly formed, best filled and cleanest many years. I also offer our variety of Apricot,
are recognized as prime and fetch the the best of six.which Ihave cultivated-
highest prices. *' I guarantee every tree to be true to name and
T t b, .fed .to be of true Florida Rtock.
he cost of production cannotbfixed Fordescriptive catalogue and price-list, ad-
any more than that of cotton or corn, dress W.P.HORNE, -
and depends much upon the skill and Glen St. Mary, Florida.
economical management of the farm.
The expense of preparing ground RILEY, GROVER & CO.,
manuring, planting and working is STATE AGENTS FOR
about the same as that of a good corn TS FOR
crop,- and the manner of cultivation is .... ....
about the same. The land 'should be RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S r
level and throughly pulverized, so that
the young pods may enter the soil SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO, c
readily, for it must be borne in mind i
that the pods are not, attached to the DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
roots, but to the vines, and are formed -
above the ground from the blossoms, PHOSPHATE- P
and then turn down immediately and PO HT,
work their way into the earth. When
the vines are branched out well and in AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
blossom, they should never be disturbed, FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
andthe cultivator should hot be run too PO ..
close to them or it will tear the young Get our Prices before buying.
pods out of the earth. -
The harvesting of the. crop is the i OYAIL PALM NURSERIES ,
troublesome part of the business, and -
what most generally discourages farm- -
ers from engaging in its cultivation. MANATEE, FLORIDA. :
There are implements made somewhat Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for
like potato diggers, -especially for lifting open airculIture in Florida, and for the North-
t he vi ues, by plowing under them, and emrn greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
thus hi inging them up with the pods tial trees, plants and grasses. amd general nur-
thus banging these up with the pod ry stock adapted to Florida and the South. .
attached. The vines are then turned Exotics from India, Australia and lie West
upside down by hand, so that the pods Indies,many of them never before introduced
may dry. In two or three days they be- into the United States. p s
come dry enough to be separated from tropical and seml-tropical pl ants pbled n
the vines, and sacked for- market. America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
Whenever this .crop is planted on a ceipt of 15 cents. ,reeon e RO
large scale,' the separation is effected Manatee, Florida.:;
+ ... *. .k+ k *
DEVOTED, TO THE
This journal will have for itsleading object
the promotion of rural industriesin PFlorida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this journal
will be to describe, the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed, and all influences affecting such results ;
ilso to suggest experiment, describe new-or little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencing with the first niimber and oy -- _
tinuing through the season for "
There will be a series of articles on: fruits-other
bhan those or tho citrus group-which have
proved moat 60CeN ,tul in this Stae. Each va- -
rlety will be described and
Lnd there will be notes from persons who have
had experience in is cultivation Thic, will be
followed by a similar series on
And other subjects wlU beillnst rated to a limited
Much attention will be devoted to
And to the home production of forage andfertili-
ers, two economies which are essential to suc-
Questions relative to ailments of- domestic
nimalswill be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department.
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount ot.space will be devoted to
household economy and to reports of the mar-
kets, and the departments of
will be contributed to by persons who-hve minade-
pecialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will Bher
presented by able correspondents. ~
Under no circumstances Will this journal be-
ome the "organ" of any assodiatiomer loctlity;
it will start out untrammelled and :will pre- ..
ent all. sections and interests with absolute im- .
publishedatJacksonville on Wednesday
S of each week. .
PRICE OFP SUBSiCRIPTION: -
ineYear "- I. O O :"
ix Months i......... 1'O
threee Months 8 .,
SPECIMEN COPtES PREE.
Address subscriptions and other business com-
unications to ..
C. H. JONES &BRO.,..
Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to -
A. AH. CURTISS, Editor.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JANUARY 26, 1887.
the surface. The most expeditious way
is tp haul them out. Beginning at one
side let one drive the horse cart slowly
across, while the others gather up and
A Wonderfully Productive Ce- throw in the cart, and continue until all
real and Forage Plant. the ground is gone over. As the cart
becomes full it should be hauled out and
BY J. G. K. dumped at some convenient place for
No better fodder plants can be grown burning.
in Florida than some of the varieties of You are now ready for the lime, which
the Millo Maize. One man writes that is best distributed from the tail of the
these "yield a paying crop where noth- cart with shovels, scattering it uniformly
ing else will grow." Another at Fort over the land at the rate of a hundred
Meade writes: "On new land without bushels to the acre. After theliming, har-
any fertilizer it produced at the rat of row thorovghly again, when the ashes
forty bushels per acre, and on cow- should be:applied as the lime was, putting
penned land, 100 bushels." fifty bushels to the acre, after which the
The assistant superintendent of the harrow should again be used until the
grounds of the Agricultural College, of lime and the ashes are intimately mixed
California, writes that he planted Kaffir with the soil. If you have not the ashes
corn May 5, 1886, and it "yielded at the apply instead five hundred pounds of
first cutting on August 10th, 15,370 kainit to the acre.
pounds per acre, green, or 4,930 pounds The land is now smooth and soft on the
dried. Another plat cut September 29th surface, supplied with a sufficiency of
yielded 17,400 pounds green, and 5,740 the important elements of lime and pot-
dried. The plat cut August 10th was ash; the effect of which will 6e to hasten
cut again Nov. 22; the second crop from the decompositionn of the turf under-
the same roots. and the weight was 12,- neath, which, on account of the slanting.
104 pounds per acre: the plat cut Sep teeth of the harrow has remained undis-
tember 10, was cut a second time on De turbed.
member 10, and the second growth was The dew and the rain will now finish
8,304 pounds per acre." Thus it may be the process of preparation for the first
seen that the yield of fodder in one in- crop. In a future article I will state
stance was at the rate of 27,474 pounds what crop I consider the most desirtdle
green, and 6,520 dried, and in the other to plant, which will not only be profita-
20,704 pounds green, or 6,678 dried, ble itself, but at the same time assist in
And finally we have a man from Geor- bringing up our thinpi pine land to a state
gia stating that he has raised 12 to 18 of comparative fertility.
tons of stalks and leaves, and 50 to 75 "NEW FARM," near Pensacola, Fla.
bushels of grain-to the acre. The grain
weighing 60 pounds per bushel. These
results are had on-land that would notSoiling.
produce over 10 to 15 bushels of corn. The system of soiling, or feeding stock
If these statements are to be believed, with freshly-cut green fodder, is specially
and there is no reason why they should adapted to such crops as millet, mille
not be, then there can be no good reason maize and teosinte. Therefore it is the
-why a bushel of corn or oats, or a pound system for Florida Here is something
of hay shou d be shipped into Florida to on the subject from the Farmer's Re-
be ,fed to stock. Dr. Watkins assures view, leading on to the naturally related
the world that the flour from the whi e subject of ensilage:
seeded Millo Maizes will rise as well as We have written a good deal in favor
wheat flour in bread making, and is of soiling, partial or co-nflete, on high.
even sweeter, and if ihe grain is ground priced land. All must admit that the
and placed -upon the leaves, and stems amount of stock which the farm can
;cut fine' and thus fed to horses and cows, be made to carry under this system is
they will do better than if fed upon im- much greater than can be sustained on
perted hay and oats or corn meal. pasture.- The main objection raised
The duty of every Florida agricultur- against the system is the labor involved
-ists would therefore,' appear plain, to in cutting and feeding each day, and in
point him to plant a patch to some of all sorts of weather, a supply of green
-these varieties.- He cannot fail to real- food for the stock. This can be obvia-
Ize a paying crop. lted in a large measure by building or
converting a part of the barn into silos,
RECLAIMING PINE LAND. and making the soiling crops into silage.
--- It is then safely stored, and is as conve-
II--Putting the Land in Readi- nient for feeding as grain in the bin or
hay in the mow. The lebor and expense
neSS for the First Crop. of cu ting and storing a large quantity
BY J. v. DANSBY. in silos is much less than that involved
In my former article, the shell heaps in cutting and hauling to the stable each
rn my former article, the shell he day the amount required forthe day's
were prepared ready to burn, and the feed ng. Experience has demonstrated
land in order for the plow. The object that wooden silos, wholly above ground,
is to. turn the turf entirely over, as requiring only lumber and building pa-
.amoothly and as evenly as possible, leav- per in their construction, are better (as
aing the roots uppermost For that pur- they are cheaper) than costly structures
pose a good -strong turning shovel an- -of masonry, partially or wholly below
-swersbest. It should cut a land about ground. The drought, with its lessons,
eight inches in width, and be so set as is of the recent past. Now is a good
to turn the furrow shoce smoothly and time to lay plans for the future, so that
completely over, and should run just when another drought comes it can be
deep enough to .get under the grass met without loss, and this can be done
roots. with an ample store of silage to draw
A 'sharp steel coulter is essential to upon at any and all times.
good work. It should be set to run about -
half.an inch deeper than the point of
the plow, and slanting forward, so as to THE WATER NEEDED BY CROPS.
jump over such roots as it fails to cut. .
It is.very important that the coulter beall N al
of good steel and kept all the time sharp, Average Rainfall Not Equal
and for that purpose the p'owman to Ordinary Requirements.
should carry with him a file ready to be
used as needed. BY J.. N. W.
Now, with strong. steady mule and Of all- the essentials to plant-life, no
a good-man at the plow.handles, begin individual one is quite equal in impor-,
,on the outside and plow a -furrow en- tance to water. It enters largely into
tirely arofind the clearing; which con- the composition of plants, acts both
tinue to do un'il you finish up in the chemically and mechanically in prepar-
middle. This leaves the whole uniformly ing their food, and conveys it to their
-smooth, with only a short water furrow absorbentsor feeders. But from the small
in the center. progress made by farmers generally, tow-
This'work should be done as soon as the ard securing the full influence of water,
land is ready for the plow, and before the it might be questioned whether they re-
young grass begins to come. December ally appreciate the wonderful effects it
and early in January is favorable time, is capable of producing, in all cases
-as the winter rains compact and moisten where the soil has been suitably prepared
the sod, thus inducing decay. for utilizing it to advantage.
The shell heaps should now be'burned. The intelligent cultivator is careful be-
-For that purpose select a still day so fore depositing the seed in the ground to
that the heat will be uniform all around press into service whatever will contrib-
the heap. Begin in the morning firing ute to a bountiful harvest.' The loca-
thoroughly at the bottom with fat light- tion, fertilization, thorough breaking
wood, which, fortune tely, is plentiful in up and pulverization of the ground to be
this country. .When the mass of wood used have received his thoughtful atten-
under, over and around the shells gets tion. His implements are the most ap-
-afire the heat is intense. In a few hours proved of their kind, and his methods of
the shells will-become perfectly hot all culture practical and sensible. Such
through, and seem to burn themselves, a planter designs that every possible con-
assun ing a ruddy glow, changing to- a edition to a successful issue shall be ful-
dull whi'e when the process is finished. filled; that nothing shall be withheld
The heaps should now not be dis- which might aid the plant in reaching
turbed, but remain as they are for sev- its maximum of development. And yet,
-eral weeks, so that the dews and the strange to say, he is willing to trust to
rains may slake the lime, and bring it the clouds for such an essential item as
into a moist condition suitable for scat- water-supply.
tering over the land without loss. It is Let us inquire into the grounds of this
-difficult to. apply lime in the dry state, confidence. But before doing so, it will
as it will rise in the air, and much of it be interesting to learn something defin-
be'carried away by the winds. ite as to the quantity of water a plant
Presuming that the foregoing has been or a growing crop actually requires to
-done in December. and Jaunary, by the give the best returns. In a series of ex-
aniddle of February we shall be ready to periments of wheat by air John Lames
resume operation on our new ground, of Rothamsted, England, it was satis-
"We shall now need a strong harrow, factorily shown that 200 pounds or about
heavy enough for two good mules to 25 gallons of water were consumed to
pull, and with teeth slanting back as in produce a single pound of dry vegetable
the Thomas Smoothing Harrow. Such matter. And it required ten times that
an implement, while smoothing and amount, or about 250 gallons, for each
pulverizing the surface, will leave the pound of mineral matter assimilated for
turf undisturbed below., plant use.
An excellent harrow for this business Such statements, if unsupported by
can be made by securely pinning to- corresponding results in other places and
gether four pine poles of about six inches by different operations, might induce at
in diameter, six feet in length, and least a suspicion of extravagance. All
about one foot from each other. Through doubt, however, if any existed, as to
these poles drive stong steel teeth slant- Lames' conclusions, was entirely re-
ing backwards. Let the teeth in the moved.by experiments of a similar na-
rear be three inches longer than those ture at Mont Souris, France. These ex-
nearest the team, and let the chain by periments were so nearly identical with
which the double-tree is attached to the the first mentioned as to furnish strong
harrow, be at least two feet in length. corroborative proof of the principles
Such an implement will run level, and thereby established.
do splendid work in rough land. In the experiments at Mont Souris, the
SNow barrow and cross "harrow the plants were supplied with water adlibi-
-land until it is comparatively smooth, turn, and fertilizers were used of vary-
when it will be in order once more togo ingstrengthorquality. Asaconsequence,
over the ground and remove such-roots, it appeared that the consumption of wa-
grubs, pine badk, etc., which may be on ter, as well as the productive yield, was
W. N. JUSTICE,.
Wholesale Commission M1erchant,g
NO. 313 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. C.-.naig-ntlSie_' S .iiie.l. Return'^' .
made on day of sale
b oe uBe Ist Eefeltlia Ftesn rt
Is on the Liine of the Florida Southern.
"'T............ n an o... er. scion ii t,. ro c o or .. .. ... an .eg .a.e If u i :m-
in direct proporti,.n to the degree of they may-be sown on well prepared and
fertility. The maximum of water con- ,well drained land on.any mild day dur-
sumed, and the greatest yield being ob- ing the winter and until March 1.
served in those plates where the most There is no crop which will give a
powerful fertilizers, such as a mixture more satisfactory return for so little
of the phosphate of ammonia, nitrate of labor and expense, and if every cotton
potash, and chlori.ie of sodium, had been planter in the State would, between now
applied, and March 1, sow in oats one fourth the
6uch experiments as those just cited- area he has intended for cotton he would
extending through a succession of years hive more comfort on the plantation,
-performed in different countries, un- and a better standing with his merchant
der a variety of circumstances, and by at the end of the next season.-Times-
men of acknowledged skill and experi- Democrat.
ence, warrant the conclusion that the *
power of water as a factor in plant cul- THE VALUE OF COTTON SEED.
ture can scarcely be limited. Moreover,
they show -how utterly futile will be
any attempt to bring our cultivated II.--Its Great Utility as Feed for
crops up to the standard of excellence Live Stock.
of which they are capable without an (CONCLUDED FROM LAST NUMBER.)
abundant supply of water.
Returning to the question of water Having now, as I trust, shown the
supply for plant use, it is pertinent to value of cotton seed is a fertilizer, Ishall
ascertain the quantity which may be ex- next ask you to consider it as a stock
pectedfrom the clouds ect, e distin- f od. When used for this purpose it-has
In speaking of this subject, the distin-
guished English cultivator already quo- a value in addition to and far above its
ted, stated : "That for a maximum value as a fertilizer, The most careful
crop of wheat in England the supply of investigations carried on, both in this
rain water has never been adequate." country and in Europe, have shown that
And assuming this to be true, the neces-
sity of resorting to artificial means by when fed under the most favorable con-
farmers in this country, need not excite editions, with other carefully prepared
surprise, even though the average rain- food, if 100 pounds of corn be worth
fall in the United States is nearly twice $1.11. oats 98 cents, hay 75 cents, cotton
as much as that of England with her seed is worth $2.05 per 100 pounds. .Of
notedly moist cli ua'e.- course, it is not claimed that in ordinary
In Florida the average rainfall as feeding of stock more than from the one-
shown by the records of five observing half to the two-thirds of the value wi I
stations, and kindly furnished the wri- be utilized, but that is true of most other
ter some time since by Sergt. Smith of feed stuffs also. We may find hundreds
the Jacksonville Signal Station, is a trifle of farmers in the South who will tell us:
over 47 inches. If thIs quantity were "0, the South can never be a stock-
equally distributed among the months of producing country; we cannot raise the
the year,,there would be 23.54 inches(one feed stuff," when we have here in the
half) as the quota for the average grow- cotton seed alone a food value of $92,-
ing period of the vegetable (market) 851,200 produced this very year. Even
crop, commencing with December and if we suppose that with the ordinary
ending with May. But from reliable carelessness only' one-quarter of this
statistics of each particular month, it value be utilized, still we have feeding
seems that not more than two-fifths of capacity in this product to the value of
the entire rainfall, 4'.09 inches can. be $238,21,800. My friend there says: "Ah,-
credited to the- six months named above, yes, this is all true, if we could only
And as to the amount absolutely re- utilize it." Well, now; if this precious
quired, a careful examination of experi- stuff can be transported, in one form or
mental tests upon various soils by those another, across the Atlantic and bun-
well versed in artificial irrigation show dreds of miles north-and 'east of us, and
that one inch of water per acre repeated trere utilized with profit, pray, what is
every four and a half to 5 days, may be to hinder us from using it? Cannot we
regarded as the minimum supply needed raise stock in the South to eat this food,
to insure tl'e continuous growth of together with millions of dollars more
plants on sandy lands similar to most of of stock food that is now going to waste?
ours. Such a consumption of water "Ah, there is no grass in the South foi
would average 6.8 inches spread, per pasture," said my friend. Indeedl- Did
month, or 37.8 inches for six months. If you not spend thousands of dollars this
the clouds can be relied upon to furnish' very year trying to kill grass, which is
two-fifths of 47.09-a little less than 19 as fine as that produced in any country
inches-there will be a deficiency of for stock? Have we not heard all of our
nearly 19 inches to be obtained from lives that is costs little more than the
some other source. And this quantity salt to raise cattle here?
must be increased as the rainfall is di- By careful experiments carried on in
mished, because 37.8 inches of water is many places in the North it is found im-
the least quantity upon which a plant possible to increase the weight of cattle
will thrive. fattened for slaughter for less than 44
It must be also remembered that the cents per pound for the additional,
foregoing consideration of the supply weight, and it generally costs much more.
and demand of wateF in its relation to Experiments conducted with great care
plant growth, not only deals with that by Pro. Gulley, at your agricultural
supply as a minimum, but has reference college, show that we can produce that
to the soil in its natural condition, com- additional weight to cattle that are being
paratively free from specially active fattened at a cost of not exceeding 3
properties. But if to hasten maturity cents per pound, and for less.
and enlarge production, highly'stimu- Thus we see that a differe ice of from
rating manures are employed as they 1 to 3 cents or more per pound constitutes
should be, the water supply must be in- the'advantages in cost of production of
creased 200 per cent. or more, as we fat that the Southern stock feeder ,as
have seen, to realize the greatest-benefit over his Northern brother, for the time
possible under the circumstances. that it is necessary to feed in the South,
Now if no mistakes have been made in which we must also remember is much-
our estimates; if they are even approxi- shorter than it is in the North.,
mately correct, the indispensable' offices -This, I think, is the most profitable
of water in agriculture, as a solvent, as way to utilize the cotton seed. The
a direct tei tilizr, as an assimilator of farmer who thus uses his seed 'gets its
plant food, and in other respects not yet value as a fertilizer if the manure be ap-
clarly understood,are established beyond plied to his land. The stock, leaving
all question, and hence no system of cul- this manure scattered over the land,
tivation can be complete which does not cause it to recuperate, and under this
provide for its.supply in quantities pro- treatment its fertility may be preserved
portioned to the wants of the plants to almost indefinitely, and still the farmer
be grown. be making out of his cotton seed four or
J. N. W. five times as much as he now receives if
-------- he sells.
Winter Oats. This -tends to bring about necessary
changes in the present system of agri-
The sugar planters of Louisiana have culture, leads directly to diversified
for many years sowed patches of oats in farming by the introduction of stock
the fall, which they cut and feed green growing, and the preservation 9f forage
to their mules. It has been popularly crops, which will gradually reduce the
believed that oats sown on the alluvial expense of labor upon the farm.as its
lands would not mature heavy grain, and necessity diminishes, and will corre-
it is only recently that the fact has been spondingly increase the profits upon the
established that the alluvial lands of farm. It is the cost of labor by the pres-
Louisiana, under proper fertilization ent system that consumes our crops.
and tilth, would yield over 100 bushels Cotton seed can be applied to corn
of oats per acre. land and digested by the corn, assisted
The red lands of Northwest Louisiana by the cow pea planted with the corn,
have long been no'ed for their crops of and this crop can be followed by cotton.
small grain, which would rust in other This treatment will stop the waste, and
soils throughout the State. Since the if repeated at regular and short intervals
introduction of red rust proof oats, this will gradually increase the productive-
cereal is found to flourish in every part ness of the land. Why, the extensive
of the State, and the area devoted to the use of the cow pea alone is sufficient to
cultivation is steadily increasing. The do this if managed with care. In sections
intelligent planter is learning to recog- where clover will catch it is to be pre-
nize oats as a much better forage crop ferred, but a ton of pea vines containing
than corn. The yield per acre is greater. seven bushels of peas, when plowed un-
The crop is made .and gathered with der, is equal to a crop of one ton of
much less labor and expense than corn, clover upon the same area plowed under.
and both the grain and straw constitute Time will not permit me to elaborate
the very best food which can be fed to the many and excellent means at com-
working stock. mand for the improvement of the evil
The oats are harvested in time to ad-. by the utilization of the wastes of the
mit of another crop on the sa me land, farm. Let our farmers take advantage
and they may be followed by a-crop of of the investigations of science, as man-
cotton, potatoes, or corn and peas. The ufacturers do, avoid mistakes like that
stubble plowed in immediately after the indicated in what I have shown, give
oats are harvested leaves the ground in more careful attention to business and
admirable order for the succeeding crop. understand it better, and I think much
Another advantage of winter oats is of the trouble will disappear.
the fine pasturage afforded to all kinds If there be any reliance to be placed
of stock. During dry weather, mules, in the logic of figures; if there be any
cows or-sheep may be permitted to valuable deductions to be drawn from
graze on the young oats, with advantage the study of the cotton seed problem; if
both to the animals and the crop, care there be any advantage to the farmer in
being taken to remove them in wet the preservation and increase of the fer-
weather. A judicious grazing of oats utility of his soil; if there be any security
will prove advantageous by causing the to him who engages in diversified farm-
crop to stool, or throw out additional ing; if there be any benefit to be derived
sprouts from the roots, making a thicker from adopting a rotation of crops, from
stand upon the ground, and yielding a reducing the amount and cost of labor
heavier crop of grain, upon the farm, I trust that I have indi-
It is important that oats sown in the cated the direction in which we must
fall should be upon well drained land. If turn in order to begin to effect the
put in with proper care, in addition to change. I have not said much that
furnishing a fine pasturage all winter, ought to be said, nor a tithe of what
the yield will be greater than if sown in might be said upon this topic, but if
the spring. The:proper month for sow- sober, careful thought has been awak-
ing oats is October, but in this climate ened upon it, my object is accomplished.
GLEN ST. MARY NURSERIES!
A general line of Fruit Trees adapted to Florida, including tle "
LARGEST STOCK OF PFEACH :TREES'
To be found in the State.
PEEN-TO AND HONEY PEACHES A SPECIALTY.
Also, several other choice varieties of Peaches. My stock of Kelsev's-Japan. Plum Trees. on-
sists of 5,000-or upward-all home grown, and buds taken from bearing trees on mr place.
I,00 PICHO LINE OLIVE TREES (2 to 6 feet high); 50 000 ORANGE TRiEEs8 [) rears
old). A full supply ofLeConte, Kieffer and other Pear Trees, Japan Persimon5, Fign; Quinces,
Apricots, Nectarines, Japan Medlars, Mulberries, English WalnutsPeans, Almond.i, Japan
Chestnuts, Grapes, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc., etc. An-examination of stock solicited.,
Catalogues free on application to .
SG. L. TABER,
GLEN ST. MARY, FLA. -
New Japan Fruit and
Nut Trees, "
- -New Catalogue now ready. Ad
Mention thisL pape.
Orange Trees, Lein.n 'T i-ees, i
New Figs, Miuberries,
Giant L.,qiac. ..
H. L. WHE-ATLEY,
-ALTAMONTE.ORANGE CO., FLORIDA
W. :. :PITLOWNv
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.-
Usually have orders to work our consignments into; enabling.us to make PROMPT RETURNS.
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt aitention is vret. Pf-kages- oisuialle for
SHIPPING ORANGES. STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
b6th made up and in the flat, always on hand, and Jor sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc-
Best of location, viz:
Circulars and Stencils on applicanti)n.
S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,.
NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LINE.
S TMI-IWEEKLY SERVICE BETWEEN
NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE.
Steamer areanppoined to ill r-i,m PI:er 2;', E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday. Thursday
and.Saturday. at m. .
FROM JACK'Si INTTLLE-CRE-R-OHE ('.-w- aI nal Si;;CrrV0LFPenwi, every-FRIDAT..
FROM FERNA-DrA-"'ELi WLARIE nd pEf",'ASE -. -rr MION-DDY, p. m., OITY
OF TL.-YT.TA and CITY OF COL UIBIA, ercri- WEDNESDAY p. m. --. -
The Frei5ht ar.d Pa.ie.-D r Accoumdar,onsy by thi Line are an urpmasedt by any ships in
the c1 asrwi'e serrrce. For iiirher Infolnealun, ap"li-1 t
CLARENCE WAGNER. Agt., J. A. LESLIE, Agt.,
S Fernandina, Fla JackLonrille, Fla., S. W. cor. Bay and Hogan. :-
Tino. C. EGER,3Trailc Mar,.gi-r, WM. P CLYDE & CO.,
S'Brosdway, Y. General Agents. 35 Broadway, N." Y. _-
0 T8 size iI..oo A 00 oj, Luk on Lake K ingsley,.Clay Co., only'-$8. .
O Loeet in 5 -a choice 5-acre -aet rot r an.o0A NG
GROVE costs but 850.
| High rulliangPine Landt, Salubriote Clhmat, a good Inves t-
Sment. "end 2-cent stanip for Map, etc., or remt P. O..Order orml.U-,E||
Bank Drait to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and ge Warra(it DeeiTie1 L.UUEUUII "
perfect, from the -
TIE:OPICAjL TLjAN_-TD COV1APAIY- -
P.O. Box I.1S,Jacksonville. Florlda,39 W. BayS. -
THE BEST HEALTH RESORT
IS ON THE LINE OF THE FLORIDA SOUTHERN.
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruit, and Vegetables.
I you are comi to plorda whatever may be vowr means or condition, you will
m.st assuredly be pleased wit this Centre of the Lake.Region. .
Por further particulars address S. T. E -EE3D '
VALRICO NURSERIES. .
Tropical and Subtropical.
Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs, Peaches, Grapes, Pears, Pecans. Oriental Plums and Perstm-
monsU Jbmes, Lemons Guavas, Bananas, Pineapples, Avocado Pears, Anona, Acacia, Nerium,
Caladium, Poinclana, Palms, etc.
Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
J. O'O. B-RLOTNT,
IR -FIA* ETA Ei B-OEERFL,
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, for Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and large tracts, at $2.50 per acre,up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high. roiling Pine Lands, near S. F. t depot, at $20 to $35 per
acre. All property guarantee to be as represented or money refunded.
Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender.
Winter Homes .
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautitul location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church,, School, daily mails, stores, bakery, saw milland hotel. Large area already planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale .cheap. Ten, twenty and
forty acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,,,
J. W. GROVES, or W. B. CLARKSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
C. P. eHCAMBERLAIN.
A CU. BOADtK.
SO U '-'- FLORlIDA
Real Estate Agency,
TAMPA, FILORIDA. Ofimee: Twiggs St., two block* east of Pa"senuer dept.-
a. I.LIaS,O,.. A. .MCOLURE, Architect.
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects I& Civil Eniineers,
HOTELS PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD- ....
INUS, SANITARY ENGINEERING &O. The largest grower-'of these PearsfrofiCnt-
. O. ox78. Rooms 7 and 8 PalmettoBlok, tings. Buy no other and avoid ig..mCata-
.. Bay Street. logue free. W. W. THO-sOd
JAOKsoNvzILL, FiA. Name thspapet. Smlthrille,-da.
U nsurpasseu bY an other section for tiepoutooftrtsa eg abs. f,)"l' ,m "
ing o Flrida w]teve maybe yurheanpr condition ou wrilltos andVgelsurd bI"kadwt
~S. L. REED, Pittman., Fla.,"
\ ir: "
~i -, '
The Florida Farmer andl Fruit Grower.
A. Sf. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
Industrial Interests of Florida. ItIs published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year........................................... 2.00
For six months 1 1.00
Clubs of five to one address.............. 7.50
With daily TIMES-UNION, one year.... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6.V00
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year...... 2.75
9-.3ubscrlptions In all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed Is the date to which the subscrip-
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
this paper. Writers may affix such signatures
to their articles as they may choose, but must
furnish thle editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
ofgood faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEM ENTS inserted to a. limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
RE. ITTANCES should be made by Check
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Letter, to order of
0. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
-FIRs' PAoG-The Japan Persimmon in South
Florida (Illustrated); The Persimmon in Japan;
More About the Persimmon ; The American
Olive (Illustrate); Hints on Tree Planting.
SZEOND PAGE-Superior Qualities of Budded
Orange Trees: The LeConte Pear; Directions
for Culture; The Peach in Sumter County; Up-
land Rice; Sorghum; Peanuts; Tobacco; Greens.
TREaD PAGE-A Wonderfully Productive Forage
Plant; Reclaiming Pine Lands; Soiling; The
Water Needed by Crops; Winter Oats; The
Value of Cotton Seed for Feed,
FOURTH PAGE- (Editoral); Our Premium;
Weather Probabilities; An Example for Imita-
tion; Of Interest to Teachers; A Creditable
Work; How Our Paper is Regarded; Hints to
Writers; Two Weeks of Progress.
FIFrH PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle; The Children's Corner.
.SxraH PAOGz-Veterinary; Some of the Results of
Overfeeding Horses; Wasteful Feeding; Jersey'
CAttle in Jersey; Dairying at the South; The
Influences of Climate on Poultry Raising;
Pounded Lime-stone for Hens; The Guinea
Fowl; The Bronze Turkey, Pekin Ducks.
,\ STsrTE PAGE-Farm, Miscellany illustratedd);
S Serial Stoiy, by S. Baring Gould.
ExaaTH PAaG--Floridiaaa; The Euchee Valley
People; The Indian River Hammock; Weather
for February; Latest Reports of the Cotton,
Tobacco and Orange Markets, and of the Jack-
sonville Wholesale and Retail Markets.
We offer as a premium to anyone sub-
scribing for the FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER for one year, a copy of the
.Andard work on Southern forage
A._ 4lMF.ts entitled, THE FARER'S BOOK OF
ORASSA D OTHER FORAGE PLANTS. It
S.describes abouT olBaLouthern
plants that may be cultivated for forage,
and gives full directions for planting,
and meadows, ensilage nutritiue valves,
The Times-Democrat, of New Orleans,
comments on this book as follows: 'Dr.
._ D. L. Pharos, by the publication of his
"Farmer's Book of Grasses," has con-
ferred an inestimable boom upon the
South. He has not only pointed out to
the Southern planter the value and
adaptability of the domestic grasses cul-
tivated in the North, but has made plain
to them the wealth of the native grasses
which cover the Southern soil. '
We have concluded not to make any
further predictions concerning the
weather, but to leave that very slippery
subject to the man of figures, and to pre-
sent his figures to the reader for him to
add and divide in any manner that suits
-his fancy or judgment.
Neither shall we counsel any one again
"to take the chances" of weather, for we
expect no thanks for such advise and
may incur": much censure.. Personally,
we shall take the chances with our owln
oranges every time. That will be our
example, but of precept we have no
more to offer in this direction.
There are people in this advanced age,
and they may be numbered by thous-
ands, "who attach great importance to
the "probabilities" of the almanac. We
are inclined to think that ignorance is
bliss in such cases, and shall not dep-
reciate it, especially as our paper is not
expected to reach that class of weather
readers. Instead of the almanac we
wish to bring Old Probabilities into ser-
;_vice and to give our readers the benefit
of the eminent scientist's extensive and
It appears to us that it will be of much
greater interest'to the public to know
what the weather is likely to be during
eachapproaching month, than to know
what it was during any period of past
time. .With this idea in mind we have
requested Sergeant SEmith,. of the Signal
Station at. Jacksonville, to compile a
S table for our last issue in each month,
which will show the statistics of weather
for the following month as observed
during the past fifteen years.
This he has kindly consented to do and
we now have the pleasure of presenting
on the eighth page such a table for the
month of February.
This record- of temperature, rainfall,
winds, etc., applies to the latitude of
Jacksonville, and therefore to a much
larger number of counties than if it ap-
plied to any other latitude. For more
southern portions of the State allowance
will need to be made as to temperature.
There can be no material difference as to
wind, but from.Tampa southward there
will be a material difference during the
summer as to rainfall and cloudiness,
Later we may be able to add other fea-
tures to our weather record which will
increase its usefulness.
AN EXAMPLE FOR IMITATION.
In our last issue we urged the forma-
tion of local clubs or societies in all por-
tions of the State for the purpose, first,
of promoting the agricultural, horticul-
tural and commercial interests of their
respective sections, and second, of bring-
ing about, ultimately, a concert of ac-
tion in behalf of their common interests.
We are aware that there have been,
and are now, organizations of this char-
acter in various localities, but we have
very little information regarding them.
At C.earwater Harbor .there has been a
flourishing society, one of its features
being the system of purchasing supplies
in common, after the plan pursued by
the Granger's, the object b6ing to save
At these meetings topics of general
interest are discussed by both men and
women, after which the people spend
some hours in social intercourse and
then return/ to their homes. At each
meeting there are given out topics for
discussion at the next, and these afford
subjects for home study during the in-
The Clearwater society proved so sat-
isfactory that recently the neighborhood
next on the north effected a similar or-
ganization, the place of assembly being
Dunedin, a delightfully situated little
town on the Gulf coast, lying between
Clearwater and Anclote. This is a very
intelligent neighborhood, and we doubt
not that the society's proceedings will,
prove very interesting and instructive.
From the secretary of the Dunedin
Horticultural Society we' have received
be forwarueu immediately on application
of county organizations giving details of
For Premium List or information rela-
tive to the Exhibition, address Sec-
retary of South Florida Exhibition, Or-
JOHN G. SINCLAIR, President.
CHARLES H. SMITH. Secretary.
A CREDITABLE WORK.
From P. W. Reasoner & Bro., of Man-
the near future?" If the discussion of to many inquiries, the Directors of the
the question be adverse to a continu- South Florida Exhibition beg leave to
ance of that policy, the subject for dis- make the following statement:
cussion at the next meeting may be : Since the re-election of the Officers of
"The Problem.of the Future." the Exhibition, ample grounds for
We have gone too far to declare neu- the requirements of the various dis-
trality on this subject, yet we would plays have been secured, and the date for
gladly be convinced that the policy of the exposition has been fixed on Tuesday,
the past may be continued with safety. February 15th, 1887, to continue through
Such conviction would suit our per- the week.
sonal interests extremely well and re- A premium list aggregating several
lieve us of some troublesome forebod- thousand dollars, guaranteed by the liber-
ings. ality of various railroads and citizens'of
We can truthfully say, however, that South Florida, is now in the hands of
we feel less of uncertainty and appre- the printer.
hension than we did years ago. Then A premium of two hundred and fifty
we felt that a new basis of action must dollars will be given to the county in
be found, but we could not see wherepn South Florida making the most excellent
to stand. Now we have found, as we exhibit of the growth and products of
think, "rock bottom" to build upon. any county. For this premium at least
We think we see how the problem may three counties must compete.
be worked out by the people, if they A premium of one hundred dollars
bring to its solution the same energy will be given for the most excellent ex-
they have displayed in other directions. hibit of citrus fruits anda premium of
We are tired of this building on hope, one hundred dollars for the best general
which, long deferred, "makes the heart display of vegetables.
sick." We are tired of pursuing an Correspondingly liberal premiums will
ignis fatuus, of listening to golden be offered in the Floral, Horticultural,
promises and contemplating a golden Ladies', Art, Miscellaneous and Racing
future. Florida is not a region in which Departments.
man may, without industry, earn the Attractions of every variety will be
rewards of industry. A man may presented, including Day Fire Works,.
reap the reward of others' industry and Athletic Sports, Boat Races, Balloon
be considered prosperous, but a State's Ascensions, Civic and Military Displays
prosperity can be built up only by the and Band Contests, and no effort will be
intelligence and industry of -its inhabi- spared to render the coming Exhibition
tants. the most interesting and varied ever held
Certainly there is no lack of intelli- in Florida. To 'secure this result, we
gence in Florida, nor of dn'ergy. These need the co-operation of the counties
qualities, if rightly directed, will win and of individuals. The time for prepa-
success. With such a population and ration demands immediate action.
such natural advantages and resources The Directors will provide space for
as the State possesses, we think Flor- individual exhibits in tents, and it is
ida's future looks very bright, though hoped each county will purchase a tent
we do not see the .golden or gilded hue in which may be shown the entry for
which so many have sought to give it. the county premium. For this purchase
the Directors are now in correspondence
OF INTEREST TO TEACHERS. with numerous houses, and prices will
instances we can give the sentiment of a
letter by quoting one or two sentences,
as in the following example :
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
eminent success in truck gardening as
well as his able writings on farm topics,
entitle his opinions to respect, expresses
himself as follows : "The first number of.
the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was duly
received and is the best thing in its way
I have seen. It is just the paper needed,
and if you keep it up to the present stan-
dard of excellence must become popular
with the people. I can't see where you
have left any room for improvement."
Mr. Chauncy W. Wells, of Tampa,
writes: "I have looked it over and find
much valued information and consider
it worthy to be placed side by side with
any other like paper published."
Rev. T. W. loore, of Marion county,
writes : "I believe your paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thus: "I like your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
little while to give you an article every
Mr. H. G. Burnet, of Monroe, county,
writes: "First copy of FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER received. It is a pleas-
-ant surprise, being even better than an-
Mr. H. G. Daniels,' of Amelia Island,
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and I
do not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. W. S. Moore, of Alachua county,
writes: "I have read with much inter-
est your FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
and am much pleased with it. It is
much needed and can be made of much
value to Florida."
Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
"writes :\ "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMFR AND FRUIT-GROWER
equal to the first number, you will cer-
taintly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will he cheerfnllv
now ample and.of a-character to git atee, we nave received catalogue or sub- --. -.. ----..- TREES AND HERBS.
a report .of the proceedings of the last done." NATIVE TREES AND HERBS.
meeting, giving the results of a discus- taste ad purse. Round-tip ex- pical plants which does great creW. Greetham, of Orlandothe burning trees for ornament or utility,
sion of the topics given out at thepre- cursion tickets from Jacksonville to De to those enterprising nurserymen and writes "I am reatl le, d th the burning over of forest lands, the
cedingmeeting, and also the questions F iak or Pensaola and return will to that portion of the State. It is only writes: "I am greatly pleased with the lumber and turpentine industries, the
to be discussnmeetin, and also the quThis report on sale at Jacksonville every Wednesday four years since these young men located sample copy of your paper, and feel sure tanning industry, phenomena of plant
to be discussed' the next. This report ing the auuqua Assemby at in Florida, and they have had to en- it will prove a valuable addition to agri- life, weeds and noxious plants.
will be found on our second page, and during the Chautauqua Assemby at in Florida, and they have had to en-ature devoted especially to N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
.. ..e ond onourecon e a 'nd 00. -"" counterin usualobstaclesand aiscGurage- cultural literature devoted especially to N.B.--Specimens may be sent to the
we invite any of our readers who have counter in usual obstacles and discFlorida." editor for identification. Information is
well-founded opinions on any of the A six weeks' course of. normal in- ments. But such energy and determi- .. commission ir desired respecting popular names and
questions presented, to communicate struction will commence on the samie nation, as theirs is bound to conquer Mr.W. N. Justice, commission mer- ues.
themtihrough pourcolumns to thDunce day and continue until March 81st- It difficultiesand win success, and this hand- chantof Philadelphia, writes: "Having INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISASES.
em and rough to our reamns to theDune- will be under the direction of Dr, Ed- some illustrated catalogue of a hundred received the first issue of your agricul- Nature of damage done and remedies.
era. soetyand toard Brooks, of Philadelphia, of whom pages we regard as a monument to those tural paper, and being delighted with MISCELANEOUS SUBJECTS.
S h we can say, with Mai. Russell: "he is qualities which, if noregenerall pos its tone, we wish you to insert our card Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
about that co-operation which we have the very man for the place." The course ed, would speedily convert Floridainto a for si months anddog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
aimed at from the date of our first pros- of studdy, as we learn from the Florida garden. rom the itra ew Era.] tionfor farmers, homestead laws, trans-
ectus. Remember, "your light is none Chautauqua, will cover the work re- The "big freeze" of last winter de- We have received the first number of portation, marketing produce, experi- .
pec les.s for lightimember,ng your lightbor's, quiredfor examination for the various stroyed most of the sub-tropical trees the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT mental farms, agricultural education,
the less for lighting your neighbor's" quiredforexaminationr the vario GROWER, published at Jacksonville. home manufactures, natural history
and a public, expression of your views grades of certificates issued by the de- and plants which these gentlemen had It is an elegant publication and deserves of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
may result in benefit to yourself as well apartments of education of Georgia, brought together. But instead of being, to succeed, and we trust it will. vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
as others. Alabama and Florida. The examinations discouraged Mr. P.W. Reasoner started at [From the Highland post.] farm machine, farm implements,
We commend Mr. Douglas's report as at the close of the Institute will be con- oace for the southern Keys and the West The first number of the FLORIDA cipe for cooking, home decorations,
a model :of form, and we earnestly de- ducted under the direction of the State Indies, where he obtained material more FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER made its household economy, minerals and earths,
sire all societies in the State to comrn- Superintendents of the States named, than enough to replace what he had lost, pageraournal with s wixk. columns aof climatology, hints on the care of chil-
municate with us, and to send in for and certificates issued to those entitled besides a large fund of information reading matter to the page, and is edited dren on dress, habits, reading, amusc.
publication any papers read at their to receive tlem. In addition to the which has enabled him to conduct his by Prof. Curtiss, and ublishedby men ec.above and related
meetings and concise reports of the re- regular Institute course, for a small business more intelligently and to write Its columns are replete with articles on subjects, practical experience is much to
suits of their discussions. Details of additional fee, students will have the much for thepress, besides preparing this fruit growing, farming and stock raising, be preferred tb theoretical knowl-
routind work will not be admissible, but advantage of instruction in elocution, elaborate catalogue. written by some of- the most practical edge; yet there are topics needing dis-
routin work will not be admissible, but eloc nmen in the State. cussion which have to be treated of
for abstracts of proceedings we shall al- the principles of the kindergarten and In the way of catalogues this is the [From the Apopka Union.] from a somewhat theoretical stand-
ways make room. l music, most ambitious attempt that has been [From the Apopka Union.] point.
The first two columns of the second The fee for membership in the Teach- made in Florida. It is quite accurate GROWER is the title of the n agri- Indescribingany method or exeri-
page of the FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER ers' Normal, including admission to all botanically, and as it amounts to. a tural paper, edited by Prof. A. H. Cur- fluences be explained; for example, in
are placed at the service of the farmers' assembly lectures and entertainments, treatise on the sub-tropical plants that tiss, the eminent botanist, and published the case of a crop, the character of the
clubs, or whatever -such organizations will be $6.00. This is for the course of are adapted to Southern Florida, it is a at $2 per annum. It is a handsome season, of the soil, of the sub-soil, and
may be called, we reserving, as a matter, six weeks Admission for the teachers valuable addition to the scientific litera- paper of eight pages, and the name of the method of planting and cultivating,
of course, the editorial privilege of pass- to the Institute work will lie free, and ture of the State. All who are-interested the editor is warranty that it will be inter- all have an important bearing on the re-
eating and valuable, sult. Bare statements of results are of
ing judgment on the claims of any and a fee of fifty cents will admit them to in plants of southern range should send [From the Mariana Courier.] little value, though they may be worthy
all communications to that space. all other exercises during the week. for Mr. Reasoner's catalogue and should The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT of mention.
We desire information in regard to give him a liberal patronage. GROWER, published by 0. H. Jone s& We do not desire letters writtenmere-
all clubs or socie ties of this character, PREMIUMS. Bro., proprietors of the Times- Union, at ly in praise of special localities unless
all clubs or societies f this character, H OUR PAPER IS REGARDED Jacksonville, is now on our table. The claims to favor are based on the products
and will thank any one who knows of The management of theFlorida ER IS REGARDED. initial number of this publication proves or productiveness of the soil. Articles
any such organization to communicate Chautauqua Assembly offers a premium Judging from the expressions of ap- plainly its aim and purpose, and it will of a animated or vivacious style are de-
to us the address of its secretary, and if of $100 to the county that will make the proval which are coming to us daily from ers and farmers of the State. It is neat- statements and descriptions should be
this should come to the notice of such best exhibit of school work during the correspondents and the press, and from ly printed and contains some valuable concise and as much to the point as pos-
information in regard to the fruit grow- sible.
secretaries, we would request them to session of the teachers' Institute. It is the rapid increase of our subscription ing interests. Send your address and All communications intended for this
inform us as to the name, membership,, to be hoped that this handsome offer will list, it is evident that the FARMER AND get a copy of it free and then subscribe, department should be addressed to
place and times of meeting and plan of stimulate the teachers of Florida to FRUIT-GROWER has met with a more fa- [From the Pensacola Advance-Gazette] EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER.
woik of the organizations they repre- make-agood exhibition of the work of vorable reception than we had ventured We are in receipt of the initial num- I
sent. -thier schools at the coming Institute. As to expect. erOW e F published at Jacksonville, Save the Bones.
We hope that in every neighborhood was shown at New Orleans two years The addition of several features of Fla., by 6. H. Jones & Bro., A. H. Cur- Every farmer has more or less ashes
where the FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER ago, the schools of Florida turn out work interest which were lacking in the first tis, editor. This is an eight-page week- every year. Many just allow them to be
is received an interest will be aroused on that compares favorably with that pro- or "sample" number, such as the ladies' the agriculturaland horticultura inter- to use t hem tothe best advantage. Old
this subject, if it does not already ex- dued in the educational centres of the and children's departments, the Florid- ests of the State. Parties desiring the bones, hats and shoes are allowed to go to
ist, for we believe that this is a time North. iana, the very full and exact market re- paper will address C. H. Jones & Bro. waste, while if they were gathered up,
when a change of base is required on ports, the weather record, etc., will con- [From the Floridian.] the bones broken up and all dissolved it
the part both of farmers and fruit grow- SOUTH FLORIDA EXHIBITION. our motto is e The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT would make an extra good fertilizer for
the part both of farmers and fruit grow- vice all that our motto is e rcelsior,and GROWER is the title of the new agricul- special crops. Very few farmers make
ers. People need to. come together to The managers of the South Florida Ex- as our paper goes out to a highly intelli- tural paper edited by Prof. A. I. Cur- any special effort to save poultry manure
hear and discuss each other's opinions, hibition have issued the following cir- gent and appreciative population, we tiss, and published in Jacksonville, by or to utilize house waste, when they are
each one thereby profiting by the ex- cular, to which we willingly give space, count on a rapidly increasing measure of s a andso& me paper of eghtnnagesum.and sec very andcofeuld be saved cand used to
perience of all. being desirous of doinz all in our power public favor, and expect soon to have a the name of the editor is warranty that the very best advantage. One of the
As a question for discussion at the for the promation of this laudable enter-, very large circle of readers, it will be interesting and valuable, principal items in good farming is as'
first meeting of each club, or at the next prise: We shall be glad also of adverse oriti- much as possible, to increase the fertility
meeting of any existing club or society ORLANDO, Fla., Jan. 10, 1887. cisms, provided the alleged faults are Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's of the soil, and this can only be secured
society Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are by turning everything of value as a fer-
we propose this: What will the policy In anticipation of the Premiumn List clearly specified, but thus far we have looking finely tilizer to the best advantage.-rhemical
of the past, if persevered in, lead to in which will soon be issued and in answer received commendation only. In a few WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co. Fertilizer.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JANUARY 26, 1887.
Hints to Writers for the Florida
Farmer and Fruit Grower.
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the" farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal may be
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
penning, green manuring... -
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, -kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
blue grass, pearl millet, 'German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
ur, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Corn, oats, rye, wheqat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and short Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
Sngar Qane and Sorghum--Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
STobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varie-
ties', hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit, wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberr--a-
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
door culture, management of green-
The second annual session of the Flor-
ida State Teachers' Association will be
held, like the first, at DeFuniak Springs.
commencing on Wednesday, February
23d, and closing March 3d. The exer-
cises will be equal in interest, if not
superior, to those of the first session, and
the teachers will be afforded, at small
cost, a rare opportunity for instruction
and entertainment. -
The accommodations for board, which
were very unsatisfactory last winter, are
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JANUARY 26, 1887.
nur olmf -fi4 1e.
HELEN HARCOURT, Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will
,be answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by
mail when accompanied by stamp for
Subscribers are cordially invited to
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex-
.change views, experiences and recipes
of mutual benefit. "'Help ye one an-
Communications intended for publi-
.cation must be. brief,, clearly written,
and only on one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
s'-ould be addressed to -
EDITOR OuR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Our Cozy Corner.
To our Sisters of Florida, most cordial
greeting : .
Here we sit in our easy chair, "all by
-our lone self," as the children say, and
for this once we will do all the talking
*ourself, though it does look rather ego-
But then no one expects a full house
before the doors are thrown open, and
invitations sent out to one's friends to
And perhaps it is just as u ell that we
should take time and space for a quiet,
one-sided chat with our readers, before
-entering upon the path stretching out
"It is a long lane that has no turning,"
and we hope that this lane of ours may
-eventually lead into a broad and beauti-
ful highway, bordered by cheerful, com-
fortable homes which our humble efforts
have helped to create.
We wish Our Home Circle to be truly
-such, and Our Cozy Corner to be filled
with guests, who may meet upon com-
mon ground, converse freely with one
-another, and gather together there as
members of one great family-as friends,
not as strangers; each one ready to ex-
tend a helping hand to the other, and to
smooth away from the path some ob-
stacle or perplexity, be it great or small.
Few indeed of our Florida housekeep-
ers have been such from the beginning,
and we know from our own experience
how very, very different are the ways
and means at command in a newly set-
tled country, from those that lay strewn
:so lavishly around the old home in the
sickly populated sections of the land.
Many of the conveniences that were
-common every day matters there, are
-entirely missing here, especially in those
--. communities that are still scattered all
over the State, where the lack of close
-and frequent transportation facili ies,
and a scant population, combine to re-
*duce the housekeeper's available re-
.sources to a very low ebb.
"How to make something out of
Nothingg" a bureau: out of a packing
box, a chair out of a barrel, or a good
satisfactory meal out of very scant ma-
terials, .is not infrequently the problem
that stares the .perplexed housewife in
If one has plenty of money to spend,
there are of course, fewer difficulties to be
met, because many needed articles can
be ordered, and brought from a distance.
SBut this state of affairs is the excep-
1 tion rather than the rule;, three-fourths
of the families who seek new homes in
.Florida, do so in the hope of finding
there that ease and comfort for the fu-
ture which they are hopeless of obtain-
They came to save and to make, not
to spend money, for the very excellent
;reason that they have not got it to spend.
Hence it follows that in the new
home, for a time at least, many trials
Sand deprivatians confront the house-
keeper, who, with limited resources, is
set suddenly down in the midst of
.strange surroundings, to'solve the prob-
lem of a mode of life utterly foreign to
any she has experienced before.
For the wife and mother whose un-
toward fate has always been to "do her
own work," the Florida household will
probably present a diminution of actual
toil, though some of the accustomed
conveniences may still be wanting, and
some of the usual weapons of warfare
"-um up missing."
But the. heaviest burden -and perplex-
ity falls upon the delicate woman, who;
- accustomed to a life of comparative ease
in old, thickly settled communities, with
-servants to perform the varied house-
..hold duties, finds herself compelled in
S-selfdefence, to take up the never ending
round of toil, to cook, wash dishes, pots
and pans, to sweep, sew, even, perchance
;to undertake the family washing and
ironing, and often, in addition, to look
After the welfare of her children; all
this, too, with strange surroundings,
.limited resources, and. an almost utter
ignorance of the actual, practical work-
: .. aings of the question of "how to do it." ,
It is of this.class that the majority of
present, or intending Florida housekeep-
ers are composed, and to their assistance
: ..and rescue '.more especially,, will Our
Home Circle devote its earnest thoughts
.-. and efforts, trusting that each member
will contribute to its sum total of 'useful-
Neither will it neglect those who are
the future hope of our 'families and our
-nation, the children.
S We remember who it is that has bid-
den us to "suffer little children to come
But how can they find the path they
must tread, unless they are are taught
It is a "straight and narrow" one, and
the tender little feet need careful guid-.
ance and encouragement to keep them' -
from straying away into paths that are g
broader and more spaciously attractive. -
Let us, therefore, look closely to the .
little ones, to help them- to- find -innocent,
wholesome amusementsand occupations,
and teach them to look -below the- sur-
face, seek for the good and true in na-
ture, and to obey nature's God. This is
the object to which we dedicate "Our
-Young Folks' Corner," and in which we
hope for the hearty co-operation and
support of themselves and their parents.
And thus, with a kindly and cordial
feeling for the housekeepers and home-
makers of Florida, and with an- earn-
est hope of true and genuine usefulness,
we enter upon our responsible duties as
The New Year dawned upon us, meek
and mild as a lamb, but has been behav-
ing like a lion ever since, and a very un-
tamed one at that, not a "menagerie
lion" at all.
We trust that those who are spending
their first winter in Florida, will hold
back their verdict, for better days are
We must send our bonnie State back
to school again, for certainly she has had
a very "bad spell" these last two weeks.
Cold winds and cloudy days are not
indigenous to the country, but foreign
imports from the arctics, which are
smuggled over our border.
The world is turned topsy-turvy, and
Florida's own legitimate weather is lost,
The detectives are out, and will soon
recover the missing weather. Wait and
see, and meantime compare Florida's
temperature with that at other points.
THE FAMILY FRIEND.
PRESERVING FRUIT WITHOUT CAiS.
A simple process of preserving fruit
without the use of cans is now discussed
by the farmers at the agricultural fairs,
and quietly considered by the canners
in the intervals between the successive
orders for Eastern shipments. Tire whole
process of keeping fruit in bowls and
other open top vessels is comprised in
the simple covering of the vessel with
unglazed cotton such as is purchased in
the stores, rolled In blue paper. The
following are the directions: Use crocks,
stone butter jaTs, or any other conveni-
ent dishes. Prepare and cook the fruit
precisely as for canning in glass jars;
fill your dishes with the fruit while it is
yet hot, and immediately cover with
cotton batting securely tied on. Re-
member that all putrefaction is caused
by the invisible creatures in the air.
Cooking the fruits expels all these, and
as they cannot pass through cotton bat-
ting the fruit thus protected will keep
for an indefinite period. It is said that
berries, cherries, plums and many other
kinds of fruit have been kept in this way
for several years, and this statement we
can readily believe, for we have proved
by our own experience that fruits can be
preserved for months in perfect con-
dition, and if for months, why not for
In this-simple and cheap method the.
problem of keeping fruit sweet and good
is- solved for the Florida housekeeper
who either cannot afford or cannot ob-
tain glass jars. Any wide mouthed
bottle or pickle jar will answer the pur-
pose equally as well as the most costly
"air-tight jar," and, in fact, even better,
for the latter sometimes prove treacher-
ous friends. .
We have not only .preserved fruits in
this manner, "but also lemon and lime
The latter need not be first heated, but
must be, very- thoroughly strained
through a fine jelly bag, that none of the
pulp may remain. '
ORANGE WINE NO. 1.
Take'perfectly ripe, sweet oranges, the
riper the better, as then- the saccharine
matter is entirely developed; peel and
cut into halves across the cells; cut over
a tub so as not to lose any juice, and
squeeze both halves hard before dropping
into the tub.
When the tub is full, put the whole
mass through a winepress, which must
be so close that none of the seeds can
escape into the'mash, as they would give
the wine a bitter taste.
To each gallon of juice add one pound
of granulated or loaf sugar, and to each
gallon of this mixed-juice, add one quart
of pure- water. Put the whole into a
barrel, leaving a space of about five
gallons for expansion of the wine during
Orange wine has to undergo 1he
"lower fermentation" as by the "upper
fermentation" all the volatile matter
and the aroma would escape.
The barrel must be closed air-tight,
and a fermenting tube adjusted; the fer-
mentation is very vigorous for the first
few days, and the barrel must be closely
watched to prevent its bursting.
The fermentation'subsides gradually
after a few days, then the wine has to be
racked off, and the lees can be filtered;
the fermenting tube must be adjusted
again to the barrel to remain until the
fermentation shall have ceased entirely.
Rack the wine off again in about- six
weeks after the latter period, and in. a
month after this second racking it will
be fit for market, as there is no second
or "spring" fermentation, as there is
with grape wines.--Florida Fruits, Helen
Orange wine is bf an amber color,
tastes like dry hock, but always retains
a decided.aroma of the orange. -
It improves with age, bears transpor-
ation well, and in Southern France and
Italy, competes with curacoa and other
alcoholic, aromatic beverages.
We will give other recipes for its pre-
paration in our next and subsequent
To the cakes that are left in the
presses, after making wine, add molasses
and water according to judgmept; let it
stand open until vinegar is formed.
POTATOES TO BE BOILED IN THEIR JACKETS.
I must here throw myself into the
great controversy of jackets or no jack-
ets. Should potatoes be peeled before
cooking, or should they be boiled in their
jackets? I say most decidedly in jackets,
CRACKERS. serve, great pains being observed to paste
The New York Post says that home- them on perfectly straight. Any one
made crackers are so nice, and it is who has redd Miss Phelps' ludicrous ac-
really so little trouble to make them, count of the two girls who papered a
that almost any mother or cook can get room crookedly will understand the mad-
time to try this rule. Wet one pint of denying, effect produced upon eyes and
fine oatmel with one gill of water; after brain by pictures that vary even a little
mixing as well as you can take it out of from strict rectilinear
the dish on the kneeding boards on *
which you have scattered plenty of the Our Young Folks Corner.
dry meil; roll out and cut in squares ,-- .. .-n, .-.-, hwdy. o
with a sharp knife. The crackers should Good morning, children, how do you
be rolled very thin; these should be do ,
baked in a slow oven, and after you are We do not know very much about
sure they are done leave the oven door each other just yet, but we shall soon
open to allow them to dry. Salt should get well acquainted and be good friends,
not be omitted. there is no doubt al all of that. .
S o "i There are many things that I want to
ORANGE WAFERS. talk to you about I, you know, am your
One-half pound of sugar, one-quarter new Cousin Helen, and I shall expect
pound of flour, four eggs. Separate the you to do some of the talking too; it
whites and the yolks and beat very light; would not be fair to put all the conver-
one lemop, -half 'the rind and all the station on my shoulders, would it ?
juice, or lemon extract. Drop from a I have some little pets here in my
teaspoon on buttered paper, and bake in Florida home, several that wear feath-
a quick oven. Spread the under side ers for coats, and one, that has a beauti-
with orange marmalade and place two ful soft furry coat, and runs on four
together. These are delicious, legs, and they are all such odd, funny
USES TO WHICH PAPER MAY BE PUT. creatures, made-so, too, just by being
'E ein nar'lyAi wl e gentle and kind with them, that I must
Paper, being nearly air tight, will ex- really tell you all about them, and then
clude cold, and should be used more I.hope you will feel like -trying to tame
than it now is. Builders place paper be- some pets of your own, that will love
tween the boards and clapboards of a and trust you, as mine do their mistress.
house, and we should do well to follow But that must be for another time;
their example in smaller matters. Farm- yes, for several other times, because
ers have found that the extra warmth there is so much to tell that if I were
secured by tacking'several thicknesses of even to begin now, I could not say '"how
newspapers around the inside of hen- do you do?" until a whole week later.
house, etc., have saved extra food. A And about the pets is not by any
layer of paper under a carpet is prefer, means all the talks we are to have to-
able to straw, which is sometimes used; other; there-are lots and lots more to
and if the paper made 'for this purpose come for all the good boys.and girls who
cannot be obtained, several layers of choose to enter Our Young Folks Corner,
newspapers will do nearly as well. Pa- and enjoy themselves.
pers spread between bed blankets will But remember this, we shall expect
take the place of extra covering. A our young friends to follow our example
folded paper is an excellent lung protec- and put on their thinking caps when
tor; one over the chest and another they sit down in our corner; we shall do
around the shoulders, under the outside our very best to interest them and help
garment, would often save a cold and. them to grow better and better week by
perhaps pneumonia. Dissolved in flour week, but they must do their part also.
paste, newspapers make a useful 'filling You know "it takes two to make a
for crack in floors and elsewhere, bargain;" now, what say you, is it a
Scraps of paper, .wet and scattered over bargain ?
the floor when sweeping, will save the When Cousin Helen reaches out her
dust in the room as well as brighten the hand, and puts a new idea or a good
carpet. Bits of paper wi h soapsuds are thought, or a useful planinto your hand,
effectual in cleaning bottles, and are will you welcome it and try to make the
easily removed with the. water. Greasy very best of it ?
dishes and kettles, if first rubbed with Let me hear whht you think abolt it.
paper, wash much easier; the paper ab- And if there were any. rats stealing
sorbs the grease, and is all the better for the corn from the horses how I would
kindling the fire. A grease spot can "go for" those rats I
often be taken out of a carpet or garment Sometimes they are very hard to catch,
by placing two or three layers of paper for they are cunning creatures, but I
over it, then put a warm iron on the pa- heard the other day of a way to trap
per. The heat softens the grease and them that was invented by a gentleman
the paper absorbs it, and by changing out West, where both corn and rats are
paper and iron occasionally all the grease abundant, and the rats ran away with
will disappear. Soft newspaper or tis- the corn to such an extent that our
'Iue paper is preferable to cloth for clean- friend put his thinking-cap on, and here
ing lamp chimneys, windows, mirrors, is what came of it:
etc., as it leaves no lint; also for knives,
spoons, and tinware after scouring; and A PIRST-OLASS RAT TRAP..
a stove will not need blacking so often if This trap consists of a sheet iron pipe,
now and then rubbed with paper, stove pipe, with the ends cut and turned
Scraps of writing paper, or that used on back a little so as to make a. rim, and
one side only, may be utilized in several on one end a strong two-bushel sack is
ways. Bowls and glasses without covers tied very firmly,
'maybe used for jelly, by cutting a round Every hole in the corn-crib or feed
of paper the size of the top, dip in brandy box must be stopped up except one,
and press down evenly upon the jelly, which opens into a box on the other side
cut another cover of softer paper large of the partition or crib.
enough to pas'e down on the outside of Then the pipe is placed on the feed
the jar. Paper in bread and cake tins box and fitted in so that the open end
protects the loaf from burning, and in- is over the hole while the sack at the
sures its safe removal from the tin. By other end hangs over the edge of the
this help ,a tin with holes in it may be box.
used. Laid over a loaf of cake in the When the trap is ready, the door of
oven, paper is also a protection; but un- the crib or lid of the feed-box (the one
less it is warmed first, the cake may set- containing the corn, I mean, of course),
tle. Cut in strips and curled with the is left open so the rats may come in just
scissors, writing paper makes a good fill- as fast as they please..
ing for pillows for hammock, on the Leave it open for an hour or two then
large pillows sometimes used to show shut it, moving very quietly until that
off the-elaborate "shams." Postal cards is done.
agd thin pasteboard can be cut in strips Then make all the noise you wish to,
for lamp-lighters. Newspapers for the and I dare say that will not be a little.
same use are cut in strips and rolled. The rats have only one way to escape,
-Anna Barrows, in Good Housekeeping. along the pipe and down, into the sack,
and then you have then.eafe; the best
HOW TO MAKE SCREENS. and most humane way to dispose of
For a chamber which is not supplied them .then is to weight the sack and
with an adjoining dressing-room there drown the prisoners.
and will state my reasons. From 53 to
56 per cent of the saline constituents of-
the potato is potash, and: potash:-is an
important constituent of blood-so im-
portant that in Norway, where scurvy
once prevailed very seriously, it has been
banished since the introduction of the po-
tato, and, according to Lang and other
good authorities, it is owing to the use of
this vegetable by a people who formerly
were insufficiently supplied with saline
vegetable food. Potash salts are freely
soluble in water, and I find that the
water in which potatoes have been boiled
contains potash, as may be proved by
boiling it down to concentrate, then
filtering and adding the usual potash
test, platinum chlorida. It is evident
that the skin of the potato must resist
this passage of the potash into the water,
though it may not fully prevent it. The
bursting of the skin only occurs at quite
the latter stage of the cookery. The
greatest practical authorities on the po-
tato, Irishmen, appear to be unanimous.
I do not remember to have seen a pre-
peeled potato in Ireland. I find that I
can at once detect by the difference of
flavor whether a potato has been boiled
with or without its jacket, and this
difference is evidently saline.-W. Mat-
tieu Williams, in Popular Science
A quaker omelet is a handsome and
sure dish when care is taken in the pre-
paration. Three eggs, half a cup of milk,
one and a half tablespoonfuls of corn
starch, one teaspoonful of salt, one table-
spoonful of but er. Put the omelette
pan and a cover that will fljt close on to
heat. Beat the yolks of the eggs, the
corn starch and the salt vbry well to-
gether. Beat the whites to a stiff froth,
add to the well-beaten. yolks and
corn starch. Stir all together very
thoroughly, then add the milk. Now
put the butter in the hot pan, and'when
melted pour in the mixture, cover and
place on the stove where it will brown
but not burn. Cook about seven minutes,
fold, turn on a hot dish and serve with
the cream sauce.
should always be provided a good-sized
screen tGoshut- off- the corner.occupied by
the washstand aiid its .appurtenances.
The screen may be- elaborate or simple,-
as the taste dictates. A frame of.two
panels, made by .a carpenter, each meas-
uring three-feet in breadth by four in
height, and joined by hinges, will cost
about a dollar. The amount of material
required for covering this will depend, of
course, upon the stuff used. Of stout
silesia, in cream, old gold, scarlet or
dark green, selling at thirty cents ayard,
three yards and a half will be a liberal
allowance for one side of both panels. It
may be lined or not, as preferred. If the
frame is unpainted care must be taken
in purchasing the goods to provide
enough to conceal the bare wood. It is
not difficult to cover the frame neatly.
If desired, however, the wood may be
stained; yellow pine, varnished, looks
well and is cheap, while ash, walnut and
cherry cost a trifle more. If silesia is
deemed inadvisable for the bedroom
screen cretonne does good service.
In the dining-room a felt covering is
pretty. This material comes in nearly
all shades. For a screen of the dimen-
sions named above a yard and three-
quarters will be sufficient, as the cloth is
two yards wide. It costs from $1 to $1.25
a yaid. It may be employed for the out-
side of the screen, while the inside is
lined with silhsia in a contrasting color.
A neat and brightening effect is added
by finishing the felt with brass tacks
driven in the frame auout five inches
A very fair imitation of the Japanese
screens so much used may be contrived
with little difficulty at a seasonable cost.
A frame made in three panels, each five
feet high by two wide, should be cre-
fu'ly ebonized or gilded. On each panel
must be tacked a closely drawn oblong of
black muslin or silesia, and the edges
finished with a neat cord or gimp. These
panels must then each be adorned with
an ordinary Japanese wall picture, such
as may be purchased at almost any shop
where decorative materials are sold.
For securing the pictures good mucilage,
flour paste, or gum tragacanth will
The gentleman who invented this trap MAITLAND NUTRSERIES. .
caught: twenty-seven rats the very first
time he tried it. -. -
- Try it, boys, and see how it is with .
you. ALL VARIETIES OF
And here is something for our girls to .. .
try their skill on: ....ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
A CHESS OR CHECKER BOARD.
To make an ornamental chess or
checker board, select a piece of smooth
pine board of proper dimensions; lay off Budnot placed on small stocks ut
in blocks of uniform size, dividing these dnot placed on small stocks, but on extra.
with narrow strips of gold paper. Then large and fine ones.
cut thirty blocks of black paper and' the
same number of scarlet, and with
smooth flour paste fasten each one in
place alternatively, a black and a scarlet; We make a specialty'of the
or better still, paint the blocks in with
a small flat brush. When dry, cut out -EARLY SPANISH ORANGE-
small pictures from paper or chintz, (the earliest variety known),
using all one kind upon the black and a
contrasting sort upon the scarlet square. TOHITI LIMES and '
For instance, on the black a set of Jap- VILLA FRANCA LEON,
anese figures, sold by the sheet, and on
the scarlet solid gold designs Paste and can show trees of the latter that stood ie i -
down neatly and finish with two coats cld last winter as wells the Orange, and -
of Demar varnish. Finish the edge of
the board by means of pinked-out leather NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
with gilt-headed nails.
A NEAT SHOE BAG.
A shoe-bag may be made by the fol-
lowing rule: Take a piece of strong Send for Catalogue.
brown linen and cut from it a large KEDNEY & CAREY,
circle, three feet or more in diameter, P o. Winter Park, Fla
and bind the edge with scarlet braid,
Mark off into eight uniform divisions
and then fold each one, turning them PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD,
th sesame way and pressing with a nu IHl l u gI h "
warm iron; open and turn the ends Seffner,HillsboroughCo., Fla.
nearly to the centre and stitch them se- B. CULLEN, Popr. .
surely. Embroider or braid a design Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
o "c s i fasten a looped~cord" Only one variety kept (J. Boardman Smilth'B
upon eachsection; sen aoopecor pure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks ,
in the centre and suspend by a hook. -after June 1st. Write for what you want, en-
This case is easily made and affords closing stamp for reply. No circulars. -.
eight spacious pockets. :
And here is something else that will be S. L'ENGLE & CO., : .
well worth looking at, and a real orna- -
ment for the home parlor or sitting STOVES,
room. It is S V "
A BEAUTIFUL CHEMICAL EXPERIMENT.' CROCKERY,
Do you want to grow salt, and at the --,
same time have an interesting, hand--
some ornament ? The 'proceeding is a GLASSWARE, ,
novel chemical experiment that may be LAMPS,
tried by any one. Put in a goblet one
tablespeonful of salt and one spoonful of OIL STOVES, -
blueing. Fill the goblet two-thirds full .
of water, and set in a position where it BAR GOODS
will have plenty of warmth and sun-
light. In a little while sparkling crys-
tals will commence forming on the out-
side of the glass, and it is both a novel WOODENWARE. -
and interesting sight to watch it gradu- -.:
ally growing, day by day, until the out-
side of the goblet is entirely covered by
beautiful crystals. Another variation PRICES THE LOWEST. :,
of this beautiful experiment would be to
make a goblet with the base broken off,
and fasten it in the center of a thin piece .
of board, which may be round, square C. S. i'E t.CO.,
or oblong. After the crystals have JACKSONVILLE, EL. -:
formed on the glass, set it on a tiny wall
bracket and place a bright hollow- or ." '*;'' -
birthday card in front of it; this will ALBERT FRIES
hide the base, on which nocrystals will ST. *NICHOLAS, FLODIDA
form. After this is done fill the goblet Agent for GEORGEW. BAKER'S
with flowers or dried grasses, and you 2 Rotted Bone Manure, M'- '-
will have a vase which will cost'com- )ECOMPOSED WITH POTASH. -
paratively little. Price 82' per ton free on board In Jacksonville
A GAME FOR LONG EVENINGS. Bone Flour, ror cattle and poultry, $4.00
AGAM FOR LON EVENINGS. Ground Bone Manure, 1st quality. 35.00 __,
Thosewho learn drawing will find the r* on ** 2d q 82.00 -l
game of "positions" a particularly pleas- Ammonlated Phosphate, 32.00
-ant pastime for the long evenings. Any Budded Orange Trees and Texas Um- "
number can play the game-the more brella Trees, from 25 cents to 61.00 each.
themerrier. All the players seat them-
selves round the table, and each one
must be supplied with small pieces'of
white' paper about two inches square,
and a pencil-or, better still, a pen and
ink. All the players, except one, then
silently resolve on some position in life
which it is possible for them to fill, and
each make some sign of their "position"
by sketching a little picture of some ar-
ticle connected with their supposed trade
or business on one of the pieces or blank
paper.' The name of each sketcher
should be written on his paper. Five
minutes are allowed for the sketching,
the time being kept by the player who
has not selected a "position." All the
illustrated papers are then passed in or-
der round the table so that each may
view the other's pictures; but no one is T n n
supposed to criticize them aloud. Lastly
they are handed to the guesserr" (who + 1Da ly iT I t I.0
up to this point, has taken no active part
in the game, except to time .the five (Published every day in the year,)
minutes), and he arranges them in order
before him according to, the order; in and enlarged to an
which the players are seated at the table.
He looks at them attentively, and then EIGHT P A i:.
proceeds to. guess from the pictures PAGE rAPER
what is the intended "position" of each
person. Supposing that there were three 56 COLUMNS --
players, and each one drew a sketch, say A newspaper theTius-tTop now stands
a house, a pear, and a crown respective- without a rival u Florida, and the peer of any
ly. -,The guesser looking at them would in the South. Having the exclusive right to ,the
have no difficulty in pronouncing'(1) Atssociuted PreDespatche, itsowneorrespon-
landlord, (2) green grocer, (8) king. If dent in Washigated Pre on, and 6aches, it owncorrespon-den.
she fail to guess any of the "positions" throughout the State, its State and generalnnews
the first person at whom he or she isomp ete, omprehensveate a nured tra
time; if there a u been no failure, the worthy. No Floridian who wishes to keep .
player on the right hand of the guesser abreast of what Is going on in his own State ana .
takes the privilege. The principal of in the world at large can afford to be without it.
this game is for each player to try who Terms I1n advance), $10 per year; $5 for sir
can make the best sketch in five min- months; f2.50 for thrre months; $1 permonth. -
utes, and the next object is to puzzlethe THE DAILY TIMES-UNION (without the
guesser.-Little Folks' Magazine. Sunday issue), by mail, six months, 14; one yea, -
If I were a boy, and my father had a $8. The Sunday TiifEs-UNrON by mail, onne
horse and wagon, I would take pride in- year, 2.
keeping the harness nice and clean and --- ".
soft, and this is the way I would go to .
workTO PRESERVE HAR. Te Weky Til e
There is nothing that looks nicer in /
its way than a clean, bright-looking
set of harness, nor is there anything The FLOBIDA WEEKLY TIMES, the weekly edi-
more quickly damaged by neglect. Har- tion of theTi!ns-UUioN) is admitted to be th :
ness should be washed and oiled fre- best dollar newspaper in the South and one 0,..
quently. To do this effectually the the best family journals in the country. itlqa .-
straps should be unbuckled and detached great 56-column paper, eight pages, filled to t.p,. -
and 'then washed with soft water and brim with State and General News, Market and .
crown soap, and hung by a slow fire or Weather reported, etc. Its Agricultulrt Depart-. .
in the sun until nearly dry, then coated ment, edited by Judge KNAPP, agent of the m- ,
with a mixture of neatsfoot oil and tal- tional Bureau of Agritonlture, is wnrtton. wit -,
low and allowed to remain in a narrow special reference to Florida's climate, soll ant ..
room for several hours, and when per- productions, and is alone worth ten times It.
fectly dry, rub thoroughly with a wool- subscription price Also, a large colored mqp of
en rag. The rubbing is important, as it, Florida to all yearly subscribers free. Term .
in addition to removing the surplus oil (in advance), 1 a year; 50 cents tot sixmonths. ,.
and grease, tends to close the pores and Remittances should be made by draft, money .- .
gives a finish to the leather. In hang- order, postal note, or registered letter. '
ing harness care should be taken to al- o H. JONES & BRO., Publishers, :
low the straps to hang their full length.. JACKSONVILLE, ILa .
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JANUARY -26, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of do
mestic anima's may be addressed to Dr.
D. 0. Lyon, Jacksonville, Fla., who will
answer them through this column.
Some of the Results of Ove:
Although carriage or family hours
receive more careful treatment thll
working farm or draught horses, their
made of life is less conducive to goo
health. They stand for a daypor ev:
several days inactive, spending their
time in eating, as much feed being give
them as when they are in action, or pe
haps more. Then they are taken out at
driven perhaps to the utmost of the
endurance, and returned to the stall e
hausted by exert'on and perspiration,
make up for which they are often givo
an excessive amount of feed and drink
Surely -a horse thus treated cannot 1
as healthy as one which has regull
daily task's to perform at a steady pa'
before the plow or wagon, alternative
with regular feeds at stated hours. An
one who has a family horse to care fi
ought to endeavor to give him som
thing like regular exercise, and to pr
portion his feed to the amount of e:
A carriage horse that is handled mun
by other than the owner is pretty su
to be abused; the dumb animal cann
make known his grievances, and usual
Sthe first evidence of them is unaccoun
ablp sickness or sudden death. Carriage
horses;, moreover, are of finer c
ganizatidn than draught horses and a:
kept iu-higher condition. The excess'
heats ofi summer and heavy sandy road
are particularly trying to horse flesh.
The following article by a veterinas
authority we clip from a Southern e:
change. It, describes the results of i
- regular and excessive feeding, and if
does not prescribe a remedy for the di
orders described, it indicates how tho
may be prevented:
SInore to impress upon the minds
tlii rAFAfirV t.JJ flTian e w ofl.o flJJimi/
There are tons of hay wasted and worse
than wasted in the manger. .It is so
easy to feed hay that too many throw it
to the horse with perfect recklessness.
Good hoy is a meritorious feed, lut hay
is a very bulky food, and the danger in
feeding it to excess is thattoo much bulk
will be furnished, not that too much of
the food elements will be supplied. We
cannot founder a horse on hay. But we
can fill him with so much indigestible
woody fibre, and because of the in-
digestibility of the woody fibre, create
such quantities of gas in the stomach
and bowels, that the effect is positively
Bedding for Stock.
Farmess'and dairymen, during bad
spells of weather, feel the necessity of
plenty of good bedding for stock. The
pens of young calves ought to be well
bedded at all times. Calves will not
thrive if they are to stand and lie on the
damp floor or ground. They must be
kept dry under feet as well. as overhead.
There is no better bedding perhaps than
dry leaves from the forest. To gather
*these leaves and store them away for fu-
ture daily use, is not a very expensive
job. The leaves when mixed, as they
will be, with the droppings of the stock
whose comfort they are meant to serve,
will absorb the liquid matter, and help
preserve in a better form, all the man-
ure. Leaves themselves are good man-
If leaves cannot be had conveniently,
'et out the mower and horse rake some
ne day and cut down, and rake up, aud
haul to the barn and sheds any kind of
dry grass you may be able to secure in
the fields ; -Broomsedge would answer.
You ought to have a room, or apart-
ment, set apart especially for the storage
of material to be used as stock bedding.
Milch cows ought 'o be liberally bedded
-Southern Live Stock Journal.
JERSEY CATTLE IN JERSEY.
and overfeeding we will, in this article, An American's Visit to a Small
give'a description of some of the diseases but Famous Island.
which frequently arise from the same, (CONCLUDED FROM LAST NUMBER.)
some of which are in their severest form, The island is a arden sort of piace
frequently very fatal and intractable, of- Farms everwheri and every fam a.
.. ...... .Farms-everywhere, and- every farm
ten baffling the most skillful treatm( n', gem. The average farm is about fifteen
and upon which the most appropriate acres If you own it you are rich, and
medicines seem to have no controlling verrich as thingsoh Ifyoudon'
inf~luence.Th Z first .'a-nd o the, les vey rcastigs go here. If1you don'
influence. The first and not the least own it then you pay five or six or seven
frequent of these diseases we meet with, guineas an acre annual rent for it-
is called Azotuna, and by some Azot- more than thirty dollars anacre annual
amia. It was called by the older writ- rent! And yet, with raising potatoes and
ers partial paralysis, and still by others fruit for the markets, hay and grain
spinal meningitis. But it is now con-, and roots for stock, many a man has
sidered, as a certainty, to be a disease of made a farmer's fortune a life lon-
the liver in which the kidneys soon be- comnd etence with fuondsoeve for"e
come involved more or less, followed as .eenc i fndtoeav
a natra -esultby a paralyze i cldren. You cannot really under and
a natlral--eult by a paralyzedcon on it; but crops bring in much profit here,
of the hind quarters. Horses possessed and Jersey cows are great promoters of
of a naturally plethoric habitand of fine wealth. That farmers have lived here
digestive organs, are very liable to an at- and prospered uuder such a weight of
tack of this disease when subjected to rent is patent That they will continue
the cause. 'The cause of this disease, in- to do so admits of no sort of doubt.
variably, is. allowing the animal to stand Poor crops, bad luck, and now and then a
in'the stable for some days, without 'broken bank will occur, but the average
exercise, giving him a liberal amount of is largely in favor of the farmer.
Lnutritious food. Thus, if the animal's And now the Jersey cattle on their
Wlppetite be good and his digestive or- native isle-are they really the best in
gains in an active and healthy condition, the world? No; no better than in Amer-
"the system becomes loaded to an undue, ica. Went to see the herds-as
extea-.winh albuminous material, and iiny of them as time and opportunity
when at length ti.e animal is taken out would permit, but saw nothing better
and suddenly exercised a rapid oxidation than we-have in the States. Whyshould
takes place'of this superabundant al- I? To the States have we not brought
buminous accumulation, and this. 10o- the ream of all these Jersey herds?
gather with the rapid titue change tak- Our buyers have defied. all prices to
ing place at this time, the blood becomes bring away the best of cows -and bulls,
overloaded with effete materials. Thus and should we not have as fine a lot of
it becomes evident that the liver and stock as Jersey has? No reason against
kidnlys soon become unable to eliminate it We need not go to Jersey now to
the impurities as fast as they are formed, findsuperior stock to oursor elsewhere
hence a blockage and a partial or com- Is all the imported stock genu. ine-
plete suspension of the function of the first class? Yes; all genuine Jersey-
excretory organs. for there is no other sort in Jersey; but
The symptoms of this disease will vary all is not first-class. In fact, we of the
according to the severity of the case, The States have imported lots of Jersey
animal, -when taken out of the stable, sculch. There are Jerseys and Jerseys
will appear to be in an unusual state of -some are very fine and some are
good health, giving the driver the im- worthless except for beef. Some Jersey
session that the animal never felt so farmers and dealers will tell the truth
well in all his life, but he has not driven and some will not. Some American
far before the animal begins to lag and buyers come here to buy the very best;
feel dull--seeming to lose all his former others come here to buy some stuff to
unlimited ambition. By and by he be- sell and take no heed to what may
gins to perspire freely, especially on the follow. They bring them over, to sell
hind quarters. Soon a weakness or them out as imported stock, by private
partial loss of power is evident, and the sale or auction,and the buyet-will, five
animal begins to knuckle over at the times out of ten, had better not have
fetlocks, showing increasing weakness bought or bid. A conscientious dealer
at every step. These symptoms keep in- tries to do the right thing-build up
^T ^ ^68 11^ ^ tristo do the right thing-build up
creasing until the animal eventually a permanent trade at home and abroad,
fall down, being unable, in many cases, but the cut-threat shyster makes a lot of
to get on is feet again. Th e urine ls mischief-fouls the market with alot of
always of a dark brown or coffee color, low-class stuff-you know the net re-
leading many to suppose that the animal suit '
is passing blood. The pulse is accele- And this is not the worst. You
ated, and.the respiration increased, and, look for excellence iu the authentic
if the case be severe, the animal will channels. In Jersey there is a' Royal
show great uneasiness and evince much Agricultural Society. The soceity has
pfain,especiallyin the region of the loins, committees that pass there judgment
It.is.-nvariably a good sign when the upon cattle. If this committee, for once
animal beomes easy and gradually or twice, should say such and such an
eassto perspire and th.eresplrations animal was first-class, and their report
become less frequent. and ties in a na- should come to your ears you might
tural recumbent position, and although say this is the proper information. True
not ale to get up entirely.on his feet, it-should be. But it has not been so;
will,,; when he makes the attempt, get and cows and bulls marked first-class
very nearly to his feet before falling -more than once or twice have been
down ain. A case showing the above placed on the American market at fabu-
favorabIe symptoms will, as a general ious prices, when their hides and car-
thing, if properly reacted, make an entire passes were not worth the transportation
recovery.- The unfavorable symptoms feel How is 'this ? Ask men who have
woula be great uneasiness, profuse per- paid their thousands for a single bull
spiration, labored and frequent respi- or cow here on the island because the
rations dilated nostrils, haggard counte- R0oal comnimtteA men had branded them
nan ce, nd the animal will lie stretched once, twice and thrice as being the best
out,,;'being unable to raise itself to a of all'-the Island herds-ask them why
natural recumbent position. A case this is so.
showing these unfavorable symptoms is I neednot go into particulars, as
On' 8 need not go .into particulars, as
pretty sure to havean unfavorable termi- might be done; but this may be said to.
o .... "our honest American buyers-buy no
a stf- l .Feeding. more Jeraeyv cattle in Jersey that have
Wastefm reedng. not better backing' than the, simple
The following remarks by the Stock- Royal committee' declarationn. Askfor
i 'man are of the same tenor as the above properly authentidited records of per-
article. In Florida we think there is not formance. What hag this high priced Jer-
so much waste of forage as in States sea-done? What has her dam and grand
where it is more easily obtained, but dam done? What'bas the family of the
many overfeed their horses, and this re- sire done? 'Whait ,is her performance
suits both in waste and injury: in bhe pail andin the churn? How
The ordinary system of feeding horses mahy pounds of butter has she made
is, to say the least, a very careless one, in any-" given time? This is the only
test It is not in lines or points or tint
or horn or skin or hair; it is what she
is capable of doing-not on a guess, or
bare committee assertion; what has she
and her ancestry done?
I have mentioned hair-that means
color. It is an old and trite saying
that "a good horse has a good color".
But a good color don't always have
a good horse. Jerseymen have been
breeding to color. So have English-
men and a lot of American cattle fain-
ciers. It is a great piece of folly-
the worst folly of all. Breeding to
color means the destruction of any
race of cattle, horses or hogs in the
world. In cattle, it is simply breeding
to hair You don't want hair-it is
choice milk, rich'cream, perfect butter
you really want. Let the hair be
white or fawn, pure fawn or French
or squirrel zray, let it be solid or bro-
ken, what it may, so the cow or bull
that wears it is really good. You
breed to butter-never mind the color,
and you will save the Jersey breed.
You breed to color and you will de-
stroy it. These Royal committees have
been wed too much to color; they have
been laying on their backs to better see
the bellies of cows and bulls, to see if
any white hair had a lodgment there.
No test asked for. The horns must be
regular, the face well dished; the skin
quite thin and soft, all this and this, and
this; and nothing as 'o what the cow or
her kin have done in the pail or in the
When the Royal Society, or Royal
humbug of Jersey gets upon the right
track-then let the trade be resumed;
let the embargo be raised, the hundred
dollars for bulls and the fifty dollars for
cows-and not before. Jersey wants
America for a market, and America
wants to buy good, honest stock in Jer-
sey; but it is better as it is so long as the
dealing is unfair.
,Wipe out the obstacle, theirs and ours
then make another start. I am speak-
ing for myself. I went to Jersey believe
ingthat the embargos laid by the A. J.
U. C. were wrong and hurtful. I write
to-day believing they are right, Keep
unfriendly committee and unfriendly'
dealers here and at good arm's length,
until this thing is on a proper footing.
We want to buy on the Islands on
principle. If Jersey stock is good, and we
believe it is, then bring it in-bring in
the caigoes every year-but bring no
sculch; and countenance no Jersey-man
for America that does it. It is too far
to go for Jersey cattle hair; it will not
pay. It is not too far to go-for real but-
ter stock, and when the methods over
here are well improved, take dwon the
bars and let us buy -again.
Some -of the people here have taken
note of fiis, and are working earnestly
for reformation. Capt. Le Brocq tdlls
me he has been preaching the refor-
mation gospel for some time, aud
several farmers said the same; and
there is hope that good will come of
the attempts. If so then the tradoewill
he resumed; but for the presentlet us
wait. The Island has about 14,000
Jerseys and should sell each year three
thousand head or more. America
could take a good many of them and
ought to-all things being right, but as
things have been going it is better not
to We have good stock of our own;
importation means nothing-is a fiction
so far as exclusive merit goes.. Actual
merit is on the side of the first rate
American bred Jersey animal; so we can
well afford to wait results, we surely can
if they can. -
I am rather pleased with Jersey. It
is a proper garden spot, a place of wealth
and quiet farming ways. The farms are
small, as I have said; the roads are
smooth and very fine; the farm houses
are of the subs antial, thrifty sort, with
fine warm barns and stables-everything
in order-fruit and flowers, water and
shady trees in great abundance. The
cows in most'part'are tethered out, but
young things and sometimes older ones,
have their heads and run loose amid the
pastures. There is scarcely any tradewith
America this year, and the people feel
it. Under the existing embargos of club
and quarantine, there is no chance for
Dairying at the South.
The public has been so long accus-
tomed to associate cotton with the
Southern States that it can hardly en-
tertain the idea of any other product
coming from that quarter. The so-called
"dairy belt" is still a reality in the
minds of many people, and the attempt
to establish cheese factories and cream-
eries in the South and to operate them
profitably, are generally regarded, by
Northerners at least, as experiments of
very doubtful issue. This is not the
feeling prevalent in the States where
dairying has been entered upon. They
are sanguine enough to believe that .cli-
matic conditions will be a powerful
auxiliary to the production of milk and
to scientific butter and cheese making.
Bermuda grass and Japan clover both
succeed well in the South and produce,
it is claimed, more-and richer milk than
any of the grasses and clover grown in
the North. We may naturally expect
that the factories already established
will form the nucleus of an industry
capable of extension throughout all the
States of the South. The transition
from cotton to cream and from'sugar
cane to grass will necessarily be slow, re-
quiring, as it does,: the application .of.
more scientific methods of agriculture
and the employment-of a larger amount
of capital. It will change the face of
the whole country for the better and re-
veal sources of wealth hitherto un-
dreamed of.-The -Dairy 'World,
Mr. R. J. Broad, of Welaka, Putnam
county, says: "For the .past two years I
have used Williams, Clark & Co's High
Grade Bone Fertilizer for Orange Trees
and 'Yegetables, with the greatest satis-
faction and profit, and in using their
goods I believe LKfave received full value
for my money. -I most heartily recom-
mend their fertilizers."
The Influences of Climate on
BY E. S. RICHARDSON.
Editor Florida Farmer ana Mi-uit-Grower:
We find that Southern people pay too
strict attention to the writings of North-
ern poultrymen. They totally ignore
the great differencee in climate. We
have found that the entire business must
be managed differently. Our houses
must be just the reverse of Northern
houses, as open as possible, sided with
wire netting or lath. Shade must be
plentiful and dense. Less corn must be
fed, as it is too heating. We have differ-
ent diseases that require treatment.
Southern amateurs read in Northern pa-
pers of certain ways to increase egg-
protection, which, if allowed here,
would make their hens so fat that they
would not lay an egg.
The winter in Florida is not unlike a
Northern spring. If ve should wait un-
til April to haotch our chickens, we would
loose the best part of the year, namely,
from September to April. We can hatch
chickens in every month in the year,
but in the summer months (from first of
June to the last of August) they require
mere care, and the utmost vigilance is
necessary to keep down lice among the
little ones. They can be kept down, but
the expense is so great that it-is not as
profitable as in the winter months.
Fowls should be shipped South in the
fall, as the change from the cold weath-
er of the North to our eternal summer,
is too much for them at any other sea-
son of the year.
The handling of incubators is very dif-
ferent here. The man who understands
his business and has found it profitable
in the North would find it doubly so
here, where broilers can be grown in the
open air without the sudden changes of
a Northern Spring. However, th. most
experiencedd operator must use his best
judgment here, until he gets used to our
climate, because many things are differ-
ent both in the artificial and natural
methods. More moisture is required
under the hen and more evaporating
surface in the incubator. The outside
temperature is so high, less heat is re-
quired to keep up the proper tempera-
ture in the egg drawers or chambers.
The trouble here is to keep the machine
cool. There is also less expense in run-
ning incubators and brooders, as less oil
Fowls and chicks require more shade
and the houses and runs must be kept
cleaner than is usually done, even by the
most successful fanciers at the North.
Lice and mites breed very fast here in
the summer, and they are the indirect, if
not the direct, cause of many of the so-
called "Florida diseases." Great' are
should be exercised by the poultryman
on the "lice" question.
The term "sore-head" is used in the
South in very much the same way as
"cholera" is in the West. In both cases
the term is used to. signify roup, canker,
colds, chicken-pox and every other
disease that chickens are heir to. People
should be. careful about confounding
these. diseases and their remedies, "or
they will have much trouble with poul-
try keeping and become discouraged and
then lay it on to thepoor chickens.
Pounded Lime-stone for Hens.
Editor Florida Farmner and .-it-Grower:
The fact does not seem to be generally
appreciated that the sandy soil of Flor-
ida does not furnish the gravel needed
by poultry, without which they do not
thrive. I gather the lime stone that
crops out of the earth here in many
places and pound it into pieces the size
of a grain of corn. They eat it r.Aven-
ously, and it supplies the double want
of gravel for grinding their feed, and
lime for egg shells. -
Pure water kept standing in rusty tin
vessels is also a certain safeguard
against cholera, cleanliness in other mat-
ters being regarded.
ORIOLE, Hernando Co., Fla., Jan 10,
The Guinea Fowl.
While guineas are highly esteemed for
their beauty, they are not very common
on the farm. They are great birds to fly,
and are very severe on young chickens,
and often make it "unpleasant" for older
fowls. They are great foragers, and de-
light in stealing their nests where tbey
can rear their young unmolested. In
rearing these fowls It is best to procure
eggs and set them under a common hen,
since the guinea hen is a great rover and.
will expose her brood to the wet grass
and prowling enemies. In every poultry
yard there should be a pair of guineas,
at least. They are excellent protectors,
as they are very watchful, and' their
shrieks nearly always signal the ap-
proach of hawks.-Ex.
The Bronze Turkey.
The origin of the Bronze turkey is the
result of a cross with a wild gobler on a
Narragansett female. It is claimed by
some breeders of this variety that a fe-
male weighing sixteen pounds will lay
more eggs than when heavier. For
market purposes it really seems that a
turkey hen weighing even fifteen pounds
is heavy enough, and the breeder who
will accept this happy medium will find
readier sale for his stock than if they
weighed twenty pounds.- Farmer's
Home Journal. -
It is but a decade since the Pekin
ducks' first came to our shores.' They
have increased rapidly since the first im-
portation, and are now-scattered east,
west, north'and' south, among fanciers,
farmers and amateur breeders.-Ex.
SPECIAL LOW PRICES ON
LECONTE AND KEIFFER PEAR TREES,
IFor the Season of 88B-7 -
Also Apples grafted on LeConte Roots. For
catalogue and prices, address
JULESTON & CO.,
Proprietors Floridk Nursery, Monticello, Fla.
B AYPORT, -
SHernando County, Elorlda,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try.weekly
SAVANNAH, FLORIDA AND
WAVYOROSS SHORT LINE,
TIME CARD IN EFFECT DECEMBER 5,1886.
All Trains of this Road are run by Central Standard
l'a.senger Trains-will leave and arrive daily, as follows:
Wet Ind a Fa't Mall.
Leave Tampa via S. F. R. R................. 8 00 p m
SSanford J. T. &K. W................ 100 amn
Jacksonville 7 00 a mn
Arrive Jacksonville 12 00 noon
Waycross 9 10 a m
Savannah 11 55 a m
Charleston 4 50 p m
Richmond 6 49 a m
Washington 11 00 a m
SBaltimore 12 18 p m
Philadelphia 2 47 p mn
New York 630 a m
Pullman Buffet Cars Tampa to Washington, and New
Y )rk to Tampa.
New Orleana Express,
,Leave Jacksonville 7 00 a mn
Arrive Jacksonville 7 35 p m
Leave Callahan 7 33 a m
ArriveWaycross 9 10 am
Thomasvillle 1 22 p mn
Balnbridge S 3 p m
Chattahoochee 4 04 pm
Pensacola via L. & N. R. R...........1......0 10 p m
Mobile via L. & N. R. R........................ 2 15 am
at New Orleans via L. & N. R. BR......... 7 10 a m
Albany 842 pm
Macon via Central R. Bt...................... 8 24 p m
Atlanta via Central R. R....................12 15 a m
Chattanooga via W. & A. R. R.............. 6 55 a m
Nashville via N. C. & St. L. B. R..... 11 45 am
Louisville via L. & N. R. R................... 6 60 pmn
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
New Orleans via Pensacola and Mobileand to and from
Jacksonville and Louisville via Thomasville, Atlanta
end Nashville, and Cincinnati to Jacksonville via Jesup.
A. C. Line Expresa.
Leave Jacksonville 2 05 p m
Arrive Jacksonville 12 00 noon
Leave Callahan 2 47 p m
Chattahoochee 11 30 a mn
Thomasville -1 45 p m
Arrive Waycross 4 40 p m
BrunswickviaB. & W. R. BR............. 8 28 pm
Jesup 6 16 p m
Macon via E. T. Y. & Ga. R. R............ 20 p m
Atlanta via E. T. V. & Ga. R. BR.......... 225 a m
Chattanooga via E. T. V. & Ga. B. B.... 8 20 a m
Cincinnati via Cin. So. R'y.................. 642 pmn
'. Savannah 7 68 p m
Charleston 1 25 a m
SWilmington 3 30 a m
Weldon 2 15 p m
Richmond 6 00 p m
Washington 11 00 p m
Baltimore 12 35 a mn
Philadelphia 3 45 a m
New York 6 50 a m
Pullman Buffet Cars te and from Jacksonville and
New York, also Jacks6aville to Cincinnati via Jesup.
East Florida Expreas.
Leave Jacksonville 5 00 p m
Arrive Jacksonville .8 55 am
Leave Callahan 5 41 p m
SWaycross 7 58 p m
Gainesville 3 55 p m
Lake City 3 20 p m
Live Oak 7 20 p m
Thomasville 11 30 p m
Arrive Albany 1 55 a m
Montgomery via Central B. B............ 7 30 a m
Mobile via L. & N. R. BR............... 2 10 p m
New Orleans via L. & N. R. R.......... 7.30 p m
Nashville via L. & N. R. R............... 705 p m
Louisville via L. & N. R. R........-....-.. 2 12 am
Cincinnati via L. & N. B. R.................. 6 30 a mn
SSt. Louis via L. &N. R. R ................... 740 am
-Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
Louisville via Thomasville. Albany, Montgomery and
Nashville, and to and from Bartow and Montgomery
Leave Jacksonvilte 8 15 p m
Arrive Jacksonville 615 am
Leave Callahan 9 05 p mn
ArriveCallahan 5 26 a mn
Leave Gainesville 3 55 p mn
Arrive Gainesville 10 05 a en
Leave Lake City 3 20 p m-
Arrive Lake City 10 15 a mn
Leave Live Oak 7 20 p mn
Arrive Live Oak 6 40 a mn
Thomasville 7 15 a mn
Albany 11 40 a m
SMontgomeryv via Central R. R ............ 7 55 p mn
Nashiville via L. & N. R. R.................0 6 55 a mn
Louisville via L. & N. R. B................ 1 57 p m
Cincinnati via L. & N. R. B................. 6 3S p m-
St. Lounis via L. & N. R. R....;........... 8 00 p m
W across .................. .................. .......1 20 p en
Brunswicklvia B. & W. B.R B........... 6 40 a m
Albany via B. & W. R ...................... 445 a m
Macon via Central B. BR.................. 9 04 a m
Atlanta via Central B. R...................... 1 05 p mn
Chattanooga via W. & A.R. R............ .'7 07 pm.
Jesup 1 00 a m'
S" Brunswickvia B. T. V. & Ga. R. R....... 600 am
Macon via E. T. V. & Ga. R, R............. 730 am
Atlanta via E. T. V. & Ga. BR -R ..........:.1l 30 a m
Chattanooga via E. T. V. & Ga. R..... 6 15 p m
Cincinnati via Cin. So0. R'y................... 6 40 a m
Savannah 6 10 am
Charleston 12 55 p mn
Wilmington 8 30 p mn
Richmond 1045 am
Washington 3 40 p m
Baltimore 4'54 p me
Philadelphia 7 17 p mn
New York 9 20 p mn
Pullman Buffet Cars and Mann Boudoir Buffet Car
via Waycross, Albany and Macon: and via Waycross,
Jesup and Macon; between Jacksonvilleand Cincinnati.
Also Through Passenger Coaches between Jacksonville
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
Nashville via Thomasville and Montgomery.
Pullman Buffet Carsbetween Jacksonville and Wash-
in n. gn
Through Tickets sold to all points by Rail and steam-
eship connections, and Baggage Checked Through. Also
Bleeping Car Berths and Sections secured at Company's
Office, in Astor's Building. 82 Bay street, and at Passen-
ger Station, and on board People's Line Steamers H. B.
Plant and Chattachoochee and DeBary-Baya, Line
!tpamer City of Jacksonville. M.P.A E,
WM. P. HARDER,
General Passenger Agent.
A. E. JIl.UING,-Superintendent. ,
DAYrONA. AND POINTS ON THE
ST. JOHNS AND HALIFAX RAILROAD.
Daily Except Sunday.
Leave J.acksonville via J., T. & K. W ...--.3 VI p
Arrive Palatka 315 pa
Leave Palatka,via Ferry Ar-.near 2 O p a
Arrive 'Rolleston 15 p m
Leave RoUlton 800pm
Arrive Tomokla 00 p m
Making connections with steamers and backi At
freight and passae for Ormond, Davtona. andalU l oi
on Halifalx River;.
Leave Toroka 8M0Sa
Arrive Rolleston 10 a
Leave Rolleston via Ferry A nrmiegr 10 8 am
Arrive Palatka 11 00 a
Leave Palatbe 11 2 a Ai
Arrive Jacksonville. I18pa
Special Inducement- to immigrant and e-oru
Through ratse of freight given to all points on 6M
East Coast and as low as by any other line.
noad win be completed in albw days to Ormond, u
Daytona; thus rendering the hack tranter unneceum .
W. B. WATSON, -, P A. .
Traffo Managr. -
St Augustine and Palatka
St. Augustine & Palatka Ry.
"THE STANDARD-SHORT LIM." ,
Reduction in Timel Reduction In Rate!
Commencing Monday. Nov. 29th, trains will'
ron as follows:
DAILY, EXCEPT SUNDAY. :
Leave St. Augtine...........Sa. 00 a m n p ma
Arrive Polat] 8 9.06am 1 4O pm
Leave Palatka 1015am 4 50 pI.
Arrive St. Augustine ..... ........l 1180 m 6 00,p m
Leave St. Augustine ...........8 00 m 8 15 p m
Arrive Palatka...0... 06 a m 4 25 p a
Leave Palata 903 a m 4 60_p ma
Arrive St. Augustine.............. .10 40 a m 600 p m
At Palatka connects with Florida Southern RJ'y
Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West B'y. and St. Johns.
River steamers to and from all points in South Flor-
ida. The Monarch Parlor Observatory Car "Ymir"
will be on this line by December the lo0th.
ST. JOHN'S RAILWAY-ANCIENT CITY ROUTE-
Leave St. Augustine ............-..6 0SO p m .
Arrive Tocoi 9 15 p m ,
Leave Tocoi p m r
Arrive St. Augustine............-...... 7 3 p ... .
Connects at Tocoi with Fast Mail Steamers ftom
Jacksonville to all points In South Florida.
DAILY-EXCEPT SUNDAY. .. .'
Leave St. Agustine...._.....10 45a m 45 p m
Arrive Tocoi 1130a5m 5 pm
Leave Tocoli U 4 a m 4 p mi
Arrive St. Augustine...............12 3SO p m 30 p a
Connects at Tocoi with the fast and popular steamer,
John Sylvester, of the Poet Line, to amd from Jackson-
vlll. giving 2 hours and 15 minutes at- St. Augastine
aud return to Jacksonville same day, making t d-'
sirable route for Tourists. Trains run Into St. Augus-
tine within three minutes walk-of the Plama -
A. F. SHE WOOD,
W. J JARVIS, Ge. Freilght PM. At.
IACKSONVILLE AND ATLANTIOL B.
In effect November 16th. I06.
I Mo' No. a
I.eave Jacksonflle.---.-.. i 9 0amJ30pm
krrive Pablo BeactL-... .. 1016am S1pm
I No. 2 o.4
Leave Pablo Beanh 1I05pm 430pm
Trr 1-eJacaoVl2.........|lX0pm 5 0pm
Trains No. 1, S3 S and 4inm hafy. -
".JULIUS HAD "
218 and 220 Wash i
'5T c' r
ngton Street, -
NEW YORK CITY. ; '
Prompt Returns Reodered. Stenoils "on ap-
END'YOUR ;- .. -
TH Job Priinti0$
:.TO THE TIMESUNION TOB ROOMS; -.
': .' .* .- .. *...: :
: :^ _. : o..' ,.
SOOK HERE !
fLORIDA RtlLWAY;AI^nS )
F.R% LWAY- A-
NAYIGATION COMPANY. ..
TIME CARD.-IN EFFPJIT DEC; 27. 1w6, 1 02 .
All Trains BRun by 9oi w ierlidlani Time(Cenzi l). .
WESTERN DIVISION. ". .
Shortest and Quickest Route to New leans md, th -
Southwest. Direct Connections o1tu.nts West
and Northweat. .
"a" means A. M. time. "p" meens.P. M. time.
Read up. ea down.
No. 10. No. 2. No. No.
11 45 a 7 30 p Ar Jacksonville............Lv 8 00a 830011O
10 30a, 50 pAr Baldwin..................Lv 8 41 a .3 50 p
8 1S a 5 1 p Ar Lake City............Ar. 10.10 a 6 58 p
7 12a 427pArLiveOak.................Arl0o58-a 7,06 p
6 01 a ; 26 p Ar Madison..........._ Ar 12 01 p 8 37 p:
6 15 a 2 50 p Ar Monticello.............AT 1 35 p 10 35 p
3 10 a 1 05 p Ar Tallahassee............Ar 2 27 p 11 25p. :
1 40 a 12 08 p Ar Quincy...............Ar 8 22 p I 40 a
1201 a 11 25 a ArRiver unction........Ar 406p 330 .
11 00p 10-20a ArMarianna................Ar 6507p 4 26a.
8 00Op 8 15a LvDeFuniak Springs.Ar 7051p 8O00a
no n 5 15 a LvPensacola............-..Ar .t 10 p Ll bu a
I 15 p 3 00 a Lv Flomaton...............Ar 11 6 r, 3 1 p
- 1 00 a Lv-Mojile....... A a..........r 2 A a "
-- s 00p Lv NewOrleans............Ar I iu a -
7 20a 7 60p LvMontgomery...........Ar 7 15ia 708i
755p 727 a LvNashville.................Ar-640p 720a
12 45 p 1245 a LvEvansville..............Ar 110a 235p
S M n 12 36 a Lv Louisville...............Ar 2 : a 2 i20 p
8 15 a 8 20 p LvCincinnati ...............Ar al 3i a 6 3 p
7 10 a 720p LvSt. Louis.................Ar 7 40 a uup
uwn' 8 40p LvChicago...................Ar 1030a 8'00p
Shaping Care on No I and btet,.njacKAovlijUseand .
Nas _,,lm-er,. F. R. ai'l N SIrqpmg Cars Jae'ksoville e
t-) DeFunlak ...r No. d No.'d 1 o. 1, ', 9 ana lu aaily.
.',U'l-T E RN DIVLSIO)N.
Shortest and Quickest Route to Gainesville, Ocala,
Leesburg, and all points in South Florida. ,
Bead up. Read dnown.
No. 4. 0o.8. No. 7. No 3.
4 Op 11 25a At Frundilna.............LvT 10 a 4 45p ,
247p 745a ArCallkan ..............Ar 11 4a 45 6 -'
147p 6 00a La BalaI ...... Ar 12 3 [r, 10 1)16 P
240p 6 30 a Ar.Ia. .:n 115. .....Lv L a d30 "
1 55p 530a Lv Bald- Iln ............Lv 12 40p pI O,"p :
- 100p 403aL La.-y .v............Ar I 20 p Il p
12 45a SS6p L. Sriae.. ..........A I t1p 1 .^7p
lo 30al00p LG0.0.p.L, o............ A, 3liOp 6 43a
7 10a 3 10 a L'if..Jtr K... ...........Ar 6 W 145
1131p 145a L H E lb.i.......r..'...r I M p I 5 a
11 04a12655a LaCitrOr.,nre Lake_.Ar 26ip I4 a
1022a L. SIvr Spn ..ng.........Ar Il r, --
10 i p 11 S8 a L. (Ila ...................... Ar 3 1b0r, 2 45 a
10 Op 9 08a aLrV'iiIod ..........!..-Ar 4 63 p 4 a 16
5 Op Lv Par,.moh te ............A r 9 4U a
320p LvSl.CfLbhrl ei...........Ar -- I tOa
913p 8 40 a LvLeesburg.......;.....Ar r 520p 453a :-
830p 81a LvTavares..................Ar'B546p 5-30a
737p 7 23 a LvAppopke............Ar S37p 721a-
710lp .6 65 a LvOrlando............... Ar 706p 7 54 a
Through Pullman SkirifpL (Care No. 3 and 4 between
Jacksonville and Orlsado rwtn.ul change Nt.. 7and
8iaily. Nos. Sand 4 daily except Sunday. -
FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE nRAN '[
-. Y)(Day ."" ,
Read up.- (9ilA)down.
No. 11. "NoS.. No. 6. No. 12.
445p 8 40a Ar Jacksonvile.., ........Lv 6 00p 606 j .
3 00p 7 5a LvFernudlmna...........Ar 20 p lu cWa
At Callahan with Savannah, Florida and Western
Railroad for Savannah Macon Atlanta, Charleston,
Washington, Baltimore New 'Iork Cincinnati-, St.
Louis,/Chicago, and all points North, West and North-
At Silver Springs, with Ocklawaha River Steamers. '
At St. Catherine, with Florida Southern Railroad, for
Brooksville Bartow and Tampa. ,
At Orlando, with South Florida Railroad for Sanford,
Lakeland and Tampsa. .. -
At Cedar Key with Steamer Governor SaffordMonday.
And Thursday fAor Manatee and Tampa.
CLYDE'S NEW YORK AND FLORIDA S. &LINE
Bails from Fernandina Sunday and Wednesday frim.
Jacksonville Friday, for Charleston and New York
SEA ISLAND ROUTE.
Steamer Express leaving Jacksonville 806 A. M.X
Wednesday and Saturday, connect withNithe elegant.
Steamer St. Nicholas. Inside Route for'Brunswick,
Darien Savannah, connecting withsteaemers for Balti-
more, Philadelphia, New York and Boston. "
Steamers Express leavingJacksonville daly8:05 a.m.,
City of Brunswick connects with'teamer for Brunswick
and through trains of the E. T. and G. and B. and W.
WALTER G. COLEMAN, Gen. Traveting Agent.
A. 0. MAcDO
General Passenger and Ticket A-gent, ,
S Traffic Manager.
D. . MAXWELL, Gen. Supt.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. JANUARY. 26. 1887.
;FATTENING 'S'TODK-FARM 'IIPLE
!tlnthe'SlieqpFrlcl-dI.Tgenlous Seed Drill.
"Trapping Birde-Butter Making-News
,from .Everywvhemre-Adtber Variety df
ITo !English growers,of poultry we:are
indebtedd for :some beautiful :as well.as
-serviceable varieties, the result of careful
-selection and skillful breeding. And now
appears for approbation a new variety ,of
'that useful .and .popular Leghorn breed
,called Pile Leghorn. Mr. George Payne,
of Wok ing, Surrey, who after .fve years'
hard work and expenditure of time and
skill has brought this variety to notice in
England,, claims that he has produced the
.Pile .Leghorns, entirely from brown :and
-wrhites,inofforeign blood having been in-
itroduceid. :He.alsoiclaims that.the Piles
'have all the qualities for which the Leg-
'horn isfamous, and consequentlyy he looks.
for .this :new .introduction .to add to ,the
PI'E' fiOtiEHrN OOCK.
As high -,authority .as Stephen Beale
welcomes this new variety of Leghorns,
and ~Aescribes in detail in The Country
Gentleman the process of their produc--
tion; also, by the aid of a picture, their
peculiar markings. The cut here. given-
represents a cock of this new variety. It
will be seen that 'the bird is of the true
-Ieghorn shape, but with the markings
like those of the Pile game, affording in
all a very handsome bird.
Prize Essay on Butter Making.
Tha following essay, by Mrs. W. E.
Bush, of Sparta, Wis., won the prize
offered by the Wisconsin Dairymen's asso-
"Having provided good butter cows4 1.
Keep them in clean, warm, ventilated
stables in hot and cold weather.
2.' Treat gently; feed, water and milk
3-- Food in winter: corn, oats ground,
mix with bran, scald and salt occasion-
ally; also carrots, pumpkins, good timo-
thy, clover and corn stalks. Avoid tur-
nips, cabbage and decaying vegetables.
4. Food in summer: good pasture and
5. Pure water at all seasons.
6. Scrupulous cleansing-of all utensils.
7. Milk rapidly and quietly in a pail
that strains while milking, or cover the
pail with folds of mosquito netting; re-,
strain through both wire and cloth Into
8. -Reduce and hold temperature at-0'.'
S9 Skim sweet.
10. Keep- cream at moderate tempera-
S ture until thickened, which indicates
11 Air by. frequent stirring.
12. Churn in summer in early morning
every other day, Sundays excepted. In
winter not less.than semi-weekly. Tem-
18. Stop churning when in the granular
state, draw buttermilk and add weak
brine. Place pure white rather thin cloth
in a large seamless pan half filled with
brine, then remove butter to the pan.
Gather the cloth with the hand, drain,
repeat until no trace of buttermilk.
4. Butter still in granules, salt (pure
,4airy one ounce per pound), by sifting
evenly, stirring with ladle and turning on
15, Pack immediately in tubs previous-
ly filled with hot brine, then thoroughly
18. Cover neatly with muslin and set in
In cool, dry place to await shipment.
There is no fixed rule for milking kick-
ing cows, but a correspondent in an ex-
change names the following as his method:
Approach the cow whistling, singing or
talking, to attract her attention. Lean
gently against her side and tell her to
"hoist." Place the head against her and-
adjust the stool, sit down and gently
grasp the farther fore teat, then the near
one, and with the head still resting against
her, keep milking and whistling until the
job is finished. .__
A Garden Seed Drill.
The-following illustration represents a-
home made garden seed drill invented by
a practical North Carolina farmer, and so
easy.of ,construction as to be within the
reach of all. It is recommended as being-
especially adapted to sowing turnip and
HOME MADE SEED DRILL.
The wheel (3 in cut) ought to be about
six inches in diameter-an axle reasebox
with the rim knocked off m. ':es a good
Sone. .he tin box,(4) should be abogt
form. 'Bone :and t.nbleached wood ashes
.form a-"complete" fertilizer, .though :de-
;flcientiinmitnogeu. ;SouthCarolina rock,
with 'kainit ;and :hair,or ground leather
'would iform.a "'complete" 'fertilizer of the
lowest grade, aind would ,chiefly be rvalu-
:able for the *potash in the kainit. High
,grade :sulphate :and muriate of potash,
,pure bone flour ,or .dissolved bone black,
.and-nitrateofsoda, sulphate .of ammpnila
;anddried .blood would form .a most valu-
:able ".Lcomplete" fertilizer. What we
'wish ito ;show is that :a fertilizer may be
,"complete" tf it 'cost but $5 per ton .just
;the same .as if it cost $50, and that ,this
word in its technical sense means only
thai,the fertilizer containsthe three lead-
iing pant .foods.,-Rural New Yorker.
'TEhe fall and winter ,exhibitions have
brought ,to notice a number 'of hew and
improved labor saving machines and im.-
plements. At the Vermont state fair an
,attraction was the Perkins 'sulky corn and
potato planter. This is designed to plant
two rows of corn at once sand apply the
fertilizer in the drilL
A combination roller and grass seed
sower exhibited by the Gouveneur
Machine Co. is also of interest. The roller
is made of iron. The seeler has a force
feed, distributing the seed just in front,
where it will be sufficiently covered as the
roller passes over it.
A new carriage wheel hub that aims to
keep all water, sand and dust from the
axle tree is one of the new inventions by
W. F. Moulton, Burlington, Vt.
In the dairy department the leading
inventions of recent date are the power
butter worker of Porter, Blanchard &
Sons, Concord, N. H., and the Tester
churn of Cornish, Curtis & Green, Fort
Atkinson, Wis. These were both in opera-
tion at th3 Bay State Fair.
Training Yong Horses.
A colt ought to be thoroughly halter
broken at 1 year old. At 2 years, having
learned the rudimentary lessons of being
led about and handled without fear, an
acquaintance with bit and bride is in
order. Previous to placing any portion
bf harness on a young horse let him smell
and see it. -
The first bit put into a horse's mouth
should be a simple one, such sa plai
bar or a'jointed snaffle. Especially in the
first trials should an easy Tmouthpiece be
used to induce the animal to take it fear-
lessly. Many persons through ignorance
do injury both to the horse's temper and
his mouth by using a severe snaffle. It is
bad policy to work a horse too early or to
overwork one of any age. Give the colts
light work until they.have developed their
-An Improver of Land.
It'cannot be expected that clover will re-
store, unassisted, an absolutely exhausted
soil. Land must be in a condition to bring
fair crops of grain before clover can be
sowed upon it to advantage. Afterward,
in a judicious rotation, I' will improve the
soil rapidly. It does this in two ways,.by
the decay of its large taproot and by its
absorbing ammonia-rapidly from the at-
mosphere. The cheapest manure that we
can use after land has been put in proper
condition is clover seed. At the north
clover is a biennial; at the south it lasts
for several years. After clover has fairly
goiMo seed at the south, if a short rota-
tion is' adopted, it will not be necessary
to sow it again. For instance, in the fol-
lowing rotations: Frst, cotton or corn;
second, oats; third, wheat; the clover
will spring spontaneously among the
wheat. The ground should remain two
years in clover and the rotation then be
repeated. Land thus treated will improve
without further expenditure of manures.
The rate of yield for the hay crops this
year averages about one half ton per acre,
and the total product is placed at about'
An estimate of the cane sugar crop of
the world this year. reports an increase of
2,218,000 tons, and of the beet sugar crop
a decrease of 520,750 tons, -
Professor W. J. Green, of the Ohio ex-
periment station, considers that there is
no evidence that sulphur used properly in
bleaching fruits endangers the health.
Owners of exposed cattle in and about-
Chicago have agreed with the live stock
commissioners to allow the cattle- to
be appraised'and killed, and trust to the
legislature to appropriate an amount.
sufficient to pay for those found not to be
actually infected with the disease.
It is not the largest hog that pays, but
the one that makes the largest quantity-
of pork in the :shortest time and on the
smallest quantity of food.
A good way to keep cellars and rooms
free from mildew is to close them tight
and bnru sulphur in them, not opening
the doors and w% idows for anhour or two.
Many cider makers affirm that cider-
,made in December is better and keeps in
good drinking condition longer than when
made earlier in the season.
Dr. William Mitchell, of Ohio, prefers
clay floors for his houses, after hai'ing
tried all'other kinds.
Pounded oyster shells, clam shells or
gtioutd hone are among the best materials
for t'ttrnishiiig lime to fowl'.
ithreanditone-half inches in .d
1hOles in the rim about two inches .apart,
made with.an .awl, as represented by the
,dots ;in the cut. In case this arrange-
ment sows seed too tiick:a"wvooden peg
ncan Te put in every .alternate hole. The
'handles marked 2 must be .of convenient
'length, say four or fie feetlTong. 'The little
legs (I J).are to cover the seed and should
be six or seven inches in length. 'The
rows may be opened with a pointed stick,
,ora pieceof metalcan be puton to run
;before-the wheel and open the row.
A Complete Pertiizer.
A "!complete" fertilizer is so called be-
,cause it furnishes more or less-of the three
,essential plant foods, viz., nitrogen, phos-
plhoric acid and potash. A "complete" fer-
tilizer is not necessarily valuable one. It
may be worth.$5or $50 per ton,its value de-
pending merey upon the quantity of those
'three ,foods 'it contains in an available
BY S. BARING GOULD.
BOW -SOME ONE SEIZED A CHANCE.
"Mr. Beaufort," said Mrs. Redfern,
graciously, "would you mind stepping on
with my daughter? I'll follow directly.
I'll first slip on my seal skin and hat.",.
.She allowed Triptolema to go most of
the way with the stranger. Trip looked
charming; her color was heightened. Her
mother's words had kindled her fancy.
The gentleman at her side was good
looking, faultlessly dressed, polished in
manners, presumably rich-he talked of
Beaufort court which he was rebuilding,
.and:a man cannot build without money
-certainly well born. He had a duke in
his family. That was better than a
Bart. Trip put on her best graces; 'and
when Trip wanted to be gracious she
Mr. Beaufort chatted pleasantly, ad-
mired everything, had flattering remarks
-to make ;to his companion, with whom
he 'was really struck.
Ringwood house was of red brick, a
large 'stately mansion, with long win-
dews, plaster quoins, plaster cornices
,and ases:and balustrades,, which looked
wel with the old red brick.
Mrs. Redfern. came up with her daugh-
ter and Mr. Beaufort before they reached
the back door.
"Dear mel" said the gentleman, "this
-strikes me as the perfect ideal of a house.
H the interior arrangements are equal to
,the exterior perfection I shall take a no-
tion or (two away with me.' For my part,
I like neither comfort sacrificed to archi-
tectural design nor architectural beauty
neglected for internal comfort. I shall
be most interested to see over this house."
The housekeeepr, Mrs. Podgings, was
accommodating. She liked to have a
chat with Mrs. Redfern. The butler was
gracious; he had a liking, indeed an un-
bounded admiration for Trip, and vowed
he only wished be were ten years
-younger to make her Mrs. Thomson.
Whereat Trip was wont to toss her pretty
The gentleman was invited along with
the ladies into tho butler's private roo r
He must insist on their all returning
there after having been over the house
and inspected the pictures. He trusted
a light refection there would be accept-
able all around.
So Mrs. and Miss Redfern' and Mr.
Beaufort started, on their round, con-
ducted by Mrs. Podgings. Fortunately
the family were out, the house was ac
cessible in all parts. Mrs. Redfern was
anxious to see all the old rooms again
she had known so well, and take Mrs.
Podgings' attention while the young
people. talked together. Mr. Beaufort
was enchanted with everything. He ad-
mired the paintings, the porcelain, the
glass, the curtains, carpets, furnitureh-
everything was in admirablee taste, and
But what fascinated him more even
than the pictures and china was the.per-
fect arrangement of the house-so com-
pact, so comfortable. He must ask per-
mission to be allowed to make a few
rough sketch plans in his pocketbook for
his information and guidance in the
erection of Beaufort court, Gloucester-
shire. The permission was at once ac-
corded him, and, pencil in hand, he drew
plans, and was too engrossed in them to
say much to Trip. .
At last when all had been seen the party
returned to othe butler's room, where he
had for them a bottle' of dry Sillery.
Some had been drunk at dinner the even-
ing before, and a bottle had been re-
served, by the butler for his own particu-
"Mr. Thomson," said Trip, putting on
hermost coquettish manner, "might Mr.
Beaufort have a sight of the silver wheel-
barrow?" H I
'"Barrow? Certainly," answered the
butler. "Anyt.hing you ask, miss, nMust
be complied with." Then, explanatory
to the visitor, "You see, sir, Tottenham
began. life with a wheelbarrow, some
fifty years agone, and as an occasion, of
telling the story, and showing how clever
a man he has been, he has had two
dozen little silver wheelbarrows made
holding glass salt cellars; a salt cellar to
each guest, you understand. At a dinner
'party Tottenham never fails to tell the
story apropos of the cellars. He's had
on the side an inscription, 'Propera,'
which, I take it, means 'Shove along."
"I don't think it," interrupted Mrs.
Redfern, "though I'm sorry to differ
from you, Mr. Thomson. How 'Pro-
pera' can mean 'shove along,' beats me.
I' see clear enough what it signifies..
Proper A means A one, and Mr. Totten-
ham 'means that whatever he has, from
his' pictures, his plate, down to his din-
ner and salt, is A one, and nothing that
isn't A one will suit him." .
"It may be, Mrs. Redfern," said the
: butler, blandly. "'But I take it the lan-
guage is Latin. However, this is inter-
rupting my story. The missus, she don't
particularly like Tottenham's boasting of
his small beginnings; she ais more high in
her 'notions, and she always says an
aside to the chief gent that took her in;
'What Tottenham says must be taken,
like the barrow, 'with salt. He was a
younger son, and the bulk of the property
went to the eldest. H- ecame off only
with tbe barrow. That is what comes of
our laws of primogeniture, which in a
civilized and Christian land ought to
be' done away with.'"
"And so they ought," threw in Mrs.
Redfern,- '"because I don't understand
nothing about them." :
"But," continued the butler, "about
that inscription on the barrows. I know
that Tottenhan did not comb it out of his
head. He asked the rector, who is an
Oxford scholar, to help'him. Propera is
what it is. Now, Mr. Beaufort, you, can
help us ,to the meaning. 'Shove along'
do seem rather vulgar.. What does it
"Sir," said Mr. Beaufort, graciously,
"till.I see the plate itself I canhardly de-
eide between yo0 ;and Mrs. Redfern.
One could hardly have supposed that
any number of people could be deceived
by the appearance and address of this
man. Yet Jo e miller, who saw little
of him, was the only 'person who had any
supsicion that he was not what he.pre-
tended to be. It is often- asserted that
the uneducated are keenly alive to real
gentility, and able to detect what is
spurious. I very much question this.
I believe, that they 'are easily imposed
upon by mere brag; but I am quite cer-
tain that in the semi-educated class, such
as servants, who ought, more than
others, to be able to distinguish between
the true and the false, the faculty of so
distinguishing is wholly absent. The
criterion by which they judge is one
altogether different from the determin-
ing faculty in the superior class. Con-.
tact with culture has confused their
ideas, not cleared them.
.It was speedily noised in the servants'
hall at Ringwood and throughout' the
parish that the young mani"'with a dook
in the family" was paying his addresses
to Trip. The butler, the cook; the house-
keeper, and the upper housemaid at the
hall. thought it incumbent on them to
encourage the courtship; it would add,
as Mrs. Redfern said, "a claw"' to Ring-'
wood& that a daughter of the park, so to
speak,' should marry into the upper circle
of the aristocracy. Moreover, Mr. Beau-
fort was much -liked by the servants.
He was full' of anecdote, witticisms,
scandalous stories about persons of title,
all of whom he knew intimately, and to
the truth of which stories he could tes-
"Your, true blooded aristocrat," said
Mr. Thompson, "can descend to famili-
'arities with us and lose nothing by it;
but your parvenus, your wealthy trades-
men who've riz from a barrow M eat off
gold and silver, they have to be mighty
particular. They have to be with their
dignity like a sailor with his pants, al.
ways hitching of it up."
So little collations were spread for the
Red&-n party and the stranger in the
servatits' hall-; a cup of tea -was always
ready for them in the housekeeper's room
when they .walked to the house. Mr.
Beaufort and Trip sat beside each other
at table, and a good deal of whispering
went on between them, both at table and
"Really,: sir," said the housekeeper,
"Mr. Beaufort, "you're getting to know
all about our hall and its ways, as If you
was the tame catof the family."
At last Mrs. Redfern announced she
would invite the head servants to the.
lodge to supper.
"Well," said her husband,-"if you do
let Joe Western hkve an.invite also. He's
a right good fellow, and I care for him a
deal more than for your rigmaroling fop
of-a London swell."
"Rigmaroling fop of a London swelll"
echoed Mrs. Redfern. "Wall, I never.
You are worse than a heathen, Richard;'
and Mr. Beaufort as is going to make a
My Lady of our Lema. You ain't a
turning round with the world, that's
clear, but are a flying off into nobody
In spite of all her protestations and ex-
clamations, the keeper insisted on invit-'
ing Joe. Joe was a right down solid man,
and Joe should come. He wasn't all
varnish and Brunswick black, but true
metal, and Dick only fished Trip would
think'of, and take the-miller instead of
the swell. So the keeper asked Joe Wes-
tern himself, and, to his mother's aston-
ishment, Joe consented to go.
Joe went, but he was not an agreeable
person in society at any time. On this oc..
casion least of all. He had only seen Mr.
Beaufort at a distance hitherto, from the
door of his mill, going along the road.
Now he studied him with unfriendly eyes,
with a scowl on hisbrow, and with his
lips set. '
SMr. Beaufort was uneasy. He whis-
pered to Trip a question who he was,. and
seemed' reassured when informed that
Joe was the miller..
Joe, scarcely ate, drank little, spoke
even less He sat and glowered first at
Algernon Beaufort, Esq., and then at
Trip. Not a muscle of his face moved;
but the lines in his face became deeper,
-the brows more knotty, the lips tighter.
"Am I an object of such great interest
'to you, sir, that you cannot take your
eyes off me?" asked Beaufort.
Joe made no answer; he seemed not to
have heard the question.
"I object to being' stared at," said the
gentleman. "I am not accustomed to It
in my position."
Then the young miller stood up and
walked to the door. Trip was just pass-
ing from the kitchen. Joe grasped her
wrist as with a vise. She looked up in
his face. It was no longer rigid, every
muscle was working; he said in a low
"Come outside. to me, Trip-I must
speak to you, I cannot bear more."
"Go on," she said; "I will follow you,
He went out under the trees; there were
deer In the' park, near at' hand was
a cluster of them browsing in the moon-
light on- the grass that was white as if
frosted with the hieavily-fallen dew.
"What is it, Joe'?" she put'her hanad
onhis shoulder, '
The letters may be Greek or even He- | He was standing with his head down,
brew. Suppose you allow me to look at looking at the deer..
them?" "Trip," he said, in. a voice that quiv-
"Certainly, sir," said the butler, rising ered with agitation; "Trip,. dear-dear
and taking his keys. Trip. We've known each other now for
several years, and I fancy there's none
CHAPTER IX. in the whole world, not my mother even,
HOW ONE LOST A CHANCE. I think of and care for as I do for you.
,fr. Beaufort's visits to the, cottage Trip, I can't bear it. That man, I mis-
re daily, and Mists Trip wore her myr- tust him. When I get a -sack of corn, I
we re al is p o her take a handful and turn it over and look
gowns, her first alternately with her sec- hard at it, and I know the quality of
ond best. Mrs. Redfern ordered her a wheat flour as'll come of it. I'vebeen
third best of crushed strawberry to be got looking hard at him, harder than ever I
ready as quickly as the milliner could studied a sample of wheat. The grain is
make it. Crushed strawberry would bad. I don't believe in him. He may
crush the heart of Mr. Algernon Beau- be a swell, and a gentleman, and all that;
fort (with a duke in the family), and but he'll make you miserable and -break
,bring him to the feet of Trip. But, in- your heart, Trip, as sure as I stand
deed, Mr. Beaufort seemed ready to here.oe Mier What
throw himself 'unreservedly at' those "Oh, flddlesticksl Joe Miller What
pretty little feet, unbrought there by any mak"I tell you why. talk, to me like thise-bease-
crushed strawberry. "I tell you why.-Because-because
He was full of civility, and overflowed you are dear td me. Because, Trip, if
with compliments which, though not that man were to harm you, I'd kill him,
original, were nevertheless acceptable. if I were to swing for it."
Of the ,P racefuluess of his attentions Such concentrated fury was-in Ris tone
there could be no question, as hlie uttered these words, that the girl
r was startled.
"Ilo savaeyu ae, oe.
eBY SENrD[NG rFR OUR
--SPECIAL OFF ER-
c'n LeConte and Keifer Pear Trecs, Figs,
M1ior,'c Early Grape. etc., to the -
S.. S. L'ENGLE & CO.. ,
.-.PRICES THE LOWEST.;
S. C. S. L'EGLE & CO., *-
THE FOLLY NI.iRSERIES,
"My good Joe,"' sni,1 Trip, "is this all
you have called me out to hear?"
"All yes," he answered, turning to
her again "No; it is not all. One-thing
more. I give you the chance, Trip. That
E[loveoyou, love you with every string of
my heart, you may not know, but 'it is-
true. And I know that, if you were to
take me, you would make me very
wret :hed and break my heart. I know
it. I see it written before my eyes in let-
ters of blood. But here, knowing all this,
I say to you, take me; become my wife,
and you shall have my: faithful, best
heart's love; do what you will, treat me-
how you will, I will love you and serve
you till you have killed me. That is bet-
ter than that you should take the fellow
In yonder, who will break your heart and
kill you with sorrow. I see what will
come to you if you love him and take
him. You will be treated unkindly, then
cruelly; you will be deserted and cast
out; and my Little Tu'penny-my Little
Tu' penny-" his voice broke, he
raised both his strong arms folded, over
his face, and walked up anddow-i pas-
sionately, agonized, quivering in all his
Trip was in her crushed strawberry
gown, in the moonlight, without a hat,
the silver light on her flaxen lovely hair
and her sweet face, that looked white in
the moonbeams. -
Then suddenly Joe the miller stood be-
fore her and lowered his arms and held
out his hands level before him, and looked
her earnestly in the face. The light was
not on him, his face was in shadow, but
there seemed to be sparks of fire in his
"Trip," he said in a rich, earnest,
thrilling voice, "come, put your hands.in
mine and take me. It is a queer court-
ing. I ask you to take me and spoil my
life. Better that than the other should
spoil your." -
The girl, giddy, little able to realize
the depth and intensity of his passion,
the greatness of his devotion, of his readi-
ness to sacrifice himself for her, burst
into a merry laugh. A quiver ran
through him at the sound.
"Don't be angry, Joe,"'she said; "I
could not help it. I was thinking of
something mother said of a fire balloon
hooked to an elephant. It can't be-no
'-Joe; we are not a match. You know
it, and so do I."
"Little Tu'epnny," said he sadly, as
he dropped his hands and, with bent
,head, turned away, "you are 'right, we
are no match; but I gave you the chance,
knowing, what must come of it to me,
and you have cast it away.
[TO BE CONTINUED]
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ;HOUSE. ,
Best Equipped Office in- the South *
*' .1 > F Q K .' .. .'f l-'* '., *;'
AT PRICES BELOW .COMPETITION
5 ** '. *
Daily Tines- UPidoQ
(Published every day in the year,)
and enlarged toan -
EIGHT PAGE PAPER,
As a newspaper the TiimeLs-TNION now stands
without a rival in H.loriar, and] irie peer of any
in the South. Havinr the e.xlusiie right to the
Associated Press Despat.,hfs, ito own correspon-
dent lu Washi gt,.'n, and special correspondents
throughout the Stiate, its State and general news
is complete, comprehensive, accurate, ad trust-
worthy. No Floridian who wseilie to keep
abreast of what' ie gjing on in hid own State and
in the world at large can afford to be without it.
Terms [in advance). $10 per year; 57 for six
mirtibh; *2 50i for tbr. e monthh; $1 permtonth.
THE DAILY TIMES-UNION twithont the
Sunday issue), by mail six -months, $4; one year,
$8. The Sunday TIuEs-UNION.by, nail, one
year,.$2. '. ;. .
The FLORIDA WEEKLY TiMES, the weekly edi-
tion of theTitxs-UTNioN' i admired to be the
best dollar newspaper in the Schtb and one of
I the bet family journals in the country' It'& a
great 56-column paper, eight ages, filled Id the
brim with State and General News, Market and
Weather repr.rts, etc. Its Agricullurrl Depart-
mnnt, edited by Judge KNAPP, agrnt of the Na--
tonal Bureaun of Agriculture, is written witl
pec ial reference to Flomda's climate, soil and
prodiict;one, and is alone worth ten times its
&nbicri| Lion price Also, a large ,oltyred map of
Foirida to all yeaj l oub6scrbers free.. Termas
(min advancee', IL a er; t.O cent e foi six months.
Renittances eh,-uld he mi.de.by draft, money
order, pottl note, or ri',gictred letter.
C 11 JONES & BRO., Publishers.
Fine sour stocks, budded with best varieties.
Nursery on high pine land. Trees carefully
packed and delivered at shipping point in Pa-
latka, at the following prices: :
%Yinch in diameter, 25 cents each; $200 per
1 inch in diameter, 85 cents each;, $00 per
, 1% inch in diameter, 45 cents each; $U00 per ,
W. C. HARGROVE, Propr,
"How savage you are, Joe."-
- "I'd be mad if harm came to you," he
answered. "There's my mill, and my
mother-those are all I've had to think
of till you came, and I caught you when
you tried a foolish flight. Take care,
take care lest you try another.."
"Why do you speak to me in this way?
You have no right. You are an old
friend; that's all."
"That is all. That is all I suppose I
ever can be. But I care for- you more
than your father or mother, and I
would lay down my life for you. Be-
ware of that manVi Do not trust his
words. He : is false;. and, sure as
I stand here, I'll make' him regret
he ever came here, if sorrow andI heart-
break- come to Little Tu'penny through
him.'" Then-a gulp came.in hi throat;
and he said no more.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. JANUARY 26, 1887.
FLORIDIANA. that promises to do wonder fulthings. The twelve miles south of the line of the
__ attachment consists of a number of wires Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad We
A canning establishment is shortly to so arranged that scraps of cloth are have, indeed, a vast territory, sufficient
be begun at Belleview. sewed on a base in a substantial manner, to support ten or twenty times the
Mr. J. H. Dawson, of Jasper, killed a and rugs, trimmings, lambrequins, etc., population now here, and we cordially
sixteen-months-old pig last week weigh- can be made very rapidly. Mr. Jackson mvite all moral, industrious people to
b 8n outnd. has applied for a patent. o come and dwell among us. We need
The ice factory at Daytona, belonging Mr. J. T. Smallwood, of Oseola settlers from the North and Northwest,
to Mr. D. D. Rogers, burned down last Alachua county, has made nearly 800 not only to take possession of our lands,
to Thursday. gallons of syrup and several barrels of but also to infuse new life and vigor into
The latest discovery in Florida is said sugar the present season. He has also the old settlers. With lively markets at
to be rich deposits of phosphates near butchered eight hogs weighing over 200 the railway stations all suplus crops can
to be rich deposits of phosphates near pounds each. The part of the county in be disposed of, and frugal farmers and
the new city of Naples. which Mr. Smallwood resides will pro- fruit growers can live in peace, comfort
Mr. C. Whitfield has received his coin- duce the finest peas, pinders, potatoes, and prosperity.
mission as Superintendent of Education cassava, etc. The location is healthy, ARGYLE, Walton Co., Fla., January
of Sumter county, the lands cheap, and the soil productive. 5th, 1887.
Peach trees and yellow jessamine are Messrs. Howee and Brown, .-prominent The Indian River Hammock.
in bloom, and eggs and honey are being oyster dealers of New Haven, Connecti-
shipped from Sorrento. cut, have just returned from a trip down BY REV. W. N. CHAUDOIN.
A Chinese quince that weighed '24 the Indian river, where they purchased a Editor Florida Farmer and fuit-Grower:
ounces was exhibited in Starke the other tract of land, near St. Lucie Sound, There had been awakened some inter-
day. All Chinese fruit do nicely in about sixty miles from Rockledge, in- est in vegetable raising in the Indian
Florida. tending to erect a hotel and engage River Hammock before the approach of
TheBartow County Commissioners, at largely in the oyster business. They the J. T. & K. W. Railroad. The corn-
their last meeting, voted a subscription will plant and conduct a regular shipping pletion of the latter, by affording speedy
of $400 towards advertising the county. and canning business, material for transportation, has given an impetus to
Chas. H. Webb, of the DeLeon Springs which has already been ordered.-Titus- this industry.
Co ~has. H. W asebothe DeLeon pringsville Star. There are thousands of- acres of these
Courier,has purchased the DeLand Echo, McKinne livin six miles south- lands commencing just north of Titus-
and will publish both papers. C. McKinney, living six miles south- lands commencing ust north of Titus-
and will publish both papers west of Micanopy, fell from a fence vlle, and running north to the head of
It is stated that there will be at least Tuday afternoon and struck upon some the river and continuing up Mosquito
one thousand acres of tobaccoplanted in dead range-limbs. One of the thorns Lagoon. Some of these lands, at least
the section tributary to Lake City the was pressed through his clothes into his by ditching, produce oranges finely.
coming year. side, making a dangerous wound. Dr. Those too low for oranges are perhaps
There have been one hundred and ten Montgomery was called and found that some better, if properly managed, for
houses built at DeFuniak Springs-since the thorn had been driven through a growing sugar-cane and some varieties
last assembly, and double that number rib and had broken off close to the bone, of vegetables.
will be built this year. and it was necessary to split the rib We trust ere many years that much of
That prosperous farmer and orange in order to get hold of and draw out the these lands will be cleared up and yield-
grower, Wmin. J Munroe, living near thorn, ing handsome incomes. A t another
Coleman Station, received $9 per box for A company to be called the Wagon efforts that have been made here, to
his Tangerine oranges. and Furniture Manufacturing Company grow vegetables and some of the draw-
Smith Dorrien, of Kissimmee, has 70,- is formed at Gainesville and are taking bracks, also some particulars as to orange
000 cabbages set out, and coming on steps to erect suitable buildings for their growing.
nicely. He made the first shipment work. The shops of the company will LA GRANGE, Jan. 7, 1887.
of snap beans from that sectionu.this be located at the point where Alachua
season. avenue crosses the F. R. and N. track, FEBRUARY WEATHER.
The 'orange growers in the neighbor- and one branch of the street railroad The following table.-'mpiled from therecords
hood of Welaka have gathered their will penetrate -from the square to all of the Jack onville SignalStation by Sergt. J.
oranges and housed them, in order to depots and suburban additions in all di- W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
prevent bad effects should em any severe reactions. of weather, rainfall and direction of wind for
prevent bad effects should any severe reons the month of February, as observed at the Jack-
cold weather come. Thursday night one of the boldest rob- sonville station during the past 165 years:
Mr. J. R. Beville, near Patatka, has beries ever perpetrated in Palatka oc- TEMP. WvATHER. d .
four hundred acres in oats, and never curred at the Florida Southern depot, on -----
before at this season of the year were the arrival of the passenger train from -aS, .
the prospects for a heavy crop so flatter- the South. A lady and gentlemen were T .
ing as now. passengers, and just as they were leaving
The U. S. Land Office in Gainesville the car two well dressed white men
was moved Tuesday from its old quar- crowded against them and shoved them 187i 7933 54 9 12 8 2.70o I
teri, in Oak Hall, to rooms on the second down. In the confusion the men secured 1873 .79 38 59 7 18 7 59 SW
-floor of Cpl.-J. B. Brown's block, on West the man's purseontaining a check fo 782 27 10 83 NE
-aoto1Jreet. $200 and about $21 in cash. The officers 1876s888660 712 10 8.45 NE
Main see.were given a description of the men, 1877 75 87 56 8 18 7 1.09 NE-
Mr. Shaw has sold his orange grove they are diligently searching for the 1875 74 32 56 9 10 9 8.82 NE
on Lake Eola, to Mr. Whildon for $10,- robbers. 188081 4260 12 5 11 6.17 NE
000. Mr. Whilden, it is said, will-erect H1570St4258012 581%-L.12 NE
eight newcottageson thi piece of prop- Harry Mongomer, the great uncle 12 79 358 0 NE
-erty at an early date. of Alderman Hardy Montgomery, is now 1883 83 40 64 11 13 4 .48 NE
e. living near Melrose at the advanced age 1834 79 37 62 11 12 6 2.45 NW
The cash- receipts of the Florida SQuth- of 183 years. It is believed that old man 1885 73 32 54 11 6 5.28 NE
Semrn for the depot of.Gainesville alone, Harry, who is a Mormon -in his procli- 4186 78 24 54 12 10 6 1.87 NE
during the moil h of Dece'bur was more vities, is the father of 150 children. The J.W. SMITH,
than 35,000, and now it has the-prospect grandfather of Alderman Montgomery, Sergt. Signal orps, U, S. A.
ol increasing. who was a brother to this aged old man, The ly Time It Didn't Work.
The orange shipping business of died a few years since aged 126. The nly ime It Didnt Work.
Gainesville is 'gradually waning, al- youthful Harry is still sprightly and "What a beautiful child! Shatan ex-
though many boxes are yet being trans- active, vigorous and strong, and both tremely handsome fellow!'" sa"theguish-
ferred. The bulk of the crop, however, able and willing to work.-Waldo Ad- ing pastor to the lady of the house.
has been delivered and sold in the North- vertiser. "Yes, he is a handsome boy, I think."
ern markets. 'Superintendent J. T. Beeks, of Orange' "O, indeed he id. He is the perfect
R. T. Way has just returned toGaines- county, has issued a circular calling the image of his father-the perfect image.
ville from a trip to the Big Ekon'okhat- attention of citizens to the appointment Don't you think so? Wel, I don'tt
chee. Mr. Way reports that the bridge of Arbor Day by the Governor. The know. I never saw his father. We
now being built over the Ekonlokhatchee 9th day of February is selected as the adopted him."-San Francisco Chronicle.
by the county is a most excellent and day for setting out trees in public .
Substantial structure, parks, streets, etc.,, and the general A Tip.
Mr. George H. Frazer, of Micanopy, ornamentation of'public grounds in the Hotel Guest.-"Waiter, how is this?
will plant thirteen acres of Crhii'RedPo- several districts. Superintendent Beeks Yesterday, desiring to make a present to
tatoes on his farm east of tow-thigseqa- suggests that well filled baskets bepro- my daughter at the dinner table, I put a
son. From his experience w 'qfr ,ib vided in order that the day may be spent $500 bill in a piece of cake and told oou
varieties last season he is t.Siede onilhe grounds intended to be beautified to hand it to her." Hotel waiter--'Yes,
Chili Reds are the potatofor.Flor by the planting of trees and shrubbery. sah." "But she says she got the cake
Macley has a brick manufacturing and not the mohey." "Yes, sab; beg
Macclenny has a brick manufacturing .. .. .... 'pardon, sah; I though htyou intended that
establishment which requires twenty-five The. Euhee Valley People. for my fee sah I t"-Ougaha World
first-class hands to operate it. She also -- my .
claims to have the best and handsomest BY C.C G. "We Know by Experience"
schiol-building in the State, and one of. The pioneers, being Highlan4ers, For three years we have .used Brad-
the ablest teachers, brought with them a&fondness for fishingley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
DeFuniak is to have a banking and hunting; and no wonder that they ing along with other high grade fertil-
house, for the accommodation of her fell into the habit of picking up their izers, we pronounce it better than any
business men and her hosts of visitors, living, to a great extent, instead ofsold in Florida. Weshall use it again
The county commissioners have also de- laboring for it. Here were game and thsold in Florida.use it again
cided to built a handsome brick court fish in abundance; cattle, hogs, and this year. do not hesitate to say tothe ee
House and a substantial jail at their sheep kept fat inthe woods all thq year table growers of Florida that they can-
-county seat. round; and a corn-field easily tended notuse anything so good as Bradley's
Mr. Borden has planted out, on Bayard supplied them with brad, Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
Point, 800 young pecan-trees, and will nc a year, one or two of their num- by experience what we say regarding
soon increase the number to 1,000: When her wnt in a sailboat to Pensacola, car- this fertilizer.
these trees shall have attained their trying peas, potatoes, fat hogs, etc, and WOFFORD& WILDER.
growth, no more impressive, and but bringing back a twelve months' supply t. Mason, Fla.
few more profitable, displays. of sylvan of coffee, tobacco, dry. goods, hats, etc.
growth will be found ii Florida. The sailboat from Four Mile Landing, Seed Irish Potatoes.
G. A. & G. K. Squier's saw mill at at the head of the bay, to Pensacola, The best potatoes for planting in this
Crystal Lake, near Pomona, was burned was their only means of transportation State are those brought from extreme
awee There is no oubt that it was and, fact, the only one until a few Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
incendiary. The mill was valued at y asnall a mall steamboat would we imported last year from
9,000 and -was a total loss, as there was Occasionally a small steamboat wouldNOVA SCOTIA
,00.0uandcwas atotalloils, as there was try the navigation of the Choctaw- NOVA OTIA
o insurance. It is not yet known hatchee river, but would soon find large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
whether the mill will be rebuilt. n ,wa Red, Beauty of Hebrom and other varie-
..e..a Se R y C y watery grave. A horseback 'mail line ties, and the p btatoes rited from this
The Tampa Street Railway Company from Miton to Marianna, one hundred d the t e he rm s
have a contract to haul sawdust enough and thirty miles, gave them a weekly seed, were the nest we have ever seen
from the Dixon and Dorsey mills to f11 hearing from the outside world. here. in afew da another
up all the ponds and low places in Ybor But amid all this isolation, the Scot- of the sa e intatoes whichwe
City. To guard against the accumu- tish character was steadfastly retained, carellatthe folo i
lation of filth a thorough system of as was shown by their strict observance wisell at the following b 850es
drainage pipes will be put in. of the Sabbath, by their Presbyterian R ....bal $8.50.
Mr. Dan Edwards, of Gadsden, lost his Church and Sunday-school, and by keep- Beauty of Hebron....... .$ .00.
corn crib last week by fire. Besides 400 ing up a good common school, where Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
bushels of corn ,he lost two horses that their children received a fair education. Remit with order, and we will ship the
: were burned to death, and another was They were, all the while, noted for in- potatoes promptly.
seriously injured. A fine horse just re- telligence, a fondness for books and lit- .. CURCH ANDERSON & CO.
gently purchased by Mr. Lee Edwards, erary conversation, and for high moral Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
was also burned to death. The origin of character. Some of them became the a. Ja
the fire is unknown owners of a few slaves, and these were "Nothing Comes Up to Brad-
The timber that daily passes over the generally -treated as members of the N0thlng Comes up to Brad-
The timber that dailynnot be surpassedr thein family. Some of these negroes still sur- ley' s."
Western Railroad cannot be surpassed in vive, and are notable among their race (From the Treasurer of the South Florida B.Rt.)
size anywhere Trome logs conta g for good sense and honesty. I have used Bradley's Orange Tree
2,500feetoflumber,came into a maGreenCove I think your readers can now under-- Fertilizer for two years, and I have ob-
- clan has fguredup that the imber con- stand how this large area of good lands stained from it entire satisfaction. My
tained in the two logs would build a has retrained so long unknown. When- trees have made uniform and rapid
houe 4x28 feet ever tried, the soil is found to be pecu- growth, and they are fairly bending to
house it a i. liarly adapted to the raising of fruits the ground with bright handsome fruit.
The oaty authorities of Pensacola are and vegetables. The entire absence of I have used many brands of fertilizers
having a -lot of mixed clay and sand any chance to sell a surplus has caused but nothing comes up to'Bradley's.
hauled into the Plaza, and will give a the small farmers to be careless about C. C. HASKELL,
heavy top dressing to the oyster shell raising fruits or vegetables, except just Sanford, Fla.
-; walks. While this will not be near so enough for home use.
good as concrete, it is hoped the mixture I have seen as fine peaches, figs and Geo. E. Snow, Esq., of East Lake,
of sand and clay will harden to such a plums raised here as can be grown any- says: "That he is better-satisfied with
degree as to prevent mud or dustun where, and the scuppernong grape, the Williams, Clark & Co's Orange Tree
though it is an experiment, only kind tried, grows rapidly and pro- Fertilizer than any he has used in eight
Mr. W. S. Jackson, of Palatka, has in- duces abundantly. years' experience with orange tree fertil-
vented a sewing machine attachment These lands lie from five to ten or izers."
JACKSONVILLE MARKETS. ;
JAxOKVOVIrLU, January 24, 1867
MuAse-D.S.short ribs boxed, 57 00; D: B.
long clear sides 57 10; D. S. bellies VY7%
smoked short ribs 7%; smoked bellies 7%;
S.C. bars, unianvased fancy,ll%; .C. break
last bacon, uncanvased, 9%c; a. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvased, 7%c; California or plo
CIc halhs, 7%o. Lard-refined tierces 6%o7
Mess beef-barrels 810.50 halfbarrels a.75;mess
fork 813.25. These quotations are for ro.nlI
lots from first hands. whole cattle 7@7%;
dressed hogs So; sheep 9c; lork sausage So;
loins S%c; long boloena 7o; head cheese 6%c;
Frankfurt sausage 10o%; rounds 8c.
BTrrBn-Best table 28@020 per pound,
cooking 15020o per pound.
Bu'rTRiR uE-Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
t6c; Dairy 1. ,
OH -ura-Half skim 10c,best cream 11% per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Ete.
InAIN Corn The market is higher
rhe following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job
lots, 60 c@.. per bushel; oar load lots C80
pr bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 57 o per
bushel: carload lots 56%o per bushel. Oats are
better demand, firmer na the following figures
mixed, in job lots, 48o car load lots 42o;
white oats are 8to4oe blber all round. Bran
rnmer and higher, f20@021 per ton.joblots
HAY-The market is firm and better de-*
sand for good grades. Western choice,
mall bales, $185... per ton; carload lot 816.75
o 817,50 per ton; Eastern hay V20 per ton. ,
pAi GBnrrs AND MAL-Higher 18.00 per
lfLouz- Firmer and higher, best patents
t 60, good family 815.10; common US.
GOuD rn WD-Per ton 9r4
HMAS-Dry flint cow, per sound, first
las, 1 cntry dry salted 11.
1lc; butchersdry salted 9 9%o.Skins- Deer,
paint, 17c; salted 10120o. 'urs-Otter, w alter,
ach 254; racoon 10@200; wild cat 10200.
fox 1020. Beeswax, per pound 180; wool
tree from burs 22250; burry, 1015; goat
klin 100250 e piece.
cOOpuE-Green 'io 165@'8o per found,
Java, roasted, 80@38c; Mocas, roasted, 30@S8o;
Red, roasted, 23@2o.
CoTTON SmaD MAL--Scarce and higher.
Sea Island or dark meal 20 per ton, bright
ar short cotton meal firstname.lastname@example.org per ton.
TOBACCO STms-Market quiet but firm @
$18.00 per ton.
Imax-Eastern, job lots, 11.25 per barrel Alas
oama lime 81.00. Cement-American 2.00,
English $8.75 per barrel. -
RicE-The quotations vary, aoooding to
Uantity, from 8%@6)o per pound.
SALT-Liverpool, per sack, 81.00; per oar
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Etc.
CHEEBE-Fine Creamery 18%o per pound
LIVi pOULTRiY--Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 880.; mixed 25o.;
half-grown 20 to 25o,
Eee-Duval County 28o per dosen, with
a limited supply and good demand.
IIsH Por&Toua-WortherD potatoes 1250
?er barrel; Early Rose 82.61; Chill Reds '1.75.
-OioNs-New York, 88.25; Yellow Denver
o850 per barrel; White Onions, 83,75 per bar-
NORTHERN OCABAAGM-PlenOtlll with good
demand, at 12c per head; Florida cabbage
.J to 100. -
Now YOAXK BBars-Good supply .at 82,25
to 2.50 per barrel. ,.
NORTHERx TNraNPs- ood supply at 81.
to 82.25 per barrel..
GREEu PEAs-Per box 52.25. -
SEG PLANTS-No demand at 2.50 to
12.75 per barrel., .I
Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
PInE ArPLmS-Per barrel 6. ,
LAxoXNs-Messinas. 4,00 per box.
appLms-New York 84.00 to 84.50 per barrel
Figs-In layers 180; in linen bags 9c.
DATEs-Persian-Boa es go; Frails 7o.
GRAPs-10eo per pound, witin poor de
mand. They are of very fine quality. Mal-
agas, 5.00 per keg. I" I I
NuTs-Almaonds 20; Brazlls 12%c; Filberits
(Sicily) 12o; English Walnuts, Grenobl-es, ISo;
Marbots 14c; Pecan l2c; Peanuts 653c@6o
Cocoaiuts 6o 5 :' --1 .
.RAisnis-London layers, 53.20 per box
ORANBEMRIEa-88.50 per orate; $10.l0 per.
ORANE-Florida- Per barrel .00; per
box 82,75to14.25. <
BANAAS- Gocd supply; trom 75o tos.
per bunch. ,
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Weduesday'sand Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
Carrots wholesale at 82.10 per barre', and
retail at 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 75" enter to 81
per hundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
Florida Cabbage wholesale for 9 to 10 con' s
each, and retail at 15 cents.
QuQil wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
%t 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Orenges wholesale at 82.50 to 83 00 per box,
.id retail at two and three f r 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at a50 per bushel a-d
tails at four quarts aor 25 cents. "
Sweet Potatoes wholesale qt 50 cents per
mushel, and retail at5 cen"s per quart,
Lettuce wholesales at 25 to 80 cents per
dozen heads, and retail at 6 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at 02.50 per barrel, and
retail at four and five for 10 cents. -
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 60to 65 cents per dozen,
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents
according to tize.-
Eggs are in demand. Duval county eggs
are quoted at wholesale at 26 to 27 cents per
dozen, and retail at 80 cents.
Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 10
to12 cents per head. They retail at from.15to
Boston marrowfat quashes wholesale at
$2.50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 16 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at
51.80 per barrel and retail at 10 ce.ts per quart.
or two quarts for 15 cents. -
Northern beets are worth wholesale 82.25
per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart, or
two quarts for 15 cents.
Badishes bring at wholesale 20 to 25 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per but.c oh, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 30
to 35 cents each; retail, 45 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry, per pound-chickens, retail
18 to20 cets. Turkeys, wholesale, 81 to 11.75
each, and retail at 20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cen sper pound; veal, 20 to 25 cents;
pork, 12 to 15 cents; mutton, 10 and 20 cents;
venison, 25 cents; sasaage, 15 cents; oorned
beef, 10 cents.
Markets by Telegraph.
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex-
change, ere sent to the TrIMs-UNION by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
are eptprivteandno cang -tsnl~e i
cities. They caa be relied upon as aoourate:
Special to the TIS-UNIoN:]
Nzw YoRK, January 4L.-It trainingg some.
Fine navels were auction, d to-day at 14.8004
rer box. Thirteen hundred boxes Florida
oranges are for auction to-morrow. There is
no change in the market, ai d little change
In sound fruit here, and everybody is press-
Ing sales of con mon fruit at almost any
price obtainable. O DAY.
BooBEL & DAY.
Special to the.Timrs-UNIoN:]
BALTIMOBE, January 24. Quotations un-
changed; fancy fruit in better* demand; com-
mon qualities neglected.
Special to the Tzxs-UNzioq:]
CINCoINNATI, January 2t-Bright oranges
s2.202.75; russetts email@example.com.
LowHEAD, DALE & Co.
Special to the TIXas-UNIoN.]
BoSTON, Mass., January 22.-We see no.
immediate ,prospect of better prices for
Floridas, as foreign fruit is very good and
selling very low. Seventy.five hundred
Florida fine here next Monday on Savannah
BLAKE & RiPLET.
Commission Merehants' quotations.
Special to the TIMzI-UrION.1
Nzw YonK, January 24.-The market is
very I-ad. Caution the growers not to
ship, They will do better to wait until the
glut Is over. Prices are nominally 51.75
for russetts, 1.76 for brights, 83.0 for strictly
fancy. W sx & Co.
Special to the TIMES U2NION1 '
I EW YoRK, January 24.-Receipts today
6000 boxes. Only fancy frult is selling and
worth irom t8@8.E0. Inferior grades are
freely offered at 81.60*r2 a box. Advise hold-
ing back russettp. They must do better next
-. G.S. PALMER.
Special to the TIMBs-UNION:],
PHILADELPHIA,January 22.--Market closes
with ut improvement; no prospect of im-
provement next week. .
A. B. D=TWIUIR & SON.
SAVANNAH COTTON MARKET.
Spedal to the Tmra-UIOKN.1
SAVANNAH, January, 24.-The upland
market closed quiet at the following quota-
Middling fair........................... -16
od mddling...... -............. 9516
Middling ........ 91-16
Good ordinary 87-16
The net receipts were 2682 bales; gross re-
eslpta 2730 bales; sales 590 bales: stock at
this port 8 876 bales.
Exports coastwise 1E02; exports to the c. ntl-
FEA SKLA' n'COTTOiN.
Holders are firmer, and It is believed a
slight advance has Laken place,f bough term
AMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,
General Business and Real Estate Agency, of
W. N. CONOLEY. -
If you wish a town lot. an orange grove, or
wild lands lu Ibis rapidly improving section,
orif you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be Improved, or money to be Invested, write
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on I wo-thirds of values at 10
and 12per cent.
FRE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there is no contest. All coIsA and attorney's
lees provided for In mortgage. Write for
further Informatlon and send for list or prop-
eryi for Sale.
Sfor Sale. W. N. CONOLEY,
ville: First National Bank, Tampa, and Hon.
John T. Lesley, Tampa.
ONSIGNMENTS OF E.GGS.
CHICKENS, FRUIT, AND
J. IK. SUTHERLAND,
2800EANL STragr, i
g~i Don't Fail to visit Brooksville, fHernando Co., before you settle or
REAL ESTATE AGENCY,
-OFFER FOR SALE-
Improved and Unimnproved Town Lots, Orange' Groves, young .or it
bearing, Truck' or Geneal Famnning Lands, Highl or Low
Hammock Lands, aind eve;y, grade of Pine.
Pay. Taxes for Non-Residents,-Manage Property and Collect Rents,-and -
S. doa large business in Loans. -
There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida,.10 to.
15 per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both'
on Town-and Farm Property.
Situated on a hill,,altitude 82&t., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,.
is properly called
"THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA."
The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well.
stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,
Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
bearing Orange Groves, presents to the, Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at-
tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State, heavily timbered with giant
Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State.
offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,
Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty
and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in iny section of the State.
Special attention is called to the
ZH.A&0O M S-* RO*VE
A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 820 acres
of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river, onue of
the most beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its western boundary
for one mile, and- connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F, R. &
N. Co's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Pemberton's Ferry,
from which it is distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation
competing lines. .
There are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100
acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to 80
years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
all be in bearing very soon, many of them bore this year. Three-fourths of these
trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown
from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
20,000 trees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on
this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they are protected on the
north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing' and wharf already
built. The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the
neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange. trees. No prettier sites for,
winter homes on the Peninsula. The property being susceptible of division, will'
be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the present season,
we will take .
One-half cash, the balance on time to suit purchaser. What do experienced
orange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price for such a
property? The 600 old trees 'are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in -,
grove form are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
it. The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of it.
L. .,. JENNESS. J. 0. PRESTON.
are kept private, and no change' "is mle ia
Common Floridas is
Medium ...6 e
Good Mediu-m 17
Medium fine.............. ............18
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
NEW YORK, January 24.-The market iB.
active and a very good business doing.
Western leaf is In good request.
Common lugs......................... $5 60@ 8400
Good lugs ................ 4 000 500
Low eaf............ .. 5265 50
Medium leaf .700 850-
Good leaf 8 75@0 00
Fine leaf 10r)1@12(0
Select leaf............................... 1200@1500
Peed leaf Is In moderaterequest Pennsyl-
vania Havana* seed, selilg at from 8 00 to
815 00 per 100 pounds.
The market 'or Havana tobacco Is active.
prices ranging from 60 cents to $1.05 per.
pound. Sumatra is in -good demand at
LOUISVILLE, January S2.-New leaf ia
steady and firm at unchanged quotation.
Trashy and oommon...................10@$175
Medium lugs...... .200 225
Good lugs ............ ... 3 00
Common leaf.... 80C@ 425
Medium leaf.... 4755650
Good leaf 60C@ 650
RICHMOND, January 21.-The market Is
quiet, firm ann bright wrappers and fine
grades are in ood demam "
A P.IIILBRUI ONY