Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Florida, its climate, soil, and productions
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055739/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida, its climate, soil, and productions
Alternate Title: Resources of Florida
Physical Description: 32 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Land and Improvement Co
Publisher: the Company
Place of Publication: New York (N.Y.)
Publication Date: 1881
Subject: Description and travel -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Land and Improvement Co., Hamilton Disston's purchase, 4,000,000 acres.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055739
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002479138
oclc - 42201363
notis - AMJ4729

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front 1
    Front Matter
        Front 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Cover
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text

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Florida Land and Improvement







P. M 1

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Florida Land



aprovement Con
mOas4, 4000,000.)




115 Broadway, (Rooms 111 4 113),
New York, July, 1881.

In order to supply the immense demand for reliable information about
Florida, the Florida land and Improvement Company" has deemed it expedi-
ent to issue a large edition of The Resoures of Florida. Not being able to obtain,
immediately, a large edition of the pamphlet "Semi-Tropical Florida," issued
by the H~narable Commissioner of Immigration ot Florida, we have used a
great deal of the matter embraced within its pages, feeling maured that the good
we will do the State at large will be deemed an o et to the liberty we have
The Company has purchased from the State of Florida four million mare of
land, in Orange, Hernando, Hillsborough, Polk, Sumter and other counties and
intend subdividing the same into farms of 10, 90, 40, 80 and 100 acrn, and larger
if deired, and placing the same in market for sale at $1.5 to $5 per aore, upon
long credits.
Any enterprising man, even if his means are limited, can buy a farm, yhich
in a few years, by good management and industry, will make him independent.
To-day, Florida is the leading State in the Union in fruit culture, vegetable
gardening, and will soon be the peer of any of her iddr Statee in rinioulture,
ootton, rice and tobacco.
The City of Jacksonville--the Saratoga of the South-is rapidly inreaing
in population, wealth and enterprise. Many of the large hotels are ineaming
their already immense proportions in order to accommodate the expected in-
oreue of travel during the winter of 1881 and '81
The steamship and railroad companies are adding to their acoilitieu, reducing
time-tables, rates of fare and freights, feeling assured that the prosperity of
Florida in the near future will largely compensate them for their liberality.
We are establshig agents in Europe, and from BRoton, on the Atlanti,
to San Fraoisoo, on the Pacific, from Bufalo at the North, to New Orleans and
dalveston at the South.
Parties in the North ca apply to the ooe of J. T. MoLughln, 45 Main
St., Bulo, or at this offie.
In the Western Atlantic Stte, apply to W. H. Niohols, agent, 56 South
Olark street Ohicago
On the Pacflo Slope, apply at the ofoe of the California Immigrant union,
80 Ster street, Sam Franeoo.
If thee a y peal information desired by ietr, writ to the un-

1 I




esca a

FomIAD was discovered in 1512 by Ponce de Leon. An expedition under Na ses
made a landing at Tampa Bay in 1526, and traversed the State u fr as Pen-
aool. In 1589, De Soto, with large force. landed in South Floridaand marched
to the Mississippi river. In 1664, andoniere, under the Frenh flag, landed near
the mouth of St. Johns, and built Fort Caroline. The foUowing year Menendes,
under the Spanish flag, founded 8t. Augustine, and extirpated the French colony
on the St. Johns river. The country remained under the Spanish role until 1763,
when it was oeded to Great Britain. After twenty years of English rule it was
rededd by Greeat Britain to Spain in 1788, and continued a Porince of Spain
until 181, wheo it became a poession of the United States. It was admitted
as atate in 1845. This, the moet southern of all the State, is a peninsula pro-
jetuing down between the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Its areas eomrie
nearly 60,000 square miles, or 88,000,000 acres. Its peculiar position, its pain-
sula form, it ocean and gulf surrounding, make it exceptional, and ilike any
there country lying in the same latitude. The truly peninsular portion of Flori-
da is nome 300 miles in length,and average about 100 miles in width, gradually
nanowing from north to south. The nearness of that great oean river, the Gulf
Stream. to its horses, caus the trade winds of the Atantico to sweep over the
land from eat to west by day, the returning cool winds from the Gulf gently
blowing aorse the State by night. The stranger is incredulous of the peculiar
tempkature, until, by sjourning here, be Ands, be the day ever so warm, the
sueeeding night is invariably cool. These daily constant breezes purify and
~irify the atmosphere, and preserve it from ttajnation or sultrines. Generally
the lands are level, at no great elevation above tide water.
About midway from north to south, the lands bordering on the oan and Gulf
ae mor r less level, broken by ocmaional ridge. In Eat Florida, about half
way fom the sea to the Suwannee river, thee is a table-land elevation reaching
nearly to the urvglesu. The extreme southern portion of the State is low,
though from recent surveys it is found that it can be effectually drained, and
made available forualtivaion. No State in the Union has such an extent of
oo, wvhieh is nearly 1,200 miles in length, indented every few miles by large
bays, running inland in many place. froba ten to thirty miles, with large rivers
li e 1 Johns St Muays, Muwannee Aplahtchiola, navigable from north to
omath ae and terly and wterlbetwe the Gulf and the AMUtio ooma. There
a- other nai le streams in all part of the Sate, and lakes, large
aad rmal, d guped together, all of which abound in excellent var-
t. of Lb, and fuiaph loc tansportaton facilities ; many eoaneot with nay.
b~if e streams, and alD m be easily onneted by short anais r railroads with
eh othe ad the get a ee water hal to the m and Gul The inte-
ric he ot lim alssadsal ate oeof. to remarkable features.
bm a w h poutilon, of the sates srady, eoyept in te bill lands
a aMportic osfoo end iy iaim amiim hb Lthrand

is not the harp dlidoua and of the ocean, or resembling the mady lJads of
other 8te; hisr oil has more or ler of loam and large percentage of lime
and organic remain, giving it muoh fertility. The country i well watred, not
only by it. large and smaller rivers and lake., but by innumerable cre ks and
sprjn Spring., of great volume, are found in evra portion of the Stae, ome
of su magnitude that they form navipgable rive a b.e ir.aouro: of such
are the Blue Springs, in Jaokon county, in the weL; Wakulla Spring_, in
Wakulla county, in the middle; Silver Springp, in arion ount, in the eut;
the very aelue S8pring on the 8t Johns, in Voluia county; the Orme Core
spring, in day county, on the shore of the St. Johns; sbo Clay Sprn, in
ange oount. Some of theme are medicinal, white sulphur, etc.
water, o univerally daired, is found eaily at a depth of from eight to ilty
fot, arding to loality genally from twelve to twety feet, but thro the
country, the many lake enad spring and brnea felbrd ample ampp for hou
and ar purpom. An ordinary 8 pipe of one atd a af or two inohee in
dametr, shod with a conical plug of iron, ad perforated for a distance of one
or two fot above the plug, wi, whoe drive into the round to a depth of 80 to
45 feet, afford a never-falig flo of water, at all times eool and refreshing,
slightly tinctured with the carbonte of iron and trace of ul phr; the low ia,
in may caim, a0 tronug that fauntt are pled on thepipe mi inohe to 3
feet above the ground in order to oheok it The disturitSoc of riveN, creeks,
lakes amd springs, is not only large but remarkably unitem throughout the


ince the odiat of Florida is a well known throughout the drilimd world,
itis not naoemary go into detail; we will briefly giro ame fat hfm ofdcal
table and the opinions of aentis.ta The climate ad A climate in sum-
mer, but mild, and not aubjat to great oham of tmperatun. The winters
ue not cod and irwg, but uniform ad Jl (ado. Throughot the whole
twelre months, the rainy, cloudy, diurebe da are the setono bur,
bright, snny days the rul. The theramate aedo goi e below i(Pin wtet r
ad rarely above 90 in summer. The ofldl records bow the average for sum-
mer, 78; for winter, 60. The daily noatet ocean breease n umme modify
the heat; (the Gulf bree, coming with the mttig aun, oosa the air a night);
a wUxa or altry night is damost unkown. OdSal maltary rOp bo of
iatio bodies and the may, how that Florida datdsat i health boagh
in the rep ended the transleat or rat popu, may of whom
take refuao hee a lvralida, aome in the lowest ta of M&um Is the grar
potion ofd the Stat frote is rlyknown. The summer i laonsr, but the het
ea oppemnive than midoummr at the North; this result fom lt pcaular peo.
la hape and the erecur bea which pa oer the S F
day together, New ork, Boaton an Chiago aho, i umme, teap ure as
high M 100; it l very rahe that degree In Floda for ingle
dayi, generally ranging below 90: not .pprsve, mdiAd by the erreohaig
air; not atrj,jcoe or humild fozrij ad eveilag. lue s aoad brto
Native a- d dfmaseta, iued, w d te to ybe
winter month for mate. Tbi a te i peuly adted b o orgttion.
We take from Dr. A. 8. Baldwin's tae kept f the Imlthamniaa Intute,
it tlom o
Jeekamevif altitude 80 1U. latd. im-eamn of thre daMl obeervaions

Jf twenty. las-11Mia. blh-ima.
Aw~iuy......... ....66 May..~ ..............7801 IBnftebw.......,.... I(V
S **** .. ........W** .w..i.... .. ......W Oo b ............. 70.
Mh....... -f Jri........ar Mw-k........:..
Al... *...........W AUt*..............a Nmb. ......... W6P
eAZ4mytn lmds ruporW b twehtyy-o. Tuftia yek.~ reSt Aque Vs.
,~4 _ul~2*q,~~Yl:-~i4~,9rq


The new constitution of Florida was adopted in 1868. It is similar to the
later oonmtitutons of the North and Wet, modified some, being more liberal in
afage and exemption olauase. No County can bare more than four Assembly-
ma; every County an have on. Foreigers who may )tn me reddents,'enjoy
the ame rights as to property as native born autena. The egiulAure conasist
of a Senate and Aaembly, the fu) elected for four years, the latter for two
years, biennial esaions. All property of wife, owned before or acquired aite r
marriage i made separate, and not liable to debts of the husband. The Gov-
ernor is elected for four yea; he appolnts all offloial, the most important with
onnaet of the enmate, except oatalblea, who are elected. There is the aus,'l
Cabinet, Supreme Court, Cirouit Courts, County Judges and Justime. of the
Pame. There is a school system similar to that of the North, which make pro-
rision for free schools for att children. The school fund consists of proeeda of
all United tsate lands granted for educational purpose., the griculturel
College fund donated by the Government, and fnes under penal laws; also, n
redals tate tax of on mwll on all taxable property, annually levied; and enci
County is permitted to levy not exceeding two and a balf mills for County school

One hundred a
owned by the head c
dollar of peao
xmpted from any
not be alienable wi
addition to the aboi
prom.. o to he head
which aid head of f
and Municipal puip

The State levied
year 1880), six mills
bond) debt; total
aohool purpor s, an

The traveler aou
and South COrolin.,
re terCale land the
beHeve tht ach lan
VFlid* id summer c
wild snd oulttlted.
of the oean-wu bed
d of North
Ife rad loa, the m
l'Ulfrrl Ciu .

nad sixty aceu or one-balf acre of land within city or town,
f a family reading m the State, together with one thousand
property, and the improvements on the real eate, shall be
Lmed male under any prooem of law; and real estate shall
without the joint written consent of wife and husband. In
re exemption, there hall be exempted.fhorm ale by any legal
of a family, one thousand dollar in any kind ef property,
family may elect. Taxes can only be levied for State, County

annually, one mill tax for school purpoes. For the current
are levied for expenses of State government ajid interest on
8(ae tax, ave mills. Counties must levy one-half mill for
i not exceeding two n.ills for county purpose.


rthward, paying over the sandy ocasta of NeT Jersey, North
eo, igl and Eatern Florida, naturally exclaim. what a bar-
South must be Thu Northern apd Weatern farmer enu not
do are productive; but if the winter visitor will return to
r eay fall, be willbe rprad to me the rank vegetation,
The ao-oalled and of Florida not the har p silidaous and
besob, or the fine inorganic maad which firms thie pine bar-
ad Weat. ompod, n gre t t, of a mixture ,f bumus,
orafe sAnd of Ftorid has good filising qualities. Florida
elamited a pine land. hbama i ok (lands covered with hard
blaJb tbhe spin ttaguibhed a fret, mocd and third
It -a.ol tLn haannaba amman 1ana InnlanDn ttha

coverd with pine, the pitch aod yellow pine. The hbamaook high sad low, am
densely covered with hard woods, much as live ok, rak, magnol, guBs. bikory,
etc. The swamp lands are more or les timbered with plb, eqprm, edr and
soft woods; the avanuas are covered with gm, with here a thee a cabbage
palm tee; the everglades are vast prairie more or lee dry aor submared.
Of all these, the poorest, with the exception of the la two, wil produce
semi-tropical frnite, and fbrous plants, of aoosmneul value. The Satm- pine
lands, so called, are generally elevated and rolling, covered with a dar rvegeab
mould or humus, several inches deep, resting on a hocola tekeloedean loam,
mixed with pebble and lime; under hi, lay and ot Umetone rek. Tbe tim-
ber is very regularly distributed, and ooist priniplly of pitch pine, er un-
iform, both in size and length, and straight; luxurilnt pr oores the oil un-
dorneth; no undergrotwh is seen expt near the borders of creek; no palmetto-
roota mar the surface, nor fallen timber prevent ay ad divest jdo fhom
point to point. These lands have a durable fertility, and are well dled to the
usual agricultural produota and semi-tropical uit. They ae f d to wih-
atand drouth well and in rainy smona growing orope ae not abated except
favorably. These lands are healthy, the watet is pore. and it com little to pre-
pare the soil for cultivaton. It ti noticeable that the early me selected
these lands, specially for residences and home rm, health, pure water, free-
dom from insects, good soil for crope and fruit, sad e of aoltvaiUon. Thae
lands produce well for year without frlliing, but readily rpond m iraced
products to fertilizers. The second-rate pine lands, whioh are am havly tm.
bered with pine are more or lem high and rollin, wellated th r-
face soil is not deep, are underlaid with ay or meoe, and produce well for
a few years; fertilized, they yield good eamp of cotton eornane and root crope;
when properly cultivated, they are superior for ami-tmopial fruits. txp arncd
growe have selected this class of land for ror. thdre lds
consis of high rolling sandy ridges, paney oovered with mubb, straggl
black jack and pine, and also of low, flat m d, frequently swap, ha gro
of cypres, in the rainy season oftea inundated; hallow ditabes, however, eily
drai them, and when so drained they yield fair or re, 4anse
etc. Thee flat land ard good passage for a bing well tiber
are desirable for naval store, remain, tar, turp ntine, et. a th obtpe ad
accesble. The trees an be proitably "bit" for trptine, hem ve to eve
years, then out down for milllo, when laed is eily brought into cultivation;
The, storage is continuous until planted.
It may be mentioned here, that all pine land a favorable lor health. The
rednous, balmic odor of leaf and tree, the abm ofm undearow, giving a
free ciroelation of air, the le c rowns of the moughing pina, ptea grateful
shade from the rays of the midway s aun, combine to fathe ettllr'a edo in a
natural park, the piry woods. The richestt lands are uaras high and low
bammoks, fnt, la pine, oak and biOck leads; the swamp lmda being aimi-
lar to the bottoms or valleys of the ]isiaippi and other Wetern nvr being
of comparatively r~ot alluvial fomation, earuhed by ananl adidties of sar-
face oil ant vegetable debris which ll up the lowe sufes; sh nd4, how-
ever, have to be ditobed and drained to be made permstlyavaiabke,but o
prepaed, they will produce for all time abundmnty. Low hamm a mmo
what of the nature of swamp and hammock, podtg quite a well a wamp
land, but not for a long a period. The ol kdeep but ofe. lreqr ditching.
orm eugr cane th are wel adapted. High hammo m he meat sought for
ty the old-time planter. The land is undulatg. the u omol I of uO reb vg-
table mould mied with a sandy lam, aatmm of e, lor both
mixed, a tre uniformly produtive. Them ade by
drouth a wet; mee dean oahintisa i a, -ddn m
eqmaly weoll. ow diNrsied hting. they an rhirm o
-in ad lset the.L r^aa piem buds d th at at
Sareqt eatavrey sm m the eeal p imn o t b tm arle
e~rrae char up than the barc a op lan^ abmv,
Sarg am. te coin ^l te*x^
~~~~t I IY- l A.lL ..A.......A a sasSa..a a a a.air~t

[ 7
but too .epmn to oemtml at this time. While all the vraleaw of the lands
noticed nnsy be ond in eveay aotton of the State, yet the proprtion variee in

To the Southerner, to the older immigrant here, it is inexplloble how the
ide obtoinm that the immigrant i not well received. Kindnem, hospitality and
fraakem are now, a always, trdt of the Southerner. In the piney woodecabin,
in the mansion of the plaster, the etanger is welcomed; the neighbor fnds a
neighbor indeed We simply allude to this subject to more aintendiat immi-
gpant that nowhere will they ind iem jealousy, envy or interference than hte ;
nowhere will they ind warmer welcome, kindnem, sympathy or material amist-
ane. The thousarda of new-oomers, now aitisons, aure this, being amooiated
with their Southern naghboM in sooial, emmeralnl, moeal and rellglous object.
In pllta, where, naturlly, Une would be sharply dawh, there is soaroely any
eeton distlueoton. We find oMfdalos, from oonstable to governor, alike soath-
era sa northern, played there by the people. It may be considered egotistioal,
bat the write illustrates this. Born, and a resident of the North for year., an
offer in the Union army, coming to Florida to make a new home, he found a
ready welcome in a Southern eomunity ; his neighbor treated him courteously,
and suooesrvely honored him with the highest county oesloe, with the State
enatonhip for a district, and the State Buresa of Immigrtion appoinotd him
their OommMloner. The records show similar oases in every deprta ent--Ex-
eoutive, Leglativ e and Judicial.


We want population from every State in the Union, and from every country
in uope; we want the thrifty ad ind ind riou to join us in oooupying and
building up the vacat plaoe in our favored Stat, that they may aoure pleasant
homs for thuemolvre and their families ; we want them to identify themselves
wth our present population, and enjoy all the rigbte and privilege of the native
bor, which the lawe of the State now fully guarantee to them. We need popa-
lato. We will give immigrant a hearty welcome, and extend to them full and
equal protection; we have no prajdio to overcome, for we are already oomo-
poMtan; we want immigsaot of kindred noea, that we may be a homogeneous
peopM ; we are all immlirat, or their descendant ; we give immigration credit
for all we are or hope to become.
We want, espedaly, pemon skilled in Arming, gardening and fruit growing, in
the oultvation of tobaoo. u e.; we want grape and orange grower, together
with the whole list of aemi-tropieal fruit; we want manauufaoturer of lumber and
naval store ; we want, especially, capital to develop our unbounded reeonroee ;
we want lamigrant espeIal that will bring along with them suffloient mean
aend aerl ater m r hesv, to bar ui for t ou or ohep lands, become
pemno a resident. prautical fruit grower, and saooful agrioulturias, or who
will focw eore me M hnalml or mnuaturin oco option ; we want ettsen who
e Willing to rely on their own eetions and means to make themselve beauti-
ful hOea To boh we my, me, and if you have good Saying qualities, your
reward S sure.
To te man d capital, Florida oRs a large variety of speIaltiee to employ
it rely ad protably, whether an investment looking to the future for
pousa, or prat. employment sad quiok return. There are millions of acres
o United BteU State d Rai road lands, Sp gtat of large areas, and
approved ad nimaprod laod, wmch an now b ought cheaply.
eemei timber lads, which ae inin and value every
a, o proved land already lead, and ready to nltivaeo no oooo-
piby m of dedat owner or wat am to hire labor and purcha
t A Mnd llium Judietouy invested in lad would be sure to
Ma- n--ueies a os nett amd ottos md, ail mills, starch Mbtoride,
.. -r st-aiD, furniture -op et, et, oh:r good opportuni-



um J9 f

There are many good oparings for mercantile business, purobhtu the
staple. of the country, aoch as cotton, sagar, syrup, naval stores. F t raping
on a large scene can be done with aumured profit; with means, one an have hun-
dreds of acres in trees, and millions of oranges and lemons to sell or ship.

The judicious selection of the land is the first and most important point, for
on this, success in a great measure depends. Ohoose high, dry hammook, or
high rolling pine land that has natural drainage, and a yellowish subsokil. Avo
low, fist palmetto, or allberry lands; most of these are underlaid with hard pan
or sandstone mixed with oxide of iron. The most favorable location are on
southeast side of wide sheets of water, or high lands, which are more generally
free from frost. The laud selected, clear thoroughly of all trees, aet., break up
well, and substantially fence; sow with oow pas, which turn under when in
bloom-it improves and sweetens the soil; this may be done before or after
planting trees. Dig holes 30 feet apart, 18 inches deep, and four feet in diame-
ter, clean out all roots, ill up with top soil, which will retain the moisture, pro.
cure trees from three to five years old, take them up carefully, with all of the
roots possible, pack up with wet moss as soon as dog, put in shade and out of
the wind, taken to the proposed grove carefully, remove soil from holes dug
suffloient for the tree, with roots carefully spread, trunk standing in same poi-
tion as originally grown. Let the tree, when set out, be fully an inch above
natural level of land; fill under, in and about the roots, oompeotly-it is best
done by the hand, filled to surface and gently tramped down; fill on some two
or three inches of earth, which will prevent drying; the rainy season oommeno-
ing, remove the soil about the tree to the level about it. Cultivation should be
frequent and shallow, and trash not allowed to aoumulate near trunk; light
plowing and raking near the trees is best and stat. Following thee general
directions, no one should fail. The cost of a fve-acre grove, at, sy, fears
from planting, at a liberal estimate where high pine land is ho n be
about as given below. If hammock land is taken, the cost of olearing will be
more. The grove will have begun to yield at the end of the period name .
Rev. T. E. Moore, Fruit Cove, Fa., has published a good treatise on orange
Five aore of good land, variously estimated, depending on location.
Cutting timber, olearina, 78.00
Fening post ad board fence), and breaking up, 7.00
Three hundred trees, and setting out, 900.00
Manures, labor, cultivating, taxes, etc., for Ave years, 0.00
Total, less cost of land, 80.00
Such a grove would readily sell now in Florida, for $1,000 per acre. From
and after five years the annual growth of tfees and increase of fruit is constant
for at least ten years, and the grove will hold its vigor and fruit-produiong qual-
ities for a century or more.' The orange is a hardy tree, will stand great ex-
tremes of rain and drouths; it will show the effect. of a single season's negleo,
and quickly show a single eason of care and attention.

Of the Stes, Florida has the laru t are of original growth of Umber.
Exoluding land in oulttivaton, the a overed by lake, rives, avanna, eto.,
there e probably nearly, if not quite, thirty million saes of lnd covered with
timber, an of this thbellow fuly tarsuate. The le -kads,
rolling lads, are m lty woved with tae yellow and pla pina, whieh swin
a pgr d 1 in girth ad I agt. The lower lands am rives r,l swamp,
aoumd in valuable auber, C which hR cab othr spie of o. bthwd y. SEh,
bfr*h osdat, magmolla sweet bay, gum, oyprrm, 00n3titute a pIM raop, cloa.

The red oedar is particularly adapted for lead pencils, and largely exported to
Europe for the best manufactures, as also North and East. The magnolia and
bay are fine woods for ornamental furniture; the cypress valuable for shingles,
sash, doors, blinds and inside finish, railroad ties. The yellow and pitch pine
has a world-wide reputation as being the best for any and all uses where strength,
elasticity and durability are desired, and is now being largely used in ornamental
and expensive structures.

An important item to the immigrant-at least for the first year, if he settles
and improves a new place-is the cost to support his household. We know no
shorter way to answer this question than by saying that freight by veasels from
all the Northern ports is low to all Florida ports, especially to Fernandina, Jack-
sonville. St. Augustine, Pensaoola. For instance, barrels from 20 to 25 oents;
tierces, 25 to 40 cta.; bacon. 15 to 20 ots. per hundredweight; boxed goods, four
to Ave cents per cubic foot. By steamer or rail, about one-third more. Special
rates, however, can always be made by rail for oars, at lower rates. From Jack-
sonville by river, freights are low, and by rail special reduced rates are made to
immigrants in freights and fares. Now. adding freights to cost of goods from
where brought, and the cost here is found. Generally speaking, however, it
would not be advisable to bring down all furniture or household articles from
the old home. The parlor furniture, bedding, carpets, linen, table-ware, and
articles that may be readily and safely packed, and not too bulky, one would do
well to bring.
We give the prices of flour, $4 to $8 per bbl.; bacon, $7 to $8 per hundred;
sugar, 7c. to 12c. per lb.; butter, 20c. to 30c. per lb.; coffee, 15c. to 25c. per lb.;
and dry goods, hardware, etc., full as cheap as at the North.
Household servants (colored) are obtainable easily for from $5 to 68 per
month, farm laborers from $8 to $20 and rations (rations now cost per month
about 86); wood need cost nothing, except the cutting and hauling, and not
much required except for cooking. By the day, wages are from 50 cents to $1
per day; common mechanics, 1 to $1.25
With household matters, we add that horses and mules (mules are every
way best) range from $50 to $1.50; carts, $25 to $30; harness, $5 to $10; plow
usually used here, $3 to $6; all of which, with other agricultural implements, can
be purchased here as cheap as anywhere, freight added.

The cost of clearing land depends on whether sparsely timbered or of thick
growth ; whether pine, hammock or swamp land, and also whether the land is to
be planted in orange groves or usual oropa. It was formerly the custom to simply
girdle the trees and remove the fallen timber. This was done quickly and cheap-
ly, and crops put in the same mason.
To clear ordinary pine land, removing the timber, will cost from $12 to $15
per re ; hammock lands will cost more-from $15 to $30, according to the den-
sity and sise of timber.
For a new place, the Virginia rail fence is cheapest, as rails are on the spot,
and split freely. As the country settles up, and saw-mills become frequent,
beards and posts may be substituted.

The new-comer, anxious to have a roof ever his head and be ready to go to
worh, will hasten to build him a house. N w, here is room and range for any
person to exrise bis taste, talent, extravagance or economy. A comfortable log
hoJm for a modrate-ised iamilf can be built, msy, for $50; a good frame build-
iag, wiuh fo or five rooms, will oot from $250 to f$l0. Lumber of ftir quality
froto fti Dn 1.000 t at mills.





In January, plant Irish potatoes, peas, beets, turnips, cabbage, and all hardy
or semi-hardy vegetables ; make hot-beds for pushing the moe teder plants,
such as melons, tomatoes, okra, egg plants, ete.; set out fruit and other treat, and
.rbnuay-Keep planting for a sunoomion, same a in January ; in addition,
plant rines of all kinds shrubbery, and fruit trees of all kinds, speiAlly of the
citrus family, snmap beans, oorn ; bed sweet potatoes for draws and slip* Oats
may also be still mown, as they are in previous months.
Marh-Corn, oats, and planting of February may be continued; transplant
tomatoes, egg plants, melons, beans, and vines of all kinds; mulberries ad black-
berries are now ripening.
Apri--Plant as in March, except Irish potato, kohl mra, turnips; continue
to transplant tomatoes, okra, egg plants ; sow millet, corn, ow peas, for fodder ;
plant the biter bean, lady peas; dig Irish potatoes. Onionm, beets, and usual
early vegetables should be plenty for table.
May--Plant sweet potatoes for draws in beds; continue planting corn for
table ; snap beans, peas and cucumbers ought to be well forward for use ; con-
tinue planting okra, egg plants, pepper, butter and beans.
June-The heavy planting of sweet potatoes sad cow pea is now in order;
Irish potatoes, tomatoes, and a great variety of table vegetable are now ready,
u also plums, early peaches, and grape
cfi--Sweet potatoes and cow peas are sh to plant, the rainy mmsa being
favorable ; grapes, peaches and fgs are in full season. Orange trees may beet
out if the season is wet.
Augu-Pinish up planting sweet potatoes and cow psu; so wcabba, auli-
Sower, turnips for fall planting; plant kohl rabi d rutab; tEmasplaP
orange trees and bud ; last of month plant a few Irish potatoes and eans.
Bqmmbw--Now is the time to commence for the true winter de, the gar-
den which is oommenoed in the North in April and May. Plant be whole mange
of vegetable. except sweet potatoes; set out paragus, onion sets and strawberry
October-Plant same as last month; put in garden pea; met out abbage
plants: dig sweet potatoes; sow oata, rye, etc.
Noae -A good month for garden ; ontinue to plant and tnuMqput, same
as for October; sow oits, barley and mry Ior wina pt rag -os; dig swat
potato ; house or bank them ; mbrgar and syrnp.

DmambreO ar up generally; face, ditch, manure,
hardy vegetables; plant, set out orange trns, fruit trem
a sharp look-out lor an ocaidonal frost; a slight pr
It will be seen from the above that them is no BmatI
fresh and growing vegetable. go be had for ae and dam
is a large item in expense of living. The soil s so uily w
vated, that most of garden work ean be domd by evye
oung childnn of both rsexe. Id M toat r rd
Sclods break, or roks to remove. A giar dm ona
rfly maagd,- will produ abundantly sad oashaUy.
sn large and tender vegetable, eily and Imaiou huit.
mrEad strawben ur the setnalg out dyei tem hIa
ra tsen ood year, peaehm the seond nad thd yarn,
im tbe to i*e ysm. At M ule ast a ltO e es ma

and sow and plant
tnd shabb ;
*eotioc will prevat

Sin the year but what
di ua. Tbh late
orkeid, ealy oulti-
Sdelimte lads, and
me are uMde so ;--o
ut iao to, pp-

i ha



The list of Florid produo'ions i a long and varied one, embracing nearly all
the crope and ftalkt of the Middle, Northern and Southern Stats, and, in addi-
tMon, great variety of semi-tropioal and tropical fruits and vegetable, and moet
of the beet known and valmble medicinal and fibrous plants.
Oorn, whieh is the great staple raised in the United 8tate, especially in the
Woet, and which exceed by maiy millions of bushels any and all other oropa, i
grown in all portion of the State, and the produce per acre is here, as elsewhere,
more or l, aeotrding to fertility of soil and uonltivation. Ordinary pine land
will produce, my, 10 bushels; g hammock land, 20 to 25 bushels; when
properly uonltivated, from 75 to 100 bushels to the acre are produced.
One permeo with one mule can easily oultivate from thirty to forty acree, and
a the time from planting to final plowing is only from four to five months, it
lham ample time to coltivate another erop of pe or sweet potatoee, with same
labor on ame land. The corn usually raised is the white variety, largely used
in meal and hominy for food, eupeoially at the South.
There is no kind of doubt but that Florida, both in climate and soil, is
peeniarly adapted for growth of cane ; the earliest colonist. cultivated it, and the
later occupant, French, ngIsht, Spaoish, Amerian, have grown it uooesufully;
the long period of warm weather, and the absence of cold, give a longer period
for the oane to mature.
Fair land will produce from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds of sugar; rich land, thor-
oughly frtiled, will produce from 2,000 to 4,000 pounds. Recent improve-
meot in snpr machinery have obviated the neoeeity of expensive works for-
merly required, rendering it pomible for the small, a. well as large.planter to
manuoatre sheaply, au it onltivation is as eay as orn, and its immunity from
all hurt by ordinary euemies to other vegetation, renders it a safe crop.

Se Island or long staple ootton, i ranked mostly from the Suwannee river to
the ocean, and south of lat. 90. The average product per sore is from 150 to W00
pounds, though it otfn exceeds double that This ipei.ee of cotton is only
raised on the ma island bordering South Carolina, Georgia, and in Florida, our
State racing over half the total crop. The price ranges from 25 to 60 cents per
pound, though there are planter who readily get more than theee figure; but
their cotton 6 ezaeptionaly ine. Short cotton is grown weet of the Suwannee
to the western and northern boundaries of the State; it will average from 900 to
600 pounds to the macre. In grade, Florida eqtton rate with the bept. Generally
peain, it is a afer crop in Florida than anywhere else. New methods of oul-
tie i m proved eed, remedy for the caterpillar, are adopted by the intelligent
and pud plater, who is not eubjeot to a loe which a oarel.m, shiftless man
may e. The method. of cultivation are simple, the crop itself affording by
it meed the ery bet fertilizer. As the seed is fully seventy-five to eighty per
oet. of the ootta m s picked, it is largely sold and reported. From the plannag
to the finl picking, narly the whole yar is requ d.


Bie, whieb eMtitute the main food of the great majority of the popolatlon
ot tM world, i aied here mostly for domesti ue e. There as thouads of
mh In *a wmw ,dm t h sA wM enamltHa4awk aantl4 an 41( imann- atnsl As1

Its oultivation is as simple as any cereal ; usually drilled, and kept clear of weeds;
26 to 75 bushels of rough rice is a fair crop. centt Latroductioq of improved
riceemachinery, adapted for individual and neighborhood use, will stimulate in-
creased production.
A low, moist soil has generally been planted; overflowing is not needed, but
on any good land it is successfully cultivated. It has needed only introduction
of rioe-oleaning machinery to make its cultivation universal in Florida. Quite
recently a company of practical business men has been formed, who. have put
up extensive works at Jacksonville, which will be able to receive sad prepare
all that may be raised.
This includes the orange, lemon, lime, grape fruit, sabddook, citron, and
similar fruits; there are several varieties of each, and new varieties are produced
from time to time, like other fruits. Under modern culture, superior, size, flavor
and color are obtained. The general varieties of the orange are the sour, the
sweet, and the bitter-sweet. The sour and bitter-sweet are supposed to be in-
digenous, growing wild in the forests. The orange, as also all of the same family,
can be grown from the seed, grafting, budding, and cuttings-this last not as
safe as the other ways. All are rapid in growth, annual and abundant bearers,
long-lived, easily cultivated, hardy, and not as subject to disease or destruction
as most trees. Budded, Ihe sweet orange will commence to bear the third year;
the seedling in the sixth year, increasing each succeeding year; at 16 to 20 years
averaging at least 1,000 each. The lemon is more prolific than the orange, bear-
ing earlier; the lime till more than the lemon; both, however, are more sensitive
to frot. The grape fruit and. shaddock are similar in shape to the orange,
though larger, and have a sub-acid flavor; they are not grown for extensive sale,
yet many persons like the taste. The citron is of two varieties, the ordinary
smooth skinned and the ribbed kind; both grow to a large size, the latter being
the species of commerce.

Wheat in the northern section of the State is grown to some extet, but is
not generally raised as a regular crop. .ye and oats do well, and are mostly
sown early in the fall, affording a good winter pasturage; mature in early spring,
and are not threshed, being cured and fed to stock in the straw.

Tobaooo will grow anywhere in the State. A superior quality of Cuba
tobaccooo, from imported seed, is mostly grown in Gadsden and adjoining coun-
ties, and fully equals the best imported. Before the war it was extensively and
profitably cultivated, and mostly sold to Germany, agents visiting the State to
purchase. It requires careful attention, will yield from 600 to 700 pounds to the
sore, and sells for from 20 to 30 cents per pound& Iatterly there is an inoreuing
home and State demand by cigar manufacturers, and the arena of cultivation is
In Southern Florida, the pine apple and banana are aunoemfslly pgrown; the
fruit is of a finer quality, and larger size, than most imported from abroad. The
banaoa plant is simply planted and let alone, maturing it fruit in from fifmen to
deghteen moths; shedding its large laves, it dies. down, and send up suoker
at its be a a single one of which perpetuates the old stock. The others may be
replanted in new places.
The pine apple is planted from the suoker or shoot. of the matured fruit
and main took. The guava, of which there arseveral varieties in se, color
a&d tte, is a rapid grower and an abundant bearer. It frultt in two years hom


This tree is valuable as a forest tree for its lumber, and profitable for its
fruit. It is now being extensively planted, requiring only the ordinary care of
indigenous trees. The oost is trifling. It bear in about ten years from the
seed., growing straight, tall and gracefuL It need not occupy land used for oulti-
vation. Some of. ur people have set the pecan out so as to make a permanent
boundary line of their land.
This has been grown in some gardens. Being of the. ame nature as the
peach, it will do well, and will probably be added in the future to our staple
The persimmon is found wild in every section of the State. The fruit, at
least to the natives, is agreeable to the taste, and, ripe or dry, is used largely for
the table and for home-made beer.
Pomegranates are of two kinds-the sweet and sour. The bush is large,
graceful in foliage, and beautiful in pendant crimson flowers and fruit. As an
ornamental tree it is one of the beet.



The Japan plum has long been known and grown here. As an ornamental
tree it rivals the horse-chestnut, which it reembles in size and leaf. The fruit is
per-shaped, and grows in clusters; it is a beautiful creamy white, and has a
peculiarly grateful and cool sub-acid taste.




Apples are of the early varieties, ripening in May and June. Pears do well.
We have seen some grown here fully equal in size and flavor to the California
product. The Quinoe attains the dsie of a standard apple tree; fruit large, but
flavor not as pronounced as at the North.


The peaoh in a sure tree here, bearing in two yeas from the seed, and early
varieties of good siue and flavor ripening in May, June and July. The apricot
and nectarine are also safe to cultivate.

Most of the Ameriuan and foreign varieties are easily grown, ripening from
June to November. The St. Autine grape, so-calied, s a choice grape for eat-
ing or wine. The souppernongin asU it vaietiee is oultiated largely, being a
rapid grower, an abundant bearer, long-lived, and needing but little pruning or




Plum sur found growmg wild all over the State, many of good ie and .a-
Tor; where oaltivated are much improved. The blaok oherry ia fob-nd wild,



Tae low creeping blackberry, or dewberry, abounded an oi field and road-
sidee, and ripens in priL The high bush, alu fouad income loalitiee, ripens
in June and July. The huckleberry boat th n eam time. All bear well, and
can be had for the picking.

The queen of small fruit nowhere in the world index a better location for cul-
ture ; plant put out in September fruit often in January, frequently in Febru-
ary, and may be ouanted in full bearing and ripening in maoch and ApriL The
rgwers about Jackgonville and np the St Johns river are many, and ehipmentk
he been made largely and profitably. In eise, color, boquetand taste they are
superior to most, equal to the best and earpaeeed by none; the beet ranetlee
only are grown. The oultivatore pick cyfully, select and paek honestly; and
Florida mtrawberries, like Florida orrsang have earned a name. By uming re-
frigerators the fruit reaches New York and Northern oitim freh and oool, only
about four days from picking.

With the exception of a few tree, grown for ornament, thie most valuable
tree, the olive, hu not been caltvaed in this State. antly, attention bha been
directed to it cultivation, and it will become widely plante It oommenoee to
beor at about ten years from the sed, increasing yearly to the age of thirty years,
bearing annually.
This crop, from being an imported article, hae of late year become a very
large one for export in several of the Southern State. Florida.grown pea-nubt
rank with the beet in quantity and.quality of pronotidon. They are largely ed
on the farm ae food for swine.






The indigo plant is indigenous in Florid; during the Boglih oooupation it
we extensively ealtirated, manactred, d portd ported; now it is ooolonally
mde for domestic ue. The ato ban here attain the sise of a tuoe often 80
feet high, grow rapidly, and bears largely; now only used for home prpoe.
Silk some yees ago attracted a god de of attention, but ie now only ooasdon-
ally produced a8 paetime. The different speoius faotlon from root ontiog, or grat; in eat fro Maroh to October. In time, no
doubt, the binel nes ll become a regular industry.


The Northern man who hae
other hruit of similar kind, is a
rare thing to see watemlons as
mdlons to 90 pounds, sad pu
MLakMdoe also are of are eb
indeed, tine of all kinds un

only -e


1 the praise melon, pupkin, quah and
at the d of lorida growth. It is no
a nil kg, weighing 7 po eod, musk-
Ad sqash. wofeoswag 10C pounds.
Uekli ous eatalouopne aim ed y
the long, were saon fo wOing nd


Whit. o
all the rway bfr
seaf; ;r ip

aok, no my i e poor bat whbt he a oaoto Ityildo
t Wls a ba~a w Mue ask, ad
* ornmrote. as l'ad Hinp; piaOted f.. Aet_ ad
<* A W ^ A _? -Af ^* .. ^ ^ -_

afely baked in field ard or housed; is eaten raw or cooked, and the old-
time cook can make mot appetizing dishes of it. There are many varieties
planted, good and indifferent, and there is no excuse for not raising the beat.


All of the fibroua plant. grown in warm latitude are found here. Some
year ago the aild hemp war largely grown, but the Indian war broke up the
country where it was planted, and the cultivation has not been renmed. In the
many new industries awaiting development, theme superior fibrous plants and
many others will become prominent.


ll them grow well when cultivated, and produce stonishingly. Florida
arowroot grdea in quality and price with the beat Bermuda. aumva, from
which rth and tapioca are made, attains greet esie. Comptie, the bread-root
of the Indiana, grows without any cultivation. All of the abore have only been
grown for domeatio use for utareh and for food, and have limited ale in this
and adjoining Stater. The attention of Northern starch manufacturers has
lately been drawn to them, and Governor olneair, of New Hampshire, having
tested the roots by actual experiments, hae introduced a pioneer factory. As
either and all of then roots have a larger percentage of starch in them than the
Irish poto, and can be grown at the me prioe, and manufatured all the year,
we-may look for a large businea in this induatty.


One mubjeot-that of the effect of our climate on Northern energ.-at frst
we thought we would not dilate upon; but, on refletion, will briefly allude to
it. MYo Northern people believe hat our climate is oppreirely warm in sum-
mer, and also imaegne that white persons can not labor, either physically or
metally--or, at least, do not; that the Southron haa but little industry or ener-
and that the Northern immigrant aoon lose his former ambition sand activ-
ty. Now, we have given the temperature of the seaorns, which are eonoludre
ua to the moderate heat, and we ean confdently refer to the native-born eitimens,
and the earlier and later immigrant, as to continued, sustained labor in the
eld, wrk-shop, store, study, and office. We, it is true, have a olma of indolent,
shifUesm people here, elsewhere, who live and abeist easier than they can in
the North, a the soil produce easily, and the climate ia favorable. But the
peron who ha a desire to acquire a home and eompetee an work here in
morn comfort and employ more day. profitably, than he can anywhere ele.
Eve in the day of slary the planter, as gieral rule, was a moet industrious
peron. Of neaoesty he had to rim early, vfdt hia eld. of hundreds of sera,
and perntend the laborers; the profeeional man, whher medial, legal or
elerl made Journeys of miles, more or le in tbep ely settled country, in
his ll. Surely the Southern men have not shown want of eserg either in
debn g the country agrpilturally or intellectual. In the hitorq of the
Unitd 9 a 0from the earliest oknaes, the South kha not been wanting in all
tht ha AMt oar amarn a name and fame at home and abroad. Now. at iat.



The annual travel for health, recreation and immigration-from the North,
from the West and from the East, including the moat distant points on the
Pacific and the Dominion of Canada, has become of such importance that various
through and combination routes are open, both from the West and the East,
which enable the immigrant to resch Florida on the west, middle, southern and
eastern sides, at low rates. Parties from the North and East can'obtain neces-
sary information from any of the Offoers or Agents of the Erie Bailway, Penn-
sylvania Railway, Baltimore and Ohio Railway; and at the office of L. Yonge,
Jr., Savannah 8teamship Line, 317 Broadway, New York; at Buflo, apply to J.
T. McLaughlin; at Chicago, to Wm. H. Nichols, 66 &. Clark St.; at man Fran-
oisoo, at the office of the California Immigrant Union, 330 Sutter St.


Florida poseeese unusual facilities for commerce, both foreign and domea-
tio. On the Atlantic aide is the afe, capaoious, deep harbor of Fernandina,
which is connected by water far into the interior of Georgia by the 8t. Marys
river, navigable for the largest rveels; also the Nassau harbor and river; and by
an inland pasage with the St. John. river, navigable by large-aimed veasel for
200 miles and by smaller vessels for over 500 miles, with its tributaries. The
harbor at the mouth of the St. Johns river is safe and large, and has suicient
depth of water for ordinary sea-going craft. 8t Augustine hae a rafe.harbor for
moderateaifed vesels and usual ocean steamers; and Smyrna and Jupiter inlet
connect with Indian and Halifax rivers, which run for long distanoea. Farther
mouth are smaller ports, and the Turtle harbor, deep, large and safe. M the
extreme southern point of Florida is Key Wet, one of the beat port. in North
America, where the largest vessel find easy and safe approach at all time, and
where the shipping of the world could have ample paoe. On the Gnlf there is
Tampa, with its bay running 30 miles inland, Charlote harbor, Bayport, Cedar
Keys, St. Marks, Apalachiookla, Peneoola, ad many intermediate harbors, the
outlets of bay and rivers running far into the interior. To the extreme weat we
have the magnflcent harbor of Peneacola, land-locked, large and deep; the largest
veasels of the world can easily float to the dty docks.


The public school system of the 8ta we have noticed in former pages, and
we now add more detailed information. The schools have increase nearly one-
half in numbers, longer school terms are held, with inoreed enrollment and
attendance, and more and better qualify and efficient teachers employed. Many
counties have increase their appropriaton for schools. All this is evidence of
seal in officers, and appreciton of the value of education on the part of the
people. From the State upeintendent' report we e rat the following :
,8&chool, 99 ; children of school a 78,985 ; pupils enroLled, 98,9 ; at-
teadmo, 86,961; oat pupil per year, W cats o $7.99."
The mbool find romvs annually from the Peabody Fund, which ig moeey
anfmoa al d idian malhools hia msdwa mad arlAvhin r. Wlsh atmla am

etabllshed in the iarg
warrant it Uniform a
prorvemnt sauggeated
the s8taeea ago eAi
Florida, the other at T
85,714 aor of land to
which a fund of 96,O(
for thee institutionsI
an AgrioaltUal Coll e
lasting. A small poro
College of Aioulture
adopted, thetIe will
schools there are firs
pupils are taught by f
tinned prore and in
a general tin, is avrai
sign of intelligence in
oated white persona is
willingly or cheerfully

The utadtisae
which the lands of t
Hammond, Esq., of
returns for the year
the year 1879.

Bounded north by
hee oontie by the L
ret by the Gdf of M<
i bu, over 1,400
rom the mouth of the
Bomaa., Ohemeho
whieh veasl of odini
No oauaty in-the
tor the sesaful pr

r cities, end graded schools where the number of pupil
md permanent text-books are being introduced, and im.
by experience and adopted. Berides the common chooels
blishad two ate seminaries-one at Oainaville, na Eal
fllahamee, in Middle Florida. The United State. donated
thee seminaries. About one-ball haa been sold, from
N) hae been realized, and the income from it is available
The lands donated to Florida by ahe United States for
a have been sold, and the funds invested, and are aooumu
in baa been expended in an unwise attempt to establish a
. When a judidoue and well-conidered plan shall be
Sinaugurate a beneficent work. Berides the abore free
casm private schools in the citie, towns and country, when
inrt-cla teachers. Everything looks favorable for oon-
iprovement in education in the State. The Freedman, as
ling himself of epational advantages, which is a hopeful
that rqoe in future. The large clams of hitherto onedu-
also feeling a deep interest in schools. No tax is mon
paid than the school tax.


appended to the description of the Counties in
his Company are located, were compiled by 8. W.
Fort Gates, Fla., from the United States census
ending June 1st, 1880. The productions are for


Marion and Levy; east by 8unter, being separated from
Vithlacooohie river; soufh by Billaborough county; and
square mile, -fronts on the Gulf sixty mile., extending
Withlaooohie south to Anolote river, embracing Cryst4,
risk, Wekiwaohee, Pithlochaaootee and Anolote rivers,
ry dratt aa enter.
ate haa a more varied topogrphy, or eater advantage
mutlon of agriculturalnd he ortanltur punuitb, or is o

t daU ahr a mddoe.
Iadshigb gd rolling, like the red hills of Northen Georia ; high, smooth
Mtaof pt land, exdmt ire hammoka of the riheat mo frequent marl
eda .; la. rpiagu of the purest water, lakes and rivers bonding
in ub; a soea with Ireqoumt harbor; the bay and gulf always ard Ash,
blySa mmd npoage; a SsmaS aad soil adapted to aultivatlon of cotonm, aie,
% IbCios miag as d s gtah2, bhaing peculiar adt btageb or
Rfl.trb iht tir a vrt fi n at the aftrb the nine anni a we




bmans, and all the semi-tropial fruits. Transportation i
ing more rapid and cheap, and acoems to and from markets
enterprise and industry will make it one of the most proc
portions of the South,
The county seat is Brooksville.
Population, 1870, 2,938; 1880, 4,364-white, 8,369;
acres land tilled, 12,720. Farm values, 8378,000; farm im
ery, $9,100; live stock, $213,000; farm productions, *$07,
1,080. Mules, 600. Working oxen, 840. Milch cowa, 11,
600. Butter, lbs., 37,600. Sheep, 3,900. Swine, 28,200.
do., 136,000. Rice, bse, 90,000. Indian corn, bush., 93,(
400. Cotton, bales, 420. Molaasea, galls., 36,000. Pc
Honey, lbs., 6,400.


Bounded north by Hernando, east by Polk. south by
west by Gulf of Mexioo.
Contains about 1,500 square miles, embracing Clearwa
Hillaborough baya, With the Hillaborough, Alas and Litt
terin from the north and west, and many keys or islan
land ies more level than in Hernando county, and though
sill fertile Tampa City, a port of entry situated at ihe
and month of Hillstorough river, is a thriving place, an
eitiens are enterprising, and the cultivated lands and orn
vicinity show constant progress. Cattle-raising for exp
leading business in this and adjoining counties. Large
ann a ly to Cua. Recent immigration and ineased ]
very extensive cultivation of oranges and semi-tropical fi
which thee is no better section, as climate, soil and tra
ble. Some tropical fruits have been suneesfully cultivate
era staple of cotton, ane and rice are raised, as also fiel
commam to other sections.
There are now several lines of railroads being built f
the Transit Rilroad which will reach Tampa; these built,
opment will be rapid.
Population, 1870, 3,216; 1880, 6,888-white, 5,011;
acre land tilled, 11,447. Farm values, *1,046,266; farm
ohinery. 8119,666. Number hones, 714. Mules, 286.
blch cows, 6,318. Other cattle, 10,447. Butter, Ib..,
Poultry, 17,647. Eggs, dos., 26,400. Bioe, lIb., 11,000.
66,690. Oat., bush.,206, Cotton, blel, 866. tugar, 1
alls, 9,891. Potatoes, bush., 68,267. Honey, Ibs., 12,3
(11,000. Lumber, feet, 1,511,200.


Bounded on the north by Alahus, eat by Marion, a
the Oulf of Mcdoo, and wast by the Gulf and lafayette c
Suannes river aeparates it.
Hae an areot over 1,000 square mile. The. rtee
moatl pie ood land. The Gulf Bamook, a tram
ty. 100000 ma, eapble of prodauclng sua ff
bo~t s. oes1u the southern iordi do the aountv. T

is yea by yer boeo.*
lea. Immi Jation,
sperous and datrible

bleok, 8M. Number
iplements and machin-
600. ;amber bones,
520. Other cattle 12,
Poultry, 7,600. E .,
000. tat, bumb., ,-
tatoea, bush., 190,000.

r Manatee county, and
ter harbor, Tamp. and
le Manatee rides en-
ds on the coat. The
rh generally lighter, is
head of Tamp. Pay.
d the county aet, the
rage groves in ity and
rt, has always been a
numbers ar exported
population has led to
ite and vegetable, for
importation are fvora-
id. The usual Sooth-
d crop of all varietie

rum the St. Johns, and
settlement and devel-
black, 877. Number
implements and ma-
Working oxen, 464.
11,430. Swie, 9,696,
Indian corn, bush.,
ihda., 106. Moles,
70. Saw mills, value,

South by Hemando and
mnty. from which the
is really level,
ae eqa tLo toian
Ph wmaa drie Ba-

the Wa,-ae about _midway between. The Atlatio, Galf & West India Transit
railroad runs from nothest to southwest through the oouuty, nestr its center,
and interseoa the Gulf at the harbor of Cedar Keys, where v els fnd entrance
and freight and p asenugs are transferred from the Gulf steamers to the rul-
road, thus affording enlarged facilities for direct oommuniation with the mar-
kets of the North and the ports of the Gilf. The county posemes peculiar ad-
vantagee for the paoduoeon of sugar oe and rioe, besde the ordinary pro
duota of long staple otton, vegetaber semi-tropioal fruit; and stock growing
f rms a sure reliance for revenue. The waters on the oomat abound in fsh, oy-
tern and turtle, which are largely gathered for export to the interior.
Broneon, the county seat, is on the railroad, the center of a well-settled por-
tion of the ooonty.
Population. 1870, 2,018; 1880, 56,776 -white, 3,928; black, 1,848. Number
soree land tilled: 15.698. Farm value $268,860; farming imolemente and ma-
chinery. 83.8330; live took, $146.315; farm prodaooions, 8149,810. Number
horse, 790. Mule. 170. Working oxen, 44. Milh cows, 4,332. Other cattle,
3,110. Swine, 5,144. Poultry. 9 782. Eggs, dot., 7.927. India corn. bush.,
453,86. Oat., bush., 16,810. Cotton, bales. 440. Molamess, gale., 31,40. Po-
tatoee, bush., 48,200. Market garden produce sold, 810,900 Lumber and saw
mill, pitl, $191,000. Lumber, feet, 8,000,000. Grist mills, capital, 17,850.
Man uormsw, capital, 86,500.




Bounded north by Hillsborough and Polk ; east by Brevard and Dade ouan-
tie, being separated from the latter by Lake Okeeobobee; mouth by Monroe
oouanty, and west by the Gulf of Mexioo.
Oontainean are of over 5,000 square miles, and embracing the northern por-
tion of Charlotte harbor, the southern portion of Tamp. Bay, Sarauota a&, and
the numerous islands adjacent Peace Creek, rising in Polk county, subdvidee
the county near the center, and runs south to Charlotte harbor, having numerous
tributariea, whioh, with many lakes, water the interior of the county. The My-
akka river discharge into the harbor further westward, and the Manatee river in
the northwestern of the county, enters Tampa Bay The surface is gene-
rally level, lands tht, piney woods, hammocks and prairie.
Pine Level is e oonty set.
Along the rivers and borders of lakes the land is very productive; a large
portion of the county is g en up to stock raising, which is a leading and profts-
ble bssines. Over 0OO.000 had subsist at no cost or oare, except the gathering
to brand and mark. or for sale and delivery. Key Wesat, Cuba, end other island
aford a ontdant and good market, and steamers and vessels are regularly en-
Raged in the transportation, mostly from Tamp. Bay and Charlotte harbor.
There are many sookmen who count their herds by the tens of thousands.
Peaoe nrok, a large stream, is susceptible of steam navigation through the
county, and is attracting immigrants, especially those who seek an equable cli-
mate, and to loone below what is oaled the frost line. Long staple cotton, cane,
rioe, tobaooo do well, and will become leading staple of export.
Population, 1870, 1,931; 1880, 38,674-white 3,561; black, 113. Number
aores land tilled, 3, 0. Frm valae $384,000; farm implements and machin-
ery, $,000; live took, $912.000; farm productions, $177,600. Number hones,
960. Muol, 600. Working oxen, 860. Miloh oows, 86,400. Other cattle, 103,-
600. Butter, lbs., 6,40. uine, 8,400. Poultry, 7,000. Egg4, dos., 16,860.
Potato, bush., 86,400. Honey, Ibs., 14,400. Wax, lbs., 960.



Bounded north by Manatee, eat by Dade, south ad weat by the Gulf of
It he an area of about .000 square miles, large portion of whiMh i oeuu-
pied by what is known a the Big Opr.. Swamp, and the Bverg.id The
county ineludee the numerous Keys and islands off the od ontheran oot,
the meet important of which i. Key WMt, where the prsidepel weHh and pepu-
laton are located, and the southern portion of OChar hrbor. Pine. anfbels
and other islands. The Oalooehatohie traversea the northern portion of the
county and enter Charlotte harbor, and is navigable as high up a Port Thomp-
son, some thirty mile from it. mouth. It is oontemplted to connect this river
with the greet lake Okeeohob e and drain the extenve country Sbout the lake.
The northern portion of the county is adapted to semi-tropical and tropiael
frit, and also many of the Keys, which are already famous or aoooanut, pine
apple and banana.
Key Weat is the ounty seat
Population, 1870. 5,667; 1880, 10.97--white, 7,668; black, 8,29. Aere
land tiled, 906. Farm value, .11,000; f implement. and machinery,
63,000; live stok, 12,600; farm productions, 819,260. Number honer. W.
Mule, 80. Working oxen, 120. Miloh oows, 420. Other atthl 5.160. wine,
,3106. Poultry, 1,95. Egg, dos., 4,44. Molma, gail.., 12,000. Potatoes,
bashh, ,400. Manufactures, capital, 6227,000. Value of produta., P1,270,867.
Wqage paid, 1879, (871,173.



Bounded north and uat by Voluia county, which is prted from it by
the St. Johns river, oath by Brear d ad Polk, and weat by Polk, umter' and
With an areu of 2,00 quare mile. The ooonty i g mlly hgh, rolling
pine land, interpered with lear water lakes, bays and hamma. e rolling
pine lad asre of good quality, and heavily timbered; .oil dark pry ima, with
sand on the surfEe, baaed upon yellow mady loam. with a subtratum of ehay
and mad. Portion are lat pine woods of lee al Some of the prominent
lake. are Moro, Jeanp, Haney, oai Apopl Don Mtand Btler, aad
Tohopoekaip. The lake are from three to tysquaqnre mile in etlant. The
are inaumeanble mailer lakes, with arw from tea to e thousamd are. The
shore are gme ally abrupt, rising in some eae to eventy feet aboe the water.
Fish and gume abound. Stock growing has been the predoinaant industry
until la years, with otton, oorn, and oane; but now uit lt is absorbing
ene alatteation, and the orange, lemonn,ime, d guara p4npple, sad
Lama sad every variety of southne fruit, are tevy cultivated. No
county in the Ste ha. inorened in population and improvemat ma rapidly
during the lat ten year a Orange, and large oeioe m the Northern ma
Western Btate, of refined, cultivate nd and wealthy oita, ae atantly belg
A zaild from dford, on Lake Monroe the head of the large d of
utesabost niption, to Oriando, the onty Meat, bee eatrud with
view to a ultimate extenalon aouth thrgh the oty sad to apa mad
Carlote harbo. The St Jobh A ILe u. rUl way, fbrn Aor, bmtte st
Joha, to lot Mams, oa Lake atsi, ha amos been $SSte, am atmeaai o
which to lubuig vi probably be asdk Te tthdsernIe a somieM
inin this OQnmty i d the arant Ss siafe in the th
ed Maohhwia, !en of utimat. muses
t a ^ a

.& 1M. &18:1@. Al

S 1euab,

h, ,00; e 06; .. r 0 pr oduet, 90,0M Number honrse,
87&6 Mnlea, 609. Working oxe, 88. Milah eovw, 8,46S. Other antr, 7.990.
Butter, Ib., 19,881. twine, 8.681. Poultry, 21,92. do.., 31,184 Rice,
I.., 8T0. Indian corn, bush., 80,89. t. bush., 1,16. otton, bles, 71.
MoM pllsU., 91,219. Potatoes, buh., 76.785. Honey, lb.,, 6,168. Saw mills,
capital, 15,000. Manuftuare, capital, S9g,00.



Bounded north by unter and Orange counties, east by Orange and Brevard,
south by Manatee, and west by Hillaborough. The Kiaimmee lake and river
separate it from Brevard.
It ham asu area of about 1,900 square miles, and its general oharaoteristim
are the amme a Somter and Manatee. The nortsoe is nndulatiog, the lands
hammock, pine and prairie, dotted all through with small lakes of lear water
abounding in fish. The prairie are the range for herds of cattle, of which there
are 100,000 head in the county.
Bartow, situated on Peace creek or river, is the county set, and a thriving
business plaoe. The lands within two or three milee of Peace creek and its
tributarie are excellent farming lands and well adapted to the culture of the
orange and emi-tropiesl and some tropical fruits.
Population, 180, 8,l9; 1880, 8,156-white, ,0886; black, 120. Number
aseres land tilled.8,160. Farm value, 8400,000; farm implements and maehin-
ery. 04,000; lve took, 866,000; farm produotiona, 880,000. Number hores,
340. Male, 800. Working oxen, 600. iloh cows, 800. Other cattle, 8,740.
Butter, lb., 4,400. Swine, 6,400. Poultry, 20,561. Eges, dos., 88,600. tioe,
Ib., 90,000. Indian oorn, buashb., 89,280. Cotton, bklee 00. Molasses, gall.,
4,800. Potstoes, bush., 66,00. Honey, Ibm., 7,900. Wax, lbs., 2,000.



Bounded north by Marion county, eat by Orange, aouth by Polk, and west
by Berando, from which it is aeprated by the Withlaooohie river.
Ha ase area of over 1,00 square mile. The general oharateristia of 8um-
tar an the ame ao Orange, Polk, Hernando and Marion oountie, by which it i4
asrrounded. The OCklawaha river connecta the waters of lake Grifin Harris
and uaU, in the northeatern portion of the county, with the St. Johns ; and
Lake Panot a on the west oonneota with the Gulf through the Withlaooohie.
A takin of lake in the soutisatern portion of the county oonneata with lake
Hauria though the Pilsklikaha creek. On the eat of theae lake a high rolling
pine woods country etda for mile.; ou the west are fine hammock lands and
gra s lad for stock The lands in the northern and western portion of the
county alo a eptionally good, and orange growing i the prevailing inter-
eat The or played in orage grove are numbered by the hundreds, and the
baring tree by the ten of thouaqada. No county in the State is better adapted
to ha growing, while rtook raiing and the agricultural ataples of the Mouth
d a ure r lisane for the prodtable investment of labor and capital.
eeab located at the head of lake Grin and between that and Lake
EHarri, i the aount t. The Ooklawasa river is navigable for small steamer,
ad a nity ta roam Lake Euats to Ator, on the St. Johns river, aord-
ing diet tl or rhng market.
pm, 0, 3, ; 80, ,07 whit, 40T-whi, 4,993; black, 1,079. Number
oas 4 lw J 1dS3. hmn talau, p474,0O; ham impleeant and machia-
9i; Mvt tok, #79,600; arm paod utioas 81S.t N bsr bhorae, 764.
He. m WorMag oma, 338. MUoh oow, 970. Other catl 5148. But-
. amb. Swin 7,. Pouolry, 9.. E ag, do., 4 m8 Indian on,
ba. ea. Oas. bhu.. a 87. ScaaM mai. b9.h. Po.Woe bush..


General F. E. Spinner has kindly furnished the following:
a~rsmamrr or *rrn~nzuan wr sumeos.

Spring...... Mean maximum........ ..... 75.18
Mean minimum.... ..... .....61 .0
Mean average for nuaon.... 68.80

Summer.... Moan mamum...........
Mean minimum..... ..
Mean arverae for aemoon..

*. .*.8 0
* .79.00


makimum............. 7.s0

Man minatmum... ......... .0
Mea6n "av mfor am .....9e.00
Winter...... .Me malmum............9.00
S Mea mini tma..............8.0
MeUa veP frM M Oo .....61.6


Mean maximum, 76.10

mean minimum, 63.20

mean average for 366 days,


Highest temperature, July

llth, 99.

The mercury reached 900 but

eleven times, and fell below 40 but seven times during the year.

Lowest tern-

perature, November 21st, 33.




The oomparative humidity of Florida, as connected with health, is shown in
the appended tables, presented in the valuable address delivered before the
Florida Medical Association in 1880, by Dr. C. J. Kenworthy, of Jacksonvilla
"The mean relative humidity of the localities referred to, for, the oold
months, is as follows :

Cannes and Mentone......
Angusta, Ga............
Breokenridge, Minu.....
Dalath, Miun .......
8t Paul, Minn..........
Jaokaonville. bla........
Key West, Fla .........
Pants Iasem, Fla........

* ..
"'* I

pr ot.
71 8

pr ot.
73 7

pr ot.


pro .

pr ot.


" From the above dta, it appear that the mean relative buidty of


and Meante, during the dod moths, eoseds that o Jotoavillie by. ealy

four per ont.

Three stations in Minneoa have a men of 74., asd throe in

Florid a mean of 7.6 showing a per oeat of 1.6 in favor ~of Ploda, ad A
per aot in fvaor of J.okbonville ovt Miuw.Ss "



We have obtained from Grand Secretary D. C. Dawkins, who is also Inspec-
tor General (3d D). the following :
Grand Lodges, 1; Councils, 3; Commanderies, 2; Lodges of Perfection, 2;
Lode 88; Members, .043.
1879, is the 51st year of the Grand Lodge in Florida. The institution
here has always embraced our very best citizen, and extreme care and scrutiny
pervaded all lodges in accepting candidates ; and many a "brother" tfom dis-
tant part, sojourning here, has had reason to be grateful for sympathy and
asuistanoe from brethren here. Lodges are to be found in every county, and are
increasing as fast as population advances. Most have buildings of their own in
which to hold meetings.

The ODD FzzLOws have several Lodges and a considerable membership in
this State.


PaonmTAmrr EP0aCOtL.-Parishes and missions, 27; clergy, 17; families,
900; communicants, 1,600; Sunday school teachers, 173; Sunday school schol-
ars, 1,804; contributions, 1878, 818,217.93. This church is having a steady aad
healthy growth in this State. Most of the buildings have been built since 1866,
and are of the Gothic style. Recently, active missionary measures have been
Pnsnrralur.- Ministers, 30; churches, 60 ; members, 1,500.
MlnoTwr EacOOPLa Cna cu SBorvm.-- Ministers, 172 ; districts, 6 ; pastoral
charges, 66; members, 11,216 ; Sunday schools, 189 ; teachers and officers, 886;
pupil, 6,661'; value of church property, $106,170.
T MirroraODB EnsaoPo CmaCHa has also ministers, churches, end mem.

Banrt.-Associations, 19; churches, 300;
200; Sunday shools, 100; officers and teachers,
aludes both white and colored ; estimated by Rev.
to be 18,000 white aend 7,000 colored.
For the year ending Jane 10th, 1881. tle numb
Sunday schools in the 8tate numbered 670.
Sunday aohool teachers....... ..........
nuaday uohot 1 scholarn..... ... ........

members, 20,000; ministers,
320; pupils, 2,800-thiu in.
C. Y. Waugh, of Gainesville,

er of Protestant OhuP hee and

. .. .. .. .
. . .. -



Toytal....... .. .4. .... ... .. .. .
A pin in three yetas of 17,195.

The Catholic ohurh is well repre
Bbhop ........... .....
Prdes (seular)............
Bdglious includingg Novice.
eoUiaamttoal students.....
ah roeb ... ..........

ited. . .
visited...... ...

* S

. .* .

* ......

Convants .....................
Aeadenu and Pa ohial acoheb.

ed in various pats of the State
..... .... ... ............ 1
.......... ...... .. 12
PortnlAnt).:.. .... ......60
. .. ...... ...... .. .... 6

. . . . . .. . .. 7
S.. ..... ...... ......... .70
....... ... ... ..* .... 6
..... .............. .... 18



This is one of the industries of Florida that has suddenly isd vtry cmn-
siderable proportions. From barely nothing, in a commercial mIe, at e cloee
of the war, the business has grown to be worth 1,000,000 in 180 M asurd by
the progress of the put, it is destined to become in a very hort time, oe of the
leading industries of the State. tst year there were ptexp r 1t forty-tfve
millions of oranges. The business so far has been very uMem f, l. and is daily
inviting more capital and enterpria. There is already 810,000,000 invested in
orange grove in the tate, with a field open for the profabl employment of
fifty millions more. Lands suitable for growing orange a in abundance and
at low prices. Orange groves an be found in almost every a of te ad
on all varieties of soil well drained, the grove, numbering eah m tea to 10,-
000 trees. Hardly a family outside of the cities but oultvte. mor or ls or-
ange trees, and many riding in the cities do the am e. Soe of the kas
groves in the 8tate are owned by perans living in the townwa or by Iom-aid-
dents. In some of the oonnties there were raised as high from bar to ix
millions o oranges last year; and narrow-gage railmads a rapidly bing lt
to abrd the middle ounties facilities for shipping their ermoruoeop to mar-
ket. Three such roads have been completed within the paet few mnrths, and
others are projected, while more are under contemplation. Orage are shipped
from off theme roads to New York in eighty and ninety hours' tim
Within the pt few years orange culture in Florida hea abo itta g
perfection. It has reached that position where it is pouible to a e the est
of produoticn. Abundant evidence exist that an be brought rwrd to show
the value and profit in it for the investment of capital. Bats ha show that
there is not at present any pursuit, where the tilia of the soil ia invold, that
will yield larger returns with leas fluctuation. It is Slways pleat to be able
to confrm suob statements with fbets. An extensive orange owner in Putnam
county has kept, from the beginning of his groe, an socura. sout of the
expenditure and receipts to the dose of the thirteenth year. din 1879. The
number of trees were 300, and yielded 44,000 orange selling o 17,690 a
against a expenditure, omitting oo t of land, first of trees ad intet oa
the money, of 8 960. This gives receipt. over expediturs, 6M d. This i.
only one instance but it is 'as good as many, because it a only one n a very
large number. It conclusively demonstrate that orange ulture is not all
transitory. Nearly ll the obstacles in the path of orange oultre have be. re-
The future of the business is still more promising. Floridb mas a
conceded to be superior to all others. In poiht of numbers. uoo md to the
great quantities consumed, they are few; yt by their eatr *et brave
eome fo occupy the foremost place in the market. The genial me M t ad peu-
liar soil of Florida, together with suiiently warm son to mahr a4 aim-
tate the Juaioe without destroying the Hvaly anmatie lav of the h l mpa
this quality-a value nowhere else att ble to mah a xta Ts tad uM
ae yet to occuapy Is patieally illimitable They a y to owrn
market, thbe in the world. .lhiswill be thea bo f ye ad
portion of our orange lands have been brought undw nd ila. .
were 57,000,00 of oranes entered t the p of New mTk ioe a In' a
eoutriea. Double the number, at let, we stuit at D e
mkaa gmad total of TL$0.OOO ime iaa, mhsteat ehs


aunt ,,a dftio to oar Florida crop. We can not predict when the dome.e
tie wil tak the dof the foreign product, but it is inevitable in ooure of
time. Oar inability to supply the demand is the main obstacle.
That this will be the ultimate result is clear from another cause, independ-
en% or nearly so, bf merit. The liability of los and damage resulting from un-
ertaiatie ofa so voyage forms an important factor in the oonduct of the for-
eigan fruit trade, serving to make it extremely hazardous-a circumstance against
which desle do not have to contend in the shipment of Florida oranges. We
have railroad lading to all the geat markets in America, and when the fruit is
transported by water, all the facilities are afforded by perfect and oommodious
Orange culture, therefore, may go on indefinitely in Florida, without fear of
reaching a general reduction ot product. When our own market is occupied,
those of Europe and elsewhere will be open to us. The growing desire every-
where, also, of people for semi-tropical fruits, which the eorts of producers are
trying to satisfy, is unlimited, and, therefore, efforts in orange culture can oon-
tinue to be pat forth until this unlimited and independent desire is met-a goal
which perhaps never can be-eached.
To prso.. of foresight and capital, who are looking to the future rather than
the prent for remunerative returns, Florida presents, in her orange pursuit,
the moat extended a well as the most inviting feld. But aside from the'ques-
tion of p3rot, the culture of oranges presents other practical advantages. It is
not only a puasing, but an independent occupation. Its pursuit is no dead
level of monotonous exertion, but one that affords soope for the development of
an ingenious mind. As a producer, the orange grower it working under condi-
tions of sometantly inereaing advantage. Young men, sometimes with little or
no apdtal, axe tarting every year in the business, often away from communities
of old sad perimed growers, and have su.eMeded by dint of tact and indus-
try. In point of regular profits; in point of industrious, frugal and cheerful
ocupetion ; in point of a very general desire to become independent ; in point
of suoees and freedom from penury; and in point of repressve and adverw in-
iean ain other pursuits, they have found orange culture, in its practical work-
ings, the most pleasing of occupations. Perens who own grove in Florida are
entirely well atded, as a rule, with their investments A brn grove is
worth a great deal of money, and to purchase one would require a rge aah
outlay. In ten years' time groves are usually in full baring---often in les time
-nd the inducement to plant one is very great.
Finally, we would say, that the motive, that induce men to labor in Florida
are the ame as in other 8tta--for proft; and if the energy and penusteme of
the work be proportionate to the constancy and press of the motive, then will
they most certainly succeed, and make the aggregate profit of their investment
equal, if it does not succeed, thau of nearly all other pursuit involving no grater
outlay of money. Moreover, the ownupeon of orange-growing ha a tendency
to make one hopeful for the future. e tilling, too, of the sol immasrably
improve the eharm t of the uonltivator. Add to this the beauty of the country
anat sim to and the attractions of country life; the tranquillity of mind which
they promise, sad the enjoyment. which they rally afford; the harm of pro-
prietorhip and self.-guding exertion and the buoyancy of outdoor employ-
menk aad we have all the ementials for acquiring health and happinea, a well
as indepedence.



No State of the Union has so extended a sre-coast as Florida, sand none poe-
Mesee a larger extent of internal navigable water; nor is there say State whioh
enjoy greater facilities for cheap, permanent and reliable oommuniastion with
the commercial marts of the North and Wet.
Ocean steamer leave New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston
and Saannah regularly for Florida& with the most ample sooomipodations for
pusengers and the most extended appointments for freight
AtFemndina these line, connect with the Gulf & West India Transit Bail-
way, which, at Baldwin, intersects the Florida Central Railway; at Waldo con-
nects with the Peninsular Railway to Orante lake and Orlando, and is being now
extended to Sumterville, thence to Brooksville and Tamp., and with the Santa
Fe Canal to Santa Fe Lake; and at Cedar Keys with lines of Gulf Steamers to
Tamp. Key Wet, Havana, New Orleans, and all the Gulf ports.
At Jacksonville, connections at made with the numerous steamers an the
St. Johns and Ocklawaha rivers, which connect at Toeoi with the 8t. Johns Rail-
way to St. Augustine; at Astor with the St. Johns & Lake Eustis Railway; at
Sanford, with the South Florida Railway to Orlando; at Baltlake for Indian Bier
and Titrville; and at Lake Poinsett with lines of stages to the Indian river at
Book Ladgea
At Jasonville, also, with the Florida Central Hailway,.which interest the
Gulf & West India Transit Railway at Baldwin; connects at Lake City with the
Jacksonville, Pensaoola & Mobile Railway, which at Ellavrille intersects the Su-
wannee river, which is navigated by steamers to Oedar Keys; at Live Oak, con-
nects with the Savannah, Florida & Western Railway.
All rail routes with lose oonneotions and through palace and sleeping cars
for psengers, and fast freight lines with ventiled cars for fruit sand vegeta-
bles, connect Florida with Montgomery, Louisville, Oincinnati, St. Louis and
Chicago; Saannah, Charleston, Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadel-
phia, New York and Boston; thus affording the largest facilities for rapid transit,
while the numerous competing lines prevent exorbitant oarges.
The completion of the railways hom Jacksonville to Wiayoro and from
Jaeksonville to Fermandina, increased thee facilities and shortened the time
between Jacksonvrille and New York to 45 hours.
Lines of il ressels also ply constantly between the ports of Florida ad
the North Atlanti ports, affording safe transportation for emlirntsi, sad for
the manufactures and products of the North in exchange for the IMber, naval
store, manufacture and products of the touth, at rates so low m S plaem the
Statk in petition, in the marks of the North, with the most hfYMd States
of the Wet.





That the State ot Florida offers superior indaoementa to immigration sad
ospiul to say other State of the Union, has long been apparent to all who had
become acquainted with her local advantages and internal resouroee; but it is
only within a brief period that these advantage had become in a measure appre-
oiated abrod so as to attract general attention or divert the westward tendency
of the swelling current of immigration seeking new homes, cheap, unoccupied
lands, and reliable permanent advantage.. It is only within a very few years
that the people of the State even have become acquainted with the fact that agri-
cultural industry a understood and prosecuted in the North oould be pursued
here throughout the year without hard from clmatio influenoee or local em-
barrumentsa and become remunerative. Experience has demontrated the iot
that whit6 labor here is attended with no more impedimenta than in more frigid
limates, and that for a very large clss the uniform temperature is pore condu-
cive to health, comfort and longevity than the North.
The future of Florida is full of promise. The material reourcea of the
8tate are almost indooalable; and with her unequaled climate; her peninsular
portion; her productive soil adapted to such an infnite variety of product,

many of which are peculiar to herself alone of
form of valuable timber; her wealth of fisheries
coast, and in her numerous bays, harbors, rivers
commercial advantages; her millions of sors of
sound finaiasl condition-with all these combine
Florida abrtds grater inducements toapital and
of the Union.

all the ttaes; her extended
on her extended line of sea-
and lakes; her unparalleled
unocupied fertile lands; her
ed advantages, we repeat that
industry than any other 8tate



(KansMa lty Time. June 1, 1881.)


The Climate and Health of the Southern State-Orange
(Goves the Source of Profit-Big Returns 'from
Small Outlay-The State for the Poor Man.

JAcou my Fi., Jun 5.
Being detained here to-day, I avail myself of this opportunity of redeeming
the promise I made on leaving Kansas City; this I do the more willingly aft
has occurred to me that some of my friends in the city and vilanity may poibly
be pleased to hear from me in reference to the attractions of this tate ad
especially the great fruit and vegetable interets that's now eliciting so much at-
I oneedvie a sat mispprehension eists in the minds of most purma,
especially in the North and West, upon this point, the tvera impnr.s eias
that during the summer the heat is very oppresive and The truth
is, this is certainly the bet climate in the United tate and probly a gtod m
any in the world. From sun up to 9 A. ., the heat is most sebly fet; about
this time a oooL invigorating bree ocnmenoes from the Atlantic on the
Seat and continue till night, when the gulf wind from the southwest gently and
softly oools the atmosphere and fans you to sweet rem e, and you wde up early
in the morning muoh refrehed, having had a splendid night's sleep undr e
or two blankets. The average temperature during the summer f 78; in the
winter 80, the latter being similar to the month of May with us. the most de-
lightful in the year. It is very obvious that in a climate likethis the require-
menbt in the way of fuel, clothing, house, and I may add food, too, sar much
less than in a country ice-bound during the winter; and the luxury of being
able to stir around oomfortably in the open air go.e far to eompenate for the in-
ooveniemee of living in ompratively a new country.
Much might be smid truthfully in favor of this 8tt upon this sab if ,
spaee permitted, but will only observe that for pulmonary, bronchial, l
catarrh, neralgia affections, and many other ills and aches incident to advaned
age and delicate constitutions, this mild, soft climate anot be otherwi than
ulutury: and, I believe, the last medial convention dt this State claimed that
statistics proved it to be the hethiest State in the union.
So I have been able to determine, I mu my that I do nothing this
State is well adapted to general ariulture, owing toe t he aril is
ge ally thin, liht ad sandy, and ve whe fertid s easily ha ed .
sualy near the river and lakes the soil is a sylsh o dark sandy loam mider-
laid with marl, and grows those rope to whih it is suited with woadrmf lin-
uriace, but thiL hammock land, a ialed, is not tote -os to o r mI-

v eeables, while the undulating, white sandy, pinsy-wooded uplands are said to
be mon desirable for oranges, lemons, guaas, Ags, and other tropical fruits.

The business that is now engrossing the attention of so many here, and bids
fair to eolipse and rev dationis3 the other industries is the planting and enltivat-
ing of fruits sand early vegetables, and when we take into consideraston the
profit somring from these pursuit, the greet interest maaifested need exoite no
saprise. Orange trees are sit out in rows usually from twenty-five to thirty feet
saprt eaoh way, and wasn buaded oommenoe bearing in four years, seedlings in
from even to ten years. Taey require light oultivation two or three times a
year, either with the hoe, harrow or small turning plow, drawn by one hone or
To fertile it is customary to raise seral orop. of oorn peas eah year and
plow under the vinee, which hve an influenoo similar to our lover. The rich
ammook lands need no fertilizing to grow the orange or lemon, but many per-
sons raiee vegetblea between the trees until they ommensoe bearing, in this asee
it beoomee neoeary to use commercial fertilisers. In this way by close atten-
ion. intelligence and industry, which every businem require, there may be re-
alised from eaoh ace in vegetables from 100 to 400 per year. When the or-
ange tree is of full bearing age and well eared for, eaoh year's crop is worth
about ,000 per acre, about equal to fifty are of wheat. I have heard of some
grove es eeding this, for instance, the dpurs grove, near Lake Munroe, of four
sand oe-half acres, yielded a few year sine, I am informed,

dollar, ad OoL. H
annual inoomeof f
ae worth from 6 i
ad transportton,
there is an immen
laeds, who usually
the mo good." B
ground costs rom
An orange prov
good water proteoti
per ae, and eve
I have adeavo
enoe and limited o1
hesitation in
ay, in te or tw
rom s,01 o to *I1
know it hb bem d
I would like tc
osnd TUT h pA
litdas I m wit
usthemi; hyoth
wild oth tar bme
ap e mighty Ami

art's ne grove, of about seven acres, near Palatka, yields an
tom ten to twelve thouaand- a nice income. Unoleaned lands
o 0O an acre aoording to quality and proximity to towns
and those that are desirable are being rapidly taken up, as
Sinflux of population and capital, especially of our northern
Ly have the aulty of "** putting their money where it will do
ludded tires cow from 526 to $100 per 100. To clear the
$10 to $20 per acre and fening from $6 to $10 per sore.
re of ll bearing age, sad in a fancy location, and having a
on--which some think important--sells for $1,000 or 63,000
n at this price yJelds a good interest on the money in-
rd to gve the important facts truthfully. Want of expert.
ryagfon may have led me into inaccuracies. I have no
11 believe tha an intelligent, industrious and patient man
ve y s in lorida, make with almost a certainty a fortune of
4,00. This ppear incredible, but I think it is true ad
rpak of the people, whom I found intelligent frank, gener-
able ad mudi more enterprising than I expected, but time
raveMed eight grat States sinse leaving home, and being de-
h the parent prosperity and fair prospects of each of them,
d m tha all are god for purposes for which they were
w aonsluioen would be a relestio upon the goodness and
soeat ator, but in the at galaxy of states which make
risan Unio there is but one Florida.
A. B. 8n M. D.

It is frequently desirable to measure a given plot of ground or & portion o f
a field, and a simple method, suh as the following, for which w e are inbted
. to an exchange, will be of use to many of our readers. Surveyors are not always
at a convenient distance to attend to such little jobs; and ven when they do
reside.in the immediate vicinity, one does not always care to iaoor the epense
incident to unoh a small job. If the lines are already established, the plo ea
be measured with sufficient ooauracy for all practice purpose by eans of a
neat red-pole made as follows: Procure a stick of pine, whitewood, ca, or
almost any other timber, one and a half inches square, and dixteen and m ht
feet long. Dress each end tapering from the middle, so that the pole will be
one and a half inohes square at each end. Such a pole will be light and quite
stiff. Now, graduate one side with the marks representing feet and lashes, ad
graduate another side to indicate a surveyor's links. A pole one rod in length
must be equal to twenty-five links. To divide one side oorreetly, let a maohis-
io's compass be adjusted, so that the points will divide the distamn twenty-five
equal spaces or links. A itne can be measured with such a pole nearly as mas-
rately as with a surveyor's chain.
Now, then, if a person does not understand how to multiply chains and
links, let him compare the measurement by square feet. In one acre there are
43.560 square feet. Any intelligent school boy on measure the length and bredth
of a square plot in feet, multiply one by the other, and divide the inouoot by
43.560, which will give the number of acres, and the number of eu fmt pr
senting the fraction of an acre. If it is desirable to measure a s pqt"
two sides of which lie at right angles, measure these two sides, multiply the
distance in feet one by the other, and divide that product by two, wheh will
indicate the number of square feet; then divide by 43,560, and the quotient will
represent the number of sores.
The Ino Angeles aCmnercial rert report t oonvematio with W. P.
Rhodes, the lessee of the Sierra Madre villa He says that he has already di-
posed of 175,000 oranges to parties in San Francisco, at price rn g from W
to 680 per thousand. and has still hanging upon his tree sbout the ame num-
ber; and has already been offered $20 per thousand for the hbeane, but ba, up
to the prmeent time, refused the offer. If we estimate the whole value at W
per thousand, it would make the enormous total of $97,600 for his ep. pe
will also sell about $10,000 worth of limm and lemons, beside his other mItr
What Can be Done by Perseverance.
Mr. Dennis Freeman, formerly of Chardon, Ohio, bought, April, 1876, 10
acre near Orange City, Florida, at $20 per acre, for $00. Cleared his lad, and
built house from lumber manufactured from the timber, at a total cost of W0O.
Has now 200 orange trees in bearing; has 6,000 young orange trees in his nurs-
ery (less than one acre of land) worth at prment 85 eah, equal to l100. His
whole expense--10 sre, bouse, clearing. and 900 orange trees in be r
6,000 trees in nurer--costing less than 800. Ha been offed ,5M0 aSi fot
the place. He also has a hometed tract near by, of 160 aean, which ost him
$1. per aore, and has refused 0 per acre for it.
Mr. B W. Gorton. of Chapin Falls, Ohio, bought 10 amm in Or Ol,
tour years for 400. Wa offered ,000 ash, ne lIt, 1881; bu 400
ornem tree that will bear next season.
ames of prominent persona who have orange gpow in Orange Oounty, ia:
Gen. O. Beboook, hrtm s M roe, Va.
Josph E r, hiron mranet, BoDon, Ham.
SB. Olark, uStlo, N. T.
Dr. Her Fo t liton 8prinsp, N. Y.
M ir G. W. yldy, savannah, Os.
Ja. M. Wiloox, 8319 Prior St, PhildelphiaS Pa. (NM wrt o o ange
-a 'a





who was requested to oome to New York, and visit the Florida Land and Im-
provement Company's lands, with a view of attending to the subdivision and
oolonizing of the same:

To Mmr. Hamto Diston, A. P. B. S&ord, W. Z Parsons and others, owners qf
he Fou Milon Am purchase qf Land in Florida:

Ot r--In company with Hon. A. P. K. Afford, I proceeded to Florida,
to make a partial examination of the lands lately purchased by you, with a view
of subdividing and colonizing the same.
After arriving at Jackonville, and receiving maps and instructions from
Ool. J. Coryell, we proceeded via the St. Johns river to Sanford, and thence to
Orlando, where we were met by Major Marks, and shown over the lands in the
viodnity of Lake Oonway. This (Orange) county contains rolling hill and level
pine lands, interspersed with clear-water lakes and hammocks. The rolling
ine lands are of good quality, and in some places heavily timbered. The soil
is a dark gray loam, some of it ohooolate color, sandy surface, with a sub-strata
of clay and marl, and first quality. There are some portions of the land flat and
lld with pine, meond quality. The lands known as hammock lands produo-
ing extra fine crope an be rated first quality, ahi, and will never need fertilis-
ing The lands are timbered with hickory, oak, pine. &e., and when cleared
contain some of the finest orange groves in the State of Florida. Orange County

is dotted over with beautiful lakes, among the largest of whioh are
roe, Eustis, Conway, Barney, Jesup, Dora, Maitland, Tohopekaliga,
-ranging from 9 to 40 square miles in extent, with hundreds of i
eotasinmg from 6 to 600 acres, eaeh connoted by small streams or
the large lake, and then flow into the St. Johns river. The lakes
ne trout, perch, ad,uman other varieties of fish. Fruit culture is

Lake. Mon-
and Butler
small lakes,
straits with
contain fine
the present

sad Coming industry. The prinolpal fruit crops are oranges, lemons,
dtrom, guava, pineapple ad banana beside the smaller fruits-all of
d a ready market large quantities of cotton, corn and sugar cane are


sad fnd a ready ad portable market. The general ontour of the country
readers lamot every ane ailable for arming on a very large role, and fruit
lnusn. The land emn aily be reclaimed, and the first ~eaW locating themoa
SbMld have a x i@nduemaspt.
The.e auds baing located so nar railroad and shipping point, it was
thought bet to e at s to oolanim the ame, and potpoe the am-
IndlMs n the ulad hi Rumin WNf .mAm aPatlh A htm emaln utlil a A sHa

visit. The railroad running
transportation via the lakes to
get their products to market.
Sugfr cane produces from

i6m Orlando to Sanfrd on Lake Mooe, ma
SL Johns river, give mettle. A ihe opportunity to

8 to 10 barrels of suru per are-,400 lib.-baeing

valued at 8 ots. per lb., equal to $198. Corn produce 10 to 1 bushels per sre
on pine land, and 90 bushels per sore on hammock land.
Bice has not been cultivated to any large extent, but where it ha been tried
has produced 90 to 40 bushels to the acre.
The Florida Southern Railway from Astor on St. Johns river, running to
Fort Mason, will soon be built down to and through Sumter County, where you
have a large quantity of very valuable lands, rated by those well red in land
matters, to be worth from $5 to $10 per sare. The rroa8d from Jackaonville to
Ocala will moon extend through Hernando and Hillsborough Oountli to Tamp
Bay, bringing a vast amount of your lands in those ountiini into market.
The Sanford & Orlando Railroad will soon be extended to Charlotte Harbor
and Tampa Bay on the Gulf of Mexico, which will pas through Sumter, Polk
and Manatee Counties, where you have fine tracts of land, that emigrants will
be glad to settle upon. It has been proposed to dispose of iome of the land
upon the following plan: lay out a block of 10 80-are farms, with 6 res
planted in oranges, lemons, lime, pineapples, h, sad let immigrants pay for
them by instalments-one-fourth ash, balance in one, two and three years.
I will acknowledge that I was surprised, completely, in referee to the
production of Florida, and in aD my trawls thUlrugA LA Sb q( hi nsS I never
have seen as many orange groves as I saw in Orange county. and a to the one
hundred and twenty thousand acres of your land in Orange Oounty, I think they
can be sold to immigrants in 40 and 80 acre farms at from 8I to 10 pa ern.
I make this partial report and plaoe it in your hand., ad will make a
subsequent one, with valuable statietia for publication.
Wherever I went during my visit to Florida I found lt reuideats intelligent
industrious and fully aiive to the importance of the gret work you have under-
taken. They are all in exatoiee upon the early prospect of an imman. in-
rease of population, and are all willing to aid in every way in their pow r to
make your work a grand sueens.
The railroad and steamship companies have signified their intutiom of ark-
ing a reduction in rates of fare and freights for thoue who may settle upon your
I cannot conclude without expresing my hertfelt thanks to OoL L Coryell,
of Jacksonville, and Major Marks, of Orlando, for the many asts of iMadam a-
teded to Oov. Saford and myself during our visit; the oitids of Florida
whom we met, for their words of approval of the geat cheom sbout being am-
tend upon, and their ors of maistae whenever nquird, sad lastly, to my
Mnd. Gov. Saffrd, for the aid he has rndred me during the tr, sking what
woldM odh ls have ben a tedious, tionm wor, a tour of pl n.
B,.ptluy wt.i ed. M.
ftti~a umq Julv86,18BJl. US,. &1MA8.


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