A history of Florida

Material Information

A history of Florida
Spine title:
History and government of Florida
Brevard, Caroline Mays, 1860-1920
Bennett, Henry Eastman, 1873-
William and Sue Goza Collection
Place of Publication:
New York
Cincinnati <etc.>
American book company
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
275, xv p. : incl. front., illus. ; 19 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Florida ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Florida ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 213; References for topical research: p. 214-216.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Caroline Mays Brevard, with questions, supplementary chapters and an outline of Florida civil government, by H.E. Bennett.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
024652250 ( ALEPH )
01853463 ( OCLC )
AAQ6134 ( NOTIS )
19015872 ( LCCN )

Full Text






Coryluour, 1904t 1919, BY



w.r. 29



THIr book has been written to supply the need, which
my own experience in school work has impressed upon
me, of a brief, accurate history of Florida, suited for
practical use in the schoolroom.
Naturally, many facts of interest could not be treated.
On the work of selection, constant effort has been made
to relate the more important events affecting the develop-
ment of the commonwealth so fully as to impress them
upon the mind of the student, while omitting entirely
a mass of details not essential to the central idea. So-
cial, economic, and industrial conditions have not been
In every case the best available authorities have been
consulted, conflicting accounts being carefully compared
and studied. The narrative from 1814 to the present
time is based upon original sources of information, to
which in practically unbroken, succession I have fortu-
nately had access.
I here record my indebtedness to Mrs. Ellen Call Long,
who has permitted the use of her collection of valuable
historical material; to General William Miller for data
regarding the battle of Natural Bridge; and to Governor
William D. Bloxham for data used in later chapters of
the book.
The chapters on the geography of Florida, the history
of internal improvements, and the Florida school system,


with the sections on florida Civil Government, have been
written by Mr. H. E. Bennett, State Normal School,
De Funiak Springs. The questions for review and
research have also been prepared by Mr. Bennett.
Should the work prove helpful to the teachers of
Florida in making the events of our history real and the
duties of citizenship clear, its purpose will be fulfilled.



IT will be noted that there are three distinct series
of questions. It is important that teachers and pupils
understand the distinction among these that they may
serve their rightful purpose. On each page are ques-
tions based directly upon the text, and intended to aid
pupils and readers to grasp the essential facts in what
they have read. These questions are -not intended, and
in most cases are not suitable, for class use, although
they may be used for that purpose with discrimination.
The chapters are grouped according to the natural
division of the subject as shown in the Table of Contents,
and after each group is a series of topical review ques-
tions. These are intended to ba of assistance to the
teachers and pupils in reviewing. They will be particu-
larly useful to teachers and examiners in preparing test
questions. All questions of this series can be answered
from 'the text. A third series, designated Thought
and Research Topics," is intended for advance pupils,
teachers, and those who wish to use the work as i guide
for collateral investigation. Their use involves connected
reasoning and research. The chapter on bibliography
and references (pp. 213-216) will explain where nearly
all the information involved in these questions may be



V -



I. How Ponce de Leon discovered Florida 17
II. Panfilo de Narvaez .23
III. Hernando de Soto . 27
IV. The Indians of Florida 37

A French Colony in Florida .
How the French Colony was destroyed
The Revenge of Dominique de Gourgues
More about St. Augustine
The Founding of Pensacola .

English Neighbors .
Florida a British Colony
Second Spanish Occupation .
Florida's Part in the War of 1812
Jackson in Florida .


How Florida became a Territory of the Unit
Governor Duval .
The New Capital .
The Scotch Pioneers of the Euchee Region .

Governor Duval and the Indians .
Beginning of the Seminole War .

. 42
S 53


SStates 100






VII. Dade Massacre, Withlacoochee, the Blockhouse 182
VIIL The Capture of Osceola and Coacoochee 187
IX. End of the Seminole War 141
X. Governor Call 146

XT. How Florida became a State, and how she withdrew
from the Union 152
XII. Events of the War at Pensacola. 157
XIII. Jacksonville, Olustee 162
XIV. Marianna 168
XV. Natural Bridge 172
XVL End of the War 177

XVII. Florida again in the Union 184
XVIII. Drew, Bloxham, Perry, Fleming, Mitchell 189
XIX. Bloxham, Jennings, Broward, Gilchrist 196
Chronological Table of Principal Events in Parts I and II 209
Establishment of Counties 212
Bibliography 213
References for Topical Research 214

Brief History of Internal Improvement Fund and Railway
Development 21
The Tlorida School System 224


Constitution of Florida, rearranged and simplified 2
Florida Election System .
Privileges and Duties ofrFlorida Citizens .
GovsBmoas or FL A .
PoPULAron or FLomu A rV CoITmmIs 274-27
INDEX .. i(



IN the early days of colonial history, the Spaniards
called all of North America north of Mexico, so far as
they knew it at all, Florida, and they claimed it as their
own. Little by, little this claim-ivas given up until the
boundaries wer- fixed as we have them now. Our Florida
reaches from the Perdido River on the west to the Atlan-
tic Ocean on the east, and from Alabama and Georgia on
the north to the Florida Strait and the Gulf of Mexico on
the south. It stretches a total of 450 miles north and
south, and as much east and west, containing about 58,000
square miles. Florida lies farther south than any part of
Europe, lying in the same latitude as Egypt, Palestine,
:.nd the southern part of China.
Florida is an extension of the southern coastal plains.
bhing a munction of the Atlantic and Gulf slopes. It
attains. its greatest altitude some 300 feet above the sea
in the sand-hills of West Florida and in the middle
Peninsula. From Madison County westward the clay
hill country of Georgia and Alabama extends into the
State. Between this and the Gulf is a stretch of heavily
timbered pine land. From the Suwanee eastward, the
northern tier of counties is flat and sandy, covered with
pine timber and wire grass.
Through the central peninsular section, stretching from
Alachua to Polk county, is a ridge of rolling pine and


hammock lands, dotted with count-
less lakes. These lakes vary in size A
from an acre or less to such splendid
sheets of water as Lakes Harris, m.
Apopka, and Orange. Together the
lakes of Florida contain 4400 square
miles, of which )kelhobee contains i*
more than 1001). Many of these
lakes, large and small, have no visible
outlet, yet are characterized by clear, ,
fresh water, and, except where the
aquatic growth extends into them, FLOR I
by white sand bottoms and shores.
The subsoil of coarse sand is'sup- U"""-
0 10 tU as to IVo
posed to account for the evident
drainage of the lakes into the neigh- a
boring streams.
From Jackson County southeastward, through the central a e
of the peninsula, the country is usually formed upon stra.a k le
limestone. The erosion of this soft limestone has produced i in
peculiar features. In Jackson County are great caves, extdn ii
instance, more than a mile underground. In the same cc.uid
are the '"natural bridges" where whole rivers disappear frn si
again at a distance. Through this section are many deep, lpetdic
Some'of them are filled and ever flowing with the clearest oter
out from springs at the bottom. Such are the famous *eai
Spring, Wakulla Spring, and others. Where the spr4 .
cavities are known as 1" sinks." The sinks not only occur ly
the region, but are occasionally produced by the sudden g o
the surface.
Through the same region, from Lake Okechobee to near
deposits of valuable phosphates the chief mineral produI S
varieties of valuable clays are found, including the full
Quincy, which produces most of the American supply, an
white kaolin in Lake and Putnam counties. 4
The eastern and southern portions of the peninsula are oi

^'LO IH I 134 CMdarlq. ^

q0 00
I 3m.

he central a western portions
pon stra.a ie upper Eocene spell.
produced Ii interesting and '
aves, ext it ill at least one
same oc.urI rid ii; Wakulla,
mlppear frn surface, rising ?- c,!oti
,ny deep, pel(iculiar cavities.
e clearest okter, which boils I "'
famous leaultiful Silver
the sp ri wanting, the
nly occur ly throughout
e sudden g of portions of

*e to near are found a
*ral produ State. Many
thie full deposit near
pplly, an ds of the finest
iM. oU


have been produced by a series of reefs along the coast
and the gradual filling in behind them. The St. Johns
River was evidently once a long slough, shut in by a coral
reef. The Indian River was formed in like manner at a
later date. A similar reef at the south formed the rocky
ridge of the Miami country and inclosed the Everglades.
Another one, now forming, stretches from Biscayne Bay
to the Tortugas, the portions projecting above the surface,
with their accumulations of soil and vegetation, forming
the chain of islands known as the Florida Keys.
As would be expected from its formation, the eastern
coast has few harbors, and these are comparatively shallow.
They are at Fernandina -the mouth of the St. Marys,-
at Jacksonville on the St. Johns, at St. Augustine, and at
Miami on Biscayne Bay. This coast has, however, the
finest beaches of America, if not the world. There is an
almost continuous beach from Fernandina to Miami, mak-
ing it a famous resort where open-air bathing and other
summer sports are engaged in the year round.
The western coast is irregular, deeply indented by
splendid harbors and fringed with rich islands. Charlotte
Harbor, Tampa Bay, Cedar Keys, Apalachicola, and Pen-
sacola are the most important harbors.
The drainage of Florida falls into three natural divisions.
First, the rivers flowing into the Gulf. Chief among these
are the large rivers flowing from Alabama and Georgia
through the western part of the State, including the
Escambia, Yellow, Choctawhatchee, Apalachicola, Ocklock-
onee, and the song-famed Suwanee. Entirely within
the State and emptying along the lower Gulf coast, are
the Withlacoochee, Peace, and Caloosahatchee.
Into the Atlantic flow the St. Marys and the splendid
St. Johns. The former forms a part of the Georgia bound-


ary; the latter flows northward-nearly parallel with the
coast. The St. Johns is navigable for two hundred miles,
and its only important tributary, the tortuous and wonder-
fully picturesque Ocklawaha, is navigable to its very head
waters in the "lake region." The Indian River cannot
be classed as a part of the drainage system, being merely
a series of inlets and sheltered coastwise channels.
The third division is the interior drainage formed by
the Kissimmee River and other tributaries of Lake Okc-
chobee. This lake is situated in the northern part of the
Everglades-a great, marshy region nearly covering the
lower portion of the peninsula. This is not an ordinary
swamp. The water is clear and wholesome, and flows
with slow current. In the lower part is a vast network of
shallow streams moving among countless islands of ver-
dure. The larger of these islands are covered with pines
and palmettos, cypress, or tropical shrubs and vines.
Most of the Everglades is a growth of giant saw grass
and flags.
The level, sandy stretches toward the coasts and the
high, rolling sand hills of 'the interior are mostly covered
with open forests of longleaved yellow pine,- the chief
export product of the State, -and carpeted with hardy
wire grass. There are occasional treeless savannas, and
the larger bodies of water often extend into swamps of saw
grass, fringed by magnificent cypress. These, in turn, are
usually surrounded by more or less extensive hard-wood
hammocks of magnolia, hickory, bay, live oak, water oak,
palmetto, persimmon, sweet gum; and other characteristic
trees. The trees of the hammocks are commonly festooned
by grapevines or Spanish moss, or nearly hidden under
the foliage of climbing smilax and yellow jasmine. Occa-
sional "scrubs" of dwarf oaks and gall berry mark the


poorest sand beds, while the thickets of scrub palmetto
occur frequently in hammock and low pine land.
Wild cat, bear, turkey, and deer are gradually disap-
pearing from the populous sections, but small game is still
abundant. Alligators and plume birds have been ruth-
lessly destroyed, but are not rare in secluded places. The
commonest song birds are those.unparalleled singers, the
mocker and the cardinal grossbeak.
Florida waters, both salt and fresh, abound in the finest
fish, the taking and marketing of which has become an
important occupation. Key West is the center of the
sponge industry.
Since the "Great Freeze" of 1894, the growing of tropi-
cal fruits is confined to the lower peninsular counties, but
truck growing and general farming are developing rapidly.
The valuable output of oranges, lemons, grape-fruit, pine-
apples, etc., from the southern sections is paralleled by
the extensive shipment of melons, strawberries, tomatoes,
potatoes, celery, etc., from the counties further north.
The growing of fine tobacco on an enormous scale is an
important industry in the middle portion of North Florida,
and the high hills oiWest Florida are now recognized as,
peculiarly suited to profitable cattle raising. The lumber
and naval stores induptryemploys thousands of laborers in
every part of the State.




An Indian Myth. The Indians used to say that the
white men first came from the foam of the ocean thrown
uon the beach. After lying awhile in the sunshine the
fam melted away, and white men were seen where it had
lain. They arose and walked forth into the interior.
A pretty story, and one that no doubt the Indian children
liked to hear and tell. Perhaps
Florida children of to-day may
like as well the true story of how
the discoverers came. It is an old
story now.
Ponce de Leon. -One of the
companions of Columbus on his
second voyage was Juan Ponce de
Leon, a Spanish gentleman, as
brave a soldier as any of that
band who came over the great POce de Leo
ocean in search of adventure. In-
stead of returning to Spain, he remained at Hispaniola.
Tell the Indian legend of the coming of the white men. What is
told of the position and character of Ponce de Leon? Why and when
did he cross the ocean ?


He conquered the island of Porto Rico for Spain and was
rewarded for his services by having his command taken
away. Yet he could not remain long in idleness, and
determined to go forth again in quest of honor and
Rumors of a Fountain of Youth. Now, while his plans
were still undecided, he heard from the Indians of an
island called Bimini, where there was much gold and a
treasure even more precious than gold-a fountain whose
waters would make young forever all mortals who should
drink of it. Many wonderful discoveries had been.made
since Columbus had proved the world to be round, and
people were ready to believe anything. So the gray-
haired old warrior had no trouble in getting a commission
from the king of
Spain to conquer
Bimini and take
possession, for the
crown, of the land
with its marvelous
treasure. The
commission was
... given in 1512, and
he was to settle Bi-
mini within three
pesat maipr years after its dis-
The Expedition for "Bimini."- At his own expense
he fitted out three small vessels for the expedition, and
What was Ponce de Leon's next achievement and its reward ? Of
what land did he hear? What were its attractions? What is a com-
mission? What did this commission authorize Ponce de Leon to do?
What did it require? How large was the expedition ? How equipped ?


found men eager to join him. He could not sail as soon
as he had expected on account of some trouble with the
Indians at Porto Rico, which detained him there until
early in the next year.
(Discovery and Landing. -Sailing in the spring of 1513,
he cruised among the Bahamas, for in that group he ex-
pected to find Bimini. Failing in his search, and hearing
of land in the northwest, he steered in that direction. It
was on Easter Sunday, March 27, that he sighted land,
and after coasting along the shore for several days. landed
a little north of where St. Augustine now stan.
Florida named. The Bahama Indians had called this
land Canico, or Cancio. But on account of the beautiful
flowers everywhere to be seen, or because the discovery
was made on Easter Sunday-called by the Spaniards
Pascua florida, De Leon gave the name Florida to the
country. He raised a cross and planted the Spanish flag,
thus taking possession for the Spanish crown.
Explorations and Return. lie made some exploration
of the country, and cruised about the coast for several
weeks. He discovered and named the chain of islands
which he called the Martyrs, as well as the Tortugas,
and even sailed a little way up the western coast. But
nowhere could he learn anything of the fabled fountain
he was seeking, nor did he find either gold or silver.
Much discouraged, he returned to Porto Rico.
* Another Expedition planned. Just what the king
thought of the value of the discovery we cannot tell,
but new lands seemed always welcome. At any rate, he
bestowed upon De Leon the very grand title of Adelan-
How delayed? How long jielayed? Give date of the discovery.
Of the landing. Mark the place of landing on a map. Enumerate
the other results of the expedition. What was De Leon's reward?


tado, or governor, of Florida, and commimioned him to
conquer and whil an armi of three hundred men,
the new territory for' the crown of Spain. He was to
begin the enterprise in one year, and within three years
explore the country. But again De Leon was delayed at
the West Indies, for the Indians of those islands had risen
against the Spaniards, and his aid was needed.
Miruelo's Expedition. Meanwhile, since the way had
been shown, others were making voyages. In 1516 Diego
Miruelo, a pilot with one vessel, made his way from Cuba
to Florida, and sailed up the west coast, trading with
the natives. He dis-
covered a beautiful bay,..
supposed to be that
afterward called Pensa-
cola. He obtained some
gold from the natives,
and when he took this
back to Cuba and told
of the beauty of the
I lst* country he .had visited,
1' ', lo,,t' many persons were
'f'' 't I eager to go there.
-pasi.h Coat of Arms Cordova lands. In
1517, according to some
writers, Fernandez de Cordova landed on the western
shore of Florida, but was surprised by an attack from
a large band of hostile Indians. Six Spaniards were
wounded and one was killed. Cordova himself after-
Give the particulars of the new expedition planned. How inter-
rupted ?
Give the date, important events, and results of each of the next
five voyages.


ward died of wounds received. The Spaniarda were glad
enough to return to Cuba without seeing any more of the
new country. /__.
Pineda'r' Explorations. Though this expedition had
failed, one of the party gave such an account of the
riches and beauty of the country to the governor of
Jamaica, Don Francisco de Garay, that he sent an expedi-
tion of three vessels under Pineda to learn more of it.
The natives were no more friendly to Pineda than they
had been to Cordova, and though he landed twice, he was
each time obliged to return to his boats for safety. He
sailed up the Gulf coast and then west, passing the mouth
of the Mississippi and as far west as the river Panuco in
De Ayllon. The next year, 1520, De Ayllon,.a Spanish
officer from San Domingo, fitted out two vessels, really for
the purpose of taking the Indians as slaves. Cruising
along the Atlantic shore, he learned much of the coast
north of the St. Johns River. He told wonderful stories
of a province in the present limits of Soutlh Carolina
where the royal family were made giants by a. process only
understood by certain skillful doctors and nurses. He told
also of a race of men who were said to have tails like
horses. Perhaps he was thinking of the stories of the
centaurs he must have read at school. Some years later
De Ayllon tried to make a settlement on the spot where
Jamestown was afterward built. But there was famine
as well as sickntres. De Ayllon died the first winter, 1526,
and the colony was broken up.
Gomez. There was still another Spanish exploration of
the coast; for in 1524 Emperor Charles V. sent Gomez to

What isJmeant by centaurs? Tell of the first settlement attempted.


examine the coast south from Labrador to learn if there
was any strait north of Florida by which vessels could
reach the Indies. All these voyages proved that Florida
was part of a large continent, but De Leon always thought
of it and wrote of it as an island.
Do Leon attempts a Conquest. As time passed, De
Leon's.amniten was aroused by various expeditions of
which he heard, and most of all by
Cortez's triumphs in Mexico, and he
determined to make the conquest of
Florida. lie laid out all his fortune
in fitting out two vessels to bear him-
self and his companions to Florida.
This was in 1521. The voyage was
a rough, stormy one, but at last the
Florida coast was reached and a land-
ing made. De Leon intended mak-
ing a settlement, and had brought
with him colonists and domestic ani-
mals for their use. Priests to teach
Sdi the Indians were with him.
Warlike Indians. But there was no welcome from the
Indians. The "children of the sun" soon found them-
selves among a fierce and warlike people. The Spaniards
had hardly landed when they were violently attacked.
Many were killed and the rest forced to return to their
ships. Ponce de Leon, fighting bravely, was wounded
by an arrow. All thought of conquering and settling

What was proven by this time? What was De Leon's mistake?
What aroused him to another expedition? Give his purpose this
time. Where did the expedition start? When? Whom and what
did he bring with him? Tell of the trip and reception. The


Florida was now given up, and the return voyage to Cuba
'was begun.
De Leon's Death. -- Soon after reaching Cuba, the brave,
disappointed old knight died of his wounds. "A lion by
name and still more so by nature," is the translation of the
Latin inscription on his monument, so great was his repu-
tation for courage and daring.



Failure to overcome Cortez..- Cortez ihad won great
honor and riches in the conquest of Mexico. When
Velasquez, the governor of Cuba, who hd planned the
expedition, learned this, he became jealous of Cortez's suc-
cess, and sent Panfilo de Narvaez to take e honors away
from him. But Cortez was not to be sp/easily overcome.
One stormy night, with about three hundred men, he sur-
prised De Narvaez's force of nine hundred Spaniards and
one thousand Cuban Indians, on the coast of Mexico, and
took De Narvaez himself prisoner. The Spanish court
favored Cortez in the matter, and the complaints of Nar-
vaez aroused no sympathy. Disappointed in -getting the
command in Mexico, he asked for permission to conquer
and colonize Florida. Emperor Charles V. granted this,
and gave him the title for life of Adelantado of all the
lands he should discover and conquer.

What became of Ponce de Leon? By whom and on what expedi-
tion was Narvaez sent from Cuba? Why? With what result?
What commission was next granted him? By whom?


Lands near Tampa Bay. -He sailed from Spain with
five vessels and six hundred men, but when he reached the
West Indies, nearly one fourth of his men refused to go
any farther. Then two of the vessels with seventy men
on board were lost in a hurricane. On account of these
misfortunes, he could not go on with his voyage until he
could get more vessels and more men. Next spring he
again set sail, and on April 15, 1528, he entered a bay just
north of what is now Tampa Bay.
He had not looked for any great resistance from the
natives, but, like De Leon, he soon found that they were
very different from the gentler natives of the West Indies.
Some were on the shore when he landed and, though they
did not attack him, they made signs that he must go back
to his boats and sail away.
De Narvaez decided that he would march with the
greater number of his men along the coast until he should
reach the large bay Miruelo had discovered, and there the
'ships with one hundred men on board were to meet him.
But De Narvaez and the men with him never saw the
ships again. The ships reached the bay, anchored, and
waited in vain for the leader and his forces. Then, after
cruising and searching along the coast for a year, they
sailed to Mexico.
Search for Gold. A few days after landing, De Nar-
vaez began his march to the north. He met some Indians
wearing gold ornaments.. He asked where the gold
came from, and the Indians pointed to the north, saying
"Apalacheel" They made signs from which the Spaniards
Give the size of the expedition. What two misfortunes befell it?
How long was it delayed? Describe place and time of landing.
Reception by the Indians. Arrangement with the ships. What did
the vessels do? Tell of Narvaez's march.


supposed that a great deal of gold was to be found. The
Indians probably meant the gold region of Georgia near
the head waters of the Apalachee, but the Spaniards
thought they meant a much nearer village of the Apa-
lachee Indians, on Lake Miccosukee, not far from where
Tallahassee now stands, and there they directed the
/'adian Hostility. It was a long, hard march, and when
the end was reached Apalachee was found to be only a
very small Indian village, with no gold or splendor of any
kind. Other villages were not far away, and De Narvaez
made his headquarters at one of the largest, Anhayea,
about the present site of Tallahassee. There he remained
several weeks, the Indians all the while trying to get rid
of him. First a kind of irregular war was made upon the
invaders; then the Indians tried the more successful plan
of saying that their land was poor and not worth having,
but that nine days' journey to the sea was a town called
Aute, where plenty of provisions could be gotten.
Since no gold could be found, provisions were not to be
despised, so De Narvaez could think of nothing better to
do than to go to Aute. This must have been near the bay
of Apalachicola. Here was another disappointment, for
Aute was reached only to find that the natives had burned
the village and fled.
Suffering and Death. De Narvaez was now sick at
heart, and longed to escape from a land where he had met
with such great misfortunes. Many of his men had died
of disease, many had been killed by the Indians, and star-
Name and locate on the map each of the three Indian villages vis-
ited by De Narvaez, and tell his purpose in going to each. Tell the
means by which the Indians endeavored to get rid of their unwelcome'"
visitor. Three causes of death among the Spaniards.


vation threatened the rest. They decided to wait no
longer for the boats, but to go to work at once and make
boats in which to sail to Mexico or Cuba.
Boat building under Diffculties. -This was no easy thing
to do, for none were experienced in the work and suitable
materials could not be procured. But the men felt driven
by necessity, and one and all set to work. Deer were killed
and bellows made from the skins. Fortunately there was
a blacksmith in the party who forged bolts and nails from
the swords and other arms. Cordage was made from
palmetto fiber and horses' tails and manes. The men
gave of their clothing for sails.
Fate of the Expedition. So hard did all work that in a
few weeks the vessels were finished, and in the latter part
of September the party embarked, hoping to reach Mexico.
But misfortunes greater than anything they had yet met
with were in store for them. One boat was wrecked near
Pensacola, two were lost at Santa Rosa, while the boat
that carried De Narvaez, after reaching the Perdido, was
blown out to sea and never heard of again. The last boat
sailed as far as Pass Christian, where the men went on
shore, were attacked by the natives, and all but a few
were killed.
The few survivors were taken prisoners and suffered
great hardships. They escaped and after several years of
adventure and wandering reached their countrymen in
So the white man disappeared again from the coast of
Florida, and the waves dashing upon the beach washed
away his footprints. For ten years longer the red man
How did they decide to escape? Tell of the difficulties in build-
ing boats. How many boats did they sail in and what became of


rested under the shade of magnolias and oaks, hunted his
game, and kept his feasts with no white brother to dispute
his claim.

De Soto's Commissiod. Ponce de Leon had sailed with
Columbus, De Narvaez had fought against Cortez for his
honors in Mexico, and Hernando de Soto, who under-
took to finish the work they had begun in Florida, had
served as soldier in the West Indies and then in Peru
under Pizarro. When he planned an expedition to con-
quer Florida, so great was his reputation as a successful
soldier that he had no difficulty in gttinrg permission from
the kingof Spain. He received thettitle of Adelantado
of Florida ind marquis of all the lands he might discover,
and Adelantado of Cuba."
Lands at Tampa Bay.- It was a'splendid retinue that
sailed with him from Spain in 1538, all eager for adven-
ture in the land they believed to be the richest country
that unto that day had been discovered." After a winter
at Cuba they sailed in the spring for Florida. On the
25th of May, 1539, they landed at Tampa Bay after a
voyage of six days. As it was Whitsunday, De Soto
called the bay Espiritu Santo (Holy Spirit), and by
this name it was known for many years. The name of
Tampa was afterward given on account of an Indian vil-
lage of that name near by. This was very near the place
where De Narvaez had landed.
Recount De Soto's former experience. What were the titles given
him? Date and place of landing. Former name of Tampa Bay.
Origin of name Tampa.


Romance of Ortiz and the Indian Princess.-Near the
landing place, just where the city of Tampa now stands,
was an Indian village, whose chief was called Hirrihigua.
When De Narvaez's vessels had anchored off the shore
eleven years before, the Indians had enticed on shore and
captured a young man of eighteen, Juan Ortiz, and a
comrade. Ortiz's companion, who tried to free himself,
was immediately killed, but Ortiz was put to torture by
being stretched on a staging of green poles with a slow
fire burning it. Now Hirrihigua had a lovely young
daughter. Her heart was filled with pity at sight of the
youth who, though he had harmed no one, was put to such
opuel torture. Weeping bitterly she throw hernoll t the
BteCn Chifcain'O feet~ and pleaded with him for mercy.
Out of love for his daughter the chief released Ortiz, and
the Indian maiden dressed his wounds and cared for him
until he was well.
But Hirrihigua hated the sight of the white man, and
after a few months Ortiz's life was again in danger.
Again the Indian maiden saved im. She told him of his
danger and said that he must go to Mucoso, a neighboring
chief to whom she was betrothed, and who, for her sake,
would befriend him. She herself went with him part of
the way one dark night, and gave him directions how to
find Mucoso. Mucoso received him kindly, and refused
to give him up at Hirrihigua's bidding. Hirrihigua was
very angry and declared that he would never give his
daughter in marriage to Mucoso so long as he befriended
the Spaniard. But even then he could not overcome his
daughter's mercy nor the young chiefs sense of honor, and
Ortiz was protected by Mucoso until the coming of De
Soto. By that time Ortiz had been living among the
Tell the story of Ortiz.


Indiais so long that he looked and talked like an Indian
and had almost forgotten his own language. lInt lie
gladly joined his countrymen and went on with De Sote
oil the Iimarch.
The March. It was not until July that l)e Soto, after
sending mne or more of his ships hbak to Cuba with news

De Soto's March

of his landing, began hiM march northward. The knights
ind soldiers of Spain in their glittering armor, the spirited
horses with their, necks proudly arclid, all in splendid
array, with gayly waving pennons and strains of martial
music, passed tlhrou-gh thie forest.
Conflicts with the Indians. The natives were no better
pleased to see himi than they had been to see De Narvaez.
When did 1D Suto march? Appearance of the Spanish arnny.


and there was one fight after another.' Sometimes' there
was trouble in getting provisions, and the hungry strangers
were glad to eat the young stalks of maize. But after
they crossed the Withlacoochee they found plenty of nuts,
vegetables, and fruit at a village called Ocalee. This was
at, or near, the present site of Ocala. After leaving
Ocalee they entered the province of a very powerful and
warlike chief, Vitachuco. Here, on a plain between two
lakes, there was a bloody battle. It is said that in this
battle two hundred Indians, forced into a lake, swam and
fought for a day and night without putting foot to bottom.
Though a great many Indians were taken prisoners in
this battle, several days later they made a successful
struggle for liberty, and in the confusion De Soto himself
was nearly killed.
> De Soto's Route. Crossing the Suwanee and continuing
his march to the northwest, he reached Anhayea in Octo-
ber and passed the winter there. From Anhayea he sent
exploring parties in different directions. One of these
parties found at Aute the poor little forge of De Narvaez,
with some trace of the work that had been done there.
His vessels arrived at the harbor near Aut6 and were sent
%to explore the coast to the west. Then in the spring De
Soto left his winter quarters and began his march to the
northeast in search of gold and pearls. You can easily
trace his march on the map. He went from Apalachee
Bay northeast, crossing the Savannah River, then west or
northwest to the gold region of upper CGorgia, then south-
west almost to Pensacola Bay, and from there northwest
to the Mississippi a few miles below where the city of

What conflicts were there with the Indians? Where were provi-
sions scant? Where abundant? What places did De Sotoreach?


Memphis is now, then-wett -beyond'the" river and back
again to its banks. You must remember that the Span-
iards called all of this country Florida.
Relations with the Indians.--The Indians feared and
distrusted De Soto, but finding that they could not drive
him away, they tried to make friends with him. One

chief sent two thousand men to meet him with presents
of corn cakes, partridges, hens, conies, and many dogs for
food. A tribe near the Tennessee River sent him seven
hundred hens, another twenty baskets of mulberries, and
still another, as a very great compliment, sent him three
hundred dogs. We are sorry to know that he laid waste

What name was applied to all this country by the Spaniards?
How did the Indians regard De Soto? How did they treat him?
What things did they give him?


the fields aind villares thrioughl wlielt lie passed, and that
het too~k tumiiv I. ii4l ialis prki Piters. treating t hem %verY cl'uehly.
N ear i t(e Savaimahil River D e Sotoi was mtet by tilt,. Ill-
ihiati 4limeeli of tilt jirovinee (of ( .ihitaiitju11i. Site Was
V 4)1- awl very b atitiul. hIIe SpaniishI writAW5 calledl

De Soto and the Indian Queen

hier tilt! ladie of the voiiiiit ic." ()it tlie 1st of May she
eniOsseil thlie river ill i t iiapiedl caiioe. lIer attendantsil t fol-
liiwiiig ill oithier caies. Nieeti- Dvg Soito, site presented
himju withI sk ins an shaw l s. t hen tooik off lhen Iwaitif ul
piearl necklace. anid jldacl it i Ie Soto'ts neck. After-
wi'all slite tuild hlim where lie emiihl fiiin a great muianyv mIore

WhIa:ii 1tIarll-i ei,. 1 1d DO. Sotomaik for tie.. Ilndialns' kinimi.*iscts? What
-,a the results f thli, I Mmiit?


pearls. Yet this generosity did not save her from being
taken prisoner and led away on foot. A month later she
escal id.
W\lien the Spaniards reached Mlauvilla, at the present
:.ite of Mobile, on tlie Alahalna River, there w\as a battle
with the Indians. Eighteen Spaniards were killed, 150
were wounded, The Indians liad seized the hiaggare of
tie iSpaniards with all their pearls, andt tlese were lurnied
whenii the village was set on fire bY the vwhiite men.
Discovery of the Mississippi. After t his bat tle l)e Soti
learned that his ships were A I'iensacola li ay -only a few
days' journey fri nI MaIvilla; bulnt le kept their arrival
a secret from his Iien, fenrilg that they would all want
to return lhoime. The vessels, after lohng waiting in vain.
returned to Cuba(' )e Sto next tlurnled to the nortllhwest
lon t lie journey thlat led hi to thlie Mississippi. This the
Spalii;irds called simply thle (ireat River. They made
ioats and rafts from tile trees on the h'lanks and so eroIssed.
'The sulimier, autumn, and uwillter werel spent ill exploring
ltie regions I.yond : Il int il the spring Ile decided to go
to the roast and send a vessel to ('nbla to ask -for help in
carrvin'ill oiln thle expedition. lie hliad now lost 250 men
and 150 horses.
lie returned to le Mississippi, but made slow progress
on the journey vt tohe I it ,slt. For thle first tine lie becamcie
discouraged-hlie 1who, hId borne upi so bravely. For,
through all tlie trials ;Old disaippointments of the march,
his gallant heart and nerve had never before failed. lie
had cheered and enco4Iuraged his nliel. and had believed so
strongly that lie woulId sI.trceed tliat they had believed it

Why did iotl l. S.oto joiii hiis slhip-' w ,INii lie could? rllow did lihe
cross the Mississippi a \Vliat didil h la l.'


too. But now he fell ill. He himself knew and those
about him knew that his long march was ended.
Death and Burial. He called his men about him, and
bade them farewell, thanking them for their love and
loyalty. He said he had meant to reward them when it
should please God to prosper him. He begged that they
would forgive any wrong he had done them, and that they
would pray God to forgive him his sins. He said he
would feel less sorrow at leaving them in a strange coun-
try if they would choose a leader and promise to obey him.
They asked him to appoint their leader, and this he did.
On the next day he died. Great care was taken to con-
ceal his death and place of burial from the Indians. In
the hush of night, by the pale light of stars, he was borne
to the middle of the great river of his discovery, and
sorrowfully, with whispered prayers, buried beneath its
waters. After many hardships the comrades who sur-
vived him reached Mexico to tell the story of suffering
and failure.
What ended De Soto's explorations? What became of the sur-
vivors of the expedition?

1. The Indian legend of the coming of the white man.
2. A sketch of Ponce de Leon according to the following outline:-
(a) His social position, wealth, time of life, former life.
(b) Traits of character.
(c) His superstition and its relation to his age, and the mar-
velous discoveries of the time.
(d) His prevailing ambitions and desires.
(e) His ideas of Florida, before and after his first, and after
his second expedition.
(f) What he accomplished by each expedition.
(g) What he hoped to accomplish by each.


(A) Why he failed in his purposes.
(i) His connection with each of the following:
Hispaniola, Porto Rico, Bahamas, Tortugas, Cuba.
S3. Tabulate in the following form all the expeditions to Florida
recorded in Chapter I:

Y NA. NAMa or I.axxo zor PEupos ReTs

4. What three commanders lost their lives in these expeditions ?
5. Account for the credibilityof the men of that time in believing
the stories told by the Indians and De Allyon.
6. Tell of the first settlement attempted on the mainland by the
7. Were the requirements of De Leon's commission complied with?
8. Give the purpose,incidents, and results of De Narvaez's expedi-
tion to Mexico.
9. Fit the exploration of De Narvaez into the tabular form prepared.
10. What seems to have been the dominating ambition of the
11. What were the relations between the Spaniards and the Indians?
12. Why did the land and water expeditions never meet as in-
13. Give the reasons for the great suffering among the Spaniards.
14. Tell of the fate of De Narvaez's expedition.
16. How did these facts become known?
16. Under whom and where had each of the first three great ex-
plorers of Florida had training?
17. Write a composition on the adventures of Juan Ortiz.
18. Trace De Soto's march from his landing to the time of his death.
19. Give an account of the foods and other commodities of value
amed by the Indians.


20. Describe the different kinds of treatment the Spaniards received
from the Indians.
21. Describe the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards.
22. Tell of the Queen and De Soto.
23. Tell of De Soto's death and burial.


1. What was accomplished by the second voyage of Columbus?
2. What is the force of the expression, "a Spanish gentleman "?
3. What is the meaning of the name De Leon "? Find Leon on
a modern Imap. What was Leon at that time? What is it now?
Explain De Leon's being called "a lion by name."
4. With whom did De Leon remain at Hispaniola? When were
the first settlements made there? Whence the name, Hispaniola?
What is its present name?
5. Read the history of Ponce de Leon prior to his crossing the
6. How did he acquire the wealth with which to fit out the expe-
ditions at his own expense?
7. How long was the Spanish rule in each of the islands named
in this chapter maintained ?
8. Who were the Spanish sovereigns during the period covered by
these chapters? What changes took place in the importance of Spain
as a nation ?
9. King Charles of Spain was Emperor Charles V.of what?
10. Ont a map, mark the extent of the world then explored, and the
portion of it ruled by this emperor
11. What was implied in De Leon's raising the cross when he
landed? What in his planting the Spanish flag?
12. Make an outline map of the West Indies and Florida and trace
approximately the several voyages, marking the landings and explo-
13. Considering the point at which he landed, and the nature of the
country there, which of the two origins of the name Florida is more
probable ?
14. Notice the date, and mention the flowers that he may have seen.
15. ReAd of the Conqmiest of Mexico. (Prescott.)
16. Read of De Narvaez's expedition to Mexio


17. What was the bay Miruelo had discovered? Why did De
Narvaez wish to reach it? (See Chapter I.)
18. Describe the character of the different parts of the country
through which De Narvaez passed.
19. At what season did he embark upon the gulf? What kind of
weather might be expected at that season?
20. What famous story is a parallel to that of Ortiz?-
21. Account for the continued hostility of the Indians toward
De Soto. Also account for his apparently cruel policy.
22. Give the reason of De Soto for each of the several directions
pursued by him in his march.
23. Note the traits of character of De Soto as shown by his actions,
and compare him with the other Spanish explorers.



Races. The Indians found by the Spaniards in Florida
were a wild and savage people. Two of the tribes in the
lower part of the -peninsula, the Tequestas and Caloosas,
were so like the natives of the Bahama Islands that it is
thought they must have come from there many years be-
fore Ponce de Leon's discovery. The tribes living north
of these belonged to the great Muscogee family.
Physique. -Like others of the race, they were tall,
copper-colored people, with long, straight, coarse hair, high
cheek bones, and black, deep-set eyes. The early Spanish
explorers declared that the men they met were like giants
in size, and so strong that they could shoot an arrow and
drive it through a tree the size of a man's thigh. And
they told, too, of how fleet-footed the red men were in
To what two great families did the Florida Indians belong? De-
-scribe their facial characteristics.


following the deer, and of their wonderfully keen sight
and hearing.
Clothing. They wove a kind of coarse cloth of 'bear
grass and palmetto fiber, and of this made most of their
clothing. The women wore mantles of this material fas-
tened on the shoulder with the right arm out, and skirts
fastened at the waist and hanging to the feet. The men
wore mantles over the
shoulder in the same way, .
with short tunics of deer-
skin dressed and colored. .
Their moccasins were of Loton o te po r
deerskin prepared in such dPa "dian Nasea i
-a Plorid\
cloth. They loved display and wore orna-
ments of gold and of pearls. The gold must
have been gotten from the Indians of the
nearest gold regions, and the pearls from
their own waters. Some of these Indians -
tattooed their skins.
Dwellings. Their dwellings were usually grouped to-
gether in villages surrounded by a close wall of posts ten
or twelve feet high. In the northern part of Florida and
on the Gulf coast these dwellings were often mere shelters
of poles covered with woven mats. In some' cases the
whole tribe had its home in one great building which
must have been something like a large arbor a part of
which would be set apart for the chief and his family.
With some tribes the houses were very substantial. In
certain villages near the Atlantic coast, all the houses ex-
cept the chief's were circular, having floors level with the
Of what did the Indians make cloth ? What ornaments did they
have? How were their villages protected ?


ground. The chief's house was usually on a mound, and
was not circular; the floor was below the level of the
Government and Wars. The chief or king was always
very powerful. When he died his son ruled in his
place. The tribes that were governed
by these chiefs were fierce, and
war was their delight.
Like other Indians,
they fought in
small bands, and
their weapons
were arrows,
spears, clubs, and toma-
hawks. Warriors were
proud of the number of
scalps they could take.
They would sometimes
take prisoners. Some
of these were put to torture
and afterward killed, some
were kept as slaves. Occasion-
ally a prisoner who showed very
great courage would be adopted
into the tribe.
Occupations. These Indians
were skilled in hunting and fish- U L.fe
ing. With streams, lakes, and
coast waters alive with fish, and the woods full of bears,
deer, turkeys, and other game, they fared well. Tilling
What form of government did they have? What were their weap-
ons? Howdid they dispose of theirprisoners? How did they provide


Sthe soil in a simple way, they raised food crops twice a
year. The principal tool used was a kind of hoe made of
a shell fastened to the end of a stick. A clumsy sort of
tool it must have
been, but the fertile
fieldsproduced corn,
beans, squashes, and
other vegetables in
plenty. When veg-
etables could no
longer be had, there
were nuts and roots pa to be found.
Gourds were raised
to furnish dishes and vessels for various uses. The
Florida Indian thought much of his tobacco, and smoked
it in a long pipe made of a cane with an earthen cup at the
end, much as pipes are made and smoked now.
Amusements. -They were grave, dignified people, who
talked little and seldom smiled. Yet they had their amuse-
ments-games of ball, wrestling, running, and leaping
matches and their wild dances.
Worship.- They worshiped the Great Spirit, and be-
lieved that after death the good and brave would enjoy
the happy hunting grounds. They had special festivals
in honor of the sun and the moon, and offered sacrifices to
an imaginary being called Toya.
In the morning every Indian would stand before his
dwelling, and stretching out his hands to the rising sun,
say or sing a sort of hymn in praise of its glory. This was
done again at noon. At evening, standing so that the last
What crops did the Indians raise? What was their religious
belief? What was their daily custom?


rays of the sun would fall upon them, they bade farewell
to the rapidly sinking globe of fire.
There were a number of feasts, but four especially,
during the year, when they would gather on the highest
ground near the villages and offer sacrifices of plants and
honey. At such times the chief priest, or jauva, as he was
called, would spread corn on a smooth stone as an offering
to the birds in gratitude for their melody. At noon the
offering would be made again, and then cages, in which a
great many birds had been kept for the occasion, would be
opened and the birds set free. A festival was held at the
time of the corn planting and another when the corn was
The jauvas were also medicine ien and were expected
to have a cure for every ailment. They were treated with
great respect at all times, and were always consulted when
anything of importance to the tribe was to be decided.
They were a strange people, very fierce, very cruel to
their enemies, but brave as men could be and faithful to
those of thor own tribe. The story of Juan Ortiz and
other stories their history gives show that they were
capable of a high sense of honor and noble conduct.
What did their feasts celebrate? Who were the jauvs,?
1. Describe the physical characteristics of the Florida Indians.
2. Their clothing.
3. Their dwellings.
4. Their warfare customs.
5. Tell about the agriculture of the Florida Indians.
6. Their religious customs.
1. Supplement and illustrate this chapter with all that has been
said in preceding chapters regarding the Indians.


2. Compare the Indians of Florida with those farther north as
described in large United States histories.
3. Of what kind of stone were the arrow and spear heads most
commonly made and where are quarries of this stone found ?
4. Old Indian fields, mounds, and collections or specimens of pot-
tery and weapons are to be found in almost every part of the State.
Large mounds of oyster shells are found near the coast at various
points, which show clearly that they were formed by annual encamp-
ments of Indians at these places. All these afford convenient mate-
rial for research throughout the State.
5. Read the accounts of the recent or present customs of the rem-
nant of Indians in the Everglades, including the Green Corn Dance "
and other feasts in recognition of the beautiful belief of "God in



parish issionaries.- Several years after De Soto's
expedition, a few earnest priests determined to try to teach
the Christian religion to the Indians of Florida. Until
now all who had visited the strange land had come in
the name of an earthly king, seeking wealth, glory, and
honor. These came in the name of a heavenly king to
bring the knowledge of God and His goodness. On reach-
ing Tampa Bay two of the priests tried to land, thinking
they would go together into the interior of the country.
But it was not to be so. The natives, with their war
clubs, were assembled on the coast, and with heavy blows
instantly killed both priests. Then another of the pious
men said that he would land alone so as to show the
natives that he came in peace. Yet no sooner'had he
landed than he too fell dead under the warriors' clubs.
Discouraged by his sad fate and seeing that it was of no
How did the Indians receive the Spanish priests?


use to try to land, his companions sorrowfully gave up
hope of teaching the Indians and set sail for Havana.
Attempted Settlement by De Luna. So far every effort
made by the Spaniards to conquer Florida had failed. In
1556 King Philip deter-
mined to intrust the
troublesome matter to the
governor of Mexico, Don /
Luis eo Velasco. He was
a very wise, just man and
had dealt fairly with the
Indians of Mexico, always
protecting them in their
rights. So it was hoped
+hat he might win the
friendship of the warlike
Indians of Florida and
make a peaceable settle-
ment of the country. I -,
Three years later, the
expedition so carefully
planned sailed from Vera
Cruz, Mexico, under the A 0-i
command of Don Tristan
de Luna. It landed near
the future site of Pensa-
cola. The party numbered
fifteen hundred soldiers and settlers, besides priests to
convert the Indians. They had a year's supply of pro-
What was the next effort to make a settlement in Florida? Under
whose direction? Who led the expedition? Where did they land
and settle?


. But this expedition, planned with such forethought, was
no more successful in making a settlement than others had
been. A settlement was indeed attempted just where
Pensacola was afterward built, but it was given up. After
many weary marches 'and disappointments the Span-
iards returned'to Mexico or to the West Indies, and King
Philip II. declared that he would make no further attempt
to settle Florida, as.there was no danger of the French
trying to do so.
France and the Huguenots. Perhaps France might have
thought more of making colonies in the New World if she
had been less busy at home. In 1524 Verrazani, an Italian
sailor in the service of France, had explored and claimed
for that nation the coast from Carolina to Nova Scotia,
calling it New France. You remember that' Spain had
claimed the same land as part of Florida. Yet it was not
until after De Luna's expedition that the French tried to
found a colony on the territory claimed by both nations.
There was but little peace or safety in France for the
Huguenots, as the Protestants there were called. Their
leader, the great Admiral Coligny, had for a long time
wished to establish a safe home for them in America,
where they would be free to worship God in their own
faith. (He first attempted a settlement on the coast of
Brazil, and though this proved a failure, Coligny was not
altogether discouraged.
Discovery of St Johns River. He obtained a commis-
sion from the king of France, Charles IX., and sent an

What was the outcome of De Luna's expedition ? Why was Philip
willing to give up settling Florida? What had the eastern coast of
the present United States been called by the Spanish? By the
French? Who was Coligny? Whom did he wish to colonize in
America? Why? Where had he attempted a settlement?


expedition to North America under the command of the
brave Jean Ribault. Ribault sailed from France Feb-
ruary, 1562, his two vessels carrying some of the'best men
of Fraii-re He reached Florida near the latitude of St.
SAugustine, but did not land, sailing northward along the,
coast. He discovered the river called by the Indians
Welaka, but now called St. Johns. Ribault named it

Jean Ribault (frm an old print)
the River of May, because he saw it on the first day of
May. As he sailed along the coast, he gave French
names to the capes and named he rivers for the rivers of
French at Port Royal, z56 p At last he came to the
fine harbor of Port Royal aid here decided to make the
settlement. A small fort was built and called Fort Caro-
line in honor of King Charles of France. Twenty-six
men were left to hold possession of the fort, and Ribault,
What did Ribault discover ? Where did he land?


expeattng soon to return, set sail for France. When he
arrived there lie found civil war raging, and he could not
return then to carry aid to the little fort.
Meanwhile things went badly indeed at Fort Caroline.
The Indians had been friendly, but the soldiers had quar-
reled among themselves. When provisions became scarce
and there was no sign of help, they mutinied and killed
their captain. They said they would return home at all
hazards, for they could not longer bear life in the wilder-
ness. So they made a frail little boat, and set out for the
perilous voyage across the ocean. Their provisions gave
out before the voyage was half ended, and all would have
perished had they not been rescued by an English vessel.
- Settlement on St. Johns. After many months of a
so-called religious war, a peace, or pretense of peace, was
made between Charles IX. and his Huguenot subjects,
and now Coligny asked that help be given for the little
colony across the ocean. The king consented, and three
ships were fitted out. The command of these was given
to Ren6 de LaudonniBre, one of those who had been with
"Ribault on his first voyage.
Instead of Port Royal, the site selected for this colony
was on the southern side of the St. Johns River (which
they called the River of May), a few miles from the
mouth. Here they built a fort, called, like the first, Fort
Caroline. The fort was triangular, and was built entirely
of sand and logs.
The natives received the newcomers very kindly.
They came to see them, bringing presents of vegetables
and fruit, showed the French how to plant corn and make
What became of Ribault's colony? Who commanded the next
French expedition? Where was the settlement made? How was the
fort built?


fish traps, and did all they could to help the strangers to
get on in the new land.
Unfortunately the colonists were not the sort of men to
get on in a new country. They became discontented;
there were many disputes,
and finally they lost the
friendship of the Indians
by harshness and unfair-
ness. They thought gold
could be found in Florida, ..'
and in looking for it
wasted time that might
better have. been spent in
planting crops.
Reinforcements. The -
French had landed in
Florida in June, 1564. In
the spring of the next year,
supplies had become so
scarce that the colonists
determined to make such
vessels as they could and
return to France. About 5 ~
this time Sir John Haw-
kins, a famous English sea- French vessel
man, came sailing along the coast in search of fresh water.
lie was very generous to the colonists, and gave them,
not only a large supply of provisions, but a vessel from
his fleet. Delighted now, the homesick colonists made

How were the French received by the Indians? What did the
Indians teach them? What was the cause of trouble? Of the failure
of the colony? What aid did they receive?


preparations to return to France. But their friends at
home had not forgotten them. On the very day set for
sailing, August 29, 1565, the sails of Ribault's long ex-
pected vessels were seen approaching. There were seven
vessels, bringing families of emigrants, domestic animals,
tools, seeds, and supplies of every kind.
So the French remained, but Sir John Hawkins had
gone his way.
A Rich Land.--Sir John Hawkins gave an account
of the French colony when he reached England, and said
that he could not understand why they had been in such
need. I For," he wpoto, the ground doth yield vintualn
auficicnt. I The ground yieldeth naturally grapes in
great store. .. Also it yieldeth roots, passing good;
deer marvelous good, with divers other beasts and fowls
serviceable to the use of man. There be things where-
with a man may live, having maize wherewith to make
bread." He mentioned the trees that grew in the country,
cedar, cypress and others, saying "better cannot be found
in the world." He was struck, too, ivith the many valu-
able medicinal plants he found. In naming the animals
of the country he said that he had heard there were also
lions, tigers, and unicorns; but the honest gentleman did
not say that he had himself seen these.



Menendez.- Though Philip II. had for a while lost in-
terest in the settlement of Florida, he had no idea of really
What of Ribault's return? What did Sir John Hawkins say of


giving up any part of his lands in the New World. In
1565 he sent Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, a brave sol-
dier, but a very cruel one, to conquer
and colonize Florida.
While Menendez was making
ready to sail, news came of the
Huguenot colony, and of Ribault's
preparation to go to its aid. Great
was the anger among the Spaniards,
and as many as Menendez could take
with him eagerly joined his exedi-
iotl. At midsummer the vessel -ae
sail, and they made a quiet voyage
across the Atlantic. A storm scattered the fleet, how-
ever, and when Porto Rico was reached, only about a third
of his. forces were with Menendez.
The Landing. In too great haste to await the rest, he
sailed to Florida. He sighted the coast on the day conse-
crated to St. Augustine, August 28, and he gave the name
of that holy man to the place where he landed. He learned
all the Indians could tell him of the French, then sailed
about the coast to make certain where they were. Some
distance to the north he sighted four vessels of Ribault.
These had arrived a few days before, but were too large
to cross the bar at the mouth of the river.
St. Augustine Founded. The French demanded of
Menendez who he was and why he came. He replied in
no gentle words that he was Menendez of Spain with

Whom did Philip next send to Florida? When? What added
zeal to this expedition? Tell of the voyage. Why was the first set-
tlement called St. Augustine? What was the first thing Menendez
did after lauding? What was his reply to the inquiries of the
French ?


orders from his king to kill and behead all Protestants
in the regions about. He then said he would spare the
Frenchmen who were Catholics. 'As Ribault's men had
no wish to be killed and beheaded, and were not prepared
to give battle, they cut their cables, and though long pur-
sued by the Spauiards, escaped to the open sea.
The Spaniards returned to St. Augustine. They went
on shore, and, on September 4 took formal possession of
the land for the king of
S Spiiin. After religious
Sservlces the foundation
of B~t~ ugustine, the
oldest--in in the
United Staewas laid.
-aauh e An Indian village had
Spanish Ca-,on
occupied the site, and
the chief made a present of his dwelling to the Spaniards.
Around this dwelling defenses were hastily made of earth
and fagots the Spaniards learning with great surprise
that no stones were to be found. Then eighty cannon
were put in place, and so the hurriedly built fort was
Ribault's Vessels Wrecked.- The French at Fort Caro-
line hardly knew whether to make their defenses stronger-
and wait for the enemies to make the attack, or to em-
bark on their vessels and seek the Spaniards. The latter
plan was decided upon, and Ribault left only a small gar-
rison at the fort with the women and children and the
It was the season of storms. Hardly had Ribault left
the harbor when a terrible gale arose. The French ships
Tell of the founding of St. Augustine. What had the place been ?
How did the French seek to protect Fort Caroline?


were all wrecked upon the coast, some more than a hun.
dred miles south of Fort Caroline. Most of the men
escaped to the shore, but were too far from the fort to
make their way there.
Massacre at Fort Caroline. Menendez made ready to
attack Fort Caroline, now practically without defense.
Swamps, lakes, creeks, and thick for-
ests lay between the fort and St.
Augustine; but through all and in
the pouring rain Menendez led his
men. The fight could not last long.
He made a furious attack. There
was a frightful massacre. Although
toward the last Menendez ordered
the women and children, the crippled
and aged, to be spared, it was not
till after many even of these had
been killed.
A few of the garrison escaped to
the woods. Some of these went S
Preach Sodier
back and gave themselves up to the
mercy of the Spaniards. They were instantly put to
death. The others, after great suffering, reached the sea-
coast. here they were taken on board two small French
vessels that had remained in the harbor when the rest
went out. So they escaped.
Massacre at Matanzas.- Having destroyed Fort Caro-
line, Menendez went in search of the Frenchmen, who,
the Indians told him, had been shipwrecked on the coast.
Two hundred of these unfortunate men were found at
Matanzas Inlet, with no means of crossing. Menendez,
on the other side, arranged his men so that their number
With what result? Relate the story of the massacres.


seemed greater than it really was. The shipwrecked men
asked permission to pass the inlet and go to their friends
at Fort Caroline. Then, when told of the destruction of
the fort, they asked to be sent home, as France and Spain
were at peace. But Menendez would only say they must
trust to his mercy, and it seemed there was nothing else
for them to do. Boats were sent over for them, and, ten
at a time, they were brought across the inlet. They ex-
pected to be taken to St. Augustine as prisoners, but
before sundown all except eight, who said they were
Catholics, had been put to death.
After a few hours, Menendez learned that Ribault was
at Matanzas making a raft to cross on. He hurried
back, and bade Ribault and his companions to submit to
his mercy as he had bade the two hundred to do.: Two
hundred of these felt that they could never trust him, and
somehow slipped away into the woods. A few of these
were later captured by the Spaniards, yet some lived to
return to France. But Ribault with one hundred and
fifty of his men, as the two hundred had been, were taken
by tens across the inlet, then were bound and massacred.
A few musicians and mechanics were spared, and' those
who said they were Catholics less than twenty in all.
The noble Ribault met his death calmly and fearlessly.
In a clear voice he sang a psalm. Then he said that in
twenty years, more or less, he must make his final account
to God, and Menendez might do with him as he would.
So with calm and pious courage that strengthened his
comrades to the last, his life ended.

How many were murdered by Menendez at Matanzas Inlet? Who
were spared?




MENENDEZ was greatly praised by his king, the cruel
Philip II., for his treatment of the Huguenots. The king
of France, Charles IX., had himself so little love for his
Huguenot subjects that he gave himself no trouble about
the matter, and the noblemen at his court sympathized
rather with the Spaniards than with their own 'country-
men. The people of France were very indignant, but
could do nothing. The widows and orphans of the mur-
dered colonists signed and sent to the king a memorial.
Still he paid no attention to their sufferings.
Dominique de Gourgues. However, there was a gentle-
man of France, Dominique de Gourgues, who could not
rest until the massacre of his
countrymen should be re-
venged. We do not know
certainly whether he was
Catholic or Huguenot, but
we do know that he cared for
the honor of France. He had '
been a soldier from his boy-
hood. While very young he -
was captured by the Span-. '
iards, made to work as galley -
slave, and treated with great rec HU gsneot
cruelty. The insults received at that time he had never

How was the conduct of Menendez considered by the Spanish king?
How, by the French king? Who were indignant? Who undertook
revenge? What private grievances had he?


forgivn, and the memory of them now made him yet more
ready fo r tie work of revei\c.
The Expedition of Revenge.- Keeping his plan secret,
he sold all that he had and Inorrowed the rest that
was needed from a brother. Then he fitted out three
small vessels for the purpose, ihe said, of capturing slaves
on the African coast. lie sailed with nearly two hundred
min, August, 1.->7T,and after very stormy voyage reached
('uba. Ihere he called his followers about hin, and, for
the lirst time, told the true purpose of the voyage : "We
iImust avenge the i insult to Iour country," ,e said. "I will
always be at your head ; I will Iear the brunt of the
danger ; will voni refuse ton follow inm?" The men cried
.,nIt that th-y \n)w-r -c;ldy t.o go wi nre 1-, lh-l them.. In-
(IC'el, they were so eager that hlie coithl hI:ardly make tliin
wait until tie ImooLn shoul be full before making the pls-
sige of the Bahlama channel.
St. Augustine and San Mateo.--The Spaniards were more
strong gly situated in Florida than the French had been.
St. Augustine was well defended; a new fort, called San
Mateo, hlal Iben built on the site of Fort Caroline, and
there were two sniall forts guarding the mouth of the
river. The French ships kept their course to the north,
and one morning at daybreak anchored near the mouth of
the St. Marys Iiver.
Friendship of the Indians. The slire was thronged
with warlike Indians. They were now at open war with
tlhe Spaniards at St. Aiiugustine and tIhe forts, and, think-
ing tlhe strangers were Spani;irdis, were ready to prevent
their landing. It happened that on one of the ships was
low was tlhe exln'ldition, fitted out? IWhn was its lprpose ex-
plained ti, ti thn men? Ihlw didie thliy rn'spolmd What fortifications had
the Spaniiars Imilt in Florida? Where did the Freincl l:md?


a trumpeter who had been in Florida before and knew the
Indians. lie went toward them ii a boat, making gestures
of friendship. They recognized him and danced about on
the beach and shouted for joy as lie came nearer. They
asked why he had ever left them. and why he had not
come back sooner. For, they all said, they had not had a
happy day since the French had gone. De (ourgues told
the chief, the powerful Satouriona, that he had come to be
friends with himi and had brought himii presents. At this
there was more dancing and more shouting than ever.
Satouriona sentt word to all the neighboring chiefs to
come to meet tlhe French, and next morning there was a

Indian Weapons

great council held. To slow their trust in each other,
all laid aside their arms. Satouriona and De Gourgues
sat side by side on a scat decorated with gray moss, while
the Indians and the Freinch gathered around in circles.
I)e (lourgues hIg%;n to spelak, but the chief, who had
not, as an old historian soli.nlyv tells us, learned French
manners, broke iln ulmn the splelch, telling his own tale of
Spanish cruelty. Hl< said lliht the Spaniards had robbed
them of their food, driven them from their homes, and
killed their children; all because they had loved the

low wenr they received by the TIdliais? How was the friendship
established? What did the Indian chief t'll the French?


French. Then he ordered brought to De Gourgues a
French boy sixteen years of age, Pierre de Bri, who, after
the massacre, had been found and cared for by the Indians.
They had kept him with them and protected him, though
the Spaniards had repeatedly demanded that he should be
given up.
After much talking it was agreed that when three days
should have passed the French and Indians should go to-
gether to attack the Spanish forts. Then presents were
given to the savages, mirrors, and trinkets, and knives, -
and the council was over.
Capture of Forts. When the appointed day came, the
Indians were ready, armed, and in their war paint. They
danced, and waved their war clubs, and drank the "black
drink," which they thought would make them strong in
battle. They insisted that De Gourgues, too, should drink
the black drink with them. All preparations being made,
they set out at dark; the Indians by paths through the
forest, the French by sea.
They met at dawn of the second day on the bank of a
stream near one of the forts at the mouth of the river, and
here had to wait for some hours on account of the tide.
After this delay they proceeded, and had nearly reached
the fort before they were discovered. Confused and terri-
fied, the Spaniards did not know where to turn. A senti-
nel gave the alarm and fired twice upon the French. One
of the Indians ran him through with a spear. Some tried
to escape through the gates, but were killed or captured.
The ships began an attack from the sea, and the arrows of
the Indians fell like hail. The guns in the fort across the
What had the Indians done to befriend one of the French? What
plot was laid? What tokens were given ? How did the savages pre.
pare for the attack? Where did they attack?


river opened fire. The French returned the fire from the
captured fort.
San Mateo Taken. De Gourgues now marched on to
San Mateo. Here the garrison were so terrified that they
did not attempt to defend themselves. The commander,
with a few others, escaped. All the rest were killed or
captured. But De Gourgues was not yet satisfied. When
Menendez had destroyed Fort Caroline, some of the French,
after escaping from the fort, had returned and surrendered
themselves. Menendez had them hanged from a tree. On
the tree he wrote, "This is done, riot as unto Frenchmen,
but as unto Lutherans." On the same tree De Gourgues
hanged certain unfortunate Spanish prisoners, and placed
on the tree the inscription, "This is done, not as unto
Spaniards, but as unto liars, thieves, and murderers."
St. Augustine was too strong to be attacked, so when
the three forts were destroyed, farewells were said to the
Indian allies, and the ships of revenge sailed for home.
De Gourgues's Reward. Ill fared it with De Gourgues
in France. The Huguenots greeted him warmly, but the
king and nobles were not pleased. The king of Spain de-
manded his life, and he was obliged to live in concealment
for several years. Then things grew brighter for him.
Queen Elizabeth of England invited him to enter her ser-
vice, but about that time Charles IX. restored him to favor.
He died in 1593, just as he was about to take command of
a Portuguese fleet against his old enemies, the Spaniards.

With what result? What place was next attacked? With what
result? What explanation had Menendez written of his massacre?
What reply did De Gourgues now make ? Why did De Gourgues
now return? How was he received in France?



Forts Rebuilt. At tile time of D)e (iourgues' s attack
ilii title fo rts4, Menelidez %vv,; ini Spain, but lie soon
ret tlimiled With s plpdivs andt lie rehiuilt
S.Lll Nitateo) ild tile iJtlier forts4 with little loss of tilme.

Gates of St. Augustine

;u111lI, expoir'edI the comi iutry tou a gri;ut tlistance north anti
Menendez attempts to Christianize the Indians. H ae wasq
Ii) 1)11to1bring aI N utt tile rel i-4'iolls coI vers~ioiI of the
Ihat i v'S, -.1114 had 1 roiluiglit Avith himii tell iuissie iua ieN and .1
v')11~ Ii I iiihi11 tti ljveat I, theit Spleituumls ill (lni. 'rhuix
I II4Ii;LtI Ofiie'ei teo ht*ild a,~~mto il issil 1. rimics to tile 1)"'-'*-
uineo where.I~ luroue was elnief. 'fimuistitu,4 to hits guid-
auuee the cluiuul (I'as set uut, sIhin tle tIlit, alouug the ast as far

Wfivro-we Nfri~teuueee-z at thv. time of De;ur~u.' attack? WViuat,
-died leie, do m lii.- ruturiut 114eiw were huis imlissioiiaries treated?


as Chesapeake Bay. Here they landed and went a little
way into the country, when they were betrayed by their
guide and killed. Another party that came the next year
shared the same fate. Then Menendez went to the region
himself, anid severelyy puni.slhed the Indians of the prov-
ince. But lie won no converts and made no settlement
Death of Menendez. After a few years Menendez left
thle governmlent of Florida to his nephew and returned to

Oldest Houses of St. Augustine

Spain. There he was treated with great honor, and the
king placed him in command of the Armada, or fleet,
which lie expected wu ld destroy the power of England.
But his days of fighting were done; just as the fleet
was about to sail Menendez died.
St. Augustine Burned. -In 1586 the bold English
sailor Sir Francis Drake, returning from a voyage to the

What did he inflict upon the Indians? Tell of his great bonor
and death.


West Indies, sighted St. Augustine. He had not known
that there was a Spanish settlement in that part of the
world. But learning it now, he was well pleased to land
and burn the little town, founded just twenty years be-
f 0 t. Augstine Rebuilt. -St. Augustine was rebuilt, but
very slowly, for in Spain there was little interest in the
colony. But there was interest in the conversion of the
Indians, and in 1593 twelve missionaries of the order of
St. Francis came to Florida and labored at villages on the
coast not far from St. Augustine. These good men taught
and converted a great many Indians.
Conversion of Indians.- One of these converts was a
son of the chief of the province, and he had great in-
fluence over his companions. It happened that the priest
at the mission, after reproving him privately several times
for some misconduct, rebuked him publicly. This made
the young warrior very angry. lie went away, and per-
suading a large number of his friends to join him, hurried
back with them to the mission. He arrived there at night,
and rushing into the chapel where the priest was at prayer,
killed him instantly.
Murder of Priests. There was great excitement in the
village, for most of the people had loved the priest, and
all feared the Spaniards. The young warrior told them
that since one priest had been killed, the Spaniards would
be as angry as if all had been put to death, and that this
was the time for the Indians to show they had not lost
their old valor, but were still to be feared.. So they fol-

Who burned St. Augustine? When? What new effort was made
to convert the Indians? What success was had? What caused the
murder of the priests?


lowed while he led the way to the neighboring mission of
good Father Montes. He went to the priest, and told him
he must now die, for it had been decided to kill all the
missionaries. The priest implored them to give up their
wicked plan. But they brandished their Weap90 anj
cried out again that he must die. He then asked to be
allowed to celebrate the mass, and this they granted.
So he stood in his white robes at the altar, while his
enemies pressed about him. The service ended, he knelt
before the altar in silent prayer. His foes rushed upon
him, and he fell dead.
In this way the Indians went from mission to mission
on their merciless course, killing the priests and destroying
the chapels until they reached the island of San Pedro.
There the chief who governed it met them as they were
landing, and forced them to seek their own safety in flight.
Further Missionary Work. -Other missionaries came.
In a few years the chapels were rebuilt, and many more
missions were established, not only on the coast, but even
as far west as middle Florida. A great many Indians
became Christians, and their children were baptized and
taught by the priests, who won the trust and affection of
them all. One of the first books ever printed in the
Indian language was a catechism in the language of the
Timiquis, -a tribe living on the coast below St. Augus-
Fort Marion Built. -Unfortunately a war broke out in
1638 between the Spaniards at St. Augustine and the
Apalachee Indians, who lived in the interior. Though
What checked the murderous career of the Indians? How was
the mission work resumed? With what success? What was one of
the first books in the Indian language? When was the next war with
the Indians?


the Spanish garrison was very small, it succeeded in
driving the Indians back into their own territory. A
great many of the Indians were captured, and they and
their descendants were kep t it work for sixty years on the
fort at St. Augustine. This fort, which we call Fort Mar-
ion, was called l1y the Spaniards San Marco. It was built
of coquina from Anastasia Island, and remains to-day just

Fort San Marco

as it was two hundred years ago. It is a very strong
fortress. Though twice besieged and many times at-
tacked, it has never been taken.
The Sea Wall.-It was feared that the force of the sea
might destroy the town, and the next public work under-
taken-after the building of the fort was a sea wall to pro-
tect the town from the destructive waves. This old
What was done with captive Indians? Give the Spanish and the
present names of the fort built. Of what is it built? Where
was the material secured?


sea wall served its purpose until after Florida became
a territory of the Unitedl States. Then the present sea
wall, much more substantial than the old, was built by
our government.



Other American Colonies. -Time passed, and Spain was
no longer the only European nation with colonies in the
New World. IThe English had successfully planted colo-
nies in Virginia and New England, and were arranging
for the settlenient of the Carolinas. The thrifty Dutch

Old View of Pensacola

had settled New .\instrdinn and the French had laid
claim not only]v to tile baIsin of tili St. Lawrence, but also
to all tlhe country lr dralil'ed by tliHe Mississippi. Spain had
laiiinmed tlhe gra-ter ipart of all these lamds by right of dis-

Whlat oithlir jlpublic w rk was done? What other settlements had
wen iinale ?


cover and exploration, but had not colonized them. It
was now becoming plain that unless she did plant colonies
she would soon have no part of Florida to call her own.
So at last it was decided to send a party to make a
thorough exploration of the western coast of the peninsula
and select a good place for a colony.
Pensacola Founded. The site selected was on the
beautiful bay called by the early explorers Santa Maria,
now Pensacola. This was the very site where De ILuna
had tried to make a settlement five years before St.
Augustine was founded. The second attempt in 1696 by
three hundred men under Don Andres d'Arriola, was
morel fortunate. A small fort called San Carlos was built
and I church near by with several dwellings. The name
Pensacola was given to the settlement, whether for a town
in Spain (Penis-cola) or whether because a tribe of In-
dians, the Pensacolas, had once lived there, is not quite
certain. At any rate this name was then given to the
town founded and to the magnificent body of water on the
shores of which it was situated.
French Settlements.- It is well that D'Arriola came
when he did, for hardly more than a year later a French
expedition under Lemoine D'lberville arrived off the
harbor. Seeing the Spanish ships, D'Iberville did not
enter, but passed on and made a settlement at Biloxi and
later at Mobile. The Perdido River was agreed upon as the
boundary line between the French and Spanish territory.
Within a short while after Pensacola was founded there
were neighbors at Mobile, Biloxi, and New Orleans. For

What site was selected for a new Spanish colony? What origins
of the name Pensacola are suggested? What neighboring colonies
were established? By whom? What boundary was agreed upon?


a long time there was peace. The settlements traded with
one another. Mobile and Pensacola exchanged many
courtesies. Once whep Pensacola was threatened with
starvation, Mobile supplied her needs, and again came to
her assistance against a threatened Indian attack. But,
unfortunately, the time came when France and Spain were
at war with each other, and the colonies had to take the
part of the mother countries.
Pensacola taken by the French. When the troubles
began, I)e Bienville, governor of Louisiana, was ordered to
attack Pensacola. On the 14th
of May, 1719, he appeared
with his fleet before Pensa-
cola, having sent a large force
of Indians by land to join in
the attack. The Spanish com-
mander, Metamoras, had
never heard that war had been
declared between France and -.
Spain. He had so small a
garrison that he felt it would
be useless to attempt any n. Bieanvie
defense. So at four o'clock
in the afternoon he surrendered on condition that pri-
vate citizens and private property should not be dis-
turbed, and that the garrison should march out with
the honors of war and be carried to Havana in French
De Bienville left about sixty men at Pensacola, and sailed

What were the relations between the colonies? What disturbed
these relations? What forces took Pensacola? What were the con-
ditions of surrender?


away. But he did not feel very well satisfied, for what
had been so easily gained might be as easily lost. It turned
out as he had feared, and the French held the town only
about two months.
Spanish Recapture. -When the French vessels reached
Havana with the Spanish garrison on board, they were
seized by the captain general of Cuba, and the officers
and crews were cast into prison. Then a large expedition
was immediately fitted out to recover Pensacola, the
captured French ships forming part of the fleet. This
fleet was put under command of Metamoras. He sent
the French ships in first, and when a good position in
front of the fort was taken, the other ships followed
and the Spanish colors were shown.
The French commander was called on to surrender, and
when he refused, the ships opened fire on the fort. *The
,P-Al tLe aLeJ for a true f fA llH dfIyl hOlinff to
get help from De Dienville. A true or two day w-
granted. At the end of that time no help had come, and
the French surrendered.
French Recapture.- De Bienville determined to make
another attempt to capture Pensacola. He fitted out
several ships and organized a large force, principally of
Indians, to attack the town in the rear. He took the place,
as he had planned, and made prisoners of the garrison.
But he was not strong enough to hold it against a large
attacking force, so, after destroying the fort and burning
the town, he sailed away. The French of Louisiana were

Of what breach of faith was the captain general of Cuba guilty?
How was this advantage followed up? With what result? What
was the next step in the Pensacola War? What disposition did
Bienville make of the fort? Why?


well pleased with the part they took in this expedition,
which they called the Pensacola War.
Restored to Spain.- In 1722 peace was made between
France and Spain. Then Pensacola was restored to Spain.
The original town, which was burned by the French, yas
where Fort Barrancasis now. When the Spanish returned
in 1722, they built on Santa Rosa Island, where they
thought they would be safer from Indian attacks. After
some years, people began planting and building on the
north side 'of the bay, and there, in 1763, the city of
Pensacola was regularly laid out.

What ended the conflict in the colonies? Where was the original
Pensacola? Where was it next built? Where was the city finally
laid out? When?


2 Atmpt ct4 rsttleiment at rensacola.
3. The naming of New France."
4. The reasons of the French for seeking a settlement in America.
5. Story of the attempted Fort Caroline settlement.
6. Account of the French settlement in Florida and its troubles.
7. The three names of the greatest river of Florida.
8. The commission and the voyage of Menendez.
9. The founding and naming of St. Augustine.
10. The conflict with and the massacre of the French.
11. How Menendez's act was regarded in Europe.
12. The motives and expedition of De Gourgues.
13. The relations of the Indians with the French and with the
Spanish compared.
14. The attack on the fort.
15. The career of Menendez from his coming to Florida to his
16. Efforts to Christianize the Indians.
17. The burning and rebuilding of St. Augustine and the public


18. Indian troubles at St. Augustine.
19. Location, naming, and founding of Pensacola.
20. Neighboring French settlements and their relations with
21. What are the several positions which the city has occupied


1. Do the circumstances seem to show that he Indians killed the
Spanish priests through sheer brutality or through fear of deception?
2. Did the Spaniards afterward realize the mistake they had made
in the treatment of the Indians?
3. What seems to havejbeen the chief purpose of Philip in encour-
aging the settlement of Florida?
4. What were the relations existing between France and Spain
about the middle of the sixteenth century? What important changes
in their relations occurred during the period covered by tnese
5. Tell of the religIous wars of Europe in the time of Coligny and
his part in them. :
6. Was the settlement at the mouth of the St. Johns in a favorable
location for a self-sustaining colony?
7. Find out what you can of Sir John Hawkins.
8. Read about the Reformation and the Inquisition. A knowledge
of the religious wars and intolerance of the time is essential to an
appreciation of these chapters.
9. What storms are regularly expected about the time of year
of the destruction of the French forts?
10. Was the extremely religious conduct of Menendez and the other
Spaniards, so out of harmony with their brutality, due, apparently to
hypocrisy or was it a characteristic of the religious practices of that
11. Why did Charles of France show so little interest, in the
murdered French colony?
12. Were the motives of De Gourgues any more commendable in
the light of modern ethical ideas than those of Menendez?
13. What would be the attitude of modern nations toward the
spirit or actions of either Menendez or De Gourgues?


14. Find the location of each of the forts and settlements mentioned
and tell their present names.
15. Account for the difference of the relations sustained between
the French and the Indians and between the Spanish and the Indians.
Is tlIs difference characteristic of tile history of these nations among
the Indians elsewhere~ i America?
1. Mention the several evidences of Menendez's vigorous execu-
17. What relation may there have been between the conduct of the
Indian guide who betrayed the Spaniards and his education among
the Spaniards in Cuba?
18. Read the history of Sir Francis Drake.
19. Read of the great Spanish Armada which Menendez was to
have commanded.
20. As a means of converting and civilizing the Indians, which
was probably more effective, the punishment inflicted by Menendez
or the submissive death of the priests?
21. What is coquina? Where is it found and what use of it is
made at this time?
22. What established a nation's claim to new territory?
23. How far apart are Pensacola and Mobile?
24. What was probably D'Iberville's purpose in settling so near to
25. What war in Europe brought on colonial troubles about this
26. Was the action of the Spanish governor in seizing the French
vessels in accord with the laws of war, considering that the French
had seized Pensacola?
27. What is the further illustration, in the seizure of Pensacola,
of the comparative relations of the two nations with the Indians?



English Encroachments.- It has been told how De Ayllon
had in 1526 tried to make a settlement on the very spot
where Jamestown was afterwards built, and how Menendez


had sent two missionary parties to the Indians of the
Chesapeake. But these attempts had been followed by
failure, and for many years it was all the Spaniards could
do to keep the colonies they had first planted in the South.
Spain was no longer the powerful nation she had been at
the time of the earlier voyages of exploration. So along
the Atlantic coast from New England to Carolina, England
had planted her colonies without hindrance from Spain.
But when South Carolina was given a charter that fixed
her southern boundary below St. Augustine, it was plain
there would be trouble.
St. Augustine Plundered.- St. Augustine had suffered
from the English before now. Sir Francis Drake had
struck a blow at Spain by burning the town, and in 1665
Captain Davis, an English freebooter, had plundered it.
The fort was not finished, and the garrison made no
resistance. Little wonder that the Spanish colonists were
ill pleased at the coming of the new neighbors.
Hostilities.- The English, on their side, had soon some-
thing to complain of, for the Spanish gave refuge to their
runaway servants and prisoners, and had encouraged the
Indians to make war on English settlers.
In 1676 a small army from Florida attacked one of the
English settlements, but was obliged to retreat. Ten
years later another Spanish force took and plundered Port
Royal, and destroyed many plantations. These things
were not forgotten, and in 1702, England being at war
with France and Spain, Governor Moore, of South Carolina,
undertook an expedition against St. Augustine. He suc-
What change in the power of Spain had occurred by the beginning
of the eighteenth century ? What encroachments upon their territorial
possessions in Florida were occurring? What cause of complaint had
the English?


ceeded in driving the people into the fort and keeping
them there three months, but the fort was too strong to be
taken, and after burning the town he marched back home.
Fort San Luis and Ayavalla Destroyed. This expedition
having proved a failure and Moore still longing to distin-
guish himself, he decided to march against the Spanish
Indian towns of middle Florida. The most important of
these was Fort San Luis, just two miles westof the present
site of Tallahassee. Here twenty-three Spaniards and
four hundred Apalachee Indians met a much larger force
of English with their Creek allies. The Spanish com-
mander, Don Juan Mexia, and about half his men were
killed. The fort and the church, after being robbed of
everything of value they contained, were destroyed. Aya-
valla, a town on the St. Marks River, with its church,
suffered the same fate. The other towns near by were so
terrified that they offered to surrender. Governor Moore
took captive a great many Indians as slaves. This, he
said, was in return for the negro servants who had run
away from South Carolina to Florida and been harbored.
Desolation of the Apalachee Region. A hundred years
later Indian tradition still told the story of the terrible
visitation. Traces of roads and bridges built by the Span-
iards and the Indians, whom they had done much to civilize,
were still pointed out. Where villages, forts, and churches
hlid been, only ruins remained, though many of the names
still appeared on the maps. An old church bell was found
near the Suwanee when the Americans took possession

What were the first two warlike demonstrations between the
colonies? Tell of the English retaliation under Governor Moore.
What was done in Moore's first expedition? What in his second
expedition? What places were destroyed? What prisoners taken?
What was the region visited


of Florida. It was all that remained of the little mission
church, and the Indiana looked upon it with awe and won-
der, telling legends of how it had been brought among
them so long before.
It was this region desolated by Governor Moore that
afterwards became the home of Indians from the territory

RIls df as Old Spaniu Mism

north of Florida. Here the Seminoles came, though they
later pushed their way as far south as the Alachua region..
SFort at St. Marks and Cr6ve Ceur. After the Engliseii
invasion the Apalachees were so reduced in numbers that
their chief persuaded the governor of St. Augustine to
build a fort at St. Marks on the Gulf for their protection.
What Indians afterwards occupied the middle Florida region?


This was finished in March, 1718, and was called San
Marcos de Apalachee. The Indians themselves built a
little church near it. The same year the French built
a fort at St. Josephs Bay, calling it Crave Coeur (Broken
Heart). This after a few months was given over to the
Georgia Settled and Fortified.- Hard pressed as Florida
had been, it was still worse for her when Georgia, the last
of the thirteen English colonies, was
settled by Oglethorpe in 1733. The
Georgia settlers built a fort on the
Altamaha and another at Frederica on
St. Simons Island. The Spanish govern-
ment demanded the surrender of these
forts, but Oglethorpe refused to give
them up. Indeed, he prepared not only
to defend them, but to attack St.
War with England. -In 1739 war was declared be-
tween England and Spain. Then a squadron was sent to
assist Oglethorpe, South Carolina joined forces, and a joint
attack by land and sea was planned. There was a large
body of Indian allies.
Siege of St. Augustine. About the last of May all these
forces met near St. Augustine. The small iorts were easily
taken, then began the siege and blockade of St. Augustine.
The people of the town were soon obliged to take refuge
in the fort, and now the English hoped that the great
number of hungry mouths to be fed would oblige a speedy
When, why, and by whom was St. Marks founded? What place
was established by the French? What still harder pressure was soon
brought to bear upon Florida?


The Spanish governor, Don Manuel Monteano, was a
man of great energy, and made the most of every means
at his disposal, but the anxiety he felt is shown in a letter
to the governor of Cuba. I assure your lordship," he
wrote during the siege, "that it is impossible to express
the confusion of this place, for we have no protection ex-
cept the fort, and all else is open field. The families have
abandoned their homes and come into the fort for pro-
tection, which is pitiable, although my only anxiety is the
want of provisions; and if your lordship, lacking requisite
force, cannot relieve us, we must certainly perish." The
English knew of this distress and were confident of their
own success.
But there was a change of fortune. On the night of
the 25th of June a party from the fort sallied out
and recaptured Fort Moosa. This bit of success gave
great encouragement to the Spaniards. As the summer
wore on, sickness broke out among the English; they
became weary of the siege and longed to return home.
Worse still, some deserted to the Spaniards. Yet the
siege lasted until July 10. Then it was learned that
vessels with provisions for the fort had reached Mosquito
Inlet. This decided Oglethorpe to raise the siege and
r~purn home.
/Invasion of Georgia. English deserters told Monteano
that Oglethorpe intended returning the next spring. He
did not do so, and Monteano decided to lead an attack
against Oglethorpe's colony. A fleet was sent from Cuba
to aid him, and with this force he entered the harbor of
St. Simons July 5, 1742. The shore batteries opened a
steady fire, but this did not prevent the fleet passing.
Tell of the siege of St. Augustine in 1789. How was the sieg


Seeing this, Oglethorpe destroyed the fortifications at
St. Simons and made haste to Frederica to meet the
On July 7, the Spaniards landed and began their
march against Frederica. They had to pass over
a very narrow cause-
way through a marsh.
Here they were sud-
denly attacked, and in sn d.
the battle lost four cap- RSMCA
tains and more than .
two hundred men killed, Cnumberiand id
besides many taken pris- Fomwo"
owners. This is known Amea Id
as the battle of Bloody
Marsh." Monteano was
obliged to retreat, and
as some English vessels AueusiNt
appeared off the coast, ust. Id.
he reembarked his
troops for St. Augus-
St. Augustine Chal-
lenged. In March,
1743, Oglethorpe sud-
denly appeared before _-
the gates of St. Augus- map to iustrate Campzugs of OglathoUp
tine and offered battle,
but the garrison took no notice of his challenge, and he
returned home. There were no regular battles, but neither
Tell of the return invasion. Where did the expedition land?
What was the objective point? How did it end? Tell of another
English invasion of Florida.


was there any good will between the colonies. The Eng-
lish wrote of St. Augustine as "a den of thieves and
ruffians! receptacle of debtors, servants, and slaves I. bane
of industry and good society I" while Monteano hoped
that a day might come when he should "exterminate
General Oglethorpe with all his forces."



orida exchanged for Havana. In the war known in
merican history as the French and Indian War, lasting
from 1754 to 1763, Spain took part with France against
England. At the end of the war France gave up to Eng-
land all her possessions east of the Mississippi except New
Orleans and a very small piece of land near the mouth of
the river. New Orleans and the small piece of land with
it had been ceded by France to Spain the year before with
all the territory west of the Mississippi that France had
claimed. England's territory now stretched from the
great river 'to the Atlantic. She was anxious to add
Florida to her possessions, and easily arranged to get it
from Spain in exchange for Havana, captured by the Eng-
lish the year before. So it was that Florida became a
British colony.
Spaniards Leave. -The treaty provided that none of
the Spanish who remained in Florida should be disturbed
Describe the feelings existing between the colonies. What terri-
torial transfers in the South resulted from the French and Indian
War? What territory was then held by each of the three European
nations connected with Florida history? What transfer of Florida
was then made? How did Havana become an English possession?


in the exercise of the Catholic religion, and that all pri-
vate property should be respected. But the Spanish in-
habitants were not pleased with this change of government,
and every one from Pensacola and all but five from St.
Augustine left on the transports provided to take them to
Cuba or to Mexico.
East and West Florida. One of the first acts of gov-
eminent by the English was to divide the colony into East
and West Florida. East
Florida lay between the
Atlantic Ocean and the Apa-
lachicola River. West Florida
extended from the Apalachi-
cola to the Mississippi and
Lake Pontchartrain, and
north to latitude 81 degrees;
but the northern boundary
was afterward made latitude
32 degrees and 28 minutes,
thus taking in nearly the
southern half of what are
now the States of Alabama
and Mississippi.
Growth and Prosperity.-
To encourage the settlement
of the new territories, the
English government gave
generous land grants to officers and soldiers who had served
in the war. Reports of the country's natural wealth and
What provisions regarding the inhabitants were in the treaty?
How many Spanish citizens remained? What new boundaries and
divisions were established for Florida? What were the two northern
boundaries of West Florida?


advantages were published in England so that settlers
might be induced to come out. A great number of men,
energetic and of good character, were persuaded to make
homes in Florida. Some came from South Carolina or
Georgia, others from England, and a colony of forty fami-
lies came from Bermuda. Good public roads were made,
indigo, sugar cane, and fruits were cultivated, lumber was
shipped, and the Floridas prospered as they had never
done before.
Assemblies Called. Best of all, for people whose lib-
erty was dear to them, the governors were directed to call
general assemblies as soon as possible, to make laws for
the colonies. In the meantime the governors were, with
the advice of the councils, to establish courts.
The Turnball Minorcan Colony. In 1767, a Scotchman,
Dr. Andrew Turnbull, one of the governor's council,
formed a company to bring out settlers from Minorca and
other island of the Mediterranean to cultivate the vine,
fig, olive, and indigo. His idea was that they would.suc-
ceed well in cultivating plants like those at their own
Fifteen hundred colonists were brought out from Italy,
Greece, Smyrna, and Minorca, and a colony called New
Smyrna was founded at Mosquito Inlet. The passage of
the colonists was paid, and they were to be furnished with
food and clothing for three years. During that time they
were to work for the company, and at the end were to
receive enough land for their support.

What was done to encourage immigration? With what result?
What industrial progress resulted? What political liberty was
planned? What was the plan of the Turnbull colony ? Where was it
planted? Who were the colonists? What were the terms of their


All went well for a while, then trouble arose. The
colonists declared that the contract had been broken.
They said they had been cruelly treated by the company
and had suffered for want of food and clothing. An in-
surrection broke' out among them, but was soon crushed
and two of the leaders were put to death. Nine years
after the founding of tihe colony, a few of the Minorcans
-as all the colonists were now called-went to St.
Augustine, laid their wrongs before the
government, and begged for release.
During the years of slavery and mis-
ery their number had been reduced to
six hundred. The matter was looked
into by the government, and they were
released from all obligations to the
company. They all moved to St.
Augustine, where portions of land in
the northern part of the city were given
British saisis of the
A Royal Colony during the Revolution. t o ti
Florida was a new colony and had
been so well treated that she had not the same causes for
complaint against the mother country that the older
colonies had. She remained under British rule through
the Revolutionary War, and gave refuge to many English
sympathizers from Georgia and South Carolina. Yet there
must have been a few who were for the cause of inde-
pendence, for in 1776 the governor of East Florida called
on the militia to join the royal forces to repel invasion
and to prevent any more men from joining their "traitor-
What was the cause of trouble? What was the outcome? Where
did the colonists go? What was a chief reason for Florida's not join-
ing the Revolution?


ous neighbors." When the astonishing news of the Decla-
ration of Independence reached St. Augustine, the people
rushed in wild excitement to the public square and burned
Hancock and Adams in effigy.
During the next two years several thousand loyalists
moved from Georgia and South Carolina into Florida, and
there was bitter feeling among the colonies. An invasion
of Florida was planned, but not carried out, and though
an expedition was fitted out at St. Augustine to invade
Georgia, this also failed. Later in the war other expedi-
tions were planned on both sides, but were not carried out.
Spanish Conquest of West Florida.-In 1779 war was
declared between England and Spain, and in August the
governor of Louisiana invaded West Florida rnd took
the forts on the Mississippi. The next March, after a
strong resistance, he took Fort
Charlotte on Mobile River,
then prepared to attack Pensa-
cola. General Campbell was
in command at Pensacola with
Powdhwa Ad Cut-m a thousand men, and besides
there were two garrisoned
forts. But the Spanish were superior in strength, and on
May 9, Campbell and his troops marched out andcgave
up their arms. Spain now held West Florida from Pensa-
cola west to the Mississippi River.
Florida exchanged for the Bahama Islaids. When the
Revolutionary War ended and the American colonies be-
came independent States, England ceded East and West
Florida back to Spain in exchange for the Bahama Islands.
What was her relation to the neighboring colonies? What was the
occasion for the invasion of Florida by the Spanish? Enumerate the
results of the invasion.


The treaty was signed September 8, 1783, and the English
colonists who had made homes for themselves in the new
country were given eighteen months to remove with their
property. It happened, however, that a few English did
remain and all the Minorcans. Some who had come into
the colony from Georgia or South Carolina returned to
their old homes. The rest were taken on transports fur-
nished by the British government to seek homes in England,
Nova Scotia, or the Bahamas.



Settlements Abandoned. The Spaniards did not find it
easy to get new colonists in place of the English. Some
fine estates on the St. Johns River and the east coast were
now unoccupied, and settlements in other places were aban-
doned. The few people at St. Augustine hardly dared go
beyond the protection of the guns of the fort; for the In-
dians now began to give trouble in various ways.
Alexander McGillivray. The Spaniards were very anx-
ious to gain the friendship of the neighboring tribes, espe-
cially the Creeks. The print i rhi -the rek-as
lex;inder M Ghm'f the son of Creek woman and a
Scotch trader. He was remarkably intelligent and had
been well educated. He took the part of the English dur-
ing the Revolution, and was very active in their service in
Georgia. He held the rank of colonel in their army. In
At the close of the Revolution what disposition did England make
of the royal colony? Who remained in Florida? What of the
dcsolateness of Florida at the time of the second Spanish occupation ?
What danger threatened the few people in the colony?


1784, he made a treaty for the Creeks and Seminoles with
the Spanish government, promising to preventahil white
men going into their country except with the. consent of
Spain. He also did much to gain the friendship of other
tribes for Spain. For all these services the Spanish gov.
ernment gave him a colonel's rank and pay.
Later still McGillivray represented the Creeks in a
treaty with the United States, and displeased both Indians
and Spaniards by promising, that after a certain date all
the trade of the Creeks should pass through ports of the
United States. And now it was proved that while he re-
ceived a large salary from Spain, he was receiving a large
salary as agent for the United States, and that he wore
sometimes the uniform of a Spanish colonel and sometimes
that of a brigadier general in the American army. So this
very remarkable Indian chief had held high commissions
under three great civilized nations. He died in 1798, and
was buried at Pensacola with Masonic honors.
William Augustus Bowles. A bold attempt was made
in 1789 by General William Augustus Bowles to regain
possession of Florida for the English. Bowles was a na-
tive of Maryland, and during the Revolution had held a
command in the British army. While stationed at Pensa-
cola he was dismissed from the service, and in search of
adventure went away with some Creek Indians. Helafter-
ward married the daughter of one of their chiefs, and
made his home among them for a while.

What alliance did the Spanish now seek? What remarkable
character brought about such alliances?- What different positions of
power did McGillivray hold under different governments? What
treaty did he make with Spain for the Creeks and Seminoles?
Where was he buried? What nation did Bowles serve? Tell of the
career of this man.


Meanwhile the Spaniards of Louisiana had captured
Pensacola. When this news reached Bowles he marched
there against the Spaniards, at the head of a large force of
Indians. The expedition was unsuccessful, but on ac-
count of his undertaking it, Bowles was restored to favor.
He was of a restless disposition, however, and was not sat-
isfied with ona profession. He went to New York and
afterwards to the Bahamas, and became an actor and then

Creek ladilas

a portrait painter. During the
second Spanish occupation he was
sent by the English to establish a
trading post among the Creeks.
^ '. St. Marks Surprised. But merely to
'1-.- establish a trading post did not satisfy
his ambition. He first tried, without success, to get
allies among the Indians in East Florida and in the
Alachua district to aid in destroying thp Spanish power.
He was more successful among the Creeks. He told
them that the goods at the various trading posts were
really presents that had been sent to the Indians and had
been wrongfully kept from them. The Creeks believed
What invasion did he lead? What plot did he later undertake?


this and were easily persuaded to join him in mak-
ing war against the Spaniards. As a proof of their
confidence they gave Bowles the title of king of Florida.
But the reign of the king of Florida was short. He made
Miccosukee his headquarters. From there he marched
against St. Marks, and took the fort by surprise, but was
obliged to give it up. Then the Indians would follow
him no more. They called him no longer king but
"Lying Captain," and gave him up to the Spaniards.
He was taken to Cuba and kept in prison until his
death, which took place in a few weeks. When he was
ill the governor sent
word that he should
like to visit him. "I
am fallen low, in- a
deed," said Bowles,
"but not so low as
to receive a visit
from the governor Floma* as orlud md e
of Cuba." B-hu \\
Boundary Dsutes.-There came a time when
the question of the northern boundary of West
Florida gave a great deal of trouble. The_
English had made the boundary line on lati-
tude 32 degrees and 28 minutes, but in the treaty with the
United States at the close of the Revolution, the line was
fixed at 31 degrees. Spain, however, would not give up
the territory between the two lines, saying that she had
conquered it from England, and England had no right to
What allies did Bowles secure? What title did they give him?
Where were his headquarters? What success did his expedition
have? How was he then treated? Tell of his death. What was the
northern boundary of West Florida adopted by the English?


dispose of it. It was not until twelve years later that
Spain agreed to make latitude 31 degrees the northern
boundary of West Florida. In 1808 the United States
purchased from France, Louisiana, which had been ceded
from France to Spain in 1762, and re-ceded to France in
1800. Before 1762 France had owned the land west of
the Perdido in West Florida, so when the United States
bought Louisiana she claimed that territory. Spain said
this was part of Florida, and would not give it up because,
like the other disputed territory, it had been conquered
from England and not received from France.
Republic of West Florida.- The territory called the
Baton Rouge Government lay between the Mississippi
and the Pearl rivers; that called the Mobile district lay
between the Pearl and the Perdido. Both were claimed
by Spain as part of Florida, and both were claimed by the
United States as part of the land purchased from France.
A time came when Spain was too busy fighting the great
Napoleon to pay much attention to the Floridas. Then the
inhabitants of Baton Rouge declared themselves an inde-
pendent people, gave their territory the name Republic
of West Florida, and asked to be admitted into the Union.
After one month the Republic of West Florida was an-
nexed to Louisiana, October 27, 1810.
Mobile District.--When war was declared between the
United States and England, in 1812, the United States
government was afraid to leave the Mobile district in the

What boundary did they accept in the treaty with the United
States? What claim did Spain make for a more northerly line?
What was the claim of the United States to the territory west of the
Perdido River? Tell of the Republic of West Florida? How was it
formed? What became of it? What was accomplished by its exist-


hands of Spain, as that nation was now a friend of Eng.
land. General Wilkinson sailed from New Orleans to
Mobile with six hundred men, and in April, 1818, received
the surrender of the Spanish commander. This made the
Perdido River again the western bo ary of Florida, and
so it his remained ever since. /



Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts. During some years
of the Spanish occupation of Florida, France and England
were at war with each other. Though the United States
did not take either side in the dispute, it caused her a
great deal of trouble. Each of the nations at war forbade
our young government trading with the other. Not only
this, but the English would stop and search our ships, and
seize seamen who they maintained were British subjects, to
serve in their navy. All this was very insulting to the
United States, and Congress, with a view to improving
matters, passed the Embargo Act, a law forbidding all
American vessels to leave port. This was worse than
ever, for the loss of trade was very great, and thousands
of men were thrown out of employment. Then the Em-
bargo Act was repealed, and Congress passed the Non-
Intercourse Act. This gave Americans the right to trade
with all nations except France and England, and bettered
matters a little.
How was the Mobile district secured to the United States? What
acts of Congress were intended to punish England and France for
their offensive attitude toward American shipping? What was
their result?


Plans to secure Florida from England.-When it became
certain that there would be war between England and the
United States, it
was feared -that
England would
seize Florida, and
so gain a great ad- ~ /
vantage. President I
Madison tried to
persuade the Span-
ish government to
cede Florida to the
United States, at
any rate for a cer-
tain time, and Con-
gress secretly gave
the President
power to take pos-
session, if there
were any danger of
a foreign power
doing so.
Republic of Flor-
ida. Pains were -
taken to keep all -
these plans quiet,
but they became
known, and some
Georgia frontiers-
zxen joined with pressment of Seamen
mnen joined with
Why was America desirous of having possession of Florida in
case of war? What provisions were made to secure it? Tell of the
Republic of Florid."


some of the Floridians to form the Republic of Florida,"
on the banks of the St. Marys. The president of this
new and hastily formed government was General John
McIntosh, and Colonel Ashley was placed at the head of
its military affairs. The time was at hand for the military
forces of this little republic to be called into action.
Fernandina Captured. -Amelia Island lies off the
eastern coast of Florida just below the mouth of the St.
Marys River. Fernandina on this island had become a
very important port of entry for foreign vessels. In order
to protect American interests General Matthews deter-
mined to take Fernandina and the island. Hel sent nine
war ships into the harbor and Colonel Ashley's forces came
in boats to join in the attack. Fernandina was held by a
small Spanish garrison commanded by Don Jose Lopez.
Lopez had no choice but to surrender. On March 17,
1812, the agreement was signed. Fernandina was to
remain a free port of entry to all nations, but if there
should be war between the United States and Eng-
land, English ships should not be allowed to enter after
May 1, 1813.
Expedition against St. Augustine.-Next day three hun-
dred Americans marched against St. Augustine, making
their camp two miles from the town. Here they were
joined by another force of one hundred men. Governor
Estrada of East Florida had some cannon placed on a
schooner, and fired at the Americans. This forced them
to retire to Pass Navarro, a mile awiy, and later to a place
beyond the St. Johns River. Sickness broke out, and some

What was the importance of Fernandina? How taken? Condi-
tions of surrender? Tell of the St. Augustine expedition from the
"Republio of Florida." What caused the Americans to retreat?


of the men were sent back to the Republic of Florida"
under charge of a United States officer. At the twelve-
mile swamp this little party of invalids was fired upon by
a band of negroes from St. Augustine, and though the
soldiers charged upon the negroes and routed them,
several officers were killed or wounded.
Expedition against Seminoles.-The Americans now
carried the war into the Alachua district, where it was
said the Seminole Indians were making ready for a raid
into Georgia. Colonel Newman, a. Georgian, offered
to lead a party of scarcely more than three hundred
against King Payne's town. King Payne and Bowlegs
were the principal chiefs of the Seminoles. They were
the sons of Secoffee, the Creek who had in 1750 led the
band of runaway Creeks, afterwards called Seminoles,
into Florida.
The Indians Defeated. -When the Americans reached
a lake a few miles from King Payne's town, the brother
chieftains with their warriors began the attack from a
thick hammock. At first the Indians could not be seen,
but Newman ordered his men to pretend flight, and this'
pretense drew them out.. There was a fierce fight. King"
Payne, mounted on a beautiful white horse, fought gal-
lantly until wounded. The Indians then retired and the
Americans hastily made breastworks. It was well they
did, for at sunset the Indians returned under Bowlegs
and made several furious charges, but finally withdrew.
After eight days Newman began his return march. Be-
fore going far he was attacked by Billy Bowlegs with
What was the result of the attack made upon the returning in-
valids? Where did the American forces march? What was the
occasion of this attack ? Who were the Indian chiefs? Tell of' the
battles. How did they result?


fifty warriors, but again won the victory and after that
went on his way unmolested. This put an end to any
preparations for a Seminole raid into Georgia. Still, small
bands gave much trouble to the Americans, and the
Americans retaliated by attacking small Spanish settle
Suppression of Hostilities by the Pfesident It was not
to be expected that Spain would be pleased with all these
events, and the Spanish minister at Washington com-
plained of the invasion of Florida. The governor of
East Florida demanded the withdrawal of the American
troops, arid as it seemed unwise to provoke a dispute with
Spain while war was threatening wit England, the Presi-
dent ordered that all American forces should be with-
drawn from Florida.
p -


SDeclared. British and Indian Conspiracies.-In
1812 war was declared between the United States and
England. About the same time it was discovered that
the Indians of the west had joined in a plot against the
white settlers. The great Shawnee chief, Tecumseh,
came south to persuade the southern Indians to join in
the plot. He was very eloquent and many of the Creeks
and Indians of other tribes joined him. His plans were
aided by British agents at Pensacola, who encouraged the
Indians to make war on the Americans, and furnished them
with arms.
What was the effect of this expedition? What brought thee
hostilities to an end? What was the great Indian plot of 1812?


Creeks destroy Fort Mirs.- Many women and children
had taken refuge at Fort Mims, a few miles north of Mo-
bile. On August 80,1813,
the chief, Weatherford, a
nephew of McGillivray,
led a thousand Creek
warriors against the fort,
took it by surprise, and
killed and scalped every
person in it.
Jackson at Horse Shoe
Bend.-- It was now that
General Andrew Jackson
marched from Tennessee,
and in a hard-fought cam-
paign, ending in the vic-
tory of the Horse Shoe
Bend, March 27, 1814,
completely broke the T Iu cte e
power of the Creeks as a
nation. Some of them went to Pensacola to the British,
others into the interior of Florida, but they were no
longer to be feared as they had been.
Weatherford's Surrender. There is an interesting story
of Jackson's generosity at the time of Weatherford's sur-
render. The chief came to the general's tent and gave
.himself up. "Kill me, if you wish," he said, "but I come
to ask you to help our women and children who are starv-
ing in the woods. They never did you any harm."
Jackson could be merciful as well as brave. He not only
How were the British using the Indians? Tell of the Fort Mims
massacre. Where was Fort Mims? How did Jackson retaliate?
Tell of Jackson's generosity to Westherford.


sent food to the women and children, but also spared the
chief's life and sent him away safe and free. _
British Agents at Pensacola.- Spain either could not
or would not prevent the English from having agents at
Pensacola and Apalachicola Bay to arm the Indians
against the United States.
In August, 1814, a British
fleet entered Pensacola
Bay with the consent of
the Spanish government
and raised the British flag
over the forts. The ndians
of the surrounding region
were now openly engaged
to make war on the Ameri-
cans and were supplied
with arms and ammuni-
tion. The streets of Pensa-
cola were full of Indians
in BWitish uniforms march-
Aavw Ja ing and drilling.
Jackson marches against
Pensacola. Jackson determined to put a stop to all this.
He raised a force of three thousand volunteers from Ten-
nessee and Kentucky and, joined by other troops, marched
against Pensacola. On November 6,1814, he camped less
than two miles from the Spanish fortifications and sent
forward an officer with a flag of truce to the governor.
The officer was fired upon, and Jackson immediately de-
manded the surrender of the town. When the governor
refused to surrender, Jackson determined to take the town
What was going on at Pensacola? How was this to be stopped?
Who composed Jackson's army?


by storm. This was not an easy thing to do, for Pensacola
was well protected with a fort and several batteries, and
there were several war ships in front of the city.
Pensacola Surrendered.- Jackson marched his troops
around the town at night, and in the morning advanced
rapidly from the east. Two batteries tried to stop their
march, but these were soon captured. Soon after, the
Spanish governor with his escort came to meet the Ameri-
cans and offered to surrender. Jackson received the sur-
render and marched
on into the city. On
their way down the
principal street the
Americans were
fired upon by the
British marines, but ap sh wg jackow'
returned the fire Opmtiea
with such effect
that the British with their Indian allies were
glad to make their escape to the ships, and
sailed away. The Indians were left at the mouth of the
Apalachicola and gave much trouble later.
Jackson remained at Pensacola two days, then, after
destroying the fort and batteries, he left the place in
the hands of the Spaniards and hurried on to New
It is said that when the Spaniards began rebuilding the
fortifications, the British Captain Nichols offered to assist.
But the governor declined, saying that if he needed help,
he would call on his friend General Jackson. Pensacola
What defenses had Pensacola? What became of the British? Of
tlhe Indirs allies? e ow and to whom di4 Jackson leave Pens.-


was taken on November 7. Just two months later Jackson
SwA the great battle of New Orleans. Y
Negro Fort taken by Colonel Clinch. After they were
riven from Pensacola, Captains Percy and Nichols built
a strong fort on the Apalachicola and made it headquar-
ters for arming Indians and runaway negroes to make war
against the frontier settlements of Georgia and Alabama.
This was kept up even after peace was declared. The fort
was commanded by a negro, Garcia, and was known as
the Negro Fort. After waiting a year and a half for it
to be abandoned, the United States authorities decided
to wait no longer. Colonel Clinch was sent against the
fort, and attacked it with 116 men and some Creek allies
One of the hot shots struck a powder magazine and blew
up the fort, only a few of those in it escaping death.
The Spanish negroes were given over to the Spanish agent
and the runaway American negroes were'taken charge of
by Colonel Clinch. The negro commander and a Choctaw
chief were put to death. A quantity of ammunition was
taken from a magazine that hkd not been injured, and
more than two hundred thousand dollars' worth of prop-
erty was found in the fort. The Americans suffered no
loss at all.
Destruction of Fowltown. After this, vessels could
navigate the Apalachicola River with less danger, but the
attacks on the border settlements of Georgia and Alabama
by the Seminoles and runaway negroes continued. In

What was Jackson's next great achievement? What and where were
the further operations of the British agents? What was their fort on
the Apalachicola called? What steps did the United States author-
ities take? What were the results of'the expedition? What was
gained by the destruction of the "Negro Fort" ? What danger still


November, 1817, General Gaines tried to arrange an inter-
,view with Enemathla, one of the chiefs. The chief would
npt come to his camp, and the general sent a party of men
to Fowltown, the chief's village just above the Georgia
border, to bring him. As the soldiers drew near the
village, they were fired upon by the Indians. Upon this,
the soldiers attacked and destroyed the village. In one
of the cabins was found a British uniform of scarlet
cloth with gold epaulettes and a paper stating that the
chief, Enemathla, was a faithful British subject.
Indian Attacks. Scott Massacre. -The Indians retali-
ated for the destruction of Fowltown by attacking plan-
tations and small settlements of t4e Americans; then they
would escape into Florida. Here they could consider
themselves safe, as they were on Spanishl d. One of the
most shocking massacres was that of Lieutenant Scott and
his command. His boat was ascending the Apalachicola
with supplies for Fort Scott. In passing a swamp where
the Indians were concealed there was a sudden attack,
and nearly all on board were killed. This shocked the
whole country, and the American people felt that such
things must no longer be allowed.
Jackson destroys Indian Towns. --As Spain seemed un-
able to control the Indians, General Jackson was' put in
command against them, and he was directed to call on the
neighboring States for troops if it should be necessary.
General Jackson lost no time in the matter. With one
thousand volunteers, most of them from Tennessee, five
hundred regulars, and a large force of Creeks, he marched
with all speed upon the Miccosukee towns in East Florida
Tell of the destruction of Fowltown. What evidence of Britishen-
couragement of the attacks was found? Why were the border planta-
tions in such great danger? What massacre then took place?


and destroyed them, then upon the Fowl towns which he
also destroyed. The Fowl towns lay west of the Suwanee.
The Tallahassee fields were about the center. At Micco-
sukee Jackson found three hundred scalps of men, women,
and children hung on painted war poles over the village
St. Marks and Suwanee Taken. -Hearing that there
were agents at St. Marks stirring up the Indians against
the Americans, Jackson hastened to that fort. It sur-
rendered without any resistance, though it was well gar-
risoned and had twenty mounted guns. From St. Marks
Jackson.marched to Suwanee, where he took a number of
prisoners. Among the prisoners were two British sub.
jects: Arbuthnot, captured at St. Marks, and Ambrister
at Suwanee. Arbuthnot was a Scotch trader, and Am-
brister had been a soldier under Nichols. They were
accused of having given help and encouragement to the
Indians in their attacks on the frontier, and were sentenced
to death. For this Jackson was afterwards much blamed,
but he declared that he had done only what was necessary
for the protection of the Americans on the frontier.
Marches on Pensacola. -Jackson next turned his atten-
tion to Pensacola, for he had heard that Indians hostile to
the United States received arms and encouragement there,
while not even food supplies for the American troops were
allowed to pass up the Escambia River. While on his
way he received several haughty messages from Masot, the
Spanish governor of West Florida, demanding that he

Why was Jackson again called to Florida? What troops did he
bring? What places did he destroy? What horrible evidence did he
find that this punishment was deserved? What forts were taken?
Tell of the two prisoners whose execution caused much criticism.
What was Jackson's defense ?


should leave. But these messages made no difference to
Jackson. He went on to Pensacola, and Masot retired to
Fort Barrancas.
Pensacola Surrendered Again. Three times Jackson de-
manded the surrender of the fort, and three times Masot
refused it. Then Jackson made the attack. After a few
hours of resistance Masot surrendered on condition that
his troops should march out with the honors of war and
be carried to Havana.
From this time the Americans were in control of all
West Florida. Jackson established a provisional govern-
ment, and then returned to his Tennessee home for a much
needed rest. Although the United States government
returned West Florida to Spain in September, 1819, a
treaty had already been made for the purchase of all Flor-
ida, so it was only, a little while longer that the Spanish
flag waved over Florida before she ceased to be the colony
of a European nation and became a territory of the United
SWhere did Jackson next turn? Why? What was the result? In
what shape did h leve rais in Florida when he returned to his
1. Make a list of all the English attacks on St. Augustine, giving
(as far as shown) date, leader, object, and results.
2. Make a like list of all the attacks of the Florida Spaniards upon
the English.
8. Describe Governor Moore's expedition against middle Florida.
4. Describe the siege of St. Augustine.
5. Monteano's invasion of Georgia.
6. What southern territory was held by each nation at the close
of the French and Indian War?
7. Give all the changes of ownership of Florida, with the occasion,
terms, and provision for the residents in each case.


8 Discuss the history of Florida under the British rule, as to
civil government, immigration, industry, and relation to the War of
9. Give an account of the Turnbull colony.
10. Tell the occasion, date, and circumstances of the Spanish con.
quest of West Florida.
11. Write a sketch of jAlexander McGillivray.
12. Tell of his serving four nations.
13. Write a sketch of William Augustus Bowles.
14. What was his plo and what did he do toward its accomplish-
15. Give the causes of the dispute, the two boundaries claimed, and
the settlement as to the northern boundary of West Florida.
16. Give the same as to the western boundary of West Florida.
17. Tell of the Republic of West Florida and what was accom-
plished by it.
18. What were the Embargo and Non-Intercourse acts ? How did
they affect Florida or her ports ?
19. Explain the importance of Florida to the United States.
20. Give an account of the Republic of Florida."
21. Relate the taking of Fernandina.
22. Describe the Alachua campaign against the Indians.
23. Tell of Jackson's campaign against the Creeks and its results.
24. Describe his Pensacola campaign with its causes and results
25. Tell of the "Negro Fort," Fowltown," and Scott massacre.
26. Describe Jackson's second invasion of Florida.
27. The Arbuthnot and Ambrister incident.


1. What charter of South Carolina included St. Augustine
Who granted it? When? To whom? What was the form of
government? (Justin Winaor's "Narrative and Critical History of
America," vol. V.)
2. What war was there betwdbn England and Spain at the time
of Moore's invasion ?
8. What war at the time of Oglethorpe's siege and Monteano's
invasion? .


4. Why was it especially desirable to each nation that England
should have possession of Florida and Spain of Havana?
5. Give all the reasons you can why Florida prospered more
under English rule than would have been possible under the Spanish.
6. Why is indigo no longer cultivated in the State?
7. Why were people from the countries about the Mediterranean
colonized by Dr. Turnbull instead of those from his own country?
8. The descendants of these people, collectively known as Mi-
norcans, constitute some of the most influential and prominent fami-
lies of St. Augustine and other portions of the State. Can you locate
any of them by name or otherwise?
9. Give as many reasons as you can why the people of Florida
did not join with the patriots in the Revolution.
10. What was the distribution of southern territory after the sec-
ond transfer of Florida?
11. Give as many reasons as you can why the second transfer was
important both to England and to Spain.
12. What effect would you expect the transfer to have upon the
development of Florida?
13. Compare the condition and extent of development of the ter-
ritory after the British withdrawal with that of two hundred years
14. Read the more extended accounts of the remarkable characters
McGillivray and Bowles in the larger works.
15. What was the strategic importance of Florida in the War of
16. Read the history of Tecumaeh and his famous plot, and of
Jackson's campaign against the Creeks.
17. Upon what grounds was Jackson justified in invading Florida
and taking Pensacola?
18. Give the particulars of the battle of New Orleans.




Spanish Rule. For more than two hundred years the
Spanish flag had waved over East and West Florida, then
the English flag, and then the Spanish again. You have
learned how St. Augustine, the first lasting settlement in
what is now the United States, was established. Later
Pensacola on the western coast was founded, the fort of
St. Marks was built, and there were a few settlements in
other parts of the country. Except in the neighborhood
of the few towns, the Indians were the real owners and
rulers of the land. They roamed at will through the great
forests, hunting and fishing, clearing land and raising their
crops, undisturbed by'the Spaniards.
Necessity of annexing Florida.- But there was still
trouble between these Indians and their American neigh-
bors, and Spain could not or would not end these troubles;
it was believed that for the sake of peace and safety the
United States must acquire possession of Florida. So it
was proposed that Spain should exchange Florida for a part
of Louisiana next to Texas, but nothing came of this plan.

How long had Florida been settled? Who still occupied most of
the territory? What conditions made it important for the United
States to acquire Florida?


Treaty of Acquisition.-However, Jackson's rapid marches
and the punishment he dealt the Indians and their allies
for injuries to American settlements, proved to Spain that
she could not rule her territory or keep the Indians under
control without a large army and heavy expense. Finally,
after much discussion, a treaty was signed on Feb. 22,
1819, by which Spain agreed to transfer Florida to the
United States for the sum of five million dollars, and the
payment of certain claims. This treaty was ratified by
Spain, Oct. 24,1820, but ratifications.
were not exchanged at Washington
till Feb. 22, 1821. This was the
second great land purchase made by
our government. General Jackson
was appointed military governor of the
two Floridas until a regular govern- Amsin p1,%
ment should be formed.
Jackson receives the Territory.- The exchange of flags
took place on July 10, 1821, at St. Augustine, and on
July 17, 1821, at Pensacola. General Jackson was ap-
pointed military governor, and went to receive the new
Territory and arrange for the exchange of flags at Pensa-
cola, the same ceremony at St. Augustine being conducted
by Adjutant General Butler.
Ceremonies at St. Augustine.- At 4 P.M. the transfer
of authority took place at the Government House, and the
city keys were delivered. The Spanish flag was with-
drawn under a salute from the fort, and the Spanish guard

What proposition was first made? Give the particulars of the
treaty of purchase. When was the exchange of authority made?
What was General Jackson's official position? Where did he take
l ~session? Give the particulars of the transfer of authority at St.

102 PART I

marched out. When they approached the American troops
they exchanged salutes with them. Then the Ameri-
cans marched into the fortress
Sand fired a salute to their flag,
which had been raised on the
standard of the Spnish flag at
3 P.M.
S- Stars d Stripes at Pensacola.
- Seven days later the American flag was raised at Pensa-
cola. For three weeks transports had been bringing
Spanish soldiers from St. Marks so that they might sail
for Cuba at the same time with the troops at Pensacola.
During all this time General Jackson remained outside
the city, declaring that he would not enter it until he
came under the American flag; but he had daily commu-
nication with the Spanish governor and arranged his plans
for taking possession.
The Transfer Ceremonies.. Early on the morning of.the
appointed day the whole town was astir, and there was
great excitement when the American troops, with waving
banners and cheering music, marched into the town and
took their position on the public square opposite the Govern-
ment House. When they had arrived, the Spanish soldiers,
in elegant uniform, marched from the barracks to an op-
posite position. Men, women, and children thronged the
streets, looked from every window, and were crowded on
every balcony. Among them on the streets were many
negroes and Indians. It was a sad day for the Spaniards,
and many of them wept. Out of regard to their feelings
General Jackson avoided everything that had the appear-
ance of triumph, and there was no shouting or cheering.
For what did Jackson postpone entering Pensacola? Tell of 'the
transfer of ags.