Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The author's apology for his...
 Part I
 Part II: The author's way of sending...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Pilgrim's progress
Title: The pilgrim's progress, from this world to that which is to come
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055397/00001
 Material Information
Title: The pilgrim's progress, from this world to that which is to come
Uniform Title: Pilgrim's progress
Physical Description: xvi, 224, viii, 225-399, 1 p. : ill. (some col.), port. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bunyan, John, 1628-1688
Maquire, Robert, 1826-1890 ( Author of introduction )
Selous, Henry Courtney, 1803-1890 ( Illustrator )
Priolo, Paolo ( Illustrator )
Cassell, Petter & Galpin ( Publisher )
Petter and Galpin ( Printer )
Belle Sauvage Works ( Printer )
Publisher: Cassell, Petter, and Galpin
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Petter and Galpin ; Belle Sauvage Printing Works
Publication Date: [1875?]
Subject: Christian life -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Salvation -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Christian pilgrims and pilgrimages -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Allegories -- 1875   ( rbgenr )
Dialogues -- 1875   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1875   ( local )
Bldn -- 1875
Genre: Allegories   ( rbgenr )
Dialogues   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by John Bunyan ; with notes by Robert Maguire ; illustrated by H.C. Selous and Paolo Priolo.
General Note: Ornamental borders and illustrations are hand-colored.
General Note: Baldwin Library copy : probably by young owner.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055397
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002471089
notis - AMH6606
oclc - 28450062

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    The author's apology for his book
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Part I
        Page 1 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Chapter II: The slough of despond
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Chapter III: Worldly-wiseman
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Chapter IV: The wicket-gate
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Chapter V: The interpreter's house
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
        Chapter VI: The cross and the contrast
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Chapter VII: The hill difficulty
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Chapter VIII: The palace beautiful
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
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            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
        Chapter IX: Apollyon
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
        Chapter X: The valley of the shadow of death
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
        Chapter XI: Christian and faithful
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
        Chapter XII: Talkative
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
        Chapter XIII: Vanity fair
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
        Chapter XIV: Christian and hopeful
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
        Chapter XV: Doubting castle and giant despair
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
        Chapter XVI: The delectable mountains
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
        Chapter XVII: The enchanted ground, and the descent thereto
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
        Chapter XVIII: Ignorance
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
        Chapter XIX: The land of Beulah - The fords of the river - At home
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
    Part II: The author's way of sending forth his second part of the pilgrim
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
            Page 224
        Chapter I: Christina
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
        Chapter II: The wicket-gate
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
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            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
        Chapter III: The interpreter's house
            Page 256
            Page 257
            Page 258
            Page 259
            Page 260
            Page 261
            Page 262
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
        Chapter IV: The cross and the consequences
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
        Chapter V: The palace beautiful
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
        Chapter VI: The valley of humiliation
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
        Chapter VII: Mr. Honest and Mr. Fearing
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
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            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
        Chapter VIII: The guest of Gaius
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
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            Page 340
            Page 341
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            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
        Chapter IX: Vanity fair and Mr. Mnason's house
            Page 350
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
        Chapter X: The delectable mountains and the shepherds
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
            Page 370
        Chapter XI: Mr. Valiant-for-truth
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
        Chapter XII: The enchanted ground
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
            Page 383
            Page 384
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
        Chapter XIII: The pilgrims at home
            Page 390
            Page 391
            Page 392
            Page 393
            Page 394
            Page 395
            Page 396
            Page 397
            Page 398
            Page 399
            Page 400
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text



The Baldwin Library

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Illustrated by H. C. SEL OUS, Esq., and M. PA OLO PRIOLO.



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THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK ................................ i.

THE DEN AND THE DREAMER ........................................ I

THE SLOUGH OF DESPOND ........................................ IO

E'W ORLDLY-W ISEMAN ................................................ ..... 17

THE W ICKET-GATE ........................ .. .... ........... ... 2

THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE .................. ........................ 34

THE CROSS AND THE CONTRAST ..................... ............. 48

THE HILL DIFFICULTY ............... .................... ........... ..

THE PALACE BEAUTIFUL ...... ......... ....... ............... ..

APOLLYON........... ............ ............... ................. ....... 7

THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH. ..................... ... 86

CHRISTIAN AND FAITHFUL ..... .......................... .......... 94

TALKATIVE ............... ................ .................. ....... 106

VANITY FAIR ................ ........ .. ........ 120 t

CHRISTIAN AND HOPEFUL ..... ............. ............ .............. 136

DOUBTING CASTLE AND GIANT DESPAIR .............................. IS

"Ht '*1i


THE DELECTABLE MOUNTAINS ........ .... ... ................ ..... .164


IGNORANCE ....... ........ .............................. ............. 198



P ILG R IM ................. ...... ........... ...................... i

CHRISTIANA .. .............. .... .. ............. ............ 225

T H E V ICKET-G ATE ........................ .......................... 2 0

THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE ........................................ 256

THIE CROSS AND THE CONSEQUENCES ................................... 270

THE PALACE BEAUTIFUL ............................................. 283

THE VALLEY OF HUMILIATION ................................ ...... 303

MIR. HONEST AND M R. FEARING ................... ................... 315

THE GUESTS OF GAIUS ............. ....................... ......... 331

VANITY FAIR AND MR. MINASON'S HOUSE ............................ 350


_M R. VALIANT-FOR-TRUTH ............................................ 371

THE ENCHANTED GROUND .................. ................... ... 379

THE PILGRIMS AT HOME .............................................. 390




Page Page
Portrait oftje Au/llio....... ....Face Title Day br;'Sak/s in thie Vzllcy of t/ie Shadow7
Emblmatical Headig ..............I f Death. ......................... 9
Evangelist directs Christian to /the Gianft Pope threa/ens C/iris/ian ........ 93
Wicket Gae.. .................. .. .. 4 FailkJdl comes to the Helf of Christian 97
Christian seating out from the City of Faitfil's ~ with Adam flte
Destruction .............. .. ... ; Firs .................. .......... 101
Obsfinate goes back to the City of Faithifuil resists Shame .............. 105
Destruction ...................... 9 Prating Row ...................... 109
Hiel draws Christian out of the Slough Faithful converses with Talkative .... 113
of Desoilnd ...................... 13 Evangelist gives good Counsel to Chris-
Christian and TPor "' iseman .. ... 17 tiani and Paithif- ................ .117
Christian beneath Alount Sinai ........ 21 Christian and Faithful enter lthe Town
Christian at the Wicket Gate .......... 25 of vanity. ....................... 121
Goodwill shows Chrislian the Way .... 2) Christian and Faithful pass throlghi
The Intefredersshows Christiain the Room Vanity Fai .................... 125
fill of Dust ........ .... .. ..... 33 Christian and Faithful ut. in Irons 29
Christian is shown fihe PaTindl of'Passion aithflul suffers Death at Vanity Fai: 133
and Patienuce ....................... 3 7 Hoffdl joins Company with Christian 37
The Inltepfrefer shows Christian the Fire MI;r. loney-love's Lesson in HJyfocrisy.. 141
burning against f he Wall.......... 41 Demas tempts Christian and Hofeful 145
Ch/iristiani in view of the Cross ........ 43 The Pillar of Salt .................. 149
Formalist and Hyfiocrisy comeini in o the The River of thil I Waer of Life........ g53
WTayv over the Wall ................ 49 Christian and Hofpfil in the Castle of
Christian neets Timorous and Miis/trust. 53 Gian Desair ................. 157
Christian discovers his lost Roll in thef Christian and Hopefid escape f;/,un
Arbour. .......................... .57 Doubtingi Castle. ................. 161
iChristian fuassensthe Lions ............ 61 Christian and Hopefiu with the Sh.:-
Christian is Questioned lby Discretion ... 65 herds of the Delectable Mountains .. 165
S Christian enters the Palace Beauliful ... 69 The Hill Error .................... 169
Christian tells Charity and her Sisters Faint-heart, M3istrust, and Guilt rob
S about his Fan ily. ................. 73 Little-faith ...................... 173
Christian is armed by Prudence, Dis- Christian andHioffd large led astray by
crction, Piety, and Charity ........ 77 the Fla Itterr ................... 177
Christian's Combat with Afollyon ...... 8i Christian and Hofeeful delivered from
Christian in the Vally of the Shadow of the Ac.......................... '
Death ................... .......... 85 Christian aandHopefil idnt wilthAtheist 185
iS~ .~,: ;..-'

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List of Illustrations.

Page Page
Beware of Sleeping on the Encialaned Christian and Hopeful enter ihe Land
SGroun ...................... 189 of Beulah ..................... 209
Ho Ieful tells C...... his Eperience.. 193 Christian and Hopeful meet Two Mci
Christian instructs Ignorance ........ 197 of the Land of Bculah ............ 213
Ignorance steps Belind .............. 201 Christian and Hofefidl cross the Riverl. 217
Hopftful advises Temnpora;y .......... 205 I The Gates are Ofened................. 221


Eniblematical Headin .............. 225 Great-lcart kills Giant iMau. ........ 313
Christiana's Refentanice. ............. 228 Honest asleef under the Oak .......... 3 7
Secret encourages Chrisiana to go .... 229 Fearing at tic Intefreter's Door .... 321
Christiaina frcfares to depart .......... 233 :r. Flearing in thle [ValKly of Hnlliilia-
Christiana and Family set ot ........ 237 tion.......................... 325
They flass the Slougil of Dcsfond ...... 241 Honest converses about one Se/f-wil... 329
fMercy at the iTVcket-gale ............... 245 Gains receives the Pilgrims .......... 333
The Boys eat of the Fruit ............ 249 The Pilg; ims' Suffer. ................. 337
Christiana and JMljercy are delivered Giant Slay-good and Feeble-mind..... 341
from the two Ill-favoured Ones .... 253 The Marriage of Matthew and 'Mrcy. 345
(C .:. :is skhewn the Man with the The 1 come within s iIht of
lucIk R .ake ...................... 257 Vanity Fai:..................... 349
The Inlerireter's Garden ......... 261 Honest and Contrite converse.......... 353
I The Pilgrims are clothed in hi ite .... 265 The Pilgrims at the Place where
Great-heart becomes the Pilglrims' Guide 269 Foait/iful suffired.................. 357
The Fate of Simpfle, Sloth, and Pr-e- Grent-heart and the Four Sons of
sunmtion ......................... 273 Christiana destroy Doubting Castle. 361
The Pilgrims drink of the Sfring..... 277 Prejudice, Ill-wil/l, and Godly-man .... 365
The Place whel-e Mirstrust an Timorous The Shc/herds adorn the Pilgri/ms .... 369
we Punised............................... 23 Valiantl-fo-Trti` / beset by Thibeves .... 373
The WVelcome at the Palace Beatifull. 285 Valiant resists the entr-ealics of his
Prudence Cateckises the Boys .......... 289 Father and Moth/c: .......... ..... 377
Mr: Brisk and Mercy- ................ 293 The i Wearisome Way ...... ... ... .... 38
Matthew and Pirudeince... .......... 297 Slandfast resists Teptaintion .......... 385
jacob's Ladde. ...... ... .... ....... 301 The Pilgrims rest in the Land of Bcuilak 389
T, The Pillar in the Valley of Humility ,.. 305 Chiisliana is Sumnoned ............. 393
STic Shefpherd Boy .................. 309 The Farewell .................. .... 397


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j I '',"-i I .' '. .,
.. '' .1 thus it was: I, writing of i : I'IJ ..

/ ':''"- i, ^..'_; .- /'- A i- ,r.I ice of saints in this our go'- l-'. l -1 ,' ,iH

i 1 -1^ "'Ih A L. :.'i their journey and the w'. ,r t .. .
.. -..- .... ,, I,,, rc' than twenty things, whi. i... .._ ;,
i -', i,-",- l '-i ,

i. '! ," -. .. i. 'i ,.-, ,
.o-E at the first I too- m pen in hand, II.
: I i I I at all should make a little boo --

',t- .... "' )) -""'1 . ...do n: 1i5 -4 ",., ,-, .1'
-" "- I, 3 -:
,--'_'"" ,_ :;a ," -.i ., ." :" ,;,_ r -.' "..

_ -- -I

This done, I twenty more had in my crown;
And then again began to multiply, i
I,, ,M ? Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly.
Nay then, thought I, if that you breed so fast,
I'll put you by yourselves, lest you at last ,f;'
I ,". i.' Should prove ad infinitum, and eat out l -
'I i- ri. The book that I already am about. I .

S Well, so I did ; but yet I did not think
S To show to all the world my pen and ink
In such a mode; I only thought to make
I knew not what; nor did I undertake
S, I '.' i Thereby to please my neighbour; no, not I;
,r i \ I did it mine own self to gratify. '

I ";, i' Neither did I but vacant seasons spend
i'- -. ; J In this my scribble; nor did I intend
lj t --' ,. i But to divert myself, in doing this, "
From worser thoughts, which make me do amiss.
,f ii
Thus I set pen to paper with delight,
I i And quickly had my thoughts in black and white,
i. i For having now my method by the end, {
Still as I pulled, it came ; and so I penn'd
It down; until at last it came to be,
HI- I For length and breadth, the bigness which you see.
"' 1 Fa1 .I Io r c
Well, when I had thus put my ends together,
I showed them others, that I might see whether
They would condemn them, or them justify ;
And some said, Let them live; some, Let them die: ;
-'i Some said, John, print it; others said, Not so: i-
Some said, It might do good; others said, No.
'' 'iI i
\\ I '.i Now was I in a strait, and did not see I, '
Which was the best thing to be done by me:
~- 7 :-'. : At last I thought, Since you are thus divided, ''-1
S- I print it will; and so the case decided.
A... .. .\
... ._ ... .. .

1"I----1"1---'-~'.-;----3---rl i~

..< -.4:, fr.. -- .,. -- ,I
..-', -T:--h..' ^^ -,, /1e A qlshor's Apolo.- y. y.

1' r..t 'r. th.i-ught I, some I see would have it i.1 ..
l T u.i others s in that channel do not run:
.-TL / T. T'- ..i-:..., then, who advised for the best,
3l.P "-1 1 T I tI.:.ught fit to put it to the test.

SI i ,I Iuntlh-r thought, if now I did deny ,
Th. i.; t would have it thus to gratify,
," I dI .i: tI.now, but hinder them I might
S'.: ti' ..it b ich would to them be great delight: '.1 "

"\ $I said to them, C.-' 'you I am lo/th; '
Yet, since your brethren pleased with it be, "
F'.'' orbear to judge, till you do further see.

I" ', / /"'- .
SIf that thou wilt not read, let it alone ; .i- l
ii Some love the meat, some love to pick the bone;

i : I .:t write in such a style as this ?
P 1 l' I. ..i .:l 'r method, too, and yet not miss
'' .ii:, tli- good? Why may it not be done ?
SJ i ir': ..11.1. 13 bring waters, when the bright bring none.
1 '.'. 1 : or bright, if they their silver drops
,I *:i:scend, the earth, by yielding crops,
i '-, 1 j '
S.', .I r i' to both, and carpet not at either, ,
L- t.r.- lr.' rs up the fruit they yield together;
S- 1 *:c.i u-imixes both, that in their fruit 1
1 '..! i:I d: distinguish this from that; they suit i '
Si I hen hungry ; but if she be full,

'_- I. tres, lines, angles, hooks, and nets:
SI u boethanether ook their blessing null.
I :.I I .i 3 *"..1 *1.: the wnrays the fisherman dotl take i'. .
I jl I.. L;'..'ii tlIe fish ; what engines doth he make. I .
~;-'. I.: :'w he engageth all his wits ;
I'''. ~'!\ ir, LeS, lines, angles, hooks, and nets :U';
(' .,i ii ci I-re be, that neither hook nor line, ", I
r_ i.' ;. i.:,' '... nor net, nor engine, can make thin : '

0. 1 xi I' -
-'--X- -- _. ____-_,-" -.-: ......

_77 T/2e Aulhor's Apologgy. %4 ,

b. ni t be groped for, and be tickled too,

"1" l : the fowler seek to catch his game ?
|BI- Ji-.li. i means, all which one cannot name :
-li 11 i,' his nets, his lime-twigs, light, and bell;
H : .-r.:.- he goes, he stands; yea, who can tell
( i'1', .:l I postures ? Yet there's none of these
S; ii \\' !l n.Il; him master of what fowls he please.
.-' i V.. Ili mist pipe and whistle to catch this,
J :, i. I,. does so, that bird he will miss. *

', 1 If that a pearl may in a toad's head dwell, -
S ''". And may be found, too, in an oyster-shell:
If things that promise nothing do contain
What better is than gold, who will disdain,
\ That have an inkling of it, there to look,
That they may find it ? Now, my little book
(Though void of all these paintings that may make
.' .-- It with this or the other man to take) ( i l
'-f- Is not without those things that do excel.
,' ,"'- l, t Ii.. in brave but empty notions dwell. r '

t I 1'
.i~.:c.. ,t I am not fully satisfied, --
I ,. your book will stand vwhc soundly tr

'. ,-, .hat's the matter? Itis dar-k! What .I.., "I. I- '
"- ;i-i ." .fegned. What of that, I trow ?
-'. -,i ..mr ,_n, by feigned words, as dark as mine. '
\' I :.- trflth to spangle, and its rays to shine '' '
i a'-i : t solidncss. Speak, man, thy miii .1 :
S-, ,.i the weak ; taors make us blind .

Slaws, in olden time held forth
: .i. I !:-ws, types, and metaphors ? Yet lot] -.1
: i Id 1 ,


Will any sober man be to find fault .
With them, lest he be found for to assault
The Highest Wisdom. No ; he rather stoops,
Sr And seeks to find out what by pins and loops,
St By calves and sheep, by heifers and by rams,
B y birds and herbs, and by the blood of lambs,
God speaketh to him; and happy is he
r" i' That finds the light and grace that in them be. :

S Be not too forward, therefore, to conclude
S That I want solidness, that I am rude:
All things solid in show, not solid be :
1 All things in parable despise not we, *"
f",.'Ii Lest things most hurtful lightly we receive, ,
I And things that good are, of our souls bereave. I
My dark and cloudy words, they do but hold
The truth, as cabinets enclose the gold.

.. -.. The prophets used much by metaphors -
r y 1 To set forth truth ; yea, whoso considers
i Christ, his apostles too, shall plainly see
That truths to this day in such mantles be.

SAm I afraid to say that Holy Writ,
Which for its style and phrase puts down all wit,
S, ."i. Is everywhere so full of all these things I
; -.-'.-- (Dark figures, allegories) ? yet there springs i,
S-"" From that same book that lustre, and those rays
-'_- Of light, that turn our darkest nights to days. ,'i, '- I

Come, let my carper to his life now look,
'" I-'-' And find there darker lines than in my book .'11
He findeth any ; yea, and let him know,
-.-, That in his best things tlere are worse lines too. -

S May we but stand before impartial men, i
-- I'-- : ', To his poor one I dare adventure ten
That they will take my meaning in these lines
Far better than his lies in silver shrines.
ia :s.in-silve- th"i I
'ji (l. ;h ',lI:' i' < i^- s

The Athor's Apolog y. .

i', 1/. Come, Truth, although in swaddling-clouts I find, y ."
. Informs the judgment, rectifies the mind;
'( I, Pleases the understanding, makes the will
Submit; the memory, too, it doth fill !l -v7i- ,
With what doth our imagination please;
Likewise it tends our troubles to appease.

Sound words, I know, Timothy is to use, ,r,; 1'
And old wives' fables he is to refuse; '
But yet grave Paul him nowhere did forbid
II /, The use of parables, in which lay hid
SI ',j i.'' / That gold, those pearls, and precious stones that wer':I ..:',
Worth digging for, and that with greatest care. !' \

Let me add one word more: Oh, man of God !

i ---- Put forth my matter in another dress ?
Ati th'oofn .d? o stu-- sh a 'd-
.- ,' Or that I had in things been more express ? ',;'
'ai.:J To those that are my betters, as is fit, i '
Three things let me propound, then I submit:-
A l I, I I
\ *' ...', ^1 i. I find not that I am denied the use 'j '-
,^ PI f Of this my method, so I no abuse '- (
S.. ,. Put on the words, things, readers, or be rude ..
SIn handling figure or similitude
iIn application; but all that I may "
1 ,.-, \ Seek the advance of truth, this or that way. '[ "-
1 (.1 k, Denied, did I say ? Nay, I have leave !f -
(Examples too, and that from them that have
God better pleased, by their words or ways,
S' ": '''' i Than any man that breatheth now-a-days) LS i
Thus to express my mind, thus to declare
Things unto thee that excellentest are. '

i ',. 12. I find that men (as high as trees) will write -k f
S_ '' Dialogue-wise; yet no man doth them slight,
.;,' ;. For writing so : indeed, if they abuse '. .
',Truth, cursed be they, and the craft they use ii ,

7 -
,,. +,+2 ],. -.^....... .-a":ls -.^'^a", ..+

\ -J The Aulhor's Apology.
A k, '6----

T., thli t intent; but yet let truth be free
T i T k. lke her sallies upon thee and me,
1 0' 'lhi.:h way it pleases God ; for who knows how,
i r:.tt-r than he that taught us first to plough,
; T .. -.de our minds and pens for his design ?
I i., i And lie makes base things usher in Divine.

,. I find that Holy Writ, in many places,
i ,,,', l I H.,th ;emblance with this method, where the cases
.. -, .1 for one thing to set forth another:
Use it I may then, and yet nothing smother
Truth's golden beams : nay, by this method may
([.' 'i Make it cast forth its rays as light as day.

And now, before I do put up my pen,
I'll show the profit of my book, and then
S Commit both me and it unto that Hand
That pulls the strong down, and makes weak ones

This book, it chalketh out before thine eyes
The Man that seeks the everlasting prize :
It shows you whence he comes, whither he goes;
\l"hai he leaves undone; also what he does; .;
It also shows you how he runs and runs, ,
Till he unto the Gate of Glory comes. A ,
It shows, too, who set out for life amain, .
As if the lasting crown they would obtain.
Here also you may see the reason why
They lose their labour, and like fools do die. I'

/ ,a ) This book will make a traveller of thee, '
If by its counsel thou wilt ruled be;
It will direct thee to the Holy Land,
If thou wilt its direction understand ;
: ; Yea, it will make the slothful active be I
The blind also delightful things to see.

Art thou for something rare and profitable,
Or wouldst thou see a truth within a fable ?

,-- -. ---'-- *r ---__I-
^ ^ -^ ' ".-; ..... "" --

Art thou forgetful ? Wouldst thou remember -
From New-year's day to the last of December ?
r '," ^Then read my fancies ; they will stick like burs, ',
And may be to the helpless comforters.

l" This book is writ in such a dialect i'
I I I '' I' t '' |
.I As may the minds of listless men affect; 'j
It seems a novelty, and yet contains '
S Nothing but sound and honest gospel strains. /
II I- I'):I )'

SWouldst thou divert thyself from melancholy ? '.1 .
i .".,' Wouldst thou be pleasant, yet be far from folly ? I '-;
i '' i,-i.;' Wouldst thou read riddles and their explanation,
S Or else be drowned in thy contemplation ?
-, I! Dost thou love picking meat ? Or wouldst thou see
II j ,', A man i' the clouds, and hear him speak to thee ?
S'-_ VW;' ouldst thou be in a dream, and yet not sleep ? .'
Or wouldst thou in a moment laugh and weep ?
-. /W;.. ouldst thou lose thyself and catch no harm, .
And find thyself again without a charm ? i,
i'" ;-i' Wouldst read thyself, and read thou knowest not what,
i-" .I And yet know whether thou art blest or not, ,
By reading the same lines ? Oh, then, come hither,
I ,, And lay my book, thy head, and heart together.

. I i ,! I, *

--- 1
: lK j7, I

' ,'- '" "y ,--'* ', 't

L. ,[ /',,,, "',,, ...I1 *'?! 3 ,

'.15.''- ,x iII "-' "' -" I'
,4 "q ', i '.a . ,
",i "_; . ---. .'--. -= = -__ -- _-- -- ...,,, iI
- ---- .. -< ---- '. 2 -- -" .. -- .= -" ;' -- _----= _---:- _-_=:- -'

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T,- -E DEN ....,,- R ,R
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j ll'^.' _- .!.^ --- '---^ 1^;. ',,, il ."1. '. ".",'- ; '.

l iS j l..'h.-.' '' mi rr ,"
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5' L -- "''h '' I

r,. i..!LJ ,h I H.,'. .d -ma n
II "

Th Diam" th'- -ir o --- *- ''- h- ^-e.
A. '". .

__.. C., --- _,APTER 1..
':'4' i-i I S i t' l c "-- ': mi"ra !or'0 .r" ,; L,"rd I aaula:, h_.
A. *-0 -, ---.--.

r ",g ". ." ,-.'ii .ht. Th.:rF fl no a?-:.rir' .i dI:ili3 t, r-- i. in -piec.
,, ,,,, X, .-_ '; A. i it tri .:- T c1.... lt ,.:.r.
i P, .--- .-. -.r l.:.i c o r. e t- t p; r thc j.:1Lirri -,

to he-:a it th : ti.-linir l ii. i: 1" tof o .n m rid ldIJ Filc i irrc,- ar-
-l' -" I "'J- :' : r ;'
-i_." .- i ., i ".

S _'m ------- .-- ... ,--- .-

.. .o7-f"-/-- ki .-%ii .--, 4.k o l. 1iC-- Jr. L i
"1 -u -"! 'h-eP l
co r m

,T h.- Di,_ hitri'E*f in ircarN o ND "IiIE D E
H i ,thehlg.z mrah: ~f en~s,":s'.Z~, U-r M ti.l ..

as he sleeps, he sees the outline of a Vision. And whether it be in his sleeping or his waking
moments, 'tis true that Heaven hath somehow drawn aside the vail, and revealed these grand
and glorious sights which reach so near to the things that "eye hath not seen," permitting
this far-sighted man to look
"Through golden vistas into Heaven."

The opening of the Vision presents in bold relief the future hero of the allegory-a burdened
man, clothed with rags ; weeping because of threatened woe, pronounced by the Book that
is in his hand. He dwells in the CITY OF DESTRUCTION. He reveals his sorrows and
anxieties to his wife and family, but finds no sympathy there ; and failing to obtain com-
panionship on the heavenward road, he starts alone upon this spiritual journey. Here he
by-and-by meets EVANGELIST, and is by him directed to flee from the wrath to come, and to
flee to the Wicket-gate beyond. While pursuing his onward path, he is overtaken by two
of his neighbours, OBSTINATE and PLIABLE, who seek to turn him away from his purpose,
and to fetch him back by force. CHRISTIAN (for that is his name) refuses to return;
whereupon OBSTINATE turns back, but PLIABLE determines to try the fortune of the way,
having an idea that throughout it is naught else but sunshine. CHRISTIAN is led by principle;
while PLIABLE is urged on only by impulse.

S I walked through the wilderness of this world, I
lighted on a certain place where was a den; and I
laid me down in that place to sleep: and as I slept
I dreamed a dream. 'I dreamed, and behold I saw
a man clothed with rags, standing in a certain place,
with his face from his own house, a book in his hand,
and a great burden upon his back. I looked, and saw him open the
Isa. 64. 6. Luke book and read therein; and as he read he wept and
14. 33. Ps. 38.
4. Hab. 2. 2 trembled: and, not being able longer to contain, he
Acts a. 37. brake out with a lamentable cry, saying, What shall I do?

In this plight therefore he went home, and refrained himself as long
as he could, that his wife and children should not perceive his distress;

The wilderness of this world.-The world and his strength is proportioned to his need.
is a wilderness to the Christian. He is not "As thy days, so shall thy strength be."
at home; dwells in tents; has only sandy Where was a den.-This was the dungeon
foundations for all his earthly things. There- of the gaol in Bedford, in which Bunyan was
fore is the Christian man a pilgrim. With the imprisoned for conscience' and the Gospel's
pilgrim's tottering staff, and with the pilgrim's sake. How God makes the wrath of man to
scanty fare, he is ever looking upward, going praise him! When the fierce Domitian had
forward, tending onward, wayworn, weather- banished John to the wild and barren rock of
Beaten, houseless, homeless-he is now in the Patmos, then heaven itself opens to his view,
wilderness, but the marching pilgrim is ever and he is commanded to write the words of
nearing home." And as he progresses in his the Revelation. Jealousy and hatred im-
Spilgrimage, his hopes grow brighter, and his prisoned Luther for ten months in the castle
prospects clearer ; his staff is strengthened, of Wartburg; but God made use of the
J' and by-and-by it comforteth him. As he climbs interval by permitting the great Reformer, in
Sthe hill, he rises to a more bracing atmosphere; this his Patmos, to translate the Scriptures

SChristian breaks his Mlind to his Family. lJ

but he could not be silent long, because that his trouble increased:
wherefore at length he brake his mind to his wife and children; and
thus he began to talk to them : O my dear wife, said he, and you the
children of my bowels, I your dear friend am in myself undone, by
reason of a burden that lieth hard upon me: moreover, I am cer-
tainly informed that this our city will be burned with fire from heaven;
in which fearful overthrow, both myself, with thee my wife, and you
my sweet babes, shall miserably come to ruin; except (the which yet
I see not) some way of escape may be found, whereby we may be
delivered. At this his relations were sore amazed; not for that they
believed that what he had said to them was true, but because they
thought some frenzy-distemper had got into his head : therefore, it
drawing towards night, and they hoping that sleep might settle his
brains, with all haste they got him to bed. But the night was as
troublesome to him as the day : wherefore, instead of sleeping, he
spent it in sighs and tears. So, when the morning was come, they
would know how he did: and he told them, worse and worse. He
also set to talking to them again, but they began to be hardened : they
also thought to drive away his distemper by harsh and surly carriages
to him: sometimes they would deride, sometimes they would chide,
and sometimes they would quite neglect him. Wherefore he began to
retire himself to his chamber, to pray for and pity them; and also to

into the tongue of the German nation. And way; "a book in his hand "-the Bible; and
so Bunyan is now withdrawn from the agita- a great burden on his back "-the weary
tion and excitement of the world outside, and burden of his sin; "he wept and trembled,"
in what he calls his "den," he sees visions, and as every man must do that is under convic-
dreams dreams, and indites the wondrous tion of sin.
parables and allegories in which, "though What shall I do ?-This is his first ques-
dead, he yet speaketh." tion ; and the second is, What shall I do to be
And as Isleft, I dreamed.-Bunyan, though saved?" The convicted sinner's first thought
bereft of liberty in a damp and dreary dungeon, is of his danger, as though it would crush
threw his allegory into the likeness of a peace- him ; the next is, of the possibility of escape
ful dream. Sweet and deep, doubtless, was -salvation.
the sleep of this man of God, conscious that he He brake his mind to his wife.-This para-
was undergoing hardship for the cause of graph minutely depicts the agony of an
Christ, and that nothing worthy of bonds had awakened sinner-disclosing some threatening
been proved against him. Blessed are the night evil to those he loves best, and would rescue
visionsandmid-daymeditationsof sucha"seer." if he can; those days of weeping, those rest-
And behold I saw a man, &,c.-Mark the less nights, those darksome dawnings of the
features of this vision. This man is the per- morning, that bring not joy, but the weary
sonification of the sinner awakened to con- verdict, "Worse and worse."
science of his sins. He is "clothed with rags" I saw a man named Evangelist.-Much of
-the rags of his own righteousness ; stand- Bunyan's private history is interwoven through-
ing"--still in doubt, not yet set forward ; "his out the allegory. In fact, it is a spiritual t
, face from his own house "-looking the right autobiography, recounting his own dangers,

S- ---- -L--

She spent his time.P h's Pr's
---- -_:

Now I saw upon a time, when he was walking in the fields, that he

was (as he was wont) reading in his book, and greatly distressed in
his mind; and as he read he burst out, as he had done before, crying,
I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as if he would

run; yet he stood still, because (as I perceived) he could not tell which
way to go. I looked then, andtimes saw a man named Evangelist coming days
S Jobw33.23. to him, and he asked, Wherefore dost thou cry? He

hidoubts, helps, and manifold experiences, stepped the narrow bounds of that unhappy done before, crying,
EVANGELIST is supposed to mean the good period. He, however, afterwards became a
Mr. Gifford, under whose instruction and converted man, and was the founder of a church
ministry Bunyan so greatly profited. Mr. Gif- in Bedford, which was subsequently ministered
ford had been a major in the king's army, and to by Bunyan himself, and has continued its
a persecutor of those who, like Bunyan, over- succession of testimony to the present day.

.._ .-~i .!,~ I j -_... _..

._:,;. i:,+


,,'.=N +
,,", ; +' - 5- ,
t ~ ~ I=i "I::, "Jl ,-"' l i,., --

The Pilgrinz's Progress.

answered, Sir, I perceive by the book in my hand that I am con-
demned to die, and after that, to come to judgment: and I find that I
Heb. 9. 27. Job am not willing to do the first, nor able to do the second.
16. 212. Ezek.
.22. 4. Then said Evangelist, Why not willing to die, since
this life is attended with so many evils ? The man answered, Be-
cause I fear that this burden that is upon my back will sink me
isa. 30. 33. lower than the grave, and I shall fall into Tophet. And,
Sir, if I be not fit to go to prison, I am not fit to go to judgment, and
from thence to execution : and the thoughts of these things make
me cry.
Then said Evangelist, If this be thy condition, why standest thou
still ? He answered, Because I know not whither to go. Then he
gave him a parchment-roll; and there was written within, Flee from
Matt. 3. 7. the wrath to come." The man therefore read it, and
looking upon Evangelist very carefully, said, Whither must I flee ?
Then said Evangelist, pointing with his finger over a very wide field,
Man. 3, 14. Do you see yonder wicket-gate ? The man said, No.
Ps. 019. 150. 2 Pet;
19. ro. t. Then said the other, Do you see yonder shining light ?
He said, I think I do. Then said Evangelist, Keep that light in
your eye, and go up directly thereto, so shalt thou see the gate; at
which when thou knockest it shall be told thee what thou shalt do.

Wherefore dost thou cry ?-What a volume, and sin, and knowing how unerring is the
might be written in answer to this question mind of God, and how stern and unbending is
Everything conspires to draw forth his sighs the justice of his throne, that prison becomes
and tears. The weight of his burden ; the the inevitable threshold to "judgment."
lack of sympathy at home; the derision, the He is still more terribly afraid of "judg-
chiding, the neglect which he received from ment." There is no plea of innocence; there
friends ; the musing upon his forlorn condition is no extenuation of his sin; there is nothing
in the secrecy of his chamber, and in his in himself to mitigate the wrath, or to turn
solitary walks; the dread realisation of sin, aside the judgment of God. To him, then,
and fear of death, and conscious unprepared- judgment is the proof of his guilt, and the
ness for judgment-all these circumstances consequent sentence of death is pronounced
conspire to open the fountain of his tears, against him. And this involves a yet further
Prison -judgment-execution. -This pro- sequel-" execution."
gression of wrath and condemnation, arising And most of all he fears this doom of exe-
out of conviction of sin, alarms the Pilgrim. cution." He is brought by conviction of sin
He sees scope beyond scope, depth beyond into prison; and from prison to judgment;
. j depth, darkness beyond darkness; and being and from judgment to execution ; and that is,
as yet without hope and without God in the not only death, but something after death;
world, he sees no light at all to illuminate this not only the grave, but something "lower than
darksome prospect, the grave ; "-it is death of body and of soul,
He fears the prison," the first stage of loss of life and loss of heaven, and all the
,-I spiritual apprehension, into which he enters eternity of woe, and all the unutterable misery
li for trial; and seeing he enters that prison that is wrapped up in the doom of the lost
With a conscience deeply convicted of guilt and in the destiny of hell.

,1 Christian sets out from the City of Destruction.

So I saw in my dream that the man began to run. Now he had
not run far from his own door, but his wife and children perceiving
it began to cry after him to return : but the man put his Luke 44. 26.
Gen. 9. 17. 2 Cor.
fingers in his ears, and ran on crying, Life! life! eternal 4. s.
life! So he looked not behind him, but fled towards the middle of
the plain.
The neighbours also came out to see him run : and as he ran some
mocked, others threatened, and some cried after him to return: and
among those that did so, there were two that were resolved to fetch
him back by force. The name of the one was Obstinate, and the
name of the other Pliable. Now by this time the man was got a good
distance from them: but however, they were resolved to pursue him;
which they did, and in a little time they overtook him. Then said
the man, Neighbours, wherefore are ye come ? They said, To
persuade you to go back with us: but he said, That can by no means
be. You dwell, said he, in the city of Destruction, the place where
also I was born : I see it to be so; and dying there, sooner or later
you will sink lower than the grave, into a place that burns with fire
and brimstone : be content, good neighbours, and go along with me.
What, said Obstinate, and leave our friends and our comforts
behind us!
Yes, said Christian (for that was his name), because that all is not

A parchment roll.-This was Evangelist's spiritual way alone. It is, in fact, a family
gift to the Pilgrim, with a motto that urged circle, which now presents just one of its mem-
him to flight. And this was quickly followed bers convinced of sin, but all the rest impeni-
by the further counsel, whither to flee. The tent and unbelieving. This one member
roll of parchment, as on other occasions, would desire to have all the other members
means that the advice of Evangelist is to be to bear him company toward Zion ; but they
retained and preserved as an enduring posses- refuse. His mind is made up to go alone,
sion. Now there is hope rather than not to go at all. And out of the
Yonder wicket-gate.-Not yet attained ; yet midst of the threatened overthrow he speeds
further on. The Pilgrim is short-sighted ; he his onward way, still bearing his family com-
cannot see the gate. It is seen and may be pany in temporal things, but in things spiritual
known by its halo of light. Thus Evangelist he is all alone.
acts as a finger-post, directing the way, and How often does it happen that one mem-
helping the power of the Pilgrim's eye-sight. ber of a family starts for heaven without
The man began to run.-The directions once father, or mother, or brother, or sister, to
Given, his earnestness quickens his steps; and bear him company! It is this that divides
Whatever doubt or hesitancy may have been and separates families and friendships here;
before, now at least he can do naught else but and if they become not one in Christ it sepa-
run. He is on for his life, and must not delay. rates eternally hereafter. Many such separate
No, not for wife or child, or the overture of pilgrimages are undertaken even now : the
any friend. They are content to remain in husband without the wife; the wife without
sin, and to dwell in the midst of danger and the husband. It may be twain brothers, or .
destruction; and this being so, he takes his two fond sisters, alike in disposition and ."
r/e to

T/e Pilgrim's Progress.

worthy to be compared with a little of that that I am seeking to
enjoy; and if you will go along with me, and hold it, you shall fare as I
Luke 15. 7. myself; for there where I go is enough and to spare : come
away, and prove my words.
OBST. What are the things you seek, since you leave all the world
to find them ?
CHR. I seek an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth
iPet 4-6. Heb. not away :" and it is laid up in heaven," and safe there,
9. 6, I6. to be bestowed at the time appointed on them that dili-
gently seek it. Read it so, if you will, in my book.
Tush, said Obstinate, away with your book : will you go back with
us, or no ?
Luke 9. 62. No, not I, said the other, because I have laid my hand
to the plough.
OBST. Come then, neighbour Pliable, let us turn again, and go home
without him: there is a company of these craz'd-headed coxcombs,
that when they take a fancy by the end, are wiser in their own eyes
than seven men that can render a reason.
Then said Pliable, Do not revile; if what the good Christian says
is true, the things he looks after are better than ours: my heart inclines
to go with my neighbour.
OBST. What! more fools still ? be ruled by me, and go back : who
knows whither such a brain-sick fellow will lead you ? Go back, go
back, and be wise.
CHR. Come with me, neighbour Pliable; there are such things to

deportment-alike, it may be, in the externals understand why the Pilgrim should leave his
of religion, and yet separated by this dividing worldly associations, or believe the book that
line. Like two rivers, rising from the self- bids him to forsake all for Christ. He even
same fountain, and running side by side at the waxes angry because his words seem to take
outset of their course, but then, by a slight and no effect. And by-and-by he rails on the
gentle deviation, parting company, and at last, Pilgrim, and reviles him for what he believes
in opposite directions, mingling their waters to be his folly or his fancy in committing him-
with the ocean : the one amid the verdure and self to the fortunes of so strange an expedi-
foliage, and fruits and flowers, of the tropics ; tion.
the other amid the ice-bound regions of per- PLIABLE yields for a time; is easily turned
petual barrenness and desolation, hither and thither ; but has no perseverance in
S Obstinate and Pliable.-This personifica- the right way. He is caught by promises, and
Stion of abstract terms adds much to the in- is beckoned on by hopes, but counts not the
tcrest of "The Pilgrim's Progress," and lends cost of the journey. He is pliable for good,
a great charm to the characters introduced, or he is pliable for evil ; and is ready for either
These two are named from their nature, which way, according to circumstances.
soon manifests itself in their conduct. Meanwhile the Pilgrim, who is now for the
S OBSTINATE is evidently a mocker, who scoffs first time called by the name of CHRISTIAN,
at the possessors of religion. He cannot is fighting a hard fight, and he is waging it well.

S.Obstinate and Pliable.

hi '"t my .c n do you ,"" .-- way : th:i desire d'? .-
H i '-. r CR

Sbelie not e, ead hee in this oo an, o the tuth o what is

expressed therein, behold all is confirmed by the blood Heb. 9. 17-22. 'f

place ? -

SCHR. I am directed by a man, whose name is Evangelist, to speed

He ontendsf H i tha ith and hope. faithleads beckons on to the better land, CHRISTIAN
him to leave friends and comforts behind him, determines to hold fast by the plough which
himtoleave foCriends and cfts bhehind thi eterminest
S which OBSTINATE will not do. His pointss he hath put his hand unto. Hence this
Sto the glory beyond-the incorruptible inheri- formidable temptation is successfully resisted,
i(htance. His Book teaches him all this; the and the Pilgrim steadily pursues his way; (j
'r; testimony of that Book is confirmed by the OBSTINATE turns back, and is got rid of as
,' blood of Him that gave it; and thus, with the an enemy, while PLIABLE goes on, and (for a
faith that forsakes house, and family, and time at least) bears the Pilgrim company as
friends for Christ, and with the hope that a friend.

Lil, behdwihIspk fan an oegoisbeie:i o -t,~':
"':'.' ~3~ beiv no e edhr nti"bo;anfrtetuho hti +,

The Pilgrim's Progress.
i me to a little gate that is before us, where we shall receive instructions
about the way.
PLI. Come then, good neighbour, let us be going. Then they went
both together.
And I will go back to my place, said Obstinate: I will be no com-
panion of such misled, fantastical fellows.


OBSTINATE in his self-will has returned to the City of Destruction. PLIABLE, won for a
moment to the cause of the Pilgrim, pliably tries the fortune of the road, merely for speculation
and experiment. So long as Religion walks in silver sandals and enjoys the sunshine, he is
content to abide with CHRISTIAN; but if the sky should darken, or the way prove hazardous
he that has turned his face forward will as easily turn backward, and forsake the pilgrimage.
The topic of conversation is hopeful and joyous ; for they talk about cherubim and seraphim,
and the dazzling glories of heaven, and the tearless happiness of the place, and the glittering
crowns, and golden harps, and pearly gates of the seat of bliss. All this is permitted, for
the contemplation of the promises is the privilege and duty of young beginners, to animate
them to a diligent attention to the conditions annexed to the promises. These men looked
to future glory and overlooked present duty-to the end of the journey, and regarded not, as
wise men ought to regard, the necessary steps that conduct thereto.
Now, the consequence in their case was that they both fell into the Slough of Despond.
They lost sight of the promises contained in God's Holy Word. These are the stepping-stones
that, by the good providence of God, are abundantly scattered along the dangerous pass-the
ground-work and foot-hold of the pilgrims. We shall see, by-and-by, how useful are these
standing points to the feet of pilgrims, when, in the Second Part of the Progress, we view the
safe passage of CHRISTIANA and her children over this same unsafe ground. Meanwhile,
PLIABLE extricates himself at the side nearest to the City of Destruction. CHRISTIAN, utterly
powerless, is delivered by one whose name is HELP.

| ^ -5
.; OW I saw in my dream that, when Obstinate was gone
i, back, Christian and Pliable went talking over the plain:
and thus they began their discourse.
.- CHR. Come, neighbour Pliable, how do you do ? I
... :- am glad you are persuaded to go along with me: had
even Obstinate himself but felt what I have felt of the
p owners and terrors of what is yet unseen, he would not thus lightly
Shave given us the back.
PLI. Come, neighbour Christian, since there are none but us two
(rfk ^^ ^ ^^p ~ -^ f ^, m ,,,, ,,.i,,., ,, ._ _,.. ___ ._ ___ -i '
&^-5 '*u L- -t.'' ,

'- I I,- l.
Uj,"- Christian answers Pliable's questions. )
here, tell me now further what the things are, and how to be enjoyed,
whither we are going.
CHR. I can better conceive of them with my mind than speak of
them with my tongue: but yet, since you are desirous to know, I will
read of them in my book.
PLI. And do you think that the words of your book are certainly
true ?
CHR. Yes, verily, for it was made by him that cannot lie. Titus 2, 9.
PLI. Well said; what things are they ?
CHR. There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, and everlasting
life to be given us, that we may inhabit that kingdom for Isa. 45. 7. John
ever. o. 27-29.
PLI. Well said; and what else ?
CHR. There are crowns of glory to be given us; and garments that
will make us shine like the sun in the firmament of heaven. 2 Tim.. Rev. 3.
PLI. This is excellent: and what else ? 4. att. 23 43.
CHR. There shall be no more crying nor sorrow; for he that is
owner of the place will wipe all tears from our eyes. Isa. s. 8. Rev. 7.
PLI. And what company shall we have there ? 6, x7; 2. 4.
CHR. There we shall be with Seraphims and Cherubims, creatures
that will dazzle your eyes to look on them. There, also, Isa. .. 2 Thess.
you shall meet with thousands and ten thousands that 4.6, 7-
have gone before us to that place; none of them are hurtful, but loving

Made by himn that cannot lie.-In answer to And what else ?-Still with an insatiable
PLIABLE'S curious questions, CHRISTIAN refers avidity PLIABLE drinks in the descriptions of
to his "Book;" and in evidence of the veracity heaven, and demands yet more. CHRISTIAN
and authority of the Book, he states that it is led on by the evident interest he has
was made by him that cannot lie." There is awakened in the mind of his new comrade.
no basis of argument, no ground-work of pro- He descants most eloquently of the end-
mise, no foot-hold of faith, no certainty at all, less kingdom," and "everlasting life," and
unless the Bible be true. To disturb this the glorious "garments" of the redeemed.
authority is to destroy fundamental truth; PLIABLE'S pulse beats high; his curiosity is
and "if the foundations be destroyed, what more and more quickened. It is surely some-
shall the righteous do ?" thing to meet by-and-by with prophets, and
!I l What things are they ?-PLIABLE is not apostles, and martyrs, and such company as
.' very anxious, if anxious at all, about the these.
'j authority of "the Book." His spirit of curi- Are these things to be enjofyed?-" Let us i
osity is greater than his spirit of earnest all learn," says a recent writer on the Pil-
inquiry. He feels no burden, realises no grim's Progress, "to distinguish an easy
Natural unfitness, and only annts to know liable disposition from the broken heart of a
what are the hopes held out; and if they be genuine penitent. You may be very opposite
Good and profitable, he would desire to have to an obstinate man, with whom you have been
Stem, if they can be obtained without any associated. You may have a great respect for
self-denial on his part. real Christians ; but if you confine your view

j-t II1 ,

V i, i 'Y l ll'~ Z L S .'-------- -S .
i,_ The Pigr'im's Progress.,

Sand holy; every one walking in the sight of God, and standing in hi,?
presence with acceptance for ever. In a word, there we shall see the
R,4. 4. elders with their golden crowns ; there we shall see holy
rev 4.-s. virgins with their golden harps ; there we shall see men
that by the world were cut in pieces, burnt in flames, eaten of beasts,
drowned in the seas, for the love that they bare to the Lord of the

5. 2-5. garment.
PLI. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart. But are
these things to be enjoyed ? How shall we get to be sharers hereof ?
Isa. s5. -3. Jihn CI-IR. The Lord, the Governor of the country, hath
6. 37; 7. 37. Rev.
21.6 17. recorded th/at in this book; the substance of which is,
if we be truly willing to have it, he will bestow it upon us freely.
PLI. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear of these things.
Come on, let us mend our pace.
CIR. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this burden that
is on my back.
Now I saw in my dream, that just as they had ended this talk they
drew nigh to a very miry slough that was in the midst of the plain,

only to the bright side of religion ; if you are Destruction, yet now slackens his pace ; he can
carried away by its lively representations of run no longer. PLIABLE feels no weight. He
peace and rest, and joy and glory, without any has undertaken, and now thus far continues,
thorough awakening to the power and terror his pilgrimage, not by reason of conviction of
of the unseen world, and without any feeling of sin or consciousness of any burden, but be-
the burden upon your back-I mean a sense cause of the glorious prospect of heaven, and
of your depraved and sinful state-if this, I the blessedness that CHRISTIAN tells him of.
say, be your experience, your goodness will He cannot, therefore, see any reason why he
only be as thle morning cloud and th/e early should not run all the way to the possession
dew. You are only a stony-ground hearer, of these great promises. But the Pilgrim is
Notwithstanding your lively emotions, your weary and heavy laden." Although full of
ready profession, your joyful feelings, and confidence in the words of his Book, which
your hasty movements, you have no root in assure him that the kingdom will be freely be-
yourself. You will endure but for a season, stowed on those who sincerely seek it, he is
When tribulation or persecution ariseth be- nevertheless weighed down by a sense of sin
cause of the Word, you will be offended. Oh, and so deeply conscious of his own weakness
the unspeakable blessing of a thoroughly and infirmity, that he cannot step forward thus
awakened, a deeply humble heart! Let us quickly. For such a race it needs that we
Remember that this is the special work of the "renew our strength ;" and they alone can do
Holy Spirit; and however painful or distressing, this who "wait upon the Lord." It is of these
let us constantlyseek, thatby his gracious opera- that the prophet speaks, "They shall mount
tion it may be actually wrought within us." up with wings as eagles ; they shall run, and
Let us mend our pace. PLIABLE, intent not be weary ; and they shall walk, and not
Supon the prospective glories of the place, of faint" (Isa. xl. 31). CHRISTIAN knows this,
Which he has just received so glowing an taught by experience to know the weight of
account, desires to hasten on. But the Pilgrim, his "burden." He therefore checks the pre-
a lbeit lie did hastily run from the City of sumption of PLIABLE, saying, "I cannot
I I 12 I -

1^ ---------------------------------------------
The PzlrorZs Progress.1

and holy; every one walking in the sight of God, and standing in his
presence with acceptance for ever. In a word, there we shall see the
Rev. 4. 4. elders with their golden crowns ; there we shall see holy
IR'. 4. -5. virgins with their golden harps ; there we shall see men
that by the world were cut in pieces, burnt in flames, eaten of beasts,
drowned in the seas, for the love that they bare to the Lord of the
jo hn12.25. Cor. place; all well, and clothed with immortality as with a
52-5. garment.
PLI. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart. But are
these things to be enjoyed ? How shall we get to be sharers hereof?
Isa. 55. 1--. John CHR. The Lord, the Governor of the country, hath
6. 37; 7, 37. Rev.
21. 6; 22. 7 recorded t/at in this book; the substance of which is,
if we be truly willing to have it, he will bestow it upon us freely.
PLI. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear of these things.
Come on, let us mend our pace.
CIIR. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this burden that
is on my back.
Now I saw in my dream, that just as they had ended this talk they
drew nigh to a very miry slough that was in the midst of the plain,

only to the bright side of religion; if you are Destruction, yet now slackens his pace ; he can
carried away by its lively representations of run no longer. PLIABLE feels no weight. He
peace and rest, and joy and glory, without any has undertaken, and now thus far continues,
thorough awakening to the power and terror his pilgrimage, not by reason of conviction of
of the unseen world, and without any feeling of sin or consciousness of any burden, but be-
the burden upon your back-I mean a sense cause of the glorious prospect of heaven, and
of your depraved and sinful state-if this, I the blessedness that CHRISTIAN tells him of.
say, be your experience, your goodness will He cannot, therefore, see any reason why he
only be as the morning cloud and the early should not run all the way to the possession
deu. You are only a stony-ground hearer, of these great promises. But the Pilgrim is
Notwithstanding your lively emotions, your "weary and heavy laden." Although full of
ready profession, your joyful feelings, and confidence in the words of his Book, which
your hasty movements, you have no root in assure him that the kingdom will be freely be-
Syourself. You will endure but for a season, stowed on those who sincerely seek it, he is
When tribulation or persecution ariseth be- nevertheless weighed down by a sense of sin
cause of the Word, you will be offended. Oh, and so deeply conscious of his own weakness
the unspeakable blessing of a thoroughly and infirmity, that he cannot step forward thus
awakened, a deeply humble heart Let us quickly. For such a race it needs that we
Remember that this is the special work of the "renew our strength ;" and they alone can do
SHoly Spirit; and however painful or distressing, this who "wait upon the Lord." It is of these '
let us constantly seek, thatby his gracious opera- that the prophet speaks, "They shall mount '
tion it may be actually wrought within us." up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and
Let us mend our jace.- PLIABLE, intent not be weary; and they shall walk, and not
upon the prospective glories of the place, of faint" (Isa. xl. 31). CHRISTIAN knows this,
Which he has just received so glowing an taught by experience to know the weight of
account, desires to hasten on. But the Pilgrim, his "burden." He therefore checks the pre-
-albeit he did hastily run from the City of sumption of PLIABLE, saying, "I cair- **

~ r ..,-~ ~rw=i; ~-nl-?xi=.

The P..'. .'s Progress.

and they, being heedless, did both fall suddenly into the bog. The
name of the slough was Despond. Here, therefore, they wallowed for
a time, being grievously bedaubed with the dirt: and Christian,
because of the burden that was on his back, began to sink in the
Then said Pliable, Ah neighbour Christian, where are you now ?
Truly, said Christian, I do not know.
At that Pliable began to be offended, and angrily said to his fellow,
Is this the happiness you have told me all this while of? If we have
such ill speed at our first setting out, what may we expect betwixt this
and our journey's end ? May I get out again with my life, you shall
possess the brave country alone for me. And with that he gave a
desperate struggle or two, and got out of the mire on that side of the
slough which was next to his own house. So away he went, and
Christian saw him no more.
Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the slough of Despond
alone; but still he endeavoured to struggle to that side of the slough
that was still further from his own house, and next to the Wicket-gate;
the which he did, but could not get out, because of the burden that
was upon his back. But I beheld in my dream that a man came to
him whose name was Help, and asked him what he did there ?

so fast as I would, by reason of this burden now left alone, struggles toward the side
that is on my back." nearest the Wicket-gate. All-burdened with
A vecy miry slough.-Since CHRISTIAN'S sin, and sinking in the miry clay, he feels his
flight from the City of Destruction, this is his danger and his desolate condition. How
first difficulty and downfall-" they being heed- dreary and how dreadful is this place !-
less did both fall suddenly into the bog." This Where hardly a human foot could pass,
Swas the Slough of Despond. In this miry Or a human heart would dare,
place CHRISTIAN seems to fare worse than his On the quaking turf of the green morass,
SHis all he had trusted there."
fellow; for by reason of his burden (that is,
conscious sin), he sinks deeper and deeper. But CHRISTIAN now looks elsewhere for help,
SPLIABLE, feeling no such burden, is simply and makes every effort to be free. Some one
bedaubed, but is also most grievously offended, has well said, There is one test by which to dis-
He naturally feels that this is a sudden and tinguish the godly from the ungodly, when both
unlooked-for descent from the crowns, and have fallen even into the selfsame sin. It is the
Sharps, and dazzling glories of which they had test by which you may know a sheep from swine,
been speaking. Accordingly, having no cor- when both have fallen into the same slough,
rect views of the state of man and of the and are, in fact, so bemired that neither by
Plan of deliverance, in time of temptation coat nor colour can the one be distinguished
or trial he falleth away. PLIABLE'S first ex- from the other. How, then, distinguish them ?
l; periences offend him; and at once, with a Nothing more easy. The unclean animal, in
desperate struggle or two, he releases himself circumstances agreeable to its nature, wallows
from the mire, at that side of the swamp that in the mire ; but the sheep fills the air with its
; was nearest his native home. bleatings, nor ceases its struggles to get nut." ,
"ot the Pilgrim of Sion. CHRISTIAN, Thus PLIABLE, disappointed of his :.....
",, [

An z account of teic SlouWgJ of Desponad.

Sir, said Christian, I was bid go this way by a man called Evange-
list, who directed me also to yonder gate, that I might escape the
wrath to come; and as I was going thither I fell in here.
HELP. But why did you not look for the steps ?
CIHR. Fear followed me so hard that I fled the next way, and fell in.
Then said he, Give me thy hand. So he gave him Ps. .,. is. 35.
his hand, and he drew him out, and set him on sound 3, 4
ground, and let him go on his way.
Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and said, Sir, where-
fore, since over this place is the way from the city of Destruction to
yonder gate, is it, that this plat is not mended, that poor travellers
might go thither with more security ? And he said to me, This miry
slough is such a place as cannot be mended. It is the descent whither
the scum and filth that attend conviction of sin do continually run, and
therefore it is called the slough of Despond : for still, as the sinner is
awakened about his lost condition, there arise in his soul many fears,
and doubts, and discouraging apprehensions, which all of them get
together, and settle in this place; and this is the reason of the badness
of this ground. It is not the pleasure of the King that this place
should remain so bad. His labourers also have, by the directions of
his Majesty's surveyors, been for above these sixteen hundred years
employed about this patch of ground, if perhaps it might be mended;
yea, and to my knowledge, said he, here have been swallowed up at
least twenty thousand cartloads, yea, millions of wholesome instructions,

and not being patient of the Pilgrimage, re- he began to sink? Hence the Psalmist, after
turns to Destruction ; while CHRISTIAN, with his deliverance, thus tells of the mercy of the
earnest struggles to be free, still "looks to the Lord : I waited patiently for the Lord; and
hills, from whence cometh his help." he inclined unto me, and heard my cry. He
Whose name was Help. -When man has brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out
done his best, and yet that best is nothing,then of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock,
comes HELP. This kind messenger is CHRIST. and established my goings. And he hath put
He reproves the Pilgrim that he had not looked a new song in my mouth, even praise unto our
for "the steps." And CHRISTIAN answers that God: many shall see it, and fear, and shall
"fear followed" him, and thus he missed the trust in the Lord" (Ps. xl. 1-3).
steps. These stepping-stones are the promises Then I stepped to him.-Here the Dreamer
l of God in Christ. Now "fear" never yet takes part in his own vision; that such a
brought a man to the promises ; it only drives swamp as this should be permitted to exist is
us from them, so that we lose the way. to him a marvel, and he seeks the interpreta-
Give me thy hand.-Such is the real help tion thereof. This, it appears, is the low level
that Christ gives the Christian. "His own of spiritual experience, into which flows the
arm brought salvation." What would have drainage of conviction of sin. Into this
. been the condition of any of us had not the Despond most men fall ; some to go thence on
hand of the Lord upheld us, as he upheld the their Pilgrimage wiser and better men ; others, i
Saffrighted Peter, when his faith failed him, and to turn back, and walk no more with Jesus.
15 --,4

The Pilgrim's Progress.

That have at all seasons been brought from all places of the King's
Sdominions (and they that can tell, say, that they are the best materials
Sto make good ground of the place, if so be it might be mended) ; but
it is the slough of Despond still, and so will be when they have done
I what they can. True, there are, by the direction of the Lawgiver,
certain good and substantial steps placed even through the very midst
of this slough : but, at such time as this place doth much spew out its
Q filth, as it doth against change of weather, these steps are hardly seen;
Sor if they be, men, through the dizziness of their heads, step beside,
and then they are bemired to purpose, notwithstanding the steps be
S'am. 12.2. there; but the ground is good when they are once
got in at the Gate.
Now I saw in my dream that by this time Pliable was got home to
his house. So his neighbours came to visit him ; and some of them
called him wise man for coming back; and some called him fool for
hazarding himself with Christian: others, again, did mock at his coward-
liness, saying, Surely, since you began to venture, I would not have
been so base as to have given out for a few difficulties. So Pliable
sat sneaking among them. But at last he got more confidence, and
then they -all turned their tales, and began to deride poor Christian
behind his back. And thus much concerning Pliable.

Some men whose minds are well instructed yet. The whole aggregate influence of the
in Divine truth, and whose faith in "present Christian Church and Christian men is in-
help" is lively, do not sink very deeply into sufficient to satisfy its hungry appetite for
this "horrible pit;" while others, whose faith is souls, that sometimes through it go down quick
weak, are almost overwhelmed, and remain for into hell. Instructors, teachers, preachers,
a considerable time with little or no hope. This guides, missionaries, martyrs, Bibles, churches,
latter class of persons are commonly those who all have failed to take effect; the whole work-
have gone great lengths in sin, or whose habit ing power of Christendom has not succeeded
Sit is to brood continually over the evil which in throwing across this swamp a beaten high-
they find within their own hearts, instead of way for the Christian to the City of the King.
Looking out of themselves to the Saviour, and It is only by believing faith in the work of
resting upon those precious words of invitation Christ, that this Slough can be safely over-
and encouragement which he addresses to sin- past. Seek, and ye shall find."
ners. There is a humility which partakes Thus muck concerning Pliable.-Such is
Largely of unbelief, and which, therefore, cannot the career of the unstable professor-weak,
be a frame of mind pleasing in the sight of God. impulsive, and vacillating; his "goodness is
And this Slough of Despond continues to like the evening cloud or the early dew, which
Sthe present day, notwithstanding all the efforts quickly passeth away." He sets out full of
that are put forth to mend it, the downfall of promise and with buoyant spirits; but when
Many hopeful ones, a grievous snare to many trouble arises and the way becomes rough and
of the Pilgrims of the heavenly way at the difficult, he turns aside from-Him who alone
Commencement of their Christian career, can help, and following his own devices, falls
r Two hundred years have passed since Bunyan into a condition of spiritual apathy which ren-
sounded its depths, and it is not mended ders his case even less hopeful than before.
l-' 16 -
S- ------- --- --- A l

7 _



IT frequently happens that when a man begins to be earnestly interested in his own spiritual
welfare, he will find other persons apparently interested also. We seldom take any important
starep without finding many persons ready to proffer their advice, and to urge this or that line
of conduct ; and this will be the more observable if the interests of others are affected as
well as our own. Here we are sure to have interested advisers, such as the workmen of
Ephesus, who, because it was "by this craft they had into th," opposed that preachingrror
of the' cross of Jesus Christ which would overthrow their craft.
The world is full of claimants for mans soul. Against the righteous, attributes of God thingere
are rival claims-worldly gains, worldly wisdom, worldly-mindedness, which strive to steal 3
away man's heart from God. It is this spirit of the world that meets the Pilgrim, who has F)
just escaped from the Slough of Despond. And while CHRISTIAN is still smarting under his
recent downfall and disappointment, a man named WORLDLY-WISEMAN approaches, intent
upon making him his victim, by turning him from the right way into the path of error.
This WORLDLY-WISEMAN is Self-Righteousness, that glories in the law, attributes nothing
to grace, trusts to its own merit, and will not accept the merits of Christ. This Self-Righteous
spirit will stand beneath Sinai, rather than look to Calvary. This legal religion would,
were it possible, work its own way to heaven, and ignore the salvation that is in Christ
we.req possible, ow3n a

The Pilgrim's Progress.

SJesus. In the end, the folly of such a course is made manifest in the thunders, and
lightning, and threatening of the dark and lowering Mount of Sinai. St. Paul asks
such persons this solemn question-" Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye
not hear the law?" Gal. iv. 21. A plain answer to this question is contained in the
following scene of the Pilgrim's Progress.

i: '' Christian was now walking solitarily by himself, he
espied one afar off come crossing over the field to
: 'j '-' meet him, and their hap was to meet just as they were
crossing the way of each other. The gentleman's
-Q name was Mr. Worldly-wiseman; he dwelt in the town
S' of Carnal-policy, a very great town, and also hard by
SI from whence Christian came. This man then meet-
ing with Christian, and having some inkling of him, for Christian's
setting forth from the City of Destruction was much noised abroad,
not only in the town where he dwelt, but also it began to be the
town-talk in some other places : Master Worldly-wiseman, therefore,
having some guess of him, by beholding his laborious going, by
observing his sighs and groans, and the like, began thus to enter into
some talk with Christian.
WOR. How now, good fellow; whither away after this burdened
manner ?
CIR. A burdened manner indeed, as ever I think poor creature
had! And whereas you ask me, Whither away? I tell you, Sir, I

Walking- solitarily.-PLIABLE has departed own righteousness, refusing the saving right-
home again. HELP, having lifted the Pilgrim eousness of Jesus. This man is of the world,
from the mire, has also departed, and CHRISTIAN carnally-minded, legally disposed; he is of
isleft alone. A Christian "walking solitarily" those that seek to justify themselves. Their
is sometimes a mark for temptation; while, if wisdom is but worldly wisdom, and this shall
he would walk in company with a fellow-Chris- be outwitted at the last, and utterly turned
tian, he would probably escape the temptation. into foolishness. They that are "wise after the
The tempter ofttimes selects our lonely mo- flesh" are not "wise unto God."
ments for his fiercest assaults. When alone, Having some guess of kim.-There were
the Christian may be weak: in company with certain marks and characteristics by which
brother Christians, he may be very strong. CHRISTIAN was recognized by WORLDLY-
This was evidently a weak moment to our WISEMAN-" by beholding his laborious going,
SPilgrim-an opportunity for the assault of the and by observing his sighs and groans." Now
Sevil one. these marks form the direct contrast to the
Mr. Worldly-wiseman.-The name is in- spirit of the worldly-wise man. He evidences
tended to indicate the nature of the man ; as no "laborious going;" his walk is an easy-
the name of his town, Carnal-policy, to illus- going career. If hardships should arise, and
State his origin and associations. This is the sighs and groans" come at seasons, these
man that walks by sight, and not by faith ; troubles rise not from the depths of conscience,
Stalks presumptuously of human merit, ignoring but only play upon the outer surface of ex-
the merits of Christ ; clothes himself in his ternal circumstances. He cannot, therefore,
'4 18

"t Worldly-wisem'in questions Christian.

am going to yonder Wicket-gate before me; for there, as I am in-
formed, I shall be put in a way to be rid of my heavy burden.
WOR. Hast thou a wife and children ?
CHR. Yes; but I am so laden with this burden, that I cannot take
that pleasure in them as formerly : methinks I am as if or 7. 9.
I had none.
WOR. Wilt thou hearken to me, if I give thee counsel ?
CHR. If it be good, I will; for I stand in need of good counsel.
WOR. I would advise thee, then, that thou with all speed get thyself
rid of thy burden; for thou wilt never be settled in thy mind till then:
nor canst thou enjoy the benefits of the blessings which God has
bestowed upon thee till then.
CHR. That is that which I seek for, even to be rid of this heavy
burden: but get it off myself I cannot; nor is there any man in our
country that can take it off my shoulders: therefore I am going this
way, as I told you, that I may be rid of my burden.
WOR. Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy burden ?
CHR. A man that appeared to me a very great and honcurable
person; his name, as I remember, is Evangelist.
WOR. Beshrew him for his counsel! There is not a more
dangerous and troublesome way in the world than is that unto which
he hath directed thee; and that thou shalt find if thou wilt be ruled

understand what it is to be deeply burdened of Scripture-" And Enoch walked with God,
with iniquity; nor has he ever heaved a sigh and begat sons and daughters."
or groan from the consciousness of sin. Ac- WORLDLY-WISEMAN'S question, then, has
cordingly, by these marks of heartfelt peni- nothing to do with this great matter. Wife
tence, he now discerns in our Pilgrim the man and children were not given to us to keep us
who had set forth from the City of Destruc- from God. Therefore the words of Christ-
tion. He that loveth father or mother more than
Hast thou a wife and children ?-This ques- me, is not worthy of me : and he that loveth
tion is one of those inquiries suggested by son or daughter more than me, is not worthy
worldly wisdom and carnal policy: earthly of me," Matt. x. 37.
things first, and then (if ever) heavenly things. Who bid thee go this way ?--WORLDLY-
Farm, merchandise, wife, and children,-for WISEMAN by his questions evidently seeks to
one or more of these things I pray thee have perplex the Pilgrim, and to dissuade him from
me excused ;" as though the having of these his projected plan. He advises CHRISTIAN
could ever constitute a fitting apology for as soon as possible to get rid of his burden,
neglecting the pilgrimage of Sion. but utterly repudiates the method suggested
The good and pious Archbishop Leighton by the good counsel of EVANGELIST. He has
was once addressed by his married sister, who no sympathy with the Pilgrim, or with the
was troubled about many family cares:- utter hopelessness of his condition, so far as
You may serve God very well, who have no human aid is concerned. Another way, he
family to occupy your thoughts, nor children urges, must be tried; and even brings up the
to call off your attention from religion." The bemired condition of CHRISTIAN from the
venerable prelate thus replied, in a single text Slough of Despond, as a manifest proof that
f :'-7, '

The PilgZrim's Progress.

by his counsel. Thou hast met with something, as I perceive, already:
for I see the dirt of the Slough of Despond is upon thee; but that
slough is the beginning of the sorrows that do attend those that go in
that way. Hear me: I am older than thou. Thou art like to meet
with, on the way which thou goest, wearisomeness, painfulness, hunger,
perils, nakedness, sword, lions, dragons, darkness, and, in a word, death,
and what not! These things are certainly true, having been con-
firmed by many testimonies. And why should a man so carelessly
cast away himself by giving heed to a stranger ?
CHR. Why, Sir, this burden on my back is more terrible to me than
are all these things which you have mentioned: nay, methinks I care
not what things I meet with in the way, if so be I can also meet with
deliverance from my burden.
WoR. How camest thou by thy burden at first ?
CHR. By reading this book in my hand.
Won. I thought so: and it has happened unto thee as to other
weak men, who, meddling with things too high for them, do suddenly
fall into thy distractions ; which distractions do not only unman men
(as thine, I perceive, have done thee), but they run them upon
desperate ventures to obtain they know not what.
CHR-. I know what I would obtain : it is ease from my heavy burden.
WoR. But why wilt thou seek for ease this way, seeing so many
dangers attend it ? especially since, hadst thou but patience to hear me,
I could direct thee to the obtaining what thou desirest, without the
dangers that thou in this way wilt run thyself into. Yea, and the

EVANGELIST was wrong in his directions; and be satisfied, WORLDLY-WISEMAN proceeds to
then, to deter CHRISTIAN, he speaks of all sorts' suggest a false peace, and a rest which, after
of difficulties and dangers ; but these do not all, can give the guilty conscience no relief.
terrify the Pilgrim, for he feels the pressure of He promises many things-ease, safety, friend-
this burden to be worse to him than all possible ship, and contentment.
inconveniences that may arise in the path. Oien this secret to Vme.-WORLDLY-WISEMAN
How camest thou by thy burden ?-This is has gained the Pilgrim's ear, and now he delves
drawing to closer quarters. The tempter deeper, and gains the Pilgrim's heart. CHRIS-
already sees that there is a deep and thorough TIAN is now listening to the counsel of the
realisation of the weight and weariness of the ungodly. We fear for the result.
burden. He now seeks to remove-not the Morality, Legality, Civility.-These are the
Burden, but the consciousness of the burden, new saviours suggested by WORLDLY-WISE-
And first of all, he attempts to overthrow the MAN; not far off, easily found, and prompt to
authority of the Book which has disclosed to ease the burden. Pretentious promises! These
Sthe Pilgrim the existence and weight of his watchwords are "of the earth, earthy." They
Isin. He talks at random of "distractions," and underrate the enormity of sin, depreciate the
S"desperate ventures," and such like; and find- provisions of grace, and ignore the great sal-
ing that the burdened man seeks rest, and must ovation which is through Christ Jesus.
have case from his burden, and will not else The village of Morality is the place where

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i. The Pilgrim's Progress.

remedy is at hand. Besides, I will add, that instead of these dangers,
thou shalt meet with much safety, friendship, and content.
CHR. Pray, Sir, open this secret to me.
WOR. Why, in yonder village (the village is named Morality) there
dwells a gentleman, whose name is Legality, a very judicious man, and
a man of very good name, that has skill to help men off with such
burdens as thine from their shoulders; yea, to my knowledge, he
hath done a great deal of good this way: ay, and besides, he hath
skill to cure those that are somewhat crazed in their wits with their
burden. To him, as I said, thou mayest go and be helped presently.
His house is not quite a mile from this place; and if he should not be
at home himself, he hath a pretty young man to his son, whose name
is Civility, that can do it (to speak on) as well as the old gentleman
himself. There, I say, thou mayest be eased of thy burden : and if
thou art not minded to go back to thy former habitation, as indeed I
would not wish thee, thou mayest send for thy wife and children to
thee to this village, where there are houses now standing empty, one of
which thou mayest have at a reasonable rate. Provision is there also
cheap and good: and that which will make thy life more happy is,

the Pharisee once dwelt (where Pharisaism still faith works by love, and strives to be faithful
dwells), whose religion is a mere boastful pro- to both God and man.
fession-" I thank thee that I am not as other Legality is the character of the man who
men are." This religion sets up claims, per- trusts in the law, and boasts of his obedience
sonal claims; and expects heaven by right of to the law. Legality doth always seek to
labour done and service rendered. It hides the justify itself, and for this purpose rushes into
great truth of the Christian revelation, which court, challenging justice, and confronting the
establishes the fact that man is nothing, and very judge himself. Let the man who clings
that Christ is everything; that by grace we to the law and not to the Gospel, who pro-
are saved, but that "by the deeds of the law fesses obedience and seeks not mercy-let him
there shall no flesh be justified in his sight." stand forth before God, and see what the law
Morality must ever be a characteristic of the saith, and what the law can do Prepare the
Christian man ; but it must not be his resting- line, make ready the plummet; measure and
place, for it is not his salvation. The spiritual gauge the outward acts, the inward motives;
life must rise higher, and live on a better the thoughts, the words, and the deeds of the
principle than this it must live "by the faith entire life. You have courted the law, and you
of the Son of God." It is not by making the shall have it. But remember the terms of the
best of our diseased condition that we can law: on the slightest deviation from perfect
(.. obtain life, but by seeing and knowing the rectitude, or the least departure from the line
worst of our state, and then fleeing for refuge laid down, your doom is sealed ; for the law
to lay hold upon the hope-the only hope- saith, "The soul that sinneth, it shall die."
that is set before us. In the soul-searching inquisition of this tribu-
The Christian practises morality and delights nal, who shall stand ? Judgment also will I
in good works, not that he may be forgiven, lay to the line, and righteousness to the plum-
but because Ie is forgiven. Morality may at- met: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge
tend to the claims of one man upon another, of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding
and yet neglect the claims made by God ; but place," Isa. xxviii. 17
^ *22

SChristian under Mount Sinai.

to be sure that thou shalt live by honest neighbours, in credit and
good fashion.
Now was Christian somewhat at a stand; but presently he con-
cluded, If this be true which this gentleman hath said, my wisest course
is to take his advice : and with that he thus farther spake.
CHR. Sir, which is the way to this honest man's house ?
WOR. Do you see yonder high hill ?
CHR. Yes, very well.
WoR. By that hill you must go, and the first house you come at is his.
So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr. Legality's house for
help. But behold, when he was got now hard by the hill, it seemed so
high, and also that side of it that was next the way-side did hang so
much over, that Christian was afraid to venture further, lest the hill
should fall on his head: wherefore there he stood still, and he wot not
what to do. Also his burden now seemed heavier to him than while
he was in the way. There came also flashes of fire out of the hill, that
made Christian afraid that he should be burned : here Exod. 9. ix-iS;
therefore he sweat, and did quake for fear. And now he Heb. 2. 21.
began to be sorry that he had taken Mr. Worldly-wiseman's counsel.
And with that he saw Evangelist coming to meet him; at the sight
also of whom he began to blush for shame. So Evangelist drew

WORLDLY-WISEMAN, in fact, suggests self- impending danger from the overhanging cliff;
justification instead of self-condemnation ; instead of friendship," there is the dismal
forgetfulness of sin, instead of earnest search loneliness of one who has ventured beyond
for forgiveness of sin ; the opiate of unconcern the reach of all human aid; instead of con-
to lull -the awakened soul to sleep ; the flat- tentment," the Pilgrim is ill at ease, standing
tering unction that will speak tenderly of the amid the flashes of fiery wrath, and trembling
wrong doings of the man, and whisper peace, and quaking for very fear. Darkness, fire,
when there is no peace. And this he calls and tempest are the companions of his path.
"being eased of his burden!" CHRISTIAN is at the base of SINAI! He
Christian somewhat at a stand.-He has has come to the covert of the law, beneath
been giving heed to the counsel of the un- the dark thunder-cloud; he has come, with
godly; he now "standeth in the way of his burden, to the place of condemnation.
sinners." He inclines to evil, and he knoweth 0 wretched man that I am Who shall
it not. I deliver me?"
it not. I know not what came o'er me, deliver e ?"
Nor who the counsel gave; A nd did quake forfear.-The law gendereth
But I must hasten downward, to bondage ; and the spirit of bondage is the
.l All with my pilgrim-stave." spirit of fear. On Sinai, God is a Judge, and
So Christian turned.-Yes, turned out of man a convicted criminal. On Calvary, God
the way." He has despised the counsel of is a Father, and man the adopted son of his
EVANGELIST; has followed the advice of love; and "perfect love casteth out fear."
WORLDLY-WISEMAN; and is now about to CHRISTIAN now finds how true it is that "the
learn new experiences. Instead of the pro- way of transgressors is hard."
mised "ease," there is greater weight added He saw Evangelist coming.-This friend
.-to the burden ; instead of safety," there is and counsellor has watched, as a true minister

Th e Pilgrim's Progress.

nearer and nearer: and coming up to him, he looked upon him with a
severe and dreadful countenance, and thus began to reason with
What doest thou here ? said he. At which words Christian knew
not what to answer: wherefore at present he stood speechless before
him. Then said Evangelist further, Art not thou the man that I
found crying without the walls of the City of Destruction ?
CHR. Yes, dear Sir, I am the man.
EVAN. Did I not direct thee the way to the little wicket-gate ?
Yes, dear Sir, said Christian.
EVAN. How is it then that thou art so quickly turned aside ? for
thou art now out of the way.
CHR. I met with a gentleman, so soon as I had got over the Slough
of Despond, who persuaded me that I might, in the village before me,
find a man that could take off my burden.
EVAN. What was he ?
CHR. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much to me, and got
me at last to yield; so I came hither : but when I beheld this hill, and
how it hangs over the way, I suddenly made a stand, lest it should fall
on my head.
EVAN. What said that gentleman to you ?
CHR. Why, he asked me whither I was going : and I told him.
EVAN. And what said he then ?
CI-IHR. He asked me if I had a family, and I told him : but, said I, I

always will, the progress of the Pilgrim. He has lost in the sense of his own inconsistency; lost
seen him stopped in his course by WORLDLY- in the consciousness of his fearful mistake;
WISEMAN; has seen him lend his ears and lost in the shame and confusion that cover his
heart to the voice of temptation; has seen face, when thus discovered far from the path
him take the wrong direction, forsaking the already prescribed for him by the faithful
path of safety ; and now he follows him into EVANGELIST.
the very midst of his danger, once more to Lest it should fall on my head.-The law is
advise and counsel him. Thank God for his ever threatening, always impending; it is
appointed Evangelists, who minister to us in like a drawn sword hanging overhead, sus-
holy things pended by a single hair. He that takes refuge
S What doest thou here, Christian ?-This was beneath this overhanging wrath, will find how
. not the path or the destination pointed out by the law can convince of sin and punish sin,
EVANGELIST in his former conversation ; it but cannot take it away ; it can increase the
is, indeed, the very opposite. EVANGELIST burden, but cannot lighten it. The law is a
had set before him blessing, and he had chosen schoolmaster, and its teaching rightly under-
cursing instead. Therefore, "with a severe and stood leads to Christ; but it is Christ alone,
dreadful countenance," he asks an account of and not the law, that taketh away sin.
this far-gone deviation from the right way, A better way, and shorter.-This was the
and the Pilgrim for a time is "speechless." tempting offer of WORLDLY-WISEMAN to the
He is lost in the fears and alarms of the place ; Pilgrim; and it is a temptation still in the
r 24

iC 'W?,

am so loaded with the burden that is on my back, that I cannot take
A. p

Swas ease that I sought: and said I, I am therefore going to yonder

liverance. So he said that he would show me a better way, and shorter,

which way, said he, will direct you to a gentleman's house that hath
when I came to this place, and beheld things as they are, I stopped

words of God. So he stood trembling. Then said Evangelist, See

refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we

CHR. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden, and I told him it
was ease that I sought: and said I, I am therefore going to yonder
gate to receive further direction how I may get to the place of de-
liverance. So he said that he would show me a better way, and shorter,
not so attended with difficulties as the way, Sir, that you set me in
which way, said he, will direct you to a gentleman's house that hath
skill to take off these burdens. So I believed him, and turned out
of that way into this, if haply I might be soon eased of my burden: but
when I came to this place, and beheld things as they are, I stopped
for fear, as I said, of danger: but now I know not what to do.
Then said Evangelist, Stand still a little, that I may show thee the
words of God. So he stood trembling. Then said Evangelist, See
that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who
refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we

The Pilgir-im's Progri-ess.

turn away from him that speaketh from heaven." He said, more-
Heb. 12. 25; o. 38. over, Now the just shall live by faith : but if any man
draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him." He also did thus
apply them: Thou art the man that art running into this misery.
Thou hast begun to reject the counsel of the Most High, and to draw
back thy foot from the way of peace, even almost to the hazarding of
thy perdition.
Then Christian fell down at his feet as dead, crying, Woe is me, for
I am undone. At the sight of which Evangelist caught him by the
Matt. 12. 3. right hand, saying, "All manner of sin and blasphemy
John 20. 27. shall be forgiven unto men :" Be not faithless, but
believing." Then did Christian again a little revive, and stood up
trembling, as at first, before Evangelist.
Then Evangelist proceeded, saying, Give more earnest heed to
the things that I shall tell thee of. I will now show thee who it
was that deluded thee; and who it was also to whom he sent thee.
The man that met thee is one Worldly-wiseman, and rightly is he so
called; partly because he savoureth only the doctrine of this world
I John 4. s. (therefore he always goes to the town of Morality to
church) ; and partly, because he loveth that doctrine best, for it saveth
Gal. 6. 12. him from the cross: and because he is of this carnal
temper, therefore he seeketh to pervert my ways, though right. Now
there are three things in this man's counsel that thou must utterly
abhor: his turning thee out of the way; his labouring to render the
cross odious to thee; and his setting thy feet in that way that leadeth
unto the ministration of death.
First, thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way : yea, and
thine own consenting thereto : because this is to reject the counsel of
God, for the sake of the counsel of a Worldly-wiseman. The Lord
says, "Strive to enter in at the strait gate" (the gate to which I sent
Matt. 7. X3, 14. thee) ; for strait is the gate that leadeth unto life, and
Luke 13. 24. few there be that find it." From this little wicket-gate,
and from the way thereto, hath this wicked man turned thee, to the
bringing of thee almost to destruction : hate therefore his turning thee
out of the way, and abhor thyself for hearkening to him.
Secondly, thou must abhor his labouring to render the cross odious

Sway of thousands. But there is only one way, Crown, they must go by the way of the Cross;
Sand therefore there can be no better and no if they seek a triumph, they must fight their
shorter road. If the Pilgrims of Sion seek a way through the battle-field.


Christian under Mouzt Sinai. .

unto thee: for thou art to prefer it before the treasures of Egypt;
besides, the King of Glory hath told thee, he that will Heb. i1. 25, 26.
save his life shall lose it;" and he that comes after him, and hates
not his father and mother, and wife and children, and
Matt. to. 39. Mark
brethren and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot 8. 35. Luke 4.
be my disciple." I say, therefore, for a man to labour to
persuade thee that that shall be thy death, without which the Truth
hath said thou canst not have eternal life: this doctrine thou must abhor.
Thirdly, thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the way that
leadeth to the ministration of death. And for this thou must con-
sider to whom he sent thee, and also how unable that person was to
deliver thee from thy burden. He to whom thou wast sent for ease,
being by name Legality, is the son of the bond-woman, which now
is, and is in bondage with her children;" and is in a Gal. 4 22-27.
mystery this Mount Sinai, which thou hast feared will fall on thy head.
Now, if she with her children are in bondage, how canst thou expect
by them to be made free ? This Legality, therefore, is not able to set
thee free from thy burden. No man was as yet ever rid of his burden
by him; no, nor ever is like to be: "Ye cannot be justified by the
works of the law; for by the deeds of the law no man living can be
rid of his burden; therefore Mr. Worldly-wiseman is an alien, and
Mr. Legality a cheat; and as for his son Civility, notwithstanding his
simpering looks, he is but a hypocrite, and cannot help thee. Believe
me, there is nothing else in all this noise that thou hast heard of this
sottish man, but a design to beguile thee of thy salvation, by turning
thee from the way which I had set thee. After this, Evangelist called
aloud to the heavens for confirmation of what he had said; and with
that there came words and fire out of the mountain, under which poor
Christian stood, that made the hair of his flesh stand up. The words
', were thus pronounced : As many as are of the works of the law are
under the curse; for it is written, Cursed is every one Gal. 3.10.
that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the
law to do them."
: Now Christian looked for nothing but death, and began to cry out

There came words and fre.-The voice of full and undivided allegiance be not rendered,
Sthe law is its own confirmation. The law's the law utters its curse against the rebels.
Demands are great and large-" all the heart, And as none can render this complete obedience
all the soul, all the mind, all the strength;" and this unsinning service, the result is that
continuance "in all things which are written "as many as are of the works of the law, are
in the book of the law to do them." If this under the curse," Gal. iii. o0.
A) t

The Pilgrim's Progress.

lamentably, even cursing the time in which he met with Mr. Worldly-
wiseman; still calling himself a thousand fools for hearkening to his
counsel : he also was greatly ashamed to think that this gentleman's
arguments, following only from the flesh, should have that prevalency
with him to forsake the right way. This done, he applied himself
again to Evangelist in words and sense as follows :
CHR. Sir, what think you ? Is there hope ? May I now go back
and go up to the Wicket-gate ? Shall I not be abandoned for this,
and sent back from thence ashamed ? I am sorry I have hearkened
to this man's counsel; but may my sin be forgiven ?
Then said Evangelist to him, Thy sin is very great, for by it thou
hast committed two evils : thou hast forsaken the way that is good, to
tread in forbidden paths : yet will the man at the gate receive thee,
for he has good-will for men; only, said he, take heed that thou turn
not aside again, lest thou perish from the way, when his wrath is
Ps. 2. 12. kindled but a little." Then did Christian address himself
to go back, and Evangelist, after he had kissed him, gave him one
smile, and bid him God speed.

THE Wicket-gate constitutes one of the main features of the great Dreamer's Allegory. It
is an end, and it is a beginning. It concludes the Pilgrim's search for the better path, and
inaugurates his entrance upon the King's highway-the way of holiness. It closes upon the
weary wilderness of doubt and ignorance in which he wandered, wept, and trembled, and
opens upon the road that conducts all faithful pilgrims to the Celestial City.
Some difficulty has been experienced in the interpretation of the details of this stage of
the Progress. Many have expressed surprise that Bunyan should thus make his Pilgrim to
enter by the Wicket-gate with his burden, and even to traverse a portion of the way, still
cumbered with his weight of sin. And, indeed, many such difficulties will arise if we expect
to find in the experience of CHRISTIAN an exact copy or type of the experience of every
Pilgrim that walks that way ; and therefore we may here, once for all, quote the expression
of James Montgomery-" These difficulties all resolve themselves into the plain matter of
fact, that the PILGRIM'S PROGRESS is the history of one man's experience in full, and the
experience of many others in part." Accordingly, there may be some Pilgrims who do not
S feel the burden of their sin to sit so heavy upon them as CHRISTIAN felt his ; some who fall
not so deep in Despond as CHRISTIAN did ; some who arrive at the Cross of Jesus, and "
receive pardon and assurance at an earlier stage of the journey; some who pass through
4- better scenes, and some through worse, than fell to the lot of the hero of the Allegory.

Sir, is there hope?-Yes, there is hope. If to the Cross, there is hope, good hope; hope in-
the man will but flee from the law to grace, creasing more and more at every onward step of
From Sinai to the Wicket-gate, and from thence the Pilgrim.

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The phase of spiritual experience indicated here is simply this. The Pilgrim has been
convinced of his sin, and the consequent peril of his state. Under this conviction he thank-
fully seeks the Wicket-gate, and, having found it, knocks threat. The gate is opened to
him with the hearty welcome of GOODWILL, and he is admitted. Now, observe, CHRISTIAN
has been convinced of sin ; he abhors sin, and loves it not; he earnestly desires to be rid
of it. Accordingly, the love of sin is left behind; and what remains is the veigzht, or
consciousness of sin. With repentance for the past, and with faith in Christ and his promises
for the future, he enters the Narrow-way. Having entered through Christ, "the Door," he
commences the Christian life by faith in Christ as the way of salvation, and is at once
admitted to the privileges of the way, the first of all being the teaching of the Holy Ghost, as
in the scenes of the INTERPRETER'S House. There receiving instruction for the onward path,
he, by-and-by, comes by the way of the Cross to "the place of deliverance." There the
burden of sin upon his conscience is removed by the assurance of pardon and of justifying grace.
Thus all difficulty is removed. Sin-in the love of it-cannot enter through the Wicket-
gate. Sin, entertained, indulged, and unrepented of, excludes from the entering in of this door.-
Thus sinners, in their sin, enter not. But sinners, under sin, that is, under the consciousness
of guilt, are welcomed there; as GOOD-WILL says, "We make no objections against any,
notwithstanding all they have done before they come hither."
This is the "good news" of the Gospel. It is the "weary and heavy-laden" that are
bid to come-under the weight and consciousness of sin; and these entering in by Jesus
Christ, "the Door," and being instructed by the Spirit's teaching, are, some sooner, some
later, conducted to the assurance of pardon and the fulness of forgiving love.

s. Christian went on with haste, neither spake he to any
.i man by the way; nor if any man asked him, would he
... -" vouchsafe him an answer. He went like one that was all
the while treading on forbidden ground, and could by
"no means think himself safe, till again he was got into
c the way which he left to follow Mr. Worldly-wiseman's
0 @ counsel: so in process of time Christian got up to the
gate. Now over the gate there was written, Knock, and it shall
att. 7. 7. be opened unto you." He knocked, therefore, more
than once or twice, saying,
May I now enter here? will he within
Open to sorry me, though I have been
An undeserving rebel ? then shall I
Not fail to sing his lasting praise on high."

At last there came a grave person to the gate, named Goodwill, who
asked, who was there? and whence he came? and what he would have ?
CHR. Here is a poor burdened sinner; I come from the City of
Destruction, but am going to Mount Zion, that I may be delivered

S Knock, and it shall be opened."-At the the porter of the gate for to such the
Wicket-gate the penitent Pilgrim knocks, and porter openeth" (John x. 3).
p in faith knocks again, and still continues to Goodwill. Most suitable name for the
knock, until it is opened to him by GOODWILL, porter of the Wicket-gate. Goodwill toward

a-30 ,

Christian arrives at the Wicket-gate.

from the wrath to come. I would, therefore, Sir, since I am informed
that by this gate is the way thither, know if you are willing to let me in.
I am willing with all my heart, said he; and with that he opened
the gate.
So when Christian was stepping in, the other gave him a pull.
Then said Christian, What means that ? The other told him, A little
distance from this gate there is erected a strong castle, of which Beel-
zebub is the captain; from thence both he and they that are with him
shoot arrows at them that come up to this gate, if haply they may die
before they enter in. Then said Christian, I rejoice and tremble. So
when he was got in, the man of the gate asked him, who directed him
thither ?
CHR. Evangelist bid me come hither and knock, as I did; and he
said that you, Sir, would tell me what I must do.
GooD. An open door is set before thee, and no man can shut it."
CHR. Now I begin to reap the benefit of my hazards.
GOOD. But how is it that you came alone ?
CHR. Because none of my neighbours saw their danger as I saw mine.
GOOD. Did any of them know of your coming ?
CHR. Yes; my wife and children saw me at the first, and called after
me to turn again. Also some of my neighbours stood crying and
calling after me to return; but I put my fingers in my ears, and so
came on my way
GooD. But did none of them follow you to persuade you to go back ?
CHR. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable; but when they saw that
they could not prevail, Obstinate went railing back; but Pliable came
with me a little way.
GooD. But why did he not come through ?
CHR. We indeed came both together until we came to the Slough of
Despond, into the which he also suddenly fell : and then was my
neighbour Pliable discouraged, and would not adventure further.
Wherefore, getting out again on that side next to his own house, he

men" is part of the definition of the Gospel. critical point of the pilgrimage. A burdened
All are invited, and all who accept the in- sinner, seeking the Saviour, is the very mark
vitation are welcome. that Satan hastes to assail. Hence the kind
SGave him a full.-CHRISTIAN has escaped intervention of GOODWILL. The penitent
the dangersof Destruction, Despond, and Sinai. sinner is as a brand plucked from the burn-
' Yet there is danger still-yea, even to the very ing."
Threshold of the gate. The whole range of its Young pilgrims of Sion, be comforted How
Vicinity is liable to assault from Beelzebub, oft have you felt the flying arrows of the
Whose fiery darts fly thick and fast at this Wicked One, just as you were about to commit
31\ -yV

The Pilgrim's Progress.

told me, I should possess the brave country alone for him. So he
went his way, and I came mine; he after Obstinate, and I to this gate.
Then said Goodwill, Alas! poor man! is the celestial glory of so
small esteem with him, that he counteth it not worth running the
hazard of a few difficulties to obtain it ?
Truly, said Christian, I have said the truth of Pliable; and, if I
should also say the truth of myself, it will appear there is no better-
ment betwixt him and myself. It is true he went back to his house,
but I also turned aside to go in the way of death, being persuaded
thereto by the carnal arguments of one Mr. Worldly-wiseman.
GOOD. Oh, did he light upon you ? What, he would have had you
have sought for ease at the hands of Mr. Legality : they are both of
them a very cheat. But did you take his counsel ?
CHR. Yes, as far as I durst. I went to find out Mr. Legality,
until I thought that the mountain that stands by his house would have
fallen upon my head: wherefore there I was forced to stop.
GOOD. That mountain has been the death of many, and will be the
death of many more : it is well you escaped being dashed in pieces by it.
CHR. Why, truly I do not know what had become of me there, had
not Evangelist happily met me again as I was musing in the midst of
my dumps : but it was God's mercy that he came to me again, for else
I had never come hither. But now I am come, such a one as I am,
more fit indeed for death by that mountain, than thus to stand talking
with my Lord. But, oh what a favour is this to me, that yet I am
admitted entrance here !
GOOD. We make no objections against any, notwithstanding all they
John 6. 37. have done before they come hither: they in no wise are
cast out:" and therefore, good Christian, come a little way with me,
and I will teach thee about the way thou must go. Look before thee;
dost thou see this narrow way ? That is the way thou must go. It
was cast up by the patriarchs, prophets, Christ, and his apostles, and it
is as straight as a rule can make it. This is the way thou must go.

,yourselves to the way of righteousness. When One. But as there will by-and-by be given
,you stood, and argued, and reasoned, and you the shield of faith to quench these darts,
sought to make up your mind to cast in your so, now that you are defenceless, GOODWILL
Slot with those who are journeying Sionward, plucks you from the danger, and pulls you in.
how Satan has withstood you, resisted you, Thisis the way.-Once within the gate, and
assailed you He has whispered doubts about willing to proceed, the Pilgrim is directed as
Syourself-as to your fitness to come at all; to the way, and the nature of the road. It
Doubts about God-as to his willingness to is the King's highway, that has been made by
save. These are the fiery darts of the Wicked God in Christ, before the foundation of the
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are cr::k d and \'-e : b t thus th:-u maye .t di .i.n.ish th.e rilh
Sh n rd t nr c d Ie by ay m s g

t ot, sitd hristelpian, are there nhim, As t or withy b ndurden, by whicontent tch
, a a strane-r n itay l :etea the a

Share crnings i and twisting buelo t thus the cuse o ie e ust first rh the Critian
frc the \\r,:n:-, that oi:nlh bhin.-_, straight and. narrow.
Thc-i_ I sav-.v m ill -, dream rnthat Christian asked him iifurthr, it" he

i, t f ith,,.t help. H t,, him, As to thy b:,iurden be ,::nitnc t .0

road, but to the devious paths that lead out instruction; and so, to the house of the In-
Sit; and these are not narrow, but wide; terpreter, where we shall see "excellent
not straight, but crooked, ithings."t

.. .

The Pilgrim's Progress.

Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address himself to
his journey. So the other told him, that by that he was gone some
distance from the gate he would come at the house of the Interpreter,
at whose door he should knock; and he would show him excellent
things. Then Christian took his leave of his friend, and he again bid
him God speed.

A BRILLIANT scene here opens before us : the "Glorious Dreamer" passes in review through
chambers of imagery, and in the rapt vision of his soul he sees the innermost experiences of
most men, and forms those marvellous conceptions of the spiritual life, which border so
nearly on the Unseen. Peculiar revelations are here vouchsafed to the man of God ; and in
the Interpreter's House are contained some of the boldest displays of his lofty genius, and
some of the brightest imaginings of his spiritually-instructed mind.
Let us walk with CHRISTIAN and the good INTERPRETER through this gallery of illustra-
tions, and see the great visions of the Dreamer. There is an order and arrangement here
which well illustrate the PILGRIM'S PROGRESS, as a manual of Christian experience, and a
guide to spiritual advancement. The burdened Pilgrim has been admitted (as we have seen
in the preceding chapter) within the Wicket-gate ; with faith in Christ as the only way of
salvation, and yet with conscience of sin still clinging to his soul. He has now to use his
opportunities, so as to be rid of his burden, and to proceed upon his way ; and, as an earnest
and diligent seeker after truth, the first great privilege granted to him is the privilege of
instruction, admonition, and encouragement. The Pilgrim of Zion, at the outset of his journey,
is ignorant and unknowing of the ways of godliness ; he has enlisted in a responsible service,
and must be fitted for it; he will have to do battle against enemies that shall arise to meet
him in his pilgrimage, and he must therefore be disciplined for the warfare; from within
and from without he will experience doubts and dangers, fighting and fears ; and except a
special strength be given him, he never can be a match for the antagonisms of such a journey.
Accordingly, the first stage after his admission to the highway is one of instruction at the
hand of the INTERPRETER, under which name the person of the Holy Spirit is designed, in
His office as Teacher. And as this scene worthily occupies the foreground of the pilgrimage,
so there is also a significant progression of Divine teaching and instruction in the demonstrative
lessons conveyed to the mind of the Pilgrim. For example, there is first the presence of
light, by the lighting of the candle. Then direction is given as to the qualifications or
marks by which the true minister of the Gospel is to be distinguished from unsound
Teachers. This being provided, the inward work proceeds-the subduing of indwelling sin,
through the power of the Divine Word, applied to the heart by the Holy Spirit, all which
is shadowed forth by the imagery of the "Dusty Parlour." There is then taught the need
of Patience, which calmly abideth the issue ; and the spiritual improvidence of mere Passion,
which exhausts itself now, and leaves nothing for the time to come. Next is the conflict
between Divine grace and the temptations of Satan, in the suggestive scene of "the Fire
burning against the wall." And after these stages of experience have been thus illustrated-
Safter the casting out of sin, and the lesson of patience in running the race, and the waging of
the conflict of the inner man, the INTERPRETER discloses in a brief scene the great fight of
Faith in the assault of the Palace gates, and the triumphant entrance of the good soldier of Jesus
' Christ, after the battle of the warrior has been fought and won. Thus in one gallery of
illustration the INTERPRETER presents the conflict of the true Christian from first to last,
'* '. I "'

& '~n~P")Xi'i~ ~ '' '*iJ

The Inztepreler's IHouse.

chiefly in its brighter aspect and more successful issue. He then changes the character of
the imagery, and conducts the Pilgrim through the darker experiences of men-the Dark
Room;" the fair and flourishing professor inclosed within the bars of the Iron Cage ;"
and, after this, the Dream of Judgment.
Thus instructed and admonished, CHRISTIAN is committed to the onward journey-his
ignorance instructed, his weakness made mere evident by a deeper insight into self and the
circumstances and experiences of religion in the soul. Thus the Holy Spirit becomes our
Teacher, and "takes of the things of God, and shows them unto us." Then, with the anxious
earnestness of the expectant Pilgrim, let us now stand at the door of the Interpreter's House,
and say, as CHRISTIAN did, I was told by the man that stands at the head of this way, that if I
called here, you would show me excellent things, such as would be a help to me in my journey."

----I-- HEN he went on till he came at the house of the In-
i L terpreter, where he knocked over and over: at last
1 one came to the door, and asked who was there ?
S CHR. Sir, here is a traveller, who was bid by an ac-
quaintance of the goodman of the house to call here for
-- rv---- my profit : I would therefore speak with the master of
the house. So he called for the master of the house; who after a
little time came to Christian, and asked him what he would have ?
Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come from the City of De-
struction, and am going to the Mount Zion; and I was told by the
man that stands at the gate at the head of this way, that if I called
here you would show me excellent things, such as would be a help to
me in my journey.
Then said the Interpreter, Come in; I will show thee that which

The House of the Interpreter.-This whole He knocked over and over.-To this the
chapter is a description of the Christian Pil-. command applies, "Ask, and ye shall receive;
grim seeking and obtaining light, and know- seek, and ye shall find ; knock, and it shall be
ledge, and instruction, from the source of all opened unto you." Here is the progression-
Christian teaching-the Holy Spirit. It is the Ask; seek; knock. Each one of these succes-
office of the Holy Spirit to reveal God's mind sive steps involves more energy and earnest-
Sand will, and to explain and interpret the. will ness than that which has preceded it. The
Sand mind of God to men: He shall receive Pilgrim has "asked" the way to further in-
of mine, and shall show it unto you" (Johnxvi. struction ; he has "sought" that way, and has
14). The house of the INTERPRETER is the found it; he has "knocked" at the door of the
treasure-house of experience, where are stored Spirit, and it is opened to him.
up all God's provisions, and providence, and Come in."-The House of the Interpreter,
dealings with men. Out of this store-house as the Dwelling-place of the Spirit, is the
the Spirit bestows-according to our wants, our House of Call for all nations; and all that
asking, and our use of supplies already given come are welcome. "Here is a traveller"--
-"grace for grace." It is the shedding of such was the brief statement of the Pilgrim's
Divine light, and the pouring of Divine love, qualification, by which he sought to find re-
and the communication of Divine knowledge, freshmen on the way "from the City of
into our hearts. God was once revealed to man Destruction to the Mount Zion." The hungry
; in the person of his Son; he is now revealed traveller calls there for bread, and the thirsty
.. to our hearts in the power of his Spirit. one asks there for spiritual drink. The weary
35 .._

The Pi'-riZm's Pr'ogress.

will be profitable to thee. So he commanded his man to light the
candle, and bid Christian follow him : so he had him into a private
room, and bid his man open a door, the which when he had done,
Christian saw the picture of a very grave person hang up against the
wall, and this was the fashion of it: It had eyes lifted up to heaven,
the best of books in his hand, the law of truth was written upon its
lips, the world was behind his back, it stood as if it pleaded with men,
and a crown of gold did hang over his head.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
INTER. The man whose picture this is, is one of a thousand; he can
SCor. 4. I. Gal. beget children, travail in birth with children, and nurse
4. 19. i Thess.
2.7. them himself when they are born. And, whereas thou
seest him with his eyes lift up to heaven, the best of books in his
hand, and the law of truth writ on his lips, it is to show thee, that his
work is to know and unfold dark things to sinners, even as also thou
seest him stand as if he pleaded with men : and, whereas thou seest
the world as cast behind him, and that a crown hangs over his head;
that is to show thee, that slighting and despising the things that are
present, for the love that he hath to his Master's service, he is sure in
the world that comes next to have glory for his reward. Now, said
+he Interpreter, I have showed thee this picture first, because the man

and fainting soul admitted there, is fanned by with the Psalmist, For thou wilt light my
the breeze of the Spirit, and revives. The candle; the Lord my God will enlighten my
toil-worn and weather-beaten traveller there darkness" (Ps. xviii. 28).
finds rest, refreshment, and repose; and, The "candle" is lighted; a "door" is opened;
renewed in strength, he goes on his way re- and that door conducts to a "private room."
joicing. Bless the Lord, 0 my soul, for the Here, every word is of weight, and suggests
comforting and refreshing of the Spirit, and volumes of experience. The representation
for these chambers of imagery that enlighten here is of man's soul, as a dark place, its doors
the eyes, and instruct the heart, and make and windows closed. It is the secret chamber,
known to the Pilgrim the joys and sorrows, the the private room, where the Spirit now holds
t' doubts, the dangers, and the difficulties of the intercourse with man ; but first the door must
way of the pilgrimage be opened, and the darkness illumined by the
God's Interpreter art Thou, bright shining of the candle. "The entrance
God's Interpreter art Thou,
To the waiting ones below; of thy words giveth light" (Ps. cxix. 130).
'Twixt them and its light mid-way The Picture.-The first revelation of the
Heralding the better day." Spirit to the burdened Pilgrim is as to the
He commanded to light a candle.-All is true character of a servant of God, to minister
dark in the chambers of the soul, until the to him in the things of God. The Spirit fits .
candle of the Lord is lighted in our hearts. It and prepares his servants, and honours the
is in the spiritual as it was in the natural faithful labour of those who go forth as his
creation-" Darkness was upon the face of the disciples, to be the teachers of his truth. i
.' deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the Space would fail us to set forth these glorious
1! face of the waters. And God said, Let there dreams in the fulness of their meaning. They
be light !" Happy is the man who can say as need meditation and contemplation, the bring-

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T/e Pilgrim's Progress.

whose picture this is, is the only man whom the Lord of the place
whither thou art going hath authorised to be thy guide in all difficult
places thou mayest meet with in the way; wherefore take good heed
to what I have showed thee, and bear well in thy mind what thou hast
seen; lest, in thy journey, thou meet with some that pretend to lead
thee right, but their way goes down to death.
Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a very large par-
lour that was full of dust, because never swept; the which, after he
had reviewed a little while, the Interpreter called for a man to sweep.
Now when he began to sweep, the dust began so abundantly to fly
about, that Christian had almost therewith been choked. Then said
the Interpreter to a damsel that stood by, Bring hither the water, and
sprinkle the room ; which when she had done, it was swept and
cleansed with pleasure.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered : This parlour is the heart of a man that
was never sanctified by the sweet grace of the Gospel : the dus is his
original sin, and inward corruptions that have defiled the whole man.
He that began to sweep at first is the Law; but she that brought water,
and did sprinkle it, is the Gospel. Now, whereas thou sawest, that as
soon as the first began to sweep, the dust did so fly about that the

ing of the mind's eye to bear upon the bold the Gospel minister be, with earth kept ever
outline, and the power of Christian experience back, and heaven kept full in view. It
to fill up the finer tints that go to make up pleaded with men"-in all the earnestness of
the perfection of each picture. Here'is the one who doth "beseech men," so blind, and
minister of Christ as he ought to be : Eyes deaf, and dead to their own true interests, that
lifted up to heaven"-heavenly-minded, look- they may be reconciled unto God. With an
ing towards that place whither he would lead essential truth, a message for life or death,
the flock. From earth to heaven his office and eternity depending on the issue, how can
tends, and he, with purpose fixed, earnest and the servant of God do aught else than "plead'
intent on yonder home- with men? "A crown of gold over his head"-
"Allures to brighter worlds, and leads the way." the reward of the righteous; and all the more
"The best of books in his hand"-the BIBLE, bejewelled because of the many conquests he
from whence he himself derives the truth, and hath won, and souls that have been saved,
knows the mind of God; and therefore, from which shall be his joy and crown of rejoicing
it alone can he impart Divine knowledge to in that day.
the people. "The law of truth upon its lips"- This is a representation that is to linger in
o no uncertain sound, or doubtful utterance of CHRISTIAN'S mind and memory all through
the oracle ; seeing that he is a guide, an the pilgrimage, seeing that many false teachers,
adviser, a shepherd, nought else but Truth upon as wolves in sheep's clothing, would present
his lips call suffice for the safe leading of the themselves at various times and seasons, to the a
sheep. "The world behind his back"-not great peril of all who hear them.
the foreground, but the background of the The Dusty Parlour.-This symbol is, no
picture, is the world. How disinterested, doubt, designed to strengthen the impression
S. how unworldly, how self- denying, should already made upon the Pilgrim's mind by the
adisra hphrd nugtele utTrt uonaswlvs n heps lohigwul pesn

Passion and Palcence. '

room by him could not be cleansed, but that thou wast almost choked
therewith : this is to show thee, that the law, instead of cleansing
the heart (by its working) from sin, doth revive, put Ro.,. 5. =o; 7. .
strength into, and increase it in the soul, as it doth dis- cor. 5. s.
cover and forbid it, but doth not give power to subdue. Again, as
thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the room with water, upon which it
was cleansed with pleasure; this is to show thee, that when the Gospel
comes, in the sweet and precious influences thereof, to the heart, then
I say, even as thou sawest the damsel lay the dust by sprinkling the
floor with water, so is sin vanquished and subdued, and the soul made
clean, through the faith of it; and consequently, fit for John 153. .Acts 5.
the King of glory to inhabit. 26. 5,"6. 6 '
I saw moreover in my dream, that the Interpreter took him by the
hand, and had him into a little room, where sat two little children, each
one in his chair. The name of the eldest was Passion, and of the
other Patience: Passion seemed to be much discontent, but Patience
was very quiet. Then Christian asked, What is the reason of the
discontent of Passion ? The Interpreter answered, The governor of
them would have him stay for his best things till the beginning of the
next year; but he will have them all now but Patience is willing to
Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought him a bag of
treasure, and poured it down at his feet : the which he took up and
rejoiced therein, and withal laughed Patience to scorn. But I beheld
but awhile, and he had lavished all away, and had nothing left him
but rags.
Then said Christian to the Interpreter, Expound this matter more
fully to me.
So he said, These two lads are figures : Passion of the men of
this world, and Patience of the men of that which is to come; for, as

scene at Sinai. The dust of the "Dusty the law and the Gospel respectively, with re-
Parlour" is indwelling sin. The besom of the gard to sin, receives here one of the most
law awakes the slumbering dust, revives its telling illustrations that uninspired man has
power, and causes it to be sensibly felt. Dis- ever written. This scene, indeed, well de-
turbed from its settled state, and discovered scribes those two scriptures-" I had not
to our eyes, the dust of sin rises as a cloud of known sin, but by the law" (Rom. vii. 7); and,
witness, witnessing against us. The law can "Behold the Lamb of God, which take/h away
disturb sin and arouse it, but the law cannot the sin of the world" (John i. 29).
take it away. Then comes the Gospel, with Passion and Patience.--PASSION is as a
the sprinkled waters of Christ's atoning love, desolating army that ravages the land, and
which bind sin and repress it. The power of eats from hand to mouth the growing harvests,

^^ ^ ^^ ^^^'*"--*-*--**^^^*'*

T/ze Pilorim's Pro-gress.

here thou seest, Passion will have all now, this year, that is to say in
this world; so are the men of this world: they must have all their
good things now, they cannot stay till next year, that is, until the next
world, for their portion of good. That proverb, "A bird in the
hand is worth two in the bush," is of more authority with them, than
are all the divine testimonies of the good of the world to come. But,
as thou sawest that he had quickly lavished all away, and had pre-
sently left him nothing but rags, so will it be with all such men at the
end of this world.
Then said Christian, Now I see that Patience has the best wisdom,
and that upon many accounts; because he stays for the best things :
and also because he will have the glory of his, when the other has
nothing but rags.
INTER. Nay, you may add another: to wit, the glory of the next
world will never wear out, but these are suddenly gone. Therefore
Passion had not so much reason to laugh at Patience, because he had
his good things first, as Patience will have to laugh at Passion, because
he had his best things last; for first must give place to last, because
last must have his time to come; but last gives place to nothing, for
there is not another to succeed. He therefore that has his portion
first must needs have a time to spend it; but he that hath his
portion last must have it lastingly. Therefore it is said of Dives,
Luke 6. 19--3. In thy lifetime thou receivedst thy good things, and
likewise Lazarus evil things : but now he is comforted, and thou art
CIIR. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things that are now,
but to wait for things to come.
INTER. YOU say truth : "for the things that are seen are temporal;
cor. 4. ~s. but the things that are not seen are eternal." But though
.this be so, yet since things present and our fleshly appetite are such
near neighbours one to another; and again, because things to come
and carnal sense are such strangers one to another: therefore it is that
the first of these so suddenly fall into amity, and that distance is so
! continued between the second.

as yet unripe ; leaving no seed for the sower walks by sight. PASSION, like the Prodigal,
Sof the coming seed-time. PATIENCE plants hath his portion now, and spends it here;
Sthe seed now, in hope of the future harvest; whereas PATIENCE hath his portion hereafter,
and waits for the timely season to render back and enjoys it throughout eternity; or, as
. its thirty-fold, its sixty-fold, or its hundred- Bunyan puts it, "He that has lis portion
.-fold. PATIENCE walks by faith, while PASSION last, must have it lastingly."

The', .. TI sw in my rea, sFthat ty Sustained

Swall, and one standing by it, always casting much water upon it to
., I,. N

The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of grace that is

wrought i saw inthe heart; he that casts water upon it, to extinguish an by
the hand ou, sand led him into a place where was at fire, notwithstanding againg,t a
wall, and one standing by it, always casting much water upon it to
quench it; yet did the, fire burn higher and hotter.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of grace that is
wrought in the heart; he that casts water upon it, to extinguish and
put it out, is the devil : but, in that thou seest the fire, notwithstanding,
burn higher and hotter, thou shalt also see the reason of that. So he
had him about to the back side of the wall, where he saw a man with

A Fire burning against the Wall.-This is with the fuel of Divine love-the oil of grace,
an eloquent symbol of the living Christian, directly supplied by the hand of God. This is
whose spiritual life is fed from secret sources, its heavenly food, and by this it lives. But,
while the enemy constantly seeks to destroy its saith St. Paul, I see another law in my mem-
vitality. The life of the man of God is oft- bers, warring against the law of my mind." So,
times likened to a burning fire. At first it is the dreamer beholds the fire struggling against
but a spark kindled in the breast, and this is fearful odds; for one stood beside it, and did
fanned by the breath of the Spirit, and fed continually pour water upon it to quench it.


The Pilgrim's Progress.

a vessel of oil in his hand, of the which he did also continually cast, but
secretly, into the fire.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered, This is Christ, who continually with the
oil of his grace maintains the work already begun in the heart; by the
means of which, notwithstanding what the devil can do, the souls of
2 cor. 9. his people prove gracious still. And in that thou sawest
that the man stood behind the wall to maintain the fire; this is to
teach thee that it is hard for the tempted to see how this work of grace
is maintained in the soul.
I saw also that the Interpreter took him again by the hand, and led
him into a pleasant place, where was builded a stately palace, beautiful
to behold; at the sight of which Christian was greatly delighted : he
saw also upon the top thereof certain persons walking, who were
clothed all in gold.
Then said Christian, May we go in thither ?
Then the Interpreter took him, and led him up toward the door of
the palace; and behold at the door stood a great company of men, as
desirous to go in, but durst not. There also sat a man at a little
distance from the door, at a table-side, with a book and his inkhorn
before him, to take the name of him that should enter therein. He
saw also, that in the doorway stood many men in armour to keep it,
being resolved to do to the man that would enter what hurt and mis-
chief they could. Now was Christian somewhat in amaze; at last,
when every man started back for fear of the armed men, Christian saw
a man of a very stout countenance come up to the man that sat there
to write, saying, Set down my name, Sir; the which when he had

But the fire did not die, was not extinguished, and the flame burns its weakest, then comes
but rather burned "higher and hotter." the re-assuring word, My grace is sufficient
In this is set forth the antagonism of Satan for thee ;" and God doth strengthen the things
to man's soul; as also the overcoming power that remain, that are ready to die. The oil of
of sustaining grace, "the secret of the Lord, grace feeds the flame. The might of Jesus is
which is with them that fear him." Satan greater than all the power of Satan.
stands at our right hand, and would utterly TheInk-horn and the Book.-This is a battle-
.:' quench the inner life, were it not that Christ is scene, and it truly describes the entrance-
r with us, pouring the oil of grace upon the soul. door to heaven, and the striving and the
And this is our security, that "many waters life-long conflict by which an entrance is ef-
cannot quench" the flame of Divine love when fected. It is designed to show to the Pilgrim,
it is truly kindled in the heart. Even the what we have already endeavoured to point
"smoking flax" shall not be quenched ; for out in the context of the "Wicket-gate," that
Jesus stands, unseen, but truly felt, and in there is still a great warfare to be waged, a
Secret he supplies the grace Divine; and strife to be maintained ; and that through the
when the quenching waters fall in torrents, clash of arms and the battle of the warrior, the

The Man of Despair.

done, he saw the man draw his sword, and put a helmet upon his head,
and rush toward the door upon the armed men, who laid upon him
with deadly force ; but the man, not at all discouraged, fell to cutting
and hacking most fiercely : so, after he had received and Acts 14.22.
given many wounds to those that attempted to keep him out, he cut
his way through them all, and pressed forward into the palace; at
which there was a pleasant voice heard from those that were within,
even of those that walked upon the top of the palace, saying,
Come in, come in,
Eternal glory thou shalt win."
So he went in, and was clothed with such garments as they. Then
Christian smiled, and said, I think verily I know the meaning of this.
Now, said Christian, let me go hence. Nay, stay, said the Inter-
preter, till I have shewed thee a little more; and after that thou shalt
go on thy way,
So he took him by the hand again, and led him into a very dark
room, where there sat a man in an iron cage. Now the man to look
on seemed very sad : he sat with his eyes looking down to the ground,
his hands folded together, and he sighed as if he would break his heart.
Then said Christian, What means this ?
At which the Interpreter bid him talk with the man.
Then said Christian to the man, What art thou ?
The man answered, I am what I was not once.
CHR. What wast thou once ?
The man said, I was once a fair and flourishing professor, both in
mine own eyes, and also in the eyes of others : I was once, as I
thought, fair for the Celestial City, and had then even joy at the
thoughts that I should get thither. Luke 8. 13.
CHR. Well, but what art thou now ?
MAN. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up in it as in this
iron cage. I cannot get out: O now I cannot !
CHR. But how camest thou in this condition ?

Christian soldier must pass to the final victory and his heart breaking, and well-nigh broken,
and triumph. CHRISTIAN on viewing this by the heavy woe that had fallen upon it.
scene, smiled, and thought he saw the mean- This man was once "profession;" he is now
ing of it. Yes, he there saw his own future "despair;" he sees no light, entertains no
conflict, and (if he be but stedfast) the type hope, and knows no liberty. Whether such a
and earnest of his final victory. state as this is "of God," or no, we do not say ;
The Dark Room and Iron Cage.-This but it appears that Bunyan interweaves certain
man was "very sad," with downcast eyes, facts of his own experience in this portion of
his hands folded in the terribleness of despair, the Allegory. le had known some of his
43 -

T7ze Pilgrim's Progress.

MAN. I left off to watch and be sober; I laid the reins upon the
neck of my lusts; I sinned against the light of the word, and the good-
ness of God; I have grieved the Spirit, and he is gone; I tempted the
devil, and he is come to me; I have provoked God to anger, and he
has left me; I have so hardened my heart, that I cannot repent.
Then said Christian to the Interpreter, But is there no hope for
such a man as this ?
Ask him, said the Interpreter,
Then said Christian, Is there no hope, but you must be kept in the
iron cage of despair ?
MAN. No, none at all,
CHR. Why ? the Son of the Blessed is very pitiful.
H 6. 4-. MAN. I have "crucified him to myself afresh," I have
Luke 19. I4. despised his person, I have despised his righteousness,
I have counted his blood an unholy thing, I have done despite to the
Heb. to. 28, 29. Spirit of grace; therefore I have shut myself out of all
the promises ; and there now remains to me nothing but threatening,
dreadful threatening, faithful threatening of certain judgment which
shall devour me as an adversary.
C-HR. For what did you bring yourself into this condition ?
MAN. For the lusts, pleasures, and profits of this world; in the
enjoyment of which I did then promise myself much delight: but now
every one of those things also bites me, and gnaws me like a burning
CHR. But canst thou not now repent and turn ?
MAN. God hath denied me repentance; his word gives me no en-
couragement to believe; yea himself hath shut me up in this iron cage;
nor can all the men in the world let me out. O Eternity Eternity i
how shall I grapple with the misery that I must meet with in Eternity?
Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Let this man's misery be
remembered by thee, and be an everlasting caution to thee,

friends to have been thus reduced to despera- Saviour, who came seeking fruit, but found
tion, and to have lost all confidence in God. "nothing but leaves." That fig-tree is the
- Any way, it is an awful admonition, this par- emblem of a dead faith, a profitless profession
ticular scene of the Interpreter's House. of religion; and, lo, by the way-side it is
The danger of mere profession, without cor- blighted, and blasted, and withered away!
responding fruit, is set forth in the miracle of Mere professors shall, at the last, be uprooted
our blessed Lord, which he wrought upon the from the soil, which has spent its sap and
fruitless fig-tree (Mark xi. 12-14, 19-22). strength for naught in feeding them; they
This was a pretentious tree, and by its pro- shall be blighted even in the full foliage of
fusion of leaves it attracted the notice of the their profession; and in their fall they shall
lrst. ,' a,_ ,d ".'.
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The Pilgrim's Progress.

Well (said Christian) this is fearful God help me to watch and be
sober, and to pray that I may shun the causes of this man's misery.
Sir, is it not time for me to go on my way now ?
INTER. Tarry till I shall show thee one thing more, and then thou
shalt go on thy way.
So he took Christian by the hand again, and led him into a chamber
where there was one rising out of bed; and as he put on his raiment,
he shook and trembled.
Then said Christian, Why doth this man thus tremble ?
The Interpreter then bid him tell to Christian the reason of his so
doing. So he began and said, This night as I was in my sleep I
dreamed, and behold the heavens grew exceeding black; also it
thundered and lightened in most fearful wise, that it put me into an
agony. So I looked up in my dream, and saw the clouds rack at an
unusual rate; upon which I heard a great sound of a trumpet, and
saw also a man sit upon a cloud, attended with the thousands of
heaven: they were all in flaming fire: also the heavens were on a
burning flame. I heard then a voice saying, Arise ye dead and come
to judgment: and with that the rocks rent, the graves opened, and
John 5. 28, 29. 2 the dead that were therein came forth: some of them
Car. 15. 5--58.
2 Thcss. i. 7- were exceeding glad and looked upward; and some
2Jud. Rev sought to hide themselves under the mountains : then I
Pi 50~ saw the man that sat upon the cloud open the book and
Aicah 7. 1e, 7. bid the world draw near. Yet there was, by reason of a
fierce flame that issued out and came from before him, a convenient
distance betwixt him and them, as betwixt the judge and the pri-
Dan. 7. 9, 0. soners at the bar. I heard it also proclaimed to them
Mal. 3 2,3. that attended on the man that sat on the cloud, Gather
together the tares, the chaff, and the stubble, and cast them into the
burning lake: and with that the bottomless pit opened, just where-

make all men see the visitation of God's hand, soul. The dreamer had awakened in the midst
and the power of his Word. of these terrors, and therefore "he shook and
The Dream of 7udagment. -This is the trembled."
closing scene of the Interpreter's House, as its This is a true description of the final Judg-
Sgreat subject-the Judgment-will be the ment; but it is the Judgment of sinners. This
closing scene of the world's great history. In is pre-eminently the dream of an unconverted
that dream, the dreamer has seen and heard man, conscious of his sin, but as yet unable to
-, all the terrible accompaniments and associa- look to the Saviour of sinners; it is but the
Stions of the final Judgment. The eye of the transcript of the waking thoughts, and fears,
! Judge was fixed upon him, as though he stood and consciences of the ungodly.
alone for judgment; and his sins rose up and But the Judgment has no such terrors to
Gathered round him, as witnesses against his them that are in Jesus. That great day shall

The Vision of Yudgment...

about I stood; out of the mouth of which there came, in an abundant
manner, smoke, and coals of fire, with hideous noises. It was also
said to the same persons, Gather my wheat into the Mali. 4., ,at.
garner: and with that I saw many catched up and carried 3I,-; 13. 3o0
away into the clouds, but I was left behind. I also sought Thess. 4. 13-18.
to hide myself, but I could not, for the man that sat upon the cloud
still kept his eye upon me; my sins also came into my mind, and my
conscience did accuse me on every side. Upon this I Rom. .. 24, 15.
awaked from my sleep.
CHR. But what was it that made you so afraid of this sight ?
MAN. Why I thought that the day of judgment was come, and that
I was not ready for it. But this frighted me most, that the angels
gathered up several and left me behind ; also the pit of hell opened
her mouth just where I stood. My conscience too afflicted me : and,
as I thought, the Judge had always his eye upon me, showing indig-
nation in his countenance.
Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Hast thou considered all
these things ?
CHR. Yes, and they put me in hope and fear.
INTER. Well, keep all things so in thy mind that they may be as a
goad in thy sides, to prick thee forward in the way thou must go.
Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address himself to
his journey. Then said the Interpreter, The Comforter be always
with thee, good Christian, to guide thee in the way that leads to the
city. So Christian went on his way, saying:
"Here I have seen things rare and profitable;
Things pleasant, dreadful, things to make me stable
In what I have begun to take in hand :
Then let me think on them, and understand
Wherefore they show'd me were ; and let me be
Thankful, O good Interpreter, to thee."

be a day of joy and blessedness to all them'tion, and thus partaking of the privileges of
that wait for the promised advent of the Lord, the way on which he has entered. So far he
looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious is-as many are-with more or less conscious-
appearing of the great God and our Saviour ness of sin, repairing to the teaching of the
' Jesus Christ," Titus ii. 13. INTERPRETER, the Holy Spirit, who will yet
Hast thou considered all these things ?- lead the Pilgrim onward on the road, beyond
This is not mere idle sight-seeing; these the chequered scenes of his pilgrimage, and
scenes are the deep experiences of men-what conduct him by the way of the Cross to the
They feel, what they fear, what they hope, everlasting Crown.
t and what they do. Hast thou considered "No fears disturb, no foes molest,
i them?" CHRISTIAN has seen and pondered Nor death nor sin, nor care,
n str In Thy fair house of endless rest,
them. He is undergoing a process of i.struc- I O Great Interpreter!"
I ka^.^-1 sfgp^^~^,u~iiii>.i-iiui..^^^u^ ^^.'*'~>*^Sg$

T/he Pilgrim's Prog-ress.

SINCE the Pilgrim's entrance on the Narrow-way, through the appointed door," the Wicket-
gate, he has not only been made a partaker of great and precious privileges, in the direct
teaching of the INTERPRETER, but he has also corresponded well with those privileges ; and,
deeply impressed with the lessons he has learned, he now proceeds along a safe and well-
guarded portion of the way-safe, because it was enclosed on either side, and strongly fenced
with walls, which were called Salvation." Along the "Way of Salvation" the burdened
Pilgrim, with somewhat of haste, and with somewhat of difficulty too, urges his upward
journey. Here he comes in full view of the Cross, and near the Cross, in the hollow, is a
Sepulchre. In sight of the Cross he receives the long wished for, the long prayed for deliver-
ance ; the thongs and bands that bound his burden to his back are burst asunder, and the
burden falls off, and rolls down, and at last disappears for ever through the open mouth of
the Sepulchre. All is now rest and peace, life, light, and liberty, mingled with wonder and
astonishment, and tempered with the tears of joy.
The desired ease from his burden is straightway followed by further evidences of his
deliverance. The salutation in common of the "Three Shining Ones," and then the individual
gift or message of each : one gives Pardon ; another clothes with Change of raiment; while
the third bestows the assurance of the Mark, the credential of the Roll, and the impress of
the Seal.
Peace be to thee'-all declaring; Then the third, his finger tracing,
One forgives him all his sin; Prints a mark upon his brow;
One, a change of raiment bearing, And a roll his hand embracing,
Clothes without, and clothes within. With a signet sealed below."
In the character and circumstances of the personages subsequently introduced some profitable
contrasts are suggested. This chapter contains some remarkable delineations of characters to
be met with on the pilgrimage, such as SIMPLE, SLOTH, and PRESUMPTION; and the two men
who came leaping over the wall, FORMALIST and HYPOCRISY. These professors of the Chris-
tian faith, having the form of godliness but not the power, will be found to have entered, not
by the appointed door, but by some one or other of the "many ways that butt down" upon the
beaten track.

OW I saw in my dream that the highway, up which Chris-
tian was to go, was fenced on either side with a wall,
and that wall was called Salvation. Up this way there-
fore did burdened Christian run, but not isa. 26. i; 6o. is.
without great difficulty, because of the load on his back.
He ran thus till he came at a place somewhat ascending, and upon
that place stood a cross, and a little below in the bottom a sepulchre.
So I saw in my dream, that just as Christian came up with the cross,

Fenced on either side.-The allusion here is adapted in a secondary sense to those who, like
to the figurative language of the prophet- our Pilgrim, instructed and edified by the Holy
Salvation will God appoint for walls and Spirit's comfort, counsel, and encouragement,
j bulwarks," Isa. xxvi. I; and again, "And thou are drawing near to the foot of the Cross of
shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Jesus.
Praise," Isa. Ix. 18. And although the direct A place somewhat ascending.-The Cross is
Application of these texts is to the final blessed- erected on the height of an upward slope, even
r ness of the saints, yet the allusion is well higher than the upward path. This is to indi-

C/zriszsian reld d l so e,' d sd w h a merry har

r, .'. ,

.2, .,.,,-Y .

/ the toil of the burdened Saviour, who bare body on the tree." The benefit procured by

not only our sin, but the Cross besides, up the death upon the Cross was the object of the
O that ascending place," and there paid the Pilgrim's striving; the central point to which
full ransom for man's iniquity in the price of his hopes converged; the source of all the
* his own most precious blood, blessed experiences of his after pilgrimage
cA Cross. Blessed viewa and yet, more There was "the blood ofa sprinkling i" there
blessed still, the atoning Lamb; t her, e t substitute for the

tl "The Man that there was put to shame for me s" sinner; and there the sacrifice for sin. Christ
t The Cross here means the Crucified One. It and the Cross! Here is the Altar, and the
I lk

49 :.--..

his burden loosed from off his shoulders, and fell from
off his back, and began to tumble, and so continued to t till it came
Sto the mouth of the sepulchre, where it fell in, and I saw it no more.
Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said with a merry heart,
He hath given me rest by his sorrow, and life by his death. Then he
stood still awhile to look and wonder, for it was very surprising toh
-him that the sight of the cross should thus ease him of his burden.

cabe the ascent of Calvary, the Mount of Sa- is the emblem of all that scorn and ignominy,
crifice; and also to suggest, not so much the of all that pain and agony, borne by Him who
toil of the burdened sinner to attain to it, as i"took our sins, and bare them in his own
the toil of the burdened Saviour, who bare Ibody on the tree." The benefit procured by
not only our sin, but the Cross besides, up the death upon the Cross was the object of the
that ascending place," and there paid the Pilgrim's striving; the central point to which
full ransom for man's iniquity in the price of his hopes converged; the source of all the
.his own most precious blood, blessed experiences of his after pilgrimage.
A Cross.--Blessed view! and yet, more There was "the blood of sprinkling ;" there
blessed still, the atoning Lamb; there the substitute for the
The Man that there was put tQ shame for me !" sinner; and there the sacrifice for sin. Christ
The Cross here means the Crucified One. It and the Cross! Here is the Altar, and the

The Pilgrim's Progress.

He looked, therefore, and looked again, even till the springs that were
zech. ro. in his head sent the waters down his cheeks. Now, as
he stood looking and weeping, behold three shining ones came to him,
and saluted him with Peace be to thee." So the first said to him,
Mark 2. 5 Thy sins be forgiven; the second stripped him of his
zech. 3. 4. rags, and clothed him with change of raiment; the third
also set a mark upon his forehead, and gave him a roll with a seal
Eph. 1. 13. upon it, which he bid him look on as he ran, and that he
should give it in at the celestial gate; so they went their way. Then
Christian gave three leaps for joy, and went on singing :
Thus far did I come loaden with my sin,
Nor could aught ease the grief that I was in,
Till I came hither : what a place is this !
Must here be the beginning of my bliss ?
Must here the burden fall from off my back ?
Must here the strings that bound it to me crack ?
Blest cross blest sepulchre blest rather be
The Man that there was put to shame for me "

I saw then in my dream that he went on thus even until he came at
a bottom, where he saw, a little out of the way, three men fast asleep,
with fetters upon their heels. The name of the one was Simple,
another Sloth, and the third Presumption.

Victim, and the Priest ; and in the Crucified Christian in deed and in truth-his faith as-
One the scheme of redemption is accomplished sured and confident.
-" IT IS FINISHED!" Behold, three Shining Ones.-This is one of
A Sefulchre.-Well is the Sepulchre placed the most picturesque of the touches of Bunyan's
hard by the Cross. In the crucified Jesus the pencil. These are the evidences of the de-
debt is cancelled, and the bond is nailed to the liverance from the burden and accompani-
accursed tree. "He took it out of the way, ments of sin. Yea, they are more: these "three
nailing it to his cross," Col. ii. 14. Shining Ones" are plainly intended to repre-
His burden loosed, andfell.-Sin is described sent no less a visitation than that of Unity
not only as a burden, but as a burden bound in Trinity and Trinity in Unity. This will
upon the conscience of the Pilgrim-adhering, further appear by considering the particulars
clinging, to the sinner, who is "tied and bound of their visit.
with the chain of sin." These bands are now They all saluted the Pilgrim with one com-
unloosed in view of the Cross; and the burden mon salutation-" Peace be to thee." Here
falls from off his back, the Three are One.
And I saw it no more.-The Bible repre- Then each of the glorious Three has a per-
sents forgiven sin as being blotted out ;" "no sonal and peculiar office to fulfil, and some
more remembered;" "sought for, but not special gift to bestow.
found;" "cast into the depths of the sea." It The First says-"Thy sins be forgiven thee."
sleeps its everlasting sleep, to rise no more. This is God the Father, to whom belongs
Then was Christian glad.-The Wicket- pardon and forgiveness.
gate. There was the threshold of his journey, The Second "stripped him of his rags, and
but here is the threshold of his joy. There clothed him with change of raiment." This
V: he became a Christian in prospect-his faith is Jesus Christ-God the Son. He takes away
weak and trembling ; here he becomes a the rags of our own righteousness, and clothes

Simple, Sloth, and Presumption.

Christian then, seeing them lie in this case, went to them, if perad-
venture he might awake them, and cried, You are like them that
sleep on the top of a mast, for the dead sea is under you, 'rov. 23. 3,
a gulph that hath no bottom: awake, therefore, and come away. Be
willing also, and I will help you off with your irons. He also told
them, If he that goeth about like a roaring lion comes by, you will
certainly become a prey to his teeth. With that they ,ieter .8.
looked upon him, and began to reply in this sort : Simple said, I see
no danger; Sloth said, Yet a little more sleep; and Presumption said,
Every vat must stand upon its own bottom. And so they lay down
to sleep again, and Christian went on his way.
Yet was he troubled to think that men in that danger should so
little esteem the kindness of him that so freely offered to help them,
both by awakening them, counselling them, and proffering to help them
off with their irons. And as he was troubled thereabouts he espied
two men come tumbling over the wall, on the left hand of the narrow
way; and they made up apace to him. The name of the one was
Formalist, and the name of the other Hypocrisy. So, as I said, they
drew up unto him, who thus entered with them into discourse.

us with the new robe of his own righteousness Three men fast asleep.-As though to ex-
-the righteousness from heaven. It is an hibit by contrast the greatness of the gift he
exchange-not the putting of Christ's righteous- has received, and the responsibility arising
ness over our filthy rags, but the gift of Christ's therefrom, CHRISTIAN is permitted, in pass-
righteousness instead of our filthy rags. ing, to witness the folly, indolence, and pride
The Third set a mark upon his forehead, of certain carnal men, who count themselves
and gave him a roll with a seal upon it." This safe and exempt from danger, and who, in
is evidently the Holy Spirit, who "beareth their fancied security, have all fallen "fast
witness with our spirit, that we are the children asleep."
of God," Rom. viii. 16. He imprints the They are "out of the way," though but "a
Mark of ownership, the token that we are. of little;" they are "asleep;" and they are,
God. He gives the roll of the parchment- moreover, bound in "fetters;" and, worst of all,
the law written on our hearts-upon which the the Roaring Lion is out upon the way. CHRIS-
Pilgrim is to look, and out of which he is to TIAN strives to awake these sleepers, and to
read, and thence to take comfort, admonition, warn them of their danger. Such, indeed, is
and instruction, and to present it by-and-by at the blessed toil of those who have felt in their
the gate of the Celestial City. The seal is own experience the power of pardoning grace,
"the seal of the' Spirit," to certify the cre- and the peace of pardoned sin; they go forth
dential, and authenticate its message, to win others to their great Saviour's cause.
Thus all the Three Persons of the Triune "I see no .. -. -There are thousands
God have a work to do for man, and each his who are only "a little" out of the way, who
own respective office to fulfil, in the Pardon, are in the very midst of deadly peril, and can
the justification and the Sanctification of the yet see no danger," notwithstanding.
sinner. And this great doctrine and fact is "A little more sleep."-The deep sleep of
thus luminously embodied in the scene at the sloth and slumber has proved fatal to many on
Cross, and in the appearance of the Three the border-land of the pilgrimage. They have
. Shining Ones." oft-times slept too long, and sometimes have

T/e Pilgrim's Progress.

CIR. Gentlemen, whence came you, and whither do you go ?
FORM. & HYP. We were born in the land of Vain-glory, and are
going for praise to Mount Zion.
CIIR. Why came you not in at the gate, which standeth at the
beginning of the way ? Know you not that it is written, that he that
cometh not in by the door, but climbeth up some other way, the
John o1. I. same is a thief and a robber?"
They said, that to go to the gate for entrance was by all their
countrymen counted too far about; and that therefore their usual
way was to make a short cut of it, and to climb over the wall as they
had done.
CIIR. But will it not be counted a trespass against the Lord of the
city whither we are bound, thus to violate his revealed will ?
They told him, that as for that, he needed not trouble his head
thereabout; for what they did they had custom for, and could
produce, if need were, testimony that would witness it for more than
a thousand years.
But, said Christian, will your practice stand trial at law ?
They told him, that custom, it being of so long a standing as above
a thousand years, would doubtless now be admitted as a thing legal
by an impartial judge; and besides, said they, if we get into the way,
what matter is it which way we get in ? if we are in, we are in. Thou
art but in the way, who, as we perceive, came in at the gate; and we
are also in the way that came tumbling over the wall. Wherein now
is thy condition better than ours ?
CIR. I walk by the rule of my Master, you walk by the rude
working of your fancies. You are counted thieves already by the

overslept their day of grace, and been waked Formalist- Hypocrisy. -These are their
too late "to wrestle with the dread of names, and their nature agreeth thereto. The
death." former is the type of those who, by an ex-
Eve;y va/," &--c.-PRESUMPTION is the ternal show of religion, deceive themselves;
scorner among these three. He rejects the while the latter represents those who, under
proffered counsel, on the ground of his own guise of their hypocrisy, seek to deceive others.
merit, and is ready to hold himself responsible The formalist, through his outward attention
for the consequences. to mere ritual observances, blinds his own eyes
Ti humbling over tei wall.-This is another of to his own inward state, and oft-times takes for
the contrasts that quickly follow upon the granted that where the gilded setting is, there
scene at the Cross -two men entering the the precious jewel must be-a grand mistake,
Narrow way" by unlawful means. Theyleap and a strong delusion! The hypocrite, know-
over the wall on the "left hand"-the place of ing that all is wrong within, bedecks himself
I the wicked in the judgment ; thereby indi- without with pretence and falsehood, and thus
pi eating not only the unlawful violence of their blinds the eyes of others.
- act, but also the evil character of the men. "If we are in, we are in."-This is a plausible
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Lord of the way; therefore I doubt you will not be found true men
at the end of the way. You come in by yourselves without his
direction, and shall go out by yourselves without his mercy.
To this they made him but little answer, only they bid him look
to himself. Then I saw that they went on every man in his way,
without much conference one with another; save that these two men
told Christian, That, as to laws and ordinances, they doubted not but
they should as conscientiously do them as he. Therefore, said they,
we see not wherein thou different from us, but by the coat that is on
thy back, which was, as we trow, given thee by some of thy neighbours
to hide the shame of thy nakedness.
Gal. 2. 16. CHR. By laws and ordinances you will not be saved,
since you came not in by the door. And as for this coat that is on
my back, it was given me by the Lord of the place whither I go;
and that, as you say, to cover my nakedness with. And I take it
as a token of his kindness to me, for I had nothing but rags before;
and besides, thus I comfort myself as I go, Surely, think I, when I
come to the gate of the city, the Lord thereof will know me for good,
since I have his coat on my back; a coat that he gave me freely in
the day that he stript me of my rags. I have moreover a mark
in my forehead, of which perhaps you have taken no notice, which
one of my Lord's most intimate associates fixed there, in the day
that my burden fell off my shoulders. I will tell you, moreover,
that I had then given me a roll sealed, to comfort me by reading
as I go on the way; I was also bid to give it in at the celestial
gate, in token of my certain going in after it: all which things I
doubt you want, and want them because you came not in at the
To these things they gave him no answer; only they looked upon
each other and laughed. Then I saw that they went on all, save that
Christian kept before, who had no more talk but with himself, and
that sometimes sighingly and sometimes comfortably. Also he would
be often reading in the roll that one of the Shining Ones gave him,
by which he was refreshed.

speech indeed Yet out of this their boasted some other way. He walks by his Master's
possession of the way arises the bold contrast rule; they by their own fancies. They are
Between themselves and the Pilgrim. He has false at the start, and cannot be true at the
Entered by the appointed "door;" they have end. Other grand distinctions in costume
entered as thieves and robbers, climbing up and character are enumerated by the Pilgrim.


Christian comes to the Hill Difficulty.

THE preceding chapter has presented characters in contrast. The Pilgrim of Sion meets with
strange comrades in the way. We have already considered his conversation with the two men
who came leaping over the wall-FORMALIST and HYPOCRISY. These men flippantly talked
of their fancied security, and could see no difference between their own state and that of
CHRISTIAN'S. The Pilgrim recounts many marks and tokens enjoyed by him, and not
possessed by them. But as these marks and tokens, to be appreciated, must be
"spiritually discerned," and as these two men have no gift of spiritual discernment, they
cannot see that there is so great a difference between their lot and his.
And, perhaps, by the outward eye, and from external appearance, these marks and tokens
of the Divine favour are not observable. Indeed, it oft-times sorely tried the mind of the
Psalmist, thus beholding the ungodly prospering in the way. He at last, however, found
the solution of the difficulty-" Until I went into the sanctuary of God; then understood
I their end," Ps. lxxiii. 17. Yes, it is the "end" of these men that makes the vast
distinction; and this perspective view of the case of FORMALIST and HYPOCRISY seems to
have been in the mind of CHRISTIAN when he said to them-" You came in by yourselves
without his direction, and shall go out by yourselves without his mercy."
Accordingly, the separation soon takes place. By-and-by the path divides in three.
The Narrow way" is up the hill, straight before the Pilgrims. This steep ascent is called
Difficulty, and CHRISTIAN addresses himself to climb the hill. On either side of the
ascending path there lay a level road ; one to the left hand, and another to the right. One
was called Danger, and the other was Destruction. By these roads the two Pilgrims wended
their way, each to the ruin of his soul. CHRISTIAN proceeded up the hill; and here we must
pause and consider carefully the experience obtained at this stage of his journey-the Pleasant
Arbour ; his untimely sleep ; the dark shades of evening fast descending ; and how, amid the
alarms and terrors of the way, "he felt in his bosom for his roll he felt, and found it not."
"'Tis gone! and the darkness more gloomy than ever,
Like sadness that always accompanies loss,
Compels him to seek, if he yet may recover,
The Roll of the Parchment he found at the Cross."

.-7-_, BEHELD then that they all went on till they came to
!' y ,the foot of the hill Difficulty, at the bottom of which was
'ia spring. There were also in the same place two other
ways, besides that which came straight from the gate
., : one turned to the left hand, and the other to the right, at
the bottom of the hill; but the narrow way lay right up the
hill, and the name of the going up the side of the hill is called Difficulty.

The hill Difficulty. -Who that has been at refreshment of pilgrims before they begin the
the foot of the Cross has not also had to meet ascent. The waters of life refresh the soul, i
the difficulties of the way ? These are tests, renew the strength, and enable us more *
Provided for "the trial of our faith." The way bravely to meet the difficulties of the way. (
is straight and narrow, but it is not always All my springs are in thee," Ps. lxxxvii. 7.
level. Two olher ways.-But where are FORMALIST
,At the bottom was a spring. Not without and HYPOCRISY? If we are in, we are in,"
some special provision is the Pilgrim com- said they, in the day of their boastful profes-
mitted to this special difficulty. The spring sion. But the hill Dificulty has stopped them;
of water is placed at the foot of the hill for the and, unequal to its demands upon their

The Pilgrim's Progress.

I a. 49. o. Christian now went to the spring, and drank thereof to
refresh himself, and then began to go up the hill, saying,
The hill, though high, I covet to ascend,
The difficulty will not me offend;
For I perceive the way to life lies here:
Come, pluck up, heart, let's neither faint nor fear;
Better, though difficult, the right way to go,
Than wrong, though easy, where the end is woe.
The other two also came to the foot of the hill ; but when they saw
that the hill was steep and high, and that there were two other ways
to go; and, supposing also that these two ways might meet again
with that up which Christian went, on the other side of the hill; there-
fore they were resolved to go in those ways. Now the name of one
of those ways was Danger, and the name of the other Destruction.
So the one took the way which is called Danger, which led him into a
great wood ; and the other took directly up the way to Destruction,
which led into a wide field full of dark mountains, where he stumbled
and fell, and rose no more.
I looked then after Christian, to see him go up the hill, where I
perceived he fell from running to going, and from going to clambering
upon his hands and his knees, because of the steepness of the place.
Now about the mid-way to the top of the hill was a pleasant arbour,
made by the Lord of the hill, for the refreshing of weary travellers.
Thither therefore Christian got, where also he sat down to rest him.
Then he pulled his roll out of his bosom, and read therein to his
comfort. He also now began afresh to take a review of the coat, or
garment, that was given him as he stood by the cross. Thus pleasing
himself a while, he at last fell into a slumber, and thence into a fast
sleep, which detained him in that place until it was almost night ; and
in his sleep his roll fell out of his hand. Now, as he was sleeping,
there came one to him and waked him, saying, Go to the ant, thou
prov. 6. 6. sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise." And with
that Christian suddenly started up, and sped on his way, and went
Space till he came to the top of the hill.
Now when he was got up to the top of the hill, there came two men
', running against him amain; the name of the one was Timorous, and
of the other Mistrust: to whom Christian said, Sirs, what is the

strength, they betake themselves right and left, result is well described in the names of these
to the "two other ways," that promised to two paths-Danger and Destruction.
Sobviate the difficulty of the ascent, and to con- Running, going, clambering.-Here is the
duct to the same destination by-and-by. The I Christian man brought face to face with some
j % 5 6 y

Space: but, said he, the further we go the more danger we meet
with; wherefore we turned, and are going back again,
Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a couples of lons i the way,

(whether sleeping or waking we know not); and we could not think,
if we came within reach, but they w would presently pull us in pieces.

Then said Christian, You make me afraid: but whither shall I flee

hard lot, some unlooked-for test and trial of leges he had received at the Cross. He reads
his faith. He cheerfully meets the difficulty, in his roll, and is comforted. But ere long
and with prayerful energy and energetic sup- the wearied traveller nods to sleep, and by-
plication he still climbs the steep ascent of and-bye he has out-slept many precious hours
Difficulty-" running, going, clambering." of the day, and night is drawing on. He is
A pleasant arbour.-There are times of re- awakened by a voice of admonition, and again
freshing that come from the presence of the starts upon his journey.
Lord. The shade of this cool retreat, and the Timorous and Hfistrust.-These two men,
refreshment of this half-way house, enable the returning from the onward journey, with
Pilgrim to enjoy for a time some of the privi- stories of lions and other dangers, represent


The PilZgrim's Progress.

to be safe ? If I go back to mine own country, that is prepared for
fire and brimstone, and I shall certainly perish there: if I can get to
the Celestial City, I am sure to be in safety there. I must venture : to
go back is nothing but death; to go forward is fear of death, and life
everlasting beyond it. I will yet go forward.
So Mistrust and Timorous ran down the hill, and Christian went on
his way. But thinking again of what he heard from the men, he felt in
his bosom for his roll, that he might read therein and be comforted : but
he felt and found it not. Then was Christian in great distress, and
knew not what to do ; for he wanted that which used to relieve him, and
that which should have been his pass into the Celestial City. Here
therefore he began to be much perplexed, and knew not what to do.
At last he bethought himself that he had slept in the arbour that is on
the side of the hill; and falling down upon his knees, he asked God
forgiveness for that his foolish act, and then went back to look for his
roll. But all the way he went back, who can sufficiently set forth the
sorrows of Christian's heart ? Sometimes he sighed, sometimes he
wept, and oftentimes he chid himself for being so foolish to fall asleep
in that place, which was erected only for a little refreshment for his
weariness. Thus therefore he went back, carefully looking on this
side and on that, all the way as he went, if happily he might find the
roll that had been his comfort so many times in his journey. He went
thus till he came within sight of the arbour where he sat and slept;
but that sight renewed his sorrow the more, by bringing back, even

the fighting without and the fears within He felt for his roll.-Though he has sub-
which agitate the soul during seasons of un- dued his fears and misgivings, yet, after this
faithfulness or relapse. These men had no conflict with opposing doubts, he feels the
certain knowledge of the dangers that alarmed need of comfort, and accordingly betakes him-
them. They did not tarry fairly to inquire self to the roll of the parchment. But he
what were the dangers, and how they might finds it not as at other times. He has lost it !
be overcome, but at the first influence of fear Yes, he has lost the roll of his acceptance-
they beat a hasty retreat, and departed. the passport of his journey, the guide and
I will yet go forward. -This is the deter- counsellor of his pilgrimage, his credential at
mination of CHRISTIAN'S better nature. His the gate of bliss. This is a great loss.
faith enables him to weigh the certainties But straightway he bethinks himself of his
against the probabilities of the case. To go sleep in the arbour on the hill, and determines
back is certain death; to go forward is only to retrace his footsteps. It is well when the
fear of death. To return to Destruction is to conscience can thus recall the memory of the
perish ; to march on to the Celestial City is false step, and recognize the beginning of
life, and safety, and salvation. Here is the error, and address itself to the restoration of
Christian man triumphing over doubts and the loss sustained thereby.
difficulties ; for while some of his companions CHRISTIAN, now retracing his steps, seeks to
on the way turn aside, and others linger recover the lost credential. This is always
behind, he pursues his onward course. weary work, filled with repinings and self-
4' 58
Sf s8 '

Christian discovers his Roll.

afresh, his evil of sleeping unto his mind. Thus therefore he now
went on bewailing his sinful sleep, saying, O wretched man that I am!
that I should sleep in the daytime! that I should sleep ... s. 7, 3.
in the midst of difficulty that I should so indulge the R cv. 5
flesh as to use that rest for ease to my flesh, which the Lord of the hill
hath erected only for the relief of the spirits of pilgrims! How many
steps have I taken in vain! Thus it happened to Israel, for their sin;
they were sent back again by the way of the Red Sea: and I am made
to tread those steps with sorrow, which I might have trod with delight,
had it not been for this sinful sleep. How far might I have been on
my way by this time! I am made to tread those steps thrice over,
which I needed to have trod but once : yea, now also I am like to be
benighted, for the day is almost spent. Oh, that I had not slept !
Now by this time he was come to the arbour again, where for a
while he sat down and wept; but at last (as Christian would have it),
looking sorrowfully down under the settle, there he espied his roll;
the which he with trembling and haste watched up and put into his
bosom. But who can tell how joyful this man was when he had gotten
his roll again ? For this roll was the assurance of his life, and accept-
ance at the desired haven. Therefore he laid it up in his bosom, gave
thanks to God for directing his eye to the place where it lay, and with
joy and tears betook himself again to his journey. But oh, how nimbly
now did he go up the rest of the hill! Yet before he got up, the sun
went down upon Christian ; and this made him again recall the vanity

reproaches. Hence the feeling of the Pilgrim's and regain his lost assurance and confidence
mind; he sighed, and wept, and did chide in God. CHRISTIAN has now recovered the
himself. This retreating journey is meant to loss of the roll; he once again has peace with
indicate the painful ordeal and the anxious God.
interval between conviction of a specific sin The sun went down.-Although sin may be
and the return of confidence by the restora- forgiven, and confidence restored, there will
tion of the sinner. This disquietude of spiri- yet be felt for a time the evil consequences
tual experience is felt in smaller as in larger of our offending. In this case, many valuable
deviations, according as the conscience is ten- hours of the work-day had been lost in sleep,
der, sensitive, and true. In the Life of and still further loss had been sustained in
Hedley Vicars," we are told what was the striving to recover the missing roll. The
effect upon that young Christian's mind of consequence is that eventide and nightfall
one occasion of neglect of private devotion, descend on the Pilgrim ere he has accom-
My soul was the worse for it," he said, for polished that day's journey; and with the dark-
nearly three weeks afterwards." ness all the associations of darkness gather
He sfied his roll.-These darksome days, round him-the fears and fancies, the terrors
ino doubt, ofttimes overcast the pilgrimage ; and alarms of the night season. The story of
<, but earnest faith will strive to look through the lions, too, seems to him to be more likely
Them; and by diligence, and prayer, and assist- to be true ; and his disquietude is therefore
'A ing grace, the Pilgrim will work out of them, all the more augmented.

T/he Pilgrim's Progress.

of his sleeping to his remembrance : and thus he again began to con-
dole himself: O thou sinful sleep! how for thy sake am I like to be
benighted in my journey! I must walk without the sun, darkness
must cover the path of my feet, and I must hear the noise of doleful
creatures, because of my sinful sleep !-Now also he remembered the
story that Mistrust and Timorous told him of, how they were frighted
with the sight of the lions. Then said Christian to himself again,
These beasts range in the night for their prey; and if they should
meet with me in the dark, how should I shift them ? how should I
escape being by them torn in pieces ? Thus he went on his way.
But, while he was thus bewailing his unhappy miscarriage, he lift up
his eyes, and behold there was a very stately palace before him, the
name of which was Beautiful, and it stood just on the highway side.

HITHERTO the Pilgrim has trod a solitary path ; he has been alone; and, with the exception of
EVANGELIST'S timely counsels, he has had no brotherly communion or companionship with
Christian men. His brother pilgrims on the road have been, till now, intruders upon the
King's highway, and therefore their progress has soon ended, and their companionship has
been as brief as it was unprofitable.
It is now time to introduce the Pilgrim to the Communion of Saints, and to the privilege of
Christian intercourse. This is an essential part of every pilgrim's progress to the Better
Land. The "narrow way" is not so very strait but that we may have companions there,
and travel in a goodly company towards Zion. CHRISTIAN has lacked this spiritual inter-
course, and now he must have it; and, accordingly, when he lacks it most, he receives it most
plentifully. This stage of the Christian journey brings us to a home, where Christian virtues
dwell, and all the things that are lovely and of good report, the things that accompany salva-
tion ; a household dedicated to thy cause, Thou Saviour of the lost !-
"Where every heart goes forth to meet thee,
Where every ear attends thy word;
Where every lip with blessing greets thee,
Where all are waiting on their Lord !"
In the Palace Beautiful our Pilgrim finds comfort, refreshment, and renewed strength, after
the loneliness and desolation of that memorable day, and that eventful eventide. All his loss
of peace, and loss of confidence, and loss of time is now compensated by the unspeakable gain
of this godly communion and Christian fellowship, in which he abides from day to day, and
through which he is enabled, in Christian conversation, to review the past, thereby impressing

A very stately palace. God is with the ful-one of those resting-places on the way,
Pilgrim, and His providence conducts him; which are designed to impart fresh spiritual
so that, in the midst of his sorrows and be- light and new spiritual strength, ere the Pilgrim
wailings, he is guided to a place of light, and betakes himself to the greater perils and more
comfort, and refreshment -the Palace Beauti- grave responsibilities of the onward journey.

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The Pig rim's Progress.

the thoughts and scenes of the pilgrimage more and more upon his mind and conscience.
His external circumstances, and the concerns of his inward state, form profitable topics of
conversation with those who fear the Lord. CHRISTIAN is thereby refreshed in his mind ; he
is instructed more deeply in the things of God, and in the wondrous histories of his servants.
He is, moreover, armed for his future conflicts, and is shown some effects of the might and
prowess of the brave warriors and good soldiers of the Cross who have passed that way
before him. He is allowed to see afar off the Delectable Mountains, and Emmanuel's
Land ; and to that prospect is added this promise-" When thou comest there, from thence
thou mayest see to the gates of the Celestial City."

O I saw in my dream that he made haste and went forward,
K .'. ^that if possible he might get lodging there. Now before
) he had gone far, he entered into a very narrow passage,
which was about a furlong off of the Porter's lodge; and,
looking very narrowly before him as he went, he espied two lions in
the way. Now, thought he, I see the danger that Mistrust and
Timorous were driven back by. (The lions were chained, but he
saw not the chains.) Then he was afraid, and thought also himself
to go back after them; for he thought nothing but death was before
him. But the porter at the lodge, whose name is Watchful, perceiving
that Christian made a halt, as if he would go back, cried unto him,
Mark 4. 40 saying, Is thy strength so small ? Fear not the lions,
for they are chained, and are placed there for trial of faith where it

He espied two lions.-These were probably ambassadors strengthen the pilgrims of Sion
the lions that MISTRUST and TIMOROUS saw, and embolden them in the midst of danger!
and by the sight of which they were turned Here were rampant, roaring lions ; not asleep,
back again. These lions were placed in a but awake, in a narrow passage, and very near;
narrow path, so that there appeared but little but they were "chained." This announce-
way of escape for those that would pass by ment makes all the difference. MISTRUST
that way. and TIMOROUS might also have heard the
Many apparent spiritual dangers seem for- good Porter's news, only they came not near
midable until they are more closely examined enough, but fled at the first view of the seem-
by the eye of faith and with confidence in God. ing danger. Suspicion is the child of little
Ignorance ofttimes exaggerates threatening knowledge ; therefore let it know more, and see
danger, as it sees not and knows not the re- more thoroughly. Knowledge looks with open
straining power of Divine grace. MISTRUST face, and therefore sees all things plainly.
and TIMOROUS could not tell whether the lions There are some who think they see in this
were "sleeping" or "waking;" the very sight of story of the lions" a political allusion to the
the lions in the distance alarmed them. CHRIS- civil penalties and disabilities of the period.
TIAN'S ignorance, too, had well nigh driven him This is not at all improbable, though the ex-
back; for the lions were chained, but he saw pression is so worded as to convey a purely
Snot the chains." It was the kind and timely spiritual meaning to the reader. This, indeed,
voice of the porter, WATCHFUL, that dispelled is one of the excellences of the PILGRIM'S
his fears by dispelling his ignorance, informing PROGRESS, that it is written for all time ; and
him that these lions were for the probation of even long after its local and political allusions
faith, and would be harmless if he would only have been lost sight of, its deep spiritual
walk in the middle of the path. meaning remains, for the admonition and en-
S How greatly do these messages of God's couragement of pilgrims.

Christian arrives at the Palace Beautiful.

is, and for discovery of those that have none; keep in the midst of
the path, and no hurt shall come unto thee.
Then I saw that he went on trembling for fear of the lions : but
taking good heed to the directions of the Porter, he heard them roar,
but they did him no harm. Then he clapped his hands, and went on
till he came and stood before the gate where the Porter was. Then
said Christian to the Porter, Sir, what house is this ? and may I lodge
here to-night ? The Porter answered, This house was built by the
Lord of the hill, and he built it for the relief and security of pilgrims.
The Porter also asked whence he was ? and whither he was going ?
CHR. I am come from the City of Destruction, and am going to
Mount Zion; but because the sun is now set, I desire, if I may, to
lodge here to-night.
POR. What is your name ?
CHR. My name is now Christian, but my name at the first was
Graceless : I came of the race of Japheth, whom God will en. 9. 27.
persuade to dwell in the tents of Shem.
POR. But how doth it happen, that you come so late ? The sun is
CHR. I had been here sooner, but that, wretched man that I am I
slept in the arbour that stands on the hill-side. Nay, I had, notwith-
standing that, been here much sooner, but that in my sleep I lost my
evidence, and came without it to the brow of the hill; and then,

What house is this ?-As yet he knows set of the pilgrimage the Pilgrim has been
not what provision of grace is here stored up called by the name of CHRISTIAN. But this
for him. He has realized his loss ; has suffered was not always his name. This is his "new
by delay; has been alarmed by the darkness name." And before this was given him, he
and other dangers ; and now a light suddenly was called GRACELESS. This was the name
appears, and a stately mansion by the way- by which he was called in the City of Destruc-
side. This is the Palace Beautiful, with its tion, until God opened his eyes to behold his
fair inhabitants, and its blessed companion- state in sin, and gave him grace to flee from
ships, and its heavenly communion, and its the wrath to come. He was by nature without
rich store of provision for the onward scenes grace, and therefore GRACELESS ; but now he
and stages of the Pilgrimage-another house of is with Christ, and therefore is he called by
call for the wayfaring pilgrims of Sion. It is the name of CHRISTIAN.
of the Lord's own building; it is the Master's The sun is set.-Ah, here again is the re-
own merciful appointment-" for the relief and membrance of his sin-that sleep which he
security of pilgrims." There are they housed slept in the arbour on the hill. That slumber,
in the time of peril; there "shut in" till and the loss of his evidence, kept him back
greater strength is given for greater need; and from the communion of saints and from the
forth from the fellowship of the saints they refreshment of Christian intercourse. Alas,
proceed upon their way, stronger, wiser, better how these sins intercept the path, and hinder
men. the journey By the time that sleep is slept
Ml/y name was Graceless.-From the out- out, and the roll lost, and the loss discovered,
63 -|

The Pilgrim's Progress.

feeling for it and finding it not, I was forced with sorrow of heart to
go back to the place where I slept my sleep; where I found it, and
now I am come.
POR. Well, I will call out one of the virgins of this place, who will,
if she likes your talk, bring you in to the rest of the family, according
to the rules of the house. So Watchful the porter rang a bell, at the
sound of which came out at the door of the house a grave and beautiful
damsel, named Discretion, and asked why she was called.
The Porter answered, This man is in a journey from the City of
Destruction to Mount Zion; but, being weary and benighted, he asked
me if he might lodge here to-night: so I told him I would call for
thee, who after discourse had with him, mayest do as seemeth thee
good, even according to the law of the house.
Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he was going; and
he told her. She asked him also how he got into the way; and he
told her. Then she asked him what he had seen and met with in the
way; and he told her. And at last she asked his name. So he said,
It is Christian; and I have so much the more a desire to lodge here
to-night, because, by what I perceive, this place was built by the Lord
of the hill for the relief and security of pilgrims. So she smiled, but

and the missing evidence regained, and the the intellect and judgment; PRUDENCE affect-
hill climbed again, the day has been far spent, ing the interests of the life now present
and the sun has set." and also of that which is to come; PIETY
Weary and benighted.-It is very plain that regulating the devotions of the soul and spirit;
this palace was designed as a refuge for the and CHARITY discharging all the duties of love
wayfarer, and that its asylum would be most to God and to our fellow-men. Some one has
acceptable to those pilgrims who are most pithily remarked, in reference to this scene
exposed to the sorrows and hardships of the and stage of the Pilgrim's experience-" How
way. Christian communion is at all times 'beautiful'must that Church be whereWATCH-
useful, but particularly so when we meet with FUL is the porter; where DISCRETION governs;
spiritual losses, and consequently experience where PRUDENCE takes the oversight; where
more or less of spiritual depression. In days PIETY conducts the worship ; and where CHA-
of weariness, and nights clouded with gloom, RITY endears the members one to another "
how reassuring is the pressure of a friendly The introduction of the Pilgrim to the
hand, the encouragement of a familiar voice, palace devolves upon DISCRETION, who also
the company of a faithful friend conducts the preliminary conversation. She
For relief and security of ilgrims.-This ascertains the past history of CHRISTIAN-
was the twofold use of the Palace Beautiful whence he has come, and whither he is going.
-"relief" from the toil and travail of the He is also straitly questioned as to how he
road, and "security" from danger, seen and entered the way; for none can be made
unseen, present and to come. partakers of the blessedness of that fair house
The principal members of this household of and of its goodly company, but they who have
faith are called DISCRETION, PRUDENCE, entered by the Wicket-gate. Last of all, she
PIETY, and CHARITY. By these names are inquires his name. Names are no passport in
indicated the heavenly virtues and the graces spiritual things ; it is the inward man, and not
Sof the Spirit: DISCRETION appertaining to the outward name, that ensures admittance to

Scall ':'rth tX :.r three m re o' t .he family. So she ran to the door
Sand called ut Prudence, Pie, and Charit who, aftr a little m ore

dscre with him. had himn into the lamll ; and many ol tlhim
t meeting him at the threshold of the h',LSCe, said. Come in, thoir bised
cf the L:'rd; this house \was built ty the Lord of the hill, on purpose
to entertain such pilgrims in. Then he bowed hi.s head, and follove': *v c
them into the house. So when he was come in and set down they

wave him something to drink, and consented together, that until supper

Christian, fo-r the be t impn'provemenit of time n and th-ry appointed ^J

h tr Ii c' Lhip .l.L the .-nr: ; r..:-l cl th.j .:. rd mi *.:.r i.. t t pF :.n.pr.I.l ti: [ ir'l r .
I r.u I : r [.:q.j [ .:.* r.rl.:l. Thl .t.re--I-, n.:.t [h*2 r r; rr [hi [.ilcrit irize. Ci-r.i-l -i..;' ar- '...r I.:. ii -
'v P1l, i i nin0e. [1. i.i ir.i.i tI. I.r, L. ; 'ir u [i: 11
In the cri ."-*ir"n.,r; rhct crue, FIFTY is [.1. ni l ti .*Jic.Aiiil 'urJ 1-.. l.i .:i l
I,'r fir t to [p 1a Sh? i7 ar'-: ira: ne r- l. Jil. J n .:.u[ i t:. s Fi i- laind. li A l
'i- .. -. .
-" 9
---- f So ........

-_rl -h ft r tl.2 -w t -
,' and callec2 d ,-,ti PrudenCe. Piety ar, a [ afer a little mio rte
f-UdLsc,:,rse with him, had him int,) the 1ami.N ancd many r,:, th,_m .ill
{ m eeting- him L at the thres hoMd -)f the hi'bUs ae s.id, ( l_"llc in, tho.1i 1:,1-- ,'.
.,,f the Lord ; this h,0us;e was built by" the Lord o-"f th hill, (An Il:,rp.,>s
t,, entertain such pilgrims in. Then he b,_-,w-d h'.3 head, and folc\ved
them into) the h], OseS. SO, \khen hle was oi:,me in anl s,..-t down th,-.v
ga''IVeI him sllthinlZ to, drink, an] ,.m',scnllS. l:t', Itothdr, that until suipF, -r

if l h-, ln', up ale- h t i,- n,.-[, :


T e Pig-rim's Progress.

Piety, and Prudence, and Charity, to discourse with him; and thus
they began.
PI. Come, good Christian, since we have been so loving to you to
receive you into our house this night, let us, if perhaps we may better
ourselves thereby, talk with you of all things that have happened to
you in your pilgrimage.
CHR. With a very good will; and I am glad you are so well dis-
PI. What moved you at first to betake yourself to a pilgrim's life ?
CIIR. I was driven out of my native country by a dreadful sound
that was in mine ears; to wit, that unavoidable destruction did attend
me if I abode in that place where I was.
PI. But how did it happen that you came out of your country this
way ?
CHR. It was as God would have it; for when I was under the fears
of destruction, I did not know whither to go; but by chance there
came a man even to me, as I was trembling and weeping, whose name
is Evangelist, and he directed me to the wicket-gate, which else I
should never have found, and so set me into the way that hath led me
directly to this house.
PI. But did you not come by the house of the Interpreter ?
CHR. Yes, and did see such things there, the remembrance of which
will stick by me as long as I live: especially three things; to wit, how
Christ, in spite of Satan, maintains his work of grace in the heart; how
the man had sinned himself quite out of hopes of God's mercy; and
also the dream of him that thought in his sleep the day of judgment
was come.
PI. Why, did you hear him tell his dream ?
CIR. Yes, and a dreadful dream it was, I thought; it made my
heart ache as he was telling of it : but yet I am glad I heard it.
PI. Was this all you saw at the house of the Interpreter ?
CHR. No; he took me and had me where he showed me a stately
palace, and how the people were clad in gold that were in it; and how

from without, conviction from within, and both sight of One who did hang bleeding upon a
these working upon conscience deep calling tree, the tokens and credentials given him at
unto deep-created that "dreadful sound," so the Cross, and the unworthy companions that
that the man was "driven" to flight, The met him on the way. Then the Pilgrim
further questions proposed by PIETY reproduce reports progress, and explains his past experi-
the narrative of the preceding scenes of the ences.
pilgrimage, including the Wicket-gate, the il- PRUDENCE next engages the Pilgrim in con-
'lustrations of the Interpreter's House, the versation. She enters not so much into the

T2e 7 rMaidens question Chrisfan.

there came a venturous man, and cut his way through the armed men
that stood in the door to keep him out; and how he was bid to come
in and win eternal glory. Methought those things did ravish my
heart. I would have staid at that good man's house a twelvemonth
but that I knew I had further to go.
PI. And what saw you else in the way ?
CHR. Saw! why I went but a little further, and I saw One, as I
thought in my mind, hang bleeding upon a tree; and the very sight of
him made my burden fall off my back; for I groaned under a heavy
burden, but then it fell down from off me. It was a strange thing to
me, for I never saw such a thing before; yea, and while I stood looking
up (for then I could not forbear looking), three shining ones came to
me; one of them testified that my sins were forgiven me; another
stripped me of my rags, and gave me this broidered coat which you
see; and the third set the mark which you see in my forehead, and
gave me this sealed roll ;-and with that he plucked it out of his bosom.
PI. But you saw more than this, did you not ?
CHR. The things that I have told you were the best: yet some
other matters I saw; as namely, I saw three men, Simple, Sloth, and
Presumption, lie asleep, a little out of the way as I came, with irons
upon their heels; but do you think I could awake them ? I also saw
Formalist and Hypocrisy come tumbling over the wall, to go, as they
pretended, to Zion; but they were quickly lost; even as I myself did
tell them, but they would not believe. But, above all, I found it hard
work to get up this hill, and as hard to come by the lions' mouths :
and truly, if it had not been for the good man the porter, that stands
at the gate, I do not know but that, after all, I might have gone back
again; but now I thank God, I am here; and I thank you for
receiving of me.
Then Prudence thought good to ask him a few questions, and
desired his answer to them.
PR. Do you think sometimes of the country from whence you came ?
CHR. Yes, but with much shame and detestation. Truly, if I had

'" motives and feelings of the past, as into his strife is waged against the carnal thoughts
Thoughts and feelings for the present-those that rise within us ; and whether that strife is
inward phases of the soul's reflection, when, crowned with victory, so that carnal things are
having forsaken the old things, a new life is to "vanquished," and die within us.
be lived, on new and better principles. It is The "goldenhours" of the Pilgrim's triumphs
important we should ourselves inquire whether over carnal things, and holy contemplation of
any vain regrets intertwine themselves with heavenly things, are seasons much to be
our present obedience; whether an earnest desired-those blessed seasons of the soul's

T71b Pilgrrim'ds ProgrCss.

been mindful of that country from whence I came out, I might have
had opportunity to have returned : but now I desire a better country,
1Heb. nI. 5, 16. that is, a heavenly."
PR. Do you not yet bear away with you some of the things that
then you were conversant withal ?
CIHR. Yes, but greatly against my will; especially my inward and
carnal cogitations, with which all my countrymen, as well as myself,
Were delighted : but now all those things are my grief; and, might I
but choose mine own things, I would choose never to think of those
things more; but, when I would be doing of that which is best, that
Rom. 7. 15-23. which is worst is with me.
PR. Do you not find sometimes as if those things were vanquished,
which at other times are your perplexity ?
CHR. Yes, but that is but seldom; but they are to me golden hours
in which such things happen to me.
PR. Can you remember by what means you find your annoyances at
times as if they were vanquished ?
CHR. Yes : when I think what I saw at the cross, that will do it;
and when I look upon my broidered coat, that will do it; also when I
look into the roll that I carry in my bosom, that will do it; and when
my thoughts wax warm about whither I am going, that will do it.
PR. And what is it that makes you so desirous to go to Mount
Zion ?
CHR. Why, there I hope to see him alive that did hang dead on
the cross; and there I hope to be rid of all those things that to this
day are in me an annoyance to me : there they say there is no
: .s. 5.. Rev. death; and there I shall dwell with such company as I
'4. like best. For, to tell you the truth, I love him because
I was by him eased of my burden; and I am weary of my inward
sickness. I would fain be where I should die no more, and with the
company that shall continually cry, Holy, holy, holy."
Then said Charity to Christian, Have you a family ? are you a
married man ?
S CHR. I have a wife and four small children.

Health and well-being, when the Cross is held siasm in the man of God. Ay, these are the
full in view, and the glory of the Robe of thoughts that lift us heavenward-the hope of
Righteousness is seen, and the comforts of the meeting with the Living Lord, and of finding
S Roll refresh the spirit, and all the blissful full exemption from the influence of sin, and
.' thoughts and prospects of final blessedness the endless enjoyment of immortality ; and all
Swindle the fire of a holy fervour and enthu- these feelings quickened by the love we bear
fo~thfesyg^^zs~ga-s- ...-..,4-^^^^-^.^

CiW STA ___ ___ ___ ___
CH~.~STIAN Enter. T-he PALN-CeB C atkdle II BEAUTlfFl'L.
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The Pilgrim's Progress.

CHAR. And why did you not bring them along with you ?
Then Christian wept, and said, Oh, how willingly would I have
done it! but they were all of them utterly averse to my going on
CHAR. But you should have talked to them, and have endeavoured
to show them the danger of being left behind.
CHR. So I did : and told them also that God had showed to me
of the destruction of our city; but I seemed to them as one that
Gen. 19. 14 mocked, and they believed me not.
CHAR. And did you pray to God that he would bless your counsel
to them ?
CHR. Yes, and that with much affection; for you must think that
my wife and poor children were very dear unto me.
CHAR. But did you tell them your own sorrow, and fear of
destruction? for I suppose that destruction was visible enough to you.
CHR. Yes, over, and over, and over. They might also see my
fears in my countenance, in my tears, and also in my trembling under
the apprehension of the judgments that did hang over our heads:
but all was not sufficient to prevail with them to come with me.
CHAR. But what could they say for themselves why they came not?
CHR. Why, my wife was afraid of losing this world; and my
children were given to the foolish delights of youth: so, what by
one thing, and what by another, they left me to wander in this
manner alone.
CHAR. But did you not with your vain life damp all that you by
words used by way of persuasion to bring them away with you ?
CHR. Indeed I cannot commend my life, for I am conscious to
myself of many failings therein. I know also that a man by his

to Jesus, who hath first loved us, and hath of the palace, and is commended for his faith-
redeemed us from sin and death. ful efforts to win his family to Christ- Thou
CHARITY continues the communion and hast delivered thy soul from their blood "
fellowship of heart with heart. She inquires This allusion to the number of his children
about his home and family, and how it is they answers to the number of Bunyan's family, at
have not joined him in his pilgrimage, and the time of his writing the PROGRESS. He
whether blame attaches to him for any neglect had a wife, two sons, and.two daughters. Mr.
on his part of their spiritual interests. To all Offor informs us, in a note to his edition, that
these inquiries CHRISTIAN answers truthfully "this conversation was first published in the
and well. His wife would not resign the second edition, 1678." At that time, however,
world and the pleasures of the world ; and his his wife and children were fellow-pilgrims with
children would not surrender the pleasures of their father. Mr. Offor further observes, that
South; and thus did the spell of worldliness Eunyan's "eldest son was a preacher eleven
Sbind them to carnal things. CHRISTIAN wit- years before the second part of the PILGRIMAI
nesses a good confession before these damsels was published."

Discourse during Supper.

conversation may soon overthrow what by argument or persuasion
he doth labour to fasten upon others for their good. Yet this I can
say, I was very wary of giving them occasion, by any unseemly action,
to make them averse to going on pilgrimage. Yea, for this very
thing they would tell me I was too precise; and that I denied myself
of things (for their sakes) in which they saw no evil. Nay, I think
I may say that, if what they saw in me did hinder them, it was my
great tenderness in sinning against God, or of doing any wrong to my
CHAR. Indeed "Cain hated his brother, because his own works
were evil, and his brother's righteous;" and, if thy wife John 3. 12.
and children have been offended with thee for this, they thereby show
themselves to be implacable to good; and thou hast delivered thy
soul from their blood. Ezek. 3. 1.
Now I saw in my dream that thus they sat talking together
until supper was ready. So when they had made ready they sat
down to meat. Now the table was furnished with fat things, and
with wine that was well refined; and all their talk at the table was
about the Lord of the hill; as, namely, about what he had done,
and wherefore he did what he did, and why he had builded that

N`ow I saw in my dream.-- The dream con- done and suffered for sinners. His character
tinues ; their sweet communion has not yet as the Great Captain of our salvation is here
ended. From words of conversation, the sisters enlarged upon-the battles he hath fought, and
of the household conduct their guest to a the conquests he hath won in the interests of
feast of fat things for his refreshment. fallen and sinful man ; and how he hath slain
Whether Bunyan means by this the ordinary the great enemy of souls. And in all these
domestic entertainment of Christian fellow- glorious deeds, the one great motive was love
ship, or the more spiritual feast-the Supper -the love of God, the love of Jesus ; that love
of the Lord, we do not here decide. We think of country, yea, even of rebellious citizens,
he has wisely and judiciously left it open to which lifts the character of Christ far beyond
either interpretation, or both. But this much, that of the noblest and most self-denying
at all events, is evident, that all their talk at patriot that ever suffered for his country's
the table was about the Lord of the Hill." cause. In this conversation those Divine
Well is it for those families and those com- characteristics of Jesus are discussed, which
unions whose talk is of Jesus when they meet illustrate his gracious condescension and love :
together for bodily or for spiritual refreshment: how he descended from his royal throne-this
Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or what- was his self-resignation ; how he condescended
soever ye do, do all to the glory of God." to the low level of our lot -this was his self-
(I Cor. x. 31.) abasement; how he trod the patient path of
Christian communion on the subject of the human suffering-this was his self-denial;
Saviour tends to elicit some precious truths and how he climbed the mount of Calvary-
respecting his nature, his work, and the provi- this was his self-sacrifice. And having paid
sion he hath made for the wayfaring pilgrims the purchase of redemption, he would not have
of Sion. This conversation, for instance, alto- his death to be a profitless or barren sacrifice ;
gether tends to magnify the exceeding great but, through it, would conduct many sons to
i-i love of Jesus, as manifested in all that he hath glory ; lifting up the beggar from the dunghill,
b .7-

The Pilg-rim's Pr-og-ress.

house : and by what they said I perceived that he had been a great
warrior, and had fought with and slain him that had the power of
Heb. 2. 14 r5. death; but not without great danger to himself; which
made me love him the more.
For, as they said, and as I believe, said Christian, he did it with
the loss of much blood. But that which put glory of grace into all
he did was, that he did it of pure love to his country. And besides
there were some of them of the household that said, they had seen
and spoken with him since he did die on the cross; and they have
attested that they had it from his own lips, that he is such a lover
of poor pilgrims, that the like is not to be found from the east to the
They, moreover, gave an instance of what they affirmed, and that
was, he had stripped himself of his glory that he might do this for
the poor; and that they heard him say and affirm, that he would
not dwell in the mountain of Zion alone. They said, moreover, that
he had made many pilgrims princes, though by nature they were
Sam. 8. ps. beggars born, and their original had been the dunghill.
"13- 7,8. Thus they discoursed together till late at night; and,
after they had committed themselves to their Lord for protection,

and making the children of Sion to be princes goodness, and by thoughts, desires, and hopes,
in all lands. God fills the hearts of Pilgrims with joy and
Such was the communion of these confid- gladness, and enables them either to go on
ing and trusting souls, conveying large stores their way rejoicing, or, in the hour of trial, to
of strength and spiritual consolation into the fight the good fight of faith, and firmly to press
Pilgrim's heart. onward, patiently to look forward, piously to
"Who can tell the joy, the bliss, look upward, and vigorously to contend for
Of communion such as this!
'These have been,' let others say, /the trulh against all the unfruitful works of
'At the gates of heaven to-day.'" darkness. CHRISTIAN learns, moreover, from
The Christian, while sojourning at this bliss- the experience of Christian warriors, who, like
ful portion of his journey heavenward, dis- himself, are travelling to the celestial abode,
covers, by searching his own heart, by converse that when fresh assaults are made against
with godly companions, and by a frequent them, the recollection of past victories and the
inspection of the Roll which EVANGELIST gave consciousness of the Divine presence will
him, that God is wise in his teachings and assuredly animate them for the conflict, and
gracious in his dealings : appearing by his by the grace of God the victory will be theirs,
dispensations to say to the inexperienced-" I and none shall be able to keep them from the
have many things to say unto you, but ye can- path that leads to the Heavenly City.
not bear them now; but what ye know not The day of spiritual communion is closed
now, ye shall know hereafter;" and therefore by the retirement of CHRISTIAN to his rest
that God in tenderness imparts wisdom to the and calm repose, within the safe enclosure of
Christian according to his ability to receive it, the chamber Peace. Here is perfect peace, in
and appoints conflicts also in proportion to his the household of faith-not in the midst of
S strength to resist them. In addition to this difficulty, as when he slept in the pleasant
Lesson of heavenly wisdom, CHRISTIAN learns arbour, but in the midst of Christian fellow-
that by bright views of his love, mercy, and ship, and under the roof where heavenly

'' -

I,- '. -- ..-a' )

I 4I 'l1ihy becook themsllvlSc. tu reat. T he pilgrim they laid Ei
1 a large upper chamber, whose window opened towards the sun-
ising: the name of the chamber was Peace; where he slept till
break of day, and then he awoke and sang-
SWhre am I now ? Is this the love and car
',,"Of Jesus, for the men that pilgrims are, '
SThus to provide That I should be forgiven,
And dwell already the next door to heaven !
So in the morning they all got up; and, after some more discourse,
hey told him that he should not depart till they had showed him the

irtues dwell. Here was the Pilgrim safe ; in peace, and awakes refreshed, to face the
Itis person and his property, his garments duties and the dangers of the world outside.
Lnd his credentials, all are safe ; and that The Study.-We must now follow the
7rod who has been about his path, is now Pilgrim through the galleries and chambers

S his bed. This period of rest is that of the Palace, for in Christian communion

,d roaring lions, and other unfriendly influ- duty for the present, in preparation for the
Snccs of the outer world, and lays him down future, and in prospect of the final issue.

ii a larAge tpper chamber, whose window opened towards the sun-
i rising: the name of the chamber was Peace; where lie slept till
.,reak, of day, and then he awolte and sang-r
hrr e am I nowi ? Is this the love and care

Thus to provide That I should te forgiven,
.'!: d s dAnd dwla ell already the next door to heaven u

lod who has been about his path, is now Pilgrim through the galleries and chambers
',"- bout his bed. This period of rest is that of the Palace, for in Christian communion
pI" )hase of Christian experience when the Chris- there are many things to be seen, and learned,
I" ian man is withdrawn from beating storms, and known, both in doctrine and example, in
I& ind roaring lions, and other unfriendly infu- duty for the present, in preparation for the
"'.'2 ..rces of the outer world, and lays him down future, and in prospect of the final issue.

T11 77/i? PIg'rns Pr-,ogress.

rarities of that place. And first they had him into the Study, where
they showed him records of the greatest antiquity; in which, as I
remember my dream, they showed him, first the pedigree of the
Lord of the Hill, that he was the Son of the Ancient of Days, and
came by an eternal generation. Here also were more fully recorded
the acts that he had done, and the names of many hundreds that he
had taken into his service; and how he had placed them in such
habitations that could neither by length of days nor decays of nature
be dissolved.
Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that some of his
servants had done : as how they had subdued kingdoms, wrought
righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched
the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness
were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, and turned to flight the
i. .. 33, 34. armies of the aliens."
Then they read again in another part of the records of the house,
where it was showed how willing their Lord was to receive into his
favour any, even any, though they in time past had offered great
affronts to his person and proceedings. Here also were several other
histories of many other famous things, of all which Christian had a
view : as of things both ancient and modern; together with prophecies
and predictions of things that have their certain accomplishment, both
to the dread and amazement of enemies, and the comfort and solace
of pilgrims.
The next day they took him and had him into the armoury, where
they showed him all manner of furniture which their Lord had pro-
vided for pilgrims, as sword, shield, helmet, breast-plate, all-prayer,
and shoes that would not wear out. And there was here enough of

Accordingly, the fair sisters first conduct containing the weapons of the spiritual war-
the Pilgrim to the Study." Here are con- fare. All the parts of the Christian panoply
tainted the ancient records of the Lord of the -"the whole armour of God"-are supplied
Hill; and here his generation, his deeds, his from this store-house. And there is no stint
followers- all are duly registered. Here also or sparing of the supply; yea, though the host
Share the narratives of the bold, brave heroes of should be as the stars of heaven for multi-
-, his army, the mighty warriors of the King, tude, there is enough for each, and enough
'lj who have left their names emblazoned on the for all, and yet to spare. Out of these sup-
Book of Life, and their deeds engraven as plies was CHRISTIAN himself armed and
with an iron pen upon the rock for ever. equipped ere he departed from the Palace on
This is the place for the "students" of Divine his homeward way.
Knowledge. This armoury, moreover, served as a mu-
The armoury.-This was the basis of another scum, or treasury of those ancient implements
r.- day's instruction. Here was the receptacle of the good fight of faith, by which men in

SChiistian sccs /tc Delctcablc Miountain.s. '

this to harness out as many men, for the service of their Lord, as
there be stars in the heaven for multitude.
They also showed him some of the engines with which some of
his servants had done wonderful things. They showed him Moses'
rod; the hammer and nail with which Jael slew Sisera; the pitchers,
trumpets, and lamps too, with which Gideon put to flight the armies
of Midian. Then they showed him the ox's goad wherewith Shamgar
slew six hundred men. They showed him also the jaw-bone with
which Samson did such mighty feats. They showed him moreover
the sling and stone with which David slew Goliath of Gath; and the
sword also with which their Lord will "kill the man of sin," in the day
that he shall rise up to the prey. They showed him besides many
excellent things, with which Christian was much delighted. This
done, they went to their rest again.
Then I saw in my dream that on the morrow he got up to go for-
ward, but they desired him to stay till the next day also ; and then, said
they, we will, if the day be clear, show you the Delectable Mountains;
which, they said, would yet further add to his comfort, because they
were nearer the desired haven than the place where at present he
was. So he consented and stayed. When the morning was up, they
had him to the top of the house, and bid him look south : so he did;
and behold, at a great distance, he saw a most pleasant -a. 33 s. .7.
mountainous country, beautified with woods, vineyards, fruits of all
sorts, flowers also, with springs and fountains, very delectable to
behold. Then he asked the name of the country. They said it was
Immanuel's Land; and it is as common, said they, as this hill is, to and

olden time did fight and win their spiritual attained. Hence may be seen some of the
battles. These relics-not for worship, but great land-marks of the way : from the Palace
for remembrance, were evidences of the might Beautiful the Delectable Mountains may be
of other days, when the strong champions of seen in the distance; and by-and-by, from
the Lord went in and out among their people, those Delectable Mountains will the Pilgrim
and were jealous for Jehovah's sovereignty, and see the gates of the Celestial City. Thus it is
avenged his righteous cause against all op- that Faith's wide prospect perpetually expands,
posers. This was just such a treasury of and from successive stand-points more distant
ancient lore and deeds of faith as Paul sup- prospects dawn upon the sight. Faith
' plies in the eleventh chapter of his Epistle to Leads from goal to goal,
the Hebrews-that memorable record of men And opens still, and opens on the soul."
that lived and died in faith. To men of faith is the promise made-" They
hmnanuel's Land.-Who sees with the eye shall behold the land that is very far off'
of faith, sees with a far-seeing eye. Not only (Isa. xxxiii. 17). That land is pleasant; even
i within the chambers of the Palace, but also in the distant prospect presenting its vinie-
fi from the outer heights are prospects and per- yards and its woodlands, its fountains and
spectives of far-off scenes, and stages yet to be rivers of waters. At this prospect the Pilgrim's
.. .75

T/ch P:'.' ,' -.'s Progicss.

for all the pilgrims. And when thou comest there from thence, said
They, thou mayest see to the gate of the Celestial City, as the shep-
herds that live there will make appear.
Now he bethought himself of setting forward, and they were willing
he should. But first, said they, let us go again into the armoury. So
they did; and when he came there, they harnessed him from head to
foot with what was of proof, lest perhaps he should meet with assaults
in the way. He being therefore thus accoutred, walked out with his
friends to the gate, and there he asked the Porter if he saw any pil-
grims pass by? Then the Porter answered, Yes.
CiIj. Pray did you know him ?
POR. I asked his name, and he told me it was Faithful.
Oh, said Christian, I know him: he is my townsman, my near
neighbour : he comes from the place where I was born. How far do
you think he may be before ?
PoiR. He has got by this time below the hill.
Well, said Christian, good Porter, the Lord be with thee, and add
to all thy blessings much increase, for the kindness that thou hast
showed to me.
Then he began to go forward; but Discretion, Piety, Charity, and
Prudence would accompany him down to the foot of the hill. So they
went on together, reiterating their former discourses, till they came to
go down the hill. Then said Christian, As it was d27ficull coming
up, so, so far as I can see, it is dange,,rous going down. Yes, said

S/:dI is quickened, and he desires to depart, (Eph. vi. 14--i8). Thus equipped, the Pilgrim
(that he may the sooner gain that goodly out- is about to be committed to the onward stages
post of the City. lBut the journey lies through of his journey.
bittle-liclds; and through many a hard- To some purpose, indeed, was this sojourn
Sight ilght is the issue to be attained. in the Palace Ieautiful. In very weakness he
1/t' 7itarn/'sse. d hiim.--Till now, the Robie entered its portals; but now lie is refreshed,
.received at the Cross is the raiment of the comforted, instructed, edified, enlightened,
Pilgrim, and this continues to be his clothing. armed, and strengthened. IHaving now tasted
iBut besides this dress, he is accoutred with the blessings of Christian communion, he asks
a suit of armour from the armoury of the the porter at the gate whether any fellow-
1 palace. To what purpose this precaution was pilgrims have passed by ; and he is informed
taken will ere long appear. 11e is now in- that one I'F.\A II'lU' has just passed on before
c\ted with armour becoming a IPilgrim-soldier him. This man has not enjoyed the Christian
of the Cross-the 11i of truth about his intercourse of the Palace, but shall by-and-by
(loins, the breastplate of righteousness, his feet reap the benefits of CIiaiST.\N'S company, as
,hod with the preparation of the gospel of C-r'ltSTIAN, in his turn, shall also enjoy the
peace; besides all these, there arc given to fellowship of FAI''HFr-I.. Iron sharpenecth
him the shield of faith, the helmet of salva- iron ; so a an sharpcneth the countenance
tion, and the sword of the Spirit; and there of his friend" (Proo. xx\ii. i7),
Sis added the weapon of All-prayer to these Tlin lie bei g-an o go forwairn.- Not alone
; 76
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The Pilgrim's Progress.

Prudence, so it is; for it is a hard matter for a man to go down into
the Valley of Humiliation, as thou art now, and to catch no slip by the
way; therefore, said they, we are come out to accompany thee down
the hill. So he began to go down, but very warily, yet he caught a
slip or two.
Then I saw in my dream, that these good companions, when
Christian was gone down to the bottom of the hill, gave him a loaf of
bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of raisins; and then he went on
his way.

How well proportioned to our need is the provision for the way! Our God and Father will not
suffer us to be tempted, tried, or tested beyond that we are able to bear. He superintends the
proportion of trouble and conflict that is laid upon his children, so that they be not surcharged
or over-weighted. He has hitherto mercifully provided for the Pilgrim's welfare; and before
difficulties arise, God has bestowed upon him strength, in anticipation of his need.
So is it now, at this stage of the journey. We have just seen the Pilgrim provided with
weapons in the armoury of the Palace Beautiful; and as a mailed warrior he has departed
from that resting-place, which he had entered as a benighted traveller. We now begin to
trace in the sequel the object and design of that strengthening counsel and refreshing com-
munion of which he has been a partaker, while enjoying the privileged company of the
Christian virtues that dwelt in that fair H-ouse. Forth from the Armoury, and in full
equipment, he is conducted by the fair sisterhood of the Palace down the hill-to the low-
lying Valley of Humiliation.
Diverse are the experiences of pilgrims, even in the self-same stage of the pilgrimage. To
CIHRISTIAN the descent was dangerous;" and the Valley (when he got there) became the
battle-field of one of the fiercest encounters that fell to his lot in the course of his journey.
Yet this Valley is not thus perilous to all pilgrims. In the Second Part of the Progress it is
described as a fruitful place"-" the best and most fruitful piece of ground in all these parts."
It consists of neadow-land and green valleys, "beautiful with lilies ;" filled with sheep, and
resounding with the pastoral songs of the shepherds ; and its chiefest glory is, that it was the
chosen dwelling-place of Jesus, the Lord of all.
But to our Pilgrim it was a place of sore conflict. It appears, from the light of interpreta-
tion thrown upon it in CHRISTIANA'S pilgrimage, that CHRISTIAN had wandered into a
dangerous part of the valley, called Forgetful Green ; and that it was here he was exposed to
the assault of the great foe, APOLLYON. As a general rule, these hard experiences from without

does he depart ; for the fair sisters bear him that steep declivity Flesh and blood resist
company to the foot of the hill. The things the effort; but, assisted and accompanied by
that accompany salvation" form the escort of Divine virtues and graces, this may be ac-
the Christian in all difficult places. Accord- complished, at least with safety.
ingly, as the Pilgrim has been enabled to Ths to te vale they all descend
Thus to the vale they all descend,
climb the hill Difficulty at the one side, so he whither the Pilgrim's footsteps tend-
is assisted in his descent into the low-lying A lonely dell.
valley at the other side-the Valley of Humilia- They give him of their goodly store,
., As emblems of the love they bore ;
Stion. Oh, how hard it is to walk safely down And then-Farewell I

answer to some weakness from within. But if We be forgetful of God, our God and Father
is not forgetful of us. Hence tile timely provision of armour-the panoply of God, tle weapons
of the warfare, bright and burnished ; and ere long they will be needed.
Descending to the vale below, Unsheath thy glistening, trusty sword ;
There's trouble on the way. Thy spear bling forth with might.
Christian prepare thy ready bow, Pilgrim he valiant for thy Lord,
And strength for this thy day And d G defend the light "

UT now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian
was hard put to it; for he had gone but a little way,
Before he espied a foul fiend coming over the field to
meet him : his name is Apollyon. Then Rev. 9. 1.
did Christian begin to be afraid, and to cast in his
S mind whether to go back or to stand his ground. But
he considered again that he had no armour for his back, and therefore
thought that to turn the back to him might give him greater advan-
tage, with ease to pierce him with his darts: therefore he resolved to
venture, and stand his ground : for, thought he, had I no more in mine
eye than the saving of my life, it would be the best way to stand.
So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now the monster was
hideous to behold: he was clothed with scales like a fish (and they
are his pride) ; he had wings like a dragon, feet like a bear, and
out of his belly came fire and smoke, and his mouth was as the
mouth of a lion. When he was come up to Christian, he beheld him
with a disdainful countenance, and thus began to question with him.

7- of Humiliation.-From the height familiar with this humble and lowly portion
of Christian privilege a descending path and of the Pilgrim's lot.
a darkening prospect now lie before the Pil- A foul fiend-Afollyo. "And they had
grim. He that had gone /up the hill, must a king over them, which is the angel of the
now go down at the other side-down to the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew
valley, the Valley of Humility; lower down tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue
to the Valley of Humiliation; lower still hath his name Apollyon."-Rev. ix. II. Here,
to the Valley of the Shadow of Death, then, the Allegory means to depict a conflict
Very timely, and in anticipation of his direst with the powers of hell, with Satan himself.
need, has been the provision and refresh- It is one of those fierce assaults of the devil
ment of the Palace Beautiful, and the con- with which he seeks to recover his lost prey,
versation of its inhabitants. Now, through and if not this, to destroy them. The name
scenes of danger and of darkness, CHRIS- APOLLYON means The destroyer."
,ITIAN is appointed to pursue his onward The description of this monster is conveyed
', journey. in a sentence that gathers into itself the ac-
The Valley of Humiliation is a deep, low- cumulation of all those characteristics of Satan
lying vale. The descent to it is both difficult that are most hideous and horrible, deadly and
Sand dangerous ; but to dwell there is profitable dangerous. The scaly leprosy of the old ser-
Sto the spirit of pilgrims. It tends to the forma- pent covers APOLLYON as with a coat of mail.
tion of, at least, one part of the Christ-like Hehad "wings like a dragon," to indicate the
Character, for Jesus- had his dwelling there ; rapidity of his flight, and the ravages of his
and he who would be like to Christ, must be march ; "feet like a bear," for softness of
N 79

771c Pilgrjim's Progress.

AroL. Whence came you ? and whither are you bound ?
S CIm. I am come from the City of Destruction, which is the place
of all evil, and am going to the City of Zion.
Apo,. By this I perceive thou art one of my subjects; for all that
2 cor. 4. country is mine, and I am the prince and god of it. How
is it then that thou hast run away from thy king ? Were it not that
I hope thou mayest do me more service, I would strike thee now
at one blow to the ground.
CI-R. I was born indeed in your dominions, but your service was
hard, and your wages such as a man could not live on; for the
Rom. 6. 23. wages of sin is death :" therefore when I was come to
years I did, as other considerate persons do, look out if perhaps I
might mend myself.
APOL. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose his subjects,
neither will I as yet lose thee : but since thou complainest of thy
service and wages, be content to go back; what our country will
afford, I do here promise to give thee.
CHR. But I have let myself to another, even to the King of
princes; and how can I with fairness go back with thee ?
APOL. Thou hast done in this according to the proverb, changed a
bad for a, worse: but it is ordinary for those that have professed

tread, and strength and power to injure; fire spiritual as in the carnal conflict-retreat is
and smoke" came forth from his nostrils, re- danger ; and to flee from the fight is the
presenting the inner fire that burns within the surest way to an ignominious defeat. This
breast of the fallen angel, and his very breath thought aids the Pilgrim, now standing in
tells of the fiery realm he rules, and the fiery the path, to receive the first shock of the foul
wrath he wields ; his mouth as the mouth of fiend APOLLYON.
a lion," the rampant, raging, roaring lion, Began to question with him.-Not first with
seeking whom he may devour, a battle-shock, but with tempting questions.
1No armour for htis back. In the enumera- Thus did Satan with our first parents. By
tion of the Christian armour in the armoury cunning conversation he gained their ear, and
(Eph. vi. 14-18), there is no mention of any thence probed deeper, to the heart ; and at
protection for the back of the Christian warrior, last he won them by fair speeches and well-
The ancient Romans, and, indeed, all warlike placed words of glozing courtesy." Thus did
nations, made no provision for the backs of he also with our Lord himself. He began not
their soldiers ; for they said that the soldier with the striving unto blood, as in the agony,
who turned his back to the foe deserved but with cunning questions and with insidious
no armour to protect him. The duty of a arguments did he tempt the Lord. And even
soldier is always to present a full front to the so he begins with us. He forbears to fight,
enemy ; and therefore is he provided with if he can gain the conc::est of a soul on lighter
breastplate and helmet, with sword and shield terms.
S-armour offensive and defensive; but "no The commencemec. t of APOLLYON'S on-
armour for his back." The duty of the Christian slaught upon CHRISTIAN is made in the form
soldier is to stand and to withstand. This of a question, "Whence came you?" and by
is the way to "resist the devil." It is in the the answer to this inquiry he is emboldened
T'lQ^ W
--\[ -_-_ ,.,,0 __ ,.--J i

( -


themselves his servants, after a while to give him the slip, and return
again to me. Do thou so too, and all shall be well.
CHR. I have given him my faith, and sworn my allegiance to him :
how then can I go back from this and not be hanged as a traitor ?
APOL. Thou didst the same to me, and yet I am willing to pass by
all, if now thou wilt yet turn again and go back.
CHR. What I promised thee was in my nonage: and besides, I
count that the Prince under whose banner now I stand is able to
absolve me; yea, and to pardon also what I did as to my compliance
with thee : and, besides, 0 thou destroying Apollyon, to speak truth,
I like his service, his wages, his servants, his government, his
company, and country, better than thine; and therefore leave off to
Persuade me further: I am his servant, and I will follow him.

J like to meet with in the way that thou goest. Thou knowest that,
for the most part, his servants come to an ill end, because they


iThe Pilgri's Progress.

are transgressors against me and my ways. How many of them
have been put to shameful deaths ?-And besides, thou contest his
service better than mine, whereas he never came yet from the place
where he is, to deliver any that served him out of my hands : but, as
for me, how many times, as all the world very well knows, have I
delivered, either by power or fraud, those that have faithfully served
me, from him and his, though taken by them : and so I will deliver
CHR. His forbearing at present to deliver them is on purpose to try
their love, whether they will cleave to him to the end: and as for the
ill end thou sayest they come to, that is most glorious in their account:
for, for present deliverance, they do not much expect it; for they
stay for their glory, and then they shall have it, when their Prince
comes in his and the glory of the angels.
APOL. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service to him;
and how dost thou think to receive wages of him ?
CIIR. Wherein, O Apollyon, have I been unfaithful to him ?
APOL. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou wast almost
choked in the gulf of Despond : thou didst attempt wrong ways to be
rid of thy burden, whereas thou shouldest have stayed till thy Prince
had taken it off: thou didst sinfully sleep, and lose thy choice thing:
thou wast also almost persuaded to go back at the sight of the lions:
and, when thou talkest of thy journey, and of what thou hast heard
and seen, thou art inwardly desirous of vain glory in all that thou
sayest or doest.
CIIR. All this is true, and much more which thou hast left out : but
the Prince, whom I serve and honour, is merciful and ready to forgive.
But, besides, these infirmities possessed me in thy country : for there
I sucked them in, and I have groaned under them, being sorry for
them, and have obtained pardon of my Prince.
Then Apollyon broke out into a grievous rage, saying, I am an

to lay a legal claim to the allegiance of the root of sin, that he ascribes to Satan, seeing it
Pilgrim. The City of Destruction is Satan's was implanted during the time of the bond-
city, and he is its Prince ; and accordingly service.
he claims the Pilgrim as one of his subjects. At this complete overthrow of his successive
Thou hasi already been unfaitlfiul.---Here is temptations, APOLLYON is wrathful; CHRIS-
Satan set forth in his true colours-as the TIAN is resolute.
Accuser of the brethren." He tempts us to The description of this battle of the warrior
sin, that he may himself accuse us. But the with the powers of darkness has ever been
Pilgrim answers him again, quoting the power considered as a master-piece of a master-
.. and love of God in Christ. And as for the mind. For vigour and spirit of detail, reveal- '.

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