ICARI-.USA ID SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
RESEARCH PROJECT, (538-0015)
final41 report 1978, =,82
CARDI, Unimesity Cwnpus, St. Aupstine, Tulnidad, W1. Jily, 1993.
CARDI is a regional organization serving twelve Member -States of the Caribbean Community. It provides for the research and development needs of the agricultural sector in the region as identified in national plans and policies.
This is an output of the CARDI/USAID Project 538-0015.
CARIBBEAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (CARDI)
USAID/CARDI SMALL FARM MULTIPLE CROPPING
SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROJECT #538-0015
August 1978 November 1982
The CARDI/USAID Small Farms Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project (538-0015) was a four year project beginning September 1, 1978 and ending November 30, 1982. This document represents the final report of the project. It is presented in four volumes:Volume I Introduction, highlights and list of
Volume II Summary of Baseline Surveys of 8
proj ect countries.
Volume III Farm Characterisation profiles and
Volume IV Constraints identified, Back-up research,
on-farm tests, Interventions, Training activities and Bibliography.
The Baseline Surveys give an agro-socio-economic overview of small farming in the project countries. Sub-samples of farmers in each country were used for case studies. Because of the complexity of the systems in the Caribbean the number of case studies is large. A series of specialised surveys has been conducted to sugment or supplement the information necessary to identify the major constraints country-wise and systems-wise. Back up research and on farm tests have been conducted in all countries and interventions tested and validated on farmers fields. This phase of testing and validation is ongoing at present.
The training activities of the project were targeted to up-grade staff of the Institute, the Ministries of Agriculture and other research and/or development bodies.
Various reports and publications have been generated within the project. In addition, relevant literature was collected and circulated. The bibliography gives details of all publications. These publications are available under separate cover.
It is hoped that this report would prove valuable to Planners, researchers and other related groups/agencies.
CALIXIE GEORGE MSc
SANSUNDAR PARASRAM Ph..D
Director, Research and Development.
1. Introduction, and Objectives
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
1.1 The Grant Agreement for the CARDI/USAID "Small Farm
Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project" (538-0015) was signed
on August-31, 1978. The Project was of four years duration, but
was extended to November 1978. It comprised "an agricultural
research programme to improve small holder farming systems in the
member countries served by CARDI, through the development of
management and productionrecommendations for dissemination to
small farmers by extension agents and (for) financing by local credit
institutions.... "The project will permit CARDI to engage in a sustained
and integrated effort to determine the characteristics and prevailing
conditions of small farm systems in order to adapt innovations in farming techniques to meet the specific needs of small farmers in
CARDI member countries" The central features of the project are the
emphasis on analysis of the farmers' current systems and on farm-based
1.2 The major funding agency was the Agency for International
Development of the United States of America (USAID), the European Development Fund (EDF) provided CARDI with vehicles in the project
countries and both heavy and light equipment for Field Station facilities.
The Government's of the participating countries each assigned a paid
full-time agricultural officer as a counterpart to the Project's
Country Team. CARDI made available 60 PPY's of professional support
from its Core Staff, and provided sub-professional and administrative support for the project. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between CARDI and the governments as a necessary pre-requisite to start-up of
1.3 The project covered, initially, six islands in the Eastern
Caribbean Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat and
Antigua. Later, St. Kitts/Nevis was included. ThisIs a political
unit comprising two islands, and because of the differences in their agriculture, were treated separately.
The target groups were farmers with holdings of 1-5 acres,
except in St. Lucia where (at Government's request) the upper limit was increased to 15 acres.
1.4 Initially, 120 farmers from the target group in each island were interviewed in an agro-socio-economic Baseline Survey. Subsequently at least 25 farmers in each island were selected for detailed "characterisation" over a period of a year by weekly visits. The purpose of this was to develop an understanding of their farming
-systems and to identify the major constraints to production and productivity. Existing improved technologies would be used to remove these constraints, and improved technologies would be developed where appropriate. These technologies would be tested and validated on-farm prior to any wider recommendations to farmers.
1.5 The ultimate goal of the project is to increase the value of agricultural production in the less developed countries (LDCts) of the Eastern Caribbean, through the improvement of small farm profitability and productivity and to improve farm-family nutrition and generate employment. Accomplishment of this goal will require actions beyond the immediate scope of this project. Research results will have to be validated and disseminated via the extension services, credit programmes adjusted or developed, marketing channels improved or developed and so on. Farmers will have to modify their current systems and take decisions on the apportionment of their resources, in conformity with their needs and aspirations. It is recognised therefore that the projects cannot accomplish all these objectives within the time span of the project, and that linkages to other projects, services and institutions will be essentially.
The data from the Baseline Surveys ahd from the characterisation is an important body of information that should prove useful to other institutions and agencies, particularly those concerned with planning.
1.6 "The expected outputs of this activity include:
(a) The establishment of cooperative Country/CARDI small
farmer systems research programmes in six countries.
(b) The better understanding of smallholder farming systems,
resources and objectives through the creation of a socio-economic information base, obtained through
surveys and on-farm research.
(c) The design of at least 12 significantly improved small
holder farming systems based on the integration of crop and livestock-specific proven technology with empirically based economic analysis that take into
account profitability, cash flow, nutritional contribution and labour utilisation characteristics.
(d) The transmittal of smallholder characteristics and
improved farming systems recommendations to extension
officers, credit officers, planners, and other
agricultural officials through publications, presentations and field day activities"
The development of recommendations for improved cropping systems based on farm-based research and validation, is a major objective of the project. These must be capable of adoption by farmers, and of integration into their farming systems in conformity with farmers' objectives. They must also be capable of extension to a wider farming community. Thus it is recognised, that the
desirability of an improved system or practice is not determined by maximisation of yield or of production, but by its optimisation of farmer resource and overall farm income.
1.7 The Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) is an autonomous Regional Organisation serving twelve (12) member states of the Caribbean Community. It provides for the research and development needs of the agricultural sector in the region as identified in national plans and policies.
The objectives of the institute are given in Article 3 of the Agreement establishing CARDI and is reproduced here.
OBJECTS OF. ThE INSTITUTE
1. The objects of the Institute shall be:
(a) to provide for the research and development needs of
the agriculture of the Region as identified in
national plans and policies;
(b) to provide an appropriate research and development
service to the agricultural sector of Member States;
(c) to provide and extend the application of new
technologies in production, processing, storage and
distribution of agricultural products of Member
(d) to pursue for specified periods long-term research
in pertinant areas;
(e) to provide for the co-ordination and integration of
the research and development efforts of Member States
where this is possible and desirable;
(f) to undertake teaching functions normally at the postgraduate level, limited to the development of the
relevant research by any Member State;
(g) to seek to achieve the optimum decentralisation of
2. For the purpose of this Article the Institute may take such
action as may be necessary or expedient for the attainment of its objects and the performance of its functions.
1.8 This CARDI/USAID Project was extremely relevant to CARDI's objectives and development.
National plans and policies of the respective Government have taken increasing cognizance of the importance of the small farmer and of their potential. Some three-quarters of farm holdings in the Eastern Caribbean fall in the 1-5 acre size group.
The requirement for project staff in all the Eastern
Caribbean countries within the project, i ncreased CARDI physical presence within the Region and contributed to decentralisation. Some core staff have been stationed in these countries.
The generation of data from the Baseline Surveys and from the characterisation, provides a factual basis for Governments and other agencies in planning development programmes.
The objectives of improved farmer resource utilisation, improved nutrition, increased incomes and employment conforms with a major goal of all governments.
The training component of the project has contributed substantially to the capability of CARDI and of Ministries of Agriculture to undertake Farming Systems Research and Development activities.
1-2.1 The main outputs of the CARDI/USAID Project 538-0015 are:(a) The establishment of eight (8) FSR country teams in the
Eastern Caribbean leading to the formation of a country
network of experienced staff that can generate appropriate
technology, provide a flow of information and activity
to the target group. They can serve also as a mechanism
to transfer and adapt the technology generated.
(b) A sound infrastructure for development has emerged.
(c) The national agricultural bodies have accepted the project
methodology as relevant to their agricultural development.
(d) The projects goals and objectives are relevant to the goals
and objectives of the national governments and of the
Institute and as such relevant to their national development.
(e) Promising research results have been achieved with major
cropping systems both on station and on farm. Many of these
have led to improvement in farmers systems.
(f) Several promising systems are ready for further testing and
validation. CARDI has completed the testing of 17 systems
on 66 farms.
(g) 2,156 person days of training have been provided to agricultural
staff in the region and 20 Professionals of CARDI have benefitted
from observation/orientation visits to research centres and
(h) CARDI has been able to establish formal linkages with the
Asian Vegetable Research and.Development Centre (AVRDC),
the Centro Agronomo Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza
(CATIE), the Interamerican Institute for Cooperation in
Agriculture (IICA), the Windwards Islands Banana Research and Development Centre (WINBAN) in respect of cooperation
in agricultural research and development. Informal linkages
exist with several other Institutions including members
of the CGIAR group.
(i) The project has generated 90 publications on different
aspect of farming systems. Twenty-eight (28) relevant
reports/reprints have been circulated. A total of 17,700
copies have been sent to CARDI personnel, Ministries of
Agriculture, funding agencies and other interested persons
(j) Reconnaissance and baseline surveys of 960 farmers in 8
countries were undertaken. In addition, a total of 160
case studies have been concluded. Based on these experiences
CARDI with the assistance of UWI and the Bureau of Census
(BUCEN) has now developed and tested successfully a package
for data collection and analysis for small farm systems.
The activities have led to a better understanding of the
Agro-socio-economic conditions of the small farmer as well
as the on farm and extra farm "environment".
(k) CARDI contracted out763 man days of consultancy in support
of its Farming systems programme.
(1) Many of the project reports and recommendations have already
been used in the countries in project development and for
planning purposes. Some of the consultancy reports are being
used for teaching purposes at the University of the West
Indies (Department of Soils) and other Institutions. Primary
teck-packs are in use by the same farmers and farmers
groups in the region.
(in) Major constraints to improvement have been identified for
the various systems in all participating countries.
(n) In St. Vincent, an improved teck-pack for peanut production
was developed. Yields on farmers' holdings per acre averaged
2000 lbs. The best yield under farmer conditions using this new package has been 3,350 lb. Prior to use of this package
the average yield on farmers' plot was 800 lbs per acre.
This package was developed in 1978/79. Subsequently this
package has undergone refinement through a peanut commodity development project funded by the European Development Fund.
(o) (i) In Antigua 2 insecticidal application of Decis gave
effective control of Heliothis sp. on dwarf pigeon peas
varieties PQ 240 and IGPL 151. The increase in dry grain
yields were 140% and 180%.
(ii) In Antigua, mulching in the dry season with guinea
grass increased the yields of egg plant, cabbages, squash and sweet pepper, and lowered the cost of production since
no weeding was required: Mulched egg plant received no
weeding (2 in unmulched), there was a 250% increase in number
of fruits and a 375% increase in yield/acre.
In squash, the number of fruits increased by 400% and 1600%
increase in yield/acre.
In cabbages, there was a 200% increase in yields/acre.
These large increases in no. of fruits, and total yields are
as a result of almost total crop losses in unmulched fields
and good crop growth and production in mulched fields.
(p) (i) In St. Kitts/Nevis, application of fertilizer to cotton,
increased the yield by 43%.
(ii) In Nevis, intercropping cotton with single row peanut,
double row peanut, maize and cowpea increased the base income
of EC$1998 (pure cotton) by 55%, 41%, 25% and 15% respectively.
The income from the intercrops improved the farm cash flow as it was available after 3-4 months of planting. It also
lessened the demands on his labour as weed control was
(q) (i) In St. Lucia, introduction of improved "pathogen-free LpAtA
planting material" into the farmers'system resulted in a 100%
increase both in Net yield and gross revenue. This improved
system gave a rate of return of 332%.
(ii) In St. Lucia, introduction of food legumes into the
farmers' system provided him and his family with home-grown
legumes (protein) that is capable of meeting his protein
needs on a year round basis.
(r) In Grenada, a teck-pack for commercial egg plant production
was tested which yielded under farmers' condition 22,896 ibs/ acre of which 17,909 lbs were marketable. Where all elements
of the package were not utilised yields fell to 12,000 lbs/acre.
Farmers are now using this package to produce for the export market. The production target is 10,000 lbs weekly with the
majority of the crop being exported.
(s) With some project funds CARDI's Integrated pest management
system has released parasites and predators against the major
pests in all countries.
Dr. Samsundar Parasram, B.Sc. ,M.Sc. (Delhi) Project Co-ordinator
Ph.D. (IARI) Entomologist (up to August, 1981)
Dr. Ralph Phelps, B.Sc.A, M.S.A. : Dep. Project Co-ordinator
(British Columbia) Ph.D. (Wisconsin) (up to August 1981)
Mr. Calixte George, B.So. (Agri.) Project Leader
(Lond.-UWI), M.Agr.Sc. (R'dg) (from September 1981)
Mrsa Patricia Prosser Adinistrative Assistant
TFXTICAL CD- ORDINATION
Dr. Lamman Singh, B.Sc., M.Sc. Technical Co-ordinator
Ph.D. (Illinois), Systems Agronomist (Leeward Islands)
(from September 1981)
Dr. John Hammerton, 'B.Sc.Agri. (R'dg) Technical Co-ordinator
Ph.D. (Wales) Weed Scientist (Windward Islands)
from September, 1981
Mr. Noel Kirton, B.Sc. Agri. M.Sc. Agri. Technical Co-ordinator
(McGill) Agronomist (Windward Isande)
(from May 1982)
COUNTRY FIELD TE JT3
Dr. Care Walter, D.I.C.T.A., M. Sc. (UWI) : Country Team Leader, Ph.D. (Adelaide) Agronomist Sept. 1979 Dec, 1981
Mr. Lennox Daisley, B.Sc. (Agri.) : Country Team Leader
UWT) Agronomist (from November 1981)
Mr. Vincent Barclay, B.So.(Agri.), Technical Officer
(UWI) Agronomist (June 1980 July 1980)
Mr. Leo Nicholas, B. Sc.(Agri.) (UWI) : Technical Officer
Agronomist (from November 1980)
Mr. Daryl Roberts Technical Officer
(October 1980 September 1982)
Mr. Vincent Belle, Dip. Agri. (ECIAF) Technical Officer
Dr. Laxman Singh, B.Sc., Agri. M. Sc.. Country Team Leader
Ph.D. (IZZllinois) Systems Agronomist (November 1980 March 1982)
Ms Jennifer Lowery, B. Sco., M.Sc.(UWI) Country Team Leader
Agronomist (from April 1982)
Mr. Austin Farrier,' Dip. Agri. (ECIAF) Technical Officer
(from October 1980)
Mr. Charles Williams:, Dip. Agri. (J.S.A.) Technical Officer (Government Counterpart)
Ms. Jennifer Lowery, B. Sc., M. Sc. (UWI) Country Team Leader Agronomist
Mr. Samuel Powell, Dip. Agri. (ECIAF) : Technical Officer
Part-time July, 1980-January 1981. Full-time Feb. 1981-November 1982
Mr. kelvin Swanston Technical Officer'
Part-time April 1980-Nov. 1982
Mr. Paul Flenaning Field Assistant
August 1981 April 1982 on
training course until Dec. 1982
Ms Cecelia Smithen Field Assistant
February 1982 April 1982 and
September-November 1982 (On
training course April-September
Ms. Evelyn Bartlett Secretary (Part-time)
February 1982 November 1982
SMr. Jasmeed Adam., B.Sc. (UWI) : Country Team Leader
Agronomist (June 1979 March 1982)
Mr. Claude Gerald, B.Sc. Agric.(McGill) Country Team Leader
Animal Scientist (August 1979 October 1982)
Mr. Marcus Pitter, B.Sc., M.Sc., Agric. Technical Officer
(UWI) Agronomist (September 1980 March 1982)
Mr. Eustace Farrel, Dip. Agric. (ECIAF) Technical Officer
(November 1979 December 1981)
Mr. Leo Nicholas, B.Sc.Agric. (U)P: Country Team Leader
Agronomist (March 1979 October 1980)
Mr. Herman Adams-, B.Sc., M.Sc., :Country Team Leader
(Yugoslavia) (from November 1980)
Mr. Gregory Robin, B.Sc. Biochemist Technical Officer
(from June 1981)
Ms. Ismanie Royer, B.Sc. Agric. Technical Officer
Agronomist (December 1980 April 1982)
Mr. Earle George Technical Officer
(from January 1981)
Mr. Kidd Thomas Field Assistant
(April 1982 -June 1982)
Mr. Kerwin Ferreira Technical Officer
(June 1979 November 1980)
Mr. Calixte George B.Sc., (Lond.-UWI) Country Team Leader
A. Agri.Sc. (R~'dg) Agronomist (February 1979 August 1981)
Mr. Ronald Pilgrim, B.Sc. (UWI) Country Team Leader
Agronomist (from September 1981)
(from June 1979 August 1981)
Mr. Arthur James, Dip. Agric. (Florida Technical Officer
A & M University) D.M.S. (Eng.) (from October 1979)
Mr. Burnst Sealy, Dip. Agric. (J.S.A.) Technical -Officer
(from July 1979)
Mr. Gregory Avriz, Dip. Agric. (Union) Technical Officer
from October 1981)
Mr. Noel Kirton, B.Sc.., Agric., M.Sc. Country Team Leader
(McGill) Agronomist (from July 1979)
Mr. Glenroy Browne- B.Sc., Agric. (UWI) Technical Officer
Agronomist (from October 1980)
Mr. Clairmont Cordice Technical Officer
(from July 1979)
Mr. Norbert Ferris Technical Officer
(from July 1979 August 1980)
A sr. Kenneth Buckmire, B.Sc. (Lond) Country Team Leader
M.I. Biol. Entomologist (from July 1979)
Mr. Reynold Benjamin, Dip. Agric. (ECIAF) : Technical Officer Dip. Mass Comm. (UWI) (from November 1979
Mr. Sherma Weekes, B.Sc. Agric. (UWI) : Technical Officer (from September 1981)
Mr. David Rennie Technical Officer
(from May 1980 March 1981)
Mr. Golden Julien Technical Officer
(from November 1979 May 1981)
Mr. Frank Robertson Technical Officer
(from October 1981 -January 1982)
Mr. Ashraf Ali, B.Sc.(Agric.) UWI Agricultural Economist
M.Sc. (from March 1979 October 1981)
Mr. Richard Carew, B.Sc., M.Sc., Agricultural Economist
(Alberta) (from September 1981)
Mr. Ghiasudeen Mohammed, B.Sc. : Agricultural Economist
M.Sc., Agric. (UWI)
Dr. Vasantha Narendran, B.Soc. Sc. : Economic Anthropologist
(Malaya) M.Soc. Sc.(Malaya), (from October 1980)
M.A. (Cornell) Ph.D. (Cornell)
Ms Glen Barker, B.Sc. : Communications Specialist
(from July 1980 August 1981)
Mr. John Cropper,B.Sc. Agric.. : Agricultural Economist
M.Sc.,Agric. (UWI) (from November 1978 March 1980)
Ms JoAnn Bergasse : Information Specialist
(from December 1978 March 1980) Ms Joan Sanchez, B.Sc. (UWI) : Data Manager
(from January 1982)
Dr. W.L. Small Ph.D. (Guelph) Biological Scientist
(from August 1979 April 1981)
Mr. Roger Francis, B.Sc. Agrico. : Data Monitor
MsGilt (from January 1982)
Mr. Krishendath Maharaj, B.Sc., : Systems Analyst
Econ. M.Sc. (from November 1981)
Mr. Jim Morris B. Sc. (WI) : Analytical Chemist
Mr. Frank Soode : Research Assistant
Mr. Stephen Nathaniel Research Assistant
Mr. Anthony Goberdhan : Research Assistant
Ms. Savitri Ramcharitar : Research Assistant
Ms Electra Alexis Secretary
Prof. Bert Krantz, Emeritus Professor,: Agronomy Soil Science, University of California Davis, U.S.A.
MrW Julio Chang, Research Associate Data Management
University of Florida
Dr. Keith Archibald, Animal Scientist.: Animal Production Systems Dept. of Livestock Science, UWI
Prof. Nazeer Ahmad, Prof.of Soil Soil Survey
Science, Faculty of Agriculture, UWI
Morrilton: Arkansas, USA : Animal Production Systems
Dr., Theodore Ferguson, Senior Lecturer: Root Crop Agronomy Dept. of Crop Science, UWI
Graham Taylor, Computer Specialist, : Data Analysis Computer Centre., UWI
Dr. Rangit Singhk Lecturer, Dept. of Animal Production Systems Agricultural Economics & Farm
Mana gment, UWI
Mr. H. Percy,Agricultural Engineer Agricultural Egineering
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands &
Dr. Virgilio Carangal : Vegetable Crops
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
Dr. Pascal Osuji, Animal Scientist : Animal Production Systems CARDI, St. Augustine, Trinidad
Raul Moreno, Plant Pathologist : Farming Systems
CATIE_', Turrialba, Costa Rica
Luis Navarro, Economist : Farming Systems
CATE, Turrialba, Costa Rica
Jeff Rosen : Systems Analysis
US Dept. of Commerce Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC USA
Carol Weber Data Gathering and Management
US Dept. of Commerce Data Gathering and Management
International Statistical Programmes Centre
Bureau of the Census, Washington DC., USA
Miguel Cuevas : Data Gathering and Management
US Dept. of Commerce International Statistical Programmes Centre Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC, USA