Development process for improving irrigation water management on farms

Material Information

Development process for improving irrigation water management on farms
Series Title:
Water management technical report
Skogerboe, Gaylord V.
Lowdermilk, Max K.
Sparling, Edward W.
Hautaluoma, Jacob E
Colorado State University -- Water Management Research Project.
Place of Publication:
Fort Collins Colo
Water Management Research Project, Engineering Research Center, Colorado State University
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Water resources development -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Irrigation -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
"Prepared under support of United States Agency for International Development, Contract AID/ta-C-1411."
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Gaylord V. Skogerboe ... [et al.].

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University of Florida
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Full Text

-lopment Process for Improving Irrigation Water Management on Farms


Prepared by
Water Management Research Project Staff
Water Management
Technical Report No. 65D


Development Process for Improving

Irrigation Water Management on Farms



Prepared under support of
United States Agency for International Development
Contract AID/ta-C-1411
All reported opinions, conclusions or
recommendations are those of the
authors and not those of the funding
agency or the United States Government.

Prepared by

Jacob E. Hautaluoma
David M. Freeman
W. Doral Kemper
James J. Layton
Max K. Lowdermilk
George E. Radosevich
Gaylord V. Skogerboe
Edward W. Sparling
William G. Stewart

Water Management Research Project
Engineering Research Center
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado

May 1980


Development Process for Improving

Irrigation Water Management on Farms



The third and final phase of the development process for
improving irrigation water management on farms is called Project
Implementation. This final phase consists of three subphases:
(a) Project Authorization; (b) Project Organization; and (c) Project
Operation. This manual describes the process of selecting which of
several solutions will be developed into a proposal for funding. The
basic points about writing and negotiating a proposal are discussed.
After authorization of the project, the next steps are designing the
project's organization, and selecting and training the field staff. The
benefits and means of achieving teamwork are emphasized. The project
manager must prepare to accomplish the project's goals, and to establish
linkages with organizations that will be affected by the project. This
manual stresses the necessity of setting goals, and correcting the
progress of the project through monitoring, evaluation, and refinement.
To ensure that the improved on-farm practices will persist after the
project finishes, the institutionalization of the project into the normal
activities of the farmers' organization and the government extension
service is discussed.







Abstract . 5
Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . 8
Objectives. .10
Procedures 11
Evaluation . .14
Dissemination .15
Facilities and Equipment . .17
Personnel and Training . 17
Budget . .18




Differences Between the Project Organization
and Other Organizations 24
Temporary Staff within an Agency . 25
Permanent Staff within an Agency . . . 27
Staff from Several Agencies or the
"Matrix" Design 27
Staff as Contract Personnel 28






Participative Management . . . . 46
Communication and Feedback . . .49
Conflict Resolution. 54
Managing Through Goals and Monitoring. 59
Managing Cross-Cultural Issues. 62






Need for Training 66
Concepts of Training 68
Organization of Water Management
Advisory Service .70




Assessing Farmer Motivation to Participate .81
Motivating Farmer Participation . . . 83
Farmer Training Programs 84


Role of Irrigation Associations . 86
Guidelines to Formation . . . 87
Registration Requirements .94
Hierarchy of Associations . . . 94

ORGANIZATIONS. . . . . . . 96









Figure Page

1 Flow diagram for the Project Implementation phase . 2

2 Flow diagram of activities in the Project Authorization
subphase 4

3 Flow diagram of activities in the Project Organization
subsystem .23

4 Example of project organization chart 31

5 Example of PERT network diagram for some simplified
project implementation activities. . 41

6 Linkages with Water Management Advisory Service . 73

7 Flow diagram of activities in the Project Operation
subphase 76

8 Linkages between organization and project support
activities for an on-farm water management
development project. . 97




Table Page

1 Characteristics of a good proposal. . 6

2 Components of a proposal. . 7

3 Qualifications for effective project leaders .33

4 Example of simplified project implementation
activities . 40

5 Divisions of authority of water users
associations 91





This manual is the last in a series on the "Development Process for
Improving Irrigation Water Management on Farms." The others are
about: 1) the development process for the improvement of on-farm
water management in irrigated agriculture; 2) the identification of
on-farm water management problems; and 3) the development of
solutions to the problems. The first manual presents an overview of
the three phases in the development process. The Problem
Identification manual described an approach to examining the plant
environment, farm management practices, water supply and removal,
and the institutional infrastructure. The end result of the Problem
Identification process is a description of priority problems and their
apparent causes. The Development of Solutions manual takes the
findings from the Problem Identification process and discusses means of
identifying plausible solutions, testing and adaption based on field work
to develop solutions adaptable to the farmers' resources and acceptable
to farmers, and assessment of solution packages in terms of technical,
social, economic, and organizational feasibility.
The Project Implementation phase consists of three subphases:
(a) Project Authorization; (b) Project Organization; and (c) Project
Operation (see Figure 1). This manual describes the process of
selecting which of several solutions will be developed into a proposal for
funding. The basic points about writing and negotiating a proposal are
discussed. After authorization of the project, the next steps are
designing the project's organization, and selecting and training the field
staff. The benefits and means of achieving teamwork are emphasized.
The project manager must prepare to accomplish the project's goals, and
to establish linkages with organizations that will be affected by the
project. This manual stresses the necessity of setting goals and
correcting the progress of the project through monitoring, evaluation
and refinement. To ensure that the on-farm practices will persist after
the project finishes, the institutionalization of the project into the




















Figure 1. Flow diagram for the Project Implementation phase.







Figure 2. Flow diagram of activities in the Project Authorization subphase.



normal activities of the farmers' organization and the government
extension service is discussed.


At the end of the Development of Solutions phase several
alternatives should have been recommended for improving irrigated
agriculture in the .specified area. If the steps described in the other
manuals of this series have been followed, the alternatives will have
been tested on farms and evaluated according to technical, economic,
social, and political factors. Then, the first step in the Project
Authorization subphase (Figure 2) can occur.
Choosing the solution to be implemented involves political
discussions at meetings of decision-makers. Besides technical personnel
who did the preliminary studies, persons attending the meeting may
include agency officials, donor representatives, local and regional
politicians, farmer representatives, and other interested persons.
These individuals will consider the solution from their own viewpoints,
and the choice that is eventually made may reflect regional or national
plans, political demands, and traditions, as well as immediate problems.
While these considerations should have been made during the
Development of Solutions phase, their relative importance is often
overlooked until the meetings occur.
Since the choice of the solution will include factors in addition to
technical analyses, technical personnel can use this knowledge to help
define their contribution to the meeting. Technical personnel should
present their data so they can be easily understood by nontechnical
decision-makers and administrators responsible for the country's
development and effective use of resources. Consideration should be
given to having farmer representatives who participated in the
Development of Solutions phase appear during part of these meetings.
These representatives should be able to effectively describe in their
language the impacts of the solution on their operations to nontechnical
A short summary should be included at the beginning of the
written material for each alternative solution. Additionally, technical
persons should prepare a summary comparing all of the alternatives.
Comparisons of alternatives may consist of short summaries, outlines,



figures, tables, slides, audio tapes, and movies that help
decision-makers comprehend the alternatives better than if only written
material is used. In addition, a visit by the decision-makers to
demonstration sites provides more visible evidence of the alternatives,
while facilitating communication with more farmers.
The goal of these meetings is to choose the preferred approach to
solve on-farm irrigation problems. This solution package must then be
submitted as a project proposal for funding by the government, an
external funding agency, or both, for those project costs that cannot
be financed by farmers receiving the benefits of the proposed project.


Persons who select the solutions may not be the same as those who
prepare the proposal for submission to a funding source. It is likely
that some of the technical people who did the preliminary research will
help with the proposal, as will representatives from the sponsors of the
project. The sponsors may be government agencies in the country of
the project, and/or international donors such as the United Nations, the
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the World
Bank, and the Asian Development Bank, among others. Some criteria
for good proposals are listed in Table 1.
The proposal must be a clear, factual, and persuasive description
of the suggested project that conforms to the sponsors' purposes.
Material from the Problem Identification and Development of Solutions
phases should furnish most of the information necessary to write the
proposal, although material from other sources as well as additional
analyses may be required. In general, the proposal should include nine
major components as listed in Table 2.


The abstract should be a concise description of the project's
objectives, participating donors and organizations, clients, location,
duration, and approach. The purpose of this abstract is to summarize
the most important aspects of the project. It is essential the abstract
be well written because many readers will not have time to carefully
study the entire proposal.



Table 1. Characteristics of a good proposal.

1. Describes a favorable impact on problems

2. Clearly and concisely written

3. Supplies complete information

4. Shows that a competent staff can be assembled
for the project

5. Lists a realistic budget with good methods of

6. Includes a current literature review

7. Demonstrates responsible generalizations from
the feasibility data

8. Provides a reasonable work plan

9. Describes what will be accomplished

10. Explains how errors will be minimized

11. Contains some new ideas



Table 2. Components of a proposal.

1. Abstract

Short summary of the proposal.

2. Statement of the Problem

Explains why the funding is wanted and what it will

3. Objectives

Lists what will be achieved and the result of the project
if it is successful.

4. Procedures

Describes how the results will be obtained.

5. Evaluation

Shows how the project has met its objectives.

6. Dissemination

Outlines the plan for spreading the effect of the project.
Describes what groups of people will be directly and
indirectly affected and how they will be reached.

7. Facilities and Equipment

Details the facilities and equipment needed to
successfully complete the proposed work.

8. Personnel and Training

Specifies how many and what kinds of people possessing
certain skills are needed; what specific training is
required; and how and where this training can be

9. Budget

Designates the amount of funding necessary for the
project and how much of this cost can be financed by
the impacted farmers, government, and donors.



Statement of the Problem

The problem statement describes a condition that requires
correction or improvements. It should consider the national, regional,
and local development plans and the sponsors' missions. Some of the
description can come from research on problem identification. However,
the proposal will usually need additional information related to the
specific project being suggested.
Descriptions of the missions of the sponsors along with preferred
proposal formats can often be obtained from their instruction material on
submitting a proposal. However, missions of sponsors often change and
it may be useful for the proposal writers to meet with people in the
sponsors' organizations to obtain their suggestions. Reading annual
reports and newsletters, other proposals, and considering the sponsors'
previous work will provide insights about developing a successful
proposal. It also helps to contact other persons who have received
funding from the same sources to learn about the sponsors' interests.
In general, it is worthwhile to establish personal contacts with the
sponsors' representatives rather than communicate only by mail or
An example of a sponsor's interests is contained in the USAID's
project requirements for 1978. Projects funded by the USAID grants or
loans were requested to "help the landless and rural poor; do area
development planning; integrate approaches to health, nutrition,
population, education, and human resources; and emphasize the role of
human rights and women." The USAID also requires certain types of
technical, financial, social, economic, environmental, and legal
feasibility analyses. In addition, they require a "social soundness"
analysis, a "mean-ends analysis," and the use of their "logical
framework," terms used to describe studies that must be incorporated
in the project. The USAID Project assistance handbook provides
assistance for writing proposals to them.
The World Bank requires a different approach for preparing
proposals, primarily because it lends money for development projects.
It does, however, favor projects that help small farmers, tenants,
landless labor, and women, and emphasizes production of basic food
crops. The Bank works closely with several United Nations



organizations, mainly the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO),
and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) in the development and appraisal of projects.
The FAO has a separate staff that Works with the World Bank in project
identification, project preparation, and appraisal of proposals, sharing
costs with the Bank. The Bank, in turn, helps prepare, appraise, and
administer projects for the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP).
Because of these connections, the requirements for proposals to the
World Bank and United Nations are similar, and the United Nations'
Manual on economic development projects is a valuable source of
information on project requirements. The approach of the World Bank
in developing projects is outlined in Warren C. Baum's "The Project
In describing the problem to be corrected, it may be useful to
consider how its improvement will influence other national priorities
such as health, income distribution, and use of labor. Within the
agriculture sector, the proposal developers should analyze how the
project will affect integrated rural development, diversification plans,
agrarian reforms, high intensity cropping programs, and marketing and
distribution of crops. Some of the less obvious effects of solving a
problem should also be considered. Most effects of solving on-farm
water management problems are beneficial, such as the informal training
received by the farmers and others. However, there may also be
adverse effects, such as the loss of trees required by watercourse
straightening. Changes in established social and political arrangements
may be adverse or beneficial and they should be anticipated in the
An important point to remember in describing the problem is that
the farmers are the primary clients to be served by the project. If
they do not positively benefit, it is unlikely the project will be
successful. The farmers must be involved in the early stages of
project development, even before the proposal is written, and they
should participate in proposal preparation and implementation as well.




The objectives of the proposal derive from the project's purpose
and they state the results that should be achieved as a consequence of
funding the project. Most of the projects for which this manual is
applicable require purposes that describe their relationship to the
sponsors' missions and other vital development plans. Several kinds of
projects can be utilized. Applied research projects can test innovations
and monitor and refine approaches used in the improvement. Other
projects may have basic research objectives that stress the formulation
of knowledge which evolves into theories with results applicable at other
locations. Another kind of project may demonstrate an improved method
with the intent it will be adopted and thereby increase agricultural
productivity. For this type of project, the purpose would be use of
the recommended method by the clients after the project terminates.
The purposes of any project come from a combination of political,
technical, and social forces, but the proposal writers and project
leaders must be specific and unanimous in defining the purposes of the
project. In addition, farmers and others affected by the project should
be involved in defining the purposes.
Depending on whether the project will implement an innovation,
conduct an experiment, create a demonstration, or improve productive
capacity determines the research methods to be utilized. This, in turn,
helps define the objectives of the project which are the effects that
occur because of what is accomplished. An objective is more specific
than a purpose, and is defined as a change from some present state
that should occur by a certain time. An example of a purpose for a
project on improving grain production would be to "improve wheat
production by small farmers." One objective would be to "increase
wheat production in a specific geographic area by one metric ton per
hectare by 1988." Objectives should be expressed as quantitatively as
Objectives can be stated with .varying degrees of specificity., The
proposal writers should be responsible for stating the purposes and
general objectives of the project so that donors understand what is
expected. Also, it is important to state objectives clearly so that as
project implementors change, they will have a common framework upon
which to organize and evaluate project progress. As the project



progresses into implementation, the number of objectives will increase,
become more specific, And include statements defining which project
members will be responsible for specific jobs essential to attaining the
A common error for those writing objectives is to state them in
terms of activities of the project employees. For instance, an objective
might be to "increase wheat production by a certain amount over a
certain time." That the project will "supply five pumps to each
community to help the farmers irrigate their wheat, or that "the
project staff will spend 100 days helping farmers irrigate their wheat
correctly" should not be considered as objectives, but procedures
required to attain the objective. The objective is the result and the
procedures required to attain them should be kept separate in the
proposal. Only in a few special cases can the procedures be the
objectives and these exceptions will be discussed later.
The proposal should describe only the general project objectives,
leaving some flexibility for the implementation leader to develop more
specific field operational objectives while matching capabilities of project
personnel to specific jobs. The capabilities of the staff are often
unknown when the proposal is written.
Major project objectives must be realistic if they are to be
achieved. A factor in the disintegration of some projects has been
unrealistic goals that forced project personnel to either sacrifice the
quality of the program to meet quantitative production goals or to
falsify reports to show more accomplishment than was achieved. To
remedy such problems, opportunities for assessment and revision of
goals should be provided during implementation, recognizing that more
realistic assessments of possible goal attainment can be considered once
the project is under way.


The procedures describe the approach that will be used in
achieving the objectives. It should state whether the proposed project
is experimental, pilot, demonstration, problem-solving, or a
combination. The scope of the project which details location, clientele,
and the organizations involved should be specified. Usually, the



procedures can be based on the findings of the Problem Identification
and Development of Solutions phases, and on the project objectives.
Analyses conducted in the Development of Solutions phase
concerning technical, economic, commercial, financial, management,
political, organizational, and social feasibilities should identify the
constraints of the project and help define the procedures and scope of
work that will be attempted. If feasibility data are not available, it
may be necessary for the proposal writers to obtain these data
themselves. In most cases, the sponsors will require information
indicating the feasibility of the project.
Technical feasibility analysis should answer questions about the
validity of the project; rationale for choosing the project location;
availability of skilled manpower, materials, and services for doing the
project, changing requirements or demands for resources during dif-
ferent phases of the project; and the potential adaptability of different
technologies. These analyses should identify any uncertainty associated
with various components of the project. From this information,
alternatives can be outlined should the recommended approach be
unfeasible. Questions about waterlogging, salinity, disease control,
erosion, and other environmental concerns should be covered in this
Economic feasibility is determined by the priority of the project
objectives within the agricultural sector along with the geheral economy,
contributions of the project to the economy, and actual costs as
compared to the benefits. Relevant data dealing with these issues may
have been assembled previously in the statement of the problem. The
question about economic feasibility that should be answered is "What
difference would it make to the economy if the project were done?"
Commercial feasibility is determined by assessing the ease of
obtaining production equipment and supplies (the potential for
developing local suppliers of essential components at reasonable cost),
demands for additional crops, supply of farm labor, and transportation
required by the project. Marketing and distribution problems are also
analyzed in this section.
Financial feasibility is determined by estimating costs of the project
as they relate to the financing plan, availability of funds in the present
and future, potential revenues and profits from the project, level of



subsidies needed, adequacy of returns to the farmer to repay loans,
kind of credit available to the farmers, and incentives required to
motivate farmers to participate in the program. These analyses should
describe the scheduled use of funds during the project duration in
relation to the expected results, financial accountability methods, and
arrangements for repayment.
In many irrigation projects, farmers are not charged for their
water or are charged only a fraction of its cost. Such projects may not
show a recovery of costs unless the total economy is considered as the
base for analysis. Some features of the total economy that should be
considered may include the project's effect on a dependable food
supply, markets for crop surpluses, political stability, and work
opportunities for unemployed labor. The value of such features are
commonly determined by government officials.
Managerial feasibility should include an analysis of staff capability
to complete the job, a training program to upgrade staff skills, and a
plan for staff incentives. This analysis should also consider the
availability of persons and an organizational network to transfer respon-
sibility in promoting the project's objectives after it is finished.
Managerial feasibility is also covered in the "Personnel" section of the
Political feasibility should be assessed by determining if the
proposed organizations and changes are acceptable to the existing
government and powerful opposition parties. Also, investigation of
those who will be affected by the various solutions under the
Development of Solution phase will provide insight regarding local and
regional political feasibility.
Organizational feasibility is the likelihood that the organizations
chosen to do the project will succeed. The feasibility analysis should
estimate the ability of the organization to operate under different.
pressures. It should examine the possibilities for support from other
organizations. Finally, it should determine the probability that the
proposed organizational network will support the project's aims after the
funding ceases.
Social feasibility is whether the project is acceptable considering
important social values, practices, and community power structures.
For instance, projects that contain elements contrary to local traditions



will be difficult to implement. Similarly, if community leaders are
uninvolved, the project may not receive the support required to make it
a success. Specific strategies must be designed to overcome these
difficulties. It is also important to identify what social groups will be
affected by the project, how they will be affected, and their reaction.
It is also important to determine if the project will provide opportunities
in the social structure for those who are powerless, or if it will
strengthen the elite, or have no effect at all.
Feasibility information helps define what can be accomplished and
often indicates how it should be done. Doing feasibility analyses before
the project begins aids in project design and helps avoid major
resistances and revisions.
The "Procedure" section should also contain the general work plan
and schedule of the project. The work plan includes the activities
needed to accomplish the objectives. Proposal writers may find it
useful to define the required tasks with respect to time and to schedule
them using the Critical Path Method (CPM), and/or the Program
Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). A discussion of these
methods can be obtained from Joseph J. Moder's and Cecil R. Phillips',
Project management with CPM and PERT, and Kenneth F. Smith's,
Project evaluation and review technique, critical path method, line of
balance: Project management Systems for economic development.


The project evaluation section of the proposal should describe two
main procedures. First, it should outline the method of final evaluation
of the project which is based on the degree to which the objectives are
accomplished. The second aspect of evaluation monitors the progress
toward the objectives during the project. Measures of the accomplish-
ments of the project according to its work plan must be established.
These measures help the project manager and the staff determine
whether they are on schedule in accomplishing their objectives.
The use of data from good monitoring and evaluation procedures
allows continual refinement of a project as it progresses. Additionally,
the evaluations demonstrate accountability of the project staff to the
sponsors and clients. Some of the evaluation can be done by the
project staff. However, evaluations by persons outside of the project



are essential to provide objectivity and credibility. Moreover, project
personnel often become so involved in implementation they do not
consider approaches that other persons may suggest.
Client-farmers should also be asked to help in designing the
evaluations and gathering the information. If they are involved, they
will feel greater responsibility for the project and will be more likely to
learn how to determine when the system is operating effectively after
the project is finished.
The general evaluation plan should be described in the proposal.
It is important to collect baseline data before the project starts so
comparisons of the results can be made after the project is completed.
Too many final evaluation reports refer only to conditions after a
project is finished, with no basis for determining what change actually
Another means of evaluating project impacts is by comparing
project areas with adjacent areas where the project was not
implemented. In doing this, the proposal writers should be aware that
a) farmers involved in projects are often more motivated individuals,
and b) demonstration effects of the project can cause changes in
adjacent areas as well. Consequently, such comparisons can be biased.
Evaluations are expensive and they can have political effects.
Sponsoring bureaucrats and politicians may not desire specific evidence
to document the results since it could be used against them by their
opponents if anticipated results are not achieved. In spite of these
disadvantages for documenting failure, evaluations are essential in
political systems that ascribe to the principle of accountability in
government. To ensure that evaluations are not overlooked, a firm
schedule should be established and responsibilities and funds for their
conduct should be specified in the proposal. The potential political
issue can be minimized if the expected achievements are estimated
accurately and the proposal writers resist the temptation to increase the
probability of funding by overestimating results.


Dissemination requires a pl an to show how the effects of the
project will be communicated from the direct participants to others who
can benefit. The plan should designate which groups of people are



expected to benefit from the project and those who will not. Any
groups who will be negatively affected should also be delineated.
Dissemination can be facilitated by the client-farmers if they are
involved in all stages of the project. If they helped design the project
and are supportive they will be helpful in disseminating the approach to
other farmers and in maintaining the improvements of their project after
The audience of the dissemination should be specified, as well as
what will be diffused including knowledge, techniques, new equipment,
attitudes, and new organizational forms. Dissemination methods should
be described, whether its field demonstrations, testimonials, field days,
pamphlets, model farms, or radio. It should be determined if dissemina-
tion will be based on demonstrating the effect in small areas, followed
by methods to extend the results to larger populations. Possibly, a
large-scale change will be attempted at once through massive educational
programs, mandates, laws, decrees, or a combination of these.
An important aspect of dissemination is the institutions and
persons through which changes will be spread. It is helpful when the
plan involves influential individuals in the community and existing
community or farmer organizations. It should also be considered if
there is a plan for starting new organizations or revitalizing old ones.
The USAID's interest in institution-building during the early 1970's was
mainly generated to develop social, political, economic, and legal
organizations to provide for continuing technical changes after projects
were finished.
Another dissemination issue is that of developing persons capable
of continuing the program after the technical experts on the staff
leave. A sufficient number of interested and capable people should be
trained during the project to assume responsibility for its continuation.
It is important that project leaders be responsible for training the
personnel so competent individuals can be prepared for their future
roles. Often, technical people will be trained as extension workers,
irrigation engineers, soils scientists, rural sociologists, and managers
so that they can assume these functions when the project is transferred
to normal or routine administration. Many projects include foreign
travel and other educational benefits to motivate personnel and ensure
there will be skilled people to staff organizations that evolve from the



project. Most water management development projects require
permanent extension specialists to work with irrigation associations in
helping the farmers improve their water management and agronomic
practices in order to increase crop production. It is also important
that extension and research trainees have close association since
developmental and dissemination activities must be coordinated following
project termination.
The plan may involve a strong initial but gradually decreasing
reliance on the experts who provide support and consulting expertise
during the early phases of the project. As the regular project
personnel become experienced and proficient, their dependence on
others should decrease.

Facilities and Equipment

The facilities and equipment part of the proposal should be
determined by the tasks to be accomplished and the conditions of the
work. A plan may be required for developing capabilities of local
manufacturers to provide essential items at low costs. The basic
information for such a plan should be available from the Development of
Solutions phase.

Personnel and Training

The personnel section should be based on an analysis of the
proposed work tasks. Proposal formats of some agencies require that
project leaders and their qualifications be specified as part of the
evaluation of the proposal. When this is required, some recruiting has
to be done before the proposal is submitted. Qualified persons selected
must understand the project and the specific jobs, accept the
objectives, and be committed to the work.
Besides the specific persons named in the proposal, a tentative
organizational arrangement and the persons required to staff this
proposed organization should be presented. Availability of essential
leaders should also be part of the feasibility analyses.



The budget section of the proposal should follow the description of
the staff, facilities and equipment, and an analysis of the required
tasks. There are many categories of costs, but major areas to consider
are salaries, wages, and fringe benefits; capital equipment; buildings;
land purchases; materials and supplies; local and foreign travel costs;
services including computer, laboratory fees, cleaning, repairing,
road-building, and ditch-digging; consultants; training costs;
communications costs; and miscellaneous. Each project will have specific
requirements that may include items in addition to these listed.
The budget should be realistic and reasonable and based on
experience in accruing costs for each task. If the writers do not have
experience in estimating costs of certain tasks, they should obtain
assistance from persons with that experience. A function of the
Development of Solutions phase should be to obtain data on costs of
each major task.


It is likely the proposal will be revised several times before
potential sponsors, proposal writers, farmers, and others interested are
satisfied. Revising the proposal requires negotiations among all interest
groups involved. Persons representing the technical proposal writers
should be acquainted with research data collected in the Problem
Identification and Development of Solutions phases so the procedures,
costs, and expectations of the proposal will be within acceptable limits.
Other persons who should be involved include representatives of the
sponsor and those knowledgeable of the proposal submission and
approval process of the government, and someone who can advise on
the legal aspects of the project if laws or regulations need to be
changed or established.
The negotiators will devise a legal framework detailing the rights,
duties, and responsibilities of the farmers. In some cases a prereq-
uisite for participation may be that farmers utilize an existing
organization or form new representative entities such as irrigation
associations. These associations, with officers who represent the



farmers, facilitate negotiations between the project staff and the
farmers. Moreover, if the officers typically lead the farmers, they are
most likely to achieve cooperation.
If farmers are not willing to accept the project conditions and
requirements, the project probably should not be initiated because the
lack of cooperation will lead to project failure. Consequently, the legal
framework, conditions, and requirements should be discussed with and
approved by representative farmers to determine acceptability. A cross
section of the farmers living within the project boundaries must be
represented. Owners of larger farms naturally assume positions of
leadership, but the emphasis for work with owners of small farms
dictates the need for their inputs. Agreement prior to implementation
must be reached on matters such as what provisions will be made by
farmers and the government, what land will be used, who will maintain
the physical improvements and how often, and many other aspects of
water management that are essential for a successful program. If even
one important farmer is not consulted before negotiations, and later
complains about what is being done, the project may risk failure. A
written agreement with copies for both the farmers' and project
representatives helps each group to understand and remember their
responsibilities. Even in countries where the literacy rate, is low there
is usually at least one person in the village who can read and interpret
the agreement for all the farmers. A photograph taken at the time of
agreement is an effective reminder of the event.
Information clearly describing the project should be developed and
a major commitment of time, energy, money, and personal interaction
must be planned to educate the farmers about its benefits and costs.
When large numbers of farmers are involved in a cooperative program,
undoubtedly there will be a few dissidents who will refuse to initially
cooperate. Since it would be unfair to the majority of farmers to
prevent them from participation because a few were negative,
procedures for allowing the majority to proceed with a project, and a
description of the means of charging noncooperators for the costs of
their portion of the benefits should be drafted. In some projects, all
the farmers are informed and then asked to sign a statement indicating
their understanding of the project and obligations to the project. before



the final proposal negotiations occur. In other projects, farmers
themselves have gained compliance from dissenters; consequently,
farmers should be allowed to help enlist farmer support.
Several aspects involving relations between government
organizations need clarification when planning a project. A potentially
good project may fail because of inadequate legal arrangements between
the project organization and its supporting organizations. Problems may
arise for which there is no general solution and the project leaders may
be prevented from acting effectively. It is necessary that the project
designers anticipate political misunderstandings and disagreements that
could lead to the withdrawal of resources, and that plans be made to
handle potential disruptions. Leaders of agencies that give authority to
the project may be reluctant to make commitments to projects because
they want to keep their options open. Project leaders, however, need
a clear assignment of authority and the right to enter into agreements
so they can plan and act without concern for arbitrary actions from
other organizations.
Some of the legal arrangements between organizations should be
outlined in the proposal. Areas that should be considered in writing
the contracts are:

1. Scope and line of authority,

2. Legal and operational objectives of the project,

3. Duration of project operation,

4. Types of reporting instruments and schedule of use,

5. Personnel requirements,

6. Flexibility in assigning pay and tasks,

7. Project and other agency requirements on cooperation
and jurisdiction of subject matter and geography,

8. Budget constraints,

9. Accountability requirements by category,

10. Enforcement provisions for accomplishing objectives, and

11. Legal authority and processes for managing personal
behavior and conflicts concerning water, land, credit,
and local institutions.



Each project will have to direct the issues differently, but the items
listed above are common concerns for on-farm water development
Formalizing the project manager's authority to act in relation to the
organizations that sponsor the project is another legal issue. Managers
need formal and enforceable arrangements that allow them to control
recruiting, selecting, training, evaluating, and dismissing of personnel;
evaluating the project; disbursing money; purchasing; and changing the
project's focus. The project manager's relationship to officials of
agencies linked to the project should be carefully defined.
Special questions arise if the project has a research component.
The project manager must be given authority to collect valid and
reliable data, to specify the equipment and procedures used in data
collection, to prohibit dissemination of incomplete or inaccurate informa-
tion resulting from interpretation of the data, to secure publication
rights, and to specify rules governing authorship of reports resulting
from the project.
Although relationships based on trust and credibility can be as
effective as legal ones, it is necessary for project designers to secure
legal and administrative understandings and commitments for the project
managers. The managers and project staff should attempt to develop
trust and cooperation with farmers and interested organizations, both
before and after they have a established a legal basis for their project




Once the project is authorized by the government (and donors, if
other assistance is involved) implementation can begin (Figure 3). New
people, personnel procedures, and specific tasks must be organized and
introduced into the work schedule. The focus becomes directed toward
developing strong project organization. Contacts with organizations
that provide various support to the project need to be secured and
maintained. Project personnel must pursue the objectives aggressively;
follow good management practices; remain open and responsive to
changes, inevitable conflicts, and requirements within its own organiza-
tion, other agencies, and within the farming community; and organize
and train local people so they can maintain improvements after project
personnel have left. The objectives of the project must be refined and
made the responsibility of the units and persons within the project.
Progress toward the objectives must be continually monitored, and the
project's direction should be frequently evaluated with respect to
progress and changing conditions. Those responsible for implementation
must collaborate with farmers and other persons influenced by the
project. Efforts must be made to build understanding, credibility, and
commitments in farmers and other participants so the project's objectives
will continue after its conclusion. In addition, the project must develop
an organization for personnel who will continue the long-range work
established by the project.


The general design for the organization was probably outlined in
the proposal. However, many specifics cannot be ascertained until
after project authorization when available personnel can be determined.
The organization should be designed to achieve the project objectives as
efficiently as possible.





Figure 3. Flow diagram of activities in the Project Organization subphase.



Differences Between The Project
Organization and Other Organizations

Some differences between a project organization and a bureaucratic
organization should be considered. In project organizations there is
typically less formality between the leader and the rest of the staff.
This results because of greater interdependence of project staff
members who are oriented toward common, new objectives. On-farm
water development projects are usually interdisciplinary, involving
agronomists, soil scientists, agricultural engineers, agricultural
economists, rural sociologists, extension specialists, anthropologists,
management specialists, and others. To ensure all of these people will
work well together requires effective communication and careful
coordination of several disciplines. Informal communications channels
are encouraged, as is creativity and unstructured forms of problem
solving. Project organizations have an indefinite division of labor as
compared to bureaucratic agencies that require specialized skills for
small tasks. Projects have needs for technical experts, but project
staff ordinarily accept general responsibilities as well. Project efforts
usually result in a unique solution to a problem which differs from
other organizations that consistently produce the same type of result.
Projects are temporarily established to accomplish objectives in a
specified time as compared to the permanent nature of other
organizations. Projects deal with change and encourage evolution until
improvement is achieved while other agencies promote stabilization.
Loyalty for a project may be a problem, since staff are often on
loan from other organizations. Besides being commited to the project,
the staff may be concerned about their status in their regular agency.
In addition, sometimes the project's objectives conflict with the goals of
their own agency.
In a project organization, personnel must adopt a broad systems
approach in viewing the project and the environment, whereas,
personnel in organizations that do not consider change can perceive
themselves as more self-sufficient. In order to maintain a broad
outlook, project staffs are required to:

1. Have knowledge of the forces affecting the project,

2. Establish the project as interdisciplinary,





7. Terminating the activities of the project staff is easier
under this model.

8. Project objectives can continue as part of the agency's
goals once the project terminates.

However, there are disadvanltages of having the project as part of
an agency. Changes required of farmers are likely to appear as
imposed from the government, especially if this was the agency's
previous method of operation. Unless a new approach to solicit farmers'
input is utilized, then farmers may be less willing to commit themselves
to a project using this design.
Formal organizations such as the Agriculture and Irrigation
departments have often established strong, traditional controls that
make them inflexible and resistant to change. Because of this, these
organizations may be ineffective for implementing innovations. The
purpose of many existing agencies is mainly regulatory, therefore, they
are not easily adapted to programs relying on farmer involvement.
Project leaders should be cautious of working through an existing
agency not geared to the modernization of agriculture. Conversely,
serious consideration might be given to using the project to mobilize the
agency to effectively participate in national development.
Another disadvantage of this framework and the following one is
the agency's managers may be reluctant to put their best people on the
project. Instead, they may use the project as a place to relocate
ineffective workers. Administrators of the agency can prevent this
problem by demonstrating strong support for the project. Persons
coordinating the project staff can ask to see performance appraisals on
the people assigned to the project to ensure a good staff is assembled.
Agencies typically have good communications within a specific area
but are poor at coordinating several areas or disciplines; a requirement
in most on-farm water management development projects. In addition,
there is a danger project work will become secondary to the daily
demands of the agency, and hence the project's task might not be



Permanent, Staff within an Agency

Another model is to have project sthtf be a part of an agency with
their main responsibility to conduct on-farm water development projects
on a permanent basis. This arrangement is appropriate if the govern-
ment has determined that water management provides a continuing
opportunity for improvement.
Most of the advantages listed for the design using temporary staff
within an agency are true for this approach as well. Additionally,
permanent project staffs within an agency should be more flexible
because they constantly deal with new programs which necessitate
developing skills for coping with change. Coordination among various
disciplines should be better in this model because the staff would be
working together on a long-term basis. However, project work should
not become secondary to other agency work since project work would be
the reason for the staff's permanent existence.
Besides some of the disadvantages cited for having a project staff
within an agency, one disadvantage of this approach may be that staff
will be treated differently from other personnel in the agency. Because
they work on change, the staff may feel pressure from other agency
persons whose functions conflict with project activities. In addition,
the staff may be pressured to work on agency priorities not related to
the project at the expense of the farmers.

Staff from Several Agencies or the "Matrix" Design

Another framework, similar to those just discussed, is the "matrix"
design. Rather than forming staff from within one agency, this model
utilizes people from several agencies. Selection of personnel is based
on technical expertise and the need for representatives from various
agencies. Advantages of the model include representation of interested
agencies and coordination of their interests within the staff which makes
this a good model for "institution building," or developing better
cooperation among existing organizations. Additionally, the project is
likely to get more proficient staff members from the increased number of
potential recruits than if the staff is assembled from one agency. The
broader range of personnel backgrounds and disciplines brings more
knowledge for successful implementation of the solution.



This design, used in formal organizations that must cope with
frequent change, can utilize existing organizations to help solve
problems. Several researchers have suggested these temporary
organizations within formal organizations will be a major project design
of the future. Organizations that use "management by objectives" move
toward the matrix model with temporary project staff assembled to
accomplish goals. This approach effectively bypasses the slow,
uncoordinated approach of problem solving that frequently exists in
formal, bureaucratic organizations. Disadvantages of the matrix design
are explained below.

1. Unresolved conflicts between agencies such as the
Agriculture and Irrigation departments may inhibit project

2. The question of which agency will supply the leadership
for the project is frequently an issue.

3. Authority is not clear on some matrix projects because It
comes from several agencies.

4. Coordination of the project activities between the different
agencies may require that agency officials periodically
review the project.

5. Project leaders have to be skilled in integrating staff and
using participative management techniques.

6. Decisions tend to be made by committee rather than
through strong leadership which can be a problem.

Staff as Contract Personnel

The last model enlists staff as contract employees. It is possible
to use both contract and agency employees, however, generally the
approach is to contract with a consulting firm, university, or a group
of people assembled especially for the project. This framework is used
when the appropriate agencies do not have persons to do the project or
prefer to use outside staff.
An advantage of using contract personnel is that persons with
previous experience in similar projects can be selected to do the job.
Consequently, mistakes that result from doing a project for the first
time can be avoided because technical experts and skilled managers do
the work. This model may allow the most change to occur because



outside persons may be more willing to be creative and assume greater
risk in attempting new approaches than agency staff. Risk avoidance
by agency staff is strong where their promotions are based on seniority
and having made few mistakes rather than on the basis of
accomplishment. Contract staff may have more credibility as consultants
for change because they are from other work environments and are
perceived as professionals interested in doing a good job rather than
advancing themselves or an agency within the social, political, and
economic systems encompassing the project. Donors often prefer this
model because they want to relieve the project from the constraints that
go with undertaking activities within the confines of a bureaucratic
agency. An on-farm background is helpful since the ability of staff
members to train farm people is necessary if project impact is to be
long-term. Time spent collaborating with the farmers and other
influential persons should be viewed as' a productive investment.
Using contract personnel has disadvantages, however. Creative
approaches utilizing contract personnel often achieve the best results
but they can also fail because of many reasons.

1. Competent staff may be expensive and hard to obtain
because they have other commitments.

2. Contract personnel can be too self-confident and
independent rather than contribute to a group effort.

3. Management under these conditions requires additional

4. There is increased demand for group cooperation,
attaining conflict resolution skills, establishing good
communication and accountability practices, and using
participative methods of management.

5. Staff are required to have an understanding of cross-
cultural differences and an ability to work with persons
of different backgrounds.

6. Because the staff may be from other geographic areas,
they spend more time developing relationships with the
farmers and other interested persons and organizations.

7. Terminating project staff activities is more of a problem
with this approach because for some staff members
termination may lead to unemployment, which is likely to
divert the attention of personnel from the project to their
next job towards the end of the project.



8. Project management must be alert to personal issues
surrounding termination and. should plan to help staff
members cope with them early.

9. While the project staff may be more effective in producing
change, they have less ability to establish mechanisms for
ensuring that the project objectives endure after project

10. Considerable time must be spent convincing administrators
that project objectives should be incorporated in
continuing agencies and cooperating organizations.

The choice of an organizational model must depend on political,
social, economic, and other conditions influencing the project.
Additionally, the project requirements and the agency's organization
should be considered when selecting a preferrred approach. The
models described give the project organizers flexibility to account for a
variety of situations.


From project conception until completion will involve many people.
It is often difficult to identify the initiators of the project because ideas
for the project may have evolved from several sources. The first
definable roles, according to the processes described in these manuals,
are those of the technical people and farmers who participate in the
Problem Identification and Development of Solutions phases. Some of
these people may be included in writing the proposal and even into
implementation, while others will not.
As funding becomes probable, proposal writers and responsible
government officials must identify potential candidates for major
positions in the project and determine their ability and willingness to
serve. Depending on the organizational design chosen, the first roles
to be defined are those of the project director and other leaders.
Figure 4 shows one possible organization arrangement. The project
director may be referred to as a manager or other title and has the
responsibility of coordinating and directing the project.
Persons in these roles should possess several attributes to be
effective. Based on a study of project leaders, the USAID publication,
Selecting Effective Leaders of Technical Assistance Teams, Technical



Project Manager
(or Project Director)


Deputy Manager Deputy Manager Deputy Manager Headquarters
Vg (Field Operations) (Training) (Monitoring, Support
Evaluation Staff
Xand Refinement)


Senior Senior Senior
Staff Staff Staff
Specialist Specialist Specialist

IField Field Field
Project ,Project Project
Leader Leader Leader

Field Field Field Field
Support Staff Support Staff
Staff Specialist Staff Specialist

Field Field Field
To m Field
Team Team Team
Leader Leader Leader Team

Field Field Field
staf f sta ff staf f

Figure 4. Example of project organization chart.



Assistance Guidance Series-2 (1973), suggests the qualifications listed in
Table 3. Project managers or leaders should also be able to achieve the
respect of the project staff, donors, and officials in other organizations
associated with the project. It is unlikely, however, if any individual
will possess all of these attributes.
Those selecting personnel must describe the attributes needed for
each job, such as those listed in Table 3, then seek people who best fit
the requirements. Attributes should be assessed according to their
importance on the project, and candidates should be disqualified if they
do not possess the essential characteristics.
Measures of these characteristics can be obtained from interviews
with the candidates or recommendations from previous employers.
Objective testing may be helpful to measure technical competency, and
biographical rating forms will help determine the level of experience as
described by the candidate. It is possible to construct assessment
centers to simulate job activities and to rate the candidates on the
required attributes, but this procedure is expensive and requires
consulting assistance.
One of the most important qualifications of the project manager is
to be knowledgeable and enthusiastic about the project. Persons who
have participated in the Problem Identification and Development of
Solutions phases should be considered for the project manager position.
If contract personnel are used for the organizational design,
recruitment should cover a broad geographic area to ensure that the
best qualified candidates are considered. Often, people who select
project leaders choose persons who are friends or are well known to
them and miss other good candidates.
Some other positions that should be filled soon after funding are
the high level support staff (deputy manager) roles. These are people
who will not be members of the field staff, but who will supplement the
skills of the project leader and major technical people. They can come
from the donors, government agencies, universities, or consulting
firms. These senior persons primarily serve the project from a location
away from the project site although they may travel to the site
occasionally. They ensure continuance of the funding; work with
donors, high government officials, and other organizations that affect
the project; and offer special assistance to the project.



Table 3. Qualifications for effective project leaders.

1. Appropriate technical background (in this case, in water
management, agricultural development, or a similar

2. Experience in applying their expertise in geographic
areas such as that of the project.

3. Ability to initiate and strengthen organizations that will
use the project's improvements after the contract is

4. Credentials such as degrees and experience that
establish credibility with government officials.

5. Ability to manage administrative detail.

6. Capacity to anticipate alternatives for the project
depending on future events.
7. Ability to use personnel effectively.

8. Experience working with government agencies.

9. Empathy or the ability to understand how others feel.

10. Good treatment of previous colleagues.

11. Courteousness.

12. High energy level with a reputation as a hard worker.

13. Motivation to attain the project's objectives.

14. High initiative.

15. Willingness to accept constraints of the project.

16. Ability to work within established policies.

17. Skill at recognizing local methods of doing things and
conforming to them.



Table 3. Qualifications for effective project leaders (continued).

18. Ability to develop commitment in other people.

19. Emotional maturity.

20. Sound character and high personal integrity.

21. Good standards of personal conduct.

22. Documentation of success on previous projects.

23. Open-mindedness and objectivity.

24. Willingness to admit mistakes.

25. Does not require undue recognition of own status.

26. Ability to resist extreme measures in a crisis.

27. Capacity to make constructive responses to mishaps.

28. Ability to persevere during reverses.

29. Strength to stand by personal values under stress.

30. Willingness to accept responsibility for making difficult
decisions regarding personnel or other managerial

31. Willingness to take appropriate risks.

32. Capability to develop supporters from other

33. Perceptiveness in sensing tensions likely to affect the

34. A history of good interpersonal relations.



Characteristics of good senior staff specialists include technical
competence and experience, political contacts, and good relationships
with donors. These specialists are more likely than field staff to be
involved in a variety of professional activities and have access to good
libraries and computers. They can supply the project leader and field
technical staff with current readings on techtiical questions and obtain
project assistance from numerous sources. Persons who did research
leading to the proposal and the proposal writers themselves are good
candidates for these roles.
Other persons who will probably be selected early in the project
are the primary technical field staff specialists serving under the field
project leaders. Most likely they will be needed in disciplines such as
agronomy, agricultural engineering, economics, extension, management,
and social science. Those selected have to be technically competent but
it is important they have other skills and interests. The field
specialists should be able to understand the theories and principles
governing the project and use advanced methods in their technical area.
They should be able to recognize technical problems as they occur.
Equally important is an ability to work with staff and farmers of
different statuses, disciplines, and cultures in difficult situations.
They should be good teachers and willing to train others who will
eventually have responsibility for accomplishing project objectives and
developing new ones. They should be interested to learn about other
disciplines and approaches so the project can benefit from their
expanded knowledge. They should also accept some of the respon-
sibilities for managing the field staff, which is discussed later.
Experience and competence in helping farmers apply the solution to the
problems are important qualifications. Unfortunately, excellent technical
persons may not be good group members because of excessive zeal for
their own discipline, a lack of field experience, and exceptionally high
standards of work that are only possible in a laboratory or under
controlled conditions.
Personnel who participated in the Development of Solutions phase
should be considered for implementation staff positions due to their
experience with the project. These people should also be used in
training programs where they can convey their knowledge of working
with farmers to less experienced staff members.



Most of the other selections of the project's field staff should be
done with the advice of the field project leader after one is chosen.
The remaining positions consist of the administrative people and the
lower level technical and contract. persons who do the physical work
involved in the project. This is discussed further in Chapter III.
When staff members for all the positions are selected, it is
worthwhile to thoroughly discuss their obligations. It is important their
responsibilities be clearly outlined in a job description. It is difficult
to write descriptions for project staff positions because the division of
labor is not distinct, and project staff are expected to do work
necessary to accomplish a variety of singular tasks, whether or not the
work was outlined in the job description.
Besides formal negotiations about pay and job requirements, the
project manager should explain the expectations for what should happen
on the project to headquarters staff and field project leaders. In turn,
this would be done by the field project leaders for their staff. The
staff should state their expectations as a result of working on the
project, the kinds of gratifications they expect from their job, and
their career expectations at the end of the project. The manager and
project leader should discuss possible advancements and expected
rewards in addition to the nature of the work. The project manager
and field leaders should ensure that an honest discussion is held.
Hopefully, both the staff person and the leaders will agree on
expectations, goals, and plans for the individual's involvement as
related to project objectives.




Functions of the project manager, include setting objectives,
formulating schedules, organizing operations, selecting personnel,
directing staff, measuring progress, and reporting status. Devising a
budget may also be included in the list. It has beenk mentioned
previously that the general budget will be prepared when the proposal
is written although the leader must refine it once project objectives are
finally established. This chapter will explain the functions of the
project manager and project field leaders as they are involved in
on-farm water management development projects.
After the leader (project manager) is selected to implement the
project, roles of other persons who have already participated in the
project may change. The project manager may have authority to select
project personnel, however, this will 'usually be done in cooperation
with government administrators, particularly when the staff comes from
government agencies.
The project manager is responsible for accomplishing the objectives
stated in the proposal. One of the first things to be done is refining
the work plan and schedule. Most of these tasks can be completed with
assistance of those who participated in the Development of Solutions and
Problem Identification phases, and with the implementation staff that has
already been chosen. This group should select the rest of the
implementation staff after determining their tentative job descriptions.
When the implementation staff is complete, the project manager
should orient them to the procedures and style in which the project will
be managed. Important staff roles, project goals, communication
patterns, methods of feedback, and means of resolving conflicts should
be discussed. The project should be described in terms of the social,

The project leadership should be aware of several factors that inhibit
implementation of a project that occur within the bureaucracy of the
agency and project staff. These factors, as identified by
Robert Chambers in Managing rural development, are authoritarian
management, wasteful meetings, excessive reports, deparmentalism,
top-down targetry, inadequate resources, and ineffective work



political, technical, cultural, and economic forces that must be
recognized and considered by the staff. If the project affects persons
of more than one culture, issues of cross-cultural differences must be
The leadership must design control systems or a means of ensuring
the accountability of the project and the staff. Control can be obtained
from monitoring the project's and individuals' progress toward the
objectives and comparing it with the work schedule. Methods of
recording and approving project results must be designed.
The staff will be involved in training sessions as participants and
teachers. They must be trained about the procedures and control
systems used on the project as well as how to facilitate and encourage
teamwork. Conversely, staff must instruct farmers and those selected
to provide local leadership. Additionally, staff may need preparation to
help them become effective teachers.

As implementation proceeds, the staff should anticipate resistances
from external persons or groups that might hinder progress. Such
individuals and groups should be contacted quickly to determine and
alleviate the basis of their opposition.

Project leaders should develop mechanisms for supporting the staff
to insure project success. The mechanisms should provide a means of
relieving job-related stresses for individuals. Other supports should
provide resources and assistance when the project needs additional
The final responsibilities of the leaders are to evaluate the
project's effectiveness, report the results, and release the project to
the farmers or their associations and those trained to provide


One of the first tasks of a new project manager is to refine the
general objectives, as originally defined by the proposal writers, into
components that can -be scheduled for completion by the field staff.
For example, an objective to "increase the wheat production in a
specific geographic area by 15 percent by 1993" could be conceived as a
series of activities that should lead to accomplishing the objective.



Included may be tasks on land leveling, water-course realignment and
rehabilitation, achieving a more equitable scheduling of water to all the
farmers in the area, use' of more reliable and improved varieties of
seed, application of recommended fertilizers at specified rates,
development of a market distribution system to accommodate the
increased crop production, enhancement or formation of irrigation
associations, and enactment of water laws or regulations. In other
words, the general project objectives must be operationally described as
specific end-points that can be reached by completing several activities.
The completion of each activity is expected to lead to the
accomplishment of the operational objective.
The project manager, project field leaders, and technical field staff
should list the activities essential to reach the objectives and their
estimated time requirements. Some of the management techniques such
as the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical
Path Method (CPM), referred to in Chapter I, help assure the work
directly relates to the objectives.
A PERT analysis begins with listing each project task and the
estimated time it will require (Table 4). The first listing should consist
of the major jobs. Refined listings can be developed later by reducing
the major jobs into specific tasks. Each task and time estimate can be
displayed in a PERT network as shown in Figure 5. To design the
network adequately requires management decisions about the
relationships and sequences of the activities.
The project manager should consider the principles of participatory
decision-making discussed later in this chapter since few managers
could design a network to. everyone's satisfaction. The PERT
diagramming requires the involvement of the staff and even the farmers
who are experienced in various phases of the proposed activity to
determine how the tasks can be most effectively distributed. The
staff's conclusions about the proper sequence of activities and those
that can be attempted concurrently are incorporated into the diagram.
All the tasks in Table 4 are depicted by their number in Figure 5
and are sequentially placed by arrows. If an activity cannot be started
until another is completed, this relationship must be displayed on the



Table 4. Example of simplified Project Implementation activities.

Task number Task description Estimated Time
1 Project authorization 0

2 Get signatures on all
agreements (including
time of budget releases) 2

3 Select project personnel 3

4 Start and complete
personnel training 4

5 Final selection of site(s) 2

6 Design project monitoring
and evaluation system 3

7 Establish management and
budgeting system 2
8 Devise data management
system 1
9 Submit first progress
report 2

10 Develop communications
with farmer clients at
sites(s) 4



B =J

C *D
0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Flow of Time (weeks)
Note: This Diagram has been Deliberately Over-Simplified for Purposes of Easy Presentation

Figure 5. Example of PERT network diagram for some simplified Project Implementation activities.



diagram. Chains that can be performed concurrently are above and
below each other through the time period covered by the diagram. The
diagram is a set of task chains which are a model of project operations.
The first version of the network diagram will only include the major
tasks; however, a more refined network can be developed later by
detailing the major activities.
After each task is charted, the longest series of tasks is identified
by double arrows. This series is called the "critical path" because it is
the longest in time and any revision to shorten it will hasten project
implementation. The project leader will want to determine how
individual tasks can be changed or rearranged in order to shorten the
time in the critical paths. Spending resources to solve a problem that
threatens to slow an activity on the critical path may be justified.
Conversely, if activities not on the critical path should be delayed,
there is a minimum time before the delay will adversely effect project
completion. It may be wasteful to spend extra resources trying to
accelerate tasks not on the critical path although the paths may require
adjustment as experience is gained. As previously mentioned, there are
several good references on PERT and CPM that should be consulted by
the project leader before using these methods.
Estimates of labor, skills, materials, and money should be made for
each step in the diagram. If a step is extremely costly, the staff
should consider alternative ways of accomplishing the task. From this
process, a work plan can be developed to help the leaders determine
the most efficient and effective ways to utilize personnel, money, and
other resources. Completion dates, costs for each phase of the project,
and the skill and labor requirements of the staff positions can be
determined. This information can help decide who and when to recruit
for the technical staff. When people are hired, they can be given
individual goals that can be recognized as part of the project goals.
The PERT method is a means for planning and evaluating individual and
project performance.
The procedures necessary to attain the objectives form a work plan
that should be periodically reviewed and modified by the entire staff.
The plan may change as the project progresses because of new
knowledge the project staff will gain.




As previously stated, some positions on the field staff will likely
be selected after the manager, primary technical people, and field
project leaders have been chosen Next to be appointed are the
administrative staff such as the accounting, secretarial, data manage-
ment personnel, and contract labor who may hold only temporary
positions. All of these staff are important to a project's success and
care should be taken in their selection.
Secretaries, accountants, and other administrative staff provide
some control functions on a project. They control information, people,
and money, and they can influence the operation of a project. The
administrative staff should be selected for their appropriate skills that
can be evaluated by a performance examination. For instance, a typist
should be able to type with a certain speed with minimum errors.
Potential administrative staff should describe their experiences;
however, references should be obtained from former employers. The
field project leader should ask the reference persons specific questions
concerning skill, motivation, and work history rather than just general
statements about the applicants' character.
The contract laborers do the driving, digging, and 'ct as a liaison
with local persons. When a project is announced, it can create a
temporary boom in a region's economy that will attract many candidates
for available positions. The field project leader must choose those who
will most benefit the project, being aware that those who apply first are
not necessarily the most qualified. They may have been unemployed
due to inadequate work skills. In addition, the early applicants may
have an advantage in the informal communication system that spreads
news of the project. Perhaps they were informed of openings by other
staff who want to get jobs for their friends and relatives, or they may
be persons who can benefit personally by associating with the project
but who would not necessarily do good work. These factors support
advertising positions for a reasonable length of time before selections
are made.
The project manager and field leaders should be concerned about
who is hired and how it is accomplished, although some of this
authority may be delegated to subordinates with proper experience and



commitment to project objectives. Objective job descriptions should be
used for choosing personnel. The decision to hire should be based on
ability and motivation, and the impact the selection will make on the
rest of the staff. It is important that selection be fair, open, and
objective, and potential workers impartially selected. An exception
might be if certain segments of the community will be involved with the
project then it may be important to establish good relations by hiring
qualified candidates from among them. However, the workers should
not come from one family or friendship unit. Available jobs will be
regarded as a precious resource, and if distribution of jobs is fair,
there will be less community resistance to the project as it progresses.
When possible, performance tests should be used to evaluate candidates.
If the required skills are so basic that a test is unnecessary, and if
there are many applicants, then drawing a name by chance is a fair
way to choose a worker.


Once all of the staff are selected, the manager must establish the
tone for the project's operation. Staff meetings should be held to
organize personnel and motivate their cooperation. Project leaders may
feel they are too busy or do not need to develop their staff because
they selected good people, but this development is necessary.
The term teamwork implies a group of people who work well
together and produce a better result than if the same people worked
separately. Teamwork generates good feelings by the members about
their work and the people with whom they work.
To develop teamwork the project leader must integrate individuals
with different experiences and capabilities into an effective unit.
Sometimes this is a challenge in on-farm, water development projects
because the work force is composed of persons from different disciplines
and cultures. When a collaborative style is used and the farmers are
included, facilitating teamwork requires skill and extra effort from the
project leaders.
The project leaders should clarify to all personnel that inputs from
all the disciplines are essential for success. Individuals from each
discipline should be encouraged to interact with and learn from staff in



other disciplines. Understanding the objectives of the project will help
the group comprehend the need for inputs from other disciplines. When
the leaders do not unduly emphasize their own discipline and instead
show respect for others, most staff will do likewise.
Common outcomes for projects utilizing several disciplines are that
one discipline becomes dominant and a trend is established to use its
methods; or several disciplines are utilized without coordination until
the project is almost completed, and then a massive attempt is necessary
to combine these efforts to achieve project goals. When one discipline
dominates, the project is unidisciplinary; and when several disciplines
are used but not together it is multidisciplinary.
Interdisciplinary means that various disciplines are integrated
during the project duration. In interdisciplinary projects, staff from
various disciplines try to learn each other's approaches, values,
problems, and language. Vocabulary is often different for various
disciplines and personnel from each area should try to learn the other
disciplines' major concepts and terminology.
Meetings should be held to examine project objectives and decide
how each discipline can contribute to their accomplishment. It is
important that staff from each area discuss their concerns and potential
contributions to each objective, even though some objectives are the
primary responsibility of a single discipline. Coordination of efforts on
good interdisciplinary projects must be done early and continuously with
each area contributing to achieve the objectives. The strength of the
personality of various discipline's members and the prestige connected
to a specific approach should not be the main reason for deciding
issues. The results of effective interdisciplinary work are completion of
the project's goals, knowledge and respect for the contributions of
other disciplines, and positive feelings between staff members.
Training to develop cooperation by the field team leaders will often
be sufficient to induce teamwork. However, if interdisciplinary groups
do not develop this approach, special training by consultants may be
Some approaches to management that encourage interdisciplinary
teamwork are the use of participative management; good communication



practices, including constructive feedback; use of effective
problem-solving and conflict resolution methods; and application of
management-by-goals methods. These management approaches are
described below. They do not happen spontaneously, and determined,
well-planned efforts by the project leaders are necessary to make them

Participative Management
Participative management for the project staff is consistent with
the collaborative style advocated for working with farmers.
Participative management implies that all of the project staff will be
allowed to provide input into the management of the project. Its use
indicates that project leaders recognize there are persons on the staff
whose input will be beneficial in making important project decisions.
Project members usually respond to this compliment by having more
respect for the leader. Other benefits of using the approach are listed

1. On complicated problems, groups possessing diverse
expertise can typically devise better solutions than

2. When people participate in decision-making, they
understand why and how decisions are made, and tend
to be more supportive compared to when they are just
told to do something.

3. Staff are more committed to help carry out the decision.

4. The technique uses the available human resources as well
as any management approach.

5. Participation enhances people's feelings about themselves.

6. Resistance to implementing a decision can be reduced by
asking those affected to contribute to that decision.

Even though there are many benefits to participative management,
there are drawbacks. Many leaders and staff may not be used to this
technique. It may confuse them and they may prefer a more familiar
authoritative leadership style; consequently, they may be unwilling to
try participation. Many work organizations and cultures of the world
do not use participation as a common practice so it may be strange and



upsetting to some project members. Under some circumstances, a leader
who tries the method may be viewed as weak for asking the staff for
Another problem with participative management is that project
members may prefer not to accept responsibility for decision-making.
They may want the leader to tell them what to do so they can hold the
leader responsible if something goes wrong. Some people think it is not
their right nor job to help make decisions.
One other problem with participative management concerns the
leaders' perceptions about their own power in an organization in using
the approach. The leaders may feel they are yielding power and will
not have authority to run the organization. If participative management
is used, it is likely a stronger organization will result and the authority
of the leader to encourage staff production will increase rather than
decrease. It is a paradox that by sharing some authority it is possible
for the leader to gain more authority.
The leader using participative management must be honest and
skillful. Honesty is an issue since the leader must openly state when
the approach will and will not be used. If project members notice that
the leaders only use it when they want to motivate the members, the
approach will fail. This does not mean that all decisions must be made
participatively, and in fact, that would be impractical since the method
takes more time as compared with more authoritative management. The
project manager and field project leaders should make most routine
decisions by themselves or by consulting others who can offer useful
advice. Decisions about the direction of the project, major problems
and issues should be dealt with participatively.
A challenge for leaders using this method is to effectively lead a
group meeting. They must be able to solicit information from the staff,
listen closely to their responses, and integrate their responses into
decision-making. Some general steps used for conducting a
participative decision-making meeting are listed.

1. When the leader decides a problem requires a group
decision, some preparation should be accomplished before
the meeting. The leader should clearly define the issue;
decide what time, money, labor, or other constraints
exist; think of a solution; and write questions to
generate a discussion about the problem.



The leader may also ask participants to do these same
things if there is time and the issue has been clarified

2. At the meeting the leader should present the problem
but not offer solutions until the participants have an
opportunity to express their ideas.

3. The leader should help the participants understand the
project constraints and ask for their assessment as well.
Sometimes participants have information that will affect
the definition of the constraints and change the possible
solutions. The leader should solicit this information.

4. The leader should try to get as many ideas as possible
about constraints, problems, and potential solutions, but
should not allow premature criticisms until the items have
been thoroughly discussed.

5. Everyone should express their ideas. No one should be
allowed to remain silent during the entire meeting nor
dominate the conversation. Some participative methods
set time limits on the amount of participation for one

6. The leader should speak relatively little and encourage
member reactions.

7. The leader should write down all the ideas on a
blackboard or large pad of paper which is kept in view
of the group .

8. When the members have no new ideas, the ideas of the
leader should be added to the list and then all should be

9. Criticims of each idea should be recorded.

The next part of the meeting can vary depending on the leader's
preferences. The leader must have decided how to use the
recommendations of the staff beforehand, and have shared this decision
with the participants at the beginning of the meeting. In some cases,
the leader may take the participants' ideas and privately decide what
should be done. Another option is to refer the ideas to an executive
committee for decision or use the participant group to make a decision.
All of these models are used and have advantages. Victor H. Vroom
and Phillip W. Yetton's, Leadership and decision-making, presents a
way of analyzing the issue being discussed and relating it to the kind
of decision-making approach to use.



The leader should agree to a decision carefully, and if the group
is allowed to decide they should try to achieve a consensus. A
consensus is a general agreement reached by discussing the options. It
may seem difficult to attain, but having group solidarity for a decision
positively affects the commitment to act, and the additional time needed
to reach a consensus is often worthwhile.
In general, participative management is a good approach on
interdisciplinary projects. It allows for input from all the participants
and helps motivation. If the time available to solve a problem is short,
it should not be used. Project leaders, however, should beware of
continually operating at a crisis level. They should anticipate major
problems and allow time for participation and other planning. The
approach will not work if the leaders are negative about it, are
unskilled in its use, or if the staff resists. The field project leader
should be particularly concerned if the latter situation exists. If the
leaders themselves (project manager and deputy managers) would like to
use participative management and the staff resists, it may mean the
staff does not understand project objectives, is apprehensive about the
results, and, consequently, is not willing to share responsibility for the
In participative decision-making the leader should be strong in
implementing the decision. An advantage of this kind of leadership is
the project staff is likely to be very supportive of decisions that are
made. Even if the decision is wrong, there is less tendency to blame
someone because the proccess used to determine it was valid.
Consequently, the error will be treated as a new problem to solve with
the method.

Communication and Feedback

It is essential that a good interdisciplinary staff have effective
communications. In Chapter II it was mentioned that project staffs are
more equal in authority than other staffs; consequently, there is more
cross-communication. This equality requires that project staff tell,
ask, question, inform, correct, support, and help each other more than
in most work situations.



Effective communication helps develop respect for colleagues and
gain an appreciation of another's work. Staff should accept respon-
sibility to confer with each other and express their opinions. They
should ask questions when they do not understand, aid in educating
one another, and be facilitating when others are trying to learn a new
An important kind of communication in any organization, but
especially with a project, is giving and receiving feedback. Feedback
is the check on communications that are sent or received. Feedback is
necessary because the meaning intended in a message is not always
received by other persons. Additionally, what is being communicated
by the sender is influenced by body movements, gestures, voice
inflections, eye contact, and other subtle motions. Receivers of the
communication use their expectations for meanings, the context of a
communication, and distractions that occur to interpret the message
they receive.
Communication cannot be avoided even if a person is not talking.
If an individual is silent at a meeting what may be communicated is
resistance to the idea being discussed, personal worries, preoccupations
with other project work, or unrelated thoughts.
In spite of these facts, most people assume they are communicating
well and are not usually aware when their communications have been
unclear. Leaders have to promote good communication, and developing
a feedback system is one way to assure its accomplishment.
To be certain a message has been communicated, the sender should
ask the receiver to repeat the meaning of what was said. The receiver
can also initiate the checking process by stating the meaning is unclear
and the receiver would like to restate it to confirm its meaning. The
cycle of feedback is to send a message, have the receiver repeat the
meaning received, and then have the sender affirm the meaning is
correct or incorrect. This is a three-step communication pattern, and
although it can be awkward, it should be used frequently and for all
important communications.
Another meaning of feedback is the evaluation of and response to
the behaviors of other persons. Positive feedback recognizes an accom-
plishment and negative feedback points out an error, inadequate work,



or some other negative criticism. An honest ahd constructive balance
of positive and negative feedback is desirable.
Giving positive feedback is pleasant and useful. Positive feedback
reinforces the kind of behavior that has been evaluated; makes the
behavior likely to continue; clearly defines what the sender considers
good work, which may be previously unknown to the staff; makes the
receiver feel good and increases self-esteem; makes the sender appear
positive; and increases the morale of the entire work group. Despite
these benefits, it is surprising how infrequently positive feedback is
given. Some reasons for not giving it are that it is assumed the other
person already knows the information; that leaders should stay distant
from their staff; the other person will interpret the feedback as
manipulation through flattery; or it is inappropriate to say anything
that will initiate a show of feelings at work.
Negative feedback is harder to give but it is also essential.
Without negative feedback neither a project nor the behavior of its staff
can be corrected. Some reasons for not giving negative feedback are
that it will hurt the other person, therefore, telling them something to
make them feel good or even telling them nothing would be better; lead
to pain for the sender since most people fear being viewed negatively;
take a long time to do because the information cannot be given without
additional confrontation; and lead to anger which is undesirable when
expressed at work.
The way to cure antipathy toward giving feedback is to learn how
to do it competently. There are several guidelines that make giving
both positive and negative feedback effective. First, in giving
feedback to someone, the readiness for reception should be assessed by
asking the person if they are willing to listen. The behavior in
question should be described, rather than evaluated, and the person
should be told what they did and its impact.
The person giving the feedback should not try to interpret why a
person did something. Interpreting motives establishes the sender of
the feedback as "all knowing" which may offend the receiver. Saying
why a person did something presumes the giver already knows the
answers to issues the receiver has yet to resolve.



The one giving feedback should not offer advice but should share
information. The sender can ask what the receiver intends to do about
the feedback, especially if it is negative, but it is best for the first
suggestions of action to come from the receiver. The sender can
discuss options for corrective behavior, but if possible the receiver
should be allowed to choose his own action.
The feedback should describe specific behaviors and not make
generalizations about the receiver. For instance, it is poor practice to
say, "You always come late to meetings." A better approach is, "You
came late to this meeting, and you were also late to the last two
meetings. That has caused us to not accomplish what we had intended
to do." It is best not to refer to a trait of a person when giving
feedback. For example, "You are an angry person" should be replaced
with "You have gotten angry at three people, Ali, John, and Mary,
during the last two days, and the consequences of your anger have
upset our schedule for accomplishing our objective."
Feedback should be given soon after the behavior occurs. If it is
reserved until the annual performance appraisal, it may lose most of its
Feedback is often most effective if the receiver has communicated a
desire to be evaluated. An ideal situation is when project members
trust each other enough to ask for feedback from one another.
Feedback should be checked to ensure it is accurately heard.
This is especially necessary with negative feedback since receivers tend
to reject it or make broad generalizations. A person who received
negative feedback and applied it to more situations than for which it
was intended is "overgeneralizing." The sender of the feedback should
ask the receiver to repeat the message so it can be determined if the
receiver is overgeneralizing. If a receiver says, "Oh, I guess that
means that you think I never do a good job around here," and the
sender did not mean such a broad statement, the message should be
repeated, reemphasizing the specific situation to which the feedback
Giving feedback in a group situation is especially compelling and
should be done after the group members gain some trust for one
another. The senders and receivers of feedback should be able to say
that if the feedback was not given, the receivers would not have known



something about themselves that they needed to know. Withholding the
information from an individual may inhibit group performance. The
needs of the receiver should determine when feedback is given, but
generally, frequent feedback improves teamwork.
In many countries a direct approach to communication is not
common. In some cultures if feedback is given at all, it is given
through a third party and is colored by politeness more than by an
effort to help the receiver. Leaders of the project need to evaluate the
culture and decide how to best develop a feedback system. If it is
determined to give feedback as advocated here and the leaders have
had no previous experience using it, training may be scheduled as part
of the orientation.
Another method of communication on a project is through written
messages. Often, messages are written so poorly that they are
unclear. Another problem is that many leaders communicate too many
things verbally and do not record enough communication on paper.
Topics about which leaders should write communications are policies,
procedures, job descriptions, accountability steps, instructions, and
agreements at meetings. It is also good to notify people in writing of
intended actions. For instance, the agenda for a meeting may be
printed and distributed to the participants for use before the meeting.
Later in the project, report writing will be facilitated by the written
record of accomplishments, agreements, and actions. Written commu-
nication should not replace good, informal, verbal communication, but
should be supplementary.
Maintaining good public relations is also an important objective of
communication. Most donors and other organizations require formal
reports from the project leaders. The project leader should also keep
other influential organizations and individuals aware of the project's
progress. Communications can be through formal reports, but is often
more effective when accomplished through channels that encourage
feedback such as personal visits, telephone calls, personal letters, or a
brochure describing the project, accompanied by a request for comments
and suggestions. Inviting concerned and influential persons to the
project site to observe the progress and communicate directly with
farmers and project field staff is often one of the best means for
fostering public relations.



Conflict Resolution

Every project staff will experience conflicts among its members,
and possibly between the staff and persons outside the project.
Depending how well the staff resolves its conflicts, it will become an
effective group or fail to become a cohesive unit.
Conflict is something that most persons prefer to avoid and hope it
goes away by itself. However, conflicts must be solved and conflict
resolution can be a means by which staff come to understand each
other. Conflict resolution can assist group development because the
members learn they can deal with difficult issues successfully.
Resolving a conflict often clarifies perceptions of problems and
stimulates new ideas.
.An important concern about conflict is that the conflicting persons
believe they must win and the other Must lose before satisfaction can be
attained. Some situations are designed to be "win-lose," such as in
bargaining for an item of merchandise in the market. The seller, states
a price for the item and the buyer offers a price. The difference
between the two prices is what the buyer and seller negotiate, and
whatever the seller gains the buyer loses, and whatever the buyer
gains the seller loses.
Many other situations are characterized as win-lose, but they can
be more positively resolved. The bargaining situation is win or lose
because there is only one thing being sought; the difference between
the prices of the seller and the buyer. If other elements entered the
bargaining, such as the opportunity for the buyer to use credit, or the
promise of maintenance on the merchandise by the seller, or even an
understanding that the purchaser would return later for other
purchases, the nature of the situation changes. When many benefits
are considered, it is possible that both the buyer and the seller feel as
if they won, and they both may have. The situation must be creatively
approached to determine what gains the contesting parties can obtain
from each other at relatively low cost. This is the general idea of
conflict resolution.
Another negative orientation that people can have when
approaching a conflict is the desire to punish the other individuals.
This may be illustrated by the story of an angel trying to help a



mortal understand the principle of shared benefits who promised the
mortal anything he wanted with the understanding that the mortal's
competitor would receive two thereof. After some consideration the
mortal requested "one glass eye!" This orientation may be defined as
lose-lose, because the person who controls the outcome does not hope to
win anything; but only lose less than the opponent. To move people
from this orientation to a position where they believe they both can win
is difficult, but is often the element essential for a project's success.
There are many commonly used ways of handling conflict, most of
which are ineffective. Avoiding conflict is not good since the issues
are unresolved and continually occur, getting bigger and more intense
over time.
Fighting as a means of handling conflict is usually ineffective.
Fighting is generally lose-lose, with the losers remembering their losses
for a long time while the winners become complacent. Fighting
generally escalates the conflict, although an emotional venting of
feelings that seems like fighting is often a necessary first measure in
resolving conflicts.
Some managers try to eliminate the conflict by exercising their
authority by saying, "I'm getting tired of this problem. You quit
arguing, because I say so." This is seldom successful but is commonly
used. The problem may be hidden when the manager is present, but
reemerges later. The technique may remove the conflict temporarily
and give the manager more time to be involved with other matters but
does not resolve the problem. Since the persons involved in the
conflict are not committed to finding a solution, this approach does not
facilitate teamwork.
A similar kind of approach is to establish rules to resolve
frequently occurring conflicts. For example, "the older workers will
get the new equipment," or "men with families will be given the first
choice of housing." The problem with this approach is that some rules
are outdated or may not apply to the situation. The use of a rule
curtails the discussion of a conflict and the reasons for conflict may not
be approached. Many conflict situations are complicated and rules may
not cover all the needs of the persons involved. When rules are used
to resolve conflicts, contending persons may be left unsatisfied with the



resolution. In spite of these limitations, establishment of objective,
impartial rules can effectively reduce conflict. Careful consideration
and development of such rules is essential.
Another common method is to use majority rule to resolve conflicts.
This would appear to be a good method but is not if the majority
decides to call for a vote whenever it is bothered by a conflict. Voting
without a complete discussion of the conflict is a win-lose situation.
Voting when the majority knows it can win is a tactic for suppressing
the discussion of an issue. Voting polarizes the group and may not
allow the conflicting parties to understand the other's positions. If
there are consistent losers in voting, there is a threat they will
establish a group that could hinder teamwork. It is sometimes good to
design groups so they have trouble settling their issues by close votes.
One way to do this with small groups is to have even numbers of
participants in a conflict resolution meeting. Another way is to disallow
voting and require a consensus.
The use of minority rule is another, seemingly unusual way to
resolve conflicts. The minority is usually a group of vocal, dominant
members, often including the leader. They often go to meetings well
prepared to advocate an idea. They propose their position clearly and
forcefully, and may even ask for questions. Other persons who are not
as dominant or well prepared may not ask questions for fear of
appearing uninformed. When this happens, it is possible that no one
will speak against the recommended means of resolving a conflict,
although the majority of the group may be opposed. This condition is a
reason why the leader must not accept silence at a meeting as
representing agreement. The minority may then request the problem be
handled their way since no opposition was voiced. It is obvious that
the group must guard against minority rule, and to do so requires
persons willing to provide feedback to the group when this process
Compromise is a typical means of resolving conflicts but is not
necessarily good since the conflicting parties can usually win only a
part of what they want. It is similar to the buyer and seller in the
bargaining situation, only their viewpoints (rather than price
differences) have to be negotiated. For compromise to be an effective
conflict-resolution approach, the negotiations must include a variety of



potentially good outcomes for the groups to consider. Only then is it
likely that the conflicting parties can make an agreement that will be
satisfactory to everyone.
A final way of resolving conflict involves the use of third parties
for a judgment about an issue or help in conducting a conflict
resolution meeting. Many organizations have a grievance procedure that
is utilized when conflicting parties cannot resolve their differences. It
usually involves setting the conflict at a higher organizational level,
and finally by an arbitrator, a person acceptable to both groups who
will act as a judge and determine how the problem should be resolved.
There are problems with this method. Conflicts are most easily
resolved between those involved. If conflicts go higher in an organiza-
tion they tend to receive more publicity, get bigger, and become more
legalistic. When conflicts go into grievance procedures they generally
become win-lose or lose-lose situations. When someone else decides on
how to resolve the conflict, those concerned will usually get less than if
they worked together to arrive at an agreement. Most arbitrators are
concerned primarily with disposing of the case efficiently, and concerns
about the needs of the conflicting groups will usually be of little
importance in their decisions. The outcomes of arbitration are difficult
to predict and can be quite upsetting to those involved. The most
serious criticism is that the reasons for the conflict are not resolved
and the conflict may emerge again later but somewhat changed.
There are two other ways of using third parties to help resolve
conflicts. One is to use a mediator. If the conflicting groups are so
angry they cannot speak to each other, a mediator can carry messages
back and forth and try to find points they would be willing to discuss.
This method is often necessary, but getting the groups to communicate
should be viewed. as only a first step to conflict resolution, not
resolution itself.
The most effective use of a third party is a facilitator who
presides at a conflict resolution meeting. The conflicting groups and
the facilitator must meet together. The facilitator's function is to
ensure that groups completely present their sides of the issue, and that
the messages are understood by all. Feedback skills are important and
the facilitator may ask each side to repeat the other side's position to
ensure they understand. The facilitator should seek an honest. and



complete interchange of feelings and viewpoints. It is good to record
all the ideas presented. The facilitator should make sure a complete
discussion is held and that agreements are made before dismissing the
meeting. A follow-up meeting may be scheduled to reevaluate the
progress toward resolution.
Several procedures may be used by a project manager or field
project leaders to coordinate a conflict resolution meeting among
members of the staff.

1. The meeting should be called and labeled as "a conflict
resolution meeting" so those attending have appropriate

2. Honesty and frankness are essential at a conflict
resolution meeting. At the meeting anger and other
expressions of feelings should be allowed and even
encouraged. People in conflict are often angry or hurt,
and to deny such feelings casts an aura of dishonesty
over the meeting. Even if voices raise and tears are
shed by one side they help the other side understand
the intensity and emotion involved in their position.

3. Next, the goals of the meeting should be defined along
with expectations of the meeting. Each group should be
asked what they would like to have happen for them-
selves and for what reasons. The desired results for
each person should be listed before any decisions are

4. The project leader must be alert to the conflict
resolution orientation held by the participants and direct
them to a win-win view. Outcomes that can be shared.
by the groups must be determined. It is important to
find ways in which cooperation will be mutually

5. At this point conflict resolution should be considered a
creative problem-solving exercise--"We have a problem
and what can we do about solving it?" Facts should be
gathered and discussions of personalities or "we-they"
differences should be avoided. Facts should be checked
without questioning the honesty of the persons involved.

6. All the persons involved should be encouraged to
contribute to the discussion and their speaking time
monitored. The leader should be alert to defensiveness
about discussing the issues openly. An atmosphere
should be developed in which participants feel they may
speak frankly about all aspects of the conflict with no
negative consequences to themselves.



7. A consensus solution is most desirale because it will be
followed most completely by the participants. In
choosing a solution, it is best to avoid voting, having
one group give in on one point if the other will give in
on another, flipping coins, or compromising. All of
these things eliminate necessary discussion.
Additionally, the leader should not allow anyone to
relinquish their ideas to go along with a more powerful

8. In general, it is necessary to monitor the prdgress of
the meeting and stop it when anyone feels excessively
uncomfortable or if the participants would like to discuss
a different focus.

These procedures should continue until a solution is attained, even if
other meetings have to be called.

Managing Through Goals and Monitoring

The accomplishment of the project objectives are the responsibility
of the implementation staff. After the project manager is hired, the
general objectives should be refined into a series of procedures that
lead to their attainment.
Once the whole staff is assembled, the objectives should be refined
again. At a preliminary meeting of the technical leaders and admin-
istrative persons, the project manager should discuss the basic purpose
of the project and present the objectives and work plan. Persons at
the meeting should consider the resources available including money,
skills, and cooperation with agencies, along with the problems that must
be overcome. They should determine the feasibility of meeting the
objectives and utilizing the existing plan. In addition, the group
should determine whether project objectives will be met if all the
procedures delineated in the work plan are accomplished.
The staff must organize the project into task forces, a group of
people temporarily assembled to work on each subgoal leading to a major
objective. The task force organization model is commonly used when
management-by-goals is practiced. The staff must decide if the amount
of time demanded of each person for each procedure is appropriate, and
determine whether some people and resources will be overutilized while
others will be underutilized. Persons and resources should be tenta-
tively assigned to each task force. The assignments must ensure that
the work be accomplished with the appropriate amount of effort.



The technical and administrative leaders should present the
tentative work plan to their own staff units for discussion. It is
possible that questions may arise about the estimates of time or cost. to
complete a job. In addition, the staff miay delineate problems of which
their supervisors were not aware. They may question their own ability
or even their interest in accepting responsibility fbr completing a task.
The work units should offer suggestions for revising the work plan.
This participative involvement is essential for successful management.
Revisions made in the work units should be discussed at the
project leaders' meeting. Once again, the leaders must examine the
proposal to see if all the project's goals will be efficiently accomplished.
The leaders may approve some of the proposed changes and disapprove
others. Some negotiation may be needed with the work units before a
final plan is accepted. When accepted, the project manager should
issue a written statement of the plan to the work groups.
Each work unit should then establish their own group goals and
individual goals with the assistance of their supervisors. The
individuals' goals can cover five categories.

1. Goals that directly support their group or the project
goals. Everyone must have some of these goals to
justify their position on the project staff.

2. Goals that apply to the routine work in the project. For
instance, the project secretary might have a goal about
the accuracy of his or her typing, and an engineer
might have a goal concerning the number and precision
of water flow measurements that he or she will take.

3. Problem-solving goals. These usually will not be a
concern until later in the project, but their purpose is
to resolve a problem being faced by the person or the
project. Conflict resolution goals would fit in this

4. Innovative goals. These, too, may not be considered
until later in a project. However, a person may have an
idea for changing and improving something, and the
expected results can be a goal. These goals are
somewhat risky, and the person's supervisor should
accept them carefully and be somewhat lenient in eval-
uating their accomplishment. Innovative goals are
necessary in most organizations to help accomplish



5. Personal or project development goals. Everyone should
have some goals that help them feel good about them-
selves and aid their personal and professional growth.
These goals can refer to skill development, training for
another job, or just enjoying work more. Project
development goals can refer to improvements in the
resources of the project, such as general training or
enhancing morale.

Goals should be stated as an expected result to be accomplished by
a certain time. They should be measurable so it is necessary to specify
how they will be evaluated. The individual should state how their goals
will be achieved and their supervisors should describe how they will
assist their employee in their accomplishment. An assessment should be
made of the resources available to meet each goal, and if the resources
are not available, the supervisor may want to help in their attainment.
Finally, the cost of the goal in money, time, inconvenience, and stress
should be compared to its potential benefits to determine whether it is
worth the cost. It may be necessary to lower the magnitude of a goal
if it is too costly as first stated.
Once the project, work unit, and personal goals have been set, it
is necessary to frequently determine the progress being made. If the
indicators have been chosen well, individuals can often assess their own
progress and decide how to improve themselves. This is called self-
control as opposed to management-control of goals where the leader tells
individuals about their progress and how to improve. Most personnel
will be more motivated if they can monitor their own progress and
correct their own performance. Management should receive summary
reports of goal attainment by individuals and work units.
Progress toward the general project objectives must be continually
measured which requires evaluating the physical progress of implemen-
tation, as well as other indicaters of the effects of the project. This
requires designing and using a data management system to record
indicators of goal progress.
In general, the progress toward goals must be evaluated
considering several aspects and utilizing various methods. Project staff
should meet frequently to determine if the project is proceeding
effectively, and to make adjustments if progress is not sufficient. A
"management by exception" approach should be adopted. This means
that goals not being met should receive special attention. They may



require additional resources, a new work design, or, in some cases, it
may be necessary to change the goals if they are unattainable as
stated. Monitoring goals is a continual process as is assessing the
project as based on progress reports.
Establishing goals should be a periodic process throughout the
duration of the project. Goals may be established to cover relatively
long periods but it is usually better if goals are attainable in a
relatively short time. People like to see progress, and too many
long-term individual goals may leave the individuals without recognizable
indications of success during the interim. When first using
management-by-goals, it is good to list only a few short-range goals for
each individual, and then establish more goals in succeeding
goal-making sessions.
When practicing management-by-goals, the likely organizational
form to use is a matrix model. Staff members from different disciplines
will be assigned to several temporary task forces to accomplish various
goals. Most persons will be members of several task forces at one time.
An individual's achievements on the task forces must coincide with the
other members' to produce goal attainment for the whole group. Under
this system, a person may have personal goals that apply to several
different task forces. The project leader must assign persons to lead
each task force, and have them be responsible for producing progress
data on the group's goals. Two good references on the use of goals in
management are: Anthony R. Raia's Managing by objectives, and
Paul Mali's Managing by objectives: An operating guide to faster
and more profitable results.

Managing Cross-cultural Issues

Cross-cultural problems can arise in several types of relationships
including foreign and host-country persons, members of different
cultures within the same country, and members of various disciplines on
the project, each possessing different views of the world. Sensitivity,
participation, good communication, conflict resolution skills, and an
ability to manage from goals are required to handle cross-cultural
issues. It is helpful if the staff is willing to examine their perception
of themselves and other persons, and to try new ways of relating to
people from cultures other than their own.



Cross-cultural sensitivity does not happen easily, and for some
people it may not be possible. Project leaders should be aware of
certain personality characteristics that interfere with an ability to attain
cross-cultural understanding when project teams are selected. Persons
who demonstrate prejudicial attitudes or are rigid about accepting new
ideas are unlikely to be sensitive to others. Sometimes, persons who
are insecure have trouble accepting other persons' opinions and should
not be considered for projects dealing with different cultures.
Generally, cross-cultural sensitivity can be enhanced for most people if
they are willing to make some effort.
If appropriate, cross-cultural issues should be a main concern of
the staff as soon as all members are selected. It is common for cross-
cultural issues to be avoided during project initiation with the anticipa-
tion that "they can be learned as we go along." However, there are at
least three problems with this approach. First, team members will not
learn enough about cross-cultural issues unless they are considered
important at the beginning of the project. Impressions of other people
are established early during contact with them and are difficult to
change. It is best to emphasize the importance of cross-cultural issues
early and to devise a learning program that includes the issues.
Second, it is difficult to design organizations to continue the project
after the funding ends without shifting from project procedures to the
methods used by the people who will continue and expand the original
staff's work. This transfer can involve many cross-cultural adjustments
between the old staff and the new one with respect to accepting the
project innovations. This potential adjustment should be considered
throughout the duration of the project. Third, cross-cultural issues
can be obscure unless they are delineated. The issues often result in
frustration, disappointment, despair, and even personal depression, but
generally they are thought of as only minor distractions that inhibit
project effectiveness. One isolated issue is usually not considered
important enough to be on the agenda for a meeting. When the issues
do become big, they are difficult to handle, and for these reasons,
cross-cultural awareness and sensitivity should be a continual concern.
The project manager should induce cross-cultural understanding in
the headquarters staff. In the first meetings the manager should
emphasize the excellent opportunity available for the personnel to learn



from each other because of the different kinds of persons involved with
the project. The manager should refer to the objectives of the project,
and how meeting them will require using everyone's skill and effort. It
should be stressed that the staff will not always understand each other
because of cultural differences, but one of the goals will be to minimize
problems resulting from these differences. If the manager feels
comfortable in doing so, he might ask for the group's advice on how to
attain sensitivity toward each other.
The manager should suggest that one way to facilitate
understanding another person's position is to practice good feedback
techniques. Staff should develop ways of discussing issues that are
confusing or bothersome. In addition, feedback should be used to
assess their impact on others involved with the project. This approach
will work only if the manager of the headquarters staff will use and
accept these methods as the acceptable way of behaving. It is helpful
if an exercise on a cross-cultural issue can be used to help establish
the technique of giving and receiving feedback with actions as well as
words. A manager might use an outside facilitator to help coordinate
this attempt.
Another area of cross-cultural concern involves the prejudices or
beliefs that individuals hold about their own and other ethnic groups.
It is likely the members have stereotyped views of persons who are
from other ethnic cultures or disciplinary areas, and unless discussed
these views could harm group effectiveness. The staff perceptions of
the cultures affected by the project can be described in group
exercises and modified by feedback. One way of doing this is to have
members of each ethnic group describe themselves with a series of
adjectives or short phrases on a large piece of paper. Then, they
should describe the members of the other groups using the same
method. Finally, they should write how they think they were described
by the other group(s). The groups should discuss the perceptions of
one another to help each other understand their views. The end result
of the exercise, hopefully, will be a greater awareness of the percep-
tions and differences in views that do exist and some action steps for
using this knowledge. Again, a facilitator is useful in conducting such
a meeting.



One thing that can cause great problems in cross-cultural settings
is the different assumptions that people have about what the world is
like. Assumptions of how people operate, what is good and bad, and
what is acceptable behavior come from one's culture. These assump-
tions are so accepted it is often hard to understand them or be explicit
about them. Nevertheless, judgments of other people are made
according to these views. Assumptions about human behavior are so
strong that people may try to make their perceptions come true about
the people with whom they work. This self-fulfilling prophecy can
create problems in cross-cultural settings since it encourages
individuals to try to make people fit their concept of behavior. When
another person's assumptions are different, there is often conflict
because they are considered wrong.
The entire staff must openly examine their assumptions and their
impacts on others. A way to do this is to state one's assumptions as
explicitly as possible and to see if persons of other cultures have
similar or different assumptions. Some areas which should be explored
are what motivates people to work; the possibility for positive change;
the worth of different kinds of people including males, females, young,
old, skilled, or unskilled; the importance of status and differences in
status; the basic rights of different kinds of people; the inherent
goodness of democracy or any other form of government and
management; the value of direct feedback; and the rules of justice.
This list is not all-inclusive, but these particular areas differ greatly
across cultures and create conflict when persons of different cultures
do not understand each other's positions. Staff must become aware of
their own assumptions and others' or else they will not understand why
certain behaviors occur on the project. Relying on feedback from
individuals of all the cultures represented on a project is useful in
testing assumptions.
Cross-cultural learning is not easy to accomplish. Much of it can
come from the desire of the project manager, field project leaders, and
staff members to do it, along with some well-designed learning
experiences. Additionally, much sharing and sensitivity can occur if
the team members from different cultures share leisure as well as work
experiences. It is a good idea to share meals, attend cultural events
together, and to develop friendships across cultural boundaries as much



as possible. What happens all too frequently, however, is that cliques
form among ethnic and/or disciplinary groups and many opportunities
for cross-cultural learning are lost. Members from different
disciplinary sub-cultures should strive to take field trips together and
formulate solutions to problems with each other's assistance. Members
representing different ethnic cultures should try to convey some of
their cultural heritage by planning group dinners and other recreational
events to celebrate their holidays and to convey important social
meanings. At least basic language training would be of significant
value to the staff if the language is unknown. Also, reading novels
and scholarly works, attending plays, movies, musicals, and other
cultural events will provide more cultural insight. A final suggestion is
that certain persons on the staff should be assigned responsibility for
designing cross-cultural learning experiences so that new issues can be
covered and learning can be continuous.


Need for Training

Assistance for the farmer, particularly the small land owner, is a
major purpose of on-farm water management programs. In order to
provide farmers with agricultural skills and improved water management
practices, project staff need training in agriculture and water
management; interaction with farmers; organizing farmers; and specific
technical skills required for the various tasks involved with project
implementation. In addition, some type of extension service staffed
with personnel adequately trained in agronomic and irrigation practices
is required continually to ensure the long-term benefits of the project.
A close association between the research and extension organizations is
important if maximum effectiveness of the agricultural infrastructure is
to be realized. Research and development of improved farming methods
along with testing the results on farmers' fields, followed by extending
this information to others is a valuable training experience. Experience
with irrigation projects shows that when adequate agricultural inputs,
staff, and extension services are not continually available, physical
improvements are often temporary and the intended project benefits are
never fully realized. When the field staff is adequately trained, there



is the confidence and capability to implement the project objectives more
effectively, and direct the use of the agricultural inputs and services
to the farmers' benefits. Some principles for establishing water
management training programs are listed.

1. Field professionals are required with in-depth water
management skills, rather than being agricultural
generalists, in order to effectively implement a water
management project.

2. The project work plan will list project activities and
tasks along with projected personnel requirements, with
initial emphasis on providing only the necessary field
training required to get the project under way.

3. In the initial stages of project implementation, likely
candidates for trainers are those that have been involved
with the Development of Solutions phase.

4. Probable sites for the initial training programs are those
locations used for field testing in the Development of
Solutions phase.

5. Strong consideration should be given to "institution-
alizing" the training program by emphasizing utilization
of existing training centers, experiment stations, and

6. Attempts should be made to increase the capability of the
agricultural universities to provide training in irrigation
water management practices including agronomic
practices, watercourse improvement, land leveling,
irrigation methods and practices, farm management,
interacting with farmers, organizing farmers, developing
extension techniques, and other related areas.

7. In order to improve the image of the extension
component of the project, new titles combined with
in-depth training are often required to develop farmer
confidence and establish credibility.

8. A farm level Water Management Advisory Service staffed
by Water Management Extension Specialists should be
established to assist the farmer irrigation associations.
This service can also provide long-term continuity for
improving on-farm water management practices, as well
as providing the major linkage with the farm community
during withdrawal of project resources.

9. Special consideration should be given to developing more
effective linkages and feedback mechanisms between the
farmer, extension specialists, and the agricultural
research institutes. Particular emphasis should be given



to conducting trials on farmers' fields to gain greater
sensitivity to the problems and constraints encountered
by farmers, strengthen existing agricultural research
programs, and provide for long-term increases in
agricultural productivity.

10. Short training programs of a few hours, days, or a
week should be initiated for administrative personnel to
develop "water management awareness" among all
agencies and personnel having a role in increasing food

11. The training program for project staff should have a
"continuing education" component.

12. Rewards, awards, and incentives can be utilized to
recognize project field personnel who effectively use the
skills acquired from the training program.

Concepts of Training
The basic approach to training project field personnel should be
teaching problem-solving skills under actual field conditions. This
approach involves problem conceptualization and identification, and
acquisition of essential techniques required to help farmers solve water
management problems. About 75 percent of the training time should be
in farmers' fields. Many of the required skills should be taught by
conducting actual water management activities in villages.
Special training materials will be required and the medium of
instruction should be the local language. Emphasis should be given to
using visual aids, maps, charts, case studies, problem sets, result and
method demonstrations, simulation, and practical experience. Trainees
should be provided materials such as written outlines and notes to
develop their own field books. As much as possible, these materials
should be developed from local data.
Existing training facilities can be utilized or new training centers
can be established. Existing facilities may be found in the Agriculture
Department, the Irrigation Department, the water resources planning
and development agencies, the agricultural universities, or the agricul-
tural research institutes. A major advantage of using an existing
training center is the possibility of obtaining the assistance of their
staff in conducting all or a portion of the required training. Their
participation could serve as a catalyst to encourage such staff to



develop increased capabilities of their own for doing training in on-farm
water management related subjects. In addition, as a long range
strategy, part of the project could include training selected university
staff in several departments such as agronomy, agricultural
engineering, economics, sociology, and extension about water manage-
ment principles and methods. Having selected staff members trained
under the guidance of the project could also be attempted with the
agricultural research institutes to strengthen their capability for
conducting water management research. At the time the project is
terminated, these training institutes and agricultural universities should
be capable of continuing to contribute certified graduates for other
water management development projects.
The training to be done, whether at an existing center or institute
or through the project itself, will depend upon the skills required for
different job assignments. After formal training mostly in the field,
on-the-job training should be required in which the trainee assists in
doing evaluations, planning for improvements, and handling other
phases of the project. The length of training time at a training center
should be minimized so the trainees can quickly proceed to on-the-job
training and become active participants in project implementation. The
field project leader will designate the field supervisor of the trainees
who will also participate in each individual's evaluation. After the
successful completion of a formal training course and on-the-job
experience, an official certificate should be awarded to each participant.
Procedures for selecting and evaluating trainees should be
designed. Criteria such as work experience, farm experience, interest
in training, educational level, among other aspects, should be used for
selection. Performance evaluation methods should be designed to use
during the training, after the completion of the formal course, and
during on-the-job experience.
Each year, a short in-service training program should be
conducted for all water management personnel. This training, done at
local sites, should be the joint responsibility of the training center and
the field project leader. The training would be a means of updating
the skills of each field worker while assessing what additional training
is required.



All persons who successfully complete the training should be given
salary rewards. Other salary increases should be based on positive
field evaluations each year.

Organization of Water Management Advisory Service

The focus of this section is on the organization of an advisory
service which should be a major component of most water management
development projects. Because of the critical need for water manage-
ment improvements in arid and semiarid countries, this service provides
an opportunity to begin procedures and activities to strengthen the
existing extension system to meet these needs.
There are some universal worldwide problems in irrigated
agriculture that the concept of a Water Management Advisory Service is
designed to help overcome. First of all, there is a preoccupation with
the construction of dams, canal lining, and installation of pumps while
on-farm use of water is almost ignored. Secondly, once the construc-
tion is complete, there is a service problem, and in many cases,
inadequate maintenance.
A Water Management Advisory Service is needed to direct more
attention to the proper use of water on farmers' fields and then
encourage maintenance of the physical facilities. Water Management
Extension Specialists would work with farmers to facilitate improved
on-farm irrigation practices made possible by the physical improvements
resulting from the project. Some of these specialists would continue
working with the farmers after other project personnel have departed to
advise on proper maintenance procedures of project facilities.
The designation "On-farm Water Management Advisor" or "Water
Management Extension Specialist," rather than "extension worker" is
used to name staff in the Water Management Advisory Service since
their training and functions are different from that of the traditional
agricultural extensionist. It is proposed that persons selected for this
position be obtained from current Extension Service field staff and/or
job applicants with equivalent academic training, and that they be given
intensive in-service training on skills required to help farmers organize
and implement improved water management technologies. Intensive
training at a university in water management can substitute for training



done by the project. Effectiveness of the university in preparing
trainees for field work will depend on whether the university teachers
have experience in the field and with problems that extension specialists
will encounter. If the university professors do not have such
experience, nor teach such courses, the project manager should
encourage the faculty to gain field expertise working with project
implementation. If faculty members are unavailable for such
assignments, the project should attempt to qualify successful partic-
ipants in the field program for positions on the university faculty so
they can provide this expertise.
There are several alternatives on how a Water Management
Advisory Service can be organized. Although a new organization can
be designed that has responsibilities for farm-level advisory services,
an improved program under the existing extension service in the
Agricultural Department should be given first consideration so that the
capability of the organization can be strenthened. Because of the
recommendation that organizing the farmers into irrigation associations
is an essential part of the total project (see the section "Organizing
Farmers" in the next chapter), the advisory services organization
should be designed with linkages to these associations at various
organizational levels. As project results dictate, improved crop produc-
tion practices may require development of other farmer groups with
similar interests such as commodity groups to sponsor and perform
specific services. These organizations should be closely allied with one
another, which can be coordinated through efforts of various extension
The Water Management Advisory Service should have contacts with
research and other support institutions. Figure 6 shows some of the
more important linkages that are described below.

1. Farm level advisors must identify closely with the water
users' associations. Many activities will be directly
related to these associations such as teaching and
assisting farmers in collective activities, as well as
influencing the behavior of individual farmers. Some
mechanisms should be designed whereby the watercourse
federations have some control over the work of the water
management advisors so they do serve the majority of



All persons who successfully complete the training should be given
salary rewards. Other salary increases should(I be based on positive
field evaluations each year.

of Water Maagement. Advisory Service

The focus of this section is on the organization of an advisory
service which should be a major component. of most water management
development projects. Because of the critical need for water manage-
ment improvements in arid and semiarid countries, this service provides
an opportunity to begin procedures and activities to strengthen the
existing extension system to meet these needs.
There are some universal worldwide problems in irrigated
agriculture that the concept of a Water Management Advisory Service is
designed to help overcome. First of all, there is a preoccupation with
the construction of dams, canal lining, and installation of pumps while
on-farm use of water is almost ignored. Secondly, once the construc-
tion is complete, there is a service problem, and in many cases,
inadequate maintenance.
A Water Management Advisory Service is needed to direct more
attention to the proper use of water on farmers' fields and then
encourage maintenance of the physical facilities. Water Management
Extension Specialists would work with farmers to facilitate improved
on-farm irrigation practices made possible by the physical improvements
resulting from the project. Some of these specialists would continue
working with the farmers after other project personnel have departed to
advise on proper maintenance procedures of project facilities.
The designation "On-farm Water Management Advisor" or "Water
Management Extension Specialist," rather than "extension worker" is
used to name staff in the Water Management Advisory Service since
their training and functions are different from that of the traditional
agricultural extensionist. It is proposed that persons selected for this
position be obtained from current Extension Service field staff and/or
job applicants with equivalent academic training, and that. Ihey be given
intensive in-service training on skills required to help farmers organize
and implement improved water management technologies. Intensive
training at a university in water management can substitute for training



Agricultural Water Users Water Management
Research Centers Association Training Program

Water Management
Advisor y Service

irrigation Agriculture
Department Department

Figure 6. Linkages with Water Management Advisory Service.



6. Though not shown as a linkage, it may be important to
assure a credit program operated through the banks for
small land owners in the development areas. As
development activities are initiated, the demands for
fertilizer, land leveling services, and farm implements
should increase and require investment by the farmers.
Development programs for improved water management
seldom reach their potential for farmers unless necessary
inputs and services are available with adequate credit




To this point, the project has gone through selection of the
solutions, techniques, and approaches, hereafter referred to as the
"innovation." Having obtained legal authorization to proceed in the
designated project area(s), the project itanager, field project leaders
and staff proceed with the initiation of the maj6r tasks (Figure 7).
Project execution is the task of establishing the desired
innovations as integral parts of the agricultural system. While client
participation was important during earlier stages, it is the major focus
of project execution. Any innovation, no matter how automated or
centrally controlled, will require continuous attention by someone. With
few exceptions, farmers must adopt new tasks and usually there will be
other "off-farm" users as well. It is assumed that farmers and other
clients have shared the responsibility for developing the innovations
that will be implemented regionally. If they have not, the implementa-
tion phase will likely need more adaptation and a longer time to succeed
than if clients were involved.
Client involvement must become nearly total for successful project
execution. Moreover, if the innovations are to be integrated into the
normal routines of farmers, suppliers, processors, marketing groups,
extension agents, and various government agencies, the transition to
total client responsibility should occur gradually and orderly. The final
stage should be when the innovations function under the control of the
various users with only monitoring and consultation from project
specialists. Those that adopt the techniques are allowed to experience
control of the new inputs, methods, and organizations and learn from
their mistakes with the help of experts, thereby gaining decision-
making confidence that comes through "learning by doing." If there
are problems with communication of needs or incentives to accomplish
obligations, adjustments can be made to bolster communications,
redesign contracts, adapt incentive systems, and motivate through










Figure 7. Flow diagram of activities in the Project Operation subphase.



Influencing the project is the social, cultural, political, and
technical context that will determine how to execute the project and how
well certain strategies for achieving objectives will work. Some
elements of the social context, besides the relationships between family
and kinship groups, are the local communications and influences
experienced by the farmer. The social context can also include reasons
for shopping, marketing, and visiting. The cultural context refers to
the traditions, values, social rules, meanings of symbols, dress codes,
work habits, assumptions about people, the world in general, and the
history of the farmers. The political context includes the organized
political power system, agencies having power over people, political
parties, interests of strong outside groups, laws, the potential for
change of political power, or more informal power at the local level.
The technical context means the kinds of technologies commonly used or
those available for the farmers, the physical and educational resources
available, and the space and time in which to do things.
All of these contexts describe constraints to project execution and
the adoption of innovation. During the Development of Solutions phase
most of these constraints should have been identified and considered
before designing the resulting solutions. The final stage of the
Development of Solutions phase should have involved a planned with-
drawal and preparation of final case histories in which inputs by the
government were reduced to the level needed in the Project
Implementation phase. In the final steps of the implementation phase,
project personnel completely relinquish responsibility to the farmers and
leave the project area except for occasional monitoring or to answer
requests by the farmers for consultation.


Three common attributes of solutions to on-farm water management
problems are:

1. The use of new information or methods by farmers;

2. Their complexity relative to other agricultural
innovations; and

3. A need for collective action that requires considerable



On-farm water management solutions require more support from outside
firms or agencies than do other agricultural innovations. There is also
a requirement to transfer knowledge and skills to farmers and for
farmers to communicate information to project staff concerning their
needs for modification to solutions.
One way to transfer knowledge is through an extension agent.
Unfortunately, in many countries extension agents have little credibility
with farmers due to lack of expertise, interest, or understanding. One
approach to overcoming this low credibility is to develop a few agents
who will specialize in the innovations introduced by the project.
Because their expertise will be specialized, these agents can be well
trained in the technical aspects of the innovations in a relatively short
time. For example, use of furrow irrigation might require the extension
agent to become capable as a tractor driver, an oxen driver, and a
repairer of furrowing implements. If the agent is competent in these
areas and can teach others, the agent will be confident in dealing with
farmers and will be able to gain satisfaction from the farmers
Such mutually reinforcing sentiments are also helpful for training
agents to relate to farmers. Perhaps one of the best ways for them to
learn is through the example of project staff who are adept at estab-
lishing good relationships with farmers. Conversely, the staff can
observe the agent working with farmers and give advice concerning the
demonstrated approach.
Many innovations require technical services to farmers on a regular
basis. Repair and service of tubewell motors, manufacture of concrete
outlet structures, precision land leveling, and manufacture and
servicing of implements are examples. The two ways for attaining such
services are by training private technicians, or training technicians
within government agencies. Because the need for service on some
equipment can be urgent, it is possible that such services can be
withheld by those providing the service in order to extort considera-
tions from desperate farmers. This makes it important to give farmers
alternatives such as training the farmers to do basic repairs. Another
way is to train enough technicians so there is competition for the
farmers as clients. This competition would restrain opportunistic
behavior by local repairmen, mechanics, or electricians.



It may be impossible for several -technicians to subsist by only
serving farmers in the area. Therefore, it may be best to find
individuals with established businesses such as blacksmiths, mechanics,
or electricians to also repair the equipment. In this way, maintenance
of project facilities can become a profitable sideline for established
members of the community, giving farmers several familiar sources for
service. If government agencies must be used, methods should be
devised to motivate quality service and monitor technicians who might
be in a position to extort consideration from farmers.
More complex innovations such as irrigation associations require
more complex systems of support. Even when user groups become
self-sustaining, one of their functions is to provide communication
between farmers and technical resource people in the government, the
private sector, or nonprofit assistance organizations. Establishment of
this communication channel requires either exceptionally talented
extension personnel who can relate to both farmers and technical
experts in various agencies or some well-educated farmers within each
user's association who are capable of communicating problems to agency
technicians. Often larger landholders do have such expertise and can
utilize technical information. Unfortunately, these farmers are usually
regarded by their neighbors as "different" so that their examples are
hard or impossible to follow.
The communicative distance between farmers and extension agents
or innovative farmers can be reduced through training both groups.
Extension agents can be educated to relate to farmers and farmers can
be trained in particular skills and knowledge that make them confident
in handling change. The importance of this training cannot be
overemphasized. Consequently, the next section deals primarily with
farmer participation and training.


Project Implementation staff must help farmers involved with the
project understand the objectives and the changes introduced.
Hopefully, farmers not directly associated with the project will also be
positively affected. Some of the work toward these aims will have
started during the Problem Identification and Development of Solutions



phases, but implementors of the project will have to complete the work.
An important means of gaining farmer acceptance and disseminating an
innovation is through the use of farmer involvement and participation.
To determine farmer participation on a project, it is useful to
consider the time when the idea for the project was first initiated.
Then, if the project was correctly managed, farmers who were likely to
be affected should have been involved in the initial discussions.
Leaders of the farmers should have been a part of the negotiations and
their willingness to accept the project should have been assessed.
Unfortunately, obtaining farmer involvement is often neglected until
later in project development, if at all.
The USAID has advocated farmer participation throughout a
project's development to encourage farmer acceptance and diffusion of
the innovations. J. E. Hautaluoma's Using a collaborative style on
technical assistance teams, a USAID publication, has a discussion on
how to use a participative style on projects.
To encourage early participation by the farmers, it is good tQ
disseminate basic information concerning the project through the leaders
of their informal groups. It is usually best if the leaders can be
convinced of the value of the project by working with project
personnel. The leaders can spread the information and gain support
for the project from those they represent. Interviews with farmers and
visits to their fields are worthwhile since they indicate an interest by
the project staff in working collaboratively.
Another useful early procedure is to develop committees, including
farmers, project personnel, and other interested people to study
operation of the innovations and means for diffusing the information.
This step should be started before the proposal is written, and it may
be associated with the Problem Identification and Development of
Solutions phases. In the committees, the farmers should be heard,
respected, and given positions of importance. Some groups from which
the committees can be formed are local water users' associations, groups
established by the farm extension service, and agribusiness
representatives. These groups can help unite the project with other
organizations, which is an aim of most on-farm water improvement



A means of securing credibility for the project is to furnish
training for the farmers on the methods that will be (ised. The role of
training farmers is one that should be accepted. by project staff during
all phases of the contract. It is worthwhile to use demonstrations and
utilize farmers' fields when teaching, and to instill confidence in the
farmer which, in turn, aids the dissemination process.
After the proposal is approved, farmers must be utilized to help
implement the project. They should be involved in the construction,
data collection, problem solving, evaluation, and redirection of the
work. During implementation, opposition to the changes will probably
come from some people who are affected but who did not originally
understand the potential impacts. Farmers can help overcome the
opposition if they feel they own the project.
During the Project Implementation phase or even earlier, the
farmers and project staff must plan how the project's objectives will
continue when funding ceases. Together, they must establish social,
political, and economic ties that will perpetuate the changes initiated by
the project. The farmers and the project staff must decide how to
spread the effects of the project to other farmers.

Assessing Farmer Motivation to Participate

Project staff must actively plan to obtain farmer participation. To
motivate farmers to participate means moving the farmers from
awareness of the project to interest in the project, to a desire to try
the project innovation, to active trial, and finally to satisfaction.
As a check on. the approach used to motivate farmer participation
at each of these steps, some questions can be used by project leaders
to assess their plans. Some questions concerning awareness include:

Are the benefits of the project visible and communicated to
the farmers?

Are the farmers talking to other farmers about the benefits?

Is there a plan for creating widespread awareness to
the farmer?



Questions about interest are:

Is farmer interest being assessed?

Are the innovations of the project interesting to the farmers?

Are their interests being used to create a desire and a
willingness to try the innovations?

Are interested farmers helping develop interest in other

Some questions about the farmers' desire for the innovations are:

Do the farmers want to change their present practices?

Have demonstrations shown the difference between the
farmer's current methods and what they can be if the
innovations are adopted?

Are their needs for change strong enough to encourage full
participation in the project?

Questions concerning the farmers' willingness to try the innovation are:

Has the project been designed to give farmers an
easy opportunity to participate?
Is their participation appreciated, even when they suggest
Are they given a role in deciding how they will act?

Are they recognized positively for their participation?

The plans to influence satisfaction can be assessed by the questions:

Do farmers regard the program as theirs rather than
something that was imposed upon them?

Are they given places of leadership in determining the
project's direction?
Is their satisfaction being measured?

Is their satisfaction strong enough for them to desire further

What methods are being used to build their satisfaction?

Will they maintain and improve the innovations on their own
after the project is completed?



These questions can be used to be sure there is an active,
effective program to help motivate participation. The project leader
should use the answers to these questions as a guide for developing
improved plans.

Motivating Farmer Participation

Some methods useful for motivating farmers have already been
mentioned. Others, mainly practiced by extension agents, are listed
below. It is not necessary to utilize all the methods at once, but
project leaders should find it helpful to choose those that apply to their
Establishing or strengthening irrigation associations or water users
associations and farmer extension services will help increase motivation
to participate. If irrigation associations are formed with the help of
project staff, it is beneficial to give the farmer sample bylaws and other
materials so they will learn organization. Example materials should
explain the benefits of the association and contain instructions on how
to legally establish an organization. Workers in the extension organiza-
tion should be knowledgeable about irrigated agriculture and skillful in
utilizing extension methods. Extension workers who are informed
about local problems and have the confidence of .the farmers are most
effective. One long-range objective of the project should be to ensure
that irrigation associations and extension services are capably run
before the project is finished.
The more farmers know about innovations and project objectives,
the more likely they will participate in the adoption and diffusion
process. Fear of changes resulting from the project is primarily caused
by insufficient knowledge about the process and a lack of confidence in
achieving the expected results. Therefore, a major component of the
project staff's activity must be to design and administer a training
program for the farmers, often using irrigation associations and other
local entities as the catalyst for initiation.
Besides training, it is important to enhance farmer recognition for
working on the project. Where possible, farmers should be given
special notice for assisting in the project, trying innovations, having



successful field trials, making progress in improving on-farm water
management practices, being a leader in a water users' association,
making suggestions, visiting farmers, and other related activities.
Radio and television announcements and newspaper articles are good for
communicating these accomplishments since they can treat the recogni-
tion as a human interest story which will be interesting to many area
farmers. The awards should make farmers more aware of good water
management practices, help foster efficient practices, and promote
cooperation in improving methods. News media coverage of such awards
provides incentive to the farmer. Framed photographs of the award-
giving or showing the farmer in the improved activity can have high
value if the photos are given to the farmers involved. Inscribed
plaques describing farmer efforts are also appreciated gifts. Another
effective way of recognizing good work is with appropriate personal
feedback expressing the appreciation of the project staff and stating
how the farmer's efforts facilitated attainment of the project's
Field days, where local farmers entertain other farmers invited to
see their innovations and the effects on crop stands and yields, are
good for motivation. They are especially effective if the farmers plan
them and they are festive. Special tours by neighboring farmers of the
improved area can serve the same purpose. Emphasis in both of these
approaches should be on farmer-to-farmer interaction with the local
farmers being highlighted rather than the project staff. The staff,
however, can subtly facilitate the interaction.

Farmer Training Programs

A variety of training sessions should be conducted to increase the
farmers' knowledge and confidence in adopting the innovations. This
variety ranges from organizational and administrative training to
training on technical matters and farmer/government interactions.
Training on organizational and administrative matters is primarily
directed to:

1. Creating or utilizing irrigation associations or other
forms of local farmer control,

2. Managing and establishing decision-making approaches to
assist the functioning of the associations, and



3. Identifying and resolving problems of an organizational
and technical nature, as well as those that occur
between the water users and the association or among
water users.

Because of the need to continue certain administrative duties, farmers
may require training in conducting -meetings, keeping records, and
verbalizing their opinions and needs.
Technical training programs should follow the initial organizational
training. This training should advance the levels of awareness
consistent with the pace that innovations are being implemented.
Certain training sessions will need to be scheduled early in the first
project season with others delayed until later or scheduled according to
farmer receptivity. Project leaders should identify which technical
training will benefit the farmers and develop a PERT diagram for
achievement. Technical matters that can be the subject of training
consist of :

1. Adoption of and "how-to-do" improved agronomic and
irrigation practices

2. Rehabilitation, operation, and maintenance of the water
delivery system including allocation and rationing of
water supplies, delivery and cultivation schedules, and
mobilizing farmer cooperation in rehabilitation and
maintenance of structures and channels

3. Adoption and use of improved agronomic inputs such as
seed and agricultural chemicals including fertilizers,
pesticides, and herbicides

4. Use of other inputs to improve farm production and the
quality of agrarian life such as credit and crop storage,
processing, and marketing.

Another topic that training programs should include is to inform
the farmer about the operations, services, and programs of government
agencies and related business enterprises, and how these programs or
services can assist. As a component of this training, project leaders
should guide the farmers by using irrigation associations to communicate
with the government agencies and businesses that can benefit the
farmers and their operations. The relationships that can be developed
are important for both farmers and officials to better understand the
other's roles, duties, and constraints.



Project staff should conduct the training until other persons can
be developed who will take over. Support of training by the project
can include funding programs for conducting field short courses for
farmers at various locations; conducting seminars and demonstrations
with project staff and major farmers as trainers; and using other
approaches. Inviting principal farmers or officers of irrigation associa-
tions to attend selected staff training courses as described in the
previous chapter can be helpful.
Farm experience in using new methods learned in training is very
important and should be coupled with an examination of the results and
feedback from the trainers, and from trainees to the trainers. Training
of the farmers should utilize several media rather than just relying on
written information. Slides, movies, brochures, tours, meetings,
posters, cartoons, exhibits, illustrated and condensed booklets,
slogans, lectures, speeches, symposiums, workshops, and method
demonstrations can be utilized.
Training should begin with ways to clarify goals, then proceed to
designing good training materials and methods of presentation for
meeting the goals, selection of those people who will benefit by the
training, presentation of training materials in an easily understood
manner, and finally, evaluation of the training's effectiveness. Use of
news releases in local newspapers and over the electronic media can be
useful in highlighting the importance of the training programs.


Role of Irrigation Associations

To successfully implement a program of improved water management
at the local level, it is often helpful to enhance an existing institutional
structure or to introduce new ones to represent the irrigators and
enable them to assume responsibility for its use. In many countries,
this local organization is referred to as a Water User's Association,
Irrigation Association, Community of Irrigators, or something similar.
It is important when translating the name into the national language
that it convey the organizations' purpose and importance.
Generally, the basic objectives of local water organizations are to
operate, maintain, and rehabilitate the water distribution system at the



farm level in an efficient and effective manner as possible, while
promoting proper application and conservation of water on the farm.
Specifically, the objectives of an irrigation association might be:

1. To improve and maintain field water delivery channels,

2. To ensure that water will be equitably distributed among
farmers throughout the field channels and from the canal
to the field channels,

3. To operate the delivery system in a way that prevents
unnecessary loss and water waste,

4. To serve as a channel of communication between Water
users and water controllers, such as the Irrigation
Department, on irrigation and crop scheduling, water
supply conditions, rotation schedules of distributary
channels, and other matters,

5. To resolve disputes among farmers within the
organization area, and if necessary assist in enforcement
of sanctions against offenders,

6. To encourage adherence to cropping patterns that
maximize water use under the particular soils, climatic,
and water delivery conditions of the area,

7. Where possible, obtain domestic water from ground water
or other sources, and reduce losses resulting from
having domestic water run through field channels during
periods of nonirrigation,

8. To expand the benefits of cooperation and collective
action into other activities common to the irrigators
within the delivery system by setting realistic cultivation
schedules and cooperating in obtaining needed
agricultural implements (sprayers) and production inputs
(seeds, herbicides), and

9. To promote improved water management, equitable
distribution of available supplies, and conservation of

Guidelines to Formation

Important aspects of organizations that project staff should
consider are size, complexity, difference within the membership,
independence from other powerful organizations, values, goals, control
by a central administrative unit, and formal rules. Organizations most
likely to accept innovations are small but with boundaries based upon
the area controlled by a single irrigation outlet. These organizations



are relatively simple in structure; have members with similar interests
and values; make their own decisions; have values and goals consistent
with those of the project; influence theit' members; and have rules that
farmers will follow.
Several issues must be jointly considered when developing
structural models for irrigation associations. They include the nature
and structure of the organization, levels of formation, functions to be
performed, and culturally appropriate procedures. A detailed analysis
of global legal authority on the creation of water users' associations and
the formation of irrigation associations is in G. E. Radosevich,
Improving agricultural water use: organizational alternatives. The
publication, "Improving on-farm water management throuKh irrigation
associations" by Layton, et al., provides an illustrated summary presen-
tation about organizing farmers for improving their water management
Water user associations are usually formed according to one of two
methods. First, water users may initiate their establishment.
Generally, this method is provided under legislation that creates the
structure as well as the method of organizing the association. In some
countries, water users organize voluntarily according to legislation
adopted by the government. Voluntary associations are also formed by
necessity where collective action has developed without formal govern-
mental approval. These organizations represent the customary or
traditional pattern and are important to the entire community.
Second, the central government may wish to establish water user
associations according to a general national plan or in a region where
water shortages require stricter controls on water delivery use and
removal of return flows. In this case, the government may have
authority to assume the initiative under the same legislation that
provided for individual action at the local level. However, the creation
of water user associations as management units in some countries such
as Mexico is entirely in the province of the government. In these
systems, membership is compulsory of all users in the jurisdiction of
the association.
Most countries allow water user associations to organize according
to the individual initiative of water users under provisions stated in the
legislation. Methods of formation and operation are controlled by the



government, and final approval of the association's establishment is with
the central government. Formation of voluntary associations typically
occurs where economic incentives for increased production are rewarded
in the market.
To ensure long-term success of government, efforts to increase
agricultural production through improving water control and
management, it is recommended that formal and legal recognition be
granted for the creation of the irrigation organizations. Many
independent farmer organizations exist in most countries, often with
great success in achieving limited and local goals. To introduce a
program nationwide for irrigated areas, it is desirable to establish
uniformity and continuity.
The level of formation and structure of the association depends
upon the system of irrigation supply channels. It is important to form
the organization at the lowest level of common water supply to the
farmers served, but high enough on the channel system so it functions
effectively. Consequently, primary emphasis of the irrigation associa-
tions must focus on water and the constraints and confines of the
hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics of the systems, and not the
political or agrarian service boundaries or having the association
undertake a multitude of other agricultural activities.
Most irrigation delivery schemes consist of the government
constructing the surface water diversion and conveyance system with
water delivery through a series of canals to the outlet where a farmer
or group of farmers receives their allocated water. These canals are
referred to as major and minor canals. Often there are larger canals
feeding the minor canals and small distributaries, which are still under
government jurisdiction, that convey water to the irrigators' outlets. It
is assumed that below this government controlled outlet, there are
laterals or watercourses within the irrigation area delivering each
farmer's share to his field. These laterals or watercourses are
controlled by the irrigators they serve and are managed by the
The scheme is not disrupted if ground water is a portion of the
water supply. Placement of wells is important to the water delivery
scheduling program and can be one of the prime tasks of the association
if the surface water supply can be supplemented by ground water.



Designing local water user organizations around this physical
scheme involves several principles that should be considered by the
government and the project.

1. A policy of decentralized, self-management at the
watercourse level should be adopted. This principle will
induce participation of water users by helping develop
pride in the association's operation and stimulating a
progressive agricultural economy.

2. The format of the association should be structured
similar to existing effective institutions to limit social

3. Flexibility should be allowed to the agriculturalists in
local areas to adopt the types of organizations most

4. Not only the positive aspects of forming associations
should be discussed, but clear understandings of
sanctions and the need for enforcement against infrac-
tions of association rules must be considered.

5. The purpose of the organization should justify its
existence. An association should have clear purposes
and objectives and be publically accountable for the use
of public water.

6. Goals of the associations should include improving water
delivery and scheduling, and minimization of risk while
maximizing production for association members.

7. Composition of the association should be confined to
landowners and tenants in the command area and only
members actively involved in irrigated farming should be

The authority that should be granted to water users' associations
can be divided into four categories: administration, operation, enforce-
ment and dispute solving, and miscellaneous (Table 5). Adminstration
includes supervision of membership, finance, and management.
Operation defines or outlines activities related to attaining the purposes
and objectives of the association. The enforcement and dispute solving
segment determines problems and enforces solutions. As with every
organization, there are issues peculiar to the culture and region that
require miscellaneous control. Within each of the four general
categories specific activities are recommended.



Table 5. Divisions of authority of water users' associations.

Administrative Activities

1. Choose officials and representatives to manage

2. Create an internal organization to achieve the purposes
and authority granted.

3. Enact bylaws consistent -with the purposes of the
association. Bylaws should be filed with the government
agency in charge of the water association.

4. Establish authority to borrow, incur indebtedness,
accept loans and pledges, levy assessments, impose fines
for violation of rules, prepare budgets, and conduct
other financial responsibilities.

5. Incur obligations under contract with the government or
private sector consistent with the association's purposes.

6. Contract for materials, and services.

7. Appoint water masters or ditch tenders.

Operation Authority

1. Establish water use principles and delivery schedules.

2. Control water delivery according to rules on distribution
and delivery.

3. Survey and inspect water works on farmers' lands.

4. Operate and maintain water works within the
organization's boundaries.

5. Require nonwaste of water and prevention of harm to
other users.

6. Require on-farm drainage if necessary.

7. Undertake other activities associated with improving
water use efficiency and increased production such as
watercourse rehabilitation and collective land leveling.



Table 5. Divisions of authority of water users'. associations (continued).

Authority to Enforce Rules and Resolve Disputes

1. Compel payment of fines or services.

2. Accept complaints from membership.

3. Identify problems and gather facts through investigations
and hearings.

4. Decide appropriate solutions and, if necessary, punitive

5. Ensure solutions are executed and punitive action

6. Develop an abatement schedule if a problem requires
phasing out so as not to cause undue hardship on

Miscellaneous Authority

1. Obtain credit or commodities related to agricultural
production for the membership.

2. Use eminent domain powers to acquire rights-of-way,
lands, water rights, and water facilities necessary to.
accomplish the purposes of the association.

3. Establish the right and responsibility to require the
association membership to comply with the water and
other laws, decrees, and agency rules established by the
government; for example, well spacing and ground water
pumping rules, and nondumping of wastes into canals.

4. Gather and disseminate information to membership.

5. Send representatives to confer and/or work with
government officials on matters affecting the association .

6. Undertake or participate in educational and demonstration
programs that benefit the membership.



The organization should consist of three separate divisions. The
first is the governing body or assembly composed of all members. The
second is the managing body consisting of elected representatives who
serve as officers of an organization. The third is the dispute-resolving
body. It may include the same persons as elected to the managing
body. These decision-making groups provide a check by the members
on association activities and in resolving disputes.
The governing body has several functions. It should:

1. Act as jury and judge on matters solely within the

2. Conduct administrative functions of operating and
maintaining the system, hiring ditch walkers, and other

3. Serve as a planning board for improving distribution and
utilization of water within the system,

4. Plan cooperative efforts between systems to facilitate
delivery of water on demand without disturbing the canal
conveyance system, and

5. Be responsible for ensuring that penalties are enacted
and water is properly delivered according to
predetermined schemes.

In the managing body, representatives are often elected by the
entire membership to the "Board of Directors" or "Committee." This is
not recommended. An equitable representation on the board of
directors from throughout the watercourse area is fundamental to
protect the interests and rights of those irrigators located at the end of
the watercourse. The board should consist of members representing
various areas within the command area.
The managing body could consist of a five-person board or some
other number depending upon the size of the watercourse, representing
different areas, for instance, one from the beginning of the
watercourse, two from the middle, and two from the end. A rotating
presidency or chairmanship is suggested with the president selecting a
treasurer and secretary, all from within the five representatives.
Three-year terms of office are suggested to give the representatives an
opportunity to learn leadership skills and issues concerning the
watercourse with the terms expiring in a staggered manner. No officer
would have any power greater than the other.