Homemaking handbook for village workers in many countries

Material Information

Homemaking handbook for village workers in many countries
United States -- Extension Service
United States -- Agency for International Development
Place of Publication:
Washington D.C
American Home Economics Association
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
237 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Housewives ( lcsh )
Home economics -- Handbooks, manuals, etc ( lcsh )
Home economics extension work ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
"September 1981."
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with Agency for International Development.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
09565038 ( OCLC )

Full Text

For Village Workers in Many Countries

Reproduced from an original publication prepared by the
Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State by the
International Family Planning Project-AID/DSPE-G-0010
Washington, D.C. September 1981
1.5m 10/81 BW

This handbook is a guide for the village level worker. It can also serve as a teaching aid and text to teachers of village level workers.
It is intended for use by personnel in home economics extension, community development, home economics classroom teaching, health education, and other programs involving home and family life.
. The material in this handbook was obtained from many countries around the world, and many people contributed to it from their personal knowledge and experience.
We especially acknowledge the assistance of Sue Taylor Murry in compiling the contributions of authorities in several fields. Particular appreciation is due Jeannette Dean, Assistant State Home Economics Leader, Illinois Extension Service; and Margaret Power, Nutritionist.
Appreciation is also expressed to staff members of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; the Agricultural Research Service and the Extension Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; the Agency for International Development; and other expert consultants.
Material was also adapted from the published works of the following authorities: Dr. Mary E. Keister, Research Associate in the Institute of Child and Family Development of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, formerly Home Economics Officer, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; Elsa Haglund, formerly Home Economist with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Dr. Derrick B. Jelliffe, Director, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, University of the West Indies, Jamaica; and Dr. Michael Latham, Professor of International Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, formerly Medical officer I/c, Nutrition Unit, Ministry of Health, Dar-esSalaam, Tanzania.
The Homemaking Handbook is a companion volume to Homemaking Around the World, which has been neither revised nor replaced. The principal purpose for printing Homemaking Around the World in 1958 was to help start home economics extension programs. It has been reprinted and is still available. However, the village level worker needs a publication such as this Homemaking Handbook for additional information on both home economics subject matter and methods of working with rural families.
This Handbook was produced by the Extension Service in cooperation with the Office of Agriculture and Fisheries, Technical Assistance Bureau, Agency for International Development. Most of the photographs were taken in the field by AID, FAO, and UNICEF staff.
Helen A. Strow
Extension Specialist, International Extension Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Village Women Help Build Nations -------------------- 11
You Are a Village Worker ------------------------- 13
Beginning Your Work ------------------------------ 14
Your First Visits to the Village -------------------- 14
It Takes Time ------------------------------------ 16
Record Your Observations ------------------------ 16
Working With People to Bring About Change -------- 16 Sample Home Garden Observation Form ------------ 21
You Need Support --------------------------------- 22
At the National Level ---------------------------- 22
At the Provincial Level ----------------------------- 23
At the Village Level ------------------------------ 23
People Who Are Willing to Help -------------------- 23
Working With Other Agencies and Organizations ------ 25 Agricultural Agencies ---------------------------- 25
Agricultural Credit Programs -------------------- 26
Cooperatives ------------- ----------------------- 26
The Ministry of Education ------------------------ 26
Research Agencies -------------------------------- 27
Public Health ----------------------------------- 27
The Institute of Nutrition ------------------------ 27
Community Development and Social Welfare -------- 27 Literacy Programs ------------------------------ 28
International Organizations ---------------------- 28
Religious and Voluntary Agencies ------------------ 28
Food and Nutrition -------------------------------- 30
The Story of Samuel and Mary -------------------- 32
Your Government Is Concerned -------------------- 33
What is Nutrition? ------------------------------ 35
How Food Is Used by the Body ------------------- 35
What Kinds of Food Do We Need for Good Nutrition? - 37 Foods That Help to Build the Body ---------------- 37
Foods That Provide Much Energy ------------------- 39
Foods That Keep the Body Working Properly and
Help It Resist Disease --------------------------- 41
Food Needs Vary --------------------------------- 42
Food Needs for Adults ------------------------- 43
Special Food Needs of Pregnant and Nursing Women - 43 Food Needs for Infants -------------------------- 44
Breast Milk ---------------------------------- 44
Bottle Feeding ------------------------------ 44
Starting Other Foods ------------------------ 44
Preparing and Handling Foods for the Baby - 48 W eaning ---------- --------------------------- 49

Food Needs From Weaning to 6 Years -------------- 49
Food Needs of School Age Children ---------------- 51
The School Lunch ---------------------------- 51
Carrying Food to School ----------------------- 52
Food Needs During Adolescence ------------------- 53
Food Needs of Sick People ------------------------ 53
Food Habits and Their Influence in Nutrition -------- 53 Developing Good Eating Patterns ------------------- 53
Learn the Facts --------------------------------- 54
Handling Food ----------------------------------- 55
Principles of Food Preparation -------------------- 55
Teaching Food and Nutrition ---------------------- 57
Preparing-Foods for Children ------------------ 57
Serving the Meals --------------------------- 61
Other Suggestions for Teaching Nutrition ------ 62 Growing Food at Home ----------------------------- 63
Your Agriculturist Can Help You ------------------ 64
Talk the Situation Over With the People ------------ 66
Home Gardens ----------------------------------- 66
Planning and Getting Ready ------------------- 67
Getting Garden Tools Ready ------------------ 69
Preparing the Garden Site -------------------- 69
Planting the Seeds ---------------------------- 71
Transplanting ------------------------------- 73
Caring for the Garden ------------------------ 73
Harvesting ---------------------------------- 75
School Gardens ------------------------------ 75
Teaching Gardening ------------------------- 75
The Family Poultry Flock ------------------------- 76
Getting Started ----------------------------- 76
Hatching and Brooding With Hens ------------ 77
Feeding ------------------------------------- 77
Housing ------------------------------------ 78
Rats and Mice ---------------------------------- 80
Disease and Parasites ----------------------- 80
Eggs --------------------------------------- 81
Suggested Method Demonstrations ------------- 83
Milk Goats -------------------------------------- 84
Feeding and Housing ------------------------- 84
Milking ------------------------------------- 85
Rabbits ----------------------------------------- 86
Feeds and Feeding --------------------------- 88
Management and Equipment ------------------ 88
Rabbit Meat and Its Use -------- --------------- 90
Food Storage and Preservation ---------------------- 91
Taking Care of Food in the Home ------------------ 91
Keeping Foods for a Long Time ------------------- 92
Storing Grains, Pulses, and Nuts ------------------ 93
Preserving and Storing Fruits and Vegetables -------- 94

Field Storage ------------------------------- 94
A Cool, Dark Place -------------------------- 95
Drying ------------------------------------- 95
Canning ------------------------------------ 97
Bottling Fruit Juices ------------------------ 97
Bottling Tomato Juice or Tomato Puree -------- 99 Salting or Brining Vegetables ----------------- 99
Child Care ---------------------------------------- 103
Getting Ready for the New Baby ----------------- 103
Prepare a Good Home for the Baby ------------ 105
Clothes for the Baby -------------------------- 105
Diapers ------------------------------------ 105
A Place for the Baby to Sleep ----------------- 106
Bedding ------------------------------------ 106
Plan for Delivery -------------------------------- 106
Midwives ----------------------------------- 108
After the Baby Arrives -------------------------- 109
Feeding ------------------------------------ 109
Bathing the Baby ---------------------------- 109
Sleep --------------------------------------- 109
Health Care --------- ----------------------- 109
As a Child Grows -------------------------------- 110
How a Baby Grows and Develops -------------- 110
The Second Year -------------------------------- 112
The Years Before School -------------------------- 112
Prevent Accidents --------------------------- 114
Children Must Play -------------------------- 114
When Children Go to School ---------------------- 115
Sleep --------------------------------------- 116
Clothes ------------------------------------- 116
Keeping Children Well ----------------------- 116
Make a Good Home Life for Children ----------- 116
Activities and Visual Aids ------------------------ 116
Health ------------------------------------------- 119
Health Is a National Problem ---------------------- 119
Health Is Your Job ------------------------------- 119
Safe Drinking Water ------------------------------ 119
Disposal of Wastes ------------------------------- 120
Household Pests --------------------------------- 122
Personal Cleanliness ------------------------ ------ 122
Immunization ------------------------------------ 124
Family Planning -------------------------------- 127
First Aid --------------------------------------- 129
Artificial Respiration ------------------------- 131
Sickness in the Home ---------------------------- 132
Teaching Health Care --------------------------- 132
Housing and Home Improvement -------------------- 135
Better Housing Concerns Many ------------------- 135
Where to Start ---------------------------------- 135

Many Different Kinds of Repairs and Improvements 136 The Foundation ----------------------------- 136
The Roof and Walls -------------------------- 136
Windows and Doors ------------------------- 138
Steps --------------------------------------- 138
Floors ------------------------------------- 138
Keeping Animals Out of and From Under the House 138 Improving the Kitchen ------------------------- 138
The Cooking Stove ------------------------------ 140
The Smokeless Stove ------------------------- 142
Ovens --------------------------------------- 142
A Fireless Cooker ---------------------------- 142
Work Surfaces ---------------------------------- 143
Storing Equipment ------------------------------- 144
Storing Food ------------------------------------ 146
Dishwashing Area ------------------------------- 147
The Eating Area --------------------------------- 148
The Sleeping Area -------------------------------- 148
Beds --------------------------------------- 148
Mattresses ---------------------------------- 149
Baby's Bed --------------------------------- 149
Ventilation --------------------------------- 149
Partitions ----------------------------------- 149
Storage for Clothing and Bedding -------------- 149
Bathing Facilities ------------------------------- 150
The Living Area -------------------------------- 151
Building Materials ------------------------------- 153
How to Make an Earth Floor Hard ------------------ 153
Oil Can Ovens ------------------------------------ 154
How to Make a Cement Sink ---------------------- 156
How to Make Wall Partitions ---------------------- 158
An Improvised Shower --------------------------- 159
Housekeeping and Home Management ---------------- 160
Why a Clean House Is Important ----------------- 160
Keeping the House and Surroundings Clean ---------- 161 How to Have a Well-Kept House ------------------ 162
The Walls ---- ------------------------------ 162
The Floors --------------------------------- 162
The Windows -------------------------------- 162
The Bedrooms ------------------------------- 162
Storage Places for Clothes and Bedding -------- 163 Bath Facilities ------------------------------ 163
The Living Room ---------------------------- 163
The Kitchen --------------------------------- 164
Dishwashing -------------------------------- 164
Washing Clothes ---------------------------- 164
Ironing ------------------------------------- 166
Disposing of Wastes and Controlling Household
Pests ------------------------------------- 166

Management in the Home ------------------------- 166
Plan and Organize Housework ------------------ 167
Arrange Equipment and Work Space ---------- 167 Use Good Body Positions --------------------- 169
Have Work Surfaces and Shelves the Right Height 169 Keep From Getting Too Tired ------------------ 170
Use Money Wisely ---------------------------- 170
Clothing ------------------------------------------ 172
Why People Dress as They Do ---------------------- 172
Before You Begin a Clothing Program -------------- 172
How Are Your Own Sewing Skills? ---------------- 173
Some Problems in Home Sewing --------------------- 173
Making New Garments -------------------------- 174
Selecting Suitable Materials ------------------- 174
Begin With Something Easy ------------------- 175
Panties for a Small Girl ---------------------- 176
Little Girl's Dress --------------------------- 177
Boy's Pants --------------------------------- 178
Women's Underwear --------------------------- 179
Aprons ------------------------------------- 180
Care of the Sewing Machine ---------------------- 180
Teaching Other Topics Along With Sewing ---------- 181 SECTION III-HOW YOU WILL TEACH Planning and Developing a Village Program ---------- 187 Steps in Planning a Program ---------------------- 187
Kinds of Programs ------------------------------ 188
Sample Plans of Action --------------------------- 191
Local Leaders Are Important ------------------------ 194
Who Are Leaders? ------------------------------- 194
Why Leaders Are Important --------- ------------- 194
Kinds of Local Leaders --------------------------- 195
How to Find Informal or Natural Leaders ---------- 195 How Leaders Are Selected for Specific Jobs ---------- 196 What Kinds of Help Can Leaders Give? -------------- 196
Leaders Grow ----------------------------------- 197
Training Leaders -------------------------------- 198
Recognizing and Thanking Leaders ----------------- 200
Your Own Leadership Qualities --------- ----------- 200
Leader's Guide for Demonstration Meeting -- -- - - - -- 201
Teaching Methods ----------------------------------- 203
The Steps in Teaching ----------------------------- 203
Individual Teaching Methods -----------------_------ 204
Home and Farm Visits ------------------------ 204
Casual Village Visits -- ------_--------------- 207
Office Calls ----------------------------------- 207
Result Demonstrations ------------ 208
Letters -------------- 209
Group Teaching Methods ---------- --------------- 209
Method Demonstrations 209
Tours ------------------------------ 212

Meetings ----------------------------------- 213
Women's Clubs ------------------------------- 214
Songs ---------------------------------------- 215
Drama ------------------------------------- 215
Role Playing - - - - 7 - - - - - - - - - - - 215
Puppet Plays -------------------------------- 215
Mass Teaching Methods --------------------------- 217
Leaflets ------------------------------------- 217
Circular Letters ----------------------------- 217
Newspapers -------------------------------- 217
Wall Newspapers and Bulletin Boards ---------- 217 Radio -------------------------------------- 218
Television ---------------------------------- 218
Fairs, Exhibitions, and Festivals --------------- 219
Campaigns -------------------------------------- 219
Community Centers ------------------------------ 220
Teaching Aids ------------------------------------- 223
Real Objects ------------------------------------ 223
Samples and Specimens --------------------------- 223
Models ------------------------------------------ 223
Photographs ------------------------------------- 223
Blackboards ------------------------------------- 223
Flannelgraphs ----------------------------------- 223
Flashcards -------------------------------------- 227
Flip Charts -------------------------------------- 227
Films -------------------------------------------- 227
Filmstrips and Slides ---------------------------- 228
Exhibits ---------------------------------------- 228
Posters ----------------------------------------- 228
Demonstration Animals --------------------------- 230
Museums ---------------------------------------- 230
Appendix ----------------------------------------- 231
Conversion Tables ------------------------------- 233
Bibliography -------------------------------------- 235

For Village Workers in Many Countries


plus her labor, help to determine what the
production will be on a farm.
In the past, a housewife learned her homemaking skills from her mother. Each generation
lived much like the preceding one. Now her job
is bigger. Changing times make improved living conditions possible, and she wants better
living for her family. She thinks of plenty of
good food, improved housing, and better health
for her family, better care and education for
her children.
As families move from subsistence farming
Village Women Help Build Nations to a cash economy, they increasingly become
consumers. As consumer goods become more
plentiful and varied, women must manage
"If you educate a man, you educate an indi- money and make choices. They thus influence vidual; if you educate a woman, you educate a the growth and expansion of industries dealing family." This old proverb is still true today. A with food, clothing, housing, furnishings, woman may not always attend a village meet- household equipment, and other products used ing with her husband, but her influence goes in the home. With continued education, women with him. This influence can change a village. increasingly demand more and better consumer
Never before have social and economic goods.
changes affecting the home arid family been so Health, too, is an important factor in ecostrong both in the smallest rural villages and nomic development. The woman is responsible in large cities. To prepare families to meet for the health and well-being of her family. these changes, home economics programs are She determines whether or not the family lives becoming an integral part of development in a clean house and practices sanitation.
plans in most countries. These include home eco- Whether her babies live or die depends upon nomics teaching in schools and informal exten- the care she gives them. She plans and cooks sion and community development programs. the food to help her children grow strong. And
The homemaker's role in national develop- she sees that they are taught to be honest and ment is often overlooked. Improved agricultural respect other people. production is basic to both economic and social Governments are beginning to recognize that development and here the wives of farmers helping the family and the home helps the nahave great influence. In many countries, tion. They recognize that good homes, happy women do much work on the farm. In some families, and educated children are basic to a
countries, the all-important food crops are al- great nation. They are becoming aware that most entirely the women's responsibility. Gar- village women are helping to build a firmer dens, livestock, and chickens are usually under base for their country's progress. their care. The material in this handbook is drawn
Women often market the farm crops and are from many countries around the world. It apthe traders in the family. It is often the plies to all countries that are developing prowoman who is first willing to try improved grams to improve the homes, health, and famfarming methods. Her interest and attitude, ily life of rural people.

New crop varieties that increase production may not be new IR-8 rice makes more and tastes as good ast used by families unless the women accept them. This old, when cooked a new way. Vietnamese home agent shows village women that the
Much of every nation's strength is in its skills. You are helping to develop your cot rural citizens. Yet in many countries, rural try's most valuable resource-people. people are still the greatest underdeveloped re- You have been chosen for this important j source. Villages and the families who live in because: them make up a large and important part of 0 You are dedicated to your work.
your country too. 0 You like, understand, and get along wi
You are an important person. You work village people.
with village people. You bring ideas, knowl- You make friends easily. edge, and encouragement. You help them learn 0 You have a pleasing personality. how to make their lives better. You are their You keep your promises. teacher and friend. In your hands lies much of 0 You are punctual. their future. You are willing to work hard.
You are creating an image of home econom- You will not be working alone. You are pE
ics that takes it beyond simple homemaking of a team. The other members are those

and women, top officials and other workers like may be a woman who finds a way to save time. yourself, concerned with agriculture, health, Sometimes it will be an idea that you have education, and better living for the rural peo- "planted" in the minds of the people. Later ple of their country. All must work together. they may think it was their idea. This is what They must be dedicated to helping rural peo- you want them to think. ple. Your job is highly rewarding and carries
The village people are on this team also. great responsibility and challenge. Your feet Without their cooperation and friendship, may be weary at the end of each day, but you nothing can be accomplished. Change must see the results of your work in healthier, haptake place in the minds and hearts of the vil- pier children, better houses, green gardens lage people themselves before it can be effec- along the roadside, sanitary wells, and village tive and lasting. women who become leaders. You come back to
your own house with gladness in you. heart. Things happen because somebody has an The smile on your face shows the inner joy you
idea. Maybe a village leader has the idea. Or it feel in helping other women.
"How is a home economics program started? How do I begin my work and where?" Everyone who starts a new program asks these questions. This is natural.
Home economics programs have been successfully started in remote villages as well as in highly developed urban centers all over the world. The rule of first learning to know the people applies to starting a program in a village or in a larger area. The people include your co-workers and leaders as well as the people of the village or area.
Your First Visits to the Village
When you have completed your training and are ready for your first visit to the village where you are to work, you will already have some information and general ideas about the village. Your supervisor or a co-worker will MOM most likely go with you and introduce you to the village chief and other village leaders. Others you will wish to meet are extension coworkers, community development workers, A village chief in United Arab Republic welcomed the health personnel, religious leaders, school home economics worker as soon as she arrived. He teachers, and shopkeepers, etc. Explain your brought his wife to greet her too.

work so these leaders will understand what a produce youto village women and, if you are homemaking program is, why their village going to live in the village, help you find a needs one, and how it can help solve some basic place to live. Learn all you can about the peoproblems. Ask them about the village, its peo- ple and the village before you start visiting the ple, and their problems. In time you will grad- families themselves. Then you will be able to ually get answers to such questions as: understand and appreciate their way of life.
" How big is the village? "Before I go to a new village," says a young
" How many families live there and how much woman from Turkey, "I get some general ideas
distance does the village cover? from the agricultural agent. For example, he
What is the average size of families? will tell me much about the people, the crops
How many children attend the village school? they raise, and how interested they are in new
How much education do the adults have? ideas.
What crops and livestock are grown? Are "The first thing I do when I visit the village
they sold or raised for home use? What is the is call on the village president. He takes me to average family income? What part do the call on his wife or arranges for me to visit her.
women play in agriculture? For example, how I call on the teachers if there is a school and much work do they do in the fields and with on the nurse if they have one. I tell them who I the animals? Do they help market the crops am, what my job is, and why I have come to and livestock? Are there small rural industries the village. Then I ask them many questions. I and crafts in the area through which the village ask the teacher about the children and their people can add to their income? What are parents and I ask the nurse about the health of
they? How much time do women spend on dif- the people. ent chores such as. getting water and fuel, "I tell the president of the village that I
planting crops, etc.? want to visit some families because I want
What are the road conditions leading in and them to know me before I teach them. So then out of the village? How do the village people I visit families and I meet them as friends. get to town? How do they get their farm prod- They must love me and believe in me if I am to ucts to market? Where do the people get their teach them. If there are 100 families in the vilwater? What are major health problems? lage, I try to visit at least 15. 1 try to select
What is the infant death rate? homes that are different. I talk with the
What clubs or organizations are there in the women about their own family needs and probvillage? What social and educational programs lems and I observe, too. I try to learn, for exare being conducted by the government or by ample: private agencies? How much do the women
take part? What is the illiteracy rate among 0 How many rooms are in most houses women in your particular village? Most of the How many are used for sleeping world's illiterates are women. In some coun- How many people are in the family tries, 80 to 90 percent of all women cannot 0 Where the kitchens are located
read. What is the women's overall influence on 0 How the cooking is done matters of general concern to the village? 0 What kind of fuel is used
What problems do the leaders see as the most 0 If there is a toilet pressing and urgent for the village? 0 Where it is located
Showing keen interest in the people. of the 0 What kind of furniture the family has village and expressing your desire to work & If they have chickens or animals
with them and their leaders can help you to be 0 What foods they grow for their own use accepted in the village. You will learn much 0 What methods they use to preserve food about the people as you begin to know and 0 What their basic diet is
work with their leaders. (See chapter on How often they eat
leaders, page 194.) 0 Where the family gets water
Generally, one of the official leaders will in- 0 If the house has electricity

" What they think are their chief health have to answer many questions about yourself
problems such as, "Are you married? How many chil" How many of their children have died and dren do you have?", etc. Be sure to answer
at what age questions so they know you are the kind of perIt is important that I learn which of the son they want to have working in their village women in the village are leaders. Each night with them. when I go back to my office, I record what I To work effectively with the people, you will have observed." need to know bow they think. You may find
A Greek village worker says that on her customs and practices in the village where you visit to get acquainted, "After I have talked to work very strange and different from those, the mayor of the village, I walk to the village where you grew up. There are many things you well. I always find women there drawing water will need to study and understand. and can chat with them while I help them Learning how to interpret what you hear
draw the water. This way I find out what is and see is important. Many mistakes are made happening in the village before I start on my by judging a situation too quickly. This is a round of individual visits." good time to be looking for good practices that
A new worker in a village in Laos stopped you can later use as examples. by a woman weaving a beautiful piece of silk
on a crude loom. She asked the woman to show Record Your Observations her how she developed the pattern. Soon the Beginning with your first visits to a village, woman went inside her house and brought out use some kind of form to record your observaall her pieces of woven silk. As the village tions. Select a few things to observe at a time. worker expressed sincere admiration for the Do not try to learn everything at once. woman's handiwork, a bond of mutual respect Suppose you want to learn about the foods was developing. As women come to know and people grow for themselves. Do they have a trust, you, they will begin to talk about their garden? What vegetables are in it? What food problems and the things they feel they need. crops do they grow in the field? Make a simple chart on which you can write down what you
It Takes Time learn at each home. A garden observation form
might be like the one at the end of this chapIt takes time to get to know people. Remem- ter.
ber, you are a stranger. They must get to know After you visit the family, see their garden, you well. If you do not live in the village, you and talk with them about their foods, fill in may have to visit it many times before the vil- your form. Do not fill it in while you are with lagers learn to trust you. the family. Wait until you have left the vilIn some countries, the central government lage. Filling in a form or writing things down may be in fairly close touch with its citizens can make the family suspicious and more reand effective in teaching new ideas and starting luctant to give you information. social change. In others, people view government as nothing but a policeman or tax-collect- Working With People to Bring About Change ing agency that gives little in return. As a result, they may be suspicious of government As you learn about the people and the vilprograms, including the homemaking program. lage, you begin to see what changes the people Through your own dedication and faithful should make to have a better living. But what
work, you can help build confidence in govern- changes do they wish to make? What are their ment programs where such confidence is lack- greatest problems? What problems do they recing. ognize?
In some villages, the people are not used to You may see children who do not have enough having strangers, particularly women, coming food to eat, babies who are sick, houses that to work. They may not trust you. You will are not clean, flies and mosquitoes everywhere,

women carrying water from the river because very important in making them want to
the village has no well, and many other prob- change. lems and things that need to be done. You want Often it is more important to change the to help the people solve such problems as these. way people think about what they do than to But they may not even recognize some of these change what they do. They must know why as problems because they have always lived certain things are problems. For example, they with them. should know that polluted water causes illness.
Part of your job as a village worker is to They need to know how to change the bad help people recognize these bad conditions as conditions. For example, they will need to problems and create a desire to change. Often know how to get a safe water supply for the when people seem not to care or want to im- village, how to dig a well, how to install a prove, it is not because they are lazy or shift- pump, etc. As they learn, their skills will imless, but rather because of poor health, little or prove. no income, lack of hope, or lack of knowledge. Here are some principles of working with
Your work is education outside of school. people to help them bring about change:
Education is a change in attitudes, knowledge, 1. Find out why village people do things the and skills. Children go to school because their way they do and work within the culture of parents send them or because laws require the village.
children to attend school. Out-of-school or in- It is important to observe and try to learn formal education is voluntary. People come why people do things the way they do before to meetings only when they want to come. suggesting changes. There may be good reaThey learn only when they have a reason to
learn. They change only when they desire to Once you have been accepted in the village, try to get change. The way you work with people is to know whole families as this village worker is doing
in United Arab Republic.

sons behind them, or there may be supersti- ested in more than the spiritual needs of the tions or traditions that make people resist village. They would like to see people have betchanges. You are better able to help people ter homes and better health. They will underchange if you know why they don't want to. stand your job.
The members of every society have certain 2. Respect village people and treat them as practices and beliefs which they consider the equals. most important and valuable things in life. Gain their confidence. Remember, natural inThese values have been safeguarded and car telligence is as plentiful among rural people as ried through generations. They cannot be ig- among any other group. Education or lack of it nored. is no measure of ability.
The values in one village may differ greatly Village people have as much practical good from those of another. For example, what sense and good judgment as other people. They
other people do or think is so very important have many skills. They have practical experiin some villages that a woman will hesitate to ence. They have moral strength.. They have make a change unless it is accepted by all. She much to teach you as well as to learn from you. may say, "I like what you say, but the people Listen to them. Be interested in what they in the village are against this change and I want to show you. cannot go against the village." In other vil- People will ask you many questions. You lages, individual initiative is important and a cannot possibly know all the answers. Learn to person feels free to act on his own judgment. say, "I don't know, but -1 Will find out and let The customs village people have followed for you know." Then be sure to do it. Village peomany generations often direct what is done at ple do not respect or trust a person who prethe time of marriage, birth, death, sickness, tends to know, but they are willing to wait for, and many other times. Find out what these are you to get the answer. When you make a promso you will not offend the villagers accidentally ise, you must keep it. The people must trust by doing the wrong thing. you to like you.
Some of these customs make a heavy burden 3. Start where the people are with problems for the family. For example, some families go they recognize. deeply in debt to pay for marriages. If you can In certain isolated areas of Puerto Rico, it help them keep the debt as small as possible or has long been the custom to scatter a few vegesave a little money each year to be ready for it,
you will aid them greatly. table seeds about the area near the house. A
wise home economist trying to help these peoReligion, local beliefs, prejudices, and taboos ple improve their diets did not start by sugare generally very strong and greatly affect gesting a well-fenced garden with neat rows of what people do and their attitudes toward vegetables. She showed them how t o plant one
changes. For example, many people have reli- whole row of a yellow vegetable they liked so gious beliefs or taboos about eating meat. It is they would have a good supply of this vegetahard to increase the amount of meat peo- ble. She then made a small garden near the
.ple eat until you understand these beliefs. house she lives in. Later, after they had all There are usually many beliefs about health: seen her garden with seeds planted in rows, what causes sickness and what makes a she began to suggest they try her way of growperson well. Learn all you can about the ing vegetables.
beliefs, prejudices, and taboos people hold In visiting a village in Turkey one summer,
important before you try to change their hab- the home economics extension worker found its. the villagers talking about how many of the
Learn religious customs in the village. Dis- babies were sick. She offered to help the cuss your work with the local religious leaders women. Even though it was a time when the and gain their confidence. Their support is women were all working in the fields, the mayor very important. You will find they are inter- of the village said he would bring them in to

attend a meeting if the worker would teach the grow, people begin to think of them as their women how to keep the babies from getting own and want to do something about them. sick. People who study their own problems and
In another village the women wanted to help to work out solutions are much more learn to read and write,'and the village worker likely to help carry out the program. Even in agreed to teach them. However, she also saw the least developed communities, letting the the great need for improving diets and sanita- people share in planning and doing helps them tion. So, as she taught them to read and write, build confidence in themselves and be proud of she made sure that the first sentences they their own accomplishments. It helps to develop learned were on cleanliness and nutritious leadership. When the people help at each step, foods. a program has a much better chance to sucWomen may ask you to teach them to knit or ceed.
embroider. You may think they should first 4. Help people see the need to change. learn how to feed the family better, or be in- Village people have lived the way they do terested in getting a well for the village. How- for hundreds of years. They may not even recever, while they learn to knit, you can talk ognize some of their problems as problems beabout the things all women talk about when cause they have always lived with them. They they are together-wbat to cook for the eve- often continue this way because no one has ning meal, why the baby cries so much, the shown them a better way. price of rice in the market, the husband who Part of your job is to help them recognize cannot do very much work because he tires their problems and get them to want to solve easily, the little boy who wants to go to school them. but can't because there is no money to buy For example, they may have always lived in
clothes for him. You can also demonstrate im- houses without windows, and they feel no need proved practices they need to learn, for exam- for them. It may take time to persuade them ple, how to make a simple clothes closet. By that they would be healthier if the sun could teaching them both what they want to learn enter their houses each day and the air circulate and what they need to learn, you can help at night as they sleep. It may take time to get them see larger problems. them to want windows enough to get them. A
Learn all you can about each problem. Talk well-planned group discussion is one of the to the people, visit in their homes, and discuss best ways to start people thinking about their things with their leaders to collect information larger and more important problems. about the village and its problems. Some of the 5. Help people help themselves. things needed will take more money, materials, It is often easier to say "I'll do it for you", and know-how than the people now have. Get but this does not help people gain confidence in as much information and as many facts as you themselves. When the women in an Indian vilcan so you will be ready to help the people lage wanted their village worker to buy cloth when you and they start planning what to do. for them, she said, "Which one of you can go
Plan WITH the people and not FOR them. to the bazaar with me? I will be glad to go
l1emember, the village belongs to the people along and help you, but you must make the seand they must help decide what to do. Do not lection." This took longer but it helped the talk about what you think are their most women learn and grow. Only by participating
pressing problems. Let them tell you what they can people practice their own skills and abilineed and want. Begin with these. ties so -they are able to make responsible deciOnly when the people themselves help to sions.
plan and carry out a program will they feel it In another village, the women had seen the is theirs. Work with them so that whatever is smokeless stove the village worker had in her planned or done becomes a part of their think- house and began to want one like it. She told ing. As the ideas you plant in their minds them what they would need to make it and

where to get the materials. Then she said, "I wealth, ownership of land, education, age, or will show you how to build the stove and help some other standard. you build the first one. Everyone can help build How do families live? This includes their it and then you will all know how to build your diets, housing, work, habits, family relationown stoves." ships, and economic situation. Find out if any
People working together turn an idea into special studies or surveys of family living conaction and achievement. The village leaders editions have been made which you might add know that they need a well, and you know it. to your own observations. You know that a well costs a lot of money. The 8. Use many different methods of teaching and people in the village must want a well so much reaching people. that they will work together to get it. Research has shown that using nine or ten
6. Find leaders in the village and help them different methods in carrying out a project
to be teachers too. brings better results than using only one or two
By finding and training leaders to teach their methods.
neighbors what they have learned, you will give One good way to inspire and teach is by exmany people a chance to learn in a short time. ample. Many people will watch you and the Developing people is your main objective. Dis- way you live. They will see and respect your covering the people who will accept responsi- simple dress, your pride in your work, and bility and serve as leaders in the village pro- your willingness to help others. Your house is gram is one of the best ways to help them the same type as theirs, but it is clean and atprepare for larger leadership roles. When you, tractive. It teaches more than any words you the people, and their leaders all decide exactly can say. If you store your food on shelves and what is needed or wanted, it becomes a goal to in containers, the women will be quick to see work for. Be sure it is something they can and do the same thing. They will watch to see actually carry out so they will not be dis- what you eat and how you cook it. appointed. Modern methods of communication now
reach even remote villages in many countries.
7. Work with the whole family. You may find people listening to radios. Some
Often parents can be reached through the agency may be using mobile units with loudchildren. Both boys and girls in the family speakers to get information to the people. need to learn many of the same things their Besides these, however, every society has- anmothers are taught. The husband is interested other system of communication. Women talk in better living for his family. His understand- together as they work in the field, do their ing and cooperation in the homemaking pro- washing, or come to the well for water. Men gram can mean much toward its success. talk as they gather in coffee houses or market
Families differ greatly in different societies. places. Information is passed from person to In some villages, families are patriarchal. The person at funerals, fairs, and religious festiman is head of the household and makes the de- vals. News may be posted on bulletin boards or cisions. Women may have little or no status a village writer or storyteller may pass it there. This may affect the respect for your along. Learn how news and information is best opinions and your work. In other societies, communicated in each village where you work. families may be strongly matriarchal with the Know the customs and purposes of social gathmother or grandmother having more influence erings, how much families visit each other's than the men. The status of the family or indi- homes, and what the social groupings are in viduals within the family may be based on the village.

Sample Home Garden Observation Form
Name of Family Date Visited
Do they have a garden? YES-- NO If so, where is it located? About what size?
How is it watered?
Is compost used? YES- NO Is commercial fertilizer used? YES- NO Is garden well cultivated? YES-- NO Vegetables growing: Beans Carrots
Tomatoes Okra
Spinach Cabbage
Lettuce Corn
Food crops for family use growing in field: Cereal Grains Root crops
Rice Yams
Wheat Cassava
Corn Others

How many times have you said, "I need your just approval. Top government officials must help. I need your support!" No matter what we see the need for educating girls and women to do or where we are, we need the help and sup- become better mothers and homemakers. They port of those around us. must know about the program, be willing to
A homemaking program needs the support talk about it, and provide money for this purof many different people. As a village worker, pose. what you are trying to do must be understood When a national official takes part in a speboth by those who provide the funds and by cial homemaking program out in a small vilevery family with whom you work. It must also lage, he not only does something for the people be understood by religious, educational, and in the village, but the experience does somebusiness leaders. thing for him! After participating, he is more
You must constantly explain the need'for a likely to give the program the kind of active home economics program if it is to succeed in and enthusiastic support you need. improving the living conditions of the people.
Even where homemaking or home economics Korea Reports
programs have existed a long time, many peo- An Achievement Day held in a village near ple still do not understand the scope of a pro- Seoul was a most successful effort in winning gram dealing with the home and the family. national support for home economics work in Some think homemaking, mothercraft, or Korea.
home economics programs involve only simple Specialists from the national extension staff skills in cooking, sewing, laundry, and house- had helped the local village worker teach sevcleaning. Others think of them in terms of eral families how to improve their kitchens. frills and fancy work. You are the one who This included building new stoves, getting a must make the true meaning clear. safe water supply, adding dish storage, and
The home economics program needs to show whitewashing walls. The recognition event was results people can see. Because many people do well publicized. The Minister of Agriculture not understand what home economics is or how and several members of the National Assembly it helps families, try to get village women in- were invited and came. The Extension Director terested in projects that show results. These and several home agents f rom each province include growing a garden, improving the poul- also attended so they could duplicate the event try flock, making a smokeless stove, or carry- in their own provinces the following year. ing out a "healthy baby" campaign. Progress The program began with a showing of men's like this catches attention and helps to con- and women's improved work clothes and chilvince people of the value of your work. When dren's play clothes. After the usual courtesy people can see and hear about actual changes speeches, the officials toured homes where the and improvement families are making, they kitchen improvements had been made. The will recognize the special kind of assistance small children of the village demonstrated the home economics offers for bettering home liv- games they had learned in their community ing and village life. play school sponsored by the village home improvement club.
At the National Level This was a most successful event. The National Assembly voted to double the number of
You need the enthusiastic and active support home agents and provide two demonstration of influential people. This means more than villages in each district.

From Kenya to see for themselves the results of your work.
After the Deputy Director of Agriculture Have them participate at meetings and homevisited another country and observed their De- making events in your area. partment of Agriculture's program for farm
women, he enthusiastically requested a home At the Village Level economics adviser to help start and develop a The village program needs to fit into the home economics program in Kenya. government's goals for the country and for agIn Kenya, the farm woman is also a farmer. agriculture. For example. if the national governWomen extension workers were accepted at ment is trying to get all farm families to prodonce because they were trained in agriculture uce enough food to feed themselves, you can as well as home economics. They came into the help village people see this need and interest Ministry of Agriculture as dual-purpose field them in producing food for their own use. workers. The addition of women was gradual The people you work with must believe in
and they were readily accepted at the national, you and think of you as their friend. They must provincial, and village levels. feel you need them to help plan and carry out a
An interesting and encouraging reaction is program for their benefit. You do. Without the keen interest taken by the men. In 1965, their support you cannot carry out a program. 578 out of 3,000 home economics demonstra- The headman or chief of a village must have
tions and classes conducted at the 12 farmer confidence in you. He must fully understand training centers were for men. what you do. In many places, the headman
feels great responsibility for the welfare of his
At the Provincial Level village. Convince him you are working with
Provincial administrators and leaders are him to reach his goals for the people.
closer to the people than leaders at the na- There are other people of influence in the tional level. Therefore, they often feel keener village-the religious leader, the teacher, and interest in them and greater pride in their ac- the natural leaders that others go to for help complishments. They may not control the or advice. It is important to win support from
money, but the kind and amount of support all these people. They can and will help you in
you get at the provincial level can mean the many ways if they like you, believe in you, and difference between success and failure. Help feel that you really want to help them. Give these leaders and officials know and under- them a chance! stand your program. Get them into the village
People Who Are Willing to Help
The agricultural chief (second from left) of Vietnam's One of the best ways to get support from Bien Hoa Province teaches village workers how to
plant sorghum. any person is to ask him or her to take some
responsibility or do something, even if it is
only a small deed. Involve leaders in collecting
facts and studying problems. Women in high
positions will often help analyze basic problems concerning the family and suggest possible solutions. At every level, you need people
who are willing to give their time and work to
help further the program.
Many influential people in towns and cities
are willing to support a rural homemaking
program. They can often bring such- national
problems as rural sanitation, rural housing, infant mortality, etc., to the attention of national

A village worker in Ghana got the village chiefs' support by showing them what she planned to teach the women.

and provincial officials. They need to know your strongest allies. Cultivate them! what is being done about such problems and
what they can do to interest government minis- Other Agencies and Organizations tries in them. Business men and women such as Every country has government and private bankers, merchants, and heads of organiza- agencies and organizations concerned with tions can help tremendously if you get them in- rural welfare. The problems and opportunities terested. in rural areas are interwoven and inseparable.
Programs concerned with them often overlap.
Your Co-Workers If the groups trying to solve these problems
At whatever level you work, you need the work together, sharing help and resources, support of those who work with you. The mu- avoiding duplication, and lessening competitual support, mutual respect, and mutual as- tion, the program of each can develop. The sistance that agricultural and home economics support you win from other agencies and orextension workers give each other is one rea- ganizations strengthens your program. There son for their success. Your co-workers can be is more than enough for all to do.
Programs dealing with the home and family ing in, you should know about all such prodiffer from country to country in the way they grams that are operating in your area and are organized and operate. They are even given work with them. Such cooperation can be of different names such as home economics, home mutual advantage. They can help you and you science, homemaking, home craft, mothercraft, can show them the special kind of assistance etc. But they all are trying to improve home home economics offers in helping families imand family life and develop people. prove their living conditions and develop into
In many countries, the Ministry or Depart- more useful citizens. ment of Agriculture conducts a home economics program as a part of the Agricultural Ex- Agiutrlgecs tension Service. The Ministry of Education Agiutrl gecs
generally includes home economics in its school Agricultural development is concerned not program and may also provide home economics only with increasing and improving the prodeducation for adults. In some countries, the uction of crops and livestock, but also with deMinistry of Social Affairs conducts community v'eloping rural families and improving rural development programs. Part of this is work living conditions. Agriculture and rural home with the family and home. Many home econom- economics are a joint program in many areas. ics programs are also supported and carried The problems of rural living are so closely tied out by business organ izati ons- and other private to agriculture that these two fields of education groups. Other agencies such as Public Health, are natural "partners." Often local men and Literacy, Social Welfare, etc., are concerned women extension workers have their offices towith certain phases of family welfare. gether or near each other and work successNo matter which agency you may be work- fully as a team.

A constant exchange of knowledge, informa- cooperatives that sell homemade products such tion, and ideas between agricultural and home as craft articles, fresh vegetables, flowers, and economics workers can bring swifter progress home-baked or preserved foods. They may also in both fields. The Ministry of Agriculture is set up their own cooperatives. Agricultural concerned with many phases of home living. cooperatives in many places supply seed and For instance, specialists in horticulture, poul- fertilizer. They might also provide the seeds try, dairying, etc., can render valuable assist- needed for a garden project or the supplies ance to a home food program. Some ministries needed in a home improvement program. have agricultural schools which are important Learn about the cooperatives in your area resources in home economics work. and how they function so that you can better
In most countries, very few improved agri- inform families and help them make the best cultural measures are completely within either use of the advantages cooperatives offer. the husband or wife's sphere of work. Most improvements recommended by both agricultural
and home economics workers require the full The Ministry of Education acceptance of both husband and wife before Most villages need more and better schools.
they can be adopted. In some countries boys are sent to school, but
The homemaker's influence operates in many girls must stay home and work. Both need eduof the agricultural programs introduced to vil- cation. Many families now are anxious to have lages. For example, land consolidation might, schools in their villages so all children can atat first, seem strictly to concern the men of the tend. Work with parents and village officials village. They settle all the arrangements and for better schools. what is done would seem to rest solely with You should also work with village school
them. But experience has proven otherwise. teachers. They know the children, their parOften farmers are opposed to consolidation. ents, and the village leaders. The teacher can But if the women are convinced of its benefits help you with many projects by having the to their families, they may very well get their children take part in them. The success of the husbands to make this change. youth work part of your homemaking program
will depend in large measure upon the cooperaAgricultural Credit Programs tion you get from schools. School garden proOne big need of many village families is fair jects, for example, offer a fine basis of cooperative effort.
and reasonable credit. Many families are never Classroom teachers often seek your help in free of debt because interest rates are so high
they cannot hope to pay back the amount they teaching home economics subjects such as nuborrow. In some areas, many rural families are trition, child care, clothing, etc. Close working almost the slaves of money lenders. You can relationships will benefit both of you. There help them find the agencies that will lend are many opportunities for such cooperation. It money to buy land, implements, animals, fertil- is specially important to work with any home izer, and seed at fair interest rates. In some economics teachers in schools in your area. places, these credit agencies also lend money You should have a common understanding of for home improvements. In an agricultural families' needs and the best ways to meet
credit program, the homemaker must under- them.
stand the use of credit so she will cooperate in Working with universities and other educarepaying the loan. tioval institutions offering home economics is
equally important. You can tell these teachers
and trainers about family needs and problems,
Cooperatives and keep them aware of the type of training
In some villages, the people will be very needed by the young women who will be going much interested in cooperatives of various into extension and other homemaking prokinds. Women are often active members of grams in rural areas. You may help them set

up service training program where you and public health doctors, nurses, sanitarians, and other working home economists can go for re- other health workers all touch home and famfresher training. ily life. Extension and community development
Here's a good example. Officials of agricul- workers, homemaking teachers, and public ture and education in the Western Province nf health workers are finding new ways to work Kenya cooperatively planned a week's training together. in home economics extension for school teach- Often, you may begin your work in a village ers at the Bukura farmer training center. The by visiting the nurse to talk over family health course was planned and conducted by the two problems, or by attending health clinics to talk home extension workers. It was intended to with the mothers there. Nurses receive much help teachers strengthen their teaching of nu- help by attending special training given to trition, cookery, child care, and the production home economics workers, particularly in the of food for home use. Special emphasis was field of nutrition. You benefit by attending placed on nutrition and vegetable planting in health classes in baby care, first aid, or home connection with the school garden program. In care of the sick. addition, these four training sessions served to In some areas, the rural sanitarian promotes strengthen the cooperative ties between the the building of approved latrines or water supagricultural and educational programs in the plies and the home economist provides much of province. the educational follow-up needed to make the
program successful. Close coordination with all
Research Agencies public health work in rural areas is of great
The need for home economics research is importance in your homemaking programs.
gaining recognition as homemaking programs The Institute of Nutrition develop. Countries are recognizing that, without research, it is difficult to have a sound Many countries have an institute of nutrihomemaking program based on facts. tion. Because poor nutrition is often one of a
In some countries, surveys have been under- country's major problems, governments provtaken on family living problems. Some coun- ide these special facilities with well-trained tries have nutrition institutes carrying out im- personnel to conduct nutrition research, give portant research. In others, agricultural insti- training, and develop educational materials for tutes study certain problems affecting family nutritionists, dietitians, home economists, and living. Some college and university home eco- others whose program includes nutrition. If nomics departments have begun research activ- there is a nutrition institute in your country, ities. Much basic research is helpful to any you should know about its work and find out country regardless of where it is done-such how you can use its resources to do a better as information on pasteurization, food preser- job in your own nutrition work with families. vation methods, simple health practices, housing, dietary patterns, etc. Community Development and Social Welfare
In addition to using research information in In some countries, community development your work, you may also be able to tell researchers about practical problems in your projects are administered by the Ministry of area that need answers. Rural home econo- Social Affairs or Public Welfare, and homemists are in a position to know the most press- making education is carried on through this ing needs of rural families and how practical ministry. Even if homemaking programs are research can help meet these needs. not a direct part of this ministry, it still has
many resources that can help you. Generally
Public Health these ministries have specialists in community
or group organization, case work techniques,
A major part of rural homemaking work and other fields who can help train local home
has health implications. The activities of economics workers.

Often home economists and social workers lent nutrition and home economics programs, deal with the same families. They need to work as well as agricultural programs. very closely together for the good of the people UNICEF is largely concerned with work and their programs. with children and mothers. It carries on educational work and provides medicines, foods, and
Literacy Programs other important things.
Literacy classes provide a good opportunity The World Health Organization is confor you to know the people better and influence cerned with national and regional problems of their progress toward improved living. As health. Trained staff in many countries help
adults learn to read, they can also learn to be governments conduct research and carry out better farmers and better homemakers. If their effective health measures. reading material deals with everyday prob- Foundations such as the Ford Foundation
lems and contains information on simple im- and the Rockefeller Foundation, conduct proved practices for the farm and home, adults health programs. In some countries, foundaare likely to be more interested. This can help tions support home economics programs in colthem learn faster and understand better. You leges and schools and, in addition, employ may have the chance to help prepare reading home economists to lead adult homemaking material on homemaking and to teach the class programs. on occasion.
International Organizations Religious and Voluntary Agencies
Many important international agencies have Find out which of these have programs in programs closely related to the home and the your area. They are excellent resources for cerfamily. You will want to know about these tain kinds of help you may need in your work.
agencies and learn the services they offer in Agencies and organizations concerned with the your particular area. They have much material family can contribute greatly to improving viland helpful information because they operate lage life. If you and these workers know each in many different countries and have broad ex- other well and work together, the people you perience to draw upon. serve will benefit. In this way, you can help the
The Food and Agriculture Organization of people in the village make the best use of all the United Nations has very active and excel- resources available to them.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations is trying to develop an improved hybrid of
Japanese and Indian rice varieties in the research project in Cuttak, India. Success will result in greatly improved crop yields and improved nutrition for the people.


Before you can begin to help solve nutrition problems, foods they eat. In a meeting such as this in Costa Rica, you must learn about the people, their beliefs, and the the women can talk about their food problems.
No one likes to be hungry. Food not only Can they produce enough for their family
keeps us from being hungry, it helps us to needs? What do they need to produce
grow, feel well, and be happy. But many people more ?
are hungry, unhappy, and sick because they do 0 What foods do they buy? not have enough or the right kinds of food. 0 How do agricultural practices in the area
Often they do not know this. affect their diets?
Ask yourself what connection there is be- 0 What are some of the foods that people
tween the health problems of the village people, believe are harmful, unclean, or sacred? the food they eat, and their food habits and What symptoms of poor nutrition haVEt YOU
customs. On page 31 are several health prob- observed among children in the village?
lems which may have something to do with Among adults?
food and nutrition. You can use them to start 0 How long do mothers nurse their babies? discussion about problems in your area. 0 At what age are weaning foods given to
Before you attempt to improve the nutrition the baby?
of the village people, you must be able to rec- What foods besides breast milk are given ognize food and nutrition problems in your to the infant when he is 8 months old?
area. 0 How many young children, when they are
Here are additional questions to help you no longer breast fed, die each year?
learn more about, food problems and eating Do the people know that some of their
practices: health problems may come from not having
" What foods do the people mostly live on? enough of the right kinds of food?
What is their basic diet? Could it be better? One of your most important jobs is to help
" What vegetables, grains, and root crops people understand that what they eat affects
do they grow for home use? their health. You will also teach them wbat
" Do they produce any meat, milk, or eggs they can do to have better food, better health,
for the family to eat? If so, how much? and therefore, a better life.

if Talk About
1. An infant is sickly and cries a lot because 0 What mothers eat during their pregnancy he is hungry, and the mother thinks she and also while they are breast feeding the
does not have enough breast milk, baby.
* What foods roesicles breast milk he was given before he was weaned.
2. After weaning, the child loses weight, has 0 What food-, he is fed now.
diarrhea, and gets a "pot belly". 0 How foods are prepared for babies and young
0 What sanitation practices are used. It is important for you to teach mothers that meat, cereals, vegetables, and fruits. These are by the time a child is 8 months old he needs the foods that will hell) the child grow strong solid foods as well as milk. The solidly foods, that and happy. It is important for the nursing are given to the child should include eggs, mother to eat these foods too.
3. After a child starts to school, he does poorly 0 Whether the child is fed in the morning
in his studies and does not want to play before he starts off to school.
because he is always tired. 0 Whether he has a midday meal or must wait
to eat until he gets home after school.
* Whether he is perhaps too tired to make the eff ort.
Children need to eat often. They need three times a mother should give them fruits or veggood meals every day. In between these three etables to eat instead of sweets. meals they may want extra food. At these
4. People lack the energy to work hard and The kinds of staple foods the people eat.
they tire easily. They are often cross and Are they starchy plants only or (10 they also
irritable. You often see people with rough, use cereal grains?
dull skin and sores that heal slowly. 0 How Much meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, and
pulses they eat.
*How often are vegetables and fruits eaten.
*How much water is used in cooking, then thrown away.
*Whether foods are stored a long), time and in such a way that they do not keep well.
*Do they have variety in their diet?
5. People run out of their own home-produced 0 What foods they grow for their own family
food before the next harvest, use.
0 Whether they plan to grow their food needs for the entire year.
*How they store their food.
*How much is destroyed by rats and insects and by rotting.
*Whether they grow and store enough to last if they didn't lose any of it.

found other parents there, too. Many of I hem
were neighbors and friends.
The teacher talked about how the children
were doing in school. She said many of I hem
seemed too tired to do good work. It was hard
for them to learn because they sometime,, fell
El asleep and they did not seem to want to think
about their school work. Many were often absent because they were sick and got behind
in their work.
Miss Ramero then explained that children
need not be sick so often. They should be Ilvely
and interested in all that goes on about them.
They should not tire so easily, and fall asleep.
MNiss Ramero thought many of these children
were not healthy. They were not growing and
learning as much as they would if they were
The Story of Samuel and Mary healthy. This could be because they werc not
getting the kind of food they needed for good
health. This was a surprise to Samuel and Mary.
Samuel and Mary lived in a village many They thought some children, like Peter, were miles from the city. They had 8 acres of naturally sleepy much of the time and often ground. Two of these were not cleared. The sick. They thought he would grow out (f it. land was quite fertile. They grew maize, cas- The parents talked about their younger sava, and a few beans. During the rainy season, children too. Rosa was irritable and criA~ a they collected greens. They had a banana tree lot. She often had stomach upsets and sores and a coconut tree. They kept a few chickens on her legs which took a long time to heal. which scratched the earth around the house Was she as healthy as she should be? Then for their food. Mary sometimes fed them bits they talked about how many babies in the of leftover food and the coconut leavings. village died each year and how many had stoLife was easy. The crops grew and they machs that were too big. Mary said she herself
usually had enough food. Sometimes, near the felt tired much of the time and that she had very beginning of a growing season, they would lost two babies. She asked what could be done. run out of maize. Then Samuel would sell the She wanted her children to grow well and be beans so they could buy maize to last until the healthy and strong. Samuel said he did not like harvest. They always had cassava because it to spend money on school fees if his son was was so easy to grow and store. not learning. He suggested having anc ther
Samuel and Mary had two children. Peter meeting.
was 8 years old. Rosa was 3. Peter went to Peter's teacher said she would arrange, for
a school 2 miles away. He walked both ways the local health officer and the village Edtenevery day. Sometimes he was sick. Then he sion worker to come to another parents' rieetstaved home. ing the following Saturday to talk more about
One day the teacher asked Samuel and Mary the children's health.
to come to a meeting at the school so they could This story shows how parents were helped talk about the health of their children and how to become aware of some of the food and they were getting along in school. She also health problems of their children. There are asked Miss Ramero, the village Extension probably similar problems in the area in -which
worker, to come and help with the meeting, you work. These problems could he directl,7 reThe day of the meeting, Samuel and Mary lated to the food that is produced and used
walked to the school with Rosa and Peter. They there.

Your Government Is Concerned Find out what your country is doing about
its food and nutrition situation. By knowing
Your government, like many others around what various agencies and ministries are the world. has plans for national growth and trying to accomplish, you can apply their spedevelopment. Governments are greatly con- cific recommendations to the information in
cerned about food and nutrition because they this chapter. know that underfed people cannot do the work Ask the Agriculture Department or Minisnecessary to develop a country. Poorly fed peo- try: ple are often sick. Then they require govern- 1. What the long range plans for agriculment help, instead of supporting themselves I tural development are in your country.
and adding to the country's economic growth. 2. What plans the ministry has to improve
Good food does not cure or prevent all dis- the food and nutrition resources of your
eases, but all of us need good food for good country.
health, both physical and mental.
A serious food situation exists in the world 3. What food crops are recommended in today. Many countries already have more peo- your area, what cash crops.
ple than they can feed, and populations are 4. What animals and poultry could be grown
growing. In some countries, distribution is a for home use.
problem. By the year 2000 A.D., there will be 5. If the ministry has a list of publications twice as many people in the world as there are you could get to help you learn about
now. Unless more food is grown, distributed, food production, including gardens,
and wisely used there will be more and more crops, and livestock.
hunger and even starvation.
The problem is not only a lack of food but a Ask the Ministry of Health, the Nutrition lack of knowledge about nutrition. This means Institute, or University Department of Home food in the amount and of the kind needed to Economics: develop a strong healthy body, keep it well, 1. If nutritional surveys are being carried and provide energy for work and play. Your out in your country. If so, have any been
responsibility is to bring food and nutrition completed ?
knowledge to village people so they can improve their own situation. The problem will be 2. What recommendations they can give you solved in the home and on the farm. In today's on improving the nutritional health of
world, probably no field of knowledge has more people in your area.
to contribute to the betterment of life than 3 If they have health education material food and nutrition. which would help you teach about nutriA village food and nutrition program should tion.
teach: Your local agricultural- or health worker
" what foods the body needs and why may also be able to answer some questions.
" the special food needs, of various family You will find 'many sources to help you work
members on food and nutrition. You will also want to
" home production, preservation, and stor- learn about the many organizations that help
age of a year-round supply of good food countries improve their food and nutrition sit" how to buy what cannot be produced nation. These include United Nations organiza" how to prepare foods so the quality is not tions such as the Food and Agriculture Organiwasted. zation (FAO), the World Health Organization
This chapter includes basic principles of (WHO), and the United Nations Children's good nutrition and how to teach them. It will Fund (UNICEF), Freedom from Hunger,
deal mostly with what every mother should Food for Peace, and the Agency for Internaknow about feeding her children. tonal Development (AID).

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What is Nutrition? should. They do not seem healthy. Today, Mr.
Omoko, the local health officer, is here to exNutrition is the food you eat and how your plain how a healthy child should look and act. body uses it. Good food practices lead to good Perhaps if we know what we could expect of nutrition. When people do not have enough our children, we will know more about our food, they are called ?mdernonrished. When problem." they do not have the right kind of food, they Mr. Omoko talked for some time about the are called ?nalnorislhcd. way a child grows from birth to adulthood.
Food is the material out of which our bodies Mluch of what he said is in the section on child are built. We eat food to live, to grow. to stay care in this book. healthy, and to get energy for work and play. Then he said, "I understand that your chilFood gives us a sense of security. Even our at- dren are not learning as well as the teacher titude toward life is influenced by the food we feels they could. You are wondering if this eat. could be because of poor health.
For good nntritio the hod needs mo-e, than "Children of school age should keep growing. a 'bill stomach. It needs different kinds of food Their bones should be straight and strong. for building and full growth and repair, for They should have a good record of attending protection against disease, and for energy. school. They should not often be absent due Without a good variety of foods, the body will to sickness. Healthy children are bright-eyed, not work properly. A person will become tired alert, and interested in learning. They should and sick. He may even die. not tire easily, either from games or from
studying. Their hair should be shiny, their skin
How Food Is Used by the Body clear and smooth, their muscles firm. They
The food you eat goes to the stomach, then should have a glowing, handsome appearance. to the small intestine. Digestion of some food If they get cut or burned, these wounds should begins in the mouth, so it is important to chew heal quickly and smoothly." food well. Digestion means food is broken Samuel thought about the broken leg Peter
down to a form the body can take into the had last year, about how long it took to heal. blood through the walls of the small intestine. Even now. Peter's left leg did not seem as The blood then takes it to all parts of the body. strong as his right leg. He said, "But why There it is used in three ways: aren't our children as healthy as they should
1. To build and repair the body. Mr. Omoko replied that a healthy body need2. To keep the body functioning properly and ed proper materials to grow right and stay
hell) it resist disease. healthy. These materials are the food we eat.
3. To provide warmth, energy, and strength He continued, "It is not possible to build a
for work and play. strong healthy body without enough of the
The part of the food the body cannot use is right kinds of food any more than it is possible passed off as waste. to build a strong house without good materials."
To help teach the difference between good Look at these two houses: nutrition and poor nutrition, continue with the
story of Samuel and Mary. You will recall Peter's teacher asked the village health officer and
Extension worker to come to another parents'
When the parents were all together, the
teacher said, "Last week, we talked about the
problem some of the children have in school
because they are tired and often sick. They are
not growing or learning as much as they

One house is made of good materials. It has A healthy child needs proper food to bfild a a strong frame to support it. It has a tight roof strong body and keep it running well. He needs to protect it against rain. It has a good heating food to provide energy for work and play. system with fuel to keep it warm and cook One child has not had proper food to build a
meals. healthy body. She is unhappy and does poor
The other house is made of poor materials, work in school. (Add other symptoms you noThe frame is weak and in poor condition. The tice among your villagers.) roof leaks. There is no way to heat it. It has A healthy adult needs proper food to keep his not been kept in good repair. The floor has holes body in goodl repair. Hle needs food to help in it. protect him against disease. He needs food to
It is the same with animals. Look at these provide energy for work. (Add other signs of chickens: good nutrition.)
A healthy animal needs proper food to build it strong, protect it against disease, and give energy for its activities.
The thin chicken is from the same brood as the healthy one, but it (lid not have a good diet. It has not grown. Its feathers are poor. It is sick and has no energy.
So it is with people.
One of these women has not had proper food. She is thin and looks older than she should. She is sick, tired. and irritable. (Add other sy mptoms of poor nutrition common in your area.)
"Long before a p~ersonl shows severe signs of p)oor nutrition, he may feel tired or depressed. His skin may be dlry andI rough. His hair may lbe dull andl lifeless. Children may have fre(quent colds or a constant runny nose, or be seriously sick with comii childhood dI seases. A person may feel cross and nervous andl lose

interest in things around him. He may bruise well and help it resist disease. Some foods fureasily or break bones often. His cuts may nish more energy than others. Because of these take a long time to heal. These are all signs differences, we can group foods together acthat he may not be getting all the good food cording to what they do. This makes it easier he needs to Ie healthy and vigorous." to learn about them.
"But what do you mean? We usually have The names an(d functions of the nutrients are
enough to keel) us from being hungry and it technical. They may confuse village people. is good food," protested another father. You do not have to talk about nutrients or use
Miss Ramero, the village Extension worker, technical terms in your work with families. said, "You are quite right. It is good food. It However, the brief outline given here will help tastes good; we enjoy it. But is it good enough Yfl to better understand the principles of food to build strong bodies and help us feel well? and nutrition. Perhaps something is missing. Perhaps we need
to talk about what is meant by 'good food'.
Then we can learn if your children are getting
what they need to build and keep healthy
Miss Ramero offered to meet with the parents to talk more about what is good food and ,
their children's need for it. The parents were
eager to learn if this could be the reason their -3)33
children were sick and not doing well in school.
They agreed to meet each Saturday until they
found out.
Miss Ramero asked who would find a meeting room and have it ready for each meeting. Foods That Help to Build the Body Samuel volunteered to do this. She also asked The body cannot build firm flesh, good red who would go around the village and get more blood, and strong muscles unless it gets enough parents to come. Mary offered to go. good building foods. These are called proteins.
What the parents learned in these meetings Proteins are found in milk, eggs, meat, fish, is given in this chapter. nuts, seeds, and legumes such as pulses or
They learned much about "good food" and grams. They are also present in smaller how important it is. They spent many weeks amounts in whole grain cereals and to a still talking with the health officer, the village Ex- lesser degree in some vegetables and fruits. tension worker, and the teacher about these In your work with families, remember to use things, the names of the foods. Talk about milk, eggs,
and meat without calling them "proteins".
What Kinds of Food Do We Need for Both children and adults need building
Good Nutrition? foods. Even after a person stops growing at
about 20 years of age, building foods hell) keep
Our bodies need many materials which are his body in good repair. Animal foods furnish called o utricots for full growth and health. the most complete building and repair mateEach has a specific use in the body and all are rials for the body. Families should try to have in the food we eat. some animal food each day. This is especially
Most foods contain more than one nutrient, important for children and pregnant or nursBut no single food contains all the nutrients in ing mothers. the amounts we need. That takes many kinds The shortage of protein foods is one of the
and combinations of foods. g-reatest problems in many countries. Children
Some kinds of food hell) build and repair the may have serious diseases if they do not get body. Some keel) the parts of the body working enough protein and also enough food. Two of

these diseases are called kwashiorkor and mar- Bring raw milk from any animal just to asmus. If children do not get enough of the boiling, then take it off the heat at once. This right kinds of protein, they may not be able to makes it safe for drinking. Cool it as soonl as learn as well as they should, possible, and keep it cold. Do not add water to
In some areas where there is a protein shor- milk. This only makes the milk weaker and tage, high protein foods such as CSM (corn- does not add more building value. Also, if the soya-milk) and Incaparina are being developed water is not safe, it makes the milk unsafe. to improve the diet for children. These are Many people buy milk when they cannot
generally meal or flour made from fish, leg- produce it. Milk is sold in many forms. Milk uimes, cereals, and other protein sources. Such direct from the animal is raw, whole milk. foods will greatly improve diets low in protein When the cream is taken off, what is left is and are particularly valuable as weaning foods called sikimmed milk. Pasteurized milk has for the young child. Mnlti-pitrposc food/ is an- been heated and does not need to be boiled at other high protein product made from soy- home if it is kept covered in the dairy conbeans. Find out from your ministry if such tainer. It is safe to drink. Dried whole milk products are available in your country and how powder is suitable for babies and children if it is they can be obtained and used, properly prepared with safe water or cooked
Milk and milk proditcts are important foods with other foods. Dried skimmed milk powder for everybody at every age, but especially for is inexpensive and is a good source of protein, growing children. Cows and goats supply most but the whole milk powder is better, especially of the milk in the world, but milk from other for babies and children. animals is used in some countries. In some Evaporated milk has about half of the water
areas milk is not a customary food. And in removed and is suitable for babies and chilmany countries where it is acceptable, it is not dren. It contains fat as well as milk solids. easily available. If this is the case in your area, Conidensed milk has some water taken out and find out if milk production is possible. If so, try sugar added. It is not a good food for infants. very hard to promote the production, care, and When you add the water to the condensed milk use of milk. so that the baby will drink it, the mixture does
not give the baby the building foods he needs.
The baby may get full and fat, but he will not
grow as strong as he should. Cheese should be
made from whole or skimmed milk. It may be
soft or hard. Curds are a soft cheese. Cheese is
a good building food.
- It is difficult to plan a good diet for children
and adults without using some form of milk. In
areas where there is not enough milk, try to
get people to use more of other building foods
- such as fish, meat, pulses, cereals and dark
green leafy vegetables. It is a good idea to add
powdered milk to many foods when preparing
them. It can be added to eggs, vegetables, rice,
cereals, sauces, and bread dough.
Meat can come from any animal, bird, or fish
normally eaten. These include cattle, goats,
sheep, camels, pigs, rabbits, chickens, ducks,
geese, turkeys, wild game, fish, and shell fish.
This young Honduran boy is fortunate that he has milk Retlsronsoriecsuhasout, to help him grow a strong body. Most children enjoy besangrshprsreudfofodi milk as much as he does if they have it. some areas.

The lean part of meat is the building food, Teach people to cook legumes and seeds with not the fat or bone. All parts of the animal rice, wheat, corn, millet, or other cereal grains. normally eaten contain protein. This includes If they use these every day with even a small the kidneys, liver, heart, brains, stomach, amount of dry milk powder, fresh milk, or lungs, and also animal blood, which is used for other animal foods added, they can greatly imfood in some areas. prove their diets.
Because meat doesn't keep well in warm climates without refrigeration and because it is
expensive to buy, many people eat meat only
occasionally. For this reason, you should try to
get families to produce and use such animal
foods as milk, poultry, eggs, fish, and rabbits.
Then there will not be as much of a problem
storing and keeping the food as there is when
a large animal is slaughtered.
Eggs have the same building value as meat.
Chickens are our most common source of eggs,
but eggs from birds other than chickens, such
as turkeys, ducks, geese, and guineas, as well
as from fish and reptiles are all good building
foods. All these eggs should be well cooked.
Legumes, nuts, and seeds are plant foods
which contain proteins. Legumes may also be Foods That Provide Much Energy called pulses or grams. They include many Foods that provide lots of energy are called
kinds of dried beans such as soybeans, black fats and carbohVdrates. If people do not get beans, kidney beans, and broad beans; dried enough of these, other foods more valuable for peas such as cowpeas, pigeon peas, and chick- building and repair will be used for the energy peas, and lentils. Learn the kinds of dried the body needs and their building value will be beans and peas used in your area. The soybean wasted. When people eat too much of these is especially good because it contains up to 40 foods they become fat. percent protein. In many areas, the govern- Carbohydrates are sugar and starch. These
ment strongly encourages people to grow and are mainly found in cereals, starchy plants, eat soybeans to improve their diets. Ground- sugar, molasses, honey, etc. Many other foods nuts or peanuts are also important legumes. also contain some carbohydrate. In many counAll edible nuts contain some protein. Know tries, cereals and starchy plants make up the those available in your area. greater part of the people's diet. They are
Seeds include: lotus seeds, ginkgo seeds, often referred to as "the staples in the diets of pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, the masses." squash seeds, cashew seeds, and calabash tree Cereals are grains such as maize, wheat, seeds as well as many others. Seeds are often rice, barley, oats, sorghum, and millet. They used for their oil. "Press cakes", the part of are easy to grow and not expensive to buy. the seed left after the oil is pressed out, con- The bran and germ of these grains also have tain protein. These "press cakes" are good food some building and protective values. The bran for animals. covers the kernel, and the germ is the part
The coconut is not included in this list. that sprouts and grows when planted. When While the meat contains a little building mate- the bran and germ are left in, the cereal is a rial, it is used mainly for the oil it contains. better food. Yellow maize is more nutritious The coconut "milk" is refreshing and tastes than white maize. Rice has a hard outer crust good, but it is not a protein food and doesn't over the bran layer. This crust must be rehelp the body grow strong. moved.

In some countries, wheat flour, bread, maize part of the grain which has much less building meal, and rice are enriched before they are and protective value. Where any bran or germ sold. This means that protective values have is left in, the flour or meal is darker in color. been added. Ask your Ministry of Agriculture Some people do not like it as well. Try to teach or Nutrition Institute about enriching in your people to like and use the darker flour and country. meal made from the whole grain. It is much
Whole grain rice and wheat are sometimes better for them. Try to get them not to wash steamed or boiled and then sun-dried. This the grains or sift out the bran. Millet, barley,
makes them easier to pound or grind. Pre- rye, sorghum, and other grains are generally
pared in this way, rice is called parboiled and used without removing the bran and germ, so wheat is called bulgur. Bulgur wheat keeps the problem of white or dark flour does not better than plain wheat flour. Parboiled rice is arise. a much better food than the white polished Starchy roots, tubers and fruits include such
rice. foods as plantains, breadfruit, cassava (manMany families prepare their own cereal ioc), taro, white yam, yellow yam, sweetpotato,
grains at home by pounding, grinding, or and white potato. Most of these have very little
cracking. They often wash or sift away the protein. When used as the main part of the bran and germ, leaving only the white starchy diet, these foods do not have enough protein and may cause the diseases of poor diet. Oftentimes, young children weaned from the breast and fed mainly on cassava, taro or plantain, develop kwashiorkor.
Starchy fruits and vegetables are easy to grow and are generally found in abundance. They are not expensive to buy and they are filling, but other building and protective foods should always be a part of each person's daily food. This is very important. Otherwise malnutrition results.
Sugars have only energy value. Too many sweets can spoil a person's appetite for foods with more food value. Sugar is digested quickly. That is why a sweet drink, such as sugary tea or coffee in the morning, seems to "pick you up" and give you more energy. But sugar is also used up quickly. You may soon feel tired and hungry again. Too much sugar or other sweets can help to bring about tooth decay.
Fats come from animals, plants, and seeds. They are more expensive and often less available than cereals or starchy plants. Fats are important in the diet. They not only provide energy but also help the body use the protective value of some foods, especially dark leafy greens and deep yellow vegetables. They also contain fatty acids the body needs. When a woman pounds her own grain as this woman is Some fats like red palm oil, other plant oils, doing, she can make sure her family gets all the food butter, ghee, cream, and fish liver oil contain value that is in it. The bran and germ contain important nutrients that should not be thrown away. protective value too. Other fats, like meat drip40

pings, fat meat, and lard have no protective or tain green leafy vegetables and pulses are also building value in them. In some countries, mar- good sources of calcium. Calcium in the diet garine made from vegetable oils may have can be increased by using limewater to prepare protective values added. It is then called forti- food or using fish with edible bones. Red milfied margarine. Many people do not eat enough let, sesame seeds, and molasses also contain fats because they are expensive. It is a good some calcium. idea to include some fats, especially those with Iodine in food is needed for the thyroid protective qualities, in each meal. gland in the front of the throat. When the person does not get enough iodine, this gland
grows big and is called a goiter. In certain
areas where goiter is common, iodine is added
to salt. Fish from the sea and most vegetables
grown near the sea are sources of iodine. Iodine is present in the soil. The amount found in
vegetables and fruits depends on how much is
in the soil where they are grown. Where there
is enough iodine in the soil, there is generally
no problem of goiter. If a person has swelling
in the front of the lower throat, he should go
to a doctor.
Vitamin A is needed for growth, normal eyeFoods That Keep the Body Working sight, and healthy skin and body surfaces. It is
Properly and Help It Resist Disease found in some fats. Butter and cream are especially rich sources. This is one reason that
Protective nutrients called minerals and vi- safe, whole milk rather than skim milk is rectamins are important for growth, resistance ommended for growing children. Other fats against disease, and proper body functioning. and oils may have vitamin A added to them. There are many minerals and vitamins. Each A substance called carotene changes to vitahas a specific name and a specific job in the min A in the body. Carotene is found in the body. Some are found in so many foods they dark green leafy vegetables and deep yellow, are not a nutritional problem. All fruits and fruits and vegetables. Sometimes these are vegetables have minerals and vitamins. Some grouped together and called the "Yellows and contain more than others and therefore add Greens". Red palm oil is also a good source of more to a balanced diet. A varied diet will vitamin A. likely provide all that are -needed, but the foods Dark green leaves are better than light must be prepared so that the vitamins are not green or white. Some of the more commonly wasted. The following vitamins and minerals grown greens are: spinach, chard, kale, colneed special attention to be sure foods with lards, broccoli, mustard, amaranth, cassava them are included in the diet. leaves, sweetpotato leaves, and beet and turnip
Iron is needed along with protein to build tops. It takes little ground and not much work blood. Lack of enough iron is a leading cause to keep a patch of greens growing around the of ill health in many parts of the world. Iron- house. In most areas, they can be grown year rich foods include eggs, green leafy vegetables, round. Many greens, good for eating, grow many whole grain cereals, legumes, and meat. wild. They have just as much food value as the The internal organs of animals such as liver, greens from the garden, and they vary the heart, and kidneys are especially rich sources diet. Trees and bushes with edible leaves such of iron. as the drumstick tree are found in some areas.
Calcium is necessary for building bones and All greens are best when freshly picked.
teeth. It is especially needed during growth. Some deep yellow fruits and vegetables are Milk is one of the best sources of calcium. Cer- mango, papaya, cantaloupe, carrots, yellow

yams, and winter squash. Find out which ones Food Needs Vary grow in your area. Red palm oil is also a good All people need the same nutrients, but in source of carotene. varying amounts throughout life. The amounts
It is important to use foods rich in vitamin are influenced by age, activity, size, sex, health, A or carotene at least once a day. and climate.
Vitamin C is needed for healthy gums, skin, Age-For their size, children need more and body tissues. It is found in many fruits food than adults. This is because they need and some vegetables. Citrus fruits such as or- extra food to grow and develop, and also beanges, tangerines, lemons, limes, and grape- cause healthy children are so active. From fruit are very good sources of vitamin C. weaning to 6 years old, children grow very
Other good sources of vitamin C are guavas, rapidly. They are not getting breast milk and strawberries, rambutan, tomatoes, papaya, are too young to get food for themselves. They
mangoes, pawpaw, cabbage, other leafy greens, need extra special care to see that they get and white potatoes. A person who eats some of large amounts of building foods. During the these fruits and vegetables every day can be many years when boys and girls are growing reasonably sure of getting enotigh vitamin C. into men and women, many things are happenFind out which ones grow or could be grown in ing to their bodies. Some boys and girls grow your area. Include the ones that grow wild. very fast. They need extra food. As people get Teach your people to include a good variety of older, they stop growing and become less acthem in their diets. tive. They need less food.
The juice of any fruit has the same protec- Activity-The harder and longer a person tive values as the fruit'it comes from. The works or plays, the more energy food he needs. same is true of vegetable juices. Teach your A person who works in the field all day needs people to use fresh fruit and fresh fruit juices. more food than one who sits and talks.
Vitamin D is needed for the body to use cal- Size-The larger a person, the more food he cium. It is very important in the growth of needs unless he is too fat, or too thin. Then his teeth and the bones of the body. Too little vita- food needs are based on what he should weigh. min D causes rickets. Sex-Because men are often bigger than
Vitamin D is found in some foods like cod women, and because they often do heavier liver or other fish liver oils. This is why they work, they generally require a little more food are often given to children. This is a good than women, especially energy foods. But a thing to do. People who get lots of sunlight all small man who does very little physical work year long are not likely to lack vitamin D. Sun- will not need as much food as a larger woman light changes a substance in a person's skin who works in the fields all day. Both men and into vitamin D. women need the same kinds of food.
Pregnant women and nursing mothers need
Thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin are mem- extra building and protective foods. Women bers of the vitamin B family. They help with generally need more iron than men. steady nerves, normal appetite, good digestion, Climate-People in hot tropical countries a good attitude (morale), and a healthy skin. need somewhat less food than people in colder Most foods do not furnish very large amounts climates. This is because the body needs more of these vitamins. But using a variety of foods energy food to keep warm in cold climates. each day will help assure getting enough of People are also less active in hot climates. them. Therefore, they need less food than more acOther vitamins and minerals needed in tive people in cool climates.
lesser amounts for proper functioning of the State of Health-Sick people need food to body are also found in fruits and vegetables as rebuild their bodies. In the acute (severe) state well as other foods. A balanced and varied diet of their illness, they may not be able to eat will likely provide all that are needed. much but water or sugar water. As soon as

possible thou(rh, give them a good diet to re- In this plan, energy value comes largely build their bodies and help them get well. from the rice, coconut, and oil; building value mainly from fish and beans plus some from
amaranth; and protective value from amaFood Needs for Adults ranth and mango.
Regular use of milk, cheese, and curds is enAll adults need building, protective, and en- couraged in some food plans because these ergy foods. Your country may have a general foods help build and keep bones strong. In food plan that would be suitable for you to use. some places, these foods are not easily availaOr you may need to get help in developing one ble. that fits the food habits and resources of the If the basic food is bananas, cassava, potapeople you work with. toes, or other starchy food, then larger
The foods in the chart below, taken every day, amounts of legumes, pulses, grams, meat, fish, would be a satisfactory diet for the average eggs, or milk are needed than when cereals are adult man of the Kenya coast. the basic food.
Food group Food Amount per day
Whole grain or lightly milled cereals, starchy Rice, lightly milled 18 ounces
foods including roots and parboiled
Legumes (pulses, grams) Beans 4 ounces
Meat, fish, eggs Fish 4 ounces
Dark green leafy vegetables Amaranth 4 ounces
Other vegetables and fruit, especially those for Mango 4 ounces
vitamin C
Fats, oils, fatty foods Coconut 2 ounces
Oil ounce
Special Food Needs of Pregnant and Nursing Women
A good diet for the mother helps her have a vegetables and vegetables and fruits for vitahealthy infant and stay healthy herself. If she mins A and C are needed for their protective is poorly fed, she will be weak and have a value. Cereals, fats, and oils may also need to weak baby. Some of these babies may die be- be increased, particularly during breast feedfore they are born or soon afterwards. Eating ing. properly means better health for the mother The mother may fear that the baby will
and her children. grow too big and she will get fat if she eats
A pregnant or nursing woman needs extra well during pregnancy. Neither she nor the
building materials to build a strong baby. If baby will get too big if she eats the right the baby cannot get these from the food his amounts of the right kinds of food. It is when mother eats, then he will get them from his she eats too much starchy food, fats, and sumother's tissues and bones, In this way, her gars that she or the baby may get too big. One body may become weakened. good way of knowing if she is getting too big,
too fast, is by going to a prenatal clinic where
Of great importance during this period are her weight will be checked regularly. The docmilk, eggs, meat, fish, and legumes (pulses, tor will talk to her about her diet and weight grams). Extra amounts of dark green leafy gain.

4.- ~ ~BABYBreast milk alone, if there is enough, will supyabb' odnesfrtefrt5omonths of his life. Sometimes in hot weather, a baby needs more water than he gets in breast feeding. Be sure the water is boiled at least 10 minutes. It can be put in a clean covered container to cool and be fed to the baby with a spoon once or twice during the day. Babies who do not get enough sunshine may also need some fish liver oil to help make their bones strong. Your health department can tell you how mothers can get this oil and how they should give it to their babies.
Breast milk is safe because there is no danBREAST VEEoING ger from germs as there may be if the baby is
fed from a bottle.
Breast milk contains a substance which proN E E D Stects the baby against infectious diseases durNEED Sing his early months.
GONEA CPN PLM fL RANG (EC))Breast feeding is valuable because the baby (G5'BA CORN PAA0 OaNGE00 F is cuddled and feels warm and secure when he
(o~~~~i BA0iLt1 ~~ ) is held. He feels loved and happy when he is
~ fed this way. It is the perfect beginning for a
happy, contented life.
TOMATO Btl edn
VEGETABLE', ote edn
The government of Nigeria considers breast feeding so enough milk for the baby during his first 6 important that it has designed this special poster to en- mnhsemyhv ogv i iki n courage mothers to breastfeed their babies, other way. In many countries, feeding cups are
bottles and nipples. Therefore, they are safer to use. If a mother must use a bottle, she must Food Needs for Infants be given proper instructions from a hospital or
Breast Milk health clinic on mixing the milk and caring for
the bottles. It is very important to keep all Mother's milk is one of the best foods for the cups and bottles very clean or the baby may baby. Talk to mothers about nursing the baby get sick. for at least one year. In some areas where there is not enough of the right kind of food, it Starting Otlher Foods is a good idea for the mother to nurse her baby By the time a baby is 6 months old, he needs for 2 years if it is possible. Breast-fed babies moefdthn is ohr'mlkcngv
usually grow well if the mother is eating well, him. About this time, he should be given other They are not sick as often as babies who can- soft foods such as grain cereals, eggs, vegetanot be breast fed. bles and fruits to add to the mother's milk.
A good way to protect infants from severe malnutrition that may leave life-long effects is to give them breast milk. The mother who When a baby is several months old, he should be taught
breast feeds her baby until he is old enough to to eat from a spoon as this Nigerian baby is. Then he will learn to eat and enjoy other body-building foods so be weaned gives him a good start in life, he will not stop growing when he is weaned.


These foods should be fed with a little spoon. bead away. It is a normal thing for babies to This is more sanitary and much better to use do. He will soon learn, after a few tries, that than the mother's fingers. The time for start- he likes most of the foods that you offer him. ing to give the baby the new foods depends on If he continues to spit out a food after several how well the baby is growing and if the tastes, discontinue it for a while and try a difmother has enough milk to satisfy him. If the ferent food. mother takes her baby to a doctor or clinic to It is important that he likes his food and is be checked, she will usually be told when to happy when he eats. The first year it is better start other foods. The baby should continue to to feed him before or after the rest of the famget his regular breast feedings as well as these ily has eaten. Then the mother can give him all other foods. her attention and he will not be distracted by
Eating should be a happy time for the baby; the noise and movement when the family is do not force a baby to eat. A baby will gener- eating. ally let his mother know when he gets hungry.
It takes time to teach a baby to take other The following examples of daily feeding foods, and he has to be fed slowly. Give the plans may help you teach mothers how to add baby one new food at a time to let him get used different foods one at a time to their babies' to the flavor and feel of the food. At first, just diets. Note that at least one building food, one give him a taste on the end of the spoon. Do protective food, and one energy food is given at not be surprised if he spits it out or turns his every meal.
At about 6 months
Upon waking Breast feed
Morning Porridge made with milk. (When baby becomes used to porridge,
start feeding papaya, orange or other fruit juice.) Breast f eed
Afternoon Mashed banana with boiled milk
Breast feed
Early evening Porridge made with milk
Breast feed
Between 7 and 8 months
Upon waking Breast feed
Morning Porridge made with milk and mashed hard-boiled egg
Mashed papaya or fruit juice such as mango, orange, pawpaw Breast feed
Afternoon White or sweetpotato mashed with boiled milk
Ripe banana mashed with boiled milk Breast feed
Early evening Porridge made with milk
Mashed vegetable
Breast feed

Between 8 and 9 months
Plan I Plan II
Upon waking Breast feed Breast feed
Morning Porridge with milk Porridge made with milk
Mashed papaya Orange juice or other fruit juice
Boiled milk from a cup Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed Breast feed
Afternoon Porridge made with milk Mashed sweetpotato
Mashed banana with milk Mashed vegetable
Boiled milk from a cup Mashed and scraped cooked fish
Breast feed Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed
Early evening Mashed potato with boiled egg Porridge with milk and mashed
Mashed vegetable Mashed papaya
Boiled milk from a cup Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed Breast feed
Red Cross health educators use a flannelgraph to teach mothers in Uganda the proper way to prepare a nutritious diet for weaning babies.

You may wish to use a flannelgraph or dis- for porridge without washing the whole grains play real foods to teach mothers what their ba- after pounding them. This way she will not bies should be eating in addition to breast milk pour off all the good building materials in the at (1) about 6 months old, (2) about 7 or 8 water. months, and (3) 1 year old. Think of suitable foods for babies that are
As the baby gets older, be can start to eat available in your area. Treat each family and other building and protective foods. These in- each infant individually, but always base the clude well-cooked and mashed pulses without diet on the many things you have learned skins; hard-boiled eggs; well-cooked and about the many kinds of food that children and mashed liver or chicken; mashed vegetables adults need to grow or to keep strong. Foods from the cooking pot; green leafy vegetables cooked for the family may be given to the baby cut very fine, cooked, and mashed; soup; and if a small portion is taken out for him before fruits such as mango, guava, and pawpaw, the strong spices are added. This food could
peeled and mashed fine with no seeds or hard then be strained, mashed, or cut into small pieces. At about 1 year of age, the baby can eat pieces to make it easy for the baby to eat. It is some foods from family meals. He can eat cer- much easier for the mother to give the baby eal, for example, as it is cooked for his older the food from the family pot and it is much brothers and sisters. His food will still need to better for the baby because he will eat many be mashed or chopped very fine until he has different kinds of foods. When the baby eats more teeth and can chew well. many kinds of foods, he will get the many
things that help him grow.
Preparing and Handling Foods for the Baby
Foods given to the baby must be very clean.
The baby's dishes should be boiled and kept
separate from other dishes. It is very easy for
a baby to get diarrhea or stomach upset from
dirty food or dishes.
When a mother first starts to give her baby
other foods, she should sit him on her lap and
feed him from a sanitary spoon. The baby will
soon learn to eat from a spoon and drink from Nail
a cup. Let the baby try to feed himself from a
small spoon or cup as soon as he seems to want
to. Most small children eat better when they
take at least part of their food by themselves.
The foods given to babies must be soft and Empty 2.16. can
easily digested, so they will not cause the baby
stomach trouble. Animal milk, eggs, meat, fish,
pulses, and cereals are important foods for a
baby. They help him grow and develop. Remember, always boil raw animal milk. Homemade Sieve-Running food through a
A soft porridge or gruel made from a whole sieve removes any lumps or hard pieces, and grain cereal and milk is a good soft food to makes it fine and soft. This is good for an instart the baby on. A mother may feel that the fant or sick child. Most families have a sieve. whiter the porridge, gruel, or pap she pre- If not, they can make one easily. pares, the better food she is making for her Use a 2-lb. tin can or one that is an easy size baby and the better mother her husband and to handle. Be sure the rim is smooth with no neighbors think she is. Explain that a darker sharp edges. Clean and wash the can throporridge has more food value than the white roughly. Punch 20 to 30 holes in the bottom pap or gruel. Show her how to prepare cereals with a medium size nail.

Weaning stop eating altogether and become ill. It is
much better to keep the baby with his mother
Weaning means (1) getting the baby accus- and let him gradually get used to milk from a tomed to foods besides breast milk, and (2) cup and continue to get the other foods he has stopping breast feeding. Weaning extends from been taking. Then both the baby and the mother the time the baby is solely breast fed until he are happier. is eating a good mixed diet which entirely re- If the mother has been following a good places breast milk. feeding plan, the baby will already be getting
The length of time the mother continues to other building foods when she begins to stop breast feed her baby varies considerably. Many breast feedings. He will be used to them. If he doctors recommend breast feeding for one year continues to get them, his growth will not slow and even for 2 years if it is possible and down when he is weaned. needed. This insures that the baby will get In some countries, special "weaning" foods
vital building materials he needs. However, are available. Ask your health department if after the first 5 or 6 months breast milk alone any such food is available and recommended in will not provide the child with all it needs for your country. If so, encourage mothers to use growth. Where no other milk is available, pro- it. It is made especially for the needs of babies, longed breast feeding is necessary for the Use the weaning foods as recommended by baby's growth and quite often for his survival. your health department. However, the mother must eat a good diet with
enough building foods if she is to make milk Food Needs from Weaning to 6 Years for 2 years. A child of this age is often called a toddler
You can prepare a baby for weaning by or pre-school child. A child this age often bestarting with small amounts of boiled animal comes the most poorly nourished member of milk from a cup. Animal milk is the best sub- the family. He often is not given the attention stitute for breast milk. Gradually increase the he got as a baby, and he is still too young to amount until the baby is taking it at every care for himself. meal. Taking the baby off the breast com- The importance of animal foods for everyone
pletely must be done gradually. This usually has been mentioned several times. The toddler takes several weeks. often does not get his fair share of milk, meat,
Normally, the baby should never be weaned eggs, fish, and pulses. This may be because from the breast to a bottle. It is not necessary they are not plentiful or because parents do not and bottles and rubber teats are hard to clean. understand that the child needs these foods for Germs which can make the baby ill are found growth and health. They may think that milk in unclean bottles and rubber teats. causes diarrhea. Help them understand that it
A wise procedure is to stop the midday is the improper care of milk which causes
breast feeding first. After 2 or 3 weeks, stop germs to grow in the milk. These germs cause the second one during the morning, then later the diarrhea, not ihe milk itself. the evening breast feeding. After 2 or 3 more Building foods (proteins) are very imporweeks, stop the early morning breast feeding. tant to a child of this age because he is no Weaning gradually this way is not only good longer getting his mother's milk. The quality for the baby, it is also much more comfortable of building food for a toddler (or anyone else) for the mother because her breasts do not get can be improved by a combination of foods at so full and the amount of milk she makes is the same meal. If a family has both maize and gradually reduced. beans, for example, it is far better to eat some
Some mothers put a bitter powder on their maize and some beans at each meal rather than nipples or send the baby away to his grandpar- to eat maize for several days and then beans ents when they want to stop nursing the baby. for several days. Combinations of foods should This is very bad for the baby. He is unhappy have both filling foods and protein foods; for and cries and feels unwanted. He may even example, cereals or tubers with milk, eggs,

Chilrenwil eatbeter f thy larnto fed hem
hildffrn wilettetrofte learn to feedk themaglss

meat, fish, pulses or cheese. Here are some ex- infection and protect him from hookworm, diamples of mixtures: arrhea, and other diseases.
1. Maize with pigeon peas These foods are not suitable for babies and
2. Banana cooked with beans and served young children.
with wheat bread Strong seasonings and spices such as hot
3. Baked sweetpotato served with lentils peppers and curry powder. Take the baby's
and a dark green vegetable food out of the cooking pot before spices
and seasonings are added or cook it sep4. Porridge made from two different cereals arately.
and served with sauce made of cowpeas Foods with skins such as pulses and maize,
and tomatoes unless they are cooked very well and put
5. Groundnut soup with potatoes. through a sieve.
If the mother has powdered milk, she can 0 Fish with bones, except small fish whose
stir it into the food. bones can be cooked soft and mashed very
When a young child is not given enough fine.
milk, meat, fish, eggs, pulses, and cereals, he 0 Candy, which is bad for teeth and spoils does not grow normally. He is more likely to the baby's appetite for the other foods
get colds, coughs, and stomach upsets, as well which his body needs. as to get very ill from any childhood diseases 0 Beer and other alcoholic drinks which can he catches. He may be cross and lose interest make the baby feel dizzy.
in playing. He may get weak and become sick. Food Needs of School Age Children Kwashiorkor and marasmus may show up in
children of this age who do not eat enough pro- After a child starts to school, it may be hartein. der for him to get the food he needs to grow,
Remind mothers that from weaning to 6 develop, and learn well in school. He often has years old is one of the most important times in to leave home before breakfast is ready in the a child's life and can be one of the most dan- morning and walk a considerable distance to gerous from the standpoint of health. reach school. If he gets no meal at school and
. The young child is growing rapidly and returns late in the afternoon for his first and
needs more building foods for his size than only meal of the day, it is almost impossible adults. The building foods are eggs, milk, for him to get enough of the right foods. It is of cheese, meat, fish, pulses, and groundnuts. The great importance that he have some food beyoung child cannot eat much food at one time fore going to school and some food while he is and so he needs more frequent meals than at school. If no hot breakfast is available, the
adults. child can eat some fruit, bread, cold cooked poIn families that use roots and tubers as the tatoes, or even leftover porridge so that he will main food, it is very important that the child not tire so easily and will feel more like doing have one or -more foods from the building his school work. group at each meal. He should have dark green The School Lunch leafy vegetables and a deep yellow fruit or vegetable, and fruits such as orange, mango, pa- School lunch programs are increasing in paya, etc. Whole grain cereals are better than many countries. The ideal is a school that starchy plants in the child's diet. serves a good midday meal to the children. In
The young child has few teeth so be requires some places children get milk at school, either soft food. He can begin to eat some adult foods, free or at a small cost. A program such as this but they need to be cut into very small pieces. makes sure that all school children will have
Properly feeding toddler requires time, but this valuable building food.
he needs the love and personal attention of his Some countries may provide other foods as mother for both his spirit and body. He re- well to improve the diets of growing children. quires clean food and clean utensils to prevent In some areas where the government does not

A school lunch is popular the world over.
provide lunches, mothers may want to organize be kept cool at school. a lunch for the children at school. The families Many different kinds of food can be carried of the students could pay for this either in to school: maize with beans or peas; pilaf with cash or by contributing food. Mothers could a sauce of chickpeas and powdered milk; tortiltake turns cooking the food or they could hire la spread with sauce of pulses with powdered someone to do the cooking. Providing such a milk; sweetpotato roasted in its skin; hardmeal is a good way to make sure that all the boiled eggs; cold well-cooked dried or smoked children in your area have good food at mid- fish or meat; oranges, papaya, bananas, or day. other fruit; tomatoes; roasted groundnuts;
Carrying Food to School sour milk carried in a gourd; and bread. It is a
good idea to take more than one kind of food.
If a child must carry his lunch to school, it Cooked food could be wrapped in a banana should be as nutritious as possible. The kind of leaf. A little basket lined with a clean leaf food he can take will depend on what is locally could serve as a lunch basket. available. It should be wrapped and packed to No doubt you can think of many other foods keep it clean and make it easy to carry. children can carry to school. Be sure they conMeat or foods that spoil quickly in warm tain both building and energy values.
weather should not be included unless they can If children are given money to buy lunch

from shops or venders, teach them to buy foods Frequent small meals are better than large that will keep them healthy. What foods can meals. The body will make better use of the these children choose from if they buy? Which food. Eating six times a day is not too often. foods will help them follow the rules of good Remember, a well-fed person will recover eating? faster from any sickness or injury.
Giving a school child a good diet every day is Food Habits and Their Influence in Nutrition one way parents can help their children learn
and do well in school. Teachers can do very lit- All people have their likes, dislikes, and betle with children who are tired, dull, and list- liefs about food. Individuals are influenced by less from not getting enough of the right kinds what their friends and those around them eat. of foods. How well a child learns in school is In some areas, it is the custom to eat certain the responsibility of his parents as well as his protein-rich foods such as insects, snakes, and teacher. dogs. These are all beneficial. Many old customs such as drinking animal blood, feeding
Food Needs During Adolescence red millet to new mothers, soaking grain in
limewater, drinking sour milk instead of fresh,
Adolescence is from the time of puberty using wild fruits and vegetables, and sprouting until 20 years of age. It is a period of rapid legumes before cooking them make for good growth and development for both boys and diets.
girls. It is, therefore, a time when they need On the other hand, certain beliefs and cuslarge amounts of food. toms about food are very bad. You need to try
Boys and girls who are active in play or do to change beliefs such as that women will not heavy work may need much more energy food be able to have children if they eat eggs, or
than adults. Because they are still growing, that a child who drinks goat's milk will grow they need more building foods. Their need for to look like a goat. protective foods is about the same or even We all enjoy eating foods we ate as we were
higher than for adults. growing up-foods that our mothers and
grandmothers used to prepare. They make us
Food Needs of Sick People feel happy and safe. Familiar foods, familiar
When a sick person is being cared for at seasonings, and foods cooked in familiar ways home, he should be given good food in an easy- give pleasure to eating. to-digest form as soon as he can take it. Both Developing Good Eating Patterns sickness and injury weaken the body and use
up some of the materials in it. It takes extra Improving nutrition does not mean changing building, protective, and energy foods to repair all the food customs and habits of people. But the damage, and make the body strong again. they need to be taught how to improve their
In the case of a fever or diarrhea, boiled eating patterns so they will have the kind of water with perhaps a little sugar added may be daily diet they need for good health and to all the sick person can take the first day. By enjoy their food, too. the next day, a well-cooked gruel of finely Many countries have developed food guides,
pounded cereal, boiled milk, and sugar can be based on the habits of their people, to help tried three times a day. Also give orange or them establish good eating patterns. These fruit juices with a little sugar added. Boiled guides generally group together foods that add water should be continued. As the ill person the same things to the diet. They emphasize gets better, add other soft foods in addition to foods that are often not used enough. Find out the gruel, boiled water and juices. These could if your country has a food guide and, if so, how be soft-cooked eggs, soft fish without hard you can use it in your work. Some guides sugbones, tender chicken or other meat, soup with gest the amounts to use daily from each group. some mashed vegetables and pulses, papaya, All food guides encourage the use of many rice, and other soft, well-cooked cereal foods. foods. The more different kinds of food people

eat, the better chance they have to get all the A fiannelgraph has been made from the nutrients they need. chart. The circle is cut into five pieces. Each
Let us look at Puerto Rico as an example. piece can be used as a separate lesson. This Puerto Rico has a nutrition committee repre- food guide fiannelgraph is used to teach nutrisentine, various agencies and groups concerned tion throughout Puerto Rico. with food and nutrition. This committee worked out a guide called A Basic Food Pat- Learn the Facts tern~ for Puerto Rico. The committee agreed Yuwl edt er hi odhbt n
that almost all Puerto Ricans eat rice and Yuwl edt er hi odhbt n
beans, starchy fruits such as plantain and green customs before you can help people develop bananas, codfish, lard, sugar, and coffee. Most good food patterns. Review with them what families have something more, but those foods they have learned about the kinds of food the are the only ones the committee could be sure body needs. To help them see what kind of eatalmost everybody had every day. These form ing patterns they have, ask the following questhe basic diet. Although it is good. as far as it tions: goes, other foods are needed to meet the body's 0 What is the main food you eat? need for good health. The food guide was de- 0 Do you use whole grain cereals and flours?
veloped to emphasize the foods that are gener- How often? More than one kind?
ally not eaten often enough. Puerto Rico used 0 Do you use cereal foods more often than the term "Yellows and Greens" because they starchy plants?
wanted to emphasize the deep yellow fruits 0 What building foods do you eat regularly
such as papaya and mango along with the dark with the staple foods? Do you use buildgreen leafy vegetables. A chart was made as ing foods three times each day?
shown: 0 Do you use pulses, seeds, or nuts? Which
ones? How often?
* Do you use meat, fish, eggs, poultry? How often? How much?
one 0 Do you use milk of any kind? How often?
00 How much?
Meat lk& What fruits and vegetables do you use?
The YllowsHow often? How much? Fish and* Do you use leafy greens regularly? YelEggs Grees 19low vegetables?
Grens Do you use oranges, papaya, mango, and
other deep yellow fruits every day?
Milk Fruits Their answers to these questions will tell
of the you whether or not they are eating a good variCountry ety of food Show the people what they can do
Rice to improve their basic diet. They should reguBeans larly eat:
Starchy Fruits 11 More than one kind of cereal grain.
Codfish More than one kind of legume (pulses,
P0001 04grams).
0c4 l 'VO Whole grain or undermilled cereal foods
"~st Evroerather than the refined, white grain
For Your Health products.
Eat One From Each Group Every Day 0 Staple foods in combination with building and protective foods. For example, they should cook cereal foods with dry skim milk or add some meat, fish, pulses,

or vegetables to rice, cassava, or other sta- skin and juice which should not be eaten.
ple. But the foods we have talked about do not in
" More leafy greens or small whole fish themselves cause illness. Quite the opposite:
if milk is not available, the foods we have talked about are needed to
" The "Yellows and Greens" (both vege- build strong, healthy bodies. It is when foods
tables and fruits), become spoiled or contaiminated with bacteria
or parasites that they cause illness. Proper
Handling Food handling, preparation, and storage of food will
The way food is handled influences the n~u-. prevent illness from contaminated food. trients it has, its safety, appearance, and taste. Picpe fFo rprto Handling means everything that happens to Picpe fFo rprto
food while it is being grown, processed, stored, Following these rules in handling and preand prepared for eating. In some areas, at least paring food will help keep it safe, make it one-third of all the food produced is lost by taste better, and preserve the food values it poor harvesting, and loss from insects, rats contains. and spoilage or faulty handling in the home. MILK: Keep milk in a clean conGood farming increases the amount and the tainer with a tight
quality of the food produced. For example, cover. Store in a cold
good soil and the right kind of fertilizer can place. Always boil
improve the amount and flavor of crops. If in- raw milk before using
secticides are needed and are used, the farmer it. Use boiled water
must learn how to use them in the right way so to mix milk powder
that the food will be safe to eat. Many insecti- MEAT: Cook all meat, poultry,
cides are poisonous. and fish thoroughly to
The way food is processed influences its make sure any germs
body building value. Highly milled cereals con- te oti r e
tain smaller amounts of some nutrients than toey otanar e
whole grain undermilled cereals. Enriching sryd
highly milled foods by adding vitamins, iro .n, EGGS: Cook eggs slowly over low
and possibly calcium during processing in- heat. Do not eat raw
creases their nutritive value. Dried skimmed eggs as they may conmilk has the fat removed in processing; it does tain germs. Cooking
not have vitamins A and D. Dried whole milk them well will destroy
powder does have the fat and vitamins A and these germs.
D. The water is removed from both types of PULSES: Wash pulses quickly once.
powdered milk. However, some factories may Cover them with waadd vitamins A and D to dried skimmed milk ter and let them soak
to improve its nutritive value, for several hours or
The nutrients may be partially lost in food overnight. Cook them
stored for long periods, especially when it has until they are tender
not been properly stored. Milk or other perish- in the same water in
able foods such as leftovers, kept for even a which they were soakshort time, can easily become contaminated ed. Add salt, if you
with bacteria and cause illness unless they are wish, after the pulses
properly stored. are cooked. Do not
The way food is cooked greatly influences its throw away the water
taste and appearance as well as its food value. in which .the pulses
Certain foods cause illness. There are poi- were soaked or cooksonous plants such as some toadstools and ber- ed. It contains useful
ries. Some kinds of cassava also have a toxic food values.

GREENS: Tender green leaves ter to cook done. Use
should be prepared any water left after
immediately after cooking in soups
they are picked. Look as suggested above.
them over carefully to Teach mothers not to
remove any bugs or throw away the wainsects that may be ter they cook their
on them. Wash them peas, beans, and othquickly twice in clean er vegetables in. By
water. Cook them adding it to soup, curgently in a very small ries, etc., they can imamount of water with prove the nutrition of
a little oil, fat or milk their children. Some
added. Keep a cover vegetables such as
on the pan and stir carrots, turnips, and
or shake the greens tomatoes may be enoccasionally to keep joyed most when they
them from burning. are eaten raw. They
Tear leaves that are should be washed well
not so tender into in safe water.
small pieces before FRUITS: Some fruits are best eatcooking them. Cook en raw. Some protecthem only until they tive value is destroyare tender, not until ed in cooking, but of
they are soggy. Any course cooked fruits
water that is left in are nice for variety.
the pot contains part Fruit jams and preof the protective val- serves are cooked so
ue of the greens. Use long that much of
this water for soups, their protective valstews, sauces or ue is destroyed.
for drinking. Never FAT: Do not burn fat. Burning
throw it away. Do
not use soda in cook- makes it harder to
ing greens. It de- digest.
stroys some of the RICE OR Wash the grain quickly
protective value. MILLET: just one time in a
OTHER Prepare and cook vege- small amount of waVEGE- tables as soon as pos- ter to remove any
TABLES: sible after they are dirt. Every time the
brought from the rice is washed, it
garden. Freshly gath- loses some of its food
ered vegetables taste value. Pick out small
much better than stones and other dirt.
those that have been When cooking, use
allowed to stand be- only as much water
fore cooking. Wash as the rice or millet
them well and cook will absorb when it
them in a covered pot is done. Add salt as
with just enough wa- desired.

HOME Wash cereal grains member to start with the basic diet of the peoPOUNDED (maize, wheat, etc.) ple and gradually show them how they can imCEREALS: before pounding prove this diet. It is easier to improve existing
them. After the food habits than to change their customs comgrains are pounded, pletely.
use only the amount Talk to the people. Learn how they think
of water needed f or about their problems. A home visit is always a soaking or cooking. good way to learn about an individual family The water in which and its particular problems. Group meetings they are soaked or give you a chance to discuss general village cooked has food value problems and develop awareness of those that in it. Use it in soup are common but unrecognized. In group discusor to cook other foods. sions, use posters and exhibits of different Cook cereals thor- kinds of foods to create interest. Method and oughly to make them result demonstrations will make your teaching easy to digest. Maize more interesting and helpful. can be soaked over- One of the best ways is to tell people a story
night and cooked about a family very much like their own, such whole without pound- as the example on Samuel and Mary given in ing. It must be pound- this chapter. You may want to adapt this story ed or well mashed if to your own local situation or use one of your it is fed to young chil- own in a group meeting. You can adapt it to dren. role playing or to a puppet show. Use familiar
STARCHY Wash potatoes well and names and change the situation so it suits your
PLANTS: cook them with their area.
skins on. Eat the You might also use some of these suggested
skins or peel the po- demonstrations to teach your village women. tatoes after cooking. 1. Preparing foods for children If the skins of starchy
plants must be re- Mothers are more likely to feed their babies
moved before cook- and young children some of the recommended ing, peel them as foods if they have been shown how to prepare thinly as possible. them and have tasted them. You might prepare The skin of the po- enough food for the mothers to taste. Some tato and right under mothers will probably bring their babies and the skin contain more young children with them. You can show how of the vitamins and to feed them, using some of the food prepared. minerals. All starchy Such demonstrations will let you show how to plants and roots need wash, boil, and care for the baby's and child's to be cooked well dishes. Let the mothers help throughout the
done. demonstration.
CASSAVA: Peel before cooking. Some You can also show how to prepare a good
kinds may need to be school lunch. Show not only the kinds of food cooked done. and how to fix them, but also how to pack them
for a child to carry to school.
Teaching Food and Nutrition Have each member of the group bring a
lunch suitable for a child to carry to school. You will have to use many different methods Discuss the lunches. Do they contain building and approaches to teach good nutrition to vil- and protective foods? What staple do they lage people. As you begin your teaching, re- have? Are they packed to keep clean?

These parents know the value of a good diet for a comics worker in El Salvador shows how to prepare young child. They watch with interest as a home eco- food for toddlers.
Suggested Demonstrations on Suitable Foods for Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children
How to Prepare Key Points to Explain
1. Boiled Milk All raw milk must be boiled before it is
Bring a small amount of whole milk to the given to the baby. Start feeding the baby
boiling point. Stir it so that it does not boiled milk from a clean spoon until the burn. Remove it f rom the fire. Put a clean baby is used to the taste. Then start using
cover over it and let it cool. a cup.
2. Porridge With Milk Any cereal grain can b e used. Using whole
Mix 1/4 cup of whole cereal flour and 1 cereal flour with milk gives both building
cup whole milk. If powdered milk is used, and energy foods. Never use white flour
add one measure of milk powder to 4 mea- and water to make a baby's porridge. Cersures of water. Mix so there are no lumps. eal helps to satisfy the baby's appetite.
Boil or simmer the mixture gently for 20 Start with just a taste of porridge and
minutes, stirring to keep it from burning. gradually increase the amount until he is able to take 1/2 cup at a feeding. Be sure the porridge is not lumpy. Babies do not like lumpy foods. Adding an egg, fruit or vegetables gives the porridge more of the food values babies and young children need.

How to Prepare Key Points to Explain
3. Fruit Mush Fruit must be well ripened. All are protecWash fruit well in safe water. Peel and tive foods and have energy value. Add a
mash it to a fine pulp with a clean fork. If little boiled milk or milk powder to bafruits like apples, peaches, apricots, and nana or papaya. You can add orange juice pears are grown in the area and used, they to an avocado. Start with only one or two may be softer and more easily mashed if teaspoons and gradually increase the
they are cooked first. amount to 1/3 cup at each feeding. Be sure
there are no stringy parts or seeds in the
fruit. Remember, fruits shipped in from
other countries will cost more and likely
will not have the food value of fruits
grown right at home or in the area.
4. Fruit Juice Start with one teaspoon of juice at a feedWash any ripe fruit in safe water. Cut it ing and gradually increase the amount
with a clean knife. Squeeze out the juice until the baby takes the juice of an entire
or crush the fruit through a sieve. Remove fruit. Any fruit juice has protective value.
seeds and any hard parts that may have Lemon and lime juice are good, but they
gotten into the juice. are very sour and may be mixed with a little boiled, cooled water and sugar before
they are given to the baby.
5. Eggs Eggs are easily digested and an excellent
Hard cook or soft cook eggs. Then mash building food. Start with one or two teathem in a clean dish. Add a spoonful or spoons and increase until the child eats a
two to porridge, mashed banana, or green whole egg. A fresh egg beaten into porvegetables. ridge is an excellent food for the toddler.
Start with egg yolk first for the young
6. Meat-Fish-Chicken These are excellent building foods and
Scrape a piece of lean, raw beef with a good for the baby if they are prepared
spoon or knife. Scrape off only the tender, properly. All meat must be thoroughly red meat. Gently boil it for 5 minutes in a cooked to kill any parasites which are presmall amount of safe water. sent. Be sure all meat is free of bones and
fine enough so the baby will not choke.
Cook fish in a little water until it is thor- Meats can be cooked with a few vegetables oughly tender. Be sure there are no bones. and mashed together. Small fish like sarMash the fish until it is very fine and soft. dines or sprats can be cooked and mashed or sieved with the bones left in because
Choose the tender part of chicken to pre- the bones are very soft. Sieved meat, fish,
pare for the baby. Cook it in water until it and chicken can be added to porridge or
is very tender and then mash it very fine gruel.
or rub it through a sieve. Mix it with Do not throw away the water in which the
chicken broth to feed to the baby. meat, fish or chicken is cooked. It contains many things that are good for children and adults too. Be sure to use this
cooking water in the next meal or it may

How to Prepare Key Points to Explain
7. Liver Liver is an excellent building food and
Boil a small piece of beef, sheep, or good for babies. It is easily prepared. It
chicken liver for 10 minutes in just should be thoroughly cooked to kill all
enough clean water to cover. Chop the parasites, but not so long that it becomes
liver and rub it through a sieve, or mash tough.
it to a pulp in the water it was cooked in.
8. Pulses Pulses are an inexpensive building food.
Wash pulses once in clean water. Soak They are especially good when mixed with
them for several hours in enough clean even a small amount of milk or milk powwater to cover. Boil them in the same der. Mixed with porridge, they make an
water until they are very soft. Remove the excellent meal.
skins. Use only pulses from which the skins can be removed. Mash or sieve pulses and add a little boiled milk or milk
powder and pot liquid.
9. Green Vegetables and Starchy Plants These foods may be brought to the demonCarrots, tender greens, green beans, stration by mothers. The greens must be
green peas, white potatoes, sweetpotatoes, very tender. They will mash better if they etc., should be washed in clean water. Cut are finely chopped with a knife first. A them into fine pieces and boil them in just cooked egg makes an excellent combinaenough water to cover them until they are tion with greens. Potatoes or cooking bavery tender. Mash them to a fine pulp or nana may be used at the evening meal in
sieve them in the cooking water. Each of place of porridge. Vegetables should be
these may be cooked separately. Two or served with both noon and evening meals.
more can also be cooked, mashed, and fed Dark green leafy and yellow vegetables
together. are especially important.
10.. Soup Soup made from these foods makes an exCook clean vegetables, cereal grains, cellent meal for a growing child. Broth
starchy plants, pulses, or meat until they made by boiling bones in water is not a are very tender in safe water or in broth building food. It is a nice-tasting water
made by boiling bones. Mash them well that is good to cook these foods in. Any
and mix them with the broth. meat scraped from the bones and added to
the soup has building value.

11. Plait and prepare three meals for one day. Bring it to the boiling point, and allow it to
By planning and actually preparing the cool in the same container with a cover on
meals for one day with your people, you can it.
teach them the principles of meal planning and 5. Brew the tea. food preparation much better than if you just 6. Emphasize sanitation practices and food talk about it. Plan together a whole (lay's values in each step of the meal.
menu. Use a variety of the local foods availa- Key Points to Emphasize: ble. 1. The menu follows a good eating pattern
Prepare the meals at three different times. with building, protective, and energy foods. Select the place and see that all materials and 2. Foods selected taste good together-papaya utensils you will need are ready to use. Outline and porridge. the steps you will use in preparing the meal. 3. Use whole maize meal. It is less expensive Emphasize sanitation in food preparation, such and adds more food value than white maize as washing hands, using safe water to wash meal.
vegetables and fruits, clean cooking utensils 4. Millet flour adds food value to a maize porand dishes, and clean working surfaces. When ridge. the meal is cooked, serve it to a make-believe 5. Milk powder in the porridge makes the porfamily. Include a father, nursing mother, in- ridge a better building food. fant of 8 months, a 4-year-old child, and a 6. Milk included for children to drink; milk teenage boy. Some of the group can pretend or else tea or coffee with a lot of milk in it
they are members of the family. for the nursing mother. (Tea or coffee
Let the women help with each step in pre- alone is not a food.) Sugar and milk in tea
paring and serving the meals. You will find and coffee add food value.
this outline helpful after you and your women 7. A ripe papaya with deep yellow color has have decided on the foods to prepare for each more protective value than an unripe one. meal. Work out the key points to emphasize in
each step. It is very important to plan the Midday Menu meals you demonstrate with the women them- Rice-home pounded
selves, using foods available in your area. The Lean meat or fish with onions and tomatoes following may serve as useful guides: Greens (kind available in area)
The Morning Menu Boiled milk for children and nursing mother
Porridge prepared with whole maize meal, Tea or coffee
millet flour, and milk powder Evening Menu
Papaya with lemon juice Stiff porridge -prepared with powdered milk
Milk and tea and any whole grain cereal.
Steps in Preparing the Meal: Pigeon peas -(or other legume) with onion, potato, and tomato add1. Wash your hands with soap and rinse away ed. Also other vegetables if
all the soap with safe water. desired.
2. Mix together maize meal, millet flour, and Mixed ripe fruits-papaya, pineapple, banana.
dry milk powder. Add enough cool, clean
water to make a smooth paste. Stir this Ill. Serving the Meals
into boiling water. Cook and stir the por- Select those who will pretend to be the ridge for 20 minutes. Be sure it is not members of the family from the group. Serve lumpy. Add lemon and sugar to taste. the meal as is customary in your area. Sitting
3. Wash and cut papaya into pieces for each around a table is a convenient way to eat. It is
member of the family. Add lemon if it is de- above the floor and a table is easy to clean. If sired. Mash a piece of papaya for the baby. you do not use a table, spread a clean cloth on 4. Pour the milk for drinking into a clean pot. the floor or choose a clean, grassy place out61

side. In cultures where the whole family eats tion on food and nutrition home to mothers together, let your demonstration show the with schoolchildren.
father's place, nursing mother's place, a place 2. Visit good home gardens, especially those for a child of four, for an infant, and for a growing dark green leafy and deep yellow teenage boy. vegetables. Discuss the value of such garIt might look like this so the father could dlens in improving diets.
share in serving the children, and the mother 3. Use puppets and filmstrips to instruct could be near the cooking area. women about good diets and local foods
which would enrich diets. You might tell a
Infant Teenager part of the story of Samuel and Mary each
________________time you visit a village. F-1 4. Make wide use of fiannelgraph method
Mother Father 5. Arrange attractive displays of foods which
should be included each day in the diet of :
______________(1) Pregnant and 'nursing mothers.
Cooking 4-year-old (2) Children of different ages.
Area 6. Whenever possible, use real foods as teaching aids.
Key Points to Emphasize in Serving 7. Work with mothers who have children in
1. It is good for children to have special the hospital. Many children who go to the
places to sit at a meal and to know they can hospital for malnutrition are cured and disexpect good meals there regularly. It gives charged without their mothers ever being a child a safe feeling, shown how to feed them properly to avoid
2. Give special attention to how to feed a malnutrition in the future.
baby, a toddler, and other children unable 8. Help to carry out a program of food and to feed themselves. nutrition education: (1) in the schools, (2)
in literacy classes, (3) in farmers' training
Other Suggestions For Teaching Nutrition centers, (4) in village council meetings, and
1. Send simple printed sheets with informa- (5) in other organized groups.

The best way for rural people to have good officer said it was "better than some but not as diets is to grow their own food. As you teach fertile as the best." He said Samuel could do people the place each kind of food has in their much to improve it. diet, also teach them how to produce more of it Samuel listed in his mind the foods he had for their own use. In most areas, families can learned his family needed. They would need grow enough foods from each group we have about seven lbags of cereal grain. That would discussed to have a good diet. As you help fain- be enough for the family, plus some for guests ilies grow their own food, consider the follow- plus a little extra in case of spoilage. ing questions: Is the best possible kind of seed Samuel knew how much land it took to grow being used in planting? Is the land being pre- six bags of maize and one bag of millet. If it pared, fertilized, cultivated, and watered as had been measured, it would have come to well as it could be to grow the best food possi- about 1 acre for the maize and 1/2 acre for the ble? Are several different kinds of pulses, ce?'- millet. eats, vegetables, and fruits grown to give van- Samuel planned to put the pulses in the ety and a year-round supply? Can storage fa- same field as the maize, so he allowed a bit cilities keep a year-round supply safe from more space for the combined maize-pulse crop. weevils, insects, rats, and mice, etc. ? He planned on one bag of pulses. He planted
Could the production of milk avd meat be in- three different kinds: beans, pigeon peas, and creased by better management, better feed, some groundnuts. preventing disease, or upgrading the stock? Samuel planned a space not quite as big for Animals that are not productive might be used a cow and his few goats. It would have meaas food for the family and replaced by younger sured about 1-2/3 acres. Samuel planned ananimals of improved stock. It is a waste of feed other space, about the same size as the millet and pasture to keep a nonproductive animal, field, for root vegetables. He fenced off a secCould poultry and egg production be in- tion by the stream so Mary could grow green creased in your village by vaccinating birds to vegetables and tomatoes the year round. prevent disease, improving housing of birds, or These food crops, the house, and the space culling unproductive birds? for the chickens took up about half the farm.
Could fish eating be increased in your village The agricultural officer said that part of the by using, or importing into your area, fish flour land should be left to rest (fallow). Next year and dried fish? These are relatively inexpen- it could be used and another section lef t to sive sources of good quality building food. restst. It was good for the soil to rest. Samuel Could villagers establish fish ponds or stock planted a soil-building crop on this section. He local rivers and lakes with fish to produce a planned to plow the crop under later to enrich fresh supply? the soil.
We come back to the story of Samuel and But Samuel knew he needed to grow someMary to show how much a family can do to thing to sell. Then he would have cash for
supply its own food needs by planning ahead school fees, for fertilizer for next year, for and improving farming and storage methods, clothes, and for the food he was not able to
From all that had been said in the meetings, produce. Perhaps he would need to buy other Samuel through that perhaps he could make foods too if the season was too dry. Therefore, better use of his land and grow more food for he planned to plant some pyrethrum, a cash his family. He decided to ask the agricultural crop which does well in his country. officer to help him. Samuel planted the crops as he had planned.
Samuel had 8 acres of land, you remember. The growing season was good that year. SamThe soil was quite good. The agricultural uel took the agricultural officer's advice and

used fertilizer. He and Mary weeded the fields With the help of the local Extension agriculso the crops had plenty of nourishment from turist, Samuel rebuilt his grain store. He put it the soil. Samuel helped Mary with the vegeta- up high on legs and put strong metal shields ble garden. They learned from the agricultural around the legs so the rats could not climb officer and the village worker what fertilizer to there. To make it even safer from rats, he put use and how to plant vegetables. They had wire around the outside of the store. He
fresh tomatoes, leafy greens, carrots, beans, learned how to use a safe insecticide to control cabbage, and other vegetables most of the year. weevils in his beans. Samuel and Mary learned Mary said growing these vegetables herself how useless it is to work hard to produce good
helped her use more and prepare better meals food for themselves and their children and for her family. then let the rats and weevils destroy it. It is
At harvest, Samuel got four extra bags of just as useless to grow other foods if they spoil maize and half a bag of millet and pulses more or rot before they can be used. than he had planned. You see, he had not But Samuel and Mary learned. Because they
counted on the results of fertilizer and proper planned ahead, improved their farming and weeding. storage methods, and improved their eating
He wag pleased indeed! He sold all the pyr- practices, the whole family feels better and is ethrum and four bags of maize. He put money happier. in the local bank and kept out enough cash to
buy a new fruit tree, some cloth so Mary could
make new dresses for herself and Rosa, and
new shirts and pants for himself and Peter.
Best of all, he bought a new, shiny roof for his
house. He had money in the bank for meat,
perhaps some fruits and vegetables if needed,
fat, and extra food items. He had a cow for
milk and pulses and cereals in the store. He
also had money put away for school fees and
Life seemed very good indeed. Because of
what they had learned, they were 'eating better Other families can learn also. Families in than ever before. Peter was doing good work your area can increase and improve the food in school and he was ever so much livelier. Rosa they grow and improve their diets by learning was so active and so bright now that Mary had more about the foods they need and how to to keep an eye on her almost every minute. prepare them.
Samuel and Mary both felt better. They did You can use this part of the story of Samuel
not tire so easily. Samuel started planning to and Mary to show how much a family can do clear more land to enlarge his farm. to supply their own food needs. You can also
They got along fine until the dry season was use the story to show why families need to plan nearly over. Mary realized the maize and beans or cash to buy foods they cannot produce, as were nearly gone and would not last until the well as other things like school fees, fertilizer, next crop. She found that rats were eating the clothes, etc. maize and weevils were destroying the beans.
Samuel had to use some of the money he had Your Agriculturist Can Help You
put in the bank to buy- maize and beans. Village workers like yourself will face
This angered Samuel and he asked himself, widely different situations in helping to bring "Why should I work hard and follow good about livestock and poultry improvement. You
farming methods to feed the rats and wee- will need much information to make recomvils?" mendations to families. The local agricultur64

..... .....

ists, extension agents, or vocational agriculture size herd or flock can they care for? teachers in your area can help you. There are 0Is the climate good for the kinds they specialists in the Ministry of Agriculture or in want to raise? your agricultural college to whom you can also 0 What building materials are available for turn for information, housing?
0What are the chief hazards to overcome?
Talk the Situation Over With the People 0 What is the best way to begin?
Every family interested in raising livestock Hm adn
or poultry should make its own decisions about Hm adn
growing them. Discuss the following questions None of your work is more important than with them as you start a livestock or poultry encouraging families to grow good gardens for improvement program: as long as the weather permits. You will find
" What will the family's aim be: to have much help within your country for doing this.
more meat, milk, and eggs for themselVes People in most areas already know how to to eat, to sell some for extra cash income, grow vegetables and small fruits suitable to or a combination of these? the climate and soil. Collect the literature al* Can they grow enough f eed or must they ready available in your country and use it in
buy some? your teaching.
" What experience have they had with live- Help your people want to grow better garstock and poultry? What kinds and how dens. As you work with village leaders and
many of each do they now have? What families, relate the growing of vegetables and
When visiting a woman who is growng a good crop like diet. It would also make a good place for a tour group this local spinach in Kenya, you can point out the many to visit. ways it can be used to add food value to the family's

small fruits to their program for better living. Planning and Getting Ready A good vegetable supply, for example, is a part Deciding on the kind of garden you want, of any work with foods and nutrition. These where you will put it, what you will grow, and vegetables can come from good home gardens getting everything ready before the actual
Help them understand how growing fruits work should be started is important to having
arid vegetables for the family not only will a good garden. Here are some suggestions: help them eat better and improve their health, but also will save money. Farm families often Decide where to put the garden. value the extra cash they get from selling food The garden will be a valuable piece of land. they produce more than they value the food for It deserves the best location possible. Some themselves. Try to get them to see this is a families mav not have a choice. They must big mistake. When families grow gardens, they make the best of whatever land is available. need less money to buy food. Fruits and vege- When there is some choice of location, consider tables used fresh from the garden generally these things in deciding where to put the gartaste better than those you buy. They are also den: more nutritious. 1. Nearness to water
Families everywhere generally try to grow This is an important consideration. Garsome vegetables if they have even a small piece dens must have water. When there is not
of land. However, many of them only scatter a enough rain, they must be irrigated or
few seeds here and there. The few vegetables watered by hand. Therefore, they should
this method produces add little to the family's be located near a permanent water supply
food supply. such as stream, well, dam, or other
Try to get families to save some land around source, especially in areas that have dry
the house or in the field to grow food for them- seasons. selves. Hell) them make gardening a family af- 2. Nearness to the house or coinpouvd fair. Garden projects are very popular with Gat-dens need some care almost every day.
club boys and girls throughout the world. When they are near the house, it is easier
to give them this constant care and easier to protect them from thieves. When they are located far from the house, they are often neglected. Then the family is disappointed because they do not get the amount of vegetables they expect.
3. In the sun
Growing vegetables need sun. Do not locate the garden too near trees that will shade it. Tree roots also take food and water from the soil around them.
4. 1v good soil
A deep, rich loam, a mixture of sand, humus, and clay soils, is often the most fertile. This is the best kind of soil for vegetables. Remember, it takes good soil to grow good vegetables.
5. Lall of the land
A steep slope does not make a good garden location. The seeds and plants along with the soil and fertilizer may wash Children generally like to work in the garden if they away. The land at the bottom of such a
-ire may become too damp or wet for
shown how and given encouragement.

best growth. Gentle slopes with good b. The root vegetables-beets, carrots, turdrainage are best. If only a steep slope is nips, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams.
available, plant across the slope, rather c. The fruit vegetables-tomatoes, eggplant, than up and down. okra, peppers, squash, sweet corn, garden peas,
Plan the size of the garden. chickpeas, table varieties of cowpeas, and
beans. Beans may be grown for green snap
The size will depend on the: beans or shelled beans. Lima and kidney beans
1. amount of'space available are especially good for shelling. They may be
2. number of people to be fed used fresh or dried.
3. number of people to work in the garden Fruits should be grown if there is enough
4. ability of the workers space. Some of the smaller fruits, such as
5. kind of soil available-this affects the grapes, may be grown in a large garden. If the
distance between rows and between garden is small, fruits may be grown nearby, plants. perhaps in the yard around the house. The
6. kinds of vegetables to be grown. fruits may grow on vines, bushes grown singly
If people have never made a garden before, or as a hedge, or trees.
it is best for them to begin with a small garden Here are a few examples: and enlarge it year by year. Some people make a. Vines-grapes, chayote, granadilla the mistake of having a larger plot than they b. Bushes-many kinds of berries will take care of. A small plot, well looked c. Trees-apple, peach, pear, avocado, after and managed, is better than a large plot guava, mango, papaya, sapote, orange,
which is neglected. grapefruit, lemon.
There will be many others that grow in your
Decide on the kinds and amounts of area.
vegetables needed. Choose the seeds.
Consider the number of people in the family
and the vegetables they like. For good nutri- Buy the best seeds available. If possible, get tion, remember the special need for leafy a new improved, disease-resistant variety that
greens and for dark green and deep yellow grows in the area. They usually produce better.
vegetables. Most families like a lot of tomatoes Consider the need for both early and late variand need to plan for them. In many countries eties. Be sure families have enough seed for 9 the number of crops they plan of each vegetafamilies have plenty of starchy plants such as ble. Get seed well before planting time. potatoes and yams. Where this is the case, the
space in the garden would be better used for Plan when to plant. vegetables needed to improve the diet.
Families should decide which vegetables Knowing the best planting date for each
they will plant several crops of during a grow- kind and variety of vegetable is important. ing season and also which ones they want to Study the rainy and dry seasons to learn which grow enough of to dry and store. Lowland months will be best suited for vegetable crops.
areas may be more favorable for warm season Some vegetables require a lot of water and will crops and higher altitudes for cool season not grow well in the dry season. On the other crops. Encourage families to try a few new hand, some vegetables may not grow well durvegetables each year. ing a rainy season if the rains are heavy. Ask
They should choose vegetables from each of your local agriculturist to help you learn the these groups: best months for planting various vegetables.
a. The leafy vegetables-beet tops, cabbage, Make a garden plan. collards, mustard, chard, spinach, and turnip
tops. Local wild greens of high food value, Families should make a rough sketch of how
such as amaranth, may be worth a place in the their garden will be laid out, how the seed beds garden. will be arranged, the kind of seeds to be

planted in each, and where the paths will be. place. Grease or oil tools before storing them to By planting the same vegetable at different prevent rust. Clean and dry sprayers and dustimes, they can have fresh vegetables for many ters after each use. months. For example, they could plant two or Use, tools safely to avoid injuring yourself three rows of beans or sweet corn every 3 or 4 and fellow gardeners. Do not leave sharp tools weeks. The garden plan should show these re- on the ground where they can be stepped on. peated plantings. Tools are not toys. Even small children can
help in the garden, butyou must watch them
carefully when they are using sharp tools.
Preparing the Garden Site
This should be done at least 4 to 6 weeks before planting time. First, clear the site of trees
and bushes. Dig out the roots and stumps and
burn or haul them away from the plot. Clear
away all stones, trash, and rubbish. This helps
J to keep down insects. Dig out any grass on the
site and put it on the compost pile.
Fence the garden plot to keep out chickens,
goats, cattle, rabbits, and other animals. It is a
Getting Garden Tools Ready great waste of effort to let animals destroy vegetables that families have worked hard to
Only a few tools are needed to make a good grow. Wire, mesh, bamboo, or other durable garden. The kind of tools used will vary. In local materials can be used for fencing. Thornmost villages, a farmer will have one or two less cactus, hibiscus, sisal, or other plants that basic hand tools with which he does most of will grow into strong hedges can be used to his farm work. He will also probably use these make an inexpensive living fence. for gardening. Get tools ready before they are Prepare the ground. Carefully and thorneeded. Garden work is easier when tools are oughly working the soil before planting makes sharp and clean. They should not be left lying it easier for the young seedlings to come up around. The following are useful garden tools: and start toward strong, healthy growth. It
a. Machete or ax to clear brush also makes later cultivation and weed control
b. Mattock for digging out stones or large easier.
roots Work the soil when it is moist but not wet.
c. Spade to turn the soil When it is not possible to plow the ground,
d. Spading fork to turn soil, handle manure spade or thoroughly turn it with a fork to a
and compost, and harvest root crops depth of about 10 inches. Break up all clods
e. Rake for leveling soil and removing and make the soil loose, fine, and crumbly.
stones and trash Use animal manure, compost, green manure,
f. Cord and stakes to mark off rows or some of each to make the soil rich so that Jt
g. Trowel for transplanting seedlings will grow more and better vegetables. Mix in
h. Sprayer or duster for insecticides the manure or compost well.
i. Hoe forcpltivating, weeding, and opening Animal manure from chickens, cows, goats,
row. sheep, or hogs is good. It should be well rotted
Be sure to teach families the following rules because fresh manure is likely to injure the on tool use and care. Keep tools in good condi- plants. Use about 1 pound of manure per tion. Clean them after each use to prevent rust. square foot of garden area. Use only about Keep cutting tools sharp. Keep wooden handles one-fourth this much chicken manure. Spread tight, clean, and smooth. Mend or replace bro- manure over the ground before digging or ken handles immediately. Store tools in a dry plowing. Never use human waste on a garden.

This garden in Kenya has been fenced with dead brush materials for fencing, choose things that cattle or other to keep out cows and other animals. When using plant livestock don't eat.
It can spread disease. If animal manure is these wastes makes compost a better fertilizer.
scarce, it is especially important to have a good Compost may be made in a trench or pit, or supply of compost. it may be made in a pile or heap on top of the
Compost is made from plant and animal ground. When it is made on top of the ground,
waste common in nearly all countries. This is make a little pen or fence around it to keep it called organic matter because it comes from from getting scattered. A good size for either a living things. Compost is one of the best and pit or a heap is about 2-1/ to 3 feet deep, 4 feet cheapest ways of providing fertilizer for the wide, and 6 feet long. garden. It also helps keep the soil the right Start by putting a 6-to-8-inch layer of texture to work easily. leaves, stalks, or other plant material on the
Leaves, grass clippings, sugarcane, chopped bottom. On top of this put a layer of animal corn cobs, cotton or tobacco stalks, paddy husk manure or complete chemical fertilizer. Cover or rice straw, vegetable and fruit peelings, ani- this layer with well-pulverized soil mixed with imal bedding, and garbage all make good com- wood ashes or lime to a depth of about 2 post. Some good top soil with wood ashes or inches. Wet each layer evenly with water. Conlime and a little animal manure mixed with tinue building up layers of refuse, manure, and
soil, one on top of the other, until the pile is 2L:, to 3 feet high. Keep the pile moist, but not The sides of a compost pile should be slanted toward the center and the top should be slightly hollowed. This wet. Keep the sides of the pile higher than the catches and holds water to speed decay. center so water will not run off.
After about 3 weeks, turn the heap with a SOIL fork or spade. Turn it again after another 5
, FERTILIZER weeks. This makes the heal) decompose evenly.
REFUSE In 3 to 4 months, the compost can be used on
(leavesstalks, etc)
the garden.
LIZER Any compost materials can be worked into
RE-USE the soil when the garden is plowed or spaded.
They can also be used as a surface mulch during the growing season and worked into the soil the next time it is plowed or spaded.

Planting the Seeds
40 Some vegetable seeds can be sown "in the
open". This means directly in the garden. Oth" ers will need to be sown in specially prepared
seed boxes or nurseries. Partly grown plants
are later transplanted to the garden.
Iii the fj(irdrn. Vegetables that can be
planted directly in the garden include beans,
carrots, cucumbers, okra, squashes, beets, radishes, turnips, and potatoes. These seeds can be
sown in raised beds, ridges, or hills that are
about 8 or 10 inches high if excess rain or poor
drainage is a problem. In areas where the rainfall is light and drainage good, they may be
sowVn in flat beds or rows spaced 3 to 4 feet
A farm family in Kenya made this compost heap after
attending a demonstration by the home extension A convenient size for a garden bed is 3 or 4 worker. feet wide and 10 to 20 feet long, depending on
the size of the garden. Work up the seed beds
when the soil is moist. It is generally best to lay
out beds, whether they are raised or flat, on
Green Mlanutre. In warm climates, it is diffi- the contour. This means across the slope. This
cult to keel) enough organic matter in the soil. he pnt rin m a sh the soil.away Many good gardeners plant a field crop such a ns helps ho wa (ing the s aerotalaria, clover, vetch, rye, or millet on the adas ep odae uigtedysa
crotagaria loveCrps sch ry e ie ond te son. Level the beds with a rake, break up any garden plot. Crops such as these should be clods. andI make the soil fine and smooth. turned under while they are still green and not
yet mature. This must be done several weeks Plant seeds in straight rows. This makes it
before vegetables are again planted to allow easier to plant, care for, and harvest crops. them to decay. Ask your agriculturist which Mix a little fine sand with very small seeds like are the best green manure crops for your area. carrot or lettuce so they will not be planted too
Coomiercial fertilizers will improve the soil thickly. Cover them lightly with soil. Plant even when manure and compost are used. A larger seeds in furrows 1 to 1-1 inches deep.
complete fertilizer contains nitrogen, phospho- Sprinkle seeds with water each evening until rous, and potassium. The percentage of each of they come up. Plant each kind of vegetable by these in a fertilizer is always given in that itself. For example, plant rows of beans in one order. For example, a 5-10-5 fertilizer means 5 place and rows of squash in another. When percent of it is nitrogen, 10 percent is phospho- raised beds are used for small seeds, plant one rous, and 5 percent is potassium. Commercial kind in one part of the bed and another kind in fertilizer helps plants grow. Use about l/i- the other part. pound of 5-10-5 per 8 square feet of ground. In seed boxes or nurseries. Families can
Fertilizer is used most efficiently when it is grow their own plants for transplanting by banded under the seed. To do this, open the sowing seeds in boxes. However, if there is a furrow 2 to 3 inches deeper than seeding good nursery nearby, it is often cheaper and
depth. Spread j-pound of fertilizer per 60 easier to buy healthy plants of varieties that feet of row. Cover the fertilizer to seeding grow well in the area. Plants recommended for depth, then lightly firm the soil by walking transplanting include tomatoes, onions, cabdown the row or with the back of a hoe. Place bage, eggplant, sweet and hot peppers, caulithe seed and cover it as usual. Then firm the flower, collards, etc. There may be others in soil again. your area. If families decide to grow their own

Girls in Honduras use stakes and string to lay out their garden in straight rows.
Hanging baskets of earth are used as seed boxes in Seedlings with their first true leaves are ready for India. This prevents the young seedlings from being transplanting. washed away by heavy rains.

plants, be sure they sow the seeds ear ly enough garden bed large enough and deep enough to to give the plants time to grow before they set put the roots into without damaging them. Set them in the garden. the plants in the ground as quickly as possible
Seed Boxes or trays can be made from what to keep them from wilting. Gently press the is available. Shallow wooden boxes are ideal. earth around the roots to cover them comTrays can be made of bamboo or pieces of pletely so the plant will stand up. After setting
metal roofing. Calabashes, gourds, or broken the plant, water it. Do not put water in the pots can also be used. Whatever kind of con- hole before setting the plant. Using a starter tainer is used, it should be at least 4 io 6 inches solution to water plants gets them off to a good deep and have holes in the bottom to let extra start. This can be made by using 4 tablespoons water drain off. of fertilizer to I gallon of water or 1 cup of an1. Add a little fine manure or 2 to 3 tea- imal manure and 1/ 2-cup of wood ashes to a spoons of fertilizer for each square foot of soil gallon of water. Use about 1 cup of starter soand mix it in thoroughly. lution for each plant. Shade plants and dust in2. Fill the box to 1/2-inch from the top with secticide around them to keep cutworms and a good loam soil. crickets from cutting off the young plants.
3. Make the soil fine, firm, and level on top Caring for the Garden so that it is very smooth for the tiny seeds.
4. Water the box so the soil is damp but not Watering. This is the hardest work in growwet. Setting the box in water is a good way to ing vegetables during the dry season. If water a seed box. enough water is available, the best and easiest
5. Make shallow grooves about 3 inches way is to run water through the furrows the
apart. Sow the seed in the grooves and cover length of the row until the soil around the vegthem lightly with fine soil. Firm the soil gently etables is wet. If this is not practical, put with your hand or a flat board. Keep the boxes water directly on the bed or around the plants. covered with a piece of burlap or paper until It is important to use enough so the water the seedlings first appear. sinks at least 5 or 6 inches into the soil. On
6. Place the boxes on a firm support and beds that are 4 feet wide, three kerosene tins
protect them from animals. Place them where or 12 gallons of water should be used for every they will get some sun but not the hot midday 4 feet of length. sun. Uncover them as soon as the seed starts to A good heavy watering twice a week after sprout. This will prevent tall, weak, spindly the plants have started growing well is better plants. than just a light sprinkling every day. Water7. Water often enough to keep the soil damp ing should only be done in the late afternoon. but not wet. The sun dries up the water and bakes the
8. After the plants start growing, they may ground hard if plants are watered during the need to be thinned or spread further apart in day. It is easy to make a watering vessel from a kerosene tin or calabash by punching small
other flats before they are transplanted into holes in the bottom. Then you can put the the garden. This gives them enough room to water on gently sothe plants are not damaged.
grow strong and healthy. Mulching. Mulch can be any material such
Transplanting as dried grass or straw placed on top of the
soil around and between plants. It helps to
Where the rainfall is heavy, plants should be keep the soil from drying out and makes the transplanted to raised beds. Prepare these beds best use of water. A good mulch also helps the same as for sowing seeds. Plan to set keep the soil cool and keeps down the weeds.
plants in the late afternoon or in cloudy Feeding. Plants should be fertilized once or
weather. Water the seedlings in the seed box, twice, sometimes three times, during the growthen remove them carefully with as much dirt ing season. This gives rapid growth with high on the roots as possible. Make a hole in the production of good quality crops. The fertilizer

These boys in Honduras are leaving enough room be- School gardens such as this in Sudan not only teach
tween their transplanted seedlings so the full-grown students how to grow vegetables, but also supplement plants wvill not be crowded, the school lunch.
These schoolgirls in the Ivory Coast are thoroughly soaking the ground around the plants. If only the surface is wet, the roots will come up and the plants will be more easily damaged by dry weather.

can be put between the rows, near but not Vegetables should be eaten while they are touching the plants. This is called sidedressing. young and tender. They taste better and many
Because nitrogen stimulates plant growth, it of them have more protective food value then is usually the only one used. Nitrate of soda is than they do when they get too mature. the form commonly used for sidedressing. Use Vegetables like beans, peas, okra, and lettuce 1/2 to 1 pound per 10 square feet. should be gathered every day or two. VegetaWeeding. Weeds use water and plant food bles should not be allowed to stand after gaththat are needed for the vegetables. Weeds also ering. When they become wilted or dried out, make it easier for insects and disease to in- they are not as good. All vegetables should be crease. It is a waste of work already done to let cooked, eaten, or preserved in some way as weeds take over in your garden. They can be soon after harvesting as possible. pulled up by hand or dug up with a hoe. You Sho adn
can also prevent them from growing by using a Sho adn good mulch. Children enjoy gardening and can Many rural schools have a school garden not be taught to do the weeding, etc. only to teach the children how to grow vegetaHoeing. Keeping the soil loose and open bles, but also to get them interested in eating helps to save water. Frequent and regular vegetables. School gardens can furnish vegetahoeing can greatly increase the yield of vegeta- bles for the school lunch program. Subjects bles. The first hoeing should be done soon after such as nutrition, science, and arithmetic can the plants are up. be related to the garden and made more interControlling insects and disease. When plants esting for the children.
are strong and healthy they resist disease and A school garden can also influence the chilinsects better than when they are spindly and dren to start a garden at home. As a village weak. worker, you may be asked to help with imporMany pests attack vegetable plants while tant school projects of many kinds. Often this they are growing and there are many ways of includes helping with a school garden. controlling them. The first and most important Tahn adnn is to destroy their breeding places. Be sure the Tahn adnn garden is free of weeds, trash, brush, etc. Bugs A good way to teach gardening is through and worms can be controlled if they are picked method demnovstrations. But before giving a off by hand early in the morning and late in demonstration, be sure that the practice meets the afternoon and killed. Insecticides and fun- a real need and interest. gicides also control insects and disease. Your A demonstration on compost making prolocal authorities can tell you how to use them. vides an excellent opportunity to involve the Find out from your agricultural workers people by asking them to help make the comwhich plant diseases and pests give trouble in post pile. Discuss compost while you work. your area and what is recommended for con- Try to get favorable opinions from the group, trolling them. Keep all insecticides away from and interest in making a compost pile. Try to children and use them with care. Some are get some of them to volunteer to make one safer than others. Be sure that you follow the when they return home. directions for using insecticides and wash all A good result demonstration can also be carvegetables before eating them. Eating vegeta- ried out with a family that is making a combles that have insecticides on them can be post pile, particularly if they record the time harmf ul. they spend with it, the cost if any, and the inHarvetingcreased value of vegetables produced. It should Harvetingbe located in a place where neighbors can obWhen to gather vegetables is a very impor- serve it.
tant part of good gardening. Many people let Other method demonstrations you could give vegetables get too ripe before harvesting them. include:

1. How to make seed beds, ridges, and fur- wvell as a way for them to make some money rows on the contour. for themselves. Most of your educational work,
2. How to transplant tomato or cabbage then, may be with the women and children.
plants. However, the help and interest of the men is
3. How to sidedress plants with manure or necessary if poultry is to become an accepted nitrate of soda. part of the family food program.
4. How to make seed boxes and plant seeds
in them. Getting Started
5. How to make a hand duster for putting There are several different ways to start iminsecticide on plants. (Punch holes in the proving flocks. Many village workers have felt metal top of glass jar or tie cheesecloth over a their best chance to bring about desired can or jar.) changes is in the improvement of native stock.
6. How to irrigate a garden. Native chickens are generally hardier than
7. How to select vegetables while they are other breeds and they are used to conditions on young and tender. the farm. A family can upgrade their present
JResnlt demonstrations, such as growing a flock and have more meat and eggs from the new variety or using improved cultivation same number of birds by' using a good cockerel, methods, and garden, tours are other excellent better feed, and better care. The local agriculways to teach good gardening. turist can tell you how to secure improved
c ockerels.
The Family Poultry Flock
Chickens are important to many village fain- A heavy breed like this can provide both meat and ilies. In your area there are probably chickens eggs. running loose, picking up whatever they can find to eat and laying only what eggs they can produce on the food they get. Such chickens contribute little to the food sup~ply. Growing improved chickens for family use is one of the best ways to get more of the animal protein 2{
most village people need so badly in their diets.
A good poultry program can make a major improvement in the diets and health of people in your area. Even a small flock of 15 to 30 laying hens with good feed and good care can supply a family with fresh eggs and some meat during most of the year. They can have fresh meat when they want it without the problem of a large quantity on hand at one time as there is when a larger animal is butchered. Too often, villagers who keep poultry think only of selling the eggs and chickens for a little extra cash income. They (10 not realize the value of the meat and eggs to their health.
The family poultry flock is generally the responsibility of the homemaker and the children. Boys and girls like poultry projects in their club work. This is a good way to get them interested in eating more egg ; and chickens as

On the other hand, if people wish to get rid nest where the hen will not be disturbed and of their native stock and make a fresh start put 13 to 15 fertile eggs in it. Watch the nest with another breed, or if they are just starting because hens sometimes abandon the eggs. to raise chickens, they must first decide on the The broody hen must be free of lice all breed they want. Many improved breeds are through the hatching and brooding period. She
good for both meat and eggs and, therefore, should have access to feed and water all the are desirable for a family flock. Such breeds time. include Rhode Island Reds, Plymouth Rocks, About 24 hours after the chicks hatch, take
and New Hampshires. Leghorns are good them from the nest and put them in a brood
layers and eat less feed, but do not provide as coop with the hen. The simplest coop is the much meat as the larger breeds. A-type, but a box coop as shown in the illustraA fter deciding on the breed, families might tion is also good. Second-hand boxes may easily wish to buy second-year layers from a commer- be made over into brood coops. cial poultry grower if there is one in your area. The hen stays in the coop while the chicks These are hens that have laid for a year or are free to come and go. They need exercise more. The commercial poultry man wants to and sunlight. The coop should be moved occareplace them with younger birds. He generally sionally so the chicks will have clean dry is willing to sell these second-year hens at a ground to roam on. very reasonable cost. They should be better layers than ordinary chickens. They are from Feeding
healthy stock and have most likely been vacci- Good feed is essentialif chickens are to be nated against disease. When they stop laying, healthy and produce well. Chickens need buildthey will provide meat for the family. Your ing, protective, and energy foods the same as agriculturist can help you make such arrange- people. ments. Baby chicks need finely ground or mashed
To know how many second-year layers to feed 4 or 5 times a day. One good food can be
buy, the family must decide how many eggs prepared by hard boiling an infertile egg,
they can use in a day. Multiply this number by chopping it very fine, shell and all, and mixing 21/). For example, if the family can use 10 it with the same amount of bread crumbs, eggs a day, they probably will want to start boiled rice, or other starchy plant. Very fine with 25 layers. rice bran can also be used. This will feed about
Another way to start a small flock is to buy 25 baby chicks for a day. Keep finely cut green day-old chicks and raise them with a home- food and sanitary drinking water before the made brooder. A brooder is a device for keeping chicks at all times. chicks warm and raising them without the
care of a hen. A fireless homemade brooder can
be made out of a box. Bore holes in it for venti- Any family can make this simple poultry equipment. lation and line it with gunny sacks or other
heavy material to keep the chicks warm. Put
the chicks in the box at night and keep it in a
safe warm place. They can be let out in the
Hatching and Brooding With Hens
The simplest way to produce chickens for
home use is by setting carefully selected, fer- Bamboo feeder tile eggs under a broody hen.
The broody hen is usually set on a straw Woo feeder
nest in a box about 18 inches square. Place the Calabash feeder

Chickens eating whole grains need grit such ('7 as sand or "pea" gravel to grind the grain to
make it digestible. Birds on range pick up plenty of gravel. Laying hens need calcium to make egg shells. This can be supplied by feeding oyster shell, mussel shell, or other suitable fish shells. These must be crushed fine for chickens to eat.
Chickens need plenty of water. Be sure it is clean, safe water. Twenity-five layers will drink GUards ac ross poultry feeding troughs prevent hens 2 to 21/,) gallons of water a day. Keep water from throwing feed out and wasting it. A U.S. farmer available in clean containers at all times. bought the feeder in front and made the other.
As chicks get older, they can begin to eat the same feed as the laying flock. One laying hen needs about ],/,-pound or 2/3-cup of feed a day. For 25 hens about 6-1/t pounds or a little over 4 quarts are needed each day.
Many people give only corn to their chickens. But corn by itself does not have enough building material for the hen to produce eggs. Roasted soybeans and groundnuts can be added to corn to make a good ration. These should never be fed raw. Yellow corn is better than white corn. Other grains such as oats, barley, millet, and sorghum also make good feed if additional protein such as fish meal, sesame meal, groundnut cake, or maize gluten meal is added. Rice bran or rice polishings is used to feed chickens in some areas. If any family has a surplus of milk, this is an excellent food for chickens. Vegetable peelings and the green Bottl1e waterer
tops of vegetables also make good feed. Cook potato peelings before feeding them to chick- Housing ens. Fresh kitchen scraps also can be fed. Every family that has chickens needs some
Never give chickens any spoiled food, espe- kind of a house for them because: cially meat.
Chickens need plenty of green feed. Letting Chickens need to be protected from heat, chickens range on pasture grass is a good prac- cold, rain, and wind. tice if they are not bothered by predatory ani- It will help protect them from hawks, mals. Rarrge birds benefit from exercise and owls, crows, foxes, weasels, rats, skunks,
sunlight. With the green feed, they need less and other such animals that destroy them.
other feed. Some farmers plant a patch of rye, Chickens can be locked in the poultry alfalfa, or other such crop to provide green house at night to help prevent stealing
feed. This is especially needed if chickens are by chicken thieves and let out in the confined. morning to range.

This woman in Thailand has enough chickens to prov- .
ide eggs both for home use and also for sale. The hens are kept in a raised cage of bamboo slats which lettheir droppings fall through. This makes it easy to remove the manure. The slatted sides of the cage save grain by keeping the hens out of the feeder. A strong
fence around the cage area keeps out dogs and otheranimals.
This chickenhouse in Basutoland has been built in the Where weather is more severe, an enclosed poultry
traditional round shape. house such as this one in the U.S. may be needed.

* Eggs laid in nests provided in poultry Rats and Mice
houses are easier to find and collect. Rats and mice are among the worst enemies
" Suitable roosts can be built in a poultry of poultr They kill young chickens, destroy
house, eggs, eat or contaminate poultry feed, and
" The roost poles, walls, and floors of damage poultry houses and equipment. They srad disease andl parasites. Losses from rats
ch ick en h o u se ca n b e d isin fected to a i d sp re ad d s ae.d p r s t s ~ s e r m r t
choice ousecanbe lisifece~l o ~i~l and mice in at farm-size flock are usually very
in controlling lice an d m ites. A sk y ou r a t b ut i n tm oie c a us e h e s e
agriculturist about good disinfectants to great lut often go unnoticel because the losses are gradual. A ratproof poultry house is one of
use and how to use them safely, the best ways to guard against these pests.
" A poultry house can be used for brooding Get rid of rat and mouse breeding and hidyoung chickens. ing places. Clean out trash and dumps of any
kind. Do not let garbage collect anywhere.
" Keep the poultry house clean and do not Provide ratproof storage for all food and feed
place it too close to the house in which around the house or farm. Use rat poison. Folthe family lives, low the directions carefully and keel) prison
away from children and domestic animals.
No one type of poultry house is best. Local
conditions and the materials available will de- Disease and Parasites termine the best kind. A square or rectangular
house is usually most satisfactory. A flock of Chickens get sick easily. Some of the most 25 hens would need a house about 10 feet long common (iseases of poultry include: croup or a and 6 feet wide. It should be about 6 feet high cold, Newcastle disease, and coccidiosis. When in front and 5 feet at the back. The house can chickens have a watery discharge from the be built of adobe, bamboo, lumber, or other local eyes and nose, do not eat well, become droopy, materials. The number of openings and venti- have pale combs and wattles, or their croplation will depend on the climate. The house pings have a bad odor or become bloody, you should have some shade to help keep it cool in should advise the family to isolate the sick hot weather. A thatched roof would make the birds at once and get hell) from an agriculturhouse more comfortable in both summer and ist or veterinarian.
winter than a roof of metal. The poultry house Parasites such as lice, mites, ticks, and chigfloor may be concrete, boards, or dirt. Make the gers are a constant problem. They lower prodpoultry house ratproof by using wire or metal uction of both meat and eggs by sucking blood over all openings. Cover the floor of the house from chickens. They also carry disease germs. with a good litter. This may be cut or chopped Prevention is the best way to deal with poulstraw or dried grass, ground corn cobs, tobacco try diseases and parasites. Sanitation is essenstems, or other dry material that takes up tial. The following measures can help prevent moisture. Add fresh litter once or twice a loss from disease and parasites: month. Change the litter before putting new 0 Provide clean, fresh feed and pure water
birds in the house. every day. If water is contaminated, iise a
The poultry house should contain roosts, sanitizer.
nests, feed hoppers, and water containers. Put 0 Keep the poultry house clean and dry. roost poles at the back of the house, 2 or 3 feet 0 Clean feeders and waterers two or three above the floor and 10 or 12 inches apart. Make times a week. a pit under the roosts to catch droppings. The Keel) chickens on clean ground away from pit must be cleaned often. Spread droppings the house and out of the yard where the
and litter on the garden. family lives.
Along one wall build a nest for every four or 0 Remove any sick chicken from the flock. five hens. Make each nest about 14 inches wide, It is usually best to kill a sick chicken and 14 inches high, and 12 inches deep. burn or bury the carcass completely.

Vaccination is another method of preventing many poultry diseases. This Thai veterinarian is vaccinating chickens against Newcastle disease.
For lice, mites, and ticks, treat roost poles, the family to eat some of their eggs instead of
chicken houses, and litter with disinfec- selling all they produce.
tants. Ask your agriculturist which disin- Culling means taking hens that have stopped fectants are available and which you laying out of the flock. When hens have should recommend. stopped laying they should be culled out,
killed, and eaten if they are healthy and in good
Eggs condition. You can tell if hens are laying by
examining them carefully. In a good layer the Gather eggs twice a day. If eggs are allowed abdomen is soft and deep, the vent is large and to stay in the nests or on the floor all day some moist, and the comb and wattles are bright may be accidentally broken and the hens will red. The best time for culling is the late sumeat them. From this they may develop the bad mer or early fall. It is easier to tell the good habit of breaking eggs for food. Clean dirty layers from the poor ones, then. However, it is eggs. Any cracked or soiled eggs should be wisest to cull the flock when the family can use
thoroughly cooked before eating. Encourage the meat.

The pubic bones of a nonlayer (left) are close together. The pubic bones of a layer (right) are wide apart.
The pubic bones and keel of a nonlayer (left) are close together. The pubic bones and keel of a layer (right) are wide apart.

A chicken's comb can help you tell whether or not a hen is laying. The high producer is on the right and the nonlayer is on the left.
Suggested Method Demonstrations On Poultry 2. Show how to select eggs and prepare a nest
1. You may want help from an agriculturist for setting.
when you demonstrate how to make such 3. Show how to cull layers from non-layers.
equipment as: 4. Show how to prepare feed for baby chicks.
* Feeders 5. Show how to slaughter and dress chickens
" Waterers for cooking.
* Brooders 6. Show how to cook or barbecue chickens
* Brood coops. properly.
This Home Improvement Club member in Vietnam care for her small flock of poultry. Her family will eat
learned in her club meeting how to house, feed, and better balanced meals as a result of her efforts.
I | I I I .I 0 0 0 | f | I| It I I. 1. (7) 1,; 6 S 3 i* It '4 !t !: I 3 3 (3 ,{ i f @; I V;i I
vI I p : t : 4 4. 1 4 1 i
t 2 8 1 .. . 4 . 1 4" ,; 4 4
Iv I is 11 (1 oo-t--o to
I to to 9 4; 4
to 10 C 4,.

and makes it easier for a goat to get internal / parasites. Goats like early-cut hay that is half legume and half grass. Feeding oats, rye, or soybean or linseed meal along with hay or pasture will produce more milk.
When root crops are available they are good feed for goats. Goats especially like beets, turnips, and carrots. When a female goat is pregnant or fresh, she should be fed about 11 to 2 quarts of grain a day plus good pasture. One quart of oats and I, quart of corn, or 2 quarts of oats make a good daily grain ration. Do not feed only corn to goats. Females that are not pregnant and not milking do not need grain. They can get along on hay, pasture, and root crops.
Goats need salt every day. They must be able to get water at all times. In hot weather they Milk Goats need shade. Do not let goats near surfaces that
are painted( with lead-based paints. They may Goat's milk is a good food for the whole eat the paint and be poisoned.
family. It compares well with cow's milk in G(;oats are natural climbers. They will climb food value. In some areas, goat's milk is pre- on low buildings and machinery unless they ferred. It is good for drinking, cooking, and are tethered or enclosed in a tight fence. To making cheese. Goat's milk is easy to dligest. tether a goat, you need a good stake with a For this reason, babies, invalids, and others light chain attached. Place the stake firmly in who cannot take cow's milk often thrive on the ground and fasten the other end of the goat's milk. chain to a leather strap around the goat's neck.
A goat should be tethered in a good pasture Feeding and Housing and moved several times a day. See that there
Many farmers do not have enough land for a is good, clean water within her reach.
cow or cannot afford one. They can still Coats do not need any special kind of housprovide milk for their families by keeping milk ing. Any well-built barn or shed that is clean, goats. Goats can be kept where it is impossible (dry and free from drafts will do. Goats can get to keep a cow. Goats are browsing animals. along without bedding if none is available. They will eat feed that otherwise would be Goats may get foot rot. Trimming hoofs carewasted. They like leaves, twigs, and even fully and regularly and keeping pens dry will
brush. They can help clear land of brush and help control foot rot. small trees. Be sure farmers protect valuable fruit or shade trees and shrubs. Goats will eat
fruit or shade trees n shrubs. Goats will eat This is the way a well-trimmed goat foot should look them too. Goats do well in hilly, nmuntainous from the side and bottom. country that will not support other kinds of livestock. However, they will produce more milk if they are kept on good pasture. H EEL
The best feed for goats is pasture or hay of alfalfa, red clover, soybean, or millet mixed with other grasses. Rye or wheat make good spring or fall pasture. A goat needs about
acre of good pasture (during a grazing season of 5 or 6 months. Overstocking ruins pasture L- TRIM OUTER ER DGE T OE HEEL

In many families such as this Indonesian one, a goat is both a family pet and a source of milk.
Milking quarts of milk a day for about 10 months a
Dair gots rodce eston reula sced- year. If goat's milk is properly produced and airyo fegoatsprduc bestkn a egularoched- handled, it should have no dlisagreeable odor or doles ofy feed atib milkng threeavaprducin flavor. Bad odor anti "off" flavor usually come foes ay hretie ter miktreenig btimesca da from dirt or hair that has gotten into the milk. fora shortn tise usateog ereshnbt twieh This can also happen if the goat eats strongdays milkn ve is ousua lly en th.e gaentlerwith flavored foods such as onions, cabbage, etc., or shdo Whenevde ato tbe thme same adplers if a buck is kept in with the milking does. shoul day mik a de aGh a etm n coats are very clean and healthy animals.
A good milk goat will give from 1 to 11/2 They are particular in their eating habits.
They rarely ever have tuberculosis. This is a strong point in favor of goat's milk. However, Irv they do sometimes have other diseases that can
be transmitted in their milk. So it's safest to always boil goat's milk before drinking it or giving it to babies.
Milk the goat under as clean conditions as possible:
Wash the goat's udder before milking her. A Milk the first stream or two from each
teat into a small cup. The openings in each teat may contain foreign matter that will affect the taste of the milk. Throw this first milk away with the garbage. Do not throw it on ground the goat may 4- lie on. If a goat has a disease called mastitis, her udder may become hard and produce much less milk. If milk from an A milking stand such as this one in Indonesia helps infected half gets on the other half or on keep the goat from moving around and kicking over the the udder of another goat, the disease milk pan. It also helps keep dlirt from getting into the milk, can spread. Goats with mastitis cannot

give enough milk to help a family be better Use boiling water to sterilize all milk
nourished, utensils.
" Be sure the milker's hands are clean and Cool fresh milk as fast as possible.
dry. I)o not let them come in contact with For selecting and breeding milk goats and
the milk. raising the kids, consult your agriculturist. In
* Clip the hair on the goat's udder and most areas, you will be able to get a female goat
flanks often to prevent it from falling bred. This saves the expense of keeping a buck.
into the milk. It does not pay to keep a buck for one or two
" Use a clean, seamless, tin pail for milking. does.
* Use a milking stand. It is easier and helps Goats and kids provide meat in many areas
to keep milk clean. (See illustration), of the world. The skins when properly tanned
* Strain milk through a clean, finely-woven make valuable leather. This may be another
cloth which has been boiled, or a sanitary source of income for the family.
wire strainer.
* Wash utensils first in cold water, then in
hot water and soap.
Milking Stand box
(side view) bxA
fixed post moveable post
A youth club in Ecuador has a club buck to improve Stanchion the herds of members. The entire community will bene(top face view) fit.
cut awaye ox
pivot bolt Rabbits
Rabbit meat is popular in many areas. It is very white and fine grained and has a mild flavor. It is nutritious and tastes good. Since rabbits are small, when they are butchered An improved milking stand like this one keeps a goat off the ground while you milk her. This helps keep the there is not more fresh meat than the family milk clean, stop the spread of disease, and make it eas- can easily care for at one time. In warm cliier for you. If one like this is not available, a milking mates, this is especially important because of stand can be made of hard-packed earth, large rocks, or a sturdy table. the difficulty of preserving meat. Rabbits do

Rabbits will eat many kinds of greens including vegetable trimmings, carrot tops, and weeds you pull from the garden. TAIWAN 87

times rabbits need some legume hay, suec as alfalfa, soybean, clover, peanut. and kudzu. The hay should be green, leafy, and fine-stemmed. It should also be free from mildew or mold.
Also important are grains like oats, barley, rye, and the grain sorghums. These may be fed M whole or milled. Soybean, peanut. or linseed
meal also should be added to the diets to ni ake sure rabbits get enough protein foods. This is especially important for mother rabbits nursing their young. Regularity in feeding is more important than the number of feedings. Rabbits eat more at night than during the day, not take as much feed as larger animals. They bt a o a htha
breed and grow quickly and can fill a great Fresh clea in wa ter is of the utor. imporFresh clean water is of the utmost im porneed for meat, particularly in areas where there tance, particularly during the hot summer
isce pataal shortage ohe protein.e
is a shortage of protein, months. An average doe and her litter will ?onRabbit manure is good for the garden and( sume at least a gallon of water every day. Rabshould be collected to use as fertilizer. It is bits also need salt. Put small amounts of salt in easy to work it into the soil. There will be less the feed or where the animals can nibble on it loss of fertilizing elements if the manure is at will. used in a compost pile.
A family can quickly learn how to grow rab- Management and Equipment bits. Usually it is best to begin on a small scale with one already-bred female rabbit, called a Rabbits are extremely sensitive to unclean doe, or a pair, a female and a male. Boys and surroundings. Therefore, strict sanitition practices must he followed it' rabbits are to girls in club work have found rabbit projects a practices must be followed if rabbits are to fine way to make money or furnish meat for ro well and be healthy and strong. Remove
the family. manure, soiled bedding, and spoiled food daily.
.d Wash water crocks and feed troughs often in
Good meat rabbits are generally medium in hot, soapy water. Rinse them in clean water and size, rather short, compact, medium to fine- lt te s
boned, broad and well covered with flesh. Wide dry them in the sun.
neads, bad s ecl o with f We Rabbits are easily frightened and should be heads and short necks go with good meatI types. The does should be selected if possible handled with care and gentleness. Rabbit ;heltypes. The does should be selected if possible ters or pens should be enclosed so dogs and
from large litters because the tendency to ters or pens should be enclosed so (logs and produce large litters is inherited. Rabbit skins other animals cannot get to them. Keep cats and dogs away from rabbit food and bedding. if properly cared for, have some market value. Otherwise the rabbits may get tapeworms.
The oolfromAngra rbbis ca tiuall be Otherwise the rabbits may get tapeworms.
The wool from Angora rabbits can usually be Rabbits should never be lifted by the ears or
sold. legs. This may injure them. To lift and carry a
Feeds and Feeding rabbit, grasp the skin over the shoulders with
Feeds and Feeding one hand. Place the other hand under the aniRabbits require mostly plant foods. Fresh mal's rump to support its weight. If the rabbit grass, good-tasting weeds, vegetables, and root struggles and scratches, hold it snugly under crops make good feed. Do not feed rabbits cab- one arm. bage, kale, or any strong-flavored plants. These A rabbit hutch or shelter can be made of greatly affect the flavor of rabbit meat. Such wood, bamboo, or other available material. root crops as carrots, potatoes, turnips, and Provide individual hutches for grown rabbits. beets are especially valuable foods during the A hutch 2 feet high, 2-1 2 feet wide, and 4 to 5 months when there is little green feed. At all feet long is desirable so that a doe and her lit88

FOUR myl eto lo
1' ROLES FOR ter myhave about 10 squarefetoflr
VENTILATION METAL HOOP space. A wire floor through which the drop. ON KEG
0 ~Cpings may fall is best because it can easily be
-STRIP ON kept clean.
'k___ FRONT It is important to have a nest for the mother
6d NAIL 6d NAIL rabbit. This can be a basket or box kept in the
-6d NAIL hutch. Nest boxes should be large enough to
L- _____ prevent crowding and small enough to keep the
REAR END FRONT END young together. Clean and disinfect nest boxes
METALHOOPMETALHOOPbefore using them agaii. Ask your agriculturist I IV for more information on breeding rabbits and
OPEN raising the young.
-.METAL STRIP Gnawing wood is natural foi rabbits. Protect
FRONT 1I' x6 IT1 wooden parts of the hutch by placing wire
6I d NAIL DRIVEN mesh on the inside of the frame when you ~UNDER METAL HOOP build it. Use strips of tin to protect exposed SIDE THROUGH FRONT wooden edges. Treating the wood with creosote
protects it as long as the scent and taste last.
-* TO HEADPlacing twigs or pieces of soft wood in the REMOVED
BOTTOM HEAD hutch protects it to some extent. Rabbits may
IN PLACE METAL STRIP chew these instead of the hutch. Rabbits that
have access to good-quality hay and are being FIVE'/~DRAN HOES ~ FONTfed some fresh green feed or root crops are less SECTION likely to gnaw on their hutches.
Rabbits are very sensitive to hot weather. Construction details for a nail-keg nest box. Rabbit hutches should be placed where there is shade during the hot part of the day, but
Grown rabbits will fight if they are kept in the same hutch. The litter can be kept with the doe until they are half grown. These hutches in Haiti provide the Construction details for a wooden nest box. space needed.

These are easy-to-build hutches and nest boxes. Nest pottery. boxes can also be made out of clay or
where they will get some sunlight during the the hairs of the skin touch the meat. Any' obcooler hours. Good air circulation is necessary, jectionable odor associated with rabbits comes but rabbits should not be kept in strong drafts. from the hair.
Move rabbits that seem to be suffering from 3. Wash all the blood off the carcass with the heat to a quiet well-ventilated place. Give clean water. Then remove the 'insides;" by splitthem a damp sack to lie on. Wetting the tops of ting the animal down the front. Wash and the hutches and the floors of the houses on a clean the inside thoroughly. Some people like hot day will lower the temperature. Do not wet to rub the carcass all over with a cut piece of the rabbits themselves, lime or lemon to help remove any wild flavor
If grown rabbits are kept out of drafts, cold the meat may have.
weather will not bother them much. Young lit- 4. Cut the meat into serving pieces. There ters need nest boxes and enough bedding to aemany ways of cooking and serving rabbit
keep hem arm.meat. Here are two ways:
Rabbit Meat and Its Use Roll the pieces of meat in flour with salt
andl pepper. Fry them slowly in fat until
1. To kill a rabbit, hit it on the head to they are tender.
knock it unconscious. Then stick its throat Brown pieces in fat, then add water and
with a sharp pointed instrument so it bleeds vegetables such as tomatoes, carrots,
well. onions, and potatoes with salt, pepper,
2. Then skin it. Be very careful not to let andl any other desired seasoning.

There is danger in eating uncooked meat even though it has been salted and smoked.
Insects andl rodents not only destroy foods, they leave dangerous bacteria on them. The "fly specks" often found on food or dishes may have disease germs and eggs of dangerous parasites on them. Store food and dishes in a way to prevent this.
Temperature affects food. Foods ripen and spoil more quickly in warm air. Freezing can ruin the texture and flavor of some foods. For example, frozen potatoes are watery and have an unpleasant flavor. They are safe to eat though they do not look nice.
Moisture is needed to keel) green leafy vegetables fresh. But too much moisture or dampness can cause foods to mold. Crackers and cookies lose their crispness when the air is moist unless they are in an airtight container. To keep from wasting food and to have it Soggy crackers or cookies are safe to eat, but clean and saf e, people must take care of it may taste better if they are dried out. properly in their homes.
Foods can be spoiled by bacteria, molds, par- Taking Care of Food in the Home
asites, insects, rodents, warm air, freezing tern- Different kinds of food must be cared for in peratures, light, and too little or too much different ways. Certain foods are very perishmoisture. Some foods may look and taste all able and spoil quickly in a warm climate or right but still be bad to eat. when kept in a warm place. It is important to
Bacteria are living things- so small you can't destroy spoiled foods as s00on as they are found. see them. Many are harmful. Food is unsafe Food generally shows when it is spoiled.
when bacteria that cause disease have gotten Look for these signs: into it. Food can carry typhoid, botulism, tu- 0 slime on the outside of meat berculosis, diphtheria, and salmonellosis. People 0 bad odors may carry disease bacteria in their bodies and sour taste in bland foods. still appear healthy. When they handle food, Fresh iieat, poultry, fish, (oid other seafoods the bacteria may get on the food, spoil very easily and quickly. They should not
Molds can be harmful. They grow where it be kept more than a few hours in warm, damp is damp. If meat, cheese, or bread get mold on weather. To store them, wipe off any dirt, the outside, cut away the moldy part. The rest wrap the food loosely in clean cloth or paper, can be eaten. Throw away moldy canned food and keep it in the coldest place you can find. and foods that have gone soft from spoilage. Extra care must be taken with poultry because
Parasites such as tapeworm and trichina live it often has the germ that causes a fever sickin meat animals. The tiny eggs of these para- ness. This germ grows very fast in a warm sites are found in the lean part of meat. They place. are waiting to complete their development in Moist 1c('fto?'Cr cooked foods,, especially those the human body or some other place. Cook prepared with milk, eggs, meat, or fish, spoil
meat thoroughly to destroy these parasites. easily. They should be cooled quickly, put in

These two iceless coolers help keep perishable foods Nigerian extension workers. Water from the pan on from spoiling so rapidly. They both work on the princi- top seeps down the burlap sides. The one on the right is ple of evaporation. The one on the left was built by two made of pottery and was developed in India.
covered containers, stored in a cold place, and tightly covered tin box or some other suitable used at the next meal. container with a tight cover. Keep them in a
Milk must be stored in clean, covered con- dry place off the floor.
tainers in the coldest place possible. Boiling
milk not only makes its safe to drink but helps Keeping Foods for a Long Time it keep longer. Store butter mid cheese in a
cold, clean place. Dried 'milk powder will keep For good nutrition, people must eat well all for several months, but should be kept dry and year, not only during the growing season or well covered, for a few months after harvest, but every day
Eggs should be stored in a cold, dry place. of the year. This means some food should be Remove any cracked eggs and use them first, preserved and stored for use when it is out of
Cook them well. season. Some f orm of food preservation and
Fresh fruits mid 'vegetables should be stored storage is almost universal. It is a subject in in a cool place with good air circulation, which there is great interest and generally
Bread, cake, anid cookies must be stored in a great need for improvement.

The way foods are stored is important. A
good storage area is well ventilated, cool, dry, and free of rodents and insects It is clean and neat.
Food can be stored in the kitchen in cupb~oards, on open shelves, in a food safe, or in a closet with shelves. Cellars, caves, and outdoor pits are used in some areas.
Storing Grains, Pulses, and Nuts
Storing grains, nuts, and pulses in the house where the family lives is generally not a goodl practice. There is not enough room and it is hard to control insects and rodents. In many areas, these crops are kept in special grain storehouses.
Learn how families store them in your area. How many families have a special storehouse or bin for such crops? How many store them in the house where they live'? What kind of conIn Nigeria, farmers have reduced loss of grain by tainers (10 they put the grain in, such as sacks using improved maize dryers. When the grain is dry, or clay pots?' How much of each crop is dethey store it in rat and insect-proof silos. srydeeyya yrtmcweis
Raising grain storage off the ground and using a cover to protect it from rain helps sav e grain. Metal shields on the legs protect this store age against rodents.

and other pests? Do they use any insecticide or same one used in the cracks and corners of the poison to get rid of them? What do the people storage area. Ask your agricultural department think about such food losses ? about such powder and be sure villagers follow
You will probably find that those who are the instructions carefully.
most successful in storing these crops: Poises, peas, beaus, etc., should be picked as
* Keep their grains, pulses, and nuts in a soon as they are completely ripe and spread in
special storehouse or bin. a warm drY place until they are dried out.
" Keep rats and mice out of the storage area. They can then be shelled and stored in bags or other containers. Treat them with the mild
* Use insecticides to keep down weevils. lo~e ssgetdfrcra ris
" Clan he toreous througly efoe a powder as suggested for cereal grains.
* Clean the storehouse thoroughly before a Some homemakers hang small bags of peas
new crop is stored. and beans in the kitchen where the heal and
* Dry grains and pulses thoroughly to keep smoke from the fire help keep out weevils. Also
down molds. to help keel) out weevils, peas and beans, that
* Keep the storage place as dry and cool are ,iot being saved for planting can be placed
as possible. in a pan and heated slowly in an oven until
* Store good quality grains-not broken or they are too hot to touch. They should not be
damaged. overheated or allowed to burn.
It is good to use storage methods that people Groaiodaitts should be left inside their shells in your area have found successful. Keep this until they are needed for food. They should be in mind as you suggest improved storage meth- picked when they are mature and spread on ods. drying trays in the sun. When they are thoroughly dried, they can be packed in bags with
Prepare the storehouse for each new harvest, some of the mild powder as instructed by your Even one weevil-infested bean or grain of agriculturist.
maize left over from last season can start weevil damage in the new grain. The storage area, Preserving and Storing Fruits and including every corner and crack, should be Vegetables
cleaned thoroughly each year before the new
crop is put in. Then it should be dusted well The chapter on gardening points out the with an insecticide recommended by your agri- value of growing fresh fruits and vegetables cultural department, as much of the year as the climate permits.
Remind villagers to follow the instructions Fruits and vegetables fresh from the garden carefully. The insecticide will probably be a taste much better than those that have been strong powder and should not be used on the preserved or stored. grain itself. Many insecticides can make people However, it is not always possible to have a ill if they are on food. continuous supply of these essential foods. For
Make the store house ratproof by using this reason, some method of keeping them
metal and strong fine wire. Remember, mice when they are out of season is important. Varican get in through the smallest openings. Page ous methods of preserving and storing include: 93 shows two kinds of good grain storage. 0 storing in the field
P storing in a cool, dark place such as a celPrepare the new crop. Cereal grains such aslaptorcv maize, rice, millet, sorghum, wheat, barley, l drying
oats, and rye should be cleaned as well as pos- 0 salting and bringing sible. They must be dry. They can be packed in bottl ing clean, suitable containers such as strong,
closely woven bags, tight boxes with covers, or Field storage clay pots with covers.
In some areas a safe, mild weevil control Certain greens such as collards, kale, leaf
powder is mixed with the grain. It is not the mustard, and some others will stand quite a lot

of cold and frost. In some areas, they will stay 0 insulated-the walls and ceilings should green in the garden for a long time. Root vege- be protected with straw or other material tables such as carrots, sweetpotatoes, cassava, to keep too much moisture from forming beets, celery, kohlrabi, and turnips can often and dIropping onto the vegetables and also be left in the ground and used as they are to help regulate the temperature
needed. How long they can be kept without 0 well drained.
being dug will depend on the amount of rain, Your agriculturist can help you with recoindrainage conditions, etc. With too much rain mendations and instructions on building storthey would rot quickly. age facilities.
A cool, dark place Drying
Dry onions, pumpkins, cabbages, and root Vegetables and fruits may be dried in the
crops such as potatoes, yams, carrots, beets, sun in warm, sunny climates, but not in rainy
trisand others can also be kept in a cool, or clamp weather. It is a suitable way of preturnipsae oeo hsepcal oaos serving such vegetables as green leaves, cabwill sprout quickly in warm areas. To retard bse greten beuansk, reensaa, ndtarots, sprouting, cover the vegetables with sand. asuchfuitos asupin, beaches, anarcots,
Various types of storage can be built for fig s c etc.a apepeceapios
fruits and vegetables. They should be: Togs dre ruttndvgtals
*cool and with little or no light 1. Wash fute food.vgtals
*slightly damp so vegetables will not dry out 2. Cut it up if it is big.
*ventilated to carry off odors and to help 3. Steam it until it is thoroughly hot.
regulate the temperature and amount of 4. Spread the food on a clean surface in didampness rect sunlight until it is brittle and dry. Foods
In Iran, a successful drying program helps families She is showing them how to make racks that will keep have a more varied diet. Here the specialist trains vil- the food clean while it is drying and make a better lage workers in the steps to follow for proper drying. product.

Spinach and Select young, tender leaves. Steam 1 minutes IDry until the
other green Wash. See that the leaves are or until thoroughly leaves are brittle.
leaves not doubled over when they are wilted.
placed on trays. Cut large
leaves crosswise into several
pieces to hasten drying.
Tomatoes Select tomatoes of good color. No steaming. )ry until the pieces
Dip them in boiling water to are leathery.
loosen the skins. Chill them
in cold water. Peel. Cut them
into pieces not over 3'," square.
Cut small tomatoes in half.
Green chili Use full-grown, bright green No steaming. Dry until the pepor peppers pods. Peel and split the pod, pers are crisp,
remove the seeds. brittle, and a medium-green color.
Cabbage Remove the outer leaves. Cut Steam 5-6 minutes Dry until the shreds
the head in quarters. Remove until wilted. are tough or brittle.
the core. Cut the quarters into
shreds about 1 /8" thick.
Green peas Select young, tender peas. Steam them im- Dry until the peas
Shell. mediately for 10 are hard and
minutes. wrinkled. They will
shatter when hit
with a hammer.
Green beans Remove bad pods. Wash the Steam the pods Dry until the pods
good pods and remove the 15-20 minutes. are brittle.
strings. Split the pods
Green maize Select tender maize. Husk. Steam 5-15 minutes I)ry until the
or until the milk kernels are brittle.
is set. The maize
can be cut from the cob or dried on the
Carrots Select crisp, tender carrots. Steam 8-10 Dry until the strips
Wash, Trim off the roots and minutes. are tough and
tops. Peel. Cut into slices or leathery.
strips about I/j," thick.
Berries Look the berries over; remove Steam i .,-1 Dry until the
bad ones. Wash. minute. berries are hard.
Test by crushing a
few to be sure all
the moisture is

can also be dried on racks over a kitchen stove her that for home canned meats and vegetables or they may be dried in an oven. to be safe they need to be cooked again until
5. Protect the food from dust, dirt, and hot all the way through before they are eaten. flies by covering it with thin, loosely woven, Often, even if glass jars with tops that seal clean cloth or wire screen. are available, they are not the kind to withThe steaming helps to retain the protective stand high temperatures. In some countries, value in these foods and gives them a better the cost of glass jars and tin cans is so great color and flavor. It also reduces the time that most village families cannot afford them. needed for soaking the vegetables before cook- As you think about the need to preserve food ing them later. Tomatoes, onions, and green in your area and the possibilities of canning, and red peppers do not need to be steamed, discuss the problem with your agriculturalists. but otherwise the process is the same. Are glass jars or tin cans manufactured anyWhen they are drying food in the sun, re- where in your country? If so, are they suitable mind villagers to keep racks off the ground for use in a pressure canner? Does the quality and away from animals. The food needs to be need improvement? What are the possibilities turned two or three times each day so it will of manufacturing glass jars or tin cans for dry as quickly as possible. Drying will take sale at a price practical for the average village several clays. Test for dryness by squeezing family? some of the food in your hand. There should be Even if containers are available, the average no apparent moisture. village home is not equipped for home canning.
It is a good idea to keep the dried food in a Could small community canning centers be delarge container for 8 to 10 days before packing eloped where equipment could be used cooperit into small containers or bags. If bags are actively and the canning be done under superviused, seal them in a large container to keep out sion? Are pressure canners available at a air and insects. Store them in a clean, dry, practical cost? (lark, cool place. Are there commercial plants in your area
All dried vegetables should be soaked in that can either fruits or vegetables? If so, a water before cooking to reduce cooking time. visit to such a plant would be useful. You will Use just enough water to cover them, and use need to study and investigate all phases of canthe same water for cooking. It will contain the ning before making any attempt to introduce protective values of the food. Dry green maize this method of preserving foods in the average should be rinsed quickly in cold water and put village. In some areas, canning may not be feato soak for several hours in a small amount of sible for many years. water. It should be cooked slowly in the same
water. Add more water as it is needed. Bottling Fruit Juices
This is a practical method of preserving
Canning fruit juices and fruit purees used in many
areas. Wine bottles or soft drink bottles are
A number of problems must be met before available in most countries and are within the
home canning is practical, safe or even possible means of most families. New caps for such botin many countries. One is the lack of suitable tles must be purchased, but they are not expencanning containers and equipment. sive. A small mechanical capping machine is
Canned foods must be sealed airtight and also necessary. Families might join together to free of germs if the food is to be safe. Almost buy a capping machine to seal the bottles. all foods must be heated to a very high temper- Water bath camier-For bottling juices and ature if they are to be safe after canning. This purees a water bath canner is needed. This can requires a pressure canner in which steam be any large metal container. It must be deep
under pressure produces a much higher tem- enough to have an inch or two of water over perature than boiling does. The high tempera- the tops of the bottles. It must have a cover ture kills the germs. It is important to remem- and a rack to fit in the bottom. The bottles