Orange High Lands at Palmer, Alachua County, Florida

Material Information

Orange High Lands at Palmer, Alachua County, Florida with description of soil, production, climate, resources &c.
Orleman, L. H
Palmer, Frank
Place of Publication:
Washington D.C
Palmer & Orleman
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
17 p. : ; 19 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Alachua County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Palmer (Fla.) ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
<L.H. Orleman and Frank Palmer>

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
024370988 ( ALEPH )
01661344 ( OCLC )
AAP6844 ( NOTIS )

Full Text




C :=A TeM-%,z

1faecua Sounty, floriba,




faeie flrman,

16 Sevth Ntreet, N. W-



F. Z

- ,..



who was requested vi tt the Lands owned by CoL. rank Pahnerma
the Florida Trasit Rai Road in Alachbu Cunty, m oida,
with a view of attending to the subdivision and
manj H g of thbb ame

WASHINGTON, D. C., JULY 1, 1884.

To Mars. Tyler 4r suterford, Ho*. OimeV Wof, Carl Rower Jr.,
MEq., John 0. Bmweua eqg., and Ao r.
SGentlemen, In company with ol. Frik Pahair I proceeded to
Florida, to make a partial examination of the lands lately purchased by
myelf and others.
After arriving at Jacksonville, we proeeded to Galusvtlle, and
theme to Palmer, where I wa shown over the land In the viiity
of the ation and including Sbotion 1 Townhip 11, Range 18, ast
(known ,t.Darby tra), Section Townp 9. Sections 1, 2,
S2, 3 38 sin Townly- 10, e 18 East. All of which are rh, hibh,
rolling, pine and hamemak dleard Iad and able of prododnr nhe
nest oranges p, ea rs t l tni t and early Vegetables of every
description The cost of leaL is saved on the above stated sections.
(To lear ordinary pine land, removing the timber, costs from 812 to
$15 per are; hammock lands will cos mre, from $15 to $30, accord-
ing to the deAty and nise of timber.)
The sol is generally a dark gray loam, sady surfso with a
substratum of clay and marl, and rat quality. N lands known as
hammock lads prodding eta fne crops wl never sed fertilizing.
The above lands are very lightly timbered with hickory, oak, and
yellow pine, and contain some of the fnet orange groves In the state
of Florida. Fruit culture is the preseet-and oming industry. The
principal fruit crops are oranges, pears, lemons, Japan p'-rsimon,
mes, citron, pineapple and banana, all of which fnd a ready market.
Large quanttes of cotton, corn and sugar cane are raised and every
acre s available for farming and the lands are looted near the railroad
and shipping points, giving settlers a ine opportunity to get their pro-
duets to market.


The cultivation of early vegetables is now engrossing the attention
of many here and when we take into consideration the profits accruing
from these pursuits, the great interest manifested need excite no sur-
Se Island or long staple cotton raied here produces from 150 to
200 pounds, though it often exceeds that. The price ranges from 25
to 50 cents per pound. Short cotton is aso grown and averages from 200
to 500 pounds to the sore. In grade, Florida Cotton rates with the best.
gar case produce from 8 to 10 r of Sqgar per acre 24,
pounds rluw at 8 oents per equal to 9192. CoP prodaY eo s
12 to 15 per me on Dine and 20 to 4 on habmock lands.
Rice hasa been ttlftl shd produeed 30 to 40 'abels to the
acre. Strawberries, the qme of spall frabs, find nowhere a better
location for culture; plants put out In September and October fruit in
January and February, and may be counted in full bearing In March
and April. Shipments have been made largely and profitable. Pota-
toes, both Irh and sweet, yield weBa swee potatoes all the way from
100 to 400 bushels to the acre, seooriag to soil, cultivation and season.
I viliad sme o the flaq nuroqrla n the state: one of whbch
owned by Mers. pey and Christie at Archer, who own some of
the largest orange groves in. this cton
Tb The 4R soF so well )mown that It is not necoesary
or me to abpodteu; I w' brteftyive some facts,-a gbt miaip-
p rebenston ezkht In the md of m persons in the ob, the aver-
age Impreuson being. hat during the summer the heat ery oppie
ve and rostratb& Thb s th a, tUs la certainly the best oimate in
the Unitea Set, the aver e temperature during the summer is 78,
in the winter 00.
I wll acknowledge that I was agreebly surpried, In rerenu e
to the podueto of the lands about Palmer, and in all my ravels
UtoiE the saw I ene better. I fond the reddemts Ill
gent ad.vey thdustorse and wilbig to aid in every way n their
power to make the town a grdnd sueees.
I cannot conclude without exwnesing my thanks to Mrs. M. A.
Denntson, Mesirs. F. Andres, l. Lawrence, Dr. A. A badle. J.
Stewart, and many others, for the many aets 61 Mndnem e!tmnded
to Colonel Plersn a d .pelf during our visit, and their oqrs of
aietance wfemvw;req4 .,, "
I la, GeIntlems, very repeoWy ady and trly yon,

-- -P---~ -~ -

WASHINGTON, D. C., JUlY 15, 1884.

In order to supply the great demand for reliable dormatnio about
Florida, the undersigned have deemed it expedient to this edition.
We have used n pait matter contained in former re ort of the Hon.
Commlasoner of E gratin of Florida and others, g urged that
the god t will do the State at large will thoee for the
liberty we have taken in this respect.
PALMER & OBLEMAN offw *or ale large d mall tracts
of their ieb, hWbl, rolling pine and hammook C Za L d on the
Florids Tranaf Ba Road at and near Paler, Alahas Coonty, Florida,
capable of producing the finest Oranges, Pears, sem~tropleal Fntti
and early Vegetables of every description. Lot of 5, 10, 20 and 44
Aores at pmes rang from $30 to $0 per Are. Teri s $ per Acre
In esd and balance in monthly Instilments of $ per Acre. 10 per
e mt redRiton tOr cash. Maps and nforaistion will be famished at
their Offies in Palmer, Alaohus County, Florida, add Nb. 610 Seventh
Street, N. W., Wahl0aton, D. C.
Any enMerpting aan, even if mts means e imted ab m 'y a
farm, w~l In .p few years, by good management and leditry, will
make him Independent.
To day Florida is the leading Mlie ti the Union in fruit culture
and vegetable grdenlng sad will soon be the peer In may other pro-

If there s any special Informaton desired by letter write to
615 Seventh Steet, N. W.


The stranger 14 apt to be incredulous of the peculiar temperature,
until by sojournilb here, he finds, be the day ever so warm, the sue-
ceeding night is Invariably cool. The nearness of that great Ocean
river, the Gulf Stream to the shores of Florida causes the trade winds
of the Atlantic to sweep over the land from east to west by day, the
returning cool winds from the GQlf gently blowing across the state by
night. These dally constant breezes purify and ivify the atmosphere,
Sand presere it from action or sultriness.
T be Mso to the gtr portion of the state is lady except in the
hill-lauds and banmock, where l portions of clay and alluvium ae
found. The toP snot the sharp fous sand of the Ocean, or re;
sembling the lands of other States; this soil has more or lees of
loam and a m percentae of lise and otrgato remain living it
much fertility. e counmtrys well atered the distribution o rivrs,
creeks, lakes and springs, being remarkably uniform throughout the
The climate I mt a htdllmate in summer, but mld, and not sub.
Ieet to grom eb cange of temperature. The winter are not cold and
fesiwg mbt splirmly cool. and broiig Throughout the whole twelve
aths, the rainy, cloudy dlagreeable days are the exception; -fair
lbt, smnny dayj the rule. The thermometer seldom goes below SO"
Ind wia ei, m ir ly aoe'9V0 in summer. The ofllBal record& show
e fr iftr- b .-780; for wfter, 60. In the gratr portion of
the stte ti rarely know. Oyial statistics fur by the De-
lnt in Wa gton 4bows that the death rate of Florid Is less than
nyo=ber s nMe the Union.
The state levies, annually, one mill tax for school m mpoes. The
total. at tax levied avraes sevea mills. Counties mwt
half ml for school purpose, and not exceeding two mUs for county
puposrp a
A ooairaMlog bme flr a moderate sied fam y ea be bealt,
my, for *0; aood fname buildlog with four or more rooms will oqt .*
from 200 to m Lumber of god quality from o *10 per 1,000
seet, shlmglrfrp *tt BO pqr lQO.. -r 1''.
S .#Tofll ot r. pine land, removing the timber, will cot from
12' top'i.r'Aa[M msockM lands will-oost more from $15 to *30
aoomo t6 de lty and sae of timber.
For a r the virginia rail fence is cheapest as rails are on the
spot, ad plit if l.
in Ji r W ri potWtoe.a pea; beeu, turnips, cabbage, and
all wdyorK ar dy vagtabls; matke bo=efor pushing the more
tensrpfmg mit ph es nMsMe, tqeatgse. okra, egg plants, eto.; set out
trit and other trees, and shrubbery.




^4riumifamilyt th.or a squooeaq u sO In Jmnuarwy In
addItion, plmt voofaU kindr, shubberyAI andfrd te of all wnqf,
eBa moibtra famBy, snap beans, corn; bed wet potato for
d" add dip". Ots may also be still sown, as they aenInpeviouso
arcA-Corn, oats, and planting of February maybe continued;
trnIap~nt tomatoes egg plan, melons, beaun, md vine of all kinds;
mulbe nres and blackberies are now ripening.
4ril-Plant as in Marh, except Irish potatoes, kohl
continue to tnsplant tomatoes, ok~, on plant; sow m etrn,
oow pea, or der; plant the butter bea, lay pea dig b h pota-
toes. Onlons, beets and usual early veetabl old be plenty for
fay-Plat sweet potatoes for diws in beds; continue planting
corn for table; beaus, peas and ueambers oqght to be well for-
ward tpr me; oonae planting okra, o plants, apeppr and beans.
SJiW -The heavy planting of sweet -potatoe and ow peasm s now
in oder; Irsh potatoes, tomatoes, a great variety d table vegeta-
bls are now ready, as alo plums, early peaches, and grapes.
Jel4-8weet potatoes and cow pes are msae to plant, the rainy sea-
on being favorable jape peaches and fip are tofull a Orange
trees may be t ot the season Is wet.
Augsi<-rinish up planting swet otat nd eow pea;. sow eab-
bage, eluower, turnips o ftal plant 'pant kohl rab and rotabs-
ga; tmaoslt oange trees and bud; l t month plant a few Irh
pooea aad beans,
Cpemke r-Now Is the time to commence for the tree winter -
dea, th garden which s commenced In the Northln Aprl and y.
Platithe whole range of vegetables eaxept sweet potatoes; set out a-
pagas, sao sets and strawberry plants.
OdSlr-Plaut same a last month ; put n garden pea; set out
cabbage pleat; dig sweet potatoes; sow at, rye, etc.
NW AMber-A g -od month or garden; continue to plant and trans-
plant, same as for October; sow oas, bareyand rye or winter pa
tae crop; dig sweet potatoes; hoe or bank them; make sugar and
D mbe.--Clear up generally; fenee, ditch, manure, And sow and
plant hardy vegetables; plant, s t out orange trees, fruit trees and
hruabbery, keep a sharp look-out fqr an ooeadonal frost; a slht pro-
tedton WM prevent injury.
It wf be see: from the above tht there Is no month In the year
bat w t rebh and growing vgetabl can be bad fi& sale and domestlk
,eo. matter s a large Item inexpen a oIfN The rsol I so
ely so ea cultlatod, that moat of work can be
by even delicate ladle, and you ohhiadren of both oew.
em Plorida gardens are made so ;-bo roaen clods to bteak,
remove. A Rden once put In condition. properly man d.
aoe abondautly and conatntly. The rapid growth assre
large al tender vegetables, early Snd aious fruit. A single smcaon



wrufotd MWtr*e fom the setting out. ripe 2gs from war-old
cjtlnb graet the se id year, peaches the eecond and., ,'-
oHIjfrom e nhad In three t five years. At a little costa JIEd ,
on aot literally sit under hbtsown vine and fig tree, and enjay frt6h-
plueked fruit the whole year.
This is one of the industries of Florida that has sodlenly attanled
very considerkbl portions. From barely iothin, in a ommelekIl
sense at e loqf ir, the iess bhas oi to b worth mU-
nons. IU 9ea t' roim o 'the p6ut, d L .tlhed to beode,
Iaery tst the leIIg industris of the State. The
buslte~s o fir h eet vety srceslftiI, and is dally fnitf* otere empi-
tal and enterprise. Thre is already $15,000,000 invested in onrmte
th tBfl Se, IWr a 6 elo16,0 for the protae employment of
ini lyaioe mn LA We IaltaM for afgrowtl ragt in abun-
daide kM at fow pri.dl Ot Uge grovs man be ioui.nd aSlmo #very
p ot of dte tate nd lm4Ml varieties soil well drained, the n u-
berneadh fom Sn to l4000 atep. Hardly a tUaly t a eit
but cultivae mre or lerasnge trees, and many reiHn I. e eloa
do t n SW Orf. the l t fves In the State are owed by per-
doFtaSte of ith In s eof 0,e tiere
were raised as f e to t million of o.i(4taat year;
and o- raload re being bunt t the middle
doue ta Wttr e th Ich rpt
W tt le* .j ow ft' culture I V 'l tained great pe i t e M t ea that ip
bl to aalye t oost of production. Abundant evil b emt w
qhI onVl" the profit In it for the vm aptal.
ro t"tbe C e tt pdt the a
drson abtt ri thae ott itl VIM th* hertheW
tuflfs' of aoil plevvasn to t1WIld to ebberl iftlh wdl Ik 4dieft W-
tion. It Is always pleSniat to be aled to inn sRahe taebti
fotel An exteailvoomig grower In Patman couoatyhls Ap from
the beginning of hs grow, an aecurate soeount o the expendtur and
reeelp to the close a. the tirteenh year. The number of
tree were 80, and yiesdd 442,80) orage selling for $7,590 as
agalae)an epiane,9*otlng oot of lad, orst oo of tr es U u-
terest on the money, of $2,950. Thi gives receipts over expendi4
!5,64o,, ThbUQg oneInmanceambou many. It tcnLme.deo-"
e.taor cole ,' no 'tat al Ito n eary the ob-
STae tolnioi theii oVg culture save beenro d.
The future of the bunes is still tor proeaieing. lorld oraWes
areo ttbe yo all o[ Ilka nombb tt om
PxL h ietat1anft oopin4 ,t1y aft w; yet lgo
tr a tl a ii oupyf ore t place In the garlkt.
Thegsnloha ndlju uarbdotn of= Foida, together vtb *t4 deeply
ian oeatto. :9d oen teon without det6Vi
1 y the f*t. Impart this quaty -y 4
& a4exi an The iteli they ats
*a~L Me rt urr~ tboe Iabortofy ysr, u ndmtiL.1
neatSpiiorooroE orasSasd have been brought andero~tvaikni.


Ts ae munilhns of orans that dete the poet d
I2rlTor f otoi ireg t aountrie Double the umber, ut Most, were
eterad t at'te other ports, in addition to 6o Florida acrps We aen
Pot DprlMit whin the domestic will take the pac6 of the foratga product,
but i s inevitable tn course of time. Our htbtllty to supply* the de-
mand Is the main bstaole.
That this will be the ultimate result is dear from anther cause, in-
dependent, or nearly so, of meric. The liability of loss and damage
redtig from unoertalaties of a sea voyage forms an Important factor
ta.tha ondune of the foreign frait d ien g to make it extremely
hazardous a elreumnsnee against whiqh dealers do not have to con-
tend in the shtpmeat of Florlda oranges. We have railroads leading to
all the gMat markets in America, and when the fruit Is transported by
water, all the faciltes ar afforded by perfect and commodious steam-
Orange culture, therefore, may go on ladeflitely in Florida, with-
out fear of reaching a general reduction of product. When our own
market s qeeoupled those of Euro and elsewhere will be oa to us.
The owig desre everywhere, alsoo people for m-tr al fruits,
ieht ebrt o of proncers are trying to stly, ls ulmite, and,
therefore, etffrs in orange culture can continue to be put forth until
this uallltmbd and Independent desire is met-a goal which perhaps ne-
ver can be reached.
To persons of foresight and capital who are looking to the future
rather than te present for remunerative returns, Florida presents, In
her orage pmunit, the most extended as.well as te most inviting field.
But amdd rom the question of profit, the culture of oranges presents
other practical advantages. It is not only a pleasing, but an indepen-
dent seeuipeoa. Its pursuit is entertaining and not monotonous. It
especially abrds mope for the development of an hla alous mind. As
a producer, the orange grower Is working under conditions of constantly
Inereasn advantages. Young men, sometimes with little or no cap-
tal, are ng everyyear In the business, often away .from communi-
ties of old and experienced growers, and have succeeded by dint of tact
and industry. In point of regular profits; in point of industrious, fru-
gand beerful occupation ; In point of a very general desire to become
.dependent; in point of sueoes and freedom from penury; and In
point of represrve and adverse Inluences In other pursuits they have
found orange culture, n its practical workings, the most pleasing of
occupations. Persons who own grovesia Florida are entirely well s-
tised, as a rule, with their investments. A bearing grove is worth a
great del of money, and to purbhse one would require a large cash
outlaw. Iaten years time groves are usually In full bearing-often in
leos wm d fne inducement to plant oahe 1 ery great.
Finally, we would sy, that the motives that Inauce men to labor
in Florlds ar the same as n other tates-for profit; and If the energy
and e of the work be proportoIoate to the constancy and
pre t tdt. then V they moat cettainly soeeed, Md make
t pr of t dlr tnvestmem equal, if I does not sumeed,
t another prsuts Involving no greater outay of money.
orgory', te occuation of oran oegrowltg has a tendency to make
one' hopefar the The tIllng too, of the soU asmmearably


improyes the character of 'the ultivatog. Add to
country and climate, and the attnretlos of countrytntlM
u of mind'wha they promise, and the enjoymsut w bia
af. the charm of proprtorhip and se&d tuld e i
buoyancy of outdoor employment, and we.have an the egitlau or
oquiring health and happiness as well as independence.
The udiolous selection of the land Is the firt and most portat
point, for on this, seoees in geat measure depends. Ohoosehgh,
bdr hammock. or high rod p land that has natural dratnag, aad
a yellowish subsoil. Avoid low, ft palmetto, or galbrry lands; moet
of these ae underlad with hard pn, or sandstone kae dwith toxe
tron. The most favorable locations are on southeast ide of wide dseet
of water, or hll lands, which ane more generally fre from first. The
land selected, lear thoroughly of all tree, etc., break up well, and
sutantally ence; sow wth cow peas, whihplow under when In
bloom-it improves and sweeten the sol; this may be done beolo or
after pann treess' Digbol $ees pet intbapart no dee pad fur
et in diatmwe, clean o lt Jlrdr, fim up with top oil, whab wll re-
tatn the moiture, preure trees hom three t6 five years old take them
up carefull, wh all of the roots posable, peek up with wet moss an
soon as dg, p in hade and out of the wind. taken tohe peposed
grove arfll, remove oll from holes, dug sufflent fo tthe tee, with
root afy spread, tank standing in same potlton as original
Le th trheeqehe nset out, be fully an Inch above natural leel l-
ll undet, in sl about the roots, comptly-4t Is be ddne by the
filled to surface and gently tramped down l on ome two or
three inches of earth, whih will prevent drying; tie rainy season oom.
meotnog, remove the s about te tree to the level about It. Cultiva-
oa shouldbe teqnt sad shallow, and trash not allowed to aeem-
e near trunk; ht plowing d raking near h t rees i best and
safest. Following "a1 general directions, no one should al.
A good rove readily sells now in Forida, for $1,W per Acre.
Prom and alter 8ve years the annual growth of trees and aerease of
fruit I constant for at least ten years, and the grove will hold It viger
ad frol-praelg L for a oen or more. The oraes ah
ardy tree, *r l extremes ofrd and droughts; Itw 1bow
the ects of sinle L an's neglect, and quickly show single season
of are and attento
The ist of lorlda produtle s s,a long and varied one, embfeg
nely all the rrop d ofrits o* thbe eMide, Northern sand o et,
8tae, and, ino tdoa rat rety of sem-trop al ad topeal
Vfd4 andgblead maobt i tho best known and valsable amodab

:. I


mtedham0ook land,S 0 to 25 bushels; when prperly eultrated from
Y5t1 100 badhels to teaore are produced.
On person with one mule can easily cultivate fromthbity to forty
"sret, said as the time fro planting to final plowinsk I only from four
to fve moths,- it leaves ample time to cultivate another ep.of peas or
sweet potatoes, with same labor on same land. The corn usually raised
Is the white variety, largely used in meal and hominy for food, espe-
eially at the Soat
There. is no kind of doubt but that Florida, bothin cllmate and soil
is peculiarly adapted for growth of cane; the earliest colonit cultiated
it, and hbe later ocupant, French, ZEnlish, Spanish and Ameriean,
have grown It successfully; the long period f warm weather, and the
abenae of cold, give a longer period for the cane to mature.
air land will produce from 1500 to 2000 pounds of sugar; rich
lands thoroughly fertilized, will produce from 2000 to 4000 pounds.
]eoent improvement in sugar machinery have obviated the neeessity of
expensive works formerly required, rendering it possble for the mall,
as well as hrge planter to manufacture cheaply, as Its motivation is as
eay as corn, and ts immunity from all Injury by ordinary enemies to
other vegetation,'renders it a safe crop.
Sea Island or long staple cotton, Is raised mostly from the Swan-
nee river to the ocean, and south of latitude 38. The average product
6r are Is from 150 to 200 pounds, thonub It often exceedadeoble that.
This species of cotton Is only raised on the ea Islands bordering South
Carolina, Georgia, and in Florida, our State maising over half the total
.rop, .The price. rang from 25 to 50 cents per pound, though there
ae plantm.awho ready get more than these figures; but their cotton
Is exptionally ne. Short cotton is grown west of the Sawannee,
to the western and northern boundaries of the State; It will average
from 200 to 500 pounds to the acre. In grade, Florida cotton rates wlth
the best. Generally speaking, it Is a safer rop In Florida than any-
where else. New methods of cultivation, improved seed, remedy from
the aterpller, a adopted by the. Intelligent and prudent planter, who
Is not.subect .to a loss which a careless, shtftless man may have. The
methods of cultivation are simple, the crop itself aibrding by Its seed
the very best fertilizer. As tPe seed Is f ny seventy-ave to eighty per
cent of the cotton as picked, it Is largely sold and exported. m the
plating to the naal pickig, nearly whole year is required.
Blee, which constitutes the main food of the great majority of the
population of the world is raised here mostly Swfor de use. There
a thoanW e a acres In every sesalon of thee Statpelay adopted
lo M O culture. Its eltivatlon i as simple asny eereat;
.NI r a and kept clear ot weeds ; 6 to 76 tra~ ea of rough rie
t rpi Aecent introduction of lprored cleaema eblery4 adap-
t a t or ldidMdt and neihborbood ate, wtU sltimaule whresed pro-
A low, moist soil has generally been planted; overflowing Is net


ueded, but ao any good land It is asooeeshily euhtaed.t It 1
needed only introduction of rice-cleaning machinery to sas ike out
vatlon universal I Plorlds. Quite recently a .ompany Pt soatical
business men has been formed, who have put up extensive works at
Jacksonville, whih will be able to receive and prepare all tha may be
This Includes the orange, lemon, lime, grape fruit, shaddoek, ab.
ron, and similar fruits. There are several varieties of each, and new
yarlets are produced from time to time, like other fruits. Under mo-
demr eature, superior ese, flavor and color are obtained. Te eral
varietes of the orape are the sour, the sweet, and the btt t.
The sour and bittersweet are supposed to be indignous, gro*g wild
In the forests. The orange, as a all of the same amiy, can be grown
from the seed. graftig, budding and cuttings this las not as safe as
the other ways. Ab are rapid in growth, annual and abundLnt be.
Mers, long-ld, easily oultitd, dy, and not as subject to diseo
or deas mo st tame. BRdded, the sweet orange Wil commaeoe
to bea the thWd year; te ee in the sixth year, Inreasing eae
noamdlm g yar; at 15 to 20 year averaging at least 1,000 eah. The
lemon Is more prolfle than the orange, bearing earlier; the lime 4Wtl
more than the lemon; both, however, are more sensitive to trot. The
grape fruit and shaddock are sidma in' shape to the orange, -though lar-
aer, md have a sub4 dd favor: they are not grown for extensv sale,
ye any persons lke sth taste. The citron s of two varieties, the o.
diary smoot ihinaddsad the ribbed kind; both grew to a large dsa
Mae later being the specles of eommeroe.
SWheat In the northern section of the State is grown to some extent
&ut Is not generally ted as a reulr crop. Bye and oats do we and
are mostly sown ealy In the ff, afrdng g od inter
mature in early sprig, and are not thrmeed, being e ed 1 to
steok in the straw.
Tobaceo will gow anywhere In the State. A supeIo qMItof
Cbs tobacco, from imported seed, IW mostly grown in 1ete a ad-
dolq uoouus, ad lly equals the best imported. 'gtoe e war
itwas exteIvly and protby cultivated, and moste I sow to GQer
miny, 'santavtln the e O pucas. It requires carfl tten-
tion, w f irld rom 00o to 700 ad to he acre, and ses tor fom
30 to 30 cots per pound. Lately there Is an iftoeasatg bhsomad
State dsmad by cigar anufoams, and the area of ultivaton Is ex-
I-. .e WMAdNA. Pr A P aL a aTC.
,.In Seeab~ss Jtsethb pih- las aad banaa are sna m-fnil

. I '

.1 2-

The p aeI apfeplaibeddrom the aookese ershies of the matured
Itaad ai Aok. The guaor, of whib them are seveat varWete
laadeolrm and taste, Is a rapid grower and an abundant baer. It
fnue la two pars fro seed, Is delicious a table fruit when rips, and
makes a superior marmalade, jelly and preerves.
This tree is valuable as a forest tree for kit lumber, and profitable
far It hehit. It Is now being extensively planted, requiring only the
ordinaryam el Indigenous trees. The oat Is triinag. It bear to about
ten ea from the seed, and when gnfted n the ye a bhikery
will ber In tree year, growi tragh tall and grawea. It need
at oooepy lead ued for eul o. S e oor people have set the
pean out so as to make a permanent boundary lne f their land.
This fie fruit ias been grown in many parts of Florkida ad other
Southern States, and has given suh general *.auiaope, tbat 1t
has become one of the leading fruits. The very early ago at which the
tree commences to bear, the large size and beauty of the fruit, with the
eiellent quality, render it a necessity In every well aorted frult
The Japan plum has long been known and grown here. As an or-
namental tree it rivals the horsedhestnut, which it resembles In sxe
and lea. The fruit Is pear-haped and grws In clusters; it Is a bean-
CULl creamy white, and has a peculiarly grateful and oos subaldd
The peach It a sure tree here, bearing in two years from the seed.
and early varletis a good ise and flavor ripening in May, June and
July. The spricot and nectarine are also sa to cultivate.
Most of the American and foreign variees are easily grown, ripen-
ing from June to November. The St. Augustine grape, so clled, is a
cholee grapfMr eatin or wine. The souppernong in all Its vareties
s a sely, a rapid grower, a bundent bearer, long-
ived, and o but little proog or care.
It s oonfdently believed by m 'any ast there will be more money
ma e y pear culture In Florida than the famous orange. They ae all
uicggotwaerus and come early lato beatig.
Le 1 -Q"Grown very eteauey hI Sooth Georgia: It has mere
-arftr beso 1 il iodweed telo F or and ftroted In v--7la-
ee ~4*l~tfiem soatbera eumtries The low spowtms of bute
ot yea3r b ,Llpeey an& chrisie, were o f11W size,

a ip many pe- irng


'e: bwel,'reepieg blackberry, or dewberry, abonadImr e-l.U i"
and roaetllea,4nd ripen s in ApmL The hlfh bau almo toneod sma
looalidtetflpens tnmJne and July. T'he baklebrry about the bausme
time.. All bear well, and am be had for the pliklng.
The queen of small fruts nowhere In the world minds a better loom-
tion for cult; plants put out in September fruit often In JaInary,
frequeantln February, and may be coated In fal bearing ad
nbg lnal s andApr. The grower about Jakeeonville and up the
St. John rer are many, and euipmento have been made maad i
proatably. Ina ises eet, boquet and taste sthey ar pe to mt,
equal to the best and mapam d by none; th bet variet-s onlyre
grown. The oultivatos pick coaefaly, select and pick honestly; and
o strawberries, lMe oFl o ranges, have earnedd a name. By
brefrldigf tor tim fruit reahes New York atd Northeri oltie
mRadaeo .only abeat four days from picking.
Wtth the excepatio of a few treess, brown for ornament, this oest
valuable tree, the olive, has not been cultivated in thiatate. Beentls
attention has been directed to its cultivation, and it will beoem widely
planted. It oommences to bear at about ten years from the m d, lb-
rcatng yebtly to the age of thirty years, bearing annsaly. .
*:' PA-NUT. *
This Grop, from beog an imported artlole, has of late yees bacme .
a very large one for export in a verbal of the Southern States. Floridea
grwn pe-nuts rank with the beet in quantity and quality of product-
They are largely sed on the farm as food for swine.
The indigo plant I indigenous In Florida; during the english oeou -
patn it was extenvely cultivated, manufactured, and exported; now
I tis oooalonally Pmade for domoesll use. The castor beambere attains
tb se of a tree.a 80 feet mblh, gows rapidly, and beanm brsfy;
w only ed f pee Silk some ayOear ao
Deal an but l now only occasionally proaqeds S-
Te utn,.ideleaof mrlbr, grow herem t ,
root, cutting, or gnU in leaf from March to O ii thue, to
doubt, the bQnee m become -a ueglar Industry.

SThbori timrt n wi ho hs3 tbhle he prse meno mkfl,
of umir lD, astounade i
AI tt ele watertelf aft la b"A nan
110,4030 W*lf
MB 8|IngKBWXUI P& c. V-jla-IM-
M^'^a IftOWN"=^^' *u*l"> Isy "ft.S


t e all the ay from 400 to40( bhbb els to tthe are, according to
as4esonm ; grown irom oidts, d aw. d a; plan-
to u d tari roma July to o
Siatd` ay be dog and iely baked insl a yard or
hid uea tea orw r rooker, and tbe 0udtime ook _mu makeaout
aptitngdishes c Thsreu s man raleties planted, jood and t-
dbrsnt, and'there no excuse for not ralg the best.
to State of the'Unon has so extended a sea-oast as Florida, and
nonepo e- launder extent of internal notable water; nor.b there
any Weh eno ..geater faellitte for ap permanent and re-
iable mmlntamlston wtt the commerla mart o the North and West.
Oce otemers leave New York, B Philadelphia, attaore,
CharLesto and Sa'annah regularly for *rda, with the most aple
ausmodatlhnst or pamengers and the most extended appointment
"A tan dl. .thae s Bm mns nnLrIs" ND o &a t %Idb
'lfeikt w ,1 at, Blrdwin, aetanrset the Floida Central
BMonneot with the Penlnsolar Bailway to Orange
StrmiAd, Sumtervllle, thence to Brookslle andTampa, and
wtth'thle lt e Canal to Santa Fe Labe; and at Cedr Keys with
line of GelS Stean9 to Tampa Key Wet, Havana, New Orleans, and
all tmh eGui ports.
At Jackonviti, connections are made. with the nmnerous steaers
on Ste SL Johns and Ooklarwa ers,r wboh connect at Toool with the
t. Jbh BAdlway to St. Aa ;, at Asor with the Ot. Johas A Lake
uists Baflwa; at amord, with the Soatli Florlds Rallway to Or-
laao,; at Salt Lake ltr Indian Rher sad-'Tfenvlle and at Lake Poin-
ett wth lies omf sta to the Indian river at Book de.
At JalrtmaUni aIo, with the Florid Central B way, which in-
tesrotos the di West India Transit ai y at Baldwin; connect
at Ot' with the Jacksonvflle, Penaoola- Mobile always, which
at Xavllsinteneots the Swannee river, which is navgated by tea-
mm to Oedar Keys; at Live Oak, oonneta with the svaa, Floid
a western Bamway.
All nr routes with dloe oonneotom and through palace and
li eA a s frr enge, ad t ad lght lnes with ventilated ears
Seriutaid vetables, connect Floridaswh Mo tgomery, LoauldUe,
Clsilna.l. St.. Louis and Chicago; snah, Chaeto, Bi ood,
l ltimore Phlia Ila w Yorkand Boton; thus at
i r t aclefor a trmalt, while the numerous corn-
1911i nt exorbteant
ll mpto n of the railway a f o JaekonvWt to WayRoso and
fri.J' nxUhto Fernandina, lt1re 1AIthe facid=e and hc=tened
tbe tJacksonvile iand New ofrk to 86 horse, sad to Wasb-
S vessels also l oonstantly between the olo-
ar *Atanah amt mae pr trasfprm-




That4the tMe of FlorMda offl a superior Ind beM
tion and eapitl to' any other State o the Union, .um
rent to 11 wh6oe4a becem-e acquainted with her la
internal vewowumes but it Is only wiMthn a briof petd
tages ha beoobe la measure ap ted abroad so i
ral attention or dvert the wstrd tendency of the
of imnmgratlo.ouaiW new bOmso Qabop, mpoeutph
liable anenta tag. It is only witi a

I.e hi VSw# .uVu even ave maZe wr en ;.,
a uplst as unde rtood an
e a er ont the t
fuenoe o l ee and he eubnup lieP .an
perienoe hImd tobe tte that wt r ,
with no more tp euts tban .o more fr li
very'iv large ebu r inlform temr tnre Is mores noid
omfort nd than the lort..
The 7 .9orAbfell of promise. The
the State a1 44i061calo0l0ble ;ad withr her Jd45at
penlosular ; her )roduotte soil la d ipt
Vlaety o prpdntmany of whWlo are peeu l $te h 4elto i 4oU
the States; bae extended forest of vaae b ; uar sweath of
Aiseries on her extended line of seaeoast and Inher waun e by,
harbor s, ri ren ,a d lakes; her nparalleled 0ages:
her ilmnlsMsof es or unoonopied fertie Ieadta hbr sputd in*anoia
ta industry than ay o tate
Itis Lreqaeatly desrable to measueare a given plot of gropn4 or a
Portion of a eld. The following method may be of e to mur readers.
Jf the Mae s lsrehady establrhubd, the plot can be womired wi ufl-
daent aoracy tor practical porpo by means a a rn4
* made as BAll6: Proaer a stlt of pne, whwooe, maweo, or l-
mess any otherat mer, onead aIt Wncbhe Iquare, n
half feet long. Dries each end tapering from the o,
pole will be e and a bl hat lheB are at each end. Soh a Wil wl
e Hght ad qte sflt. Now, gr se one side with 0e 6a 1m .
thfet ad bel, and grade another ide to todiat a
o0 lan A p ae rod In length mnt be eqaalm to te i1
To dide one e s .ernty, 'a pmlewc,
that the poitt wbi dIkide tdvetyideeu .
Unks. Aie can be measured *a Bsahaapole seady ae eu e6
wh -wya ats h T.
'Low, tldm-, I a pmaee des h0 andertand how to m 'i-EyeLauiqe
166 UM M eempaer the iftesareaent by square mi A 4
a eOr ta4 uare lest Mlt.pi one bu tldp oeat -*b*
tSheWoi tbr'& a wt Ihe number ofWuwfc wftl lvs nu