Front Cover
 Table of Contents

Group Title: Vegetable growing in the South for northern markets : being concise directions for the preparation of the soil, use and amounts of fertilizers, and the planting of vegetable crops to obtain the earliest vegetables : also the best methods of packing for shipping, the raising of seed for market, and preserving it for home use
Title: Vegetable growing in the South for northern markets
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055194/00001
 Material Information
Title: Vegetable growing in the South for northern markets being concise directions for the preparation of the soil, use and amounts of fertilizers, and the planting of vegetable crops to obtain the earliest vegetables : also the best methods of packing for shipping, the raising of seed for market, and preserving it for home use
Physical Description: xi, 255 p. : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rolfs, P. H ( Peter Henry ), 1865-1944
Publisher: Southern Planter Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Richmond
Publication Date: 1896
Subject: Vegetable gardening -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by P. H. Rolfs.
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055194
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001812749
oclc - 04291739
notis - AJN6640

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At~femor of Horticulture in the Florida State Agricultural OoUege;
Horticulturiat to the Florda Agricultural ezperlment Station;
Chairman of the Standing Omnmiee on Insewa, Florida
tate Hortiultural Scbety ; Member of Ameriean
Pomologicl Society, etc.






BY P. R :301

I **.* .






.ASU ,


ZEGETABLE GROWING forms an important branch of
horticulture for the South. Formerly the land pro-
duced an abundant crop with a minimum of labor and no ferti-
lizer, but the land, except in the alluvial bottoms of large
river, and in drained lakes, is rapidly becoming poor. This
change in condition necessitates a change in the operations to
produce a full crop. Besides producing a large crop, it is im-
perative that this crop shall be produced when the prices are
highest. A difference of ten days in the maturing of a vege-
table often turns the balance from a gain to a los. In this
book I teach the reader how to have vegetables mature for
market frop one to three weeks earlier than those of his
neighbor, who plants by the old methods.
The amount of fertilizer wasted on many establishments
would make a fair profit on the total investment .I have,
therefore made the matter of fertilizing a prominent subject
in this discussion of ech vegetable. This subject is the firt
that has to be encountered in progressive vegetable growing.
Finally, this book was first written as lectures to the classes
in horticulture. These lectures were raised and, by the ad-
vice of fflenda, prepared for publication. Numerous letters
have also been received, asking where a book on vegetable
rowlag for this section could be obtained. The only accessible
printed matter for this district are Experiment Station Bulletins
and agricultural papers .While these treat the subject in a
thorouh and excellent way, they are only fragments on the
subje. If it were for no other reason than to bring this
material together into one accesible volume, I would be justi-
aid In having it published.

_---* 4



SO IL ...... .................................................................... 1
Mechanical clarification of Composition of-Elements
necemary to plant growth-Why land becomes poor.
WHAT IS FERTILIZING? ................................... 4
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER....................................... 5
Sources of Phosphoric Acid-Potash-Nitrogen.
MANURE.................... ............................................... 9
IN A GIVEN FORMULA................................... 15
PLANTS USED TO ENRICH THE OIIL................. 17
Asa source of Nitrogen.'
HOW TO TEST A FIELD......................................... 19
ROTATION OF CROPS .......................................... 21
W EEDS............. ...................................... ........... 23
WATER AND WATERING............................. ...... 24
SEED GROWING..................................................... 26
How to test the vitality of seed.
SEED SOWING. .................................................. 29
How to test a machine-8electing varieties-Quantity of
seed required.
HOT BEDS.............................................. ......... .. 8.. 32
Selection of a location-Constrctlon-Using the manure.
PREPARING A COLD FRAME .................................. 86
PREPARATION OF A PLANT BED..................... ... 87
PREPARATION OF THE LAND............................... 88
and well draiaed-Ol r the land-Shall we plow deep?

OW0TMl. -

NUMBER OF PLANTS PER AORE............................ 41
TRANSPLANTING.................................. ............... 42
MARKETING.......................................................... 44
The packing house-How to make a crate.
M USH ROOMS....................... ................................... 48
Preparation of the bed.
ASPARAGUS................................ .............................. 51
Preppation of the plot Plting Catting-Banching
and crating Marketing Blanching-BRaiing plants-
RHUBARB................................................................... 57
LETTUOE............................................................... 61
Plant bed-Preparing the Aeld-Cualvtivtng-Fertilier
formala-Varieties-MukAetin-Baling seed.
ENDIVE ......... ........................................................... 65
Fertilizer formula.
CHICORY ................................................................... 7
SPINACH .................................................................
Festilizer formula.
BORECOLE KALE..................................................... 71
CELERY.................................................................... 72
Soil-Preparation of the soil-Seed sowing-Tranplanting.
The new celery culture-Iirrgation-Marketing-Prapar
ing for market-Varietie-Fertiliar formula.
OELERIAC ............................ ................................. 86
CABBAGE ................................................................ 86
Plant bed-Varietiee--owing the seed-Sol-Fertilaer
formula-Fertiliser amoumt-Platag and cultirati g.
Preparig for market-Markelg.
8PROUT ................................................. ... ........... 91
OAULIOFLOWER..................... ................. ......
Seed owin g-Sol --Set ms at- kltratin-Q ~ -

C-.tr-, .9 .*-- **-'.^' -*'*-'^
*,. u. ~


BROO LI..................................................................... 97
OOLLARDS.................................................................. 99
Pertiliser formula.
O LRABI .............................................................. 101
ONION......................................................................... 102
Boll-Preparng the land-Seed--Seed bed-Time to c .di-
FerrBt pIn-;Frtfdir formals-Amoants of fertiller-
Settflg o6b-d ltivalon-The old plan-Onrin the crop.
OratinR -Raising onions from sete-VatletieM-BRemd.
IBEK ........................................................................ 115
GARLIC..................................... ............................ 117
CHIVES.................................................................... 117
TOBAO O................. ........................... ............. 118
Varietes-BRaitng the seedligs-Tmnuplanting-Fertiier
ifartUal-Fartiliser amoonts-Preparstoa of the land.
(utilvating-Topping and suekerin-attlng--Haling.
Oaring batns-Ouring-Stripping and sorting.
PAR LEY.................................................................... 126
ORE88.................................................................... 127
NA8TURTIUMS............. ........................................ 128
LOBE ARTIOHOBKE............................................ 129
TOM ATO....................... ............................................. 131
Hot beds--old frames-Seed bed-Fertiliser formls--
Fertilisr amounts-Vareties Seed Trauplantine-
Soil and loetion-Preparing the land-Setting out-
Packing-Sorting--ummer and Fall crop-Saving seed.
M6G PLANT................................................................ 180
ViWriest-Hot bed Albd cold frames-Using Sower pots-
bil abd prepar ti-Fertllsr fbreula-Oultivation-
OAth*ae-g-M aeutac-S- d having.
PEPPEB S....... ...................................... ...................... 159
Vaiet-Fe-rtilUer formula rtiliser amouat-Hot
beds and cold bme-Sall and preparation-Oultivatig.
arting- Sving eed.

x comrwsm.
O K RA ........................... ..... ................................... 164
CUOUM BER.............................. .......................... 167
Soil and preparation-Cultivating-Picking and packing.
Saving weed-Varietiee--Fertilizer.
MUSK MELON&............ ....................... 175
Soil and preparation-Varimtiei-Fertillser formula-Ferti-
lizer amount-Planting and cultivating-Marketing-
Saving seed.
GHERKINS......................................................... 178
SQUASHES....................... ...... 179
.. -.,.....-.--,.... .....- ...... 179
Selecting the soil-Fertiliar formula-Fertiliser amounts.
PUMPKINS............................................... ....... 184
WATER MELONS.............................. 186
Soil-Fertiliser formula-F~rtilizer amounts-Varietie--
Planting-Cultivating-Marketing-Saving seed.
GOURD....................................................... 189
ENGLISH PEA.................. ............................... 190
Fertilizer formula-Fertilisar amounts.
BEAN....--.--.........-....-- ........-.............. ..... -*... .. 192
Buse BRAN -Varieties-Soil-Fertiliser formala-Planting
and cultivating-Preparing for market-Harveting.
PoLE BAN--Varieties.
PEANUT....................................... .............. 198
Soil and preparation- Plantng-Oultivating Harvitig.
Varieties-Fertilizer formula--Fertilier amount.
GOOBER .......................-- ....-....-- --. ----. g0
IRISH POTATO..W.... ... ......-..~....---.. 206
Soil and prepMrtion-8~l-Plaintng-FertiliM-Frtl-
liter formula -Fertilier amount --Cultivation-Ha-B
vesting-Storing-General Bemarkt-VarietieU-Seeond
JERUSALEM ARTIOHOKE.....-.--.-.---.,-- 215
OHUFA. ....~..............----. ......---- "- 91i



SW EET POTATO ......................................................... 217
Soil-Propagation-Preparation of the land and trans-
planting Cultivation Fertilizer formula Fertilizer
amounts-Storing-Varieties-Uses-Cost of producing.
Points to be improved upon.
Y AM ............................................................................ 226
RADISH ....................................................................... 226
Soil and preparation Fertilizer formula Fertilizer
amounts-Varieties-Sowing and cultivating-Market-
ing-Seed raising.
BEET............................................. ....................... 280
Soil and preparation-Fertilizer formula-Varieties-Seed-
ing and cultivating-Marketing.
TU RNIP....................................... ............................. 234
Soil and preparation Fertilizer formula Fertilizer
amounts-Varieties-Planting and cultivating-Market-
RUTA BAGA............................................................... 237
OARROT...................................................................... 238
Soil and preparation Fertilizer formula Fertilizer
amounts-Varieties-Sowing and cultivating-Market-
PARSNIP8 ...... ...................................................... 241
Soil and preparation Fertilizer formula Fertilizer
amounts-Varieties-Sowing and cultivating.
SALSIFY.............4.... ....... ...... ................... ...... 24
HOBRSE gADISH.... ................................................... 244



The earthy matter in which plants grow is com-
monly known as soil; it is moreor less organic matter
intermixed with finely pulverized rock.
The thin upper stratum in which plants grow is all
that we are interested in for the present. The dark
color in this stratum is due to the oxidation of the
vegetable matter here present. The main source of
oxygen is from the air. -The portion of the soil that
is dark is usually called the aoi, and that immedi-
ately below it has been designated the bsoil. The
soil is usually the more fertile, especially in the South;
in some of the alluvial bottoms the soil is of the same
consistency for a considerable depth.
The black vegetable mold in the soil we are used to
call hkmu, is an important factor. In it is contained
mineral matter once the body of a rock and some de-
composing vegetable matter, in a good condition to be
again taken up by other plants. Besides the food for
plants it keeps the soil in good condition for plant-
growth. A sandy soil, rich in humus, can stand a
drouth much better than where the humus is wanting,
but unless there is a more or less compact stratum
(subsoil) below, much of the fertilizer is carried off by
the frequent rains and the land will always be poor.
Owing to the large per cent. of and in many soils
and its presence in all, it has been suggested that they

V3oNrk3L3 d3itoVXt

be claified according to the amount of it they con.

the olwiugj airidon
1. Pure clay, from which no and can be removed
by vahuI.
2. Strong clay, from which as much as 5 to 20 per
cent. of mad can be separated.
3. Clay loam, 'when washing will remove 20 to 40
per oet. of sand.
4. Loam, when the land contains as much as 40 to
70 per eaL of mand. -
5. Sandy loam, from which 70 to 90 per cent. of
send can be separated.
6. Light sand, containing more than 90 per cent of
When soil is found to contain a per cent of carbo-
nate of lime it is mid to be aslreous or mare soil.
When a large per cent. of vegetable matter is pres-
ent it is usually called maeo or vegetable mold.
Soils that are La good condition for raising crop
are made up of foBrteen or ffteen elements In all
there are nearly -seventy elements that may occur;
but as only about ffteen of these enter into the qes-
tion of plant ecooomny, we need not regard the other
The eemential element are oxygen, hydoe, nitro-
gen, potasiam, cwbon, silioon, salphar, phosphoru,
cblorn;, sodium, dalum, magnelaum aluminum and
iron. Oxygen, ydrgen, nitrogen and caboi A"
derived directly fom the air. ad oomUtiM 96 per
cent to 99 pqr et. of tbp wo q the pa.

--- bo. : ...- -* ..-.AY.MDll~fi'^ ^


should not be understood that they are usually taken
directly from it by the plant, nor do they enter the
plant in the condition of a simple element. Some
plants that belong to the pea family are able, under
certain conditions, to assimilate more or les nitrogen
directly from the air, but the other three elements find
their way into the plants through the soil. Because
the above named .elements make up so much of the
weight, it should not be inferred that the other ten or
eleven elements that are derived from the soil are of
only minor importance. Although their combined
weight is only from one to five per cent, the absence
of any one of these may materially interfere with the
growth of the plant.
It will be clear from what has been mid that if crops
are repeatedly removed from the soil, some element or
elideiits will become exhausted, or, a we ordinarily
my, the land become poor.
Difmret crops do not remove an equal amount of
the deeaents, sad even different specimens of the
m ae erop vaPy odsiderably in the amount of any one
elemntat that ey take up from the soil. Some plants
take a great deal of nitrogen from the soil and re-
ftkr only a portion of it; others take only a small
a cmnt of bitoR~m from the soil and give much back;
the former make land poorer, the latter make it richer
in nitrogen. The same is true in regard to plants
using potash and phosphoric aid. When a piece of
land becomes tired of one crop, It is often able to pro-
duoe some other in hir quantity. To keep soil in
seh condition that it will produce a crop in paying
qnattIme, we must keep the before named fifteen ele-
meats prese t in sualent quantity-we mast fertilah

.o "


Three of the essential plant elements are oftener
wanting than any other; these are potash, nitrogen,
and phosphoric acid.
They play asch an important part in the plant
economy, and are present in such varying quantities,
and so often one or more of them is present in deficient
quantities, that we loo upon them as the essential
elements, though they are not more necessary to the
plant's welfare than some other elements. A del-
ciency of any one will eMase the plants to look sickly,
and make them a fit subject for insect and fungoid at-
tacks, to which they readily succumb. If a field has
been producing good crops for a number of years and
then gradually fails, it la a pretty fair indication that
some form of food for that crop is becoming exhausted,
and we must either stop growing that crop on that soil
or in some way supply the wanting plant foods. This
is accomplished by using either home-made or com-
mercial fertilizers.

S.4.. .-r.-. r._;ay~p` I~;L b;-L~LiU3-j~~


Any substance that will supply the deficient ele-
ment or elements to the soil, in such a form that it is
available to the crop to be produced, is considered a
fertilizer. It is not uncommon to find an element in
the soil in sufficient quantity, but in such a form that
the crop cannot make use of it; in other words, the
element is not available.
A fertilizer that contains all three (nitrogen, potash
and phosphoric acid) elements is said to be complete.
The amount of any of the elements vary with the dif-
ferent brands and the different crops for which they are
to be used. The amount of any element in a special
fertilizer is governed by the amount of that element
removed from the soil by that particular crop.
An incomplete fertiliszr is one which is wanting in
any one or more of the fertilizing elements. These
are known either by the single element which they
contain, as potash, muriate of potash, nitrate of soda,
etc., or by some trade name, as kainit, blood and bone,
guano, etc.
Any one who uses a large quantity of fertilizer will
find it profitable to buy the simple fertilizers and mix
them to suit the particular crop. When only a few
tons are to be used, it is usually not profitable to mix
the fertilizer at home. A few words in regard to the
source of the fertilizer elements will be of value to u.
A source of great commercial importance of this
fertilizer element is the phosphate rock of Florida and
South Carolina. This rock contains a varying quan:
tity of phosphoric ad, and it is necessary to make an


analysis of it before one can know its value. The
natural roek gives P the eleeqt elqWry, so it is
necessary to grind and treat it bcemically to mae the
phosphoric acid available. In- this oonditiop, it is
known as "acid phosphate," or "superphosphate."
A second sooree of considerable commercial impor-
tance is the reduced bones from various animals. Be-
fore the discovery of the phosphate rook, this was a
very important source; while the price of ground
bone for fertilizer has not declined very much as a re
salt of the discovery of rock phosphate, it has not in-
creased as it otherwise would have. In their natural
state, bones yield phosphoric acid but slowly, bat,
being crushed and treated with hemials, they can be
made to yield it up rapidly and become available in a
short time. A vegetable grower having several taPs
of bones could make it profitable to change the inpol-
uble phosphate of lime to a soluble form, which is
usually called phosphoric aoid. The bst way to
proceed is to grind the bones to meal; place about
forty pounds of this meal in a wooden tab, con-
taading thirty pounds of water; then add thirty
pounds of sulphuric acid of a speafl gravity of L7.
Much lees water could be used, but this quantity will
enable one to mix the acid and bone more evely.
The essential part of the bone is t the p pt of
lime, and; s before mention, this is inolubi, or, at
best, only a sall portion of it will go into solUtion.
how, when the smlphurio ld ti supplied, it becomes
a superphosphate, or aid phosphate; soam people all
it phosphorle ad, but the obeamtst oldea ethi term
beamee it is inorreaty qnad. Trit app srhop is
readily digWlvel by wae, std ia eah amakb e aee be
taken p a4 4a psd b t O AAs r tha *i- rieS

., ";- -.. -^-^ '. *' .: .-- "


has put all the bone into solution, the material should
be a more or less homogeneous sticky mass. Of course
this could not be applied to a field readily, so it must
be mixed with some drying material, as dry sand.
Ashes or lime should not be used as drying material,
because these are liable to revert the- phosphate of
lime to the insoluble form again. Generally, it will
be found cheaper Co buy the superphosphate than to
buy the materials and prepare it.
The packing-houses and slaughter houses collect the
bones and harder portion of refuse to grind up for
fertilizer. When considerable blood is mixed with
this bone meal, it goes under the name of blood and
bone. The bones and refuse of fish in large fisheries,
also the carcasses of worthless fish, are used for this
important element of plant food, Thousands of tons
of these forms of phosphoric acid are used yearly as
fertilizer in the South.
In nature this usually occurs as a chloride (muriate),
a sulphate, or a carbonate. It is very widely distri-
buted, occurring in all parts of the world, and is one
of the fertilizer ingredients that is left after plants
are burned; in other words, it is one of the main in-
gredients of the ash of plants. Besides this general
distribution, it also occurs in large bodies in parts of
the earth. One of the largest and most important of
these is located in Stassfurt, Germany, where it is
mined much as salt isn the other portions of Europe.
In this place it oceurs as a sulphate mixed with com-
mon salt and other ingredients, and imported to this
country under the name of kainit. When refined, it is
sold on our market as muriate of potash or sulphate
of potash, as the case may be.


In its natural state nitrogen occurs as an atmos-
pheric gas, and as sach it is not available as a fertili-
zer. When tbe term is used in speaking of a fertili-
zer, we simply mean that it is in some combination
with other elements that hold it in the form of a solid.
The different forms in which nitrogen occurs as a
fertilizer are: First, as organic matter, either vegeta-
ble or animal; e. g., tobacco stems, cotton-seed meal,
dried blood and tankage. Second, as nitrates; e. g.,
nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash, etc. Third, in the
form of ammonia compounds; e. g., sulphate of am-
monia. In the reports of fertilizers, when the amount
is given, it is intended to imply how much of it would
be present if it were in the form of a gas.


... *.-- at ta'*: i .i / ,- ^" t &...-<,^- AA.tt' JAt .'. ^^rs'aA -- -'-'* ---*


This term is used for all forms of decomposed vege-
table matter in barn-yards; whether it be animal ex-
crement or other decomposed vegetable matter. Its
value varies greatly, not only as to it source, but also
as to the manner in which it is kept. When it is kept
in the usual way it is worth, from $2.00 to $4.00 per
ton. About 60 to 80 per cent. of the whole weight is
water; 9 to 15 pounds of it is nitrogen; 9 to 15
pounds of potash, and 4 to 9 pounds of phosphoric
aoid. From these variations it is plain that it is diffi
cult to state just how much it is worth. If the manure
has decomposed in the open air, there is danger of
the rain having washed out much of the potash, and
the nitrogen having passed off as a gas into the atmoe-
phere. Manure that is to be kept for some time
should be under a roof where the rain cannot wash
out any of the soluble fertilizer. It should be kept
from becoming too hot by being forked over or stirred
in some way, or by using water when becoming dry.
While the essential elements in the barn-yard manure
may not equal those of a commercial fertilizer, it adds
the important factor of humus to the soil, thus im-
prcving its mechanical condition.


It has long been known that decomposing vegetable
or animal matter causes plants to grow luxuriantly;
but, at the same time, the plants are liable to be on-
fruitftl. This is due to an over-abundance of nitrogen-
ous matter. If, to this decomposing organic matter,
potash and phosphoric acid be added to make a com-
plete fertilizer, plants do not become "over grown."
The amount of Ipotash and phosphoric acid to be
added is learned by experience. Such a mixture is
called a compost. The term is often applied to a de-
composing heap of organic matter, and also applied to
such heaps when land plaster has been added; but we
shall restrict the term compost to decomposed organic
matter, to which enough commercial fertilizer elements
have been added to make a complete fertilizer.
On any farm, garden or other places where line of
horticulture or agriculture are carried on, a good deal
of coarse and refuse material can be collected without
making a special effort. All offal, as vegetable re-
fuse, kitchen slops, wash-water or soap suds, the dung
of domestic animals, bits of wood, in act, anything
of animal or vegetable origin may be used in this way.
The best way to dispose of an animal that has died on
the farm is to me it in the compost heap. When any
odor is escaping from the compost heap or bin, we may
be sure that valuable fertilizer is escaping; this may
be arrested by mixing with the compost two or three
bushels of land plaster to a cart-load of material If
land plaster is ot at hand, two or three libee of
noit dirt throvm over the pile will arrest the sap-
ing nitrogen. The decomposition of material ma be
hasteed by adding night soil or undeeompoee aI-

..,- ''-. t-'^..'^-':-&'^J(bk^ ;^ i A^^a ^A


aWUe but it should be distributed evenly throughout
the eptr meM
By the proper se of fresh manue, a oompost may
be prepared that will be ready for use in four or five

If any one wishes to compost material rapidly, the
following general directions will be found of service.
Have on hand aboit four barrels of concentrated
manure, such as pare hen manure, cow manure, horse
manure, or night soil; about five bushels of land
plaster. This will be found to be enough to decom-
pose a ton of dry and about eight tons of green matter.
Place about six inches of muck on the bottom of the
compost shed and wet it down thoroughly. Then put
in a layer of six or eight inches of material to be de.
composed; then add a thin layer of concentrated
manure; then put another layer of rough matter, and
follow with a layer of concentrated material, and so
on till the required amount of material has been used.
The body of the material should be made completely
wet; if this is not done it is liable to burn" and lose
one of the important elements of plant food-nitrogen.
Finally, mix the land plaster with enough fresh earth
or thoroughly decomposed muck to cover the whole
about eight inches thick. The muck in the bottom
will catch any surplus moisture and save a waste of
soluble fertilizer. The concentrated manure furnishes
the germa that aet up decay, the water distributes
these germs and gives them a necessary moisture,
while the land plaster arrests any escaping gases and
holds them in an available form. Land plaster may
be added to each layer of the compost to take up
any gas as it is formed. The time required for
decomposition depends very largely on the amount
of concentrated material used and the completeness



of the mixing withthhe coaster staff. Caution should
be exercised to keep the pile moist, but not wet; if it
is so wet that liquid can be preened out of it by
squeezing it in the hand, water must be withheld for
several days; when no more moisture can be pressed
out, water may again be applied. Often the process
of decaying goes on too rapidly; in each a case much
of the nitrogen may be lost. This is made apparent
by the rising of steam or the sending off of ammontl
gas, so easily detected by the nostrils. If the over-
heating is due to the want of water, it may be cor-
rected by supplying the needed moisture, but some-
times it is necessary to fork the pile over to correct
the temperature. After a little practice, one is able
to prepare a heap so it wi 11 not have to be disturbed
until it is to be applied to the field.
If one has determined for what crop the compost
is to be used, the proper amount of commercial ferti-
lizer may be added as the pile is prepared, otherwise
this must.be added when the compost is to be used.
There are two advantages in the use of compost:
First, it improves the mechanical condition of the
soil; Second, the soluble chemical fertilizer is taken
up by the vegetable matter and held in suspension
much as a sponge holds water, thus keeping the rains
from leaching it out of the, soil, and as it is in a more
finely divided state, the gwriog plants can absorb it
with greater facility. In preparing compost, it must
be done under shelter to keep the water from washing
out the soluble fertilizer.

W _


There had been so much said and so much written
on this subject, and so many heated discussions en-
gaged in, that the very mention of the term causes a
ripple of merriment in the Florida State Horticultural
Society. Much of-thi discussion would not have oc-
curred if the arguments had been confined closely to
the question at issue. Usually the only fertilizing
element present in muck is nitrogen, and this varies
widely in different samples, from one per cent. in a
poor grade to six or seven in the best. However, if we
are sure that our soil needs this element, nitrogen, and
wants humus, all that we have to do is to get the per
cent present in the supply and calculate whether it is
cheaper to use this source or to get it from some other
form. The later portion of the problem cannot be
worked out so easily; general common sense will aid
us much in this. The particular crop to be grown on
that piece of land will have much to do with the ad-
visability of hauling muck. It is generally conceded
that muck is an important source of nitrogen and will
prove of great value where properly and intelligently
Besides its good quality as a fertilizer, muck in a
dry and powdered form makes one of the best absor-
bents and disinfectants. It is a first class absorbent
in horse stables, cattle sheds and similar places. The
moisture is taken up quickly and the odor arrested.
The importance of saving the urine of animals is
usually overlooked largely because there seems to be
no handy way of saving. it. By using dry muck it is
as easily handled as commercial fertilizer.


Per Ceats. of Fertilizer Elements.
Table giving the approximate amounts of different
fertilizer elements in various subetances used in the

0 ara
MAT oUAL ND "oR t '

Cotton-seed meal............... 6-7 7-8 1 2
Dried blood........ ............... 10-15 12-18
Dried fih crap. ................ 7-8 8-10 ......... -8
Guano.......... .................... 7-8 8-10 2-4 5 8
Muck, good ................... ... 1-3 1-4
Nitrate of sods. ................. 15-11 18-20
Tobacco stem.. ............... 2-3 3-4 5-8 1
Sulphate of ammonia.......... 10-22 )--26
MAdrTmau Us) Fro
Ootton-seed bull ashea........ ....... ....... 15-25 -8
Kainit.... ......................... ...... 8-9
Muriate of potash (80 to 85
per cent.).................... ........ ......... 50
Nitrate of potash... ........... 13-14 10-18 43 44 2
Saw Palmetro ashes (un-
leached)...................... ........ ........ .J5-40
Sulphate of potash (high
grade) .................. ..... ..... ......... 8-51
8l phat of potash and mag
nelsma. ........................ ...... ......... 20-28
Tobacco stems.................2 -3 3-4 5-8
Wood ashes (Ireched)......... ....... ....... 13
Wood ashes (unlobed)... ............... 4-8
Us2 worn PeoOnPoac ACID.
Acid phosphate ............ ....... ................. 10-14 1-8
Bone peal .......................... ............. .... ..... 4-8 10-17
BoDe m tn lo y) ......... ........ ......... ........ ......... SOr
Bone meal (d solved) ......... ......... ................ 12-1& S-8
Florida rock.................... ......... ......... ......... .........
FlorWs soft phosphate ......... ....... ............................ 18-20
Guam. ...... ............... 7-8 8-10 -4 5-8
Both Carolina phsphate... ......... ...................... 280

HOW TO OOU1tR AMkftf OF oi FBTIIuzBu. 15

How to Compute the Amount of Fertiliser in
a Given Formula.
It is very important that we should be able to com
pate the amount of any essential fertilizer element
contained in a certairformula. Unless we are able to
find this out, we cannot make an intelligent use of the
substance. Very often a high grade and a low grade
fertilizer can be obtained on the same market-then
it is very essential that the relative values of these
shall be obtained in order that we buy intelligently.
It does not concern us further than the difference in
handling, whether we have to use a half ton or a ton
of fertilizer to get the requisite amount of an essential
element; so, if we can get the requisite amount of a
certain element in low grade fertilizer for enough less
to pay for its handling and something over, that will
be the preferable kind to buy. To illustrate: Suppose
we have a fertilizer containing 10 per cent. available
phosphoric acid, 8 per cent. potash, and 6 per cent.
nitrogen. A ton of this gives 200 pounds (10 per cent
of 2000 pounds a ton) phosphoric acid, 160 pounds
potash, and 120 nitrogen. The remainder is usually
some harmless earthy substance. Now, suppose there
is another fertilizer on the market that contains 6 per
cent. of available phosphoric acid, 6 per cent. of pot-
ash, and 4 per cent. of nitrogen. A ton will give us
120 pounds phosphoric acid, 120 pounds potash, and
80 pounds of nitrogen. The value of different fertil-
ising elements varies from year to year. We will use
igAres that are approximately correct. If nitrogen is
worth 12 cents a pound, available phosphoric acid 10
eents, and potash 6 oenot, we will have the following
comparison in values of the respective formulas:


first Pbrmula.
200 pounds phosphorio acd, 10 l ........ ........... 20 00
160 pounds potash, 6. ....................... 9 60
120 pounds nitrogen, 12o, ............................. 14 40

Total...... ..... ................ ............... *44 00

Second Fbrmula.
120 pounds phosphoric acid, 10 ............... .....*12 00
120 pounds potash, 6c.. ....... .......... 7 20
80 pounds nitrogen, 12. ......................... 9 60

Total.... ...... .. ..... ...... ................. 28 80
This shows that the former fertilizer is worth $15.20
more per ton than the latter, but suppose that the lat-
ter fertilizer were offered you at the depot for *26,
then. it is necessary to decide whether you make any-
thing by buying the cheaper and have the extra haul-
ing and handling. There is still another point to be
considered: if the latter fertilizer costs $28.80 per ton,
a pound will cost $.0144; 1$4 (the price of the former)
will buy 3,055 pounds. Of this, 183* pounds (6 per
cent. of 3,055 pounds) are phosphoric acid, 1831
pounds are potash, and 1221 pounds nitrogen. If the
latter formula is chosen at the price ($28.80) given for
its value, one obtains 161 pounds phosphoric acid lem,
231 pounds potash more, and 2j pounds nitrogen more
for the same money than by buying the former.

,..-,...,, I...,..~jt~-2rf-l: :i--i~~P. i


During the year, rain falls .on the land leeching
out much soluble fertilizer, unless there be some way
of holding it in the soil. Fertilizer must be in a solu-
ble condition before plants can appropriate it. Now,
if there are no plants present to appropriate this solu-
ble fertilizer, it is plain that the rain will carry this
portion out of the soil into the water-ways; but if
plants use it at once, when it becomes available, it re-
mains on the land. When these plants decay, they re-
turn this stored up food and humus to the soil.
The source of nitrogen, primarily, is the air ; it en-
ters the plants in different ways; some take it up from
the soil, and a few are known to take it from the air
directly. Plants that do not appropriate it from the
air are still important conservators of nitrogen, in
that they take it up from the soil and keep it from
wasting, and at the end of their life they give it back.
This class of plants cannot give to the soil more nitro-
gen than they draw out, but they can conserve it for
future plants. Besides this, they pile up the other
soluble elements of plant-food. The nitrogen-assimi-
lating plants store up varying amounts of this element
and give it to the soil, thus actually adding to the sup-
ply of this important element and keeping the other
elements from wasting. By producing a crop on land
for a number of years, and utilizing it carefully, the
land becomes richer until finally it will grow full
The best plants for green manuring or soiling now
in oultivaion in the South are cow-pea (DoUieho sp.)



and beggar-weed (ZDesodh m tortuo )m). The latter
of these has some points of advantage over the for-
mer; one of the main points to be considered is that
root-knot (Heterodera radioola) does not attack it as
severely as the former. This is quite important, as it
means failure to follow cow-peas with a crop attacked
by root-knot if the disease s in the field.
As to the manner of using these plants, there is
some diversity of opinion. In clay soil, the plants
may be plowed under in the green state, but on sandy
soils it will not be foand practicable. Dr. Stubbe, DI-
rector of the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment St.-
tion, says that in the South it is a detrimental prac-
tice, and that the green manure should be allowed to
rot before it is plored under. The decomposition of
the green matter is mid to create a ferment in the soil
detrimental to oropa that may follow.

*'- -* '


In some European countries where horticulture
and agriculture are more advanced than they are
are in this country, the tillers of the soil have certain
test plants; that is, certain quick growing plants, as
oat, are planted and their color and growth watched,
and from these the conditions of the soil interpreted.
In this way the soil is tested and it is learned just
what elements are wanting to make the crop remu-
nerative. In this country the tests have not been
thorough enough nor continued long enough to make
them of value. However, certain good horticulturists
can tell to some extent by the condition of the foliage
what is wanted by certain plants. To obtain infor-
mation of this kind, itrequires careful attention to
various crope grown on different grades of land whose
composition is known and to keep careful notes on
these for a long series of years. Unfortunately, there
are so many other conditions that come in to vary the
test that most people become impatient before any
definite conclusion oould be reached.
Our sandy soil is unusually well adapted to work of
this kind, as so much of it is deficient in all the emsen-
tial fertilizing elements. Any one raising vegetables
could withhold one of the three necessary fertilizers
for a series of years on as many different plots as there
are elements and thereby learn the effect of such treat-
ment, and then by noting the color of the foliage, form
of growth and other charaters, learn to interpret
these when observed in o$her fields.
To tet a feld to learn whether it really needs all
the elements of a complete fetit er, we may proceed
as follows: Ohoose four rows of, say, tomatoes that
ru aces a typical portion of the old and withhold
i.tooge n of the fortt- o amea we WAi o
uitrege ; then trat fou rmws the sume the eat of



the field; then take the next four rowsaand withhold
the potash from these; now treat four rows with the
usual fertilizer; then take a third set of four rows aqd
withhold the phosphoric aceid from these. While the
tests are being prepared, a number of strong stakes
are made ready to mark off eaohs plot by driving them
securely into the ground tt t;he first row of each test.
If second dressing of fertilizer is given to the crop,
cae must be exercised not to apply the element that
was withheld when the first dressing was made. In
making such a test it is almost useless to use only one
or two rows, as the plants will draw their supply of
the wanting element from the neighboring row. After
such a test has been made, the crop from this portion
should be measured carefully and compared with that
of the neighboring rows. lNoo, if the first four rows
show a decidedly poorer crop end the other two sets of
four rows are of an average production, it is plain that
the field needs nitrogen, but iff the first and third sets
of four rows have fallen off, the field needs nitrogen
and phosphoric acid and not Ipotash. There are sev-
eral gardeners in the South that have saved money by
testing their fields in this way.
Another way that has been ,employed, but one that
does not tell quite as much, is to use the plots in the
same way described above, bu't in the place of using
two elements, use only one; for example, choose four
rows and fertilize these with a nitrogenous fertilizer,
containing neither potash nor phosphoric acid; then
leave four rows for a check; then treat four rows with
phosphoric acid, etc. On vegetables either of these
tests are easily performed, but on fruit trees the re-
slts are so slow in making themselves manifest that
it has not proven a success.
A portion of our land is not benefited by the addi-
tion of potah, but nitrogen sa&u pbospherio aid are
narly aways deflen~t Nitroen is lm aml pesnt
in smiet quantities in muak iid, but it ofte need
lime to put it into At condition fr plant food.

0 .** <,..^* A '" l*


When a certain crop has been grown for a number
of years in the same field, it often occurs that the yield
decreases with each successive harvest, until finally an
amount scarcely more than the seed used is returned.
When a different crop is planted on such land it usu-
ally yields a paying crop, and after a number of years
the original crop can be again grown with a profit.
This phenomenon has given rise to the belief by some
people that the first crop put something in the soil
that was detrimental to itself; others held that there
was something taken out of the soil that was after-
wards restored. The latter, we have seen, were nearer
the truth than the former. There are crops, however,
that grow "tired" of a certain piece of land, or
rather, the land grows "tired" of a certain crop.
Some of these instances cannot be explained by the
exhaustion of certain elements, but something else
seems to be the cause. Certain pieces of land in Ger-
many grew tired of growing beets, and it was called
ruben-mude (beet-tired); after growing certain other
crops on this land, it would again produce beets in the
same quantity. Later investigation showed that this
" beet-tired was due to the presence of a microscopic
worm closely related to the one that causes root-knot
on our vegetables.
Certain crops are able to grow repeatedly on the
same land and not cause any falling off in quantity or
quality of the yield. For example, in an onion raise,
ing district a certain piece of land has grown more
than thirty crops of onions, and the plot is preferred
to-day to any of the surrounding land that was just as
good formerly. Doctors Lawes and Gilbert grew


wheat on the same plot for twenty consecutive years,
and at the end of this time the ]min seemed fully as
good for wheat as it was at th beginning of the
It is always a good practice, however, to change the
crop grown in any field from year to year. In making
changes of crops, they should be s different as possi-
ble. It is well to plant a field thattdis just had a good
green soiling with some gross feeding crop, as the
small grains or corn, and then to fellow this with vege-
tables. To follow a crop of egg-plieat with a crop of
tomatoes could hardly have the fore of rotation, in as
much as the plants use about theams e fertilizer and
harbor the same insects; cabbage following cauliflower
could not be considered a rotation far the same reason,
but cabbage following tomatoes woold make a good

If we accept the definition, a weed is a plant out of
place, almost any plant may become a weed. On the
other hand, almost every weed can become an eco-
nomic plant. Some one has wittily said that "the
weed is the devil's flower." Most weeds certainly
play mischief with a crop; they are ever present,
springing up, it seems, spontaneously to take up the
available fertilizer that was intended for the crop,
thus leaving the young seedlings in a sickly and weak
condition, unfit to combat with insects and other
Dr. B. D. Halsted, Horticulturist of New Jersey Ex-
periment Station, has shown very clearly that weeds
harbor diseases of crops. Some of the plant diseases
are carried through the winter by weeds which nourish
the spores that attack the crop in the spring. Other
weeds act simply as harbors of insects, which leave
the weed as soon as more refined food can be found.
Poke weed is a prolific source of root-knot; fire-
weed multiplies tomato blight; pepper grass harbors
club-root; and so we might continue for a long time
to enumerate the diseases of crops that will grow on
weeds. Another pernicious effect of weeds is the un-
tidy appearance they present when allowed to grow.
When dry they invite fire and are often the road to
the destruction of much property.

. I


In all vegetable and fruit-growing, the question of
watering is an important one it is a necessary factor
from the time the seed is planted to the time the crop
is harvested. A sufficient amount of water must be
applied either naturally or artificially. Where it can
be supplied, either by artesian wells or by irrigation,
the vegetable grower has a considerable advantage
over his neighbors who have not this supply. In dry
seasons his crops will not suffer from drouth, and the
crop will bring more money in consequence of its short-
ness elsewhere. Much of our vegetable land can be
supplied with water from artesian well; their useful-
ness in this respect has already been demonstrated.
Another source of water for use in vegetable growing,
and one that is not being employed to any considerable
extent in the South, is the flowing streams. In many
cases there is enough flowing water to supply all or a
great portion of the land with water in dry times.
Water may be raised to considerable height by the
use of a hydraulic ram. One of these machines will
run without any attention after it has been put in
place and put to running. A single discharge may be
quite small, yet when it runs twenty four hours with-
out stopping a considerable amount of water will have
been lifted. The amount of water that one of these
machines will raise depends on the height the water is
being raised and the amount of water that is flowing
in the stream that supplies the water. Under the
most favorable conditions a ram will raise two sevenths
of the flowing water four feet, if there is a fall of two
feet; or it may raise one twentieth the water one hun-
dred and twenty feet above the source if there is a fall


of twelve feet. The amount of water raised varies
inversely as the height to which it is to be raised.
These rams are made in various sizes to suit the condi-
tions; they are made to discharge from one-half to
thirty and even more gallons per minute. The cost of
the machine varies from $9 to over a $100. Like all
other machines it will in time wear out, but its struc-
ture is so simple that it rarely gets out of order. The
manner of placing the tank or reservoir must be modi-
fied to suit the individual fields.


This is a practice tha$ has not been followed to a de-
cided extent in the South, and yet it is highly com-
mendable. It require considerable forethought and
work to grow the beesteed. In some thickly-settled
countries of Europe, large estates are devoted entirely
to the growing of som special seed, either because of
some peculiar natural advantage or because of the
tact of its possessor. Tbhe Netherlands are peculiarly
adapted to bulb-raising, Denmark to raising of cauli-
flower seed; and thus rve might continue until nearly
all the countries of Europe had been named. The
possibilities in this direction for the South, especially
the Gulf region, are exceedingly great; the climatic
conditions in many regents are perfect, while labor
is efficient and cheap.
In growing seed, oneiahould never keep a sickly or
diseased specimen, beamise these often transmit a ten-
dency to invite disease in the product of that seed.
Only the healthiest andl most desirable plants of a
variety are good for seed... Some vegetables cannot be
raised from home-grown seed; in some cases the seed
does not mature, and im others the plants from the
home-grown seed are very inferior; a striking exam-
ple of the latter class is toe Bermuda onion. After the
finest specimens of the variety have been selected, the
plant should be allowed too mature the seed thoroughly
before gathering. In propagating plants, there are
two directions in whicl one may select: The first is,
to select the most perfect specimens of plants from the
standpoint of growth and shape. The second is, to


select the finest specimens of fruit regardless of the
plant. Neither of these methods are perfect, but one
should select the perfect fruits from the most perfect
plants. By such selecting, the variety is constantly
improved until it finally amounts to enough difference
to make a new variety which shall have none of the
defects of its ancestors.
It sometimes occurs t1at a plant appears that is
strikingly different from the others in the field. SBch
plants are often designated "sports"; the seed from
these will reproduce these peculiarities, and by select-
ing the typical specimens from the product of such
sports, new varieties may be originated. This method
is lees profitable and not so certain of a good product.
As so much depends on having seed that will ger-
minate readily, it is very important to know exactly
what to expect in the matter. A very simple method
is to sow the seed in a pan that can be kept constantly
moist and warm. There is considerable risk connected
with this method, and one needs to exercise much care
and judgment. The amount of soil in one of these
pans will be small, and easily chilled or overheated.
A modification of the above is to cover the soil with
a cloth, sow the seed on this, cover the seed with
another cloth, and put about a half inch of moist
sand on this cloth. The advantage in this way is
that the seeds can be examined easily, and in case of
their rotting, there is no delay in finding it out. The
seed may also be tested in a hot-bed or cold frame-
using the same precautions as where a pan is used.
Some European countries have seed-control stations
under the direction of the governments. These insti-
tutions test the vitality of the seed offered for sale and
examine them as to purity, thus protecting the buyers

rcdc -a:,' 4.


from frauds and encouraging the improvement in these
directions. Something has been done in that line by
the Experiment Station of North Carolina, and it" is
to be hoped that much more will be accomplished.
The length of time that seeds may be stored without
loosing their vitality, depends largely upon the variety
and the condition in which they are kept. To keep
well, seeds should be well matured and preserved in a
dry apartment. Much has been said as to the germi-
nating power of seeds that have been kept for hun-
dreds of years, but these reports lack confirmation by
scientific people. Some seeds have been germinated
that have been kept dry for thirty and forty years;
and recently, there seems to be a creditable report of
some seeds retaining their germinating powers for over
a hundred years, but in all of these cases this power
had been' greatly impaired. A few seeds, such as that
of cucumbers, retain their vitality under proper con-
ditions for ten years; other seeds lose their vitality
during the first year, under the most favorable con-


Considerable difficulty is experienced in the matter
of seed sowing, especially if the crop is to be sown in
the field. Some small seed, as turnips, are very diffi-
cult to sow evenly by hand ; but, fortunately, this has
been overcome in a measure by the invention of a
machine to do this work. Even with a machine there is
plenty of room for exercise of judgment; seeds of the
same variety are not all of the same size, and the
average size varies to a considerable extent.
Before sowing with a machine, it is necessary to
know just how it will sow. The marks put on by the
manufacturer are only approximately correct, on ac-
count of the variation in the size of seed. The ma-
chine can be regnaged for the particular seed in hand
by running it over a piece of canvas that has been
spread down for the occasion. The length of the row
on the canvas can be measured and the amount of seed
also; this reduces it to a simple computation and the
seed can be taken up easily and returned to the bag
unharmed. Seed obtained from different sources will
be found to vary considerably in size; these seeds of
different sizes should be planted separately, and it may
be necessary to reguage the machine. It has been
found by experiment that there is a wide difference in
the value of the different sizes of seed. If radish
seed be taken from a single plant and graded into
sizes, the largest will germinate knd produce a mar-
ketable vegetable first, and nearly all the seed pro-
duce good radishes; the second size seed will mature
radishes next, and so on until the smallest grade is


reached, which wiB produce radishes last and then
only inferior roots

In this day of specialization, varieties are almost
endless; new ones a.re brought to notice almost daily.
Sometimes it seen that the prices paid for these are
fabulous, especially] when we have first class vege-
tables of that kind, It is misdirected economy, how-
ever, to buy an inferior variety. The difference of a
few dollars at seed -me often works a damage of many
times that amount A.t harvest time. Nurserymen and
seedsmen prefer to destroy inferior seed or calls of
varieties they hold i:m esteem. This is a commendable
practice to apply to all varieties by those who grow
seed; inferior seed wastes the time of the person giv-
ing attention to it, und damages the reputation of the
The following table gives the amount of seed re-
quired for an acre and also the amount to sow a
smaller area. The let column is for the convenience
of those who do not wish to grow that especial vege-
table for market. .A slight acquaintance with the
seeds will make us aware at once that these figures can
be only approximately correct. Only the leading
vegetables are here tbulated; the amounts of others
must be sought in the special discussion for that



Asparagus ........ .......
Beans,buh sorts.........
S pole....... .......
Celery (old culture).....
S (new culture)..
Corn (sweet).............
Cucumber ................
Egg plant ................
Lettuce. ..................
Melon, musk...............
Okra ........................
Peas, English............
Potatoes, Irish... .......
Spinach ...................
Squash, summer..........
I" winter .........
Tobacco. ..................
Turnips .. ..........


5 pounds.......
It bushels-...
I bushel........
10 pounds......
5 ounces.......
6 ounces.......
4 ounces .......
32 ounces......
4 ounces......
8 quarts........
I pounds......
3 ounces.. ...
3 pounds......
1i pounds......
1 pounds......
10 pounds......
4 pounds........
8 bushels......
1l bushels.....
1 bushel.......
4 ounces........
10 bushels.....
(refer to topic)
8 pounds ......
8 pounds.......
10 pounds......
2 pounds.......
3 pounds. .....
3 ounces........
2 ounces......
1 pounds .....


1 oz. to 100 feet, drill.
1 qt. to 150 feet, drill.
1 qt. to 200 hills.
1 oz. to 100 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 100 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 100 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 500 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 600 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 100 feet, drill.
1 qt. to 500 hills.
1 oz. to 90 hills.
1 oz. to 500 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 250 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 100 hills.
1 oz. to 25 hills.
1 oz. to 50 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 200 feet, drill.
1 qt. to 30 feet, drill.
1 qt. to 150 feet, drill.

1 oz. to 500 feet, drill.

1 oz. to 150 feet, drill.
1 oz. to 60 feet, drill.
I oz. to 150 feet, drill.
I oz. to 40 hills.
I1 oz. to 10 hills.
1 oz. to 500 feet, drill.
1 oz. to bed 6 x 12 feet.
1 oz. to 250 feet, drill.


- -


This very convenient form of plant-bed is not as gen-
erally used in the South as it merits; probably from the
fact that many persons do not understand the princi-
ples underlying a successful operation of.the same.
When any undecomposed manure, leaves or other
vegetable matter begins to decay, a certain amount of
hea' is given off; if the pile is large and in a compact
heap, the amount of heat evolved will be considerable.
This is due to the breaking down of plant tissues
through the actions of low forms of life, such as bac-
teria and molds. This breaking down takes place in
the presence of moisture; vegetable matter stored in
a dry state, will remain undecomposed for an indefinite
time. An application of this fact will make it possi-
ble for every one who keeps a horse or cow to provide
himself with a hot bed.
During the early part of the season the manure may
be stored away dry, and kept so, and when the time to
fix a hot-bed comes, it may be prepared in a way sim-
ilar to making a compost heap.
Four points should be borne in mind when one is
selecting the place for a hot bed-
First. It must be sheltered from cold winds-that is,
it should be in a warm spot; there should be a wind-
break of some kind; the bed should be free to the full
sun all day; the south side of the barn may be used
in some cases.
Second. It must be protected from rains; the drip-
pings of eaves must be carried away and the surface
drained so that water will not run under.
Third. Water must be handy, or the needed supply
may not be applied.


* Fourth. It must be near one's house or near his daily
work, so as to require the least possible time to look
after it.
Glazed sashes are of great value in using a hot-bed
successfully, but they are not indispensable. These
sashes come set up and glazed in various sizes; proba-
bly the most convenient is three by six feet, and can
be obtained in the market for about $1.50 apiece. In
the Lower South, only a few days occur during the
usual winters when the thermometer will remain be-
low freezing if the sun shines. When glazed sashes
are not used, some form of cloth will be required.
There may be found on the market now a cloth pre-
pared for that purpose; this comes in three grades.
The best of these three grades will be found the cheap-
est in the end. By using a double thickness of the
best cloth, we were able to carry egg plants through a
freeze of 14 F., and the temperature remained below
the freezing point for several days. As egg plants are
among the most tender plants, it will be readily un-
derstood that ordinary plants can be carried through
easily. During the same freeze, lettuce-plants came
through all right under a single thickness of cloth
over a cold frame.
The best width for a hot- bed is six feet; at this width,
all the cultivating and other attention can be given
without entering the frame, and lumber cuts econom-
cally to' this length. The length of the hot-bed
must depend upon the individual desires and prepara-
tion. Beds made six feet wide are run east and west,
but if it is desirable to run them north and south, the
beds should be made twelve feet wide. In such a hot-
bed, the cloth is fastened to a pole along the middle as
a ridge-pole, and allowed to unroll roof-shape on each


side. All materials used in their construction may be
one inch thick. The back or north sides should be
twenty-six inches high, and the south sides ten inches
high. When glazed sash are used. a pitch of four
inches is sufficient-that is, the front is made ten
inches high and the back fourteen. But experience
has taught us that this pitch is not sufficient for
frames covered with plant-cloth. The sides are nailed
to four-inch boards that are driven into the ground
six feet apart. The ends of the frame are trimmed to
an even slope. At intervals of six feet, three-inch
pieces are dove--tailed into the front and back, to
steady the side,:sand to hold the protecting cloth from
The protecting cloth is sewed into a sheet large
enough to cover an entire frame. The seams run cross-
wise for obvious reasons. The sheet is fastened to the
back and then strretcbed over the frame; and just far
enough over the front to press the cloth down tightly,
a strip is nailed to serve as a roller for a curtain. By
turning at one end, the whole curtain may be raised
and fastened at thee top; when it is wanted for use, the
fastening is loosened and the curtain unrolls itself, at
the same time 8thutting the whole frame up for the
night. The wooli work and cloth for a frame six feet
wide and thirty feet long should not cost more than
When the frame for the hot-bed has been completed,
the undecomposea manure is placed in it to the depth
of six to ten inohes. It is usually neoeeary to remove
some of the earth inside the frame; this can be aend
to bank it on themtside. As the manure ils.ples in
the frame, it shool.d be thoroughly soaked mad tramped
down. In two or threedays thiswill begin atokhe

and will continue to rise in temperature for eight or
ten days, and will often rise high, running considera-
bly over a hundred degrees. If the bed is kept moist,
and this can be tested by digging into parts of it, there
is no danger of its "burning." This does not mean
that there is any danger of it actually generating fire,
but the stuff becomes dry and discharges valuable
fertilizing quality as gases, and hence is about de-
stroyed. When large quantities of fresh manure are
used, the gardeners dump it in piles, and fork it over
every day or two to keep it cool enough, and at the
end of ten days or two weeks place it in the hot-bed.
After the manure has been placed in the frame, an
inch of fresh loam should be spread over it, to arrest
any gases that may be escaping. After about ten
daysof fermenting, the manure has reached its highest
temperature, and seed can be sown in the loam with-
out danger. From this time on, the temperature falls
gradually, until decomposition is complete.
The only advantage a hot-bed has over a cold-frame
is that the decomposing matter gives off heat, and the
amount of heat given off will vary with the amount of
manure used. If one desires to keep a bed extra warm,
the frame may be banked with fresh manure.



The frame-work and cover are prepared in the same
way as for hot-bed. Cold-frames requiireless fertilizer,
and hence are cheaper than hot-beds.' The soil in them
should be made very fertile by using commercial fer-
tilizer, or, preferably, compost. Maskethe soil about
six inches deep, using about as much Ywell-rotted com-
post as soil. The fertilizer must be worked in thor-
oughly, and the frame thus prepared allowed to stand
ten days or two weeks, all the time keeping it thor-
oughly moistened. A cold frame is as valuable in the
summer as in the winter. In the summer, the cloth is
raised to allow air to pass under, thus protecting small
plants from the scorching sun. In thee management of
a cold-frame, and of a hot-bed, plenty- of water is in-
dispensable, and it must be applied im liberal quanti-
ties daily.


Plant-beds are very largely employed in the South
for raising seedlings, especially tobacco. A cold-
frame will serve every purpose of a plant-bed for
raising seedlings, and has many advantages. Seed-
lings, after growing to a size that are easily handled,
are often planted in a bed for further maturing; this
is especially so when large quantities of tomato, cab-
bage or celery plants are wanted. The advantage of
having these plants in as small a space as practicable
is apparent to all. The plant-bed must be very fertile,
and have plenty of water to be used in case of need.
The ground should be raked carefully, the fertilizer
applied, and the bed spaded or plowed and then raked
again. The bed should lie a week or ten days to allow
the fertilizer to be incorporated, when the plants may
be set out. Plants should not be allowed to become
checked in their growth at any time. It does plants
good to be transferred several times, and with some
vegetables such transplanting is profitable; but, for
plants to come to a standstill for want of water or fer-
tilizer, works a detriment that is strikingly noticeable
in the crop. Hence, in the transplanting, great care
should be taken as to moisture, temperature and soil,
so that growth may not be checked.


To make vegetable growing a success, it ti neeseary
to select the proper kind of land. Nearli all vege-
tables like a sandy loam or some other rather light
soil, that is at the same time well drained amd yet not
It frequently occurs that the very beetw vegetable
land is soggy and sour in its original state. ? When we
find a piece of land that is excellent in allo othqr re
aspects, but needs to be drained, the problet tbat then
concerns us is, How shall this be effected 1 When
there is plenty of fall to the land, this may g~eoona-
plished in one of two ways-either by surl.ce drain-
age or by underground drainage. The latterr method
is the preferable one and the cheaper one ih. the end,
though the more expensive in the beginning.
The method of surface drainage has the a .dUntage
of being cheap and easily accomplished, M;b.hgh it
takes some time and attention to keep it i good run-
ning order. The method is simple. All tha g mineees-
sary is to make a ditch from one to three feet deep and
keep this open so the water will run off.
The advantage of draining has been demoostrated
repeatedly in this country and in Europe. PYInts on
tile drained land, and to a greater or lees ilegree on
land with open ditch, will do better duriq g rainy
season, and, what seems rather contradictory, they will
give a larger yield in dry years. Crops areas caearlier
on drained fields. In a clay country, land thltis well
drained naturally will be benefitted by a wel. -planned
system of tile drains. Where land that is wd 0 drained
naturally can be obtained, this is preferred, ilf ooare,

.' W


as it does away with the initial expense of draining;
bat, on the other hand, it should be remembered that
the land producing the largest and most profitable
crop is drained land.
In making a beginning in vegetable growing, it is
best to start aright. Tle greater portion of our un-
improved land hasto be cleared, and this should be
done thoroughly; every stalk, stick or chunk should
be removed from the field. It is a waste of time and
money to go into vegetable growing as a temporary
vocation; it is as deserving and demanding of constant
and careful attention as any other branch of horticul-
ture. So if you can clear ten acres only half way,
why, you had better clear five acres all the way. It
has been seen repeatedly that a small piece of land
well taken care of brought a greater return than
double the amount cared for poorly. The familiar
adage, What is worth doing is worth doing well,"
has full force in vegetable growing.
If we have a light, sandy soil, deep plowing may
prove detrimental to a field that is to be planted imme-
diately, but some time during the year it should be
stirred deeply and well. The subsoil is often so hard
that the roots of the crop cannot enter, and so have to
stay near the surface and be at the mercy of any short
drought that may occur; whereas, if the soil were
twice as deep, it could stand a much longer drouth.
Many subsoils do not allow the water to soak through
them; other subsoils let the surplus water through
slowly. In either case, the mechanical condition of
the soil would be improved by an occasional deep
plowing. Besides giving the roots a greater feeding


k't c.,.


space, the tilling of the soil acts as a kind of a regula-
tor; it make soggy land drier and dry land to con-
serve the moisture in it. A cultivated soil can hold
more water without being soggy than one that is not
tilled; in a sudden shower a plowed field will retain
all the water and give the roots of plants a chance to
absorb the fertilizer before it is carried off. Much of
our sandy land allows the fertilizer to be leached out
by the rains and retains not even a trace in the soluble
form; but if this water were retained in the soil the
fertilizer would be retained also. The amount of water
a soil can retain depends upon the constituent particles
of that soil.


The following table gives the number of plants per
acre when they are set at given distances. If we de
sire to find the number of plants required to set an
acre at distances not given in the table below, this can
be done by a slight amount of forethought. The num-
ber of plants for one inch asrthder in the row are given.
If then, plants are set two inches apart, the field will
require just half as many; if three inches, just one
third as many as when one inch apart; and if seven
inches apart, just one-seventh the number.

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

0 6 0 6 174,240 3 0 1 0 14,520
0 7 0 7 128,013 3 0 1 6 9,680
0 8 0 8 98,010 3 0 2 0 7,260
1 0 0 1 522,720 3 0 2 6 5,808
1 0 0 87,120 3 0 3 0 4,

1 0 1 0 43,560 4 0 0 6 21.780
1 6 1 0 29,040 4 0 1 6 7,260
1 6 1 6 J9,360 4 0 2 0 5,445
2 0 0 3 87,120 4 0 2 6 4,356
2 0 0 6 43,560 4 0 3 0 3,630
2 0 1 0 2t,780 4 0 3 6 3,ill
Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

2 0 1 6 14,240 4 0 4 0 2,722
S 7 0 7 128,013 3 0 1 6 9,680
0 8 0 8 98,010 3 0 I 2 0 7,260

1 0 2 0 10,890 3 0 2 6 15,80742
1 0 0 6 87,120 3 0 3 0 4,840
1 0 9 19,3,60 4 0 6 0 1,21.780
1 6 0 1 348,480 4 0 0 9 14,520
1 6 0 6 58,080 4 0 1 0 ; 10,890
1 6 1 0 29,040 4 0 1 6 1 7,260
1 6 1 6 19,360 4 0 2 0 j 5,445
2 0 0 3 87,120 4 0 2 6 4,356
2 0 0 6 43,560 4 0 3 0 3,630
2 0 1 0 21,780 4 0 3 6 3,111
2 0 1 6 14,520 4 0 4 0 2,722
2 0 2 0 10,890 5 0 5 0 1,742
3 0 0 6 29,066 6 0 5 0 1,452
3 0 0 9 19,360 6 0 6 0 1,210


Under this head we will consider also the transplant-
ing of plants from one bed too another. Soon after
plants that have been sown in a seed-bed begin to
show the second or third lesf, they will need to be
shifted and set out thinner, or they will grow spindly
and leggy. Then, also, their root system will be de-
veloped very poorly, and alter transplanting they
will either have to change tieeir entire make up as a
plant or die; either one of the two is expensive, as it
loses time for the vegetable-grower. Some plants, as
cabbage and cauliflower, will.do well with one shift-
ing; others, as tomatoes and egg-plants, will do the
better for having been shifteditvo or three times. A
very good way is to have a hotl- bed to grow the plants
from the seed, then shift then to a cold-frame; this
will have to be many times larger than the hot-bed to
hold the same plants. It will not take long for the
plants to fill the space allowedithem (for distance and
other special points refer to the special crops); then
another transfer will have to bo nade either to a cold-
frame or to a plant bed, depending on the variety and
time of the year. As mentioned before, the soil in
this should contain much untlecomposed vegetable
matter. If this precaution be taken, it will not be
necessary to wait for a rain or to use water in trans-
planting. If paper pots (whclh can be bought for
$2 or $3 per thousand) are u~d, the plant can be
transplanted from the plant-bCd quickly and without
shock to the plant at all.
In fertilizing the land prepanttory to transplanting,
the material should be workedlil and mixed with the
soil thoroughly. It does not mater bow small a par-
tiole of fertilizer may be in tl~ soil, the plants will


find it. The thorough distribution is very necessary.
Plants cannot take in such substances in a wholesale
style; while some kinds of fertilizer do not kill a plant
when used in big lumps, a very large proportion of
such doses is not available, or only so after considera-
ble time. We rarely use too much fertilizer, but use
it indiscretely.
The best time to transplant is just before a rain; but
where there are ten or twenty acres to be planted, the
work must go ahead when the proper time comes,
whether there is a rain at hand or not. It is certainly
no easy task to put out and water an acre of tomatoes
or half an acre of cabbage in a day.
Considerable of this hard work may be avoided by
using a transplanter. Many machines have been con-
structed and put on the market to do this work. Some
are operated by hand, allowing a person to stand in a
partially erect position. They do the work more or less
efficiently, but for the lack of perfection, none have
come into general use. There are also machines that
are drawn by horses, but the plants must be put in
place by hand. Some of these machines do excellent
work, and would beused generally, but the prices of
the machines are so high that many cannot buy them,
and some who can buy them, dislike to pay more for a
machine than it is worth. The greatest advantage in
the machine drawn by horses is, that a regulated quan-
tity of water is emptied wherever a plant is to be
placed. To use one of these machines, the land must be
free from debris. Stumps and trees are also in the way.
The amount that can be planted in a day depends
upon the crop and the condition of the land. It is
smid that six or seven acres of tomatoes can be planted
in day.


It is not difficult to find persons who have labored
diligently to produce a good crop, and then put it on
the market in a slovenly manner. Fancy prices are
paid for fancy fruits and vegetables, but it is necessary
to have the package fancy from the beginning to end;
any one point in the whole series will work a decided
damage to it all. It requires more brains to produce
a fine article, hence the supply is limited. It is more
profitable to produce the best of everything, so.the
mere statement at this place is sufficient. If we wish
to succeed in any line of business, we must offer for
sale the article that is wanted, and as long as there is
monopoly of that article, the price is considerably
above the cost of production. Often, the mere style
of label on a package makes a difference of 10 per cent.
in the selling price. The street venders in our large
cities learn to know human nature well; they will buy
good vegetables and fruits that have been shipped in
poor packages, and take the time and trouble to repack
them, and find it a profitable employment. Florida
Leconte pears shipped in old barrels, are packed and
wrapped to make California Bartletts. We must em-
phasize the matter of doing the very best with the best
material at hand. If a crop is all culls, nine times
out of ten it will not pay to market it at all.

To put vegetables on the market in first class style
requires certain equipment. One of the indispensa-
bles is a good packing-house. When vegetables and
fruit are ready for the market, they most be sent out;
they cannot wait. One cannot stop to plan a packing-


house after the crop begins to ripen nor is this the time
to build one.
A good packing-house is airy and roomy, and so
constructed that all parts can be kept clean. It has
been demonstrated several times that vegetables have
contracted disease in the packing-house, and arrived
in the market in an unsalable condition. In several
cases this led to an annoying controversy, and one in
which both parties, being entirely sincere, were severe
losers-the buyers in losing a very desirable trade and
the vegetable-growers in having to pay for shipping a
quantity of worthless vegetables. We cannot say that
this was because of carelessness on the part of the veg-
etable-grower, but rather because of a lack of knowl-
edge on the subject. Diseased vegetables should not
be brought into the packing-house, nor should they be
left in the field; this is a subject, however, that de-
serves special attention, and should be discussed at
length under the subject of plant diseases.
The location of a packing-house must be decided by
each individual, as the points to be taken into consid-
eration are of an individual character. Where it is
possible to place it so the vegetables can be loaded di-
rectly on to the car, this will compensate for consider-
able disadvantage in other ways, as it saves one hand-
ling of full crates. After this, the question as to
whether it shall be in the field or near one's dwelling has
to be disposed of; we must then examine the ground.
In the planning of a house a few general principles may
be given that will cover all kinds of vegetables; there
most be more or less variation in detail to suit the
kind of vegetable to be packed. The product should
enter on one side and be taken out on another. The
driveway to the entrance should be high enough so
the vegetables do not have to be lifted to the floor.


The arrangement should ioe such that the crop does
not have to be lifted at eaosh successive handling. It
is easier to lift a crate of vegtables from a bench than
it is to place it on the bendsh, MAost laborers will do
more efficient work when noot tired than after they be-
come tired. A tired laborer works to the detriment
of the grower whether the pay is "by the box" or by
the day. The packing season is a busy one, and la-
borers are often hard to obtjtin; if then, four labor-
ers can do the work of five there will be that much
more for profit or margin forr investment.
The practice of packing poor products in the centre
of the crate cannot be too strongly condemned, and
the persons who make a practice of this usually reap
the reward. Too often, however, they at the same
time do a great injury to their neighbor. "Honesty
is the best policy."

The material for making anrtes is supplied at such
reasonable figures that it does not pay a vegetable-
grower to work up his owni lumber. The ordinary
vegetable crates are made of i rough lumber, but some
of the tomato crates, which arre need for the fancy ar-
ticles, are very tastefully mafle of dressed lumber. A
bushel crate is eight inches bU fourteen inches by two
feet. These usually have agsrtition in the middle,
but for some vegetables, a English peas or string
beans, this is not necessary, but possibly profitable.
These pieces may be obtained already cut to sise, con-
sequently all that is left for the vegetable-grower to do
is to nail them together. Theends are eight by four-
teen inches, and have the oonmers out off so m to make
it eight-sided. The sides are uade of quarter inch ma-
teril, three inches wide.


A labor saving device may be made by nailing some
cleats on the floor or work-bench to hold the ends and
middle in place while one of the sides is being nailed.
Fasten two cleats just ftr enough apart so a crate-end
will be held up sideway between them; then just two
feet from the outer edge of this side nail down two
more cleats that will hold up another end in a similar
way. The outer sides of these ends should be just two
feet apart Midway between these fasten two more
cleats-these are to hold the partition of the crate.
The side-slats can now be nailed to the ends and par-
tition very easily. This will give sufficient support to
the ends and partition of the box, that it may be
turned over and the other side nailed on. A. slat
nailed on to each corner, which has been sawed off
and one of the eight-inch sides nailed up, and the
crate will be ready to receive vegetables.
A barrel crate, or one that will hold about a hun-
dred pounds of cabbage, may be made in a similar
way. The dimensions of such a crate are twelve
inches by eighteen inches by three feet. The slats for
such crates must be broader and thicker.


Mushrooms do not belong to the flowering plants,
and are probably on this account not treated in many
books on vegetable growing; while it may not be
altogether logical to treat them here, it will be noticed
upon observation that the markets class them with
vegetables, and any one who has a good knowledge
of vegetable growing can become a mushroom grower.
The underlying principles are not so different as the
unitiated imagine. Under this head are classed
many different species of plants belonging to a num-
ber of genera. The spawn or "seed" is obtained
from wild specimens frequently, but that sent out
by seed houses is grown under cultivation. Many of
the wild species may be used as they occur in their
native habitat, but it is not well for one not familiar
with the edible ones to make use of such without being
advised by those who are familiar with the edible ones.
While the number of poisonous ones are much smaller
than is generally believed, and their poisonous
character much less dangerous than many persons give
credit for, it is good sense to permit those famiilar
with the plants to do the choosing. If one uses spawn
sent out by the seed houses and raises a crop from
this no trouble need be anticipated, or if those offered
for sale are used there is no danger.
The food value of these esculents is not usually
recognized in this country, but they are rather looked
upon as tid-bits. They are especially rich in protein,
a food element often deficient in our diet Morchella
esculeta contains thirty-five per cent. of it; Bolet
edduua twenty-two per cent ; while bread contains only
eight per cent. France exports millions of dollars
worth annually, while our country does not supply
her wants.


Fresh manure of various kinds will be found best
in preparing a mushroom bed. The best success
is obtained by using fresh manure of horses fed on
grain; the manure of horses fed exclusively on hay is
not as good-in fact, quite poor. When any considera-
ble amount of manure has Been collected, it should be
mixed thoroughly to make it as even as possible and
then piled. In this state it may be allowed to heat
and decompose partially. If a bed can be constructed
in a dark place, as under buildings, it will obviate the
necessity of preparing a cover; otherwise, it will be
necessary to provide one to shut out the light (see Fig.
1). In some forcing houses beds are placed under the
benches. Old sheds also may be utilized. After the
manure has passed through its first heating it may be
placed in the bed, which may be made similar to a hot-
bed; the manure being tramped in a foot to two feet
thick, and should be kept moist constantly but never
Near the city of Paris, France, are many under-
ground quarries to supply building stone to the me-
tropolis; at intervals piers are left to support the mass
above. When portions of these quarries are aban-
doned and left as empty rooms, they are claimed by
mushroom growers to plant gardens. While the sur-
face of the land may be growing wheat, beneath it in
the interior of the earth is a crop of mushroom'.
From these underground gardens an average of 300
pounds of mushrooms are brought up daily.
Soon after filling a bed the temperature rises, often
reaching 1000 F. During this time it most be watched
closely that it does not become dry and brn out."
In a few days the temperature will return to 900 F.,
and then fall gradually until it reaches the tempera-


tare of the surrounding soil When a bed reaches the
temperature of 900 F. the ipstwn may be pat in, but
some mushroom growers prefer to wait until 700 F. is
reached. If one waits untilthis temperature has been
reached there will be less dia.nger of losing the spawn.
The temperature of the beds should not be allowed to
fall below 550 F. For thosemho are not familiar with
this work it will be well toloave a hole in the bed at
intervals of three or four feet to enable one to insert
a thermometer for ascertaining the temperature.


Fio. 1.
Figure I represents mushroom bed o bench similar to those used
in forcing houne.
The spawn is usually obtain oa in bricks. A cubic
inch of spawn is enough for absiateighty square inches
of bed. The bricks are broken: into pieces of about a
cubic inch, and then placed at inch or so under the
surface of the bed; if the bed isqaite warm, the spawn
is put nearer the surface; if quits aool, it may be placed
even deeper. Under favorable conditions one will
have some mushrooms booming in for use in two months
from the time of spawning.


This vegetable is not grown very extensively in the
South. While there are several reports of success we
have more reports of failures. These reports of
failures would not have beeq recorded in so many in-
stances if the proper attention had been given to fer-
tilization and cultivation. In the States where it is
grown for the New York markets it is not uncommon
to spend from $300 to $600 per acre for fertilizer.
Manure from the large cities is employ ed to a consider-
able extent, but chemical fertilizer may be employed
with profit.
Mr. F. Brill, in his Farm Gardening and Seed
Growing, says: "As a rule, asparagus succeeds best
near the sea coast, though it can be (and is) profitably
grown far inland, upon most any soil, by proper cul-
tivation and careful attention, and, in fact, this is a
very essential point and the great secret of success in
any locality." The point emphazied by Mr. Brill is
the one overlooked by most growers. Somehow the
idea has become current that asparagus will do well
under any treatment, and no attention is required ex-
cept to gather the crop. In selecting the field it should
be moist and yet not wet; a water-soaked piece will
not grow this crop. While it wants an abundance of
moisture it must not be sour. Land that has been
drained often makes the best plots.
Deep plowing, to loosen up the subsoil, is the first
act after the plot has been drained. Among the best
growers the opinion is held that it is difficult to make
the land too rich or have it tqo well prepared. The
roots penetrate the soil deeply and to a great extent;


it is what gardeners term a gross feeder. The ferti-
lizer usually employed contains a great deal of organic
matter, sucheas compost and rankings from yards ; this
is mixed thoroughly with the soil and is often applied
before the plants are set out. After they have started
a top dressing of potash and phosphoric acid is given.
When the plantation is made considerable distance
from the sea coast it is customary to give a heavy ap-
plication of salt; this may be applied without injury
at the rate of two pounds per square yard.

The quickest and surest way to make a beginning in
asparagus-growing is to buy several hundred or a
thousand roots from aseedsman. These are not expen-
sive, and will make a fair test as to whether it will be
desirable or not to go into growing it as a business.
Lay off rows three feet apart and set the plants a
foot to eighteen inches apart in the row. During the
first year the field should be well worked and no weeds
allowed to get a start. The second year lees cultiva-
tion will do.
Plants one, two and three years old
may be obtained in the market. The
two.year-old plants will be found to
be the best, and are usually a little
higher priced than the others.
FG 2. Wh ile plants will be found to give
Figure 2 ts a cut a few items one year from transplant-
uof an as tag us ing, it Is better practice to let them
maket or a smo e grow up and cut only sparingly, even
rleiBy rer the second 3ear. In gathering, care
be ely uder- should be taken to eat all the thin,
srtonod how nd nd ave a fe strong
struct one at hom. spindly ollme and leave a few strong


shoots to form a leaf system for the plant. In cutting,
a little of the soil is removed and the asparagus knife is
then pushed down carefully so as not to ipjnre any of
the stems that are just beginning to push up. A slight
twiAt of the knife will separate the stem from the root.
The stems are usually cut when they are about six
inches above the ground, and then cutting these three
or four inches below the ground makes them nine or
ten inches long. The stems are laid into some kind of
a contrivance, either home made or bought, that will
keep them straight and keep the tips even (see Fig. 2).
A simple buncher is made by using a board 8 by 12
inches; nail to the end of this a thin board, 8 by 8
inches; nail on to the 8 by 12 piece three or four
U shaped iron straps, so they will be parallel to the
8 by 8 inch board, and that when the asparagus is laid
into these the heads will butt against the
board. This 8 by 8 inch board will keep
the heads even and the U-shaped straps
make the bunch round. Strings of raffia
or soft cord are laid across the buncher,
and when enough of the vegetable to make
a bunch has been added the whole is tied
tightly, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 3).
Then with a sharp knife out the butts Fio. 3.
square and the work is done. A handier buncher
may be obtained from dealers in garden implements
at a small cost. Such a buncher will be found profi-
table where much asparagus is to be prepared for
market (see Fig. 2).
A carrier for shipping to a distant market must be
either a half rate or' one divided so as to hold only


one tier of bunches in a con apartment. Place some
soft moist material, as mos oer grass, in the bottom
and set the bunches upright oon this; cover with the
same soft material and put a cover over the tier.
Another tier may be put abo-ve in the same manner
as described for the first. Ttese crates must be sent
to the market right side up. 0 Cre must also be taken
not to bruise or otherwise niltilate the stems, as this
is liable to induce them to rot in transit.
Often asparagus is not cultivated, but this may be
done with profit. It too oftkm happens that it is al
lowed to go to seed. This fl.lling between the rows
obliterates them, besides crovvding the plants, which
makes the stalks come up slander and too small for
market. If all seed stalks areocot off before the berries
are half grown, this difficult' will be obviated. To
blanch the product, a furrow is thrown upon the row
from each side and raked level. By so doing the
plants are buried several inches deeper than they grew.
The light being excluded from the growing shoot, no
chlorophyll forms until the I tip bursts through the
ground, when the cutting showald be done. After the
winter frosts have killed the plants to the ground, the
tops may be removed and eomposted and the bed
raked, to be ready for earlyaapring cutting. While
our markets do not call for blanched asparagus, the
blanched article will sell first when both are on the
same market and offered for' the same price, indicat-
ing that there is a decided prdtference for the blanched
During summer certain of tlestalls produce flowers,
and later, seed; this is in the form of small berries



about the size of a pea. When the berries are ripe
they turn a bright red, and in a short time are liable
to fall from the plant. When the seed is desired, it
will be necessary to collect the plants containing the
seed for storing and preserving. As stated before, if
one does not want to save the seed, all plants bearing
flowers or green seed should be cut off to keep the bed
from being crowded by seedlings that would spring up
from these seeds if allowed to fall. Another way of
getting the seed is to go into the field and strip off the
ripe seed by hand. If the plants are cut to obtain the
seed, they should be dried, when the seed may be
beaten off on a cloth. The seed is so common that
there is no sale for it.
Prepare a rich piece of land by plowing deeply, and
lay off rows about twenty inches apart; drop the seed
about an inch apart in a drill and cover an inch deep.
When the plants are four or five inches high, thin out
to one in four or five inches. If the plants are to re-
main two years in the seed drills, thin out to six inches
apart. In this case drop the seed farther apart. It is
quite certain that it is more profitable to grow the
plants to two years old before setting out to the field.
Much of the asparagus used in the South has been
canned. The operation is similar to that for other
vegetables and fruit.
Giant Brunswick is one of the best for the South;
Palmetto is also very productive and a general favorite.
The variation in the different varieties is probably less
than in most vegetables. The same variety under
different treatment often varies more than different
varieties under similar treatment.


Nitrogen ................ ....... 4 per cent.
Potash.. .......... ......... ...5
Available phosphoric acid .....7 "
Use 1,500 pounds of the above formula per acre.
When possible, apply twenty to forty tons of vegetable
material, such as partially rotted rankings or barn-yard
manure. Where such vegetable matter is procurable,
the quantity of nitrogen may be decreased proportion-
ately. If manure is procurable, allowance should be
made for the fertilizer elements contained therein.
An application of salt is usually considered neces-
sary. If kainit is used as a source of potash, we should
remember that it contains 30 to 35 per cent. of salt.
The following table will give the amounts of differ-
ent fertilizer material necessary to give the desired
quantity of each element:


Nitrogen ...........

Potash ..............

Phosphoric acid.

Pounds of different material for one acre.
800 to 1.000 lbs. cottonseed meal; or
350 to 400 lbs. nitrate of soda; or
275 to 300 lbs sulphate of ammonia; or
400 to 600 Ibs. dried blood.
300 to 500 lbs. kainit; or
150 lbs. muriate of potash; or
150 Ibe. sulphate of potash; or
250 to 300 lbs. sulphate of potash.
750 to 1,000 lbs. acid phosphate; or
600 to 800 Ibs. dissolved bone.

-~~-~-1.-I--- I---ri~------rr-l-- ._7iF-T-.m;lT -C-~--rlmi~--R -~


This vegetable has not been planted largely in the
Golf region. There seems to be no natural obstacle
to its being produced here, and it is doubtless due to
the fact that vegetable growing for distant markets is
a new industry. This, among others, suffers severely
from poor transportation.
A dark sandy loam is a favorable soil; it may even
tend to be gravelly, but must not be dry. A well
drained clay soil is also good, and preferred by-some
rhubarb growers. A light soil is liable to allow the
plant to produce large roots at the expense of the
"stalks," but when the gardener is aware of this, it
can be overcome by proper cultivation, or the plants
may be taken up and the roots divided.
Whatever kind of land is used, plenty of fertilizer
will be required; often fifty to a hundred loads per
acre are used on rich vegetable land. Well-rotted
muck that has been worked into the soil deeply will
be found a fair substitute for manure, but we must
not forget to supply the needed potash and phos-
phoric acid.
Seed may be obtained from seedsmen and the plants
grown this way will require about three years to obtain
a crop. It should be remembered, however, that a
field will bear for ten years or more under proper
treatment. Bow the seed in drills eighteen inches or
two feet apart; thin the plants to six inches in the row.
The seed may be sown any time in the spring after
danger from frost is past; as it is slow to germinate,
watering may be found neceesary. It should be sown
as early as convenient, so as to have as large a leaf
stem as possible for the summer's heat As the


plants are expensive, it will be rell to grow them as
soon as one is assured that the proper land and facili
ties are at hand.
To get a quick start plants shou Id be obtained from
a seedsman. Work the manure in as deeply as possi-
ble with a team, and be sure that the fertilizer has been
worked in well. Lay the land ff in rows from four
to six feet apart, and set the plate from three to four
feet apart in the row, according tothe variety of plants
and strength of the soil.
It will be two years from the tiuB of setting out to the
time that a crop may be expected; during this time
the field may be planted to other vegetables, but an
additional amount of fertilizer should be supplied.
After the by-crop has been removed the plants should
be mulched to keep the soil from trying out. It is not
a good plan to collect any stalks that may be market-
able before the second year.

There are several varieties offered on the markets,
but we will be safe in planting Iwindaens or Victoria.
Mammoth is good, but liable to be woody on poor soil.

Nitrogen ..................... .....3 per cent.
Potash ........... .. ... ....7 per cent.
Phosphoric acid ............. .....8 per cent.
Use 1500 to 2000 pounds of bhe above fertilizer.
Humus is a much needed ingredient in the rhubarb
soil; where this cannot be supp lied in the form of
manure, we should get leaf mol or muck.
The following amounts of fertilizer will give the de
sired quantity of each eeeential Ctenent:

Alement. Pounds of different material for one acre.
600 to 800 lbs. cotton-seed meal; or
Nitrogen 460 to 600 lbs. dried blood; or
Nitrogen............ 300 to 400 lbe. nitrate of soda; or
(200 to 250 lbe. sulphate of ammonia.
1200 to 1500 lbs. kainit; or
Potash .....200 to 250 lbs. muriate of potash; or
.......... 200 to 250 Ibs. sulphate of potash; or
350 to 450 lbs. sulphate of potash, and
Ssulphate of magnesia.
Phoshoric acid. 900 to 1200 Ilbs. acid phosphate; or
Phophoc acid 65 to 900 lbs. dissolved bone.
This, above all other plants, can stand deep and
thorough cultivation. In the fall, after the plants have
ceased to grow, the ground may be thrown up onto
the row by a stirring plow, and this raked or harrowed
down again. Usually it is a good thing to cut the
roots and check the early feeding. After the field has
come into bearing, no other crops should be planted in
the field, and the cultivation be simply for the rhubarb.
The ground must be cultivated in the spring, but
after the pulling season is over, the field will usually
take care of itself. The large green leaves shade the
ground and prevent other plants from growing, though
here and there weeds may spring up; these may be
pulled or cut.
When the field begins to bear, which was stated above
to be when the plants are three years old. The earli-
est leaves are pulled when the stalks are about eight
inches long. At this size they are quite tender, and
care must be exercised not to injure them in pulling.
Later in the season the stalks are allowed to grow
longer before pulling, but the earlier ones are the
higher priced.
The pullers gather the leaves until they have an
armful, when it is laid down beside the road. After a
portion of the field has been pulled, a wagon is driven


along, and the armsful are placed on this and hauled
to the bunching shed. The blades
are then out off and the stalks tied
into bunches (see Fig. 4). Some of
the varieties are so brittle that it
is necessary to let them wilt a short
time before tying. The size of the
bunch must be such as will suit the
market, and this can be learned
only by experience.
This vegetable is shipped in ven-
tilated crates or barrels, and as the
product is removed from the pack-
age before the consumer buys it,
there is very little choice in the
kind of package. Forced rhubarb
FI. 4 is usually tied up in bunches con-
Prare 4 represent training six large stalks, which sell
.talks of rhubarb
ready forcrating. This for a dollar a bunch; as soon as the
figure represents the
stalk cut at the prop- outdoor article comes into market
er length. the price declines rapidly. Be-
sides being used as a vegetable, it is employed in
making wine; for this purpose it has sold for $15.00
a ton.
The lucrative price paid for fresh rhubarb in the
winter has induced many nurserymen to force this
vegetable. In the fall, after the frost has fallen, the
roots are taken up with as little mutillation as possible
and transferred to a hot-bed or greenhouse. If the
sale is to be made in early winter the heat is applied
at once, but if for later winter market the roots are
kept in a dormant state until the proper time has
The Gulf region will not have to use heat to have
early rhubarb. If it is profitable and desirable to free
it, the product will stand the cost of transportation.


With the increased facility in transportation, the
Lower South is beginning to produce lettuce for exten-
tensive Northern markets. The southern portion of
Florida, and a strip along the entire Gulf, can grow
this vegetable without protection, but further north it
will be necessary to have at least protecting cloth or
hot-bed sashes to break the cold of some of the sever-
est weather. It can stand a temperature of 200 F.
without damage, while some varieties are not killed
even at 150 F. Such low temperatures may not kill the
plants, but they retard their development; this does
not prevent their forming heads, however.
In preparing a cold frame or hot-bed for this vege-
table, we should select coarse loam and mix with this
plenty of vegetable matter, so as to put lots of humus
into the soil. The drainage must be so any surplus
water will draw off rapidly.
Sow the seed in shallow drills about three inches
apart, and cover lightly. Cover the bed so as to pro-
tect it from the sun or too rapid drying. It is a good
plan to sprinkle the bed every morning. As soon as
the seedlings are up strong, and before the leaves be-
gin to form, the largest are picked out with 'the point
of a knife or a similar tool. These seedlings are then
set out in rows four inches apart and put the plants
an inch apart in the row.
Only first-clss plants should be selected, and the
inferior ones destroyed. As soon as the plants are set
out, they should be sprinkled thoroughly, and they
will grow off without a perceptible check. Before the
plants begin to touch in the row, they should be trans-
planted again; this time placed in checks four by four


inches. At this time the largest should be chosen
again and the inferior ones destroyS.d In a few weeks
from this transplanting, the planter rill be ready to go
to the field. If they are to remairin in a cold frame,
plant them in checks twelve by tirelve inches, or six-
teen by sixteen inches, according to the variety. If
they are to be planted in the fellld, make the rows
eighteen to twenty-four inches apaiu and set the plants
fourteen inches in the row. The last transplanting
should be made before the heads begin to form.
All rubbish should be removed from the land be-
fore the field is plowed; debris of a~ay sort is not only
annoying, but also very liable to iWliterfere in cultivat-
ing and liable to cause considerable les.
The soil should be a friable loum, with very little
silt or fine sand present. It should te rich, but need
not be deep. All plowing and preparation may be
A handy way to plant in the fiel1 is to lay the rows
off at proper distances, and then make checks along
the row. Then drop a plant at eashbcheck, and after-
wards come along with a dibber and press the roots
into the ground, or the forefinger masy be need for this
purpose. Press the soil firmly aokot the plants, and
water thoroughly.
If the weather is dry, frequent shallow plowing
should be given; it is usually noeeoary to finish up
by hand, but as much work as possible ought to be
done by horse-power. During anrwet season, the cul-
tivating should be deep and thonoqgh, so as to allow
the surplus water to drain off rapidly. It is not suffi-
cient to keep the weeds down, b t the soil must be
loose and friable all the time.


Available phosphoric acid...... 9 per cent.
Potash ................. ............ 12 per cent.
Nitrogen ............. ...... .. 5 per cent.
Use 800 to 1,000 pounds per acre of the above for-
mula. If land is rich in nitrogenous matter, the
amount of nitrogen may be cut down to suit the land.
In a cold frame or hot-bed, use a pound for every
twelve square feet.
The following amounts of materials will give the
quantity of each element called for in the formula:
Element. Pounds of different materials for one acre.
Phosphoric acid. f 600 to 1,200 lbs. acid phosphate; or
P500 to 1,000 lbs. dissolved bone
900 to 1,500 lbs. kainit; or
200 to 250 lbs. muriate of potash; or
Potash ..............] 200 to 250 lbs. sulphate of po*ash; or
I 400 to 500 lbs. sulphate of potash, and
Ssulphate of magnesia.
(600 to 1,200 lbs. cotton-seed meal; or
Nitrogen ........... 250 to 500 lbs. muriate of soda; or
200 to 400 lbs. sulphate of ammonia.

Figure 5 represents a lettuce head of the solid varieties ready to ship.
The best all-round lettuce is the Grand Rapids.


Blond Blockhead and Black-seeded Simpson are each
good head lettuce. (See Figure 5.) There are many
other varieties that are claiming attention, but the
above will be found reliable.
The solid head varieties do not remain in a market-
able condition as long as the Grand Rapids and those of
its type; so if the solid varieties are planted, they will
have to be sent forward to the markets when matured.
As a whole, the Eastern markets are partial to head
lettuce, while the Western markets are more inclined
toward loose heads. For local markets, lettuce may
be bleached; any simple contrivance that will shut
out the sun will do this.
For shipping, the crop must be cut when it is dry.
Pack in a barrel or open crate. The heads should be
packed in firmly but do not crush the leaves. The
packing must be so firm that the material in the crate
cannot shake.
For this purpose the plants should be selected just
as for market crop. When the plants are mature, all
individuals that are not typical should be removed
fDom the field. If any plant contract a disease, it
should be removed also.
About six weeks after marketing time, the plants
will have sent up a seed stalk. Place a stake in the
ground firmly beside each plant and tie the plant to
the stake. This will save many plants from being
blown over.
The ripening of the seed will be indicated by the
feathery pappus on the individual heads. As soon as
a goodly number of heads are ripe, the whole plant
may be cut off and bunched to be hung for drying in
the packing-house. As soon as dry, the seed should
be threshed, as it is very easily blown away. Clean
out all chaff and light seed and pack away from mice
and roaches.


This plant is need either as greens or in making
salads, but is not demanded in markets of the South.
While it is raised to a considerable extent in some
places North, it receives greater attention in Europe.
A quick loam is required to make a good crop, but,
like spinach, it is a surface-feeder. The land should
be thoroughly prepared and the fertilizer evenly dis
Make the rows about two feet apart and sow the seed
thickly, and thin out later to about nine inches in the
row. Sow the seed in September or October.

FIG. 6.
Endive plant ready to cut for market.
About the first of January or February, the crop
will be ready to bleach; this is done by tying the
outer leaves up over the inner until the green has dis-
appeared. It depends much upon the condition of the
weather as to the length of time that will be required
in bleaching; if the plants are growing rapidly and
the weather is warm, only half as much time will be
required as when the weather is cold and plants not
growing. Transplanted endive has not yielded as well
a when not transplanted, so it is preferable not to


transplant, but to sow an abnn~snoe of seed and then
thin out.
The marketing is like that of spinach.
There are two classes of varieties-the yellow and
the green; the yellow is probabl,.ythe more attractive,
but there is little choice.
Nitrogen.......... ............ 5 per cent.
Potash.............. ..... .6 per cent.
Available phosphoric aci I .. 6 per cent.
Use 800 to 1,200 pounds of l.he above formula per
acre. If the nitrogen is in the (borm of vegetable mat-
ter, it should be thoroughly d~eomposed; if in the
form of mineral matter, it had better be applied at
different times. Apply the fertilizer in the drill.
The following table gives their amounts of different
fertilizers required to give the deeired quantity of each
Element. Pounds of df7eent material for one acre.
500 to 750 lbe. cotbon-seed meal; or
Nitrogen500 to 600 lbs. driod blood; or
itrogen............ 250 to 375 lbs. nitaste of soda; or
/ 200 to 300 lbs. sulplihate of ammonia.
S 600 to 900 lbs. kaiLiait; or
Potah .150 to 225 lbs. mul-iate of potash ; or
S150 to 225 lbs. sulplhate of potash ; or
250 to 375 lbs. sulplhte of potash and
sulphate of magnesia.
Phosphoric acid. 400 to 600 bs. acid phosphate; or
{ 350 to 500 lbs. dis~1m d bone.



This is used very largely in the kitchens of the Nether-
lands and to some extent in England. The demand
that exists for it in this country is not sufficient to call
it a market. There are several varieties that are
known by different names. Coffee chicory is grown
for the roots, which are dried and then used as a sub-
stitute for coffee by some of the poorer people of the
Netherlands and England. Other varieties are culti-
"vated for their leaves and leaf stalks.
The usual garden soil will be found sufficiently rich
for this plant, and will need very little care in the way
of preparation. Prepare the rows in a way very
similar to that for parsnips and other root crops. Sow
in early spring for late spring or summer crop. By
sowing in February, it will be fit to use in April or
May. Less time will be required for the late summer
crop to mature.
The cultivation is very simple, merely enough to
keep the weeds down, and the ground somewhat loose.
Deep cultivation will be found good. A week or ten
days before the leaves are wanted for use, some soil
should be worked up to the plant to bleach the stalks
and leaves. As soon as these are well bleached, they
may be taken to the kitchen and prepared as other
vegetables. For winter chicory, the seed should be
sown during August or September. It will be neces-
sary to protect it during the summer rains, and also
from the hot fall sun. As soon as cold weather comes,
the soil may be banked up around it to bleach the
leaves, or the leaves may be removed entirely and a
mound may be made over the row. In a short time,
the leaves will force their way through the mound, and


the stalks will be bleached and ready for use. Two or
three crops may be gathered from strong roots.
Another way to secure well-bleached chicory will be
to remove the roots from the soil during December
and place them in a deep box, working some garden
soil among them at the same time. Place about eight
or ten strong roots to the square foot of box. The box
should be about a foot higher than the crown of these
plants. Now, by applying a gentle bottom heat, new
leaves will be thrown out rapidly, and as soon as these
reach a length of eight or ten inches they will be ready
for use, provided the box has been covered to keep the.
light out


In the North, this plant is grown largely for greens,
but it does not stand shipping to a distant market very
well, so it will not come into general favor in the Lower
A warm loam should be selected and this fertilized
heavily. The plowing need not be deep, and a top
dressing of chemical fertilizer after the plants have
been started, will be found advantageous.
., Make the rows about two feet apart, and drop a seed
about every inch; cover with about an inch of soil.
Sow in September or October. Thin the plants out to
from six to twelve inches in the row according to the

FIG. 7.
Fig. 7 represents a spinach plant ready to be out for greens. Plants
may be used when they are farther advanced than the figure repre-
Cultivate with a wheel-hoe or some other shallow-
running cultivator. The main work will be to keep
weeds down and the soil moist.
Marketing may be done in the ordinary vegetable
crate, but the product must be thoroughly dry before it
is packed. Cut the plants so as to leave only about an
inch of root; shake the dirt off well, remove all dried


or otherwise worthless leave, and pack in tightly.
With our increased facilities for transportation, we
may be able to supply many Vof the Southern markets.
There are not many varieties to choose from; the
one known as the Round L~sved is quite common;
the Improved Curled AmetisOn Savoy is also grown
extensively. Round Seeded:aAd Prickly Seeded are
also sold.
Nitrogen ......................... 3 per cent.
Potash ........ ..... ..... .... 5 p r cent.
Available phosphoric wcid .... 7 per cent.
Use 800 to 1,200 pounds of the above fertilizer per
acre. Apply in the row.
The following table gives the amounts of different
fertilizer material necessary to, obtain the desired quan-
tity of each element:


Nitrogen ...........


Phosphoric acid..

Pound oj different material for one acre.
400 to 600 l1. cotton-seed meal; or
240 to 360 Ib. dried blood; or
200 to 300 lb.. nitrate of soda; or
150 to 250 lbi. allphate of ammonia.
320 to 480 lbs. akinit; or
80 to 120 lbs. muriate of potash; or
80 to 120 lbs.asulphate of potash; or
160 to 2o0 lbs. sulphate of potash and sul-
pk.ate of magnesia.
800 to 1,200 ll. acid phosphate; or
550 to 800 Ib. dissolved bone.


This vegetable, like several others, has not been
grown for the distant market. It is used quite exten-
tensively in New York, Chicago, and several other
cities with a large foreign population. It is not prob-
able that we shall ever adapt our taste to liking this
vegetable, but it would doubtless pay to raise it in a
small way for the palates of those who choose to pay
for the trouble. The cities named above would con-
sume hundreds of crates of it at a fair price if offered
early enough. It should be brought into these mar-
kets during March and April, or even earlier.
Prepare the land as for lettuce and fertilize as for
The seed may be sown in drills during October and
November, or it may be sown in cold-frames like cauli-
flower during November. When the plants have the
fourth or fifth leaf, they may be transplanted in the
same way as cauliflower.
The large varieties are cut and shipped in barrels;
for shipping a long distance or a large amount, crates
will be found preferable.
The working of the field is similar to that for the
cauliflower; and it should be remembered that the
smaller varieties require less space than the larger.
The leading varieties are Siberian and Green Curled.
This is only a small part of the varieties grown in
Europe. The former variety is also called Sprouts .'
in New York market, but this name is also applied
to a different vegetable.


There are many reports of success in celery-growing
in the South. The profit in this line of vegetable-
growing depends largely upon individual tact. In
Northern sections, as about Kalamazoo, Mich., and
New York, it is raised as a second crop, but we have
to raise it as a first crop.
The South has enough excellent celery land to
supply the market of the United States. In chood-
ing a plot, two points must be kept in mind. First,
the most important, the soil must be rich, not in hu-
mus alone, but in phosphoric acid and potash also; sec-
ond, the soil must be moist and well drained. Much
of our drained muck land has failed to produce celery
because it was too dry. Again, some has failed be-
cause the essential elements were not well balanced,
and hence the soil was not really fertile. Again,
some muck land was too new, and caused the crop
to "rust" and decay. Celery-raising pays, because
it takes more brains to raise it than many other
crops do.
In Northern celery-growing sections, a crop of early
vegetables is taken from the land, and then the celery
is planted. The land, having received a heavy appli-
cation of manure before the early vegetables are
planted, is not fertilized again unless some thoroughly
rotted compost can be obtained. Fresh or undecom-
posed manure causes a rusting of the vegetable that
unfits it for market. The old way of growing celery
was to prepare the land well and deeply, and then
make trenches six to eight inches deep, and set the


plants in these trenches. This method is not followed
now by the best celery-growers.
Let us suppose that we have control of afield of
drained muck land. The way to proceed will be, first,
to make the soil sweet and then plant the crop. Muck
land will not be fit to plant the crop on for two or
three years after it has been reclaimed. One of the
best crops to prepare the land for vegetables is corn ;
this is quite exhaustive, but the roots penetrate the
soil well, and corn is able to stand more sourness than
many other crops. Rye and oats prepare the upper
stratum well, but their roots do not penetrate the soil
so deeply as that of corn. When the soil has become
perfectly homogeneous, and the vegetable matter thor-
oughly incorporated, we may feel quite sure that it is
in good condition for celery. It is advisable to test
the land by planting out a short row of celery, the
year before, on a typical portion; the growth of this
will tell for a certainty whether the soil is in good con-
dition. When the soil is in good condition, plow the
land deeply, harrow it thoroughly, and remove all
rubbish. Before plowing, all corn stalks, large weeds,
sticks, and anything else that may interfere with cul-
tivation, should be removed.
If it is a pine woods land that is to be put into cot.
edition, the land mu-t be cleared of all woody matter.
The rows are then laid off, and a double furrow
plowed out deeply; as deep as possible with a two-
horse plow. Scatter in this furrow thoroughly decom-
posed compost of muck and stable manure, at the rate
of about a two-horse load to a hundred feet of furrow.
Mix the soil and compost thoroughly, gradually fill-
ing the furrow in doing so. It is true that celery will
grow and produce good looking specimens without
any vegetable matter being added, but it is of such


quality as would not compete with the Northern-
grown article.
The seed is sown in July or Angust, preferably in a
cold frame or in a plant bed, where the young plants
can be watered easily ard protected from the hot sun.
If the plant-bed or cold frame has been used before,
new fertilizer must be alded before the seed is sown.
If a new plant-bed has to be made, follow the direc-
tions given for the prgparation.of these on a former
page. Put a considen.ble emphasis on the use of
plenty of fertilizer; a pound of the formula given
may be used to every el x square feet as a fair allow-
ance. Do not put the ked near trees to secure shade
from them; they will exhaust the soil before the
plants are ready to be traosplanted.
When the bed is level and smooth, use a six or
eight inch board to mark off the rows. Lay the board
down and mark along one side with a dibber, make
the drill about half an inch deep and sow the seed in
it; turn the board overand make a second drill, and
sow this, and so on until. the bed is sown. The seed
should be scattered thinly, about four to the inch.
The plants should be thiined to about an inch apart,
when the leaves begin to form. Oare should be exer-
cised to keep the weeduaoat by cultivating and weed-
A celery bed should be cultivated at least every
week, and while the weeds are still in the seed-leaves,
they should be weeded nut. If the plants tend to be-
come spindly, shear the tops off and the leaves will
grow stocky. The leaves that were sheared off would
have been lost any way. Crowding the plants in the
row makes them send out a strong down-growing root
that might be called a tkp.root. If the plants are not


crowded, the roots spread out upon the surface, and
are constantly subject to slight droughts. In the case
of a strong central root system, the plant is nourished
from the portion of the soil* that is constantly moist.
Another decided advantage is that the plants may be
transplanted with less injury to the root system.
Fine plants for transplanting are offered for sale
every year at such a low price that it is difficult to see
where the profit to the plant-grower comes from.
However cheap plants may be in the market, it is
preferable to grow your own plants and your own
seed. It, however, happens sometimes, through the
neglect or carelessness of the employees, that celery
plants must be bought or the crop abandoned for that
If one has to buy plants from a distance, the land
must be entirely ready to receive the plants when
they arrive. If it happens to be a dry spell, the
plants must be put into a bed where they can be
shaded and water in abundance be supplied. A
quantity of the plants can then be set out, from time
to time, as one is able to take care of them. The set-
ting out must not be delayed, for the plants will soon
form roots from the reserve material within them-
selves; and if this has to be done the second time, it
will be a severe draft on the plant. If one has raised
his own plants, he may delay transplanting for weeks,
awaiting a rain. If the land is in perfect readiness,
as soon as the plants are large enough, which will be
in October or November, they can be set out at the
proper time. A good time to transplant is when the
leafstalks are three inches long, but fine celery has
been raised when they were nearly six inches long.
The distance between the rows is three or four feet,


according to the variety, putting the plants five or six
inches apart in the row. Have the soil mellow and
deep; stretch a line, and use a dibber for planting.
The surface of the land should be even and level. Cut
off the tips of the roots; if they are quite long, one-
third of them can be cut off to advantage. Cut the
leaves back about the same proportion. Place the
plant into the hole made by the dibber, and press the
ground around it firmly. Mr. T. Greiner says: "If
you want to know if your work is done quite right,
take a good hold of one of the leaves and pull. If
the plant comes out of the ground, it was not firmly
set; if the leaf breaks without loosening the plant,
all is right." In our sandy loam, we have to be a lit-
tle more moderate, but the soil must be pressed firmly
to the plant. In setting out, put the bud even with
the surface of the ground. The work of setting out
can be facilitated by cutting the roots and leaves to
the proper size before taking to the field. A strong
boy may be employed to hand the plants out in good
shape to the one doing the setting out.
After setting, the plants must be watered unless the
setting out is done immediately after a rain. After
watering, as soon as the water has soaked into the
ground, rake a thin layer of dry soil over what has
been moistened. If it is after a rain, work the ground
lightly to give some loose soil op top. These direc-
tions, if followed out, will do much to conserve the
A few days before transplanting, the plants should
be hardened off to lessen the shock of transplanting.
After having set the plants out, they should be shaded
to accustom them to the field gradually. The beet de-
vice for this is an eight or ten-inch board placed ob-
liquely over the row. The board is secured by stake,


which are driven on the south side of the row, and
slanting toward the north; by leaning a board against
these, the plants will stand in the shade during the
hotter portion of the day, and be exposed to the son
in the evening and morning.
Celery receives the greater portion of its cultiva-
tion in the seed-bed. It it cultivated once or twice
after setting out, and then the earth is gradually
drawn up to the row, keeping the foliage on top of an
A-shaped ridge. In the family garden, this is made
with a common hoe, but on celery farms special plows
are used for this purpose; these are drawn by a team,
and hill both sides at once. This banking is for the
purpose of blanching. This is simply to keep chloro-
phyll from forming in the stems, and to remove what
has already formed.
Shutting out the light in many other ways is just as
good as banking or chilling, if it keeps the light out as
thoroughly. Another way of bleaching (or blanch-
ing) that is employed extensively is to use boards in
the place of earth. Eight to twelve-inch boards are
taken, according to the variety of celery to be bleached,
and laid flat alongside of the row with one edge next
to the plants, raise the outer edge of the boards up
against the plants; now move the lower edge out a
few inches, this will let the board stand against the row
of celery; press the board down to shut out all light
from the bottom, and the whole work of banking is
done. In two or three weeks the celery will be
bleached sufficiently for use. If there is danger of the
boards falling,'they may be fastened by nailing a light
strip from one to the other. The upper edge of the
board should be pressed together firmly, but not hard
enough to bruise the leaves. This method is good for
family use, but when celery is grown on a large scale,
it takes too much lumber and too much work.


Among other methods of bleaching are those of
putting tile around the plant, and of wrapping with
thick paper or coverlmg with a paper tube, but all of
these have failed to neet the wants of celery growers.
There are, then, two ways of bleaching celery:
First, by banking it with earth; Second, by banking
it with boards. The former is preferable when celery
is grown on a large scale, and may be accomplished by
hand, by a one horse plow, or by a two horse plow.
The second method im preferable when celery is grown
for family use, when refuse boards can be used, and
only a small portion of the crop is wanted from time
to time. Later in thle season, or when celery has at-
tained its full growth, it takes nearly twice as long to
bleach it. This should be borne in mind when it is
prepared to meet the wants of a certain time.
The process is not*quite true to name. It could be
applied as well to the method of cultivating without
using trenches. In short, the new celery culture is
simply to cultivate celery with profit when the rows
are planted about six inches apart and the plants six
inches in the row. The main point in mind when this
system was suggested was to do away with the expense
of bleaching. Three, points must be kept in mind to
succeed with this metthod: First, we must have a va-
riety that is self-bleaching; that is, we must have a
variety that makes enough shade to keep the stalks
bleached from the time that it is large enough for the
market; Second, the soil must be rich enough to sup-
port and mature sic or eight times the usual crop;
Third, there must be moisture enough present to fulfil
the same conditions.
In preparing for this method, we should remember
how much fertilUze there was used on six or eight


acres, and then put a like amount on one acre, and it
will be necessary to have some way of supplying
moisture. Some system of irrigation is usually neces-
This method, although it has many warm advocates,
has not been tested sufficiently to be recommended
without reservation. It ha met with sufficient suc-
cess to warrant thorough trials. The work up to the
time of setting out is the same as for the old method,
except in regard to the fertilizer. In marking out the
land, make checks from 7x7 to 10x.10 inches, accord-
ing to the size of the variety. It must be borne in
mind that the foliage must be dense enough to shut
out the light as early as the stalks are large enough to
market. As soon as the plants shade the ground com-
pletely, the work is done; there is no chilling up except
around the outside row.
By planting successively from the earliest to the
latest varieties, we can have the crop come in during
the entire market time, and bank only the outside row
of the entire field.
The ordinary method furnishes about 20,000 plants
to the acre; this new method, nearly or quite 150,000.
Mr. T. Greiner, quoted above, in his "Celery for
Profit," makes a comparison of the two methods. He
finds the expenses for raising and marketing one acre
by the old method, is $260; that of the new process,
$920. These figures are about as low as they can be
put; for the South, we must add something for addi-
tional cost of fertilizer and for transportation ; but on
the other hand, our land is cheaper, and possibly the
labor and plants are cheaper. Now for the profits:
On the acre under the ordinary cultivation, it was
$190; on the acre by the new culture, it was $L,180.
The estimate seems entirely fair; the celery is esti-


mated at 30 cents a dozen bunches, and allows for a
loss of about 25 per cent. of the plants set out.
Celery sheds have not been tested sufficiently to be
recommended, but where this vegetable is raised on
the new plant will probably pay. They are con-
structed like pineapple shed; posts are set 10 x 10 feet,
and stand nine feet above the ground. The tops of the
posts are connected by stringers running east and west.
On these stringers are placed four-inch battens about
four inches apart. This shed cuts off one-half of the
sun's rays, and diffuses the remainder so they will not
fall heavily on any one place. The battens running
north and south distribute the sunlight more evenly
than when they run the other way.

In following the new celery culture, it is necessary
to resort to irrigation for the water supply. This
supply may be distributed in one of two ways-either
by open ditches at short intervals, or by running tile
near the surface.
When the water is distributed by open ditches, the
ditches are cut three to four feet apart. In watering,
these are allowed to flow full until the earth is thor-
oughly soaked, then it is turned into another set, and
thus continued until the whole area has been treated.
These ditches are shallow, only a few inches deep. On
a clayey soil, they are run nearly on the level, but on
sandy loam, there must be a considerable decline to
have the water reach the further end.
Irrigating by the use of tile, or other more or less
solid pipe laid into the soil, is the better plan. This
is especially advisable when the water supply is lim-
ited, as lees is lost by soaking away and from evapo-
rating. In this, as in the open ditches, we have a


main supply, and running from this, are the arms
that do the feeding or furnishing to the ciop.
There is a rapidly-growing demand for celery in our
home market, and judging from the price that it brings
to the retail dealers in our State, there must be a large
profit to some one, or somewhere a large waste. The
many rich people who visit the South during the win-

Fro. 8.
Figure 8 represents a celery plant trimmed and washed, ready to be
packed for market.

ter, consume large quantities. These people want
the very finest, and are willing to pay a good price for


it, while an inferior article will remain on the market,
and had usually better beleft in the field.
With the increased facLlities for transportation, we
can put our article in the hands of home consumers in
two or three days less time than the New York or Kala-
mazoo growers can, and this means a preference, even
at an advanced price. Comsnmers want this vegetable
crisp, fresh, and free from strings."
Celery is not grown so generally in the South that
the local markets are supplied. There are only a few
places that produce it at all, and these do so in quan-
tity. It may seem like a small and slow business to
train people up to like amy vegetable, but a taste for
this is easily cultivated. It has been only a few years
since gardening for local sales has been profitable in
many sections of the Soath, and in some it is not
meeting with success even now. The fault is as much
that ot the producer as of the buyers. There are a
great many reasons why bome markets should be cul-
tivated rather than look to New York or other North-
ern markets, where our celery has to compete with the
product from fertile land and cheap fertilizer. The
seaboard cities are not good markets for us, as we have
to compete with the cheap ocean transportation. We
should rather look to some of our inland cities and
towns. It is not uncomnlon to see an inferior grade of
celery selling for 10 and 15 cents a bunch at the local
markets, and on inquiring, it has been found that this
has been shipped from a Aistance.
In the matter of preparation for market, there seems
to be very little choice. LChe main point is to get it on
sale in a crisp form, and to have it sightly ; both points
are often overlooked, however. In the Northern mar-
kets, there are two distimet ways of preparing this

vegetable for market. The Kalamazoo shippers make
a large bunch of twelve plants; the outer leaves are
s'ripped off nicely, and the roots cut very short and
square across. These dozen plants are trimmed off
nicely and put in a frame and tied, and are then packed
in flat crates or boxes and sent to market, either to
the Western or Middle States. The Eastern or New
England market calls for a little different kind of
bunches. For these, the plant must be trimmed to ex-
pose the heart to view. From three to'five of such
plants are then fastened together by driving a nail
through the roots, or they may be tied together. Most
of the root is left on the plants, making the nailing
possible. The size of the plants governs the number
to be used in making a bunch. The bunches are then
packed in long, narrow crates, so the whole can be in-
spected from the outside. The New Jersey, Maryland,
and Virginia markets usually accept celery packed
tightly in boxes or barrels. For the local markets, it
is not necessary to use any particular form of package,
yet, where one intends to establish a business, some
regular form of package or crate should be adopted,
as that makes a trade-mark ; the crate should be light
and tasty. For long distance shipping, a good crate can
be made by making a solid bottom of a half or three-
fourths inch stuff; a rim around, this about four inches
high-this portion of the crate should be water-tight;
put a one-inch square poet in each corner, twelve
inches high; nail a strip across each end, and several
strips nailed to hold the plants from being removed.
Crates of this kind, about two feet square, have been
used, but the size may be varied to suit the occasion.
Before shipping, moisten the plants well, and do not
trim the roots.
To prepare celery for market, two tubs of water are



taken to the field, and as soon as the plants are dug
they are plunged into one tub, washed off well, and
then into the second to rinse. All the green and par-
tially dried leaves are picked oft. If the product is
intended for a near market, the roots are cut to suit
the trade. For long distance shipping, the roots are
left on and moistened after packing.
Giant Pascal is said to be the best for the South.
Several other varieties have been grown successfully.
One will find that most of the good varieties for other
sections will do well here. For new celery culture,"
use self-bleaching varieties, except White Plume,
which cannot be recommended.
Available phosphoric acid .... 6 per cent.
Potash ........ ................ 8 percent
Nitrogen ....... .... ........... 5 per cent.
Use 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of the above fertilizer to
the acre. If the celery is planted on muck land, re-
duce the amount of nitrogen.
The following fertilizer ingredients will give the
amount of fertilizer elements designated in the above
Element. Pounds of different material for one acre.
8.50 to 1,700 lbs. cotton-seed meal; or
Nitrog 00 to 1,000 lbs. dried blood; or
.........350 to 700 bs. nitrate of soda; or
250 to 500 Ibe. sulphate ammonia.
1,000 to 2,000 lbs. kainit; or
160 to 320 lbs. muriate of potash; or
Potash......... ..... 175 to 350 lbs. sulphate of potash; or
360 to 700 bs. sulphate of potash and ml-
phate of magnesia.
Ph. 600 to 1,200 bs. acid phosphate; or
Phosphoric acid.. 500 to 1,000 Ibs. dissolved bone.


This vegetable is not grown extensively in America.
It has been introduced by some of our population who
acquired a taste for it in Europe. It is a near relative
of celery, as the first portion of the name indicates.
The seed may be procured from most of our seeds-
men at about the same rate that is paid for celery seed.
Prepare the seed-bed in the same way as for celery,
giving same attention to watering and transplanting.
Prepare the field as you would for parsnips or for
celery culture after the old method. The plants should
be set out when they reach the size of about three
inches. If this vegetable is sown during a moist year,
it will not be necessary to transplant, and may be sown
in the field at once prepared in the same way as for
transplanting. The cultivation should be shallow,
and at the same time thorough. It is not necessary to
hill this vegetable up as in the case of celery, as the
roots are used and require no bleaching. In the
kitchen, it is prepared much the same as parsnips and
While this vegetable has no commercial standing, it
is easily grown and of such delightful flavor to those
who like celery, that it will always be found desirable
in the home garden.


The season for marketing cabbage is not long, be-
cause the Maine and Nova Scotia cabbage will keep
until March or April, while the spring crop of North
Georgia and South Carol ina begins to reach market in
June. Some years the Northern crop is small; in such
cases, late winter cabbage commands a high price. If
at the same time the potato crop is light, there will be
a demand for Southern cabbage. Often, the vegetable-
growers can anticipate much conditions, and put in a
large crop of cabbage. There is a large Southern
market that would depend on our cabbage if the sup-
ply were constant.
Cabbage is an excellent crop to feed cattle. In some
of the dairying districts it is raised as a second crop
with a view of feeding to milch cows.

This is probably the esmiest vegetable to grow from
seed that we have in market. It is not necessary to
have a cold-frame to start the seedlings, but success is
more certain by using it. The bed used to raise the
seedlings need not have bottom heat, and need not be
as fertile as for most other seedlings. to produce
stocky plants, it is better to have the bed rather cool.
If one discovers that tee plants are not progressing
rapidly enough to bring them to the size desired by
transplanting time, they can be stimulated to rapid
growth by the use of snoe liquid manure, or cotton-
seed meal. The latter mnst not come in contact with
the plants, as it is liable to cause a "damping off" in
the seed-bed when it begins to decay. One-half to an
ounce of seed should give plants enough for an acre.


There is practically no killing frost for this vegeta-
ble in the Lower South; consequently, it is found more
profitable to raise the larger kinds. Charleston Wake-
field (see Figure 9), Premium Flat Dutch, and Louis-
ville Drumhead are favorites in various portions, but

FIo. 9.
Figure 9 represents a Charleston Wakefield cabbage ready to cut for
distant market. One or two more circles of leaves may be removed
without disadvantage. When cabbage Is high priced, this has been
trimmed sufficiently.

FIG. 10.

these varieties should be grown only to medium size.
For family use, when cabbage is wanted in as short
time as possible, Jersey Wakefield (see Figure 10) or
Early Winningstadt are desirable varieties.
It is preferable to sow the seed in drills, far enough
apart to permit them to be worked either by hoe or


hand-plow. In our latitude, September or October,
depending upon the variety, is the right time to sow
for February, March and April markets of the North.
This will bring the crop into market after the North-
ern-stored crop has been consumed, and before the
early spring crop has matured. The drills are made
about three-fourths of an inch deep. As soon as the
seedlings begin to break through the ground, make a
liberal application of tobacco dust; repeat the dust-
ing every three or four days. This will kill or drive
away some insects that are quite numerous at this time
of the year.
If the seeds grow well, the plants will become crowded
in the drills before they attain their third leaf. Cabbage
seedlings may be transplanted at any time in their
growth, without loosing any plants, hence, we should
transplant them to a new bed as soon as they show
signs of crowding. They should be transplanted to
the field before the height of six inches is reached. If
the plants grow too rapidly, they may be checked by
withholding the water or by shifting them to a new bed.
Cabbage is a gross feeder, and will succeed on soil
where many other crops fail. The soil for ordinary
gardening is considered excellent for this vegetable.
If the land is not level, a northern slope is preferred,
as that is cooler and keeps a more nearly constant
temperature, but the northern districts need a south-
ern slope. Large cabbage will stand 150 F. without
being killed, but that which is recently set out, needs
some light protection. Seedlings or plants in the
seed-bed can stand about 200 F., but if they are in
rapid growth, this temperature makes their leaves
look as if they had been scalded,


Available phosphoric acid .... 7 per cent.
Potash ............................ 8 per cent.
Nitrogen ....................... 5 per cent.
Use 1,500 to 2,500 pounds of the above formula to
the acre.
The following table will give the amounts of differ-
ent substances it will require to make the amounts

of the fertilizer



Phosphoric acid..

elements called for in the foregoing

Pounds of different material for one acre.
1,200 to 2,000 lbs. cotton-seed meal; or
750 to 1,200 lbs. dried blood; or
500 to 800 lbs. nitrate of soda; or
400 to 650 lbs. sulphate of ammonia.
1,200 to 1,600 lbs. kainit; or
300 to 400 lbs. muriate potash; or
300 to 400 lbs. sulphate potash; or
550 to 750 lbs. sulphate of potash and
sulphate of magnesia.
1,000 to 1,750 lbs. acid phosphate; or
800 to 1,500 lbs. dissolved bone.

Before transplanting, it is well to harden the plants
off, and, when ready to remove them, soak the
ground thoroughly; this will cause more soil to ail-
here to the roots. A rainy time is preferable for plant-
ing out, and this can usually be waited for, though it
is really not necessary, as the plants grow very readily.
For medium to large varieties, make the rows three
feet apart, and put the plants two to three feet apart
in the row. They should be planted with a view of doing
all the cultivating by horse power. If the season hap-
pens to be dry, be sure to give frequent and thorough
cultivation, to conserve the moisture of the soil.

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