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THE PRESENT 0 FUTURE PRODUCTIONS
BY S. SANDERS NECK,
BAm1u 338M rtWmWa Moo0, Oc" M, Vu.
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rttdroaonBg 'to Act of Congr.
M W SANDMRS NaCK,
la t'e year of our LArd M thmld eight bnadred and eigbetyg
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CLIMATE v PRODUCTIONS.
The delightful climate of Florida and its accessibleness is
now drawing a large number of settlers. There are, other
considerations that have been developed during the past five
years that make the State more attractive than before; that
is the great diversity of fruits and cereals, the cultivation of
which were unknown here a few years ago; the introduction
of fine cattle and horses, and a knowledge that all the neces-
saries for home consumption, beside large exports, are yearly
made. Farming in Florida has increase since 1860, when
there were 2,920,228 acres under oultfA~toin, and in 1880,
3,297,324 acres. The statistics have not. b given since 1880,
but it is safe to say the increase ina cultivation has been very
great. The last period the general average in size of farms
would be about 140 acres each. Too much importance cannot
be attached to the necessity of all 'new comers entering upon
a variety of crops, and one advantage to be gained is the con-
tinual supply in a country where the extremes of heat and
cold are unknown. In regard to the former it is difficult to
impress upon the mind of one who has not resided here an
entire year that the heat of summer is not oppressive or inju-
rious to the system. The summer rains begin in June and
last until October; they cool and refresh the air, and the con-
stant breeze from sea -to sea prevents that oppressive heat of
countries even in higher latitudes. All diseases are easily
amendiable to treatment, nor are they so severe as where the
extremes of temperature are found. Much, of the sickness,
(there is very little, and that light in nature is due to indis-
oretion. Avoiding exposure to the hot mia4fid Summer sun,
night air, and highly stimulating food and dtink, with the
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great variety of fruit and vegetables that are produced the
entire year-food adapted to the climate-whilst poultry,
swine, goats, sheep and catle, give a constant supply of meat
It is no longer a pioneer life, bit fast approeahing to comfort,
luxury and wealth.
During my fifteen years experience with the State, and
close observoatins on soil, 6crps, climate and health, I am
fully satisfied that Florida is to become a prominent State in
producing a large variety of the requirements for the non-
It should be impressed upon the mind of tbe intending set-
tler that land suitable for crops, if he intends to raise them,
must be first considered. Thousands of acres of worthless
lands are sold yearly, and will be so long as purchasers cannot
discriminate between a sand dune, that cannot raise a second
crop after the film of vegetation is plowed under, or a dark,
sandy loam, underpaid with yellow clay, that will raise crops
for all time so long as fertilization is kept up, whilst the sand
dune is a seive, delusion, and a snare.
In regard tol a crops and cultivation in general, the sea-
sons are two months in advance of latitudes north of 32 deg.
Oats are sown and 'p6wed (that they may root deeply) in De-
cember and January. Vegetables, cotton, and sugar oane,
planted and sown from January to April. Maize, millets,
cow peas, (in growth similar to French beans), and pinders,
from March to May. Tobaao plants set out in March, April
and May, and during the last named month oats are harvest-
ed. Maize can be used for table in May, June, and part of
July, when it is ripe enough for feeding to horses, etc. July
and August tobacco can he cured, and hay made during the
last named mouths, and also in September, when oranges
ripen. Sugar cane ground and made up in November. Bye
is eowv during- the lst named months up to December as
green food for stock.
Farm implements are of the cheapest kind-one home ir
male to a plow. Avreg, plowed peid, n acre. Oat to
V. gr s.a *ar OM bodal of mae"., hfi cetas. Maim
an4$,f ~.l prh food for bIw $ndspl for bc^
. -ai T,^apoiawdwf kr<^^ -i-
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tilirs little used, but qould be to,great advantage. The soil
and Ulimate respond fruitnllHy to god treatment.
Fri t culture in Florida up to Qithin the past five years-
exept* the orange-was not considered. It was the orange
and nothing else; we can mark a new era now dawning. The
peach, plum, apricot, pear, persimmon, and apple grafted on
pear roots, the great variety- of grapes, together with the
lemon, lime, guava, Ind a variety of nut bearing trees, are
growing ii all sections of the State and fruiting, giving evi-
dence of their being at home and to stay. Fruits and nuts
that can .be picked from January to December. A large
amount of soil in Florida cannot raise fruit profitably. It
must be understood that to produce fruit, good soiland fine
cultivation are essential. It is better at the outset to pay a
fair price for good land than a low price for very poor I The
buyer should be guided by the natural growth on the land.
Large pines are a poor indication of good soil-the reverse,
still there are excellent pine lands, and there are very, very
poor-the poorer, the more they are boomed at high prices.
The great deception is health guasrnte on poor land. It is
not so. Malaria is known to exist on sandy deserts. (See
Johnson and Martin on tropical # .)
Buying good land and raising vegei&bles, that are necessary
to good health, is better than starving on poor and, that costs
more to raise a crop on it than i can be bought for.
8. SANDERS NECK.
OCALA, FLORIDA, 1888.
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There is a great attraction towards a country where at all
seasons fruits and vegetables are produced in abundance of
the finest quality. This applies to Florida, and more so to
certain sections and soils; to produce fine fruit, cultivation, soil,
and a knowledge as to the treatment of the different species is
necessary. This is acquired by constant study and a certain
amount of enthusiasm, enough to encourage the planter when
little difficulties arise. It is well to impress upon those who
intend to enter upon this interesting occupation to secure at
the start, soil adapted to the growth of fruits. The orange
will grow upon a great variety of soils throughout the State.
The peach, grape, plum, and other fruits, require soil suited
to their constitutions. A brown, sandy loam, underlaid with
yellow clay, will produce any kind of fruit adapted to Florida,
whilst a poor, hungry soil will disappoint the planter and eat
up all his profits in fertilizing materials. The selection of
good land has not been considered by the general average of
new settlers-Florida was all they required. It must be
acknowledged that all the energy and good judgment a man
can call together will be required to succeed. What does
success mean ? A happy life in a glorious country, sur-
rounded with comforts that are solid.
Fruit culture in Florida is to become a leading industry,
ripening some months earlier than in the latitudes where the
great mass of consumers live, Who can be supplied within
forty-eight hours after shipment by rail.
I have not entered into any particulars in cultivation, but
refer my readers to Rev. T. W. Moore's work on Orange Cul-
tute, and for general information to the valuable weekly
publications, viz: Florida Dispatch, Florida Farmer and Fruit
Grower, and The Agriculturist, each of which contain intereet-
ing and valuable communications.
We will consider the short space of time Florida has been
brought into general notice, the difficulty to penetrate the
country before the railroad system, stretching out to every
advantageous point, was established; the many failures that
have followed a reckless planting regardless of soil, location
and experience, the outcome of which has been many suc-
cesses, whereby numbers have laid the foundation for a life
competency. With all the prejudice that for years has
grown out of ignorance of the value and beauty of the State,
the rapid strides are beyond calculation, and will be more so
within the next few years, when it is understood that the
perfection of climate compared with other regions, that are
subject to extremes unknown in Florida, the State will be
appreciated by the non-resident to a degree that a desire to
make a home here will grow stronger each year. Any part
of the State cannot be considered remote from the great
centres of commerce, or isolated, with the splendid railroad
systems now established throughout the State. A journey
within forty-eight hours from New York to Jacksonville by
rail, the feeling that when in Florida we are at the footstool
of home is very assuring.
Within the past five years a new era in fruit culture has
dawned upon the State. The one idea that orange culture
was the only dependence, brought thousands of new settlers
into the State, numbers of whom have failed, mainly for want
of capital enough to develop just what they intended, and
experience in the growing of the general crops of the country.
With all the failures in this direction, a large number of suc-
cesses have been made and thousands of valuable citizens
added to the State, few if any would desire to return to their
regions of cold and snow; the delightful seasons that merge
from one into another without the extremes are attractive
enough to ensure a rapidly increasing population as the State
becomes more thoroughly known. That fruit culture will
be a leading industry, no one can deny, since the introduction
of a large variety of fruit that have adpated themselves to
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the climate. The new varieties will produce in time others,
through hybridizing, of rare excellence.
In making up a list of the fruits that are suooesaftlly
grown, I have carefully avoided recommending any that were
doubtful as to profitable culture.
In planting I would advise all who do so to set out no more
than they can care for thoroughly. The long growing season,
the advantage of which with fertilization, enables the planter
to produce a larger tree in two years than in the northern
latitudes in three. The Orange, Peento peach, Kelsey, and
plums of this family, together with the Loquat, will grow from
January to December if the season is a mild one, whilst
the northern varieties of grapevines grow from March until
August very rapidly.
The new comer has advantages that the older settler had
not; with the new varieties of fruits and their quick return,
he can ensure an income within two years after planting;
this applies to the peach and plum, both of which command
high prices at the early season of their ripening. If the
industry is entered into upon a large scale, the surplus can be
canned, evaporated or distilled.
There are seasons of planting to be strictly adhered to if suc-
eess is to be expected. Orange or Lemon trees can be plant-
ed later, or in summer; all other trees from the middle
of December to end of January; not as late as this if it can be
avoided, still many plant as late as March; it is not satis-
factory; the soil becomes warm, weather dryer, whereas in
the winter trees begin to form roots as soon as the buds
swell in spring.
In regard to fertilizers, decayed vegetable matter, assisted
with a reliable commercial fertilizer, can be depended upon
as suitable for plant food ; a large proportion of the soil
throughout the State needs this assistance; for every acre of
land that needs help there are thousands of acres of rich
vegetable matter that can be utilized at a small cost, and
since the manua ture of lime of a superior quality near
Ooala, (Ooala Lime Co. and E. W. Ager prodaue some 800
barrels per day), there is no reason why it should not be
Largely used in connection with fruit culture.
* It seems natural to begin with the orange since the great
influx of settlers were brought here under the seductive antic-
ipation of an orange grove. To raise one is not so difficult
as is supposed, provided the beginner starts out with good
soil, location, first-class trees, and means enough to carry on
the cultivation until the bearing period begins. The soil
should be strong enough to grow the trees without expensive
fertilizing. The location near to transportation, and pro-
tected from the few cold days that are probable in winter.
The trees are easily procured from the large number of first-
class nurseries throughout the state; these trees are grown
from seed and budded with a large variety of superior oranges,
viz:-The Navel, Homosassa, Magnum Bonum, Mandarine,
Old Vini, Parson Brown, Pine Apple, Tangerine, Mediter-
ranean Sweet, Jaffa, and many other varieties, produced from
natural trees grown from seed. The budded tree produces
fruit at four years from the bud, and a paying crop at five
years. Whilst the seedling tree does not bear until eight
years and even older, such a tree fourteen years from seed
will produce 2,000 oranges at one crop. The seedling grows
taller than the budded stock. The newly planted tree makes
but little top the first year of planting, does a little better the
second, the third and fourth it grows beyond anticipation.
The first periods the root system is forming ; this is very
searching; trees planted 25 feet apart each way,-at four years
from planting, the fibrous roots will interlace each'other.
That the soil of Florida is adapted to the growth of the
orange cannot be denied : the soft, loamy soil through which
these rootlets course in search of food, producing such trees
that are monarchs of their kind. Instances of trees produc-
ing 10,000 oranges at one crop are not uncommon. Florida
is the home of the orange tree; the large groves of wild oranges
(bitter, sweet and sour) that have been converted into sweet
fruit, are the best evidence of this assertion. Whoever heard
of wild groves, hundreds of acres in extent in any other State
in the Union. The humid atmosphere, highly necessary for
trees with a hard shining leaf, and delightfull showery season
in summer, are the requirements that nature has given and
favored this State. Irrigation is unnatural for the production
of a standard tree, whereas in the cultivation of vegetables it
is a great boon, and should be adopted more thoroughly.
Where it is possible a good watering assists an orange tree at
any time in dry weather. The more you water them the
filter they grow. When the soil is wet, four pailfulls of
chicken manure dissolved in forty gallons of water, (use from
two to six pails, according to size of tree), will force a heavy
growth if the applications are made twice each month in
the growing season.
Again, in regard to elevation, the higher and dryer, the less
liability of frost, whereas in low lands the night dew saturatest
the leaves and gives food for the frost, ready for the wam&
sun to scald the leaves and branches.
The periods of growth are, with the orange tree, decided,.
and interesting to the cultivator. Should the winter be a
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fairly mild one the trees begin to put on a heavy growth of
wood and leaves, that spread as a soft mantle over the entire
tree in February, accompanied by blossoms at the ends of the
new growth ; in a few weeks this growth hardens and the
little oranges show up in bunches, giving an idea of the
quantity of fruit to be anticipated, that ripens in October.
May, June and July are months when the trees make growth
with astonishing rapidity. August, September and October
the tree forms larger wood for main branches, and should the
winter be a mild one small trees will grow off in December
and January. The vigorous growing does not begin until the
third year, when with proper cultivation the tree goes ahead
of the planter's anticipation ; from this period and on to the
time of bearing, little trouble arises; good cultivation, liberal
fertilization, and patience will secure for the outlay a com-
In regard to the quality of the different varieties there is
not a very peroeptable difference. It is well to plant a good
variety, and of them there are many; the interest and skill
that has been brought- to hear upon the production of fine
oranges has given a decided character to the Florida fruit;
the vinous flavor, smn'oth skin, and absence of stringy pulp,
go to make up a perfect orange, now produced throughout
There are several good reasons why many failures
have taken place where success should have attended
the expenditure. Large numbers of people locked to
the State without the slightest knowledge of fruit
culture, with very little means, and no actual resources beyond
their especial calling, perhaps that of a different one from the
one they came to Florida to undertake. In nearly every
instance where the settler is a farmer or fruit grower he suc-
ceeds in some enterprise, and becomes delighted with his
choice. Still, it is not necessary to have a knowledge of fruit
culture as in former times; good land can be purchased at
fair prices; first-class nursery stock and reliable men to plant
and care for the grove or orchard,
The write/ nce has been principally in Marion
County, the I F ige producing centre in the State.
This section l for years has been off the line of
general traffic; had it been otherwise a large area ofvery
valuable lands, now for sale, would have been under ealtivs-
tion. The growth of timber throughout the comsty is such
that indicates a fine class of soil. CommuniQDtion is, now
established by means of the different railroads, and more
projected, that all the products of the county are easily
shipped to any known point.
Fifteen years ago oranges sold for fivedollare per barrel.; at
the present time the same quantity will sell for ten and
twelve, even as high as fifteen dollars. Those who have not
studied the consumption of this fruit, and presume to antici-
pate a supply beyond demand, seems about as bad to con-
clude there may be some time hence more eggs produced than
the demand warrants. Oranges will pay a grower a hand-
some profit at half cent each, net.
Few persons have any idea of the small quantity of oranges
shipped from the State compared with the present consump-
tion. 1887 season's crop was estimated at 1,200,000 boxes,
the entire consumption of these and imported fruit is over
5,000,000 boxes. How many of the population, somewhat off
the great centres of the distribution of oranges, use this
delicious fruit even in small quantities, a fruit highly neoes-
sary for the human system.
We will consider the diversified fruit culture now being
largely entered upon. Many of the fine fruits are from Japan,
their rapid growth and healthy foliage indicate that Florida
is their home, giving the State a precedence over others of
colder latitudes; many of these fruits ripen at a season
in advaAce of other States, thereby commanding a grd price.
Trees producing juicy fruits require a loamy soil ds abun-
dance of vegetable matter, decomposed by nature-the intend-
ing purchaser desiring to plant should particularly notice the
soil. If he wishes to succeed, much of the land on which a
heavy growth of hard wood is established indicates a fine soil.
There are pine lands that possess excellent qualities for fruit-
raising whilst there is a large class of this. nd that is com-
paratively worthless. Marioa county has a large proportion
of lands adapted to the requirements of every class of vpe-
tation that can be grown in the State, from the beyav
hammocks to the light loamy sands..
It ha Iaeea asserted by those hb*e aye no experience wil
a residence in Florida, that to live on good soil means poor
health; this does not follow by any means. Malaria, the
only trouble that the system has to contend with, is easily
treated. A continual residence, with attention to hygiene, wil
ensure the settler health that cannot be obtained elsewhere;
the even temperature of climate secures the invalid from such
extremes that are detrimental to eonvalesence.
In giving a list of the various fruits that are successfully
grown in Florida, I have avoided entering into special details
of cultivation for the guidance of intending planters. I
would advise planting enough of a variety that will ensure
an income sufficient to pay for the outlay; an orchard of
peaches, plums, grapes, in connection with an orange grove,
can be made profitable from two to three years after
setting out, whereas an orange grove will not give macb
return under four or five years, and by no means mix up the
different species that the cultivation would be inconvenient.
Plums, by themselves, and so a~ with all other trees; plant
closer if you desire to aveispace; 20 feet apart each way for
plums or peaches allows sufficient room for the cultivation of
vegetables that can be grown proatably.
The peach is quite natural to the soil and climate of Flor-
ida, and as to longevity, I have one that is considered to be
thirty years old, producing enormous crops of fine fruit; this
tree measures at one foot from crown roots, five feet in
eircumference. The habit of the native Florida peach
is to blossom in February, and even during the win-
ter months, provided the season is warm; whilst the
Peento peach blossoms in January, producing fruit
during April, therefore by a careful selection of the different
varieties peaches can be picked from April until October.
The price of trees by hundred or thousand is very nominal.
that a large area can be planted at small cost.
In regard to the different varieties, I will begin with the
Peento, or Flat Peach of China, that has been largely planted.
This peach ripens in April, finds a ready sale at high prices
in the Northern and Western cities. There being somewhat
of an objection to the bitter flavor of the fruit, due principally
to being picked when immature, a want of proper fertilizers
and cultivation will produce a poor quality of fruit.
The Peento, or Flat Peach of China, was introduced.and
grown in England prior to 1824. Knight imagined then
there would be no difficulty in obtaining from the flat peach
other varieties of similar habits, free from the deformity
which has recommended it to. the Chinese. Therefore, from
the original Peento, Mr. Bidwell, of Orlando, has succeeded
in producing from seeds of this peach a strain that is claimed
to be superior to the parent in quality, size, and beauty.
The Bidwell No. 4 is a fruit somewhat thicker than the
Peento, color pale yellow, tinged with green and washed
with red; half cling, fleet white, fine grained, melting and
very juicy, sweet with a little noyau flavor, quality good.
BIDWBLL NO. 4.
General appearance good; size medium; shape round,
slightly oblong, with moderate suture and short, reserved
point; color pale yellow, washed with carmine, deepest
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around the stem; half cling, with small, short, thick seed,
having a sharp, slightly curved point; flesh white, fine
grained, melting and juicy; sweet, sprightly, with a slight
noyau or bitter almond flavor; quality good. The flavor
suggest* the parent Peento. It is a sweeter peach than the
latter, and although it has a marked almond flavor it is an
agreeable noyau, rather than the objectionable bitter so often
present in the Peento until it reaches the point of perfect
BIDWELL NO. 7.
And two other varieties -of beaches No. 7 and Bidwell's
Late are claimed to be fruit of superior merit; the mulatto
soils of Marion County, a name given to such soils by the
old planters from their dark rich loamy character, are
especially adapted to peach culture.
Medium size; oblong, witl a sharp. recuv-ed point, creamy
white, washed and mottled carminel; flesh of a peculiar fine
texture and a honey sweetness; tree very thrifty, distinct
grower, and prolific; ripens in June. When fruited on cer-
tain soils is liable to be devoid of flavor. It is a distinct
strain of the Chinese type, and reproduces itselff almost
identically from seed.
THE PALLAn PEACH.
The Pallas, seedling from the Honey ; this is the only seed-
ling out of many hundred of the Honey peach which has
varied from the parent. It was originated by the late Dr.
*,* : *
L E. Berckmans, and first fruited in 1878. The fruit
resembles the parent in size but is more round in shape.
Flesh white, melting, with a rich vinous Aroma, partaking in
this flavor of the Grosse Mignonne; maturing two weeks
later than the Honey; tree retains the habit of the parent;
'succeeds in the latitudes the Peento and Honey are grown, is
considered a valuable variety.
There are other varieties of peaches; the Thurber, Craw-
ford, Climix, and many of extra merit, originated by differ-
ent growers, who lay claim to their especial qualities.
Uses.-Early varieties shipped to distant markets, where
they cannot be produced at the season of their shipment;
none of the Peento varieties will fruit outside the States, on
the eastern coast of the Atlantic; canned; preserved; dried;
Propagation.-Seed, and to ensure the variety the young
seedlings are budded or grafted.
FrWitng-The second year from bud.
Ouiiatieon-Musti be good; soil a sandy loam, from one to
two fbet deep. Fertilizers-potash and ground bone, or hard
rood ashes and airnslaked lime.
Insets.-The bbrer attacks the bark near the crown roots;
The Plum is indigenous to Florida, and of the wild or com-
mon sorts there are many that ripen from May until October.
The humidity and slight saltnesA of the air is highly benefi-
cial for plum culture.
The introdulti of the many fine varieties from Japan,
the fruiting of Ii in particular (the Kelsey) in the summer
of 18 giving evidence of the adaptability of this species to
ibte climate; several smMt trees two years transplanted, bore
over four hundred plums per tree.
The plum will grow on a greater variety of soils, in Florida,
than the peach. I have known peach trees to die out in
three years from transplanting on: a thin i pie land aoil, "
whereas the plum trees have grown to be large trees, and
produce heavy crops of plums... To grow fine plums, fertil-
izers must be used, in moderation, bone meal or decayed
vegetable matter; the use of a small quantity of salt to a tree
is highly beneficial; quarter pouud sprinkledaround a small
tree, and half pound to a large oue, and increase with age
KELSEY JAPAN PLUM.
To those who intend to enter upon plum oulture, therecan
be no doubt as to the success of this valuable fruit. The
"Kelsey and its species are rapid growers; have received
the strongest endorsement from the eminent horticulturist,
Mr. P. J. Berckmans. of Georgia, who haa largely introduced
these plums into the State, and from his thorough knowledge
of these trees, considers they are a great acquisition to the
State. Of the several varieties there are the Botan, Botankio,
Chlabot, and others. One peculiarity of the trees .are their
early bearing and 'rapid growth, giving to the planter a
This remarkable .plum was imported from Japan in 1871
by the late John Kelsey, of Berkeley, California, one of this
State's pioneers in horticulture.
Its great merits are productivenees unsurpassed by any
other plum, bearing at an early, age, fruit very large-from 7
to 9 inches in circumference, weighing from five to six and a
half ounces, with a remarkably small stone, attractive
appearance, rich yellow color, nearly overspread with a
bright red, and lovely.bloom; heart shaped; ripens in Flor-
ida in August.
Uses.-For .distant shipment lOOltbs ,of fruit produce 19lthb
of dried prunes; are excellent for canning, texture firm,
meaty, meltipg, rich and juicy.
The Botan, Chabot, ,Masu, and Longfraited, are of the
same general character as the Kelsy; they were all rapid
growers; the quality of the plums are endorsed by those who
have fruited them in California, where they were first intro-
duced. The same nmay be said of the Botankio.
I find the growth ,of these varieties very strong, and from
them I anticipate fruit this season.
Another variety-there is a, doubt as to its correct name-
Virgata; fruit small, oblong, orange yellow, wilt apricot
flavor; ripens middle of May.
Simon's .(Prunus Simoui, or Apricot Plum), introduced
from China to Metz, Alsace-Lorraine; a rapid grower; leaves
long, dark green; flesh fine apricot yellow, firm, and with a
peculiar arorpatic flavor. This plum is much esteemed in
France, where it has been grown for the past sixteen years.
From its rapid growth and healthy foliage we may anticipate
its success in Florida.
Prunus Pissardii, Persian purple leaved plum. A very
desirable variety, with its purple leaves, that it retains
during the warmest, weather until midwinter; fruit of
medium size; color, bright crimson; desirable for cooking;
Murianna Plum. introduced into the State within the past
two years ; the claiins for it are its early bearing, handsome
color, large size, and rapid growth. These trees have not
been generally offered by the nurserymen of the State. If
the trees that are planted and showing evidences of their
fruiting prove to be all that is claimed by the introducer,
Chas. N. Eley, of Smith's Point, Texas, the plum will be a
great acquisition. The habit and growth of the tree are
similar to the wild goose plum, from which it is asserted the
Marianna is a seedling.
There are many common sorts of plums growing without
care that produce large crops yearly, affording to poultry
and swine a large amount of food. Amongst the varieties of
plums there are the sweet, sour, and .bitter, fruiting from
May until October in such abundance that is incredible;
many trees upon my plantation have astonished me at the
large quantity produced every season, that I decided Florida
must become a great plum producing State.
Cultivation simple; grow on a large variety of soil, best
on heavy loam, with clay near surface; fertilizers, bone meal
and potash, and decayed vegetable matter, if soil is deficient.
SPropagation--eed, suckers, and budding and grafting
seedlings with desirable varieties.
The large number of wild vines throughout the hammocks
of Florida give evidence that this State is the home of the
vine. Of the varieties the Vitis Rotundifolia or Bullace
grape, and Astivalis or Summer grape, are abundant, grow-
ing to the topmost branches of the oaks and hickories.
There are a large variety of the cultivated species planted
and bearing fine crops yearly. The first and foremost are
the Vitis Botundifolia or Scuppernong; the vine grows in
wild luxuriance, bearing crops the third year of transplanting,
enough to pay for cultivation; the vines are planted thirty
to forty feet apart each way, and trained to one straight
stem, six feet high, by being tied to a strong pine stake; after
the vine reaches the desired height, a square frame is sup-
ported on four strong stakes upon which the vine spreads
itself; one vine will cover several hundred square feet in a
few years. Of the scuppernong varieties the Thomas, a
large black grape, is considered the best.k Matures at end
of August. Has but little musky aroma, aid makes a supe-
rior red wine. As there is a spurious variety sold under the
name of Thomas, planters should be fhlly assured they pro-
cure the genuine vine, the fruit of which is slight violet color,
quite transparent, pulp tender, sweet, and of a peculiar
vinous flavor. Quality superior to any of the type. Vines
propagated by layers.
The hammocks of Marion County are frequently netted
over in parts with wild vines, that readily fruit when grafted
with the cultivated varieties.
That Florida is adapted to the cultivation of the grape is
without doubt, and at some time in the near future, this
branch of industry will become a large one. The fruit being
produced some two months earlier than in the Northern and
Western- States, a large demand will be created.
The grape that can be depended upon, is the Norton's
Virginia, originated as a native grape on Cedar Island, James
River, four miles above Richmond, in 1885. .This variety
from that time has established itself as a grape that can be
depended upon, and since it has been successfully fruited by
Prof. Dubois, near Tallahassee, who very strongly recom-
mends this grape for home and shipment. The Professor's
experience and successes are to be considered.
The grape is small, sweet, and spicy, and is well known
for its keeping qualities.1 It is a grape that can be relied
upon for distant shipment.
Vine very productive. I have no doubt on the rich, rocky
lands of Marion County this grape can be grown to perfection.
Of the varieties of grapes I have growing I can show many
very fine fruiting vines that are exceedingly large at the age'
of four years.
The Moore's Early has fruited successfully in the State.
also many other varieties of Northern grapes. The Moore's
Early cannot be recommended for shipping or for wine, but
for home sale or use, it is a grape adapted to the climate. It
is a seedling:of the Concord, ripens two weeks earlier.
Grapes are usually planted in rows, six feet in row, and at
distances apart in line according to growth, as some varieties
require more room to extend, for instance, a Delaware vine
will do well six feet apart, .while the Ives Seedling requires
ten feet apart in the rows.
Strong lightwood posts sixteen feet apart, 5 feet above ground
and 2 In-7 foot post-upon which is stretched a No. 12
wire 18 Inhes from 'ground ind then three wires above this,
one at same distance, 18 inches; brace up the end posts to
prevent the strain from pulling them over.
S. ,. -. .. ....... .
c^ *; -**'; ',,.*- .* / 1".'* -'* ^ -*'^ '**"- -
Another variety, a white seedling from the Concord, grows
well and fruits successfully. This grape can only be recom-
mended for home use or wine; quality good; very produc-
tive; wine light straw color.
Cultivation simple; pruning necessary to ensure fruiting;
fertilizers, bone meal and potash; propagation by cuttings,
seed, or layers; season of planting, December to end of
January, not later; cost of vines very nominal. A very large
business has developed in the production of grape vines for
Varieties that succeed in Florida:-Ives Seedling, Nor-
ton's Virginia, Delaware, Moore's Early, Martha, Niagara,
and several others of the foreign varieties.
Before planting a large number of any one variety, it is
better to consult a practical vineyardist as to kinds, soil, and
method of cultivation. Messrs. Lehman and Hostetter, of
Lake Weir, have made a great success of what they claim to
be original varieties, that have fruited abundantly upon light
pine land, due no doubt to good cultivation and liberal fertil-
-----i r --.---
One of the most graceful and ornamental plants in Florida
is the banana, the cultivation of which is very simple.
To grow to perfection, it is necessary that the plants are
bedded in a rich compost of decayed masmre inadbone meal,
which should be followed with copious,wateris~'with liquid
manures; by this means very large plants can. be produced
and very fine fruit. The sise thee plants attain, through
good treatment, is surprising. Should the plant flower in
spring or early summer the fruit will perfect itself before the
There are several varieties grown throughout the State,
viz:--Hart's Choice, Guinea, or African, and Cavendish.
Propagation by suckers, at any season of the year.
-------* G ------
The cultivation of this valuable tree will be largely entered
upon when a more intimate knowledge of its cultivation'and
actual value is appreciated. Few persons have any idea of
the large quantities of olives consumed annually. The taste
for olives is a cultivated one, and when eaten in moderation
are exceedingly beneficial to the human system.
The varieties of the orange are numerous. The Picholine,
a variety esteemed for pickling, I procured from Mr. J. L.
Taber, of Glen St. Mary, they are very hardy and thrifty
growers. There are several other varieties that produce the
oil of commerce, all of which can be grown successfully in
Florida. There are thousands of acres of rich lands in
Marion County that with very little cost can be planted in
olive trees, lands that are the remains of old plantations, the
soils of which are strong, rocky. and moist, with'spots of rich
There is a general impression that it takes many years
before the olive bears fruit; from five to six years after trans-
planting the trees bear a crop and increase with age. The
cultivation is simple, very little care needed when the trees
Propagation by seed and cuttings; the seed must be planted
as soon as ripe to ensure their germinating.
In appearance the trees are similar to a young water oak,
evergreen foliage, and much hardier than the orange. Lit
would seem advantageous to plant them in lands that are
exposed to cold winds, as a protection for other more tender
trees. In transplanting it is necessary to shade the trees,
mulch and well water them.
J 3 'Sf
'"'*5 :Y,. &
9' /. ',. ~ ~ 5-C
This reaukab'fruit wa lntroduted finm Jtp o some
t e oea ago, aii dari thi~ p,d the tree oave grad-
n bpem hditar d tif hae new beoobe standard
fruit .%* fhIe r WOki i'n d or. iade6d with any of.
the Japiie w.I*t *b i $Pilg in Octobe?
al4d Noiembitf la, saee ame vtry large.
The fruit wm ill rifi Ui*^ai after being picked, a
geil advantage to the aip; as 'oon as they soften their
4e.olous edible qualities a flUy appreciaied.
_~~,L3* 3.. .
S1 3 3I3 5..
The color of most of the .varieties is briht orange red,
resembling a large, smooth tomato; is ioft, rich,
sweet and a slight apricot flAvor. fig they are very
Propagation.-Grafting on n, adding
Cultivation simple; soil sh~ld be underlaidt it la.y.
* ~ I.,ib; x,:j~~jZ
, -' i' >-
Varietes of' th' rt r bearing in the State, and espe-
eiaily in Ma~ion Co6nty. T he t1ty growth of the trees
are ilr i enekof threior AitbUity to the soil and
climate. 'The Mooritark Apricot is the one I especially refer
~r ., ;L;~c
~1E;~~ul (a:l, :.
Onm f th to the -tste in frsit was
that., or the ri t o:- 4 t6A kindred, aid to b# of
Chinese origin. The habit or these tres- are to grow rpdly,
I I .:'
omewhata, r a poplar. Their
ear the pear is solid and
and ripens earlier in
Aftantio coat. For
markets this pear
S or bucd other varieties
B-ad *dqap. to the growth, a
wbiaroae yo rold produce fruit
The Keifer pear ha the advantage over the LeConte in
hearing earlier; tree when four years old producing fruit,
which is oonaldere finer than the LeConte; several tree
produood very fine fruit in Marion County in-1887. Time of
ripening July and Augut.' Fruit large, yellow akin, bright
vermiion' cheek; fleh, brittle, very juicy, with a marked
musky-qoma ; tree vigorous and very molific.
-.CI~ ..L' *i;,';'? -
T1I*hR t of UthWoRh waew ge of the requirements of
the 4tree, iand what t6o o with Its fruit, has to 6 great
exteatpr vetted its genan. culture throughout the State.
I beliy6 *hen the new varieties introduced. within the past
two yeiag, and the delicious. ue@rves that are made from
the fruit, are more geaielly known, the fig tree will be
planted largely. This tree reqquite extra rich soil to gro .to
perfeetdn, or constimt feeding with liquid' manures if on
poor toil, and by. no neans planted unless in a bed of rich
compot.. Keep weeds down and do not plow around the trees
tearing up the.roMt. Cultivation easy ; do not prune unless
to keeptree in shape.
Propagfitn by cuttings, layers, seed.
C .---Drled, preserved, or eaten ripe.
Vr -iss.-.-White Adriatic, White Genoa, Ban Pedro,
Oel etl, ]wanswick, Brown Turkey, and many other vari-
eties are ltivated throughout the State.
The culture of amnoed trees has been with very indiffer-
ent suoclbs; the rewsl given is that the varieties were not
adapted to the climate and soil. It always remains for
someone who is ena~terpritg enough to try until they suc-
ceed. It has lMen, to he lot of Mr. J. C. Crawshaw, of
Lawtey, to be rewarded with success in almond culture. I
have no doubt many *111toa h is steps. The sort Mr.
C. cultivates is called tbe PSper bell.
The soil should be a good sandy loam, underlaid with clay,
that it may retain moisture without being too wet. Culti-
vation same as peach. The tree does' not require much
pruning. I have several varieties, none of which have
Popagtion by budding on plum stocks, peach, or bitter
Of these there ate several varieties grown in Floriea. The
Sicily, August, Villa Franca, Genoa, MoGaragan s~U r, and
others, all of which are fine fruit. The lemon buds are.ip-
serted in the sour or bitter orange stock. ro this oom-
bination a rapid, healthy tree is produced, that bears at three
years from budding, ripening during July, August apd Septem-
ber. There are sections of Florida that are particularly
adapted to the' growth of the lemon. The tree grows continu-
ally, and in sections, subjected to severe frosts, or where the
thermometer registers 150 or 16 any time during the winter
the trees are severely cut down and frequently destroyed.
The growing of lemons will become a great source of income
where raised in sections suited to their constitution.
These are more hardy than the citron, but require protec-
tion. They have the advantage of cliinate that is adapted to
the lemon and citron. There are several varieties. Grow
rapidly from seed and bear early.
These rapid growing trees are very sensitive to cold, and
if planted in the sections of the State where the winters can-
not injure them can be made an article of profit and easily
raised. They can be budded on the sour or bitter orange or
raised from seed.
' Ommni, k nowp MA t grape-frut. Of thi spebiies of
citrus there m many, from the large shaddgok the m. uuler
variety, grown i erally throughout the 86St& The aspid
L .. -- i -: *, >> ** :*
and continuous growth of the tree renders it liable to cold.
When the tree hs attained the bearing age it becomes mbre
hardy, the sap.being distributed over a larger portion of the
tree renders it less liable to cold. This fruit has been grown
for several years in Florida, and only within the past few
years has there been any appreciation of their value. The
thick, tough skin, and keeping qualities, together with their
large size, should recommend them for general use. The
fruit will keep niany months, and can be marketed late in
the spring when oranges become scarce. I am propagating a
variety that is said to possess the qualities of a fine sweet
orange. The trees are small at present.
These are easily raised from seed of dates purchased at any
fruit store. The seed or stone can be sown in a damp, rich
4)ot. Young plants will appear in some two months; these
can be transplanted at one year old; still better to plant the
seed where the tree is intended to grow. There are several
trees bearing fruit throughout the State from 10 to 18 years
from the seed. As a staple fruit I do not believe it can be
made profitable unless entered into with a thorough knowl-
edge of the fructification of the female tree, and enough trees
planted to insure an income for the outlay. It would seem
just as easy to cultivate 500 as 100.
There are many species; evergreen; indigenous to a climate
where the frost is not severp enough to kill them out. The
fruit is delicious, and valuable for jelly. Planted in sufficient
quantities in the latitude of the State where they are not
suldect to severe frost, the guava can be made a profitable
crp in connection with other frits. Propagation by seed,
otngs, or suaker..
Strawberries, blackberries, and huckleberries grow to per-
fiction throughout the State. There are sections and soils
particularly adapted to the culture of strawberries, so! that
is somewhat inclined to moisture.
A bushy shrub, hardy in Florida. It is remarkable to find
them so little cultivated throughout the State. Its delicious
sub-acid fruit should recommend their more general planting.
They are easily raised from seed, cuttings, or suckers. The
fruit stands shipment, and can be made a profitable crop
from the several varieties, the early and late. The flowers
are very attractive. Fruit ripens from July to December.
These are easily grown if afforded protection when there is
a liability of frost, but in the southern portion of the State
this fruit grows to perfection with very little care or expense.
It is a profitable crop.
There are many other tropical fruits that are, and others
that can be, grown in the extreme south of the State.
The cocoanut groves promise' great success in the southern
There are enough reliable fruits that can T grown
profitably without the risk of making losses in experiments
trying to produce fruit in a latitude uncongenial to their
nature, and with-soil and experience that are wanting.
It is nataual to suppose that in a country where all varieties
of fruits are grown the necessaries of ife should also be pro-
dnoed to perfetion. There can be no doubt as to the isoems,
sinoe it has been demonstrated by praetialoi frers fbr the
*. .- ". ...
past fifty, years that Florida can be made to supply a super-
abundance of the requirements of its residents, besides a large
surplus for export. This would not seem to the inexperienced
cultivator of Florida soil impossible, if the general appear-
ance of soil were taken as'a standard of its ftuitfulness.
Water, so necessary for the nutrition of plants, is at certain
seasons supplied either in heavy dews or rains, copious enough
in their periods of falling to assist with the warm atmosphere
such a rapidity of growth that can only be compared to
forcing, giving a result in a much shorter space of time than
where these grand combinations are -wanting. That such
assertions can be fully proved, seeds of all kinds are easily
germinated, together with cuttings of plants and vines that
are difficult, and in colder latitudes impossible to make grow.
Soil, and its heat have much to do with this. A decided dif-
ference can be noticed on the varieties of soils in the State.
For instance, trees and vegetables suffer more during the
short dry periods'on heavy clay lands, whereas on the light
loamy soils the root system is largely developed, penetrating
deeply to obtain moisture. That by stirring up this class of
soil frequently, when rain is needed, draws moisture enough
to prevent plants from suffering. It is well known that water
is the all essential of plant life. Fruits and vegetables can be
grown at will with the advantages Florida has of heat. soil,
and abundance of water that can be obtained without difficulty,
the innumerable lakes, rivers, creeks, springs, and artificial
means that can be utilized will insure for the outlay a cer-
tainty. That a system whereby the waters are'at the control
of the cultivator is to be commended, and should be carried
out where possible. The question of irrigation does not apply
to farm crops or fruit trees, but solely to vegetables of a
succulent nature. It is the mechanical means we employ in
agriculture that brings the-reward; a cultivated plant will
do but little towards the production of its species unless
means are used to assist it against the enemies that contend
for their portion of t4e soil. I can illustrate trees that I
have carefully cultivated that were planted with others plant-
ed at same date, showing a comparison, that some are fifteen
feet in height and four inches in diameter, whereas the un-
. tt ; -
cultivated ones are eighteen ino high and l inch in
diameter. The contention for the wo in cultivated lands
during the growing season are beyond the imagiuatid of a
To compare soils of different latitudes that are.nO subject
to the same influences, and form an opinion without reird
to the experience of those who are succeeehl with soil that on
general appearance looks worthless, if the opinion is reverse
to sound logic, can only be set aside as either profound
ignorance or strong prejudice. It is well known to cultivators
of the soil that a light, warm, porous one is the essential for
productiveness The loamy soils of Florida are largely made
up with fine aluminous earth.
Fruit trees, with their deep penetrating roots aided by their
laterals, grow to perfection on soils that the lighter annual
vegetation would find difficulty, without great assistance, a
sustenance enough to barely live: That nut producing trees
should be more generally planted there is no doubt. The
pecan, walnut, and other trees of similar habit; the former, as
they can.be successfully gown, should be extensively planted
to take the place of the red, poet and scrub oaks. That the
soils of Florida contain large quantities of oil is fully illus-
trated in the growth of cotton, pindars, and other oil produc-
ing plants that flourish until the soil if not fertilized refuses'
to grow the crop to perfection. hence the necessity of keeping
up its condition by means of fertilizers; one especially, the
cow-pea, in reality a bean, which draws its nourishment
largely from the atmosphere, can be depended upon for recup-
erating, its long tap root bringing to the surface new matter
for plant food.
It is a deplorable fact that such a valuable material as
cotton seed is not returned to the soil. It should be thoroughly
understood by all who contemplate suooess in the cultivation
of crops in Florida, that fertilizers, if used in moderation and
with a degree of knowledge as to the requirements of the soil
a paying.retrn will follow, and leaving it in good ooidition
for another rp. Green manures can e ueed to great advan-
tage. Bye sown in Oot6ber, plowed under in. Mah. Coi-
peam seq in April and plowed under in July.
*.. .. ^ -L^ ^.. -* *- ^ -...: ;.^ .^"r
There are certain soils in the Stae. that can be benefited
and madeertile by the use of decayed vegetable matter and
the lime manuactured in -the State. This lime is reoom.
mended for its purity for all purposes of agriculture, slaking
up into a fine powder. Then there is another valuable materi-
al that can be procured at a small cost from the kiins, that is
pqre carbonate of lime in such form that it can be used to
great benefit on lands devoid of this element, viz., poo. thia
A great extent of the State is underlaid with carbonate of
lime, in many instances cropping out on the surface, and at
no great depth below the surface clays, the well-known gait
and the red sandy clays, the former containing fossils of the
larger animals of the tertiary age.
I have noticed these fossils on some of the richest lands
on elevations that would lead one to suppose in some great
submerge these animals took refuge on the highest elevations,
thrown up by continual washings, but were destroyed at
The entire surface of the lands that are at present covered
with growths of pines can be entirely changed, provided the
soil is strong enough to raise hard ornamental woods. This
would seem somewhat of an inducement for capital invested
in connection with other industries.
This valuable grape, of which there are several varieties,
should be more largely planted. The products are wine,
brandy, jelly, preserves and vinegar.
The best known is the white scuppernong. A rich, juicy
grape,,makig a delicate straw-colored wihe, but for general
planting the Thomas and Flowers, both black- raped, are
feoodnsU~nd. The bfrmer make a rich, dark wine, similar
to Bhrgdndy; the latter, wine similar to 6blret. .
The naltivatioa of the vines are simple and inexpensive,
and when once established they grow rapidly, and increase in
the quantity of fruit yearly. Vines are known to be over one
hundred and fifty years old throughout the Southern states.
The soil may be the driest sa~d hill Or the lowest swamp,
without the least indication of disease. The best soil is a
sand underlaid with clay, but' not entirely swampy. The
vine is propagated by layers put down in spring or summer;
they are removed early the spring following and planted in
nursery rows, for a year or so, until they become well-rooted.
When planted to positions, holes are dug 34 feet apart each
way, four feet square and two feet deep; fill up two-thirds
top soil, the balance fill up with rich compost. Plant in
December, six inches deep, spreading out the roots carefully,
and pressing earth around the vine. I would suggest a strong
stake being set in the hole first to train the vine to, as it must
be trimmed during the first year or so of its growth to one
single cane until it reaches the top of the stake, which should
be seven feet clear from the surface of soil. After the vine
is planted cut off all side shoots except the longest, this can
be tied to the stakes, and all growth from it trained to one
cane to the top. When this is reached, the vine should be
let grow in all directions until the scaffold is built on four
strong stakes ten feet apart, upon which the vine should be
carefully spread out. All side shoots should. be pinched of
to make the vine spread. When the vine covers this scaffold
it is at the option of the cultivator as to whether he will adopt
a wire frame or continue the stakes and scaffold. The vines
must be spread in December that light and air can uniformly
ripen the fruit, or the wine will be sour, caused by imperfect
ripened grapes. The vines require manuring every two years.
A good rich compost of leaf mold, or muck with an addition
of bone meal, spread around to the extent the vines have
spread ; the roots are equal to the vine.
Annual expense of cultivation nominal, but to those who do
not cultivate the land for crope'until the vines are established,
the eost would be about twelve dollars per acre. At'te end
of th thrd yea each vine would yield one peak of grape;
in the fburth year two bushels; the ffth year five bushds;
allowing tfb vines to be 80 feet each way, or 80 vtne.s o the
A +, U' ... .,. 9'
aore, in ten years the yield would' be about one barrel of wine
to each vine.. The increase yearly, is beyond computation
with well cultivated vines. They are free from disease and
are certain bearers. The vis usat not be pruned or trimmed in
winter; August is the time for this work. Many have at-
tempted the culture of the scuppernong for profit, and the
result has been very satisfactory, as high as $1,500 per
acre. This is the outcome of good ctiltivation, and a knowl-
edge of how to make up the wine.
White Scuppernong and Thomas ripen in July and Aug-
ust, Flowers in September.
It may safely be predicted that the growing of grapes for
shipment and for the manufacture of wines will become a
leading industry in the State. It is only within a few years
that the growing of the vine has been largely entered upon
by a few enterprising, intelligent cultivators, (strange to say,
new comers), who saw at once the advantages Florida offers
for this class of industry. ,Lands that are unfit for the
growing of cereals can be utilized for vineyards, and the
great variety of grapes that can be cultivated places Florida
as the foremost grape growing State in the Union. In variety
and length of time they can be harvested from May to
October. It was not considered possible to manufacture wine
in the temperature of the State. This impression is now
eradicated since wines have been produced fine in bouquet
and flavor, wines that are not to rank second with those of
France or Germany. The consumption of wines will increase,
and should, to take 'the place of spirituous liquors, that are
highly injurious to the human system. 'As regards soil, it is
almost impossible to find land in Florida that is not capable
of growing the vine. It is generally understood that it is not
necessary to have rich lands to produce wine. The varied
soils of the State will produce wines of different qualities,
some no doubt of rare excellence. The situation of vineyards,
whether on slope or plains, has been much debated upon by
*, '~ i. > ..,**
growers. Calcareons hills are preferred for theprodaucpg of
dry wines, and lower lands that are richer in vegetable and
caleareous matter produce wines of a b6amy character. All
these results have been for years demonstrated on the con-
tinent of Europe; perhaps these peculiarities may notdevelop
in Florida. It is certain the vine flourishes in the low, rich
lands or high, dry, pine, and a the time of flowering of the
vines is at a season when there is no danger of frost, success
is .insured on this point, and agaip, hail, another enemy to
the fruit, is not to be anticipated. In fact it is hard to say
what is in the way of successful culture of the vine through-
out the State.
It is asserted the grape phylloxera, so destructive to the
vineyards of France, cannot thrive in sandy soils, and Florida
possesses large areas of this class of lands, all of which are
capable of being planted in vineyards.
In the foregoing remarks on soil, it may be well for those
who intend to plant, to plant vines that are somewhat in
accordance with the quality of the soil, as certain varieties
have a greater development of root system, and are better
adapted for shipment, or that particular class ofwine the
planter wishes to produce
There is much to.be learned in regard to the culture of the
vine throughout the State, but since success has been mef
with in every portion where' trials have been made, it is
Safe to presume the vine is to become one of our leading
industries. Lands that are devoid of calcareous matter can
be cheaply made up with this material that is abundant at
no great distance from any point devoid of this element, or
can be obtained from the lime kilna throughout the State; and
another material, decayed vegetable mold, that is abundant in
the low lands.
There is a large demand for Americah made wines, but a
-mere unit in comparison with the vast business that can be
developed when a large supply is on hand.
At present the greater number of vines planted are of
American origin. Many are of the original vine, whilst a
large proportion are hybrids, in some instances with a foreign
grapo. Experiment are being made with foreign grapes that
Bo far have, grown well-fuited, and promise good results.
With such a large variety of grapes, it may be presumed,
wines of nearly every lass oanbe produced. It would be
well if a variety of the species of vines were introduced from.
Spain and Italy, and men who understand their cultivation.
The State is certainly wanting more of this element, expe-
rienced in growing the vine and making the wine. If estab-
lishments were started that would buy the grapes and manu-
facture the wine, they would soon develop into a large busi-
ness, very profitable and certain.
It may be of interest to the reader to know Florida pos-
sesses a large variety of birds, of the torrid and temperate
Here, three varieties.
Osprey, 0 Fish Hawk.
Bald Headed Eagle.
Turkey Buzzard, or Vulture.
Cranes, two varieties.
Red Ourlew, *.
Wild Ducks, a large variety.
Snipe, several varieties.
Rioe, Red, Blue, and Mocking Birds.
Owls, several varieties.
Hawka, several varieties.
Woodpeckers, several varieties.
.Par t lt, pa luarly plentiful.
Sea Gils, ever varieties.
SBesides Blue Jays, Kingfishers, and many varlueis of birds
of minor importance.
-The black bear, deer, ocelet, wolf, wild boar, and pama are
becoming scarce in the settled portions of the State.- The fox,
raccoon, oppossum, otter, squirrel, skunk, weasel, are numer-
ous enough to afford sport and make depredations upon the
poultry roost or corn field. Hares, two varieties, abundant.
The insect world is well represented, but not to such a
degree as to make residence objectionable; where cleanliness
and preventive means are used there is no discomfort or an-
To those who are fond of the rod, come to Florida. The
great variety and excellence give to the angler at all times
and seasons enjoyment of sport beyond comprehension.
The lakes and streams abound with fish of quality and size.
Foremost we wil mention the black base, gullet, cat fish,
pike, bream, dog fh, and a large variety of the perch family,
besides many other kinds, not particularly valuable for food.
The coast fish Jomprise the sheephead, pompano, red and'
black fish, red ,nd black snapper, Spanish mackerel, rock
fish and mullet besides innumerable varieties of smaller
kinds, in oomop y with the shark and turtle. Oysters I here
is to be one oWllorida's great industries. Large quantities
offish and turtes are caught yearly to supply the inland
residents. The exports are small compared with the oppor-
tunity of the development. Ice, for packing, -is manufactured
largely in the State and is used to great advantage in ship-
ments of fish to the inland cities of the State, also to Alabama
The following list of fish around the coast, also in lakes and
Pompono. Black Bm, or M1out.
Grouper. Granter. .
' '' '
/* .'; -. ,, ; -: ;
Eel. Red Fish.
Jew Fish. Oyster.
Cat Fish. Olam.
Angel Fish. Orab.
The Green Turtle, Loggerhead Turtle, Hawk's Bill Trtle,
Land Turtle, and Terrapin, are excellent eating.
Florida possesses a large variety of trees. Foremost is the
pine; as to quantity this is simply immense; many of the trees
are giants, measuring, three feet from the crown roots,
three to four feet in diameter.
Then we have the live oak, a tree that grows to a gigantic
size; red cedar; red, water, white, and post oaks; also the
hickory, poplar, wild cherry, black walnut, red bay, bias
wood, mulberry and cypress, besides many varieties of wood
all more or less useful; the export of pine lumberhas been for
years a large one, also the products of the pine-turpentine
From the palmetto, that grows in -great abundance, pulp
has beek crushed which, when. manutcetured, makes a fine
paper. The billowing list of trees will enable the reader to
learn somewhat of the timbers of the State; a large proportion
can be used up for manufacturing purposes. This: list
embraces trees that grow over the entire State. O. the two
hundred, or nearly so, varieties, the yellow pine is by far
Yellow Pine, and six other kinds of less value.
Cypress, fbr shingles, etc
Live Oak, for ships and boats.
ed Cedars, pencils, etc.
Post and Black Jack Oak for charcoal.
Red Bay, Magnolia, fniture.
Black Walnut, Black Cherry, Base Wood, Beech, Birch,
Sugar Maple, Sycamore, Gum, Elm, Ash, UIrkory, Bed
Maple, Poplar, Holly, Persimmon, Mulberry, Locuet, Chest-
nut, Black and White Mangrove, Lignum Vite, and Cocoa-
.There are thirteen varieties of oak, seven of pine and five
'The woods in the southern portion of the State are sub-
tropical, many of great beauty. They are not known to be of
CATTLE, SHEEP, AND GOATS.
Large herds of cattle roam in the pine woods sA4 hammocks,
giving little trouble to their owners, and paying fi ne interest
on the investment. In some of the older settled portions of
the State, the finer breeds of cattle have been sooeemfully
introduced, thereby improving the breed of the small, original
stock. The raising of cattle can be made very profitable if
the investor will lay off enough land where pleaty of water is
at hand, by jetting the cattle feed st will daring the summer
months, and during the winter fepd them on green rye and
oat pasture, and a little dry food, raising only fine beef cattle.
With these goats and sheep do well, but require some pro-
tection from dogs and aight marauders. It is not possible to
raise hogs with sheep or goats; the former eat up the young of
the 'latter. In point of health, growth, and little trouble
attending the keeping of goats and sheep, it is nominal.
During the* winter months they would require artificial
The description of Florida has been thoroughly given in
many publications. It may be well to give the fibewhig facts.
There ae 58,680 square miles f surhoe, 18,000 square
miles of bays,, gulf, sound, harbors,'and ooam~~riters, 8o90
"" ,*. "
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M ^^. ? ..:,. *^..*.. ^^^\
t -. ; ,
square miles rivers and streams, 2,250 square miles lakes and
ponds, lavi 3* 4713 acres of land surface. '
We will consider the great advantages the State enjoys in
the water supply, for navigation, agriculture, and manufae-
ture. Of the former, the State has some of the finest harbors
in the United States, deep and sale enough for the largest
Atlantic steamers to load. Over 1,000 miles of river surbee
are navigable by steamer. There are many magnifeent
streams, all available for water transportation. The millions
of tons Of vegetable matter deposited in the bays and along
the binks of the rivers and lakes are available material for
the fruit raiser and frmer. There are many projects for
canals that can be cheaply made, requiring no locks, or
subject to bursting through ice gorges; simply cutting from
one lake to a river, or river to a lake. Tlhe State can be
made a perfect net work of anals that can operate profitably
with the railroads. Surely no country was ever blest with
such advantages. Many of the rivers are clear as crystal, in
depth 20 to 30 feet, in which myriads of fish can be seen
enjoying the clear, pure water, that gushes forth from springs
at intervals along the river bed. The fisheries around, the
coast will become a large source of income as a food supply,
and fish unfit for food can be utilized for fertilizers that can
be manufactured in the State.
Consider the vast amount of undeveloped wealth that is
accessible by water or rail, at no grett distance from the
great masses who will depend upon the State for a large food
supply, obtainable in Florida at seasons when it is impossible
to producein other States. The supply runs the year through
as well. The first few months of the year Florida supplies
the north with vegetables and fruit, then Georgia, North and
South Carolina, Delaware, and Jersey; other States send their
quota. This round is gone over every year, but in the fall
and winter Florida sends her oranges, and in thif business it
may safely be said is the monopoly, that front climatic in-
enoes, soil and experience now attained, will insure for
the State each year a large increasing sum.
Florida vants a population that will create wants for each
other, and one with means enough to develop whatever they
may set aboutjto do; this with patience and perseverance will
be sure to bring the reward. Large numbers bqanllife i.the
State with very little means, and' are 'today wealthy. The
same may be said of thousands elsewhere who by circum-
stances favorable to their advancement hbve beoome wealthy
in.commercial life. It was the man, the time, and the oppor-
tunity. A large class of the newcomers to the State were
unfit in mind, body, and means, to ever aeomplish any
result beyond the training of their calling, which, perhaps,
was quite foreign to their nature. Few men in undertakings.
that the heart enters into fail, provided the physical strength
is enabled to keep up the.race; ingenuity, self-sacrifice, and
determination are the necessary requirements. The small
cost of living and requirements are an advantage to those who
have means enough to support themselves, that it should be
a great inducement to those who are able enough to make
Florida their home. Before purchasing land, that is adver-
tised extensively, it would be well to consider the quality,
location, and actual value; there are thousands of ares that
would be dear at a gift. If the intending settler purchases
with the idea of making a living, he should be waered in'some
way, dot by false assertion or plusible stteMssen, tha0i th land is
capable of raising crops, and that the soil is good, or it will take
the entire value of a crop, and perhaps rather more, to make up
the soil with fertilizers. The difference in pine land is great;
some may be dark, rich, and loamy, underlaid with clay; the
other, poor, white sand, covered with a thin coat of wire grass.
The difference with hammocks are not so great, the growth
of timber on these indicate the quality of the soil. .
PRICES OF LANDS.
It is frequently a source of inquiry as to why one class of
land is worth $1.25 per acre, and another $50 per acre; and
yet the persons who offer these lands assert that they a&e
equal as' to productiveness. It may or may noe be so, A
large proportion of lands that are accessible to transportation
are graded as to value, and those who wish to know what
ood land is must depend upon the color of the soil, subsoil,
and growth of timber. It would be difficult to guide a buyer
in writing the difference ip price of lands or quality; he
should be somewhat of a judge to define between a sand hill
and a loamy soil. The prices lands are sold for throughout
the State are very low. State, railroad, and lands owned by
private parties are graded as to value, therefore. the buyer
can hardly fail to procure just the class of land and location
he desires, and upon advantageous terms.
CLIMATOLOGY OF MARION COUNTY.
BY DR. T. P. GARY, OCALA, FLA.
That the residents of the State have claimed Florida as the
Italy of America as regards climate, is from the impression
that the State compares with Italy, whereas it is not so.
Italy, with its volcanoes, its seasons of cold that are trying
to the invalid, and its pestilential fevers, is not in comparison
with Florida, free from volcanoes, severe cold, trying winds
and fevers that are fatal to human life-giving to it the
palm as the greatest health resort of the American or the
There are many strong claims. They are'these:-It is well
known the benefit that is derived by those who suffer from
pulmonary complaints; that the equality of temperature
during the winter months, in which period there are more
clear and fine days than in any other section of the continent,
with a dryness of atmosphere, upon which the improvement
in all pulmonary diseases are based. Marion county being
situated ii the central portion of the peninsula, having a
watershed running through it. northern boundary line, is,
par ecellence, one of the most healthful regions in the beauti-
ful and attractive State of Florida. As the county becomes
more developed, and those measures of hygiene instituted
that are necessary to maintain and secure health, Marion
county will not give the first place .in point.of heh to y
other seeion of our State. The summer het'is dreaded in
all climates, but Marion county being situated fa the nurow-
est portion of the peninsula, between the Gulf and the
Atlantic, has the full benefit of the breees that are blowing
fiom sea to eea, therefore the temperature never exoeeds48
degrees in the hottest months of July and August. The
mean winter temperature -s given by reliable sathority for
Marion county, taken in Ocala, is 60 to 69 degrees F en-
heit, therefore it approaehee very near a tropical climate.
The county hag within its boundary the greatest amount of
hammock landfound in any part of'the State, with a large
amount of first-class pine land, that consists of deep, sandy
soil and natural drainage; these lands are fertile and healthy,
whilst there are large bodies of very poor land unsulta1e for
Ocala has an elevation above sea level of-about two hun-
dred feet; three hundred feet is said to be the highest eleva-
tion above sea level of any portion of the State.
The varieties ofsoils in Marion conaty are ofsuch caara-
ter that they are adapted to all classes of vegetation, whilst
some are too poor to pay for expense of clearing; still they
are healthy lands for the invalid, and by heavy fertilization
may be made to produce crops, but not fbr commercial pura
poses. Sandy soil predominates in pine lands, and a large
proportion of these are underlaid with clay a few feet below
the surface, which renders the best class of these lands fertile
and adapted fbir residence and fruit growing. Then there
are sandy hammocks, considered the best Olaas of lands for
the citrus family.
The variability of the configuration of our lande and the
irregular distribution of the difternt kinds of a rendisrwno
particular place more desirable it this respect an a .nothe.
It is sufficient for us to know tt Marion county poises
these peculiar features that are Valuable to those who sdter
from diseases other than phthisi, pbnlmonaris or ohropc
'- inflammation of the muopouo membrane, sieh as nasal pha-
yngal, larygear ratrrh, bronchitis ad Cisthmn, chronio
'*eamatiamand &a d of the nervoau sybt*m. Owing
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to the fot that we have a great amount of waterfall in the
summer seson and very rapid and active growth of vegetable
matter, *w have all varieties of 'mlarial fever, but as a elas
they* ate more amenable to treatment than they are in other
countries, having so little swamp land throughout the county,
that if persons will observe the proper requirements of dress
and diet;-and avoid as much as possible the mid-day sun, in
laboring, they can very materially modify or prevent parox-
ysms of malarial fever. After an active life of thirty years
in the medical profession, I do not remember to have ever
had malarial fever, after being acclimated. A prolonged
residence in any climate makes the close observer to be better
able to form a correct opinion as to the best places for those
seeking health and contentment, therefore the main
object of the writer of this article is simply to give a
correct outline of what may be expected and the
benefit derived by a residence amongst us.
THE ORANGE TREE AND ITS CULTIVATION
This interesting tree, with its dark green foliage and golden
colored fruit, is one of the most beautiful trees of the vege-
table kingdom. The botanical name citrus originated from
the town of Citron, in Judea. From the Latin Pomum Auran-
um we get the word orange. It is said the China, or sweet
orange, was first introduced into Europe from China by the
Portuguese in 1547. They were disseminated throughout
Europi ftom one of the gardens of the nobility in Lisbon.
Oranges were first taken to England in the reign of Edward I.
by a Spanish ship; they were purchased by the Queen with
other fruits, of which only seven were oranges. No records
show of the fruit being imported until 1432 and in 1470; also
in 150,- when Elisabeth of York, rewarded the servant of the
Spanisal prothonotmry for a present of oranges. In 1580 and
1589 records show that Henry VIII bought oranges for the
houishold. In 1558 The Stationers Company at their oourt
dinner aid .the large sum of eight cents apiece for oranges.
In f198 owe remarks they had become an article of com-
N a ".*, .
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merce. The bitter orange was the first introduced,into BEg-
land; they were the Seville, or bitter sweet. That orange
trees were lcltivated in England one hundred years previous
to 1695 is well known. The trees were in open ground, but
in winter were protected from the cold by coverings. In the
beginning of the eighteenth century they were eighteen feet
high and about nine inches in diameter. They were destroyed
by the severe frost of the winter of 1788.
The "French Gardener," published in London in 1672,
gives particulars as to planting seeds, transplanting and culti-
vation, The instructions are Concerning orange and lim-
mon trees. I shall only deliver the principal and most or-
dinary government of them, which is to sow their pepina in
boxes, and when they are two years old transplant them in
cases filled with rich, mellow, bed mould, each tree by itself.
You may either inoculate or graft them by approach in the
spring of the year."
The introduction of the bitter sweet and sour oranges were
no doubt the result of the Spanish landing in Florida between
the years 1512 to 1565, or even later. It was at this time they
were in possession of these two varieties only. The Portu-
guese, it is said, introduced the sweet orange from China in
1547, therefore it is not probable the Spaniards would have
introduced the sweet orange at that time. The keeping q'ua-
ities of the sour and bitter sweet, and the refreshing acid was
no doubt enjoyed by those early explorers on their voyage.
We find the large wild groves on margins of lakes and in
moist lands. The readiness with which the seed germinates
in moist earth and is nourished py the good, rich soil, wemay
presume, started a few trees, the nucleus of the vast wild
groves. The oranges were no doubt carried by Indians from
one spot to another. Where soil and protection afforded the
trees a chance to grow they multiplied largely in that period.
There were no herds of roaming cattle to eat them down and
ultimately destroy them.
At Hampton Court; England, the orange trees are believed
to be 300 years old. The writer examined these trees *ome
years ago and learned they were only exposed to the open air'
in summer. They are planted in large tubs, and Itad in
N "l' i
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front of the paloe during the summer months. In size they
are about that of a sweet seedling grown in Florida, five
years old; leaves small, and in appearance a dwarfed tree in
every way. The same may be said of the specimens I ob-
served at Kew Gardens; they are not in their natural ele-
ment. The oranges aie small. Trees grown in plant pots
also produce fruit in England. It is an established fact that
the older the tree becomes the finer the fruit. In Europe
there are large numbers of trees from 150 to 200 years old,
that increase in the quantity they*produce each year. In-
stances are known in Spain of trees producing 20,000 oranges
to a tree. Florida can boast of trees that produce 10,000 to
The old and 'magnificent bitter orange, (cidru bigarade),
that for over four hundred and forty years adorned the
orangery at Versailles, died a few years after the Franco-
German war, said to have been through neglect. Its trunk
was twenty feet in circumference, and its height was forty
feet. It was planted in 1421, and transplanted to the'orangery
at Versailles in 1532.
In regard to the benefit derived through eating oranges, as
their use becomes more general the demand wip increase for
the reason that when once a person acquires a taste for the
orange it is hard to deprive the appetite of this delicious fruit.
It has been proved by eminent medical authority that the use
of oranges are highly beneficial to health. The juice is com-
posed of mucilage, sugar, and citric acid, the most wholesome
vegetable juice known. It has no superior in the sick room.
The first shipments of oranges from Portugal, Spain and
Sicily arrive in England about the middle of November.
They are carried in steamships that hold from 10,000 to
24,000 boxes. Each box contains 850 oranges, whilst some
boxes from other Mediterranean ports contain from 420 to 710
The London merchants advance large sums of money to
the growers, who consign their oranges to them. The mer-
chants hand the shipments over to brokers, who sell them at
auction. The prices obtained are very low, still, high enough
to pay the growers a large profit. The headquarters are Pud-
ding lane, Thames street. were I have watched the saton
porters carry box after box with.a large pad, somewhat after a
horse collar, on the back of their neck, walk up a fight -of
stairs to the upper floors of the warehouse with perfect ease.
They trUge all day long and are a very tough element. It's
Git out of the way." Billingsgate is hard by, you will get a
little of its language if you attempt a refrain, therefore it is
better to keep out of the way. The amount of spoke occupied
with this large business and the rapidity with which it is car-
ried on is surprising. AtL the ports of Great Britain' receive
oranges and lemons.
The varieties of oranges are very numerous. There is a
difference in the quality, size, oolor, and time of ripening.
In regard to the first point, some varieties are more acid, less
juicy and pulpy, while others are. the reverse, deliciously
vinous and sweet, and nearly pulpless; in all the varieties,
asserted to be something over one hundred 4n Florida, but
only a few generally cultivated. It is difficult to find a poor
class of fruits. The uniform salubrity of the climate remains
high enough at the seasons the fruit forms and collects its
juices to insure a very fine quality of fruit, and with experience
of the cultivators in the treatment of their trees by proper
fertilization, Florida, with these advantages, produces fruit of
very superior excellence. The Italians prefer a soil with a
yellow clay subsoil, which is to be found in various parts of
the State. Then the limestone strataadds much to the forma-
tiod of fine trees and fruit. The tree responds to good treat-
ment and pays largely in return. The thin, .velvety peel,
with small, volatile oil glands, and the delicious, sweet pulp
cells, are the outcome of soil, climate and cultivation.
It is noticeable of trees grown from seed that the fruit is
generally fine in quality. This is a point in soil and climate.
Where trials have been made with a large variety of Florida
oranges as to their relative merits, the difference was not
enough for any judge to rule out any particular kind; they
are too much akin in every point-quality, size, and oblor.
Still there are varieties that are seedless, or nearly So, which
should be a advantage in their favor. Then it is saerted
that these varieties do not bear a heavily as the non-seedless
In regard to these matters, it is too prematnre, to give m.
opinion, soiWad' cultivation may gV'e some advantage to the
The varieties of sizes are clared individually. Ninety-sia
oranges will occupy a space that two hundred and forty of
another variety will. There is no doubt the lager the quan-
tity upon the tree the smaller the orange. This has been my
observation; whether it applies to new large varieties I can-
not determine; would be disposed to conclude it must be so,
since this rule applies somewhat to other fruits, still nature
may assert her rights in setting only enough fruit to produce
a large size.
The sudden rush to Florida to start orange groves can be
compared to mining, working in soil without experience,
from which no good result will ever follow.
Td select lands suited, for orange culture has not been
seriously thought of by the general number of planters. Too
much importance cannot be attached to this point. Whilst
nearly every kind of land that is dry enough to work will
grow the orange tree, there are certainly favored spots,
and as such I attach the value, that some are valueless and
others are invaluable. There are many reasons to be given .
soil that is too poor to grow the trees of nature is too poor
without great expense to grow the orange; lands too dry and
deep in' silicious matter are not capable of sustaining the tree
in the short periods of dry weather in spring, at which season
the fruit sets, and if very dry willshed the embryo oranges, at
a great los to.the grower; whilst lands that are rich and low
produce rapid growth, and this too at a late season of the year,
when frost may be expected. Then lands that are open to
winter winds are not to be recommended, or others that are
wet and elayey. I presume to opinion that the soil, whether
pine or hammock, should be loamy -with a clay subsoil, and
of the former not so devoid of the elements of natural fertility
as to need a heavy expense each year to keep the trees in a
healthy condition; they are not subject to disease, provided
in the periods of their growing they develop healthy leaves
and wood. This is not difficult matter. The greatest
drawback the grower has is with new land, and more so with
* im '..: $ ,..,- *
hammock that has a large amount of undergrowth. It is
only after continual plorings that the trees grot, u lees the
land has been prepared from six months to Vyear prior to
setting out the trees. Hammock lands, if good, have a top
surface of decaying vegetable matter that requires plowing
under and bringing into such condition that' it will easily
absorb moisture. When this vegetable matter is decayed it
becomes a valuable plant food for the orange tree. Lands in
Florida that have a heavy growth. of hickory, red, water and
post oaks, with magnolia, gum-, bay, and a very few, but
large, pines, are underlaid with yellow clay at various dis-
tances from the surface, ranging from one to four feet. Too
large a proportion of red oak will indicate a thirsty gravelly
soil; this tree being a rapid grower is detrimental to the
orange tree if left too.thick in a grove. The hickory drops
every year a large quantity of ndte, which decay and become
fine vegetable mold, and does not seem to effect the growth
of the orange tree; but whenever trees are planted in prox-
imity to forest trees it is necessary to be very liberal with
fertilizer to counteract the effect of forest growth.
In hammocks the trees that are cut down are usually piled
up in winrows between the orange trees, and so rapid is the
decay, that in from six to eight years, the huge trunks and
branches become a mass of decayed matter; this, with the
addition of lime, can be used to fertilize the grove. If the
piles are made close it admits of a plow both ways, but not
entirely the width of one.
In regard to distance trees are planted, my opinion is that
we have generally planted too dloee. At from twenty to
thirty feet for the budded tree, whereas the seedling should
not be lesi than forty feet. The reason may be given, planters
have concluded that by placing trees at short distancee there
is less liability of injury from frost. With the natural sweet
tree the distance might be forty feet. There is a strong pre-
judioe against the great distance last named. The rapid
growth of the trees and sise they snake when isolated are
ooaelasive prooft that even frty bet would not be too great
adistanoe., Natural sweet trees trasplanted St our year old
will attain a height of sixteen feet, and a diaetr at six
inches one foot frbm the crown roots in from four to five
years after being planted. This ,size is attained by
good cultivation and transplanting in soil that has been
broken up at least one year. Such trees bear from four to
five years after transplanting. .At twelve years from trans-
planting, making the tree sixteen years old, the tree would be
twenty-five feet in height, and diameter fourteen inches, one
foot from the crown roots.
Unlike many other trees the orange, even when loaded
down with fruit, grows vigorously, putting on branches to be
covered with fruit the coming season; the periods of growing
extend from February to October.
The sour and bitter sweet orange stocks are used for bud-
ding; any variety of orange grows rapidly when budded or
grafted into them. The buds or grafts are inserted from one
to two feet from the crown roots, thereby insuring a low
growing, handsome tree. Stocks budded when one year old
bear three years after. If the stocks are older, say three to
four years, oranges will frequently appear the next season
after budding, and at three years from budding give from
100 to 200 oranges per tree-this result depends
much upon variety, care, and seasons. It should be under-
stood by all who intend to enter upon orange culture, good,
successful results are only attained by experience and patience.
I do not attempt to set aside the experience of others or
presume to direct those who have succeeded. I cannot help
coming to th6 conclusion that the making of an orange grove
does not require extraordinary skill to bring a grove into
bearing; there are rules to follow that if carried out success
may be anticipated. I have trees that have gone far beyond
my expectations. It has not been due, particularly, to extra
care or skill in cultivation, but more to fertilizing-in fact,
feeding the trees. No matter how good the soil may be, it
requires other elements than soil, stimulants in fact, to
develop the inert properties of the earth. There are a
variety of opinions as regards fertilizing materials. Where
it is possible, I would advise well-rotted stable manure; this
put around the trees early in January, and hoed in, acts like
a charm upon the spring growth, and more so upon land that
has been planted some years. It gives the soil vegetable
matter, ammonia, and taleh. Where this matral cannot be
obtained, the grower must resort to a commerdal fertiher
that will analyse as near as possible to stable maIuse I woald
Snot indorse the entire u6 of stable manure. It am be alternat-
ed with bone meal or a manufastured fertilizer. Soals that are
devoid of vegetable matter should be made up by cartnag it
on in the winter, put in heaped, and spread in Jaawry, to be
hoed or plowed in (the hcr nemr in bearing grewr). Then
the use of the carbonate of lime or refuse from the Mine can-
not betoo highly recommended. I have seen the effeta of
this being spread over the gonad and harrowed in Pine
lands can be benefited by its use.
The orange trees of Florida are not subject to diseases that
are not amenable to treatment, or insects that are not under
the control of the planter. The experiments made by the
Department of Entomology, under, the direction of Profteor
Riley, have solved the problem that the planter is now master
of the present pests that he may encounter. The remedies
are quick in application, cheap and effective. The rusAMite
Mr. Hubbard and others claim to have conquered by means
of syringing with solutions. The idea that by severe rohing
and heavy fertilisatiun the mastery could be obtainedbver
insect pests is absurd. The severe pruning is not neemary,
provided the planter prevents the treesfrom becoming covered
with insects, but the heavy fertilization is necessary should
the tree be seriously damaged. A careful planter avoids
either extreme, and prevents the rapid spread ofainseet by
arresting their development beyond control.
A grove should be situated as near as possible to treas-
portation, or the expense of cartage maybe enough to fertilize
or even care for the grove. This is loss in time and money.
The trees require constant cer and .watchtfulua'o the part
of the owner or his overser-not that in point of labor, but a
looking oven generally and frequently. This becomes to the
planter a great source of pleasure, in fact there is arseia-
tion that seems to link the oltivator to the trees. Few care
to sell a&grove when oneo it yields a return.
** -. L
The value of fine bearing grove can only be estimated by
the location, age, size, and condition of the trees. Groves
that are valued at $1,000 per acre are in some instances dear,
in others cheap. We will consider the income from such a
grove. Taken at ten acres with 700 trees, these, if yielding
four boxes per tree per annum, would produce a gross sum
for the 2,800 boxes at $2.50 per box; deduct picking, sizing,
wrapping, packing, boxes, marking, freight, cartage, and
commission, would net the grower about $1.50 per box. The
sale price is about the medium. There are times when the
box of oranges brings $4.00, and again $2.00. Take the net
price at $1.50 per box this gives the grower an income of
85,800. The cost of care, fertilizers, taxes and incidentals
would not be over $1,200 per annum. The foregoing state-
ment is based upon observations in groves that produce these
results. We must take into consideration the trees are only
entering upon their bearing stage, therefore at $1,500 per acre
a grove of this class cannot be but cheap, in fact, a fine in-
investment. Take these same trees five years from the time
they have yielded four boxes per tree, and if the trees are not
too closely set, run up in ten years to twelve and fifteen boxes
per annum. From two acres of natural sweet trees that were
sixteen to eighteen years old, as high a sum as $1.700 was the
net return. We must allow this grove of two acres would be
worth more than $2,000 per acre. Therefore it is presumption
without knowledge to assert the value of orange groves have
depreciated; far from it! The owners of groves do not all
comprehend the great value this property will become with
There is claimed for Florida an Orange Belt, the true
meaning of which assertion is, that within that radius the
orange tree grows to greater perfection, and is less liable to
frost. This is correct, since the cold seasons have from time
to time demonstrated that there are favored spots. These
locations are to be found in the latitude that is suited to the
tree, therefore East Florida may be termed the Orange Land.
The trees were cultivated at St. Augustine prior to 1835
quantities of the fruit were exported annually, bringing to
the growers a large return. In 1838 the Orange Cocus, a
scale insect, made its appearance at Mandarin. Their intro-
duction was due to the importation of trees. In three o0 four.
year the insect had spread rapidly; in 1840 they were intro-
duced in St. Augustine from the trees at Mandarin; by 1855
the insect spread over the entire State, and during this year
another scale insect was imported from Bermuda. The num-
ber of washes and treatment these insects received was in-
numerable. Some of these appeared to arrest their progress.
Like many scourges the insect disappeared to a great extent,
no doubt due to a better state of cultivation and insect
enemies that brought about a balance of nature. There are
many insects that feed upon the scales. The emulsions now
used are effective, therefore the grower may look upon the
scale insects really controlled.
There is no class of property (except that which rises in
value suddenly through the growth of cities) that can com-
pare with orange growing. When once the trees are flly
established they are capable of enduring great extremes of
heat, drought, and as much cold as may be anticipated in the
State, for during the hard freeze of January 1886 the therho-
meter stood at 165 above zero for four days and nights as far
south as lat. 26 In exposed positions small trees were killed
entirely, whereas the trees that were on high, dry situations,
partially protected, were least affected-in many instances
did not lose a leaf or twig. The seasons of winters that fol-
low the cold ones are not severe enough to injure the trees,
therefore between these periods they grow rapidly until
they are large enough to withstand severe cold. Trees that
are well cultivated and healthy resist the .cold to a greater
degree than the reverse, therefore the owners of groves, who
from experience know these itts, place much higher value on
their property than the uninitiated can. A grove that will
pay as many do, of ten acres, not planted twelve yearn, a
yearly income of five to six thousand dollars is valued very
There ane two lass of groves in the State-th trees that
are the old wild stocks budded with sweet ruit, and the
symmetEkJal transplanted trees. This latter grove adsts o( '
fner cultivation. In point of value the grove made from wil
d L 4,'*
stocks must be determined by the yield, expense for eae
and closeness of the trees. The thinning out of these wild
groves has been a source of great income to the owners.
Thousands of these large trees are sold to those who desire a
quick bearing tree. The transplanting of trees requires
skill and care. The extra cost of the trees and planting does
not compensate the grower in proportion to a smaller tree and
more of them-that is my experience. Therefore a tree with
a one, two, or three year bud, good nursery stock, well plant-
ed and cared for, are at all times to be recommended; one of
these large trees cost, with planting, some six dollars; for
this sum six trees of the two year buds can be bought and
planted, and trees that are well rooted-a great consideration.
In regard to transplanting a tree the last named clam, with
diligent care and good cultivation, the planter may expect a
fair crop in four or five years after planting, whilst with the
larger trees he will do no better, and perhaps lose several in
transplanting-yet he may not if the work is done by an
experienced planter. I give these fate from lose observa-
tion and experience. There are many disoouragements to be
met with in starting a grove. It must be understood, how-
ever, that this applies to the new-comer, but to the experi-
enoed the starting of a grove and bringing it into bearing is,
in reality, a simple affair; he takes advantage ofthe season
selects the right soil, situation, and follows the cultivation as
the circumstances necessitate, (this depends on the weather) it
would be impossible to lay down a rule, still there are certain
lines to follow. It seems every planter has his own particular
experience, and perhaps can show a fine grove as the result of
his management. Still, he may have made many mistakes
and have expended money enough to have twice the result.
He has succeeded, therefore clings to his ideas that may be
totally at variance with the experience of another planter,
upon a different soil and situation.
*. In the matter of soil, it is not at all infequent to find ham-
mock and pine lands of from three to four different surface .
soils and subsoils. That upon ten acres the difference of soil
ean be observed by the appearance of the trees, some will be
o n richer spots than others, or dryer, and to meet this peau-
liarity the grower reports to the use of frtilisr that are re
quired to bring the trees along in even growth, or nome will
stand still and others thrive. Thee i one peculiarity about
the orange tree, it will live for yeas and grow but little,
become bark-bound and sickly if let alone.
The most interesting part of their cultivation is the way
the trees respond to good treatment, this enconages the
grower, until the trees become an interesting object.
A variety of opinion eists a to the time of transplanting.
I have tried every month in the yer with good sauces, (bu6
We twee huhd mnot e eord wi soft pMwt hAn M ed), it was
not on a large sale, but with plenty of watering and eae the
trees have lived. About the middle of January to the middle
of February, just before the sap ries, may be oonszdred a
good season. If the trees are to be planted in a protected
spot, November and early part of December are safe months.
Very little, if any, of the growth need be out back, or
the sap will rise and make a tender tree liable to fret June
provided the weather is wet is also a good season; if dry, very
bad. In planting, use bottom soil around the roots, as it is
free uom humus, which is liable to dry quickly and thus kill
out the Abrous roots. From two to three pails of water
should be used to settle the soil around them; the root fbres
should be spread out and covered carehlly, so that the earth
may be packed close. Aftr the tree is planted a ring should
be hoed around it in the form of an- inverted seaer, leaving
a concave surhee that will hold water at each watering; a
coating of leaves or pine straw must be placed over the entire
hoeiog to prevent drying, or the ray of the hot sun scalding
the root. Tree planted in this way rarely die, in act, not
one per cent., (yet there may be ten, if a dry, hot season).
The loses may come fom other causes, although the trees
live they may not grow, whilst others wil This does not
apply to all lands that are planted, the loues ae more on
new landi than on older cultivated oae--the soil may be
dryer or wetter in spota, or the trees may not be oonstitution-
lly the same. Take one thousand trees and some willbe
more lgorous them ethers, therefore a pleater may have to I
tranplm t hi gove several tlmea before he omseda in makIe
ing it uniform. Only to the extent, perhape, of ive or ten
peP cent. of the amount originally planted. It is not the rule;
many groves have been made without this trouble. For
several months after transplanting the trees require little else
than watering-the cultivating does nat take plaoe until the
year after planting, and then the better the ealtivatkon the
more the trees grow.
Growers too frequently anticipate a return before it in pos-
ible to get it; whilst some approximate idea can be given as
tthe expected erop, no certainty can be laid out. It may
be from four to six year after the trees are planted that they
lighten up the expense of care given them, and begin to put
te balance on the other side
I am frequently surprised at the unreasonable expectations
of those who invest money in orange growing.
To begin with this subject, I will illustrate the outlay and
anticipated profit The investor buys land, has it planted
with trees, and pays for four years eare-say of 20 acree-
he total cost of land, trees and care for the four years, would
in all probability not be over $4,000-may be more or les,
cient to pay expenses, perhaps not less than five. The $4,000
would be about the cost even if it ran for five years. The
price I give is for first class hammock land; good pine land
would be from onethird lem, but the extra fertilizing
would bring the amount up to the coot of hammmock. With
this outlay of $4,000 the investor expects that he will get an
income of, at least, at the end of eight to ten years from the
time of planting, not les than three to five thousand dollars
per annum-in faet in two years get back all that was ex-
pended with the interest. In view of this many owners of these
groves are continually complaining of the expense, and at
every step try to curtail, and even let the trees suffer for want
of fertilizers, with the prospect of a fine property and income.
I can instance several groves that did not cost, the owners
being residents here, anything like the above sam. These
groves to-day ar giving the owners from three to four thou-
sand dollars per annum; but whilst waiting for the tees
to ber they were continually complaining of what a great
expense it was to them, not that they were needy. It can
only be compared to a want or share of ommon sense. Ten
there are others who will assert that groves do not pay, and
perhaps these very men began the cultivation of orange groves
without means to pay a day's help, yet to-day they have flhe
groves, homes, and every comfort. Where did it come from
if not from the grove? If they have not succeeded it must be
because the debit is larger than the credit for some imagined
There is one difficulty that is about controlled-that is, the
disposition of the crop. The Florida Fruit Exchange," an
organization formed for the purpose of distributing it to
points that have not been reached; this is one of the steps
towards a difficulty that seemed at one time possible. Many
growers have houses they ship to on consignment. These
houses receive the fruit, sell, deduct their commission-10 per
cent., freight and cartage, and remit the grower the net pro-
ceeds. This system works well in the hands of honest men,
and there are som; but the easy way hi which a new house
may start has brought many unreliable people into this busi-
ness whose only aim is to benefit themselves. The Fruit
Exchange makes it their business to select good houses; still,
there are instances of complaint against this association, but
there were two sides to the question-the fruit may have
been badly packed or the Exchange may have made a mis-
take; whatever has been done was possibly with good intent
on the Dart of the officers of the concern. It must be under-
stood that many men can grow oranges, but few can market
them unless assistance is at hand to dispose of their produc-
tion in a proper manner.
Whether the Fruit Exchange will solve the problem of dis-
tribution or whether it will come about from a natural outlet,
the efforts of this association are to be commended. There
are in the association some of the best informed men on the
growing and disposing of the fruit, and who are responsible,
reliable, and interested in the workings of the Exchange.
The orange boxes are made to a size that will hold 240
small oranges or 96 large ones, with a division in the middle,
half of either of these numbers being on each side, carefully
packed, and wrapped in paper. Machines are used to size up
the oranges, regular layers being made in packing. Boxes
when made up cost about 13c. each; paper for wrapping a
box of oranges about 5c. The orange box is really a neat
affair, light, strong, and cheap. When shipped they are
marked to signify the grade; a number indicates the quantity,
the name, number, or trade mark of the grower, and the
name of the consignee. The grade informs the latter of the
quality of the orange, it may be bright, medium, or russet.
In regard to the latter, the cause has been clearly defined by
Mr. H. G. Hubbard in his work on orange insects. Their
habits, classification, and destruction are so thoroughly
understood that the grower need not fear any trouble on
Of all the fruits raised in Florida, the orange will rank the
first in importance. The reason is, that in point of competi-
tion with any other States, Florida will in time outstrip the
production in quantity, quality, and price.
In regard to the impression of many as to over-production,
we will take into consideration the increasing demand. In
1831 England imported of oranges and lemons some 270,606
boxes, containing about 700 to the box; in 1865, 1,566,745
bushels; in 1876, 2,995,323 bushels, and in 1878, 3,533,781
bushels. Since the last named date the increased importa-
tions to Great Britain have been very large. In 1878, with a
population of 33,000,000, after the exportation of some of the
shipments, the estimated quantity consumed was 700,000,000
oranges and lemons.
In 1883 the importation into the United States, from all
sources was, of oranges, 280,862,160 from the Mediterranean.
(40 per cent. of which perished on the voyage); 33,150,363
from other ports (50 per cent. perishing); 16,000,000 from
Florida; and of lemons, 316,500,360 were imported (20 per
cent. perishing). From these figures we can easily see the
vast demand that is building up.
In 1886 and 1887, including all ports, about 1,200,000 boxes
of oranges, and 2,500,000 boxes of lemons, were.imported.
Florida sent' out of the State about 850,000 boxes in the
last above mentioned season.
These figures do not include the California or Louisiana
crop, which are not sufficient to be considered as very im.
portant factors in the question of large increasing supplies
enough to interfere with the crop from Florida, since the
California oranges are marketed at a season when the bulk
of the Florida crop is gone. The consumption of oranges is
rapidly on the increase. It is a question whether we can
keep up with the increase of population. Anticipating the
latter to be 80,000,000 in the year 1898, can we supply the
demand ten years from now, should it increase at the same
ratio as in the past years ?
The acreage of trees in good condition has not increased
as anticipated. Frost, poor cultivation, and lands unfit
for growing the tree are the cause of failures. The immens-
ity of the business that can be worked up will be due to the
supply, transportation, and distribution; no matter how
large the crop will be, it will find an outlet. The quality of
the fruit, and freshness, will create a large demand, rather
than the wilted, thick-skinned, pulpy foreigner. Prosper-
ous times for the State are anticipated. It will not be many
years hence when Florida will ship 5,000,000 boxes per annum.
For a more general account of the insects affecting the
orange, I refer my reader to Mr. H. G. Hubbard's work on
this subject, valuable, conclusive, and covering the entire
history of the insect pests, and their destruction by an emul-
sion of kerosene oil and whale oil soap.
In regard to the rust mite, if the grower will closely observe
his trees he will notice the difference between a healthy leaf
or branch and one that has a yellow green rusty appearance,
which is caused by the rust mite. I made particular observa-
tions during the past year, and I am quite satisfied with Mr.
Hubbard's opinion. Trees of all ages and sies are attacked
by the mite. I have alo noticed bright green ruit up to
June, but on the branches the mites would be very thick,
and then worked their way down over the stem of the
orange until they covered one half of the fruit, leav-
ing the underside as though a line had been laid out.
Their food evidently consists of the essential oil The young
are produced from eggs, that hatch in four or fve days in
summer, and this operation is not suspended in winter,
but retarded, lad considering the rapid rate at which
they can travel-from 10 to 12 feet per hour-they ca
easily overran a grove. My impression is that they have a
period when,thoy are in great abundance, followed by one of
less degree. I have noticed groves that were one year over-
run, and the next much lees, whilst another grove adjoining
would be overrun where it had been the reverse.
Upon a leaf examined in January, and upon an area of one
square inch, 4568 mites and eggs were counted, and upon the
entire upper surface of the leaf 68,590, whilst upon the under
side of the leaf the number was estimated at 25,000,'therefore
the mites and eggs on a single leaf amounted to abbut
90,000. Can it be wondered why oranges are rusty after this
army has been over the skin and extracted its oil. Instead
of deteriorating the quality of the frit, except in appear-
ance, it is improved in its keeping qualities.
Whenever the mites overran a tree it presents. a dry, dusty
appearance, and yellow, sickly leaves; such trees will fertil-
ised are soon restored to color by the flow of sap.
The seale insects begin at the lower limbs of the tree and
work their way upwards, destroying the small twigs and
branches in their course. The grower who gives his trees at-
tention observes this, and at once proceeds to arrest their
progress. This is more difficult to do if the tree is dormant,
therefore it is necessary to resort to a fer er (liquid man-
are) to give the tree a quick flow of sap; this with the p-
plication of the emulsion will destroy the entire list of scale
insects, and thereby ensure a healthy tree. It is very little
use to depend on one application without the other. In my
experience I have taken trees in hand that looked hopeless-
at the present time the trees are healthy and robust.
In regard to the rust mite, several growers claim to destroy
these by an application of lime, sulphur, eto
Again, in regard to irrigation, there are different methods
pursued. One that is more generally applied is soaking the
soil at intervals. Groves that are planted on thin, deep,
sandy sals would, no doubt, be greatly benefited by such
practice It must be understood that where the soil is selected
by experienced cultivators no such practice is necessary; the
yellow clay at no great distance below the surface holds mois-
ture for months, in fot, is a reservoir for the roots to pene-
trate. In experiments made in dry seasons, I have
been surprised to find the clay cold and moist at two, three,
and four feet below the surface. The peculiarity of this clay,
its tenacity, increases with its depth, which enables the roots
to penetrate deeply. I do not extol this class of land beyond
any other. I have applied the remarks to lands that are high
and dry as there are many lands that are low and moist and
yet safe from frost, either by water or forest protection.
In observations made during the nights when I anticipated
a very low temperature, I found that trees on low open
ground, if the day had been bright and warm, would be
covered with moisture (dew from the radiation of heat) at 12
o'clock midnight, which would be frozen into a glaze front
two to six a. m. Trees in this condition, more especiay young,
tender rovwth, and leaves, wilt down and die before the bright
morning sun. I have found that syringing with cold water
before the sun rises, will, if the freeze is not too severe, and
the prospect of a rise in the thermometer, save the growths
and leaves. Again I have found where the trees are on high
lands with partial protection, that the in periods of time before
named the trees would be dry the entire night and morn;
this dry condition is well known to be advantageous to the
trees on old nights.
In regard to planting budded or sweet trees, if the land is
high and dry and the cultivator wishes a quiok return, plant
budded trees. It is a good plan to plant some of each, may
half. Plant sweet trees inie more exposed places. I.once
observed a budded and sweet tree side by side, each about
the same age-sixteen years old. In size the sweet tree was
majesti, and symmetrical hi form; whilst the budded tree was
as wide as high. In bearing the sweet tree bids fair to outstrip
its companion. Thbse trees were exposed to winds and cold,
were pet.btly healthy. The sweet seedling tree may be
relied upon for producing as fine a fruit as the parent tree,
and even better. To be certain of a good variety it 1 well to
avoid seed from fruit grown in proximity to bitter sweet or
sour trees. I have known instances of hybrids; it is not
As to the hardiness of the orange tree, many of the old
inhabitants assert the trees are better able to withstand
cold, that they are becoming aoolimated, and from their
observations the present generation of trees are stronger. It is
a fact worth consideration that trees that are raised in open
ground will endure several degrees more cold than those
raised in a lose, protected spot.
The importation of oranges will cease; Florida will produce
oranges cheap enough to sell at a good profit, and low enough
to create a large demand. We maynauticipate a period when
a box oforanges will go to New York for 20e., and then will be
the time when Florida will shine forth in 411 her glory. One
suooeesfhl enterprise will build up another, and those'who
have built it up will look back with pride and honor upon
the difculties they have enoountered- ese arew h oe sr of
the Skte, who will have demonstrated one ofFlorida's resources
midst difficulties, losses and inexperience, that required
great faith, and I trust all will be rewarded who have under-
taken this interesting branch of horticulture in the face of
prejudice and ignorance of our noble fruit.
The odoriferomsness of the orange tree is due to three dis-
tinct oils that are extracted from the flowers, leaves, and
rind. From the flowers we have orange flower water, the
manufacture of which is carried on very extensively in France
and Italy. The bitter sweet orange flowers yield the greatest
fragrance, and from them the well known product neroli
oil is obtained; even the small unripe oranges are distilled,
and used for the same purpose as the orange flower water.
Oil is also extracted from the leaves of the bitter orange.
The oils contained in the rind are stomatio and carminative
and excellent as a tonic when used in bitter infusions. The
rind is used in connection with confectionery, also in the
manufacture of marmalade, a healthful preserve and tonic ;
when properly manuftotured can be eaten by the delicate in
health to great advantage.
All cultivators have their own methods, but they are not
all suooeesl. The diferet classes of soils, situation and
proteoton, requires different modes' ot treatment, for one col"
tivator whose experience may have been upon one clam of
soil, and under eiroumstenoe that the treatment of the trees
necessitated more or lew skill, that he oan attempt to in-
struct another cultivator cannot be expected; take fr example,
heavy hammock largely made up of blue elay, tenadous, and
at every long dry spell becomes hard and full of cracks;
would it be reasonable to plow this land and let the soil set
in hard baked lumps of earth? I know of groves made upon
this soil that have not been plowed after the first two years
the trees were planted, and are kept in perfect order by the
hoe; thee trees have grown finely, and yield large rops.
Thi soil would yield 80 to 40 bushels of corn to the acre.
We will take the brown, loamy soil, or grey hammook; here
we have a dryer soil, which requires little else than periodial
plowings to break up the mass of fibrous roots and bury the
deeaing vegetable matter, whilst the cultivation of the trees
mst be earried ut with the hoe. This edas of land is beae
Aed around the trees by the application of hydrate of lime
chopped in with the hoe. The trees upon this, as with pine
land, develop a large amount of fibrous roots. When this
loamy hammock soil becomes thoroughly settled, in bet,
peaked, the tree grow with astonishing rapidity; it may be
rom two to three years before the soil settles-it depends on
Pine Iands of the firstelass, being easier to clear and plow,
require about the same treatment as light hammock; the
tes grow off more rapidly than in the latter named soil, and
as with all other soils, a stimulating rtiliser must be used
to keep the trees. up to a standard of health. Whilst upon
pine lands of the seboad class, light, sand pine, high and dry,
the oest of fertlisers will redue the pro t of aclture and,
in ho, disappoint the grower. Therefore, it is advisable to
pjaour good sol; in the end the cost of fertilizer would
amount to moe than the extra cost of the land to ooh an
emtet beyond calculation; for if the lemets neossary for
the production of wood, leaves and frit ar wanting, they
mast be added,. perhaps at great expense. The ashs of the
r1pp weastitot t.
Potash . 20.15 Soda . 10.22
Lime .. . 80.12 Magnesia .....9.02
Phosphori Acid. 20.04 Sulphuric Acid 1.08
Silicious Aoid 2.82 Iron and other residue .62
We can easily see the necessity of feeding the trees beyond
the supply obtained in the soil. The ashes fom the trunk,
branches and leaves constitute:
Potash . 14.15 Soda . 16.67
Lime ... 81.7 Magnesia . 10.64
Phoephorio Acid. 18.82 8ulphurio Aid. 4.19
Silicious Aoid. 2.82 Iron and other reidue .44
Hence the reason why good lands are necessary to produce
fine trees and fruit without the aid of expensive fertilizers.
Soils that contain carbonate of lime supply the soda and lime;
next must be a large supply of potash, in decayed vegetable
matter, from which we obtain the phosphoric acid, sulphuric
acid and other organic matter. Iron enters little into the
composition of tree or fruit, the use of iron as fertilizer sours
the soil, and can only be corrected with hydrate of lime; still
a small quantity of iron is beneficial.
In regard to fertilizer, unless a reliable commercial fertil-
izer can be obtained, it is better, if possible, to resort to well-
rotted manure. We can see from the following constituents
the composition. The chemical properties depend large-
ly upon the food animals are fed upon, therefore
I do not give the analysis; this would not apply
to every quantity of manure, but it is safe to presume if the
latter is made up as it should be, of soluble organic matter,
from whcih we obtain nitrogen, silica, phosphate of lime,
lime, magnesia, potash, soda chloride of sodium, sulphuric
acid, carbonic acid gas, and the oxides of iron and alumina.
With well-rotted stable manure we have'given the soil all the
elements necessary. I have made many experiments with
various frtiliers, but in no case have I observed the effect so
decided as with rotted manure. It would not, perhaps, be
within the reach of every cultivation to procure this article,
and it is not necessary upon lands that are full of humus, but
it s on soils that have been long cultivated in orange trees.
Wbre it isimposlble to procure the rotted manure insffi-
cient quantities, leaves, or humus, with the aid of chemicals
will no doubt supply the want.
From researches I have made as to the fertilizers used
generally abroad, guano and the manure of horses, goats, and
sheep are used largely, supplemented with irrigation. This
is practiced in Italy, Sicily, Spain, Turkey, Syria, Morocco,
Mexico, California, and partially in Jamaica.
The soil and climate of Florida is certainly more congenial
to the growth :of the orange than almost any other country
that is near the markets that demand the fruit. In regard to
Jamaica the orange ripens and is packed at a season of great
heat, and under these circumstances the fruit is more liable
to decay in transit; this applies to many other orange grow-
ing regions; whilst the fruit can be grown, it is diffiult to
market it in good condition.
The general crop ripening as it does in the winter of Florida,
and more especially in the months of October, November and
December, at a time when the seasons are dry, cool and clear,
the fruit perfects its juices to the extent that a Florida grown
orange has become known for its delicious, vinous juice. The
sandy soils are preferred by cultivators; the reasons are,
these soils retain moisture where clay is near the surboe, are
not subject to being baked in hot weather, and attract mois-
tore in cooling down at night it stirred up in warm weather.
INSECTS AFFEECTING THE ORANGE TREE.
We may consider the various opinions and experience of
cultivators, in regard to insects that effect orange trees, only
of value when they Bave a thorough knowledge and control of
these pests, thereire I will endeavor to*explain some of the
useless methods that have been applied, in some instances sno-
oeeefl, in none certain. Why? Because to master an eemy
you must know his vulnerable part and be able to destroy
quickly and oertain.1 [It would be difficult for me to give the
list of various nostrums that have been tried, some with partial
suesems, others with apparent suooese, and o thert the seriom
injury of the trees. The peculiar conformation of male insects
renders it necessary to use such means that will reach the
vital parts and destroy the perfect insect or its egg. The in-
sects have their periods. of propagation, and at these seasons
tlfey are more easily kept down, therefore it is better to close-
ly observe if any insects are on the trees. If so, at once resort
to the syringe and prevent their increase. They do not spread
with such rapidity that they are difficult to control, nor do
they attack the tree in a mass, but begin on the lower
branches. It is then they must be at once worked on. My
experience is they increase more in Feburary, March, August
and September. At one time it was presumed guano water
syringed on the trees was a certain remedy. Turpentine,
syrup, soap, Potaeh aud a long list of mixtures have been
tried to no purpose. Until the perfected emulsion by Prof. C.
V. Riley and Mr. H. G. Hubbard, were adopted after a
thorough scientific series of experiments were made. It was
fully demonstrated that if the formula was made upproperly
and applied as directed, there was do doubt of the destruction
of the scale and its eggs. These experiments were not the
work of uncertainty, but ganged to a degree of nicety that
they were enabled to decide how strong the emulsion must be
to utterly destroy the scale and not injure the tree. These
experiments and the result are invaluable to the orange culti-
vator, and have given to the State an incalculable benefit,
that is only appreciated by those who know its value.
It is boldly asserted by many that if the trees are kept in a
fine state of cultivation they will never be attacked with
scale-this is an absurdity. Any one with the least idea of
tree culture must understand that scale insects are a local
trouble to the tree, and are in no way connected with the
cultivation. The insect attacks the vigorous and sickly tree
alike. Many let their trees become so badly infested that
they resort to pruning and trust to a new lot of branches,
believing this to be a cure, while it is only cultivating new
foliage for the insect to attack-an absurdity in the extreme.
Scale insects are prepared to settle upon any tree, no matter
in what condition it may be, and what is remarkable, they
seem to thrive, in fact, develop with ammonisted manures.
In an experiment I made this summer, 1888, by penaig iame
20 chickens in a small clump of trees, the entire lot of ree
were covered in three months with long scale-two appliea-
tions of emulsion destroyed them. Orange trees grown near
by a stable or poultry house are nearly always inte with
Let those who depend upon a high state of cultivation and
ignore any other means for the destruction or prevention of
scale, anticipate suooess, they are sure to be odavinoed in the
end. I have found many persons who have applied vaee
to the serious injury of their trees. It was the appliatien,
perhaps, of some ingredient that was not regulated'a-eording
to any degree of certainty as to whether it killed the sale or
injured the tree. When kerosene emulsion is made and
applied properly, no injurious effects follow, but a certain
destruction of the scale. Then others presume that the use
of certain kinds of fertilizers will destroy scale; it may make
the trees grow thrifty, but it does not destroy the insect
Experiments have been made with sulphate of iron, a much
as six pounds to a tree, raked in. It is well known that the
continued application of slphate of iron is injurious to vege-
tation, and if so, why is it not to the orange tree? Trees so
treated were not entirely cleared of the scale; there is no
assurance they would be. It must be highly injurious to apply
every second or third year rom three to six pounds of sul-
phate of iron to destroy the seale, therefore this method is
unreasonable and unsound. Then others have resorted to
boring holes in the trees and killing with sulphur, or calo-
mel, made claim for this method, all of which are poisonous
in the end. Sulphate of iron (or gree vitriol) contains "28.9
per cent. of of sulphnsio aoold, 288 protoxide of iron and 44
water," Where are the destructive agencies to the scale in
the above analysis on hAwrtislng paries? If there s a
large amount of orMgai matter in the soil, the sulphurlo acid
would soon destroy this, ad the ha 'reader the soil sour.
So much Ar this theory.
.I have merly give n an oUte of the various trils made
without rnad to heir value. I atta noting to thm hut
draw atisoh to those who wh to omaseed in destroyng
scale, to adopt the only safe, efficient and satisfactory remedy.
Kerosene emulsion, a brief outline of the scale insects and
their general character, will enable the cultivator to recognize
them before they become numerous enough to require a
MrTILAsPIs CITrICOLA. (Rack.)--. Scales on orange leaf natural size. za. Scale
of female, dorsal view. ib. Scale of female with ventral cale and eggs. ic. Scale of
TATIA P A T.- Scale of Femle Scale of mae-enlared.
ARTATmrIA PanoArnA; CourT.--a. Scale of Petnale. 3b. Sale of Ma-entarged.
MYTILAsPis GLOVUII. (Rzbt.)--. Scales on orange leaf natural sise. jw. Scale of
female dorsal view. ab. Scale of male. Jr. Scale of female with ventral scale and
"Mytilapie Citricola (Packard), to which the name 'purple
scale' may be given, is somewhat larger than Mytilaspis
Gloverii, which it resembles in general form, and with which
it is commonly confounded. Itis, however, usually dark pur-
pie in color, individual scale varying to red brown. Like the
long scale it is found upon the twigs and branches, and it is
apt to infest the lemon citron and those varieties of orange
which have large cells, Tangerine, etc.
"Paratoria Pergandii (Comstock), is small thin scale nearly
circular .in outline. In color it so closely resembles the bark
that it very often escapee notice, in fact many persons whose
groves are suffering from the attacks of this scale are unaware
of its presence. It infests by preference the trupk and larger
branches, and to these it generally confines itself, until every
portion of their surface is thickly coated and the young bark
lice can no longer find places to plant themselves. It is also
frequently seen upon the fruit. The young often form their
scales underneath or over the mother, and are found pilled
upon one another in a manner never seen in the other scales.
From their resemblance toa coating of fine chaff or bran upon
the trunk of the trees they are called the 'chaff scale.'
"Mytlaspie Gloverii, (Pack.) is the most destructive, while
it is the most readily destroyed. The purple scale is, in my
experience, rarer tho' altogether not less injurious than the
long scale to the trees which it infest. It is somewhat more
difficult to kill than the latter. The chaff scale (P. Pergandii)
is hardly less common than the long scale and is very frequent-
ly associated with it.
"On the tree it is decidedly themost difficult to exterminate,
owing in part at least to is habit of piling or lapping one over
the other. Except upon very young trees, it seldom does per-
manent injury, and is much less to be feared than the other
two species. Its thinner scale renders it liable to the attacks
of enemies to a much greater extent than the Mytilapis
scales, and they often cause its complete disappearance from a
The foregoing particulars are by Mr. H. G. Hubbard, who
has made a clohe study of these insects. Their habits and
propogation have also been fully explained by Profs. Glover,
Packard and Comstock. Their periods of incubation, growth
and migration are more rapid during the' warmer seasons of
the year. The winters of Florida are not severe enough to de-
stroy them or suspend their increase for any length of time,
that would be particularly noticeable. The horny covering,
similar to the shell of a snail, protects the insect from any
ordinary wash, but is not invulnerable to kerosene emulsion.
The searching properties of the former are well known and
when applied with the soap enters under the covering and de-
stroys the insect without injuring the tree in the least. I
have found that 24 hours after syringing the insects drop off
the leaves and on microscopical examination they were dead.
The scales are subject to many insect enemies. The black
"lady bug" ohten observed at work on the treat is busy devour-
ing -the iale. Then there ae mites who feed on the
young and eggs. There are also minute winged fies who
pierce the scale to deposit a single egg, this in turn becomes
a grub that feeds upon the scale insect; after this insect leaves
the shell the mites enter and find a home. The aid of the
numerous enemies keep the scale insects somewhat in check.
There are many objections raised as to the cost of applying
the emulsion, this can only be for want of knowledge as to
the cost of material and time for application. I will begin
with the outlay necessary to carry on the operation:
One syringe, (only buy the best; brass tubes, tinkered up
without valves are useless.) Brass pump, simple and effective,
cost $6,00; cost of two gallons of best keroene, 30cts; one
half pound of best whale oil soap, 3cts; one gallon of water.
This will make when diluted 27 gallons. One half gallon
will be suffioent for a good size tree, one pint for a small one.
I give from two to three applications. If three the cost for
the larger size tree would be about, 4cts., this would include
time in application and making up the emulsion. Trees so
treated twice each year can be kept perfectly clean. I claim
trees should not be allowed to become in such a condition
that its necessary to have a big affair on hand to attend to
cleanse them. It may only be necessary to treat a few trees
in a grove, therefore the expense would be very small.
The emulsion is made uD as follows: Two gallons of best
quality kerosene oil; one gallon of water, and one half pound
best whale oil soap. Boil the soap in the water until it is
disolved then pour this in the vessel containing the oil; place
the pump in the former and pump backward and forward un-
til the whole mass becomes a creamy substance. Put it away
in a bottle and use it when necessary; add to one pint nine
pints of cold water, churn it through the pump before apply-
ing to the trees, this should be done in cloudy weather in the
evening, at intervals of every ten days. March, June and
September the applications are more effective; it is their propo-
gating season. It is not advisable to apply the emulsion dur-
ing winter, after the middle of November to the first part of
February. I have injured trees and killed them during the
experiments made in cold weather. *
The application with the syringe must be thorough, that tes.
leaves may be wetted on both sides. Therefore the noszel
should break up the emulsion in a fine spray. I prefer
syringing the trees three times. Mr. Hubbard remarks one
application is all that is necessary. I hold there is noth-
ing like plenty of a good thifig, and that is just what I want
the scales to have. The evening is considered the best
time to apply the emulsion, and in cloudy weather at inter-
vals of every ten days.
THE RUST MITE.
The speculations and theories as to rusted oranges were all
set aside in the discoveries made by Mr. Hubbard, who, by
aid of a compound microscope, proved the rustiness to be the
work of an insect, so small as to compare with gold dust in
size and color. The impression of many growers is that the
rust mite is only to be found upon the fruit. It is not so.
The mites can be found on trees of all sizes-observe the
yellow twigs and limbs. This season I particularly noticed
their migration from the limbs and leaves of a bearing tree,
their gradual descent until they covered the fruit. During
their first settlement I found they were easily rubbed off, but
after the fruit is half grown the gummy exuvise seems to be
set or hardened, therefore for the destruction of the mite and
to ensure bright fruit it is necessary to use means that are
My observations confirm Mr. Hubbard's opinion, that trees
whose foliage are of bright green the oranges will be bright.
I have trees that on one side the foliage is bright green and
the oranges are clear and free from mites; therefore we can
see it is in the hands of the cultivator to cleanse the trees by
means of a solution that will eradicate them.
The length of the adult mite is 0.14mm (5-1,000 inch)
therefore it is too small to be observed with the naked eye.
In hot weather the eggs hatch in four or five days, and they
are not entirely arrested by frost. Their food consists of the
essential oil of the leaves or fruit, and their rate of progress
is quite rapid amounting to some 10 to 12 feet per hour. One
square inch that was under observation, and from this and
calculating the size of the leaf, not less than 60,020 mites
were on one side, and taking the under surface as well as the
upper the number reached 7&,000. The mites do not like a
hot sun for any length of time, but prefer a shade, avoiding
dark shades, and we may observe the decided rings of rust
around the fruit, showing that the insects have moved as snn
and light troubled them. A dry season is an advantage to
the grower, on the following one the fruit is usually bright.
It is well known that rusty fruit keeps better than bright.
The effects of rust tend to give the fruit a keeping quality,
therefore the fruit is in no way deteriorated from its outside
appearance. I have obtained as good a price for russets as
for brights, when I did not expect it. Many cultivators have
claimed, as with scale insects, that they succeeded in keeping
their fruit bright by means of fertilizers. What can fertilizers
have to do with the rust insect ?
Mr. Hubbard observed that where groves are on moist land
the oranges are brighter, and also when the fruit is shaded.
Many solutions have been tried, but none so effective
as sulphur. In experiments I have made this sea-
son I have decided that a solution made up of half pound of
best whale oil soap, half-pound of sulphur (flowers), boiled in
one gallon of water for one hour, and if much reduced add
water enough to make one gallon. When used make a paste
with wheaten flour that will be free from lumps, and not too
thick to pass through a syringe; to every gallon of the paste
add one pint of the sulphur and soap mixture and apply with
a syringe at any time the mites are observed. It is better to
apply at certain seasons, soon after the fruit has set, also in
April, May and June, but not in the coldest part of winter.
THw ORANOl RUST MrIT.-a, dorsal view; lateral view-enlarged. The dot in
circle indicates natural size. c, leg; d, egg, with embryo just about to hatch-more
Some years ago I was warned by an old settler of the
serious trouble that might be expected from this so-called
disease, or as he termed it foot-rot. I at once took advant-
age of this caution, and determined upon, trying my skill
upon any trees that might become affected under my obser-
vation. I give my experience partially from observation and
practice. That it only attacks the sweet trees is well known,
and then only severely on wet lands. I have examined
affected trees upon the latter, in nearly every instance the
tree was on the heavy blue clay, which retarded the develop-
ment of the fibrous root system, causing a large quantity of
sap to collect at the crown roots in its return. This
with continued moisture produced a sourness that would
result in fermentation and a destruction of the bark. I have
never treated trees upon this class of soil, but I have on light
hammock, with perfect success. I have had the trees dug up
that were four and five years old and slightly affected, and in
every instance I found there was a want of root to balance
Trees affected with gum disease should have the bark out
around the part where the gum exudes, as much as necessary,
to the unaffected part; then apply, as follows, a mixture of
coal tar made into a paste by the addition of flowers of sul-
phur, heat together (but not enough to ignite), and apply
warm to the diseased part. Examine the tree a few weeks
after the application, should any gum exude in a fresh spot,
treat this as before. I. have found this a perfect remedy on
Many who lose trees from this cause forget that the trouble
lies in the root. It is really a want of circulation of the sap.
If the tree is not growing above ground, it is below, and if
it is dying back the roots are dormant. The only remedy I
have found effectual is to cut back to the sound wood, dig
out the soil around the roots, and re-pack with a rich oom-
post, water liberally with liquid manure, and mulch. This
re-acts upon the sap and gives the tree new life, arrests the
progress of decay, for such is the die-back.
COST, CARE AND RETURN.
Much has been said and written in regard to cost and
return, and there are so many circumstances that may
arise after the first cost before the return comes. I have
given, as follows, as clear an outline as possible that will give
the intending planter an idea of all the details connected with
orange culture to the time of bearing.
Whether budded, grafted or sweet seedling trees are used
the cultivation is the same-that is, concentrate all your
labor and fertilizers about the trees. It will be some bew
years before the roots occupy the space between the free
Out back to healthy wood all dead and diseased brianhe. *
Trees that languish require liquid fertilizer, several applica-
tio'l until the" sap rises. With healthy trees the bark is an
olive green color. Mulching around trees with leaves after the
rains in February prevents the roots from drying out too
rapidly before the rainy season of June, and also prevents
grass from growing around the trees. A sprinkling of hydrate
of lime on the leaves reduces them to plant food in a few
months; grass or swamp muck can be used equally as well.
Watch closely for scale insects and syringe at once on dis-
covery, but not in winter if there i a proper of cold weather.
Sweet seedling trees can be bought from 15c. to 40O. each;
budded sour trees from 25c. to $1 each; grafted trees from
40c. to $1.50 each. In regard to the latter it has been asserted
that they do not succeed as well, but I have seen fine trees
produced through grafting in a much shorter time than with
buds. The budding is performed much quicker, therefore it
is preferred by nursery men. I have tested both plans, and
thus far I find many others agree with me in preference for
After the land is prepared, and this must be thoroughly
done, plant the trees, if possible, in November, where there is
partial protection, and in January where there is none; also
in June. If a wet season sets in put plenty of mulch around
the trees; never let them dry out. In planting use
enough water to pack the soil firmly. Do not disturb the
mulch for at least six months, unless it is put back again.
Depend more on watering than hoeing. If the trees are
small and in exposed land surround them in November with
three pine tops, to shade them and break the cold wind; do
not let them touch the tree, but place securely in a position
inclining slightly towards the tree. I have tried every plan,
and this is the only one I found really successful; it surrounds
the trees and yet gives light and air. The protection is
required on all sides-one from the morning sun, and the
others from north and west winds. Let trees grow low, and,
if possible, never trim up the lower branches to leave the
trunk exposed. It frequently happens after a freeze the hot
sun that follows will scald the bark so that one half or quar-
ter will be destroyed; the lower branches prevent this by
shading from the hot sun and cold. It is natural for these
lower branches to grow, therefore it is unwise to cut them off.
Feed the trees as highly as possible, if you wish a quick
After the trees are planted, a good plan is to:plaoe kerosene
barrels in the rows at every twenty trees, and this admits of
watering that number of trees; after eaeh watering the bar-
rels must be filled as soon as possible, that'they may be
ready for use at any time, and when the trees begin to grow,
the same barrels can be used for liquid manure. It is perhaps
rather an expensive process, but I question if it is in the end.
My experience is that it repays the cost. I know few would
adopt it for reason of the expense. I never think ofexpesne
in an orange grove. A close policy will bring a poor, slow
result. I do not claim it is necessary to follow the plan I
have laid down, I suggest it from experience, and know that
such a method pays in the end, every root gets the benefit of
liquid manure at one, but do not apply except in protected
places after August. A budded tree begins to bear from one
to three years old from bud. This depends upon the class of
bud and variety. I prefer a tree not to bear too early. There
is no advantage in a small tree being covered with fruit; this
applies about the same to the grafted tree.
A sweet seedling begins to bear from 6 to 8 years old and
increases largely each year, and at sixteen years old bear
3,000 to 4,000 oranges.
Where the planter is entirely ignorant of setting orange
trees, by no means attempt it, unless there is a total dis-
regard as to losses or bad setting. It costs less in the end to
employ experienced planters.
The expense of bringing a grove into bearing depends upon
seasons, soil and the amount of labor devoted to the trees.
Take it per tree, outside the purchase of land and fencing, I
put it, with high class culture and fertilizers on hammock
land, at about $100 per acre for the first five years, i.e. dur-
ing this entire period. It may be made more or less. I give
this amount where the cultivator gives his sole attention to
the trees and pays for the labor. There are many non-resi-
dents who have not the slightest knowledge of on orange tree,
who'would consider this a large sum to pay out, but they do
not take into consideration that after the first five years their
expenses are lessened, and that they establish a property that
will pay a handsome revenue, that increases with age. To
expect much from an orange tree without expense is fallacy,
and those who have devoted their time, energies and capital
to the making of grove are deserving of its profits.
It is well when planting to set out a few extra trees in
a nursery to use if necessity should arise by losses occurring
in the grove. Procure trees that are grown on soil similar to
that which you will plant on. Trees from heavy clay ham-
mock are devoid of fibrous roots, and are more difficult to
make grow off; small thrifty trees are to be preferred to old
bark-bound stocks. It is not necessary to buy poor trees,
there is a large supply of superior trees throughout the State.
Plant a little above the level of soil after the land is prepared.
Trees budded when four years old bear fruit from two to four
years from budding, and at five years bear a paying crop, and
increase in quantity rapidly each year. Trees one and a half
inches in diameter with a dormant bud have yielded four to
five boxes to the tree, six years from transplanting.
In conclusion, the reader must bear in mind the variety of
soil, situation and latitude are to be considered. The in-
tensity of cold is modified in the southern counties, as it
naturally would be in a distance of six hundred miles north
It would be unreasonable to support a theory that one
section of country possesses superior advantages over another.
Let it be understood that Florida, as a State, can produce the
orange to perfection, but there are certain sections that are
preferable as to soils. I have observed some pine lands
superior to hammock and some of the latter superior to the
former. The surface soil throughout the State varies greatly,
even in a few acres we 'find three and four varieties of soil;
this applies more to hammock than to pine lands. In the
matter of forest protection, as the young trees become estab-
lished the forest growth can be girdled, very little injury is to
be apprehended from the falling branches, which can be
gathered up; the trunks are easily cut down by experienced
choppers without endangering the trees. Too much forest
protection prevents the trees from growing. In the cultiva-
tion of an orange grove, it must be understood, it is high-class
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PACKING t SHIPPING.
A box of oranges when packed should appear thus:
GOODPRICE & C0.,
FROM 0. HARDWORKER,
.......--- .--- w--- .' I__
The bottom of box when packed is really the top when
opened. A more regular layer of fruit can be put in at first
than when finished. The grower can put a number on the
box instead of the name, provided the commission merchant
has the number on his books. Trade marks are also used,
from an alligator to an Indian. The names Fancy, Choice,
Bright, Russet, Mandarin, Tangerine, Navel, etc., are used to
class quality or kind.
The auction system of selling oranges has been tried with
success. In the end this may become the best method. It
ensures for the grower a quick return from his consignment.
The old system of consigning on commission works well when
the grower succeeds in sending to an honest man.
The size.of standard box is 12x12x27 inches, with a parti-
tion in the centre, around which three straps are nailed;
these require making before putting on. The wrapping,
packing, strapping and marking must be done neatly and
correctly or it injures the sale.
Sort the varieties correctly as to color, bright or rusty, and
mark on the left hand corner of the box; if mandarin, tanger-
ine or navel, etc.
All under 128 size are marked A.
From 128 to 138, inclusive, are marked B.
From 146 to 160, inclusive, are marked C.
From 176 to 200, inclusive, are marked D.
All over 200 are marked E.
Bend letter of advice, stating the route shipped by, also
number of boxes and class, to the parties you ship to. If the
shipper desires to ship through the Exchange, write A. M.
Ives, Esq., Jacksonville, Fla., for particulars.
The fruit must be cut from the tree with a knife or scissors;
the stem must be cut close to the orange. In handling avoid
bruising. After the fruit is picked it should be put in a cool,
dry place for at least 24 hours before packing. Sort the sizes
carefully with the improved machines now in use; there is no
difficulty, they are perfectly automatic. Each orange after
sorting is wrapped in tissue paper and packed in rows.
The packing in even layers, to the inexperienced, is some-
what tedious. After the oranges are sorted by a sorting ma-
chine they are laid in the boxes after being neatly wrapped
in tissue paper. Box contains
96.-Three rows of oranges, 16 in each row.
128.-Four rows, 16 in each row.
18 Three rows, 17 in each row;
1. One row, 18 in each row.
SThree rows, 18 in each row;
14. One row, 19 in each row.
160.-Four rows, 20 in each row.
First row, 18 in row;
Second row, 17 in row;
176. Third row, 18 in row;
Fourth row, 17 in row;
Fifth row, 18 in row.
200.-Five rows, 20 in each row.
The following list of oranges and lemons cultivated through-
out the State, besides many others not generally known:
Acadia, Acis, Botelha, Bell, Beaches' No. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5,
Beaches' Variegated, Beaches' Acme, China Sweet, Cunning-
ham, Centennial, Du Roi, De Bary, Dummitt, Exquisite, Ear-
ly Oblong, Giant-Gigantezea Brazilura, Harts' Tardiff-Non-
pareil, Honey-L arango mel do Brazil, Homosassa, Italian,
King, Jaffa, Kumquat, Long, Mediterranean Sweet, Gary's
Mediterr in -an Sweet, Mandarin, Magnum Bonum, Maltese
Blood, Majorca, Malta Oval, Mangoosten (Eichelberger),
Madam Vinous, 'Navel Imperial, Navel Washington, Navel
Atwood, Nonpareil, Osceola, Old Vini, Phillip's Bitter
Sweet, Parson Brown, Peerless, Pineapple, Queen, Selecta,
Star Calyx, Spanish Early, St. Michael, Sweet Seville, St.
Michael's Egg, Satsuma, Stark's Seedless, Tangerine Dancy,
Tangerine (several varieties), Tangerona-Tangerona Brasil-
ura, Velvet Peel (Eichelberger), White-Laraga Branoe Bra-
The Genoa, Villa Franca, Bellair Premium, Eureka, Lamb,
McGahagin, Bijou, Sicily, Lisbon, August Lemon, Pomelo,
and several other varieties.
THE PEACH AND ITS CULTIVATION.
This delicious fruit is raised and in great abundance where
properly cultivated and fertilized, and unless this is done the
trees grow slowly and produce a small bitter fruit. The best
class of peach lands do not for the first few years after plant-
ing require the same amount of fertilizer that is required on
a thin, sandy soil, and in planting on the latter it is highly
necessary to put a good compost of well rotted stable manure
and loam, about half a bushel; or if not convenient, half a
barrel of swamp muck; on this put a layer of some three
inches of top soil and then plant the tree, after cutting off all
side branches. If a small tree, its appearance would then be
about the same as a walking stick, two feet high from esurfce
of soil. Trim off all broken or tangled roots, pack the dirt
in with the hands, pour water around to fill up every space,
level off top soil, then press around the tree with the foot;
this makes the soil firm; rake, level and put some mulch,
but not close to the trunk. Trees planted from first part of
December to the middle of January grow off better than any
other season. To be certain of not losing any trees through
transplanting do not plant after the time fixed by all practi-
cal planters. Keep all side shoots off as they appear,
except three or four that will start near the top of the stock,
these must be let grow for main branches. In June pinch
these back, when the tree will branch again from the three
or four left, and in September pinch back again; the tree will
then make a head. The next season shorten in the branches
after the blossoms have set fruit, this throws the strength
into the fruit. Blossom branches may be known by the
double buds, viz.: two little spurs on the branch laying along-
side each other. The trees must be kept free from grass or
weeds; avoid deep plowing, cut back after first year half of
the year's growth, that your trees will make a head and not
"To prevent the attack of the borer, hill up the tree in
April and level off again in November, the hard bark of the
tree will prevent the insect from puncturing it and if any
eggs are by chance deposited they can easily be removed."
In regard to the variety for profitable shipment I cannot do
better than draw the attention to the remarks by Mr. P. J.
Berckmans, whose authority in matters' of this kind are
a guarantee that such a recommendation cannot be over-
looked. Mr. Berckmans says of the Peen-to:
"This remarkable peach originated in our nursery from
pits sent from Australia in 1869. Although very hardy here,
the tree has produced fruit but very seldom, owing to its
habit of blooming in January. In Florida, however, this
tree has succeeded admirably. In Pensacola it produced the
enormous amount of 1,200 peaches upon a three year old
tree. In Florida this peach, together with the Honey, suc-
ceeds when the other varieties of the common or Persian
strain prove of little or no value. Fruit 2 to 21 inches in
diameter, very flat, skin pale greenish white, with a beauti-
ful mottled red cheek, peels readily at maturity, flesh very
finely grained, juicy and dissolving, with a delicate almond
aroma, quality best; clingstone. Maturity in Florida from
April 1st to May 10th.
This peach colors a long time before maturing or full devel-
opment, and is therefore often gathered prematurely, which
renders it unfit for use. It should be allowed to hang upon
the tree until approaching full maturity, when its shows it ex-
cellent quality, and can then be shipped safely to distant
markets. Last year the early shipments made before this
fruit was developed created a bad impression in the Northern
markets, yet those who gathered at proper period of maturity
received from $10 to $25 per bushel, and some exceptionally
good lots yielded at the rate of $50 per bushel. These results
prove its great value for the orange growing belt, and are to
us a source of gratification in having added this valuable
peach to the fruit growing resources of Florida.
Many new seedlings of the Peen-to have appeared of late
in Florida. We have had ample opportunities to examine
and taste the largest number of these, and we still hold to
our assertion that of all flat varieties none are superior to the
original, providing the fruit is allowed to mature fully upon
the trees. During a two-months stay in Florida we had
ample opportunities to compare the relative merits
and periods of maturity of the Peen-to with other
early varieties. On April 1st the Peen-to was ripe in Hills-
borough County, while none of the newer early kinds, grown
side by side, were within three weeks of maturity. It still
heads the list of the earliest peaches.
Several seedlings of the Peen-to have appeared of late;
some are flat, others oblong, but nearly all are of the same
texture of flesh and quality, and many of the oblong varie-
ties, although originated in different sections of Florida, are
so much alike that an expert would find it difficult to dis-
tinguish between them. It is likely that we are to have the
same experience with the Peen-to seedlings of oblong shape
that we had with the scores of early varieties of the Alexan-
der. All good, all early, but all alike so far as practical
,. I .
A I ..... .
V ~ ~ ~ u P04 sog Of
of at 3,400.It
5 Y l i n- ---- U
g a r c o v r i p e i e e
I t ,u~ a~ C s # &P E 3 n f t p t p u n Pal kb
-. -. ..17
*' I-'~ ;S 5Iao. c -
Wparfd lt. an V iv.
wheop he W lay s three or thar feet beow the ero iot
neoomayq to break the ground very, deep, wb lr to be
done when tbh play is sAr thel res. .
RIn your owa six feet .at, froi north to Pouth am pst-
ble, So as to permit the Ol q in ii uuwer to ofoalkte trough '
your vineyard, and alaW tha the a un. 6y otf .ahke 4 yoitf
grapiate khot"estmleothe &d tlbay &go"4 tAb.-*.
der .ofte. PIat Jqorton,. C Clwa Ooaoed, $I.rbeItiit
and other. atroag growing vi4etie, ,eight a i t
row* For Delawsre ad mset of the odepu, em.a
distnoes of six, and even five feet, is msufiant.
Dig your hole* about two Aept quwsf by eightewB. )m" -
deep. In diigginug, pat on one sid6 brte lu Aa8 d on the
ot6r the esrtlh 1hat e*mt fobm *f e ble ot tAw h.
Wihm our hoi" are a dw& *ick a take..e arfam '
fRv test long in the midat o eao& hole, wuiqs 'gaaei&
to hae all the stakes in astraigt ow. Th p'oe ta PiOW
platlig of the vi. .
Take a -ho vftlor the O urfto 6i C(or haU mood bhU It
you plant in a sady laIn4) to'ake a imeai d *a *Ah of
the hole. If the soots 'and the tope of yohrvias ha*ve not
been ioptnied it," tlm the Itwaer to albut dix iaod aad
the later do*n to tree beds.' All roos tartIg wit* ar '
leew fares the lower bd should be reot ltogrthM
W.^ arp the lowew or wa r.mes re to. 11 t. .
Switch two or6r or three of M.th, ea o-d
.Oew"s of te"- on f seth" f an ewer it 20Mif rlo .*mr
yiada seottor arlisr all otbr the oo4 faprfis trt '
.^ -^vi~ e tah fhtet~rtae ^ ^ .h y p cl tbiir^tp
-.'d .^A- .*t .* .*IP'X-^,!- 't^A'-...' L^A~~Ph ,-\ '^*^ ..*^..
6 q;bjn clay sukwa 1rk t(;d *44i~s~;ia A ~~~t
*69 400. Yfl l fiew P14htea l. w Ie -lse t d aae
Tbdi~L OF wra
~~c~~ej(s A~e p 1ees~d.
bat "s orplantinhg, e viirsp W11
1~ ofn t~elt d Iensbeitar nd tue let .: jrP~n~~FU~7, ftu0iob.
hey cai nbe pInted to late as the 25th of Mach.
The product f this valuable ploist Was Arst itzil"Abiato
: Etrope under the* name of "Indian' alt," and -rom .Undiu
to-Oi~eee apd Robn. 'The cane grewO in, the Aiq"akdoT the
Indian Archljiago. In the year 12O M"reo Paudo, a Vane-
iag, ,Visited Bkgal; his kaowledge of the producti~4eod f
this wonderftl acoutry was soon thBen a azutgeof by- ai-
-cwheats wo intro4uced sua into Arabla; fzw then(' tho
iatinvaou as Ontered uo=n in uNbl&-, ~arywt' nd .aWo
ge;arol m~beanuatur.bgan about~the,&A of the'fouir
laeatG century, in the several port of, Egpt andi'Arablt on-
i tAle busisens became xtensive' is tAue sixteeati century. A
4t was W i" odUced into SiCily and Maderia,"afte the latter.
7' ioW7 in 140, -and was cultivated with encoem. The Rot-
tugmkehe introduced the suar cane in the island of SUIMbv
Ws yad W In 152Git As utensively' cwutivtedeand ~ase fto.
theuae into the West India Islands. '\The saaletio cnlatW*4
,in 'lYolakda .qe "own as the 'ir'een and Bed Bibbpi,'tbhe
lortkwr iu aly; used fglr eaig, being more suocutat &ad,, -
> thet eorateA 9hsu the litter. 'Th Gteen cane gms 40u-6.
>: tvh*.w ie a$ the red,tiihewtrod lspreferredfbr MprgW_
,',~7VI ad~ie~p1 b igilu8ing. up" the Oftsme.
10 l~bW 1416 to te~kmS~ kwot witt)edvrtwaja
~i~fc~a -: esidqib
l ~ kie~1W,
.. : Y. "
mohe i able to miale syrup than i her d!r
the fbyoter is lare at 50 to 60 ounta ow 0Wo ldst. e I
quantity sol0 wholagile is a rell olala i th tea hop-
tio n kcto the raw~ o there is nPot eqougPh rraied. in ^ t
I know ot one itmeer who hipon two Vas 'f tine l tbt .
he .ighAly penne4 s me fafty head of dattIe for six mot
realiWed from the one aCre planted in cane a ale0r proft of
$250, and from the oher faci in aweet potatoes qome 250 to
300 bushels. Besides this he raised'all his horee proi etler,
poaltry corn, oats and vegetables, with cotton es a caab crp.
oranges, grapes, peaches, etc. (Cn any S taker do betteria
anj other Statewithout paying out a oent for labor In re.
guard to cow-peaned land, it is really heavy coatlig of ma-
ntre, not heating, but rich in vegetable mbater. .The e.are
lands- in al parts of the State' tfat do pot require manure
other thapn ( small quantity of bydrat&eof lilae to sweeten the
stol and develop the plant food for the.,r t few year ofld*
tivatLon. The vast sugar lands of Bouth _ouid4 4Si become
a large souro of income to the owners, when brought under
cultivation. Water is a powearfl agent in the vegetation 6f
cane; it- is not wanting, *i Florida. The abundant st6mmeO1
riins are highly conducive to the developmenti of the plan.
In appearance it, is a monster graas rising out of the moil to.
the height of sixteen feet. The canes when ripe wij- weigh
frVMo' ve to ten pound. The dry fall in -the State admits of
the cane hardening up .and forming a supefior juioe that is
more easy clarified than grown in wet marahy land.r ab-,
jected.o rains at the season it should be ground p. .
't e taultivation of One is simple., The mode of'plantimg
geaally adopted is to lay off rows of five to six feet wide,
notth to snth, making a trench tinp. diep., Into ti trenob.:
ii laid'longitu'dinally pieoe of cane cut o into lengl i Aimn ~,
die -foot to eighteen inchess, overlapping each ofta tah;'
The top-of the t is also aul optgits
i pasn way. The bane is coveTrd oyev t'two tarp of rh ,
a 0ne4 *o ffthbei *isho ,rd' w sus ay 1a
w ak^' W t .' \r the season. be ^ ;
PC ;AS i *~.'#;I Tr I`t% l
K. ..- .4 -4 A w l
no sIo o A-23de ; It W-k
4 pw- -
MM)M* 0. 4 ..
jvft hm int a h"i&t ink di w#
%vA jP lb I the ; e ro and btWIM bAH &0opm ou
m f ft & -Mh 1 r T h e e l m g 7mi k O b em1q x q mbb i L e d4 )
4'r g'Eod~lt c I~werbig dirt' pm~ oveII~R 4w aa~ e matLI~j ~iii
IwS.; T I bdvtwehe p14tPige ofitb a ucyi pet o
r w4Uoh ont badbeueeno lemsalwk South 13 d !%ifau
Vyi*~ba. is. the lokm of the, aile and Will be In di~m
fel d~ ~arv a si.%M douvftpw moply" In mow and It is, BiK
Mryh r $hm Umg. va i
*s T re em. Is anahfd between ftwo' pofetft$rotl; ra. thof$-
thedeOs over ibmys ingo a 4acspt ofherb it io eir plia
rab 34Rt lab te )oiler and boilerd unirVI ploper ~cmdstehcy i
AnMA *Wm~nn or mibr, e avoee ai Qrc"Wedmng-u mpeu
oOWsamews I idrvssthe Busdtig 9e a petmne'Ig
d" L "Sld ei6 is aomd tt f.OO fer fftwW "d ces
o( m-w he~ Ion or Aior'~hunni'ed Wdps ior ohe dolfisi, t
'mI," oE ~trb~ erg~'a.e 1wb eomnmeptiitfa1 purpoe is norw
omm4I o16acn bT'obeor mete e mp-Snl'in'Soh Flocldai. Th~i
vwr)t' 1iDYlCcr is.ths home~ of hib caae sad wrill be in (l
i bLawabgjiftdtaourebf sup91y q rupbiand3 ?p.ap Yt bn<
6P7r~mw~ ti~s rnt each yein; ~1e r~toons friom ttvr~i ti
IrTs~o,yes 41~ ~tmae bprin. frouiq ths:o6p fm the 1a~r
-. taies .kwher uh~p frost~sb a'mtoldit is bie to cover.
the s t s ovfter p bf dmwimgp uip bmiakotf~~ma rbeot~ot
ruat. r M i b r
* C '1' Ic*
i ** L I Ir
-'4 'S t
" *1< .Ftr *,'
V, Zrr rr
vig1tlo IIeMr s*o XM l heeaIm sh '
upan oUs of a light loVeBy charbme *r .ye olt r a emb.
soiT, lae yielded are mtdM. The amowt s o aBkears pw,
vary roi ltbirty to sixty. Piwan t.e uale JAprl, tautZ
th s.nd of May, may be 'bMidered.e a of "te seon of
planting; to aureq. a crop iMta well to emokwer thi. ShellU
the outB, putting two ito the biU foar -"49m6 in rqwof *
ame litan' AS a preventive *oW:mp, l e
over very lightly with coal tar and be e*Wfiil ot break or
braiae the brown -oaming, 4as bis iia 4i. |p atLon. --
More important t"aU al is g9 habve the ..i i gpOd Utkinn a *
cleoa. It Ip impodsibJe .oeo uaregpod,4riagviWsW mli .-
the soil 1i liev'l anod clean., aid shoi4 be p rm y-
brdcagting the manure. ,Wla the ina' o -e ve"o
ind&a avoarf plow up a bed ai"d si lleovel4 G *4l.
pee 4d is to keep the soil olean fa wqepdsutilkt e rise
begin to run and cover thegrou&ar .. the .goated& .of *b
peanut may .be claaed as oae .of the, bhijer order farail
rope., Ifit iis tended only to feed wie tOe ei Uoapee4'
40t be so irougb buto for jacket tthe .olqoer e o is.'
kept *he better the rsult. Tihs .imei t.Nlai oap
an adapted to thi growth of the pept, t o 004. no m4
tioui where a crop is aticipate lo lthe u I at fee
be d. .
crop oopiee. the soAi over -A
p103 arvtInBewpbflr. LT-. 4
00e0a, O AW ar a By the
oa& tbe 11bA.4 tbhe4 sotb od, 'i N biqt
m rd, be pulled ba
mees w tirta tigtly Wf e ]i
fOPT~ai?,"-*^- Il^tgp "1"T~Tlfi^ilt4ifDr-JSBTy-..rR..'' ''JB'u- O^kBHf jB ^^-B'IH ^fKff-BL^ <
** ,Wo haadxw ,`, po
'7. -, -; LW Th''
S;I -~ 4"
b. -.~I MI ~Ob o hatge
4 -0-11i~id Avos- vine# -by bp.4, WW I1 beb
*1~ to U.O'e bushe, aoordng to eao
-I .in to "WAX.
SWEET POTAT(JS "-
F T i*s wstandaM d'royrand, one hgly, fteoemasrytonb s,
p tblwties and Lhe Seai] variety of uses -it m-n. be,- ? p ..
ropagption. from.4h. sick*rs of pottOe planted in Jawmary
IIJi a.bed, trariplanted early in May- give, utting of vLqii_
tbat are tftnsplanted in June.' Prom a' pleoe of groud h
was opM~tivd the year previous embuth vines wore tn.
*litoiilt e W69 of 'draws, as it in alairaed t~he drawsx dq o
pzuIv.x as good a' pot nee as the viae unless the drma ir
plaims d vIqery etari May. The culI~vstion Is so iWIl~nqV*,
aad.splua tbpt it is hardy nboeuary to enter upon ft'. Tioii
an some pa2nts that must be eonpidered; do not iukke l*M
'bed up to anjapex that Wil Shed the rala,' ta'hnVplAt Maso In
-sho~ery .weatherkp the bed clean from w~sdsanid gt"
until Vin" wodn off. ,Potash is h0o0688837 with the Put".
Ibave not*oe ext line on&s and Iin quitity Iwhere a Ifb4
supoyP4t wood aahes were ubad Ths $eld pe s~eI ii.
UnlON*s Wooi U'h used o'r-fertilisr.' There ame4aaa4.
n'ForIs tatdeceive the grower I t4ef dpw~ddtfas
wht ~ ~w~d~wIybangiocks' Rmob'bWil
-" qsantlg~s po otppb fr~iet cat~ee
t ~aay lvai Isw oitoates ,. having scaa4g
My b ble.alAf ofs o1e6' e
#0 *aws'tI iler to te 49jt,
r I, I