The Eden of the South

Material Information

The Eden of the South descriptive of the orange groves, vegetable farms, strawberry fields, peach orchards, soil, climate, natural peculiarities, and the people of Alachua county, Florida, together with other valuable information for tourists, invalids, or those seeking a home in ... Florida
Webber, Carl
Place of Publication:
New York
[Leve & Alden]
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4 p. l., [5], 132 p. : incl. illus., map ; 20 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Alachua County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Florida ( lcsh )
Target Audience:
appr. for pky


General Note:
Advertising matter: p. 104-132.
Statement of Responsibility:
By "Carl" Webber...

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
024096599 ( ALEPH )
01522352 ( OCLC )
AAN7740 ( NOTIS )
01021712 ( LCCN )

Full Text


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,Eden of the South,



Alachua County, Florida,

V. -i .1
The Orange Belt, The Lake Regio -
The Vegetable Section, and
SThe Railroad Centre of Florida.

SAllN wr "OLs NAUMKEAG," A HISTORY OF 1TH OLD wrrc Town" OF Saam-
SfaS.; "S CRWrS OF THR SnvICc," HAA LucK,"


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o07 LiBTrr ST., New YouK.


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"WAYCB0O8 S l ;W1."

The OILY BOUTE to al WIXT3 UliBETS in Amerio.

Florida, New Orleans, Texas, New and
Old lezico, Arizona, California and Cu
Theman gememato the savanuah, Florida a Western BRalway, "W
caos Snoa lan," deuir to prest to the trvellar public a coocide
tla of the new, ,npmeed, and extended sstem between the North, eM, W
and the South. The oomplelonao the exstonion of the esvannah, tid
Western Mlvway to a connection with the Penmeeols Atlaatle
rdd, opens a dtirea al-rail he from all astern an Northern poiat to
or.q, ommU, Nar Oanu Sou nwmari m LooUm BoHonmer, GAu
Aavsnx, SAX AWeoXo EAa sIN AXN Mm.I TXAS, Naw AmD OLDa
AamomA AMD COALuomA.
The Charleston & Bavannsh Railway
(under the ame manaement as the Savannah, lrida & Western BRalway)
been put in thorough oondtion, with a new IRON BBIDGE over the aean
Biver, ad the entire road laid with steel ral
The "WATcaOM S Bonn Lam" gives to OCumrramXa AND mI BA a oon-
tio teelral line to JACKSONVILL, FLA.
The comolldatio of the South Florida railroad, now n operation between
Sanaord a Kimimmee, with our system, insure its compleon to Tampa li
or before the first of January nez Upon its ompletion to the Glf, it t i
purpose o the management to place a Mae of stesamhipon the roteabet
Tampa,Xey Wet, and Havana, built especially with a view to safy, pee(,
the utmot comfort and luxury. The time etrWeen Tampamad Havan wl a
exceed twenty eight bowrs and between New York and Hava s about
days d a half. At Tampa, connection w be made by cotwiateamer
an ponet on the Manatee Bter, lear Water Harbor, Analota, et
The elegant serve of Pulman Palace BaDubt ad Drwi-
81eeper, tauurated from New York and Washington to Charleston, Ba
nah, and Jacksonle direct, having met the unqualified approval ot tMe
as public, has been extended to New Orlean by the new ne, via
taoochee, making but 3O CHANGE OF CdO B BETW .E ZEW YOW
AND NEW ORLB~A, at Savannah.
For Time-Table, Guide-Books (new QGode to Sot0h Georgia ad
wil be laued October neat), Bates and Gmeral Infrmation, by All
Bail or SteamSip, address
271 Broadway, cor. Chamber SLt, New I
JAL. L. TAYLOR, 0. D. OWlEIs r
0m,'I Am. 41., azMaa,, Ge. er.aa ise0.K
JoNAR H. WrHIT. Jtera Am. Av.,
SOL I& IL m Breaway. UKin Nw York.

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-M 4110 OUOl, WALDO.
.45M ,wa,, m..._

sas or e m lAbmm Lowam.

p dmipa rom the ow0Mm; m Hp Mle bnm
Wabr ulun hms- able 4a do.alsfbewbemi UIts w
bn& in at r adiapeteidby o -tti4 rwi of ba1po
p rae co-ton, and edy v-g aMas; er aiaik-
Sas a winter e m-et; her fBeedom him dewsMUMom by dt
a, m4 her cFm-wb cb i6 wihdoubt dobl, Atim osr
matg ina h world. As e I, alH t i Lgrand i MasNalr
mast oaf .ampeity, $ts. see tt mial to dea wheanWt
hla her delight. "dusadf


In oma m or COL. R. P. mToi#, AT OaIVIIILI, plagzA.
Sborfan artesia "Il on them kuA In Jumeg Ift gelm W
distance of feet belowthe smrftce. -

I -I

Midland Flonda,

~~Eden oiftheS


091 tshe titemw term for dul"- thht eawhm
XkI apdI~ o~dm tba Xd~dm of Op Oft*, rq. m d b~
m thing Caedeved, the meet Most k ml ;A~e

That t@ ,oinmi Garden of Rden warn a plow =ilmA W, JIAWd
F'orWda we hbae ample proof. Fimgroew thu.,,mad 8w pv"4mm
Beoapse tepeople bhem do not resort to fe lg*ielothAng mer the
iuamitioio-4 6W. iiiiarive *60'embom is -uQ'prWl~~C--k
Do$ sufoiS3 cbaxmag to sialt ofumqh wbumy-
Snakes 4delt in $be oiginal Eden, -nd .aakesniyf ibam*Im Om
Rdenmotb.Bouth The original Ed. bhung8hmos ammamInpe
which givA paw fis toor4Stemaph3Mdingilae formm, i"bN
Uppom tOat theme oan be no plain- wrothy the psneo4 ~qAipp#*
there be a snake oir nwm #vt the premises IJUe*. e 4ae~b.
the ori*i"al Ed... the saas ikes a e-** Ud thei fmriWoc Pt
meddler with other psq i usinesa tfkepw~hiutb.Pqwa
soc4a circles, enjoying their own compnuy. a ra bet Lo 0apI
seen by the Wkslee of the present gemeratos. In Snot4 so mjare
they in the Edei of the 8mOb, that Judge Bkell, of Geinesvllpd1o
been paying high prices for titin during the past yoar r twvs
SpeciaeN ftothe 8 ti&thaoul Institutae at Wambiupgtr.' Civiaim-
tion is ext"Odlng so jsdly that the tins is not far dbisim wrm
the only venomous reptiles n the .pd tp hq Ileed- wi )e moah
:Ay~ be fawAd at the n=tiLnn l"#tWL
tameGAjY 4Iweulw. sWipW OW~ mme#he) lm;*th
t6 kld4 S i aqs ags P *ap as


inhabit places where the cold in winter is intense, or the -
in summer oppressive. The eyes of our first parents having 1
opened disobediently to a knowledge of good and evil, they 1 II
driven from the Garden, and their eyes were blinded. There '-
many to-day with blinded eyes who look upon the soil of Florida as
poor and unproductive, unable to detect the difference between rich
Florida sQil and beggarly Northern sand. The Seminole Indians,
however, long ago saw the richness of Midland Florida, and they
preferred to suffer the severest persecutions rather than be driven
from it.
As one visits the different points of interest in Midland Florida,
the most of which are in their wild, natural state, he will dis-
cover many things suggestive of his mental conception of the
Garden of Eden. We doubt, if on the entire face of the earth
another such place can be found, where in summer and in winter,
among such forests, and by such shady brooks, and on such silvery
lakes, can be experienced delights which so charm the soul to con-
tentment and ease, and harmonize one's thoughts with Nature's
balmy influences. There is but one Florida on the face of the
earth, and it is to be wondered at that her charms, her bounties and
her pearls of great price, were not long ago discovered and enjoyed
by others than the uncivilized redmen.
Florida was discovered, as every geography, history and Florida
pamphlet informs us, by Juan Ponce de Leon, of Spain, who, in
search of the "fountain of perpetual youth," which he was led to
believe existed here, landed on its eastern shores on Palm Sunday,
in the year 1512. Palm Sunday was called by the Spaniards in those
days Pasqua Florida, or Flowery Easter. The stores of this new-
found land was covered with palms and roses, as if the earth, recog-
nising the day, had prepared for its observance in accord with the
Spanish custom. Thereupon de Leon gave to the country the name
Florida, signifying Flowery Land. or, as it is now more commonly
termed, The Land of Flowers.
Ponce de Leon penetrated the upper part of the State to Wakulla
Springs. Here he saw the clearness and purity of these waters, and
felt certain of having found the object of his search, a plunge into
which he believed would restore to him his youth. It is needless to
state that he was very much surprised and disappointed when he
came up out of the water, but no more so, perhaps, than many
now visit Florida under the impression that orange groves,
orchards and vegetable. farms grow spontaneously, witho
exrcisi of human skll and are, and that game of every d

TM -W AiM wOrn

aeL around to the doors of the Ianhia nta6t Ameal tlmm rM
tWbe slaughtered and cooked. .
dlorida has a history covering a .pald tof esar farea hundse
alim, and yet, in spite of her unequaled natural advmantgssAb.
himo-day a smaller population, in proportion to heb s.a hanm
S1o in the Union, except perhaps, Nnvada and OolWedo. mer
sil her discovery she basbeen in anom settled state. Be roehlm
have been massacred. She has been conquered and reonquesad,
eeqdd and re-ceded, and harassed by Indian war. Just as ime wi
entering upon a period of stability and prosperity she was pltgd.
inteoa civil war, which decimated and impoverished her peepl.
Under such diecouragt eets and drawbacks it is not, after aU to be
so gently wondered at that foreign and domenio immigration was
not earlier attracted and turned towards her liite.
Florida now is no longer an unknown country. The war imoagb
both Northern and Southern soldier to her borea. New .dismaer"
ies were made that have directed the intelligence of the whole
world to this land. A constantly rising tide of immigration is now
flowing in. There has been a surprising increase in the number of
inhabitants during the past ten years The increase in the next te
years is beyond estimation. Thousands annually come down for
pleasure, health, or to make new homes. Other thousands will
come when they are truly iLformed'of the advantages aad attrac-
tions of this beautiful and productive region.
Florida is one of the largest States in the Union, with an area of
nearly sixty thousand square miles. Although covered with lakes
and-rivers and streams, yet, in proportion to its sie, she has a
large an acreage of productive soil as any of the other States, ex-
cept the prairie States of the West She is the most southern of
all the States, and, unlike the others, a peninsula, projecting south
between the Atlantic ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. The peninsula
portion of the State is some 800 miles in length, averaging about
100 miles wide, gradually narrowing from north to mouth. So re-
cently has the attention of land operators, fruit growers,, agricl-
turists and others been directed hither that it will be several years
before the entire State will be in the hands of private individuals.
Many of the very choicest localities are still in a state of natme
aidthere is room for an additional million of busy and prosperous
'Msitors to Florida fr the firt time make Jacksomville their b-
jive point. In fat, to the average new omer, Jackmsovillpe
Mglla, iad leeorid is fJamsnvffls, when in usealt tMt t"i

fa i city is but little over te Georgia line. Visito are
surprised to hear people in Jacksonvilletalk of going down
as freiy as i they were inWashington or New York. Florida
becomes Florida to the stranger, however, when he learns tha
State extends further south six degrees of latitude; then, in ord
satisfy his desire, he is as apt to take a bee-line for Dade county,
its Indians and its swamps, as to visit Alachua, the most
fertile and productive county in the State. 'iT
Available information concerning this State at Jacksonville is
meagre and unsatisfactory. This the writer knows from his f
experience. Great competition between railroads and steanJ|I
companies makes information from such sources reliable only esM
as it relates to their own business interests. In the whirlpool ofbale
listing reports concerning the various parts of the peninsula, nine
strangers out of every ten will follow the stream of travel regardless
of whether they are seeking health, pleasure or a new home. They
will, therefore, make the grand tour" by the "regulation route,',
vie., up the St. Johns river to Palatka, Enterprise or Sanford, either
of which places will be represented by some overanxious informants
as about the only place in Florida fit or safe to live at. But, of
course, the stranger, who has by this time learned of the darkly mys-
terious Ooklawaha, will be anxious for an excursion up that rver,
and he makes the trip, very few ever leaving the boat. If by this
time he has not seen a place suited to his fancy, he returns to Jack-
sonville, maybe visiting the very attractive, ancient city, St. Augus-
tine, and thence out of the State, under the supposition that he has
seen Florida, that it does not come up to his expectations, and that
it is not what it has been represented to be.
Means of communication and of transportation to the better por-
tions of the interior of the State have, until recently, been attended
with great difficulties, expense and hardships; therefore the tide of
travel has been, by force of circumstances, turned in the most avails
able channel-up the St Johns river to some one of the many pretty
watering places that line her shores. These trips will ever continue
to be charming and delightful to the pleasure-seeker, or as a bi&.q.
recreation to the invalid; but for those seeking homes, or a
through the resources and natural advantages of the 8
Florida, disappointment will result from their wanderings in
There is no part of the tate that has not greeaer fertiity
than its general sandy nature would anat o theew
iraes etr la ge- d rvdMim thans m bhBe Mom purtiao

nor ,
W Florida, as we design to fully show. Te stlesn in thaM44a
pWti StartWc 4fWt#ars sV y epfUitse, airAft0 pMdie
whnere they 1h0*6eat6ed but, above seek p{Fejaided -opihtomwe
htre,all tlMakes h iWah a mAttoMa HatNee Sitt y otwaped byp-
Mald interests, nor by the h eMst viows w Uhf4* ausM fi 4a oIn
Moi one usatrdy bean foe thIwwieh is oIane"t;i

A Nam vaom uI-.
Alaohna county is the midland portion of the great pemnislat *ft-
uated midway between the Gul of Mexico and the Atantle'SoeMs
likewise midway between the southern and western extremitie of
the State. Italy is said to rssembelthe form of a boot, with the foot
turned southward. Florida haWfSl S the me remnblan e,
wi4 the foot turned norlt ait .a f resemblance Alahua
ityoooapies the position of M de-joint, and is, theefo, the
alstme of the State. It lwlbswie lcated upon the sonth'n
am" the high lea&d whih akted terom the mrridrm


portion of the State, like the impression of a shoemaker's last inside
the boot. 40
There are three natural divisions under which Florida must alwapb
be considered. These divisions may be classified as temperate, troa.
cal and semi-tropical Florida. Semi-tropical Florida is situated IMt
tween the twenty-eighth and thirtieth parallels. North of this is tti
temperate, and south of it the tropical division. While the tropi(l
fruits will not grow to profit in the temperate division, nor the te-.
perate fruits in tbs tropical division, in the semi-tropical division, w
Midland Florida, the products of all three of the divisions will grws
side by side. Here may be found the orange, lemon, guava, fig,
citron, grape and the innumerable garden vegetables growing for
profit the year round. Cotton, rice, cane and all field crops pay
largely, although in the southern or middle portion of the semi-tropi-
cal division, corn, wheat and live stock are noticeably less productive
than further north.
Alachua county is peculiarly located and most remarkably favored.
Situated in the northern portion of the semi-tropical division, she has
all the climatic features of the tropical division, with the breezee
from ocean to Gulf sweeping over her in the most delightful and ex-
hilarating manner, while the nature of her soil partakes largely of
the peculiarities and fertility of the temperate division, making it.
for all kinds of temperate, tropical and semi-tropical products, the
most productive county in the entire State. In sanitary matters
this peculiarity of situation operates most advantageously, so that it
is likewise, as it is freely admitted to be, the healthiest portion of
the State. The many lakes in- the eastern and southeastern portion
of the county, in connection with the other favorable features, may
have something to do with the healthfulness and productiveness of
Alachua county. By the above it will be seen that what may be
true of one of these divisions of the State of Florida, as regards cli-
mate, soil or products, may or may not be true of the others; hence
the conflicting reports concerning the State, which, as before re-
marked, is one of the largest in the Union, extending through six
degrees of latitude.



BIRD'S-EYE view from the top of the Arlington or the Varnum
houses in Gainesville, the county seat of Alachua county,
presents a wonderfully rare and beautiful sight. Directly
beneath the eyes is nestled the court-house in the centre of Court-
house Square, which is surrounded by the business houses of the city.
Outside of this scene is a grand circle of tree-tops stretching away at
every point as far as the horizon. At this elevated position one feels
as if standing upon the inner edge of an immense wreath of ever-
green, formed by cutting out the centre, into which had been planted
a hive of industry, inside of which busy human bodies are moving
from point to point, hither and thither, across the Court-house
Square and through the streets, appearing and disappearing, like
the changing scenes of a kaleidoscope. Over and above all
this the sky seemingly rests upon its apparent edge at the horizon,
like an immense bowl turned upside down; the whole forming a
charming picture, which, like a scene at sea, is grand in its absence
of variety.
Within this charming circle, of which Gainesville may well be
termed the "Hub," as she is of the State, rests Alachua county,
sitting like a queen upon the southern brow of the hill portion of
the State, nearly 200 feet above the level of the sea, surrounded by
her sister counties, who bow reverently before her with due homage
and respect, because of her richest of all God-given gifts, healthful-
ness and productiveness.
Natural beauties, fertility of soil, perfect water sheds, regulate un-
derdrains, a light, dry and invigorating air, the best of water, good
society, a liberal, free-minded people, and the highest educational
advantages, all of which are conducive to the health of both mind
and body, are the chief characteristics of Alachua county. Here
the Indian in the early days revelled in his delights, and lived in
the greatest health and strength and happiness. Spaniagds, En-
glishmen and Americans, for the past three centuries have selected'
this county as the Eden spot of the South, and have found it at all
times'to be a natural sanatorium.
During the past decade the" orangee fever has attracted thous-
an;d of visitors t various parts of Florida the larger portion of
them being distributed by force of transportation facilities up the


BIRD'S-EYE view from the top of the Arlington or the Varnum
houses in Gainesville, the county seat of Alachua county,
presents a wonderfully rare and beautiful sight. Directly
beneath the eyes is nestled the court-house in the centre of Court-
house Square, which is surrounded by the business houses of the city.
Outside of this scene is a grand circle of tree-tops stretching away at
every point as far as the horizon. At this elevated position one feels
as if standing upon the inner edge of an immense wreath of ever-
green, formed by cutting out the centre, into which had been planted
a hive of industry, inside of which busy human bodies are moving
from point to point, hither and thither, across the Court-house
Square and through the streets, appearing and disappearing, like
the changing scenes of a kaleidoscope. Over and above all
this the sky seemingly rests upon its apparent edge at the horizon,
like an immense bowl turned upside down; the whole forming a
charming picture, which, like a scene at sea, is grand in its absence
of variety.
Within this charming circle, of which Gainesville may well be
termed the "Hub," as she is of the State, rests Alachua county,
sitting like a queen upon the southern brow of the hill portion of
the State, nearly 200 feet above the level of the sea, surrounded by
her sister counties, who bow reverently before her with due homage
and respect, because of her richest of all God-given gifts, healthful-
ness and productiveness.
Natural beauties, fertility of soil, perfect water sheds, regulate un-
derdrains, a light, dry and invigorating air, the best of water, good
society, a liberal, free-minded people, and the highest educational
advantages, all of which are conducive to the health of both mind
and body, are the chief characteristics of Alachua county. Here
the Indian in the early days revelled in his delights, and lived in
the greatest health and strength and happiness. Spaniagds, En-
glishmen and Americans, for the past three centuries have selected'
this county as the Eden spot of the South, and have found it at all
times'to be a natural sanatorium.
During the past decade the" orangee fever has attracted thous-
an;d of visitors t various parts of Florida the larger portion of
them being distributed by force of transportation facilities up the


St. Johns river, and into the southern portion of the State, the
great impetus being occasioned by the seemingly fabulous tales of
great wealth and sidden riches secured through snall expenditure
by patient waiting for the growth of trees whose fruit look among
their foilage like lumps of solid gold-which some erroneously
imagine they represent more fully the further south they o.
During this vast influx of wealth, enterprise and new ifl,
Alachua county, owing chiefy to her many advantages not pos-
sessed by other counties, together with her capabilities to grow
oranges equally as well and as profitably as any county in the State,
has had a steady, persistent, and healthy growth, out-numbering all
her sister counties, excepting Duval, of which thecity of Jacksonville
is the county seat. This growth, added to Alachua's previous pop-
ulation, ranks her next to Duval, the largest county in the State.
Situated mid-way between the Atlantic ocean and the Gulf of
Mexico, the wind currents from these opposite seas temper the heat
of day in the most refreshing manner, even in mid-summer, while
the nights are, without doubt, the most delightful in the world.
Many people at the North desire to know if it is safe to visit
Florida at any other season than winter. To the writer, the most
enjoyable part of the year in Florida is the summer months. Many
of the northern people who have settled in Alachua county freely
declare that they prefer the summers here to the winters. The fre-
quent cool breezes so temper the atmosphere through the day that
there is seldom, during the hottest season, more than an hour or
two when the heat is severely felt, and even then it is not so in-
tense or so oppressive as the writer has experienced it in New
York and Boston. The nights are so perfectly delightful, beginning
as soon as the sun goes down, that one can willingly submit to an
hour or two of heat in order to enjoy the remaining hours under such
delightful atmospheric influences, and when sleep is a perfect feast
to the soul. There is no particular time of day when the hottest
period may be predicted for a certainty. Sometimes the morning
will be quite warm, and a "scorcher" predicted, and, yet, in lees
than an hour, a cool, refreshing breeze may spring up and the re-
mainder of the day be most delightful. It is always cool in the
shade, no matter how insignificant that shade may be.
Many people, too, desire to know about the healthfulness of
Florida, in the summer season. The writer believes the State of
Florida, even in the summer, to be as healthy as any State Iathe
Union, and Alachuacountyis freely admitted to be the most healthy
equnty in the State. Portions at it, pr especially in and aboat

OatnswtH xd the labe region, w ta healihly sztfeirt t of: th
United Sta. Fatal b0loiWase is isr eme undor gatl ex-
posure to to malaria of iw bmmmeeks, rsals in. CUM w~d- fooei
at* mintr fhu4j but are ofb o-twhaidee and anst no- iunly inu
typeeL Phyedibiam "distfytht diseasese. we 1m s ubbc`and_
less IWab to ternninsa in death than thes asMA& k t l diweawim In,
higher blituda Tot a territory of *WAbo lbl4W aqntil' ifit-
death rate is exceediny s&LL The pin.e Lds of Alachusoound
whldh aft' u Hlv'f~ ily.hewl~br', aY-i~ 9~ Btawly weyher. etu' I~t
iatWrvaaoft & mie ort wo it* rich hnitooek blad *&ayUg W t*-
tent fron twenty to forty thoumbst amru '3shdtden ly holy a
mnie from cultivasod hunimoab in say -prt of Moarla sin zawbta
frie itan M hrWilistees whal& itsdewcas on even the hig ham-
mift) lawari.U AlAA" onnty e found to be 4eldf.'
I% amuse bettleimsasta the eu det popuiatdn 'of 12ax" a~ a
futmad in the emtbn half otth county. Ths owa taforiteprtIof'
the Slate with the Indfa,. and sls6 w" ith ftt a p ulati 'whies tbt7'
ha&' pWWion ok at. It IWlelude the viedlhabn A'Air&muih
pa1nt," declared to be the flobe*L body'of land in 'thbe enirie Sfi&
WaMlnevWf Atredohd.4 MEcAnopyj. 'Plmer, Fairbank4, Yak.
Ortdie and, Terne aaeoetida on the Artedonda graft, whfl& juat
outld'of it am Waldo, ieiwsanvflle, Archer, Hawthorne, Mel-
roew, Cafapwille, Vignoel Springs, saludla and lcklooi& Tber
lads all about this section, for nattal fertiity" and dtnnbflty' aA6
in~rter ato nee n ynioada The railroad, ccnaehe~t ith afi Mr thee
Ba1o ia6es9 and in and about thema Istgp and swalhbodSM' otfdct
1and arwe for sPae by various companies and by the Goveumeqt at
pr&c rsnglq, frow II to 0180 an acre. Individual ipirty in wei-
selsoiwd 'locailos and generally htproved, la bwal 'at t Ae highest

Theother tov'ucza'd Settlements Inthe to nty not muntlomed-
abO**m las(sOk eej' jGadrd-Cre6% Oc Fkrnlieutcu, Jmaebvi. Va-
0600ees0eot P iod lflg Suigar Grove, Joella, Same. se'anl ?cttar-
ley-. 'rlwUawbands r aot'th' ae not largey taken up. ThiJ fre
ercelleet tor both vegetable and orange edure;. -
The pOl~tion 410" of, Ah'Ieira tt th lte s so kMai (I"O~ "'Wib
18i.W. Durn t-&M past tWo yemu in g6neal fwth aft pebts *I
ridat Vire b- h ben a healthy M4 I*M* hmsal erme ;Th
at te weses% Um.t(18de dllet 6inaot I aorw hulk s wTh
haeteaapibd1- 16 a Mims '6000 01b4fInkha Skim "
onhva(pat~hui 1 toUee hitROMA In A~ef mi

hM *~"br


tioular advantage to either political party, as the colored people are
daily becoming more intelligent, and, leaning to think for tbeh-
selves; they are fast assimilating with both parties. Tbhe colored
people prevail most largely in the county outside the towns and
trading centres. For the most part they are lawabiding, industri-
ous and prosperous, some of them having acquired great afflence,
and no great social evils have grown.out of their proportionate num-
The white people of Alachua represent every State in the Union
from Maine to California, and are in their moral intellectual status
of the advanced classes from the old States. Intelligence predomi-
nates in all the essential avenues of business, and in the principal
occupations of life. The colored people have caught the spirit of
advanced enlightenment and enterprise which prevails, and show
remarkable traits of character, keep up their churches and are good
citizens. There are to a slight degree distinct classes of society, the
same as found elsewhere, but there is no ostracism of settlers from
other places, as the county is now largely composed of people who,
within the past twenty years, have themselves settled here from
other States. The future growth and prosperity depends upon, an
increase of such settlers who bring, with new ideas, a new spirit
of improvement and increased wealth. All worthy new-comers
are heartily welcomed and will meet with well-wishes on every
hand. The only division of the people is political, the same as
elsewhere, but the same candid expression of thought and the
same freedom of rational speech is allowable here a iin New g-,
Previous to the introduction of the Free School system in 1868, the
enjoyment of educational privileges were vouchsafed only .to the
rich. There are now in the county nearly 75 public schools with an
average attendance of over 2,250. There are more than this number
of white children of school age in the county, and more than twice
that number of colored children. That there are many who do .nt
accept the privilege is conclusive, but the system is in its infancy,
and there are numerous private schools which draw pupils largely
from those who are able to pay for private teachers., As the advan-
tages secured throughout the public, schools are more generally
realized, they will, as elsewhere, absorb the private chools,aud,
will become the pride of the whole body of the people. Ipxp ,
enced and skillful teachers are all tht as wanted to mkethbq equal,
to those in any State. Separate schools for theo vbhiAte.cpq
chilare are universally establised. In ,o .a are, t44e i, P.

rI -NVA.L Aerafh nIOu. 1L
of the white and coloedt Mar in ateMdase t the same mhobl
The kant Frmiesa af miiary, a stabe ltsM onUha, is hated a' tist
county, at Gainesville, mad is onef te maot impart fOactou t
the educational interests of flioridl It is ma" maBy "pohkem
elsewhere in this wor.
There are in Alachua county, like all places of mixed people,
reaPetAiTe aOr ne6ily amrya s ii tUseabr ch an rgte* ma in
te larger lheede a goodly sprinkng of Jews. The chrchesa, hiw-
ever, are prinipaLy Baptis, EpiaoopaliUao, Metodito and Prmibj-
'terian, at of twhi -am well supported and pIrfied 'aar by ae
The. holes a0d the mode of Uliingin the larger part of flrif
appearauetrnge and of a primitive nature to the ibid.e of k-anri-
comer whoee days have been spent among the tinMelMI wsmer 6
anetsfpdlttMa ule in tie rath aI whie tha tei aj u
the i*aity at the people condyitsWo oU ulan brk is B AMi
admbirtg Ige building which ate owBed by tmr paoplke latk
fth-oedsatl wayd sooon become ftajilar,; and their sltpioWytb
'darteiag. onWee bHtan the simplest manner are the abo*ia-
tfortes; P sant turniite Is a luxury and the plainest wal pad
eoos are ie 'most agreeable and inpihring. Styish clothes ea
btidseaomae and largely ignored, while the mind and body daeks
abandonment in ease and natural comfort. The 'lie of the grea t
body of people in Florida is a sort of pbner life, spat aanmg
Natures osenew in the most delightful climate apon the fae of t'e
The furtonher get from the tWaisporttio6a0mc a with the
great isatiteal marts, the lew likely ane tas oveenenmes se- te
inntd enado(trts ofbasiness eadobial@fatobefoend. Newit*,
hower, tois the moth. of inveiotir, ad neceaMjy Ia Tlerhi b
caused "".ivetiono of ufmany de*aeaaiead eeitatM i At aMWb
thepeople arther north areignoramot Bar dwad aidthlsA wSat.
flt resoares have re4ered er in maai rs apuMhie of fejaitlng
for basti hadpemdeatWttexest Us v lbs( In teweithi
patt of Alachin county imay be tobd people as independent of te
world, outade of tbeir O iw e I tighbbboo aT it, Is -pdi ft ir
hikwoia beings to '-t eyirA' a irown food, an be SiFr
o elow ft pretooto exteed th`oewas thber, Udnltitkllawai d
a*t m they pae B fe aeeordan wiih bir own weireguiAtedal
laws Smabme of tseen people 1o witMh dlfea* upon the buelling a
naw abai th rough thbe loablliks. sa, e b o ea iiuir a is au
klif g wa Ubs tt unferAtboel4 tiupsoa Ua the0stooa.

BBaloads, nevertheless, are being constructed through awry seatio
of the county, in penetrating the southern parts of the 8tate; as
that with means of transportation and travel Alachua county is
the most highly-favored county in the State.
Alachua county can boast of some of the finest lakes in the State.
The principal opes are Alachau, Newnan', Orange, Sant Fe, Alto,
Levy's and Lookloosa. There are but two rivers in the county,
the Suwanee and the Santa Fe. The former oOstitutes its western
boundary, the latter the northern boundary. The Santa Fe is
navigable only about thirty miles from its junction with the
Suwanee, while the latter is navigable for steamers to Cedar Keys
and the Gulf.
Springs, sinks, natural wells, and an immense natural bridge aee
among the leading physical peculiaritiesof the county. The springs
are mostly mineral springs. Some of them are impregnatpd with
iron, others with sulphur and magnesia. There are lseo deep
springs and springs of transparent soft water. The largest -lplar
springs are the Worthington, situated north of Newnaipsve on
either side of the Santa Fe River. The two largest of thessprings
throw up jets from a long distance beneath the river's bed that
makes the basins boil like huge pots over a hot fire. These
springs are considered beneficial for people suffering with rheqma-
tism, and are favorite resorts in summer. Magnesia spring pear
Hawthorne, has been found topossess a curative property in diseases
of the kidneys. An analysis of the water of the spring ahows prin-
cipally sulphate of magneia and iron with a strong trace of lthia.
Persons who have resorted to it have been healed of diabetes etoae
and other complaints, and one gentleman, it is said, has beep recently
cured of Bright's disease of the kidneys, a disorder heretofoe oon-
sidered incurable. It is also said to be a cure for dyspepsia.
One of the great peculiarities of Alachua county, and a mataral
wonder, is that large streams are suddenly lost in the gelet of a
big hole in the ground, popularly termed a "sink;" while others
as abruptly put in an appearance from deep rmceses, going and
coming from nobody knows where, but leading to the belief that
underneath the ground there are innumeble springs, asets-m and
mighty rivers flowing as perfectly and as regularly these tu
the surface. Two lakes in the oount, sAlahus lake ad Lako Tw
eawilq are known to have beeno1reaSted by the lolcgglh shb
sinks. About fire smuleB aorihal'tt gof Qalrte (su lswh abl iq

NAUMhJ" 9q.

~i I

now."4A Ub fi~qS b.$ bu~W~k now wq~4q. AWA.
form hike aqI 0 Wobbal.b so I$ s t AW ~w. Mod *c wato
a*,^ vwWAI b#xbg -hickh a~bs )aw aw hwmgoqing twWb
$~4wonw AO fw* ahhm= twquty samo p ~ig f


tentsinto it continuously. Another strange feature in this great
wonder is, that these streams pour out of the sides of the earth at
various heights above the water's level, coming from no one knows
where, as there is no sign of a stream anywhere upon the surface
for miles around. The Devil's Hopper is a great resort for visiting
strangers, who are taken thither by carriages, which may be secured
in Gainesville at a reasonable price at the livery stable of Hon. J. B.
Dell, opposite the Arlington House. The natural cave is another
wonder in thesame vicinity.
The natural wells of AElchua county are also great wonders.
They are nict fequently found in the western part of the county,
though there is one in the very centre of Archer, from which the
inhabitantsdraw theirwater supply. These wells are as round rd
as perpendicmnaras if they had been out through the. roik by the
hand of man The nmot of them contain water, but som0 of them
ate dry. In diameter they are about two and a half eet, and Adi
from thirty to forty feet deep, The walls are of solid limaetoi~s
The Water in them contains lime, and in summer is quite oooL "The
dry wells are perfectly safe to enter. In o4e, at least, pasties cai
go down-in it a distance of thirty feet, and then through an ftuer-
Sground passage can come up out of another one a mile away. Near
Santa Fe lake, a river springs directly upfrom the earth, and only
a few hundred feet from where it first makes its appearance the
water flows swiftly enough to turn a mill. These numeroi sinks,
Springs adwells are amongthe greatest of Porida's n eaturioalc i-
ties, and yt there are but few of the visitor to Florida who even
knw oftbir existence, and fewer still who ever see them, beSue e
of their location in Alahua.couhty, which has made no great bam
in the past of her many attractions. Like the original Garden of
Eden, Alachua, with her numerous lakes, streams,, sinks ad ,
maytruly be saidto be well watered.
AroM the Santa f river, about nine miles north-west p' N4 -
nanville, i a natural bridge, formed by the sudden Wh of.Ui 5
s-water into a os-poa caverp, from whence it break oat again t,
the ikrface about t awoand a half miles below, the covering of earth
and rock above it being termed the great Natural Bridge. The
river is about two hundred feet wide where the water disappears.
S The great ship canal which is to be built durkig the next two years
acres the peninsula, from the Atlantic ocean to the Gulf of Mexico,
will, it is thought, be pushed through Alacheu county. This canal,
according to the estimate of Gen. Stone, of Egyptian fame, Will obt
to be built about $40,000,000. If it penetrates Ala~hms county it '


wJU;open up this entire stretch of country, making it the most valu-
a .in the Southern State.
be Principal lakes of Alachua oqnty are all in the eastern nd
eouteastern part. These lakes form the larger portion of what's
kownP among travelers as the lake region of Florida. This region
averages an altitude of about 150 feet above the level of the sea. so
desirable and attractive is this section of the country that its popu-
lation has most wonderfully increased within the past ten yea.
The lakes abound in fine fish and furnish admirable opportunities for
pleasure excursions,
The celebrated Alachua lake, sometimes termed Payne's prairie,
is the largest. It lies directly south of Gainesville about two miles.
It is nearly nine miles long by four miles wide. Its border are lined
with some of the most extensive and most profitable vegetable farms
and orange groves in the whole State. The celebrated 1,000 acres,
owned and cultivated by the Hon. J. T. Wall, ex-U.. Congresman
and the richest and ablest colored man in the State, me situated at
the extreme eastern end of the lake.
The noted Orange Point grove, owned by H. F. Dutton & Co. and
A. Barnes of Gainsville, are situated further to the north. In
this vicinity, at Rocky Point, Bevin's Arm and at the Sink, numer-
ons other Gainesville citizens own extensive and valuable posseions
in the shape of vegetable farms, orange groves or fine virgin um-
mock lands. Among the owners might be named L. A. Barnes, L
K. Bawlins, P. F. Wilson, Philip Miller, L. C. Denton, J. A. Car-
lisle, W. C. (owry, M Fitch Miller, G. W. Holden, J. HI Roper, Dr.
J. D. Cromwell, Crawford Brothers, J, Simonson, P. H. Young, Ed-
ward HowelL W. H. Bracy, Roth Reynolds, G. D. Youglove & Son,
O. D. Morris, J. D. Avers, J. E. Dodd, W. C. .Snderlaad, W. .
Land, W. A A C. A.cololuh, Mr.4, C. Veede, LawrmnoeJacksm,
Dr. P. G. Snowden, P. M. Oliver, T. O. Shackeld, J. Bir w, M eo,
H. RBih. T. B. & R. Strigelor, and others- Fish sre,*asedibgly
plentiful in Alaehua lake. Trout are caught weighing 2 Ibs., bl
bas weighing 15 Ib., while among the other species are te silvW
fish, the brim-fsh, warmouth, oat-fish,. jak-fsh and hickory
-Aght years ago what is now known as Alaca .lake ws a lage
ag beautiful prairie known as Paye's praise. took its naWm
ft9 King. Payne, an old Sei9lwe obief of tV esly dqay. T his
p Wrie was the east grasig growd fqr the Indians cattle, and ia
ItWp years wa" a drotd to a- like puspse ad foar tillage by $tb
wpe,, I&n tha days tbenMads of battle 0and" aks oombdhe e


at aiy time enjoying the richnesmwhih mother earth here
The overflow of Newnan's lake, which lies tothe north o it,
a stream which wended it way through the prairie and empti 1
self into one of the largest of those oharactertic curiosities
about, which has been described aea sink. Thence the waters
its way into some subterraneous passage whose mystery has i
yet been solved. .-r;t* -
A few years ago this sink became clogged and the waters were
forced to remain upon the surface. It overflowed the prairie, cover-
ing roads, cultivated fields, graing grounds and homesteads, re- '
sting an additional lake in the county, which is now one of ts
natural curiosities. The locality where the waters became lagged
is still known as the Sink, and it is one of the most romantic picnic
grounds and pleasure resorts in the State, situated about four files
south of Gainesville on the line of the Florida Southern Railroad.
About this prairie and among the lakes in this region was the
Indians' favorite hunting and fishing grounds. On either side,bhout
equi-distance from the prairie, at what are now known as Mianopy
and Newnansville, was an Indian settlement. The site of the home
of old King Payne is situated at the fork of two roads leading to
IMcanopy, about a mile and a quarter east from Waaberg lake.
Here, too, old Micanopy, an old noted Indian chief, and the noble
young half-breed chief, Osoeola (Powell), revelled in their palmydays
in all their native pride and glory.
The sink at Payne's prairie was called by the Indians "Alachua,"
meaning a "big jug," into which the waters continually flowed with-
out fllingit. Hence the name of the county. Alaohua, bytheIndians,
was pronounced Ala-eue-ah, a much softer pronounciation than the
present Ah-loch-u-a.
Soon after the flooding of Payne's prairie, an effort was made to
drain it by a canal, which was projected, leading from the prairie
creek south of Newnan's lake into the northern portion of Orange
lake, six miles further south. The legislature of the State, however,
pissed an act making the waters of Alcliua lake navigable, and
the canal project was abandoned. A line of steamers, for freight
purposes principally, now navigate these waters, owned and operated
by the Alachua Steam Navigation and Canal Company. This ed
pany are preparing to build wharves and warehouses at elig0
points around the lake. They connect *ith t"h Transit RKaiflbi
Bevin's Arm and with the Florida Soathern Railroad at the 81
Scandal which they have bult connects with Wauberg lake, a
bedy of water souteof the southeastern corner, which is arro

Soe aAILEm Lbak 1
by numerous very lage ponds. :lis eoeapay hate bhal SOD"
team ya"ht, the "Geo. W. Barre," the steamer "C Ohaeal" ad
two bares at work during the past regatlMe season, andteaju
completed a new steamer, 6 feet long and supplied with engines
which will be ready for the coming orange season. The acreapof
both vegetables and orages abeot these lakes fast l creonwt, by
reaso of teanportatonfac ities affordedby tbiscompany,theoAes
of whiho e, Andrew Howard, Pittsbura P&., Presideet; W. D. Phi-
Hp*, M.D., Vice-Preident; J. T. MeMltlas, Trea er; B. F. Jordam,
eoretary--te last three gentlemen of Gaineville. It ideagnmed
by Uf i company to cear the page connecting Newna's a md
AlaLchs lakes, which can be done at a small expense, when tey
will be able to navigate both lakes, making a complete ooa of
nearly fi een miles. In the opinion of -be writer l tLEe ie not fr
distent when a four-mile eaaial'wll be oimtuxctted to OMage lUal,
and Orange creek dredged from Orange lake to Oeneuwahs risw,
thus furnihing a fne excursion route froti Nswnan' lsake id 1em
the Sink th theo 8 Johns rivrh. The boat would Itehe ser
feeders of vegetable and fruit freight to the vraioms ilroas albag
the line. Gainesville, thus by growth towards the lake, would have
a water front communicating with the St. Johns teamers.
Quite a settlement of northern people is located about the border
of the pretty little Wanerg bke, and a number of Gainesville pe-
ple own good tracts of land there. Among them are W. C. Milb
(the Leirer place), B Witt and the offers of the Navigatio

my lake, south of Alaehua, an Indwith's, south of LeAy's, wfll
sooa be connected with the Aachu, so that the course o the ee-
panes boats will be extended further soath 'a distance bt le adeleb,
to th southern boundary of the ooanty, opening up tbeoaa ofr *
aresof w agrioultrallands. Levy'a Lake i about aftemilong
by three wide, and Ledwith's is about two and a half mb s ire gby
one nd a half wide.
Tueawillalake, about a mile wide in either direoton, is situated
about three and a half mils east of Ledwit' its uthern boarder
esti tig very nearly to the southern boerer ln of the count
UIlk la*e beae the name at he wife of tho India cUat Moma ,
dedtown of eiaepy being located upon its Noretwetern ber.a
&e Alachues lake, Tusaswill lake was created by he clogging of
a*ik, with tih ll owing dtfeaOnoe
Ssinck was swall, as tb i aitay weather a lake- was create
which would gradually disappear in a dA-y easiea k L t


venta temporary clogging of this sink, the owner of the property
some years ago endeavored to open the cavern and keep it open by
log barriers. During the operation his logs caved in and the sink be-
came permanently clogged, and the lake consequently permanently
About two miles east of Tuscawilla lake is the northern arm of
Orange lake, about one-and-a-half miles wide at this point. Only
about three miles of this lake is in Alachua county, but on either
side it is bordered with rich hummock lands and the finest orange
groves in the country.
Lake Lockloosa, about four miles at its widest point, is situated
just northeast of Orange lake, with which it is connected by a deep
navigable stream about one mile in length. The same steamers oper-
ate on both these lakes, engaged in the carrying trade connecting
with the railroads at several different points. Large quantities of
oranges from Micanopy and elsewhere are annually shipped from
these lakes to all parts of the country.
Santa Fe lake is a most delightful body of water, and can boast of
some of the finest residences upon its borders, as well as many mag-
nificent orange groves. It is about nine miles long and four miles
wide at its widest points. A steamboat canal has been built from
this lake to the enterprising town of Waldo, passing through the
beautiful Lake Alto and forming transportation connection with the
Transit Railroad. Lake Alto is about a mile east of Waldo. It is
about one-and-a-half miles long by one wide. Santa Fe and Alto
lakes are the highest bodies of water in the county. Situated upon
the high ridge or back of the peninsula, they have outlets extending
both east and west to the Atlantic ocean and to the Gulf.
The Santa Fe Canal Company has the town of Waldo as its base
of operations. It operates one steamer, the "F. S. Lewis," which
was built at Waldo in 1881, for use on the canal and connected lakes
(Alto and Santa Fe), between Waldo and Melrose. She is nearly 100
feet long by 20 wide, and has room for 200 passengers on excursions.
The route accommodates a section of country which, for its adapta-
bility for orange culture'and vegetable production, is excellent. it.-
brings within acess of market over 100,000 acres of first-class fat%
ing and orane ands, in one of the most healthy and desiraW
sections, aniong rolling hills and hundreds of beautiful clear waW
lakes. The canal was built about a year or two ago. The oMiers m
this company are Geo. C. Rixford, president; H. Binder, vioe-pa
dent; W. H. Stager, secretary and treasurer; Ned. E. Fare
engineer and superintendent. I

UB.T.Y tMfWAN.U it
Newnan's lake, five mils east of Gaineeville, and between anta
Fe and Alachua takes,ile one of the prettiest bWdieB of watir in de
State. It is destined in a few years to be a most popuw iwl l re-
sort, to which hors-cars will be run from the GineisviMe hbtls,
and from the Hygienic hotel and sanatorims of New Gaianefil -
Nenan's lake is about six miles long by two-ad-andalf aiis wi s,
has a good, sandy beach, and is surrounded with deli ghtftiht-
mock lands and groves. Between and about these lakes, alead b-
scribed, are situated innumerable small lakes and ponds, amon g
which northern, western and foreign emigrants love to settle.
All of the lakes of Alachua county are of veryattrctive appearance,
and about them are growing large orange groves, while thousands
of trees-oontinue to be set out yearly, and vegetable farms Sourish
most wonderfully.
AU along the lines of the railroads, whem they run through the
.lae and .range-belt region, hundreds of settlers are engaged in
raising all kinds of vegetablefor the Northero *ket. Thobnanda
of crates of green-peas, tomatoes, beam clomst onionB, cab-
bages, enulflower, spinaic, celery, lett e, beet ., and car-loads
of watsOteeiO u and strawberries are Satheed ai Whipped to all
,lPQiWs Nort int January, Febraary, March ad ALpri, bkingfig
'etf yabuiko prices.
Vegetalearn ng is an industry which in Albcha county hbo
grown to wmatsdl proportions within a few years, payizng5 i
profit ot sveal hundreds of dollars per asre for ro~pSibi* t
nately ripen and reach the markets at the right moengtl. 'BI Pr-
tion of the State will undoubtedly produce the greahrtvrist. L
marketable and profitable crops of any region in the county, amd
yet a large portion of the visitors to the Statego up and down the
St. Johns river without dreaming of the productivenes of this re-
gion, and, like Oscar Turner, go back home without having sen it,
and delare, unwarrantably, that Florida's sandy so is tee poor
to raise even a disturbance on it."
The leading vegetable products of Alaohua for the year round
come in i about the following order: Cabbiges vry earyina the
spring, then beans, then -ucumbers, then tomatoes, then eorb;,teha
long cotton, to say nothing of oats mad the multitadnous othe0W 6-
ducts of the earth. In fruits the strawberrie come first early in
February and often in January, ththn th Japan plau, then thie em-
oft plum, followed by blacktbries, peaoles, nectrane., ,

ffl maAnd pears in their order bore the rst of July. Then ooes
the Japanese pesizmmon, the quince, etc., ending with the orange,
banana, grape fruit, etc., all of which furnish fruits and vegetable
for the table the year round. Alachu county is embiraed within
the orange belt, and furishes the greatest proof, by the big orange
-- tree at Fort Harley (a cut of which is given on page 17), of being
the greatest natural orange region in the State. Thus the de-
lightful occupation of raising orange groves in a healthy country
is a rare inducement for settlers to seek its many advantage.

Orange trees bear all the way from 1,000 to 10,000 orags annually.
Of garden truck, Judge Cessna, of Gaineville, give the following
as a fair average crop per acre from Alachua county oil
Tomatoes and cucu ben, 900 bushels; nap-beans, 100 bushels;
Irish potatoes, from 50 to 75 bushels; BigIsib peas, from 75 to 100
bushels; cabbage, from 50 to 100 barels; buhquash, 100 barrl,
and often 200 barrels; Boeton marrow-qpuaMh,rom toeO barrel
and often 150 barrels; meloan, front 00 to 1,000; -ar.wbeRWqrR, 00
qarts eaLy, and often 4,000 quarts. Of strAwberies, tbe J4

sprishe h- faofced it uest ir ae N thwe la *a sem^ w
epclkfn, ad- the viaes ~iae reveyother a"y. FMatwr a.jn i
wokwe s howdwhtts dAem soai d the f opepmItpa amps
nd in orane gt Smmaad RaiguBrd. A GOdM iaof whtt heW b
accomplimhed i& fItWa sMy there be be leed.
People from the North often sk if a frost may not mmw atnum
come and destroy the bdnero o oreane eulame. Oetalary, t
my, and a may the water of the lAtlto oeean soe -day sN
amd rweep New ngland fom the faee of the earth. T*gr to
and property a overthe vorld is peble at any timeren arpo ,
petieonoesortheravageeoftheelemenbt. Tbhefrop4anagrtotroPl
and semmmitopic fruit., however, is on a pr ifththhe fat dena
to vagebles and fruit in the North, oy, if anaythlng, mno c leas
No ne at the North would the bOyifot a of
plating fruit-ee. adapted to that ellmat though tear that am4
very severe winter might destr," the aPOt yer'* 2top. a is
the remote contingency that a severe frost migh damage the Qp,
once or twice in a century, but how many ties in the l~sttwety-
fve years have the wheat crop and the appleand peah ope in the
North been seriously damaged. Everything upon the fae of the
earth has tm emmy, but on this aoamAnt we do not hear of the
bainems of raidag wheat and fruit in the North being ruied or
abandoed. There is no doubt f the fact that mape oaltr bhe
in the "orange belt of Floridas oe of thea sbetasln l aLd m rid
of the wodd, and thfoe whor engage in itionet will nlt the Lbe
and hold t as the older the trees, when properly oaed tr t e
gmaer is their hearing npcity.
That many of the leading financiers of North Aerinfea oeeus-
erl n bkerohan, aarnaftroadd ioad mwner, aremotablyfIeeI in
making invgesmeUm in tbhie State, isa feet tat should ae be ou-
lookeL Itmay toan out that these expermeaoed boseiasoen beM
sonme Anaucial foreight. Cooemming .o0me a the cOUNmeiI
repertoan Florida, one Set. bold be takes into eriaoa u on Mi. e
ton. Flonda is today to a large degree a lad-ope sC ate.
Land is the marketable stock, and in thi. market, ano the meamtmk
4f WaU street, NewYork, OIhenre mlne "Wl'l the t "ber."
Thbaewho bam ud tes WBMR deate t to ". the prais oisa1twagl
these who deal te biay what tey mato bear" tVisaes44
dowan. SBpply ad ddeai, either meal orW iaglmary, oeti *ath
pained Flenad landB themu ase the uiees at .vgwitsegie-is
kteOaBd. The Ms l eutlhev growtd armes wsL depenI ue
IAid Am-uatmmL-alaw ~ ~, Anu 3.nnmnmu n....& ..8........ LMCI ..


energy, who will be contented with the purchase of ten, twenty and
forty-acre farms and groves, and, locating upon them, pay strict
attention to the cultivation of the same. To sach men Alachna
county offers good homes the year round, an assured livelihood asd
possibly a fortune. The great mistake which many make is in
buying more land than they can properly cultivate or handle.
Large vegetable farms are risky property, and immense orange
'groves owned by parties who make their homes out of the State are
not conducive to the growth of the population or to the financial
growth of the State. An increased population is what adds power
and influence and financial strength, and these facts should he
properly considered by every new-comer to Florida, whoshould like-
wise remember that no man in this country can be more than one
of fifty million, and every additional one tends to create a necessity
and a demand for better conveniences and stimulates a desire for
greater worldly comforts. and by competition cheapens them as
well to the advantage of the whole.
The importance of market gardening to the State of Florida is al-
most incalculable. It was first started but a few years ago as an
experiment, but is fast becoming a leading industry. Orange groves
may be planted on the same land with vegetables, thus securing for
the man of small means a future period of independence and enjoy-
ment while present needs are being provided for. It is an industry
that should be in every way encouraged, as it is attracting to the
State a class of immigrants whose intelligence and industry is
rapidly converting the great wilderness heretofore existing into
most valuable estates, adding greatly to the growth, prosperity and
power of the Stte.
A perfect network of railroads is covering the State, and teomn-
boats are ploughing new waters, seeking freight and traffic from
every locality. Reasonable freights, refrigerators, well-ventilted
cars and compartments furnished by railroads and steamboat com-
panies, will soon place Florida in advance of Bermuda, the West la-
dies, and the Bahama Islands in supplying our great country with
early vegetables.
In buying newlands the first thing to be done is to clear it of ts
natural growth. Hummock land can becleared al made readyfor
planting at from 2S to $86 an acre. Many get eady at a less prise
by merely clearing the underbrush and gifdtig the trees, allowing
them to die where they stand, and it is no a rare sight to see vfge-
tablee flouria in fields filled with towei dad4tree truNks, look-
ing like a forest of naked mast. This latter etod is nmtadviasrte

SA UIar OF TBaM, ,.
where groves aAto be planted. Pine lands may be cleared ,ma
easily and with the least expense by digging down to pand q.pping.
of the roots of the treeand causing itto fall. Th method Atid,
of all stumps atonce, and makes land that yields most abndantly.
Some settlers, with lands which they are in no great hurry to clear,
operate by the above method, except that they only chepoff the
lateral roots of the tree, leaving the tree to fall and tear up the tap
root by the force of the wind, which invariably doe its work in the
course of a few days. By this method the trees may be graduahy
removed a one's leisure. The land in Alacha county is of such a
mellow nature that it is seldom necessary to subsoil. Lands requir-
ing fertilizers are very susceptible to them, and are easily wreoght
up to a high degree of richness. The pine lands are often beneAed
by them, and yet no geat amount of fancy fertilizer are eed by
the farmers here, except in extensive vegetable growing. Still it ,.
a well-known fact that whether in the North, Soth, East or West,
the lands wherefertilrs are moe judicio~alyw d re t mqjlpr-
ductive The same re given to land i Florida that is give J
land in New England will produce far better result and at a, lai
expense, as it is mpre eagly tilled and labor is lees expensive .
The following ar,among the many fruits and vegetable tat
are ~noosesfully cultivated and grown in the Eden of the South:
Oranges, pomegranate, grape fruit, bananas, lemons, peace, ep
plee rareem, L Cnte pears, Age, grapes, guava, blueberrea, bItsk-
berries, hukleberri, s br ies e, arrooot, asmsva, qoa,
tie and other starch plants, Irish potatoes, sweet-potatoes, tanys,
cucumbers, egg-plant, abtbages, onleos, pumpkins, squashes, turnips,
okras, tomatoes, onshaws melons, radishes, parsnipeppes, pqt-
ton, tobacco, ugar-capespfld-peqs, guhra. chfas, peanuts, walnuts,
peoanButas. graesM of various kinds fo hay, milsta,9 beggaro9we
weed (a substitute for,cover which willUot gowh)pr, oat* rye and
Indian corn. At theAtlanta Exposition in 1881 Plodk took the first
premium for upland rice,;the greater part of which was rietM ipa
Alachbu cooty.
Vegetable growing, here as elaswhere, requires great cawe, Ma In
pakingat d shippig the exercise of good judgment, in oederto Bv.
the pwduots reach the markets at the ewsget possible wmognateam
ia gea oonditioa,:when they then bri the wery higet plight .
Ctton hwiththe native faterrs aisthe maestape of the owaly, At*
the newaettlemp tnr their atteatiow to be edi viasegetble prIdolo
tieaM with revate a4d menti woderda oeWa_ i. tw araMqpf p ij
leagelyWa0e toho( 4i 0am pion. Very little 4se1a poRtd, li


the time is not far distant when sugarhouses will be established
here, when, with the most improved machinery, all cases of ocom-
mercial sugars will be made for export. Cotton factories are fond
to be most sucoesftul when operated where the raw material grows,
and it will not be long before their hum will be heard all over the
Eden of the South, as they are now heard at Gainesville. The
cotton grown in this county is of the Sea Island or long staple
variety, and has no superior.
Alachua county is not "below" that mythical "froet line," a
belief in which is nearly exploded; therefore truck tfrmers and
orange growers do, at times, have to contend with frost. Proper
attention and care, however, easily averts such rare danger. Some
of the largest and most successful orange groves in the State are
in Alachua, and the oldest and the largest tree is in the extreme
northeastern part of the county. A number of wild sour groves,
which are most hardy, have been transformed, by budding, into the
sweetest of fruit, while the many young seedling groves, coming
into high bearing all over the county, attest their power to with-
stand severe frosts like those of the past year or two. Judge
Cessna, with others, from extensive observation is satisfed that the
cold, so much talked of and feared, is beneficial than otherwise to
orange groves. The cold is sure death to the insects that ravage the
tires, and while it causes the trees to throw off their leaves, the fruit
is much better for it the following spring. A terribly severe winter,
like those of 1885 and '69, is, of course, an exception.

The whole State of Florida lies upon a vast bed of coral, raised in
the sea and covered with a stratum of sand, largely mingled with
pulverized or decomposed coral and sea-shells. Beds of drift and
coral rock and petrified wood and bones are found in various parts
of Alachua county, as is also a sandstone used in some eases as a
substitute for brick and in others as a fertilizer. It contains a large
per cent. of phosphoric acid, and when pulverized makes excellent
food for fruit and vegetable growth. Blue, yellow, red and white
clays are found near the surface in many parts of the county; also
green and white marls and chalk. That there is gold beneath the
surface of the middle portion of Alaehua is no matter of speculation
or of doubt. In sinking artesian wells in the public square and at
CoL IH F. Dutton's home in the centre of Gainesville, riobhgold-bear
ingquarts were brought up on the drill from a depth of 17 and 10
fet. Tw irh knowledge given to the worM thMat goMwas t

eom. s -- l.eon-.
tjOp Forioda w m 16 n -wis M m ro tdo vi M a tt bS
doest4eti and obtained plues ofige4 fro tbe wan.. B1a|
cojaltning iron ore is fmundn iar ths6-B amen rive. AtArredeS
and at Magnesiak riu there re large nd remaabl de Iposmt at
phosphate rok which will, no doubt, be phned upon bs ~mieitas
a fertilizer for orange and other trees. It has bee an alysed sd
surveyed, and there are millions of tons of it, enough to last for.
period of 200 years.
The area of Alachua county embraces about 808,400 area or 190
square miles. Of this nearly 40,000 acres ae improved, and them

AmACUA BUm-"m o "--mx eArM Ua.
are about 8,078 acres of school land unsold, which, with the lands for
sale by railroads and other companies, offer ample inducements to
those who are seeking homes or safe investments. The lands re
divided into six classes, as follows: First, second and trd-olass
pine lands, high and low hummock lands and swamp-lands. The
fertility and durability of even third-class pine lands has been amply
proven, our chapter on Waldo we even show that piae
ewampy land is aOt witHig geat value. That which appears to
onseu of wb( tOAbad iftl difrd-4l phis lnid P i b iot elL aLkd


which is seen by the eye. There is a mixture of finely comminuted
bits of shells, or carbonate of lime, which furnishes the plants of suOh
region with potash, one of the most important elements of plant
food. All second-class pine lands are productive. Underlying
the surface is clay, marl, lime, rock and sand. These lands are
easily accessible, productive, cheaply fertilized by cattle, and, by
reason of their supposed healthfulness above hummock lands, are
most readily settled upon. The fertility of first-class pine lands is
indeed wonderful, while the limit of their durability is still un-
known. The surface for several inches is covered with a dark vege-
table mold, beneath the depth of several feet is a chocolate
sand loam, mixed for the most part with limestone pebbles, and
resting on a sub-stratum of marl, clay or limestone. The hummoek
lands are the most productive.. Both the high and the low htki-
mocks are generally admired with lime, and the 'str.ea runung
through them are impregnated with it more or lees. Hi~ nua-
mocks do not require ditching or draining. Low hunocks gener-
ally require ditching to relieve them of a superabundance of water,
especially during the rainy season. They have a deeper soil aid
are generally regarded as more lasting than high hummocks. Low
hummocks a~respecially fitted for the growth of sugar-cane, is
also the swamp lands, which are held to be the most durable rich
lands id Florida.-hIn Alachua county hummock lands predominate,
more especially in-he belt of land running through the' oekie of
the county from the northwest to the southeastern portios. This
belt includes the notable and most beautiful San Felusco hummock,
a drive through which, from Gainesville to Newnansville, is one of
the most romantic woodland drives that can be conceived of. The
open hummock lands are hilly and pebbly, the soil is a dark loam
underlaid with a chocolate-colored friable clay. On the high mixed
pine and hummock lands most of the oldest, largest, and most pro-
ductive plantations are situated, although some of the old planters
preferred the first-class pine lands for general cropping, using for\
fertilizers cotton-seed and pea-vines, by which means annual pro-
ducts were greatly increased. Every section of Alachua county, as
before remarked, is well watered, except a small portion lying be-
tween Newnansville and Cow creek.
It is a difficult matter for some to understand how land is divided
up and designated under Government surveys. It is the old Roman
method, which, under our Government, has developed into the most
perfect system of land parttiion whih has ur d1een devised. he
system consists in dividing the land into equal squares by lines run-


ning north and south, east and west. One of these squares, the
unit of the entire system, is called a township, and is six miles on
each side. The township is divided by lines, one mile apart, into
86 sections, each of which mile square, and contains 40 acres.
Each section is again subdivided into quarter setiona, conmta
160 acres. These townships, sections and quarter sections, ariB
run out upon the ground and marked by appropriate monumente,
and correspondingly numbered upon the Government maps. The
initial point from which the numbering commences is always fted
at some prominent land mark. A base line is drawn from this point
east and west, and a line running north and south called the princi-
pal meridian. The lines parallel with the base line are termed the
township lias, those parallel with the principal meridian the mange
lines, and numbered accordingly in squares from the initial point.
In the division of Florida lands, Tallhassee, the capital of the stats,
is the initial point, thus bringing Alachau county between town..
ships 6 and 12 and ranges 18 and 23 south and east of Tallahasse
In the creation of Alachua county, Nature seems to have done her
very best in the admixture of pine and hummock lands, mottled and
streaked with lakes and ponds and streams, under a tropical son, the
heat of which is tempered with constantly flowing sea-breezes, to
produce a spot where man might live and enjoy the bounties of the
earth with perfect safety to health, life and happiness, and with com-
mensurate remuneration for the toil of his hands and brain. Eden
was the creation of Nature's wisdom, not of man's inveitivegenius,
and if Alachua county, Midland Florida, is not a veritable Eden,
then there is no such place this side of the Great Hereafter.


HE LAKE BEGION is the eastern half of the county; it in-
cludes the city of Gainesville, Waldo, Hawthorne, Fair-
banks, Micanopy, Saludia, Melrose, Banana, Grelle and
Lockloosa, and other small settlements. It is far away from the
bleak, damp atmosphere of the coast, and free from the malarial fogs
of the large rivers and prairies. There are no real malarial and
miasmatic diseases m this section of the State, and, all seasons to*
gather, it is as healthy as any spot on the continent where people
can live and make a living. The land through all this section is
high, slightly rolling, with pine, oak and hickory growth inter-
spersed. Where the land is not rich enough for vegetable products,
it is excellent for oranges and other fruits, and thus it is inter-
spereed as if made to order.

GAINESVILLE is the largest and most important city in the
State, excepting Jacksonville, Pensacola and Key West. Jackson-
ville is the largest of them all, but, situated just over the Georgia
line, is only recognized as a distributing point and a shipping port
on the St. Johns river. The many new railroads fast being con-
structed down the peninsula from more western points will soon
take from her a large amount of the travel heretofore compelled to
go that way. These new railroads will all touch or connect with
Gainesville, which must eventually become the railroad centre of
the State.
Pensacola, by its extreme western location, is more like a portion
of Alabama than of Florida, while Key West, an island at the ex-
tremity of a long reef of keys in the extreme eastern part of the
State, is almost like a foreign port. Gainesville, therefore, by its
peculiar central position on the great peninsula, is destined to be-
come, by actual necessity and convenience, the most important
city in the State. By reason of this gradually-admitted fact, and
the easy means of communication, Gainesville must ere long be
made the capital of the State' It can, to-day, be reached quicker
and at a lees expense from all parts of the State, than any other
city in Florida.
It is now the county-seat of Alachua, and the trading centre of the
most populous and productive scope of county, enclosed within town-
ships 6 to 12 and ranges 16 to 28 & aa d-. Its population is about


HE LAKE BEGION is the eastern half of the county; it in-
cludes the city of Gainesville, Waldo, Hawthorne, Fair-
banks, Micanopy, Saludia, Melrose, Banana, Grelle and
Lockloosa, and other small settlements. It is far away from the
bleak, damp atmosphere of the coast, and free from the malarial fogs
of the large rivers and prairies. There are no real malarial and
miasmatic diseases m this section of the State, and, all seasons to*
gather, it is as healthy as any spot on the continent where people
can live and make a living. The land through all this section is
high, slightly rolling, with pine, oak and hickory growth inter-
spersed. Where the land is not rich enough for vegetable products,
it is excellent for oranges and other fruits, and thus it is inter-
spereed as if made to order.

GAINESVILLE is the largest and most important city in the
State, excepting Jacksonville, Pensacola and Key West. Jackson-
ville is the largest of them all, but, situated just over the Georgia
line, is only recognized as a distributing point and a shipping port
on the St. Johns river. The many new railroads fast being con-
structed down the peninsula from more western points will soon
take from her a large amount of the travel heretofore compelled to
go that way. These new railroads will all touch or connect with
Gainesville, which must eventually become the railroad centre of
the State.
Pensacola, by its extreme western location, is more like a portion
of Alabama than of Florida, while Key West, an island at the ex-
tremity of a long reef of keys in the extreme eastern part of the
State, is almost like a foreign port. Gainesville, therefore, by its
peculiar central position on the great peninsula, is destined to be-
come, by actual necessity and convenience, the most important
city in the State. By reason of this gradually-admitted fact, and
the easy means of communication, Gainesville must ere long be
made the capital of the State' It can, to-day, be reached quicker
and at a lees expense from all parts of the State, than any other
city in Florida.
It is now the county-seat of Alachua, and the trading centre of the
most populous and productive scope of county, enclosed within town-
ships 6 to 12 and ranges 16 to 28 & aa d-. Its population is about


4,000, which is rapidly inen sing, mea so at the pre1seatimUnsl
ever before in its history. The city cover an aes of one mnl
square, with a new addition known as c St CGinesvi le. while the
new town of New ainesville, closely connecting, with its Hygiemo
hotel, cottage sanatoriums, and fine business and nbilding l, will
rapidly increase the power, importance and influence of the place,
The U. 8. Land Office, and the East Florida Seminary, and the
Military Academy, are already located here, and -it in likewise peo-
posed to locate the State Agricultural College in the cente of this
great agricultural region
The experiences of the early settlers at Gainesville were frauht
with great danger from the Indians, as the whites from Georgia had
long been in the habit of entering this section over the Alacha
trail and running off the Indians' cattle, which grazed principally on
the great Payne's prairie. "Bod" Higginbottom was the first settle
here. He came when a young man about the year 18l6. His log
cabin stood on land now owned by Mrs. Bevill, on West Main steet.
Here the Indians frequently attempted to burn his cabin, but "Bod"
was ever on the alert for them, and their efforts were vain. Oak
Hall" was the first house of importance built in Gainesville. It
still stands facing East Main street, and is occupied by the U. 8.
lend Office. It is a large and imposing structure, surrounded by
mammoth water-oaks, and must have been, when new, very hand-
some. It was the residence of Tillman Ingram, who carried on an
ve plantation at Hog Creek, northwest of the town.
Gainesvile is the largest cotton-shipping station in the State; the
o H. F. Dutton & Co. alone handle one-fourthof all the cotton
in the State, for which they pay out to the growers annually
W00,000. Cotton from this firm has the reputation of the very
inthe market, the Willimantic (Conn.) Thread Co. being supplied
Ulsively by them, also other well-known leading estabshments.
The machinery used in its preparation for the market comprises in-
vetions used nowhere else. The cotton ginneries of H. F. Datton
Co. are the first great attraction which meet the eyes of the trav-
eler as he approaches the city on the Transit Railroad from Cedar
Keys. They consist of a number of large, subtantial-looking build-
ings, situated near the depot. The iron foundry of J. Doig, one of
the institutions of the city, is also situated near the depot. Thi
mercantile business of the city is centred on four sides of a public
square, in the oetreof which stands the county oaft-house--
loamy4-looking bulging no geat credit to the tow, bet Oa9i.
ithatbaeords have beta n pt and juetioe moan ot fr tigrF

*4 *


years or more. Diverging from this square, the town is regularly
laid out with broad, well-shaded streets, running north, south, east,
and west. The town is built upon a slight elevation, on what is
known as a black-jack (dwarf red-oak) ridge.s These ridges are well
known to be healthy, and the water pure. On these accounts they
are sought as favorable locations for settlement. Gainesville is
sufficiently removed from the surrounding rich hummock lands to
assure good drainage and water, and it is especially recommended
by physicians as the most healthful city in Florida. Between the
two ridges on which are situated Gainesville and East Gainesville,
is an excellent branch of water, known as Sweet-Water Branch.
This will doubtless be utilized some day as a natural sewerage or for
a water supply.
The buildings in Gainesville are principally wooden structures, as
they are all over the South, except in metropolitan cities. Hon. L.
G. Dennis has a very noticeable two-story brick business block,
nicely ornamented, substantial looking, and a credit alike to the
enterprise of the owner and of the city. The Council Chamber of
the City Government is located in it, where the Mayor's court is
also held. It is also occupied by stores and offices, the very prettily
furnished office of Capt. Dennis being situated in the northdl-
After the burning of the old East Florida Seminary building edtto
in the year 1888, the school occupied the upper portion of
Dennis Block, awaiting the building of the new Seminary.
public square served the purpose of parade ground for the militl
department, at the four corners of which the bugle calla
sounded each day, giving the city slight appearance of being
military discipline and rule. The new Seminary Building, sit
on East Main street, is a fine brick structure, built at a cost of ah
$18,000, a large portion of the money having been appropriated.
the city, which was bonded for $12,000 for that purpose. Mr. L lf
Barnes has also a fine brick business block in the heart of the aC r
occupied by stores and offices. ;
The County Jail is the only other brick structure in the city,
although the front of the Varnum House above the first story is
built of that material. The jail occupies a secluded spot just east
of the centre of the town. It is two stories in height, of an impos-
ing appearance, ornamented with a cupola, and is, interiorly, a well
arranged and comfortable affair. This fact, of course, is an assur-
ing one; for while it is not desired that new-oomersto Alachua shil
be of the class that court the-hospiitaies of such an institution,

PROMIRuMr SaoLDrw i5

yet it is well for all to know that, should they by any unfosee i dr
cumstanoe be unjustly forced to occupy this one for a brief *ridd.
they will be cared for in a comfortable and humane manner. MlPs
Block, with its annex, the poet-office building, is the most conspic-
uous wooden structure for business purposes. It contains a large
hall in the upper story together with business offices, with a grocery
on the ground floor. Roper's Hall is the principal amusement resort
in the city. It has a seating capacity for about 500, has a good
stage, a drop-curtain, and a small amount of scenery.
The most conspicuous building in the city is the County Court-
house, previously spoken of. In exterior appearance it is not
worthy of its prominence; but a new structure, to be of brick, with
fire-proof vaults and other conveniences, has been recommended and
strongly urged, and active measures are on foot by the Board of
County Commissioners for its erection at no far distant day. It is
already suggested by leading minds that it occupy a new position
east of the centre of the city, thus leaving in the centre a handsome
public square, which might be easily beautified and provided with
seats and fountains.
The hotels in Gainesville are the Arlington, Varnum, Gainesville,
Bevill, Magnolia and American. They are mostly small, andin spite
of their number are not adequate to the great demands of the place.
The Arlington is the largest, and is a fine and well-kept house, with
pleasant rooms and a table supplied with the best that the Northern
and Southern markets afford. It is one of the best hotels in the
itte, where polite attention is the rule, not the exception, and with
capacity for about 200 guests. Many of the rooms open directly out
on the broad piazzas overlooking the public square. Here enjoyable
hours may be spent; or, if too cool in the winter season, the large,
well-warmed parlors, billiard-halls or reading-rooms offer attrao-
tions among refined and agreeable company. Many visitors to the
ty seek rooms at boarding-houses, and take their meals at the res-
aurant of Roth Reynolds, on the corner of East Main street and
Alachua avenue, which, though not aspiring to hotel fame, does
large and increasing business the year round.
There are many very handsome residences in all parts of the town
'of various styles of architecture, the larger portion of them
surrounded by fine orange groves and gardens in which terw ,
'topical and semi-tropical fruits, plants and flowers grow
'" e. The handsomest residence is that of Col. ~ tt on ,
4Won-bu ytng and banking Akhwof H. F. Duttonm Co. i
on Liberty street, amd hW a most beautiful ardsn witi lawns


and walks about it, and fountains playing from an artesian wi.U,
the digging of which gold was discovered in goodly quantity
about 190 feet below the surface. Among the other fine residenR
in town are those of Judge Gillis, Judge T. F. King, J. B. Broil,
Geo. W. Sparkman, Mrs. B. H. Thrasher, W. K. Cessna,L. L.
Hon. J. B. Dell, C. F. C. Sanchez, J. H. Goes, Mrs. P. Bro'1,
M. Endell; T. Foster, Mrs. Z. B. Dawkins, Saml. Burnett, If*
Singer. Mrs. I. Scarratt, L A. Barnes, H. C. Denton, J. A. Carli*p
Wm. Austin, W. W. Scott, J. C. Eastman, James Doig, Andr*
Howard, Keeler Brose, B. C. McClellan, Mrs. W. J. McCormiik,
J. B. Post, Dr. Gusten and others.
The principal streets of the city are East and West Main strea
running east and west, and Union and Liberty streets, runn
north and south. These intercept each other in the centre of
city, forming the public square before alluded to. Around 1
square are clustered the business places of the merchant kings.a
Alachua, from the doors of either one of which may be seen a
glance the proceedings in the entire square, excepting such por .
as may be hidden by the great central object, thecourt-house.
is the great trading mart of the county, and upon each Saturday
this square is filled with the people from the surrounding county
who come here to sell their products and to lay in their supplies i
the following week. To strangers from the North this is a new
curious sight. Home-made vehicles of every description prol
by mules; lone cows harnessed with ropes into rudely
shafts of primitive-looking go-carts, and driven, maybe, by a buz
looking country girl in holiday attire and the ornamentalaccompi
ments, designed, no doubt, to enrapture the heart of some susoe
ible one of the opposite sex. Oxen, loaded with heavy yokes,
bind which, in a heavily-wheeled oak cart. among boxes,
bags, and numerous unmentionable articles, may be seen protru
the head and shoulders of a grim-visaged mammy or grand-
and a half-dozen pickaninnies of every age, size and complex
Long, vegetable teams, drawn by four or six mules, upon one of wh
is seated a native Floridian, flourishing his long-lashed, h
handled whip in his peculiarly dexterous manner. Long-l
aged countrymen in white pants, frock-coat and tall hat, astride
some cadaverous-looking donkey, loaded additionally with bas
and bags well filled with rich products hanging each side of
saddle, the whole looking, at first sight, as if the man was dead
ing to steady the donkey and his burden with his feet, which
touhb tbe ground. Then women and children of every Mge, a~ie

empbmadoto, ftom s ae i bld ak the whiteetwhite, *nMa
mi w-ound, engjeytakgtheths weekly ga day, talkiag poti
xad religion en the omemr or a g ps n inte sdtea, loungi
around upon the earbtoes, and dining at the Improvised :8g -
day amtng-ples, here ad there looeetd upon tb top oa amte
dr-goods bo ,and attended by the proprietor arraye in ae-
white peas.
These and many other rights pgeet the eyes en the streets ashrt
the square on Satarday, and ae richly enjoy d by vistors who am

tito them. Such qaint-lookin sights, however, are fast
y, by the advent of a new da of people with new ides
ambitions. Engendered by the increased wealth of the
their neighbors, and freely scattered among the above
ancient-looking turnouts may be seen the finet styles of
carriages, drawn by dappe-looking spans, or buggies with
horses, accompanied by prosperous orange and ve-
owBr, with fahionably-dreeeed members of their own
,r friends; also gwnlemen and ladies in riding habits, asted
enddle-bohrws, rqdiat withpleaure recentlyenjbyd
over the hammock roads from their happy southti
the city. iere sp und the square may be found the po-


office, the bank, the business offoes and the stores of the enterpris-
ing dealers in all kinds of goods; also, as elsewhere where money is
freely dispensed, the incommensurable establishments which exem-
plify the biblical declaration that "wine is a mocker and strong
drink is raging." To the credit of the proprietors they are well kept
and orderly, and minors are not admitted. By the newly-established
laws of the State, liquor saloons are placed under the moet rigid sur-
veillance, whilst the excellent local government and the spirit of
morality which pervades the civil and social atmosphere tends to
warrant a continuance of peace and quietness even though they
should fall into evil hands.
Gaineeville boasts in mechanical operations of the cotton gins
of H. F. Dutton & Co., the iron and brass foundry of J. Doig
& Co., the planing-mills of B. C. Drake, the printing-offies of
the Bee and the Advocate, with carpenters, masons, etc., and
the house and sign-painting establishment of the Keeler iro
thers. Another planing establishment is to be erected east of
the town, also a fruit-canning establishment and a vegetable-
crate manufactory, while there is room for many more such
enterprises, as well as for a paper mill, an ice manufactory, a fur-
niture establishment, machine shops, cotton mills, etc., allof which
would find remunerative business under most favorable olrmm-
stances. Among the leading business people of the city are .- F.
Dutton and Walter Robinson, of the banking house of H. F D)tton
& Co.; James Doig, founder; B. C. Drake, mill owner; L. G. Demils
and Leonard Walis, lumber merchants; Philip Miller, grooer;
Bawlins & Wilson, real estate agents; T. Foster, grocer; J.C. yder,
proprietor of the Arlington House; General Varnum, of the Varnum
House; McClellan & Ellis, furniture and hardware dealers; P. M.
Oliver, proprietor of the Oliver House and Oliver Park; J. BB
stable-keeper; J. C. Eastman, stationer and periodical
Siegler & Phiefer, grocers and dry-goodsdealers; C. B. Dodd,
and housefurnisher; Dr. A. J. Vidal, druggist; Mr. and Mrs.
Miller, dry and fancy goods and milliners; W. N. Wilson,
tioner; C. A. Sheldon, grocer and fruit dealer; Hampton &
insurance agents; Endel & Herman, clothing dealers;
Hampton, attorneys-at-law; Roth Reynolds, caterer; Dr. Me
and Dr. Phillips, physicians; Miss Maggie Teabeau, private
B. Klein, grocer and dry-goods dealer; Halliday & Rush,
agents; Robb, Lambeth & Seigler, of the Alachua, Florida,
ment Co.; C. L Fildes, Henry Varnum and J. C. McCreary,
ists; J. R. Post, jeweler; McMillan & Miller, druggists;


MeMOlUl dealer in real estate; Crawford &, Jackoon, meat
and provision dealers; Stephen Bos, shoemaker; eeler BEO*.,
painters; G. K. Broome, general merchandise; Chestnut & Clintoa
grocers; P. Marines, cgar-maker; Mrs Both Reynolds, uade
wear and patter; M. Endel, dry-goods dealer; E. Shivery,
tailor; J. 0. Cromwell, dentist; E. McMahon, brick mesoia
P. LH Young, architect and conveyancer; T. Dsoomgool, algar
dealer; and others.
Among the most influential of the legal and public mn of
Gainesville are: Hon. T. F. King, Judge of the Circuit Court; Ho.
J. C. Gardner, Judge of the County Court; Hon. J. B. Dell, of the
State Senate; Hon. L .Dennis; Hon. B. Bush, and Hon. M.
Lewey, members of the State Asembly; L. A. Barnes, register,
U. Land Office; Hon. Samuel Burnett, Mayorof the city; H. F.
Dutton President of the City Council; Prof. E. P. Cater, President
of the East Florida Seminary; Hon. J. H. Roper, President of Me
Seminary Board of Education; J. A. Carlisle, Clerk of the Ciruit
Court; JudgeW. W. McCall, the leadingcriminal lawyer in the State;
Samuel Wiages, AsseMsr; H. C. Denton, Collector; H. F. Day,
Agent of the Florida Transit R. R., and Chairman of the Board et
Health; Reverends F. Pasco, W. H. Waugh nd E. Ferguson.
These and many others whom the writer would mention with pie
ure, did space permit, are among the leading citizens of Gainesville.
They all have the interest of Alachua county at heart, and letter
addressed to any one of them would doubtless receive in response a
hearty endorsement of the many facts mentioned in this book, sad
would lend valuable additional aid and information toencourage those
seeking homes in Florida. .The larger portion of the people men-
tioned above own orange groves or vegetable farms in various parts
of the county.
This city can boast of as killful physicians, as able lawyers, and
as conscientious, God-serving clergymen as any in the South, wbile
the educational institutions in its midst furnish a goodly sprinkling
of professorsin the various branches of learning, and have created
a community well disposed and ambitious for the highest attai-
ments; likewise attracting a class of new people who delight in
ethical advancement.
Is educational facilities no other city in the State stands
so high. There is the East Florida Seminary (elsewhere spoken o),
BUgnan's Chateau-bliant, Miss Tebean's School, Miss Johnlo's
Shool, the public Schools for white children, and the vioja
Aadenmy for colored children.

40 GAi rVU&i

The Chateau-briant is the private enterprise of Mr. and Mrs. J& ;
Eastman, the latter having been a prominent teacher in the city Bor
several years. A very handsome building has been erected on Gordob
street, 42 x47 feet, with a piazza at the south, west and north sidel
The interior is arranged in every way for convenience as a Ladies'
Boarding-schooL The rooms on the first floor are a parlor ad a
olaBs-room, which ean be used as one for entertainments, examina-
tions, etc., with two similar rooms across a widehallway, thelargest
for the study-room of the older scholars, the other for the Kinder-
garten department. On the second and third floors each, are eight
dormitories for the young lady students, all of which have means
of heating either by fireplace or stove, and a room for the resident
lady .teachers. The house is built and furnished in the finest man-
ner, and the institution is a creditable one to both the city and the
Miss Tebeau's school is likewise a private school, where boarding
or day pupils are received in the primary, intermediate and oblle-
giate branches of an English course of education, with music
included. Miss Tebeau is a successful teacher, enterprising and
The Union Academy, the leading school for colored children,
is situated in the northern part of the city. It was established
at the close of the war by the Freedmen's Bureau, the land
upon which the building stands (one acre) having been pur-
chased with money contributed by the colored people. It will
accommodate 800 pupils, and is supplied with five teachers.
Through the efforts of Hon. Matthew M.' Lewey, member of the
Legislature, from this county, a normal department was estab-
lished, and is supported by an annual appropriation of 8,000 from
the State. In the county there are thirty or forty other schools
for the colored children exclusively, supported by the State,
and principally taught by colored teachers. These schools manifest
great progress, and are forerunners of great good. The colored
population in the city, are, for the most part, of the advanced
intelligent order. They are good cities, industrious, ordedy,
and self-supporting. Among their number are able lawyers,
teachers, merchants, tailors, boot and shoe-makers, bakers and
cigar-makers. All but the first three have a monopoly of tk*F
respective trades. i ,
The interests of public education are in charge of a Superai rtea
sad a Board of Public Instruetion The Superintendent,
Sheats, is located at Gainesville. nA

Bcaoos AMmllaimw. a41
Them ea tour churches in Gaifeswlle,. at whem sehiatSbh
whites worship. They are the Baptist Methodist, P shetmi atm
Eplioopal. The present Presbyterian chbrih was erected cntbelst
otfDecember, 185, "1,O having been raise in Floridia ad Seeth
Carolia for tb purpose. It was dedicated te following year, and
fora year or two was the only church-buildtg in the town. The
civil war paralyzed the mission enterprise, which was not revived
until the fall of 184 No Presbyterian Chuch had been organied
here until March, 1867, when thirteen persons were enrolled with
two elders, Dr. W. 8. Dudley and Mr. Joseph Spencer. Since then,
the ruling elders have been Meser. J. B rown, J. D. Matheson,W.
Wilson; the brothers, Lackey, Wm. Bryant, E. P. Cater, 1. C. East-
man, C. A. Sheldon and Dr. J. A. VidaL Dr. Vidal, Prof. Cater,
Captain Sheldon, and Memmr. astman and Matheson n4w cousti-
tute the Court of Christ. The Rev. J. McCormick, who had
long been doing missionry work in the. 8tate, was regularly
chosen as pastor in the aping .o 1M, sad filed the office until
his death in July, 188. Services e held regular o Sunday
morning and evening with abbth school in the afternoon. At
the last meeting of the Presbytery of Florida, this school was
called the banner schooL The superitendents e Messrs. Mathe-
son and Cater The singing at this ourbch is the finest in the
city, the choir oomsting of Meser. fitah Miller, Orville Bailey,
Mises Bease Iad Sophie sMcCornak, Mia Tadje Bailey and
Mrs. McConick, led by Mrs. French, teacherof masi at the
East Florida Seminary, and accompanied by a fine Bsty organ.
Repairs upon the church are contemplated, also the budding of a
para gage .
The Methodist Society was organized in 18. Services were held
in the court-hous. The present chturh building was bit in 185,
the previous building, buflt in 185, having been so badly damaged
during the war, by the U. S. Government, as to reader-it unfit for
further use. The church lot was donated to the church by Vflt
County Commissioners in 187. The following Is the list of pastors:
Reerends J. K Glover, J. J. Seally, J. C. Ley, J. Bridges,
Wi. Davi, O. A. Myers, J. G. Worley, J. O. A. Sparl, E. Cram,
A;W Robinson, S. pafder, B. H. Barnett, 0. Eady, H. F. Phillips,
f.'Smitteel, A. F. McCook, J. B. Johnston, J. P. DeFass, ad
the present, F. Pasoo. At the present time the membership of the
o6tdshf s 85.
Vs First 'Baptit Church was orgaldesd in 18T4. The pmrt
rib ulding was etedied i 1985, thBro e th6 otia 'o i ,


C. Ellis and Mrs. Judge Dawkins, on a lot purchased with money
obtained by the sale of a lot adjacent to the M. E. church lot, which
had been presented to the society by Dr. R. Y. H. Thomas. The
only pastors have been the Rev. J. H. Tomkies and the present
pastor, Rev. C. V. Waugh. The latter was called to take charge of
the church in December, 1876, when the membership was but 19.
The present membership is 70, and has been 96, which number has
been reduced by removal and death. J. H. Avera and Robert Mce


Clellan are the deacons, the latter being also Superintendent of the
Sabbath-school, T. B. Ellis is secretary of the society. In addition
to the regular Sunday services, prayermeetings are held every
Thursday night. Connected with this church, are the Ladies' Be*
lent Association, the Ladies' Mission Society and the Chio
"Lottie Moon" Mission Society.
There are four churches at which the colored people woraohi
Baptist, one Methodist Episcopal and one African Methodis
pal. The preahaers are in their order of churches, the


Ferguson, Gray, Aug. Wates and R. Shivery. Churches ot
the colored people are scattered all over the county, avemagag, at
least, three to a precinct.
Among the other societies and organizations in the city, are the
Free Masons, the Knight of Honor, the Cemetery Society, the
Gainesville Guards, the Eureka Fire Association and the Little
Giant Fire Company. The Guards number about 80 members, and
are commanded by E. P. Cater, captain, with J. A. Carlisle a
first lieutenant. Their uniform consists of a red coat, blue pant,
and a helmet. The Eureka Fire Association consists at present
of about 50 members, with Matthew M. Lewey, president; N.
M. Clinton, vice-president; J. Z. Feltner, clerk; and Irwin Haynes,
treasurer. The Little Giant Fire Company is made up of the
active members of the Fire Association, with J. A. Parker, captain;
Walter Desverney, lieutenant; Jas. Roberts, foreman; Jas. McCil-
lan, aseistant-foreman, and other effcient officers. The Little
Giant Fire Engine is a very pretty hand-machine. It was
presented to the above organization by the Hon. L G. Dennis,
of Gainesville.
A horse railroad company has been organized under the title of
the Gaineeville Street Railway Company, with J. W. Ashby, presi-
dent; R. L Robb, general manager; and L. G. Dennis, as secretary.
It will be one of the most valuable acquisitions to the city when in
full operation, and when the line is fully completed will furnish
winter visitors with fine trips to both Alacha and Newnan's
There are numerous orange groves in the very heart of the city of
Gainesville. Mr. F. X. Miller, one of the most enterprisingbui-
nees men, has the largest. Near his residence on Union Street, he
has a small bearing grove of fine nine-year old trees, and next to it
a three-acre grove just coming into bearing. Beyond this he has
another three-acre grove just beginning to bear. Adjoining that, a
six-acre grove with three to eight-year old trees, and beyond that a
six-year old grove, with trees from seven to nine years old, among
which are planted Peento peaches, which yield annually rich crops.
These groves are situated on high land, in dry soil, and are within a
minute's walk of the public square; they are so arranged that public
streets may be run through them without disturbing the trees.
They are under the best cultivation, and visitors delight in looking
over them. He fertilies with the cow-pea turned in with a plew;
also with ash element and cotton-seed meal, one-half ton to the Mre
put about the trees. Mr. Miller looks upon his groves a sort of


life-insurance security for his wife and children, to say nothing f
the benefits which he himself receives from it. Mr. J. A. Carlile,
the efficient clerk of the Circuit Court, has a fine four-re grove
about his residence in the vicinity of Mr. Miller's groves. In addi-
tion to the orange, he has some fine Red Astracan apple and Bartlett
pear trees.
Mr. Phillip Miller, a relative of F. X. Miller, in addition to carry-
ing on one of the largest and most successful grocery stores in
Alachua county at Gainesville, cultivates, near Alachua lake, 18
acres of land. Here, in the midst ofa young orange grove, he raises
strawberries, corn, tomatoes, potatoes and other garden vegetables
for his own-trade, besides making shipments to the North. While
he is thus making money with the present products, a fine orange
grove is growing upon his land, which, in a few years, will give him
an independent fortune. He, too, is one of the most enterprising
men of Gainesville.
Mr. L. K. Rawlins, another young, rising and progressive man,
in addition to his real-estate business in connection with P. F. Wil-
son, at Gainesville, is an extensive vegetable grower. He plants
eighty acres near the lake and has started a 10-acre orange grove
and a nursery, and is constantly adding to his possessions. Mr.
Rawlins came to Gainesville in 1880 to escape death from rapid
consumption. He is now apparently well.
Among the enterprises credited to Gainesville, is Oliver Park, a
very popular resort for the people all along the line of the Florida
Southern Railroad. It is situated near Alachua lake, in the vicinity
of the Sink. It is the great picnic resort, andthe proprietor, Mr. P.
M. Oliver, leaves nothing undone in catering to the enjoyment of its
patrons. Musical, dramatic, and variety entertainments, dancing,
swinging, bathing, glass-ball shooting, and such other amusements
are among the many attractions presented, while Nature has done
her full share in making it a place where tired humanity can seek
rest and recreation. Mr. Oliver is the proprietor of the Oliver
House in Gainesville, and a large owner of fine lands and orange
Mr. B. C. Drake may be justly ranked as one of the most succes-
ful men in Gainesville. He came here from Massachusetts in Jann-
ary, 1871, a stranger and almost penniless. He first engaged in
journalism, which business he followed for about six years. In the
meantime he started a planing-mill, and finally gave his time
wholly to that. In spite of some losses sustained by fire and other-
wise, he is now numbered among the most substantial business

Orr Ownam.I& 45
men of the city, and a living illustration of the fact thaf "Industry
will thrive." He now operates a pla-ing-mill, grist-mill, rice-mill,
and jobbing shop.
The converting of the Spanish moss, which grows abundantly
from Florida trees, into a snbetitute for hai to be used in uphlster-
ing, is becoming quite an industry. There are several of these
estishments in and about Gainesville.
The local government of the city is in the able haids of S. J.
Burnett, Mayor; H. F. Dutton, President of the City Council; L. A.
Barnes, R. Shivery, J. T. McMillan, J. O. Cromwell, T. C. Gass, W.
G. Robinson, N. M. Clinton, and W. K. Cessna, members of Council.
J. H. Davies, Mrshal. A. Arnow, poet-master.

L EW GAINESVILLE occupies a most beautiful aqd healthy
site,on high, rolling pine land, just eastof ot t Gainesville.
It is being rapidly built up and improved. The planof New
Gainesville, with its hotel and surroundings is most attistic. The
hotel in the centre, surrounded by blocks of cottages built in the
form of a circle, with openings between the blocks at the four car-
dinal points. Outside of this circle of cottage blocks, will Le a
circular carriage way 100 feet wide, to be known as the Arena, on
the outside of which, on both the east and west sides, will be two
blocks of buildings for business purposes. On both the north and
south sides will be two parks, designated rspectively Oak and Pine
parks, on the south; Magnolia, and Orange park on the north; the
hotel, cottages and parks forming a bird'sye figure like the centre
and two sides of a Maltese cross. Rdittig from the centre are
various avenues, eighty feet wide, and exten#ing to the town limits,
where they connect with streets forty feet wide, which boundthe
town on all sides. Running north from the centreis Denhver aee;
northeast, Savannah avenue; northwest, Orleans avenue; southeast,
Chicago a'omue; southwest, Brooklyn avenue. East ad west, ex-
tendingpfomthe entire u t the city of Gainesville, through the Aena,
on either side o the cirle of cottages, and thence on to Newnaa's
lake, is Alacha avenue, the principal street in the city. It is 100
feet wide, and will be the shell-road to Newan's lake. Its entire
length is four and onehl miles. The streets running pallel with
Alaohua avenue on the south are numbered South #Bst South

46 Nuw Gnm Lvnju.

Si | ii, |

"L -
A b ayd
0ra e
*'^ ^ gE l :31a ^



Second, etc. Those on the north, are North Firt, North Second, etc.
Street running acrom the aveaues in the opposite diretion, or
north and south, are lettered A, B, C, etc., commencing on the west
or Gaineville side. These sheets, like the avenue, re all eight
feet wide, and are lined with building lots of S0x100 feet. On
Alachua avenue, east of the Arena, there are a number of building
lots 26x110 feet, for businem purpoes, in addition to those
in the Arena. There are, altogether, over 00 of both sims in the
city, which are offered at from S to 6900, according to location
These prices are, of course, only for the present.
The hotel to occupy the centre of the circle described, is to be
built at a cost of $100,000, and will be known as the Hygienic Hotel.
It will consist of a central rotunda four storieshigh, with a cupola,
and four three-story wings, extending north, south, east and wet.
It is designed for a health resort, and will be fitted throughout with
all the modern conveniences for first-clams guests. Outide pslma
and balconies will extend around the whole bniing for prommn-
ing, and beautiful paths and lawns will take up the intervening
space enclosed by the circle of cottages. These cottages will be
sanitorium-annexes to the hotel, to be rented by the month, semn,
or year to individuals or families who desire retirement from among
the general guests. regular body of skill physicians will be i
attendance at the ottages and hotel, if desired. There will be one
of each school of medaine, so that guests can have the best tresa
meat, is eeary, under a physician practicing that system in
which the patient has the greatest faith. Patients will be tasen to
board, and augh treatment included for a specify sum per wmek,
graded aoeodiag to the selection of apartment. It is an inSttatt
that has. ha beer needed but has now become an aetual aeessity,
a eveeyyea the reputatteoet this locality for health and anitary
prpo~e inaeases hither the travel of si n and ailing people A
bge proportion of the people who visit hees lad it s4 benea al to
heth, ad the country so delightful, that they have become actual
mstlies. The building of the town about the Hygienie Hoe is a
grant ia, whiOk a tya eet the wants of invalids d pleasure
seeleM. from all prt of-theword, as here they can, i a lolity
selete:epeeially for their need, build them a home at a small
cost, rent homes and live and engage n active business pda ai,
where, in addition to climatic advantages, they can be under the
ear of the mosaklltled physlefas.
Just oaut de r th town, commencing oueoquater mile f othe
hotel towards the lake, are 11 five-acre lots, which can be pI tldil

BaW GAnblVIa.

at from $850 to $500 each, for farming and gardening purposes,
orange groves or nurseries. Thus persons can live at the hotel or in
the town, regain their health and strength, while, at the same time,
they can have fine gardens or orange groves growing within easy
distance, which they can visit each day, building up a fortune whilst
building up their health. Climatic benefits are here secured in ac-
cordance with individual temperaments. All persons are not bene-
fited alike in the same localities. The climate here is best adapted
to persons of a nervous temperament and its combinations There
are many people who come to Florida who are not benefited as
greatly as expected. these have always been people of lymphatic
and bilious temperaments. The climate here is of a soothing nature.
It is quieting to the neives, subduing them proportionately with the
rest of the system which is allowed to strengthen. Those whoae
nervous force is already weak, and the rest of the system strong, lose
here even the little nervous force they have, and are thus likely to
realize injurious effects.
The site of this new hotel, with its surrounding town, is on
rolling pine land within eighteen inches of being the highest
point between Fernandina and Cedar Keys, which line cromes
the very backbone of the peninsula. It is declared by the ex-
perience and observation of old residents and physicians to be
absolutely healthy and the water pure. It is particularly bene-
ficial to all pulmonary complaints; and to those of a nervous tem-
perament, if not too far gone when they make the trial, it is
absolutely beneficial.
The plat of the Hygienic Hotel and Sanitary Cottages were con-
ceived and promoted by, and are in charge of, the Alaohna Improve-
ment Company, of which R. L Robb, M.D., is president, John E.
Lambeth is secretary, and Dr. W. L. Seigler is treasurer. The com-
pany have a capital of $180,000, with the object of developing
Alachua county in general, and Gainesville in particular,by encour-
aging every creditable industry desiring to locate or become etab-
lished here., A large canning establishment, to be located in the new
town, together with the Gainesville Street Railway, were the out-
growths of the efforts of this company. The line of the Trankm
Railroad extends along the western border of the new tswn, be-
tween it and East Gainesville, and the point where it cases
Alachua avenue is the natural depot-point of all the railroads run-
ning into Gainesville. The wisdom of the railroad ofeilals have
long recognized this fact, and the union passenger station will be
theB bailt.


VAALDOisa thriving, autewparidngS I about Aven miuew w
Shesxtreme northeasternbomndary lne of the opealjy.
tbemae linsof theTnanIRaeilread at the juameMonott
Peminmaa Rasroad and the wBeteiraterian of the GSanea e ea0 l,
84 mils from Ferandina, miles bfro Jamonvmlle. and 1E a1i
rom Gainesille. Its population tbh present time is about 400,
ith a proqpet of rapidly ineaing, is daily being demon.
strated that the lands in and about the orporate limits areas
adapted to fit-growing as any in the State, while for veetabbei
of certain iade it se also most prodnotive. It has also the aftee-
tioe of water facilities, either for ASsing, boating, or pleansu
excuroons, on the Alto and Santa Fe lakes.
It. trespeprtation oilitiea-peovided thy te Transit sad the
Peninsula railrods, both operated by the .mae oeup y, and the
Smnta e oaal-are unaxelled. Tbe inoerappaad ton comnpria
about 1,000 area of high, level, piny land, surrounded by rolling
lend of thesame nature, with bere and there a cypress wanp. The
oil is harder and lm sandy than fartLe soth, while in pie of the
fat that hard sab-eol is resohed within a foot to 18 ipohe
of theurtaoe, oranges grow moat alndantly, the trees attaftl
great ag. The orange and lemon trees about Waldo have,soarely
ever been "iured by the frots that have affected trees 100 mies
tasber south. The oldest ad largest traes i the 8tate, ad e
which passed uninjured through the severe wimnts of l5 an
1W, as standing wiKtWi e three nmils of the tow, at Fort Hn4ey,
under whiabed, urtbe on, wesiTe* description o tbheIne tse.
The egion about Waldo k the hbihest between Fernaodina aed
Cedar Keys, and i there considered abolately healthy. The
majority t the people are white sfsm al parts of the country.
Thet arem aontlde inimM of street, anw oe-wiorth the town it
pleatae to eragps. The bruinaes portionpwof town faes the l e
of aloard,j comapsrilag about a doMes starea,. mas l bheodari
houses sad hotels, Iwdies the Waldo aat the SwBayaie hoemm,
aoarmiae manufaetorsyad himd rtgn*ib a wh&al&rh&op,
oeteon-gin aud gratmil, three sw-tl within tOre w emo of the
tow,r two soeboolThueos, IAve A ohe, bo Iapiustk PBbyteorm,
Maftiodo Spiasopml. ad. (gzegatiooa i Bwaier, eqM
and ,tplerp. oaea,* daily ana in four diMment aw eiews a4
raoey-e aMrtoe e. Abso a laoge 4wr psign ufa.y, aqngr-
in gsme 19 of 40 hands. T'he headqarte 9a tlhe 04a ,e


Canal Company are located here, the engineer and superintendent,
Mr. Ned E. Farrell, being one of the most enterprising of men, and
a leading spirit in the advancement and prosperity of Waldo. He
has a very fine residence within a short distance of the railroad
depot, surrounded by a beautiful garden filled with luxuriant tropi-
cal plants and trees. Mr. Farrell commenced here five years
ago, and raised 1,000 orange trees from the seed; these he budded,
and about 50 of them are in bearing. He has 100 LeConte peer
trees, 100 peach trees, 50 Japan plum trees, etc., besides several
varieties of grapes, and a nursery with 20,000 orange trees. From
three acres of land he sold $1,000 worth of orange trees, besides
raising thereon what are now in his own grove. He fertilizes with
green crops, buckwheat, cow-pea, etc. He has one of the prettiest
places in Waldo.
Among the other leading business men of the place are Raulerson
& Ambrose, David L. Ferguson, D. Hicks, D. L. Renault, M. D.,
and his sons, E. Renault & Bro. Raulerson & Ambrose do a ine
business in general merchandise, and are heavy cotton buyers, pay-
ing the highest cash prices. This firm and D. L. Ferguson are the
leading merchants of the place and carry on a great trade in all
kinds of goods, with the farmers for miles around. Mr. Raleram n
is a native of Florida, and has been in business here since the close
of the war. He also carries on a farm, raises cattle, and has an
orange grove of six acres in the town, in which are some 500 need-
ling trees, eight years old. Mr. Raulerson, in caring for his tree,
believes in allowing the lower branches to grow and shade the
trunk, which is contrary to the ideas of many northern men, who
believe the lower limbs should be trimmed so as to let in the ir and
sunshine. His trees are excellent bearers, yielding several thesand
oranges and show what seedlings can do. He has the representa-
tive seedling grove in this section. He uses only pea vines for fer-
tilizer. His partner, Dr. Ambrose, is a native of Virginia, and has
been in Florida since 1875. The first five years he was engaged in
agriculture and merchandising in the southern part of the State,
but his wife and children, natives of Florida, were such sufferers
from malaria that he moved to Waldo for their health, where he
has remained, his family being free from their malady since re-
moval. Dr. Ambrose is a live, energetic man, and one of the infu-
ential citizens of the place. Only a year ago he built a very pretty
residence within easy distance of his place of buidaes, where he has
a good orange grove of vigorous bearing trees. These trees a ten
years of age, and are as free from insect pests as any the writer has


seen. At the time of building bis house the trees that me now in
his front yard were covered with insots, but he son stopped their
ravages by washing the trees i a solotio of ammonia, *oap and
kerosene. Another good wash for tree which he has tried is made
of soft soap, carbolicacid and lime. This forms a whitewash with
which he whitewashes the trees. It is his belief that a little spider,
which weaves its web in a cluster of fruit and leaves, creates a shell-
back insect which is very destructive. There is also a mealy-bug
and a red-rust which gets on the limbs, and is sure death to the tree

VM 0mm 1R Ooft. ANmaS AT WALDO..

unlaes removed. The doctor is an excellent gardener, and among
other things, has raied some mammoth onion, thirty-twoo which
make a busehe If these could be kept until the fall he thina there
would be great proft in oninraising for the home markets. Dr.
Ambroee has a so about give miles from Waldo, who i carrying on
a 2aoacre arm,. where he rames otton and orn, principally,
and ows about 100 bead of cattle. Mr. D. L. Ferguso isa young
man from New Bedford, Massachusetts. He came hers only fer
year ago, and engaged in business. He is the sameosms of Ferg"-
o s SD&s., and dose a la ge tbini a d ownm a young 10-sem
orange grove which will oon yield bim a rich.reteru. He ha al


a good home surrounded by orange trees and other tropical fruit.
His enterprise and success show what a young man with small
means, but plenty of energy and pluck, can do in Florida in a eabrt
time. The stores here do an average business of about $,%00 a
Mr. D. Hicks, the carriage manufacturer, is located near the
depot. He manufactures all kinds of carriages adapted o the uses of
this country, made of the toughest stock. He makesfancy carriage,
business wagons and farm wagons with the greatest care, receiving
orders from all parts of the State. Mr. Hicks is also a practical
trimmer, and takes great pride in his personal attention to the trim-
ming of carriages of his own make, as well as those brought to him
for repairs. He has a blacksmith's forge in connection with his
business, and his work compares most favorably with the best in the
country. Like all the business men and residents of Alasoha
county, Mr. Hicks has a fle orange grove. He has some 400 trees
on from 8 to 10 acres, most of which are in bearing, and which
will soon give him a generous income aside from his regular
Dr. L. Renault is doing much to build up Waldo and its beautiful
surroundings. He is a physician and surgeon from the Faculty of
Paris, France, but more recently from Missouri. He has a h3e
residence about one and onehalf miles from the town, on tohliae at
the railroad, also valuable property in town, where he carries
apothecary store in addition to his practice. He owns a fln grappa y
and an orange grove containing 9000 trees, which are e tremltr a
four and one-half years of improvement of swampy lad, whih
was so wet at the time of purchase that it was deemd fy dotm. to
be worthless. It is now thoroughly dry and productive, and he
receives an income from the products sufficient to pay all the ex-
penses of the place. The doctor treats chronic and female com-
plaints, furnishing accommodations for his patients who come teom
a distance. A large number of his friends from the West, through
his instrumentality, are making arrangements to locate in and about
Waldo. His sons carry on the city market under the fim name o
Edw. Renault & Bros., and partaking of the enteprising spirit of
their father, are valuable acquisitions to the town. The eldest has
a 90-ore orange grove by the side of his father'sfilled with vigorous
growing tree.
Among the other noted groves in and about Waldo, are thosof
C. K Dutton, 8 Z Kennard, Tho. D.Williams, Dr. H A. COushig,
Mris Sparkman, Robt. Campbell, S. F. Lewis, W. T. Jooe, c. U

Thigpen, Thea. Smith, Mesrs. Stager, Dale, Neal, Beck, Iram,
Godbey, Atwater, Thomas, Fogg, Rma rd, Richie, Murphy, Pettit,
Geo. W. Munich, Capt. Cole, and Ms. Chadwick.
The Livingstone grove is one of the most remarkable in the
county. The tres are only three years from the budding on two
yer stocks and are bearing heavily. The land of tise grove (80
acre) was aaw-panmetto and cyprei swamp-land purchased by Mr.
LiUvigsto three years ago from the time of writng, for $00. It
has a hard-elay subsoil, only 18 inches from the surface, and was
then uncleared. It is now blooming with rich-bearing orange trees
of every variety. Usually, young, vigorous and thrifty growing
trees are nr great bearers, but Mr. Livingston is of a scientific and
experimental mind, and spends the greater pat of his time among
his trees testing all sorts of new ideas; so much so is this betrayed in
his work, that there are hardly two trees in the grove that are
plated and cared for alike. Some are planted n the natural level,
some on mounds, and some are enclosed in a sort of box aange-
meat, made of log sides with the earth filled in, with both hollowed
and elevated centres where the tree stands. With some, the lower
limbs ae trimmed off with others the lower limbs are allowed to
cover the trunks, and yet all seem to do equally well except a few
which are nearly killed by the use of some fancy remedy for insects.
Those planted on the cypress-swamp land ditched, are doing won-
derfully. He has same lemon trees of the Lemon of Genoa variety,
three years frm the bud, on seedling stock two years old, which
show at one time fouear differ t stages of bearing, from the bud to
the ripened fruit. Persimmon trem wo years from the bud aver
aged eighty-fiv pennans a tree, thaoir Xe e weight being one
pound. The Homoose orange does the best, showing good stock
and healthy. TheTageine bear way into the stock. Onlydomestic
feMtisermand corn-stalk ae sed. MrY. Livingston' *gueaiaybe
poperly termed an expemental grove. He is a careful and pea.
siatent worker, and believe t that he groves will pay for all the
attntioa give them by eresae quantitie of fruit. Hegrow
witMseei Mnehisgearden the old New lipIand rook-necked equah,
and is experimenting with various graess. Paa Grass, Genuine
Bermida enda Bemada gras alde owe, but no gras wilgow here
wMth ehaleg glands wbhih exhale the moisture. Mr. Livingston
case here from Casro, Il.
Di M. A. Cubhig is a man well along in years, but with a
weederful telet and ae, hearty and robust. His long avery
haiianad hersd, his onetery habitation, and his suroundigpeiket


fences caused him, in his little clearing in the pine forest, to appear
to the writer like a veritable Robinson Crusoe, but happy and con-
tented in the enjoyment of his happy home in company with. his
estimable wife, who enters with all the zeal of a good helpmateinto
the enterprising spirit of all his efforts. Dr. Cushing is a native of
Massachusetts, and came to Waldo in 1879, with very small means.
He bought 40 acres of swamp land, and when he commenced to
clear it and build upon it, it was remarked that the old gentle-
man was going out there to starve. On the contrary, however, he
made a good living on it from the first, and has now a piece of dry
and valuable property, showing more conclusively whatcan be done
upon the swampy lands of Alachua county than anything heretofore
attempted. Dr. Cushing cleared and cultivated his land without
assistance, and has never used a horse, mule, ox or cow to plow it,
doing the work with an axe, a grub-hoe, and such hand implements,
backed by energy, pluck, and a wise head, and he now has a grove
of orange, peach, pear, plum, persimmon, lemon and date trees,
besides quantities of various varieties of grapes, tea-plants, etc.
He plants his trees on a ridge, and plants corn on a ridge
between the rows and fertilizes by putting the cornstalks into
the ditches between, and covering them with dirt. The first
year he fertilized with cotton seed. His first trees were set out
in 1880 (85). He has now 119 in all. On three fifths of an acre
of peach trees, he got 60 bushels: 5 bushels of these in the
spring of 1888, brought $9 a bushel; the remainder brought 4
a bushel. The doctor is so happy in his Florida home that he
calls it Paradise, and we doubt if his wife could be'tempted to
eat any forbidden fruit that would cause him to be driven oat
of it.
Messrs. H. H. & Thas. D. Williams, father and son, are also
from Massachusetts. They purchased 56 acres of land on the banks
of Alto lake, a mile or two from town, and t the end of three years
have 1,000 orange trees, 125 pear tree, numerous peach, plum, and
persimmon trees, a good house, barn and sable, with horses, cows
and poultry. In purchasing and planting this place and building
they exhausted their means, but have mab a good living each jer.
The fruits of their toil are now about to be realized by the orange
trees which are coming into heavy bearing. This lad cost them
but $00. Its value now is way up among the thousands, and shows
what a few years in Florida, with efetts properly directed, will ac-
complish. They have a most delightful home, one of the richest of
blessings to man, overlooking the beautiful lake; the younger Wil-


Iems and his wife both energetic and ambitious, the elder William
and wife in their declining years most emphatically expreaing them-
selves "happy and contented."
Mrs. Deshay, about a mile from the town, is a widow, and a
native of Florida. She caught the orange fever some years ago
and planted trees, but her husband, who was then alive, scoffed
at her foolishness and ploughed them up to make room for cot-
ton, otherwise she would have had one of the most extensive
groves in the vicinity. Some few trees about the house she man-
aged to preserve, and they now tower above the roof of the house,
and their golden fruit yield her an annual income which places her
above want.
Mr. W. T. Cheves, one mile south of the town on the Peninsular
Railroad,had a tree which was burned. He cut the trunk off near
the ground and budded it. The new growth now measures three
feet three inches around the trunk six inches frm the ground It
S17 feet high and has 15 feet spread of anehes. It bear 1,M0
o ingl
Mr1 H. Hath came here in 1880 from Boston, Mas. He plr-
baed a ieoe of land with or 14 treason it, but poorly culUvated.
Theb yea thae trees yielded& an avoee of 1,000 oranges to a
tree. Th second year 1,50, and the third year 3,e00, which shows
he value of god cultivatiem.
E. W. Hunt, from imanthamt came here six years ago for
his wie's health. They had thought of going to Califama but,
eoumig the cost, found they could come to Florida ad p rsi m
a htane and ras an orange grove cheaper than they could goto
Califor&aL. His wife has covered he health, and Mr. Heat is n-
thesasti over the healthtfulne of Florida. He has a sall grove
which yields him a good crop.
:Measm Betd e a Eddtaganm, two young men recently in the
English army, jointly own 40 acre of land a few miles from the
towm, six of whioh are devoted to oangee. Mr. Bethune is from
Toronto, Oanada; ME. ddington from Argyle, Scotland.
Waldo has a good weekly newspaper, the Florida Advoerut,
owned and edited by J. B. Johnston, formerly of the Atlanta On-
siftion and the Troy EnIqrer. Mr. Johnston, for five monod in
the winter, is employed as teacher of the public school, whe there
is an average attendance of 10. In the summer the schools rn as
a private school, when the attendance is not so large.
The city government of Waldo consists of T. M. CHe, Mayr;
. J. Knnard, r., Clerk and Treasurer, with B. W. Caaphbell, H.


C. Pettit, D. Hicks, John A. Preston, J. T. Weeks, and A. C. Beck-
ham as Councilmen. The Marshal is H. M. Tillis. Post-mater, J.
M. Barnett.

ICANOPY is situated near the southern boundary line of
Alachua county, on the north side of Tuscawilla lake,
about 15 miles from Gainesville, and four mile from
Orange lake. It bears the name of one of the great chiefs of the
Seminole Indians. It was formerly an Indian settlement, the home
of old King Payne, Micanopy, Osceola, and other noted chiefs of
that celebrated tribe of Indians, until the white people became their
conquerors and appropriated it to themselves.
The Indians had their encampment around a small pond, now
owned by J. J. Barr, and the only one in the town. The fist white
man to settle upon this immediate spot was a Dr. Payne, of Virgin,
in 1835. Judge Wm. Edwards, who owns a large orange groe in
Micanopy, is a native of Florida. He was born in the State among
the Indians in 1817. His father used to purchase venison of the aed
men at "one chalk a quarter." The Indians would bring venison to
his home, and when Mr. Edwards was away would hang the quarter
of meat in a safe place and make a chalk mark, indicating that Mr.
Edwards was indebted to them to the amount of 85 cents and would
call for it at some other time. The judge was brought up with the
young Indians as his play-fellows. Judge Edwards isthe pioneer
orange grower of East Florida, and, until recently, had received
More net money for oranges than any other man in the State. He
is now quite feeble, but cultivates 800 orange trees and a large num-
ber of Pecan trees.
Micanopy is a very pretty town, the streets well and regularly laid
out, and the homes of the residents fairly embowered among orange
groves. Thegrovesof Micanopy are amongthe oldet in thetate, and
are wonderfully prolific and profitable. The growing of this most
delicious fruit is the principal employment of most of the Mikano-
pians, although in one year, in addition to 15,000 crates of
oranges, there were 39,000 crates of vegetables shipped from hue,
and as many more, probably, of both products rotted on the ground
or were wasted because of lack of shipping facilities or proper aten-
tion. In the raising of oranges the people have fairly reduced the
business to a fine art: Surrounding the many beautiful resikmae in
the town are 187 acres planted with orange tree, all in full buying.


Within a radius of three miles of the centre of the town, which
area include the waters of Tocawilla lake, there are about 110
orange grove.
Among the owners of these rich possessions might be mentioned
Judge Win. Edwards, J. J. Barr, Dr. L. Montgomery, Dr. A. H.
Mathers & Son, Harrison Broe., Emerson Bros., Christman Bros.,
Geo. 8. Chamberlain, J. B. Martin, Lewis Selden, J. L. Patton & Co.,
J. T. McMillan, Judge T. F. King, Dr. E. D. Barnett, W. A. & W.
C. Smith, M. L. Wood, Dr. W. Bruce. G. Y. Centre, D. C. Fink. Mr.
Judd, B. Taylor, J. B. Brown, Moses Freymouth, Capt. D. W.
Powell, D. C. Hart, L. H. Johnson, Wm. Shuford, J. W. Williams,
Bev. N. A. Bailey, Robt. Hall, Haygood Bros., Mr. Avery, Mr.
Slaughter, Mr. Green, Geo. Shuford, I Jackson, Mrs. J. Simington,
Bauknight & Sons, T. McCready, J. W. Carter, L. A. Smith, Rev. J.
C. Lee, Biggs & Son, Mr. Willard, J. Winecroff, Wm. Brice, J. W.
Smith, J. Moeady, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Wood, Judge Wagner, Miar
Grace Elmore, Miss Ellen Elmore, Dr. Mashall, Mrs. Ferguson, J.
H. Stokes, Mrs. Knox & Son, McCollnm Bros., Capt. Amnow, Carn
Bros., H. Peterson. Mrs. Merry, Cornelius Merry, Win. Avant, Dr.
Pardee, A. H. Price, Mrs. Crane, Shuford Bros., and others.
The combined area of these groves amount to 1,050 acres. They
will, when in full bearing, approximate at the low estimate of (.50
a box for the fruit; an annual income of $12,000 to this limited sec-
tion of county, to say nothing of the vegetable products.
The land here is very fertile, and particularly adapted to the rase-
ing of early vegetables for the northern markets. The shipment of
vegetables will average one-third of what the orange.will, without,
in the least, interfering with the growth of the latter if planted on
the same land, rather betting it than otherwise.
The country about Mitanopy is very interesting and beautiful.
While the town, stated on the northern border of Tu cawill lake,
is a level plain, the country aboutit is undulting and hilly, and is
composed principally of humaock lands. There are two hills about
two mile south of the town and eight acres apart, from the top of
which a very e y convention can be carried on across the inter-
vaning plain.
The people of Mianappy ae mostly independently well-off, largely
owing to their departure from the old custom of cultivating field
cromp alo. Fruit vine, nd vegetable culture combined now
ocoms their attention TIhe h sinms o the place has, thereife,
weA*Wr inceaaed within the past few yeass. Its rising pre-
perity is now assured, as, until very eeatly, It was foar miles honu

58 moAorpv.

the nearest railroad station. It now has a spur track from the
Florida Southern Railroad, and has easy communication which it
has never before enjoyed. The building of this spur track is largely
due to Dr. E. D. Barnett, one of the enterprising men of the town.
There are a number of very fine residences in Micanopy, among
which are those of Dr. L. Montgomery, Wm. M. Knox, J. Wine-
croff, J. J. Barr, Mrs. Simington, Mrs. M. A. Thrasher, Judge T. F.
King, M. Shiretzki, Geo. Y. Centre, Judge Edwards, J. W. Smith,
and others in course of construction.
Dr. Montgomery's residence is doubtless the finest in town. It
is two stories high, with a two-story cupola, and is built in the
finest style of architecture, with every convenience for pleasure
and comfort. The house is surrounded with orange groves. The
doctor is one of the most enterprising men of Micanopy. He has
several groves in the county. He came to Florida, from St. Louis,
in 1868, and purchased land in Orange county, fronting on the St.
Johns river. During the next two years he went prospecting all
over South Florida. Of all places he found Alachua county to be
the best in quality of a6il, purity of water, and healthfulness. The
adaptability of this section being so fine for orange-growing and
agricultural purposes, he sold out his poeesions in Orange county,
and settled at Micanopy. He feels to-day more than satisfied with
the change of his investment. Twenty-two feet digging on his place
reveals nothing but homogenous, or "mahogany" sand, and no
clay, so that the roots of his trees have full possession of the ground.
At his residence on the 27th of June, 1888, the thermometer at 2.80
o'clock, stood at 79. For the month of June the mean average was
81, but with a refreshing breeze anywhere in the shade. The
groves of Dr. Montgomery, also of Dr. Mathere, the postmaster, are
mentioned under the head of representative horticulturists, etc."
Mr. Barr's grove adjoins Dr. Montgomery's. It has a very pic-
turesque street front, the gate-posts consisting of two native oaks.
One of Mr. Barr's orange-trees measures six feet around the trunk.
He has about 1,000 trees in all, mostly in bearing.
Capt. A. W. Powell is another well-known orange-grower and an
extensive land-owner. He graduated from the South Carotina
Military Institutp, and came to Floilda just before the civil war.
He has a family of healthy children, natives of Florida, some of
whom are raising oranges and doing well. Capt. Powell is one of
the influential men of the county, and a member of the Alath&a
Board of Education. He has 1,000 trees just coming into bearing,
and owns a large lot of pine lands.

The town of Micanopy covers an area of one section of land, and
is the trading centre of quite a large scope of country. There are
seven prosperous stores, three churches, two schools-one for white
and one for colored children-and an active OrangeGrower's mss-
elation, of which the Rev. N. A. Bailey is recorder. The present
population is about 600, with every prospect of a rapid increase
Dr. 8. D. Smoke is the leading practicing physician.
The mercantile business of the town is conducted upon a very
wide street on the lake side of the town. The stores all carry on a
good business, catering to the farmers and fruit-growers for miles
around, who, as elsewhere, make Saturday their great day for trad-
ing. The trade here is good throughout the year, owing to the con-
tinuous agricultural resources. Cabbages come early in spring, fol-
lowed in turn by beans, cucumbers, tomatoes, long cotton, and end-
ing with the orange.
Among the most enterprising merchants of the place are J. L
Patton & Co., A. D. Cannon, A. H. Centre & Co., W. M. Knox and
J. W. Smith, all of whom carry large stocks of general merchandise.
In connection with the post-office, J. Cooper Mathers has a fie
apothecary-store, the only one in the place. Dr. Montgomery
is engaged in a fire insurance business, and in addition will soon
start a bank. He also is interested in cotton .buying and owns a
cotton-gin and a grist-mill which are kept well employed. A livery
stable, a carriage manufactory, two blacksmith shops and a market
are among the industries of the town, while there is said to be more
work for carpenters and masons than can be properly attended to.
Micanopy boasts of one newspaper and two good boarding-houses,
the former furnishing the mental, the latter the physical requisites.
A fine hotel is contemplated to meet the wants of the
mands. A beautiful bluff near the town, on the banks of the lake,
known as Wagner's bluff, is mentioned as an admirable site, while
the centre of the town is more favored by others.
The local government consists of the following: A. H. Mathers,
Mayor; D. A. Miller, E. D. Barnett, M. Shiretzki, Thos. McCready,
Hampton Peteson, John Warren and Peter Wardlaw, members
of the Council (four. whites, three colored); 0. Y. Centre, Town
Clerk; Amos Barber, Marshal; A. H. Mathers, postmaster.
EVANSTON is a shipping station on the Florida Southern Rail-
road, four miles east of Micanopy. It is near the northern ex-
tremity of Orange lake. It has one store and several fine orange
groves and vegetable farms in the vicinity. It is about 18 mies
from Gainesville.

sUaOsMarUL ImN.

SAWTHORNE is one of the many new towns that have sprung
into existence by means of the railroads. It occupies high
rolling piney-land, about 155 feet above the level of the St.
Johns river. It is 19 miles east of Gainesville, 14 miles south
of Waldo, and is the junction of the Florida Southern and
Peninsula railroads. The soil here, though of sandy appearance,
contains a vast amount of phosphate-rock and accumulations of
vegetable mold or muck. Cattle subsist upon the wild grade the year
round. Hawthorne has a fine Baptist Church, with a Methodist
Episcopal in contemplation. There are five or six stores, two small
hotels, two cotton-gins, two wagon, blacksmith and general jobbing
shops, a livery and feed stable, and saw-mills within easy distance.
A good Academic school has been recently established. It also
boasts of a newspaper, the Hawthorne Graphic.
Messrs. T. J. McRae, L. Wertheim, the Adkins Broe., and R. B.
Smith are among the most public-spirited men of the place, each of
whom take great interest in matters looking towards the growth of
Mr. McRae carries on a fine general merchandise store, one of the
best in the county, and is the agent of the Transit and Peninsula
railroads, the Southern Express Agent, and a kind, and courteous
gentlemen. He has one of the finest residences in the town, with
stable and other conveniences, together with an eight-acre orange
grove, with trees from four years old to bearing. Together with his
brother, a merchant in Melrose, he has 400 acres on Santa Fe lake,
150 acres of which are cleared, and 10 to 12 acres set with orange
trees. Portions of his lots in Melrose can be bought on reasonable
terms by actual settlers.
Mr. L. Wertheim, is a general merchant who keeps a full stock of
goods. He owns 200 acres of land, 45 of which are under cultiva-
tion,and four are planted with orange trees,75 of which are in bearing.
This land is within 2J miles of the Locklooes depot, six miles from
Hawthorne, has a new building, a sugar-mill, and a storehouse on
it, and is a good place for a small business. He has also 160 acres
within five miles of Hawthorne, with 20 acres under cultivation,
well fenced, with a good well of water, and a few bearing orange
trees. Mr. Wertheim is the present town clerk.
The Adkins Bros. are also dealers in general merchaadis, ads
keep a stock similar to the other above stores. They are men of
enterprise, the younger member of the firm being the Mayor of

sIOOnmuL mIrN Ut
the city. J. R. Adkins, the senior, owns a s.are orange
grove in town, with trees from tour to six years of age. He has 16
ames in a grove near Magnesia Springs, with trees from four year
old to bearing. In the same vicinity he owns about 900 or 800 a/rw.
About his residence in Hawthorne he has six acres which he plants
tovegetables. From the crop of 1888 he shipped 420 crates to the
North, and netted $88.
Mr. R. B. Smith is the representative farmer and fruit-grower of
Hawthorne. He carries on a 200re farm, 100 of which he plants
to eorn, Sea-Island cotton and oats. His yield of corn for the
semon of 1888 was about 15 bushels to the acre. In cotton, his
average is one bale to three acre. Of oats, his yield is about 20
bushels to the acre. His crops, with the exception of the cotton, is
for home consumption. Of oranges, he has 800 treason eight acre.
He has among them some of the largest trees in the county. His
largest tree measures six feet around the trunk, two feet from the
ground, and has borne 10,000 oranges in one year. It is 60 feet
high and is 28 years old. There are numerous other fiae groves
about the town. Through either of the above-named gentlemen,
information on special points or good lands may be obtained.
During the years 1878 to 1888, the range of thermometer has been
-lowest, 36 deg., highest, 101 deg., in the shade. Water here is
abundant at from 12 to 20 feet deep, and is soft and good. No
epidemic diseases have ever been known here, all the climatic
conditions being favorable to health and longevity.

CAIBBANK8, about seven miles northeast of Gainesville, and
Midway between that city and Waldo, is largely composed of
Northern people, so much so that Mr. C. D. Furman, its lead-
ing spirit, and father of the town, is pleased to term it Yankee-
town. Mr. Furman came to this place in 1878, when it was a
verdant pine forest. He was then 65 years of age. He purchased
1,084 acres of land, and laid out a town, and sold it out in 20-acre
lots, making it a condition in all his bills of sale that no liquors
should ever be sold on the place.
Mr. Firbanks, for whom the town is named, came to Florida
40 yeas ago, and was one of the eommisrionesof the Arredonda
grant. He is the largest tax-payer in the State, and is publisher of
the Fernandina Minor.


Mr. C. H. Furman, son of the founder of the town, is, like his
father, an indefatigable worker. He has a pretty cottage east
of the railroad, with 40 acres of land set out with orange and
peach trees.
The elder Furman has a fine residence, with about 50 acres
planted to all kinds of tropical and semi-tropical fruits. His orange
trees are bearing, with the oldest only four-years old from the bud,
and his Japanese plum trees the same age. \He has eaten dates
from trees the seeds of which he planted after eating the fruit.
Orange-trees, only two years from the bud, were quite full of fruit.
Peach trees he has in an abundance, and six varieties of grapes.
The Delaware does the best. Almond, Pecan, Spanish chestnut and
walnut trees were coming on finely. A lot of umbrella trees orna-
ment his ground to good effect. For fertilizer he has a fine bed of
muck. The original town he had laid out in three streets one mile
long; to these an additional mile has been added, to be known as
the western division.
D. L. Frazier & Bro., Dr. V. Berry and C. B. Pelton, are the mer-
chants of the town. Each of them do a good business and are
owners of lands or groves. There is a good prospect for a hotel
here soon. The vegetable interests of the town increase each year.
The town has a church (Episcopal), a school, with an average
attendance of 30 scholars, and a post-office with regular mails.

YULEE is a station about five miles southwest of Waldo, and
nine miles from Gainesville.

ELROSE is most prettily located on the southwestern bor-
der of Santa Fe lake. A little' bay makes in, creating a
delightful and secluded water resort, where bathing, fish-
ing and boating may be enjoyed. There are several storesand other
industries, two churches, Baptist and Episcopal, a $22,000 school-
house, two public squares and some fine residences. Near one of the
churches stands the frame of an old building which was used during
the war as a prison for war captives. The land about Melrose is
specially adapted for orange-growing, while the lakes near by serve
as a protection from the frosts. There are many fine residences in
Melrose, principally owned by northerners who make Florida their
winter home. Dr. H. G. Vogelbach has the most conspicuous.
Among the others are those of Major Voglebach, Capt. Rhoads,

OI' Of Tm IwrofnM

J. W. McRae, Isaac T. Weston, J. W. Barnett, the postmaster,
J. F. MoCulle, J. T. Misell, John A. Goodson, Mrs. A. 8. Mesely,
Those. H. Fletcher, I. Felton, W. H. Lee, G. J. Jackson, E. Felton,
W. H. Steinmyre, M. Granger, P. Priolean, W. H. Westard, Frank
C. Smith, MY M. B. Hicks, B. Torley, Saml. Thomas, and other,
all of whom own orange-groves or other valuable lands.
Mr. J. W. McRae is the leading merchant in the place. Together
with his brother at Hawthorne, they do a fine business. They own
560 acres of land, 60 of which is devoted to cotton, corn and pota-
toes, 85 acres to other vegetables, and 90 to oranges. They own a
steam-power cotton and grist-mill, where they also grind cotton for
fertilizing. The other merchants are Isaac Miell, Thos. H. Fletcher,
and T. Myers.
Melrose is peculiarly situated at the junction of four counties. A
part of the village is in each of these counties, but the voting pre-
cinet is in Alachua and the town is credited to Alachua.

BANANA is more properly a Putnam county settlement, but it
is, virtually, a part of Melrose. In matters of county rights and
county distinctions, and the true lay of the land in and about
these two places, one is apt to get decidedly mixed. The people
of both places are one in heart, at least, and they live, learn and
worship in harmony and accord. Melrose is an outgrowth of Ba-
nana and has outgrown the parent stock. There is a post-office in
each place and within short distance of each other.
Dr. G. W. A. McRae is the post-master, leading merchant, drug.
gist, practicing physician, and the happiest man in Banana He
owns about 1,428 acres of land, cultivates 60 to corn, Sea Island cot-
ton, oats, vegetables and sugar cane. The season of 1888, with no
transportation facilities, he shipped 100 crates of beans to the North.
From one Peento peach tree he received $56 for the fruit. He has
a nine-acre orange-grove and.grows all the fruits adapted to the

AMPVILLE is situated on the Peninsula Railroad, about ten
Smiles south of Waldo. It is but three years old, yet displays
a wonderful spirit of enterprise. It has one store, a school-
house where religious services are held, a large saw-mill, a post-
offis and about 90 houes. The Camp Brothers, from whom the
town takes its name, are owners of the most of the property,

cTIr orF TEB r UTUI.

the saw-mill, the store, and 4,000 acres of land, which will be sold if
5, 10 and 20-acre lots, at $5 and $10 an'acre. It is rolling pine, with
a clay subsoil, about a foot and a half down. Santa Fe lake i about
three miles to the east. There are three of the brothers, R. J., J. 8.,
and B. F. They own three orange groves here, and one-half interest
in a nursery. The orange groves are as thrifty as any we have seen
in the State, including the following varieties of trees: the Homo-
eassa, Magnum bonum, Naval, Mandarin, Dancy, Tangerine, Matese
Blood, Mediterranean Sweet, Sateuma, Pineapple,White and Hart-
late. Among them are planted various other fruit trees and grape-
vines. Mr. W. H. Kayton, formerly of Newberne, N. C., who is the
other half-owner of the nursery, has charge of the Campville orange
groves, and is quite an expert. He has manufactured a very effective
insect exterminator, for use on orange trees. The insect-destroyers
of orange trees are numerous. The white scale insect is one of
the greatest pests. Its origin is not known. If allowed to remain
it turns to the red scale and sucks the life from the bark and
chokes the growth of the tree. An immediate remedy is to run
the sharp blade of a knife the length of the trunk, cutting the
bark. This allows the bark to open and the tree to grow. The
mealy bug is another pest found principally up on the leaves.
Mr. Kayton is a very rapid budder. By the watch he cut-a bud,
inserted it in a stump and properly bound it with twine in less than
half a minute. Campville was formerly known as Santa Fe.
MAGNESIA SPRINGS is situated near Campville, but on the
Florida Southern Railroad. It is noted fur its celebrated Magnesia
springs, the medicinal virtues of which are well-known for kidney
complaints, diabetes, etc.; also noted for its natural fertilizer,
millions of tons of which here abound. It is about 19 miles east
of Gainesville.

SRUELLE, formerly known as Perry, is the junction of the main
branch with the Ocala Division of the Florida Southern
Railroad. It is a thriving little town, about 10 miles from
Gainesville, has a hotel, two or three stores, a saw-mill, and an ex-
press-office, etc. It is surrounded by some of the most prolific veg-
etable farms in this section. It is quite near Newnan's lake.
LOCKI)OSA is a landing and a shipping point upon the lake of
the same name, about 29 miles south of Waldo, on the Peninsma
Railroad. It commands a beautiful view of the lake.


TARVER is prettily located on an elevation commanding a fine
view of the celebrated Alachua lake, and about four miles east of
Gainesville. Thisa townte w given to the Florida Southern
Railroad by Mr. L A. Barnes, of Gaineaville, as an encouragement
to the building of the road. At the present time, it boasts of bat
one house.
These various small towns and settlements are wide-way places,
displaying wonderful enterprise, and are likely to make rapid growth
within the next few years.

LOMRA is one of the latest aspirants for growing fame. Though
among the last, it is by no means the least in importance.
Flora adjoins Gainesville upon the northeast, and is so closely
connected with the county-seat and its msburban resorts that it has
all the advantages of a long-established city. It embraces over 2,000
anes, situated higher than Gaineville itself, with a railroad upon
either side of it which furnishes mean of communication with every
part of the country. This fine domain has long been considered one
of the most admirable sites for a healthy and prosperous town; and
since its owners-Messrs. L. A. Barnes, of Gainesville, and H. C.
Whitney. of Chicago-consented to place it upon the market in five-
acre lots for orange groves, peach orchards, vegetable farms and
homes, there have been speedy sales, which will not cease until the
whole territory blooms with the richest of golden fruit among ver-
dant foliage waving above and about rustic cottages and palatial
residences which will soon peep forth from every quarter.
Without a doubt the lands in and about this vicinity will, in a
few years, be the most valuable in the State. Here the residents
have all the advantages of the richest soil in a semi-tropical climate,
where both the temperate and tropical fruits and vegetables can be
grown, the best of water, and an atmosphere free from malatial
taints; good fields for hunting; lake resorts for boating and fishing;
delightful drives; easy markets; regular mails and railroad commu-
nication; the highest educational advantages; good churches of
various denominations, together with an enterprising mercantile
and manufacturing spirit among a social, refined, and law-abiding
people, all of which features enhance prosperity and encourage
strangers, tourists, or those seeking a new home posesemd of the
highest attanament, to join with the residents in adding to the
vite anad imnortanoe of the place.


QPHE entire county is more or less devoted to agricultural and hor-
ticultural pursuits, but the recognized farming section is in the
northern and western portions. Newnansville, Archer, Arre-
donda, La Croese, Gordon, Trenton, Fort Clark, Joneeville, Frank-
land, Wacasasse, Fort Fanning and Suwanee, are all noted for their
rich agricultural products. The last four-named towns are also
noted for their success in cattle-raising. Cotton is largely grown
in these various places, and to good profit, with the exception of at
Arredonda, where the chief attention is paid to the raising of early
vegetables for the northern markets.
NEWNANSVILLE is situated in the northern part of Alachua
county, about 10 miles northwest of Gainesville, 28 or 80 miles
east of the Suwanee river, and 10 miles south of the Santa Fe
river. The latter river is the dividing line between Alachua
and Columbia and Bradford counties. For certain fruits, grain,
corn, cotton, and the vegetable products, Newnansville is sit-
uated in the most fertile portion of the county. It is also one of
the greatest timber regions in the State. Up to the present time of
writing it has been so isolated from other portions of the county,
that but few of the inhabitants of Alachua have ever visited it, or
know even of its many attractive features. Gaineeville for years
has been its nearest railroad point, in consequence of which its popu-
lation has gradually decreased instead of otherwise.
This state of affairs will soon be among the things of the pa t, as
before this work is put into circulation, two railroads will have
penetrated its corporate limits. The Live Oak, Tampa t Char-
lotte Harbor Railroad will connect at Newnansville with the
Florida Southern Railroad from Gainesville, making Newnansville
a place of considerable importance, as well as furnishing a more
direct and shorter course of travel from New Orleans, the Northand
the West to the upper part of the St. Johns river, Lake George the
Ocklawaha river and Silver Springs, through theorange belt and the
lake region of Alachua county, thus obtaining at a lees expense of
time and money than heretofore, the pleasures of a visit to Florida's
greatest attractions for winter visitors. A union depot of these two
roads will be built at Newnaneville.
The Newnansville people, though small in number, are well-td do
and prosperous, and are blessed with a remarkable q prit .a public


QPHE entire county is more or less devoted to agricultural and hor-
ticultural pursuits, but the recognized farming section is in the
northern and western portions. Newnansville, Archer, Arre-
donda, La Croese, Gordon, Trenton, Fort Clark, Joneeville, Frank-
land, Wacasasse, Fort Fanning and Suwanee, are all noted for their
rich agricultural products. The last four-named towns are also
noted for their success in cattle-raising. Cotton is largely grown
in these various places, and to good profit, with the exception of at
Arredonda, where the chief attention is paid to the raising of early
vegetables for the northern markets.
NEWNANSVILLE is situated in the northern part of Alachua
county, about 10 miles northwest of Gainesville, 28 or 80 miles
east of the Suwanee river, and 10 miles south of the Santa Fe
river. The latter river is the dividing line between Alachua
and Columbia and Bradford counties. For certain fruits, grain,
corn, cotton, and the vegetable products, Newnansville is sit-
uated in the most fertile portion of the county. It is also one of
the greatest timber regions in the State. Up to the present time of
writing it has been so isolated from other portions of the county,
that but few of the inhabitants of Alachua have ever visited it, or
know even of its many attractive features. Gaineeville for years
has been its nearest railroad point, in consequence of which its popu-
lation has gradually decreased instead of otherwise.
This state of affairs will soon be among the things of the pa t, as
before this work is put into circulation, two railroads will have
penetrated its corporate limits. The Live Oak, Tampa t Char-
lotte Harbor Railroad will connect at Newnansville with the
Florida Southern Railroad from Gainesville, making Newnansville
a place of considerable importance, as well as furnishing a more
direct and shorter course of travel from New Orleans, the Northand
the West to the upper part of the St. Johns river, Lake George the
Ocklawaha river and Silver Springs, through theorange belt and the
lake region of Alachua county, thus obtaining at a lees expense of
time and money than heretofore, the pleasures of a visit to Florida's
greatest attractions for winter visitors. A union depot of these two
roads will be built at Newnaneville.
The Newnansville people, though small in number, are well-td do
and prosperous, and are blessed with a remarkable q prit .a public


enterprise. This, backed by a small amount of money, is a great
motive power.
Newansville wa formerly an Indian town. It was also one of
the firt and most important white settlements in Alachna county,
which in Newnamsville's palmy days oomprised the entire stretch
country south of the Suwanee river to Tampa bay. All South Flor-
ida was then known as Alachua. Newnansville and Micanopy,
which was another old Indian town, were the favorite abiding-
places of the Seminoles, whose good taste in the choice of Nature's
bountiful gift was most admirably displayed in selecting Florida s
their retreat when they separated frm their progenitors the Creeks.
They capped the climax in that regard when they selected the north-
western and the southeastern limits of the' present county of
Alachua, with the beautiful country between these two points in
which to fish and hunt their game. When the whites obtained pos-
sesion of this region, they applauded the natural taste of the Indian
by appropriating, as the sites of their own towns, the old India
Newnansville was formerly the county seat of Alachua, and- held
it with commendable pride until the wisdom of the people, in 1864,
after a hotly contested election, removed it to the younger but more
central settlement at Gainesville. The United States and Office
was at that time located at Newnanaville, and the courts adminis-
tered the laws under the influence of her social atmosphere. The
old court-house, standing in the old Court-house Square, and now
used principally as a Masonic Temple, is a relic of those days when
the legal talent, the personal culture and the social refinement of
Florida, fondly congregated at this place. From here Gen. David
L Yulee started on his wonderful career to wealth and fame. Gen.
Yulee is the son of Moses Levy, who was a Jewish rabbi. When a
young man he turned his attention to a study of the law, a thing
adverse to the ideas of his father and the Jewish custom. The son
persisted in his studies, for which he was disinherited by his father,
the rabbi. David changed his name to Yulee, his mother's family
name, and later became the very popular United States Senator
from Florida. He married the daughter of Governor Wickliffe, of
Kentucky, and became quite distinguished. He is the pioneer rail-
rad man of Florida, and was for a long time President of theTran-
sit railroad. He now lives in Washington, but spends his winters
in Florida.
At Newnanville, the Dell family, whose name is cherished by
Floridians, claim a birplace and a home. The present State


Senator, J. B. Dell, of Gainesville, still owns 2,000 acr e f te
prettiest hummock land in the State, on the wire road from Gainer
ville, just southeast of the town. On theborderof thisland asslt Ahe
town is a very pretty lake, known as Burnett lake, taking its ase
from the father of his Honor, the present Mayor of Gaiesvile.
Other members of the Dell family still reside in this vicinity, owa-
ing large tracts of land, and beautiful, well-cultivated farma, pleas-
ant sights to the eyes of a true lover of Nature. These lande
consist of most beautiful hummocks, hilly and fertile, flourishing
in the cultivated portions with waving corn, bordered with grassy
hillsides and plains, looking altogether more like a genuine New
England scene than any other of which the State can boast. With
such scenery, and the balmy influences of a Florida summer, what
more could the heart of man wish.
In the northeastern part of the town, upon. the brow of the hill
upon which the town is situated, stands the Methodist church, an
ancient structure to which the people of to-day come to worship as
in the days of auld lang syne. To the left of the church is the
cemetery, filled with the remains of the good people of the past,
among which are those of Gen. Pyles, the first general of Florida
militia, also those of his brother, Col. Lewis Pyles, who lost his life
at the battle of Seven Pines, while serving at the head of his regi-
ment, the gallant 2d Florida Volunteers, under General Lee.
The streets of Newnansville are well and regularly laid out, on
either side of which are the homes of the residents, with their
beautiful gardens of fruits and vegetables, in many of which the
writer has seen rich-looking corn growing to the height of 12
feet. The principal street is shaded by beautiful old China trees,
the Pride of India. while upon it is situated the very home-like,
hospitable hotel kept by P. F. Olmstead, and the stores of the mer-
chants of the place. Among these merchants, Mr. A. R. Edgell keeps
a large stock of general merchandise, and is the largest cotton buyer
in the precinct, operating in connection with the firm of H. F. Dut-
ton & Co., of Gainesville.
About 600 or 700 bags of cotton come annually to Newnansville
for market, of which Mr. Edgell handles from 400 to 500. This
number will be largely augmented by the increased transportation
facilities provided by the new railroads. There are about 1,000 bags
of cotton raised annually in the precinct. Some of this is sent to
Gainesville direct, and some to Lake City. The cotton crop in this
part of the State, and possibly the same in other parts of the South,
is fast becoming a negro crop. They can grow cotton and make it


a saooemal buinas where the white man, in general, cannot It
certainly looks as it, in the future, the negro is to be the eotton-
planter and prodfoar. The white men, both natives and nimi-
grahte, are fast tuning their attention to oranges, vegetables, and
the various tropical products, which pay them far better than oaq
ton. The ivil rights of the negro are in no way interfered with,
They are respected it they behave themselves, and the most of them
do. Politics was, formerly, taken to heart, and each man seemed
to think that his own personal interests depended solely upon the
suedes of the party which he represented. This mistaken notion
is fast dying out, and men of all pares and from all sections of
the country, are united in their efforts to make legitimate business
their leading worldly thought, andby strict attention to the raising
of the crops, and inducing others to join them in so doing, to make
lorida what she soon will be, the Nation's Garden. Mr. EdgeU
came here from the North but seven yearsago, andis one of the pros-
perous men in the county. In addition to his store, he plants about
a2 acres to cotton. The recent season's crop (1888) was wais
high on the first of July, which was an extraordinary growth
at that date. The ootton-making months are July and August,
when the sun is the strongest and most effective. Cotton ispicked.
about the middle of August, and it is a novel sight to see, during.,
the next month or two, the business of placing the cotton upon the
market. The Dell family, John K. Stevens, Edward Hodge R.
L. Cathcart, J. Hainesworth, Mrs. E Gunnell, Mrs. Richards,
John Lewis, Jesse Shaw and the Vaughan Bros., are among the
prominent asucesful planters.
Mt. W. H. Geiger, a prominent citizen, keeps a well-appointed
drg-store, as does also Mr. J. H. Love, a very courteousand agreeable
Mr. Herman Levy keeps a store filled with general merchandise,
and is one of the progressive-epirited men of the place.
Mr. E. again is also a deal In general goods and is posseeed
of an enterprising spirit.
There are some 5W planters with their families in this precinct,
all of whom are supplied by the above stores.
Dr.Williams is the oldest physician in the town. His long rei-
denoe here hagiven hih apefectknaowlsdge of the best treatment for
diseases peculiar to this country. He has onef the largest andmost
beratifl teange groves and Peentoap&eh orb ard in this smeMe.
Dr. 0Coed, a young aid prmiising physician, is the contemporary
of Dr. Williams, and's also an abl physician.


Among the other prominent orange and fruit growers in this
vicinity are Messrs. J. M. Shaw, E. K. Fagan, F. P. Olmstead, Geo.
Boston, Saml. Dupui and Mrs. Shuford. The writer was informed
by Mr. Olmstead, that orange trees look as well at Newnansvlfle
after a cold as they do in Orange county, 80 miles further south.
The land about here is claimed to be the very beet for orange culture.
Among the other principal fruits grown, are peaches, the Le Conte
pear, pomegranates, figs, plums, walnuts, strawberries and grapes.
Bananas are cultivated to some extent. Apples 'will grow under
proper care. The scuppernong grape for wine, is the principal
grape, and a natural wild-grape, known as the muscadine, is very
prolific in the woods. Corn, oats, grasses, cotton, arrowroot, cas-
siva, potatoes, both sweet and Irish, and sugar-cane, are the princi-
pal vegetable products. Corn yields 20 to 80 bushels to the acre,
sweet potatoes 400 bushels to the acre, while farmers make from 10
to 12 barrels of sugar and syrup from an acre of cane. Long staple
cotton, the only kind planted, yields 500 lbs. in the seed to the acre,
which is equal to 125 lbs. in the lint. No fertilizers are used here,
the farmers, so far as the use of it is concerned, hardly knowing
what it is. At Mr. Levy's store, the writer was shown a red onion
grown upon Dr. Williams' farm, which measured 18 inches in cir-
cumference, and weighed upon Mr. Levy's scales one and three-
quarter pounds.
The timber in this region is very abundant, rich and varied. Here
may be found yellow-pine, the finest in the State, from which may
be cut mill-logs 70 feet in the clear. The hummocks are filled with
the finest hickory, magnolia, cedar, live-oak and red-bay. Live-
oaks measure sevep feet in diameter. The largest live oak in this
vicinity covers the ground with its branches 400 feet. Hickory runs
60 to 70 feet clear, from two to four feet in diameter. This would be
a grand place for a carriage manufactory, which would find a most
remunerative business.
An old cotton-gin is established here, the business of which will
be profitably revived through the new transportation facilities pro-
vided. Lumber mills will also doubtless be among the new enter-
prises. West and southwest of Newnansville, for 40 miles, is one
vast forest of pine. The other surroundings are almost exclusively
rich hummock. The land between the town and the Santa Fe river
id rolling and very fertile.
The houses in Newnansville are mostly shaded by magnificent
water-oaks, the finest residence being that of Horace Tarbox. Mr.
Olmstead's present public-house stands upon a most excellent hotel

site, which will, doubtless, soon be appropriated for accommoda-
tions to supply the wants of the many new visitors who will soon
seek this town, The local government consists of Geo. W. Watte,
Mayor; W. H. Geiger, President of Common Council; A. B. Edgel,
L. M. Pearce, James Love and F. P. Olmstead, members of Council;
W. H. Levy, Clerk and Treasurer; E. C. Beach, Marshal and Col-
lector; E. K. Fagan, Asseesor.

RCHER is situated on the Florida Transit Railroad, about
15 miles southwest of Gainesville, on flue, rolling pine
land. The location is notably healthy, and for perons
aticted with asthma, bronchitis, and lung diseases, no better place
m Florida ean be found, The soil is high and dry, with a soft,
red-clay subsoil, making it retentive of moisture and fertl-
oers. The people are intelligent, energetic, hospitable, and
social, and new-comers are welcomed with great cordiality,
Quite a number of Quakers are among the community, and
more are expected. The corporate limits of the town are within a
circle of one-half a mile from the central point, the depot, and is the
only town we know of laid out in a circular form. Near the depot
are located the post-office, express office, hotel, several stores, one
saloon, a carriage and wagon shop, and a number of private resi
denoes, while near by are two cotton-gins, two grist-mills, a saw.
mill with planing machine, and a chair and plough stock manufac*
tory. Archer is a place of considerable trade, and a shipping station
for the surrounding country. This place was settled just before the
war, about the time the Transit Railroad was built through this fine
stretch of pine land. Mr. J. W. Williams, formerly of Soith Caro-
lina, was one of the first settlers. He resides here still, with one of
the prettiest residences in the town, and is one of the leading and
most influential citizens.
Considerable attention is paid to vegetable growing, about 15,000
orates being shipped from here in a season. Archer, however,
makes no claims a vegetable section, though, as a matter of fact,
there are but few of the products of Florida that do not flourish on
her surrounding piney lands, which are very productive. The ed
clay soil found hee is not unlike that found in Leon county farther
narttbut t is deeperdown. As a sample of what them piney lanm
will do, Mr. J. M. Kelly, during the semon of 1885, raised SMO


worth of cucumbers on three-quarters of an acre of land, besides
raising on the same land a quantity of sugar cane, from which he
made $100 worth of syrup. Orange-growing here is in its infancy,
as no great attention has been paid in that direction until very re-
cently. There are several groves near the town, all of which are
doing well, some of them in bearing. Peaches grow excellently
here and to good profit. Peento peaches are not great bearers, but
they bear annually. They are sold at times as high as $15 a box,
and we have heard of their selling in the New York market as high
as $9 a dozen. While this latter price may have actually been ob-
tained, as it was so declared to have been, and by a reliable person,
yet it will do our readers not the slightest good to believe it. These
peaches ripen in May, which makes them quite valuable. The
honey-peach comes a little later and is much liked as a sweet peach.
The Florida native and other common varieties do well. One gen-
tleman had on exhibition during the visit of the writer to Archer,
a peach which weighed nine and one-half ounces. It was grown on
his place about ten miles south of the station. It was of the first
picking. Mr. Williams has raised peaches here weighing one pound
two ounces. One of the favorable points in peach-raising here is
that the fruit is never touched by insects, nor is it ever gummy.
No one ever saw or knew of an insect in a peach grown here. One
may be picked from the tree in the dark and eaten without any
The principal attention of land cultivators about Archer is paid to
raising Sea Island cotton. It is, therefore, a heavy cotton-shipping
station, and averages a shipment of 600 bags annually. About 400
pounds of cotton are grown to the acre. Some attention is paid to
cane-raising and syrup-making. About five barrels of syrup is ob-
tained from an acre of cane. The annual shipment of syrupis about
600 barrels.
Those who have turned their attention to fruit-growing, an indus-
try that is rapidly increasing, find that' the orange, peach, pear and
plum grow profitably in this part of the county, and are all freer
from insect pests than in places further south. It is confidently ex-
pected that the new Lake City, Tampa and Charlotte Harbor Rail-
road will run through Archer on its way south, in whichcase Archer
will have admirable and competitive transportation facilities which
will rapidly increase her population and importance.
Among the most enterprising industries in the town is Lipsey &
Christie's nurseries, described elsewhere. It is situated about half
a mile southeast of the depot. Mr W. B. Lipsey, the resident put-


per, has a very fnSe reelenoe upon the brow of a hill rom. which
can be seen his cultivated lads moely devetedt nurseygrpoes.
His house u twoand-&-half stories high, with a one Atory ad a
Flench roof ell, bailt and furnished in the meet modern style. MBs
nursery is among the finest in the State, filled with shade and ea-
mental trees, fruit-ttees, vins, ete.
Adjoining Mr Lipsey's place is the orange grove and residence of
Dr. J. C. Neal, who, like Mr. Lipsey, came fno Marion county,
Indiana. He was suffering from consumption, but a yea or two in
Florida made him robust and rugged, and he owns largely of valu,
able real estate. Around his residence he has about 400 orange trees
doing splendidly. Three fine old oaks by the side of his house far-
nish delightful shade for his yard. In conversation with the doctor,
the writer gleaned the following concerning disease in this s tion s
The election precinct embracing the town of Archer contains about
1,00people. Thedeathrate has been about 11-5 tothe100, andthese
include all causes, such as old age, accident, etc. The rate of death
from diseases incidental to the climate has been 5-10. Disease is
much easier handled here than at the North, only mild remedies
being employed. Influenza, scarlet-fever, and measles are very
rare. The diseases most prevalent are of the bilious type. The
climate is a specific for asthma. Many have remained here but a
short time with beneficial results. There are more peoplein Florida
seeking health than there are in any other State. This climate is
absolutely sure to palliate lung diseases when it does not cure. This
is not strictly a malarial country. In July and September, the hot-
test months of the year. there is sometimes a heat that is overcom-
ing and which heats the blood. This heating becomes a fever, and
though commonly called malaria, is not so. There is not as much qui-
nine used in a year in Alachna county as there is in any of the 91
counties of Indiana, and Alachua is one of the largest populated
counties in Florida.
Messrs. T. B. & Chas. E. Parsons, father and son, are raising
a nursery near Lipeey & Christie's, with every assurance of success.
On their new ground the writer saw a gherkin vine growing wild,
densely covering 85 feet of ground. From this vine, in six
weeks, 8,*8. gherkins were picked, while there was every pros-
pect for as many more.
Mr. J. 8. Christie of Hackenaok, N. J.,. M. Lipey's partner,
ow one of the largest orange groves in this action. It is aevaG
milem *outhest of Amher. It comupies 6 acm oft hummeok laad,
a~pi ontans 4,60 treesjupt coniaginto bearing. It curves aream



three sides of a pond towards which the land has a gentle slope.
This grove was planted by Mr. Lipeey, who has the care of it.
Three or four trees are already bearing. They occupy a spot whose
a cabin burned down. This fact convinced Mr. Christie of Mr.
Lipsey's idea, that fertilizing pays, and he at once ordered nine and
a half tons of bone fertilizer, which, mixed with potasb, was dis-
tributed among the trees. In fertilizing, Mr. Lipsey puts to a
young transplanted tree, three-quarters of a pound of fertilizer, of
which 40 percent. is clear potash. For a three-year-old tree he
uses three pounds, and adds a pound each year. Mr. Christie has
another grove near-by of 27 acres, and 60 acres more to
plant to grove. Altogether he owns four sections of land in
this vicinity. About three miles from the town Mr. Lipsey owns a
young orange grove with large quantities of pear, peach and other
fruit trees. They are all on piney land and doing welL
Inside the town limits, and within a stone's throw of the depot, is
Mr. J. W. Williams' residence, previously spoken of. It is sur-
rounded by a most fertile eight-acre orange grove, also an acre
planted to Le Conte pear trees, and another acre in which are Pecan
trees, plum trees, the ever-bearing mulberry trees, bananas, and
vegetables. As a fertilizer, he uses the cow-pea, which grows most
wonderfully on his land, which has been under cultivation for 15
years. From a goose-craw plum tree, brought from Massachusetts,
by L. A. Barnes, of Gainesville, Mr. Williams picked a plum that
weighed three-quarters of an ounce. He has a splendid Peento
peach tree that has made wonderful growth. His 400 orange trees
are just coming into bearing, and 15 of his Le Conte pear trees
will bear next season. He has fine scuppernong grapevines, and
about 20,000 nursery orange trees. The plum tomato is a wonder-
ful producer. His two or three vines grow enough for two
families. He does something in poultry, and finds it profitable.
The yard in front of his residence is filled with various flowers,
while two tall, uniform tree-stumps, covered with English ivy, pre-
sent a most picturesque appearance.
Mr. A. B. Snavelly, a new-comer to Archer, from Wabash,
Indiana, has proven what can be done by an experienced western
farmer. About the first of the year, 188, he purchased, through
Mr. Williams, 80 acres of land by the side of the railroad, and
within the town limits. This was all virgin piney woods when pur-
chased. Five months later 40 acres of this had been so thor-
oughly cleared and cultivated, that a plough could go through it as
easily as if it were old land. On 10 acres, 00 orange trees had

MBolBANm of AmoLUB. 78
been set out, and the land about them was covered with a rich
growth of cow-peas (the Florida clover and fertilizer), the balance
of the land being devoted to pear, Japan plum and lime tree,
orange beds, banana beds, rieo and potatoes; he had already
gathered one crop of the latter vegetables. In clearing his lead,
Mr. Snavelly discarded the shiftlesswayof clearing ground by gird-
ling trees and leaving them standing until they rotted down, or of
chopping the trees down and allowing the roots and trunk torot out.
He dug down around the roots and cut them off, then pulling the
tree over he had his ground cleared of tree, stump and roots at the
same time, and at a small expense. One of his colored men was
so pleased with this method, that he said to Mr. Snavelly, "Yo'
groun' is so clear, boss, dat it look jes' like as ef it had been swep'
wid a broom. I declar', boss, I nebber did see anything like dat
away afo'." Within these few months he had also moved a house
into the centre of the lot, built an addition to it, and a cistern.
Upon one side of the house he had planted five old orange-tree
stumps and grafted them, and they were putting forth a fine new
growth, with indications of early bearing. This shows what can
be done in a few months it one has the will to do it. In five months
time he had converted a verdant forest into a beautiful home sur-
rounded by land as smooth and as clear as are many of the south-
ern lands that have been under cultivation for thirty years.
The enterprising merchants of Archer are Wade A. Geiger, C. W.
Bauknight, W. L. Jackson, G. M. Blitch. J. D. George and F. G.
Batknight. These gentlemen doafine business with patrons from
among the planters for miles around. They each keep groceries, pro-
visions, dry-goods, hardware, crockery, and such general merchan-
diseasis usually found ina first-las store. They arelocatedon either
side of the railroad. Nearly all of them are land or cattle owners.
Mr. Geiger owns 260 acres of land, 75 of which he plants to cotton,
cane and corn. He owns large tracts of timber, has two orange
groves, and raises peaches, melons, oats and corn. He also runs a
cotton-gin and a grist mill. Mr. C. W. Bauknight owns 8% acres,
with 175 two-year orange trees on it, and five acres with 250 young
trees on it. He has one acre in town with his store and residence
upon it, on which he has 1,000 three-year orange seedlings to be set
out in the fall, and 10,000 eight-month trees doing nicely. From a
Peento peach tree, three years old from the bud, he gathered two
bushels of peaches. He has Pecan nut trees well under way, and
owns 80 head of cattle, which pay him 88) per cent. interest per
year on the money invested in them. He says this is a fine cattle


country. Droves of fine cattle pase through this town from the
western part of the county on their way to Tampa, where they are
shipped to Cuba. Mr. GeorgeW. Blitch is an extensive cotton
buyer. He has ndtdealt much inland as yet, but owns 51 acres of
land in the town *wm orange trees on it. Mr. W. L. Jackson carries
on a cotton-gin and grist-mill, and a saw-mill in addition to his
store, and owns 2,000 acres of land, 800 of which are under cultiva-
tion. He has a sni orange grove, with nearly 100 trees on it. Mr.
F. G. Bauknight has about 80 acres of land within half a mile of the
depot for sale. In addition to the usual run of general merchandise
in his store,-he keeps furniture and ice, carries on butchering and
cattle dealing, and keeps horses and buggies to let. Mr. J. D. George
has been in business but two years in Archer. In addition to his
store of general merchandise, he carries on a saloon. All that he
now owns he has made here in the above time. Mr. James Skinner,
within a short distance of the depot, has a carriage manufactory and
blacksmith's forge, which is patronized from all parts of the State.
He manufactures vehicles particularly adapted to this country, and
does a large business in carriage and wagon repairing. Mr. Skinner
came to Archer about six years ago, with only $100. He started a
business which he expected would employ himself only about half
his time. To-day he keeps from three to five hands constantly em-
ployed, and has hard woik to keep up with his orders. He has 80
acres of land within the town limits, 10 of which he has planted to
orange and pear and peach trees, and 10 to rice. He is also building
himself a $1,500 house. He considers that his business to-day is
worth $1,500, and he has been burned out once since he started, and
lost $1.000. From his peach crop he sold some of his Peento peaches
in the Baltimore market, for 60 cents a quart. He says there is
an excellent chance here for a good harness-maker and carriage-
On the prairies outside the town limits for miles is good cattle
country, where sheep and horse raising may be carried on without
any expense, as the cattle will feed themselves. The country around
is principally settled by negro squatters, many of whom have bui)t
quite pretty homes on land not their own. There are several quite
pretty drives from Archer to the ponds and settlements and orange
groves within a few miles distant.
Archer needs a first-cliss hotel; and a brick-yard might do a pay-
ing business, as there is as good clay here as there is in the country.
Bricks made of it have been in use in the town 95 years,
and are in prime condition. A party of gentlemen here have

entered into a contact with a New York ppfi to gpow U
acres of strawberries next season, with the hope of racing 1j0,090
quarts, for which they will be paid 15 centsa quart till the frbt of
April, end 10 cents then to the first of ~My, the New York party to
furnieh the plants, the baskets, the rates andrefrigpetors for pack-
ing-4n short, to provide for everything but the labor of cultivation
and the soil. The officers of the town of Archer are Joseph F.
McDonald, Mayor; Win. C. Andrus, President of Council; G. M.
Blitch, James D. George, C. W. Bauknight, Johu T. Fleming, W. B
Pine, members of Council; John E. Hughes, Town Clerk; James S.
McDonald, Jr., Assessor; A. T. Duren, Collector; F. & Bauknight,
Treasurer. W. C. Andrue is the Postmaster.
PALMER, formerly known as Batonville, lies midway between
Arredonda and Archer, on the Transit Railroad, about 10 miles
from Gaineeville.

BREDONDA is a shipping station on the line of the Transit
railroad, about seven miles southwest from Gaineevill The
locality was formerly known as Kanapaa. It is settled
for some miles around by farmers and vegetable growers, whose
products are among the richest revenues to the county. arge
numbers of field hands and other laborers are employed, whose
earnings are quickly distributed among the merchants. Money
thus receives rapid and extended circulation.
When the State of Florida was in the posession of the Spanish
government, tracks of land were granted to various parties for some
meritorious acts. Among others, Arredonda & Son, of Cubs, mer-
chants, in consideration of settling 200 families in Florida, were
granted the tract known as the Arredonda grant. It is the richest
body o( land in the State, and includes the city of Gaineville, the
towns of Micanopy, Palmer, Fairbanks, Yulee, Gruelle, Tarvwr, and
Arredonda, the latterbeing situated very nearly in the centre, and
known as the richest portion of the grant.
The land at Arredonda is rich and fertile, responding with alarity
to cultivation, yielding rich returns The oil is largely mixed with
finely comminuted bits of shell, or carbonate of lime, whih ftr-
nishes a natural fertilizer W aaet eAraosticl. Nearly all kind& of
frpMi and vegelables can obe raised herewith pAt. Mr. W. Bime
has a piece of land on the border of Arredonda lake, where, at tb


side of an Indian spring, is a solid wall of decomposed shell and
lime-rock standing 20 feet high and extending back into the hill and
surrounding territory an unknown distance. There are thousands
of tons of it. In some instances well-formed shells can be taken
from it while the surrounding matter will crumble like chalk. It
has been analyzed, and said to be, with mixture with other matters,
one of the most valuable of fertilizers.
Mr. Rice is the general merchant of Arredonda. He is also post-
master, railroad agent, and express agent. His store is near the
depot where he does a large business. He is one of the leading and
most enterprising men of the place, and has been here seven years.
He has been in the State 15 years, having done business in Gainesville
before coming here. His residence is about a quarter of a mile from
the depot where he has 11 acres of land, two of which are planted with
orange trees, and some with vegetables. He bas 20 acres, beneath
the soil of which may be found the phosphate rock or natural fertil-
izer above spoken of. Of wild land elsewhere, he has in all about
100 acres. During the season of 1883, Mr. Rice says there were
shipped from Arredonda 50,100 crates of vegetables by freight and
90,000 by express, which, with 17,000 from Hummock Ridge, a small
station two miles away, makes very nearly 100,000 crates of vegetables
from the Arredonda lands in three months. This was the largest
shipme-it ever known from here, and while Nature was so bountiful
in her gifts, Mr. Rice is of the opinion that from various causes the
shippers did not make more than an average season's profit, but the
country'around was greatly benefited by the circulation which was
given to money, through the field hands and other employees. Mr.
Rice is a gentleman whose information can be relied upon, and will
readily furnish it to any who desire to leard more about this wonder-
fully productive region.
Mr. E. Ramsey may well be termed the father of Arredonda. He
has been here 80 years. He came when it was so sparsely settled
that deer could be shot within a short distance of the cabin. The
settlers then were largely engaged in stock-raising, an enterprise
that is not wholly suspended at the present day, as large herds of
cattle are raised upon the many fine grazing grounds for miles
around. The early immigration to Arredonda was from South
Carolina. They were principally old cotton growers, an# good
class of people. Many of them or their descendants are still here.
The railroad brought more settlers from different parts of the coun-
try, the most of whom are earnest and industrious workers of the

MOlt or Tma. 9
Among the other noted shipper at ths station, are D. W. L.
Barton, J. B. Flewallen, J. T. Walls, P. F. Wilson, and L. IL Her
lines, of whom mention is elsewhere made.
Mr. Flewallen came here six years ago from Alahbma with noth-
ing but a spirit of ambition, energy and pluck. The season of 1888
he purchased the entire crop of J. T. Walls, and, together with his
own crops and some others, shipped 14,000 crates of tomatoes, and
15,000 quarts of strawberries. His first shipment of strawberries,
on the Oth of February, brought in New York, $8 a quart. His last
shipment in May sold for 20 cents a quart. Average, 871 cents
Mr. G. H. Sutherland is one of the active, enterprising man of
Arredonda. Mr. Sutherland came here only six years ago, with but
M00 borrowed money. He now owns 400 acres of laad, and a home
worth at least $10,000. He has 28 acres near bis residence, 15 of
which he plants to vegetables and strawberries, and for the season
of 1888, made $1,000. He has 800 large orange trees, 10,00 young
trees in nursery, with peach, Pecan, English walnut, and other
trees. He has 20 hickory trees grafted with Pecannt bads,
three years old from the bad, which are doing nicely. He has a
residence upon the brow of a hill, with carriagehouse and a Stever
wind-mill forwateringprpose. Mr. Sutherland takes great INteret
in locating strangers for the building up of the place, and fmornsha
any information with pleasure.
Mr. P. Richards, of Gaineville, owns 85 acres upon which he
has a house, and an orange grove of 2,200 six-year old tree, of the
nest varieties, about 100 of which are bearing, He has a laes
wind-mill for rrigation. Thi grove was planted under g t di-
oulties and disouragements. It wm the la t grove pla- here,
and was scoffed at. It has mar thm paid its expenses, and has
proved a perfect suoomes.
Arredoad can boast of the first chuwh edioe bual an the Ane-
donda grant, and known as the Kemsa- Ckhuch (Presbtean).
The flrt service was heMthere tm Apal, 18M. It till stands, ad is
ocoud. A school is held at ArImdond, about four months in the

HU MMOCK RIDGB about a mile or tmo mortheasof Artedoda
isthe centrwes a dood farming section, on th Tanash Bainead.


,C WAY from the lines of the railroads are numerous towns and
settlements in every part of the county. New ones are don-
stantly springing up so fast, now that the tide of immigration
has turned towards the interior, that it may be difficult within the
next few years to keep the run of them. Those known as Lacrosse,
Gordon's, Jonesville, Fort Clark, Trenton, Frankland,-Wacaassee,
Fort Fanning, Suwante, Worthington Springs, Sugar Grove, and
Fort Harley, are old settlements, in which may be found many of the
oldest and most respected families in Florida. These settlements,
in many instances, take their names from the oldest and most
influential settlers, or from the proprietors of the principal stores,
and some of them have changed their names as the representatives
of the village title have died or moved away.
LACROSSE is situated almost due north of Gaineeville, near the
Santa Fe river, the northern boundary line of the county. It
is a most beautiful and rich agricultural section, hummock
and pine lands, interspersed, and only lacks railroad facilities to
bring it prominently into notice, and to secure to its inhabitants
abundant riches. It is about 16 miles from Gainesville. Among
its most prominent citizens are J. E. W. Markee, H. C. Parker,
John & Eli Furch, Adam Right and'Mr. Blitoh.
A fine Baptist church has just been completed here, and the eand
of the Sabbath bells is heard every Sunday morning calling the wor-
shippers to church.. The Sunday-echool and singing society which
are held at the church are much enjoyed. A drug store ha recently
been opened by Mr. Geiger, a graduate of a pharmacentic college,
and Dr. H. Warner, from Canada, has located here as a practicing
physician. New houses are being built to accommodate the new-
comers, and the great need of the place, railroad tansportation
will aon be among the things that are
GORDON is situated a little to the east of Lacrosse, anl SUGAB
GRovE is a few miles to the southwest. The soil here artkes
of the characteristics of Lacrosse. Both places will, at no fax
distant day, be densely inhabited. The people of all three of these
places re principally farmers; intelligent, upright, consoientiow
and well-to-do people.

JONEBVILLE was formerly known as Dudley's, Mr. Jones being
the successor of Mr. Dudley. It is about 18 miles west of Gaines.
ville, and is noted for cotton-raising and the vegetable products,

TBENTON, until quite recently, was known as Jopp. It is about
25 miles west of Gainesville, in a rich country of beautiftal, rolling
pine land, some of it the best in the county for the production of
Sea Idand ootto
FRANKLAND and WACASASSE are favored with the same
natural characteristics as Trenton. The whole region about here is
excellent for cattle-raising.

FORT FANNING and S8UWANEE are "'way down upon the
S'wanee river," in the western extremity of the county. They are
in a rich, fertile region.
WOTHINGTON SPRINGS are noted hygienic resorts. They are
situated both sides of the Santa Fe river, near Newnauavile, and are
favorite resorts for people troubled with rheumatic.

FORT CLARK is about midway between Gainesville and Jones-
ville, ad is the location of the noted Bevill farm, of which mention
is elsewhere made. .

The aids at these various settlement are very rich and gmoduc-
tive. 'The eope in many inmess grow al that they eat, and
make ieaytof theiraletafrtmatbeeeotton maedin their ownGelds.
They aMe, tter~sre, larey iB"pendeint of the soutai worMd, and
are an edurlty, law-abidlg people. Teir great general aimumnt
consists of barbesnes and picalo, at wbeb th people gather from
all pars ofaoe coniy, adl have "a heap tffun." wall the
people onM f(ohi*ki wMoh ae nicely oeatvated.

FOBT Hwanzr.
SORT HARLEY, about three miles 6orth o#Waldo, is ,oted
for the largest orange tree in the State. It is now the
property of Mr. B. W. Campbell, railroad agent at Waldo. It
has never been affected by the colds or rrote. It meuee nine feet
aronmmthe trunk, i 87feethigh, and haefourforks18inche fro the
ground. The two largest measure four feet around, the two smallest
three feet six inches. It was damaged by te a few years ago, but
is now as vigorous as ever. It has borne 10,00 oranges in a single
eason. (See out on page 17.)

SIDE from the above noted places there are- scattered all over
the county hundreds of homes situated here and there with-
out any distinctive location, forming, without doubt, the nu-
cleus of grand towns and cities of the future. Along the shores of
the Santa Fe lake are some of the finest of these habitations. Among
them, on the western border between Waldo and Melrose, are the
large orange groves and lakeside homes of Geo. C. Rexford, Baron

H. V. Luttichan, Mrs. Pierson, of New York; Gen. Elias Earle, an
old veteran of the Mexican war; Bayless Earle, his nephew; Mesrs.
Wheeler, Ewing, Moore, and Bender's, the latter place being more
popularly known as the Balmoral Hotel, although it is a private resi-
dence. Just outside of Gaineeville, a little beyond the fair-ground-
which is now unused-northeast of the city, is the palatial residence

BAnatiouos raOPLZ. 88
of H. C. Whitney, a lawyer of Chicago. Several acres enclosed
about the mansion are planted to orange trees, which will make a
rich-looking place in a few years. About six miles northeast of
Gainesville is the ante-bellum plantation of Madison Sparkmmn,
father of Geo. W. Sparkman, of ainesville. It presents a digied
appearance with its still standing negro cabins reminding one of the
times that were, although they are now shaded by luxuriant range
trees, whilst all around are fields of waving corn, cotton, and gras-
ing cattle, which denote continued comfort and prosperity. North-
east of Sparkman's, somewhere near Hatchet's creek, is situated the
Keitler settlement, composed largely of Northern people. Here the
writer fell in with one of those specimens of honest humanity who,
on being informed that the Glen Cove Springs & Melrose Railroad,
from Melrose to Gainesville, would penetrate this vicinity, objected
to it in the following language: "Pve hearn haow these railroads
kills a heap o' cattle, but if they run over one o' my hogs rl1 tear up
the rails for shu'." This objection is only equaled by one that we
heard by another man, who declared that he saw no reason why he
should get the stumps out of his corn-field when they were not put
there by him.
In the county outside of the settlements, and here and there along
the roadsides, may be found the cabins of many colored people.
Some are owners of the property upon which they are located, while
others are merely squatters. To the colored race, as a whole, much
credit is due for their wonderful advancement during the last dead.
At the close of the war they were left without friends, maey or
learning, and without the knowledge even of how to obtain either.
Free they were, to be sure, but upon a land not their own, without
homes or food, and scant of raiment. They were the victims of
circumstances, the blame for which it would be hard to attach to any-
one. As they had been made slaves so they were made freemen,
without the exercise of any will of their own. It was natural for
their former masters to apprehend danger from nsch an Universal
liberation of people who were then to exercise the power of their un-
trained will for the first time. It was proper that they should take
measures to avert it if possible. Misunderstandings were natural,
and under political excitements, feuds, depredations and ruelties
were but the natural sequence of cause and effect. These matters,
however, are for future historians and not for our pen. It is our pr-
pose only to show that the people of Alachua county, both whiteand
oloked, are of the better classes and humanious in their afiliatioe
it will be generations, perhaps, before the colored people will, a

84 aNcaaeUNG DMVe.U

race, rise to the level of the father advanced white race, but in the
meanwhile, here and there will appear advanced minds among them
struggling to bring their people up to the highest plane in social and
educational standing, and their homes, humble though they be, re
among the many interesting scenes that are presented to view in
traveling through Alachua county.
There are some very interesting woodland drives from the various
cities and towns that we have described, the most charming of which
is through the San Felusco hummock between Gainesville and New-
nansville, or over Sugar-Foot prairie between Arredonda and Gainee-
ville. The latter drive the writer enjoyed with Mr. Fitch Miller, of
the last-named place. We entered upon this road just as twilight
was welcoming in the sable queen of night, when familiar amphib-
ians were repeating their evening prayers and chirping insects were
tuning their harps for their nightly serenades. We dashed along the
solid road through open forests of stately pines and trees, whose
branches, covered with Spanish moss, seemed like an army of gaunt
spectres enveloped in a rising fog, thence into the density of
a lonesome hummock, where purring brooks and whispering streams
told of their love for mother Earth as they clung to her bosom while
scampering through woods and meads. The good steed Nellie, drink-
ing in the inspiration of the hour and its presentations, seemed like
some winged fairy bearing us-willing captives through scenes of en-
chantment akin to that which first surrounded Adam and Eve. Our
appetites had been so sharpened by a rich display of earth's products,
that had some huge serpent dodged out from among the foliage that
skirted the road, and invited us to partake of forbidden fruit, we
might not have been able to resist the temptation.

SHE East Florida Seminary is a State school, and one of the
leadingeducationalinstitutions in Florida. Itisopenforboth
male and female pupils. It isa permanent seat of learning.
designed to give a liberal and thorough normal ednoution and train-
ing of students, free of tuition charges, from each of the twenty-two
counties east of the Suwanee river, in proportion to the representation
of each county in the lower branch of the Legislature. Thesestudents
are termed beneficiaries, and are selected by the commissioners of
each county. Other students from any part of the country may be
admitted by the trustees of the Seminary, on the paymentof atuition

3*s1 Wom a NMAZt. 8
tenet loraquarter,oft uieteen weeks The taustees are appoted
by hegovvmor withthecaasmatMltiSeaate. ALwishtofeaterrad
enourage as eaduatiional sirt in its eotim has ever beg one of
the moat pra -oeworLty features io r national Government. As an
oatrowth of this policy, when Florida was a trritory, she rem eud
from Congres a grantof .two towuaMbldpstlandfortbe expeamd p.r-
poe of Betahbliahng twoeminaaiesot learning, one aponthe east the
other upon the we at the 8wanee river; and when Florida became
8tate this donation was increased by two additional townshipe. No
earnest effort-seem to have been made to utilize these mnificent
grants until smetime after the State Government was etablihed.
Then after a long delay a portion of the land was sold, the proceeds
iavwted and the semiaries located, one at Gaineville, the other at

SCol J Roper was ithe t president of the ERst FloriWk Seini-
nary, followed by Dr. DaA. y, bio. A. Radiniu, Mr. Sneed, Rev.
E. A. A Meaney, W. C. Miller, aud the resent Incumbent, Prof. E. P.
Cater. Col. oper still ooeopies thepepidas yoet Boardoft Edu-
ation, and exerts a marked infnence on the pliit and progress of
the iantitution. When the present president, b P. COter, entered
dpon his duties in 187, the policy of the so&o dl h ben to invite
all who hose to attend without taiMonfee. ti police oaMtimmed
fto awhile, until it became cleary eident that tbe hool was ot
much above the grade of a common school. The seminry-was
finally organied upon te plan of a srded scbo, end the s .-
gesat and attendance of pupils was largely incrnesi, bat b etsbw
oountie were represented, and the ftMasa recoogalsd hby its str
that it was not fulflling its miadesm a State e shool. kmSB
changes were made, playing the seminary into a h u ftd a
beMaderi hd of tdstMLm. A normal and an exp im r -ridel
department were organized, and a small tuition fee was ftwhtldof
all pupils other than State papl;r, a standard of literary attinments
as requisite for admission was adopted, and a pamphlet distributed
setting forth the advantages oCered bytheaebooL- There was aoIn-
crese of more than one handed per cent in repremtatenls from
the other oounties and of non-residest pltpa;alto of inesaaed ec-
oaional advantages. Upon appientio to the Seetary of War,
Lsut. L.Wagner, 4t Infau a & A., wsdtailed as -
mandant of Cadets and strhto in Military TEtims, and the dai-
nary was furnished with an equipment of adet riMe aid aecote-
ments. A emnplte military organimttion wao adopted, aud the
taduita wa splaed mnder rc mi aidcta hLam changesam e


made in the curriculum, offering increased facilities in the proseon-
tion of linguistic and commercial studies; and a musical department
was organized for the benefit of such students as desired instruction
in instrumental and vocal music. The East Florida Seminary now
offers to the youth of the State advantages equal, in a literary point
of view, to any of our colleges, and in healthfulness of location, ex-
cellence of scientific and military equipment, and in the discipline,
morals and esprit de corps of its students, it is surpassed by no


institution of similar grade in the South. All the departments of
the seminary are in charge of accomplished and efficient teachers,
wOo are, for the session of 1888-'84, as follows:
Edwin P. Cater, A.M. (Oglethorpe University), President and In-
emrctor in Arithmetic,. Bookkeeping and Paennanahip. To his wie-
dom, energy and perseverance is largely due the present excellence
of the institution. .
A. L. Wagner (West Point), 1st Lieutenant, 6th Infantry, U. 8. A,
Commandant of Cadets and Instructor in Algebc, Geometry and


Surveying. Under Lieutenant Wagner the military depar umt has
become one of the leading features of the institution.
Rev. F. Paoo A.M. (Harvard College), Chaplain and Ineractor In
the Ancient Languages.
G. Y. Benfro, A. I (Lebanon, Ohio, Normal University), Normal
Teacher and Instructor in Geography, History and Science.
C.1 C. Cochran, (Univerity of Virginia), Instructor in ingish
Language and Literature.
Fratier Thomas, M. D., (College of Physidcans and Surgeons, Ba
timore) Surgeon.
Mrs. Laura French, Matron of Female Department, and
Instructor in Vocal and Instrumental Music,
Mies V. P. Carrington, weekly lemons in Elocution.
The Annual Semsions begin the last week in September, and end
about the middle of June. The coursee of atudy is thorough, prae.
tical and logical, afording ample preparation for the ordinary avo.
caions, or for the steady of any of the learned praeesiom. The
training class prepares students for saes ul and intelligent teach.
gingn the common a&ool of he State. All maie students no
phaicUlly diquallfied, ar required to wear the paesoribed aifoWrm
and to take partin al military emercie, The Seminary s a fll
equipment Cadet rifes and light arilley. A complete and ostly
chemical and physical apparatus renders the study of the natural
aOieces inteieeting, s wel am istructive. parade ground at the new, handsome and dommodioc
building, makes the East Florida Seminary, with i1 many appoint.
ments, as ah educational ihsttiOan without a peer in Florida, aad
on a par with many of the noted inatituions of leaning in the
North, White lt not a coofege proper, it 4inarb eredwh the power
to Ofi degrees and grant diplomas :


(LAOV&UA COUNTY i@ablyxeaeasetedJadtbStat*Legialatu&a
: by SenaOer oh ostea: Pelk, BeprematI a ,vea LeInao d L.
J'd Dennis, Benjar n Rush, Matthew M. Lewey and W na T.l p
The latter wo are oaor .thahe a whit, aand all t Mr, tTafp
are.aidentat of Iieeraite. M. DEL oamplata4 N Ukht at
tbeMilltay itatiteat Madettme OQar^wasatledeoolatoaelh

militia in 1889, and served in company F., Sd Florida Cavalry, C0. A.,
during the war. He is engaged in the livery business at Gainesville;
also in farming and stock-raising. Heisanative of Alachua, ademo-
crat in politics, and his five-year term expires in 1885. Mr. DENNIS
is from Massachusetts,wherehe received ahigh-echooleducation. He
served during the war as private in the 8th Masachusetts Regiment,
afterwards as first and second lieutenants, and finally captain in the
40th Massachusetts Regiment,U. S.. He isa lawyerbyprofession,
butat present is the senior partner of the firm of Dennis & Wallace,
lumber merchants, in Gainesville. Mr. Dennis is a republican in
politics; has been colonel and Chief of Ordinance for the State,
brigadier-general of militia, has served in the Senate six years, and
eight years in the lower house. He is familiarly known as the
"Little Giant of Alachua," a term applied to him by reason of his
small stature and his power upon the political stamp. He came to
the State immediately after the war, and passed through years of
the most deadly political warfare. In the present era of good feel-
ing, he has strong friends and influence among all parties. Mr.
LEWEY is originally from Baltimore, but more recently from New
York and Pennsylvania. He graduated from the Lincoln Univer-
sity of the latter place, and completed his education at the Harvard
University Law School, Washington city. He served in one of the
first colored organizations raised for the U. 8. A., and was
wounded. He came to Florida in 1878. Is a lawyerand a teacher by
profession; has been postmaster and Mayor of Newmansville, and is
a Justice of the Peace. He is a republican in politics, and his two-
year term will expire in 1885. Mr. RUSH is a nativeof North Car-
lina; completed his education at Villa Nova College, PFa ylvani
He was lieutenant of Company F., 1st North Carolina Regimewt,
and later of Starr's Light Battery, in the A. He has been
chief clerk in the U. S. Land Office, general land agent, speculator
and farmer. Is now junior partner of the real estate firm of Halli-
day & Rush, of Gainesville. He was nominated Senator in 1880,
and is now on his second term in the Assembly. He is a republican,
and his term expires in 1865. Mr. TRAPP was ber a slave iaSouth
Carolina. He is self-educated. His business is that of a farmer.
He was County Commissioner for 4wo years, and is now serving
hi second term in the Assembly. Be is republican, and his ts
expiresin 1885.
The court-office are as follows: Thomas P. King, Judge of fifth
circuit, embracing Alachua, Putmam, Marion, Levy and 8.9mptwa
counties; J. A. Carlisle, lerk; J. C. Gasdner, Judge of Coaaty,

TUm PrWoKBm uaumlr wmA. 8
Couit; Samnel 0. Tucker, Sheriff; Samuel Wing,, Assessor H. C.
Denton, Collector. Residences at Oaieville.
The United States Land Office is located at Gainesville, whe
landrcan be entered by any one in accordance with the Govetnmaht
law'controlling such entries, at $1.25 per acre. L A. Badrei is
register: John P. Rollins, Receiver; J. E. Webster, Daniel W.
MaXtin and Watson Porter, clerks; with James E. Bell on speeia

B. L. A. BARNES, of Gaineeville, is the pioneer in the orage
nursery bhsines. He came to Alachua county from Wal-
tham, Maas., in the fal of 186. He has ever sinee led a
very busy life as a politician, an offier of the goenment and as a
oaltivatrofthe soil. He owns 10,000 acres of the best land in Flor i
His fiet venture was in growing cotton, n which he was engaged f
about seven ye at what he call his old plauation. It oontaei
about 8,500 acres, and is situated northwest of Gatneevlle, in town
ship 10, range 18, on the Plants road from Rowland sBluf, new what
is now known as Jnesvflle. In 1872 he was called to the podithon
sheriff and ta-ollector of the county, which position he aly flBd
altrnatey forsix years. He was then made register of the 1. &
Lead Office, fi which pOdtion hehasshine been moet active and am
argeti, ind hast aithialy performed its dufles to the present tUia
On the northdrnwborder of Alachaa lake, about two or three Mhir
fron GO a8asille he owns 1,000 acres of beatifal hammnok a4ml,
codtiprieihg sections fB and 14, township 10, tange $0. The pleat
initial wonder, Aehua Sink, of which mention has ben made, is
invaded In this posemalon. The township ite of Tirver, ovw-loo
ingthe hk was formerly a part of his poses~sioi. It was gi
by'Mr.i.Betfe toethe fVorida Souaterin, Rilrad as an eouagen.
mni~ t for heobmpui to build its hmtto Ganesvole. Bmeoua.
ing Tarver, Mr.: Bams las 1tO0 acres of the sfldtirdighammook
filled with natural curiosities, and an abundance o ak, hiauey;
re atii, iMaegna -and wfld grape, together with a &i eyarO.ld
oWa* grove, in the most prosperous condition. hie grove aeon
tash 1,4O *tsseet s0 feet apart in straight rowe O.ehird of a
afle g; It 1oe6ases% acies. Betweea haeet Tows he rismr ar
n l e* lrt of oten, whib, aleel *ppmots the gerw

90 L. A. BARinS AND DUTroN 00o.

Two hundred and fifty acres of the balance of his land here is under
cultivation. Upon a few acres of land at the rear of his fine resi-
dence in Gainesville he started an orange nursery six years ago,
The enterprise was scoffed at by others, and failure predicted. He
has now the oldest and the only nursery from which 1,000 trees can
be obtained. To this nursery he has constantly added new pur.
chases, until he has five acres in all filled with orange trees,
from six years old down to the merest seedlings. His ground is
kept in the best state of cultivation, worked every few days, while
the trees are carefully watched, trimmed and fertilized. On the
east of his nursery, he has, fortunately, one of the finest muck beds
in the county. It is almost equal to northern peat. This is com-
posted with lime or stable manure, hog manure, cotton-seed or
ashee. He claims that cotton-seed is the very beet of orange-tree
food, and has never used fancy fertilizers. His six-year trees, of
the Homosassa variety--00 in all-planted from the seed, are now
in bearing, with from 25 to 50 oranges to a tree. Those in the
vicinity of his cow-pen are the furthest advanced. Trees in the
neighborhood, planted at the same time, from the same seed, but
which have not had the same amount of care and attention, are
not more than half as far advanced.
Orange seeds are usually planted in boxes where they can
be better cared for, and where they will take more strength
from the water and the fertilizer. From these boxes the
seedlings are planted when one year old. Of these seedlings,
Mr. Barnes has 200,000 planted annually, to be set out in January
and February following. The three-year trees are best for trans-
planting from the ground. In all, Mr. Barnes has 80,000 trees in
his nursery, all seedlings. Among his best budded fruit he has
seven varieties, as follows: Homosasea, Satsums, Mediterranean-
sweet, Nonpareil, Magnum bonum, Naval and Hartalate. A smart
man can bud about 500 trees in a day. In one corner of the nursery
are 200 pecan-nut trees, and a few Japan plum-trees. The pecan
grows well here, and are very profitable. At twelve and fifteen
years of age they average a yield of $50 worth to a tree. Mr.
Barnes has 2t aces in two other nurseries in Fast Gainesville, con-
taining together 12,000 young trees.
H, F. DUTTON & CO., in company with L. A. Barnee, at Orange
Point on Alachua lake, own beautiful lands planted to orange
groves which bid fair to become thefinest and the most profitable in
the State. The land is high, upon ablff rising 50 to 80 feet above
thelevel of the lake, and in the most fertile portion of the Arre-

DTTror 'A 00. AMD J. L. BeVL. 1
donda grant. They have 280 acres in all, on 60 of which a new
grove was recently formed, the timber having been just cleared from
it. In the midst of this young grove vegetables are planted, of which
yield 9,000 crates were last season shipped to the North, while han-
dreds of bushels were allowed to rot on the ground. There are 10
acres of bearing trees, nine of which are budded on sour stalks
which grew here spontaneously. The waters of the lake, which flow
around this point, are filled with an immensegrowth of maiden cane,
oneacre of which is sufficient to feed eight head of cattle for one whole
year. Among the other products upon this Orange Point property,
are bananas-and egg-plants, the latter requiring the richest of soil
for profitable growth. Barnes, Dutton & Co., are to clear 20 more
acres of this property, and plant them to orange groves, which will
make the locality one of great attraction. It's a most beautiful
spot, and the birds fit hither and thither about it at all seasons,
making the air melodious with their tuneful notes, and, by their
lingering, prove their appreciation of the natural charms surround-
ing the place.
MB. JOHN R. BEVILL is undoubtedly the model farmer of Ala-
chua county. He has at least 1,000 acres under cultivation, at what is
known as Fort Clark, seven miles west of Gainesville. He owns 52
horses, 900 head of cattle and other stock, devotes himself to the staple
products, and conducts his farm in the most profitable manner.
During the season of 1888, he planted 800 acres to cats. They wre
harvested about the first of June, and were fine. The heads were
well and heavily filled, and the straw of excellent length. He em-
ployed two reaping machines and a threshing machine, the latter run
by steam, and capable of threshing 400 bushels a day. 400 acresof
corn were planted this spring (1888), ploughed by eight men only, with
walking cultivators drawn by two borses. His yield average. 18 to 80
bushels to the acre, making a crop of between 8,000 and 9,000 bushels.
The balance of his land is utilized about as follows: 100 acres to
pease, 85 acres to potatoes, 2 acres to sugar-ane, from which he
makes his sugar and syrup, 00 acres worked by others on a half
interest, and some portions of the remainder rented outright. Each
year, he raises at a mere nominal cost, 160 head of hogs which are
fed in the fields from the oat stubble, and from the pease which grow
continuously, and potatoes, both of which are grown for their
especial benefit. On such rich food these hogs fatten quickly, and
average when slaughtered 250 Ibs. each. They live, as the team is,
"like pigs in clover." He devotes himself to the Berkshre sad
JerseyRedbreeds. Among the cattle he has 75 Shor-hor and


Jersey half-breed, and 10full-blood. He keeps 100 ewes, from which
he sells their yearly increase of lambs to the butchers, at $.50
apiece; also 100 goats, whose yearly increase is disposed of in like
manner. Large quantities of butter are made upon the farm, under
the superintendence of Mrs Bevill, who also takes great pride in a
poultry yard, filled with chickens, turkeys, guinea-hens and geesa;
also in a fine garden from which she realizes a good revenue. Mr.
and Mrs. Bevill are energetic people, and are being rewarded with a
sufficiency of this world's means.
As an idea of the cost of labor on such a farm in Florida, it might
be stated that Mr. Bevill has in his employ from 15 to 18 hands,who
are paid $11 a month and rations, which consist weekly of 1 peck of
meal and 8 pounds of meat. Sometimes he has from 40 to 50 hands
at work. He has also a80-acre orange grove, about 2 acres of which
are in bearing. Mr. Bevill has been here about 90 years, during
which timehe has gradually accumulated his vast possessions. He
attends personally to the superintendence of all his work.
W. K. CESSNA, of Gainesville, is the leading strawberry grower
in the county. He is considered authority on Florida agriculture and
horticulture, and has delivered several lectures on these subjects.
Mr. Cessna and William Porter, together own large tracts of land,
and have 86 acres between Gainesville and Alachualake, planted to
orange, pear, and the native persimmon trees. While these trees are
growing, vegetables are grown between them, the strawberry pre-
dominating, and have yielded large returns. Mr. Cessna, at the
close of the war, suffering from bronchitis, came here for his health.
He first engaged in cotton growing, then in general merchandise,
then to growing fruits and vegetables, and now devoting his great
attention to fruits and strawberries. In the latter pursuit he was
the pioneer. He grows 40 popular varieties of strawberries, together
with numerous unnamed varieties,with which he is constantly experi-
menting. One new variety he calls the Florida seedling, but it would
be better named the Lady Cessna, as the first plant was discovered
growing from the topofa berry, by Mrs. Cessna. Itwastransplanted,
and proved tobe a strong, rampant-growing vine, excelled only by the
Sandhill. For his Sandhill plants he paid 25 ct. apiece. Thebestberry,
astested by him, is the Mobile, orimproved Newnan's. It isthe beet
bearer, the best for shipment, and requires less care, as it will grow
well anywhere among the grass. The Manchester, Charles Downing,
President Wilder, Knox's 700, Wilson's, the Albany, Boyden's No.
80, and some others which he has tried, do not grow satisacetorly.
The Crescent seedling will grow among the grass, is very hardy, and