Semi-tropical Florida

Material Information

Semi-tropical Florida its climate, soil and productions, with a sketch of its history, natural features and social condition, being a manual of reliable nformation concerning the resources of the state, and the inducements which it offers to persons seeking new homes and profitable investments
Florida -- Bureau of Immigration
Place of Publication:
Rand, McNally & co.
Publication Date:
2d ed.
Physical Description:
64p. : illus., fold. map. ; 22cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Florida ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Published for the state by the Commissioner of the Bureau of immigration.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
024451344 ( ALEPH )
01700083 ( OCLC )
AAP9515 ( NOTIS )

Full Text

I .










(Office, Astor Block, Jacksonville, Fla.)

Sent Free on Receipt of Postage.

1. I80.


Act Establishing Burean of Immigration....... 6
Additional Statistics of Putnam County........ 56

Baptist--................-.........---...------ 57
Catholic...................................... 57
Methodist Episcopal.-....--..-..-....- ..-----57
Presbyterian ....-.......-.........-- ..... -- 57
Protestant Episcopal---..-.-----.........---------... 67
Class of Immigrants Wanted-----------................... 12
Climate. ...---....--- ............-- .----- .--- 5
Cost of Building ............................... 17
Cost of Clearing Land-....---.................. 17

Description and U. S. Census Statistics of Coun-
ties, 1879-80.......---- ...----..-- .....28-8

Education ..-..--...-...-....-....- .....-..--... 27

Facilities for Transportation .......----........--- 61
Florida Newspapers.............--......-....... 8
Foreign and Domestic Commerce..........------------.... 26

Historical and Geographical....---...-----........... 8
Household Expenses. -.............---------..- 16
How to Get to Florida...............-- .......... 2
How to Make an Orange Grove,with Cost of same 14
Humidity of Florida.....--..-- ...........-------- 1

Imniigration..-..-....-........-...-..--..-..-..- 62

Masonry in Florida ---....----- ..-------------- 7
Meteorological 'bbles.......-- ...............49-51

Nod"n Energy-How Affected.............-- 25

Odd owship -..-.....---- -----------------.. 57
Orange tulture-....--...---...-- ...--- ..------- 59

County Government----------.........---...............---------- 6
Homestead and other Exemptions-........... 7
State Asylum..-..........-............------- 7
State and County Taxes .----------........... 7
State Finances..........-----...---.......---------- 8
State Prison and Jails..---..-------.....-....--- 7
Who may Vote--.....--......---- ...------ 8

Prices of State Lands........-..- ..........-.... 10
Prices of other than State Lands..--..-..... ..- 11
Almond .......-.....-................----- ... 22
Apple, Pear, Quince......-......-......-..... 2
Arrowroot, Casava, Comptie -.....---.....- 25
Banana, Pine Apple, etc.......-..............--
Blackberries, Huckleberries----......----... ....
Corn- ------- ----------- ------------- 19

Grapes--.......--.............................. 8
Indigo, Castor Bean, and Silk-....-........- 24
Japan Plum .................................. 2
Melons ..................- .....----.........---
Olive ......................................... 24
Peaches .........-- ............------.......... B
Pea-Nuts .....................-...............
Pomegranate .--.................-.....-...-. 22
Plums and Cherries ...................... ---- 28
Rice..-..--..........-- ................---.....
Sisal Hemp, Bamle, Jute--......--...----------.
Strawberries -------- --.- .... |
Sugar Cane.....................-----------------...... 19
Sweet Potatoes.............--.......--- .... ---
The Citrus Family.---..----....--.....- ...--- ..
Tobacco ...................................... sI
Wheat, Rye, Oats ...-.....-.....--........... 21

RailroadLands.. ................-------. 10

Soil.......-- .....----.----- ..--......--- 8
Statistics of OrangeCulture in Putnam County. 65

Table of Agricultural itistitcs- .-.........-- ....
Table showing Mortality and Population for
year ending June 1,.1880D.................. 6
Table showing Population by Race..--.......---
The New-Comer................................ 1
The SociaLQuestion.---..-.. ---.........-- ---. 11
Timber and Lumber.......-------.---.....---- 15

What the Poor Immigrant may do...--....... 12
What the Rich Immigrant can do....-----......--. 14
When and What to Plant....----...-.......--- 17

!--- *




DA was discovered in 1512 by Ponce de Leo.L An
expedition under Navaez made a landing at Tampa Bay in
11 ', and traversed the State as far as PenspoiL In 1589,
De Soto, with a large force, landed in South PFlrida, and
marched to the Mississippi river. In 1664, Landoniere,under the
SFrench flag, landed near the mouth of the St. Johns and built
4# i Fort Caroline. The followingyear Menendez, underthe Spanish
flag, founded St. Augustine, and extirpated the French Coloqy
on the St. Johns river. The country remained under the Spanish rule until 1768, when
it was ceded by Spain t Great Britain. After twenty years of English rule it was re-
ceded by Great Britain to Spain in 1788, and continued a Province of Spain until 1821,
when it became a possession of the United States. It was admitted as a State in 1845.
From its first discovery Florida has been in an unsettled state-colonies massacred,
conquered and re-conquered, ceded and re-ceded, harassed by Indian wars, and when
just entering on a period of stability and prosperity, plunged into a civil war which
decimated and impoverished her people. Is it any wonder that the great flood of
foreign and domesticimmigration has not been attracted and turned to the State?
Florida is no longer a t er iwognita; the armies, Federal and Confederate, have
contested upon her shores. The intelligence of the world is directed to the favored
land; thousands have annually come down for pleasure, health, or to make new
homes; other thousands will come when they become truly informed of the advan-
tages and attractions of this beautiful and productive semi-tropical region.
This, the most southern of all the States, is a peninsula projecting down between

4 Semi- Tropical Florida;

the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Its area comprises nearly 60,000 square miles,
or 88,000,000 acres. Florida is bounded on the north by Georgia and Alabama;
east by the Atlantic; south by the Gulf of Mexico; and west by the Gulf of Mexico
and Alabama. Inspecting a map of the earth, one would naturally suppose that the
temperature of Florida would range the same as in those countries lying in the same
parallel of latitude, as Northern Mexico, Central Arabia, Hindoostan and China, but
it does not; it resembles rather that of Bermuda, Madeira, Egypt and Persia. Its pecu-
liar position, its peninsular form, its ocean and gulf surroundings, make it exceptional,
and unlike any other country lying in the same latitude. The truly peninsular portion
of Florida is some 800 miles in length, and averages about 100 miles in width, grad-
ually narrowing from north to south. The nearness of that great ocean river, the gulf
stream, to its shores, causes the trade winds of the Atlantic to sweep over the land
from east to west by
day, the returning cool
winds from the gulf
gently blowing across
Sthe State by night
i The stranger is incred.
ulous of the peculiar
temperature, until, by
sojourning here, he
finds, be the day ever
so warm, the succeed-
Sing night is invariably
cool. These daily con-
stant breezes purify
and vivify the atmos-
pl and preserve it
m stagnation or
Generally the lands
are level, at no great
elevation above tide
water; the northern
--- portion, however, is
more or less rolling
z o TmaL q s. A and hilly. About mid-
way- from north to
.south, the lands bordering on the ocean and gulf are more or less level, broken by oc.
casional ridges. In East Florida, about half way from the sea to the Suwanpee river,
there is a table-land elevation reaching nearly to the Everglades. The extreme southern
portion of the State is low, though from recent surveys it is found-that it can be effect-
ually drained, and made available for cultivation. No State in the Union has such an
extent of coast, which is nearly 1,200 miles in length, indented every few miles by
large bays, running inland in many places from ten to thirty miles, with large rivers
like the St. Johns, St. Marys, Suwannee, Apalachicola, navigable from north to south,
and easterly and westerly between the Gulf and Atlantic Ocean. There are other
connecting navigable streams in all parts of the State, and lakes, large and small,
scattered and grouped together, all of which abound in excellent varieties of fish, and
furnish local transportation facilities ; many connect with navigable streams, and all

Rts Cimate, Soil and Productions. 5

can be easily connected by short canals or railroads with each other and the great
arteries of water leading to the sea and gulf. The interior lakes of Florida,'large and
small, are one of its remarkable features.
The soil in the greater portion of the State is sandy, except in the hill lands and
hammocks, where large portions of clay and alluvium are found. The sand is not the
sharp silicious sand of the ocean, or resembling the sandy lands of other States; this
soil has more or less of loam and a large percentage of lime and organic remains,
giving it much fertility. The country is well watered, not only by its larger and
smaller rivers and lakes, but by innumerable creeks and springs. Springs, of great
volume, are found in every portion of the State, some of such magnitude that they
form navigable rivers from their source: of such are the Blue Springs, in Jackson
county, in the west; Wakulla Springs, in Wakulla county, in the middle; Silver
Springs, in Marion county, in the east; the very large Blue Spring on the St. Johns,
in Volusia county; the Green Cove Spring, in Clay county, on the shore of the St.
Johns; also Clay Spring, in Orange county. Some of these are medicinal, white
sulphur, iron, etc. Good water, so universally desired, is found easily at a depth of
from eight to fifty feet, according to locality, generally from twelve to twenty feet, but,
through the country, the many lakes and springs and branches afford ample supply
for house and farm purposes. If cistern water is preferred, the average rainfall, being
from forty-eight to fifty-four inches annually, assures a supply. The distribution of
rivers, creeks, lakes and springs, is not only large, but remarkablyuniform throughout
the State.

Since the climate of Florida is so well known through the civilized world, it isnot
necessary to go into detail; we will briefly give some facts from official tables, and the
opinions of scientists. The climate is not a ht climatein sammer, but mild, and not
subject to greatk4oanges of temperature. The winters are not cold and framing, but
uniformly cool andkwi ng. Throughout the whole twelve months, the rainy, cloudy,
disagreeable days are thLtoeption; fair, bright, sunny days the rule. The thermom.
eter seldom goes below B% winter, and rarely above, 90 in summer. The official
records show the average for summer, 78; for winter, *. The daily constant ocean
breezes in summer modify the heat; (the Gulf breeze, coming with the setting sun,
cools the air at night); a warm or sultry night is almost unknown. Official anitary
reports, both of scientific bodies and the army, show that Florida stands firt in health,
although in the reports are included the transient or recent population, many of whom
take refuge here as invalids, some in the lowest stages of disease. In the greater por-
tion of the State frost is rarely known. The summer is longer, but the heat less
oppressive than midsummer at the North; this results from its peculiar peninsular
shape and the ever-recurring breezes which pass over the State. For days together,
New York, Boston and Chicago show, in summer, temperature as high as 100'; it is
very rare that it reaches that degree in Florida for a single day, generally ranging
below 90; not oppressive, modified by the ever-changing air; not sultry, close or
humid; mornings and evenings always cool and bracing. Natives and old residents,
if asked, would say they preferred the summer to the winter months for climate. This
climate is peculiarly adapted for vegetation. There are years when in some localities
there is a drouth, and years when portions of the State have had excessive rains, but
they do not extend far. In the early spring, when most of the planting season occurs,
there are frequent showers; from the first to the middle of July, the rainy season com-
mences,.continuing till the middle of September; the rain falls almost every day,

6 Semi Tropical Florida;

commencing in the early afternoon, lasting from a few minutes to a few hours, rarely
as long as the last period, often heavy with thunder and sharp lightning, then ceasing,
leaving the air cool and sweet, the sky clear and bright; the porous soil quickly absorbs
the water and leaves the footway dry. These rains fill up the low flat lands and ponds,
and are injurious to crops when planted on such lands, underlaid by hard pan. But
on the high pine lands and high hammocks the rains are of advantage, making crops
grow rank and heavy. The "rainy season is not of regular annual occurrence.
We take from Dr. A. S. Baldwin's tables, kept for the Smithsonian Institute, as
Jacksonville, latitude 80* 15', longitude 82--mean of three daily observations
for twenty years, 1844-1867. Thermometer.
January------.--- 55 May ..--.---------.76 September .-----.----78*
February --------....... June--........----- -- 80' October-------...........70
March ...----.-------64 July ...---------... -. 82 November ....-------62
April ..-----..--..---70 August.--------.----82* December...---------. .52
The Army records show for twenty years, variation at St. Augustine, Fla., 28*.
Rainfall at Jacksonville, average for ten years, 64.5 inches; the largest quantity in
August and September, and the least in November.
The above shows that for equality of temperature and consequent salubrity, Florida
has no rival.


The new constitution of Florida was adopted in 1888. It is similar to the later
constitutions of the North and West, modified some, being'more liberal in suffrage and
exemption clauses. No County can have more than four Assemblymen; every County
can have one. Foreigners who may become residents, enjoy the same rights as to
property as native born citizens. The Legislature consists of a Senate and Assembly,
the first elected for four years, the latter for two 'years, biennial sessions. All property
of wife, owned before or acquired after marriage, is made separate, and not liable to
debts of the husband. The Governor is elected for four years; he appoints all officials,
the most important with consent of the Senate, except constables, who are elected.
There is the usual Cabinet, Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, County Judges and Jus-
tices of the Peace. There is a school system similar to that of the North, which makes
provision for -free schools for all children. The school fund consists of proceeds of all
United States lands granted for educational purposes, the Agricultural College fund
donated by the Government, and fines under penal laws; also, a special State tax of on0
mill on all taxable property, annually levied; and each County is permitted to levy not
exceeding two and a half mills for County school purposes.

The State is divided into Counties, now thirty-nine; each County has five County
Commissioners,-who have supervision of roads, bridges, ferries, audit and issue war-

Its CZimate, Soil and Productions. 7

rants for County expenses; they have also charge of public buildings and the County
poor. Their pay not to exceed fifty dollars per year, and mileage.


The State has a large and well built Asylum, with ample grounds, where the unfor-
tunate insane are cared for; it is under the care and superintendency of a resident phy-
sician, who is appointed by the Board of Public Institutions, to whom reports are made, whom regulations as to government of the Asylum are prescribed.


State and County prisoners are contracted out to labor on plantations, and for getting
out of naval stores; some for short terms on public work in chain gangs; they are all


One hundred and sixty acres, or one-half acre of land within city or town, owned by
the head of a family residing in the State, together with one thousand dollars of per-
sonal property, and the improvements on the real estate, shall be exempted from any
forced sale under any process of law; and real estate shall not be alienable without the
joint written consent of wife and husband. In addition t% the above exemption, there
shall be exempted from sale by any legal process, to the head of a family, one thousand
dollars in any kind of property, which said head of family may select. Taxes caa only
be levied for State, County and Municipal purposes


The State levies, annually, one mill tax for school purposes. For the current year
(1880), six mills are levied for expenses of State government and interest on bonded
debt; total State tax, seven mills. Counties must levy ,one-half mill for school pur-
poses, and not exceeding two mills for county purposes. The County may also levy,
not to exceed two mills, for building County buildings and bridges; also a further sum
of two mills for County purposes; provided that the Grand Jury proposes it, or the
people vote it, and the County may levy not to exceed two mills, (over the one-half mill,)
for County school purposes; total County tax, not les than two and one-half or more
than eight and one-half mills. From the above, it will be seen that the total tax,
County and State, shall be not less than nine and one-half nor more than fifteen and one-
half mills;, the increase over nine and one-half mills being left to each County separ-
ately. What other State can show so low a tax none, if we except one or two of the
old small States, nor would they, if they included County and Municipal debts. Another
important thing: Florida has yet fifteen million acres of unsold land, moneys collected
for the regular payment of interest on her bonds, and her State debt and expenses are
constantly diminishing. With sucn a financial exhibit, our State may well challenge
and invite comparison with any State, North or South. Nor is this all; the people in-
dividually support and advocate economy, and demand it of Town, County and State
officials. In all gfices no extravagance is submitted to. In the State Government,tven

Sei Tropical Florida;

in small details, offices have been abolished or consolidated, salaries reduced, perqui-
sites and fees cut down, and each succeeding year, whenever possible, retrenchment
is made.

Every male person twenty-one years of age, who shall be, or shall have declared.
his intention to become, a citizen of the United States, has resided in the State one
year, and in the County six months, may vote in the election district where registered.
Bribery, perjury, larceny, wagers on election, fighting a duel or accepting a challenge,


From Comptroller's report, Jan. 4, 1879:
Assessed value of property, 0- 0,000,000
Receipts, and balance in Treasury, 8- - 68,000
Payments from January 1st, 1878, to December 81st, 1878, 260,000
Balance in Treasury, 108,000
Total bonded debt, $1,284,200, or nearly one million three hundred thousand dollars.
Of these bonds, the school and sinking fund hold five hundred and sixty-eight thousand
dollars, thus leaving only seven hundred and sixteen thousand dollars in private hands.
The annual sinking fund will absorb this amount. There is a claim of Florida on the
United States Government, of about $160,000 for expenditures in Indian wars, which
is now being adjusted, and which will further reduce the State debt.


The traveler southward, passing over the sandy coasts of New Jersey, North and
South Carolina, Georgia and' Eastern Florida, naturally exclaims, what a barren,
sterile land the South must be! The Northern or Western farmer can not believe that
such lands are productive; but if the winter visitor will return to Florida in summer or
early fall, he will be surprised to see the rank vegetation, wild and cultivated. The
so-called sand of Florida is not the sharp silicious sand of the ocean-washed beach, or
the fine inorganic sand which forms the pine barrens of the North and West. Com-
posed, in great part, of a mixture of humus, lime and loam, the surface sand of
Florida has good fertilizing qualities Florida lands are ordinarily classfied as pine
lands, hammocks (lands covered with hard woods), and swamp landstyahese again
distinguished as first, second and third quality of pine, high and low aammocks,
swamp lands, inland prairies, the savannas of the coast, and the everglades. The
greater portion of the State is covered with pine, the pitch and yellow pine. The
hammocks, high and low, are densely covered with hard woods, such as live oak, oak,
magnolia, gum, hickory, etc. The swamp lands are more or less timbered with pine,
cypress, cedar and soft woods; the savannas are covered with grass, with here and
there a cabbage palm tree; the everglades are vast prairies more or less dry or

B84 Climate, Soo anizd Production&.

submerged. Of all these, the poorest, with the exception of the last two, will]
produce semi-tropical fruits, and fibrous plants, of commercial value. The first-rate
pine lands, so called, are generally elevated and rolling, covered with a dark vegetable-
mould or humus, several inches deep, resting on a chocolate-colored sandy loam,
mixed with pebble and lime; under this, clay and soft limestone rock. The-
timber is very regularly distributed, and consists principally of pitch pine, very
uniform, both in size and length, and straight; luxuriant.grass covers the soil
underneath; no undergrowth is seen except near the borders of creeks; no palmetto-
roots mar the surface, nor fallen timber prevents easy and direct roads from point.
to point. These lands have a durable fertility, and are well adapted to the usual
agricultural products and semi-tropical fruits. They are found to withstand drouth,
well, and in rainy seasons growing crops are not affected, except favorably. These-
lands are healthy, the water is pure, and it costs little to prepare the soil for cultivation.
It is noticeable that the early settlers selected these lands, especially for residences-
and home farms, health, pure water, freedom from inseAts, good soil for crops and
fruit, and ease of cultivation. These lands produce well for years without fertilizing,.
but readily respond in increased products to fertilizers. The second-rate pine lands,
which are also heavily timbered with pine, are more or less high and rolling, are well
watered, the surface soil is not deep, are underlaid with clay or limestone, and:
produce well for a few years ; fertilized, they yield good crops of cotton, corn,.
cane and root crops ; when properly cultivated, they are superior for semi-tropical
fruits. Experienced growers have selected this class of land for groves. The third-rate-
pine lands consist of high-rolling sandy ridges, sparsely covered with scrubby, strag-
gling black jack and pine, and. also of low, flat lands, frequently swampy, with a.
growth of cypress, in the rainy season often inundated; shallow ditches, however,.
easily drain them, and when so drained they yield fair crops, especially of rice, cane,
etc. These flat lands afford good pasturage for stock, and being well timbered, are-
desirable for naval stores, resin, tar, turpentine, etc., as they are cheaper and accessible
The trees can be profitably bled for turpentine, for five to seven years, then cut down-
for mill logs, when land is easily brought into cultivation; the pasturage is contin-
uous until planted. It may be mentioned here, that all pine lands are favorable for
health. The resinous, balsamic odor of leaf and tree, the absence of undergrowth,.
giving a frLe circulation of air, the leafy crowns of the soughing pines, giving a grate--
ful shade from the rays of the mid-day sun, combine to fix the settler's residence in a
natural park, the piney woods. The richest lands ". are swamp, high and low ha..
mocks, first-class pine, oak and hickory lands; the swamp lands being similar to tho
bottoms or valleys of the Mississippi and other Western rivers, being of comparatively
recent alluvial formation, enriched by annual additions of surface soil and vegetable
debris which fill up the lower surfaces; such lands, however, have to be ditched and
drained to be made permanently available, but once prepared' they will produce for
all time abundantly. Low hammocks are somewhat of the nature of swamp and ham-
mock, producing quite as well as swamp land, but not for so long a period. The soil
is deep, but often requires ditching. For sugar cane they are well adapted. High
hammocks' are the most sought for by the old-time planter. The land is undulating,
the surface soil is of rich vegetable mould mixed with a sandy loam, a substratum of
marl or clay or both mixed, and they are uniformly productive. They are not seriously
affected by drouth or wet; once cleared, cultivation is easy; producing the various crops.
equally well For diversified farming, they are reliablei nWall farmers generally prefer
and select the firstclass pine lands, and the oak ad$iAckory lands, which are quite
extensively situated in the central portion of the State,#p they are lesp expensive to clear

Semi-Tropical Florida;

up than the hammock or swamp lands. Besides the above, there are latge savannas
on the coast and in the extreme southern portion of the State, which are of great extent
and treeless as a Western prairie ; of course, rich, but too expensive to reclaim at this
time. While all the varieties of the lands noticed may be found in every section of the
State, yet the proportion varies in different sections.

School Lands and Seminary Lands are subject to entry at their appraised value, not
less than $1.25 per acre. The larger portion of these lands is held at $1.25 per acre;
but some tracts are valued as high as $7. Payment may be made in U. S. currency
or State scrip.
Internal Improeement Lands generally $1.25 per acre, none less; some as high as
$6.50 per acre.
Stamp Lands-for forty acres, $1 per acre. For more than forty and' not exceed-
ing eighty acres, 90 cents per acre. For more than eighty and not exceeding two hun-
dred acres, 80 cents per acre. For more than two hundred and not exceeding six
hundred and forty acres, 75 cents per acre. For more than six hundred and forty acres,
70 cents per acre.
In case of entries of land at less than $1 per acre, the land must not be in detached
pieces, but must lie in a body.
For Internal Improvement and Swamp Lands nothing is receivable in payment
except U. S. currency.
Terms of sale in all cases euh.
Lands can not be reserved from sale for the benefit of any applicant An appliea-
tion, not accompanied with the full amount of purchase-money, does not give any
The State lands comprise about 15,000,000 acres. The State Land Office is at
Tallahassee, where State lands can be purchased at the above prices by addressing the
State Commissioner of Lands, Tallahassee.
The foregoing gives the prices of State lands of various kinds, that is, the internal
improvement lands proper, and lands acquired by the State from the United States,
These can be purchased at the State Land Office in Jacksonville, No. 8 Boss Block,
M. A. Williams, agent, at above prices, with a deduction of fifteen per cent, on sales
under two hundred dollars, and a deduction of twenty per cent. on sales above
-two hundred dollars. State lands are situated in every portion of the State,
and comprise every variety of quality, and are adapted to every production of the
State. Besides these, there are immense bodies of the best yellow pine timber to
be found in the Southern States, also other valuable timber-live oak, magnolia,
cedar, etc.

A large amount of land has been granted to railroads in the State. The Atlantic,
Gulf & West India Transit Road, running from Fernandina on Atlantic Ocean, to
Cedar Keys on the Gulf of Mexico, with a branch building from about the centre of
road (Waldo) to Tampa Bay, also on Gulf, own 650,000 acres, lying adjacent to their

Its Cimate, Soil and Productions. 11

road. These are offered at $1.2 per acre, with free transportation over the railroad,
to purchasers with their families and personal effects. These lands also comprise the
various qualities, and of course are easily accessible. The Jacksonville, Pensacola &
Mobile Railroad, running from Lake City, passing through some of the best lands in
the State, owns about 200,000 acres, which are offered at low prices. Lands in any
*quantity, at reduced rates, bordering on the Florida Central Railroad, can be purchased.
These lands also comprise some of the very best lands, and are thickly covered with
pine and other timber. Purchasers will find good bargains here, for large or small
tracts. These railroad lands lying adjoining the railroad, are easy of access and
connect with each other, with the gulf and ocean, and with the railroads north and

There are yet re aing, of United States lands, about 10,000,000 acres, also located
in all sections of the State. These lands are subject to entry by land warrants, by pur-
chase, and also by homestead entry. The cost for entering a homestead is, for 10 acres,
414; for 80 acres, $7; for 40 acres, $6; residence of five yeas necessary. Tbee are
also large tracts, being the Spanish grants, many comprisfng most excellent lands.
Most of these grants are owned by non-residents, who have acquired them by being
heirs of original grantees and owners, who are willing to se at veryow rates, as they
desire to close them out and make division to heirs. In fact, lands, whether in quan-
tity, quality, location, or price, are to be found all over the State, affrding opporta.
cities for the large lumber operator, the naval stores business, th largesauger or cotton
planter, the small farmer, the large or small market gardener and the orange g r.
A single acre can be had, dr 100,000, at from seventy cents to Miy dollars par are.. im-
proved as well as wild lands are in market, and with intelligent inquiry the new-oaquw
can make choice of what will suit him, and it is justas easy ir the immigrant to obea
correct and reliable information here as about lands at his old home.

To the Southerner, to the older immigrant here, it is inexplicable how the idea
obtains that the immigrant is not well received. Kindness, hospitality and frankness
are now, as always, traits of the Southron. In the piney woods cabin, in the mansion
of the planter, the stranger is welcomed; the neighbor finds a neighbor indeed. We
simply allude to this subject to assure intending immigrants that nowhere will they
find less jealousy, envy or interference than here; nowhere will they find a warmer
welcome, kindness, "sympathy or material assistance. The thousands of new-c~mere,
now citizens, assure this, being associated with their Southern neighbors in social,
commercial, moral and religious objects. In politics, where, naturally, lines would be
sharply drawn, there Is scarcely any sectional distinction. We find officials, fom con-
stable to governor, alike southern and northern, placed there by the people. It may
be considered egotistical, but the writer illustrates this. Born, and a resident of the
North for years, an officer in the Union army, comintto Florida to make a new home,
le found a ready welcome in a southern communityhis neighbors treated him cour-
teously, and successively honored him with the highest Count offices, with the State
senatorship for a district, and the State Bureau of Iamigration .appointed him their
Commissioner. The records show similar cases in every department-scxecutive
Legislative and Judicial.

12 emi- Tropical Foorida;

We want population from every State in the Union, and from every country in
Europe; we want the thrifty and industrious to join us in occupying and building up.
the vacant places in our favored State, that they may secure pleasant homes for them-
selves and their families; we want them to identify themselves with our present popu-
lation, and enjoy all the rights and privileges of the native-born, which the laws of the-
State now fully guarantee to them. We have over thirty million acres State and
United States land, which can be had for a mere nominal price. We need population.
We will give immigrants a hearty welcome, and extend to them full and equal protec-
tion; we have no prejudices to overcome, for we are already cosmopolitan; we want.
immigrants of kindred races, that we may be a homogeneous people; we are all
immigrants or their descendants; we give immigration credit for all we are or hope-
to become. We do not wish to be misunderstood on this point; we do not want.
immigrants for subordinate positions, but, on the contrary, invite them to locate, and
become the owners of their homes in fee simple forever; we want them to become
citizens, and have with us equal political privileges and responsibilities in all the-
obligations imposed upon citizens under a Republican government; we want persons-
skilled in a great variety of mechanical and agricultural pursuits-in fact, in all of the
industries of life, for we have a State possessed of the requisite conditions for success-
ful cultivation and development. We want, especially, persons skilled in gardening-
and fruit growing, in the cultivation of tobacco, sugar, etc.; we want grape and
orange growers, together with the whole list of semi-tropical fruits; we want manu-
facturers of lumber and naval stores; we want, especially, capital to develop our-
unbounded resources; we want immigrants especially that will bring along with them
sufficient means and energy to enter upon business for themselves, to buy our cheap-
lands, become permanent residents, practical fruit growers, and successful agricul-
turists, or who will follow some mechanical or manufacturing occupation; we want
settlers who are willing to rely on their own exertions and means to make themselves.
beautiful homes. To such we say, Come, and if you have good staying qualities, your-
reward is sure.

Of the people who seek new homes, there are many kinds. A large number are of
a restless nature, who seem to roam in search of some El Dorado; to such, advice or
information is of little benefit. The true American "to the manner born," when he
makes up his mind to seek a new home, never looks back, but accepts new and altered.
conditions, if not cheerfully at least pluckily, and, sooner or later, wins. The new
settler in Florida will have to unlearn many things, and learn by experience new ways.
If he is wise, he will "make haste slowly," observe, advise with older citizens-those
of a few years' residence. By this he will avoid many natural mistakes in choice of
lands, location, style of residence, crops and cultivation. While the generous soil
yields bountifully, yet man here is not exempt from labor, though it is less exacting-
than in colder climates. If the immigrant comes to stay, and doe stay, in a few short
years his reward will come.

In previous pages we briefly made some remarks as to new-comers. We believe&
that a plain relation of what may be reasonably assured to the poor as well as rich
immigrant will be received as useful information. Florida is no exception to other

fts Climate, Soil and Productions. 13

.countries, and the present but repeats the past in the various phases of immigration.
The early colonists and colonies in America, the periodical and frequent later immigra-
tion to new States and Territories, and from old to new localities, all have had experi-
-ences, good, bad and indifferent; yet we find, after a brief period, that the new coun-
tries are filled up with a prosperous and contented population. It is not necessary to
review the varied causes of this universal experience; although the local historian may
-dwell upon them, the new generations of the present look forward and not back. The
-characteristics of Florida, general and special, we have truthfully noted, other things
being equal. The climate, soil, health, cheapness of lands, staple and special produc-
tions, easy access and egress by land and water, form of government, low taxes, a small
"State debt,-all present superior advantages, especially for the poor, or those in mod.
-erate circumstances, fbr securing a good home. At the outset, however, the immigrant
asks, How shall I at once procure a support for myself and family? Now, premising
that the new-comer means
-to work-intends to stay
-he can go to work at
once and raise food from
the soil. Newpine lands,
broken up with the grass
turned in, will grow good
-crops of sweet potatoes
and cow peas, with but
slight cultivation. These
-crops in, fields enclosed,
the grass covered soon
becomes rotted, and the
.soil easily worked. Corn,
-cane, cotton may now be
planted, as also vegeta-
bles, in the same field and
with the crops: orange,
lemon and other fruit
trees may be planted,
-where they are to re-
main, at regular distances
-apart, both ways. The A
vineyard may also be put S-VMn S ame, ox Tw OOMAWAXA RIm.
-out, as well as smaller
fruit, about the premises. The pes.vines, with peas, will afford forage for stock;
peas and potatoes for food. Succeeding the peas and potatoes, turnips and onions,
beets, cabbage and similar semi-hardy vegetables may be grown from the late
;summer to the next late spring months, nearly the year round. The immigrant can
Easily gather about him hogs, which will range for their own living, potatoes being fed
to them in the fall. Poultry are no care for feed or support; game and fish are to be had
for the seeking. It will be seen that the food question is easily solved. Year by year
his crops are increasing, comforts added to; he has within himself, the accessories of a
-comfortable home. In the meantime his grove of oranges, lemons, his vines, are grow-
ing apace; in a few short.years he. scents in the early spring the sweet odor of the -
-orange bloom, sees the green fruit gradually increasing in size, and as autumn months
-come on, gladdens his eyes with the sightof the golden fruit which now will yield him

14 Semi tropical Plorida;

a substantial return-waited for and won. It has taken less than half a score of years
for the piney-woods pioneer to make a new home which yields him ample support and
sure increasing income for the future.

To the man of capital, Florida offers a large variety, of specialties to employ it
surely and profitably, whether as an investment looking to the future for increase, or
present employment and quick returns. There are millions of acres of UnitedStates,
State and Railroad lands, Spanish grants of large areas, and private improved and
unimproved lands, which can now be bought cheaply. These comprise timber lands,
which are increasing in growth and value every year, also improved lands already
cleared, and ready to cultivate,
now unoccupied by reason of
death of owners, or want of
means to hire labor and pur-
chase stock. A few thousand
dollars judiciously invested
in lands would be sure to pay
a profit. Manufactories of
cotton and cotton-seed, oil
mills, starch factories, rice
mills, tanneries, saw-mills,
furniture shops, etc., etc., offer
good opportunities for pres-
ent profit.
There are many good open-
ings for mercantile business,
purchasing the staples of the
country, such as cotton, sugar,
syrup, naval stores. Fruit
raising on a large scale can
be done with assured profit;
with means, one can have
Hundreds of acres 19 trees,
and millions of oranges and
-.. lemons to sell or ship. The
-- -shrewd real estate dealer can
buy and sell at a profit; the
money-lender loan at high in-
terest, with ample security. All this has been done, is done, and doing now. If the
capitalist would desire to farm on a large scale, no better field than here. There are
hundreds of large plantations in middle Florida, lying contiguous, which can be
bQught low, and a farm of 100 to 10,000 acres can be made, and planted in cotton,
cane, corn, rice, tobacco and other crops. Labor is plenty and cheap, crops sure and
good, always in demand, and fair prices rule.

The judicious selection of the land is the first and most important point, for on this,
success in a great measure depends. Choose high, dry hammock, or high rolling pine
land that has natural drainage, and a yellowish subsoil. Aeoid low, flat palmetto, or

Its Climate, oil and Productions. 15

gallberry lands; most of these are underlaid with hard pan, or sandstone mixed with
oxide of iron; repeated trials and repeated failures show this without exception. The
most favorable locations are on southeast side of wide sheets of water, or high lands,
which are more generally free from frost. The land selected, clear thoroughly of all
trees, etc., break up well, and substantially fence; sow with cow peas, which turn under
when in bloom-it improves and sweetens the soil; this may be done before or after
planting trees. Dig holes 80 feet apart, 18 inches deep, and four feet in diameter, clean
out all roots, fill up with top soil, which will retain the moisture, procure trees from
three to five years old, take them up carefully, with all of the roots possible, pack up
with wet moss as soon as dug, put in shade and out of the wind, taken to the proposed
grove carefully, remove soil from holes dug sumicient for the tree, with roots carefully
spread, trunk standing in same position as originally grown. Let the tree, when set
out, be fully an inch above natural level of land; fill under, in and about the roots,
compactly-it is best done by the hand, filled to surface and gently tramped down;
fill on some two or three inches of earth, which will prevent drying ; the rainy season
commencing, remove the soil about the tree to the level about it. Cultivation should
be frequent and shallow, and trash not allowed to accumulate near trunk ; light plow.
ing and raking near the trees is best and safest. Following these general directions,
no one should'fail. The cost of a five-acre grove, at, say, five years from planting, at
a liberal estimate where high pine land is chosen, will be about as given below. If ham-
mock land is taken, the cost of clearing wll be more. The grove will have began to
yield at the end of the period named. Bev. T. E. Moore Fruit Cove, Fla., has pub-
lished a good treatise on orange culture.

o00T or oGOV.I
Five acres of good land, variously estimated, depending on location.
Cutting timber, clearing, 5.
Fencing (post and board fence), and breaking up, 7.
Three hundred trees, and setting out, - 900.o0
Manures, labor, cultivating, taxes, etc., for five years, 800.OO1
Total, less cost of land, -- 80O00

Such a grove would readily sell now in Florida for $1,000 per acre. From and after
five years the annual growth of trees and increase of fruit is constant for at least ten
years, and the grove will hold its vigor and fruit-producing qualities for a century or
more. The orange is a hardy tree, will stand great extremes of rain and drouths ; it
will show the effects of a single season's neglect, and quickly show a single season of
care and attention.


Of the States, Florida has the largest area of original growth of timber. Excluding
land in cultivation, the area covered by lakes, rivers, savannas, etc., there are probably
nearly, if not quite, thirty million acres of land covered with timber, and of this the
yellow pine is fully three-quarters. The level lands, rolling lands, are mostly covered
with the yellow and pitch pine, which attains a great size in girth and length. The
lower lands near rivers, lakes, swamps, abound in valuable timber, of which live oak,
other species of oak, hickory, ash, birch, cedar, magnolia, sweet bay, gum, cypress,
constitute a great proportion. The red cedar is particularly adapted for lead pencils,

Se&ti-Tropical Florida;

and largely exported to Europe for the best manufactures, as also North and East. The
.magnolia and bay are fine woods for ornamental furniture; the cypress valuable for
:shingles, sash, doors, blinds and inside finish, railroad ties. The yellow and pitch pine
thas a world-wide reputation as being the best for any and all uses where strength, elas-
ticity and durability are desired, and is now being largely used in ornamental and ex-
pensive structures. Finished up in its natural grain for inside work, floors, frames,
pillars, arches, roofs, it presents that substantial as well as rich finish not attained with
-other material. While there are many mills on the Atlantic and Gulf sides, and a few
-on the railroad, which manufacture pine lumber, as yet the consumption is small, and
future supply is assured for years. Recently some cedar mills have been built which
prepare the wood of size for pencils. Most of the cedar, however, is shipped in the log,
-roughly hewed. Some oak and hickory is shipped in rough, hewed sticks, but as yet
not much use is made of the hard woods. Our people are yet buying wagons, agricul-
tural implements, also tool handles and wooden-ware, from the North.

An important-item to the immigrant-at least for the first year, if he settles and
'improves a new place-is the cost to support his household. We know no shorter way
to answer this question than by saying that freight by vessels from all the Northern
-ports is low to all Florida ports, especially to Fernandina, Jacksonville, St. Augustine,
Pensacola. For instance, barrels from 20 to 25 cents; tierces, 25 to 40 cts.; bacon, 15
to 20 cts. per hundred weight; boxed goods, four to five cents per cubic foot. By
-steamer or rail, about one-third more. Special rates, however, can always be made by
rail for cars, at lower rates. From Jacksonville by river, freights are low, ,nd by rail
special reduced rates are made to immigrants in freights and fares. Now, adding
freights to cost of goods from where brought, and the cost here is found. Generally
.speaking, however, it would hot be advisable to bring down all furniture or household
-articles from the old home. The parlor furniture, bedding, carpets, linen, table-ware,
.and articles that may be readily and safely packed, and not too bulky, one would
.do well to bring. Provisions, common furniture, tools, or even parlor furniture, can be
purchased here nearly if not quite as cheap as at the North, as wholesale and retail
stores of every kind, with large stocks, are established here. We give the prices of
some articles now prevailing:
Flour, $4 to $8 per bbl.; bacon, $7 to $8 per hundred; sugar, 7c. to 12c. per lb.;
butter, 20c. to 80c. per lb.; coffee, 15c. to 25c. per lb.; and dry goods, hardware, etc.,
full as cheap as at the North.
Household servants (colored) are obtainable easily for from $5 to $8 per month, farm
laborers from $8 to $20 and rations (rations now cost per month about $6); wood need
-cost nothing, except the cutting and hauling, and not much required except for cooking.
iBythe day, wages are from 50 cents to $1 per day; common mechanics, $1 to $1.25,
who answer very well on rough work, if bossed." While some articles are necessa-
-rily dearer here to housekeepp," yet with the saving and cost of fuel, the lighter
-clothing needed, the cheapness of home-raised food, vegetables the year round,
poultry, eggs, game, fish, and other things which help the outer and inner man, a
handy man with a cheerful helpmate can live quite as cheap in Florida as anywhere.
With household matters, we add that horses and mules (mules are every way best)
range from $50 to $150; carts, $25 to $80; harness, $5 to $10; plow usually used here,
$8 to $6; all of which, with other agricultural implements, can be purchased here as
-cheap as anywhere, freight added.

Its CZimate, Soil and Produtions. 17

The cost of clearing land depends on whether sparsely timbered or of thick growth;
-whether pine, hammock or swamp land, and also whether the land is to be planted in
,orange groves or usual crops. It was formerly the custom to simply girdle the trees
and remove the fallen timber. This was done quickly and cheaply, and crops put in
the same season. Gradually, year by year, the deadened trees would rot, and fall, and
Ihad to be removed from time to time. Such clearing, if it can be called clearing, costs
from three to fie dollars per acre; but it is a shiftless and careless way, and most
unsightly, and, to a stranger, the tall, dead, leafless trunks and branches give a melan-
choly outlook to the locality, showing want of thrift and progress in the inhabitants.
Necessity in many cases was the cause of such primitive work, but often it must be
ascribed to indolence. To clear ordinary pine land, removing the timber, will cost
from $12 to $15 per acre; hammock lands will cost more-from $15 to $80, according
*to density and size of timber.
For a new place, the Virginia rail fence is cheapest, as rails are on the spot, and
split freely. As the country settles up, and saw-mills become frequent, boards and
posts may be substituted.

The new-comer, anxious to have a roof over his head' be ready too to work, will
hasten to build him a house. Now, here is 'rom and range for any person to exercise
his taste, talent, extravagance, or economy. A comfortable log-house for a imoderate-
sized family can be built, say, for $50; a good frame building, with fdir or 't rooms,
will cost from $980 to $400. The ordinary Northern or Western farmer, if not a regu-
lar mechanic, yet is handy enough with hammer and saw to build the house, with the
'help of a good mechanic (now $2 per day), he ought to have everything done the best
The sills, posts, rafters and shingles can be got odt on the spot Lumber of fair-qual-.
ity from $5 to $12 per 1,000 feet, at mills. Shelter, from the rain and-sun, is the main
requirement. Cellars are superfluous additions; glazed windows and plastered walls
not necessary, though desirable where one can afford it; wide hall, broad vine-covered
'piazza, building set well up from the ground, should be the chief characteristics of a
'Southern home, whether the log cabin of the piney-woods immigrant, or the mansion
of the owner of extensive plantations or magnificent orange groves; and as for external
-surroundings, the wild flowering shrubs, the magnificent magnolia, the towering pine,
the massive oak, all surround cottage and hall impartially, their foliage tempering the
sun's rays by day and protecting from dews by night

No precise instructions would be strictly applicable for all parts of Florida; we give
'briefly what may generally be safely adopted for Florida, say, at and northof latitude 29
-degrees; south of 29 degrees a year's experience and information will safely guide. One
thing is favorable; the period of planting any special crops covers weeks and months,
so that failure from exceptional circumstances need not occur.
In January, plant Irish potatoes, peas, beets, turnips, cabbage, and all hardy or
semi-hardy vegetables; make hot-beds for pushing the more tender plants, such as
melons, tomatoes, okra, egg plants, etc.; set out fruit and other trees, and shrubbery.

18 Sei -Tropical Florida;

February-Keep planting for a succession, same as in January: in addition, plant
vines of all kinds, shrubbery, and fruit trees of all kinds, especially of the citrus family,
snap beans, corn; bed sweet potatoes for draws and slips. Oats may also be still sown,
as they are in previous months.
March-Corn, oats, and planting of February may be continued; transplant toma-
toes, eggplants, melons, beans, and vines of all kinds; mulberries and blackberries
are now ripening.
April-Plant as in March, except Irish potatoes, kohl rabi, turnips; continue to
transplant tomatoes, okra, egg plants; sow millet, corn, cow peas, for fodder; plant the
butter bean, lady peas; dig Irish potatoes. Onions, beets, and usual early vegetables
should be plenty for table.
May-Plant sweet potatoes for draws in beds; continue planting corn for table;
snap beans, peas and cucumbers ought to be well forward for use; continue planting
okra, egg plants, pepper, butter and beans.
June-The heavy planting of sweet potatoes and cow peas is now in order; Irish
potatoes, tomatoes, and a great variety of table vegetables are now ready, as also
plums, early peaches, and grapes.
July--weet potatoes and cow peas are safe to plant, the rainy season being favor-
able; grapes, peaches and figs are in full season. Orange trees may be set out if the
season is wet.
August-Finish up planting sweet potatoes and cow peas; sow cabbage, cauliflower,
turnips for fall planting; plant kohl rabi and rutabagas; transplant orange trees and
bud; last of month plant a few Irish potatoes and beans.
September-Now is the time to commence for the true winter garden, the garden
which is commenced in the North in April and May. Plant the whole range of veg-
etables except sweet potatoes; set out asparagus, onion sets and strawberry plants.
October-Plant same as last month; put in garden peas; set out cabbage plants; dig
sweet potatoes; sow oats, rye, etc.
November-A good month for garden; continue to plant and transplant, same as for
October; sow oats, barley and rye for winter pasturage or crops ; dig sweet potatoes;
house or bank them; make sugar and syrup.
December-Clear up generally; 'fence, ditch, manure, and sow and plant hardy vege-
tables; plant, set out orange trees, fruit treees and shrubbery; keep a sharp look-out
for an occasional frost; a slight protection will prevent injury.
Ii will be seen from the above that there is no month in the year but what fresh and
growing vegetables can be had for sale and domestic use. This latter isa large item in
expense of living. The soil is so easily worked, so easily cultivated, that most of gar-
den work can be performed by even delicate ladies, and young children of both sexes.
Indeed, most Florida gardens are so made;-no frozen clods to break, or rocks to
remove. A garden once put in condition, properly managed, will produce abundantly
and constantly. The rapid growth assures large and tender vegetables, early and lus-
cious fruit. A single season will afford strawberries from the setting out, ripe figs from
two-year-old cuttings, grapes the second year, peaches the second and third years,
oranges from the bud in three to five years. At a little cost, a little care, one can lit-
erally sit under his own vine and fig tree, and enjoy fresh-plucked fruit the whole year.

Its Climate, &oi and Productions. 19


The list of Florida productions is a long and varied one, embracing nearly all the crops
and fruits of the Middle, Northern and Southera States, and, in addition, a great vari-
ety of semi-tropical and tropical fruits and vegetables, and most of the best known and
valuable medicinal and fibrous plants. We can only briefly note the main productions
-a few of the special kinds. Those interested will, of course, make more extended in-
quiries, and obtain detailed information. Many indigenous plants and roots only await
the establishment of manufactories to encourage the profitable cultivation of the raw
material, which, when manufactured, becomes of commercial value.
Corn, which is the great food staple raised in the United States, especially I~ the
West, and which exceeds by many millions of bushels any and all other crops, is grown
in all portions of the State, and the produce per acre is here, as elsewhere, moe or less,
according to fertility of soil and cultivation. Ordinary pine land wil produce, say, 10
bushels; good hammock land, 20 to 25 bushels. Governor Drew, in' 1878, on common
pine land, which had been cultivated only six years, raised 180 bushels to the acre.
Of course the land was thoroughly prepared, well manured, and we ll stated.
Corn here is planted from February to April, plowed at intervals, laid by in June and
July; blades stripped for fodder, and stalks with ears left in field to be harvested at leis-
ure. It may be cribbed in field in the shuck, suffering no damage from weather, or
housed in corn-crib near the dwelling; shucked and shelled if for sale or food. When
fed to stock, it is fed in shuck. One person with one mule can easily cultivate from thirty
to forty acres, and as the time from planting to final plowing is only from four to five
months, it leaves ample time to cultivate another crop of peas or sweet potatoes, with
same labor on same land. The corn usually raised is the white variety, largely used in
meal and hominy for food, especially at the South. The Northern farmer, who has
been used to see forty to sixty bushels ordinarily raised on the old homestead, should,
in comparing the relative production South and North, take into consideration cheap-
ness of land, number of acres which can be cultivated, time taken to make crop, expense
of gathering, saving, housIng, and also value, transportation, and its quality. White
is best for food. All things considered, corn is one of the most useful and profitable
crops to raise in Florida.

There is no kind of doubt but that Florida, both in climate and soil, Is peculiarly
well adapted for growth of cane; the earliest colonists cultivated it, and the later
occupants, French, English, Spanish, American, have grown it successfully; the long
period of warm weather, and the absence of cold, give a longer period for the cane to
mature. During the English occupation many large plantations were opened, and
later, since Florida became United States territory, there have been several large sugar
plantations profitably carried on; among others, we call to mind Mclntosh, Sadler,

20 Semi-Tropical Florida;

Yulee and Clinch, who had over 100 acres each. Latterly, cane has only been planted
for domestic use and neighborhood sale. But even rudely raised and rudely manufac-
tured, Florida sugar and syrup rivals, in color, grain and quality, the best Louisiana.
Fair land will produce from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds of sugar; rich land, thoroughly
fertilized, will produce from 2,000- to 4,000 pounds. Recent improvements in sugar
machinery have obviated the necessity of expensive works formerly required, rendering
it possible for the small as well as large planter to manufacture cheaply, as its cultiva-
tion is as easy as corn, and its immunity from all hurt by ordinary enemies to other
vegetation, renders it a safe crop.

Sea Island, or long cotton, is raised mostly from the Suwannee river to the ocean,
and south of lat. 30*. The average product per acre is from 150 to 200 pounds, though
it often exceeds double that. This species of cotton is only raised on the sea islands
bordering South Carolina, Georgia, and in Florida, our State raising over half the
total crop. The price ranges from 25 to 50 cents per pound, thoughthere ale planters
who readily get more than these
figures; but their cotton is excep-
tionally fine. Short cotton is grown
west of the Suwannee to the western
and northern boundaries of the State;
it will average from 200 to 500 pounds
to the acre. In grade, Florida cotton
rates with the best. Cotton raising,
however, is subject to some risks;
cold, rain, drouth or caterpillar often
sweep localities. Generally speak-
ing, it is a safer crop in Florida than
anywhere else. New methods of cul-
tivation, improved seed, remedy for
nPCKING CoWs. the caterpillar, are adopted by the
intelligent and prudent planter, who
is not subject to a loss which a careless, shiftless man may have. The methods of
cultivation are simple, the crop itself affording by its seed the very best fertilizer.
As the seed is fully seventy-five to eighty per cent. of the cotton as picked, it is largely
sold and exported. From the planting to the final picking, nearly the whole year is

Rice, which constitutes the main food of the great majority of the population of the
world, is raised here mostly for, domestic use. There are thousands of acres in every
section of the State peculiarly adapted to its successful culture. Its cultivation is as
simple as any cereal; usually drilled, and kept clear of weeds; 25 to 75 bushels of
rough rice is a fair crop. Recent introduction of improved rice machinery, adapted
for individual and neighborhood use, will stimulate increased production. Limited
by climate, rice will always prove a remunerative crop. It is generally supposed that
rice is only successfully grown on low lands which adjoin tide water, and can be over-
flowed at certain different stages of growth. It is true that the great bulk of the crop
is grown in this way, but inland rice, or rice grown inland when climate permits, has

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 21

long been cultivated in the South, and of late years it has become one of the staple crops,
in Louisiana. A low, moist soil has generally been planted; overflowing is not needed,
but on any good land; it is successfully cultivated. It has needed only introduction of
rice-cleaning machinery to make its cultivation universal in Florida. Quite recently a
company of practical business men has been formed, who have put upextensive works,
which will be able to receive and prepare all that may be raised. We look upon rice
as one of our great future staples, which will swell our exports hereafter. Maturing
earlier than in other States, Florida rice (new) has the advantage.

This includes the orange, lemon, lime, grape fruit, shaddock, citron, and similar
fruits; there are several varieties of each, and new varieties are produced from time
to time, like other fruits. Under modern culture, superior size, flavor and color are
obtained. The general
varieties of the orange r
are the sour, the sweet,
and the bitter-sweet. The
sour and bitter-sweet are
supposed to be indigen-
ous, growing wild in the
forests. The orange, as
also all of the same fam-
ily, can be grown from
the seed, grafting, bud-
ding, and cuttings-this
last not as safe as the
other ways. All are rapid
in growth, annual and
abundant bearers, long-
liOed, easily cultivated,
hardy, and not as subject
to disease or destruction
as most trees. Budded,
the sweet orangewill com-
mence to bear the third
year; the seedling in the
sixth year, increasing OIAnme anwr.
each succeeding year; at 15 to 20 years averaging at least 1,000 each. The lemon is
more prolific than the orange, bearing earlier; the lime still more than the lemon;
both, however, are more sensitive to frost. The grape fruit and shaddock are similar
in shape to the orange, though larger, and have a sub-acid flavor; they are not grown
for extensive sale, yet many persons like the taste. The citron is of two varieties, the
ordinary smooth skinned and the ribbed kind; both grow to a large size, the latter
being the species of commerce.

Wheat in the northern section of the State is grown to some extent, but is 6ot gen-
erally raised as a regular crop. Rye and ats do well, and are mostly sown early in
the fall, affording a good winter pasturage; mature in early spring, and are not
threshed, being cured and fed to stock) in the straw.

22 Semi Tropical Florida;

Tobacco will grow anywhere in the State. A superior quality of Cuba tobacco,
from imported seed, is mostly grown in Gadsden and adjoining counties, and fully
equals the best imported. Before the war it was extensively and profitably cultivated,
and mostly sold to Germany, agents visiting the State to purchase. It requires careful
attention, will yield from 500 to 700 pounds to the acre, and sells for from 20 to 80 cents
per pound. Latterly there is an increasing home and State demand by cigar manufac-
turers, and the area of cultivation is extending.

In Southern Florida, the pine apple and banana are successfully grown; the fruit
is of a finer quality, and larger size, than most imported from abroad. The banana
plant is simply planted and let alone, maturing its fruit in from fifteen to eighteen
months; shedding its large leaves, it dies down, and sends up suckers at its base, a
single one of which perpetuates the old stock. The others may be replanted in new
places. Raw or cooked, as an article of food it is very nutritious, and most people
esteem its taste and flavor. No fruit is more healthy.
The pine apple is planted from the suckers or shoots of the matured fruit and
main stock. The guava, of which there are several varieties in size, color and taste,
is a rapid grower and an abundant bearer. It fruits in two years from seed, is de-
licious as a table fruit when ripe, and makes a superior marmalade, jelly and preserves.
The sapadilla, paw-paw, sugar-apple, tamarind, date and other similar fruits, do well
in South Florida. The cocoanut, especially, does well on the Gulf coast and Keys,
producing extra-sized fruit.

This tree is valuable as a forest tree for its lumber, and profitable for its fruit. It is
now being extensively planted, requiring only the ordinary care of indigenous trees.
The cost is trifling. It bears in about ten years from the seed, growing straight, tall
and graceful. It need not occupy land used for cultivation. Some of our people have
set the pecan out so as to make a permanent boundary line of their land.

This has been grown in some gardens. Being of the same nature as the peach, it will
do well, and will probably be added in the future to our staple products.

The persimmon is found wild in every section of the State. The fruit, at least to
the natives, is agreeable to the taste, and, ripe or dry, is used largely for the table and
for home-made beer. Some Japan varieties are now being introduced, which are said
to be of very large size, and seedless. The Japanese esteem the persimmon as their
most valuable fruit.

Pomegranates are of two kinds-the sweet and sour. The bush is large, graceful in
foliage, and beautiful in pendant crimson flowers and fruit. As an ornamental tree it

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 28

is one of the best The fleshy covering of the seed is a beautiful pink, and has a
pleasant sub-acid taste, in flavor not unlike the red currant. The rind is bitter, and
often used medicinally; also for domestic coloring and ink.

The Japan plum has long been known and grown here. As an ornamental tree
it rivals the horse-chestnut, which it resembles in size and lea. The fruit is pear-
shaped, and grows in clusters; it is a beautiful creamy white, and has a peculiarly
grateful and cool, sub-acid taste.

Apples are of the early varieties, ripening in May and June. Pears do well. We
have seen some grown here fully equal in size and flavor to the California product. The
Quince attains the size of a standard apple tree; fruit large, but flavor not as pro-
nounced as at the North.
The peach Is a sure tree here, bearing in two years from the seed, and early vari-
eties of good size and flavor ripening in May, June and July. The apricot and
nectarine also safe to cultivate. As yet, no disease has affected the trees, and they
retain their vigor and prolific bearing for many years.

Most of the American and foreign varieties are easily grown, ripening from June
to November. The St. Augustine grape, so-called, is a choice grape for eating or wine.
The scuppernong in all its varieties is cultivated largely, being a rapid grower, an
abundant bearer, long-lived, and needing but little pruning or care. It is found most
profitable as a table grape or for wine. Much attention is being given to the growing
of grapes and the making of wine.

Plums are found growing wild all over the State, many of good size and flavor;
where cultivated are much improved. The black cherry is also found wild, but the
tame or cultivated cherry does not seem to succeed, though we see no reason why it
should not, when fruits of similar habit grow well

The low creeping blackberry, or dewberry, abounds in old fields and road-sides, and
ripens in April. The high bush, also found in same localities, ripens in June and July.
The huckleberry about the same time. All bear well, and can be had for the picking.
The improved kinds do well where tried.

This queen of small fruits nowhere in the world finds a better location for culture;
plants put out in September fruit often in January, frequently in February, and may
be counted in full bearing and ripening in March and April. The growers about
Jacksonville and up the St. Johns river are many, and shipments have been made

Smi- Tropical Florida;

largely and profitably. In size, color, bouquet and taste they are superior to most,
equal to the best, and surpassed by none; the best varieties only are grown. The-
cultivators pick carefully, select and pack honestly; and Florida strawberries, like
Florida oranges, have earned a name. By using refrigerators the fruit reaches New-
York and the Northern cities fresh and cool, only about four days from picking.
Being always in advance of any other locality by some weeks, the first shipments-
bring large prices, and the demand keeps pace with the supply.

With the exception of a few trees, grown for ornament, this most valuable tree, the
olive, has not been cultivated in this State. That it will succeed well here, is evident
from the specimens now growing. Recently, attention has been directed to its cultiva-
tion, and it will become widely planted. It commences to bear at about ten years from
the seed, increasing yearly to the age of thirty years, bearing annually. They are very
long-lived, some trees in Europe are known to be 800 years old, and show no signs of
decay. The fruit and oil are valuable as food and of commercial importance.

This crop, from being an imported article, has of late years become a very large
one for export in several of the Southern States. Florida-grown pea-nuts rank with
the best in quantity and quality of production. They are largely used on the farm as
food for swine. When this is done and the crop ripe, piggy feeds himself at will.
Almost any soil that is suitable for a root crop, will produce liberally. Cultivation is.
simple and cheap.

The indigo plant is indigenous in Florida; during the English occupation it was
extensively cultivated, manufactured, and exported; now it is occasionally made for
domestic use. The castor bean here attains the size of a tree often 30feet high, grows
rapidly, and bears largely; now only used for home purposes. Silk some years
ago attracted a good deal of attention, but is now only occasionally produced as a
pastime. The different species of mulberry grow here to perfection from root, cutting,
or graft; in leaf from March to October. In time, no doubt, the business will become.
a regular industry.

The Northern man who has only seen the prize melon, pumpkin, squash, and:
other fruits of similar kind, is astounded at the size of Florida growth. It is no rare
thing to see watermelons as large as a nail keg, weighing 70 pounds, muskmelons-
20 to 30 pounds, and pumpkins and squashes will often weigh 100 pounds. A water-
melon which does not weigh, at the least, 25 pounds, is considered hardly saleable;.
30 to 35 pounds is about the average of the watermelons brought to market. Those
raised are of the best known varieties, and here the flavor seems more pleasant, and
the flesh more crisp and solid than elsewhere. The raising of them is not a matter of
much care; they are mostly found in the corn patch, where they grow unseen and
uncared for. In recent years they are grown by truckmen, who ship by the car-lbad
North and West, the season for sending generally commencing the last of May and
continuing until August Muskmelons also are of large size, and delicious canta-

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. .5

loupes are raised easily; indeed, vines of all kinds succeed well, the long, warm season
favoring rapid growth.

This crop, as an article of food, is as universal in all Southern households as rice
is to the Chinese, macaroni to the Italian, or the Irish potato to the Irishman. White-
or black, no family is so poor but what has a potato patch. It yields all the way from.
100 to 400 bushels to the acre, according to soil, cultivation and season; is grown from.
roots, draws and slips; planted from April to August, and maturing from July to-
November; is of easy cultivation, and may be dug and safely banked in field and
yard, or housed; is eaten raw or cooked, and the old-time cook can make most appe-
tizing dishes of it. There are many varieties planted, good and indifferent, and there
is no excuse for not raising the best,

All of the fibrous plants grown in warm latitudes are found here. Some years:
ago the sisal hemp was largely grown, but the Indian war broke up the country
where it was planted, and the cultivation has not been resumed. In the many new
industries awaiting development, these superior fibrous plants and many others wil
become prominent.

All these grow well when cultivated, and produce astonishingly. Florida arrow--
root grades in ouality and price with the best Bermuda. Cassava, from which starbc
and tapioca are made, attains great size. Comptie, the bread-root of the Indians,
grows without any cultivation. All of the above have only been grown for domestic
use for starch and for food, and have limited sale in this and adjoining States.
The attention of Northern starch manufacturers has lately been drawn to them, and
Governor Sinclair, of New Hampshire, having tested the roots by actual experiments,
has introduced a pioneer factory. As either and all of these roots have a larger per-
centage of starch in them than the Irish potato, and can be grown at the same price,.
and manufactured all the year, we may look for a large business in this industry.


One subject-that of the effect of our climate on Northern energy-at first we-
thought we would not dilate upon; but, on reflection, will briefly allude to it. Most-
Northern people believe that our climate is oppressively warm in summer, and also-
imagine that white persons can not labor, either physically or mentally-or, at least,
do not; that the Southron has but little industry or energy, and that the Northern im-
migrant soon loses his former ambition and activity. Now, we have given the temper-
ature of the seasons, which are conclusive as to the moderate heat, and we can con-
fidently refer to the native-born citizens, and the earlier and later immigrants, as to-
continued, sustained labor in the field, work-shop, store, study, and office. We, it is-
true, have a class of indolent, shiftless people here, as elsewhere, who live and subsist
easier than they can in the North, as the soil produces easily, and the climate is favor--
r .

SHSemi Tropical Florida;

able. But the person who has a desire to acquire a home and competence can work
here in more comfort, and employ more days profitably, than he can anywhere else.
Even in the days of slavery the planter, as a general rule, was a most industrious per-
son. Of necessity he had to rise early, visit his fields of hundreds of acres, and superin-
tend the laborers; the professional man, whether medical, legal or clerical, made
journeys of miles, more or less, in the sparsely settled country, in his calls. Surely
the Southern men have not shown want of energy, either in developing the country
agriculturally or intellectually. In the history of the United States, from the earliest
-colonies, the South has not been wanting in all that has given our country a name and
fame at home and abroad. Now, at least, labor is not only feasible but honorable.


The annual travel for health, recreation and immigration from the North, from the
West and from the East, including the most distant points on the Pacific and the Do-
minion of Canada, has become of such importance that various through and combina-
tion routes are open, both from the West and the East, which enable the immigrant to
-reach Florida on the west, middle, southern and eastern sides, at low rates. This
-through system extends also to Europe, enabling the immigrant to know the exact cost
-of reaching Florida from the principal cities and ports of Europe. Probably new
routes will be arranged in addition to those now opened.


Florida possesses unusual facilities for commerce, both foreign and domestic. On
-the Atlantic side there is the safe, capacious, deep harbor of Fernandina, which is con-
nected by water far into the interior of Georgia by the St. Marys river, navigable for
the largest vessels; also the Nassau harbor and river; and by an inland passage with
-the St. Johns river, navigable by large-sized vessels for 200 miles and by smaller ves-
-sels for over 500 miles, with its tributaries. The harbor at the mouth of the St. Johns
river is safe and large, and has sufficient depth of water for ordinary sea-going craft.
St. Augustine has a safe harbor for moderate-sized vessels and usual ocean steamers;
and Smyrpa and Jupiter inlet connect with Indian and Halifax rivers, which run for
long distances. Farther south are smaller ports, and the Turtle harbor,.deep, large
-and safe. At the extreme southern point of Florida is Key West, one of the best ports
in North America, where the largest vessels find easy and safe approach at all times,
.and where the shipping of the world could have ample space. On the Gulf there is
Tampa, with its bay running 30 miles inland, Charlotte harbor, Bayport, Cedar Keys,
St. Marks, Apalachicola, Pensacola, and many intermediate harbors, the outlets of
bays and rivers running far into the interior. To the extreme west we have the mag-
nificent harbor of Pensacola, land-locked, large and deep; the largest vessels of the
world can easily float to the city docks. Here the United States have a large navy-
_ard and floating dry dock, Fort Pickens and Fort McCrea, both first-class in building
-and equipment. Pensacola was early settled by the Spanish; it is a beautiful city, and
za place of extensive commerce. It is connected with the North by railroads, and with

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 27

4Gulf ports by steamers and vessels. Its principal business now is the manufacture,
getting out and shipping of lumber and timber to foreign ports.' The immediate vicin-
ity of Pensacola is heavily timbered, and numerous bayous, bays and rivers afford easy
and cheap access to the lumber near and far, and it will take years to exhaust, the near
supply. Foreign ships of large tonnage, from European ports, may be seen by the
hundreds loading in the bay and at the wharves. This past season, cotton, coal, petro-
leum and Western produce have been added to her exports, and it must soon become
one of the largest exporting points for the South and West Aside from safety, easy
approach, depth of water, and being unaffected by storms, Florida ports are never
affected by ice, which is a serious drawback to all ports north of Delaware.


The public school system of the State we have noticed in former pages, and we now
add more detailed information. The schools have increased nearly one-half in num-
bers, longer school terms are held, with increased enrollment and attendance, and more
and better qualified and efficient teachers employed. Many counties have increased
their appropriation for schools. All this is evidence of zeal in officers, and appreciation
*of the value of education on the part of the people. From the State Superintendent's
Report we extract the following:
Schools, 992; children of school age, 72,985; pupils enrolled, 86,964; attendance,
86,961; cost per pupil per year, 85 cents to $7.99.
The school fund receives annually from the Peabody Fund, which is mostly appro-
priated to aiding schools of high grade and scholarship. High schools are established
in the larger cities, and graded schools where the number of pupils warrant it. Uni-
form and permanent text-books are being introduced, and improvements suggested by
experience are adopted. Beside the common schools, the State years ago established
two State seminaries-one at Gainesville, in East Florida, the other at Tallahssee, in
Middle Florida. The United States donated 85,714 acres of land to these seminaries.
About one-half has been sold, from which a fund of $98,000 has been realized, and the
income from it is available for these institutions. The lands donated to Florida by the
United States for an Agricultural College have been sold, and the funds invested, and
are accumulating. A small portion has been expended in an unwise attempt to estab-
lish a College of Agriculture. When a judicious and well-considered plan shall be
:adopted, the State will inaugurate a beneficent work. Besides the above free schools
there are first-class private schools in the cities, towns and country, where pupils are
-taught by first-class teachers. Everything looks favorable for continued progress and
improvement in education in the State. The Freedman, as a general thing, is availing
himself of educational advantages, which is a hopeful sign o intelligence in that race
in future. The large class of hitherto uneducated white persons is also feeling
a deep interest in schools. No tax is more willingly or cheerfully paid than the
school tax.

Semi- tropical Florida;


The statistics appended to the description of counties were compiled by 8. U.
HAxxonD, Esq., of'Fort Gates, Fla., from the United States census returns for the-
year endmg June 1st, 1880. The productions are for the year 1879.

Bounded north by Suwannee, Columbia and Bradford counties, from which it is
separated by the Santa Fe river; east by Clay and Putnam; south by Marion and Levy;
and west by Lafayette county, from which it is separated by the Suwannee river. It
has an area of over 1,800 square miles, and embraces almost every variety of lands
found m the State, from the richest hammock, high rolling pine, hickory and oak, to
the more level, heavy timbered pine lands. Its elevation above the sea is from fifty to
250 feet; it has numerous lakes and streams, which afford good water power, and
abound in excellent fish. Lake Santa Fe, in the northeast portion of the county, is
believed to be the highest body of water in the eastern portion of the State, being on
the iidge, from which waters flow to the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and to the Gual
of Mexico on the west.
The Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Railroad runs directly through the
county, from the northeast to the southwest, entering the county near Santa Fe Lake.
The Peninsular Railroad intersects it at Waldo, a growing and thriving town in the
northeastern portion of this county, and runs nearly due south, to Orange Lake, some
twenty miles, and is being extended to Ocala and thence to Tampa Bay on the Gulf.
A canal is nearly completed from Waldo, connecting with railroad, and also connecting
Lakes Alto, Santa Fe and smaller lakes; opening up a large area of excellent lands to
easy access.
Gainesville, the county seat, is one of the most progressive towns in the State, both
in population and business. The population of the county rapidly increases from
year to year, and the agricultural and horticultural resources are developing more and
more each season.
The fruit and vegetable industry, only as yet in its infancy, has already assumed
large proportions. 450,000 packages alone were shipped over the railroad the past.
season. The staple crops are: long staple and upland cotton, sugar cane, rice, corn,
root crops, vegetables of all kinds, oranges, and other semi-tropical fruits. This-
county was early selected by the pioneer settlers as one of the best in the State, and
time has proved the wisdom of their choice. From the northwest to the southeast, a
peculiar limestone formation is found, the crust in many places having, from some
cause, sunk down; these depressions are generally more or lefs full of water, and con-
nected by subterranean waters; these sinks are oval and conical downwards, and from
ten to forty feet deep.
Population, 1870, 17,328; 1880, 18,697-white, 8,093; black, 10,604. Acres of land
tilled, 49,771. Value of farms, $791,860; farm implements and machinery, $27,111;
live stock, $227,515; farm productions, $539,433. Horses, 1,697. Mules, 985. Work-
ing oxen, 225. Milch cows, 4,394. Other cattle, 3,801. Swine, 11,245. Poultry,
22,349. Eggs, doz., 52,180. Rice, lbs., 107,400. Corn, bush., 258,940. Oats, bush.,

Its Cimate, Soil and Productions. 99

2,040. Cotton, bales, 2,911. Molasses, galls., 107,210. Potatoes, bush., 127,290.
Peaches, bush., 7,450. Market garden produce sold, 41,855. Saw mills, capital
invested, $87,000. Lumber, feet, 2,768,000. Laths,15,000. Shingles, 20,000. Manu-
factures, capital, $19,600. Grist mills, capital, $14,70.

Bounded north by Georgia, east by Nassau and Duval counties, south by Bradford,
a:nd..west by Columbia county. Area, about 500 square miles. Its topography, soil
.and general characteristics are similar to Bradford county. Mostly level, heavily tim-
bered; soil, where cultivated, productive. The Central Railroad runs through thecounty
from east to west, furnishing easy transportation to Apalachicola river on the west,
to Jacksonville and Ferhandina on the east, and connecting with the railroad system
Sanderson, on the line of the railroad, is the county seat. Many small farmers are
-settling in this county.
Population, 1870, 1,825; 1880, 2,812-white, 1,682; black, 680. Number acres
land tilled, 4,877. Farm values, $77,575; farm implements and machinery, $4,842;
live stock, $58,985; farm products, $53,600. Number horses, 191. Mules, 129.,
Working oxen, 100. Milch cows, 1,780. Other cattle, 5,552. Butter made, lbs., 765.
Swine, 4,492. Poultry, 8,964. Eggs, doz., 12,267. Rice, lbs., 29,585. Indian corn,
bush., 28,507. Oats, bush., 2,494. Cotton, bales, 206. Sugar, hhds., 28. Molasses,
galls., 4,242. Potatoes, bush., 10,720. Peaches, bush., 7,815. Wine, galls., 1,127.
Honey, lbs., 2,245. '
Bounded north by Baker county, east by Clay, south by Alachua, and west by
Columbia county. Area, about 600 square miles. The surface mostly level, but suf-
ficiently high and undulating for cultivation. The soil varies from light to strong pine
land, and is covered, where not improved, with a heavy growth of pine timber. This
timber and naval stores are largely exported. The Atlantic, Gulf & West India Tran-
sit Railroad, which runs from Fernandina, on the Atlantic, to Cedar Keys, on the
-Gulf of Mexico, runs southwest across the eastern border of the county. This is a pro-
gressive county, and has a thrifty population of old and new settlers. All the usual
-crops do well, and the orange groves look as well as in any section; market gardening
is also prqfltable here.
Lake Butler is the county seat, though Starke is the largest, both in population and
business, apd is situated directly on the line of the railroad.
Population, 1870, 8,671; 1880, 6,167-white, 4,895; black, 1,272. Number acres
land tilled, 16,125. Farm values, $281,797; farm implements and machinery, $6,780;
live stock, $117,818; farm productions, $180,010. Number horses, 680. Mules, 195.
Milch cows, 8,078. Other cattle, 1,440. Butter, lbs., 7,885. Swine, 9,096. Poultry,
86,825. Eggs, doz., 17,507. Rice, lbs., 86,000. Indian corn, bush., 79,540. Oats,
bush., 4,800. Molasses, galls., 7,700. Potatoes, bush., 84,720. Peaches, bush., 10,400.
Saw mills, capital invested, $60,000. Lumber, feet, 1,400,000. Laths, 600,000. Shingles,
200,000. Value mill products, $187,125.

Bounded north by Orange and Volusia counties, east by the Atlantic ocean, south
-by, Dade and west by Orange, Polk and Manatee counties. It extends along the coast
for 100 miles, and contains an area over 4,000 square miles. The famous Indian river

Semi- Tropical Florida;

extends along its eastern boundary, the Kissimee river and lake forming its western
boundary. The climate is even and pleasant through the year. Game is plenty, and
green turtle, fish and oysters abound. Stock raising is largely pursued, the cattle
having a good range, are of good size and in good condition. Along Indian river, the
west bank of which is from ten to twenty feet above the ocean, settlements are being-
made. Indian river has a reputation for its oranges and pineapples, and all semi-trop-
ical fruits, which here. grow in perfection.
The county seat is Titusville, a thriving town on Indian river.
Population, 1870, 1,216; 1880, 1,486-white, 1,424; black, 62. Number acres land
tilled, 1,950. Farm values, $810,356; farm implements and machinery, $6,813; live
stock, $171,367; farm productions, $46,840. Number horses, 158. Mules, 8. Work-
ing oxen, 248. Milch cows, 2,631. Other cattle, 19,459. Butter, lbs., 8,085. Swine,
2,400. Poultry, 8,190. Eggs, doz., 9,787. Rice, lbs., 22,010. Potatoes, bush., 20,280.
Market garden productions, $8,949. Honey, lbs., 3,210. Saw mills, capital, $1,000.

Bounded on the north by Jackson county, east by the Apalachicola river and Frank-
lin county; south by the Gulf of Mexico, which with Washington county forms the
western boundary. Area, 670,000 acres. Lands in the northern part are elevated and
rolling, in the southern portion level, and in some places low. The Apalachicola river
is navigable for large steamers, and the Chipola river, which nearly bisects the county-
from north to south, is navigable a portion of the year. Other, streams abound and
afford ample water power, which is used, whenever desired, to advantage. Chipola
Lake, sixteen miles long and from one to three miles wide, is situated near the centre of
the county, and is full of fish of many kinds; the forests abound in game. Very
extensive beds of marl, some quarries of stone, and clay suitable for brick are found in
this county. Cotton, sugarcane, corn, peanuts are the principal crops raised, as also
vegetables and root crops. Orange culture is rapidly extending, and successfully.
Stock raising is carried on to some extent, and profitably.
Abe's Spring is the county seat.
Population, 1870, 998; 1880, 1,75--white, 979; black, 896. Number acres of land
tilled, 4,866. Farm values, $295,775; farm implements and machinery, $4,347; live
stock, $42,637; farm productions, $4,972. Number horses, 159. Mules, 89. Work-
ing oxen, 811. Milch cows, 1,895. Other cattle, 8,496. Butter made, lbs., 2,888.
Swine, 2,974. Poultry, 8,461. Eggs, doz., 5,578. Rice, lbs., 2f570. Indian corn,
bush., 21,980. Oats, bush., 2,898. Cotton, bales, 149. Molasses, galls., 10,590. Pota-
toes, bush., 22,870. Peaches, bush., 1,837. Honey, lbs., 12,848. Wax, lbs., 1,276.

Bounded north by Duval county; east by St. Johns river, which separates it from
St. Johns county; south by Putnam, and west by Bradford county. Area, about 425
square miles. The county is well watered, sufficiently high and uneven to afford water
power on several streams. Black creek traverses the county, and is navigable for river
steamers to Middleburgh, the centre of the county. The Atlantic, Gulf & West India
Transit Railroad crosses the northwestern township of the county, about twelve miles.
from the head'of navigation on Black creek, so the county has excellent facilities to
reach markets by water or rail. There are several fine lakes in the southwestern por-
tion of the county, which afford, at all seasons, an abundance of food fish. Lake
Kingsley is the largest, in the near vicinity of which, and in the section lying between

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 3S

the lake and the railroad, settlements and improvements are being rapidly made.
Most of the soil of this county produces well all the staples of the country, and the
usual vegetables and varieties of fruit. Bordering the many streams and lakes there
are rich hammocks. The land, where not opened, is well covered with pine. MarL
beds of large extent are found, and on Black creek fine stone for building purposes.
Middleburgl formerly the county seat, a town once of considerable importance, at
head of navigation, was formerly the place of transhipment to and from the interior.
The building of the railroad from Fernandina has diverted this. The county seat,
Green Cove Springs, on the St. Johns, is a thriving place, and a great resort, both for
winter travelers and others who seek benefit from the sulphur spring, which is large.
Population, 1870, 2,098; 1880, 2,755-white, 2,170; black, 585. Number acres land
tilled, 8,871. Farm values, $95,550; 'farm implements and machinery, $8,855; live
stock, $45,050; farm productions, $68,825. Number horses, 281. Mules, 95. Work-
ing oxen, 68. Milch cows, 1,442. Other cattle, 1,141. Butter made, lbs., 8,615. Swine,
4,489. Poultry, 4,256. Eggs, doz., 88,080. Indian corn, bush., 12,012. Cotton, bales,
86. Sugar, hhds., 11. Molasses, galls., 8,425. Potatoes, bush., 14,540.

Bounded north by Georgia, east by Baker and Bradford counties, south by Alachua,
and west by Suwannee and Hamilton counties. Area about 864 square miles. Its soil
includes pretty much every variety found in Florida. The surface is generally
level; the southern portion well timbered; the western part, high rolling pine lands
of good quality, very little waste land unfit for cultivation. There are twelve lakes of
moderate size, Alligator Lake being the largest; all abound in good fish. Muck, marl.
limestone, sandstone, and clay suitable for bricks, are found. Several streams afford
good mill sites, and at Suwannee Shoals on border of Hamilton county, there is sum-
cient water for large manufacturing establishments.
The railroad from Jacksonville runs through the county from east to west,
with a depot at Lake City. Lake City, the county seat, is a neat place, surroundedbby
lakes, is the centre of a well settled agricultural country, and does a large commercial
business. Besides cotton, cane, rice, tobacco, corn and root crops, raising vegetables-
for shipment to North and West is becoming a large industry. Orange and grape.
culture is receiving special attention, with best results. Some of the largest vineyards
in the State are in this county.
Population 1870, 7,885; 1880, 9,594-white, 4,818; black, 4,776. Number acres
land tilled, 88,996. Farm values, $871,290; farm implements and machinery, $18,950;
live stock, $190,217; farm productions, $817,825. Number horses, 990. Mules, 525
Workingoxen,44. Milch cows, 5,009. Other cattle, 8,709. Butter, lbs.,28,067. Swine,
9,797. Poultry, 22,822. Eggs, doz., 80,784. Rice, lbs., 65,705. Indian corn, bush.
70,751. Oats, bush., 4,184. Cotton, bales, 129. Molasses, galls., 7,861 Potatoes, bush.,
41,740. Peaches, bush., 10,800. Honey, lbs., 1,280.

Bounded north by Brevard county, east and south by Atlantic Ocean, and west by
Monroe county. Has an area of over 5,000 square miles. Lake Okeechobee, an inland.
sheet of water, of over 500 square miles, without any visible outlet to ocean or gulf,
occupies the northwestern corner of county, thl famous everglades the largest portion
of the remainder. Along the Atlantic coast there is a strip of elevated rocky pine
lands, three to fifteen miles wide, skirted by a prairie or savanna, from a half mile to a.

Semi 71rFical Florida;

mile in width, reaching to the everglades. This rich alluvial prairie is covered with an
immense growth of grass. The climate is very equable, the extremes being from 51*
to 92. From May to October, rains gre frequent; during the remainder of the year
there is little rainfall. In the vicinity of Biscayne, the land is covered with an under-
growth of comptie, which yields an excellent article of starch and farina, similar to
-arrowroot. Dade county is theleast populous county in the State.
Population, 1870, 85; 1880, 195-white, 193; black, 2.

Bounded north by Nassau county, east by the Atlantic Ocean, south by St:Johns and
Clay counties, west by Baker and Nassau. It has an area of about 860 square miles,
-embracing the mouth of the magnificent St. Johns river, the natural outlet of nearly a
thousand miles of inland navigable waters. While the lands as a whole are not as rich
in an agricultural sense as some other sections, yet there are to be found large and
small tracts of rich hammock. Most of the land, however, is light, but the modifying
influence of the waters of the ocean and the broad St. Johns and other streams are
favorable for crops, and especially for vegetables and fruit. Add to this the commer-
cial facilities of river navigation, outward to sea and interior, the railroads connecting
north, west and south with the great through lines, and Duval county offers the very
best advantages for general southern crops, and particularly for large and small fruit
growing and market gardening, which is rapidly extending. The light lands respdhd
*quickly to fertilizers, and marl, shells and muck are found within easy distance.
Jacksonville, the county seat, is in the centre of thai county, and is the largest and
most thriving city in East Florida, and in the very near future may rank in commercial
importance with Savannah and Charleston. It is hglthy, has many fine hotels, a com-
plete system of water supply, thorough sewerage, rigid sanitary and police regulations,
and is every way progressive. The Jacksonville, Pensacola & Mobile Railroad
intersects the St. Johns river at this point, which gives railroad communication north
and west; the Waycross Railroad, now building, will make an air line to Savannah;
th# railroad direct to Fernandina will also shorten the distance to about thirty miles
between the two cities. There is a direct steamship line to and from New York, and
tri-weekly steamers to and from Savannah and Charleston.
Population, 1870, 11,921; 1880, 17,762-white, 7,801; black, 9,961. Number acres
land tilled, 4,200. Farm values, $811,745; farm implements and machinery, $33,643;
live stock, $166,031; farm productions, $43,125. Number horses, 840. Mules, 88.
Working oxen, 257. Milch cows, 1,640. Other cattle, 1,841. Milk sold, galls., 18,230.
Butter made, lbs., 1,008. Swine, 8,254. Poultry, 8,121. Rice, lbs., 16,775. Indian
Scorn, bush., 9,802. Cotton, bales, 288. Sugar, hhds., 282. Molasses, galls., 7,398. Irish
potatoes, bush., 3,027. Sweet potatoes,.bush., 22,848. Peaches, bush., 8,805. Value
.market garden productions, $13,544. Honey, lbs., 8,085.

This county forms the.west end of the State. Bounded north d west by Alabama,
east by Santa Rosa county, and south by Gulf of Mexico. Perdido Bay and river sep-
arate it from Alabama on the west, Escambia river and bay from Santa Rosa county on
the east. That portion of the county bordering the Gulf, is level, with a light soil,
covered with pine; where this has been cut off, oak, hickory, bay, magnolia and other
hard woods have succeeded. The northern,part, being over two-thirds, is uneven and
hilly, and clay subsoil is near the surface, occasionally cropping out. The area of the
-county is about 600 square miles.

Its Climate, Soil and Productions.

Pensacola is the county seat, and one of the most beautifully located and important
-cities in the State. Pensacola Bay has no equal in the Southern States, and in capacity,
-depth of water and safety, is not excelled by any Northern port. There is a large and
well-equipped United States navy yard, dry dock and coal depot, as also Fort Bar-
rancas, Fort Pickens and the old Fort McRae. The recent extension of railroads to
Pensacola, connecting it with the great through lines west, north and east, will make
it a great shipping port, for products of field, mines and manufactures. Escambia
river is navigable for steamboats for twenty-five miles, and the Perdido for same dis-
tance. A railroad connects Perdido Bay with Pensacola Bay.
Population, 1870, 7,817; 1880, 12,217-white, 6,988; black, 5,229.' Acres land tilled,
1,9(t3. Farm values, $112,725; farm implements and machinery, $1,225; live
stock, $28,355; farm productions, $81,000. Horses, 476. Mqles, 81. Working oxen,
.370. Milch cows, 1,616. Other cattle, 2,853. Butter, lbs., 495. Fleeces (wool), 4,000.
Swine, 2,309. Poultry, 2,955. Eggs, doz., 7,950. Potatoes, bush., 15,305. Peaches,
bush., 6,000. Hbney, lbs., 10,000. Value beeves slaughtered, $61,475. Lumber and
.aaw mills, capital, $688,000. Value materials, $4,698,756.

Bounded on the north by Liberty and Wakulla, east and south by the Gulf of
Mexico, and west by Calhoun county. It is divided by the Apalachicola river, and
-includes Apalachicola Bay, St. George's Sound, and the adjacent islands. It contains
.about 600 square miles, and was formerly one of the most thriving and important
-counties of the State. Apalachicola, the county seat, was formerly a place of large
commerce; the lines of railroad from Atlantic cities west have almost entirely diverted
the trade, and from being one of the largest cotton ports of the South, it has become only
the port for a limited area of country. But with a fair port on the Gulf, and steamboat
navigation reaching into Georgia and Alabama, by the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee
and Flint rivers, there is a good prospect of its future growth as the country becomes
settled. Many portions are rich alluvial bottoms, very productive. All the southern
*staples are successfully cultivated, and the orange and semi-tropical fruits fully equal,
in growth, quality and quantity, those of other sections. The bays and waters of the
*Gulf afford superior fish and oysters, and yield abundantly.
Population, 1870, 1,256; 1880, 1,741-white, 1,185; black, 556. Number acres land
tilled, -- Farm values, $20,750; farm productions, $10,580; farm implements
and machinery, $1,878; live stock, $13,805. Number horses, 15. Mules, 3. Work-
ing oxen, 98. Milch cows, 452. Other cattle, 1,319. Swine, 1,318. Poultry, 1,027.
Eggs, doz., 4,049. Potatoes, bush,, 19,270. Honey, lbs., 8,000. Molasses, galls.,
13,860. Indian corn, bush, 1,761.

Bounded north by Georgia; east by Leon, fromwhich it is separated by the Ocklockon-
nee river; south by Leon and Liberty; west by Jackson o&unty, from which it is sep-
arated by the Chattahoochee river. It contains an area of over 450 square miles. The
surface is uneven, elevated, and presents a strong contrast with the more'level lands on
the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, the topography, and soil in many portions resembling the
northern parts of Virginia. It is one of the best watered portions of the State; clear
running streams and springs of freestone water, are met with at short intervals, in every
direction, which afford water power for manufacturing. The soil is mostlybased on red
clay, lying from a few inches to two feet beneath the surface; the lands being rich, pro-

34 Semi- Tropical Florida;

ductive and durable, are thus adapted for the growth of grain and forage crops, also"
cotton and cane. Previous to the war, this county was noted for its production of
superior tobacco, which equaled Cuba tobacco in quality and price. The export pre-
vious to 1860 was 400 boxes of 400 pounds each of tobacco, annually. It is among the-
richest agricultural counties in the State, and has little waste land, and a larger propor-
tion under cultivation than most others.
Quincy, the county seat, is a beautiful town, its location on high elevation affording:
fine views of the surrounding country. The Jacksonville & Mobile Railroad crosses
the county from east to west to the Apalachicola river, thus affording good facilities-
for transportation to the North and West as well as to eastern and southern ports. Beds.
of marl are found in this county, as also clay suitable for brick.
Population, 1870, 9,082; 1880, 11,588--white, 4,072; black, 7,516. Number acres-
land tilled, 76,997. Farm values, $767,514; farm implements and machinery, $88,870;
live stock, $166,696; farm productions, $459,710. Numberhorses, 1,336. Mules, 1,125.
Working oxen, 1,156. Milch cows, 3,265. Other cattle, 10,408. Butter made, lbs.,
82,650. Swine, 9,587. Poultry, 32,325. Eggs, doz., 189,880. Rice, lbs.,41,400. Pota-
toes, bush., 75,845. Peaches, bush., 1,820. Honey, lbs., 24,400. Indian corn, bu3h.,
133,325. Oats, bush., 27,150. Cotton, bales, 5,872. Molasses, galls., 58,660. Saw and
grist mills, capital, $8,200.

Bounded north by Georgia, east by Columbia, south by Suwannee, and west by
Madison county. Area about 400 square miles. The Suwannee river forms its southern
and eastern boundary, the Withlacoochie river its western, the Alapahariver dividing-
it nearly in the centre. The Savannah & Gulf Railroad crosses from south to north,
nearly in the centre of the county. The general surface is rolling, soil light in some
portions, with fine hammocks near streams. Jasper is the county seat.
Population, 1870, 5,749; 1880, 6,486--white, 4,834; black, 2,152. Number acres
land tilled, 40,024. Farm values, $458,835 ; farm implements and machinery,.
$17,301; live stock, $157,451; farm productions, $190,680. Number horses, 561.
Mules, 296. Working oxen, 346. Milch cows, 2,969. Other cattle, 7,158. Butter made,
Ibs., 10,144. Swine, 10,493. Poultry, 21,922. Eggs, doz., 58,053. Rice, Ibs.,.
180,516. Indian corn, bush., 110,888. Oats, bush., 21,898. Cotton, bales,1,867. Sugar,
hhds., 260. Molasses, galls., 14,708. Cow peas, bush., 5,992. Potatoes, bush., 88,8339..
Peaches, bush., 2,340. Market garden produce sold, $1,520. Honey, Ibs., 9,894. Wax,
lbs., 1,476. Value lumber and saw mills, $7,500. Lumber, feet, 99,000.

Bounded north by Marion and Levy; east by Sumter, being separated from these
counties by the Withlacoochie river; south by Hillsborough county; and west by the
Gulf of Mexico. Its area, over 1,600 square miles, fronts on the Gulf sixty miles, ex-
tending from the mouth of the Withlacoochie south to Anclote river, embracing Crys-
tal, Homosassa, Cheesehowiska, Wekawachee, Pithlachescoota and Anclote rivers,
which vessels of ordinary draft can enter.
No county in the State has a more varied topography, or greater advantages for the
successful prosecution of agricultural and horticultural pursuits, or is so attractive for
a residence.
Lands high and rolling, like the red hills of Northern Georgia; high, smooth tracts of
pine land, extensive hammocks of the richest soil, frequent marl beds, limestone; large

Its Climate, Soil and Productions.

springs of the purest water, lakes and rivers abounding in fish; a long coast with fre-
quent harbors; the baus and gulf always afford fish, oysters and sponge; a climate and
soil adapted to cultivation of cotton, cane, rice, tobacco, corn, oats, grass and veget-
ables, having peculiar advantages fr growing the olive, the different varieties of the
citrus, the'pine apple, guava,.banana, and all the semi-tropical fruits. Transportation
is year by year becoming more rapid and cheapand access to and from markets easier.
Immigration, enterprise and industry will make it one of the most prosperous and de-
sirable portions of the South.
The county seat is Brooksville.
Population, 1870, 2,938; 1880, 4,254-white, 8,359; black, 885. Number acres land
tilled, 12,720. Farm values, $878,000; farm implements and machinery, $29,100; live
stock, $213,000; farm productions, $207,000. Number horses, 1,080. Mules, 600.
Working oxen, 840. Milch cows, 11,520. Other cattle, 12,600. Butter, lbs., 37,500.
Sheep, 8,200. Swine, 28,200. Poultry, 7,500. Eggs, doz., 136,000. Rice, lbs., 90,000.
Indian corn, bush., 93,000. Oats, bush., 20,400. Cotton, bales, 420. Molasses, galls.,
36,000. Potatoes, bush., 120,000. Honey, lbs., 6,400.

SBounded north by Hernando, east by Polk, south by Manatee county, and west
by Gulf of Mexico. It contains about 1,500 square miles, embracing Clearwater har-
bor, Tampa and Hillsborough bays, with the Hillsborough, Alafia and Little Manatee
rivers entering from the north and west, and many keys or islands on the coast. The
land lies more level than in Hernando county, and though generally lighter, is still
fertile. Tampa City, a port of entry situated at the head of Tampa Bay, and mouth of
Hillsborough river, is a thriving place, and the county seat; the citizens are enter-
prising, and the cultivated lands and orange groves in city and vicinity show constant
progress. Cattle-raising for export, has always been a leading business in this and
adjoining counties. Large numbers are exported annually to Cuba. Recent immigra-
tion and increased population has led to very extensive cultivation of oranges and
semi-tropical fruits and vegetables, for which there is no better section, as climate, soil
and transportation are favorable. Some tropical fruits have been successfully culti-
vated. The usual Southern staples of cotton, cane and rice are raised, as also field
crops of all varieties common to other sections.
There are now several lines of railroads being built from the St. Johns, and the
Transit Railroad which will reach Tampa; these built, settlement and development
will be rapid.
Population, 1870, 3,216; 1880, 5,888-white, 5,011; black,877. Number acres land
tilled, 11,447. Farm values, $1,046,265; farm implements and machinery, $119,555.
Number horses, 714. Mules, 226. Working oxen, 454. Milch cows,6,318. Othercattle,
10,447. Butter, lbs., 11,430. Swine, 9,595. Poultry, 17,547. Eggs, doz., 25,400. Rice,-
lbs., 11,000. Indian corn, bush., 55,690. Oats, bush., 205. Cotton, bales, 865. Sugar,
Lhds., 105. Molasses, galls., 9,321. Potatoes, bush., 68,267. Honey, Ibs., 12,370.
Saw mills, value, $11,000. Lumber, feet, 1,511,200.

Bounded north by Alabama; east by Jackson, from which it is separated by Holmes
creek; south by Washington and Walton; west by Walton county. Area, over 500
square miles. The Choctawhatchie river runs south through the centre of the county,
affording steamboat communication with the Choctawhatchie Bay and the Gulf. Stock-

36 Semi Tropical Florida;

raising, cotton growing and farming the principal business; sugar cane, corn, potatoes
and other food crops raised for sale and home consumption. The land is mostly level,
good pine lands, well timbered, varied by rich hammocks. The great need of this and
adjoining counties is railroad communication. The Pensacola & Mobile Railroad will
pass through this county at or near Cerro Gordo, the county seat, which is pleasantly
situated on the high banks of the Choctawhatchie. The extension of the railroad will
be made, without doubt, very soon.
Population, 1870, 1,572; 1880, 2,774-white, 2,671; black, 108. Number acres land
tilled, 7,040 Farm values, $49,210; farm implements and machinery, $4,680; live
stock, $36,840; farm productions, $44,240. Number horses, 400. Mules, 275. Work-
ing oxen, 680. Milch cows, 1,060. Other cattle, 1,280. Butter, lbs., 6,200. Sheep,
12,000. Wool, lbs., 32,000. Swine, 9,000. Poultry, 12,290. Eggs, doz., 12,000. Rice,
lbs., 198,000. Indian corn, bush., 57,000. Oats, bush., 5,000. Cotton, bales, 320.
Molasses, galls., 35,200. Potatoes, bush., 31,600. Peaches, bush., 4,200. Honey, lbs.,
30,4L0. Wax, lbs., 720. Saw mills, capital, $2,600. Lumber, feet, 800,000.

Bounded on the north by Alabama; east by Dcatur county, Georgia, and Gadsden
county, Florida, from which it is separated by the Chattahoochee and Apalacticola
rivers; south by Calhoun and Washington counties; and west by Washington and
Holmes counties. Has an area of 1,000 square miles. It is considered as one of the
richest agricultural districts of the State. Lands are rich undulating hammock; soil
composed of clay, loam and lime, in various proportions, and pine lands of good qual-
ity of soil. The geniality of the climate is shown by the growth of the orange, lemon
and other fruits. Chipola river, rising in Alabama, flows south nearly through the
county, emptying into the Apalachicola; is navigable for boats of moderate draft. At
a small expense the river could be made navigable for steamboats. The Apalachicola
and Chattahoochee rivers, on the eastern boundary, afford transportation to markets.
The county exports largely, cotton and other agricultural products.
Marianna, the county seat, is a beautiful place, doing a large business; is located
on the Chipola river, the lower valley of which is well adapted to orange growing, as
also other fruits; soil rich, and remarkably exempt from frost.
Population, 1870, 9,528; 1880, 14,487-white, 5,391; black, 9,096. Number acres
land tilled, 128,406. Farm values, $1,173,400; farm implements and machinery,
$115,435; live stock, $409,276; farm productions, $1,908,481. Number horses, 1,780.
Mules, 1,529. Working oxen, 1,775. Milch cows, 4,257. Other cattle, 6,934. Butter
made, lbs., 9,660. Swine, 29,467. Poultry, 38,834. Eggs, doz., 114,208. Rice, lbs.,
72,220. Indian corn, bush., 407,722. Oats, bush., 65,412. Cotton, bales, 11,585. Sugar,
hhds., 60. Molasses, galls., 47,280. Sorghum molasses, galls., 8,500. Potatoes, bush.,
105,875. Tobacco, lbs., 4,440. Honey, lbs, 2,400. Saw mills, capital, $6,500. Lum-
ber, feet, 300,000. Grist mills, capital, $11,850.

Bounded north by Georgia; east by Madison and Taylor, from which it is sep-
arated by the Aucilla river; south by Taylor county and the Gulf of Mexico; wesgby
Wakulla and Leon. Has an area of about 550 square miles. It occupies a central
portion in the tier of counties, known as Middle Florida, and offers many and substan-
tial inducements to immigrants, especially to those who seek homes, where they can
enjoy all the benefits of civilization, and the facilities for easy and cheap communica-

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 37

tion with markets. The face of the county, frpm the Georgia line, south for about
twenty miles, is beautifully undulating, intersected throughout with small streams, fed
by springs and dotted here and there with beautiful lakes, prominent among which is
the Miccosukie, which extends into Leon county, and is fifteen miles long, by from one
to four miles wide. The southern portion of the county is mostly flat woods. Thesoil
is varied-in the upper and middle, are stiff red lands, with clay subsoil; on theAucilla
river, and bordering on the fiat woods, are rich hammocks. It has a larger proportion
of cultivated lands than other counties, and is among the largest cotton producing
counties. With Madison, Leon and Gadsden, it constitutes what is known as the rich
agricultural district of Northern Florida.
The Jacksonville, Pensacola & Mobile Railroad crosses the county near the centre,
with a branch to Monticello, the county seat, one of the most healthy and delightful
villages in the State.
Population, 1870, 18,898; 1880, 16,126-white, 3,893; black, 12,783. Number acres
land tilled, 89,980. Farm values, $2,280,070; farm implements and machinery,
$61,011; livestock, $01,657; farm productions, $786,618. Numberhorses, 981. Mules,
1,227. Working oxen, #88. Milch cows, 8,182. Other cattle, 8,669. Butter, lbs.,
12,479. Swine, 12,512. Poultry, 80,060. Eggs, doz., 48,504. Rice, lbs., 8,409. Indian
corn, bush., 859,704. Cotton, bales, 8,728. Sugar, hhds., 8,589. Molasses, galls,
67,896. Potatoes, bush, 97,484. Honey, lbs.. 2,185. Saw mills, capital, $6,000.
Lumber, feet, 1,020,000.

Bounded north by Suwannee; east by Suwannee, Alachua and Levy, from all of
which it is separated by the Suwannee river; south by the Gulf of Mexico; and west by
Taylor county. Contains an area of over 1,200 square miles. The land is principally
heavy timbered pine lands, with many large tracts of hammock, a portion with
a strong clay foundation, and productive. The principal business is stock growing
and lumbering, but it is eligible for agriculture and fruit growing, and the Suwannee,
which skirts its eastern boundary, is navigable for steamers to New Troy, the county
Population, 1870, 1,788; 1880, 2,600-white, 2,442; black, 158. Number acres land
tilled, 7,782. Farm values, $92,680; farm implements and machinery, $4,228; live
stock, $80,148; farm productions, $50,220. Number horses, 260. Mules, 1,828. Work-
ing oxen, 186. Milch cows, 4,186. Other cattle, 8,095. Butter made, Ibs., 6,785.
Swine, 4,778. Poultry, 5,909. Eggs, loz., 9,868. Potatoes, bush., 11,888. Grist
mills, capital, $21,000.

Bounded north by Georgia; east by Jefferson county; south by Wakulla county; and
west by Liberty and Gadsden counties, from which it is separated by the Ocklockonnee
river. It contains an area of about 700 square miles. The surface of the county, like
that of the adjoining counties, which constitute what is known as Middle Florida, is
varied; the northern portion uneven, the southern more level and interspersed through-
out with clear water lakes, among which are Lafayette, Jackson, lasuonia, Bradford
and the Miccosukie, extending from Jefferson county, all abounding in fish. The
soil is as varied as the surface. In the northern half of the county it is rich loam,
based upon red clay, very productive. In the southern portion the soil is lighter, the
clay lying deeper and of a pale yellow color. Leon is the centre of the rich agricul-
tural counties of Northern Florida, and no district of the same extent in the country

Semi-RhpicaZ Florida;

can offer superior inducements to cultivators of the soil. Short staple cotton has been
the principal source of reliance, but wheat, corn, rice, rye, oats, sugar cane, tobacco
and all the diversified products of a rich agricultural district are successfully cultivated,
and all kinds of stock raised with profit. Whether we consider its unexceptionable
climate, the beauty of its undulating surface, the variety, abundance and value of its
timber, the fertility of its soil, with its adaptability to such aast catalogue of crops,
its accessibility to markets, its abundance of good pure water, its general healthful-
ness, the ease with which the soil is cultivated, the intelligence and character of its
people, the number of its laboring population, or the cheap"ess of its lands, no portion
of the State or the country can offer superior inducements to immigrants.
The beautiful city of Tallahassee, the county seat and capital of the State, lies near
the centre of the county. The Jacksonville, Pensacola & Mobile Railroad crosses the
county from east to west, and the Tallahassee Railroad, from the port of St. Marks on
the Gulf, intersects it at the capital. The name Tallahassee, signifying beautiful land,
was applied by the Indians to this region of country, and was properly appropriated to
designate the capital at the time of its location.
Population, 1870, 15,236; 1880, 20,825-white, 8,440; black, 16,885. Number acres
land tilled, 104,047. Farm values, $863,376; farm implements and machinery, $59,425;
live stock, $196,656; farm productions, $603,190. Number horses, 1,208. Mules, 1,823.
Working oxen, 425. Milch cows, 2,758. Other cattle, 2,860. Butter, lbs., 28,742.
Swine, 12,054. Poultry, 22,449. Eggs, doz., 55,111. Rice, lbs., 5,545. Indian corn,
bush., 826,684. Oats, bush., 29,986. Cotton, bales, 9,072. Sugar, hhds., 2,131. Mo-
lasses, galls., 68,988. Potatoes, bush., 114,107. Peaches, bush., 2,865. Honey, lbs.,
3,780. Saw mills, value, $1,500. Lumber, feet, 160,000. Grist mills, capital, $17,850.

Bounded north by Alachua, east by Marion, south by Hernando and the Gulf of
Mexico, and west by the Gulf and Lafayette county, from which the Suwannee river sep-
arates it. It has an area of over 1,000 square miles. The surface is generally level, being
mostly flat pine wood land. The Gulf Hammock, a tract of land of great fertility, of
some 100,000 acres, capable of producing sugar cane equal to.Louisiana bottoms,
occupies the southern portion of the county. The Suwannee river enters the Gulf on
the western boundary, the Withlacoochee on the southern, with the Wacasassa about
midway between. The Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Railroad runs from north-
east to southwest through the county, near its centre, and intersects the Gulf at the
harbor of Cedar Keys, where vessels find entrance, and freight and passengers are
transferred from the Gulf steamers to the railroad, thus affording enlarged facilities
for direct communication with the markets of the North and the ports of the Gulf.
The county possesses peculiar advantages for the production of sugar cane and rice,
besides the ordinary products of long staple cotton, vegetables, semi-tropical fruits;
and stock growing forms a sure reliance for revenue. The waters on the coast abound
in fish, oysters and turtle, which are largely gathered for export to the interior.
Bronson, the county seat, is on the railroad, the centre of a well settled portion of
the county.
Population, 1870, 2,018; 1880,5,776-white, 3,928; black, 1,848. Number acres land
tilled, 15,523. Farm values, $268,360; farming implements and machinery, $23,830;
live stock, $146,315; farm productions, $149,810. Number horses, 790. Mules, 170.
Working oxen, 44. Milch cows, 4,832. Other cattle, 3,110. Swifte, 5,144. Poultry,
9,782. Eggs, doz., 7,927. Indian corn, bush., 45,386. Oats, bush., 16,840. Cotton,

Its Olimate, Soil and Productions.

bales, 440. Molasses, galls., 81,240. Potatoes, bush., 48,200. Market garden produce
sold, $10,900. Lumber and saw mills, capital, $191,000. 'Lumber, feet, 8,000,000. Grist
nills, capital, $17,850 Manufactures, capital, $5,500.

Bounded north by Gadsden; east by Leon and Wakulla counties, from which It is
separated by the Ocklockonnee river; south by Franklin; north by Calhoun, from
-which it is separated by the Apalachicola river. It contains an area of about 850
square miles. It is sparsely populated, andjittle of its area is cultivated. Its charac.
teristics are the same as Calhoun and Franklin. Cattle-raising is the principal busi-
ness, but the ordinary staples of the State are successfully cultivated; orange culture is
receiving attention, and ine groves attest the success of this important product.
Population. 1870, 1,050; 1880, 1,287-white, 711; black, 526. Number acres land
tilled, 8,868. Farm values, $67,778; farming implements and machinery, $6,547;
jive stock, (40,012; farm products, $65,779. Number horses, 117. Mules, 46.
Working oxen, 21L Milch cows, 1,884. Other cattle, 8,785. Butter, lbs., 5,142.
Swine, 3,125. Poultry, 2,308. Eggs, doz., 9,708. Rice, lbs., 24,825. Indian corn,
bush., 16,285. Oats, bush., 5,756. Cotton, bales, 440. Molasses, galls., 110,991.
.Potatoes, bush., 18,272.

Bounded north by Georgia; east by Hamilton and Suwannee counties, from
-which it is separated by the Suwannee river; south by Lafayette and Taylor, and west
by Jefferson, from which the Aucilla river separates it. It contains 750 square miles,
and forms a portion of the rich agricultural district of Middle Florida. The lands are.
generally undulating and sonte portions even hilly; a small part of the southeastern
portion is flat. The western half is very fertile, the eastern generally pine lands of
fair quality and interspersed with lakes and ponds. The better lands are generally
underlaid with clay, and the soil rich and generous. Long and short staple cotton have
formed the chief product for exportation, and as high as twelve thousand bales have
been produced in a year. Now, while cotton continues the principal staple, the prod-
acts are becoming more diversified, and grass, grain, sugar cane and vegetables are
receiving more attention and are found remunerative, while stock-growing and fruit-
culture are successfully prosecuted. A larger proportion of the lands of Madison
county are under cultivation than of any other county.
Madison, the countyseat, is a thriving place near the centre of the county, on the
Jacksonville, Pensacola A Mobile Railroad, which crosses the county from east to west.
One of the largest lumbd) manufacturing establishments in the State, employing a cap-
ital of over $800,000, is situated in the eastern portion of the county. $30,000 are in-
vested in grist mills.
Population, 1870, 11,121; 1880, 15,118-white, 5,656; black, 9,462. Number acres
land tilled, 61,910. Farm values, $998,450; farm implements and machinery, $81,518;
live stock, $211,900; farm productions, $681,695. Number horses, 1,668. Mules,
1,882. Working oxen, 204 Milch cows, 8,821. Other cattle, 0,402. Butter, lbs.,
46,960. Swine, 17,028. Poultry, 29,019. Eggs, doz., 14,968. Rice, lbs., 10,000. Indian
corn, bush., 48,050. Oats, bush., 48,040. Cotton, bales, 6,778. Molasses, galls.,
108,611. Potatoes, bush., 107,999. Honey, lbs., 6,000. Luunber and saw mills, capital,
S805 150. Lumber, feet, 20,180,500. Shingles, 1,000,000. Grist mills, capital, $81,700.

Semi Tropical 17orida ;

Bounded north by Hillsborough and Polk; east by Brevard and Dade counties,
being separated from the latter by Lake Okeechobee; south by Monroe county, and west.
by the Gulf of Mexico; containing an area of over 5,000 square miles, and embracing-
the northern portion of Charlotte harbor, the southern portion of Tampa Bay, Sarasota.
Bay, and the numerous islands adjacent. Peace creek, rising in Polk county, sub-
divides the county near the centre, and runs south to Charlotte harbor, having numer-
ous tributaries, which, with many lakes, water the interior of the county. The My-
akka river discharges into the harbor further westward, and the Manatee river h the
northwestern part of the county, enters Tampa Bay. The surface is generally level,
'lands light, piney woods, hammocks and prairie.
Along the rivers and borders of lakes the land is very productive; a large portion
of the county is given up to stock raising, which is a leading and profitable business.
Over 100,000 head subsist at no cost or care, except the gathering to brand and mark, or
for sale and delivery. Key West, Cuba and other islands afford a constant and good mar-
ket, and steamers and vessels are regularly engaged in the transportation, mostly from
Tampa Bay and Charlotte harbor. There are many stockmen who count their herds
by the tens of thousands. Peace creek, a large stream, is susceptible of steam navi-
gation through the county, and is attracting immigrants, especially those who seek an
equable climate, and to locate below what is called the frost line. Long staple cotton,.
cane, rice, tobacco, do well, and will become leading staples of export.
Population, 1870, 1,9 1; 1880, 8,674-white, 8,561; black. 113. Number acres land'
tilled, 8,860. Farm values, $884,000; farm implements and machinery, $6,000; live
stock, $912,000; farm productions, $177,600. Number horses, 960. Mules, 500. Work-
ing oxen, 650. Milch cows, 86,400. Other cattle, 108,600. Butter, lbs., 6,240. Swine,.
8,400. Poultry, 7,000. Eggs, doz., 15,860. Potatoes, bush., 86,40k0 Honey, Ibs.,.
14,400. Wax, lbs., 960.

Bounded north by Alachua and Putnam, east by Putnam, Volusia and Orange, south-
by Sumter and Hernando, and west by Levy county. Containing an area of 1,000 square
miles. It is on&of the largest, most fertile, productive counties of the State, especially in.
Sea Island dctton and sugar cane. The lands are generally elevated and undulating, and
drained both to the ocean and gulf. There is very little poor and unavailable lands,
the most being rich and productive. The pine lands are almost unifornlygood, under-
laid with clay, marl, limestone. The hammocks are extensive and very rich, and will
equal the best lands of the Mississippi in producing. Sandstone for buildingpurposes is-
in great abundance. The Ocklawaha river, atributary of the St.Johns, and navigated
by steamers daily, runs north across the centre of the county.
The celebrated Silver Spring forms a basin of two or three acres in extent near the
centre of the county; it pours forth a volume of water, from one to two hundred f et.
wide, discharging into the Ocklawaha. Blue Spring, almost as remarkable, and
not much inferior in size, lies in the southwestern portion of the county, and
sends forth' a stream of clear blue water into the Withlacoochie river some twenty
miles from the Gulf. Sulphur Springs are numerous; the most noted is known as-
Orange Spring, in the northeastern portion of the county, which was formerly a great.
resort for invalids. Orange Lake, celebrated for the large orange groves on its borders,
which are the most extensive of any in the State, occupying an area of over 1,000 acres,

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 41

lies in the northern portion of the county, and is now connected by the Peninsular
Railroad with the Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Railway at Waldo.
Lakes Churchill and Bryant in the eastern and the beautiful Lake Weir in the
southern part of the county, are the most prominent and attractive of the inland waters
of the county.
Ocala, the county seat, situated six miles from Silver Spring, is a growing business
town. The Peninsular Railroad is -being rapidly built to this place, from which it
will be extended southward to Tampa and Charlotte harbor, on the Gulf of Mexico.
The Government lands as well as State lands are being rapidly taken up by homestead
and lprchase. No part of the State, or, in fact, the South, offers greater inducements
for permanent location.
Population, 1870, 10,804; 1880, 18,000-white, 8,201; black, 9,799. Number acres
land tilled, 49,794. Farm values, $1,118,009; farming implements and machinery,
$93,257; live stock, $44,012 ; farm productions, $292,688. Number horses, 1,500.
Mules, 718. Working oxen, 462.. Milch cows, 7,768. Other cattle, 9,177. Butter,
lbs., 11,100. 'Swine, 10,274. Poultry, 81,630. Eggs, doz., 69,819. Rice, lbs., 18,880.
Indian corn, bush., 187,255. Oats, bush., 4,400. Cotton, bales, 2,870. Sugar, hhd.,
10. Molasses, galls., 88,876. Potatoes, bush., 79,215. Value of fruit products, $98,702.
Honey, lbs., 2,025. Manufactures, capital, $81,000.

Bounded north by Manatee, east by Dade, south and west by the Gulf of Mexico.
It has an area of about 5,000 square miles, a large portion of which is occupied by what
is known as the Big Cypress Swamp, and the Everglades. The county includes the
numerous Keys and islands off the Florida southern coast, the most important of
which is Key West, where the principal wealth and population are located and the
southern portion of Charlotte harbor, Pine, Sanibel and other islands. The Caloosa-
hatchie traverses the northern portion of the county and enters Charlotte harbor, and
is navigable as high up as Frt Thompson, some thirty miles from its mouth. It is-
contemplated to connect this river with the great lake Okeechobee and drain the
extensive country about the lake. The northern portion of the county is adapted to
semi-tropical and tropical fruits, and also many of the Keys, which are already famous.
for cocoa nuts, pine apples and bananas.
Key West is the county seat
Population,1870, 5,657; 1880, 10,927-white, 7,668; black, 8,259. Acres land tilled,
906. Farm values, $111,000; farming implements and machinery, $8,000; live stock,
$12,600; farm productions, $19,200. Number horses, 90. Mules, 80. Working oxen,
120. Milch cows, 420. Other cattle, 5,160. Swine, 8,108. Poultry, 21,995. Eggs,
doz., 4,544. Molasses, galls., 12,00. Potatoes, bush., 5,400. ManufactUres, capital,
$2,227,000. Value of products, $1,270,867. Wages paid, 1879, $871,178.

Occupies the northeast corner of the State, and is bounded north and west by the
St. Marys river, which separates it from Georgia, east by the Atlantic ocean and Duval
county, and south fby Duval. It contains about 600 square miles, including Amelia
Island, upon which the city of Fernandina, the county seat, is located. The soil of
N assau county varies from the light mulatto soils of the coast, through all the inter-
lediate gradations, to the stiff clays and marls in the lowlands of the rivers, and its
range of productions is as varied as the soil. On Amelia Island, the edge of the main-

42 Semi Tropical Florida;

land, and scattered along her rivers, are soils of calcareous sand, that are adapted for
-the finest qualities of long staple cotton, and the culture of the peach; grape, olive and
-orange, while the fresh marsh and black rush lands attached to them are especially
-suitable for gardening. These lands are easily reclaimed, rich, moist, and close to
shipping opportunities, so that the shipping of early vegetables to Northern markets
forms a profitable industry. The clay bluffs along the St. Marys river, and the so-called
.sand hills in the northwestern corner of the county, form a third distinct body of agri-
-cultural lands. The balance of the lands of the county are pine barrens, mostly sandy,
and interspersed with numerous "bay-galls," cypress ponds and savannas. The harbor
-of Fernandina is the northern terminus of the Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Rail-
Toad, from Cedar Keys, and is one of the best harbors for sea-going vessels, of deep
Sdraught, south of Norfolk, admitting of the safe anchorage of several hundred vessels
.at once, and with an entrance easy of access, and giving from fourteen to twenty feet of
Population, 1870, 4,247; 1880, 6,546-white, 2,478; black, 4,073. Number acres land
tilled, 4,562. Farm values, $186,880; farming implements and machinery, $4,685; live
.stock, $62,182; farm products, $48,898. Number horses, 250. Mules, 82. Working
oxen, 881. Milch cows, 2,404. Other cattle, 4,231. Butter, lbs., 6,979. Swine, 8,041.
Poultry, 6,213. Eggs, doz., 12,789. Indian corn, bush., 24,400. Oats, bush., 2,573.
-Cotton, bales, 202. Molasses, galls., 10,409. Potatoes, bush., 22,212. Peaches, bush.,
4,987. Market garden produce sold, $2,737. Honey, lbs., 508. Lumber and saw mills,
-capital, $78,300.

Bounded north and east by Volusia county, which is separated from it by the St. Johns
river, south by Brevard and Polk, and west by Polk, Sumter and Marion; with an area
-of 2,300 square miles. The county is generally high, rolling pine land, interspersed
with clear water lakes, bays and hammocks. The rolling pine lands are of good qual-
ity and heavily timbered; soil dark gray loam, with sand on, the surface, based upon
-yellow sandy loam, with a substratum of clay and marl. Portions are flat pine woods
-of less value. Some of the prominent lakes are Monroe, Jesup, Harney, Eustis,
Apopka, Dora, Maitland, Butler, and Tohopekaliga. These lakes are from three to
fifty square miles in extent. There are innumerable smaller lakes, with areas of from
ten to a thousand acres. The shores are generally abrupt, rising in some cases to sev-
-enty feet above the water. Fish and game abound. Stock growing has been the pre-
-dominant industry until later years, with cotton, corn, and cane; but now fruit culture
is absorbing general attention, and the orange, lemon, lime, citron, guava, pine-apple,
and banana, and every variety of southern fruit, are extensively cultivated. No
-county in the State has increased in population and improvement so rapidly during the
last ten years as Orange, and large accessions from the Northern and Western States,
-of refined, cultivated and wealthy citizens, are constantly being made. A railroad
from Lake Monroe, the head of the larger class of steamboat navigation, to Orlando,
the county seat, has been constructed, with a view to an ultimate extension south
through the county, and to Tampa and Charlotte harbor. The St. Johns & Lake
Eustis Railway, from Astor, on the St. Johns, to Fort Mason, on Lake Eustis, has also
been completed, an extension of which to Leesburg will probably behnade. The indus-
try, energy and progressive spirit manifested in this county is of the character mani-
fested in the North and Northwest, and can not fail of ultimate success.
Population, 1870, 2,195; 1880, 6,190-white, 5,494; black, 696. Number acres
land tilled, 18,166. Farm values, $388,141; farm implements and machinery, $52,040;

Its Cimate, Soi and Producions. 43

live stock, $206,880; farm products, $90,025. Number horses, 875. Mules, 500.
Working oxen, 688. Milch cows, 3,466. Other cattle, 7,990. Batter, lbs., 12,881.
Swine,8,581. Poultry, 21,925. Eggs, doz., 81,184. Rice, lbs., 5,700. Indian corn,
bush., 80,689. Oats, bush., 1,116. Cotton, bales, 71. Molasses, galls., 21,219. Pota-
toes, bush., 75,785. Honey, lbs., 6,158. Saw mills, capital, $15,000. Manufactures,
capital, $9,500.

Bounded north by-Sumter and Orange counties, east by Orange and Brevard,
south by Manatee, and west by Hillsborough. The Kissimmee lake and river sepa-
rates it from Brevard. It has an area of about 1,900 square miles, and its general
characteristics are the same as Sumter and Manatee. The surface is undulating, the
lands hammock, pine and prairie, dotted all through with small lakes of clear water
abounding in fish. The prairies are the range for herds of cattle, of which there are
100,000 head in the county. Bartow, situated on Peace creek or river, is the county
seat, and a thriving business place. The lands within two or three miles of Peace
creek and its tributaries are excellent farming lands and well adapted to the culture of
the orange and semi-tropical and some tropical fruits.
Population,1870, 8,169; 1880, 3,156-white, 8,086; black, 120. Number acres land
tilled, 8,160. Farm values, $400,000; farm implements and machinery, $14,000; live
stock, $56,000; farm productions, $80,000. Number horses, 34b. Mules, 800. Working
oxen, 600. Milch cows, 2,800. Other cattle, 3,740. Butter, lbs., 4,400. Swine, 6,400.
Poultry, 20,521. Eggs, doz., 88,600. Rice, lbs., 20,000. Indian corn, bush., 89,280.
Cotton, bales, 200. Molasses, galls., 4,800. Potatoes, bush., 66,400. Honey, lbs..7,200.
Wax, lbs., 2,000.

Bounded on the north by Clay county, on the east by St. Johns, on the south by
Volusia and Marion, and on the west by Alachua and Clay, and contains an area of over
800 square miles. The St. Johns river runs through the county for thirty miles, and
skirts it on the east for remainder, affording means unexcelled for transportation.
Lake George, a body of water about ten miles wide by twenty long, is on its southern
'boundary, and Lake Crescent, of beautiful, clear water, twelve miles long, with high
surroundings, occupies the southeastern corner, and connects with the St Johns
through Dunn's creek. The Ocklawaha river crosses the southern portion of the
county from the west, and enters the St. Johns opposite Welak". The portion of the
county lying east of the St. Johns, and extending to Crescent Lake, is called Fruitland
peninsula,tand is rich and fertile. The western portion of the county is undulating,
in sections slightly hilly, with a sandy surface soil and a red and gray subsoil, inter-
spersed with fresh water lakes, and for cotton and general farming is the best part of
the county. The pine lands will produce ten bushels of corn or 800 lbs. seed cotton,
and the hammock twenty bushels of corn and 600 lbs. cotton per acre, without fertiliz-
ing. Nearer the St. Johns, generally speaking, the lands are less rolling and fertile,
;but heavily timbered. Many portions, however, of the soil are rich in humus and other
products of vegetable decomposition. The lands are generally high enough for culture.
Drayton Island, embracing 2,000 acres, and a part of the county, is famous for its rich
soil and mar. The county contains nearly every variety of Florida soil-swamp
lands, high and low hammock, heavily timbered with hickory, oak and other hard
woods, and the different qualities of pine land, clay, sand, marl and shell. A number
of the finest and oldest orange groves of the State are situated in this county. There

44 Semi-7Tropical Florida;

are fully 5,000 acres in the county specially devoted to the cultivation of the orange.
The fruit culture and vegetable production for Northern and Western markets form a.
leading and profitable business, while cotton, rice, sugar, corn and other staples are a..
permanent reliance for agricultural industry. There are forty-three schools, twenty-
one post offices, and more than a dozen places in the county where considerable manu-
facturing and a large mercantile trade is carried on.
Palatka is the county seat, and one of the best business towns of the State, situate at.
the head of navigation for deep draught steamers and sailing vessels, and near the con-
fluence of the Ocklawaha. Its population is nearly 1,400. It possesses advantages
which can not fail of rendering it a fine commercial city. It has beautiful churches,
good schools, a nunnery, and two or three of the largest hotels in the State. A narrow-
gauge railroad from here to Gainesville will doubtless soon be constructed. Palatka is
connected by telegraph with all parts of the country. At San Mateo, six miles south of
Palatka, is an extensive orange packing house, and the "San Mateo Institute," an
excellent institution of learning, free in part.
Population, 1870, 3,821; 1880, 6,250-white, 8,931; black, 2,819. Number acres land-
tilled, 13,718. Farm values, $2,151,597; farm implements and machinery, $22,728;
live stock, $80,000; farm products, $146,759. Number horses, 451. Mules, 116. Work-
ing oxen, 173. Milch cows, 1,771. Other cattle, 3,740. Butter, lbs., 6,031. Milk
sold, galls., 7,239. Swine, 4,269. Poultry, 12,306. Eggs, doz., 88,600. Rice, lbs.,
4,337. Indian corn, bush., 27,271. Oats, bush., 5,182. Cotton, bales, 1,856. Sugar, hhds.,
27. Molasses, galls., 7,659. Potatoes, Irish, bush., 2,849; sweet, bush., 26,242. Mar-
ket garden produce sold, $17,988. Honey, lbs., 5,095. Lumber and saw mills, capital,.
$4,000. Manufactures, capital, $20,600.

Bounded north by Alabama, east by Walton county, south by the Gulf of Mexico,
and west by Escambia, and contains about 1,600 square miles of territory. The sur-
face and soil and the natural productions are very nearly like those of Escambia,which
joins it on the west. Lumbering is the principal business, and agriculture has received
little attention. The county is well watered, the Escambia river and bay form its
western boundary, and Pensacola Bay and Santa Ross Sound lie upon its southern,
while the Yellow, Black Water and Clear Water rivers and various creeks divide the-
interior of the county and discharge their waters into Pensacola Bay. Milton, located
at the head of the bay and at the mouth of the Black Water, is the chief town and
county seat. A large foreign export trade in lumber and timber has long been con-
ducted from this port.
Population, 1870, 3,312; 1880, 5,701-white, 4,749; black, 1,953. Number acres lan&!
Killed, 2,059. Farm values, $50,600; farm implements and machinery, $1,981; live-
stock, $24,380; farm productions, $84,200. Number horses, 128. Mules, 110. Work-
ing oxen, 337. Milch cows, 1,122. Other cattle, 1,553. Butter, lbs., 8,710. Swine,
2,669. Poultry, 8,884. Eggs, doz., 8,385. Rice, lbs., 265,140. Indian corn, bush.,.
10,596. Oats, bush., 960. Molasses, galls., 8,850. Potatoes, bush., 16,240. Peaches,.
bush.. 8,947. Honey, lbs., 22,325. Lumber and saw mills, capital, $49,500. Lumber,.
feet, 15,529,600. Manufactures, capital, $25,000.

Bounded north by Duval, east by the Atlantic ocean, south by Volusia, and west.
by Putnam and Clay counties, from which it is separated by the St. Johns river. It.

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 45

-contains 970 square miles. The general surface is level, and the land is not of the first
-quality, being mostly flat pine woods and palmetto scrub, with some hammock; but its
location, between the St. Johns river and the Atlantic Ocean, renders it more exempt
from frost and better adapted to fruit culture than more interior counties in the same
latitude. Orange culture, and fruit and market gardening are now commanding atten.
tion, while stock growing, corn, rice, sugar cane, etc., are profitable branches of agri.
-cultural industry. The Matanzas and North rivers lie parallel with, the coast on the
east, and the St. Johns river and Lake Crescent on the western border.
St. Augustine, the oldest city on the continent, rich in historic interest, and once
famous for its orange groves, from which for nearly a century the nobles and grandees
of Spain derived their best supply, is the county seat, and a port of entry for sea-going
vessels, and is connected with the St. Johns river by railway. It is proverbial for its
healthy and delightful climate, and is a popular resort, both summer and winter, for
visitors seeking health and recreation.
Population, 1870, 2,618; 1880, 4,595-white, 8,242; black, 1,358. Number acres
land tilled, 2,880. Farm values, $717,190; farming implements and machinery,"
412,955; live stock, $67,985; farm productions, $86,868. Number horses, 414. Mules,
42. Working oxen, 800. Milch cows, 2,428. Other cattle, 4,094. Butter, lbs., 2,486.
Swine, 3,833. Poultry, 11,002. Eggs, doz, 18,187. Rice, lbs., 2,890. Indian corn,
bush., 13,927. Oats, bush., 445. Cotton, bales, 8. Sugar, hhds., 146. Molasses, galls.,
11,235. Potatoes, bush., 29,876. Peaches, bush., 240.

Bounded north by Marion county, east by Orange, south by Polk, and west by
Hernando, from which it is separated by the Withlacoochie river, and has an area of over
1,800 square miles. The general characteristics of Sumter are the same as Orange,
Polk, Hernando and Marion counties, by which it is surrounded. The Ocklawaha
river connects the waters of lakes Griffin, Harris and Eustis, in the northeastern
portion of the county, with the St. Johnb; and Lake Pansofka on the west connects
-with the Gulf through the Withlacoochie. A chain of lakes in the southeastern
portion of the county connects with Lake Harris through the Pilaklikaha creek. On
the east of these lakes a high rolling pine woods country extends for miles; on the
west are fine hammock lands and grass lands for stock. The lands in the northern and
western portion of the county also are exceptionally good, and orange growing is the
prevailing interest The acres planted in orange groves are numbered by the hun-
-dreds, and the bearing trees by the tens of thousands. No county in the State is better
adapted to fruit growing, while stock raising and the agricultural staples of the South
afford a sure reliance for the profitable investment of labor and capital. Leesburg,
located at the head of Lake Griffin and between that and Lake Harris, is the county
:seat. The Ocklawaha river is navigable for small steamers, and a railway extendA from
Lake Eustis to Astor, on the St. Johns river, affording direct facilities for reaching
Population, 1870,2,952; 1880, 6,072-white, 4,998; black, 1,079. Number acres land
tilled, 10,412. Farm values, $474,024; farm implements and machinery, $7,918; live
stock, $79,500; firm productions, $28,542. Number horses, 752. Mules, 270. Work-
ng oxen, 238. Milch cows, 970. Other-cattle, 5,142. Butter, lbs.,5,080. Swine, 7,682.
Poultry, 9,259. Eggs, doz., 6,882. Indian corn, bush., 45,880. Oats, bush, 6,870.
Molasses, galls., 9,550. Potatoes, bush., 28,940. Honey, lbs., 800. Saw mills, capital,
47,500. Lumber, feet, 1,156,000.

Semi-Tropical Florida;

Bounded on the north by Hamilton county, east by Columbia, south by Alacnua.
and.Lafayette, and west by Lafayette and Madison, from which, with Hamilton on the
north, it is separated by the Suwannee river. Its area is about 700 square miles. This
county occupies nearly a central position-from east to west, in the State, and the Suwan-
nee and Santa Fe rivers form its boundary onthree sides, a distance of over one hundred
miles. These streams are navigable for steamboats to the southeastern part of the county..
The general topography is rolling. The'soil is sandy, in some parts mixed with a clay
subsoil. Beds of marl, shell, and white clay fine enough for pottery. Limestone and
sandstone abound, the latter white as marble, and, when first exposed, so soft that it
may be cut into any desirable form, and becomes hard with exposure. Lumbering-
and naval stores form the leading industry, as the timber is very fine. The Jacksonville,
Pensacola & Mobile Railroad crosses the county from east to west, and is intersected
from the north by the Savannah Railway at Live Oak, the county seat.
Population, 1870, 3,556; 1880, 7,879-white, 4,166; black, 3,218. Number acres
land tilled, 32,735. Farm values, $401,904; farm implements and machinery,
$23,340; live stock, $108,575; farm productions, $289,321. Number horses, 526.
Mules, 310. Working oxen, 220. Milch cows, 1,294. Other cattle, 1,500. Butter,
lbs., 23,900. Swine, 6,144. Poultry, 21,708. Eggs, doz., 23,500. Rice, lbs., 4,400..
Indian corn, bush., 130,800. Oats, bush., 12,384. Cotton, bales, 1,648. Molasses,
galls., 17,800. Potatoes, bush., 85,000. Peaches, bush., 10,090. Market garden
produce sold, $850. Lumber and saw mills, capital, $10,500. Lumber, feet, 1,864,000.
Manufactures, capital, $77,700; product, $36,000.

Bounded north by Madison county, east by Lafayette, south by the Gulf of Mexico,wcst.
by the Gulf and Jefferson county; and has an area of 1,300 square miles. The Aucilla.
river enters the Gulf on its western boundary, and the Isteinhatchie* on the eastern,
while the Econfina, Finholloway and Warrior lie intermediate. There are several sul-
phur, iron and chalybeate springs. The surface is generally level, the lands are pine
and hammock, and toward the Gulf coast are comparatively poor. The streams-
abound in fine fish, the coast in oysters, and the forests in game. It is a fine range for
cattle, and stock growing is the leading business; though cotton, corn, sugar cane and
tobacco for home use are produced by the farmers.
Population, 1870, 1,453; 1880, 2,280-white, 2,118; black, 162. Number acres land
tilled, 8,794. Farm values, $87,102; farm implements and machinery, $4,699; live
stock, $75,650; farm productions, $87,105. Number horses, 206. Mules, 127. Work-
ing oxen, 202. Milch cows, 2,989. Other cattle, 5,935. Butter, lbs., 1,490. Swine,
7,940. Poultry, 9,329. Eggs, doz., 20,780. Rice, lbs., 46,860. Indian corn, bush.,
48,791. Oats, bush., 6,900. Cotton, bales, 474. Molasses, galls., 21,287. Potatoes,.
bush., 22,889. Peaches, bush., 607. Honey, lbs., 2,635.

Bounded north by St. Johns county and the Atlantic Ocean, east by the Atlantic,
south by Brevard and Orange, and west by Orange-eunty, from which it is separated
by the St. Johns river. It contains about 1,800 square miles. The St. Johns river runs
the entire length of its western border, and the Halifax and Hillsborough rivers, or

The hsual spelling now and the P. O. is Steinhatchie." The former spelling was Istoenhatchie.'

Its Climate, &oil and Productions. 47

lagoons, traverse the entire eastern boundary, with only a narrow strip of land, formed
by the winds and waves of the ocean, extending between them and the ocean. It is one of
the most progressive and thriving counties in the State. The lands along the west bank
Sof the Halifax and Hillsborough rivers, four or five miles wide, are the richest hammocks,
and were cultivated in sugar cane at a very early period by the English and Spaniards,
the remains of whose extensive works still exist. It is said that four hogsheads of
sugar per acre have been and can be still produced on these lands. West of this is
a belt of prairie, interspersed with pine and cabbage palmetto, extending the-
entire length of the county, and affording magnificent grazing for stock. Next,
further west, extending from the northern end of the county south about thirty miles,.
and varying in width from two to six or seven miles, is a high rolling pine country,
considered by many the best for orange culture, on which are hundreds of beautiful'
young groves; from this, southward, is a high rolling pine scrub, until the St. Johns-
is reached with its varying banks of rich hammock and savanna. Springs, lakes-
and ponds abound all through the county. Enterprise, on Lake Monroe, is the county-
Population, 1870, 1,728; 1880, 8,407-white, 2,889; black, 518. Number acres-
land tilled, M,688. Farm values, $753,410; farm implements and machinery, $8,502;.
live stock, I83,945; farm productions, $54,252. Number horses, 264. Mules, 99.
Working oxen, 40. Milch cows, 2,610. Other cattle,5,720. Butter, lbs.,4,985. Swine,
8,578. Poultry, 5,150. Eggs, doz., 88,189. Indian corn, bush., 1,876. Cotton, bales,.
184. Sugar, hhds.,18. Molasses,galls., 5,985. Potatoes, bush., 81,255. Market garden
productions sold, $8,010. Lumber and saw mills, capital, $14,000. Lumber, feet,.
1,150,000. Shingles, 100,000.

Bounded on the north by Leon, east by Jefferson, south by the Gulf of Mexico,.
and west by Franklin and Liberty counties, from which it is separated by the Ocklock-
onnee river. It has an area of about 650 square miles. The surface is generally level,
though sufficiently undulating for drainage. The lands vary from light pine to the-
richest hammock, and are intersected by streams, the most important of whichh are the
St. Marks, Wakulla and Sopchoppy. There are numerous springs-sulphur, cha-
lybeate and pure water. The sulphur springs at Newport, in the eastern part of the-
county, were formerly a popular resort for invalids, and the famous Wakulla springs,
whose transparent waters create the sensation, while floating on its surface, of being
suspended in the air, forms one of the most wonderful and attractive features. The-
port of St. Marks, at the mouth of the river of that name, and the terminus of the Talla--
hassee Railroad, was formerly a place of considerable commercial importance; the con-
struction of the various lines of railway from the Atlantic ports has diverted this trade.
The streams abound in fish, and the coast in oysters, and with the facilities for com-
munication with the markets of the world, there are abundant inducements for settle-
ment and cultivation. Stock growing and agriculture are the leading industries.
Crawfordsville is the county seat, and is near the centre of the county, and in a
fertile and productive portion.
Population, 1870, 2,506; 1880,2,750--white, 1,460; black, 1,290. Number acres land
tilled, 9,329. Farm4alues, $121,106; farm implements and machinery, $9,164; live
stock, $55,020; farm productions, $91,826. Number horses, 69. Mules, 20. Milch
cows, 959. Other cattle, ,245. Butter, lbs., 8,000. Swine, 4,848. Poultry, 10,236.
Eggs, doz., 14,964. Rice, lbs., 47,589. Potatoes, bush., 18,780. Grist mills, cap--
ital, $6,500.

48 Semi Tropical Florida;

Bounded north by Alabama and Holmes county, east'by Holmes and Washington,
-south by the Gulf of Mexico, and west by Santa Rosa county. It embraces an area of
about 1,800 square miles. The county was first settled in 1823, by a colony of Scotch
families, who located in Uchee Valley, and whose descendants still possess the land.
The lands of Walton county are principally pine; along the eastern boundary much of
the soil is light, but there are exceptions, notably on the Choctawhatchie, where there is
a tract fifteen miles long, by four wide, of exceeding fertility. In the Uchee Valley is
another tract of rich land, with. clay subsoil, of about the same extent. Along the
eastern and southern boundaries water communication with the Gulf of Mexico is fur-
nished by the Chocti.whatchie river and bay, both navigable for steamboats, while
the interior is watered by numerous creeks and runs, some finding their way into the
Choctawhatchie, and others passing west into Pensacola Bay.
Stock raising, for which there is a good range, Is carried on to considerable extent.
The crops are cane, cotton and corn. Apples and peaches do well.
The county seat is Ucheesna.
Population, 1870, 8,041; 1880, 4,270-white, 3,790; black, 480, Number acres land
tilled, 9,144. Farm values, $12 976; farm implements and machinery, $10,328; live
stock, $132,514; farm productions, $88,184. Number horses, 870. i Mules, 47. Work-
ing oxen, 449. Milch cows, 8,956. Other cattle, 7,735. Butter, lbs., 18,129. Swine,
8,509. Poultry, 15,475. Eggs, doz., 26.984. Rice, lbs., 112,988. Indian corn, bush.,
-48,965. Oats, bush., 9,898. Cotton, bales, 888. Molasses, galls., 19,274. Potatoes,
bush.. 27,945. Peaches, bush., 2,325. Honey, lbs., 12,324. Wax,-Ibs., 1,418. Lumber
.and saw mills, capital, $23,500. Lumber, feet, 1,520,000. Laths, 137,000.

Bounded north by Holmes and Jackson, east by Jackson and Calhoun, south by
the Gulf of Mexico, and west by Walton county, containing about 1,400 square miles.
The surface is considerably broken into hills and ridges in the northern part; the
greatest elevation is Orange Hill; east of this is Oak Hill, about two miles southward;
and Mossy Hill and Wind Hill, never the head.of Holmes valley. The hills are gener-
ally good soil with clay foundation. Holmes valley is the most extensive tract of
good soil in the county. The principal water courses are the Choctawhltchie on the
west, into which empty Holmes and Pine Log creeks. The Econfina creek rises near
-the north line, and runs southward into North Bay, a prong of St. Andrews Bay, which
extends along the coast in the southern part of the county. Bear creek, about ten miles
long, runs southwest into North Bay. Vernon is the county seat.
Popul: tion, 1870, 2,302; 1880, 8,288-white, 2,880; black, 858. Number acres land
tilled, 10,000. Farm values, $160,000; farm implements and machinery, $150,000; live
stock, $152,880; farm productions, $154,800. Number horses,400. Mules, 260. Work-
ing oxen, 400. Other cattle, 12,840. Wool, lbs., 6,000. Swine, 5,720. Poultry, 11,920.
Eggs, doz., 14.480. Rice, lbs., 82,000. Potatoes, bush., 28,600. Peaches, bush., 4,000.
Market garden productions sold, $500. Honey, lbs., 5,000. Lumber and saw mills,
capital, $25,000.

It Climate, oil and Productios. 49


JACKSONVILLX FLa., March 31st, 1880.
How. BTm FawwCH, Commissioneretc.:
Dear Sir-As requested by you, s have the honor to make the following statement
in regard to the temperature on th~eBluff, in the village of Brooklyn, a suburb of the
city of Jacksonville, Duval county, Florida, as certained by me, with the aid of a
registering thermometer, for the yeat*commencing with April 1st, 1879, and closing
with March 81st, 1880. The year is thus constituted, because it is the only consecutive
time in which I have remained in Florida a whole year round.
Now I desire to say, right here, that I was more comfortable, in regard to excessive
heat, than in any summer spent in Washington, District of Columbia, or at my home
in Mohawk, in New York. The truth is, it is hotter in the long days of July and
August, in Quebec, in Lower Canada, than it is here. Then, too, we have breezes
either from the Gulf of Mexico on the west, or from the Atlantic Ocean on the east.
These, with the trade winds, have a cooling influence upon the atmosphere.
If the following tables show a less degree of heat than the statements of the Signal
Corps, it will be due to the fact that their thermometer is located in the central part of
Jacksonville, where it must be more or'less affected by reflections from the streets and
houses, while mine is placed in the country where no such causes can influence it.
Very respectfully yours,

April, 1879.....Mean maximum. .............. .58 October, 1879..Mean maximum .............7.0
Mean minimum .............58.00 Mean minimum............ 8.00
Mean average for month.....66.76 Mean average for month .... 7.0
May, 1879...... Mean maximum ............78.00 November, 1879 Mean maximum ..............
Mean minimum........... 0 n minimum...........00
Mean average for month.....78.00 Mean average for month ....38.0
June, 1879 ...Mean maximum..............82.80 December, 1879 Mean mamum .............71.00
Mean minimum ..............70.70 Mean minimum... .............00
Mean average for month.....76.50 Mean average for month ....a.80
July, 189 ......Mean maximum ............87.90 January, 1880..Mean maximum ..............10
Mean minimum.............74.60 Mean minimum............6..0.
Mean average for month ....81.:6 Mean average for month.....61.5
Aagnt, 1879...Mean maximum ..........84.20 February, 1880.Mean maximum ............ 7.00
Mean minimum...... .......74.40 Mean minimum............ .00o
Mean average for month.....99.30 Mean average for month ....60.00
September,1879Mean maximum .............78.90 March, 1880....Mean maximum .............74.00
Mean minimum...............80 Mean minimum.............0.30
Mean average for month.....74.88 Mean average for month ....87.15
Spring.....Mean maximum...............75.18 Autumn...Mean maximum.............7.....1.
Mean minimum ..............61.0 Mean minimum.................04.0
Mean average for season ........ 80 Mean average for season ........B.0
8ummer...Mean maximum................. 84.80 Winter ....Mean maximum..................0W.
Mean minum..................8 27 Mean minimum................ ...00
Mean average for season ........79.00 Mean average for season ........ 1.4
Mean maximum, 76.10; mean minimum, 68.20; mean average for 866 days, 69.6.
Highest temperature, July llth, 99. The mercury reached 90 but eleven times, and
fell below 40 but seven times during the year. Lowest temperature, November 21st, 88*.

g0 Smi Tropical Florida;


WASHINGTON, D. C., November 2d, 1880.

8ir-I have the honor to forward herewith the Meteorological Data, furnished, at
your request, by the Sergeant in charge of the station at Jacksonville, Florida.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
First Lieutenant 20th U.. 8. Infantry,
A. 8. 0. and Asistant.





Maxt- Mini- annual
mum. mum. Means.
X-1- I I~

_________ _______ I- II-






No. of
days oii

60.61 184
S48.31 120
57.60 103
55.08 96
51.62 190
60.42 108
47.18 138
8.17 11
6 17 12
1.69 8
1.50 9
6.24 11
8.00 18
6.94 17
8.96 19
5.21 18


Max. temp. in June and July. Min. Jan.
Max. temp. in August. Min. Jan. and Dec.
Max. temp. in Jly. Min. Dec.
Max. temp. in July. Min. Dec.
Max. temp. in July. Min. Dec.
Max. temp. In May and Aug. Min. Dec.
Max. temp. in July. Min.Jan.

Mean temperature for the five years, 1875, 1876, 1877,. 1878 and 1879: 69.2.
Mean humidity for the three years, 1877, 1878 and 1879: 69.2.
The mean humidity for the five months, November, December, January, February
and March, is about 4 per cent. less than the mean for five years.
Mean rainfall for the five years, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878 and 1879: 54.47 inches.

Sergeant Signal Corp, U. S. A.


1875. .....
1876 -........
180. May..
Aug. --
L Sept.

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 51


The' comparative humidity of Florida, as connected with health, is shown in the
appended tables, presented in the valuable address delivered before the Florida Medi-
cal Association in 1880, by Dr. C.J. Kenworthy, of Jacksonville.
The mean relative humidity of the localities referred to, for the cold months, is as


pr ct. prct pr t prc prct. prc prt pt.prt. t. pr t.
Cannes and Mentone....---.--... ... 71.8 74.2 72.0 70.7 73.8 72.4
Augusta, Ga........................ 71.8 72.6 78.0 64.7 62.8 68.9
Breckenridge, Minn ............... 78.9 88.2 76.8 81.8 79.5 79.6
Duluth, Minn--............--...- ..- 74.0 72.1 72.7 78.8 71.0 72.6 74.8
St Paul, Minn. ..--..---..... ..--.-- 70.3 78.5 75.2 70.7 67.1 71.8
Jacksonville, Fla. ---------------- 71.9 69.8 70.2 68.5 68.9 68.8
Key West, Fla..--..------..-----. 77.1 78.7 78.9 77.2 72.2 76.8 72 7
PuntaRassa, Fla. .--------------- 72.7 78.2 74.2 78.7 69.9 72.7

"From the above data, it appears that the mean relative humidity of Cannes and
Mentone, during the cold months, exceeds that of Jacksonville by nearly four per cent.
Three stations in Minnesota have a mean of 74.8, and three in Florida a mean of 72.7,
showing a per cent. of 1.6 in favor of Florida, and 5.5 per cent in favor of Jacksonville
over Minnesota."
If we take the entire year, for a period of five years, we will find but little differ-
ence in the mean relative humidity of Minnesota and Floridal as the following data,
kindly furnished us by the Chief Signal Officer of the United States Army, will demon-
strate : "



1 a

prC. prt. pr ct. pr ct. pr pr ct
1875 ..---.....----- ..--....... .7 67.2 69.0 70.8 76.0 71.5
1876...--..-.....-----...- .... 7.7 68.2 69.1 67.2 78.9 76.1
1877 ..--..---...----------- 72.2 71.9 67.6 69.8 70.5 74.1
1878...............-- ....--.. 76.2 71.5 67.7 68.7 72.4 74.5
1879.....-----......-.-- .----- 74.1 72.8 65.8 60.7 72.8 74.8
Mean for5 years--............... 78.2 70.8 67.7 69.0 78.0 74.2
Mean for 5 years for States..---.. 70.4 72.1

52 Semi- Tropical Florida;

Showing the Mortality and Population of the State of Florida for the year ending June
1st, 1880, as returned to the Census Bureau at Washington, D. C., and also the
Deaths from Consumption and other Pulmonary Diseases for the same period.

_______________\f --


Death from Pl- Tota
Deaths from monary Diseases Poplation
Consumption.* other Pop to
than Phthieaf.

Alachua------------------- 6 8 1 8 18,597
Baker--..-...--.----------. 7 0 0 2,812
Bradford .----..- ------ 80 8 0 6,167
Brevard-..---. ------.....-- 12 1 0 1,486
Calhoun .........------.. -- 19 0 2 1,875
Clay ---..---------------..................... 46 5 0 2,755
Columbia --------------. 91 2 8 9,594
Dade -....- --------------- 8 0 0 195
Duval-..---. -----.--------- 284 84 11 17,762
Escambia -....---... --.... 107 17 8 12,217
Franklin....------- ....--- 15 1 0 1,741
Gadsden ...-----..... -----. 191 8 10 11,588
Hamilton ------.. ----.. ---- 81 8 1 6,486
Hernando .- ----------- 0 0 0 4,254
Hillsborough---....-------- 40 6 1 5,888
Holmes .... .----------..... 28 1 8 2,774
Jackson.--.....------..... 182 8 22 14,487
Jefferson.------. -----...... 158 10 14 16,186
Lafayette .-----.... -------. 11 0 0 2,600
Leon --.........--------------.. 282 8 88 20,825
Levy.............-------.-- 78 7 2 5,776
Liberty .---- --.----.------ 15 1 0 1,287
Madison .------------------ 184 5 10 15,118
Manatee ------------- 0 0 0 8,674
Marion .................... 88 4 2 18,000
Monroe--.--.--..... ..---- 62 4 8 10,027
Nassau ..---------------... 67 6 1 6,546
Orange ..----. .------------ 85 6 5 6,190
Polk-----. -----------.. 28 1 4 8,166
Putnam-------------------- 58 6 8 6,250
Santa Rosa.---..----------- 19 2 4 6,701
Summer .........---------. 87 0 0 6,07,
St. Johns .---..-----... --- 58 14 5 4,595
Suwannee---.... .----------- 91 5 4 7,879
Taylor .-----... ----.. -----. 45 1 8 2,280
Volusia.--- ----........... 81 0 1 8,407
Wakulla-----. ----------.. 11 0 0 2,750
Walton ..--------.....-.--- 81 0 1 4,270
Washington.......----...... 81 0 2 8,288

Total-..---------- 2,514 164 141 274,864

Total deaths in 1,000 of all ages.... .........------................ 9
Total deaths from Consumption in1,000 of all ages ............------ 6-10
Total deaths from other Pumonary Diseases in 1,000 ...-------...... 5-10

*A large proportion of the deaths from consumption are cased of invalids from other States and

Its Climate, Soil and Productions.


Showing the population of Florida by Race, as returned to the Census Bureau at

Washington, D. C., June 1, 1880:

-- .___. -


Alachua........ ---......... ...............
Baker ...-..-...- ......---.- ...-- ..
Bradford .. ......................---
Brevard .....----------. ---------.
Calhoun ao.......u--.u n---- ---------
Clay ---------...............---------............
Columbia .................-------------------------
Dual...........-----........... .......
Escambia ................................

Hernando .--- ..--------.......... -- --- .
Hillsborough ..-----.------------...----
Holme...----......................--- .....
Jackson -----------.-------.. ---..-
Jefferson-......--.......... ...-.... ......
La Fayette ..............................
Leon.....-........ ..................
Madison .......................
Nasau -----.................--...........-.......
Polk ......................................
Putnam ---.................................
Banta Rosa ................................
Bumter ....... ..........................
St. Johns .....-----------..........---................
Suwannee ...........................--
Taylor ....................................
Volusia ..................................
Wakulla ... ....-- .---.............. ....
Washington ...............................



Total .......---................. 148,877








Population in 1870 ---..-------... -. ................-...-..--- 187,748
Increase in ten years .......--............------------ ----------... 84.116

Con)piled by S. U. HAx oxD, Esq., of Fort Gates, from the U. S. Censas returns, June 1st, 1880, showing the number of Acres under cultivation and the amount of
leading Productions for the year 1879, together with number and value of Live Stock, etc., etc.

-- .' ,1 jl JJ II I S jj ^J |
Co-__-. 11 1 3
d d I a
A 0

Alachua................ 49,771 (791,86 7,515 589,488 2,68 8420 11,245 107,400 258,940 2, 2,911 107,21 7,450 17,290 $41,865...
Baker.................. 4,877 77,57 53,93 53,650 81 ,482 4,492 29,535 28,07 2,494 20 4,242 7,815 10,72 ........ 2,245
Bradford................ 16,125 281,79 17,81 180,010 875 4,518 9,096 86,000 79,540 4,80....... 7,700 10,400 4,720....... .....
Brevard ............. ... 1,950 810, 171,867 46,840 190 ,888 2,400 22,010........ .. .. .... ... 20, 8,949 8,110
Calhoun................. 4,366 ,775 42,67 45,972 48 5,702 2,74 21,570 21,980 2,89 14 10,590 1,887 2270........ 12,848
Clay..... ............. 8,871 9 4,00 68,825 826 2,651 4,489......... 12,012 ..86 8,4 ....... 14, ..........
Columbia.......... 8.3,96 371,29 190,217 317,825 1,515 8,762 9,797 .65,705 70,751 4,184 129 7,61 10,800 41,740...... 1,280
ade (no returns)............. ........... .......... ....... ........ .... ........... ....... ........
Duval................. 4,200 811,745 166,031 48,125 428 3,738 3,254 16,775 9,802........ 288 7,393 8,806 2, 18,514 8,08
Eecambia................ 1,968 112,5 2,355 81,000 0 4,9 2,309......... ......... ....... ........6,000 1 ........ 10,00
Franklin ............. ...... 0,7 18,80 10,580 18 1,869 1,318......... 1,761............... 18,0....... 19, ........ 200
Gadsden............... 76,997 767,514 166,696 459,710 2,461 14,829 9,587 41,400 183,825 27,150 5,8721 5,660 0 1,830 7,84 ........ 24,400
Hamilton............... 40,024 453,8 157,451 190,680 857 10,478 10,498 130,516 110,888 21,898 1,867 14,708 2,840 88,39 1,50 9,89
Hernando.... ......... 12,720 878,000 21,000 ,000 1,68 24,960 28,200 90,00 9,000 20,400 4 36,000....... 120,00........ 6,400
Hillsborough........ .. 11,447 1,046, .......... .......... 940 17,219 9,595 11,000 55,690 20 65 81 ...... ........ 12,87
Holmes... ............. 7,040 4921 6,84 44,40 67 8,00 9,000 198,000 57,000 5,000 820 ,20 4,200 1 ........ 0,40
Jackson................ 128,406 1,173,40 409,27 1,908,481 ,2 12966 29,467 72,22 407,722 6,41 11,85 55780....... 10 ....... 2,400
Jeeron................ 8,980 2,0, 01,65 76,618 2,208 7,284 12,512 8,40 859,704........ 8,728 67,896....... ,4 ........ ,185
Lafayette ............... 7,78 92, 80,1 50,220 2,088 12,417 4,778 ............................................ 11,8 ..........
Leon .................... 104,047 86837 19656 0,190 8,0 6,04 12,054 5,545 26,684 29,986 9,2 63,988 2,8 114,10 ........ 8,780
Levy..................... 15,528 268,8 16,81 149,810 7,486 5,144 ..... 45,886 16,840 440 24.....10,900.......
Liberty.................. 8,8 67,77 44,01 55,779 18 5,880 8,12 24,8 16,285 6,756 110,991 ....... 18, ........
adison................. 61,910 9, 211, 681,695 2,994 18,427 17,08 10,00 84,00 4,040 6,778 108,11 ....... 1,99 ....... 00
Manatee................. 884, 912, 177,600 1460 190,650 8,400...... ... ..... ........ .14,400
Marion.................. 49,794 1,11,00 44,015 292,588 2,213 17,402 10,274 18,880 187,255 4,400 2, 83,876 ....... 79,21 .. ..... 2,025
Monroe.................. 906 111, 12, 19,200 1 5,70 8,10......... ......... ........ ....... 12,000....... 5,400................
Nassau.................. 4,58 186, 62,182 48,896 832 7,516 8,041......... 24,400 2,578 02 10,409 4,987 2,212 2,177 508
Orange .................. 18,166 881,410 20, 90,025 1,884 12,188 8,581 ,7 10,689 1,11 71 21,219 ....... 7,8 ........ 6,158
Polk.................. 8,10 4,00,0 0 86000 64 140 6,80....... 2 3 4,800....... ,400........ 7,200
Putnam ................. 18,718 151,57 80, 146,7 567 ,64 4,269 4,37 27, ,182 1, 7,659....... ,091 17,9 5,09
anta Ros.............. ,09 0,600 24, 84,200 8 01 2, ,140 10,596 960....... 8,94 1,40........ 2,8
t. Johns................ ,880 717,190 67, 86,68 4 ,8 ,80 18,9 44 8 11, 4 9,87... ........
Sumter.................. 10,412 474,024 79,0 26,542 1,02 6,8 7 ......... 46,880 6,870 200 9,........ ,940........ 800
Suwannee................ 82,785 401,904 1,57 289,21 8014 44 4,400 10,0 12,884 1,648 17, 10,09 000 8 ........
Taylor.................. 8,794 87,102 75,6 87,105 9,1 7, 4,8 48,791 6,900 474 607 ..... 2,685
Volsia.................. 688 410 83,94 54, 8 ,370 8,57....... .. 1,876 ....... 184 6,9 00 81, 8,010...
Wakulla ................ 9, 121,106 91,26 8 04 4,......... ....... ..... ........ ....... ........
Walton................... 9,144 16,976 12,14 86,14 41 12,14 8, 11,9 48, 9,89 888 19,274 2,82 794........ 12,824
Washington....... .. 10,000 16000 1 154,800 1 18, 00 ,7 ......... ........ ...... .... 4,000 600 0 0 ,000
Total................ 86s,515ai (,12,0183 5,088,744 88,129,8010 89.8 516.966 "897,1 1,450,9 8,0 .657 806.766, 6702 98835 89,88 1,758,09 101,58 210 7
The product of oranges for the year 1879 is estimated at 45,000,000 (not returned). Lemons, limes, guavas and pine apples are quite extensively cultivated.

Its Climate, Soil aZnd Productiois.

[An effort ire made to secure from each and every county full statistics of the
products resources and local advantages. Blanks were prepared and furnished to the
assemors and prominent citizens for that purpose, but there being no law authoring
remuneration, no full response was made save from the county of Putnam. The Fruit.
Growers' Association, and S. U. Hammond, Esq, one of its most enterprising members,
took the pains, and incurred the expense, to make detailed report in regard to Putnam;
and while other counties could, undoubtedly, have made equally as good or better
exhibits, we are deprived of the necessary data to establish the fact. At the same time
we can not deny the County of Putnam the space required, after they have incurred the
labor and expense to furnish her exhibit, which is subjoined, as a sample of what was
desired from all the counties.]


Showing the Location, Number of Groves, Bearing and other Orange Trees, together
with the Yield of Oranges in 1879, in PUTAxx Oourr, as Collected and
Compiled by the Lake George Fruit Growers' Association.


Lake George------------------..- 8 1,890 1,0 840 1,550 62,00 150,000
Drayton Island---------........... 17 875 80 2,480 5,5 68,450 88,40
Georgetown --....-...---..-.........----... 11 544 217 855 2,229 5,875 164,00
Fort Gates -.... ...-.........- 7 77 4 288 1,850 ,2 5,000
Syracuse, (Ft. Gates P. O.)....---- 8 20 2,040 1,561 ........
Norwalk .----.---- ....-- 89 57 845 10,541 7,912 .......
Lake Kerr, (Norwalk P. O.)--... 7 16 805 40 870 70 1,500
Fruitland, (Mt. Royal P. O.)..--.. 84 571 496 965 11,412 48,800 54,600
Mt. Royal--..---.....----- 14 707 431 868 5,088 2,4 72,500
Welaka --... ....---- ..-- -- 47 750 840 458 15,158 7,00 42,550
Crescent City.................... 74 8,89 1,20 885 7,875 60,40 587,850
Lake Como..........-- --- 14 50 185 884 4,940 8,0 550
Lake Broward, (Lake Como P. 0.) 21 65 ...... 1,50 10,017 8,00 72,00
Nashua and Saratoga ... ....-. 28 172 165 258 5,975 85,000 7,250
Buffalo Bluff .......-.. ----- 5 648 510 17 1,048 8,700 114,500
San Mateo..................... 90 5,500 1,00 1,000 26,000 50,001,250,000
Orange Mills..---- ------..---- 19 5168 2,015 2,889 4,500 7,70 641,000
Federal Point ...---....------ i 2,00 8,905 2,105 7,880 6, 247,150
Verdier, opp. Orange Mills --....--... 12 581 1, 4888 1,0 7,400
Palatk, (county seat)........... 100 11,281 18,121 9,811 8,870 V7,87 1,727,300
Penial, (Palatka P. O.)--........ 43 28 264 6,021 90,05 182,688
Jamestown, (west side county).... 48 1,21 158 .... 12,770 26,000 46,000
Banana, (west side county)---. 50 1,00 1, .. 7,850 12,8 128,00
Orange Springs (west side county) 12 95 590 1,70 5,000 29,00 45,000
All others not enumerated..--.... 10 500 400 1,800 2,000 5,00 75,000
Total--.--............---- 88 88,098 29,060 80,576208,790 59,650,910,788

No' .-The most careful judges estimate that the increase in the yield of oranges
in 1880, will be at least twenty-five per cent. greater than in 1879. The demand for
budded trees in the early part of 1880 exceeded the supply.

Semi- Rpicoal Florida;


Furnished by the Lake George Prnit Growers' Association. -

Fnurrs.-Bananas, 1,060; pineapples, 1,431; peaches, bush., 2,000; strawberries,
quarts, 56,225; figs, bush., 500; grapes, bush., 400.
MARKET VEGETABLEs.-Cucumbers, bush., 10,430; tomatoes, boxes, 8,000; cab-
bages, bbls., 3,630; melons, 188,000.
MERCHANDISE SOLD i 1879.-Value, $400,000.
APIACULTURE.-Total stand of bees, 1,592.
CHRCHEAs.-Catholic, 1; Catholic nunnery, 1; Episcopal, 5; Methodist, 7; Baptist,
5; Presbyterian, 1; Universalist, 1; Union, 8.
CORDWOOD SoLD.-Value, $13,500.
NEwsPAPERs.-One, Democratic, Palatka.
PosT OlfiCEs.-Total number, 21; total letters and other mail matter forwarded
and received in 1879, 493,451. Money orders issued, 7,182, for $46,250.04; number
cashed, 1,079, for $27,497.82.
LAND.-Total acres in county, 281,210, divided as follows: United States lands,
118,660; State lands, 92,850; Spanish grants, 56,700; improved, 13,000 and upwards.
TAXABLE ACRES AND VALUEs.-Taxable acres, 185,000; value of real property out-
side city and town lots, $572,000; value of city and town lots, including improvements,
$232,000; value of personal property, $224,000.
TAXES.-Total net amount of State tax, $8,832; total county, $8,890.
COUNTY INDEBT4DNEBS.-Nearly $16,000; this includes $8,000 loaned by the State
to the county in 1857, Which, with the accumulated interest, now amounts to $12,000.
SCHOOL CENsus.-Number youth between 4 and 21, 2,500; number schools, 42;
total pupils enrolled, 1,144; total average attendance, 852; male teachers, 27; female,
12; salaries of teachers from $15 to $50 per month of 22 days.
MAmnrACTunEs.-Saw mills, capital, real and personal, $17,500; value of logs con-
sumed, $50,000; number feet produced, 2,400,000; laths, 150,000. Steam shingle factory,
capacity, 40,000 shingles daily; plow factory, blacksmith shops, etc.
MxscELL~ANOUs.-Fisheries, bbls., 500; moss sold, bales, 1,110; hides, number,
4,175; tallow, lbs., 2,000; vegetable and fruit crates, 20,000.
HousEs.-Total number in county, 1,300.

It CZlimate, Boil and Productions. 57


We have obtained from Grand Secretary D. C. Dawkins, who is also Inspector
General (88d D), the following:
Grand Lodges, 1; Councils, t Commanderies, 2; Lodges of Perfection, *; Lodges,
88; Members, 2,048.
This, 1879, is the 51st year of the Grand Lodge in Florida. T'he institution here
has always embraced our very best citizens, and extreme care and scrutiny pervades all
lodges in accepting candidates; and many a "brother" from distant parts, sojourning
here, has had reason to be grateful for sympathy and assistance from brethren here.
Lodges are to be found in every county, and are increasing as fast as population
advances. Most have buildings of their own in which to hold meetings.

The ODD FzLLows have several Lodges and a'considerable membership in this State.


PBnoT CszT EPIrcoPr.-Parishes, and missions, 27; clXy, 17; families, 900;
communicants, 1,600; Sunday school teachers, 178; Sunday school scholars, 1,504;
contributions, 1878, $18,217.98. This church is having a steady and healthy growth in
this State. Most of the buildings have been built since 1865, and are of the Gothic
style. Recently, active missionary measures have been inaugurated.
PBssBTrrnzaI.-Ministers, 80; churches, 50; members, 1,500.
METHODIST EPIBCOPAL CHUBCH SOUT--Ministers, 172; district, 5; pas al
charges, 65; members, 11,215; Sunday schools, 159; teachers and officers, 886; pupils,
5,551; value of church property, $105,170.
THu METHODIST EPIrcoPAL CHO caH has also ministers, churches, and members.
BAPzsT.-Associations, 19; churches,800; members, 20,000; ministers, m00; Sunday
schools, 100; officers and teachers, 820; pupils, 2,800-this includes bdth white and
colored; estimated by Rev. C. Y. Waugh, of Gainesville, to be 18,000 white and 7,006
The Catholic Church is well represented in various parts of the State.

58 Senit- Tropical Florida;


The following is a list of the Newspapers printed in Florida, with Post Office
Address of each:

Bulletin, -
Cedar Keys Journal, -- -
Clear Water Times,
. Crescent, -. -
Daily. Florida Union, -
Daily Sun and Press,
Daily Telephone, -
Democrat, -
East Florida Banner,
Expositor, -
Fernandina Express, -
Florida Agriculturist, (devoted to agriculture),
Florida Despatch, -- -
Florida Mirror, -
Florida Press,
Floridian, -
Gainesville Bee, -
Gainesville Sun, -
Key of the Gulf, -
Key West Vidette, *
Lake City Reporter,
Madison Recorder, -
Mandarin Advertiser,
Marianna Courier, -
Monticello Constitutio -
Orange County Reporter, -
Our Paper, -
Palatka Herald, -
Patriot, -
Pen and Press,- -
Pensacola Advance, -
Pensacola Gazette, -
Quincy Herald, - --
uincy Star, -
Republican, -
South Florida Citizen, (devoted to agriculture), -
South Florida Journal,- -
South Florida Times, -
Star, -
Standard, -
St. Johns Weekly, -
Sunmter County Advance, -
Sunland Tribune, -
Tampa Guardian, -
Volus'a County News, -

Live Oak.
Cedar Keys.
Clear Water.
Key West.
Live Oak.
De Land.
Saint Augustine.
Key West.
Key West.
Lake City.
De Land.
S Pensacola.

Orange City.
St. Augustine.
S- Starke.
Orange City.

Its Climate, Soil and Productions. 59


This is one of the industries of Florida that has suddenly attained very consider-
able proportions. From barely nothing, in a commercial sense, at the close of the
war, the business has grown t e worth $1,000,000 in 1880. Masured by the progress
of the past, it is destined to become, in a very short time, one of the leading industries
of the State. Last year there were exported at least forty-five millions of oranges.
The business so far has been very successful, and is daily inviting more capital
and enterprise. There is already $10,000,000 invested in orange groves in the State,
with a field open for the prof-
itable employment of fifty
millions more. Lands suit-
able for growing oranges are
in abundance and at low
Prices. Orange groves can
be found in almost every
past of the 8tate, and on all
varieties of soil well drained,
the groves numbering each
from ten to 10,000' trees.
Hardly a family outside of
the cities but cultivates more
or less orange trees, and
many residing in the cities
do the same. Some of the
largest groves in the State
are owned by persons living
in the towns, or by non-
residents. In some of the
counties there were raised
as high as from four to six
millions of oranges last year
and narrow gaugeirailroads
are rapidly being built to RIsmsn or Mas. H B. 8row3, Hxnnm, P.
afford te middle counties P
facilities for shipping their enormous crop to market. Three such roads have been
completed within the past few months, and others are projected, while more are under-
contemplation. Oranges are shipped from off theie roads to New York in eighty and
,ninety hours' time.
Within the past few years orange culture in Florida has also attained great perfection.
It has reached that position where it is possible to analyze the cost of production.
Abundant evidence exists that can be brought forward to show the value and profit in
it for the investment of capital. Results have shown that there is not at present any
pursuit, where the tilling of the soil is involved, that will yield larger returns with less-
fluctuation. It is always pleasant to be able t confirm such statements with facts. An
extensive orange grower in Patnam county has kept, from the beginning of his grove,
an accurate account of the expenditures and receipts to the close of the thirteenth year,

60 Semi Tropical .FZorida;

ending 1879. The number of trees were 800, and yielded 443,600 oranges, selling for
$7,590, as against an expenditure, omitting cost of land, first cost of trees and interest on
the money, of $1,950. This gives receipts over expenditures, $5,640. This is only one
instance, but it is as good as many, Decause it is only one in a very large number. It
conclusively demonstrates that orange culture is not at all transitory. Nearly all the
obstacles in the path of orange culture have been removed.
The future of the business is still more promising. Florida oranges are conceded to
be superior to all others. In point of numbers, compared to the great quantities con-
sumed, they are few; yet by their greater merit they*have come to occupy the fore.
most place in the market. The genial climate an peculiar soil of Florida, together
with sufficiently warm sun to mature and concentrate the juices without destroying
the lively aromatic flavor of the fruit, impart this quality--a value nowhere else attain-
able to such an extent. The field they are yet to occupy is practically illimitable.
They are yet to possess our own market, the best in the world. This will be the labor
of years, and after a great portion of our'orange lands have been brought under culti-
vation. In 1879, there were 257,000,000 of oranges entered at the port of New York
alone from foreign countries. Double the number, at least, were entered at all the
other ports, making a grand total of 771,000,000 consumed in, and lost on thevoyageto,
this country, in addition to our Florida crop. We can not predict when the domestic
will take the place of the foreign product, but it is inevitable in course of time. Our
inability to supply the demand is the main obstacle.
That this will be the ultimate result is clear from another cause, independent, or
nearly so, of merit. The liability of loss and damage resulting from uncertainties of a
sea voyage forms an important factor in the conduct of the foreign fruit trade, serving
to make it extremely hazardous-a circumstance against which dealers do not have to
contend in the shipment of Florida oranges. We have railroads leading to all the
great markets in America, and when the fruit is transported by water, all the facilities
are afforded by perfect and commodious steamships.
Orange culture, therefore, may go on indefinitely in Florida, without fear of reach-
ing a general redundance of product. When our own market is occupied, those of
Europe and elsewhere will be open to us. The growing desire everywhere, also, of
people for semi-tropical fruits, which the efforts of producers are trying to satisfy, is
unlimited, and, therefore, efforts in orange culture can continue to be put forth until
this unlimited and independent desire is met-a goal which perhaps never can be
To persons of foresight and capital, who are looking to the future rather than the
present for remunerative returns, Florida presents, in her orange pursuit, the most
extended as well as the most inviting field. But aside from the question of profit, the
culture of oranges presents other practical advantages. It is not only a pleasing, but
an independent occupation. Its pursuit is no dead level of monotonous exertion, but
one that affords scope for the development of an ingenious mind. As a producer, the
orange grower is working undei conditions of constantly increasing advantages.
Young men, sometimes with little or no capital, are starting every year in the business,
often away from communities of old and experienced growers, and have succeeded by
dint of tact and industry. In point of regular profits; in point of an industrious,
frugal and cheerful occupation; in point of a very general desire to become indepen-
dent; in point of success and freedom from penury; and in point of repressive and ad-
verse influences in other pursuits, they have found orange culture, in its practical
workings, the most pleasing of occupations. Persons who own groves in Florida are
entirely well satisfied, as a rule, with their investments. A bearing grove is worth a

Its Climate, oil and Production. 61

great deal of money, and to purchase one would require a las cash outlay. In ten
years' time groves are usually in full bearing-often in less mp-and the inducement
to plant one is very great.
Finally, we would say, that the motives that induce men to labor in Florida are the
same as in other States-for profit; and if the energy isd pesistence of the work
be proportionate to the constancy and press of the motives, thea wil they most certainly
succeed, and make the aggregate profit of their investment euld, if it does not exceed,
that of nearly all other pursuits involving no greater outlay of money. Moreover, the
occupation of orange-growing has a tendency to make one hopeful for the future. The
tilling, too, of the soil immeasurably improves the character of the cultivator. Add
to this the beauty of the country ud climate, and the attractions of country life; the
tranquillity of mind which they promise, and the enjoyments which they really afford;
the charm of proprietorship and self-guiding exertion and the buoyancy of outdoor
employment, axd we have all the essentials for acquiring health and happiness, as well
as independence.


No State of the Union has so extended a seacoast as Florida, and none possesses a
larger extent of internal navigable water; nor is there any State which enjoys greater
facilities for cheap, permanent and reliable communication with the commercial marts
of the North and West.
Ocean Steamers leave New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston and
Savannah regularly for Florida, with the most ample accommodations for passengers
and the most extended appointments for freight
At Fernandina these lines connect with the Gulf & West India Transit Railway,
which, at Baldwin, intersects the Florida Central Railway; at Waldo connects with
the Peninsular Railway to Orange Lake, and with the Santa Fe Canal to Santa Fe Lake;
and at Cedar Keys with lines of Gulf Steamers to Tampa, Key West, Havana, New
Orleans, and all the Gulf ports. r .
At Jacksonville, connection are ad with the numerous steamers on the St. Johns
and Ocklawaha rivers, which connect at Tocoi with the St. Johns Railway to St.
Augustine; at Astor, with the'Sk Johns & Lake Eustis Railway; at Sanford, with the
South Florida Railway to Orando; at Salt Lake with the St. Johns & Indian River
Tramway to Titusville; and at Lake Poinsett with lines of stages to the Indian river at
Rock Ledge.
At Jacksonville, also, with the Florida Central Railway, which intersects the Gulf
'West India Transit Railway 4t Baldwin; connects at Lake City with the Jacksonville,
Pensacola & Mobile Railway, which at Ellaville intersects the Suwannee river, which is
navigated by steamers to Cedar Keys; at Live Oak, connects with the Savannah,
Florida & Western Railway; t Tallahassee with the railway to the Gulf at St. Marks;
and at Chattahoochie with lines of steamers on the Apalachicola, Chattashochie and
flint rivers to Apalachicola, Eufajla, Ala., and Columbus, Ga.
All rail routes with close connections and through palace and sleeping cars for pa-
sengers, and fast freight lines with ventilated cars for fruit an vegetables, connect
Florida with Montgomery, Louisville, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Chicago; Savannah,

62 Semi -Tropical Florida;

Charleston, Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Now York and Boston;
thus affording the largest facilities for rapid transit, while the numerous competing
lines prevent exorbitant charges.
The completion of the railways now under construction and to be completed in
January, from Jacksonville to Waycross, and from Jacksonville to Fernandina, will
increase these facilities and shorten the time between Jacksonville and Northern cities
at least six hours.
Lines of sail vessels also ply constantly between the ports of Florida and the North
Atlantic ports, affording safe transportation for emigrants, and for the manufactures and
products of the North in exchange for the lumber, naval stores, manufactures and
products of the South, at rates s6 low as to place the State in competition, in the
markets of the North, with the most favored States of the West.


That the State of Florida offers superior inducements to immigration and capital
to any other State of the Union, has long been apparent to all who had become ac-
quainted with her local advantages and internal resources; but it is only within a brief
period that these advantaged have become in any measure appreciated abroad so as to
attract general attention or divert the westward tendency of the swelling current of
immigration seeking new homes, cheap, unoccupied lands, and reliable permanent
advantages. It is only within a very few years that the people of the State even have
become acquainted with the fact that agricultural industry as understood and prose-
cuted in the North could be pursued here throughout the year without hazard from
climatic influences or local embarrassments, and become remunerative. Experience
has demonstrated the fact that white labor here is attended with no more impediments
than in more frigid climates, and that for a very large class the uniform temperature
is more conducive to health, comfort and longevity than the North.
Industrial development in Florida for the past two years has kept pace with the
returning prosperity of the country and the recovery from the effects of speculation,
inflation and overtrading; and to the permanent staples of cotton, sugar-cane, corn
and rice, have been added all the varied products of diversified agriculture. Orange
growing, and the extended culture of semi-tropical fruits, have assumed proportions
which attract attention in the great markets of the country, while market gardening
has become an assured reliance for immediate subsistence and revenue. Stock growing
is commanding increased attention, and, though still pursued in the reckless and ex-
travagant manner characteristic of the past, its fabulous profits invite capital and
system commensurate with increasing demands and more exacting markets.
The increase of population, wealth and development during the past year has been
such as to afford the most ample guaranties of an immediate and future prosperity
unknown in the past history of the State. The records and correspondence of this de-
partment exhibit the gratifying fact that in all parts of the North and West an interest
has been awakened in behalf of Florida which assures an immigration that will
speedily bring into requisition our extended domain of unoccupied lands, and turn
the tide of Western migration to the more attractive and remunerative fields of the

Its Cimate, Soil and Productions. 63s

Scientific research has dispelled the'revailing error of ean~ml humidity of climate
and malarial insalubrity, and attested the fact, already dolAtetrated from practical
experience, that Florida is not only a Healthful resort tor~n lids, bat a most delightful
as well as healthful home for the farmer, the mechaui, tlhe labor and man of small
means, aswell "dte capitalist and man of business.
The future of Florida is full of promise. The material eWees of the State are
almost incalculabl2,#d with her unequaled climate; hgr peniasular position; her pro-
ductive soil adapted to such an infinite variety of produebsmany of which are peculiar
to herself alone of all the States; her extended forests of valuable timber; her wealth
of fisheries on hxz extended line of seacoast, and in her numerous bays,harbors, rivers
and lakes; her unparalleled commercial advantages; her millions of acres of unoccu-
pied fertile lands; her sound financial condition-with all these combined advantages,
we repeat that Florida offers greater inducements to capital and industry than any
other State of the Union.



The following Act establishing a Bureau of Immigration was passed by the Florida Legisatur at
their session in 1879.
The Commissioner appointed under this law, as Ipitructed, has compiled this pamphlet, to in prt
carry out the object desired.
A lT &A.CT
The People of the State of Florida, repreened in Benate and Assembly, do enact asfollows:
SxcrCoN 1. That the Governor, Comptroller and Commissioner of Lands and Immigration be, and
they are hereby constituted, a Bureau of immigration, whose duty it shall be to encourage mmigrat
and the rapid settlement of the vacant lands of the State. The Bureau, as constituted, shall a int,
subject to the approval of the Senate, a suitable person, to be known as the Commislioner oftJ
Bureau of Immigration, who shall be subject to the Bureau of Immigration, and who shall, byadr-
tising, by lecturing, by the dissemination of correct information as to or soil climate, prodne and
Sseeourees by the arrangement of special rates of transportation between the cities of the North and
West, and of Europe, to this State an by such other method as the Bureau of Immgraton may
approve, invite and encourage immgratlom with the view to the settlement of the vacaat sads : Iro-
sided, That no per capital shall be paid, and no Urrangement be entered into by which the Commissioner
or any other person shall receive compensation upon the basis of the number of immigrants obtained.
8Bo. IS The salary of the said Commissioner of the Bureau of Immigration shall be fixed by the
Bureau. He shall devote himself exclusively to the immigration interests of the State, and in the event
of his death, resignation. or the failure on his part to discharge his duties in a faithful and satisactory
a manner, the Bureau shall have power to appoint another person to discharge his duties until the next
session of the Legislature Said Commissioner may appoint a Secretary to asist him in the performance
ot the clerical duties of his office, the salary of which said Secretry shall be fixed by the Bureau. He
may also appoint agents at suitable points, subject to the approval of the Bureau, whose compensation
shal be fxed by the Bureau. and be paid out of the general appropriation for immigration purposes.
SaildCommissioner shall hold his office for the period of two years.
Sco. 8. That the total amount expended for the purposes of immigration and the settlement of the
vacant lands in each and every year, Fhall not exceed the amount of the annual appropreitte therefore.
Sc 4. That the Commissioner of Lands and Immigration shall be President of the Buteau of
Sac. 5. That for the purpose of practically carrying out the design for which the Bureau of Immi-
gration is established, an appropriation is hereby made for the support and maintenance of said
Bureau, and inclusive of the salaries of Commissioner Secretary and Agents, of fve thousand dollar
per annum, to be derived from any moneys arising rom the sales of State lands belonging to the

Internal Improvement nd, out of ay money a the te ot
priated. Said sm of flvti thousanddollars shall b7e crn i iti I
icree by each succeeding t rni ute n
ts : i Thataot Is t to thousand dollars per nm of e sL 1 s |I I I tn
'preparation and distribtlon of pslet, truthfully and concisely fti t
immigrants to by ad settle upon the te land& in the devera oanti .f the State. OiLjO .
aoner shall mse a qrtarly report at his acts and dongs, and of the pmd of hts 4 e,.to
Bureau of Immgration, and the as" shall be approved by the,= so* '
drawn by said Commislener. He 'hall also subm It tothe said n.n ttt
of erh and every 6yer, a complete annual report of the doinhp a for t
information and consi4eraton of Ifh Legislature whe n in season .-t
Sac. 6. That all laws and parts of laws n conflict with this act are henry repaled.


Cusnron Housm, JAcxsowvu.n FL., CoLUoroB's Orrrm Nov. 17, 1880.
8tatiticeafor the pear ending October 1, 1880.
Feet of lumber carried out of district, - 41,864,081
Valqe of lumber, etc., carried foreign, . ... WON4 00
Value of imports from foreign countries, 851 80
Number of steamers arrived coastwise, 114; tonnage, 111,485
schooners 221; 45,80
vessels arrived from foreign ports, 2- ; .... 4,8
Totals. 861; -... ,697
number of steamrs cleared coastwise, 105; tonnage, 1444
schooners 288; -. 410
vessels ** foreign, -- s8.
Toqtals, - 39; 16.548
B. HIGGINS, Deputy Collector.
Tqnnage of foreign vessels entered, from October 1, 1879. to October 1, 1880, 164,800
American vessels entered foreign, from October 1,1879, to October 1, 1880, 25,78
vessels entered coastwlse, from October 1, 1879, to October 1, 1880, 4.06
Tota tonnage. .. 285I74
F. C HUMPHREYS, Collector of Customs.
CUSTOM HoUsK, Fa NANDINA. FLA., COLLmTOn's Omow Nov. 15, 1880.
Commercial Statistics of the Port of Pernandina, during the twelve months ending October 81, 1880.
Value ol domestic produce exported to foreign countries, -18,876 00
Quontite of principal articles of domestic produce shipped coastwie.
Cotton, bales, -. 4,029 ISpirits Turpentine, gallons. 198,469
Iwoein barrels, -.- 283,573 | Ryeawed Lumber, et, 7,192,000
CHAS. V. HILLYER, Deputy Collector.

The amount of 2Tmber cut and exportedfrom the State during the pastflecal year.
Ports.. Coastwise. Forei
Pencola ............. 2,8,000 192,884
Jacksonville, ............ 42 88 4,444,
Perpandins, ,711,000 B,9200
Apalachicola, .......... 4,71,000 000 .
Cedar Keys and other ports, estimated, 15,000,000 ........
117,74&,885 906,8r4
Total, coastwtie and foreign, .. .. *. -- ,1,l
LsaOY D BALL, Surveyor Genral.

-" ,,, "