The book of martyrs

Material Information

The book of martyrs
Uniform Title:
Actes and monuments
Cover title:
Foxe's book of martyrs
Foxe, John, 1516-1587
Kronheim, Joseph Martin, 1810-1896 ( Lithographer )
Frederick Warne and Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London ;
New York
Frederick Warne and Co
Woodfall and Kinder
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
252 p, [8] leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 14 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Martyrs -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Church history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Christian life -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Persecution -- History -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1887 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1887
Biographies ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
collective biography ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )


Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by John Foxe ; condensed from the larger editions ; with original illustrations printed in colours by Kronheim.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026775522 ( ALEPH )
ALH0332 ( NOTIS )
68181666 ( OCLC )

Full Text

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"Glorify ye the LORD in the fires."-Isaiak xxiv. 15.



THIs Edition of "FOXE'S MARTYRS,' carefully condensed

from the larger ones, will be found to contain the pith and

marrow of the original work.

It is issued for the first time with numerous Coloured

Illustrations, with the hope that Protestants of all grades will

freely extend their aid to its universal circulation.




An account of the : in the Church of Christ from its
first establishmen i. rticularly showingl the difilclnccis
between the ancient and precser' l- f ---- : -- ]' --:- "mpiety,
and blasphemous doctrines of t
CHRIST, hearing the confession of Simon Peter, who first openly
acknowledged H-im to be the Son of God (St. Matt. xvi.), and per-
ceiving the secret hand of his Father therein, answered again; and
alluding to his name, called him a rock, upon which rock he would
build his church so strong, that the gates of hell should not prevail
against it, &c. In these words three things are to be noted. First,
that Christ will have a church in this world. Secondly, that the
same church should be mightily impugned, not only by the world,
but also by the utmost strength and powers of all hell. And, thirdly,
that the same church, notwithstanding the efforts of the devil and
all his malice, should continue. This prophecy of Christ we see
wonderfully verified, insomuch that the whole course of the church
to this day seems nothing else but a verification of it. First, that
Christ hath set up a church needs no proof. Secondly, what force,
what sides and sorts of men, of princes, kings, monarchs, governors,
and rulers of this world, with their subjects, publicly and privately,
with all their strength and cunning, have bent themselves against
this church. And, thirdly, how the said church, notwithstanding all
this, hath yet endured.
To bring these events home to the minds of Christians it will be
necessary to treat in the following order :-


First, of the suffering time of the church, which continued from
the apostles' age about three hundred years.
Secondly, of the flourishing time of the church, which lasted other
three hundred years.
Thirdly, of the declining time of the church, which comprehends
other three hundred years, or about the thousandth year after the
ceasing of persecution. During which space of time the church,
although ambitious and proud, was much altered from the simple
sincerity of the primitive time; yet in outward profession of doctrine
and religion it was something tolerable, notwithstanding some
corruption of doctrine, with superstition and hypocrisy, had then
crept in.
Fourthly, followed the time of Antichrist, or, as it is scripturally
called, the loosing of Satan, or desolation of the church, which con-
tains the space of four hundred years. In this time both Christian
doctrine and sincerity of life were almost extinguished; particularly
in the chief heads and rulers of the west church, through the means
of the Roman bishops, especially from Gregory the seventh, called
Hildebrand, Innocentius the third, and the friars who crept in with
him, till the time of John Wickliffe and J ohn Huss, during a space
of four hundred years.
,Fifthly and lastly, after this time of Antichrist reigning in the
church of God by violence and tyranny, followed the reformation,
or, as it may properly be called, the purging of the church of God,
wherein Antichrist begins to be revealed, and his antichristian doc-
rine to be detected, the number of his church decreasing, and the
number of the true church increasing greatly.
With respect to the church of Rome, in all the ages above
specified, it challenged to itself the supreme title and ringleading of
the whole universal church on earth, by whose direction all other
churches have been governed. In writing, therefore, of the church
of Christ, one cannot but intermeddle with the acts and proceedings
of the said church, because the doings and orderings of all other
churches, from time to time, as well in England as in other nations,
have chiefly depended upon it; in order to give a general descrip-
tion, briefly to show, as in a summary table, the misguiding of that
church, comparing the former primitive state of the church of
Rome with the latter times of the same, and then to proceed more
at large with all the particulars thereof.
The title and style of that church was such, that it surpassed all
other churches; being called the Holy Universal Mother Church,
which could not err; and the bishop thereof Holy Father the Pope,
Bishop Universal, Prince of Priests, Supreme Head of the Universal


Church, and Vicar of Christ on earth, who must not be judged,
having all knowledge of Scripture, and all laws contained whhin his
The jurisdiction of that bishop was such, that, -,.' to
himself both the swords-that is, both the keys of the .1 '. md
the sceptre of the laity--he not only subdued all bishops under him,
but also advanced himself above kings and emperors, causing some
of them to lie under his feet, some to hold his stirrup, others to lead
his horse by the bridle, to kiss his feet ; and placing and displacing
emperors, kings, dukes, and earls where and when he listed, taking
upon him to translate the empire at his pleasure, first from Greece
to France, from France to Germany, preferring and deposing whom
he pleased, confirming them which were elected. Also, being empe-
ror himself, sede vacantc, pretending authority or power to invest
bishops, to give benefices, to spoil churches, to give authority to
bind and loose, to call general councils, to judge over them, to set
up religions, to canonize saints, to take appeals, to bind consciences,
to make laws, to dispense with the law and word of God, to deliver
from purgatory, to command angels, &c.
This doctrine was tedious' to students, pernicious to men's con-
sciences, injurious to Christ, and contrary in itself.
But it should be noted that all these deformities, vain title, pre-
tended jurisdiction, heretical doctrine, and schismatical life, came
not into the church of Rome at once, nor sprang with the beginning
of the same church, but, with long working and continuance of time,
by little and little crept in, and came not to full perfection till the
time partly of pope Sylvester, partly of pope Gregory the seventh in
T170, partly of Innocent the third, and finally of pope Boniface the
eighth in 1300. Of these four popes, the first brought in tile title,
in the year of the Lord 670, which was never before publicly enacted
and received or acknowledged in the church of Rome. The second
brought in jurisdiction. The third, which was pope Innocent, with
his rabble of monks and friars (amongst whom were Thomas
Aquinas, Petrus Lombardus, Johannes Scotus), and such other
bishops as succeeded in the see after him, corrupted and obscured
the sincerity of Christ's doctrine and manners. And lastly, popes
Boniface the eighth and Clement the fifth added the temporal
sword to be carried before them. And they decreed that no empe-
ror (were he never so justly elected) should be sufficient and lawful
without the pope's admission. This was in the year 1300, whereby
the pope's power was now brought to its full pride and perfection.
And thus arose the corruption of the Romish church in continuance
of years by degrees, and not at one time, as is here shown.
B 2

Hence the church of Rome, as it is now governed with this titular
jurisdiction and institution of doctrine, never descended from the
primitive age of the apostles, nor from their succession, nisi tanturn
eqauivoce et non un1ivocce; like as Sancta Maria picta non est Sancta
lMaria, et homo pictus non est homo : that is, as the picture of the
Holy Virgin is not the Holy Virgin, and as a man painted on the
wall is not a man ; so it is to be said of the church of Rome, that
although it hath the name of the church Apostolic, and doth bring
forth a long genealogy of outward succession from the apostles, as
the Pharisees in Christ's time brought their descent from Abraham
their father; yet all this is but only oquivoce, that is, the name
only, and not in effect or matter.
Although Victor, bishop of Rome, in the year 200, went about tc
excommunicate the east churches for the observance of Easter day,
yet neither did he proceed therein, nor was he permitted by Irencous
so to do. And although Boniface the first, writing to the bishops of
Carthage, required of them to send up their appellations to the
church of Rome, alleging the decree of the Nicene council for his
authority, the bishops and clergy of Carthage, assembling together
in a general council (called the sixth council of Carthage) to the
number of two hundred and seventeen bishops, after that they had
perused the decrees in the authentic copies of the Nicene council,
and found no such order, made a public decree, that none out of
that country should make any appeal beyond the see, &c. It is no
wonder if appeals were forbidden them to be made to Rome; for
here in England the kings would not permit any to appeal from
them to Rome, till Henry II., from political motives, submitted to
the influence of pope Alexander III., on account of the murder of
Thomas a Becket. And also in France the like prohibitions were
expressly made by Ludovicus Pius, anno 1264, which forbade, by a
public instrument called Pragna/ica. sanclio, all exactions of the
pope's court within that realm. The like was done also by king
Philip, named Le Bel, anno 1296, which not only restrained all
sending or going of his subjects to Rome, but also that no money,
armour, nor subsidy should be transported out of his realm. King
Charles the fifth, surnamed the Wise, and his son likewise, Charles
the sixth, also punished as traitors certain seditious persons for
appealing to Rome.
The like resistance was made in France against the pope's reser-
vations, prevention, and other practices of his usurped jurisdiction,
in the days of pope Martin the fifth, anno 1418, when king Henry
the sixth in England, and king Charles the seventh in France, both
accorded with the pope in investing and in the collation of bene-


flees ; yet, notwithstanding the high court of parliament in France
did not admit the same, but still maintained the old liberty and cus-
toms of the French church. And when the duke of Bedford came
with the king's letters patent to have the pope's procurations and
reservations admitted, the parliament would not agree to it, but the
king's procurator-general was obliged to interfere.
The Roman emperors made frequent attempts to curtail and
check the powers of the popes. The emperor H-onorius enacted a
law, that none should be made bishops of Rome through ambi-
tion, charging all ecclesiastical ministers to cease from ambition;
appointing, moreover, that if two were elected together, neither of
them should be taken, but the election to proceed to another, who
was to be chosen by a full consent of voices.
To this may be added also the law and constitution of Justinian
the emperor-ratified and renewed afterwards in the council of Paris,
in the time of Ludovicus Pius-where all bishops and priests were
expressly forbidden to excommunicate any man before his cause
was known and proved to be such for which the ancient canons of
the church would have him to be excommunicate. And in his
Const. r23, after the doctrine of St. Paul, he commanded all bishops
and priests to sound out their service and to celebrate the mysteries,
not after a secret manner, but with a loud voice, so as they might
not only be heard, but also that the faithful people might under-
stand what was said and done; whereby we learn that divine
prayers and service was then in the vulgar tongue.
These and numerous other instances that could be adduced, show
that even in the early ages of papacy the sovereigns of Europe were
jealous of, and adverse to, the institutions and authority of the
popes ; insomuch that they thought it necessary to point out to the
catholic bishops and priests what they ought to consider as their
duty. It cannot be denied but the latter church of Rome hath
taken and attributed to itself much more than either the limits of
God's word gives, or as stands with the example of the old Roman
church, in these three things especially:-
The first is this, that whatsoever the Scripture giveth and refer-
reth, either to the whole church universally or to every particular
church severally, this present church of Rome doth arrogate to itself
absolutely and only; both doing injury to other churches, and also
abusing the Scriptures of God. For though the Scripture doth give
authority to bind and loose, it limiteth it neither to person nor place
-that is, not to the city of Rome more than other cities, nor to the
see of Peter more than to other apostles'-but giveth it clearly to the
church, whereof Peter did bear the figure; so, that wheresoever the,


true church of Christ is, there is annexed power to bind and
loose, given and taken merely as from Christ, and not immediately
by the pope or bishop of Peter's see.
The second point wherein this present church of Rome abuses its
jurisdiction contrary to the Scripture and steps of the old Roman
church is 'this, that it extendeth its authority farther and more
amply than either the warrant of thelWord or example of time
will give. For although the church of Rome hath (as other parti-
cular churches have) authority to bind and absolve, yet it hat/i no
authority to absolve subjects from their oath, subjectioni, amd loyalty
to their irlers anc'd ------' dispense wsith perjury, to pro-
znounce reminission, repentance is seen befor-e, to
nuiiibr remission by days and years, to dispense with
pressiv in, the IVord forbidden, or to restrain that which Ii
imakcthie free, to divide religion into religions, to bind and burtheen
coisciences aiti constitutions of men, to excommunicate for worldly
mat/trs-such as not ringing of bells at the bishop's coming, for not
bringing litter for their horses, for not paying their fees and rents,
for withholding the church goods, for holding on their prince's side
in princely cases, for not going at the pope's commandment, for not
agreeing to the pope's election in another prince's realm-with other
such things more vain than these, &c. Again, although the Scrip-
ture giveth leave and authority to the bishop and church of Rome
to minister sacraments, yet it giveth no authority to make [sacra-
ments, much less to worship sacraments; and though their autho-
rity serveth to lbaptize men, yet it extendeth not to christen bells;
neither have they authority by any word of God to add to the word
of God, or take from the same, to set up unwritten verities under
pain of damnation, to make other articles of belief, to institute
strange worship, otherwise than He hath prescribed who hath told us
how He would be worshipped, &c.
The third abuse of the pope's jurisdiction is, that as in spiritual
jurisdiction they have vehemently exceeded the bounds of Scripture,
so they have impudently intermeddled themselves in the temporal
jurisdiction, wherein they have nothing to do; insomuch that they
have translated their empire, they have deposed emperors, kings,
princes, rulers, and senators of Rome, and set up others or the same
again at their pleasure; they have also proclaimed wars, and have
warred themselves. And though emperors in ancient times have
dignified them with titles, have enlarged them with donations, and
they received their confirmation by the emperors, yet, like ungrateful
clients to such benefactors, they afterwards stamped upon their
necks, made them hold their stirrup, and also the bridle of their


horse; have likewise caused them to seek confirmation at their
hand; and, in fact, have made themselves emperors, sede vacant,
ct in. discordia elections, and also have been senators of the city:
moreover, have extorted by their own hands the plenary fulness of
power and jurisdiction of both the swords, especially since the time
of pope Hildebrand; which Hildebrand deposing Henry, the fourth
emperor, made him give attendance at his city gate. And after him
pope Boniface the eighth showed himself to the people on the first
day like a bishop, with his keys before him, and the next day in his
robes imperial, having a naked sword borne before him, like an
emperor : this happened in the year 1298.
Thus having sufficiently shown the manner of life, title, jurisdic-
tion, and government of the pope's see (in all which points it is to
be seen how this latter church of Rome hath receded from the true
ancient church of Rome) it now remains to proceed to the fourth
and last point, which is of doctrine, wherein consisteth the chief
matter that is with us and against them, and which proves that they
arc neither to be reputed for true catholics, being altered so far
from them ; nor z)c other" than hmereics, if we should niozw join woilt
them. For the proof whereof lL ius examine the doctrine and rites
of the said church of Rome now used, and compare the same with
the teaching of the ancient catholics, to the intent that such persons
as have been hitherto, and yet are seduced by the false statements
and image of this pretended churo, t---"-i- what lieth within it,
may be warned betimes either to I I, or, if not, to blame
none but themselves for their own wilful destruction.
And though I could here charge the new-fangled church of the
pope with seven or eight heinous crimes, such as blasphemy,
idolatry, heresy, superstition, absurdity, vanity, cruelty, &c., yet to
pass this matter with them, these two things I will and dare boldly
affirm, that in this doctrine of the pope, now taught in the church
of Rome, is neither any consolation of conscience nor salvation of
man's soul. For seeing there is no life nor soul's health but only in
Christ, nor any promise of salvation or comfort made but only by
faith in the Son of God, what assurance can there be of perfect
peace, life, or salvation, where that which only maketh all is least
made of, and other things which are of least import are most
And lest any should think that we here protest against the corrupt
errors and deformities of this latter church of Rome from motives of
any rancour, rather than necessary causes and demonstrations, I
shall take some little pains to descry the particular branches and
contents of the pope's doctrine, now set forth, to the intent that all
true Christian readers, comparing the one with the other, may discea


zow at great alteration there is between the church of Rome that nozo
is and the church of Rome that ften wias planted by the apostles in
the primitive time. And to open to the simple reader some way
whereby he may the better judge in such matters of doctrine, and
not be deceived in his discerning truth from error, first we will
mention certain principles or general positions, as infallible rules or
truths of the Scripture, whereby all other doctrines and opinions of
men being tried and examined, may the more easily be judged
whether they be true or contrary to the holy Scripture.

i. As sin and death -
ration by'nature, so rig" i i i
men 1 r him by faith and baptism. Rom. 5.
2. r-i f------ t- -*- -- "---- ts, without their deserving,
that the seed of 1 I Gen. 3.
SAbraham, before he deserved anything, that in his seed
II-. -, e f or. n ..
4. To the word of C i i Dent. 4.
5. He thatdoth the Gal. 3
6. Accursed is he who abideth not in everything that is written in the book of the
law. Deut. -7. Gal. 3.

9. II L i I I' II 1 I -. ; 6i
to. i i i .' 6 i Sa I .
TI. i i i i Rom. 3.
very one that believeth.
tRom. io.
4. I I I I ourselves. Gal. 2.
Ephes. 2.
is. There is no remission of sins without blood. I-eb. 9.
16. Whatsoever is not of faith is sin. Rom. 14. Without faith it is impossible to
please God. Heb. ii.
i7. One mediator between God and man, Christ Jesus. i Tim. 2. And he is the pro-
pitiation for our sins. i John 2.
8 the law to be justified, is fallen from grace. Gal. 5.
19. *. I- I I I I omises of God, Est and Amen. 2 Cor. l.
2.. Let everysoul be subject to superior powers, giving to Cmsar that which is Casars,
and to Go d that which is God's. Rom. 13.
These principles and infallible rules of Scripture, which no man
can deny, prove that the doctrine of the pope's church is not
catholic, but full of errors and heresies, as in the sequel will be
more expressly and particularly explained.

A Summary7 Collection of the Errors, Heresies, and Absurdities
contained in the Pope's Doctrines, contrary to the Rules of God's
lWord, and the First Institution. of the Church of Rome.

First, as to the only means and instrumental cause of our justifi-
cation whereby the merits of Christ's passion is applied to us and


made ours, ye heard before how St. Paul ascribes the same only to
faith, as appears by all his letters, especially to the Romans ; where
he, excluding all kind of works, ascribes all our salvation, justifica-
tion, righteousness, reconciliation, and peace with God only to faith
in Christ: contrary to which doctrine the pope and his church
hath set up sundry other means of their own devising, whereby the
merits of Christ's passion, they say, are appled to us and made
ours, to the putting away of sins, and for our justification-as hope,
charity, sacrifice of the mass, auricular confession, satisfaction, merit
of saints, holy orders, the pope's pardons, &c.; so that Christ's
sacrifice, stripes, and suffering, by this teaching, do not heal us, nor
are beneficial to us, though we believe never so well, unless we had
also these works and merits above recited. This error and heresy of
the church of Rome, though it seems at first sight to the natural
reason of man to be of small importance, yet if it be earnestly
considered, it is in very deed the most pernicious heresy that ever
crept into the church; upon which, as the only foundation, all or
the most part of all the errors, absurdities, and inconveniencies of
the pope's church are grounded. For this being once admitted, that
a man is not justified by his faith in Christ alone, but that other
means must be sought, by our own working and merits, to apply the
merits of Christ's passion unto us, then is there neither any certainty
left of our salvation, nor end in setting up new means and merits of
our own devising for remission of sins. Neither has there been any
heresy that either hath rebelled more presumptuously against the
high majesty of God the Father, or more perniciously hath injured
the souls of the simple, than this doctrine.
Secondly, the Christian reader in the gospel, reading of the great
grace and sweet promises of God given to mankind in Christ his
Son, might thereby take much comfort of soul, and be at rest and
peace with the Lord his God; but there comes in the pestiferous
doctrine of these heretics, wherewith they obscure this free grace of
God to choke the sweet comforts of man in the Holy Ghost, and
oppress Christian liberty, and bring us into spiritual bondage.
Thirdly, as in this their impious doctrine they show themselves
manifest enemies to God's grace, so they are no less injurious to
Christian men, whom they leave in a doubtful distrust of God's
favour and of their salvation, contrary to the word and will of God,
and right institution of the apostolic doctrine.

Of sin likewise they teach not rightly, nor after the institution of
the apostles and the ancient church of Rome ; as they consider not


the deepness and largeness of sin, supposing it still to be nothing else
but the inward actions with consent of will, or the outward, such as
are against will : whereas the essence of sin extends not only to
these, but also comprehends the blindness and ignorance of the
mind, lack of knowledge, the untowardness of man's mind, the
privy rebellion of the heart against the law of God, the undelighting
will of man to God and his word, &c.
Of penance this corrupt Lateran church of Rome has made a
sacrament (contrary to the fourth principle), which penance, say
they, standeth of three parts, contrition, confession, and satisfaction
canonical. Contrition, as they teach, may be had by strength of
free will, without the law and the Holy Ghost, per ac/Zis clicitis,
through man's own action and endeavour; which contrition first
must be sufficient, and so it meriteth remission of sin. In confession
they require a full rehearsal of all sins, whereby ite pricsd knowing
t/he cri-mes, mazy minister satisfaction accordingly. And this rehears-
ing of sins, ex opere opcrato, descrveth remission, contrary to the
fourteenth principle before mentioned. Satisfactions they call opera
indebita, enjoyed by the ghostly father. And this satisfaction (say
they) taketh away and changeth eternal punishment into temporal
pains, which pains also it doth mitigate. And again, these satis.fc-
tions may be taken away by the pope's indulgence, &ic.
Concerning free will, as it may in some case be admitted that men
without grace may do some outward functions of the law, and keep
some outward observances or traditions, so, as touching things
spiritual and appertaining to salvation, the strength of man being
not regenerate by grace is so infirm and impotent that he can per-
form nothing neither in doing well :, ,il. well; though, after
he be .... ,. .1 by grace, may work and do well, but yet that
there .r,1 i ... ... notwithstanding, a great imperfection of flesh,
and a perpetual repugnance between the flesh and spirit. And thus
was the original church of the ancient Romans first instructed, from
which we may see now how far this latter church of Rome has
degenerated, which affirms that men without grace may perform the
obedience of the law, and prepare themselves to grace by working,
so that those works may be meritorious and obtain grace; which
grace once obtained, then men may (say they) perfectly perform the
full obedience of the law, and accomplish those spiritual actions and
works which God requires, and to those works of condignity deserve


everlasting life. As to the infirmity which still remains in nature,
that they do not regard nor once speak of.
Besides these uncatholic and almost unchristian absurdities and
defection from the apostolical faith above specified, let us consider the
manner of their invocation, not to God alone, as they should, but to
dead men, saying that saints are to be called upon, tanquanz media-
lores intercessiones, as mediators of intercession; Ch/r ista vero
eanquam mediatoremz sal/lis, and Christ as the Mediator of salva-
tion. They affirm, moreover, that Christ was a mediator only in
time of his passion, which is repugnant to the words of St. Paul,
writing to the old Romans, chap. viii., where he, speaking of the
intercession of Christ, saith, "who is even at the right hand of
God, who also maketh intercession for us," &c. And if Christ be
a Mediator of salvation, what needs, then, any other intercession of
saints for our suits? Or what does he want more of the saints who
is sure to be saved only by Christ?
Hitherto also pertains the worshipping of relics, and the false
adoration of sacraments-that is, the outward signs of the thing
signified, contrary to the seventh principle before stated. Add to
this also the profanation of the Lord's supper, contrary to the use
for which it was ordained, in reserving it after the communion minis-
tered, in setting it to sale for money, and falsely persuading both
themselves and others that the priest doth merit both to himself
who speaks and to him who hears, ex opere operato, sin;e bono b motc
utentis, &-c., that is, only by the mere doing of the work, though the
party that useth the same hath no motion in him.

With respect to sacraments, their doctrine is likewise corrupt and
In the sacrament of baptism they are to be reproved, not only for
adding to the simple words of Christ's institution divers many new-
found rites and fantasies of men, but also where the use of the old
church of Rome was only to baptize men, they baptize also bells, and
apply /ilc words of baptisms toi water, fire, candles, stocks anid stones,
But especially in the supper of the Lord their doctrine most
filthily swerves from the right meaning of the Scripture, and should
be exploded out of all Christian churches. The first error is their
idolatrous abuse by worshipping, adoring, censing, knocking, and
kneeling to it; in reserving also, and carrying about in pomp and pro-


cessions in towns and fields. Secondly, also, in substance thereof
their teaching is monstrous, leaving no substance of bread and wine
to remain, but only the real body and blood of Christ, putting no
difference between calling and making. Because Christ called bread
his body, therefore, say they, he made i ihis body; and so of a whole-
some sacrament make a perilous idol: and that which the old church
of Rome did ever take to be a mystery they turn into a blind mist
of mere accidents to deceive the people; and to worship a thing
made for their Maker; a creature for their Creator; and that which
was threshed out of a wheaten sheaf they set up in the church and
worship for a Saviour; and when they have worshipped him, then
they offer him to his Father; and when they have offered him, then
they eat him up, or else close him fast in a cell, where if he corrupt
and putrefy before he be eaten, then they burn him to powder and
ashes. And notwithstanding they know well by Scripture that the
body of Christ can never corrupt and putrefy, yet for all this cor-
ruption will they needs make it the body of Christ, and burn all
them who believe not that which is against true Christian belief.

Contrary to the ordinances of the Scripture, the new catholics of
the pope's church call marriage a state of imperfection, and prefer
single life, be it never so impure, before the former, pretending that
where the one replenishes the earth, the other fills heaven. Ministers
and priests such as are found to have wives they not only remove out
of their place, but also pronounce sentence of death upon them, and
account their children illegitimate. Again, as good as the third
part of the year they exempt and suspend from liberty of marriage.
Besides all this, they have added a novel prohibition of spiritual
kindred-that is, that such as have been gossips, or godfathers and
godmothers together in christening another man's child, must not
by their law marry together. Finally, in this doctrine and cases of
matrimony they gain much money from the people, nourish adultery,
and fill the world with offences that give great occasion of murder-
ing infants.
It is known what rules and lessons St. Paul gave to the old Romans
concerning magistrates, to whose authority he would have all human
creatures subjected, as they are the ministers of God, having the
sword given unto them, wherewith they ought to repress false
doctrine and idolatry, and maintain that which is true and right--
Rom. xiii. Now let us survey the pope's proceedings, and mark


how far he transgresses in this, as he doth in all other points, from
true Christianity.
T. The pope with all his clergy exempt themselves f-ont all civil
2. They arrogate to themselves authority to ordain and constitute,
without leave or knowledge of the ordinary magistrate.
3. They take upon themselves to depose and set up rulers and
magistrates when they please.*
The paradoxes, or rather the fantasies, of the latter church of
Rome concerning purgatory are monstrous and neither old nor
r. They say there is a purgatory where souls burn in fire after this
2. The pain of purgatory differs nothing from the pains of hell,
but only that it has an end; the pains of hell have none.
3. The painful suffering of this fire scours away the sins before
committed in the body.
4. The time of these pains endures in some longer, in some less,
according as their sins deserve.
5. After the time of their pains has expired, then the mercy of
God translates them to heavenly bliss, which the body of Christ hath
bought for them.
6. The pains of purgatory are so great, that if all the beggars of
the world were seen on the one side, and but one soul in purgatory
on the other side, the whole world would pity more that one than
all the others.
7. The whole time of punishment in this purgatory must con-
tinue till the fire has scoured away the spots of every sinful soul there
burning, unless there come some release.
8. Helps and releases that may shorten the time of their purga-
tion may be obtained by the pope's pardon and indulgences, sacri-
fices of the altar, dirges and trentals, prayer, fasting, &c.
Lack of belief of purgatory bringeth to hell.
In short, let us examine the whole religion of this latter church of
Rome, and we shall find it to consist altogether in outward and cere-
monial exercises-as outward confession, absolution at the priest's
hand, outward sacrifice of the mass, buying of pardons, purchasing
of obiits, external worshipping of images and relics, pilgrimage to
this place or that, building of churches, founding of monasteries,
SIt is likely that this degree of power is lost to them for ever, but it still remains their
nominal prerogative.


outward works of the law, outward gestures, garments, colours,
choice of meats, difference of times and places, peculiar rites and
obsrr--n -- --t pr-r--'r- nrd number of prayers prescribed, fasting
of >1 I:i 1-."- .1 1. i 1 coming to church, hearing of service,
external succession of bishops and of Peter's see, external form and
notes of the church, &c; so that by this religion, to make a true
Christian and a good catholic, there is scarcely any worldng of the
Holy Ghost required. As for example, to make this matter more
demonstrable, let us define a Christian man after the pope's making,
whereby we may see the better what is to be judged of the scope of
his doctrine.

According to the catholic religion, a true Christian man is thus
defined : first, to be baptized in the Latin tongue (tvzic/ fi/c god-
faithers jprofcss thcy cannot understandd, then confirmed by the
bishop; the mother of the child to be purified; after he is grown in
years, then to come to the church to keep his fasting days, to fast the
Lent; to come under benedicite-that is, to be confessed of the priest,
to do his penance; at Easter to take his rites; to hear mass and divine
service; to set up candles before images, to creep to the cross, to
take holy bread and water, to go in procession, to carry his palms
and candle, and to take ashes; to fast the ember days, rogation days,
and vigils; to keep the holidays, to pay his tithes and offerings, to
go on pilgrimage, to buyJ pardons; to worship his Maker over the
priest's head, and to receive the pope for his supreme lord, and to
obey his laws; to receive St. Nicholas' clerks; to have his beads, and
to give to the high altar; to take orders if he will be a priest, to
keep his vow, and not to marry; when he is sick to be anointed and
take the rites of the holy church ; to be buried in the churchyard, to
be rung for, to be sung for; to be buried in a friar's cowl; and to
conform, living and dying, to the Romish rule. All these points
being observed, who can deny but this is a devout man, and perfect
Christian catholic, and sure to be saved, as a true faithful child of the
holy mother church?
N, Now look upon this definition, and say, good reader, what faith
or spirit, or what .:,1 ,.. .-f the Holy Ghost, in all this doctrine is
to be required. i'i. ., .. of our Lord Jesus give the true light of
His gospel to shine in our hearts Amen.

t II.

Containin tle Primitive Church, from the year
of oulr I I- 'ill thie ime of Constantine the Great;
Sin whicl i i princi pal Christian martyr, of both
sexes, who suffered for their faith in Europe and in Africa.
THE dreadful martyrdoms we are now about to describe arose
from the persecutions of the Christians by pagan fury in the primi-
tive ages of the church, during the space of three hundred years,
mutil the time of Constantine the Great.';
It is both wonderful and horrible to peruse the descriptions of tihe
sufferings of those godly martyrs, as they are described by ancient
historians. Their torments were as various as the ingenuity of man,
excited by the devil, could devise; and their numbers were truly
incredible. Some," says Robanus, were slain with the sword;
some burnt with fire; some scourged with whips; some stabbed
with forks of iron; some fastened to the cross or gibbet; some
drowned in the sea; some had their skins plucked off; some their
tongues cut out ; some were stoned to death; some frozen with cold;
some starved with hunger ; some, with their hands cut off, or other-
wise dismembered, were left naked to the open shame of tie world."
Augustine, speaking of these martyrs,i says, that though their
punishments were various, yet the constancy in all was the same.
And, notwithstanding the sharpness of so many torments and cruelty
of the tormentors,.suchwas the number of these faithful saints, that,
as Hierome, in his epistle to Cromatius and Heliodorus, observes,
There is no day i n the sikole year entlo owlcl th/e number of ive
tihoisand rmartyrj-s cannot be ascribed, except only' the first day of

SAccoznt of the Lives, Suf/crfigs, and Martnyrdom of the Apostles,
E ivangelists, &c.
This first Christian martyr was elected, with six others, as a deacon
of the first Christian church. He was also an able and successful
preacher. The principal persons belonging to five Jewish synagogues
entered into dispute with him; but he, by the soundness of his
. doctrine, and the strength of his arguments, overcame them all;
which so much irritated them, that they bribed false witnesses to
accuse him of blaspheming God and Moses. On being carried
Eusebius is the principal historian who has transmitted to us an account of the suf-
ferings of these blessed martyrs, and to his works we are indebted for many valuable
dsecdotes not to be found in any other writer.
T De Civit., 2, cap. o.


before the council, he made a noble defence; but this so much
exasperated his judges, that they resolved to condemn him. At the
instant Stephen saw a vision from heaven, representing Jesus, in his
glorified, state, sitting at the right hand of God. This vision so
enraptured him, that he exclaimed, "Behold I see the heavens open,
and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God." This
caused him to be condemned, and, having dragged him out of the
city, they stoned him to death. On the spot where he was martyred
Eudocia, the empress of Theodosius, erected a superb church, and
the memory of the martyr is annually celebrated on the 26th day of
The death of Stephen was succeeded by a severe persecution in
Jerusalem, in which 2,000 Christians, with Nicanor the deacon, were
martyred, and many others obliged to leave their country.
He was a Galilean, and the son of Zebedee, a fisherman, the elder
brother of St. John, and related to Christ himself; for his mother,
Salome, was cousin to the Virgin Mary. Being one day with his
father, fishing in the sea of Galilee, he and his brother John were
called by the Saviour to become his disciples. They cheerfully
obeyed the mandate, and, leaving their father, followed Jesus. It is
to be observed that Christ placed greater confidence in them than
in any other of the apostles, Peter excepted. Christ called these
brothers Boanerges, or sons of thunder, on account of their vigorous
minds and zealous spirits.
When Herod Agrippa was made governor of Judea by the emperor
Caligula, he raised a persecution against the Christians, and par-
ticularly selected James as an object of his vengeance. This martyr,
on being condemned to death, showed such intrepidity and con-
stancy of mind, that even his accuser was struck with admiration,
and became a convert to Christianity. This transition so enraged the
people in power, that they condemned him likewise to death ; when
the apostle, and his penitent accuser, were both beheaded on the
same day and with the same sword. These events took place in the
year of Christ 44; and the 25th of July was fixed by the church for
the commemoration of James's martyrdom. About the same period
Timon and Parmcnas, two of the seven deacons, suffered martyrdom,
the former at Corinth, and the latter at Philippi, in Macedonia.
This apostle and martyr was born at Bethsaida, in Galilee, and
was the first called by the name of disciple. He was employed in
several important missions by Christ,.and being deputed to preach


in Upper Asia, laboured very diligently in his apostleship. He then
travelled into Phrygia, and arriving at Heliopolis, found the inhabi-
tants so sunk in idolatry as to worship a large serpent. St. Phihp,
however, was the means of converting many of them to Christianity,
and even procured the death of the serpent. This so enraged the
magistrates that they committed him to prison, had him severely
scourged, and afterwards crucified. His friend St. Bartholomew
found an opportunity of taking down the body, and burying it; for
which, however, he was very near suffering the same fate. The
martyrdom of Philip happened eight years after that of James the
Great, A.D. 52; and his name, together with that of St. James the
Less, is commemorated on the Ist of May.
This evangelist, apostle, and martyr was born at Nazareth, in
Galilee, but resided chiefly in Capernaum, on account of his business,
which was that of a tax-gatherer, to collect tribute of such as had to
pass the sea of Galilee. On being called as a disciple, le immediately
complied, and left everything to follow Christ. After the ascension
of his Lord, he continued preaching the gospel in Judea about nine
years. Intending to leave Judea, to go and preach among the
Gentiles, he wrote his gospel in Hebrew, for the use of the Jewish
converts; but it was afterwards translated into Greek by St. James
the Less. He then went to Ethiopia, ordained preachers, settled
churches, and made many converts. He afterwards proceeded to
Parthia, where he had the same success; but returning to Ethiopia,
he was slain by a halberd in the city of Nadabar, about the year of
Christ 6o ; and his festival is kept by the church on the 2ist day
of September. He was inoffensive in his conduct, and remarkably
temperate in his mode of living.
This evangelist and martyr was born of Jewish parents of the tribe
of Levi. It is supposed that he was converted to Christianity by St.
Peter, whom he served as an amanuensis, and whom he attended in
all his travels. Being entreated by the converts at Rome to commit
to writing the admirable discourses they had heard from St. Peter
and himself, he complied with their request, and composed his gos-
pel in the Greek language. He then went to Egypt, and constituted
a bishopric at Alexandria; 'afterwards he proceeded to Lybia, where
he made many converts. On returning to Alexandria, some of the
Egyptians, exasperated at his success, determined on his death.
They tied his feet, dragged him through the streets, left him bruised
in a dungeon all night, and the next day burned his body. This


took place on the 25th of April, on which day the church commemo-
rates his martyrdom. His bones were carefully gathered up by the
Christians, decently interred, and afterwards removed to Venice,
where he is honoured as the tutelar saint and patron of the state.
This apostle and martyr was so called to distinguish him from St.
James the Great. He was the son of Joseph, the reputed father of
Christ; and after the Lord's ascension was elected bishop of Jeru-
salem. He wrote his general epistles to all Christians and converts
whatever, to suppress a dangerous error then propagating, viz.
" That faith in Christ was alone sufficient for salvation, without
good works." The Jews, being at this time greatly enraged that
St. Paul had escaped their fury, by appealing to Rome determined
to wreak their vengeance on James, who was now mnety-lour years
of age. They accordingly threw him down, beat, bruised, and
stoned him; and then dashed out his brains with a club, such as
was used by fullers in dressing cloths. His festival, together with
that of St. Philip, is kept on the Ist of May.
This martyr was called to the apostleship after the death of Christ,
to supply the vacant place of Judas, who had betrayed his Master.
He was also one of the seventy disciples. He was martyred at
Jerusalem, by being first stoned and then beheaded; and the n4th
of February is observed for the celebration of his festival.
This apostle and martyr was the brother of St. Peter, and
preached the gospel to many Asiatic nations. On arriving at
Ecdesa, the governor of the country, named EIgeas, threatened him
for preaching against the idols they worshipped. St. Andrew, per-
-'-i the propagation of his doctrines, was ordered to be cruci-
ends of the cross being fixed transversely in the ground.
H-e bodly told his accusers that he would not have preached the
glory of the cross had he feared to die on it. And again, when they
came to crucify him, he said that he coveted the cross, and longed
to embrace it. He was fastened to the cross, not with nails, but
cords, that his death might be more slow. In this situation he con-
tinued two days, preaching the greatest part of the time to the
people; and expired on the 30th of November, which is commemo-
rated as his festival.
This great apostle and martyr was born at Bethsaida, in Galilee


being the son of Jonas, a fisherman, which employment St. Peter
himself followed. He wvas persuaded by his brother to turn Chris-
tian, when (_hrist gave him the name of Cephas, implying, in the
Syriac language, a rock. HIe was called at the same time as his
brother to be an apostle, gave uncommon proofs of his zeal for the
service of Christ, and always appeared as the principal speaker
among the apostles. He had, however, the weakness to deny his
Master after his apprehension, though he defended him at the time;
but the sincerity of his repentance proved that lie soon became
deeply convinced of tlhe greatness of his crime. After the death of
Christ the Jews still continued to persecute the Christians, and
ordered several of the apostles, among whom was 'Petr, to be
scoured. This punished nt they bore with the greatest fortitude,
and rjoniced that they \ere lhnlought worthy to suffer for the sake of
their Redeemer.
When Herod Agrippa caused St. Tames the Great to be put to
death, and found that it pleased the Jews, he resolved, in order to
ingratiate himself with the people, that Peter should be the next
sacrifice. ie was .1 apprehended, and thrown into
prison, but an angel ( I I released him; which so enraged
Herod, that he ordered the sentinels who guarded the dungeon in
which he had been confined to be put to death. St. Peter, after
various miracles, retired to Rome, where he defeated the artifices
and confounded the magic of Simon t I .- favourite of the
emperor Nero : he likewise converted I .. one of the con-
cubines of that monarch, which so exasperated the tyrant that he
ordered both St. Peter and St. Paul to be apprehended. During
the time of their confinement they converted two of the captains of
the guard and forty-seven other persons to Christianity. Having been
nine months in prison, Peter was brought from thence for execution,
when, after being severely scourged, he was crucified with his head
downwards; which position, however, was at his own request. His
festival is observed on the 29th of June, on which day he as well as
Paul suffered. His body being taken down, embalmed, and buried
in the Vatican, a church was erected on the spot; but thi; being
destroyed by the emperor Ilcliogabalus, the body was concealed till
the 20th bishop of Rome, Cornelius, conveyed it again to the Vati-
can : afterwards Constantine the Great erected one of the most
stately churches in the universe over the place. Before we quit this
article, it is requisite to observe, that previous to the death of St.
Peter, his wife suffered martyrdom for the faith of Christ, when he
exhorted her, as she was going to be put to death, to remember her
C 2


This apostle and martyr was a Jew, of the tribe of Benjamin, born
at Tarsus in Cilicia. He was at first a great enemy to and per-
secutor of the Christians ; but after his miraculous conversion, he
became a strenuous supporter of Christianity. At Iconium St. Paul
and St. Barnabas were near being stoned to death by the enraged
Jews; on which they fled to Lycaonia. At Lystra St. Paul was
stoned, dragged out of the city, and left for dead. I-He, however,
happily revived, and escaped to Derbe. At Philippi Paul and Silas
were imprisoned and whipped; and both were again persecuted at
Thessalniica. Being afterwards taken at Jerusalem, lie was sent to
Cesarca, but appealed to Ccesar at Rome. Here he continued a
prisoner at large for two years; and at length being released he
visited the churches of Greece and Rome, and preuiched in France
and Spain. Returning to Rome he was apprehended, and by
the order of Nero martyred by beheading. iwo days are dedicated
to the commemoration of this apostle; one to his conversion, which
is the 25th of January, and the other to his martyrdom, which v as on
the 2eth of June, A.D. 72.
Tins apostle and martyr, the brother of James, was commonly
called Thaddaeus. Being sent to Edessa, he wrought many miracles,
and made many converts, which exciting the resentment of people
in power, le was crucified, A.D. 72; and the 28th of October is, by
the church, dedicated to his memory.
This apostle and martyr preached in several countries, performed
many miracles, and healed various diseases. He translated St.
Matthew's gospel into the Indian language, and propagated it in
that country; but at length the idolators growing impatient with his
doctrines, severely beat and crucified him. He was scarcely alive
when taken down and beheaded. The anniversary of his martyrdom
is on the 24th of August.
He was called by this name in Syriac, but Didymus in Greek : he
was an apostle and martyr, and preached in Parthia and India, where,
displeasing the pagan priests, he was martyred by being thrust
through with a spear. His death is commemorated on the esst of
This martyr was the author of the third moat excellent gospel; and


also of the Acts of the Apostles. He travelled with St. Paul to Rome,
and preached to divers barbarous nations, till the priests of Greece
hanged him on an olive-tree. The anniversary of his martyrdom is
on the i8th of October.
This apostle and martyr was distinguished from his zeal by the
name of Zelotes. He preached with zr--t -c-cess in Mauritania
and other parts of Africa, and even : I I where, though he
made many converts, he was crucified, A.I). 74; and the church,
joining him with St. Jude, commemorates his festival on the 28th
of October.
He was distinguished as a prophet, an apostle, a divine, an evan-
gelist, nd na martyr. He is called the beloved disciple, and was
brother to James the Great. He was previously a disciple of John
the Baptist, and afterwards not only one of ihe twelve apostles, but
one of the three to whom Christ communicated the most secret
passages of his life. He founded churches at Smyrna, Pergamos,
Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, and Thyatira, to which he directs
his book of Revelations. Being at Ephesus, he was ordered by the
emperor Domitian to 1- sent bound to Rome, where he was con-
demned to be cast into a cauldron of boiling oil. : But here a miracle
wns wrought in his favour-the oil did him no injury : and Domitian,
not being able to put him to death, banished'him to Patmos to labour
in the mines, A.D. 73. He was, however, recalled by Nerva, who
succeeded Domitian, but was deemed a martyr on account of his
having undergone an execution, though it did not take effect. He
i rote his epistles, gospel, and Revelation each in a different style;
but they are all equally admired. He was the only apostle who
escaped a violent death, and lived tl- 1 -r any, he being nearly
ioo ye lrs of age at the time of his I -.1. I church devotes the
27th of December to his memory.
He was a native of Cyprus, but ofJewish parents: the time of his
death is uncertain; but it is supposed to have been about the year
of Christ 73 ; and his festival is kept on the Iith of June.

Accozunt of tiec First Primiive Persection, berginig in tke
ye:ar 67, Muner t/he of the 'epecor Nero.
The first persecution in the primitive ages of the church was under
Nero Domitius, the sixth emperor of Rome, A.D. 67. This monarch
-cigned for the space of five years with tolerable credit to himself;


but then gave way to the greatest extravagance of temper, and to
the most atrocious barbarities. Among other diabolical outrages, he
ordered that the city of Rome should be set on fire, which was done
by his officers, guards, and servants. While the city was in flames
he x ent up to the tower of M;2cenas, played upon his harp, sang
the song of the burning of Troy, and declared "that le wished
the ruin of all things before his death." This dreadful conflagra-
tion continued nine days.
Nero, finding that his conduct was greatly blamed, and a severe
odiun cast upon him, determined to charge the whole upon the Chris-
tians, at once to excuse himself and have an opportunity of fresh
persecutions. The barbarities inflicted on the Christians during
the first persecution were such as excited the sympathy of even the
Romans themselves. Nero nicely refined upon cruelty, and contrived
all imannutr of punisheiciits for his vtictitms. IIe had some sewn up
in the skins of wild beasts, and then worried by dogs till they expired;
and others dressed in shirts made stiff with wax, fixed to axletrees,
and set on fire in his garden. This persecution was general through-
out the Roman empire; but it increased rather than diminished the
spirit of Christianiiy. Besides St. Paul and St. 'Peter, many others,
whose names have not been transmitted to -;' d who were
mostly their converts and followers, suffered i i concerning
the principal of them we shall proceed to describe.
TRiOPHi. itUS, an Ephesian by birth, and a Gentile by religion,
vwas converted by St. Paul to the Christian faith. On his conversion
he accompanied his master in his travels; and on his account the
Jews raised great disturbance in the temple at Jerusalem the last
time St. Paul was in that city. They even attempted to murder the
apost'c, for having introduced a Greek into the temple ; such an one
being looked upon by the Jews with detestation. Lysias, the captain
of the guard, however, interposed, and rescued St. Paul by force
from the hands of tie Jews. On quitting jerusalem, Trophimus fol-
low ed his master to Rome, and did him very essential service. He
then attended him to Spain, and passing through Gaul, the apostle
made him bishop of that province, and left him in the city of Arles.
Ther e le continued about twelve months, when lie paid another visit
to St. Iaul in Asia, and went with him for the last time to Rome,
where lie x was witness to the martyrdom of his master, which was
but the forerunner of his own; for, being soon after seized on
account of his faith, he was beheaded by order of the emperor Nero.
JOSEPIH, commonly called IBAtS.BAs, was a primitive disciple, and
is usually deemed one of the seventy. He was, in some degree,
related to the Redeemer; and he became a candidate, together with


Matthias, to fill the vacant place of Judas Iscariot, to which Matthias
was elected. Ecclesiastical writers make very little other mention of
Joseph; but Papias informs us that he was once compelled to drink
poison, which did not do him the least injury, agreeably with the
promise of the Lord to those who believe in him. He was during
his life a zealous preacher of the gospel; and having received many
insults from the Jews, at length obtained martyrdom, being mur-
dered by the pagans in Judea.
ANANIAS, bishop of Damascus, is celebrated in the sacred writ-
ings as the person who cured St. Paul of the blindness with which
he was struck by the amazing brightness which shone upon him at
his conversion. Ile was one of the seventy, and was martyred in
the city of Damascus. After his death a Christian church was built
over the place of his burial, which is now converted into a Turkish

Account of iei Second Primtirive Pcrsccu2ion, under the Emperor
The emperor Domitian was naturally of a cruel disposition: he
first slew his brother, and then raised a second persecution
the Christians. His rage was such that he even put to I11
several Roman senators, some through malice, and others to con-
fiscate their estates. He then commanded all the lineage of David
to be sacrificed. Two Christians were brought before the emperor,
and accused of being of the tribe of Judah and line of David ; but
from their answers he despised them as idiots, and dismissed them
accordingly. IIe, however, was determined to be more secure upon
other occasions ; and on this plea he took away the property of
many Christians, put several to death, and banished others. Among
the numerous martyrs that suffered during this persecution was
Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem, who was crucified; and St. John, i ho
was boiled in oil, and afterwards banished to Patmos. IFlavia, the
daughter of a Roman senator, was likewise banished to Pontus; and
a cruel law was made, that no Christian once brought before the
tribunal should be exempted from punishment without renouncing
his religion."
During this reign there were various tales published in order to
injure the Christians. Among other falsehoods, they were accused
of indecent- .1i I ,. of a rebellious turbulent spirit, of being
inimical to the Roman empire, of murdering their children, and even
of being cannibals; and at this time such was the infatuation of the
pagans, that if famine, pestilence, or -'i.. i i i :1 any of
the Roman provinces, it was charged :- .. i. i*. 1 ..... These


persecutions naturally multiplied the number of informers; and
many, for the sake of gain, swore away the lives of the innocent.
When any Christians were brought before the magistrates a test
was proposed, when, if they refused to take the oath, death was pro-
nounced against them ; and if they confessed themselves Christians
the sentence was the same. The various kinds of punishments and
inflicted cruelties were, during this persecution, imprisonment, rack-
ing, searing, broiling, burning, scourging, stoning, hanging, and
worrying. Many were lacerated with red-hot pincers, and others
were thrown upon the horns of wild bulls. After having suffered
these cruelties, the friends of the deceased Christians were refused
the privilege of burying their remains.
The following were the most remarkable individual martyrs who
suffered during this persecution :
DIONYSIUS the Arcopagite was an Athenian by birth, and edu-
cated in all the useful and ornamental literature of Greece. He
travelled into Egypt to study astronomy, and made particular ob-
servations on the great supernatural eclipse which happened at the
time of our Saviour's crucifixion. On his return to Athens he was
highly honoured by the people, and at length promoted to the
dignity of senator of that celebrated city. Becoming a convert to
the gospel, he advanced from the worthy pagan magistrate to the
pious Christian pastor; for even while involved in the darkness of
idolatry he was as morally just as when he became a disciple and
minister of Christ. After his conversion the sanctity of his con-
versation and purity of his manners recommended him so strongly
to the Christians in general, that he was appointed bishop of Athens.
He discharged this duty with the utmost diligence till the second
year of this persecution, A.n. 69, when he was apprehended, and
received the crown of martyrdom, by being beheaded.
Ti.MOTIIY, the celebrated disciple of St. Paul, and bishop of
Ephesus, was born at Lystra, in the province of Lycaonia : his father
was a Gentile, and his mother a Jewess; but both his parents and
his grandmother embraced Christianity, by which means Timothy
was taught from his infancy the precepts of the gospel. Upon St.
Paul's reaching Lycaonia he ordained Timothy, and made him the
companion of his labours. St. Paul mentions him with peculiar
esteem, and declares that he could find no one so truly united to
him both in heart and mind.
Timothy attended St. Paul to Macedonia, where, together with
Silas, he laboured in the propagation of the gospel. When St. Paul
went to Achaia Timothy was left behind to strengthen the faith of
those already converted, and induce others to adopt the true faith.


St. Paul at length sent for Timothy to Athens, and then despatched
him to Thessalonica, to protest to the suffering Christians there
against the terrors of the persecution which then prevailed. Having
performed his mission, he returned to Athens, and there assisted St.
Paul and Silas in composing the two epistles to the Thessalonians.
He then accompanied the apostle to Corinth, Jerusalem, and Ephe-
sus. After performing several of his commissions for him, and
attending him on various journeys, the apostle constituted Timothy
bishop of Ephesus, though he was only thirty years of age; and in
two admirable epistles gave him instructions for his conduct.
Timothy was so temperate in his living that St. Paul blamed him
for being too abstemious, and recommended to him the moderate
use of wine to recruit his strength and spirits.
St. Paul sent to Timothy to come to him in his last confinement
at Rome; and after that great apostle's martyrdom he returned to
Ephesus, where he zealously governed the church till nearly the
close of the century. At this period the pagans were about to cele-
brate a feast, the principal ceremonies of which were, that the
people should carry sticks in their hands, go masked, and bear
about the streets the images of their gods. When Timothy met the
procession, he severely reproved them for their ridiculous idolatry,
which so exasperated the people, that they fell upon him with their
clubs, and beat him in so dreadful a manner, that he expired of the
bruises two days after.
Account of the Third Pimi.ive Persecutieon cider the Romane
Only one year elapsed between the second and third Roman per
solutions. Upon Nerva succeeding Domitian 1 a respite to
the Christians; but reigning only thirteen :.. ..... his successor
Trajan, in the tenth year of his reign, and in the year o18, began
the third persecution against them. While this persecution raged
Plinius Secundus, a heathen philosopher, wrote to the emperor in
favourof the Christians, to whose epistle Trajan returned this inde-
cisive answer : That Christians ought not to be sought after, but
when brought before the :. i. they should be punished."
Provoked by this reply, I ...'... .. exclaimed in the following
words: "0 confused sentence He would not have them sought
for as innocent men, and yet would have them punished as
guilty "
His officers were uncertain, if carried on with severity, how to
interpret the meaning of his decree. Trajan, however, soon after
wrote to Jerusalem, and gave orders to exterminate the stock of


David; in consequence of which all that could be found of that
race were put to death.
About this period the emperor Trajan was succeeded by Adrian,
who continued the persecution with the greatest rigour; when
Phocas, bishop of Pontus, refusing to sacrifice to Neptune, was, by
his immediate order, cast first into a hot lime-kiln, and being drawn
from thence, was thrown into a scalding bath till he expired,
Trajan likewise commanded the martyrdom of Ignatius, bishop of
Antioch. This holy man, when an infant, Christ took in his arms,
and showed to his disciples, as one that would be a pattern of
humility and innocence. He received the gospel afterwards from St.
John the evangelist, and was exceedingly zealous in his mission and
ministry. He boldly vindicated the faith of Christ before the empe-
ror, for which he was cast into prison, and was tormented in a cruel
manner; for, after being dreadfully scourged, lie was compelled to
hold fire in his hands, and, at the same time, papers dipped in oil
were put to his sides and lighted! Iis flesh was then torn with hot
pincers, and at last he was despatched by the fury of wild beasts.
Ignatius had either presentiment or information of his fate; for,
writing to Polycarp at Smyrna, lie thus described his adventures :
" From Syria, even till I came to Rome, had I battle with beasts, as
well by sea as land, both day and night, being bound in the midst
of a cruel legion of soldiers, who, the more benefits they received
at my hands, behaved so much the worse unto me. But being now
well acquainted witi their injuries, I am taught every day more and
more. And cwo/ l to God I were once conic to the beasts sohicTi are
'prepared fjr ei,-; which also I wish with gaping mouths were ready
to come upon me, whom also I will provoke, that they without
delay y may devour me. And if they will not unless they be pro-
voked, I will then enforce them against myself. Now begin T to be a
scholar : I esteem no visible things, or invisible things, so that I mayger
or obtain Christ Jesus. Let the fire, the 11i. i. wild beasts, the
breaking of bones, the pulling asunder I .. the bruising of
my whole body, and the torments of the devil and hell itself come
upon me, so that I may win Christ Jesus "
Adrian died in the year 138, and was succeeded by Antoninus
Pius, so amiable a monarch that his people gave him the title of
" the Father of Virtues." Immediately on his accession to the
throne he published an edict forbidding further persecution of the
Christians, and concluded it in these words : If any hereafter
shall vex or trouble the Christians, having no other cause but that
they are ,iuch, let the accused be released and the accusers be pun-
ished." This stopped the persecution, and the Christians enjoyed a


respite from their sufferings during this emperor's reign, though
their enemies took every occasion to do them what injuries they

Accoiut of teic Fozurtih Pith/imiv/c PC;ersction iunmider tiei Reomntz
j/pc-roi's, which conwieiiccdi A.D. 162.
Antoninus Pius was succeeded hbv Marus Aurrlius Antoninus
Verus, who began the fourth persecution, in which many Christians
were martyred, particularly in several parts of Asia and France.
Such were the cruelties used in this persecution, that many of the
spectators shuddered vwitl horror at the sight, and were astonished
at the intrepidity of the sufferers. Some of the martyrs were
obliged to pass, with their already wounded feet, over thorns, nails,
sharp shell &c. ; others were scourged till their sinews and veins
lay bare ; and after suffering most excruciating tortures, they were
destroyed by the most terrible deaths.
GF.IMANICUS, a young and holy Christian, being delivered to the
beasts on account of his faith, behaved with such astonishing courage,
that several pagans became converts to a faith which inspired so
much fortitude. This so enraged others, that they cried he merited
death, as they did also of Polycarp, the pious and venerable bishop
of Smyrna. At the death of Germanicus many of the multitude,
wondering at the beloved martyr for his constancy and virtue, began
suddenly to cry with a loud voice, Destroy the wicked men; let
P'olycarp be sought for." And whilst a great uproar and tumult
began to be raised upon these cries, a certain Phrygian, named
Quintus, Iately arrived, was so afflicted at the sight of the wild
beasts, that he rushed to the judgment-scat, and abused the judges,
for which ie was put to death without mercy or delay.
POLYC:ARPUS hearing that persons were seeking to apprehend
him, escaped, but was discovered by a child. From this circum-
stance, and having dreamed that his bed suddenly became on fire,
and was consumed in a moment, he concluded that it was God's
will lie should suffer martyrdom. He therefore did not attempt
to make a second escape hecn lie had an opportunity of doing
it. Those who apprehended him were amazed at his serene
countenance and gravity. After feasting them, he desired an
hour for prayer, which being allowed, he prayed with such fer-
vency that his guards repented they had been instrumental in
taking him. He was, however, carried before the pro-consul,
condemned, and conducted to the market-place. WVood being pro-
vided, the holy man earnestly prayed to-heaven, after being bound
to the stike; and as the flames grew vehement, the executioners


gave way on each side, the heat becoming intolerable. In the mean-
time the bishop sang praises to God in the midst of the flames, but
remained unconsumed therein; and the burning of the wood spread-
ing a fragrance around, the guards were much surprised. Deter-
mined, however, to put an end to his life, they struck spears into
his body, when the quantity of blood that issued from the wounds
extinguished the flames. After considerable attempts, they put him
to death, and burnt his body when dead, not being able to consume
it while living. Twelve other Christians who had been intimate
with Polycarp were soon after martyred.
JUSTIN, the celebrated philosopher, fell a martyr in this perse-
cution. He was a native of Ncapolis, in Samara, and was born
A.i). io3. He had the best education the times could afford, and
travelled into Egypt, the country where the polite tour of that age
was made for improvement. At Alexandria lie was informed of
everything relative to the seventy interpreters of the sacred writings,
and shown the rooms, or rather cells, in which their work was per-
formed. Justin was a great lover of truth, and an universal scholar :
he investigated the Stoic and Peripatetic philosophy, and attempted
the Pythagorean system ; but the behaviour of one of its professors
disgusting him, he applied himself to the Platonic, in which he took
great delight. About the year 133, when he was thirty years of age,
he became a convert to Christianity. Justin wrote an elegant epistle
to the Gentiles, to convert them to the faith he had newly acquired,
and lived in so pure and innocent a manner that he well deserved
the title of a Christian philosopher. He likewise employed his
talents in convincing the Jews of the truth of the Christian rites, and
spent much time in travelling, till he took up his abode in Rome,
and fixed his habitation on the Viminal mount. He kept a public
school, taught many who afterwards became great men, and wrote a
treatise to confute heresies of all kinds. As the pagans began to
treat the Christians with great severity, Justin wrote his first apology
in their favour, and addressed it to the emperor Antoninus, to two
princes whom lie had adopted as his sons, and to the senate and
people of Rome in general. This piece, which occasioned the
emperor to publish an edict in favour of the Christians, displays
great learning and genius.
A short time after he entered into frequent contests with Crescens,
a person of a vicious life, but a celebrated cynic philosopher ; and
his arguments appeared so powerful, yet disgusting, to the cynic, that
he resolved on his destruction, which in the sequel he accomplished.
The second apology of Justin was occasioned by the following
circumstances : a man and his wife, who were both evil characters,


resided at Rome. The woman, however, becoming a convert to
Christianity, attempted to reclaim her husband; but not succeedmg,
she sued for a divorce, which so exasperated him, that he accused her
of being a Christian. Upon her petition he dropped the prosecu-
tion, and levelled his malice against Ptolcmeus, who had converted
her. Ptolemeus was condemned to die; and one Lucius, with
another person, for expressing themselves too freely upon the occa-
sion, met with the same fate. Justin's apology upon these severities
gave Crescens an opportunity of prejudicing the emperor against the
writer of it; upon which Juslin and six of his companions were
apprehended. Being commanded, as usual, to deny their faith, and
sacrifice to the pagan idols, they refused to do either; they were,
therefore, condemned to be first scourged and then beheaded.
At this time some of the northern nations having armed against
Rome, the emperor marched to encounter them; lie was, however,
drawn into an ambuscade, and dreaded the loss of his whole army.
Surrounded by mountains and enemies, and perishing with thirst,
the troops were driven to the last extremity. All thi i .' tics
were invoked in vain; when the men belonging to I ....I ... or
thundering legion, who were nearly all Christians, were commanded
to call upon God for succour. They immediately withdrew from the
rest, prostrated themselves upon the earth, and prayed fervently. A
miraculous deliverance immediately ensued; a prodigious quantity
of rain fell, which, being caught by the men and filling the dykes,
furnished a sudden and astonishing relief. The emperor, in his
epistle to the Roman senate, wherein the expedition is described,
after mentioning the difficulties to which he had been driven, speaks
of the Christians in the following manner :-
When I saw myself not able to encounter with the enemies, I
craved aid of our nation's gods; but finding no relief at their hands,
and ". : ..ped up by the enemy, I caused those men whom we
call ( I. ,. to be sent for; who being mustered, I found a con-
siderable number of them, against whom I was more incensed than
I had just cause, as I afterwards found; for, by a marvellous power,
they forthwith used their endeavours, not with ammunition, drums,
and trumpets, abhorring such preparations and furniture, but only
praying to, and trusting in their God, whom they carry about with
them in their consciences. It is therefore to be believed, although
we call them wicked men, that they worship God in their hearts;
for they, falling prostrate on the ground, prayed, not only for me,
but for the army also which was with me, beseeching God to help
me in oum extreme want of food and fresh water (for we had been
five days withoutt water, and in our enemies' land, even im the midst


of Germany) : I say, falling upon their faces, they prayed to a God
unknown to me; and immediately thereon fell from heaven a most
cool and pleasant shower, but amongst our enemies great store of
hail, mixed with thunder and ..... so that we soon perceived
the invincible aid of the most :.. '. sd to be with us : therefore
we give these men leave to profess Christianity, lest, by.their prayers,
we be punished by the like; and I thereby make myself the author
of all the evil that shall arise from the persecution of the Christian
It appears that the storm which so miraculously flashed in the
faces of the enemy so intimidated them, that part deserted to the
Roman army, the rest were defeated, and the revolted provinces
were entirely recovered. This affair occasioned the persecution to
.uhbside for some time, at least in those parts immediately under the
:nspcction of the emperor.
In the year 80o the emperor Antoninus died, and was succeeded
by his son Commodus, who did not imitate his father in any respect.
I-e had neither his virtues nor his vices; he was without his learning
and his morality, and at the same time without his prejudices against
Christianity. His principal weakness was pride, and to that may be
chiefly ascribed the errors of his reign; for having fancied himself
-Hercules, he sacrificed those of every creed to his vanity who
refused to subscribe to his own absurd opinions.
In this reign Apollonius, a Roman senator, became a martyr.
This eminent person was skilled in all the polite literature of those
times, and in all the purest precepts taught by the blessed Redeemer.
IIe was accused by his own slave Severus, upon an unjust and con-
tradictory, but unrepealed edict of the emperor Trajan. This law
condemned the accused to die, unless he recanted his opinion; and
at the same time ordered the execution of the accuser for slander.
Apollonius, upon this ridiculous statute was accused ; for though his
slave Severus knew he must die for the accusation, yet such was his
diabolical malice and desire of revenge, that he courted death in
order to involve his master in the same destruction. As Apollonius
refused to recant his opinions, he was, by order of his peers the
Roman senators, to whom lie had appealed, condemned to be
beheaded. The sentence was executed on the i8th day of April,
A.D. 186, his accuser having previously had his legs broken, and
been put to death.

Account of the Fifth GCeneral Perscct//ion indesr the Romane
In the year 191, the emperor Commodus dying, was succeeded by


Pertinax, and he was succeeded by Julianus, both of whom reigned
but a short time. On the death of the latter Severus became em-
peror, in the year 192. When he had been recovered from a severe
fit of sickness by a Christian, he became a great favourer of Chris-
tians generally, and even permitted his son Caracalla to be nursed
by a female of that persuasion. Hence, during the reigns of the
emperors who successively succeeded Commodus, and some years of
his reign, the Christians had a respite for several years from persecu-
tion. But the prejudice and fury of the ignorant multitude again
prevailed, and tie obsolete laws were put in execution against them.
The pagans were alarmed at the progress of Christianity, and revived
dte calumny of placing incidental misfortunes to the account of its
professors. Fire, sword, wild beasts, and imprisonment were
resorted to, and even tie dead bodies of Christians were torn from
their graves, and submitted to every insult : yet the gospel withstood
tile attacks of its barbarous enemies. Tertullian, who lived in this
age, informs us, that if the Christians had collectively withdrawn
themselves from the Roman territories, the empire would have been
greatly depopulated.
Leonidas, the father of the celebrated Origen, was beheaded for
being a Christian. Previous to the execution, his son, in order to
encourage him, wrote to him in these remarkable words : Beware,
sir, that your care for us does not make you change your resolution."
Ircneus, bishop of Lyons, was born in Greece, and received a
Christian education. It is generally supposed that the account of
the persecution at Lyons was written by him. He succeeded the
martyr Pothinus as bishop of Lyons, and ruled his diocese with
great propriety. He was a zealous opposer of heresies in general,
and wrote a celebrated tract against heresy, which had great influ-
ence at the time. Victor, the bishop of Rome, wanting to impose
a particular mode of keeping Easter there, it occasioned some dis-
order amongst the Christians. In particular, Irenmus wrote him a
synodical epistle in the name of the Gallic churches. This zeal in
favour of Christianity pointed him out as an object of resentment
to the emperor ; and he was accordingly beheaded in A.D. 202.
The persecutions about this time extended to Africa, and many
were martyred in that part of the globe; the principal of whom
was Perpetua, a married lady of about twenty-six years of age, with
an infant child at her breast. She was seized for being a Christian.
Her father, who tenderly loved her, went to console her during her
confinement, and attempted to persuade her to renounce Christianity.
Perpetua, however, resisted every entreaty. This resolution so
much incensed her father, that he beat her severely, and did not


visit her for some days after ; and, in the meantime, she and some
others who were confined were baptized, as they were before only
catechumens. On being carried before the pro-consul Minutius,
she was commanded to sacrifice to the idols; refusing, she was
ordered to a dark dungeon, and deprived of her child. Two
deacons, however, Tertius and Pomponius, who had the care of
persecuted Christians, allowed her some hours daily to inhale the
fresh air, during which time she had the satisfaction of being
allowed to nourish her infant. Foreseeing that she should not long
be permitted to take care of it, she recommended it strongly to her
mother's attention. Her father at length paid her a second visit,
and again entreated her to renounce Christianity. Hisj behaviour
was now all tenderness and humanity; but inflexible to all human
influence, she knew she must leave ,,i.;... for Christ's sake;
and she only said to him, God's .11 .... i e done." Ie then,
with an almost bursting heart, left her to her fate.
Perpetua gave the strongest proof of fortitude and strength of
mind on her trial. The judge entreated her to consider her father's
tears, her infant's helplessness, and her own life; but, triumphing
over all the sentiments of nature, she forgot the thought of both
mental and corporeal pain, and determined to sacrifice all the
feelings of human sensibility to that immortality offered by Christ.
In vain did they attempt to persuade her that their offers were gentle,
and her own religion otherwise. Aware that she must die, her
father's parental tenderness returned, and in his anxiety he attempted
to carry her off, on which he received a severe blow from one of the
officers. Irritated at this, the daughter immediately declared that
she felt that blow more severely than if she had received it herself.
Being conducted back to prison, she waited for execution, when
several other persons were to be executed with her.

Account of the Sixvth General Persecutionz under ite Roman
Maximus, vho was emperor in A.D. 235, raised a persecution
against the Christians; and in Cappadocia the president Semira-
mus made great efforts to exterminate the Christians from that
kingdom. A Roman soldier, who refused to wear a laurel crown
bestowed on him by the emperor, and confessed himself a Christian,
was scourged, imprisoned, and put to death. Pontianus, bishop of
Rome, for preaching against idolatry, was banished to Sardinia, and
there destroyed.
While this persecution continued, numerous Christians were slain
without trial, and buried in indiscriminate heaps : sometimes fifty


or sixty being cast into a pit together. Maximus died in A.D. 238.
He was succeeded by Gordian, during whose reign, and that of his
successor Philip, the church was free from persecution for the space
of more than ten years; but in the year 249 a violent persecution
broke out in Alexandria. It is, however, worthy of remark, that
this was done at the instigation of a pagan priest, without the
emperor's knowledge. At this time the fury of the people being
great against the Christians, they broke open their houses, stole the
best of their property, destroyed the rest, and murdered the owners.
The universal cry was, Burn them, burn them! kill them, kill
them The names of the martyrs, three excepted, and the parti-
culars of this affair, however, have not been recorded.

Account of lthe Seventh General Persccution, under 1the Ronmana
In the year 249. Decius being emperor of Rome, a dreadful per-
secution was begun against the Christians. This was occasioned
partly by the hatred he bore to his predecessor Philip, who was
deemed a Christian, and [partly by his jealousy concerning the
amazing progress of Christianity; for the heathen temples were
almost forsaken, and the Christian churches crowded with proselytes.
Decius, provoked at this, attempted, as he !said, to extirpate the
name of Christian; and, unfortunately for the cause of the gospel,
many errors had about this time crept into the church; the Chris-
tians were at variance with each other, and a variety of contentions
ensued among them. The heathens in general were ambitious to
enforce the imperial decrees upon this occasion, and looked upon
the murder of a Christian as a merit to be coveted. The martyrs
were, therefore, innumerable. Fabian, bishop of Rome, was the
first person of eminence who felt the severity of this persecution.
The deceased emperor Philip had, on account of his integrity,
committed his treasure to the care of this good man; but Decius,
not finding so much as his avarice led him to expect, determined to
wreak his vengeance on the good prelate. He was accordingly
seized, and on the 20th of January, A.D. 250, suffered martyrdom,
by decapitation.
Cyril, bishop of Gortyna, was seized by order of Lucius, the
governor of that place, who first exhorted him to obey the imperial
mandate, offer sacrifice to idols, and save his venerable person from
destruction; for he was then eighty-four years of age. The good
prelate replied, that he could not agree to any such requisitions;
but as he had long taught others to save their souls, now he should
only think of his own salvation. When the governor found all his


persuasions in vain, he pronounced sentence against the venerable
Christian in these words : "I order that Cyril, who has lost his
senses, and is a declared enemy of our gods, shall be burnt alive."
The good and worthy prelate heard this sentence without emotion,
walked cheerfully to the place of execution, and underwent his
martyrdom with a resolution which astonished all, and converted
In the island of Crete persecution raged with great fury : the
governor being exceedingly active in executing the imperial decrees,
that place streamed with the blood of many Christians.
The emperor Decius having erected a pagan temple at Ephesus,
in the year 25r, he commanded all who were in that city to sacrifice
to the idols. This order was nobly refused by seven of his own
soldiers. The emperor, wishing to prevail on the soldiers to prevent
their fate by his entreaties and lenity, gave them a despite till lie
returned from a journey. In the absence of the emperor they
escaped, and hid themselves in a cavern; but he was informed of it
on his return, the mouth of the cavern was closed up, and they all
were starved or smothered to death.
Origen, the celebrated presbyter and catechist of Alexandria, at
the age of sixty-four, was seized, thrown into a loathsome prison,
loaded with chains, his feet placed in the stocks, and his legs
extended to the utmost, for several days. He was threatened with
fire, and tormented by every means that the most infernal imagina-
tion could suggest. But his Christian fortitude sustained him. Such
was the rigour of the judge, that his tortures were ordered to be as
lingering as possible, that death might not too soon put a period to
his miseries. During this cruel interval the emperor Decius died,
and Gallus, who succeeded him, engaging in a war with the Goths,
the Christians met with a respite. Thus Origen obtained his
enlargement, and retiring to Tyre, he remained there till his death,
which happened when he was in the sixty-ninth year of his age.
In the city of Antioch, Vincentius (lib. IT), speaks of forty virgins,
martyrs, who suffered in the persecution of Decius. In the country
of Phrygia, and in the town of Lampsar, Vincentius also speaks of
one Peter, who was there apprehended, and suffered bitter torments
for Christ's name, under Optimus, the pro-consul; and in Troada
he also speaks of other martyrs that suffered, whose names were
Andrew, Paul, Nichomachus, and Dionysia, a virgin. He adds,
that in Babylon many Christian confessors were found, who were
led away into Spain to be executed. I
Gallus having concluded his wars, a plague broke out in the
empire; and sacrifices to the pagan deities were ordered by the


emperor to appease their wrath. On the Christians refusing to
comply with these rites, they were charged with being the authors
of the calamity: thus the persecution spread from the interior to the
extreme parts of the empire, and many fell martyrs to the impe-
tuosity of the rabble as well as the prejudice of the magistrates.
Cornelius, the Christian bishop of Rome, was, among others, seized
upon this occasion. He was first banished to Centum-Cellie, now
called CivitaVecchia; and, after having been cruelly scourged, was,
on the 14th of September, A.D. 252, beheaded; having been bishop
fifteen months and ten days. Lucius, who succeeded Cornelius as
bishop of Rome, was thd son of Porphyrius, and a Roman by
birth. His vigilance as a pastor occasioned him to be banished;
but in a short time he was permitted to return from exile. Soon
after, however, he was apprehended, and beheaded, March the 4th,
A.D. 233. This bishop was succeeded by Stephanus, a man of
fiery temper, who held the dignity few years, and might probably
have fallen a martyr, had not the emperor been murdered by his
general ,Emilian, when a profound peace succeeded throughout the
empire, and persecution was suffered to subside.
Many of the errors which crept into the church at this time
arose from placing human reason in competition with revelation;
but the fallacy of such arguments being proved by some able
divines, the opinions they had created vanished before the sublimity
and power of Christian truth.

Account of the E/ihth GeCneral Peerecztion, undler ihe Roman
After the death of Gallus, EtEmilian, the general, having many
enemies in the army. was slain, and Valerian elected to the empire.
This emperor, for the space of four years, governed with modera-
tion, and treated the Christians with peculiar lenity and respect;
but in the year 257 an Egyptian magician, named Macriamus,
gained a great ascendancy over him, and persuaded him to persecute
the Christians. Edicts were accordingly published, and the perse-
cution, which began in the month of April, continued for three years
and six months.
The martyrs that fell in this persecution were innumerable, and
their tortures and deaths are various. The most eminent were the
following : Rufina and Secunda, two beautiful and accomplished
ladies, daughters of Asterius, a gentleman of eminence in Rome.
Rufina, the elder, was designed in marriage for Armentarius, a
young nobleman; and Secunda, the younger, for Verinus, a person
of rank and immense wealth. These suitors, at the time the per-


section commenced, were both Christians; but when danger
appeared, to save their fortunes, they renounced their faith. They
took great pains to persuade the ladies to do the same, but failed in
their purpose; and, as a method of safety, Rufina and Secunda left
the kingdom. The.lovers finding themselves disappointed, informed
against the ladies, who, being apprehended as Christians, were
brought before Junius Donatus, governor of Rome. After many
remonstrances, and having undergone several tortures, they sealed
their martyrdom with their blood, by being beheaded, in the year
Stephen was succeeded by Sextus as bishop of Rome. He is
supposed to be a Greek by birth, or extraction, and had for some
time served in the capacity of a deacon under Stephen. His great
fidelity, singular wisdom and courage, distinguished him on many
occasions ; and the fortunate conclusion of a controversy with some
heretics is generally ascribed to his prudence. Marcianus, who had
the management of the Roman government in the year 258, pro-
cured an order from the emperor Valerian to put to death all the
Christian clergy in Rome.
The senate having testified their obedience to the imperial man-
date, Sextus was one of the first who felt the severity of the edict.
Cyprian tells that he was beheaded August 6, A.D. 258, and that
six of his deacons suffered with him.
Laurentius, generally called St. Laurence, the principal of the
deacons, who taught and preached under Sextus, followed him to
the place of execution; when Sextus predicted that he should meet
him in heaven three days after. Laurentius, considering this as a
certain indication of his own approaching martyrdom, at his
return collected all the Christian poor, and distributed amongst
-hem the treasures of the church which had been committed to his
.are, thinking the money could not be better disposed of, or less
able to fall into the hands of the heathens. His conduct alarmed
hie persecutors, who seized on him, and commanded him to give an
immediate account to the emperor of the church treasures.
Laurentius promised to satisfy them, but begged a short respite to
put things in proper order : three days being granted him, he was
suffered to depart. Then with great diligence he collected together
a great number of aged, helpless, and impotent poor, and repaired
to the magistrate, presenting them to him, saying, These are the
true treasures of the church."
Provoked at the disappointment, and fancying the matter meant
in ridicule, the governor ordered him to be immediately scourged.
He was beaten with iron rods, set upon a wooden horse, and had his


limbs dislocated. He endured these tortures with such fortitude and
perseverance that he was ordered to be fastened to a large gridiron,
with a slow fire under it, that his death might be more tedious. But
his astonishing constancy during these trials, and his serenity of
countenance under such excruciating torments, gave the spectators
so exalted an idea of the dignity and truth of the Christian religion,
that many immediately became converts.
Having lain for some time upon the gridiron, the martyr called
to the emperor, who was present, in a kind of jocose Latin couplet,
which may be thus translated,-
This side is broiled sufficient to be food
For all who cwislh it to be done and good."
On this the executioner turned him, and, after having lain a
considerable time longer, he had still strength and spirit enough to
triumph over the tyrant, by telling him, with great serenity, that he
was roasted enough, and only wanted serving up. He then cheer-
fully lifted up his eyes to heaven, and with calmness yielded his
spirit to the Almighty. This happened August 10, A.D. 258.
Perhaps one of the most dreadful events in the history of martyr-
dom was that which took place at Utica, where 300 Christians were,
by the orders of the pro-consul, placed around a burning lime-kiln.
A pan of coals and incense being prepared, they were commanded
either to sacrifice to Jupiter. or to be thrown into the kiln. Unani-
mously refusing, they bravely jumped into the pit, and were suffo-
cated immediately.
Account of the /Nisnthi General Persecution under the Roman
In the year 274, the emperor Aurelian commenced a persecution
the Christians : the principal sufferer was Felix, bishop of
S This prelate was advanced to the Roman see in 274, and
was beheaded in the [same year, on the 22nd of December. Aga-
petus ,a young gentleman who sold his estate and gave the money
to the poor, was seized as a Christian, tortured, and then brought to
Preneste, a city within a day's journey of Rome, where he was
beheaded. These are the only martyrs left upon record during this
reign, as it was soon put a stop to by the emperor being murdered
by his own domestics, at Byzantium. Aurelian was succeeded by
Tacitus, who was followed by Probus, as was the latter by Carnius.
This emperor being struck with death by lightning, his sons Carnius
and Numerian succeeded him; and during these reigns the church
enjoyed rest.
Diocletian mounting the imperial throne, A.D. 284, at first showed


great favour to the Christians. In the year 286 he associated
Maximian with him in the empire ; when Felician and Primus, two
Christian brothers, were put to death before any general persecution
broke out. They were seized by an order from the imperial court,
and, owning themselves Christians, were scourged, tortured, and
finally beheaded. Marcus and Marcellhanus, twin natives of Rome,
and of noble descent, whose parents were heathens, but the tutors
to whom the education of the children was entrusted brought them
up as Christians, were also apprehended on account of their faith,
were severely tortured, and then condemned to death. A respite of
a month was obtained for them by their friends, when their parents
and other relations attempted to bring them back to paganism,
but in vain. At last their constancy subdued their persuaders,
and the whole family became converts to a faith they had just before
Tranquillinus, the father of the two young men, was sent for by
the prefect to give him an account of the success of his endeavours,
when he confessed that, so far from having persuaded his sons to
forsake the faith they had embraced, he was become a Christian
himself. He then stopped till the magistrate had overcome his
surprise, and resuming his discourse, he used such powerful argu-
ments that he made a convert of the prefect; who soon after sold
his estate, resigned his command, and spent the remainder of his
days in a pious retirement.
The prefect who succeeded this singular convert had none of the
disposition of his predecessor. I-e was morose and severe, and
soon seized upon the whole of this Christian race, who were accord-
ingly martyred by being tied to posts, and having their feet pierced
with nails. After remaining in this situation for a day and night,
their sufferings were put an end to by thrusting lances through
their bodies.
ALBAN, from whom St. Alban's received its name, was the first
British martyr. This island had received the gospel of Christ from
Lucius, the first Christian king, but did not suffer by the rage of
persecution. This man was originally a pagan, but being of a very
humane disposition, he sheltered a Christian ecclesiastic, named
Amphibalus, whom some officers were in pursuit of on account of
his religion. The pious example and edifying discourses of the
refugee made a great impression on the mind of Alban; he longed
to become a member of a religion which charmed him. The fugitive
minister, happy in the opportunity, took great pains to instruct him;
and before his discovery perfected Alban's conversion.
Alban now took a firm resolution to preserve the sentiments of a


Christian, or die the death of a martyr. The enemies ofAmphibalus
having intelligence of the place where he was secreted, came to the
house of Alban, in order to apprehend him. The noble host, desir-
ous of protecting his guest and converter, changed clothes with him,
in order to facilitate his escape; and when the soldiers came, offered
himself up as the person for whom they were seeking. Being
accordingly carried before the governor, the deceit was immediately
discovered; and, Amphibalus being absent, that officer determined
to wreak his vengeance upon Alban. With this view he commanded
the prisoner to advance to the altar, and sacrifice to the pagan
deities. The brave Alban, however, declared that he would not
comply with fle idolatrous injunction, but boldly professed himself
to be a Christian. The governor therefore ordered him to be
scourged; but he bore the punishment with great fortitude, and
seemed to acquire new resolution from his sufferings : he was then
beheaded. The venerable Bede states, that upon this occasion the
executioner suddenly became a coni ert to Christianity, and entreated
permission either to die for Alban or with him. Obtaining the latter
request, they were beheaded by a soldier, who voluntarily under-
took the task. This happened on the 22nd of June, A.D. 287, at
Verulam, now St. Alban's, where a magnificent church was erected
to his memory, about the time of Constantine the Great. This edi-
fice was destroyed in the Saxon wars, but was rebuilt by Offa, king
of Mercia, and a monastery erected adjoining to it, some remains of
which are still visible.

Account of the Tenth General Persecution under the Roman
The tenth persecution, under Diocletian, opened in Nicomedia.
The prefect of that city repaired on a certain morning to the Chris-
tians' church, which his officers were commanded to break open,
and then commit the sacred books it contained to the flames. Dio-
cletian and Galerius, who were present, ordered their attendants to
level the church with the ground. This was followed by a severe
edict, commanding the destruction of all other Christian churches
and books; and an order soon succeeded, the object of which was to
render Christians of all denominations outlaws, and consequently to
make them incapable of holding any place of trust, profit, or dignity, or
of receiving any protection from the legal institutions of the realm.
An immediate martyrdom was the result of this edict; for a bold
Christian not only tore it down from the place to which it was affixed,
but execrated the name of the emperor for his injustice and cruelty.
iHe was in consequence seized, severely tortured, and then burnt


alive. !The Christian prelates were likewise apprehended and impri-
soned; and Galerius privately ordered the imperial palace to be
set on fire, that the Christians might be charged as the incendiaries,
and a plausible pretext given for carrying on the persecution with
the greatest severity. A general sacrifice was then commanded,
which occasioned various martyrdoms. So great was the persecu-
tion that there was no distinction made of age or sex, but all fell
indiscriminate sacrifices to their opinions. Many houses were set
on fire, and whole Christian families perished in the flames; others
had stones fastened about their necks, and were driven into the sea.
The persecution became general in all the Roman provinces, but
more particularly in the East; and as it lasted ten years, it is impos-
sible to ascertain the numbers martyred, or to enumerate the various
modes of martyrdom. Some were beheaded in Arabia; many
devoured by wild beasts in Phoenicia; great numbers were broiled
on gridirons in Syria; others had their bones broken, and in that
manner were left to expire, in Cappadocia ; and in Mesopotamia
several were hung with their heads downwards over slow fires, and
Romanus, a native of Palestine, was deacon of the church of
Cmesarea at the commencement of Diocletian's persecution. He
was at Antioch when the imperial order arrived for sacrificing to
idols, and was greatly afflicted to see many Christians, through fear,
submit to the idolatrous mandate, and deny their faith to preserve
their existence. While censuring some for their conduct, he was
informed against to the emperor, and soon after apprehended. Being
brought to the tribunal he confessed himself a Christian, and said he
was willing to suffer anything which he was pleased to inflict upon
him for his confession. When condemned for his faith, he was
scourged, put to the rack, his body torn with hooks, his flesh cut
with knives, his face scarified, his teeth beat from their sockets, and
his hair plucked out by the roots. Thus cruelly mangled, he turned
to the governor, and calmly thanked him for what he had done,
and for having opened so many mouths to preach the doctrines of
Christianity; "for," said he, "every wound is a mouth, to sing
the praises of the Lord."
jThe following circumstance, which happened upon this occasion,
is related by Prudentius and other writers. Romanus offered to
stand to the decision of a young child, whose age must be free from
malice, and to put the truth of the Christian religion upon that test.
Ascepiades is said to have accepted of the proposal. A child about
seven years of age was called out of the crowd, and being asked
whether he thought it to be true that men ought to worship but one


God in Christ, or to worship many gods, he answered, that he
thought whatsoever men affirm to be God must be but one, and
as this one is Christ, he must of necessity be God; for that there
are many gods," continued the boy, we children cannot believe."
The governor, amazed at this, was highly enraged with the child,
and calling him a little villain and a young traitor, asked him who
taught him that lesson. To which the child replied, My mother,
with whose milk I sucked in this lesson, that I must believe in
Christ." This so incensed the governor, that he ordered the infant
to be severely whipped; insomuch that the beholders could not re-
frain from tears, the mother of the child only excepted, who reproved
him for asking for a draught of water, charging him to thirst for that
cup which the infants of Bethlehem had drunk of, and bidding him
remember Isaac, who willingly offered himself to death by his
father's hand. While the woman was giving her son this lesson,
the executioner plucked the skin and hair from the crown of his
head; his imoLher at the same time saying to him, Though you
suffer here, my child, you shall shortly be with Him who shall adorn
thy naked head with a crown of eternal glory: upon which the
child smiled upon her and his executioners, and bore their stripes
with silent fortitude. Romanus soon after was ordered to be
strangled, and the child to be beheaded; which sentence was executed
on the r7th of November, A.D. 303.
We cannot close our account of the ten persecutions under the
Roman emperors without calling the attention of the Christian
reader to the evident indignation which the Almighty manifested
towards the persecutors. History shows that no nation or indi-
vidual can prosper where Christ Jesus, the Son of God, is con-
temned. After these events the Romans were not only plagued
and destroyed by their own emperors, but also by civil wars, three
of which happened in two years at Rome, after the death of Nero.
Christianity became the religion of the State under Constantine
the Great; but the Christians were persecuted after that time in
nearly every heathen land to which the knowledge of the truth was

The Persecutions of the WaJldenses in France, 1149.
BEFORE this time the church of Christ had become tainted with the
errors of popery, and superstition began to predominate; but a few,
who perceived the pernicious tendency of such errors, determined
to preserve the light of the gospel in its purity and splendour, and


to disperse the clouds which artful priests had raised about it in
order to delude the people. The principal of these worthies was
Berengarius, who, about the year 1ooo, boldly preached evangelical
truth according to its primitive simplicity. Many from conviction
embraced his doctrine, and were on that account called Berengarians.
Berengarius was succeeded by Peter Bruis, who preached at Tou-
louse, under the protection of the earl Hildephonsus; and the
tenets of the reformers, with the reasons of their separation from the
church of Rome, were published in a book written by Bruis, under
the title of Antichrist."
In the year 1n40 the number of the reformed was so great, that
the probability of their increasing alarmed the pope, who wrote to
several princes to banish them from their dominions, and employed
many learned men to write against them. In 1147 Henry of Tou-
louse, being deemed their most eminent preacher, they were called
I-lenricians; and as they would not admit of any proofs relative to
religion but what could be deduced from the Scriptures, the popish
party gave them the name of Apostolics. Peter Waldo, a native of
Lyons, at this time became a strenuous opposer of popery; and
from him the reformed received the appellation of Waldoys, or
Waldenses. Waldo was a man eminent for learning and benevo-
lence; his doctrines were very generally admired, and he was fol-
lowed by multitudes of all classes. The bishop of Lyons taking
umbrage at the freedom with which he treated the pope and the
Romish clergy, sent to admonish him to refrain in future from such
discourses; but Waldo answered, That he could not be silent in a
cause of such importance as the salvation of men's souls, wherein
he must obey God rather than man." His principal charges against
the pope and popery were-that the Roman Catholics affirm the
church of Rome to be the infallible church of Christ upon earth,
and that the pope is its head, and the vicar of Christ; that they hold
the doctrine of transubstantiation, insisting that the bread and wine
given in the sacrament is the identical body and blood of Christ who
was nailed to the cross; that they believe there is a place called
purgatory, where souls after this life are purged from the sins of
mortality, and that the pains and penalties there inflicted may be
abated according to the masses said by and the money paid to the
priest; that they teach the communion of one kind, and the receiv-
ing the bread only, to be sufficient for the laity, though the clergy
must be indulged with both bread and wine; that they pray to the
Virgin Mary and saints, though their prayers ought to be imme-
diately to God; that they pray for souls departed, though God de-
cides their fate immediately on the decease of the person; that they


will not perform the service of the church in a language understood
by the people in general; that they place their devotion in the num-
ber of prayers, and not in the intent of the heart; that they forbid
marriage to the clergy, though Christ allowed it; and that thev use
many things in baptism, though He used only water. When pope
Alexander the third was informed of these transactions, he excom-
municated Waldo and his adherents, and commanded the bishop of
Lyons to exterminate them. Thus began the papal persecutions
against the Waldenses.
Pope Innocent the eighth, in 1488, determined to persecute the
Waldenses. To this end he sent Albert de Capitaneis, archdeacon of
Cremona, to France; who, on arriving in Dauphiny, craved the
assistance of the king's lieutenant to exterminate them from the
valley of Loyse. The lieutenant readily granted his assistance, and
marched a body of troops to the place; but when they arrived in
the valley, they found that it had been deserted by the inhabitants,
who had rctilcd to tie mountains, and hid themselves in dens and
caves of the earth. The archdeacon and lieutenant immediately fol-
loNced them with their troops, and catching many cast them head-
long from precipices, bywhich they were dashed to pieces. Several,
however, retired to the innermost parts of the caverns, and knowing
the intricacies, were able to conceal themselves. The archdeacon
and lieutenant not'- -ii capable of finding them, ordered the mouths
of the caves to be I I with faggots, which being lighted, those
within were suffocated. On searching the caves, numerous children
were found smothered, either in their cradles or in their mothers'
arms; and upon the whole, about 3,000 men, women, and children
were destroyed in this persecution.
Waldo remained three years undiscovered in Lyons, though the
utmost diligence was used to apprehend him, but at length he found
an opportunity of escaping from the place of his concealment to the
mountains of Dauphiny. H-e soon after found r-i-r t ---- --t-
his doctrines in Dauphiny and Picardy, which so .
king of France, that he put the latter province, which contained
most of his followers, under military execution, destroying above
300 gentlemen's seats.

The Pcrrsccutions of the Albigcnses.
THI- Albigenses were a people of the reformed religion, who inha-
bited the country of Albi. They were condemned on account of reli-


gion in the council of Lateran, by order of pope Alexander the third,
but they increased so rapidly, that many cities were inhabited exclu-
sively by persons of their persuasion, and several eminent noblemen
embraced their doctrines. Among the latter were two distinguished
noblemen of the name of Raymond, earls of Toulouse and Foix.
The pope at length pretended that lie wished to draw them to the
Romish faith by sound argument and clear reasoning, and for this
and ordered a general conference; in which, however, the popish
doctors were entirely overcome by the arguments of Arnold, a re-
formed clergyman, whose reasoning were so strong that they were
compelled to yield submission.
A friar, named Peter, having been murdered in the dominions of
the earl of Toulouse, the pope made the murder a pretence to per-
secute that nobleman and his subjects. He sent agents throughout
Europe to raise forces to act coercively against the Albigenses, and
promised paradise to all that would enter this war (which he termed
a holy war), and bear arms for forty days. The same indulgence
was held out to all who entered for this purpose as to such as
engaged in crusades to the Holy Land. He also sent orders to all
archbishops and bishops to excommunicate the earl of Toulouse
every Sabbath and festival; at the same ,',. .1 1 ;-.. 11 his sub-
jects from their oath of allegiance, and .... ..... I..'. to pursue
his person, possess his land, destroy his property, and murder such of
his subjects as continued faithful. The earl hearing of these mighty
preparations against him, wrote to the pope in a very candid manner,
desiring not to be condemned unheard, and assuring hins that he
had not the least hand in Peter's death ; for that friar was killed by
a gentleman who, immediately after the murder, fled out of his ter-
ritories. But the pope, being determined on his destruction, was
resolved not to hear his defence; and a formidable army, with
several noblemen and prelates at the head of it, began their march
against the Albigenses. The earl had only the alternative to oppose
force by force, or submit; and as he despaired of success in attempt-
ing the former, he determined on the latter. The pope's legate
being at Valence, the earl repaired thither, and said, ''he was sur-
prised that such a number of armed men should be sent against him,
before the least proof of his guilt had been produced. He there-
fore came voluntarily to surrender himself, armed with the testimony
of a good conscience, and hoped that the troops would be prevented
from plundering his innocent subjects, as he thought himself a suffi-
cient pledge for any vengeance they chose to take on account of the
friar's death." The legate replied, that he was very glad the earl
had voluntarily surrendered; but, with respect to the proposal, he


could not pretend to countermand the orders to the troops, unless
he would consent to deliver up seven of his best fortified castles
as securities for his future behaviour. At this demand the earl
perceived his error in submitting, but it was too late ; he knew him-
self to be a prisoner, and therefore sent authority for the surrender
of the castles. The pope's legate had no sooner garrisoned these
places, than he ordered the respective governors to appear before
him. When they came, he said, that the earl of Toulouse having
delivered up his castles to the pope, they must consider that they
were now the pope's subjects, and not the earl's; and that they must
therefore act conformably to their new allegiance." The governors
were astonished to see their lord thus in captivity, and themselves
compelled into a new allegiance so much against their inclinations
and consciences. But what afflicted them still more were the affronts
afterwards put upon the earl; for he was stripped, led nine times
round the grave of friar Peter, and severely scourged before all
orders of people. Not contented with this, they obliged him to
swear that he would be obedient to the pope during the remainder
of his life, conform to the church of Rome, and make irreconcilable
war against the Albigenses. The legate even ordered him, by the
oaths he had newly taken, to join the troops, and inspect the siege
of Bezieres; but, thinking this too hard an injunction, he took an
opportunity privately to quit the army, and determined to go to the
pope and relate the ill usage he had received. The army, however,
proceeded to besiege Bezieres; and the earl of Bezieres, who was
likewise governor of that city, thinking it impossible to defend the
place, came out, and presenting himself before the pope's legate,
implored mercy for the inhabitants, intimating that there were as
many Roman Catholics as Albigenses in the city. The legate re-
plied, that all excuses were useless; that the place must be delivered
up at discretion, or the most dreadful consequences would ensue.
The earl of Bezieres returning to the city, told the inhabitants he
could obtain no mercy, unless the Albigenses would abjure their reli-
gion and conform to the worship of the church of Rome. The
Roman Catholics pressed the Albigenses to comply with this request;
but the Albigenses nobly answered, that they would not forsake their
religion for the base price of a frail life ; that God was able if He
pleased to defend them; but if He would be glorified by the confes-
sion of their faith into death, it would be a great honour to them to
die for His sake. They added, that they had rather displease the
pope, who could but kill their bodies, than God, who could cast
both body and soul into hell. On this their enemies, finding impor-
tunity ineffectual, sent their bishop to the pope's legate, beseeching


him not to include them in the chastisement of the Albigenses; and
representing that the best means to win the latter over to the Roman
Catholic persuasion was by gentleness, and not by rigour. Upon
hearing this the i flew into a violent passion with the bishop,
and declared that illt the city did not acknowledge their fault,
they should taste of one curse, without distinction of religion, sex,
or age." The inhabitants refusing to yield upon such terms, a
general assault was made, and the place taken by storm, when every
cruelty that barbarous superstition could devise was practised.
Nothing was to be heard but the groans of men who lay weltering in
their blood; the lamentations of mothers, who, after being violated
by the soldiery, had their children taken from them, and dashed to
pieces before their faces. The city being fired in various parts, new
scenes of confusion arose : in several places the streets were stream-
ing with blood. Those who hid themselves in their dwellings had
only the dreadful alternative to remain and perish in the flames,
or rush out and fall by the swords of the soldiers. The bluudy
legate, during these infernal proceedings, enjoyed th- ------. and
even cried out to the troops, Kill them, kill them r. II I ,-1 man,
woman, and child! Kill Roman Catholics as well as Albigenses, for
when they are dead the Lord knows how to select His own." Thus
the beautiful city of Bezieres was reduced to a heap of ruins; and
60,000 persons of different ages and both sexes were murdered.
The earl of Bezieres and afew others made their escape, and went
to Carcasson, which they endeavoured to put into the best posture
of defence. The legate, not willing to lose an opportunity of shed-
ding blood during the forty days which the troops were to serve, led
them immediately against Carcasson. As soon as the place was
invested a furious assault was made, but the besiegers were repulsed
with great slaughter; and upon this occasion the earl of Bezieres
gave the most distinguished proofs of his courage, animating the
besieged by crying out-" We had better die fighting than fall into
the hands of such bigoted and bloody enemies."
During these events the king of Arragon arrived at the camp,
and after paying obedience to the legate, told him, he understood
the earl of Bezieres, his kinsman, was in the city of Carcasson; and
that, if he would grant him permission, he would go thither, and
endeavour to make him sensible of the duty he owed both to the
pope and church. The legate acquiescing, the king repaired to the
earl, and asked him from what motives he shut himself up in the
city against so great an army? The earl answered it was to defend
his life, goods, and subjects; that he knew the pope, under pretence
of religion, resolved to destroy his uncle, the earl of Toulouse and


himself; that he saw the, cruelty which they had used at Bezieres,
even against the priests, adding also what they had done to the
town of Carcasson; and that they must look for no mercy from the
legate or his army : he, therefore, rather chose to die, defending
himself with his subjects, than fall into the hands of so inexorable
an enemy as the legate; that though he had in the city some that
were of another religion, yet they were such as had not wronged
any, were come to his succour in his greatest extremity, and for
their good service he was resolved not to abandon them; that his
trust was in God, the Defender of the oppressed; and that He would
assist them against those ill-advised men who forsook their own
houses to burn those of other men, without reason, judgment, or
The king reported to the legate what the earl had said. The legate,
after considering for a time, replied, For your sake, sir, I will re-
ceive the earl of Bezieres to mercy, and with him twelve others shall
be safe, and be permitted to retire with their property; but as for
the rest, I am determined to have them at my discretion." This
answer displeased the king; and when the earl heard it, he abso-
lutely refused to comply with such terms. The legate then com-
manded another assault, but his troops were again repulsed with
rt -l-Thftr -n:-1 the dead bodies occasioned a stench that was
I both to the besieged and besiegers. The
legate, provoked and alarmed at this second disappointment, deter-
mined to act by stratagem. He sent a gentleman who was well
skilled in dissimulation and artifice to the earl of Bezieres, with a
seeming friendlymessage. The design was, by any means, to induce
the earl to leave the city, in order to have an interview with the
legate; and to this end the gentleman was to promise-nay swear
whatever he thought proper ; for, said the 1--''. "Swear to what-
ever falsehoods you will in such a cause, I .1 ,1 e you absolution."
The infamous plot succeeded : the earl, believing the promises made
him of personal security, and crediting the solemn oaths that the
perjured agent swore upon the occasion, left the city and went with
him. The legate no sooner saw him, than he told him he was a
prisoner, and must remain so till Carcasson had surrendered, and
the inhabitants taught their duty to the pope. The earl on hearing
this cried out that he was betrayed, and exclaimed against the trea-
chery of the legate, and the perjury of the agent he had employed.
But he was ordered into close confinement, and the place summoned
to surrender without delay.
The people, on hearing of the captivity of- the earl, were thrown
into the utmost consternation, when one of the citizens informed the


rest, that he had been formerly told by some old men that there was
a very capacious subterranean passage leading from thence to the
castle of Camaret, three leagues distant. If," continued he, "we
can find this passage, we may all escape before the legate can be
apprised of our flight." 1The information was joyfully received; all
were employed to search for the passage, and at length it was dis-
covered. Early in the evening the inhabitants began their flight,
taking with them their wives, children, a few days' provisions, and
such property as was most valuable and portable. They reached the
castle by the morning, and escaped to Arragon, Catalonia, and such
other places as they thought would secure them from the power of
the sanguinary legate. Next morning the troops were astonished,
not hearing any noise, nor seeing any stir in the city; yet they
approached the walls with much fear, lest it should be but a strata-
gem to endanger them; but finding no opposition, they mounted
the walls, crying out that the Albigenses were fled : and thus was
the city with all the spoils taken, and the earl of Bezieres committed
to prison in one of the strongest towers of Carcasson, where he soon
after died.
The legate called all the prelates and lords of his army together,
telling them, that though it was requisite there should be always a
legate in the army, yet it was likewise necessary that there should
be a secular general, wise and valiant, to command in all their affairs.
This charge was first offered to the duke of Burgogne, then to the
earl of Enevers, and thirdly to the earl of St. Paul; but they all
refused it. At length it was offered to Simon, earl of Montffort,
who after some excuses accepted it. Four thousand men were left
to garrison Carcasson, and the deceased earl of Bezicres was suc-
ceeded in title and dignity by earl Simon, a bigoted Roman Catholic,
who threatened vengeance on the Albigenses unless they conformed
to the worship of the church of Rome. But the king of Arragon,
who was in his heart of the reformed persuasion, secretly encouraged
the Albigenses, and gave them hopes that, if they acted with pru-
dence, they might cast off the yoke of the tyrannical earl Simon.
They took his advice, and while Simon was [gone to Montpellier
they surprised some of his fortresses, and were successful in several
expeditions against his officers.
Thase proceedings so enraged earl Simon, that returning from
Montpellier, he collected together some forces, marched against the
Albigenses, and ordered every prisoner he took to be immediately
burnt. But not succeeding in some of his enterprises, he grew dis-
heartened, and wrote to every Roman Catholic power in Europe to
Sind him assistance, otherwise he should not be able to hold out


against the Albigenses. He soon received assistance, with which
he attacked the castle of Beron, and making himself master of it,
ordered the garrison to be cruelly mutilated and deprived of sight;
one person alone excepted, and he was but partially blinded that he
might conduct the rest to Cabaret. Simon then undertook the siege
of Menerbe, which, on account of the want of water, was obliged
to yield to his forces. The lord of Termes, the governor, was put in
prison, where he died; his wife, sister, and daughter were burnt,
and 180 persons were committed to the flames. Many other castles
surrendered to the forces of earl Simon, and the inhabitants were
butchered in the most barbarous manner.
Soon after the pope's legate called a council at Montpellier for
renewing military operations against the Albigenses, and for doing
proper honour to earl Simon, who was present. On meeting the
council, the legate, in the pope's name, paid many compliments to
earl Simon, and declared that he should be prince of all the coun-
tries that might in future be taken from the Albigenses : at the same
time, by order of the pontiff, he styled him the active and dexterous
soldier of Jesus Christ, and the invincible defender of the catholic
faith. Just as the earl was going to return thanks for these great
honours and fine encomiums, a messenger brought word that the
people had heard earl Simon was in the council, and that they had
taken up arms, and were coming thither to destroy him as a common
disturber. This intelligence threw the whole council into great con-
fusion; and earl Simon, though a minute before styled an invincible
defender of the faith, was glad to jump out of the window and steal
away from the city. The affair becoming serious in the opinion of
the papists, the pope soon after called a council to be held at Late-
ran, in which great powers were granted to Roman Catholic inqui-
sitors, and many Albigenses were immediately put to death. This
council likewise confirmed to earl Simon all the honours intended
him by the council of Montpellier, and empowered him to raise
another army against the Albigenses. Earl Simon immediately
repaired to court, received his investiture from the French king, and
began to levy forces. Having now a considerable number of troops,
he determined, if possible, to exterminate the Albigenses, when he
received advice that his countess was besieged in Narbonne by the
earl of Toulouse. He proceeded to her relief, when the Albigenses
met him, gave him battle, and defeated him; but he found means to
escape from the field into the castle of Narbonne. After this Tou-
louse was recovered by the Albigenses : but the pope espousing earl
*Simon's cause, raised forces on his account, and enabled him once
more to undertake the siege of that city. The earl assaulted the


place furiously, but being repulsed with great loss, he sank into
affliction; when the pope's legate said, to comfort him, "Fear
nothing, my lord ; make another vigorous attack : let us by any
means recover the city, and destroy the inhabitants; and those of
our men wiho are slain in the fight I will assure you'shall imme-
diately pass into Paradise." One of the earl's principal officers, on
hearing this, said, with a sneer, Monsieur Cardinal, you talk with
great assurance ; and if the earl believes you, he will as before pay
dearly for his confidence."
Earl Simon, however, took the legate's advice, made another
assault, and was again repulsed. To complete his misfortune, before
the troops could recover from their confusion, the earl of Foix made
his appearance at the head ofa formidable army, attacked the already
dispirited forces of earl Simon, and easily put them to the rout.
The earl himself narrowly escaped drowning in the Garonne, into
which he had hastily plunged, in order to avoid being captured.
This discomfiture almost broke earl Simon's heart; but the pope's
legate continued to encourage him, and offered to raise him another
army; which promise, with some difficulty and three years' delay, he
at length performed, and that bigoted nobleman was once more
enabled to take the field. On this occasion he turned his whole force
against Toulouse, which lie besieged for the space of nine months,
when in one of the sallies made by the besieged, his horse was
wounded. The animal being in great anguish, ran away with him,
and bore him directly under the ramparts of the city, when an
archer shot him in the thigh with an arrow; and a woman imme-
diately after throwiing a large stone from the wall, it struck him on
the head and killed him. The siege was raised ; but the legate,
incensed at his disappointment of vengeance on the inhabitants,
engaged the king of I'rance in the cause, who sent his son to besiege
the city. The French prince, with some chosen troops, furiously
:assaulted it; but meeting with a severe repulse, he abandoned Tou-
louse to besiege Miromand. This place he soon took by storm, and
put to the sword all the inhabitants, consisting of 5,000 men, women,
and children.
The legate, whose name was Bertrand, being very old, grew
weary of following the army; but his passion for murder still
remained, as appears by his epistle to the pope ; in which he begs
to be recalled on account of his age and infirmities, but entreats
the pontiff to appoint a successor, who might continue the war, as
he had done, with spirit and perseverance. In consequence the
pope recalled Bertrand, and appointed Conrade, bishop of Portua,
to be legate in his room. The latter determined to follow the steps


of his predecessor, and to persecute the Albigenses with the ---,'
severity. Guido, earl of Montfort, the son and heir of earl ..
undertook the command of the troops, and immediately laid siege to
Toulouse, before the walls of which he was killed. His brother
Almaric succeeded to the command; but the bravery of the garrison
soon obliged him to raise the siege. On this the I- prevailed
upon the king of France to undertake the siege of .. in per-
son, and reduce to the obedience of the church those obstinate
heretics, as he called the brave Albigenses. The earl of Toulouse
hearing of the great preparations made by the king of France, sent
the women, children, and cattle into secret and secure places among
the mountains, ploughed up the land, that tile king's forces should
not obtain forage, and did all that a skilful general could perform
to distress the enemy. By these expedients the French army,
soon after entering tihe earldom of Toulouse, suffered all the ex-
tremities of famine, which obliged the troops to feed on the
carcass of horses and dogs, wlhch unwholesome food produced the

S1.i unexpected distress broke the king's heart; lnt his son, who
succeeded him, determined to carry on tire war, when he was soon
defeated in three engagements by thie earl of Toulouse. The king,
the queen-mrother, and three archbishops raised another formidable
army, and had the art to persuade the earl of Toulouse to come to
conference, when he was treacherously seized upon, made a prisoner,
forced to appear barefooted and bareheaded before his enemies, and
compelled to s cribtosuri the following ignominious conditions :
r. 'hat lie should abjure the faith that lie had hitherto defended.
2. That lie should be subject to the church of Rome. 3. That he
should give his daughter Joan in marriage to one of the brothers
of the king of France.. 4. That lie should maintain in Toulouse
six popish professors of tile liberal arts, and two grammiarians.
5. That he should take upon him the cross, and serve five years
against the Saracens in the Holy Land. 6. That lie should leIcl
the walls of Toulouse with tihe ground. 7. That lie should destroy
the fortifications of thirty of his other cities and castles, a, the legate
should direct. 8. That he should remain prisoner in the Louvre at
Paris till Iir, daughter was delivered to the ]iing's commissioners.
After these cruel conditions a severe persecution took place against
the Albigenses, many of whom suffered for the faith ; and express
orders were issued that t/ic laiy should iot ,cb permitted to reid the
vcred wriztin's I
The persecution against the Albigenses was renewed in i62o. At
a town called Tell, w while the minister was preaching to a congrega-
a" 2


tion of the reformed, the papists attacked and murdered a number
of the people. A lady of principal eminence being exhorted to
change her religion, if not for her own sake, at least for that of the
infant she held in her arms, said, with undaunted courage, I did
not quit Italy, my native country, nor forsake the estate I had there,for
the sake of Jesus Christ, to renounce him here. With regard to my
infant, why should I not deliver him up to death, since God delivered
up his Son to die for ma-e?" As soon as she had done speaking
they took the child from her, delivered it to a popish nurse to bring
up, and then slew the mother. Dominico Burto, a youth of sixteen,
refusing to turn papist, was set upon an ass with his face to the tail,
which he was obliged to hold in his hand. In this condition he was
led to the market-place, amidst the acclamations of the populace;
after which he was sadly mutilated and burnt in several parts of his
body, till at last he died with the pain. An Albigense young lady,
of a noble family, was seized, and carried through the streets with
a paper mitre upon her head. After mocking and beating her, the
brutal multitude told her to call upon the saints; when she replied,
" My trust and salvation is in Christ only; for even the Virgin Mary,
without the merits of her Son, could not be saved." On this the
multitude fell upon and destroyed her.

The Origin, Pro-gress, and C-ruelties of time Inquisi/ion.
IN the time of pope Innocent the third the reformed religion had occa-
sioned such a noise throughout Europe, that the catholics began to
fear their church was in danger, and the pope was determined to
impede as much as possible the progress of the reformation : he
accordingly instituted a number of inquisitors-persons who were to
make inquiry after, apprehend, and punish the reformed heretics.
At the head of these was one Dominic, who had been canonized in
order to render his authority the more respectable. He and the
other inquisitors spread themselves into various Roman Catholic
countries, and treated the Protestants with the utmosi severity. At
length the pope, not finding them so useful as lie had imagined,
resolved upon the establishment of fixed and regular courts of
inquisition; the first office of which was established in the city of
'oulouse, and Dominic became the first inquisitor-general.
Courts of inquisition were soon erected in other countries; but
the Spanish inquisition became the most powerful and the most
dreadful of any. Even the kings of Spain themselves, though arbi-


trary in all other respects, were taught to dread the power of the
lords of the inquisition; and the horrid cruelties they exercised
compelled multitudes, who differed but slightly in opinion from the
catholics, carefully to conceal their sentiments. The Dominicans
and Franciscans were the most zealous of all the monks; these,
therefore, the pope invested with an exclusive right of presiding over
and managing the different courts of inquisition. The friars of those
two orders were always selected from the very dregs of the people,
and therefore were not much troubled with scruples of conscience:
they were obliged, however, by the rules of their respective orders,
to lead very austere lives, which rendered their manners unsocial,
and better qualified them for their employment.
The pope gave the inquisitors the most unlimited powers, as
judges delegated by him, and immediately representing his person.
They were permitted to excommunicate or sentence to death whom
they thought proper, upon the slightest information of heresy; they
were allowed to publish crusades against all whom they deerme't
heretics, and enter into leagues with sovereign princes to join those
crusades with their forces. About the year 1244 their power was
further increased by the emperor Frederic the second, who declared
himself the protector and friend of all inquisitors, and published two
cruel edicts-that heretics who continued obstinate should be burnt,
and that those who repented should be imprisoned for life.
The following is an exact account of an alto da fe performed at
Madrid in the year 1682 :
The officers of the inquisition, preceded by trumpets, kettledrums,
and their banner, marched, on the 30th of May, in cavalcade, to tle
palace of the great square, where they declared by proclamation,
that on the 3oth of June the sentence of the prisoners would be put
into execution. There had not been a spectacle of this kind at Madrid
for several years before, for which reason it was expected by the
inhabitants with as much impatience as a day of the greatest festivity
and triumph. When the day appointed arrived, a prodigious num-
ber of people appeared, dressed as gaily as their respective circum-
stances would admit. In the great square was raised a high scaf-
fold; and thither, from seven in the :.. ..;, till the evening,
were brought criminals of both sexes; 1 I. inquisitions in the
kingdom sending their prisoners to Madrid. Twenty men and
women, with one renegade Mahometan, were ordered to be burned;
fifty Jews and Jewesses, never having before been imprisoned, and
repenting of their crimes, were sentenced to a long confinement, and
to wear a yellow cap; and ten others, indicted for bigamy, witch-
craft, and other crimes, were sentenced to be whipped, and then


sent to the galleys : these last wore large pasteboard caps, with
inscriptions on them, having a halter about their necks and torches
in their hands. On this occasion the i hole court of Spain was
present. The grand inquisitor's chair was placed in a sort of tli-
bunal higher than that of the king. Nobles acted the part of the
sheriff's officers in England, leading such criminals as were to be
burned, and holding them when fast bound with thick cords; the
rest of the victims were conducted by familiars of the inquisition.
There wab among them a young Jewess of exquisite beauty, but
seventeen years of age. I on the same side of the scaffold
where the queen was seated, she addressed her, in hope of obtaining
pardon, in tile following pathetic speech : Great queen will not
your royal presence be of some service to me in my miserable con-
dition? Have regard to my youth ; and, oh! consider that I ams
about to die for professing a religion imbibed from my earliest
infancy!" Her majesty seemed to pity her distress, but turned away
her eyes, as she did not dare speak a word on behalf of a person whli
had been declared heretic by the inquisition. Mass now began, in
the midst of which the priest came from an altar placed near the
scaffold, and seated himself in a chair prepared for that purpose.
Then the chief inquisitor descended from the amphitheatre, dressed
in his cope, and having a mitre on his head. After bowing to the
altar, le advanced towards the king's balcony, attended by some of
his officers, carrying a cross and the gospels, with a book containing
the oath by which the kings of Spain oblige themselves to protect
the Catholic faith, to extirpate heretics, and support with all their
power the decrees of the inquisitions. On the approach of the
inquisitor presenting the book to the king, his majesty rose up bare-
headed, and swore to maintain the oath, which nwas read to him by
one of his counsellors : after which the king continued standing till
the inquisitor had returned to his place ; when the secretary of the
holy police mounted a sort of pulpit, and administered a hike oath to
the counsellors and the whole assembly. Mass commenced about
twelve at noon, and did not end till nine in the evening, being pro-
tracted by a proclamation of the sentences of the several criminals,
which were all separately rehearsed aloud one after the other. Next
followed the 1---i-_ of the twenty-one men and women, whose in-
trepidity in ... that horrid death was truly astonishing : some
thrust their hands and feet into the flames with the most dauntless
fortitude; and all yielded to their fate with such resolution, that
many of the amazed spectators lamented that such heroic souls had
aot beci mIore. enligh/tened! The situation of tie king was so near
to the criminals, that their dying groans were audible to him : his


coronation oath obliged him to give sanction by his presence to all
the acts of the tribunal.
Though the inquisitors allowed the torture to be used only three
times, yet it was so severely inflicted, that the prisoner either died
under it, or ever after continued a cripple. The following is a de-
scription of the severe torments occasioned by the torture, from the
account of one who suffered it the three usual times, but happily
survived its cruelties:-
A prisoner on refusing to comply with the iniquitous demand of
the inquisitors, by confessing all the crimes they thought proper to
charge him with, was immediately conveyed to the torture-room,
where no light appeared but what issued from two candles. That
the cries of the sufferers might not be heard by other prisoners, the
room was lined with a kind of quilting, covering all the crevices and
deadening the sound. The prisoner's horror was extreme on enter-
ing this infernal place, when suddenly he was surrounded by six
wretches, who, after preparing the tortures, stripped him naked to
his drawers. He was then laid upon his back on a kind of stand,
elevated a few feet from the floor. They began by putting an iron
collar round his neck, and a ring to each foot, which fastened him
to the stand. His limbs being thus stretched out, they wound two
ropes round each arm and each thigh ; these being passed under
the scaffold, were all drawn tight at the same instant of time byi
four of the men, on a given signal. The pains which immediately
succeeded were intolerable ; the ropes, which were of a small size,
cut through the prisoner's flesh to the bone, making the blood
gush out at all the different places bound at a time. As he per-
sisted in not making any confession of what the inquisitors required,
the ropes were drawn in this manner four times successively. A
physician and surgeon attended, and often felt his temples, to judge
of the danger lie might be in : by these means his tortures were for
a short time suspended; but only that he might have sufficient
opportunity of recovering his spirits to sustain further torture.
During this extremity of anguish, while the tender frame is tearing,
as it were, in pieces, while at every pore it feels the sharpest pangs
of death, and the agonized soul is just ready to burst forth and quit
its wretched mansion, the ministers of the inquisition have the obdu-
racy to look on without emotion, and calmly to advise the poor dis-
tracted creature to confess his imputed guilt, that lie may obtain
pardon and receive absolution. All this, however, was ineffectual
with the prisoner, whose mind was strengthened by a sweet con-


.oiousness of innocence, and the divine consolation of religion.
Amidst his bodily suffering, the physician and surgeon were so bar-
barou s s to declare, that if he died under the torture he would be
guilty, by his obstinacy, of self-murder. The last time the ropes
were drawn tight lie grew so exceedingly weak, by the stoppage of
the circ'ulalon of his blood, and the pains he endured, that he
fainted away; upon which he was unloosed and carried back to his

The inhumane wretches of the inquisition, finding that all the
torture thev intheecd. instead of extorting a discovery fr om the
prisoner, only served the more fervently to excite his supplliations
io heaven for patience and power to persevere in truth and integrity,
were so inihuman, in six weeks after, as to expose him to another
kind of torture, more severe, ui f t the former : the man-
ner of inflicting which was as l fced Iis arms back-
nards, so that the palms of his hands were furnted outwards behind
him: when, by means of a rcpe that fastened them trogther at the
vw',ts, and which vwas, urnd they drew t d hem by
degrees nearer each other, in such a manner thIat rhe back of each
hand touched, and stood piaralel to each oh her. In con~-i;quence of
this violent contortion, btlth his shoulders became disocaited, and a
considerable quantity of bloc'd issued from his mouth. This itcrture
Vas repeated thricee after which he wais again iaken the .-
a.Id delivered to the physician and surgeon, whro, in
cisloca-tcd bones, ptut him to the most exquisite tormien.

Ai'ouL iv, months after the second torture, the prison, being a
.e recoverd, was again ordered to tthe crtre- r on; an d dre,
for litc lat tt-nme ma-de t,- undergo anorithr kind cf punishment,
ich ivi was ilnficted t'i wrIltout intermission. The cxe.utner'
fa tncd a thick iron chain twivee round hir' vhich,, crossing
lpoeV lIs '-,tnomnch. trminiaied at r the wris. then rior:d him
v--th his thick board, at h ex:reCnmv wi hre :,f was
there run r rope that caughlr he en n of
::e ah~ata[his ,r st thentheoxecutiones siretchl;g he d ,f this
roFp bhy Cmea nis f a roller pltaceld a aa distance boehivid bi,, pressed
or b:cd hics stmzch -- as he ens f The-- -chi. w-re
dra'~in ti !ht Iin' t his maanner to lsuc -
thamt his writs, ias er :l h' is shoulders, ,-ere qu.e -
Thier w-ee r, 'ice'- scooJ set by ih'ue zsurecrns c, but ihe harbar'-lIc,


not yet satisfied with this series of cruelty, made him immediately
undergo the torture a second time, which he sustained with equal
constancy and resolution. He was then remanded to his dungeon,
attended by the surgeon to dress his bruises and adjust the parts dis-
located; and here he continued till their gaol delivery restored him
to a miserable freedom in this world, or their auto dafe removed
him to a better state.
It may be judged from these accounts what dreadful agony the
sufferer must have laboured under, by being so frequently put to the
torture. Most of his limbs were disjointed: so much was he bruised
and exhausted, as to be unable for weeks to lift his hands to his mouth;
and his body became greatly swelled from the inflammation caused
by frequent dislocations. After his discharge he felt the effects of
this cruelty for the remainder of his life, being frequently seized with
thrilling and excruciating pains, to which he had never been subject
till after he had the misfortune to fall under the merciless and bloody
lords of the inquisition. The unhappy females who fall into the
hands of the inquisitors have not more favour shown them on
account of the tenderness of their sex, but are tortured with as
much severity as the male prisoners.

Further account ofthe Persecutions r, .- r ... Protestant Mart
In Foreign Countries, .- -" ,, I 0 ,, es.
A relation of the horrible Mlassacre in France, A.D. 1572.
AFTER a long series of troubles in France, the papists, seeing nothing
effectual could be done against the protestants by open force, began
to devise how they could entrap them by subtlety, and that by two
ways: first, by a pretended commission sent into the Low Countries,
which the prince of Navarre and Conde was to command. This was
merely to understand what powerand force the admiral had under him,
who they were, and what were their names. The second was by a mar-
riage between the prince of Navarre and the king's sister, to which were
to be invited all the chief protestants of France. Accordingly, they first
began with the queen of Navarre, mother to the prince who was to
espouse the king's sister, and who was then at Rochelle. Allured
by many fair words to repair to the king, she consented to come to
Paris, where she was at length won over to the king's mind. Shortly
after she fell sick, and died within five days, not without suspicion
of poison; but her body being opened, no sign thereof appeared.


A certain apothecary, however, made his boast that he had killed
the queen by venomous odours and smells prepared by himself.
Notwithstanding this, the marriage still proceeded. The admiral,
prince of Navarre and Conde, with many other eminent protestant
chiefs, were induced by the king's letters and fair promises to pro-
ceed to Paris, and were received with great solemnity. The mar-
riage took place on the 18th of August, 1572, and was solemnized by
the cardinal of Bourbonne, upon a high stage raised for the purpose
without the church walls : the prince of Navarre and Conde came
down, ; for the king's sister, who was then at mass. This
done, I resorted to the bishop's palace to dinner. In the
evening they were conducted to a palace in the centre of the city to
supper. Four days after this the admiral coming from the council
table, on his way was shot at with a pistc' .'... ..1 -ith three
bullets, and wounded in both his arms. He .-'II .... I in Paris,
although his friends advised him to flee. Soldiers were appointed
in different places of the city to be ready at the command of the
king; and upon the watchword being given, they burst out to the
slaughter of the protestants, beginning with the admiral himself,
who, being wounded, was cast out of the window into the street,
where his head being struck off, was embalmed and sent to the pope.
The savage people then cut off his arms, and drew his mangled body
three days through the. streets of Paris, after which they took him
to the place of execution, and there hanged him by the heels, to the
scorn of the populace.
The martyrdom of this virtuous man had no sooner taken place,
than the armed troops with rage and violence ran abor' 1 ,11
the protestants they knew or could find within the city _
continued many days, but the greatest slaughter was in the first
three days, in which were said to be murdered about to,ooo men
and women, old and young, of all sorts and conditions. The
bodies of the dead were carried in carts and thrown into the river,
which, with other whole streams in certain places of the city, was
reddened with the blood of the slain. In the number of eminent
men iwho fell in this dreadful slaughter were Peter Ramus, Lambi-
nus, Plateanus, Lomenius, Chapesius, and others.
The brutal deeds of this period were not confined within the walls
of Paris, but extended to other cities and quarters of the realm,
especially to Lyons, Orleans, Toulouse, and Rouen, where the
cruelties were if possible even greater than in the capital. Within
the space of one mor'; -. .:. religious protestants are said to have
been slain. When : .1 '... of the massacre was received at
Rome, the greatest rejoicings took place. The pope and his cardi-


nals went in procession to the church of St. Mark, to give thanks to
God; and a medal was struck to commemorate the event. A jubilee
was also published, and the ordnance fired from the castle of St.
Angclo. To the person who brought th nws the cardinal of Lorraine
gave r,ooo crowns. Similar rejoicings were also made all over France
for this imagined overthrow of the faithful.
The following are among the particulars recorded of the above
enormities : The admiral, on being wounded in both his arms, im-
mediately said to Maure, preacher to the queen of Navarre, Oh,
my brother, I now perceive that I am beloved of my God, ---
that for His most holy name's sake I do suffer thesc wounds. I:
was slain by Bemjjus, who afterwards reported that le never saw
a man so constantly and confidently suffer death. Among tie hon-
ourable men and great personages who were at the same time mur-
dered, were count Rochfulcaud, Telimus, the admiral's son-in-law,
Antonius Claromontus, marquess of Ravely, Lewis Bussius, Ban-
dineus, Plualius, Pl Beli, rnius, and others. Francis Nompar Caumnn-
tius, being in bed with his two sons, was slain with one of them;
the other was strangely preserved, and afterwards came to great
dignity. Stephen Ccvaleric Prime, chief treasurer to the king of
Poictiers, a very good man, and careful of the commonwealth, after
he had paid for his life a large sum of money, .. II -..
Magdalen Brissonet, an excellent and learned .
Ivermus, master of requests to the king, flying out of the city in
poor apparel, was taken, murdered, and cast into the river. Two
thousand were murdered in one day; and the same liberty of killing
and spoiling continued certain days after.
The prince of Conde, of the Bourbon family, being taken pri-
soner, and his life promised him, was shot in the neck by Mhontis-
quius, captain of the duke of Anjou's guard. Thuanus thus speaks
of him : This was the end of Lewis Bourbon, prince of Conde,
of the king's blood, a man higher in birth, most honourable in
courage and virtue, in valour, constancy, wit, wisdom, experience,
courtesy, eloquence, and liberality, all which virtues excelled in him;
had few equals, and none, even by the confession of his enemies,
superior to him."
The year following died Charles the ninth of France, the tyrant who
had been so instrumental in the calamities above recorded. He was
only in the 28th year of his age, and his death was remarkable and
dreadful. When lying on his bed, the blood gushed from various
parts of his body. Amidst his slumbers, his dreams and exclama-
tions were horrid beyond description. He rolled about his bed and
en the floor of his chamber a most dreadful spectacle, and at last


was suffocated in the effort to discharge a quantity of blood from the
cruel mouth whose edicts had occasioned such torrents of his sub-
jects' blood to stain the face of the country.

Relation of the -'--- ......... r' -crc at TVassy, in the country of
in France.
The Duke of Guise, on his arrival at Joinville, asked whether
those of Vassy used to have sermons preached constantly by their
minister. It was answered they had, and that they increased daily.
On hearing this he fell into a grievous passion; and upon Saturday,
the last day of February, 1562, that he might the more covertly exe-
cute his determined wrath against the religious people of Vassy, he
departed from Joinville, accompanied by the cardinal of Guise, his
brother, and those of his train, and lodged in the village of Damar-
tin, distant from Joinville about two miles and a half.
The next day, after he had heard mass very early in the morning,
being attended by about two hundred armed men, lie left Damartin
and went on to Vassy. As he passed the village of Bronzeval, which
is distant from Vassy a quarter of a mile, the bell, after the usual
manner, rang for sermon. The duke hearing it, asked those he met
why the bell rang so loud at Vassy, A person named La Montague
told him it was for the assembling of the Huguenots; adding that
there were many in Bronzeval who frequented the sermons preached
at Vassy, therefore that the duke would do well to begin there, and
first offer them violence. But the duke answered, March on !
march on We shall take them amongst the rest of the assembly."
There were certain soldiers and archers accompanying the duke
who surrounded Vassy, most of them being lodged in the houses of
papists. The Saturday before the slaughter they were seen to make
ready their weapons, arquebuses, and pistols; but the protestants,
not dreaming of a conspiracy, thought the duke would offer them
no injury, being the king's subjects, remembering that not above two
months before the duke and his brethren passed near Vassy, and
gave no sign of their displeasure.
The duke being arrived at Vassy with his troops, they, with the
duke, La Brosse, and La Montague, passed K. .1 :* the city with
their soldiers, went directly to the common I.I market-house,
and then entered into the monastery, where, having called to one
Dessales, the prior of Vassy, and another whose name was Claude
le Sain, provost of Vassy, the duke talked awhile with them ; then
issuing hastily out of the monastery, attended by many of his fol-
lowers, command was given to such as were papists to retire into
the monastery and not be seen in the streets, unless they would


venture the loss of their lives. The duke perceiving others of his
retinue to be walking to and fro under the town-hall and about the
churchyard, commanded them to march on towards the place where
the sermon was, being in a barn about a hundred paces from the
monastery. This command was soon after put into execution by such
of the company as went on foot. He that marched foremost of this
rabble was La Brosse, and on the side marched the horsemen, after
whom followed the duke with another company of his own men,
and then those of the cardinal of Guise, his brother. By this time
II. Leonard Morel, the minister, after the, first prayer, had begun
his sermon before numerous auditors, which might amount to 1,200
persons, consisting of men, women, and children. The horsemen
first approaching to the barn, within about twenty-five paces, shot
off two arquebuses right upon those who were placed in the galle-
ries joining to the windows. The people within, perceiving their
--. -endeavoured to shut the door, but were prevented by the
S, rushing in upon them, a\ho, drawing their swords, furiously
cried out, Death of God !-kill, kill these Huguenots."
The first they seized on was a crier of wine, who stood next the
door, asking him if he were not a H-uguenot, and on whom he
believed. Having answered that he believed in Jesus Christ, they
smote him twice with a sword, which felled him to the ground. I-Ie
got up again, thinking to recover himself, wheh they struck him a
third time; whereby, being overcharged with wounds, lie fell down
and died instantly. Two other men at the same time were slain at
the entry of the door, as they were pressing out to escape. Then the
duke of Guise, with his company, violently entered in among them,
striking the poor people down with their swords, daggers, and cut-
lasses; not sparing any age or sex. The whole assembly were so
astonished that they knew not which way to turn, but, running hither
and thither, fell one upon another, flying as sheep before a company
of ravening wolves. Some of the murderers shot off their carbines
against them that were in the galleries; others cut in pieces such as
were below; some had their heads cleft in twain, their arms and
hands cut off; so that many of them died instantly on the spot. The
walls and galleries of the place were dyed with the blood of those
who were everywhere murdered; and so great was the fury of the
murderers, that part of the people within were forced to break open
the roofs of the houses, in hope of saving themselves upon the top.
Being got thither, and then fearing again to fall into the hands of
these cruel tigers, some of them leaped over the walls of the city,
which were very high, flying into the woods and amongst the vines,
which with most expedition they could soonest attain; some hurt in


heir arms, others in their heads and other parts of their bodies.
The duke presented himself in the house wiith his sword drawn,
charging his soldiers to kill especially the young men. Pursuing
those who went upon the house-tops, they cried, Come down, ye
1- come down !" using many cruel threatening speeches to them.
S. cause why some women escaped was, as the report went, for the
duchess's sake, his wife, who, passing by the walls of the city, nid
hearing hideous outcries among these poor creatures, with the noise
of the carbines and pistols continually discharging, sent in haste to
the duke, her husband, with much intrcaty, to cease his persecution
because of the women's terror.
Duri-ng this slaughter the cardinal of Guise remained before the
church of the city of Vassy, leaning upon the wall of the church-
yard, looking towards the place where his followers were busied in
killing and slaying whom they could. Many of this assembly being
thus hotly pursued, did in the first brunt save themselves upon the
roof of the house, not being discerned by those who stood without;
but at length some of the bloody crew, espying where they lay, shot
at them wsith long pieces, wherewithi many were hurt and slain. The
household servants of Dessales, prior of Vassy, shooting at the
people on the roof, one of that wretched company was not ashamed
to boast, after the massacre was ended, that lie, for his part, had
caused six at least"to fall dead in that pitiful flight, adding that if
others and all had done the same he should have rejoiced.
The minister, in the beginning of the massacre, ceased not to
preach, till one discharged his piece against the pulpit where he
stood; after which, falling upon his knees, he untreated the Lord to
have mercy upon himself and also upon his poor persecuted flock.
Having ended lhis prayer, ihe left his gown behind him, thinking
thereby to keep himself unknown; but as he approached towards
the door, in his fear he stumbled upon a dead body, where he
received a blow with a sw ord upon his right shoulder. Getting up
again, and then thinking to go forth, lie was immediately laid hold
of and grievously hurt on the head with a sword, whereupon, being
felled to the ground, and thinking himself mortally wounded, lie
cried, Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit; for Thou hast
redeemed me, God of truth." While lie thus prayed one of the
bloody crew ran upon him, with an intent to have '- -;' "' .1 1.i -
but it pleased God hiis sword broke in the hilt I ,,I,., ..
S,- f himsi, said, e is the minislcr; let him be
duke." These leading him away by both the
arms, brought him before the gate of the monastery, from whence
ilse cauke and the cardinal, his brother, coming forth, said, Come


hither;" and asked him, saying, Art thou the minister of this
place? Who made thee so bold to seduce this people thus?
" Sir," said the minister, I am no seducer; for I have preached to
them the gospel of Jesus Christ." The duke perceiving that this
answer condemned his cruel outrages, began to curse and swear,
saying, Death of God doth the gospel preach sedition ? Provost,
go and let a gibbet be set up, and hang this fellow." At which
words the ministerwas delivered into the hands of two pages, who
cruelly misused him. The women of the city, being ignorant papists,
caught lup dirt to throw in his face, and, with extended outcries,
said, Kill him-kill this varlet, who hath been the cause of the
death of so many In the meantime the duke went into the barn,
to w hom they presented a great Bible, which they used for the ser-
vice of God. T]he duke, taking it into his hands, ,.,
brother, the cardinal, said, Lo, here is the title of
books !" The cardinal, viewing it, said, "There is nothing but
good in this book; for it is the Bible, to wit, tile Ioly Scriptures."
The duke being offended that his brother suited not to his humour,
grew into a greater rage than before, saying, Blood of God! how
now? What -the IHoly Scriptures ? it is one thousand five hun-
dred years ago since Jesus Christ suffered his death and passion, and
it is but a year since these books were printed; how then say you
that this is the gospel? You say you know not v hat." This un-
bridled fury of the duke displeased the cardinal, so that he was
heard secretly to mutter, "An unworthy brother "
This massacre continued a full hour, the duke's trumpeters sound-
ing the while several times. When any of the victims desired to
have mercy shown them for the love of Jesus Christ, the murderers
in scorn would say unto then., You use the name of Christ; but
where is your Christ now?" There died in this massacre, within a
few days, fifty or threescore persons; besides those there were about
two hundred and fifty men and women that were wounded and in-
jured, whereof some died, one losing a leg, another an arm, another
his fingers. The poor's box, which was fastened to the door of the
church w ith two iron hooks, containing twelve pounds, was wrested
thence, and never restored. The minister was closely confined, and
frequently threatened to be enclosed in a sack and drowned. He
was, however, on the 8th of May, 1563, liberated at ihe earnest suit
of the prince of Portien.
Monsieur Pierre de la Place was a gentleman whose piety equalled
his He was president of the Court of Requests, at Paris.
On -" ....i, morning, about six o'clock, captain Michael, arque-
busier to the king, came armed to his lodging, and, presenting him-


self before De la Place, said that the duke of Guise had slain the
admiral of France, by the king's orders, with many Huguenots;
and because the rest of them, of whatever quality, were destined to
death, he was come to his lodging to exempt him from the common
destruction; and that he desired to have a sight of what gold and
silver were in his possession. The duke De la Place, amazed at his
audacity, who, in the presence of several persons in the room, durst
presume to utter such language, asked him if he knew where he was,
or whether or not he thought there was a king ? To this the captain
roughly answered that he must go with him to know the king's
pleasure. De la Place, hearing this, began to apprehend some dan-
ger, and therefore slipped out at a back door, proposing to secrete
himself in a neighbour's house. Meanwhile, most of his servants
disappeared; and the captain, having plundered his chest of a thou-
sand crowns, was intreated by the lady Marets to convey her father,
with the Lord Marets, her husband, into the house of some Roman
Catholic, which he consented to do, and also performed it.
,De la Place, like a deer singled out for death, being refused ad-
mittance at three several houses, returned to his own, where he found
his wife overwhelmed with grief; but the lord De la Place, being
strengthened by the Spirit of God, with incredible constancy aid
calmness demonstrated to her that we must receive afflictions from
the hand of God; and consoled her with the promises of the gospel.
He then commanded all his servants that remained to be called
together, when, according to his custom on the Lord's day, he made
an exhortation and offered prayer. He then discoursed upon the
justice and mercy of God, and showed how needful afflictions were
for Christians, and that it was beyond the power of Satan or men to
hurt or wrong them without permission of the Lord. What
need have we, then," he added, to dread their authority, which at
the most can but prevail over our bodies ? He then exhorted them
rather to endure all kind of torment, yea, death itself, than to speak
or do anything that might tend to the dishonour of God.
While thus employed, word was brought him that Seneca, the
provost-marshal, with a band of archers, was at the door, demanding
admittance in the king's name, saying that he came tosecure the person
of the lord De la Place, and to preserve his house from being pillaged
by the rabble. De la Place immediately commanded the door to be
opened to him. Seneca, on entering, declared the great slaughter
that was made upon the Huguenots everywhere in the city by the
king's command; adding, in Latin, that lhe would not suffer one to
live. "'Yet have I express charge from his majesty," he said, ''to
see that you sustain no wrong : only suffer me to conduct you to the


Louvre, because the king is desirous to be informed about the affairs
of those of the religion which he hath now in hand." De la Place
answered that it had always been his greatest wish, and nothing
could render him more happy than to gain any opportunity by
which he might give an account to his majesty of his behaviour and
actions; but that such horrible massacres were everywhere com-
mitted, it was impossible for him to pass to tie Louvre without
: life: he therefore prayed him to assure his majesty of
;., ,i .. to come, but to excuse his appearance until the fury
of the people was somewhat abated. The provost agreed to this
request, and left with him one of his lieutenants and four of his
Soon after came president Charron, with whom the' provost con-
ferred a little in secret, and then left him w ith four more of the city
archers. The whole night following was spent in fortifying all the
passages and windows of the house with logs and flint stones, for
the defence of De la Place and his family. Next day Seneca re-
turning, declared that he had express charge from the king to bring
him to his majesty without delay. He replied, as before, that it was
dangerous as yet to pass through the city. But Seneca insisted,
saying, It is the common speech of these Huguenots to protest
that they are the Iing's most loyal and obedient subjects and ser-
vants; but when they are to manifest their obedience to his com-
mands, then they come slowly, seeming rather to abhor and detest
it." When De la Place apprehended danger, Seneca answered that
he should have a captain of Paris, well known to the people, to
accompany him. At that moment the captain, named Pazon, a
principal actor in this sedition, entered, and offered his service to
conduct him to the king. De la Place refused, telling Seneca that
Pazon was one of the most cruel and bloody-minded men in all the
city; and therefore" '"'ir- ln he must go to the king, he entreated
him to be his .. I answered, that having now other
affairs to look to, lie could not conduct him above fifty paces.
The lady of De la Place then prostrated herself at the feet of
Seneca, beseeching him to accompany her husband to the king; but
her husband, wiho never showed any sign of a dejected spirit, came
to her, and lifting her from the ground, told ler that it was not an
arm of flesh that we must stoop to, but unto God only. Then
turning round, he perceived in his son's hat a white cross, which he
had placed there to delude the enemy. His father sharply chid him,
and commanded him to pluck that mark of apostacy thence, telling
him that they must now submit to bear the true cross of Christ,
namely, those afflictions and tribulations which it shall please God


to lay upon us, as pledges of that eternal happiness which he hath
treasured up for his servants." Being now pressed by Seneca to go,
as he foresaw, to death, he took his cloak, and embracing his wife
earnestly exhorted her, above all things, to have the fear of God and
his honour in precious esteem ; and then boldly went on his way.
Coming into the street where the glass-house stood, assassins waited
his approach with their daggers in readiness, and killed him as an
innocent lamb in the midst of Seneca's archers, who led him into
that butchery. They then plundered his house of all they could
find, while, his body being dragged into a stable, they covered his
face with dung, and the next day threw him into the river.
Thus, during the extreme afflictions of the reformed churches in
many parts of France, there were, within a few weeks, nearly
3,o00o put to death; leaving whole cities, and almost whole pro
vinces, depopulated.

The Life, Sufferings, and lMarityrdom of /John 1:2uss, who wcas
Barnt at Constance, in Gercmany.
JOHN HUSS was a Bohemian, born in the village of Hussenitz,
about the year 1380. His parents gave him the best education they
could bestow, and having acquired a tolerable knowledge of the
classics at a private school, he was sent thence to the university of
Prague, where the powers of his mind and his diligence in study
soon rendered him conspicuous. In r408 lie commenced bachelor
of divinity, and was after successively chosen pastor of the church
of Bethlehem in s ..' and dean, and rector of the university.
These stations lie discharged with great fidelity, and became at
length so conspicuous for his preaching and boldness of his truths,
that he soon attracted the notice and excited the malignity of the
pope and his creatures. The incident which most provoked the
indignation of Huss was a papal bull, which offered remission of sin
to all who would join the army of the pope in his contest with the
king of Naples, who had invaded the Holy See, and threatened
destruction to the papal dominion.
-The English reformer, Wickliffe, had so kindled the light of reform
nation, that it began to illumine the darkest corners of popery and
ignorance. His doctrines were received in Bohemia with avidity
and zeal by great numbers of people, but by none so zealously a
John Huss, and his friend and fellow-martyr, Jerome of Prague,






The reformers daily increasing, the archbishop of Prague issued a
decree to suppress the further spreading of Wickliffe's writings.
This, however, had an effect quite the reverse of what he expected,
for it stimulated the converts to greater zeal, and at length almost
the whole university united in promoting them. In that renowned
institution the influence of Iluo swas very great, not only on account
of his learning, eloquence, and exemplary life, but Ilso on account
of some valuable privileges he had obtained from the king in behalf
of the Bohemians.
Strongly attached to the doctrines of Wickliffe, Huss strenuously
opposed the decree of the archbishop o, who, notwithstanding, ob-
tained a bull from the pope, giving him commission to prevent the
publishing of VWickliffe's wvritings iin his province. By virtue of this
bull the archbishop condemned those writings : ie also proceeded
against four doctors who had not delivered up some copies, and pro-
hibited them toprn,,ch. \Aginst Ihesc proceedings Dr. IHuss, with
some other members of tfle university, protested, and entered an
appeal from thie sentence of the archbishop. The pope no sooner
heard of this than lie granted a commission to cardinal Colonno
to cite Huss to appear at the court of Rome, to answer accusations
laid against him of preaching both errors and heresies. From this
Dr. IHuss desired to Ib excused, and so greatly was he favoured in
Bohcmia,, that king W\incclaus, the queen, the nobility and the
university, desired the pope to dispense with such an appearance, as
also that lie wold not surfer th 1:n- 1---- of Bohemia to lie under
the accusation of heresy, but I. o preach the gospel vith
freedom in their places of worship according to their ow\n honest
Three proctors appeared for Dr. Huss before cardinal Colonno.
They pleaded an excuse for his absence, and said they were ready to
answer in his behalf. But the cardinal declared him contlumacious,
and accordingly excommunicated him. On this the proctors ap-
pealed to the pope, who appointed four cardinals to examine the
process : these commissioners confirmed the sentence of the cardinal,
and extended tihe excommunication, not only on IIuss, but to all
his friends and followers. Huss then appealed from this unjust
sentence to a future council, but without success; and, notwith-
standing so severe a decree, and an expulsion from his church in
Prague, lie retired to Hussenitz, his native place, where he continued
to promulgate the truth, in his writings as well as his public ministry.
It was in this retirement and comparative seclusion that he compiled
a treatise, in which he maintained that reading the books of pro-
testants could not be forbidden or prevented. He wrote in defence


of Wickliffe's work on the Trinity, and boldly protested against the
vices of the pope, the cardinals, and the clergy of those corrupt
times. In addition to these, lie was the author of several other pro-
ductions, all of which were penned with such strength of argument
as greatly facilitated the diffusion of protestant principles.
In England persecution against the protestants had been carried
on for some time with relentless cruelty. They now extended to
Germany and Bohemia, where Dr. Huss and Jerome of Prague
were particularly singled out to suffer in the cause of religion. In
the month of November, 1414, a general council was assembled at
Constance, in Germany, for the purpose of determining a dispute
then existing between three persons who contended for the papal
throne. These were-John, set up by the Italians; Gregory, by
the French ; and Benedict, by the Spaniards. The council conti-
nued four years, in which the severest laws were enacted to crush
the protestants. Pope John was deposed and obliged to fly, more
than forty crimes being proved against him; among which were, his
attempt to poison his predecessor, his being a gamester, a liar, and a
John IIuss was first summoned to appear at the council; and to
dispel any apprehension of danger, the emperor sent him a pass-
ri -i--:i- him permission freely to come to and return from the
I n receiving this information, he told the persons who
delivered it that he desired nothing more than to purge himself
publicly of the imputation of heresy; and that he esteemed himself
happy in having so fair an opportunity for doing so as at the council
to which lie was summoned to attend.
In the latter end of November he set out for Constance, accom-
panied by two Bohelnian noblemen, who were among the most
eminent of his disciples, and who followed him through respect and
affection. He caused placards to he fixed upon the gates of the
churches of Prague, in which he declared that he went to the council
to answer all charges that might ie made against him. I-Ie also
declared, in all the cities through which lie passed, that he was
going to vindicate himself at Constance, and invited all his adver-
saries to be present. On his way lie met with every mark of affec-
tion and reverence from people of all descriptions. The streets, and
even the roads, were thronged with people, whom respect, rather
than curiosity, had brought together. He was ushered into several
towns with great acclamations; and lhe passed through Germany in
a kind of triumph. I thought," he said, 1 had been an outcast.
I now see my worst friends are in Bohemia."
On arriving at Constance, he immediately took lodgings in a


remote part of the city. Soon after there came to him one Stephen
Paletz, who was engaged by the clergy at Prague to manage the
intended prosecution against him. Paletz was afterwards joined by
Michel de Cassis, on the part of the court of Rome. These two
declared themselves his accusers, and drew np articles against him,
which they presented to the pope and the prelates of the council.
Notwithstanding the promise of the emperor to give him safe
conduct to and from Constance, he regarded not his word; but,
according to the maxim of the council, that faith is not to be
kept with,heretics," when it was known he was in the city he was
immediately arrested, and committed prisoner to a chamber in the
palace. This breach was particularly noticed by one of Huss's
friends, who urged the imperial passport; but the pope replied he
never granted any such thing, nor was he bound by that of the
VWhile Huss was under confinement the council acted the part of
inquisitors. They condemned the doctrines of Wickliffe, and in
their impotent malice ordered his remains to be dug up and burnt to
ashes. While these orders were executing the nobility of Bohemia
and Poland used all their interest for Huss; and so flr prevailed as
to prevent his being condemned unheard, which appeared to have
been resolved on by the commissioners appointed to try him. Before
his trial took place, his enemies employed a Franciscan friar to
entangle him in his words, and then appear against him. This man,
of great ingenuity and subtlety, came to him in the character of an
idiot, and, with seeming sincerity and zeal, requested to be taught
his doctrines. But Huss soon detected him, and told him that his
manners wore a great semblance of simplicity, but that his questions
discovered a depth and design beyond the reach of an idiot. He
afterwards found this pretended fool to be Didace, one of the
deepest logicians in Lomhardy.
At length Iluss was brought before the council, when the articles
exhibited against him were read : they were upwards of forty in
number, and chiefly extracted from his writings. The following
extract,:forming the eighth article of impeachment, will give a sample
of the ground on w which this infamous trial was conducted: An
evil and wicked pope is not the successor of Peter, but of Judas.
Answer.-" I wrote this in nmy treatise: If the pope be humble and
meek, neglecting and -l-pi ir : the honour and lucre of the world;
if he be a shepherd, ... name from feeding of the flock of
God; if lie feed the sheep with the Word, and with virtuous example,
and that he become even like his flock with his whole heart and
mind; if he diligently and carefully labour and travel for the church,


then is he without doubt the true vicar of Christ. But if he walk
contrary to these virtues, so much as there is no society between
Christ and Belial, and Christ himself saith, He that is not with me
is against me,' how is he, then, the true vicar of Christ or Peter, and
not rather the vicar of Antichrist? Christ called Peter himself
Satan, when he opposed him only in one word, and that with a
good affection-even him whom He had chosen His vicar, and spe-
cially appointed over His church. Why should not any other, then,
being more opposed to Christ, be truly called Satan, and conse-
quently Antichrist, or at least the principal minister or vicar of Anti-
christ? Infinite testimonies of this matter are found in St. Augus-
tine, St. Jerome, Cyprian, Chrysostom, Bernard, Gregory, Remigius,
Ambrose, and all the holy fathers of the Christian church."
On his examination being finished, he was taken from the court,
and a resolution was formed by the council, to burn him as a heretic
unless he retracted. -Ie was then committed to a filthy prison,
where in the daytime he was so laden with fetters that he could
hardly move; and every night he was fastened by his hands to a
ring against the wall. -e continued some days in this situation,
while many noblemen of Bohemia interceded in his behalf. They
drew up a petition for his release, which was presented to the council
by several of the most illustrious men of the country; notwithstand-
ing which, so many enemies had I-Iuss in that court, that no attention
was paid to it, and the persecuted reformer was compelled to endure
all the ignominy and misery inflicted on him. Shortly after the peti-
tion was presented, four bishops and two lords were -sent by the
emperor to the prison, in order to prevail on Huss to make a recan-
tation. But he called God to witness, with tears in his eyes, that he
was not conscious of having preached or written anything against
the truth of God, or the faith of his orthodox church. The deputies
then represented the great wisdom and authority of the council; to
which I-uss replied, Let them send the meanest person of that
council, who can convince me by argument from the word of God,
and I will submit my judgment to him." This firm and faithful
answer had no effect, because he would not take the authority of
the council upon trust, in opposition to the plainest reasoning of
Scripture. The deputies, therefore, finding they could not make
any impression on him, departed, greatly astonished at the strength
of his resolution.
On the 4th of July he was, for the last time, brought before the
council. After a long examination he was desired to abjure, which
he refused without the least hesitation. The bishop of Lodi then
preached a bloody persecuting sermon, the text of which was, Let


the body of sin be destroyed." The sermon was the usual prologue
to a cruel martyrdom; and when it was over his fate was fixed, his
vindication rejected, and judgment was pronounced. The council
censured him for being obstinate and incorrigible, and ordained that
he should be degraded from the priesthood, his books publicly burnt,
and himself delivered to the secular power. He received the sen-
tence without the least emotion; and at the close of it he knelt
down, with his eyes lifted towards heaven, and, with all the magna-
nimity of a primitive martyr, thus exclaimed : May thine infinite
mercy, 0 my God pardon this injustice of mine enemies Thou
known est the iniquity of my accusations; how deformed with crimes
I have been represented; how I have been oppressed by worthless
witnesses, and a false condemnation : yet, 0 my God let that
mercy of thine, which no tongue can express, prevail with Thee not
to avenge my wrongs !"
These excellent sentences were received as so many expressions of
treason, and only tended to inflame his adversaries. Accordingly
the bishops appointed by the council stripped him of his priestly
garments, degraded him, and put a paper mitre on his head, on
which wpre painted devils, with this inscription-" A ringleader of
heretics." This mockery was received by the heroic martyr with an
air of unconcern, and it seemed to give him dignity rather than dis-
grace. A serenity appeared in his looks which indicated that his
soul had cut off many stages of a tedious journey on her way to the
realms of everlasting happiness; and when the bishops urged him
yet to recant, he turned to the people, and addressed them thus :-
''These lords and bishops exhort and counsel me, that I should here
confess before you all that I have erred; the which, if it were such
as might be done with the infamy and reproach of man only, they
might peradventure easily persuade me thereunto; but now truly
I am in the sight of the Lord my God, without whose great dis-
pleasure, and disquietude of mine own conscience, I could by no
means do that which they require of me. For I well know that I
never taught any of those things which they have falsely alleged
against me, but I have always preached, taught, written, and
thought contrary thereunto. With what countenance, then, should
I behold the heavens-with what face should I look upon them
whom I have taught, whereof there is a great number, if through
me it should come to pass that those things which they have
hitherto known to be most certain and sure should now be made
uncertain ?-should I, by this example, astonish or trouble so many
souls, so many consciences, endued with the most firm and certain
knowledge of the Scriptures and gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ and


his most pure doctrine, armed against all the assaults of Satan? I.
will never do it; neither commit any such kind of offence, that I
should seem more to esteem this vile carcass appointed unto death
than their health and salvation."
At this most godly speech he was forced again to hear, by the
consent of the bishops, that le obstinately and maliciously per-
severed in his pernicious and wicked errors. The ceremony of
degradation being over, the bishops delivered him to the emperor,
who put him into the care of the duke of Bavaria. His books were
consumed at the gates of the church; and on the 6th of July he was.
led to the suburbs of Constance to be burnt alive. When he had
reached the place of execution, he fell on his knees, sang several
portions of the Psalms, looked steadfastly towards heaven, and
repeated, Into thy hands, 0 Lord do I commit my spirit : thou
hast redeemed me, 0 most good and faithful God!" As soon as.
the chain was put about him at the stake, he said, with a smiling
countenance, My Lord Jesus Christ was bound with a harder
chain than this for my sake, why, then, should I be ashamed of this
old rusty one ?" When the fagots were piled around him, the duke
of Bavaria was so officious as to desire him to abjure. His noble
reply was, No; I never preached any doctrine of an evil tendency;
and what I taught with my lips I now seal with my blood." He then
said to the executioner, You are now going to burn a goose (the
name of Huss signifying goose in the Bohemian language), but in
a century you will have a swan whom you can neither roast nor boil."
If this were spoken in prophecy, he must have meant Martin
Luther, who shone about a hundred years after, and who had a swan
for his arms-whether suggested by this circumstance or on account
of family descent and heraldry is not known. As soon as the fagots
were lighted the heroic martyr sang a hymn, with so loud and
cheerful a voice that he was heard through all the crackling of the
combustibles, and the noise of the multitude. At length his voice
was interrupted by the flames, which soon put a period to his mortal
life, and wafted his undying spirit, which no fire of earth could
subdue or touch, to the regions of everlasting glory.

Account of the Life, Sufferings, and Martyrdom of Jerome of
This hero in the cause of truth was born at Prague, and educated
in its university, where he soon became distinguished for his learning
and eloquence. Having completed his studies, he travelled over
great part of Europe, and visited many of the seats of learning,
particularly the universities of Paris, Heidelburg, Cologne, and


Oxford. At the latter he became acquainted with the works of
Wickliffe, and being a person of uncommon application, he trans-
lated many of them into his own language, having with great pains
made himself master of the English. On his return to Prague, Ih
openly professed the doctrines of Wickliffe; and finding that they
had made considerable progress in Bohemia, from the industry and
zeal of Huss, he became his assistant in the great work.
On the 4th of April, A.D. 1415, Jerome went to Constance.
This was about three months before the death of Huss. He entered
the town privately, and, consulting with some of the leaders of his
party, was easily convinced that he could render his friend no service.
Finding that his arrival at Constance was publicly known, and that
the council intended to seize him, he prudently retired, and went to
Iberling, an imperial town at a short distance. While there he wrote
to the emperor, and avowed his readiness to appear before tle
council, if he would give a safe-conduct; this, however, was refused.
He then applied to the council, but met wi th an answer equally
unfavourable. After this he caused papers to be put up in all the
public places of Constance, particularly on the door of the cardinal's
house. In these lie professed his willingness to appear at Constance
in the defence of his character and doctrine, both which he said had
been greatly falsified. He further declared, that if any error should
be proved against him he would retract it; desiring only that the
faith of the council might be given for his security.
Receiving no answer to these papers, he set out on his return to
Bohemia, previously adopting the precaution to take with him a ccr--
: i, .., I I several of the Bohemian nobility then at Constance,
-1 I [i i, had used every prudent means in his power to pro.
cure an audience. Notwithstanding this he was seized on his wNav,
without any authority, by an officer belonging to the duke of Sultzbach,
who hoped thereby to receive commendations from the council for so
acceptable a service. The duke of Sultzbach immediately wrote to
the council, informing them what he had done, and asking direc-
tions how to proceed with Jerome. The council, after expressing
their obligations to the duke, desired him to send the prisoner
immediately to Constance. He was accordingly conveyed in irons,
and on his way was met by the elector palatine, who caused a long
chain to be fastened to Jerome, by which he was dragged like a wild
beast to the cloister, whence, after some insults and examinations,
he was conveyed to a tower, and fastened to a block with his legs in
the stocks. In this manner he remained eleven days and nights, till
becoming dangerously ill, they, in order to satiate their malice still
fruther, relieved him from that painful state. He remained confined


till the martyrdom of his friend Huss; after which he was brought
forth and threatened with immediate torments and death if he re-
n:amed obstinate. Terrified at the preparations of pain, in a moment
of weakness he forgot his manliness and resolution, abjured his
doctrines, and confessed that -Huss merited his fate, and that both
he and Wickliffe were heretics. Ln consequence of this his chains
were taken off, and his harsh treatment done away. He was, how-
ever, still confined, with daily hopes of liberation. But his enemies
suspecting his sincerity, another form of recantation was drawn up
and proposed to him. He, however, refused to answer this except
in public, and was accordingly brought before the council, when,
to the astonishment of his auditors and to the glory of truth, he
renounced his recantation, and requested permission to plead his
own cause, which being refused, he thus vented his indignation :-
WVhat barbarity is this? For three hundred and forty days have
1 been confined in a variety of prisons. There is not a misery, there
is not a want, which I have not experienced. To my enemies you
have allowed the fullest scope of accusation; to me you deny the
least opportunity of defence. Not an hour will you now indulge
me in preparing for my trial. You have swallowed the blackest
calumnies against me. You have represented me as a heretic with-
out knowing my doctrine ; as an enemy to the faith, before you knew
what faith I professed. You are a general council; in you centre all
which this world can communicate of gravity, wisdom, and sanctity;
but still you are men, and men are seducible by appearances. The
higher your character is for wisdom, the greater ought your care to
be not to deviate into folly. The cause I now plead is not my own,
it is the cause of men; it is the cause of Christians; it is a cause
which is to affect the rights of posterity, however the experiment is
to be made in my person."
This speech, the eloquence and force of which are worthy of the
best ages, produced no effect on the obdurate foes of Jerome. They
proceeded with his charge, which was reduced to five articles-That
he was a derider of the papal dignity-an opposer of the pope him-
self-an enemy to the cardinals-a persecutor of the bishops-and a
despiser of Christianity To these charges Jerome answered with
an amazing force of eloquence and strength of argument. Now,
whither shall I turn me? To my accusers? My accusers are as
deaf as adders. To you, my judges? You are all prepossessed by
the arts of my accusers." After this speech he was immediately
remanded to his prison. The third day from this his trial was
brought on, and witnesses were examined in support of the charge.
The prisoner was prepared for his defence, which appears almost


incredible, when we consider he had been nearly a year shut up in
loathsome dungeons, deprived of daylight, and almost starved for
want of common necessaries. But his spirit soared above these dis-
The most bigoted of the assembly were unwilling hle should be
heard, dreading the effects of eloquence in the cause of truth on
the minds of the most prejudiced. This was such as to excite the
envy of the greatest persons of his time. "Jerome," said Gerson,
the chancellor of Paris, at his accusation, w hen thou wast in Paris
thou wast thyself, by means of thine eloquence, an angel, and didst
trouble the whole university." At length it was carried by the
majority, that lie should have liberty to proceed in his defence;
which ie began in such an exalted strain, and continued with such
a torrent of elocution, that the obdurate heart was seen to melt, and
the mind of superstition seemed to admit a ray of conviction.
The trial being ended, Jerome received the same sentence as had
been passed on his martyred countryman, and was, in the usual style
of popish duplicity, delivered over to the civil power; but, being a
layman, he had not to undergo the ceremony of degradation. His
persecutors, however, prepared for him a cap of paper, painted with
red devils, which being put upon his head, he said, "Our Lord
Jesus Christ, when he suffered death for me a most miserable sinner,
did wear a crown of thorns upon His head; and I, for his sake, will
wear this adorning of derision and blasphemy." Two days they
delayed the execution in hopes that he would recant. Meanwhile the
cardinal of Florence used his utmost endeavours to bring him over;
but they all proved ineffectual: Jerome was resolved to seal his doc-
trine with his blood.
On his way to the place of execution he sang several hymns; and
on arrivingat the spot, the same where Huss had suffered, he knelt
do% n and prayed fervently. He embraced the stake with great
cheerfulness and resolution, and when the executioner went behind
him to set fire to the fagots, he said, Come here and kindle it
before my eyes ; for had I been afraid of it, I had not come here,
having had so many opportunities to escape." WThen the flames
began to envelope him, lie sang another hymn, and the last words
he was heard to say were,-
Christe, /7,W!
S to thee ;
He was of a fine and manly form, and possessed a strong and
healthy constitution, which served to render his death extremely
painful, for he was observed to live an unusual time in the midst
of the flames. I-e, however, sang till his aspiring soul took its


flight from its mortal habitation, as in a fiery chariot, which seemed
rather sent by God than prepared by man, to convey his blessed
spirit from earth to heaven in the sight of a thousand witnesses.

Hisltoy of .' and Reformiationl, with an
I I ihis Doctrines.
THE first serious attempts made in England towards the reforma-
tion of the church took place in the reign of Edward the third, about
A.D. 1350, when the ,;--ri-- -tar of that glorious day arose in our
hemisphere-JoUiN HeI was public reader of divinity
in the university of Oxford, and by the learned of his day was
accounted most deeply versed in theology and all kinds of philo-
sophy. This even his adversaries allowed. Walden, his bitterest
enemy, writing to pope Martin, says, that he was astonished at his
most strong arguments, with the places of authority which he had
gathered, with the vehemency and force of his reasons. At his
appearing the greatest darkness pervaded the church. Little but
the name of Christ remained among the Christians, while his true
and lively doctrine was as far unknown unto the most part, as his
name was common unto all men. As -i -'-in- faith, consolation,
the end and use of the law, the office I 1.i, of our impotcncy
and weakness, of the Holy Ghost, of the greatness and strength of
sin, of true works, grace, and free justification by faith, wherein con-
sisteth and restcth the sum and matter of our profession, there was
scarcely the mention of a word. Scripture, learning, and divinity,
were known but to a few, and in the schools only, and there it was
turned and converted almost entirely into sophistry. Instead of
Peter and Paul, men occupied their time in studying Aquinas and
Scotus, and the master of sentences. The world, leaving and for-
saking the lively power of God's spiritual word and doctrine, was
altogether led and blinded with outward ceremonies and human tra-
ditions, wherein the whole scope, in a manner, of all Christian per-
fection did consist and depend. In these was all the hope of
obtaining salvation fully fixed; hereunto all things were attributed.
Scarcely any other thing was seen in the temples or churches,
taught or spoken of in sermons, or finally intended or gone about
in their whole life, but only heaping up of certain shadowed ceremo-
nies upon ceremonies; and the people were taught to worship no


other thing but that which they saw, and almost all they saw they
The Christian faith was at that time counted none other thing but
that every man should know that Christ once suffered, that is to
say, that all men should know and understand that thing which the
devils themselves also knew. Hypocrisy was substituted for holi-
ness. All men were so addicted to outward shows, that even they
swho professed the most absolute and singular knowledge of the
Scriptures scarcely understood any other thing. And this did evi-
dently appear, not only in the common sort of doctors and teachers,
but also in the very heads of the church, whose whole religion
and piety consisted in observing days, meats, and raiment, and such
like rhetorical circumstances, as of place, time, person, &c. Hence
sprang so many sorts and fashions of vestures and garments; so
many differences of colours and meats, with so many pilgrimages to
several places-as though St. James at Compostella could do that
which Christ could not do at Canterbury ; or else that God were not
of like power and strength in every place, or could not be found but
as being sought for by running hlther and thither. Then the holi-
ness of the whole year was put off unto the Lent season. No country
or land was counted holy, but only Palestine, where Christ had walked
himself with His human feet. Such was the blindness of that time
that men strove and fought for the material cross at Jerusalem, as it
had been for the chief strength of our faith. The Romish champions
never ceased, by writings, admonishing, and counselling, yea, and
by quarrelling, to move and stirup princes to war and battle, even as
though the faith and belief of the gospel were of small force or little
effect without that wooden appendage. This was the cause of the
expedition of king Richard unto Jerusalem; who, being taken in the
journey home, and delivered unto the emperor, could scarcely be
ransomed again for thirty thousand marks.
Wickliffe boldly published his belief with regard to the several
articles of religion in which he differed from the common doctrine.
Pop', Gregory the eleventh hearing this, condemned some of his
tenets, and commanded the archbishop of Canmerburv and the bishop
of London to oblige him to subscribe the condemnation of them;
and in case of refusal to summon him to Rome. This commission
could not easily be executed, \Vickliffei having great friends, the chief
of whom was John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, wsho enjoyed very
great power, and was resolved to protect him. The archbishop
holding a synod at St. Paul's, Wickliffe appeared, accompanied by
the duke of Lancaster and lord Percy, marshal of England, when a
dispute arising whether Wickliffe should answer sitting or standing,


the duke of Lancaster proceeded to threats, and gave the bishop
very hard words. The people present thinking the bishop in danger,
sided with him, so that the duke and the earl-marshal thought it
prudent to retire, and to take Wickliffe with them.
After this, the bishops meeting a second time, Wickliffe explained
to them his sentiments with regard to the sacrament of the eucha-
rist, in opposition to the belief of the Romanists; for] which the
bishops only enjoined him silence, not daring at that time to go to
greater lengths.
Wickiiffe paid less regard to the injunction of the bishops than to
his duty to God, continued to promulgate his doctrines, and gradu-
ally to unveil the truth to the eyes of men. He wrote several works,
which, as may be supposed, gave great alarm and offence to the
existing clergy. But, by the protection of the duke of Lancaster, he
was secure from their malice. He translated the Bible into English,
which, amidst the ignorance of the time, had the effect of the sun
breaking forth in a dark night. To this Bible lie prefixed a bold
preface, wherein le reflected on the bad lives of the clergy, and con-
demned the worship of saints, images, and the corporeal presence of
Christ in the sacrament; but what offended his enemies most was,
his exhorting all people to read the Scriptures, in which testimonies
against those corruptions appeared so strongly, that the only way
to prevent their being blazoned to the world was not to permit the
sacred writings to be translated or known.
In consequence of Wickliffe's translation of the Bible, and of his
preface, his followers greatly multiplied. Many of them, indeed,
were not men of learning, but being wrought upon by the conviction
of plain reason, this determined them in their persuasion. In a short
time his doctrines made great progress, being not only espoused by
vast numbers of the students of Oxford, but also by the great men at
court, particularly by the duke of Lancaster and lord Percy, toge-
ther with several young and well educated gentlemen. Hence
Wickliffe may be considered as the great founder of the reformation
in this kingdom. He was of Merton college, in Oxford, where he
took his doctor's degree, and became so eminent for his fine genius
and great learning, that Simon Islip, archbishop of Canterbury,
having founded Canterbury college, now Christ Church, in Oxford,
appointed him rector, which employment he filled with universal
approbation till the death of the archbishop. Langhalm, successor
to Islip, being desirous of favouring the monks, and introducing
them into the college, attempted to remove Wickliffe, and to put one
Woodhall, a monk, in his room. But the fellows of the college
would never consent to this, they loving their old rector; but this affair


i-,-, -ftcr-..rds carried to Rome, Wickliffe was deprived in favour
.i i I However, this no ways lessened the reputation of the
reformer, every one perceiving it was a general affair, and that the
monks did not strike so much at Wickliffe's person, as at all the
secular priests who were members of the college. And, indeed,
they were all turned out to make room for the monks. Shortly after
he was presented to the living of Lutterworth, in the county of Lei-
cester, and he there published in his sermons and writings certain
opinions, which were judged new, because contrary to the received
doctrine of those days. It must be observed that his most bitter
enemies never charged him with any immorality. This great mai?
was left in quiet at Lutterworth till his death, which happened De-
cember 31, 1385. But after his body had lain in the grave forty-one
years, his bones were taken up by decree of the synod of Constance,
publicly burnt, and his ashes thrown into the river near the town.
This condemnation of his doctrine did not preve .. all
over the kingdom, and with such success that, I -pel-
man, two men could not be found together, and one not a Lollard
or Wickliffite.
Notwithstanding the opposition of the popish clergy, WVickliffe's
doctrine continued to spread in Henry the fourth's reign, even to such
a degree that a majority of the House of Commons were inclined to
it; whence they presented two petitions to the king, one against the
clergy, the other in favour of the Lollards. As it was the king's
interest to please the clergy, he answered the Commons very sharply,
that he neither could nor would consent to their petitions. And with
regard to the Lollards, he declared that lie wished the heretics were
extirpated out of the land. To prove the truth of this, he signed a
warrant for burning a man in humble life, but of strong mind and
sound piety, named Thomas Badly. This individual was a layman,
and by trade a tailor. He was arraigned in the year 1409, before
the bishop of Worcester, and convicted of heresy. On his examina-
tion he said, that it was impossible any priest could make the body
of Christ sacramentally, nor would he believe it unless lie saw mani-
festly the corporeal body of the Lord to be handled by the priest at
the altar ; that it was ridiculous to imagine that at the supper;
Christ held in his own hand his own body, and divided among
his disciples, and yet remaining whole. I believe," said lie, the
Omnipotent God in Trinity; but if everyconsecrated host at the altar
be Christ's body, there must then be in England no less than 2o,0oo
gods." After this he was brought before the archbishop of Canter-
bury, at St. Paul's church, and again examined in presence of a great
number of bishops, the duke of York, and several of the first nobility.


Great pains were used to make him recant; but he courageously
answered that he would still abide by his former opinions, which no
power should force him to forego. On this the archbishop of Can-
terbury ratified the sentence given by the bishop of Worcester.
When the king had signed the warrant for his death, he was brought
to Smithfield, and there, being put into an empty tub, was bound
with iron chains fastened to a stake, and had dry wood piled around
him. As he was thus standing before the wood was lighted, it hap-
pened that the prince,* the king's eldest son, came near the spot;
who, acting the part of the good Samaritan, began to endeavour to
save the life of him whom the hypocritical Levites and Pharisees
sought to put to death. He admonished and counselled him, that
having respect to himself, he should speedily withdraw out of these
dangerous labyrinths of opinions, adding oftentimes threatening,
the which might have daunted any man. Also Courtenay, at that
time chancellor of Oxford, preached unto him, and urged upon him
the faith of the holy church.
In the meantime the prior of St. Bartholomew's, in Smithfield,
brought, with all solemnity, the sacrament of Christ's body, with
twelve torches borne before, and showed the host to the poor man at
the stake. He then demanded of him how he believed in it. He
answered, that he knew well it was hallowed bread, but not God's
body. Then was the tun put over him, and fire applied to it. On
feeling the fire, he cried Mercy "-calling likewise upon the Lord
-when the prince immediately commanded them to take away the
tun, and quench the fire. He then asked him if he would forsake
heresy, and take the faith of holy church, which if he would do, he
should have goods enough, promising him also a yearly pension out
of the king's treasury. But this valiant champion of Christ, neglect-
ing the prince's fair words, as also contemning all men's devices,
refused the offer of worldly promises, being more inflamed with the
spirit of God thanwith any earthly desire. Wherefore, as he con-
tinued immovable in his former mind, the prince commanded him
to be put again into the tun, and that he should not afterwards look
for any grace or favour. As he could be allured by no reward, so he
was nothing at all abashed at their torments, but, as a valiant soldier
of Christ, he persevered invincibly till his body was reduced to ashes,
and his soul rose triumphant unto God who gave it.
At the commencement of the reign of Henry the fifth, about 1413, a
pretended conspiracy, evidently of priestly contrivance, was said to
be discovered of Sir John Oldcastle, and some others of the followers
of Wickliffe. Many of these were condemned both for high treason
I Madcap Harry, Prince of Wales.


and heresy; they were first hanged, and afterwards burnt. A law
followed, enacting that all Lollards should forfeit their whole posses-
sions in fee simple, with their goods and chattels; and all sheriffs
and magistrates, from the lord chancellor to the meanest officer,
were required to take an oath to destroy them and their heresies,
and to assist the ordinaries in the suppression of them. The clergy
made an ill use of this law, and vexed every one who any ways
offended them with imprisonment; upon which the judges interpos-
ing, they examined the grounds of such commitments, and, as they
saw cause, either bailed or discharged the prisoners; and took upon
them to declare what opinions were heresies by law, and what were
not. Thus the people flew for protection to the judges, and found
more mercy from the common lawyers than from those who ought
to have been the pastors of their souls.
The persecutions of the Lollards in the reign of Henry the fifth were
owing to the cruel instigations of the clergy, as that monarch was
naturally averse to cruelty. It is supposed that the chief cause of
the violent' hatred which the clergy bore to the Lollards was, that
they had endeavoured to strip them of part of their revenues.
However this might be, they thought that the most effectual way
to check the progress of Wickliffe's doctrine would be to attack the
then chief protector of it, Sir John Oldcastle, baron of Cobham;
and to persuade the king that the Lollards were engaged in conspi-
racies to overturn the throne and state. It was even reported that
they intended to murder the king, together with the princes his
brothers, with most of the lords spiritual and temporal, in hopes
that the confusion which must necessarily arise in the kingdom after
such a massacre would prove favourable to their religion. Upon
this a false rumour was spread, that Sir John Oldcastle had got
together 20,000 men in St. Giles's in the Fields, a place then over-
grown with bushes. The king himself went thither at midnight,
and finding no more than fourscore or a hundred persons, who were
privately met upon a religious account, he fell upon them and killed
many, it is supposed before he knew of the purpose of their meeting.
Some of them being afterwards examined, were prevailed upon,
either by promises or threats, to confess whatever their enemies
desired; and these accused Sir John Oldcastle.
The king hereupon thought him guilty; and in that belief set a
thousand marks upon his head, with a promise of perpetual exemp-
tion from taxes to any town which should secure him. Sir John was
apprehended and imprisoned in the Tower; but escaping from
thence he fled into Wales, where he long concealed himself. But
being afterwards seized in Powisland, in North Wales, by John


Grey, Lord Powis, he was brought to London, to the great joy of
the clergy, who were highly incensed against him, and resolved to
sacrifice him to strike a terror into the rest of the Lollards. Sir
John was of a very good family, had been sheriff of Hertfordshire
under Henry the fourth and summoned to parliament among the barons
of the realm in that reign. He had been sent beyond sea with the earl
of Arundel, to assist the duke of Burgundy against the French.
In a word, he was a man of extraordinary merit, notwithstanding
which he was condemned to be hanged up by the waist with a chain,
and burnt alive. This niost barbarous sentencewas executed amidst
the curses and imprecations of the priests and monks, who used
their utmost endeavours to prevent the people from praying for him.
Such was the tragical end of Sir John Oldcastle, baron of Cobham,
who left the world with a resolution and constancy which answered
perfectly to the brave spirit he had ever maintained in the cause of
truth and of his God. This was the first noble blood shed by popish
cruelty in England.
Not satisfied with his single death, the clergy got the parliament
to make fresh statutes against the Lollards; they never ceasing,
with amazing eagerness, to require their blood. It was enacted,
among other things, that whoever read the Scriptures in English
should forfeit land, chattels, goods, and life, and be condemned as
heretics to God, enemies to the crown, and traitors to the kingdom;
that they should not have the benefit of any sanctuary; and that, if
they continued obstinate, or relapsed after being pardoned, they
should first be hanged for treason against the king, and then burned
for heresy against God. The act was no sooner passed than a
violent persecution was raised against the Lollards; several of them
were burnt alive, some fled the kingdom, and others abjured their
religion, to escape the torments prepared for them. From this
picture of the horrid barbarities exercised in those times, we may
justly bless those we live in, when nothing of that sort is practised,
but when all are permitted to obey the dictates of their own con-
science, and openly profess their respective religions, provided they
do not disturb the tranquillity of the kingdom. The most likely
means of preserving the nation in this security is for every cruel
statute to be expunged, and for the power and virtue of Christian
truth to be trusted with the sole defence of our orthodoxy and our
The civil wars of the Red and White Roses stopped the persecu-
tion of the Lollards, and gave the church rest for a time.
In Henry the eighth's reign, however, the Reformed faith was again
persecuted, for though Henry threw off the power of the pope and


commenced the Reformation by the destruction of the monasteries,
he was a persecutor of the Reformed opinions, his own being very
nearly those of the Roman church of the period. Many martyrs
suffered during his reign.

Persecution of the RieformZzed Iaith under Henry ite eighth.
THE most remarkable martyr of this day was Thomas Bilney,
who was brought up at Cambridge from a child, and became a bold
and uncompromising reformer. On leaving the university le went
into several places and preached; and in his sermons spoke with
great boldness against the pride and insolence of the clergy. This
was during tshe ministry of Wolsey, who hearing of his attacks,
caused him to be seized and imprisoned. Overcome with fear,
Bilney abjured, was pardoned, and returned to Cambridge in the
year 530. IHere he fell into great horror of mind in consequence
of his instability and the denial of the truth. He became ashamed
of himself, bitterly repented of his sin, and, growing strong in faith,
resolved to make some atonement by a public avowal of his apostacy
and confession of his sentiments. To prepare himself for Iris task
he studied the Scriptures with deep attention for two years; at the
expiration of which he again quitted the university, and went into
Norfolk, where he was born, and preached up and down that
country against idolatry and superstition; .b--ih-r the people to
live well, to give much alms, to believe in ... ., ..' to offer up
their souls and wills to him in the sacrament. He openly confessed
his own sin of denying the faith; and using no precaution as he
went about, was soon taken by the bishop's officers, condemned as a
relapse, and degraded. Sir Thomas More not only sent down the
writ to burn him, but in order to make him suffer another way, he
affirmed that he had said in print that he had abjured; but no
paper signed by him was ever shown, and little credit was due to
the priests that gave it out that he did it by word of mouth. Parker,
afterwards archbishop, was an eye-witness of his sufferings. He
bore all his hardships with great fortitude and resignation, and con-
tinued very cheerful after his sentence. He ate the poor provisions
that were brought him heartily, saying, He must keep up a ruinous
cottage till it fell. He had these words of Isaiah often in his mouth,
"When thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; "
and by burning his finger in the candle he prepared himself for the


fire, and said it would only consume the stubble of his body, while
it would purify his soul, and give it a swifter conveyance to the
region where Elijah was conveyed by another fiery chariot.
On the loth of November he was brought to the stake, where he
repeated t'he creed, as a proof that he was a true Christian. He
then prayed earnestly, and with the deepest feeling offered this
prayer-" EIter not into judgment with thy servant, O Lord, for in
thy sight no flesh living can be justified." Dr. Warner attended and
embraced him, shedding many tears, and wishing he might die in as
good a frame of mind as Bilney then was. The friars requested him
to inform the people that they were not instrumental to his death,
which he did, so that the last act of his life was full of charity, even
to those who put him to death.
The officers then put the reeds and fagots about his body, and set
fire to the first, which made a great flame, and disfigured, his face.
He held up his hands, and often struck his breast, crying sometimes
"Jesus !" sometimes Credo !" but the flame was blown away from
him several times, the wind being very high, till at length the wood
taking fire, the flame was stronger, and he yielded up his spirit to
God who gave it.
As his body shrunk up it leaned down on the chain, till one of the
officers with his halberd struck out the staple of the chain behind
him, on which it fell down into the bottom of the fire, when they
heaped up wood upon it and consumed it. The sufferings, the con-
fession, and the heroic death of this martyr, inspired and animated
others with the same fortitude.
JOIHN LASMBERT, another martyr in this reign, was born in the
county of Norfolk, and educated at the university of Cambridge.
Having made himself master of Greek and Latin, he translated
several books from those languages into the English. On his con-
version, however, by Bilney, he became disgusted at the corrup-
tions of the church; and, apprehensive of persecution, he crossed
the sea, and joined himself to Tindal and Frith, with whom he
remained more than a year; and, from his piety and ability, was
appointed chaplain and preacher to the English factory at Antwerp.
But there the jealousy and persecuting spirit of Sir T. More reached
him, and, on the accusation of a person named Barlow, hewas taken
and conveyed to London. There he was brought to examination
first at Lambeth, then removed to the bishop's house at Oxford,
before Warham, the archbishop of Canterbury, and other adver-
saries, having five-and-forty articles brought against him, to which
he drew out at considerable length written answers, with a perspi-
cuity and strength excelled by none of his age. These answers


\were directed and delivered to Warham, archbishop of Canterbury,
about the year of our Lord 1532, at which time Lambert was in
custody in the bishop's house at Oxford, where he was deprived of
the assistance of books. But, so the providence of God wrought
for him, that in the following year archbishop Warham died, whereby
Lambert for that time was delivered.
Cranmer succeeded to the see of Canterbury. Lambert in the
meantime being delivered, partly by the death of the archbishop,
partly by the coming in of queen Anne, returned unto London, and
there exercised himself in teaching youth the Greek and Latin
tongues. As priests in those days could not be permitted to have
wives, he resigned his priesthood, and applied himself to teaching,
intending shortly after to be married. But God, who disposeth all
men's purposes after the good pleasure of His own will, did both
intercept his marriage and also take away his freedom. Having
continued his profession as teacher with great success, it happened
that, in the year 1538, he was present at a sermon in St. Peter's
church, London, preached by Dr. Taylor, a man in those days not
far disagreeing from the gospel, and afterwards, in the time of king
Edward, made bishop of Lincoln, of which he was again deprived
in the time of queen Mary, and so ended his life among the con-
fessors of Jesus Christ. Dr. Taylor having spoken something upon
the corporeal presence which Lambert conceived to be erroneous,
he felt himself urged by duty to argue the subject with him. He,
therefore, at the conclusion of the sermon, went to the doctor and
began the contest. Taylor, excusing himself at the present for
other business, wished him to write his mind and to come again at a
more convenient season.
Lambert was contented and departed. When he had written his
mind, he came again unto him. The sum of his arguments were ten,
approving the truth of the cause, partly by the Scriptures, by good
reason, and by the doctors. These were written with great force and
authority. The first reason was the following, gathered upon Christ's
words, where it is said in the gospel, This cup is the New Testa-
ment." If," he added, these words do not change the cup nor
the wine corporeally into the New Testament, by the same reason it
is not agreeable that the words spoken of the bread should turn
that corporeally into the body of Chist." He then proceeded thus:-
It is not agreeable to a natural body to be in two places or more
at one time; wherefore it must follow of necessity that either Christ
had not a natural body, or else truly, according to the common
nature of a body, it cannot be present in two places at once, and
much less in many-that is to say, in heaven and in earth, en the


right hand of his Father and in the sacrament." He added like-
wise many other positions from the writings of the doctors. Dr.
Taylor, willing and desiring, as is supposed from goodness of heart,
to satisfy Lambert in these matters, whom he took to council, he
conferred with Dr. Barnes, who, although he otherwise favoured the
gospel, and was an earnest preacher, seemed not to favour this
cause ; fearing, possibly, that it would breed some mischief among
the people, in prejudice of the gospel, which was now in a good
state of forwardness. He therefore persuaded Taylor to submit
the entire question to the superior judgment of Cranmer.
Upon these things Lambert's quarrel began, and was brought to
this point, so that from a private talk it came to be a public and
common matter. He was sent for by the archbishop, brought into
the open court, and, forced publicly to defend his cause. The arch-
bishop had not yet favoured the doctrine of the sacrament, ,.i ,.-i,
afterwards he was an earnest professor of it. In that point of dis-
putation it is said Lambert appealed from the bishop's to the king's
Gardiner, ever awake to his worldly interest, and to every occasion
of checking that cause which in his heart he hated, learning the
particulars of the affair, went privately to the king, and with all
artifice and subtlety emptied the malice of his own heart into that of
the king's, empoisoning the royal ear with his pernicious counsels.
He said that the world viewed him with suspicion, and began to
charge him with being a favourer of heretics; and that the present
affair relating to Lambert would enable him, by proceeding against
him, to banish from the hearts of all those unfavorable suspicions
and complaints. To this advice the king, giving ear more willingly
than prudently, sent out a general commission, commanding all the
nobles and bishops of his realm to come with speed to London, to
assist the king against heretics and heresies, upon which the king
himself would sit in judgment. These preparations made, a day
was appointed for Lambert, where a great assembly of the nobles
was gathered from all parts of the country, not without much wonder
and expectation in this singular case. All the seats and places round
the scaffold were crowded. At length John Lambert was brought
from the prison under a guard of armed men, as a lamb to fight with
many lions, and placed directly opposite to the king's seat.
Then came the king himself, as judge of the controversy, with his
body-guard clothed all in white. On his right hand sat the bishops,
and behind them the celebrated lawyers, clothed in purple, according
to the manner. On the left hand sat the peers of the realm, justices,
and other nobles in their order; behind whom were the gentlemen


'of the king's privy chamber. This manner and form of the judgment
was enough of itself to abash innocence; yet the king's look, his
cruel countenance, and his brows bent to severity, augmented the
terror, plainly declaring a mind full of indignation unworthy such a
prince, especially in such a matter, and against a subject so humble
and obedient. Being seated on his throne, he beheld Lambert with
a stern countenance, and then turning himself to his counsellors,
called forth Day, bishop of Chichester, and commanded him to
declare to the people the cause of the present assembly and judg-
The bishop's oration tended to this purpose : that the king in
session would have all states and degrees to be admonished of his
will and pleasure, that no man should conceive any sinister opinion
of him; that, now the authority and name of the bishop of Rome
being utterly abolished, he would not extinguish all religion by giving
liberty unto heretics to perturb and trouble the churches of England,
whereof he was the head, without punishment. Moreover, that they
should not think they were assembled at that time to make any dis-
putation upon the heretical doctrine; but only for this purpose, that,
by the industry of him and other bishops, the heresies of this man
here present, and of all like hjin, should be refuted or openly con-
demned in the presence of thimh all.
The oration being concluded, the king rose, and leaning upon
cushion of white cloth of tissue, turned himself towards Lambert witi
his brow bent, and said, Ho, good fellow, what is thy name?"
'Then the prisoner kneeling down, said, My name is John
Nicholson, although by many I am called Lambert." ''What "
said the king, "have you two names? I would not trust you, having
two names, although you were my brother."
Lambert replied, 0 most noble prince, your bishops forced me
of necessity to change my name." The king then commanded him
to go into the matter, and to declare his mind and opinion, what ho
thought as touching the sacrament of the altar. Then Lambert
proceeded, gave God thanks, who had so inclined the heart of the
king that he himself would not disdain to hear and understand the
controversies of religion; since it had often happened, through the
cruelty of the bishops, that many good and innocent men in many
places were privily murdered without the knowledge of their sove-
reign. But now, as that high and eternal King of kings, in whose
hands are the hearts of all princes, had inspired the king's mind,
that he himself would be present to understand the causes of his
subjects-especially whom God of his divine goodness had so en-
dued with such gifts of judgment and knowledge-he did not doubt


but that God would bring some great thing to pass through him to
the glory of His name.
Here Henry interrupted him, and with an angry voice said,-" I
came not hither to hear mine own praises thus painted out in my
presence; but briefly to go into the matter without any more cir-
cumstance." Then Lambert, abashed at the king's angry words,
contrary to all men's expectations, stayed awhile, considering
whither he might turn himself in these great straits and extremities.
Upon which the king, with anger and vehemency, said,-" Why
standest thou still ? Answer as touching the sacrament of the altar,
-whether dost thou say, that it is the body of Christ, or wilt deny
it?" With that word the king reverently lifted his turban from his
Lambert said, I answer, with St. Augustine-That it is the
body of Christ after a certain manner." Then the king said-
" Answer me neither out of St. Augustine, neither by the authority
of any other man; but tell me plainly whether thou sayest it is the
body of Christ or no ?" Then Lambert meekly replied, I deny it
to be the body of Christ." The king on this said, Mark well, for
now thou shalt be condemned even by Christ's own words : Hoc est
corpjas nzeum." He then commanded Cranmer to refute his asser-
tion; who, first making a short preface to the hearers, began his
disputation with Lambert, very modestly saying,-" Brother Lam-
bert, let this matter be handled between us indifferently, that if I do
convince this your,argument to be false by the Scriptures, you will
willingly refuse the same; but if you shall prove it true by manifest
testimonies of the Scripture, I do promise willingly to embrace the
The argument was this, taken out of that place of the Acts of the
Apostles where Christ appeared to St. Paul by the way; disputing
out of that place, that it is not disagreeable to the word of God
that the body of Christ may be in two places at once, which being
in heaven, was seen of St. Paul at the same time upon earth; and
if it may be in two places, why by the like reason may it not be in
many places?
Thus the archbishop began to refute the second argument of
Lambert. which had been written and delivered by him to Dr. Tay-
lor the preacher; the king having already disputed against his first
reason. Lambert answered to this argument, "That the minor
was not thereby proved, that Christ's body was dispersed in two
places, or more, but remained rather still in one place, as touching
the manner of his body. For the Scripture doth not say that Christ
being upon the earth did speak unto Paul; but that suddenly a


light from heaven did shine round about him, and he fell to the
ground and heard a voice, saying unto him, "Saul, -Saul, why
persecutest thou me? I am Jesus whom thou persecutest.' This
place saith nothing but that Christ, sitting in heaven, might speak
to Paul, and be heard upon earth; for they which were with Paul
verily heard the voice, but did see no one.
The archbishop, on the contrary part, said, Paul himself doth
witness that Christ did appear unto him in the same vision. Lam-
bert again answered, that Christ did witness in the same place that
He would again appear unto him, and deliver him out of the hands
of the Gentiles; notwithstanding we read in no place that Christ
did corporeally appear unto him. Thus, when they had contended
about the conversion of St. Paul, and Lambert so answering for
himself, that the king seemed greatly to be moved therewith, and
the bishop himself to be entangled, and all the audience amazed;
the bishop of Winchester, fearing lest the argument should be taken
out of his mouth, or rather being filled with malice against the poor
man, without the king's commandment, observing no order, before
the archbishop had made an end, alleged a place out of the twelfth
chapter of the Corinthians, where St. Paul saith,-" Have I not
seen the Lord Jesus ?" And again in the fifteenth chapter: He
appeared unto Cephas; and afterwards unto James, then to all the
apostles; but last of all he appeared unto me also, as one born out
of due time."
To all this Lambert answered, he did not doubt but that Christ
was seen, and did appear, but he denied that He was in two places,
according to the manner of his body. Then Gardiner, again per-
verting the authority of Paul, repeated the place out of the second
epistle to the Corinthians, the fifth chapter,-'' And if so be we have
known Christ after the flesh, now henceforth know we him no
more." Lambert added, that this knowledge is not to be under-
stood according to the sense of the body, and that it so appeared
sufficiently by St. Paul, who, speaking of his own revelation, saith
thus : I know one, whether in the body or out of the body, God
knoweth, which was caught up into the third heaven; and I know
not whether in the body or out of the body, God knoweth." Even
by the testimony of St. Paul, a man shall easily gather that in this
revelation he was taken up in spirit into the heavens, and did see
those things, rather than that Christ came down corporeally from
heaven to show them unto him; especially as it was said of the
angel, As he ascended into heaven, so he shall come again." And
St. Peter saith, "Whom it behoved to dwell in the heavens."
Moreover, appointing the measure of time, he added. ''Even until


that i;li ri,.: be restored." H-ere again Lambert, being taunted
and :'. .u .1 could not be suffered to proceed.
Then the other bishops, every one in his order, as they were ap-
pointed, supplied their place in the disputation. There were ten in
number appointed for the performing of this tragedy, for ten argu-
ments, as before we have declared, were delivered unto Taylor the
preacher. It were too tedious in this place to repeat the reasons
and arguments of every bishop, having little in them worthy either
the hearer or the reader.
At last, when the day was passed and torches began to be lighted,
the king said to Lambert, What sayest thou now after all these
great labours which thou hast taken upon thee, and all the reasons
and instructions of these learned men? Art thou not yet satisfied?
Wilt thou live or die? What sayest thou? Thou hast yet free
choice." Lambert answered, I yield and submit myself wholly
unto the will of your majesty." "Then," said the king, commit
thyself unto the hand of God, and not unto mine." To which he
piously replied-" I commend my soul unto the hands of God, but
my body I wholly yield and submit unto your clemency." Then
said 1.. 1 ; ,: If you do commit yourself unto my judgment, you
must .i I. I will not be a patron unto heretics." Then sternly
addressing Cromwell, he commanded him to read the sentence of
condemnation against him. And we cannot but wonder to see how
unfortunately it came to pass, ;i I .' i. the pestiferous and
crafty counsel of this bishop of .' i ., itan, who often raises
up one brother to the destruction of another, here performed the
condemnation of Lambert by no other ministers than reformers
themselves, namely, Taylor, Barnes, Cranmer, and Cromwell, who
afterwards, in apparent judgment, all suffered the]like for the gos-
pel's sake.
Cromwell, at the king's command, taking the schedule of con-
demnation in hand, read it aloud, wherein was contained the burn-
ing of heretics who either spake or wrote anything, or had any
books by them, repugnant or disagreeing from the papistical church
and tradition touching the sacrament of the altar; also a decree
that the same should be set upon the church porches, and be read
four times every year in every church throughout the realm, whereby
the worshipping of the bread should be the more firmly fixed in the
hearts of the people. Thus was John Lambert, in this bloody ses-
sion, by the king condemned to death; whose judgment now
remaineth with the Lord against that day when both princes and
subjects shall stand and appear, not to judge, but to be judged,
according as they have done and deserved.


Upon the day appointed for this holy martyr of God to suffer, he
was brought out of the prison at eight o'clock in the morning unto
the house of the lord Cromwell, and carried into his inner chamber,
where, it is reported of many, that Cromwell desired of him forgive-
ness for what he had done. There at the last, Lambert being ad-
nonished that the hour of his death was at hand, he was greatly
comforted and cheered; and being brought out of the chamber into
the hall, he saluted the gentlemen, and sat down to breakfast with
them, showing no manner of sadness or fear. When breakfast was
ended, he was carried straight to the place of execution at Smith-
field. The manner of his death was dreadful; for after his legs
were nearly consumed and burned, and that the wretched tormen-
tors and enemies of God had withdrawn the fire from him, then two
who stood on each side with their halberds pitched him from side
to side as far as the chain would reach; while he, lifting up such
hands as he had, cried unto the people in these words, None but
Christ none but Christ!" He was soon after let down again from
their halberds, fell into the fire, and there ended his life.
DiO. BARNEs was educated in the university of Louvaine, in Bra-
bant. On his return to England he went to Cambridge, where he
\ as made prior of the order of Augustines, and steward of the house
in which that order resided. On his entrance the darkest ignorance
pervaded the university, all things being full of rudeness and bar-
barity, excepting a few persons whose learning was unknown to the
rest. Dr. Barnes, zealous to promote knowledge and truth, soon
began to instruct the, students in classic languages, and, with the
assistance of Parnel, his scholar, whom he had brought from Lou-
vaine, he soon caused learning to flourish, and the university to bear
a very different aspect. These foundations laid, he began to read
openly the epistles of St. Paul, and to teach in greater purity the
doctrine of Christ. He preached and disputed with great warmth
against the luxuries of the higher clergy, particularly against cardi-
nal Wolsey, and the lamentable hypocrisy of the times. But still
le remained ignorant of the great cause of these evils, namely, the
idolatry and superstition of the church; and while he declaimed
against the stream, he himself drank at the spring, and kept it run-
ning for others to quench their fanatical thirst. At length, happily
becoming acquainted with Bilney, he was by that martyr's conversa-
tion wholly converted unto Christ.
,sThe first refonned sermon he preached was on the Sunday before
Christmas Day, at St. Edward's church, Trinity Hall, in Cambridge.
His theme was the epistle of the day, Gaudete in Domino, and he
commented on the whole epistle, following the Scripture and Luther's


exposiuon. For that sermon he was immediately accused of heresy
by two fellows of the King's Hall. On this the learned in Christ,
of Pembroke Hall, St. John's, Peter's House, King and Queen's
colleges, Gunwell Hall, and Benet college, flocked together, both
in the schools and in more public places, almost daily and hourly
conferring together, and many of them disputing about the course
it was their duty to pursue.
The house to which they chiefly resorted was the White Horse
inn, which, in contempt, was called Germany. This house especially
was chosen, because many of them of St. John's, the King's col-
lege, and the Queen's college, were able to enter at the back gate.
At this time much trouble began to ensue. The adversaries of Dr.
Barnes accused him in the Regent House before the vice-chancellor,
whereon his articles were presented and received, he promising to
make answer at the next convocation. Then Dr. Nottoris, a bitter
enemy to Christ, moved Barnes to recant; but he refused, as
appears in his book, which he wrote to king Henry in English, con-
futing the judgment of cardinal Wolsey and the residue of the
popish bishops. They continued in Cambridge, one preaching
against another, until within six days of Shrovetide, when suddenly
a sergeant-at-arms was sent down, called Gibson, dwelling in St.
Thomas Apostle, in London, to arrest Dr. Barnes openly in the
Convocation-house, to strike others with fear. It was also privily
determined to search for Luther's books.
Dr. Farman, of the Queen's college, learning this, sent word of
it privately to the chambers of those who were suspected, which
were thirty persons; and they were conveyed away by the time that
the sergeant-at-arms, the vice-chancellor, and the proctors were at
their chamber, going directly to where the books lay. It was this
proceeding which showed that there were spies with the sergeant;
and that night they studied together, and gave Barnes his answer,
which answer he carried with him to London the next morning,
being the Tuesday before Shrove Sunday. On Wednesday he
arrived in London, and lay at Mr. Parnel's house. Next morning
he was taken before cardinal Wolsey at Westminster, waiting there
all day, and could not speak with him till night, when, by reason of
Dr. Gardiner, secretary to the cardinal, and of Mr. Fox, master of
the wards, he spake with the cardinal in his chamber of state, kneel-
ing. Is this," said Wolsey to them, Dr. Barnes, who is accused
of heresy?" "Yes, and please your grace," replied they; and we
trust you will find him reformable, for he is learned and wise."
What, Mr. Doctor," said Wolsey, "had you not a sufficient
scope in the Scriptures to teach the people, but that my golden shoes,


my poleaxes, my pillars, my cushions, my crosses, did so offend you,
that vou must make us ridiculum caput amongst the people, who
that clay laughed us to scorn? Verily it was a sermon fitter to be
i- 1 in a stage than in a pulpit; for at last you said, I wear a
S. ..! gloves, 'I should say bloody gloves,' quoth you, 'that I
should not be cold in the midst of my ceremonies.'" To this banter
Dr. Barnes answered, "I spake nothing but the truth out of the
Scriptures, according to my conscience, and according to the ancient
doctors." And then he delivered him six sheets of paper written, to
confirm and corroborate his sentiments.
The cardinal received them smiling, saying, We perceive, then,
that you intend to stand to your articles, and to show your learning."
To which Barnes replied, "Yea, that I do by God's grace, with
your lordship's favour." The cardinal now became angry, and
said, "'Such as you bear us little favour, and the catholic church
less. I will ask you a question; whether you do think it more
necessary that I should have all this royalty, because I represent the
king's majesty in all the high courts of this realm, to the terror and
'-i-pin- down of all rebellious traitors, all wicked and corrupt mem-
i this commonwealth, or to be as simple as you would have
us, to sell all these things, and to give them to the poor, who
shortly will cast them in the dirt ; and to pull away this princely
dignity, which is a terror to the wicked, and to follow your
counsel? "
I think it necessary," said Barnes, to be sold and given to the
poor. All this is not becoming your calling; nor is the king's
majesty maintained by your pomp and poleaxes, but by God, who
saith, per regnant, kings and their majesty reign and stand
by me." .. .. to the attendants, the cardinal then satirically
said, Lo, master doctors, he is the learned and wise man that you
told me of." Then they knelt, and said, "We desire your grace
to be good unto him, for he will be reformable." The cardinal
appeared softened by their words, and mildly said, Stand you up;
for your sakes and the university we will be good unto him." Turn-
ing to Barnes, he added, How say you, master doctor; do you not
know that I am /Icgats de later, and that I am able to dispense in
all matters concerning religion within this realm, as much as the
pope himself?" Barnes meekly said, "I know it be so." The
cardinal then asked, ''Will you be ruled by us, and we will do all
, ;: for your honesty, and for the honesty of the university."
- .. answered, I thank your grace for your good will; I will
adhere to the holy Scripture, as to God's book, according to the
simple talent that God hath lent me." The cardinal ended the dia-


logue by saying, Well, thou shalt have thy learning tried to the
uttermost, and thou shalt have the law."
He would then have been sent to the Tower, but Gardiner and
Fox standing sureties for him, he returned to Mr. Parnel's again,
and devoted the whole night to writing. Next morning he came to
Gardiner and Fox, and soon afterwards he was committed to the
sergeant-at-arms, who brought him into the chapter-house, before
the bishops, and Islip, the abbot of Westminster. At this time
there were five men to be examined for Luther's book and Lollardy;
but after they spied Barnes they set these aside, and asked the ser-
geant-at-arms what was his errand. He said he had brought Dr.
Barnes on a charge of heresy, and then presented both his articles
and his accusers. Immediately after a little talk they swore him,
and laid his articles to him, on which he answered as he had done
the cardinal before, and offered the book of his probations unto
them. They took it from him, but said they had no leisure to dis-
pute with him at present, on account of other affairs of the king's
majesty which they had to do, and therefore bade him stand aside.
They then called the five men again, one by one, and after they
were examined, they were all committed to the Fleet. Dr. Barnes
was recalled, and asked whether he would subscribe to his articles.
He subscribed willingly, when they committed him and young Parnel
to the Fleet with the others. There they remained till Saturday
morning, and the warden had orders that no man should speak
with him.
On the Saturday he was again brought before them into the chap-
ter-house, and there with the men remained till five at night. After
long disputations, threatening, and scornings, they called upon him
to know whether he would abjure or burn. He was greatly agitated,
and felt inclined rather to burn than abjure. But lie was then said
again to have the counsel of Gardiner and Fox, and they persuaded
him rather to abjure than to burn, because they pleaded he might in
future be silent, urging other reasons to save his life and check his
icresy at the same time. Upon that, kneeling down, lie consented
to abjure, and the abjuration being put into his hand, lie abjured as
it was there written, and then he subscribed with his own hand;
yet they would scarcely receive him into the bosom of the church,
as they termed it. Then they put him to an oath, and charged him
to execute and fulfil all that they commanded him, which he accord-
ingly promised.
On this they commanded the warden of the Fleet to carry him and
his fellows to the place whence he came, and to be kept in close
prison, and in the morning to provide five fagots for Dr. Barnes and