Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letter #1
 Letter #2
 Letters #3, #4
 Letter #5
 Letters #7, #8, #9, #10
 Letter #6
 Letter #11
 Letter #12
 Letter #13
 Letters #14, #15
 Letter #16
 Letter #17
 Letters #18, #19
 Letters #20, #21
 Letter #22
 Letters #23, #24, #25
 Letters #26, #27, #28
 Letters #29, #30
 Letter #31
 Letter #32
 Letter #33
 Letter #34
 Letters #35, #36
 Letter #37
 Letter #38
 Letter #39
 Letter #40
 Letter #41
 Letters #42, #43, #44, #45,...
 Letters #47, #48, #49, #50
 Letters #51, #52, #53
 Letter #54
 Letters #55, #56
 Letter #57
 Letter #58
 Letter #59
 Letters #60, #61
 Letters #62, #63
 Letter #64
 Letters #65, #66
 Letter #67
 Letter #68
 Letters #69, #70, #71
 Letters #72, #73
 Letter #74
 Letter #75
 Letter #76
 Letter #77
 Letter #78
 Letter #79
 Letter #80
 Letter #81
 Letters #82, #83, #84
 Letters #85, #86
 Letter #87
 Letter #88, #89
 Letter #90
 Letter #91
 Letter #92
 Letter #93
 Letter #94
 Letter #95
 Letter #96
 Letter #97
 Letters #98, #99, #100
 Letter #101
 Letter #102
 Letter #103
 Letter #104
 Letter #105
 Letters #106, #107
 Letters #108, #109, #110, #111
 Letter #112
 Letter #113
 Letter #114
 Letter #115
 Letter #116
 Letter #118
 Letter #117
 Letters #119, #120
 Letter #121
 Letters #122, #123
 Letter #124
 Letters #125, #126
 Letters #127, #128
 Letter #129
 Letter #130
 Letter #131
 Letter #132
 Letter #133

Title: Further correspondence relating to the volcanic eruptions in St. Vincent and Martinique in 1902 & 1903
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054975/00001
 Material Information
Title: Further correspondence relating to the volcanic eruptions in St. Vincent and Martinique in 1902 & 1903
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: H.M. Stationery Office
Publication Date: 1903
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054975
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50133315

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page vii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Letter #1
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter #2
        Page 3
    Letters #3, #4
        Page 4
    Letter #5
        Page 5
    Letters #7, #8, #9, #10
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Letter #6
        Page 6
    Letter #11
        Page 16
    Letter #12
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Letter #13
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Letters #14, #15
        Page 25
    Letter #16
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Letter #17
        Page 28
    Letters #18, #19
        Page 29
    Letters #20, #21
        Page 30
    Letter #22
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Letters #23, #24, #25
        Page 34
    Letters #26, #27, #28
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Letters #29, #30
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Letter #31
        Page 39
    Letter #32
        Page 40
    Letter #33
        Page 41
    Letter #34
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Letters #35, #36
        Page 46
    Letter #37
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Letter #38
        Page 49
    Letter #39
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Letter #40
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Letter #41
        Page 54
    Letters #42, #43, #44, #45, #46
        Page 55
    Letters #47, #48, #49, #50
        Page 56
    Letters #51, #52, #53
        Page 57
    Letter #54
        Page 58
    Letters #55, #56
        Page 59
    Letter #57
        Page 60
    Letter #58
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Letter #59
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Letters #60, #61
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Letters #62, #63
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Letter #64
        Page 77
    Letters #65, #66
        Page 78
    Letter #67
        Page 79
    Letter #68
        Page 80
    Letters #69, #70, #71
        Page 81
    Letters #72, #73
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Letter #74
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Letter #75
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Letter #76
        Page 95
    Letter #77
        Page 96
    Letter #78
        Page 97
    Letter #79
        Page 98
    Letter #80
        Page 99
    Letter #81
        Page 100
    Letters #82, #83, #84
        Page 101
    Letters #85, #86
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Letter #87
        Page 106
    Letter #88, #89
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Letter #90
        Page 110
    Letter #91
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Letter #92
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Letter #93
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Letter #94
        Page 142
    Letter #95
        Page 143
    Letter #96
        Page 144
    Letter #97
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Letters #98, #99, #100
        Page 148
    Letter #101
        Page 149
    Letter #102
        Page 150
    Letter #103
        Page 151
    Letter #104
        Page 152
    Letter #105
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Letters #106, #107
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Letters #108, #109, #110, #111
        Page 160
    Letter #112
        Page 161
    Letter #113
        Page 162
    Letter #114
        Page 163
    Letter #115
        Page 164
    Letter #116
        Page 165
    Letter #118
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Letter #117
        Page 166
    Letters #119, #120
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Letter #121
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Letters #122, #123
        Page 178
    Letter #124
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Letters #125, #126
        Page 185
    Letters #127, #128
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Letter #129
        Page 188
    Letter #130
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Letter #131
        Page 191
    Letter #132
        Page 192
    Letter #133
        Page 193
Full Text







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3 1262 07271 946 0

572 .2

( LATI ili



SerNo.ia From or to whom. Date Subject. Page.
No. r o.

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Ditto ... .

Ditto ..

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Governor Sir R. B.



June 6
(Rec. June 18.)

June 6
(Rec. June 18.)

June 21

June 24

June 25

June 20
(Rec. July 3.)

July 1
(Rec. July 16.)

July 2
(Rec. July 16.)

July 18

July 12
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

Submits proposals for the administration
of the St. Vincent Relief Fund, and
transmits copies of forms calling for
particulars of losses together with an
approximate estimate of the probable
expenditure required.

Submits report on the cases of Mr.
Robertson and Mr. Fraser, and re-
quests approval of the action taken.

Transmits despatch from the Governor
of Jamaica relating to the proposal
that settlers from St. Vincent should
be received into that Colony, and
requests him to give it careful con-

Enquires, with reference to No. 2,
whether the ownership of the de-
stroyed Wallibu property has. been
conveyed to the Crown; explains
that consent of the Secretary of State
should have been awaited before
compensation, reported in No. 1, was

Replies to the proposals made in Nos. 1
and 2.

Reports present position of affairs in
St. Vincent and the measures taken
to relieve distress.

Conveys appreciation of the contri-
butions from the Queen and Queen
Mother of the Netherlands.

Acknowledges receipt of despatch inti-
mating that the city authorities of
Berlin have voted 10,000 marks for
the relief of the inhabitants of St.
Vincent, and conveys appreciation of
the sympathy shown by foreign

Acknowledges receipt of No. 6, and
notes the good work done by the
special service officers and men.

Transmits copy of a report by Major
Will on the relief expeditions to
St. Vincent and Martinique, and calls
attention to the services rendered by
him and Drs. Hutson, Bowen, and
Orford in St. Vincent ; requests ap-
proval of a payment of d50 to
Dr. Hutson and 25 to Dr. Bowen
as gratuities.

1750-G 440 Wt 6346 9o03 D & S 5 14986


No. From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.













Governor Sir

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Mr. A. Porter

R. B.


July 14
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

July 16
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

July 16
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

Transmits copy of Mr. Robertson's
statement of his losses, which state-
ment the Governor believes to be

Reports steps taken in the matter of
awarding compensation from the Lord
Mayor's Fund and private subscrip-
tions to the people of St. Vincent, and.
submits recommendations.

Reports on Mr. Porter's case, and trans-
mits copy of the details of the losses
which Mr. Porter estimates he has

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

Ditto ...

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

Mr. Phipps (Minis-
ter at Brussels) to
the Marquess of

I July 18
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

July 18
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

July 18
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

July 18
(Rec. Aug. 2.)

August 13.

July 26
(Rec. Aug. 14.)

August 19.

September 3

Submits schedule of items claimed for
damage to church property and

Forwards copy of a Report by the
President of the Ladies' Clothing Com-
mittee showing the prompt action
taken to assist the injured and

Supplements the information given in
No. 2 in respect to the purchase of
Campden Park estate.

Submits views on the proposal to repair
the canal which supplies Mr. Porter's
estates in the Carib country, as a
relief work from the Eruption Fund.

Transmits cheque for 1,348 18s. 9d.,
being three-quarters of the proceeds
received from a Military Tournament
and Carrousel set on foot in the
Belgian Army, and handed over for
the benefit of the sufferers in St. Vin-
cent by the Belgian Minister of War.

Reports having purchased Rutland Vale
estate for the purpose of resettling
the inhabitants of the devastated area
on the Leeward side at the foot of the

Replies to the points raised in Nos. 10
to 18 and No. 20, and requests to be
furnished with a rough statement of
moneys received on account of the
Mansion House Fund and expenditure
incurred or authorised as against the

Submits claim for compensation out of
the Relief Fund on account of loss
sustained by the eruption.













July 18 Submits for approval sundry special
(Rec. Aug. 2.) payments from the Relief Fund.

Serial From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
From or to whom. Date.

To War Office ...

To Acting-Adminis-
trator Dalrym-

Acting Adminis-
trator Dalrym-

Governor Sir R. B.

War Office... .

To Governor Sir R.B.

To Mr. A. Porter ...

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Mr. H. Powell to
Dr. Morris.

Governor Sir R. B.

St. Lucia,

St. Lucia,




September 4

Rec. Sept. 5

September 4
(Rec. Sept. 6.)

September 8

September 9

September 11

August 27
(Rec. Sept. 12.)

August 28
(Rec. Sept. 12.)

Telegram September 19

September 5
(Rec. in C.O.
September 24.)

September 11
(Rec. Sept.24.)

Transmits copy of a despatch from the
Governor, forwarding a report by
Major Will on the work of the Relief
Expedition; states that an appreciative
reply has been sent to the Governor
as regards the work done by Major
Will and his staff.

Asks, in view of rumours, to be assured
that there has been no recurrence of

Reports further eruptions; Soufribre
again active, and great loss of life in
Martinique; H.M.S. Tribune has
gone to St. Vincent; Governor is at
Grenada, and No. 24 has been for-
warded to him.

Reports further eruption of the Sou-
friere, and states that there is great
alarm at St. Vincent, where a special
service officer is much needed.

Expresses thanks for the appreciation of
the services of Major Will and his
staff and adds that a note has been
made in the records of their services.

Transmits a petition to the King from
the Caribs of Morne Ronde praying
for a tract of land in exchange for
that destroyed by the eruption, and
requests, they may be informed that
the King has commanded a report to
be made upon it.

Regrets inability to afford him the
desired compensation.

Reports on his visit to St. Vincent;
suggests that the people of Owia and
Fancy should be sent to Jamaica;
sends copies of telegraphic corre-
spondence with the Administrator of
St. Vincent on the subject, and states
that if the emigration scheme is not
approved of steps will be taken to
secure township lots for the refugees.

Sends abstract, made up to July 31, of
the expenditure made from the
Eruption Fund, together with an
estimate of approximate expenses up
to August 22.

Approves of suggested emigration of
refugees from Fancy and Owia to
Jamaica, who will be entitled to no
relief if they refuse the offer.

Reports eruption of the SoufriBre vol-
cano on September 3rd and 4th, and
injury done to the island.

Forwards report by Administrator Cam-
eron on the SoufriBre eruption of
September 3rd.





Serialr to whom. -
No. From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
No. ,ape

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Ditto ...

Mr. D. A. Maclonald

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

Ditto .. ...

To Captain A. H.

Governor Sir F. M.

Governor Sir R. B.

Captain A. H. Young

Governor Sir F. M.

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .






September 26

September 30

October 9

September 23
(Rec. Oct. 11.)

September 21
(Rec. Oct. 11.)

September 25
(Rec. Oct. 11.)

October 14

October 16
(Rec. Oct. 16.)

(Rec. Oct. 16.)

October 16

(Rec. Oct. 17.)

October 18.

ITelegram (Rec. Oct. 20.)


(Rec. Oct. 20.)

Acknowledges No. 30 and confirms
No. 32.

Informs him that the subscription from
British Honduras, amounting to
75 11s. 9d., has been handed over by
the Crown Agents to the Mansion
House Relief Fund.

States the history of his business ven-
tures in St. Vincent and the losses
sustained by floods, hurricanes, and
the eruption.

Transmits, with remarks, report by
Mr. J. Adams on the SoufriBre erup-
tion of September 3rd.

Forwards, with remarks, summary of
expenditure from the Relief Fund,
made up to August 31st, a first list of
subscriptions received, and a list of
sundry other items of expenditure
approved or about to be recom-

Submits copy of a minute'to Adminis-
trator Cameron on the subject of
emigration to Jamaica, 'and copy of a
letter to the Governor, Jamaica, setting
forth the position of the people who
will emigrate.

Proposes to select him as special officer to
deal with the relief work rendered
necessary by the recent volcanic erup-
tions in St. Vincent, and states nature
of the duties to be performed.

Reports further eruption of Soufriere on
October 16.

Reports SoufriBre in full eruption
16th October.

Accepts with thanks the appointment
offered in No. 41.

Reports that the fall of volcanic dust,
which amounted to one-eighth of an
inch, and of finer particles, practically
ceased at one o'clock on October 16.

Regrets to hear of fresh eruption of
SoufriBre, and awaits further details.

States, in reply to No. 46, that sand and
stones fell eight inches deep in the
Carib country, and rather less at
Chateaubelair, and that no damage
was done to the buildings, but the
area of land damaged has been in-

Reports agitation against emigration to
Jamaica, and enquires whether the
necessary measures for the permanent
settlement of the inhabitants may be

No. From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.

Governor Sir R. B.

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

To Mr. D. A. Mac-

Governor Sir R. B.

Mr.D.A. MacDonald

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Ditto ... .

Governor Sir R. B.

Governor Sir



F. M. I Barbados

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... ...

To the Lord Mayor
of London.


October 6
(Rec. Oct. 23.)

October 24

October 24

(Rec. Oct. 25.)

October 27

October 28

November 4

October 21
(Rec. Nov. 8.)

October 22
(Rec. Nov. 8.)

October 23
(Rec. Nov. 8.)

October 23
(Rec. Nov. 8.)

November 8

Expresses appreciation of the people of
St. Vincent of the act of the Belgian
army in forwarding the very hand-
some donation of 1,348 18s. 9d.

Directs, in reply to No. 48, that influence
should be used to induce the villagers
to emigrate, and states that, should
they still decline, further action must
await the arrival of Capt. Young.

States condition on which assistance
will be given, and proposes to submit
the case to the Governor for his

Reports on the serious condition of
affairs in St. Vincent; the gravity of
the 'situation is very much increased,
and he is awaiting the arrival of Capt.
Young before going there.

Submits further statement of losses in-
curred and present financial diffi-

Expresses the opinion, in reply to
No. 48, that emigration to Jamaica is
the best remedy, and confirms
No. 50.

Transmits copies of Nos. 37, 51 and 53,
and requests that they may be sub-
mitted to Capt. Young for any recom-
mendations he may have to offer after
visiting the localities.

Transmits copy of correspondence with
the Secretary of the Associated Com-
mittees of New York for the relief of

Transmits copy of a letter from Mr. R.
R. Hall giving particulars of the
volcanic dust which fell in Barbados
on October 16, and enclosing a report
of a preliminary microscopic examina-
tion by Dr. L. Smith.

Forwards report by the Administrator,
St. Vincent, on the eruption of
October 15 and 16, and points out the
increased gravity of the situation.

Transmits, with remarks, newspaper re-
port of a meeting held at Kingstown
to protest against the proposed emi-
gration of labourers from St. Vincent
to Jamaica.

Concurs in the suggestion that the
balance of the Mansion House Fund
should be paid over to the Crown
Agents, and conveys thanks. for the
efforts made on behalf of the sufferers
in St. Vincent.

No.1 From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page


61A To Governor Sir
R. B. Llewelyn.

SDitto ...

Governor Sir R. B.

Mr. W. E. Stephens

Governor Sir R. B.

Rowntree & Co., Ltd.

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

To Acting-Governor
Sir C. Knollys.

The Secretary to
Lord Mayor of

To Governor Sir R.
B, Llewelyn.

To Messrs. Rowntree
& Co., Limited.



October 23
(Rec. Nov.10.)

November 12

November 15

November 5
(Rec. Nov. 19.)

November 5
(Rec. Nov. 19.)

Telegram (Rec. Nov. 20.)

November 20

November 25

Trinidad I November 25

November 25

Telegram November 26

November 26

Transmits precis of correspondence
with Mr. H. J. Cramer of Sarstoon as
to the importation of labourers from
St. Vincent; enquires whether Mr.
Cramer's terms meet with approval.

Acknowledges receipt of No. 56, and
approves of the distribution, as pro-
posed, of the money received from
the Associated Committees.

Transmits, for consideration, copy of
No. 61 and suggests that if other fields
for emigration do not present them-
selves, personal enquiry might be
made as to the suitability of the
district in question.

Describes present condition of St. Vin-
cent, and forwards copy of an account
by Mr. Powell of his ascent of

Forwards copy of a Petition on behalf
of the people of Owia and Fancy
Estates asking that Ottley Hall Estate
should be purchased for them to
settle on.

Reports, with reference to No. 54, that
the people repudiate the Petition;
agrees with Captain Young that emi-
gration can be arranged only on
compulsion; requests authority to
purchase more land for settlement.

Offers to find employment in Dominica
for from 50 to 100 distressed families
from St. Vincent.

Replies to Nos. 58, 59, and 63, and con-
veys directions for the application of
a labour test in connection with the
relief works ; requests report on the
Petition forwarded in No. 64.

Calls attention to the condition of
affairs in St. Vincent; describes steps
taken to induce emigration to Trinidad
and Tobago, and requests that he will
co-operate with Sir R. B. Llewelyn
and Captain Young if approached on
the subject.

Sends balance of St. Vincent Relief
Fund, and requests that the grant
promised by the late Lord Mayor to
the injured men on the s.s." Roddam"
may be given to them if possible.

Considers, in reply to No. 65, that emi-
gration should be pressed as far as
possible, and that relief to able-bodied
applicants over 16 should be refused
except in return for a bond fide day's

Conveys thanks for the offer in No. 66,
and enquires whether a representative
of the firm could call and discuss the

From or to whom.

Governor Sir

F. M. Barbados















November 14
(Rec. Dec. 4.)

November 17
(Rec. Dec. 4.)

November 18
(Rec. Dec. 4.)

November 18
(Rec. Dec. 4.)

November 18
(Rec. Dec. 4.)

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ...


Ditto ...

Ditto ...

Messrs. Rowntree &
Co., Limited.

To Governor Sir
R. B. Llewelyn.

Governor Sir R. B.

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Ditto ... .

Governor iSir R. B.

Telegram December 11


Sends full analysis of the volcanic dust
which fell in Barbados on October 16.

Forwards report by Captain Young as
to the measures to be taken for relief
and resettlement.

Forwards, with remarks, copy of a
protest and appeal against the pro-
posed emigration and the Governor's
policy adopted by a public meeting,
together with copy of a minute from
the Administrator explaining the
action taken in selling the super-
abundance of stores received.

Submits views on the petition addressed
to the King by the Caribs of Morne
Ronde, and transmits copies of
minutes by the Chief Clerk in the
Administrator's office, the Land Com-
missioner and the Administrator.

Forwards, with remarks, statement
of expenditure from the Eruption
Fund up to October 31.

Reports further on the present condition
of affairs.

Submits proposals for the employment
of refugees in Dominica, and offers
sites for house building in the event
of an emigration scheme being
engaged in.

States, with reference to despatch of
November 25 relative to relief works,
that effective supervision to ensure
reality of labour test must be pro-

December 3 Forwards copy of a further report by
(Rec. Dec. 18.) Captain Young.

December 19

December 23

Telegram (Rec. Dec. 24)

States, in reply to No. 75, that the King
regrets that the Caribs have suffered
loss from the eruption, but that the
Government has done all that it can
for them under the difficult circum-

Acknowledges receipt of Nos. 73, 74,
77 and 80, and requests to be fur-
nished with copies of any correspond-
ence with the Jamaica Government on
the subjectof emigration; directs,with
regard to the protest and appeal, that
it should be made known that he is
acting under instructions, and ob-
serves that Messrs. Rowntree & Co.
are being consulted with a view to
possible emigration.

Reports information from Captain
Young that the people decline to
emigrate under any conditions.



November 18
(Rec. Dec. 4.)

December 9


I I -

Seri From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

To Governor Sir H.

Governor Sir R. B.

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

To Messrs. Rowntree
& Co., Limited.

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

Captain A. H. Young

Governor Sir R. B.




December 26

December 31


December 17,
(Rec. Jan. 2,

January 7

January 7

December 18,
(Rec. Jan. 14,

December 19,
(Rec. Jan. 14,

December 31,
(Rec. Jan. 14,

December 24,
(Rec. Jan. 14,

January 2
(Rec. Jan. 29.)

Conveys, for consideration of himself
and Captain Young, proposals con-
certed with the Administrator of
Dominica and Messrs. Rowntree for
a scheme of emigration to Dominica.

Reports receipt from the Lord Mayor
of London of a contribution of
97 12s. 6d. raised in Sydney for
the relief of sufferers in St. Vincent,
and requests that an expression of
appreciation at the sympathy of the
people of Sydney may be conveyed
to the Lord Mayor of Sydney.

Forwards, -with remarks, Report No. 3
from Captain Young, together with
copies of two minutes addressed to

Acknowledges receipt of No. 86, and pro-
poses to await Captain Young's arrival
in England before communicating
final instructions.

Notifies decision of Captain Young in
the matter of emigration; proposes
to defer final decision until his arrival
in England, but warns them that there
appears to be small probability that
the scheme will be carried into effect.

Transmits, with remarks and recom-
mendations, copy of Captain Young's
report on the subject of Mr. Mac-
Donald's losses.

Transmits copy of a letter to the
Governor of British Honduras ex-
plaining that it would be hopeless to
attempt to induce the people of St.
Vincent to emigrate so far from their

Forwards reports by Captain Young on
the losses sustained by Mr. Porter
and Mr. Hadley, on the relief of those
who have suffered by the eruptions,
and with reference to the prospects of
the island.

Reports on the subject of the emigration
of the villagers of Owia and Fancy.

Transmits copy of a despatch from the
Administrator, enclosing protests from
the Rev. J. H. Darrell and Mr. C. J.
Simmons, unofficial members of the
Legislative Council, against the action
of the Colonial Government in con-
nection with the administration of the
Relief Fund.





Serial From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
Gvro Sir- B.

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto .


January 3
(Rec. Jan. 29.)

Supports the recommendation made by
Captain Young in No. 91 to give
assistance to the limit of 200 to
Mr. C. A. Hadley, and states that
authority has been given to carry out
the repairs at once.

January 5 Submits views on the question of the
(Rec. Jan. 29.) compensation of Mr. Porter.

Acting-Governor Sir Trinidad. January 7
0. C. Knollys. (Rec. Jan. 29.)















January 9
(Rec. Jan. 29.)

February 3

February 7

February 7

February 10

January 26
(Rec. Feb. 12.)

January 27
(Rec. Feb. 12.)

January 27

January 30
(Rec. Feb. 12.)

Reports that Captain Young has been
informed of the direction in which a
small scheme of emigration might be
successful, and forwards copy of a
report from the Protector of Immi-
grants on the results of attempts to
induce immigration.

Transmits, with remarks, copy of corre-
spondence with the Governor of
Jamaica relative to the settlement in
that island of refugees from St.

Expresses thanks for the readiness of
the Trinidad Government to co-operate
in the matter of immigration from
St. Vincent, but fears that the re-
luctance of the people to emigrate is
an insuperable difficulty.

Conveys instructions for the stoppage of
relief works and the disposal of the
balance of the Relief Fund.

States that the proposal to settle certain
labourers in Dominica must be aban-
doned for the time; regrets that no
result should have followed from the
trouble taken in connection with the

Sends copy of a letter from the owners
of the s.s. Roddam relative to the
compensation of the crew, and sug-
gests that a suitable grant should be
made from the balance of the Man-
sion House Fund.

Forwards Petition to the King from the
people of Owia and Fancy protesting
against their treatment.

Forwards statement of expenditure from
the Eruption Fund to December 31,

Submits remarks on Captain Young's
final report of December 29, 1902.

Reports on tour of inspection in
St. Vincent.













Governor Sir R. B.

To Governor Sir C.
A. Moloney.

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

To Messrs. Rown-
tree & Co.

The Secretary to the
Lord Mayor of

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ...

Ditto ... .

Imperial Commis-
sioner of Agricul-
ture for the West

No. From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.

To the Secretary to
the Lord Mayor
of London.

To Governor Sir
R. B. Llewelyn.

To Messrs. Steel,
Young & Co.













February 16

R. B. Telegram

Governor Sir F. M.

Governor Sir

To Governor Sir
R. B. Llewelyn.

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

Imperial Commis-
sioner of Agricul-
ture for the West

Ditto ... .


February 17

March 18

March 22
(Rec. Mar. 23.)

(Rec. Mar. 23)

R. B. Telegram (Rec. Mar. 23)

March 25

March 9
(Rec. Mar. 26.)

March 25
(Rec. April 9.)

March 26
(Rec. April 9.)

March 26
(Rec. April 9.)

Acknowledges receipt of No. 101, and
states that the Governor is being
informed that if he has taken no
steps in the matter, the Secretary of
State will arrange for giving relief to
deserving members of the crew of
the "Roddam," if they can be traced.

Conveys decision upon the recommen-
dations made in Captain Young's

States amounts of grants which will be
made to the survivors of the s.s.
"Roddam" and the mother of the
late T. Larsen; enquires as to the
surviving relatives of Horti Francesco,
and whether arrangements can be
made for the distribution of the

Reports SoufriBre in violent eruption ...

Reports further eruption of Soufriere,
and that volcanic dust is falling at

Reports that eruption began at 6 a.m.
with heavy fall of sand and small
stones: no injury done.

Transmits copy of a petition to the
King, received from the Caribs of
Morne Ronde, and states that the
petitioners should be informed that
His Majesty has nothing to add to
the reply returned to their former

Forwards statement of expenditure
from the SoufriBre Fund up to
January 31st.

Sends copy of a despatch from the
Administrator reporting on the erup-
tion of SoufriBre of March 22.

Sends, with remarks, extract from the
"Agricultural News" containing a
note on the fall of volcanic ash on
March 22.

Sends copy of a letter from the Curator
of the Botanic Station, St. Vincent,
reporting an eruption of SoufriBre on
March 22. Suggests the cultivation
of fruit, cotton, and other produce,
as soon as possible to induce the people
to maintain themselves.

Governor Sir

. Sia From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.












Governor Sir



Governor Sir F. M.

Ditto ... .

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ... .

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

Governor Sir R. B.

Ditto ...

To Governor Sir R.
B. Llewelyn.

May 20
(Rec. June

May 22
(Rec. June 4.)

March 28
(Rec. April 9.)

April 10
(Rec. April 23.)

April 24

April 21
(Rec. May 11.)

April 21
(Rec. May 11.)

May 12

April 30
(Rec. May 21.)

May 4
(Rec. May 21.)

May 25

Reports further eruption of the SoufriBre
at St. Vincent and the fall of dust
in Barbados.

Forwards analyses by Professor d'Albu-
querque and Dr. Longfield of the
volcanic dust from the Soufribre
which fell over Barbados on
March 22.

Acknowledges receipt of No. 114 and
enquires whether shelters have been
constructed in accordance with the
recommendation in Captain Young's

Forwards copy of a despatch from the
Administrator reporting more fully
on the eruption of SoufriBre of
March 22, and copy of a Minute in-
structing him to put up movable huts
outside the "danger zone"; remarks
on the distressing situation.

Forwards copies of letters received from
Mr. D. A. MacDonald and Mr. C. A.
Hadley asking for assistance; con-
siders it useless to spend money in
restoring cultivation liable to be dam-
aged by every fresh eruption.

States, in reply to No. 121, that there is
nothing at present to add to No. 107
but suggests that a further report
might be sent as to the condition
of their estates and the prospects of
cultivation after the Governor has
visited the island.

Forwards statement of expenditure from
the St. Vincent Eruption Fund to
February 28, 1903.

Sends copies of despatches received
from the Administrator relative to
the further huts required to place
more of the inhabitants outside the
danger zone; remarks on the diffi-
culties created by the renewed out-

Acknowledges receipt of Nos. 120, 123,
and 124, and requests to be informed
of the amount of the Mansion House
Fund still available in the Colony,
and whether there is enough for pre-
sent needs.

Encloses a return of the expenditure
from the Relief Fund up to the 31st

Considers, in view of the altered cir-
cumstances, that the erection of
shelters as suggested by Captain
Young would not be of any benefit.












R. B.




.--- -- o ---wo--.---.S--------ct iP-----e---.-- --------- ~; -
Serial From or to whom. Date. Subject. Page.

Governor Sir R. B.

Acting Governor
Sir G. Melville.

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

Ditto ... .

To Acting-Governor
Sir G. Melville.


June 20
(Rec. July 17.)

July 8
(Rec. Aug.

August 26
(Rec. Sept. 10.)

August 26
(Rec. Sept. 10.)

August 27
(Rec. Sept. 10.)

September 12

Forwards statements showing expendi-
ture from the Eruption Fund during
April and May, and states that there
are sufficient funds left to meet all
present needs.

Forwards 'copy of a report from
the Vice-President of the Ladies'
Committee for the distribution of
Eruption Relief clothing; endorses
remarks as to the services of Miss Rice
as Secretary, and trusts that her work
may receive some recognition.

Forwards Administrator's despatch re-
specting the position of the Relief
Fund ; recommends that investments
to amount of 3,500 be sold out and
placed to credit of the St. Vincent
current account to meet expenditure

Forwards Administrator's despatch re-
porting on expenditure during June,
July and Aug.,and practical settlement
of the housing question.

Transmits statements of Eruption Fund
Expenditure for June and July.

Acknowledges receipt of Nos. 130, 131
and 132 ; states that the Crown Agents
have been instructed to sell out in-
vestments to the value of 3,500 and
place that sum to the credit of the
Colony's current account.







No. 1.
(Received June 18, 1902.)
[Answered by Nos. 4 and 5.]
SmI, St. Vincent, June 6, 1902.
THE question of distributing the fund raised for the relief of the sufferers in
this Island from the eruption of the volcano on the 7th ultimo, has received my careful
2. Owing to the sympathetic and liberal practical support received from all
parts of the Empire, I believe it will be found possible, not only to compensate the
sufferers for direct losses, but further to improve the position of many of the peasantry
who were sufferers.
3. I attach copies of two forms, which I have issued, calling for particulars of
losses, and I hope as soon as they are returned, on the 16th instant, that I shall be
in a position to settle the claims.
4. I attach an approximate estimate of what the probable expenditure will
amount to under each classification, and tosave time and to enable this relief to be
.promptly distributed, I submit the following remarks explanatory of the items of
appropriation, and hope, if you approve generally, that you will give me a free hand
to carry it through as quickly as possible on the lines indicated:-
(1) Feeding 5,000 people at 3d. a day for six months. This I am afraid is
inevitable. Every effort is being made to check imposition. I find from a report
received, after personal inspection, from the Curator that the provisions in the ground
and bread fruit have been damaged more or less, over a very large area tar away from
the SoufriBre.
(2) Relief Work.-It is proposed to restore the canal-now completely buried-
which brought water from the Soufriere throughout the Carib country. The road
across the SoufriBre, connecting the Windward and Leeward coasts is destroyed, and
a new one.will have-t6'-be made. As a sequence of the eruption very heavy torrents
of rain fell, and it is proposed to restore roads and fordings, and generally clear up
the wreckage as "Relief Work." --..---- -.-.-
14986 A

(3) and (4) I estimate that about 500 families, requiring that number of huts, will
have to be provided with new homes elsewhere, and I am arranging to locate them as
quickly as possible on lands already acquired, or about to be acquired, in districts far
removed from the SoufriBre. The people are anxious to be settled as they are now
crowded in camps in Kingstown and elsewhere.
(5) I find that many of the purchasers of Crown lands on the mountains about
the Soufribre have lost that land, and I propose to compensate them or provide them,
if possible, with other sites.
(6) There are many holders of small lots of land, which they cultivated as
vegetable gardens, provision grounds, &c., which have been completely buried on the
Leeward coast, north of Chaieaubelair; and these I propds'e to compensate.
(7) 'The eruption of the volcano was so sudden that those people who escaped
had to run "for their lives with only the clothes in which they stood, and abandon
everything, including their cattle, horses, pigs, goats, sheep, and fowls.
(8) Compensation to large estate owners.-Complete Destruction.-In such
cases I think the compensation should be liberal. There are only two estates and one
cattle farm in this class. 6,000 should suffice for this. Serious damage.-All the
sugar estates in the Carib country belonging to one proprietor.
(9) Incidental expenses of telegrams, extra medical assistance, and gratuities to
special staff employed on various services, surveying, &c.
5. I am not sure of my position or power in distributing this fund, raised by
private subscription, through the instrumentality of the Lord Mayor and others for
the benefit of the sufferers. Can I impose any conditions in making an apportion-
ment of the fund? If so, I should like to lay down the following:-
Huts and land given to the peasantry under heads 3 and 4 to remain on trust for
10 years, and planting conditions imposed.
Compensation for land totally destroyed to be spent in any way sufferers may
desire. The land to be struck off the Land Tax rolls, considered as "Waste land,"
and ultimately become Crown land if ever of any value.
Compensation for damage to other property to be spent in repairing such property
to the satisfaction of the Government.
6. The foregoing is my first general outline of the lines on which relief should
run. I do not propose to spend any of the fund in rehabilitating any sufferers any-
where within range of future danger from the volcano.
7. It is very desirable, as the rains have commenced, to get the people located
at once, so I have acted on my own responsibility and ordered sufficient lumber from
Canada and the United States to erect 500 huts. The lumber is due to-day. I have
acquired Campden Park Estate on the Leeward coast, near Kingstown, and on it
can locate 100 families and give them 300 acres of land. I have now in course of erec-
tion 35 huts on the acquired estate of Clare Valley, and I hope they will be occupied
in a fortnight, and the people (Fraser's village destroyed) be at work again on their
new farms.
8. I expect to receive, next week, a complete list of all the families to be provided
for, and where they wish to be located, and I shall endeavour, as far as possible, to
meet their wishes with due regard to their future welfare.
9. I shall be glad to receive a telegram from you, either of approval or disapproval,
of the course I am adopting in regard to the appropriation of the fund under the nine
different headings in enclosure No. 3 to this despatch.
10. I feel confident that I have your sympathy in the task of distributing equit-
ably to the sufferers the money so liberally granted on their behalf, and I trust that
my efforts will meet with your approval and that of the subscribers.
I have, &c.,

Enclosures 1 and 2 (Forms).

[See Enclosures 1 and 2 in No. 12.]

Enclosure 3 in No. 1.
1. Feeding 5,000 people at 3d. per diem for six months ... ... ... 10,000
2. Relief Work.-Making new canal, roads and river repairs ... ... 7,000
3. Building 500 huts for families obliged to quit devastated zone ... 6,000
4. Purchasing three acres of land for the above families, 1,500 acres at 3
per acre .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4,500
5. Compensation to purchasers of Crown lands in the devastated zone ... 2,500
6. Compensation to owners of small lots of land ... ... ... ... 2,000
7. Compensation to all classes for loss of clothing, furniture, personal
effects, cattle, &c. Small proprietors ... ... ... ... 4,000
8. Compensation to large estate owners (1) Complete destruction; (2)
Serious damage; (3) Slight losses ... ... ... ... ... 20,000
9. Incidental expenses.-Telegrams, relief distributors, gratuities and
rewards ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,000

No. 2.
(Received June 18, 1902.)
[AAnswered by Nos. 4 and 5.]
SI, St. Vincent, June 6, 1902.
IN continuation of my despatch of even date,* relating to the distribu-
tion of the Soufriere Relief Fund, I have the honour to submit the following special
report on the case of Mr. George Robertson, owner of Wallibu Sugar Estate, situated
about tivo miles north of the town of Chateaubelair.
2. This estate of 635 acres and the works and whole property have been com-
pletely buried and hopelessly destroyed. Mr. Robertson, the owner, is an old planter
of about 70 years of age, and all the work of his life has gone. His case is considered
the saddest of any, and he, with his wife and family, escaped by a miracle.
3. I value his losses at 2,000, roughly 3 per acre for the land. At his time
of life, he does not wish to leave the Colony, but prefers to get another estate and live
on it the life he has been accustomed to.
4. I have arranged to purchase Campden Park Estate of 725 acres for 1,800,
or about 2 10s. per acre. Of this I propose to convey the house and works and
about 400 acres of land to Mr. Robertson, which I value at a thousand pounds, and at
the same time to give him 600 in cash and take 400, which he owed on the Wallibu
Estate on account of the Hurricane Loan. This will make his total compensation
2,000, and he is satisfied.
5. The balance of the land on Campden Park Estate, about 300 acres, I have
arranged to allot amongst 100 families from Wailibu Village and Sandy Bay, erecting
about sixty huts in one bay on the estate for the Sandy Bay Caribs, and about forty
for the Wallibu people in another bay, who were Mr. Robertson's old labourers. This
arrangement is very satisfactory to all concerned.
6. Campden Park Estate, which is a property often mentioned for acquirement,
belonged to the late Mr. Alexander Fraser, who, with his wife and nephew, was killed
at Orange Hill Estate on the first day of the eruption. He left a family of three sons
*No 3
149S6 A 2

and two daughters. The eldest son is capable and willing to work, another son is
employed in Jamaica, and the third son, who is an invalid, and the two daughters live
with their eldest brother.
7. They are of Scotch descent, and have an aunt married to a farmer in Canada.
I have talked over their case with the Scotch Minister (Mr. Newlands), and we have
agreed that it would be a hopeless struggle for this young son to attempt to extricate
himself from the heavy mortgages on the estate, of 1,000, with two years' arrears
of interest at 6 per cent., equal to 1,120, and 300 due to the Government under the
Hurricane Loan, so the family have agreed to sell for 1,800.
8. I have agreed to give the three children, now orphans, of the late Mr. Fraser,
who are unable to work, 100 each, and I believe it is the intention of the family to
migrate to Canada, where they were educated, and there join their aunt.
9. By this arrangement I have satisfied the claims of Mr. Robuertson for the
total loss of his estate at Wallibu, I have compensated and relieved the family of the
late Mr. Fraser, killed by the eruption, I have secured the repayment of 400 and
300 respectively to the Imperial Hurricane Loan, and provided land for the re-settle-
ment of 100 families.
10. As I consider promptness in dealing with the sufferers very essential, I have
taken the responsibility of dealing with this case without waiting for your approval,
which I trust will now be given.
I have, &c.,

No. 3.

[Answered by No. 30.]

SIR, Downing Street, June 21, 1902.
WITH reference to my despatch of the 23rd May,* I have the honour
to transmit to you the accompanying copy of a despatcht from the Governor of Jamaica,
relating to the proposal that settlers from St. Vincent should be received in that
2. I desire you to give the matter your careful consideration.
I have, &c.,

No. 4.
(Sent 6.25 p.m., June 24, 1902.)
Referring to your despatch of June 6,1 has ownership of destroyed Wallibu pro-
perty been conveyed to Crown ? This must be assured at once.
Referring to your other despatch of June 6. Funds contributed are intended
primarily for relief of distress rather than for compensation of losses. Large estates
must be dealt with on the merits of each case, and in no case must compensation be
given without my previous approval. This should have been awaited in Wallibu case,
which case must not be taken as precedent, inasmuch as I am not prepared to agree
to compensation for entire losses. Otherwise proposals approved generally, but if
possible await despatch following by mail.

* No. 85 in [Cd. 1201] September, 1902.

t No. 127 in [Cd. 1201].

$ No. 2. No. 1.

No. 5.

[Answered by Nos. 11, 17, and 18.]

:SmI, Downing Street, June 25, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch "of the
6th instant* in which you submit proposals for the administration of the St. Vincent
Relief Fund; and of your despatch of the same date,t in which you report
-the action which you have taken in the particular case of Mr. Robertson, the owner
,of Wallibu.
2. As I have intimated in my. telegram of the 24th instant I regret that you
;dealt finally with Mr. Robertson's case without communicating with me, although I
recognizee that the case was a very special one, and that prompt relief was required.
It appears to me that he has been treated with somewhat excessive liberality, and I
,cannot consent to the case being regarded as a precedent, or as in any way establishing
;.a claim to similar treatment on the part of other owners who may have suffered similar
3. The Mansion House Fund is primarily intended to provide for the relief of
.actual and immediate distress, not to benefit those who have suffered but still have
.means left, nor to compensate those who have lost all for all that they have lost.
It is true that the fund is for the relief of the sufferers by the eruption, and,
-therefore, within limits, I am prepared to admit that it is reasonable to consider pro-
posals to grant some measure of compensation for losses sustained, but I cannot
:sanction the principle of granting such compensation to the full amount of the loss
caused by the eruption. Each case, where an estate owner is concerned, must be
.:submitted to me, to be decided upon its merits, with reference to the claims which
particular applicants may be held to have, on general grounds, to liberal treatment.
4. Whenever, as in the case of Wallibu, compensation is given for an estate
-which is treated as wholly destroyed, it should be an absolute rule that the destroyed
*estate should be conveyed to the Crown, so that in the event of its acquiring a value
in the future, that value may accrue to the Crown, and not to the former owners.
5. I am also inclined to think that, where estates have suffered serious
.damage," it might be well, in some cases at any rate, to purchase them for the Crown-
possibly for amounts slightly in excess of their market value in their present damaged
condition-in preference to compensating the owners for their losses by contributing to
the cost of the repairs. I note, for instance, that under the head of serious damage you
:state that all the sugar estates in the Carib country belong to one proprietor, and you
would propose, apparently, that he should receive a large sum from the fund,; in addi-
tion to having the canal, which I gather supplies water to his estates, restored as a
relief work. It would be preferable, I consider, in such a case to make an offer to
purchase the damaged estates, or part of them, and I will ask you to consider this
-point of view.
6. The details of the arrangement under which Campden Park has been pur-
,chased by the Government are not altogether clear to me. I should have been glad
of some evidence as to the market value of the estate, and the price paid for it by the
late Mr. Fraser. I presume that the mortgage is being paid off by Mr. Fraser's family,
;and that the property is being handed over free of encumbrances.
7. I approve generally of your proposals for relieving the distress of the smaller
-owners .of property ana the labouring population, and I fully concur in your suggestion
that planting conditions should be imposed on all who receive free grants of land from
the Government.
8. You state that you do not propose to re-establish any of the sufferers anywhere
within range of future danger from the volcano; but in any case it is to be
anticipated that when confidence has been restored some, at any rate, of the lands
,so abandoned will be occupied by unauthorised squatters, and it will be necessary
-to consider hereafter how to deal with such a situation should it arise.


I No. 4.

0 No. 1.

t No. 2.

No. 7.

I HAVE the honour to
29th May, 1902.
5th June, 1902.

(Received July 16, 1902.)
Grenada, July 1, 1902.
acknowledge the receipt of your despatches* noted in
the margin, informing me that Her Majesty the
Queen of the Netherlands and Her Majesty the
Queen-Mother of the Netherlands have most

graciously contributed to the fund for the relief of the sufferers in St. Vincent from
the recent volcanic eruption.
2. Such unexpected heartfelt sympathy is very touching, and is very warmly
appreciated by the inhabitants of St. Vincent, to whom I have specially communi-
cated the gracious acts of the Queen and Queen-Mother of the Netherlands.
I have, &c.,

No. 8.

(Received July 16, 1902.)
mIR, Grenada, July 2, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the
10th ultimo,* informing me that the City Authorities of Berlin had voted the sum of
10,000 marks for the relief of the distress caused by the Volcanic Eruption in St.
2. I notice that you have acknowledged the receipt of this generous act, and I
ican only say that the sympathy displayed by so many Foreign Nations in this time
-of trial is warmly appreciated by all the inhabitants of St. Vincent.
I have, &c.,

No. 9.
Sm, Downing Street, July 18, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the
20th of June,t reporting upon the measures taken to relieve the distress caused by
the recent volcanic eruption in St. Vincent.
2. I am glad to note your testimony to the good work done by the special service
.officers and men.
I have, &c.,

No. 10.

(Received August 2, 1902.)
[Answered by/ No. 21.]
SIRm, St. Vincent, July 12, 1902.
You will have gathered from my previous despatches reporting the eruption of the
:Soufriere that many persons were injured by burns during that terrible time on the
7th of May, and it therefore became necessary for me to seek for additional medical aid
to cope with the large number of cases.
Not prnted. No. 6


* Not printed.

t No. 6.

2. The first medical officer to arrive was Major J. Will, R.A.M.'C., and I now
have the honour to forward, in original, the report he has prepared on the Relief
Expeditions to Martinique and St. Vincent, in both of which he took part.
3. The Report is most interesting and I desire to bring to your favourable notice
the very excellent work performed by Major Will and his staff during the six weeks
they were in St. Vincent.
4. Associated with Major Will, the following medical officers from Barbados and
Grenada came to the assistance of St. Vincent:-Doctor John Hutson, Poor Law
Inspector, Barbados; Doctor Colin Bowen, Barbados (not in Government employ-
ment); Doctor Orford, House Surgeon, Hospital, Grenada.
5. I attach a copy of a letter which I addressed to Doctor Hutson, when he was"
leaving, to which he replied by informing me that he and Doctor Colin Bowen came as.
Volunteers." I referred the matter to the Governor of Barbados, and attach a copy
of his reply. I shall be glad to be informed if you will approve of my paying Doctor
Hutson a gratuity of 50 and Doctor 'Colin Bowen 25. All their boarding and
travelling expenses were paid here.
6. Doctor Durrant was sent on duty to Georgetown with Nurse Patterson as
soon as possible after the catastrophe was realized. They have both done their work
well. Doctor Durrant remained in Georgetown until all the cases were removed into,
Kingstown, but I brought Nurse Patterson back to the Hospital in Kingstown, where
she was able, from the qualifications she has, to render invaluable aid to Major Will
,and his staff.
7. The burns were very terrible and the sufferings of the injured very great.
Dressing such wounds was an ordeal that required nerves and experience, and the
highest praise and thanks are due to all the medical officers and nurses for the manner
in which they performed their work.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 10.
REPORT on the Medical Relief Expeditions to Martinique and St. Vincent in aid of
the sufferers from the volcanic eruptions, May, 1902.
Information of the disaster which had overtaken St. Pierre by the eruption of
Mount Pel6e on the 8th May was brought to St. Lucia on the evening of the same day
by the ill-fated s.s. "Roddam."
The:news reached Barbados by the R.M.S. "Esk" on the morning of the 10th.
As details of the catastrophe could not be obtained, the cable being interrupted, it was.
supposed that probably some of the inhabitants had escaped destruction, but may have
been injured or burned.
A relief expedition was immediately organised by His Excellency the Governor of
Having obtained short leave to visit Barbados, I arrived there by the R.M.S.
"Esk on the 10th, and was asked by the Government of Barbados to join the relief
expedition. With the approval of the Officer commanding troops, I did so. The
expedition left Barbados at 7 o'clock on the evening of the same day in the R.M.S.
The medical party consisted of myself, Major Bent, one N.C.O., and 4 men of the-
R.A.M.C., Drs. Manning, Hutson, and Aughinbaugh, and three trained nurses, with
surgical materials, hospital marquees, beds, &c.
The expedition was under the direction of the Hon. F. J. Newton, Colonial Secre-
tary, Barbados.
We arrived.at Fort de France at 7 a.m. on the 11th, and after interviewing the
officials proceeded to St. Pierre, which was reached at 11 a.m.
-As we steamed along the coast from Fort de France the landscape appeared to be-
little altered, only a.very thin sprinkling of dust had fallen, not enough to obscure theY

verdure of the tropical vegetation on the hillsides or of the fields of sugar-cane in the
valleys; but on reaching a point opposite Carbet-a village about 1 miles south of
St. Pierre-the aspect of the country assumed a complete change. The vegetation
was covered up with ashes, and everything coated with dust. The village seemed
deserted, but the houses appeared to be intact.
From this point northwards the country presented the appearance of being in the
middle of a severe winter, everything green had disappeared, the trees were bare and
gaunt with the smaller branches broken off, and the ground looked as if covered to the
depth of 12 or 18 inches with dirty grey snow.
On entering the harbour of St. Pierre the charred timbers of wrecked vessels were
passed, and further in the Bay lay the s.s. Roraima," still burning; volumes of smoke
rose from her hatches. Her hurricane deck and upper gear were gone; the starboard
plates were buckled inwards, and from the fire inside the plates on both sides were red
hot, sending up clouds of steam as the waves lapped against them.
The town of St. Pierre was covered with a thin mantle of smoke, above which the
outline of the hills was distinctly visible, and to the north, almost over our heads, Mount
Pelee, its volcano still active and sending up a dense cloud of smoke. Below this
cloud of smoke a stream of hot mud could be seen rushing down the mountain side to
the sea, sending up huge volumes of steam where it passed into the water.
On the hill-side above the southern end of the town was the pedestal of the statue
of the Blessed Virgin, the statue itself had been thrown from its pedestal some thirty
or forty yards in a southerly direction. Every house was roofless, the walls were still
standing, and in many of the houses flames were seen rising from the burning wood-
'When the Solent" came to anchor, a boat was lowered, and a search party landed.
The scene on shore was one of utter ruin and desolation. The large tamarind and
bearded fig-trees in the Place Bertin were up-rooted and thrown towards the south,
and the broken boughs strewed the foreshore. The streets were covered to the depth
of one to two feet with rubbish which had fallen from the tops of the walls of the
roofless houses. Nowhere had volcanic ashes fallen to a greater depth than an inch.
At every turn scenes of indescribable horror met the eye. Dead bodies lay scat-
tered about, singly and in groups, most with the face to the ground, and many with the
face resting on the fore-arms or covered with the hands. With one exception all the
victims were-devoid of clothing. This exception appeared to be a white man, probably
a sailor, who had escaped from one of the burning ships. He was lying on the face
with his jersey pulled over the head.
A brief examination was made of a number of the victims. In many there were no
signs of actual burning, they appeared shrunken, dried up, and mummified. On the
other hand some were terribly charred, the flesh .being in parts entirely consumed,
exposing the bones of the limbs and skull. There was no stench, only a faint odour of
burning flesh.
For a town of 26,000 inhabitants of whom not a single soul escaped, the number of
bodies seen in the streets was comparatively small, and even in the houses where, no
doubt, the majority had sought refuge from the burning ashes, few bodies were seen.
It seemed evident that the majority of the victims had been buried under the fallen
and burning roofs, and that large numbers must have been entirely incinerated.
The heat was intense.
Progression through the streets was difficult and extremely dangerous; the walls
of the -houses were fissured and in many places over-hanging, and iron railings were
twisted and bent in evecy direction, and in several of the streets barred the passage.
It was noted that most of the clocks on the public buildings had stopped at 7.50,
marking the hour at which destruction had overtaken the -doomed city.
It soon became evident that the people of St. Pierre had passed beyond the reach
of human aid. The party therefore returned to the ship, glad to escape from the heat
and from scenes so terrible.
S It may never be known exactly what was the immediate cause of the compara-
tiveily sudden. extermination .of nearly 30,000 people, and the simultaneous ignition of
,every house in St. Pierre. .; : .

The volcano on Mt. Pelee became active on the 15th April, and on the 5th May
erupted large quantities of steam and mud, the latter, rushing down the mountain side
with enormous velocity, buried completely a sugar factory situated at the base of the
Its violence was then supposed to be spent, but on the evening and night of the 7th
May rumbling noises were heard in the mountain, and dense volumes of smoke ascended
from the crater. On the morning of the 8th dust and small stones fell on St. Pierre,
the underground rumblings became more continuous, and at about 8 o'clock, with a
terrific explosion, an avalanche of hot ashes and sand mixed with flames was hurled
from the mountain top into the town. This blast must have travelled with tornadic
velocity, evidenced by the uprooted trees in the Place Bertin. Some of the eye-
witnesses of this terrible catastrophe state that the top of the mountain was blown off.
Others that the tornadic blast came from a new vent in the side of the mountain. The
volcanic ejectamenta seem to have consisted of fine dust, sand, super-heated steam,
and gases, and were highly charged with electricity. The manner in which iron railings
were twisted would indicate the presence of a large quantity of electricity, probably
generated by the intense friction of the particles composing the hot blast. The nature
of the gases can only be conjectured, but they were probably sulphur-dioxide and
hydrochloric acid gas. An intense degree of heat is capable of dissociating the
elements'of water, the free hydrogen at a high temperature explodes on coming in
contact with the oxygen of the air, exhausting the oxygen in the vicinity, and raising
the temperature after the manner of the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe.
The material which destroyed St. Pierre must have been heated to a very high
temperature: this is evident from its having ignited everything combustible, including
clothing, which is capable of resisting a temperature of 3000 Fh.
The death of the majority of the inhabitants of St. Pierre does not seem to have
been by any means instantaneous. Doubtless many were killed instantaneously by
lightning, but the greater number would seem to have been suffocated by the intense
heat and dust.
The Solent" returned and landed some food supplies at Fort de France. It was
there ascertained that medical assistance was not required, there being in hospital only
18 injured people who had been rescued by the Suchet" from the shipping at St.
The expedition returned to Barbados, arriving at 10 a.m. on the 12th.
About mid-day on the same date (12th) telegraphic information was received in
Barbados of the extent of the calamity which had overtaken the inhabitants of St.
Vincent by the eruption of the Soufribre mountain on the 7th, and medical assistance
was asked for.
At 3.30 p.m., Colonel Booth, the Officer 'Commanding the Troops, asked me by
telephone if I would proceed to St. Vincent the same evening. I was informed that
,civilian medical aid could not be obtained. I therefore left Barbados at 5 p.m. on the
12th by the R.M.S. "Eden," taking with me a detachment of R.A.M.C., a case of
surgical dressing, stretchers, and a large hospital.marquee.
Arriving at Kingstown, St. Vincent, at 6 a.m. on the 13th, after an interview with
His Excellency the Governor of the Windward Islands, who informed me that the
eruption of the Soufribre had caused the death of 1,600 people, and 160 cases of severe
burns were collected in temporary hospitals in Georgetown, only 6 of whom were
expected to recover: I proceeded to Georgetown in H.M.S. Indefatigable." I found
that the total number of burns admitted to the Hospitals had been 178, of whom 34
lhad already died.
The temporary Hospitals were three in number, viz.:-
(1.) Georgetown Hospital-a small two-storied building containing 41 patients.
(2.) Biddy's "-also two-storied-the upper floor being occupied by 60 patients.
(3.) Balcombs," the ground rooms in this building contained 43 patients.
The available medical staff consisted of 2 doctors, 5 nurses, and 1 dispenser.
This limited Staff could not be expected to cope successfully with 200 cases of exten-
sive burns, and it was not a matter for surprise to find the atmosphere in some of the
rooms far from sweet. None of the sufferers had fewer than four extensive burns, and

some as many as ten. The accommodation was much too limited, and, having ascer-
tained that more suitable houses could not be procured in Georgetown, I proposed
to transfer as many as could be safely moved to hospital marquees in Kingstown.
For this purpose Captain Campbell ordered the boats of the "Indefatigable" to be
lowered and a number of suitable cases were selected, but the surf was running so
high that it was found impossible to put any on board. I therefore returned to Kings-
town and arranged for carts to bring as many as possible on the following day, also
telegraphed to Officer Commanding Troops, Barbados, for bedsteads, mattresses,
waterproof sheets, hospital marquees, old clothing and a further supply of dressings.
On the following day the large hospital marquee was pitched and equipped with
26 beds borrowed from the Police Barracks, and received 16 cases of burns brought
by the, coasting steamer "Wear" from Fancy, a village at the extreme north of the
Island, also 8 cases from Georgetown transported by the carts.
Dr. Orford arrived from Grenada and proceeded to Georgetown. In the evening
the "Indefatigable" left for Barbados to bring the supplies telegraphed for.
On the 15th more cases were transferred by carts from Georgetown and tempor-
arily accommodated in a ward of the Colonial Hospital.
At daylight on the 16th the "Indefatigable'" returned from Barbados with the
supplies requisitioned for, and later H.M.S. "Pallas" arrived bringing dressings and
Surgical materials.
Drs. Hutson and Bowen and a native dresser arrived by the "Indefatigable "
from Barbados, in response to a telegram sent by His Excellency, asking for 2
doctors and 6 nurses. Drs. Hutson and Bowen, the native dresser, and 3 men of
the Royal Army Medical Corps proceeded to Georgetown on the "Wear," taking a
supply of beds, &c., and 3 hospital marquees, also a detachment of bluejackets
from the Pallas to assist in pitching the latter. These marquees were pitched on an
open piece of ground close to the seashore, and accommodated 30 patients. Biddy's,"
a building quite unsuited for hospital purposes, was evacuated.
Dr. Durrant was in charge of the patients in the Hospital, Dr. Orford of those in
Balcombs, and Drs. Hutson and Bowen of the 3 marquees.
Another hospital marquee was erected in the hospital grounds, Kingstown, and
was occupied by 8 women and 7 children.
On the 21st and 23rd, 32 more cases were transferred to the Marquees in Kings-
On the 24th the U.S.S. "Dixie" arrived, bringing provisions, clothing, medical
stores, and four hospital marquees equipped with beds, &c. Medical assistance was
also offered, there being on board 4 United States Army doctors and 6 trained men
of the Hospital Corps, but at this stage medical assistance was not required. The
Marquees were pitched alongside the others in the Hospital enclosure at Kingstown,
and with the additional accommodation they afforded, permitted all the cases remain-
ing in Georgetown, except 2, to be brought to Kingstown. The last of these cases
was transferred on the 30th May. The 2 cases left in Georgetown were too seriously
ill to be removed. Both died a few days later. 'On this date there were 76 cases in
the Relief Hospital in Kingstown, 39 had been discharged, cured, and 79 had died.
Dr. Orford returned to Grenada on the 29th May, and Drs. Hutson and' Bowen
to Barbados on the 5th June.
The table below shows the number of injuries caused by the eruption of .the
Soufriere Mountain on the 7th May, with the admissions, recoveries, deaths, &c., up
to 20th June, the date on which I left St. Vincent.
Attended Remained
Admitted. for Recovered. Died. on
dressing. 20th June.

Burns (severe) ... ... ... 191 88 79 24
Burns (mild) ..... ... 30 30 -
Other injuries .. ... ... 3 1 1 1
Totals ... ... ... 194 30 119 80 25

14986 B 2

Of the 194 cases admitted to hospitals, 56 were men, 98 women, and 40 children
under 14 years of age.
Of the 25 cases remaining under treatment on the 20th June probably 20 will be
fit to be discharged in the course of 7 or 8 days, and all are likely to recover.
The 30 cases shown as attending daily for dressing were mostly mild and super-
ficial burns of the backs of the hands and ankles. All recovered.
The 191 severe cases of burns admitted were characterized more by the extent of
the areas implicated than by the depth of destruction of the affected surfaces.
The sites were chiefly the face, ears, neck, forearms, and backs of the- hands,
the legs and feet, and about 20 per cent. had body burns as well, situated in most of
these cases on the shoulders and buttocks.
In one case only were there as few as 2 burns, the majority had at least 4, and
some as many as 8 or 10.
The degree of burn varied from destruction of the cuticle to that of the true skin;
and subcutaneous tissues. The latter degree occurred in 5 cases only, implicating
in 2 of these the ankles, in 2 the extensor tendons of the fingers, and in 1 the finger
In most of the cases several of the degrees were combined in the surface affected.
All the cases when first seen had an adherent coating of fine dust.
In consequence of the degrees and extent of the injuries, pain was intense.
There was a'remarkable absence of shock, which is always an invariable sequel
of intense burns in Europeans. Its absence may be accounted for, either by the lower
nervous organisation of the coloured race, or by the fact that the injured received
their burns between 3 and 4 p.m. on the 7th, and were not removed to hospital till
next morning. It is probable that some may have succumbed to shock in the interval.
On the other hand many of those who had sustained the most extensive and severest
burns started at daylight on the following morning and walked to Georgetown, a
distance, in several instances, of 7 miles. It may, therefore, be assumed that shock
was not a prominent feature, and to its comparative absence must in a great measure
be ascribed the large number of recoveries.
The total number of deaths resulting from injuries caused by the eruption was 80,
of which 79 were due to burns. The immediate cause of death was in most of the cases
exhaustion from septicaemia, a result it was impossible to obviate owing to the extent
of surface involved in each case. A few died from secondary complications, viz.,
pneumonia and pleurisy, and 4 from tetanus.
The treatment adopted was in the main thorough cleanliness, effected by wash-
ing the wounds, after removing all loose epidermis, with 1 in 80 carbolic lotion, or
with hydrozone, and applying at first a dressing of 2 to 6 per cent. turpentine in
oil, and later, when this became too stimulating, a liniment composed of petrolatum
and albolene, with 1- per cent. of trikresol.
Anesthetics had to be used in several cases while renewing dressings.
Skin-grafting was successfully carried out in a few cases in whom the entire skin
was destroyed.
The food was adapted as far as possible to the requirements of each case, and to
their previous dietary habits. Stimulants, milk, beef essence, soups, jellies, &c.,
were freely prescribed when considered necessary.
The other injuries resulting from the eruption and treated in Hospital were 3
cases of fracture of the skull, all in children. Case 1.-A (Carib girl, aged 9, was
carrying on her head a wooden tray on which a large stone fell, breaking it, and
fracturing the upper angle of the frontal and both parietal bones, the latter just
above the eminence. The frontal fracture was commuted and slightly depressed,
and over it were 2 minute wounds, which bled very profusely. She was unconscious
for 48 hours, and when consciousness returned had complete loss of speechand hear-
ing, and considerable paresis, especially of the lower extremities. The injury was.con-
sidered too extensive for operation. The paresis gradually disappeared, speech and
bearing returned, and after being 18 days in hospital she was discharged apparently
quite recovered.

Case 2.-A negro boy, aged 9, by the direct impact of a large stone sustained
a large scalp wound with fracture and depression of the right parietal bone close to
the vertex. When admitted, the wound was very septic, and while this was being
prepared for operation he developed Tetanus and died.
Case 3.-A coloured girl, aged 8, came by her injury in a similar manner to
case 2, resulting in a comminuted and depressed fracture of the left parietal bone,
close to the sagittal suture, with 2 small scalp wounds over the fracture. This case
was operated on, 3 fragments of bone were removed and the depressed margin elevated.
It continued to do well.
To arrive at some definite conclusion as to the cause of these intense burns and of
the loss of 1,600 lives it will be necessary to consider briefly the phenomena observed
during the eruption, and the statements made by the surviving sufferers.
On the map tracingbelow* are shown the position of the volcano and approxi-
mately the area destroyed.
The Soufribre Mountain, on which the volcano is situated, is the northern portion
of a volcanic range running almost due north and south, and dividing the whole Island
longitudinally into two parts, known as the Windward and Leeward portions. The
volcano consists of two craters, the old and new, the date of origin of the former is
unknown, and the latter is supposed to have come into existence during the last erup-
tion in 1812. The craters are separated by a narrow saddle-ridge and are approxi-
mately 3,000 feet above the sea-level. For some months prior to the date of the
eruption rumbling noises had been heard in the mountain. On the 6th May these
noises became more continuous and louder, and on the afternoon of that day a huge
vertical column of steam was ejected with a noise like the report of a cannon. Explo-
sions, with discharge of vapour, occurred during the night, and on the morning of the
7th black material was seen to be thrown up at each discharge, some of it falling back
again into the crater. These discharges occurred intermittently, but with increasing
violence till about 1 p.m., when they became continuous with a thunder-like noise,
or, as it has been described, like the roar of a mighty torrent, and a huge mushroom-
shaped cloud of black smoke, intersected in every direction with electrical flashes,
rose many thousand feet into the sky. This huge mushroom-shaped cloud seems to
have divided into two parts, one passing to windward over the sea, and the other to
leeward. About 2 p.m. large stones fell to the windward side, and the cloud which
passed in that direction returned to a certain extent towards the crater, probably
drawn thither by a temporary vacuum in or near the crater caused by the explosion
of a volume of inflammable gas. This will account for the condition of the windows
observed in Georgetown, where all the glass was broken on the windward side, that
on the side next the crater had sustained little damage.
The volcano seems to have reached its acme of violence about 2.30 p.m., and about
3 o'clock the wave of hot air and ashes overtook the inhabitants of the Carib country,
the district between Georgetown and Owia, killing about 1,600 people, also thousands
of domestic animals, while most of the survivors were terribly burned.
Fortunately the inhabitants of the district to the leeward of the mountain became
alarmed .by the explosions of the previous night, and sought safety in flight before
the fatal stage of the eruption was reached, hence no human lives were lost in, this
portion of the island; everything in the shape of stock, &c., was killed and completely
buried by the mud and ashes.
The personal narratives of most of those treated in the Hospitals were taken;
they agree on all the main points. It will, therefore, be sufficient to quote one only.'
Charles Alexander, aged 40, labourer, stated:-
"I lived at Overland. On the morning of the eruption I was cutting
canes on Tourama Estate. About 9 o'clock there was a drizzle of rain with ashes
falling, but I still goes on work, then ashes fall heavier. About 12 o'clock I. start
to go home, the ashes still fall and small stones, and when I get home I hear a great
noise in the direction of the mountain like a rushing river. All the people then start,
to run from the village, Tourama way, but when we get half part of the way we turned
back, because we meet the Tourama people coming to Overland. As soon as we
reach Overland again, large stones begin to drop, and this cause all the people run'

0 Not reproduced.

into the houses. With many others I run into Victor Sutherland's shop. It have
a strong galvanised roof, but soon some large stones fall through the roof. About
2 o'clock great darkness come on, and we shut the doors and windows. After this a
great heat come with hot ashes through the chinks of the doors and windows, and
through the holes in the roof. The hot ashes get into our mouths, and stop our mouths
as fast as we try to breathe. We toss backwards and forwards for about two seconds,
then everyone fall down. I did not lose my senses, but cannot tell exactly what hap-
pened after I fall. I feel choked with the hot stuff going down my belly, and smell
plenty sulphur. This did not last too long, only two or three minutes, then 1 try to
get up, but two people both dead die across me, and after a struggle enough I get
on my feet, I then know I was burned, I think I was burned when lying on the
floor. I now open a window a little to get air, this revived me a little, but stones still
dropped, and more ashes come in, I shut it again, I watched the great black cloud for
about two minutes, while the window was open, it was full of fire like lightning, and
I see stones drop on the ground break in pieces and glow hot. At this time many
people in the shop done dead, and some of the houses outside were burning.
Stones now ceased to drop, and there was a calm-this would be about 4 o'clock,
and it was still dark. We now open the windows and doors, and sit up till day clean,
then I walked to the Hospital at 'Georgetown. I know of 6 people being alive in
the shop next morning, they were all burned. I think about 80 people die in the
shop, most after we fall, but some during the night."
This man was very severely burned about the face and neck, also on the wrists and
Further evidence showed that every person who left shelter during the wave of
hot ashes was killed in a few minutes, that inhaling the ashes, &c., caused a feeling
as if the windpipe was being compressed, and that this feeling was less acute while the
sufferers held in their breath.
The burns seem to have been entirely caused by the hot dust falling on exposed
parts at a temperature high enough to cause vesication and destruction of the skin,
but not at a sufficiently high enough temperature to ignite the clothing or the thatched
roofs of the houses. Many houses were burned, but they seem to have been ignited
by the firestoness." None of the burns presented the appearances characteristic of
those inflicted by lightning, and the depth of tissues destroyed was greater than that
usually found in burns by steam.
The large number of deaths caused by the eruption appear to have been almost
entirely due to asphyxia by the hot ashes and heated air, the latter being probably
somewhat deficient of oxygen. The cloud of dust was highly charged with electricity,
and it is likely that some of the deaths outside the houses were caused by lightning,
also that a few, especially children, may have been killed by the falling stones.
The question of the pressure of noxious gases has also to be taken into account.
It is certain that with the hot dust there was some sulphur dioxide, and it is probable
that there was also a little hydrochloric acid gas, but had these gases been present i
large quantities, the survivors would have suffered severely from irritation of the
respiratory mucous membrane. Except in one or two of the elderly patients, there
were no signs of tracheal or bronchial irritation.
There is no evidence of the presence of more lethal gases, such as carburreted
hydrogen, carbon mon-oxide, or carbon dioxide; had these gases been the cause
of death, it is impossible to conceive how anyone could have survived; moreover, death
would have been more sudden.
On the 15th June I visited the villages on the windward side, in which so many
people were killed and injured. The country looked utterly desolate; dust, sand, and
small stones covered it to the depth of 11 feet, and in the ravines these materials
existed many feet deep, obliterating the old watercourses.. Heavy rains had fallen,
and the water had formed new channels, in many places excavating enormous chasms.
In all the houses there was a very large quantity of exquisitely fine dust, which
had penetrated through the thatch and through the minutest crevice, e.g., in the
Manager's house at Langley Park estate, a house with close fitting doors and windows,
this fine dust lay on the floors to a depth of three inches and adhered to the plaster
of the walls to:the thickncs; of 3-8ths of an inch. In this house there were 31 people,
28 of whom died during the fatal afternoon and night of the 7th May.

The last of the military hospital marquees was struck on the 18th June, and
with the detachment Royal Army Medical Corps I left St. Vincent on the 20th.
The conduct of the men of the detachment was excellent throughout, and the
careful manner in which they carried out their duties, which were very arduous and at
first somewhat trying, was most praiseworthy, and deserves recognition.
Much of the success attained was due to the good work done by Dr. Durrant and
Nurse Paterson of the local medical service, who were first on the scene of disaster;
also to that done by Drs. Hutson, Bowen and Orford.
June 30, 1902. Royal Army Medical Corps.

Enclosure 2 in No. 10.
Sm, St. Vincent, June 2, 1902.
BEFORE you leave St. Vincent to resume your duties in Barbados, I desire to
convey my warmest thanks to you for the valuable assistance you have given, at
great personal inconvenience, and under very trying circumstances, to the sufferers
from the recent eruption of the Soufriere in this Island, in the temporary hospital at
2. I am well aware of the reputation you justly have in Barbados, and I can
only add that the inhabitants of St. Vincent hold you in the same high esteem, and
are very grateful to you for so promptly coming to the aid of the sufferers in their
3. I shall send a copy of this letter to the' Governor of Barbados and the
Secretary of State for the Colonies, and you will be duly informed of the remuneration
which will be granted to you for your services.
I have, &c.,
Dr. John Hutson, R. B. LLEWELYN,
Government Poor Law Inspector, Governor,
Barbados. Windward Islands.

Enclosure 3 in No. 10.
SIR, Kingstown, St. Vincent, June 4, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency's letter of
the 2nd instant, conveying to me in most generous terms your appreciation of my
services to the sufferers in Georgetown.
I have to thank Your Excellency most heartily for your kind words of thanks and
appreciation, for which I am most grateful.
The work has been a great pleasure to me; and I have to acknowledge with thanks
the assistance I have received from Dr. Colin Bowen, my colleague from Barbados,
and from Dr. Durrant, the Acting Medical Officer in charge at Georgetown, who was
most helpful to us in our work, and always ready to carry out any suggestions we made
for the comfort of the patients under our charge at the camp.
In connection with Your Excellency's reference to remuneration, I should like
to state that Dr. Colin Bowen and I came to St. Vincent entirely as volunteers, and
without any idea of remuneration for our services.
I propose leaving St. Vincent to-morrow evening for Barbados by the S.S.
"Savan," and I shall be grateful if Your Excellency will explain to Sir Frederic
Hodgson the circumstances under which my stay in St. Vincent was prolonged beyond
two weeks.
I have, &c.,
His Excellency Poor Law Inspector,
Sii R. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G., Barbados;
&c., &c., &c.,
St. Vincent.

9. You have not, apparently, taken any steps to encourage emigration from
Saint Vincent. I have communicated to you suggestions from the Governors of
Jamaica and British Honduras for the reception of new settlers in those Colonies,
and I should wish to be informed whether or not you consider it possible or desirable
to take advantage of their offers of assistance.
I have, &c.,

No. 6.
(Received July 3, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 9.]
SIR, St. Vincent, June 20, 1902.
IN continuation of my previous despatches respecting the eruption of the
Soufriere in this Island, I have the honour to report, by this mail, that the number
of injured now under treatment in hospital is reduced to 25, so that all tent hospitals
have been closed, and Major Will and the men of the Army Medical Corps return tos
Barbados to-night.
2. All special service officers and men have left, or are leaving, the Island to-
night, and the work will now be carried on by the usual staff of the Colony, with a
little extra local assistance, for a short time longer.
3. I have pleasure in reporting that the inhabitants of "Frasers," a village
buried in the eruption, numbering 35 families, have been re-settled at Clare Valley,
in excellent wooden huts covered with galvanised iron roofing. I gave the order toi
Mr. Kernahan, Land Commissioner, on the 17th May, and on the 19th June all the-
houses were finished and occupied, and the people are to-day clearing up and planting
new ground. They have been given hoes and cutlasses, and the Ladies' Committee-
provided them with clothing.
4. I have started building 100 huts, in two townships of fifty each, at Campden
Park, for the inhabitants of Wallibu and Sandy Bay. About a dozen are finished to-
night, and I hope in a few weeks to get the inhabitants of these two towns re-settled.
5. I have issued orders that when the people occupy these new towns they are
to'be supplied with hoes, cutlasses and other necessary ordinary household articles,
as I wish to get them re-settled and at work again as soon as possible.
6: It is only six weeks since the eruption, and I think it will be generally
admitted that in that short time a very good start has been made in re-settling the
7. I have received claims from all classes for compensation for losses, and have
just got them sorted and scheduled, and I hope to examine them with a Committee:
after I return here from Grenada, on the 4th July,
8. With the departure this mail of all the special service officers, and the other
steps taken, I feel that the first difficulty has been surmounted, so I propose to go to-
Grenada next week for the celebration of the King's Coronation, and shall return
here to carry out other measures of relief, not so urgent, as are necessary.
9. To have done what has been attained in six weeks would have been impossible
without the splendid assistance I have received from the special officers placed
at my disposal by the Secretary of State for War and the Governors of the neighboring
The staff of officers in St. Vincent have worked zealously and hard, and the Ladies'
Committee, who have distributed the clothing, have been most praiseworthy in per-
forminng very troublesome work.
10. I propose, later on, to write more fully about some of the officials who have.
borne the brunt of the heavy additional work.
I have, &c.,

___ ~ll__ii__~_ _)_I 1) ~_____

Enclosure 4 in No. 10.


SIR, Government House, June 6, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letters, of the
2nd and 5th instant, with regard to the assistance given by Dr. John Hutson,
Poor Law Inspector, of Barbados, and Dr. Colin Bowen, in connexion with the
medical relief of the sufferers from the eruption of the Soufribre in St. Vincent.
I am very glad to learn that Dr. Hutson has done such valuable work, and the
testimony which Your Excellency bears to it in your letter to him of the 2nd June
is in accordance with the high opinion in which he is held in this Colony.
2. During his absence in St. Vincent Dr. Hutson lost, for the time, his private
practice in Bridgetown. It is an extensive practice, and I would suggest, for Your
Excellency's consideration, that he should, under the circumstances, receive some
remuneration. I think a sum of 50 would be fair and reasonable.
3. As regards Dr. Bowen, may I suggest the payment to him of a sum of 25?
I have, &c.,

His Excellency
Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G.,
Governor of Windward Islands,
St. Vincent.

No. 11.

(Received August 2, 1902

[Answered by No. 21.]

SIR, St. Vincent, July 14, 1902.
WITH reference to the second paragraph of your despatch dated the
25th ultimo,* I regret that you consider that I have treated Mr. Robertson with exces-
sive liberality in the matter of compensation.
2. I attach a copy of Mr. Robertson's statement of his losses, and I believe them
to.be fair.
3. He purchased the Wallibu Estate in 1888 for 1,600; he borrowed 400
from the Hurricane Loan in 1900, and spent considerably more than that sum upon it.
He has worked hard all his life, and at the age of 73 lost his all. His case received the
,sympathy of all the visitors who came here after the eruption, and my action has
received general approval for dealing so promptly, sympathetically and considerately
with Mr. Robertson in his pitiable condition.
S4. It cannot be quoted as a precedent, for no other large estate owner has been
placedd in such a position as losing his all.
I have, &c.,

No. 5. .

Enclosure in No. 11.

CLAIM made by Mr. George Robertson, for Wallibu Estate.

Destroyed in the eruption of the SoufriBre, May 7, 1902.

Purchased in 1888 for 1,600, and 400 spent on it after the Hurricane of 1898:

House ......
Furniture (including piano)
Estate (635 acres) ...
Live Stock:-
5 Horses ...
1 Mule ...
3 Asses
78 Cattle ... .
50 Pigs ...
40 Goats ...
27 Sheep ... .

11 bags Cocoa
5 bags Coffee ...
383 barrels Sugar ...
40 puncheons Molasses

s. d.
......... 120 0 0
... ... ... ... ... ... 72 18 4
... ... ... ... ... ... 3,000 0 0
... ... ... ... 58 6 8
... ... 16 13 4
... 10 0 0
... ... ... 325 0 0
51 1 8
... ... ... ... 16 13 4
... ... ... ... 7 14 2
480 9 2

... ... ... ... 45
... ... ... ... 25
... ... ... ... 319
... ... ... ... 83

4 Carts ...
80 empty barrels

Total sum claimed

473 6 8
58 6 8
4 0 0

... ... ... 4,209 0 10

No. 12.
(Received August 2, 1902.)

[Answered by No. 21.]
SI, St. Vincent, July 16, 1902.
THE question as to whether any compensation should be awarded from the Lord
Mayor's Fund and private subscriptions to the people of St. Vincent for losses sustained
by the eruption of the SoufriBre, and if so, to what extent, has been under my considera-
tion, and I now beg to report the steps I have taken in the matter and the recommenda-
tions I wish to make.
2. I issued the printed forms, copies attached, for applicants to fill in particulars
of losses in "live stock," "furniture and clothing," and "houses," and received about
1,800 replies.
3. From these I gather the following particulars:-
(A) Live stock lost-
1 mule, 17 horses, 150 asses, 1,025 cattle, 1,723 pigs, 2,266 goats, 639 sheep..
(B) Furniture and clothing damaged, 3,400.
(c) Damage to houses and buildings, 6,000.
14986 0

4. You will observe, from a few of the filled-up forms returned to me, of which
I attach copies,* that the people of St. Vincent are under the impression that they have
a right to demand compensation for all sorts of imaginary or prospective or fancy
losses, such as "estimated losses to growing crops and bearing trees," "debts owing to
shopkeepers," arrears of rent due to proprietors," &c., &c. -
5. \ My opinion is that the only losses which can be considered for compensation
S(1) Live stock.
(2) Furniture and clothing.
S (3) Total loss of, or damage to, dwelling-houses and estate buildings.
(4) Land completely buried.
k5) Land purchased from the Crown in small lots, and now destroyed.

6. If compensation is approved of and limited to the- above classes of claims, I
propose to fix the following valuation on each head of the different-classes of live stock
enumerated in paragraph 3, and pay compensation on the numbers claimed for (limited
in claims for goats and pigs to not exceeding 10 in number to any one claimant), except,
of course, in some few glaring cases of attempt at fraud:-
Mules, 15; horses, 12; asses, 2; cattle, 3 15s.; goats, 4s.; pigs and
sheep, 8s.

7. The total value of the live stock so claimed for, at the fixed prices proposed,
will amount to about 5,500, including all claims excepting'Mr. Porter's.
8. The value of the furniture and clothing claimed to. have been lost by 1,363
peasants amounts to 3,400, but I propose to give each of the 500 families, provided
with new houses, clothing, furniture and tools, &c., to the value of 2 when they settle
in their new homes, and thus many of the claims now made will be settled.
9. For loss of house and damage thereto, claims have been sent in amounting to
6,000, including claims from estate proprietors (except Mr. Porter) amounting to
about 1,200. The claims for houses from the peasants will be met by the erection
and provision of a much better class of house and the betterment of their position, a
boon for which they ought to be deeply grateful; and I think that the damage and
repairs to the other houses, including the estate houses, may be paid for on the Govern-
ment being satisfied by vouchers that such repairs have been completed at a limited
figure in each case.
10. The land completely buried is situated on the Leeward Coast, north of
Chateaubelair. I am not certain whether Richmond Estate, belonging to Mr. Porter,
will be claimed as such. If so, the conditions of compensation which I would propose
for that estate (830 acres) would be the same as that given for Wallibu, viz., 3 per
acre, and the surrendering of the property to the Crown. The other land in this
locality completely destroyed comprises Mr. MacDonald's cattle farm of 200 acres,
known as Windsor Forest, for which he asks 2 per acre (the same price as he paid for
it in 1891), and several small lots, none exceeding 25 acres. I propose to award com-
pensation, on the surrender of these small lots, at rates varying from 2 to 4 per acre.
11. I propose to compensate Crown Land purchasers with the full amount they
have paid the Government for the land, viz., 1,641, with the understanding that, if
they wish it and it is possible, land will be allotted to them elsewhere in lieu of com-
I do not propose to refund the Survey Fees paid by the purchasers, but if they
elect to take a piece of land elsewhere no Survey Fees will be charged.
Compensation under this and the preceding head, ((4) land completely buried),
will only be paid on condition that the owners compensated sign the attached form of
Not printed.

agreement renouncing all further interest in such land, which will :later on, be vested
formally in the Crown.

There may be a few cases amongst the Crown Land purchasers deserving of a
little additional consideration, and as the right and title in the lots of land will have
to be surrendered, in the same manner as other land compensated for, I should be
disposed, in such special cases, to bring the compensation up'to any sum not exceeding
4 per acre, the maximum proposed in the preceding paragraph for small freeholders.

12. If compensation is approved of under the headings mentioned in paragraph 2
of this dispatch, I summarize the maximum amount of compensation as follows:-
Live stock ... ... ... ... ... 5,500
Clothing and furniture ... ... ... 2,500
Damage to houses ... ... ... ... 2,000

Total ... ... 10,000

and I consider this sum (10,000) as ample to satisfy all claims for compensation for
losses, except (1) Mr. Porter's (which must be separately dealt with), and (2) the
several claims for total destruction of land and Crown Lands, which may be quoted as
Wallibu, Mr. Robertson's ... ... ... 2,000
Windsor Forest, Mr. MacDonald's ... ... 400
Other small lots (estimated) ... ... ... 1,000
Crown Land holders ... ... ... ... 1,800

Total ... ... 5,200

The figures I give, amounting to 5,200, are outside figures, but I should be glad
to receive your approval to distribute as compensation, on the general lines given in
this dispatch, any sum of money not exceeding 15,000 as compensation under the
several headings mentioned in this paragraph.

13. If you consider that the prices I have fixed for the land are too high, being
approximately their full market value, those prices can be reduced throughout, but I
hope, under the circumstances, they may be allowed, as the persons who have lost
their land cannot buy land elsewhere at a lower figure to replace it.

I have, &c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 12.
IEETURN of Direct Losses sustained by the Eruption of the Soufribre on 7th May, 1902.

1. Name and Occupation
2. Family
3. Residence
4. State the nature of your losses and give
estimate of the value of such losses.
Horses Pigs
..,,.. .. M ules... ... Goats
Asses Sheep
14986 C 2

Other Particulars-
Clothing, Furniture, &c.
Read over to
who subscribed and declared
to the same before me as correct this
:day of June, 1902.
Magistrate District.
Witness.......... .............

Enclosure 2 in No. 12.

To be returned to the Governor not later that the 16th June.

Application for compensation for Losses sustained by the Eruption of the Soufribre
on the 7th May, 1902.

1. Name and Occupation
2. Family
3. Residence or Land for which compensation
is asked.
4. Did. you own the House which you
occupied ?
5. Did you own the Land on which the
House stood? From whom did you
acquire it? When?
6. Do you own any other property?
7. Was any of your property mortgaged
or otherwise encumbered-and if so
for how much?
8.1 State the nature of your losses and your
estimate of the value of such losses.
Nature of Cultivation

LIVE STOCK:-Horses Pigs
Mules Goats
Asses Sheep
Any other property
Read over to
who subscribed and declared
to the same before me as correct this
day of June, 1902.
SMagistrate District.
W itness.................................

Enclosure 3 in No. 12.
St. Vincent, 1902.
in consideration of the sum of
,hereby acknowledged to be
received as compensation for the total destruction by the SoufriBre Eruption of
Acres of land situated at
which I am the owner, hereby agree with the Government of the Island of Saint
Vincent to renounce all my estate, right, title, interest, claim and demand in
and to such land and further agree to execute when required by the said
Government so to do all deeds and documents necessary to carry this agreement
into effect and to vest the said lands in the Crown.

No. 13.
(Received August 2, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 21.]
SIR, St. Vincent, July 16, 1902.
estimates he has sustained by the eruption of the Soufribre, which amounts to
27,131. *
I HAVE the honour to enclose a copy of the details of the losses which Mr. Porter
2. Mr. Porter has no doubt suffered heavy loss, but, as you are aware, he is still
possessed of considerable other property in this Island, so cannot, although a sufferer
by the eruption, claim to have lost his all, or be in distress.
3. If you consider any compensation should be awarded to Mr. Porter, I would
treat his case as is proposed to be done with the smaller proprietors, viz., compensate
him for the number of live stock killed at the same valuation per head as is suggested
in my despatch of even date,* and allow him some limited amount for the
repair of his houses and buildings, but not the sum of 7,650 claimed, and provided
he submits vouchers to fhe satisfaction of the Government that he has spent the
amounts specifically agreed upon on each estate or on a central factory within a
specified limited period.
4. Dealing with the live stock on this plan, I do not think the number claimed
for need be questioned, as Mr. Porter kept excellent estate books, and would
produce them if required to do so. The amount then for live stock would be 2,333 6s.,
as against Mr. Porter's claim for 3,575.
5. The amount claimed by Mr. Porter for repairs to buildings, &c., is 7,650,
of which I would at once strike out the 100 claimed for both Three Rivers and
" Sans Souci" estates, as they are some miles away from the Soufriere, and can only
have been damaged slightly in the roofs by falling stones. There is also included
1,500 for damage to the buildings on Richmond Estate," which is on the Leeward
coast, close to Chateaubelair, on the opposite coast to all Mr. Porter's other estates
in the Carib country. It is a matter for consideration whether this estate of 830 acres,
which adjoins Wallibou Estate, should not be purchased outright for 3 per acre,
viz., 2,490.
6.. The question of the maximum amount which should be allowed to Mr. Porter
for repairing his buildings should, I submit, irrespective of "Sans Souci," "Three
Rivers," and "Richmond," which are not in the Carib country, be not more than
3,000, against his figures of 5,950.
7. I attach a return showing the date of purchase and price paid for all of

SNo. 12. t Not printed.

Mr. Porter's estates, except three, "Tourama," "Liberty Lodge," and "Montrose,'
of which I cannot find the particulars. Mr. Porter offered, in 1897, the year before
the hurricane, to accept 30,000 for all of these estates, except four, viz., "Three
Rivers," "Richmond," "Liberty Lodge," and "Montrose," but he then had "Park
Hill"'and "Adelphi" (1,100 acres), acquired by the Government two years ago for
2,765. "Montrose" and "Liberty Lodge" are on the outskirts of the town of
Kingstown, and have a special value.
"Fountain and Cane Hall" were put up at auction in November, 1897, before
the hurricane, and each bought in for 1,600.
8. I valued all Mr. Porter's estates prior to the eruption, including -all the live:
stock, &c., at 20,000. The compensation proposed in this despatch is:-
For live stock ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,333
For damage to buildings... ... ...... ... ... 3,000
And left as an open question the purchase of Richmond Estate,
which was a working sugar and arrowroot estate, with
cocoa growing ... .. ... ... ... ... 2,490

9. The acquisition of the whole of Mr. Porter's estates in their present condition,
would be a speculation, and probably very risky. The Government could not under-
take it, and it would be preferable if Mr. Porter would undertake to erect a central
factory in the Carib country, where he has nearly 5,000 acres of land, instead of
repairing the buildings and machinery on seven small estates, which he estimates have
been damaged to the extent of 5,900.

10. I trust I have given you sufficient information to enable you to decide-
whether Mr. Porter should be compensated, and, if so, to what amount.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 13.
SIR, Kingstown Park, June 6, 1902.
IN reply to Your Excellency's letter of 31st ultimo, I beg to enclose an estimate
of the losses I have sustained by the eruption of the Soufribre, on 7th May last.

This is a conscientious statement, and made up carefully, after visiting both the
Windward and Leeward parts of the Island.

I have not given a detailed note of the different losses, but we have all these in our
office, and if Your Excellency wishes for any particular details, my partner, Mr. Nairn,
will furnish them, as I proceed to England by the mail steamer this evening.
I am, &c.,
His Excellency ALEX. PORTER.
Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G.,
&c., &c., &c.

Approximate ESTIMATE of Losses sustained by the Eruption of the Soufribre, on the
7th May, 1902.
Tourama Estate:- F s. d.
Buildings ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,000 0 0
Live stock:
8 horses, 7 mules, 1 ass, 1 bull, 39 oxen, 27 cows, 18
young stock, 14 calves, 41 turkeys, 50 fowls ... 900 0 0

Sugar, 10 hogsheads; rum, 3 puncheons; arrowroot,
90 barrels ... ... ...... ...

s. d.

300 0 0

3,200 0 0

Orange Hill Estate, with which is worked Waterloo Estate:-
s. d
Buildings ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 500 0 0
Live stock:
8 horses, 9 mules, 3 asses, 2 bulls, 32 cows, 41 oxen,
26 young stock, 17 calves ... ... ... ... 1,000 0 0
Sugar, 30 hogsheads; molasses, 20 puns.; deprecia-
tion on value of 60 puns. molasses ... ... 300 0 0

1,800 0 0

Rabacca Estate:- s. d
Buildings ... ... ... ... .. ... 950 0 0
Buoy ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 150 0 0
Boats and gear ... ... ... ... ... ... 100 0 0
Wharf and crane ... ... ... ... ...... 50 0 0

Depreciation on value of 245 barrels of arrowroot ... 245 0 0

1,495 0 0

Lot 14 Estate:-
Buildings ...
Live stock:

s. d.
... ... ... ... ... ... 2,000 0 0

4 horses, 3 bulls, 17 mules, 14 oxen, 11 cows, 8 young
stock, 8 calves ... ......

Sugar, 20 hogsheads; depreciation on value
puncheons of molasses ... ...

Langley Park and Mount Bentinck Estate:-
Buildings ... ... ... ... ...
Live stock ... ... ... ......
Produce ... ... ... ... ...

of 50

750 0 0

200 0 0

2,950 0 0

s. d.
500 0 0
... 600 0 0
100 0 0

1,200 0 0

-Richmond Estate:-
Buildings ...

Live stock:
8 horses, 15 oxen, 1 bull, 10 cows, 4 young stock, 6
calves, 52 sheep ... ... ... .

s. d.
... ... ... ... ... ... 1,500 0 0

325 0 0



Produce: s. d.
Sugar, 80 barrels and in coolers; molasses; arrowroot 500 0 0
Land completely destroyed ... ... ... ... 700 0 0

3,025 0 0

Three Rivers Estate:- s. d.
Buildings ... ... .. ... ... ... 100 0 0
Depreciation on value of 63 barrels of arrowroot ... 126 0 0

226 0 0

Sans Souci Estate:-
Buildings ... ...
Depreciation on value of arrowroot ...

Adelphi Estate:-
Depreciation on value of arrowroot on wires 90

s. d.
... 100 0 0

... ... 100 0 0

200 0 0

s. d.
barrels... 180 0 0

Buildings ...
Live stock ... ...
Produce ......
Moorings at Rabacca ...
50,000 cocoa trees ... .
8,000 coffee trees ... .
700 nutmeg trees ...
Crops for next year destroyed



... ... ... ...... 7,650
... ... ... ... ... ... 3,575
... ... ... ...... 2,051
... ...... ... ... 150
... ... ... ... ... ... 5,000
... ... ... ... ... ... 400
... ... ... ... ... ... 70

3,500 barrels of arrowroot, say at a profit of 1 ... .
300 acres canes, say at $10 cost of establishing ... .
Left to cut and dig:-
251 acres canes.-50 hogsheads of sugar ......
13 acres canes, estimated to give 50 puncheons syrup ...
20 acres arrowroot.-160 barrels of arrowroot ...
Boats, gear and wharf ... ... ... ......
Canal (approximately) ... ... ... ......
Rents due by those who lost their lives, and those who suffered
eruption ... ... ... ... ... ......
Land completely destroyed at Richmond ... ... ... ...

... 3,500
... 625

... 200
... 200
... 160
... 150
... 2,000

N.B.-Besides above, there must be taken into consideration the loss of business
to the firm of D. K. Porter and Company (in which Mr. Nairn is interested) by the
abandonment of these properties of, say, quite 2,000.


June 5, 1902.

... 700 0 0
... 700 0 0

27,131 0 0

No. 14.
(Received August 2, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 21.]
SIR, St. Vincent, July 18, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to submit, for your approval, the following special sundry
payments from the Relief Fund:-
Thirty pounds.-Second class passage to Scotland for Miss Fraser-20-with
10 for railway fares, &c. She came out to join her brother a few years ago, and he
was killed at Orange Hill.
Three hundred pounds.-100 each to the three orphan children (minors), two
girls and one boy, whose parents, Mr. and Mrs. Fraser, were both killed at Orange Hill.
Twelve pounds to the Reverend Father Piitz for purchase of a horse. He nobly
went out to bury the dead; his horse drank some of the water then running down
from the mountain, which was supposed to have been poisonous, and died.
Twelve pounds to Mr. P. L. Hutchinson for purchase of a horse. I sent him out
on relief work to Georgetown, where his horse died from poison.
Ten pounds to Mr. Arnold Sayer, a clerk in a store in Trinidad. His father,
mother, and four brothers and sisters were killed at Tourama. He came over to
see about their remains, and being in poor circumstances, has applied for his travelling
2. I have, on my own responsibility, paid 30 to enable Miss Fraser to get back
as quickly as possible to her relatives in Scotland, as in all acts of charity I believe
in prompt relief; but the other items here recommended wait your approval, as I am
not certain whether I have any discretionary powers to deal with such special cases
as these.
I have, &c.,

No. 15.
(Received August 2, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 21.]
SIR, St. Vincent, July 18, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to submit a schedule of items claimed for damage to church
property and schools by the eruption of the SoufriBre.
2. I beg to recommend that I be authorised to pay 30 for the damage done
to the church organ at Barrouallie, which was caused by rain, owing to the organ
being moved from the church to some building which leaked, when the church was
occupied by refugees.
3. I am arranging to erect schoolhouses at the new villages I am establishing,
so the loss for schoolhouses need not be considered; and I propose, with your approval,
to repair the churches at Georgetown and Mount Greenan and the mission houses at
Chateaubelair and Georgetown.
4. The total cost under this heading, not .including new schoolhouses, will
probably be a little over 100, which I beg for authority to pay.
I have, &c.,


Enclosure in No. 15.
Church Claims for damage done by the Eruption of the Soufribre, on the 7th May,
Amount claimed.
Rev. J. N. Connell, Rector of Barrouallie:-
Damage to organ at Barrouallie ... ... ... ... 30
Rev. J. H. Bell, Rector of Georgetown:-
Damage to church at Mount Greenan 5
Damage to church at Georgetown 5
Damage to schoolhouse at Overland.
Damage to schoolhouse at Fancy.
Damage to schoolhouse at Owia.
Parish depopulated and already in debt for 108 6s. 8d.
Rev. Thomas Huckerby, Wesleyan Minister of Chateaubelair:-
Damage to mission house at Chateaubelair ... ... ... 6
Mission house at Wallibu destroyed ... ... ... ... 10
Mission house at Richmond destroyed ... ... ... ... 20

Rev. A. H. Leslie, Wesleyan Minister of Georgetown:-
Damage to mission house at Georgetown ... ... ... 15
Mission house at Overland destroyed ... ... ... ... 40
Schoolhouse at Waterloo destroyed ... ... ... ... 40


No. 16.
(Received August 2, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 21.]
SIR, St. Vincent, July 18, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to forward a Report addressed to me by the President of
the Ladies' Clothing Committee, showing the prompt action taken by the ladies in
St. Vincent, immediately the disaster took place, to provide clothing and bandages
and attend to the injured and sufferers.
2. You will observe that they did not wait until I returned to the Island, but
acted at once, without obtaining approval from the Government.
3. The work the Ladies' Committee performed in distributing clothing was most
arduous, and a thankless one, but they all worked nobly and never flagged.
4. It has now been arranged that the clothing on hand is to be reserved for
distribution until the people get rehoused, when they will be outfitted as circumstances
I have, &c.,

Enclosure in No. 16.
. Si, Government House, St. Vincent, June 23, 1902.
As Your Excellency was absent from St. Vincent at the time of the eruption,
I took upon myself the responsibility before yiu returned to start some plan for
providing clothing, &c., for the sufferers.

At first the extent of the need on the Windward side of the Island could not be
ascertained; but on Friday, 9th, it was known that many persons had been killed,
and many of the survivors badly burnt.
I therefore purchased materials and began to make clothes at Government House,
working steadily all Saturday and Sunday, so that that evening we were able to send
off, by special messenger, a parcel to the hospital at Georgetown.
On Sunday afternoon I appealed to the ladies of St. Vincent to help by working
in their own houses. Mr. James Richards at once offered me 200 yards of material
and thread, the stores were opened, and with material purchased and given, work
began in earnest, Mrs. Calder, wife of the Chief of Police, kindly consenting to receive
the clothing at her house until further arrangements could be made.
Your Excellency returned to the Island on Sunday night, and approved of the
preliminary steps that had been taken, and authorized me to purchase as much
material as was required.
It was soon found necessary to obtain some .place in Kingstown to receive the
clothing, so generously and promptly sent to us by the neighboring islands, where
it could be sorted out, packed and sent to the different out-stations, and you kindly
gave us a room at the Police Barracks. I arranged to ask six ladies, each to take a
day in turn at the dep6t, and be responsible for packing and sending off parcels as
Monday.-Mrs. James Simmons.
Tuesday.-Mrs. Turpin.
Wednesday.-Mrs. Newlands.
Thursday.-Mrs. Kernahan.
Friday.-Mrs. Calder.
Saturday.-Mrs. Laborde.
Honorary Secretary.
I appointed myself President and Mrs. Cameron Vice-President. I undertook
to look after clothing and bandages for the hospital.
This plan has worked admirably, and, thanks to the generous help from Grenada,
St. Lucia, Barbados, Trinidad, Demerara, Bermuda, and St. Thomas, the Commodore,
Jamaica, the United States Government, and by last mail from England, we have
been able to assist the sufferers more liberally and promptly than we otherwise should.
Mrs. J. G. Hazell went out to Georgetown, where she remained some days, and
started the dep6t there; and on her return home, Miss Bell, the sister of the Anglican
clergyman, took her place, and remained in charge.
Mrs. Hughes, the doctor's wife, took charge at Barrouallie, and Miss Knight at
My elder daughter distributed clothing to the refugees, who had fled to Kingstown
from the devastated districts.
At first all needlework was done gratuitously, but when a relief fund was started,
I thought it fair to give some small payment, and thereby help some of the respectable
poor women in the Island.
A complete list has been kept by the Honorary Secretary of the boxes and parcels
received, and the clothing sent to the out-stations.
At Your Excellency's suggestion, I asked for some toys, and Miss Rosa Richards
collected a number, which I distributed to the little sufferers in the hospital. By
His Majesty's Ship Indefatigable," and per Royal Mail Steamer, toys were sent from
Trinidad by Commander Coombs, R.N., Mr. Power, and Miss Sutherland, and all have
been a great source of delight to the children.
A very handsome gift of clothing from the United States Government, brought
to us by the United States Ship "Dixie," made it again necessary to get a larger
place to pack and sort the clothing. Your Excellency authorized the hiring of a room
more suitable, into which everything was removed on the 2nd of June.
14986 n

My very sincere thanks are due to the ladies of the Committee and their assistants,
who have all helped most cheerfully, and especially to Miss Rice, on whom, as
Honorary Secretary, a great deal of work fell, and to my elder daughter, who, besides
attending to the distribution in Kingstown, arranged for the packed cases to be sent
to the different centres.
Miss Mackie and her family have kindly helped me.
I can never forget the generous and willing response to my appeal, and the help
I received from the whole community is beyond praise.
I must mention the courtesy I met with from Mr. Hughes in the Customs and
indeed from all with whom I came in contact, during the course of the work.
TEe ladies who undertook the distribution of clothing have had a very difficult
task, and have performed it most satisfactorily. As far as I know, everyone who
lost their clothing has been supplied with a suit; and we had the extreme gratification
of seeing 34 families settled at Clare Valley, giving each householder one blanket
and pillow, with a suit of clothing for each member of the family.
It was impossible, in the extreme urgency of the cases, to count the different
number of articles sent, as often the things had been sent away before the lists
reached us; but 4,700 suits of clothing have been distributed through the centres,
besides those given to people who had been in better circumstances, who had to be
dealt with differently.
As I am leaving for Grenada, I have handed over the clothes left to Mrs. Cameron,
Vice-President of the Committee, and she understands my wishes as to the further
distribution, later on, of the articles now on hand.
I have, &c.,
Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G., Don L. LLEWELYN.
Governor-in-Chief of the Wirdward Islands.

No. 17.
(Received August 2, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 21.]
SIR, St. Vincent, July 18, 1902.
WITH reference to the sixth paragraph of your despatch, noted in the margin,*
I regret that I did not explain to you clearly in my
25th June, 1902. despatch of the 6th of June,t all the details
about my purchasing Campden Park, but will endeavour now to supplement the in-
formation given in my former despatch.
2. Campden Park Estate was bought by Mr. Fraser (now deceased-killed at
Orange Hill) fbr 1,300 in May, 1900. He spent 300, borrowed from the Hurricane
Loan, upon it.
3. I have bought it, free from all incumbrances, for 1,800, and in addition to
the many advantages of the arrange-
Governor, 14 June, 1901. ment which I pointed out in the ninth
Secretary of State, 22 July, 1901. paragraph of my despatch,t I
Governor, 24 August, 1901. have also secured the undoubted rights
Secretary of State, 18 December, 1901. of the Crown to Lots K and L, referred
of the Crown to Lots K and L, referred
to in the correspondence noted in the margin.
I have, &c.,

T Not printed.

* No, 5

t No. 2.

No. 18.


(Received August 2, 1902.)

[Answered by No. 21.]
SIR, St. Vincent, July 18, 1902.
WITH reference to your remarks in the fifth paragraph of your despatch,* noted
in the margin, relative to the idea of repairing the Canal
25th June, 1902. which supplies Mr. Porter's estates in the Carib country
as a Relief Work, from the Eruption Fund, I beg to
submit the following:-
2. It is true that the Canal has heretofore been looked upon as Mr. Porter's
property and for his sole benefit in working all his estates.
3. I have in view that if the Canal is ever rebuilt it should be constructed as a
public work, not solely for the benefit of Mr. Porter's estates, but for the benefit of all
the inhabitants as a Water Supply Service, for which all the estates should pay.
4. At present all the estates happen to be in the hands of Mr. Porter, but if at
.any time each of the estates had a different owner, the proprietor who owifed the
estate from which the water started would be in a powerful position.
5. The question is not likely to come up for settlement yet, as the whole of the
,Canal and its source is buried. Probably an entirely new canal on a new trace may
be necessary, but until the country is clearer and more settled no steps can be taken,
.and when they are I should advocate the establishment, if possible, of a public canal.

I have, &c.,

No. 19.

MY LORD, Brussels, August 13, 1902.
IMMEDIATELY upon the occurrence of the disaster which befell the Island of
Martinique a project was set on foot in the Belgian Army to hold a Military Tourna-
ment and Carrousel, on behalf of the sufferers through that terrible catastrophe;
and when the eruption ensued in the Island of St. Vincent the project assumed shape
and was extended to embrace the British sufferers.
At the entertainment, which took place in Brussels (and also in other towns),
both I and my French colleague attended officially and subscribed, expressing in
suitable terms our recognition for the humanitarian initiative so charitably taken.
An arrangement was also arrived at between us whereby, having regard to the relative
magnitude of the disaster, three-quarters of the proceeds would be assigned to the
French sufferers and one-quarter to those in the British Colony.
This morning the Minister of War called on me and handed to me a cheque 1,348
for 34,000 francs, the equivalent of which is herewith inclosed, accompanying the 18s. 9d.
handsome donation by a few graceful remarks to the. effect that the Belgian Army
had never forgotten all that it owed to Great Britain, for which nation it fostered
such profound sympathy and gratitude, both on account of the part it had taken in
assuring Belgian independence, as well as for the attitude it had assumed at a subse-
quent date-40 years subsequently.
I replied to General Cousebant that we had never forgotten that we had fought
together on a memorable occasion, and that nothing had ever extinguished the
SNo. 5

sympathies in Great Britain for the Belgian nation and army, fostered as it was by
dynastic ties and a similarity of political institutions, and I propose to address to His.
Excellency formal thanks to the Belgian Army in such a sense.
I have, &c.,
The Marquess of Lansdowne, K.G.,
&c., &c., &c.

No. 20.
(Received August 14, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 21.]
SIR, Grenada, July 26, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to report that, for the purpose of re-settling the inhabitants-
of the devastated area on the Leeward side at the foot of the SoufriBre, I have pur-
chased Rutland Vale Estate of about 1,050 acres for 2,700.
2. This property adjoins the town of Layou, and I have retained ten acres of the
estate just outside the town for the purpose of extending it and re-settling the people
who lived at Richmond village, north of Chateaubelair.
3. All the sugar and arrowroot fields, to the extent of 400 acres, I have sold for
cash for 1,600, which leaves the Government with a site for a town on the coast, i.e.,.
extension of Layou, with over 600 acres of land, for 1,000.
4. By this arrangement I keep a working sugar estate alive, place the people in
a town near to a working estate where they may now and again earn a little money,
and retain all the outlying lands for peasant cultivation.
5. This estate was sold at public auction about two years ago for 2,550. It would'
have been acquired under the Land Settlement scheme, but it is not the policy of the-
Government to acquire working estates for small settlers. The' difficulty has been:
got over as reported in paragraph 3 of this despatch.
I have, &c.,

No. 21.
[Answered by Nos. 26 and 39.]
SIR, Downing Street, August 19, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatches of the
dates specified in the margin,* as to the eruption in St. Vincent,
12th July. and measures taken, or contemplated, in consequence.
[4th July.
16th July. 2. Your despatch of the 12th ultimo,t encloses an interest-
16th July. ing report by Major Will, Royal Army Medical Corps, on the relief
18th July. expeditions to Martinique and St. Vincent, which will be communicated
18th July.
18th July in due course to the War Office.
18th July. To Major Will, to Drs. Hutson, Bowen and Orford, as well as to
18th Jul3. Dr. Durrant and Nurse Patterson, the thanks of the Colony are due for
S their efforts to relieve the injuries and the suffering caused by the erup-
tion; and I gladly approve the gratuities which you propose to give to Drs. Hutson.
and Bowen.
3. Your despatch of the 14th of July,4 deals with the case of Mr.
Robertson. I am obliged for the further explanations which you have given, and.
need not add any further comment.

t No. 10.

* Nos. 10 to 18 and No. 20.

I No. 11.


Loss of stock ... ... ... ... ... ... 5,500
Clothing and furniture ... ... ... .. ... 2,500
Damage to houses .. ... ... ... ... ... 2,000
Small freeholders ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,000
Crown land holders ... ... ... ... ... 1,800
though I think that 4 an acre is too high a sum to be given in any case.
10. There remains the case of Mr. Macdonald, whose claim in respect of Windsor
Forest amounts to 400, and that of Mr. Porter, who estimates his losses at 27,000,.
in addition to 2,000 for loss of business. In neither case, as at present advised, am
I prepared to approve of compensation being given from the relief fund.
I regret the losses: I especially regret them in the case of Mr. Macdonald, who
has shown'himself to be a public-spirited citizen of St. Vincent, but I do not gather
that his case is one absolutely requiring relief, though I shall be prepared to consider
any further comments which you may wish to make on the subject; while in the case
of Mlr. Porter, relief in the ordinary sense would be wholly superfluous.
I am quite aware that in my despatch of the 25th of June,t I did not rule out
compensation entirely, but I stated that the cases of estate owners must be treated
on their merits, and I cannot authorise you to carry out your suggestions in these
In order to enable me to judge of the present position of the Mansion House
Relief Fund I shall be glad if you can furnish me with some rough statement, showing-
what moneys you have received on account of the Mansion House Fund, and what
expenditure has been incurred, or is now authorised as against the receipts.
I have, &c.,

No. 22.
(Received September 5, 1902.)
S[Answered by No. 29.]
SIR, St. Vincent Villa, Saltcoats, N.B., September 3, 1902.
BY the :ihail before last from St. Vincent I was informed that Sir Robert-
Llewelyn's recommendation with regard to the payment of compensation to the-
sufferers from the effects of the recent volcanic eruptions had been forwarded to you,
but I am g neatly concerned and astonished to hear unofficially from my friend Mr.
W. Goodwin that you had not approved of my name being included in the list of those
proprietors recommended to receive moderate compensation out of the large balance
of between 40,000 and 50,000 remaining over of the Relief Fund after providing
for all the pressing demands on this fund.
It is necessary to point out again what you possibly know, Sir, that I am the
largest sufferer by the eruption as I was by the disastrous hurricane of September,.

Since the latter event, I have, witliout any assistance whatever from any outside
source, been carrying on fJy) estates notwithstanding my heavy losses, and doing all
in my power to keep the lal ourers employed, and consequently averting a crisis among-
the excitable negro population, especially in the Carib country districts.
The losses sustained in 1898 and since have now been enormously increased by
the awful effects of the volcanic disturbances, and I feel, in face of an estimated loss:
of 27,000 on my estates, caused by this terrible calamity that unless I receive a
moderate amount of compensation, which, of course, as I told Sir Robert Llewelyn,.
I would undertake to spend irnthe Island in the restoration of my estates, I cannot
face unaided the expenditure df putting those properties again into a cultivable
condition, involving as it would an enormous sum of money.
The effect of the non-employment of the people on my estates in the future will
be most disastrous to the best interests of the Island, and the difficulties of the Govern-
ment will be greatly increased with a large unemployed negro and coloured population
clamouring for food.



4. Your first despatch of the 18th of July,* asks for approval of certain
special payments from the Relief fund up to a total of 364, of which I gather that
.only 30 have been actually paid. The chief items are 100 each to three orphan
children of the late Mr. Fraser.
I approve all these payments. I also approve, up to 100, the grant proposed in
your second despatch of the 18th July, t for damage done to an organ, churches, and
mission houses. I should have hesitated as to this last grant, inasmuch as it is not
quite easy to bring the objects, to which it is proposed to apply the money, within the
scope of the relief grant, but the amount in question is small, and I prefer to leave the
matter to your discretion.
5. Your third despatch of the 18th of July, I gives a report of the work done
by the Ladies' Relief Committee in the matter of clothing, bandages, &c., and I will
ask you to convey to Lady Llewelyn and the ladies who worked with her my apprecia-
tion of their admirable efforts for the relief of suffering and distress.
6. Your fourth despatch of the 18th of July, deals with the purchase of the
Campden Park Estate, which was queried in the 6th paragraph of my despatch
of the 25th of June. II I gather that you bought the estate free of all encumbrances
for 1,800=2 10s. an acre, whereas in 1900 it fetched 1,300, and had, subsequently,
300 laid out upon it, which sum was borrowed from the Government under the
Hurricane Loan Act: that though you paid a higher price for the estate than the
market price of two years ago, you secured incidental advantages by the purchase.,
helping the Fraser family and Mr. Robertson, extinguishing the encumbrances,
re-paying 300 to the Government, and putting an end to the quarrel between the
owner and the squatters on two adjoining lots, which has formed the subject of previous
I also observe that you state that you have secured the undoubted rights of the
Crown to Lots K and L." I assume such rights, if any, as can be claimed over those lots
in respect of the Campden Park Estate attach to the part of tiat estate which is
retained by the Crown and not to the part which has been conveyed to Mr. Robertson.
I entertain grave doubts whether some of the above object; are. of a nature to
which the Mansion House Fund can properly be applied, and, whilk I recognize the
difficulties with which you have to contend, I think it essential tYat property should
not be purchased with the proceeds of that fund, except for the single purpose of
affording relief to those sufferers for whose assistance it was contributed.
7. Your fifth despatch of the 18th of July, answers a query raised in the
fifth paragraph of my despatch of the 25th of June last,|1 as to -the canal which
it is proposed to repair, or to reconstruct, in the Carib country. You state that the
question is not likely to come up for settlement yet, and I shall no doubt have a
further and fuller expression of your views if and when you consider that the time
has come to take the work in hand.
8. In your despatch of the 26th ultimo,#* you report that for the purpose
of re-settlement you have bought the Rutland Vale estate for 2,700, selling again
400 acres under sugar and arrowroot for 1,600, thus leaving over &00 acres for a
township at a cost of 1,100. I assume that you found it necessary to offer a higher
price for the estate than it realized at a public auction two years ago, and apart from
the question of price I realise the advantages which will lje derived from the action

which you have taken in the matter.
9. I now come to your despatches of the 16th o July.t' In the former
you state what you would propose as regards compensation for losses in all
outstanding cases except that of Mr. Porter. In the latter you deal with Mr. Porter's
In my despatch of the 25th of June,)l I laid/stress on the fact that the
primary object of the Mansion House Fund is relief and not compensation. In the
case of the labouring classes and the owners of small lots it is difficult-probably
impossible-to draw the line between the one and the other, and I am content to
accept and approve the following figures which you give:-

S No. 14. t No. 15. No. 16. No. 17. 1 No. 5.
No. 18. N No. 20. tt Nos. 12 and 13.

I put it to you, Sir, whether it would not be a much wiser policy to give financial
assistance in securing permanent employment for the people rather than reducing
them to the level of abject paupers by allowing my estates to go out of cultivation
I have heard that a policy of deporting the labourers from St. Vincent to Jamaica
and British Honduras has been advocated, but evidently ignorance is displayed by
these .advocates of the peculiarity of the negro, for as a matter of experience many
negroes who were induced to go to Trinidad some time back returned to St. Vincent,
stating that they preferred to accept much less wages per day in St. Vincent than
remain in Trinidad.
As regards British Honduras I know as a matter of fact from one of the chief
owners of property that already there is a plethora of labour in that Colony.
I 'understand the objection made to my receiving any share of the compensation
fund is based on the fact that I have a competency, and am not reduced by the
recent terrible disaster to a condition of want.
I venture with great respect to question the soundness of this objection. In the
first place the British public and others, laid down no conditions as to the destination
of the money subscribed, the one and only condition being the relief of all sufferers
through the eruption. And after all the pressing needs of feeding and housing the
people as well as carrying out necessary relief works had been fully and amply pro-
vided for out of the Mansion House and other Relief Funds, a very large sum of money
is left in the hands of the Governor, and surely there can be no more useful employ-
ment of this balance than giving compensation to estates proprietors like myself, for
the purpose of again restoring their estates to a workable condition.
I wish to point out that there is a precedent for such a course in the case of the
last eruption in 1812. Then the proprietors in their petition* to the Prince Regent
put down their losses at over 79,000, and by no measure of special pleading can it be
argued that any of those men were absolutely ruined and reduced to want. There
is no evidence of this at all in the report issued by the authority of the House of
Commons in 1813.
The House of Commons very properly passed a bill awarding a sum of money of
about 25,000, pro rata, to those proprietors, and although 90 years have elapsed
since, let me say, Sir, that this precedent is on record as regards the last eruption.
Now, no necessity exists for going to Parliament to ask for such relief, seeing
there is a fund available to your hand for the immediate relief of all sufferers, among
whom I rank myself as the largest, and as such equitably entitled to my share of the
fund on the ground of my having stood by the Colony in the past through times of sore
distress and calamity, and being ready, if now assisted by compensation, to again stand
in the breach, and take the risk of once more restoring and cultivating my present
devastated estates.
On the question of these estates being capable of restoration I have favourable
reports by mail letters just to hand, and at the old Canal head at the back of Lot 14
and Rabacca estates the water was running strong and clear. It is evident, therefore,
that the fears of the Governor have not been confirmed as regards the irretrievable loss
of water in the Carib country.
It is, therefore, of the utmost importance that the Government should out of the-
Relief Fund, undertake, without delay, the opening up and restoration of the Old
Canal, which was the only. means of supplying water to that most important district
for domestic and industrial purposes before the eruption.
All pessimistic opinions will be as much falsified now as they were 90 years ago,
after the eruption of 1812. Then the area was greatly devastated, and the appear-
ances were strongly in favour of the belief that never again could estates be cultivated;
subsequent history, however, shows that after that eruption the greatest fertility of the-
soil was apparent, and for a great many years the sugar estates in that part of the
Island were more prolific than any other estates in the British West Indies.
See Appendix in [CI. 1201] September, 1902.
14986 E


SWith an adequate outlay of money now we may seed the' same result' again, but
as I'have already said, I cannot, unaided by a grant'from the Relief Fund to re-
coup my heavy losses, undertake such outlay '
In conclusion I hope you will, Sir, on further consideration reinstate my name
in the list sent home by Sir Robert Llewelyn, for the sum of 10,000, which he confi-
dentially informed me before I left St. Vincent was the sum put down, although
at that time, as I pointed out, it did not cover much more than a third of my estimated
losses, and the fund then had not reached its' subsequent large proportions.
I have, &c.,
P.S.-I beg to enclose the "Sentry" newspaper of 8th August, issued for, and
received by, last mail, and would beg your kind perusal of its leading article* as well
as of the letter* signed Colonist" which seems to express the feeling of a large section
of the community.

No. 23.
[Answered by No. 27.]
SIR, Downing Street, September 3, 1902.
I AM directed by Mr. Secretary Chamberlain to transmit to you, to be laid
before Mr. Secretary Brodrick, the accompanying copy, of a despatcht from the
Governor of the Windward Islands, forwarding a report by Major J. Will, Royal Army
Medical Corps, on the work of the Medical .relief Expeditions sent from Barbados
to 'St"'Vincent and Martinique, on the occasion of the recent volcanic eruptions in
those islands.
Mr. Chamberlain has expressed to the Governor his appreciation of the ex-
cellent work done by Major Will and his staff.
I am, &c.,

No. 24.
(Sent 5.30 p.m., September 4, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 25.]
In view of rumours, shall be glad to be assured that there has been no recurrence of

No. 25.
(Received 5.5 p.m., September 5, 1902.)
Referring to your telegram of yesterday,J regret to inform you that eruptions
again taking place; great loss of life Martinique; Soufribre again active. No other
details yet received; telegraph' interrupted between here and St. Vincent. His
Majesty's Ship "Tribune" gone to St. Vincent. Governor-in-Chief of Windward
Islands at Grenada. Your telegram forwarded.

0 Not reprinted.

t No: 10.

T No. 24.


No. 26.,
(Received 5.10 p.m., September 6, 1902.)
4th September. Just received deslatch of August 19th,* 24 hours late.
Regret to report that Soufribre has been in eruption all last night after being quiescent
since May 18th; this upsets all previous bulletins, and estimate of compensation for
damage. Following on very bad eruption in Martinique 30th August there is great
alarm at St. Vincent, where special service officer now much required owing to serious
epidemic small-pox, Barbados, which may appear at any moment in Windward Islands;
movements of myself are hampered, and I do not think that I ought to go on leave
at present.

No. 27.
(Received September 11, 1902.)
SIR, War Office, London, S.W., September 8, 1902.
I AM directed by the Secretary of State for War to acknowledge the receipt
of your letter of the 3rd instant, transmitting a copy of a despatch from the
Governor of the Windward Islands, forwarding a report by Major J. Will, Royal
Army Medical Corps, on the work of the.Medical Relief Expedition, sent from
Barbados to St. Vincent and Martinique, on the occasion of the recent volcanic
eruptions on those islands.
In reply, I am to tender Mr. Brodrick's thanks to Mr. Secretary Chamberlain
for his expression of his appreciation of the work done by Major Will and his staff,
and to state that a note has been made in the records of service of Majors Will and
Bent, and of the non-commissioned officers and men, Royal Army Medical Corps,
who accompanied the Relief Expedition.
I am, &c.,

No. 28.
[Answered by No. 75.]
SIR, Downing Street, September 9, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to transmit to you, for consideration and report, the accom-
panying copy of a petition addressed to His Majesty the King by the Caribs of Morne
Ronde in St. Vincent.
2. I have to request that you.will inform the writers that His Majesty has
received their petition, and has commanded that a report should be made upon it.
I have, &o.,

Enclosure in No. 28.
The humble Petition of the Caribs of Morne Ronde in the Island of Saint Vincent
in the West Indies.
May it please Your Gracious Majesty,
WE Your Majesty's faithful humble subjects pray you of your gracious goodness
No. 21. t No. 23.
14986 E 2

to receive this our humble Petition, believing it to be our special privilege to address
our Sovereign Lord the King.

We Your Majesty's humble servants are the descendants of the Caribs of this
Island who remained faithful to their allegiance when the rest of their fellow country-
men rose in rebellion in 1795 against the British Arms, and after the war the Imperial
'Government settled our forefathers on a grant of land at Morne Ronde which we were
to possess without individual freehold rights and to work as a community.
Since that time we Your Majesty's dutiful servants have always been devoted
subjects of the Crown, giving no trouble in the 'Courts of Law in the .Colony, but
settling our own disputes according to our commune rules.
In recent years it has been found necessary (owing to landslips and the invasion
of water) to remove our houses from Morne Ronde and after the hurricane of 1898
Your Majesty's Government here offered us a place of residence at Rose Bank some
miles distant from our lands, but, Your Gracious Majesty, in order to-work our lands at
Morne Ronde we must have used boats along the Coast, and as Rose Bank bay is a
wild rough'landing place most dangerous for women and young persons we protested,
and at first refused to go there. These protests were duly laid before the Govern-
ment, but upon being assured there was no other locality obtainable we reluctantly
consented to move to Rose Bank; owing, however, to the danger to our women and
children only a few of us had so removed prior to the late eruption of the Soufriere.

The eruption of the SoufriBre destroyed all we possessed, and rendered the Morne
Ronde land impracticable for cultivation.
Since the eruption the Government here has been settling the sufferers in
different places, building houses for them, and direct that we shall go to Rose Bank,
but the houses they are building there for us are very inferior to and smaller than those
built for other sufferers, and we Your Majesty's faithful subjects feel this to be very
Mr. George Robertson, proprietor of Wallibu, has received a grant of 400 acres
of land and a considerable sum of money, and others are to get compensation for their
losses. The Morne Ronde land has suffered as much as any other, and as we can
no longer cultivate it we pray for another tract of land in exchange. In order to
obtain this our chiefs suggested to His Excellency the Governor that he should
purchase Rutland Vale estate and locate us there-this purchase has been made but
we are ordered to remain at Rose Bank where it is impossible to obtain land in one
block sufficient for our wants, and we cannot live at Rose Bank and work land at
Rutland Vale.
We Your Majesty's subjects, as Caribs of Morne Ronde, have always worked our
lands in common, and been governed by our own Chiefs, separate from the general
community, as is provided for in the Act for Amnesty and agreement for settlement
made by the Government with our forefathers, and should we be compelled to receive
land in small lots such as are available at Rose Bank or its neighbourhood it would
be a complete break up of our rules and traditions as recognized by the Government.
We are aware that under the Hurricane Relief, money and land have been settled for
us, but as a contrast with what other Soufriere sufferers receive we consider it very
hard and, may it please Your Majesty, believe it under the above circumstances to be
rather unfair.
There is no official here like the Protector of Indians (Aborigines) as in Canada
and other places in Your Majesty's dominions, and we therefore pray that of gracious
goodness Your Majesty may condescend to receive this our petition and graciously
consider the same.

We Your Majesty's most devoted subjects pray you, Sire, graciously to grant to us
a tract of land in one block in exchange for the Morne Ronde land, and to put us in
the same position as regards houses as other sufferers from the Soufriere; and, whereas
we are mainly boatmen and fishers, to remove us from the dangers to our women

and children of the Rose Bank bay and give us residences near to or upon the tract
of land we pray for, and as in duty bound to Your Most Noble Majesty we shall ever
pray, &c., &c., &c.
Justice of the Peace,
Chief and Referee by election.

No. 29.
SmI, Downing Street, September 11, 1902.
I AM directed by Mr. Secretary Chamberlain to acknowledge the recent of
your letter of the 3rd instant,* in which you ask that compensation may be granted to
you out of the Mansion House Relief Fund for the damage caused to your estates in
St. Vincent by the volcanic eruption in May last.
2. In reply, I am to state that in a despatch written on the 19th ultimo,t Mr.
Chamberlain informed the Governor that he could not assent to compensation being
given from the Relief Fund in such a case as yours, where there could be no question
of relieving distress but only of making good losses; and much as Mr. Chamberlain
regrets these losses, he must, with his present information, adhere to that view.
I am, &c.,

No. 30.
(Received September 12, 1902.)
[ Answered by Nos. 32 and 35.]
SIR, Grenada, August 27, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to report that I went to 'St. Lucia via St. Vincent on the
16th instant, and returned to St. Vincent on the 23rd, arriving here again on the
24th instant.
2. I attach a copy of a telegram which I received from Administrator Cameron
when I was at St. Lucia, setting forth certain difficulties which had arisen with the
refugees, owing to the substitution of a weekly money dole in lieu of the rations which
had been issued since the eruption.
3. I did not attach much importance to this telegram, and sent a reply, copy
attached, but decided to visit St. Vincent in His Majesty's Ship "Retribution on my
way back to Grenada.
4. On arrival I was informed by Mr. Cameron that the people had taken the
doles and that no disturbances had occurred, and that everything was quite quiet,
which was as I anticipated.
5. On my return voyage I passed on the Windward side of the Island, and was
struck with the change in the appearance of the country at the north and north-east
end. Owia and Fancy are looking quite green on the lower levels, but in the
mountain district still ashen grey.
6. I interviewed some of the principal grumblers on Saturday, the 23rd instant,
and found their grievances were imaginary, and simply as a try-on to get more money
from the relief fund.
*No. 22. t No. 21.

7.' In my opinion Owia and Fancy are now safe, but the people belonging to
those villages declare-that they will not return there, and if- I cannot provide them'
with houses and land that they would prefer to go to Jamaica, the-first time that
any refugee has mentioned such a proposal.
8. The difficulty lies in obtaining land suitable for townships except at exorbitant
prices. The people are most trying to deal with, and decline to go to many places
I have suggested for reasons such as being too cold or too damp or too far from a main
road, &c.
9. I therefore reluctantly ask, with reference to your despatches* noted in the
margin, if you will approve of the people of Owia
21/6/02. and Fancy being sent to Jamaica. I attach a list
of the names of the persons and their families who
have expressed their desire to go. Probably some will alter their minds when the
vessel arrives, and, without legislation and signed agreements and other precautions,
I shall not be in a position to compel them to keep to their arrangement, and the
expenses attendant thereon would be considerable.
10. Owing to the presence of the usual mischief mongers that are found in
West Indian Colonies, I am sure that the emigration of these people will be opposed
in St. Vincent, especially by the clergy and landed proprietors.
11. If you are of opinion that emigration should be forced, it can be done. If
not, I must ask for your authority to purchase land for townships at any price the
proprietors may demand, or purchase more estates at a higher rate than three pounds
per acre, which I have fixed as the maximum value of any ordinary property in
St. Vincent.
12. I am reluctant to break up estates in partial cultivation, and have en-
deavoured to locate new townships in places where the people will have a reasonable
chance of earning wages from employment.
13. Personally I am not in favour of emigration, as it is a question surrounded
with many far-spreading difficulties. At the same time I consider the proprietors and
others who wish to keep the labouring population in the island should assist in this
crisis by parting with small lots of land on which to build townships at a moderate
figure, and I have told them so.
14. This, however, is contrary to their views as to the relations that should
exist between the proprietor and the labourer. A labourer in his own house on his
own plot of land would not be obliged to work for any proprietor whenever he desired
it under dread of being given notice to quit the plot of land and house rented from
the estate, and so the proprietor objects to allowing any free and independent labourers
to live near his property.
15. If you agree that the idea of emigration should be abandoned, and will
telegraph your decision on the point, I will take steps to acquire township lots or other
estates at an advance on the figure of three pounds per acre and finally settle all the
refugees as quickly as possible.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 30.
TELEGRAM, received on 19th August, from Administrator CAMERON, sent 18th August
to GOVERNOR, Windward Islands.
This morning big demonstration against stoppage of rations, several hundred
people at this office, doles being refused here, Windward (and) Leeward, as not large
enough. Incendiary fires repeatedly threatened. All Owia (and) Fancy demanding
to be promptly settled somewhere within the Colony, or if absolutely impossible to be
sent early to (Government of) Jamaica. At an interview with leaders, promised to refer,
complaints (to) you. Georgetown very disaffected, tents pulled down, Head of Police
anticipates some difficulty and trouble, prompt action indispensable. Chief Justice
concurs with this telegram.

No. 85 in [Cd. 1201], September, 1902, and No. 3 in this Volume.


Enclosure 2 in No. 30:.
TELEGRAM, sent from GOVERNOR to Administrator CAMERON, on 20th August.
Take names of persons who desire to be settled in Jamaica and furnish me with the
total number of men, women and children, so that I can arrange for transport. Consult
with doctors and practical merchants as to the amount of dole you have fixed upon,
and if found to be lower than a living rate increase it in cases where such a step is
necessary.. ..

Enclosure 3 in No. 30.
Saint Vincent, August 23, 1902.
The humble petition of the sufferers from the late volcanic eruption to His
Excellency Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K.C:M. ., to send us to Jamaica or give us lands
to work for the support of our families.
and 81 others.
(The number of members of the families represented by' the petitioners amounts
.to 373.)

No. 31.
(Received September 12, 1902.)
:SR, Grenada, August 28, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to forward an abstract made up to the 31st ultimo, of the
Expenditure from the Eruption Fund, with an additional column giving approximate
expenses up to the 22nd instant.
2. The account is being very carefully kept by Mr. Hutchinson, the Accoufntaint
in the Treasury, St. Vincent, and if full details are required they can be obtained at
.any time, as all expenditure is entered in a separate Account Book.
3. The item-purchase of Land 4,529 2s. Od., includes the purchase of Campden
:Park, 1,800, and Rutland Vale, 2,700, of which land to the value of 1,000 at
,Campden Park has been given as compensation to Mr. Robertson, and 1,600 has been
paid to the credit of the Eruption Fund for that part of Rutland Vale which com-
.prised the estate, which I sold to Mr. Fraser, so that the land purchased for refugees
;at present has only cost 1,900 with conveyancing and stamp expenses.
4. Comparing these figures with the nine headings I submitted in the enclosure
to my despatch of the 6th June,* I classify the items and totals as follows :-

-- -Estimate.

Feeding refugees ... ... ... 2,145 10,000
Relief work ... ... ... 624 7,000
Building huts ... ... ... 2,930 6,000
Purchasing land ... ... 1,937 4,500
(Head 7) Compensation ... ... 102 4,000
(Head 8) ,, (Robertson) 1,000 20,000
Incidental expenses ... ... 1,028 1,000
Total... ... ... 9,766

* No. 1.

which, with 2,600 for land sold and given as compensation, agrees approximately
with the abstract herewith forwarded.
5. The cost of providing houses for the people will probably exceed 6,000, and
the incidental expenses will amount to 1,800, but there will be a large margin left
out of the total receipts, which will probably amount to nearly 70,000, for compensa-
tion for losses such as I have outlined in my despatches of the 16th ultimo.*
I have, &c.,

Enclosure in No. 31.
S Actual. Approximate.
Expenditure. 31st July. 22nd August.

s. d. s. d.
Provision of clothing ... ... 98 5 8 20 11 0
S food ... ... 1,471 5 11 258 11 4
Burying dead stock ... ... 2 9 6 -
Clearing roads, &c. (relief work) 450 4 7 173 14 2
Transport of supplies ... ... 154 10 6 31 11 1
Landing and storing supplies ... 110 10 8 -
Burying dead bodies ... ... 116 14 1 12 4 6
Settlement of refugees ... ... 2,574 15 6 355 10 5
Provision of shelter ... ... 157 6 7 59 12 6
Medical aid ... ... ... 328 6 8 8 14 3
Special constables ... ... 15 18 0 -
Repairs to water service, George- 6 8 1 4 3 2
Compensation for losses... ... 102 7 8 1,000 0 0
Purchase of land ... ... ... 4,529 2 0 8 0 0
Miscellaneous ... .. ... 116 11 11 201 3 7t
Total ... ... ... 10,234 17 4 2,133 16 0

No. 32.

(Sent 6.5 p.m., September 19, 1902.)
[See No. 40.]
Referring to your despatch of 27th August, I approve of proposed emigra-
tion to Jamaica with consent of Governor in Council there. We cannot force the
people of St. Vincent to go, but if they refuse this opportunity, you should make it
clear that no more relief will be given to them.

N Nos. 12 and 13.
t Including 1,107 15s. lid. paid by the Crown Agents to the American Government for lumber.
I Including 193 Is. 5d. for telegrams.
No- 30.

No. 33.
(Received in Colonial Office September 24, 1902.)
SI, Botanic Station, St. Vincent, September 5, 1902.
CABLE communications of the eruption of the SoufriBre on the 3rd and 4th instant
have doubtless reached you. Nevertheless, I deem it my duty to forward you by this,
the earliest possible opportunity, an official report on same:-
Early on the afternoon of the 3rd instant telephonic communications reached me
that the SoufriBre was agitated, and from the Botanic Station at about 2 p.m. on that
day I observed certain white and dark clouds in the direction of the Soufribre, which,
from their upward movements, convinced me that an eruption of the SouTribre was
near at hand. At 3 p.m., the hour of taking observations at the Botanic Station in
the afternoons, the corrected barometrical reading was 29.947, and the attached
thermometer 850 F. The wind was blowing lightly from the north-east, and the
weather was bright. The only clouds were to the north, and the most conspicuous
was a dark brown column, apparently over the Soufribre. At 5.30 p.m. I had a
conversation with Mr. Nairn and Mr. Frederick at Montrose, and from the then
appearances and sounds we were convinced that an eruption was pending. At about
8 p.m. I met in Kingstown Mr. H. Allen, Revenue Officer at Chateaubelair, who
informed me that during the day he saw a lot of matter ejected over the western lip
of the old crater down the Laricor or Roseau Valley to the sea. Mr. Allen and most
of the residents of Chateaubelair left that place late in the afternoon for places of
safety, and in the Georgetown District (Windward) the residents moved southwards.
At 9.55 p.m., as seen at the Botanic Station, the eruption commenced in earnest;
flashes of flame and lightning were visible over Soufribre at intervals of 20 to 30
seconds, with frequent longer intervals. At 10.30 p.m. the corrected reading of the
mercurial barometer was 30.105, and the attached thermometer 81.50 F. From about
this hour the discharges and accompanying noises increased in frequency and severity,
and at 1.30 a.m. (4th) the Soufribre was in full eruption. From this hour to 2 a.m.
the eruption was, in the writer's opinion, more severe than on the 7th May, the ex-
plosions seeming to be louder and more continuous, and the electric discharges, owing
doubtless to its being night, immeasurably grander and more awe-inspiring. The
writer's house vibrated in a manner it did not do on the 7th May. At 2 a.m. the
corrected barometrical reading was 30.045, and the temperature 81 F., and at 3 a.m.
the corrected reading was 30.035. The marvellous electric display was checked by a
heavy shower from the east, and the roar was correspondingly lessened. From about
1.30 a.m. a cloud black as gunpowder was seen advancing southwards from Soufribre,
and at 2.30 this cloud had assumed a circular form, and was overhead of Botanic
Station. The discharges from this cloud and to northward were exceedingly numerous
and severe, and the appearance generally was as though myriads of long fiery serpents
were darting hither and thither, and a constant crackling noise was heard in addition
to the roar of the volcano. The chief disturbances seemed to the west of the Soufribre,
in the direction of Martinique, and the writer is strongly of opinion, from observations
at the time, that both Mont Pelee and La Soufribre were in action together, but so far
no news has come from Martinique. At 3 a.m. (4th) the discharges and roar to the
west nearly subsided, and the Soufriere alone seemed in action, but more on the
windward side. From 3 to 4 a.m. the eruption gradually slackened, and' at the latter
hour had nearly ceased. The next morning the barometer was normal at 29.950, but
the morning had a weird and gloomy appearance. No ashes or pebbles fell at the
Botanic Station. No deaths are reported anywhere, and no damage to Windward,
but to Leeward I learn on good authority places partly untouched on 7th May are now
very severely injured-for instance, the arrowroot fields at Richmond Vale and Petit
Bordelle and Sharpes, as well as the sugar canes at the first named are extensively
damaged by the thick, coarse layer of material, and as far down as the Linley Estates
and Cumberland extensive damage to ground provisions and arrowroot is reported.
The principal peasant allotments are on the Linley Estates, and early to-morrow
morning (6th) I am going with Mr. Osment to inspect these erstwhile thriving places.
His Honour the Administrator is also visiting the Leeward District as far as Chateau-
belair to-morrow. We had made arrangements for distributing some thousands of
economic plants to the Leeward allottees during the coming week, but I fear this is

now out of the question, as the holders have reported that their provisions are buried
deep. Last night we had one of the worst thunderstorms experienced here during the
last twelve years, though the rainfall was only-4-. I enclose, for your further infor-
mation, a copy of the "Times," newspaper, so far the only one issued this week, and
on my return from Leeward I hope to be able to give further facts.
I have, &c.,
Dr. D. Morris, C.M.G., Curator.
Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture
for the West Indies.

No. 34.
(Received September 24, 1902.)
Grenada, September 11, 1902.
FORWARDED with reference to my telegram of the 4th instant.* I am glad
to learn that apparently little damage was done by the eruption of the Soufriere on
the 3rd instant, but I am afraid this fresh outburst has caused considerable alarm
amongst the inhabitants, who have already undergone so many shocks.

Enclosure in 'No. 34.
SIR, Government House, St. Vincent, September 8, 1902.
REFERRING to my telegram of the 3rd instant, reporting renewed activity of
the Soufribre and subsequent telegraphic correspondence, I have now the honour to
forward an account of the occurrence of last Wednesday night and its effect.
2. The first intimation I received of anything unusual was by telephone from
Chateaubelair at twenty-two minutes past one in the afternoon, from the Revenue
Officer there, stating that the mountain had begun smoking heavily, and that the
people were alarmed.
3. Confirmation of this being received from the Corporal of Police at Chateau-
belair, and from the Chief of Police, who was at Barrouallie, and could see the smoke
rising, I at once gave instructions for the Police to warn the inhabitants at Chateau-.
belair, and the villages immediately adjacent, to leave, and I also telephoned similar
instructions to the Magistrate at Georgetown in respect of the inhabitants of the
villages to the northward of that town.
4. These instructions were carried out, and the majority of the people with-
drew, on the Windward side to such localities as Colonarie, Sans Souci, and Mount
Greenan, and on the Leeward side to Troumaca Hill, Cumberland, Coull's Hill
and Barrouallie, sheltering for the most part with friends. The towns of Chateau-
belair and Georgetown were practically abandoned, Mr. Isaacs, the Magistrate,
however, remaining at his post.
5. There was no further development till about 10 p.m., when I was rung up by
the Corporal at Chateaubelair, who reported that the mountain was then sending
up a very heavy column of smoke and shaking and rumbling a good deal, and that
he was leaving the station.
6. The noise was soon audible at Government House, intermittent, like distant
thunder, and continued so but with steady increase of volume until a quarter to two,
when it became a continuous heavy growl, the lightning being all the while terrific.
7. At this time I went out and found the sky overspread with a dense black pall,
of which the edge extended just over the boundary of the town of Kingstown, and
No. 26.

was sharply defined against a brilliant starlit sky to the South, the night, apart from
the volcanic disturbance, being a very fine one.
8. This black cloud seemed to be absolutely vomiting electricity from its whole
surface, the currents assuming most weird and fantastic patterns. I could hear,
fitful screams coming up from the town below, where some people were, I fear, rather
badly scared. In truth, the aspect of things at the time, with this black cloud of
doom over the land, of the actual propinquity and consistency of which it was diffi-
cult to judge, was decidedly disturbing.
9. The eruption was apparently at its worst between two and three o'clock,
after which hour the noise gradually lessened till shortly before dawn, when it
10. It was with a great sense of relief that I learnt next day that there had
been no one injured, and that no damage had been done at Georgetown, no dust or
scoriae having apparently fallen anywhere on the Windward side, though I have
since learnt that there was a slight deposit at Sandy Bay and Owia.
11. From the Leeward side, however, reports came of a heavy fall of gritty
dust, doing much injury to the cultivation in the more immediate vicinity of the
mountain, such as Fitzhughes (Mr. MacDonald's), Petit Bordel (Mr. Richards'),
Cumberland, and the Linley Valley Land Settlement Estates..
12. During the day I had some cries for food from refugees at Sans Souci,
Chateaubelair, Cumberland, and Barrouallie, and distributed a small supplemental
dole of money to meet this new situation. I also had some representations from the
Linley Valley peasants of complete destruction of provision grounds.
13. On Friday afternoon His Majesty's Ship Tribune," from St. Lucia, called
in to enquire if anything serious had happened here, and in such case to offer any
assistance needed.
14. On Saturday morning early I went to Chateaubelair in the "Tribune,"
returning here at twelve.
I had previously arranged for the Curator and Agricultural Instructor to visit
and thoroughly examine the damage reported on the Linley Valley allotments and
estates adjacent to Chateaubelair. This they have done, and their report I forward
for Your Excellency's information.
15. I found things at Chateaubelair looking very dismal, the wharf a couple
of inches deep in coarse blackish sand coagulated by the rain, roofs covered, drains
filled up, some of the windows in the station broken, and an air of desolation over
everything. Only one house, however, was actually injured as far as I was informed
and saw. Some two hundred people or more were in the town, having come in for
the day from the places where they have taken shelter. I spoke to and encouraged
them as I could, and made them set to work to clean up the town, pointing out the
necessity for their doing something to help themselves, and trying to earn the money
they were crying out for. To-day I learn there are good gangs'out, and the Leeward
Warden has gone down to organize and start further work.
16. I walked from Chateaubelair to Fitzhughes, where I noticed that the roof
of a part of the Estate's Works had sunk in. Here I met Mr. T. M. MacDonald,
who slept on the spot the previous night, and who told me that on the whole the
damage could be said to be not altogether as bad as had at first been feared, though
he estimated that, taken all round, there would be a loss of fifty per cent. on this
estate's arrowroot crop.
17. The fields nearest to the mountain were, I saw, much covered and battered,
but the nearer fields of both arrowroot and canes, though having evidently suffered,
were fairly green, and there was no sort of complete burial of the soil and crops or
anything at all approaching the utterly devastated appearance presented by the
Carib country after the eruption of May 7th.
18. Your Excellency will, however, see from the report of the officers of the
Agricultural Department that the provision grounds of the peasantry in the Linley
Valley have been sadly damaged, though not so much in the destruction of present
edible material as by the retardation of the growth of young crops. It will prob-
ably be necessary, owing to this event, to continue for a somewhat further time than
14986 F 2

was anticipated the present dole at the Chateaubelair centre, and possibly to
increase it to a small extent in the case of persons at Chateaubelair itself and Rose-
bank, but there will not, I think, be any necessity for reverting to the distribution
of actual food, now happily stopped.
19. The disturbing influence on the peasantry and others exercised by the
occurrence of this fresh outburst following on the bad news which we have latterly
been receiving of continual serious eruptions of Mont Pelee, coupled with the un-
certainty as to future happenings here, is naturally very great, and this is scarcely
to be wondered at.
20. We can only sincerely pray and trust that the St. Vincent SoufriBre may
now have spent itself, and that this much tried island may be left hereafter in peace
to the process of recuperation, the need for which is dire.
I have, &c.,
His Excellency Administrator.
Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G.,
&c., &c., &c.,
P.S.-From Georgetown this morning it is reported to me by the Magistrate
that matters are resuming their normal condition, and the people returning there
and to the villages, Dickson's, O'Brien's, &c.
From Chateaubelair I learn that a good few people are filtering back, of the
labourers, but the better class, small shop-keepers and such, have removed their
families and practically quitted altogether, as I feared would be the case.
E. J. C.,
September 9, 1902.

His Honour
IN accordance with Your Honour's verbal instructions of the 5th instant, we
left Kingstown early the following morning by boat for the purpose of inspecting
as many of the allotments on the Linley Estates as possible during the day, so as to
ascertain the damage done to provision grounds there by the eruption of the
Soufriere on the night of the 3rd and early morning of the 4th instant, and beg to
report as follows:-
The first visible effects of the eruption were seen a little south of Cumberland,
the vegetation having a greyish appearance due to a coating of ashes.
From Cumberland to Troumaca the coating of ashes increased in depth, the
ground generally being covered, and as we rounded Dog Head Point" stronger
evidence of the eruption came into view.
We landed at Rosebank Bay about 10 a.m., and noted the thickness of the layer
of ejecta was about three inches, and that it was composed of dark ashes or sand,
with coarser material approaching the nature of gravel with pieces of pumice from
three inches in diameter downwards, and pieces of stone from quarter to an inch
in diameter, with occasional much larger pieces. The heavy rains since the erup-
tion have caused the layer of ashes, &c., to solidify somewhat, and it is probable that
at first the layer was fully five or six inches deep.
In company with ex-Ranger Bourne and others we inspected some of the garden
plots around the houses at Rosebank, and found the leaves of such provisions as
sweet potatoes, tannias, &c., severely damaged, but as the plots had only recently
been planted the present supply of food has not been interfered with. The people
here complained of damage to their houses, but the stones produced were mostly
light pumice, and the "leaks were the result of the layer of ashes on the roofs,
which prevented the water passing off as freely as before. At the eastern side of

Rosebank Village we noticed a clump of banana plants, some of which had bunches
nearing maturity. Into the axils of the leaves and between the "fingers" of the
bunches the ejecta had entered, and we pointed out to "Ranger Richards" and
.others present that if the leaves were carefully trimmed off and this ejecta removed
by means of a pointed stick and a bucket of water, the bunches could be saved at
little expenditure of time and labour. This course was recommended as it had been
found at New Adelphi and other places to windward, after the 7th May last, that
the ashes in the axils of the leaves and bunches when allowed to remain caused pre-
mature decay. The advice seemed to us reasonable, and was given in a friendly
manner, but Ranger Richards at once became insolent and said "he saw what we
were driving at," that the damage was God's work and that we must not talk such
nonsense to him." We resented these remarks, and told him that as ranger of the
estate his attitude was unjustifiable, and that he would be reported; his reply was
that "he had lived before he got the work and could do so again." To us it was
plain that our visit was not to his liking, and after more impertinent words we
declined to have further dealing with him, except to tell him that we would visit
his allotment, which we afterwards did in his presence. We next visited the village
lots at Troumaca, and found the ashes, &c., about the same as at Rosebank. Some
had cleaned the roofs of their houses others had not. Tannias had particularly
suffered owing to the breadth and tender nature of the leaves, and all plants had
received severe but not irreparable injury. A large plot of young sugar canes had
their leaves hurt, and the axils of the same filled with ashes which cannot be removed,
so that serious injury will result. Joseph Byams' lot was principally under young
potato vines, scarcely injured, but his more mature plots of provisions were badly
damaged. The depth of the ejecta was much exaggerated by the people generally,
as was also their story that the available mature provisions had been destroyed.
John White was foremost in these statements, and though time did not permit of
our going over his allotment, from what we saw at a short distance we were convinced
that no greater damage had been done to his provisions than to others. We next
proceeded up the Belmont Valley, where the cry still was that the provisions were
buried. When challenged, however, generally young potatoes only could be found,
though in some instances good potatoes also were produced, but no sign of injury
At Belmont old sugar works the depth of ashes had lessened considerably, and
continued in like proportion right up the Valley. On the way we met Solomon
Derrick," who reported his provisions to be buried under three or four inches of
sand, &c., but this we later found was untrue. Simon Richards' lot is at the head
of this valley, and extends northwards of same where a very fine field of tannias
are growing. The leaves are much knocked about, but not nearly to the same extent
as lower down in the direction of .Rosebank. Except in the case of tannias, no
damage of any serious nature was done to plantains and potatoes about Rosehall
Village, or to cocoa trees, which latter are established in fair numbers at this place.
From Rosehall Village we continued our inspection down the Rosehall allotments
in the direction of Rosebank, and towards the bottom of this valley found the damage
severe; this was particularly so on the allotments of Joseph Robertson, Peter Howe,
Amelia Cruckshank, and James Alexander. At the last named the weight of ashes
was such as to bend down the two or three year old cocoa trees in numbers here, and
the occupants had found it necessary to go round and lighten the trees by shaking
off the ashes. Just below Alexander's lot at the Water Hole the vegetation had
the appearance of having been burnt by lightning. Over the ridge southwards the
lots of George Bourne, Patrick McKenzie and others are located. The lots of the
two named have also very fine cocoa trees in fair quantity, but now bowed by the
weight of ashes, &c., which fell on them. These men, who were present, had also
lightened their trees, with advantage. As a further instance of the weight of
volcanic matter that fell at this place (about quarter of a mile east of Rosebank
Village) branches, of young breadfruit trees were bent downwards and some were
broken off. The lots of John James Williams, Joseph McKenzie, Charles Wall and
,others near by have all fine young cocoa trees which, like the others, have sustained
some damage, and the provision plots severe injury.
Fortunately the writers of this report went over the same allotments on the 27th
and 28th ultimo, and noted at that time that the greater portion of the plots were
being or had been planted quite recently, and that most of the ripe potatoes were

being reaped for shipment to Trinidad by vessels then at Troumaca and Cumberland.
We therefore are able to summarize the results of our inspection on the 6th instant
as follows :-
(a) Scarcely any damage has been done to the present supply of provisions in
consequence of there being but little fit to reap.
(b) From the sea shore at Rosebank and Troumaca to a line running North
and South at about Belmont old sugar works, the damage done to grow-
ing provisions in general is very severe and will probably retard the
reaping season by six to eight weeks, and even then the yield will doubt-
less be much less than it would otherwise have been.
(c) From Belmont sugar works to a point above Rosehall Village the damage
gradually lessens, and as compared to the lower parts might be classed
as slight.
(d) The depth of the ejecta was greatly exaggerated by the allottees, and
consequently their story as to the provisions being buried beyond reach
grossly untrue.
(e) For the reasons stated in this report we regard Ranger Richards as un-
suited to have charge of these important allotments.
(f) The tracks through the allotments on parts of Rosebank, Troumaca and
Rosehall are in a bad state, making even walking difficult, and if relief
should at any time be decided on we recommend that it take the form
of road-making at the places named.
In conclusion we beg to record our regret that such a misfortune should have
overtaken these promising allotments, and we also wish to express our confidence
that if no further calamity should occur, much of the damage done will in a short
time disappear.
Agricultural Instructor.

No. 35.
SIR, Downing Street, September 26, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of
the 27th ultimo,* relating to the difficulties which have arisen in connection with the'
refugees from Fancy and Owia.
2. I informed you in my telegram of the 19th instant that I approved of the
proposal that they should be sent to Jamaica, with the consent of the Governor and
Council of that Colony, and I added that, if they refused this opportunity, you should
make it clear that no more relief could be given to them. You will no doubt since
have communicated direct with the Officer Administering the Government of Jamaica
on the subject.
I have, &c.,

No. 36.
SIR, Downing Street, September 30, 1902.
WITH reference to my despatch of the 21st of June, II have the
honour to inform you that the sum of 75 11s. 9d. has been paid over by the Crown
Agents to the Mansion House Saint Vincent Relief Fund at the request of the
British Honduras Government, being the equivalent of the amount of the subscrip-
tions received in British Honduras for the relief of the sufferers from the volcanic-
eruption in St. Vincent.
I have, &c.,

t No. 32.

* No. 30.

I N'o. 138 in ECd. 1201].

No. 37.
(Received October 10, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 51.]
DEAR SIR, Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, October 9, 1902.
IN reply to yours of 26th September,* the following is to the best of my know-
ledge the history of my unfortunate business career in St. Vincent from the time of the
death of my father in the Island in 1885, when I was 24 years of age, whom I
assisted for eight years before his death.
My father's property comprised "Wallilabo" and part of "Kearton" Estates,
698 acres in all, half of which is rocky and useless land. At his death he left my
mother a life interest in the Estates, the management of which was to be in my hands;
this was uphill work, for owing to the low price of sugar, and the changing of the
cultivation from cane to arrowroot and cocoa, my father had not been able to save any
money; he, however, left the Estates unencumbered.
By dint of careful management and industry, I contrived not only to support the
family through hard times, but to purchase for my mother-about 1888-the contigu-
ous Estate of Belle Isle," comprising 486 acres, for which she paid 730. This Estate
was originally in sugar, then in arrowroot, but the owner, who lived in London, was
losing money, and decided to sell it, and it was in a more or less abandoned condition
when my mother bought it. Under my directions she spent her savings on it, and at
considerable expense and time I laid it out in other products such as cocoa, coffee,
nutmegs, and fruit, all of which take years to mature, but which would have been very
profitable in the long run, had we not met with misfortunes in the shape of floods,
hurricanes, and eruptions.
As I was getting older, and my mother could not afford me a salary sufficient to
give me a competency, I decided to become a proprietor on my own account, by the
means of my small savings, and by the help of friends.
My brother, Mr. T. M. MacDonald, who had been educated in England, and
who had a good post in a sugar refinery in London, being an ardent West Indian,
decided to return to St. Vincent and to join me in business. We first of all purchased
two small Estates, one of which had been so long abandoned that it had reverted to
forest-and proceeded to lay them out in arrowroot, cocoa, coffee, nutmegs, pepper,
and fruit. These Estates "Windsor Forest" and Convent" contained 200 acres
each, and cost us 400 and 65 respectively; the purchase money was small, but we
necessarily had to spend considerable time and money in the development of products
which take several years to come to maturity.
While this was going on, we purchased from Mr. Porter a fine Estate Richmond
Vale," which was under the cultivation of cane and arrowroot, and some of the back
lands of which were planted in cocoa, which we largely extended. This Estate con-
tained 627 acres, and cost us 5,000, 2,000 of which were paid down, and the re-
mainder gradually in five years at 5 per cent. to 6 per cent. interest. To our friends
who assisted us we still owe 1,000 on the purchase money, owing to the set back
we received from the hurricane.
During all this time I managed to fulfil my duties in the Executive and Legis-
lative Councils, and both of us in different ways, as Town and Way Wardens, &c., &c.
You will see that our lives were full of work, and that we had good prospects before
us; we had the respect and confidence of all the Governors and Administrators who
came to St. Vincent-an instance of which was shown in the late Sir Harry Thompson's
-suggesting in 1899 to Mr. Secretary Chamberlain to lend us monies to acquire and
develop another Estate-and also of the community.
To give you an idea of the value of our work, the Convent Estate which cost
65 for 200 acres, and on which we spent about 600, was valued at 1,000 as it stood,
just before the hurricane in 1898; the values of all the other Estates would be in pro-

Not printed.

We are purely Estate owners and resident proprietors; unlike the other large
proprietors we had no merchants or shipping businesses to fall back on; we realized
from what we saw of other Estates that proprietors who had other irons in the fire
more or less neglected to properly develop their Estates; we were, therefore, doing
the highest work which Colonists in an agricultural country could perform, viz., de-
veloping the land, employing the people, and assisting the Government.
Owing to the acts of God, however, the labours of years have been brought to
nought, and when these catastrophes affect such a large cultivation, you will realize
that the losses must be great.
The above was our position before our misfortunes, which began with trouble with
negro labourers on Richmond Vale." On taking possession of this Estate we found
that there were so many irregularities going on that it was impossible for it to pros-
per. Re-organization being distasteful to the labourers, some bad characters at
different times during my brother's absence burnt down his two dwelling houses and
their contents.
Our next misfortune was in 1896, when St. Vincent was visited by very severe
rain storms, which caused great damage and loss. In our case Windsor Forest" was
laid waste, part of the arrowroot works, and houses-some with people in them-being
carried into the sea, as well as 3,000 cocoa trees and 600 nutmeg trees. Great de-
struction of the cultivation on Wallilabo," Belle Isle," and "Richmond Vale took
place at the same time. After this we did not re-cultivate "Windsor Forest," but
turned it into a stock farm, and put many valuable animals on it. Disheartening as
these losses were, they were small in comparison with those caused by the hurricane
and floods of 1898. It is really difficult to convey to the minds of people on this side
what St. Vincent suffered on that occasion. As far as we were concerned, suffice it to
say, that after using up all spare cash and the proceeds of produce on hand and reaped
early in 1899, we had to sell some of our lands to enable us to carry on until the hurri-
cane loans were settled.
I had to sell Convent" for 508, which had cost me over 600, and which, as
I have pointed out, but for the hurricane, was worth 1,000. My mother in the same
way had to sell some of her lands for a sum much below their value, just before the
After these monies were exhausted, we had to borrow in 1899 from the Hurricane
Loan 2,000 on my mother's Estate, and 1,000 on mine; so far only interest on these
sums has been paid, and we are now further ruined by the eruptions of May and Sep-
tember this year. These have completely destroyed "Windsor Forest" and all the
animals on it, and the Estate is now a total loss.
"Richmond Vale," my brother's and my remaining Estate, on which we owe
2,000, has been seriously damaged by the two eruptions, fields have been covered
over with volcanic debris, crops destroyed, and part of the works crushed in. It is
difficult to say what the place would now fetch, in fact, no one would be inclined to pur-
chase it, being in the danger zone.
We have, therefore, lost Convent," Windsor Forest," practically on two occas-
ions, and so much on Richmond Vale" that it would not realize the amount of the
loans; strictly speaking my brother and I are penniless.
My mother has lost half of Belle Isle," and has a debt of 2,000 on Wallilabo,"
besides sustaining considerable damage to the present crops by the eruptions. At the
present moment I question if her Estate would realize the debt against it, and if forced
to wind up she would have no means of making a living.
We must go on somehow for the benefit of our creditors, ourselves, and the people,
but life and property are now so unsafe in St. Vincent that it is disheartening to spend
time and money in building up again what may be knocked down to-morrow, leaving
one still further in debt.
I must apologize for writing at such length, but I could hardly describe the story
of our losses and our present position in fewer words, seeing that it dates so far back,
and the misfortunes have been so frequent and appalling.
I am, &c.,
C. P. Lucas, Esq., C.B. DUNCAN A. MAcDONALD.

No. 38.
(Received October 11, 1902.)
SIR, Grenada, September 23, 1902.
WITH reference to the fresh outbreak of the Soufribre on the 3rd instant, I have
the honour to forward a copy of a statement made by a man named Adams, who
ascended the SoufriBre on the 16th instant.
2. I do not profess, like many people who are writing on the subject, to know
anything about volcanos, but I have seen sufficient in St. Vincent to convince me that
any accounts which attempt to foretell when the volcano will again be quiet are mere
speculative opinions.
3. I am of opinion that considerable disturbances are going on under the seas,
as well as in the islands about here, and I think the log of the telegraph steamer
Newington," which grappled the cable off St. Vincent, but which again unfortunately
snapped after being repaired for a few days, might give some useful information.
4. I was informed by a passenger on a steamer from New York, which passed 45
miles to the westward of St. Vincent on Saturday, the 13th instant, that the ship
passed through a stream of floating mud about 20 feet wide, which looked as if it was
thrown up from the bottom of the sea, and stretched east and west as far as the eye
could see.
5. One of the most remarkable points, too, is that the detonations, when- the
volcanos erupt in Martinique and St. Vincent, are not heard in St. Lucia, which lies
between those two islands, but are heard for 200 miles away in other islands.
6. I mention these few facts for your information and consideration as to
whether it will not be possible to. attract the sympathy of some person of independent
means with a scientific turn to come out to the West Indies, not on a flying visit, but
to remain and go about picking up information.
7. Unusual occurrences, which undoubtedly are now frequently happening in
this part of the world, will not be chronicled unless it is made the special duty of
some officer, or taken up privately in the interests of science.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure in No. 38.
Chateaubelair, September 17, 1902.
Statement of Jake Adams,. of Chateaubelair, but at present is employed as super-
cargo on the sloop "La Fortune," who says as. follows:-
I left Chateaubelair in company with Mr. William Cumming at about 7 a.m. for
the SoufriBre; after reaching'Wallibii I foiiud that to ascend-the hiil was not half
so difficult as before the eruption of 3rd instaiit. The track at the long ridge, which
was very difficult and dangerous whei I ascended the hill in July last, is not so now;
it has been covered completely by a coat of sand, which has levelled the walk and filled
in all the jagged places, so that it is now hard and good to tread on. It took us three
hours to ascend and descend. I found the top of the hill to be completely changed,
a good lot of it having been blown off by the eruption of 3rd instant. I noticed that the
side of the hill looking to La Racai to be cut, and that some kind of matter had
run down, but now there is a coat of coarse gritty sand at the bottom of the ravine.
I know the craters well;'and have been visiting them very often, hence I cannot be
mistaken as to the present appearance; the old-crater is now filled up with sand to
above where the water used to have been, arid has a formation resembling that of a
funnel, and at the bottom of which '(I mean the throat) three emissions of fire are
going on, each.having different colour. Around the very throat can be plainly seen
a collar of mud. Several clouds of white steam are being driven up from these fires.
But for the danger,.Lthink it very easy to walk down to where the fires are. It seems
to me that the new crater was also in eruption on the 3rd; whilst the old crater is'
-throwing up large columns of white steam, the new one is discharging a dark greyish
14936 G


smoke. I should have gone to this crater but for the danger of going. Around the
hill is to be found no ash, but sand to a very great depth.
H. A. A.
September 17, 1902.

No. 39.
(Received October 11, 1902.)
SIR, Grenada, September 24, 1902.
IN continuation of my despatch noted in the margin,* and in reply to the
August 28, 1902. request made in the last paragraph of your
despatch of the 19th ultimo,t I have the honour to forward a summary of the
Expenditure on account of the Eruption Relief Fund made up to the 31st ultimo, and
a First List of the subscriptions received. I know there are other amounts promised,
such as the Governments of Grenada and Jamaica, and certain private lists not yet
forwarded, so that I believe the approximate total receipts may be put down at
2. With regard to the Expenditure to date of 13,567 I append a list of sundry
other items that I know of, which have been more or less approved of or promised,
which will add about 16,000 to the above, or roughly speaking make 30,000 allo-
cated to date.
3. The question as to how long the Government will have to continue to feed the
Refugees at the present rate of 220 per week, and what further expenditure will
be required for resettling more families depends entirely upon the future behaviour of
the Soufriere.
4. The towns of Chateaubelair and 'Georgetown are unpleasantly near the volcano,
and, if they became uninhabitable the responsibilities* would, of course, be largely
5. The Soufribre has been in eruption rather frequently, but not so violently,
since the 3rd instant, and is, whilst I am writing this despatch (between 2 and 3 p.m.),
in slight eruption.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 39.

Expenditure to 31st August, 1902.
1. Burying dead bodies ... ...
2. Burying dead stock ...... .
3. Medical Aid ... ... ... ...
4. Clothing ... ... ... ...
5. Food ... ... ......
6. Temporary shelter ... .
7. Landing and storing of Supplies ...
8. Transport of Supphes... .
9. Purchase of land for resettlement of people who
lived near the Volcano ... ... ...
10. Purchase of materials for Houses on acquired
lands... ... ......
11. Relief works, roads, &c. ... ...
12. Relief works, Georgetown Waterworks ...
13. Pay of special Constables ... ...
14. Compensation for losses ... ...
15. Miscellaneous ... ...


4,537 8 0


13,567 2 1

* No. 31. No. 21.

* No. 31.

t No. 21.

Enclosure 2 in No. 39.


Donations in aid of Eruption Relief.

Name of Donor or Donors.
Lord Mayor of London's Mansion House Fund ...
Lord Mayor of Liverpool's Fund ...
The Government of Canada... ...
The Government of British Guiana ...
The Government of Barbados ... ...
The Government of British Honduras ...
The Government of the Turks and Caicos Islands ...
The Government of Fiji ... ... ...
The Government of Dominica ......
The Government of Mauritius ... ...
The Government of Seychelles ..
The Municipal Council, Mauritius
Collected by the Editor of the Mirror," Trinidad...
Collected by the Editor of the Venezuelan Herald "
Collected by the Editor of the "Dominica
Guardian ... ...
Collected by the Editor "Royal Gazette," Bermuda
Collected through The Irish Times in response to
an appeal from the Commissioner of Montserrat
Collected in Berbice... ... .
Collected in British Guiana ......
Collected in Dominica ...... ...
Collected in St. Kitts ... ... ...
Collected in Montserrat .
Collected in Saba through Mr. Emile S. Delisle,
St. K itts ... ... ... ...
Collected in St. Croix ...
Collected at St. Andrew's, Grenada ..
Collected at San Fernando, Trinidad ...
Collected at Inagua, Bahamas ... ...
Collected in the City of Mexico ...
Collected at Diamond Diggings, British Guiana...
Collected at Fete at Malta
Collected at Fairview Presbyterian Church, Van-
couver, B.C. ... ... ...
Subscriptions received in Barbados ...
Commercial Community of Barbados ...
Messrs. J. H. Archer & Co., Trinidad
Santa Gertruda Mining Company of Pachuca ...
Non-commissioned officers and men of St. Lucia
Garrison ... ...
Non-commissioned officers and men of Royal Army
Medical Corps in Barbados and Antigua...
The Reverend Sheppard, Nevis
Mr. E. D. M. Hooper, Madras Forestry Department
Mr. J. B. Kernahan, St. Vincent ......
Mr. J. Roland Duerden, Bermuda
Miscellaneous Receipts ... ......

52,016 3
3,240 12
5,146 0
1,041 13
434 0
102 14
100 0
100 0
50 0
328 2
200 0
32 16
104 3
78 4


26 11 6
92 17 9

42 6 0
89 16 11
387 16 6
100 13 4
75 0 8
23 14 8

31 5 0
18 8 6
92 6 0
10 0 0
29 6 10
11 5 10
8 10 0

4 6 9
367 10 9
46 1 4
10 8 4
24 5 1

17 13 5

7 15 3
1 2 0
5 0 0
4 3 4
5 0 0
9 14 10

64,525 18 5J

September 16, 1902.


Enclosure 3 in No. 39.
EXPENDITURE approved of, or about to be recommended, from the Eruption Fund,
not paid on 31st August, 1902.
Approved of in despatch of 19th August ... ... ... 13,200
Approved of in despatch of 18th August ... ... 1,500
(Import duty).
Gratuities recommended to Clerks, &c., in my despatch,
of 27th August ... .. ... ... ... 100
Bridge at Campden Park, recommended in my despatch
of 24th September ... ... ... ... ... 500
Other gratuities, including St. Lucia sufferers, "Roddam"
crew and other applications now before me-say ... 500

No. 40.
(Received October 11, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 54.]
SIR, Grenada, September 25, 1902.
WITH reference to my despatch of the 27th ultimo,* and your telegram in
reply, received on the 20th instant, t I have the honour to submit a copy of a Minute
on the subject of emigration to Jamaica, which I have addressed to Administrator
2. The:question of the conditions to be offered to the emigrants from St. Vincent
is a difficult one, but I attach, for your consideration, a copy of a letter I have addressed
to the Governor of Jamaica, setting forth the position of the people who will emigrate
and the reasons why they will expect to be given houses and house spots free, and not
be treated quite as labourers provided with barrack accommodation.
3. If the Government of amaica will follow this up, and the people of St.
Vincent agree to leave, I should propose to pay from Eruption Funds the cost (15)
of purchasing the spots of land and erecting the houses as described, and such other
installation charges as may be deemed equitable.
4. The passage money should, I submit, be paid by the Jamaica Government,
partly out of the grant of 750 voted-for the relief of the sufferers, and whatever
additional sum it may cost. I have written to the General Superintendent of the
Royal Mail Company, to know what would be the charge per head, but am not in a
position to-day to give the-probable cost.
5. I hope this scheme will work out successfully, and you may be assured that I
shall do all in my power to help.in the matter, though I sympathize with the people
of St. Vincent at what must be a big blow to the island.
I have,.&c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 40.
September 24, 1902.
The question of locating the inhabitants of Owia and Fancy and other places in the
Carib country, devastated by the eruption of the Soufriere,,has, as you are aware, given
me much anxious thought.

: a No. 30. t No. 32.

2. I have succeeded in locating the inhabitants of "Fraser's," "Sandy Bay,"
Wallibu," and "Richmond" villages on the Leeward Coast, but there is no more
;suitable land there which the owners are willing to sell at a reasonable present market
-value of land in St. Vincent, where the labourers might have a fair chance of earning
3. I have tried, I regret to say in vain, to persuade proprietors to let me purchase
:small pieces of their estates on the Windward Road, where I might establish villages,
which would give proprietors the advantage of plenty of labour for their estates; but
instead of their seeing the obvious advantage of this to them in the future, they have
met my proposal by demanding prices for their land far in excess of its value.
4. It is quite impossible for the Government to continue any longer to support
the large number of labourers now out of work. They do not wish it, and it is not
fair to them. And as there seems no chance of the proprietors in St. Vincent either
giving them land to work or employment or any means of helping themselves, the
'Secretary of State has approved of an offer made through the Governor of Jamaica to
-send to that island as many as are willing to emigrate.
5. You will, therefore, explain to those people from the devastated area now
unprovided with houses that, as the Government cannot continue to feed them and
,cannot find houses for them in St. Vincent, it is necessary that they should go elsewhere
to look for work, and you will at once take down the names of all able-bodied families
to enable.me to make arrangements to send them to Jamaica. You should make them
'clearly understand that, if they refuse this opportunity, no more relief will be given
to them.
6. They should be told that, on arrival in Jamaica, the Government will look
after them and see that they are found suitable work in the field at the current rate
*of wages. All they will have to do is to work willingly and cheerfully, and the
'Government will see that they are fairly treated.
7. I cannot, of course, give any further details until I have communicated with
-the Governor of Jamaica, but you should now furnish me, as soon as possible, with the
particulars of all families who are qualified (physically) to go. The names, sex and
ages of all children should be given as well as that of the parents.
8. You can, if you wish it and think it desirable, publish this Minute in the
R. B. LL.
September 24, 1902.

Enclosure 2 in No. 40.
SSI, Grenada, September 25, 1902.
WITH reference to your letter of the 1st July, and your despatch to
the Secretary of State, noted in the margin, of which
28/5/02. a copy has been sent to me, I have the honour to
submit, for consideration, the question of settling some of the
people of St. Vincent in Jamaica, who have lost their houses and means of livelihood
by the eruption of the volcano in St. Vincent.
2. I have been able, by the help of the funds provided in all parts of the Empire,
to re-settle in what is considered a safe part of the island about 250 families, but I still
have a similar, number on hand.
3. Those that I have loctbed have been given wooden houses-16 feet by 9 feet
pitch pine scantling-raised from the ground on native posts, floored, divided, with a
wooden partition, boarded outside, and covered with galvanized iron roofs, standing on
a plot of ground 100 by 50 feet, at a cost of about 15, including land, and each
family that emigrates from St. Vincent to Jamaica would expect the same treatment
4. It is also proposed to allot three acres of land, roughly valued at 3 per acre,
to each family and to equip the house with furniture, tools, &c., making in all a grant


of about 25 to each family. Cases of single men, women deserted by their husbands,.
old people, &c., have to be dealt with separately.
5. There are two villages at the north end of St. Vincent-" Owia and Fancy "
-the inhabitants of which I particularly wish to emigrate, and they number roughly
500, say 100 Ifamilies. They have been accustomed to live near the sea, as indeed
have all the people of St. Vincent, to work in arrowroot fields and to plant ground'
provisions in the mountains.
6. It would be desirable to locate such emigrants near a town, on the seashore,
and not in an interior parish in the mountains, such as Clarendon, or at Angels in St.
7. Could you kindly let me know whether you could build such houses, on such al
spot of land as I have specified in paragraph 3 of this despatch, for the sum of 15
per family, dn land near a town on the north side of the island close to the sea, in a
district where labour could be obtained and mountain lands rented or bought for-
provision grounds. If not, what is the lowest figure for house and land spots ?
8. I am taking steps to get the names of the families willing to emigrate. They-
ought to amount to a thousand souls in all, but, as Your Excellency is doubtless aware,.
emigration is not looked upon with. favour by the ordinary West Indian labourer.
I have, &c.,
His Excellency
Sir A. W. L. Hemming, G.C.M.G.,
&c., &c., &c.,

No. 41.

[Answered by No. 44.]
SIR, Downing Street, October 14, 1902:
I AM directed by Mr. Secretary Chamberlain to inform you that the Governor'
of the Windward Islands has asked for the services of a special officer to deal with'
the relief work which has been rendered necessary by the recent volcanic eruptions:
in St. Vincent, and that he proposes to select you for this duty, if you are willing to
undertake it.
Your duties would be to take entire supervision under, and in consultation with,,
the Governor of the Windward Islands, of the relief of the sufferers from the eruption
and their resettlement on the land, leaving the Administrator of St. Vincent free to deal"
with his other duties, including those connected with an outbreak of smallpox, which,
appears to be apprehended; and to report upon the present condition and prospects
of the island, with especial reference to the way in which they have been affected by
the eruption, such report being forwarded to the Secretary of State through the
Governor of the Windward Islands.
It would be necessary for you to leave by the mail of the 29th instant, and to'
remain in the island at least a month. You would receive a sum of 100, in addition
to your half-salary from Cyprus, a passage to and from the Colony with actual travelling-
expenses in the Colony, and a subsistence allowance of 1 Is. a day when in St.
Vincent, and 10s. 6d. a day on the voyage out and home.
I am to request that you will be good enough to inform me at your earliest con--
venience, whether you are prepared to accept the appointment.

I am, &c.,

No. 42.
(Received 5.10 p.m., October 16, 1902.)
October 16. Between 2.0 and 3.0 this morning loud reports heard from St.
Vincent; concussion so as to shake windows here; at 7.0 inky blackness in direction
,of St. Vincent, air quite still; 9.30 volcanic dust commenced falling, and still falling,
with very strong smell sulphur; according to telegram from St. Vincent SoufriBre
in full eruption.

No. 43.
(Received 8.10 p.m., October 16, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 46.]
Soufribre in full eruption, 16th October, between midnight and 5 a.m. No loss of
life reported, but heavy fall of sand and stones principally on Windward side as far
-as Union; slight fall Kingstown and Leeward coast.

No. 44.
(Received October 18, 1902.)
'SIR, Logie-Elphinstone, Aberdeenshire, October 16, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the
14th instant,* on the subject of relief works in St. Vincent, and to state that I shall
be glad to give my services in the manner indicated.
2. I beg to render my thanks for the honour conferred upon me in having been
selected for the appointment.
3. My address until my departure on the 29th instant will be:-12, Royal Terrace,
I have, &c.,
Chief Secretary,

No. 45.
(Received 5.10 p.m., October 17, 1902.)
Fall of volcanic dust, which amounted to one-eighth inch, and of finer particles,
practically ceased 1.0 yesterday.

No. 46.
(Sent 5.25 p.m., October 18, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 47.]
Have heard with regret of fresh eruption. Further details anxiously awaited.

*No. 41.

No. 47.
(Received 3.40 a.m., October 20, 1902.)
In reply to' your telegram of yesterday's date,* sand and stones fell eight inches
deep in the Carib country, rather less Chateaubelair; no damage to buildings; area of
land damaged increased.

No. 48.
(Received 8.0 a.m., October 20, 1902.)
[Answered by Nos. 50 and 54.]
Referring to my despatch 25 September,f and previous correspondence,
popular agitation has been set on foot against any emigration, and all the people have-
consequently withdrawn. May I, therefore, adopt necessary measures for permanent
settlement of inhabitants locally?

No. 49.
(Received October 23, 1902.)
SmI, Grenada, October 6, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch, noted in the-
margin,J informing me of the very handsome donation of 1,348 18s. 9d., being part
September of the proceeds from a tournament organized by the Belgian Army for the relief of
16th, 1902. the sufferers from the volcanic eruptions in St. Vincent and Martinique.
2., I have no doubt that you have caused a suitable acknowledgment to be for-
warded through His Majesty's Minister at Brussels, but I shall be obliged if you will
now communicate to the Military Authorities in Belgium how much this generous
unlooked-for act on the part of the Belgian Army has been appreciated by the people of
St. Vincent.
3. I have also to express my thanks to the Antwerp Relief Committee for the
sum of 137 2s. 2d., which you-inform me inthe same despatch has been allotted to,
St. Vincent.
I have, &c.,
[NOTE.-A copy of this despatch was sent to Foreign Office on 6th November, 1902.]

No. 50.
... (Sent 6.55 p.m., October 24, 1902.)
Referring to your telegram of October 20th, proposals for emigration to Jamaica,
were made in response to request from people of villages no longer tenable. If they
now reject assistance offered it will be for serious consideration whether aid can be-
given in any other form., Use influence to induce them accept offer. If they still
decline further action i must await arrival of Young.

No. 46. t No. 40. Not printed. No. 48.

No. 51.
[Answered by No. 53.]
Smi, Downing Street, October 24, 1902.
I AM directed by Mr. Secretary Chamberlain to acknowledge the receipt of
your letter of the 9th inst.,* in which you set forth the losses which you have sustained
in consequence of the recent volcanic eruptions in Saint Vincent, and ask that assistance
may be given to you from the Mansion House Relief Fund.
You are aware that Mr. Chamberlain regards the Fund as intended for the relief
of actual distress, and not for the granting of compensation for losses sustained. He
does not, however, desire finally to exclude your application upon this ground, and h6
will be prepared to consider any evidence which you may be able to set before him
to show that the conditions upon which alone he is prepared to sanction the grant of
assistance are satisfied in your case.
These conditions may be set forth as follows:-It must be shown that the recipient
of assistance is absolutely unable to restore his cultivation, or a sufficient part of it,
without aid; and that the grant of assistance would secure the object in view, viz.,
the restoration of cultivation and the employment of labour.
Mr. Chamberlain proposes to communicate to the Governor by next Wednesday's
mail copies of this correspondence and to invite him to submit recommendations, if he
is of opinion that the above-mentioned conditions will be satisfied, as to the manner
in which assistance might best be given you. Until he has had an opportunity of con-
sidering the Governor's views, he cannot give any more definite reply to your appli-
cation, and you will, of course, understand that he cannot at present give you any
promise that assistance in any form will be given to you.
I am to add that Mr. Chamberlain will be happy to include in the correspondence
to be transmitted to the Governor any further statement which you may desire to
submit as to the form of assistance which would be of most use to you, and as to the
steps you would take for the restoration of your Estates should any such assistance
be afforded you.
I am, &c.,

No. 52.
(Received 7.25 p.m., October 25, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 54.]
In continuation of my telegram of 19 October,f written reports from curator, St.
Vincent, show very serious and extensive injuries to all growing crops. General out-
look much worse than it was early in the month; area of comparative safety is narrowed
down considerably, and gravity of situation very much increased. I am waiting for
Young to arrive before I go to St. Vincent.

No. 53.
(Received October 28, 1902.)
Sm, Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, S.W., October 27, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 24th instant, I
.in reply to mine of the 9th,* and to thank Mr. Secretary Chamberlain for the attention
which he has given to it.
With respect to the conditions set forth in paragraph 3 of your letter, I may
say that Windsor Forest" Estate being totally destroyed, and being at the base of the
Volcano, nothing can be done in the way of restoring it.
SNo. 37. + No. 47. No. 5-].

In the case of Richmond Vale," I fear that the conditions are not much better,
it is contiguous to Wallibou" and "Richmond," which have both been destroyed,
and lies between the Soufribre and Chateaubelair, which town is regarded as being
in the danger zone, it suffers more and more from each eruption, and as mentioned in
my letter of the 9th,* a part of the roof of the sugar works collapsed on September 3rd,
under the weight of stones and ashes.
The loss of about one third of this year's arrowroot crop resulted from the eruption
of the 7th of May, and subsequent eruptions have so damaged the next crop, as also
the canes, cocoa trees, &c., &c., that very little will be obtained from them if reaping
takes place, but I hardly think it-will, as I believe the Estate is almost abandoned.
Many of the labourers have left the quarter, and those who remain desert it at every
sign of disturbance from the Volcano.
The locality is considered so unsafe that I believe the Government is anxious that
the people should remove from it.
My brother can only visit the Estate occasionally, and has to leave it at night;
he nearly lost his life there on the 7th of May, and during one of his recent visits an
,eruption took place, which necessitated his leaving. The pastures are so frequently
and deeply covered with sand and ashes, that the cattle and mules can get nothing
to feed upon, and had my mother not been able to take them on her Estate, they
would have perished.
I mention this to show that there is little or no likelihood of cultivation being
restored on this Estate in the near future, the risk to life and property being so great,
owing to !its proximity to the Volcano; it would also be impossible to borrow money,
as I would have no security to offer, and am not able to meet my present liabilities.
I had hoped that were any help given me from the funds no restrictions would
be imposed on me, as I cannot but think it advisable to seek a living and make a home
elsewhere as my mother's estate may yet be destroyed, and I do not know to what
part of the world I may have to go, or what amount of capital I may need in order
to establish myself.
Should Mr. Chamberlain, however, insist on my expending in St. Vincent any
monies which he may be pleased to grant me, I shall then have to try to obtain an
Estate as far from the Volcano as possible, if one can.be got.
If further proof is needed of the difficulties under which we have laboured since
the hurricane of 1898-apart from our losses on that occasion-it can be given by Dr.
Morris, who has sent some of his staff to the island at our request, and has given us
all the help he could in combating with an arrowroot disease and plagues of cater-
pillars, which have for the last two years considerably reduced our crops; and also by
Mr. Powell, the Curator of the Botanical Station, who estimated the loss of the last
crop at one half. The 'prevalence of the caterpillars is due to the destruction of bird
life by the hurricane, and the eruptions add further fo it.
I have, &c.,

No. 54.
[Answered by No. 65.]
SIR, Downing Street, October 28, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of the 20th
instant,t in which you stated that popular agitation had been set on foot against the
proposed emigration to Jamaica, and that consequently all the people had withdrawn,
and enquired whether you might adopt the necessary measures for a permanent settle-
ment of the inhabitants locally.
2. You had informed me in your despatch of the 27th of August,t that
the landowners of Saint Vincent would not co-operate with your schemes for resettling
the people, and would not part with their land at reasonable prices. I am not pre-
pared to authorize the purchase of land in the island at prices above its value, and,
.apart from this difficulty, I am still of opinion that emigration to Jamaica, where the
refugees would have regular work-assured them, is the most-satisfactory solution of the

* N1o. 37.

t No. 48.

t No. 30.

problem. I accordingly telegraphed to you on the 24th instant,* that it would be a
matter for serious consideration whether help could be given in any other form to those
who refused the assistance offered to them. I pointed out that the preparations foi
their emigration were made at their own request, and I added that, if they still
declined to emigrate, further action must be deferred until Captain Young's arrival.
3. The opinion -which I have expressed has since been strengthened by the'
receipt of your telegram of the 25th instant,t from which I have learned with regret
that the area of comparative safety has been considerably reduced, a circumstance
which emphasizes the necessity of finding homes elsewhere for some of the inhabitants.
I have, &c.,

No. 55.
[Answered by No. 89.]
SIR, Downing Street, November 4, 1902.
WITH reference to the correspondence noted in the margin,f I have the honour
to trarismit to you the accompanying copies of
correspondence with Mr. D. A. MacDonald on
TGovernor, July 16. the subject of the losses suffered by him in conse-
To Governor, August 19.
quence of the volcanic eruptions in Saint Vincent.
2. I shall be glad if you will communicate
a copy of this despatch with its enclosures to Captain Young, and request him to take
them into his consideration, and to submit, through you, any recommendations which
he may have to offer after visiting the localities.
3. The conditions upon which I am prepared to approve of assistance being
given are stated in the letter to Mr. MacDonald, dated the 24th of October. |
I have, &c.,

No. 56.
(Received November 8, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 61A.]
Government House, Grenada, October 21, 1902.
I have the honour to submit copies of a correspondence that has passed between
myself and Mr. William R. Corwine, who is Secretary of the Associated Committees
for the relief of the West Indian sufferers.
The Association has an office in the Chamber of Commerce rooms, No. 32,
Nassau Street, New York, and Mr. Gustav H. Schwab is chairman of the Executive
Committee, and Mr. Cornelius N. Bliss the treasurer.
Mr. Corwine visited St. Vincent at the time of the first eruption in May, and
informed me that the Association had collected ample funds for the sufferers in Mar-
tinique and St. Vincent, but I gathered from him that the Committee did not propose
to send the money they had to the general fund, but would prefer that I would per-
sonally recommend special cases to them.
You will gather from the attached correspondence what has happened since,
and I have now received the sum of 517 15s. Id. to distribute in any way I may
think fit.
I think it right that I should lay these facts before you, as I should like to 'feel
assured that there is no objection to my receiving this money from the Association and
distributing it, as I purpose doing, in special cases of distress which come to my
personal knowledge.

No. 50. t No. 52. Nos. 12 and 21. 6 Nos. 37, 51. and 53.
1 No. 51.. 1 Ono letter only is printed.
14986 H

Enclosure in No. 56.
DEAR SIR', Government House, Grenada, October 18, 1902.
I BEG to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 17th September, together
with your Committee's draft on London for 517 15s. Id., for which I send you the
very grateful thanks of the distressed people of St. Vincent.
I can only repeat, in the words I used in a previous letter, that the money shall be
given to deserving cases, and that I feel sure the recipients will never forget the kind
action of your Committee in New York, and the subscribers to the fund raised in the
United States of America.
I will communicate with you again and send you details of how the sum of money
placed at my disposal is spent, and you may assure your Committee that, should I
find that it is necessary to ask for more, I will not hesitate to do so.
As you are probably aware, there have been several eruptions of the Soufribre
since I last wrote to you, and a particularly violent one in the early morning of the
16th October. The damage done was limited to property, and no lives were lost, but
the uncertainty of the volcano makes the strain on the inhabitants of St. Vincent
necessarily great.
I am, &c.,
Windward Islands.
"Wm. R. Corwine, Esquire,
Secretary of the Associated Committees
for the Relief of the West Indian Sufferers,
32, Nassau Street, New York.

No. 57.
(Received November 8, 1902.)
SIR, Government House, October 22, 1902.
REFERRING to the telegrams noted in the margin,* I have the honour to
I transmit to you a copy of a letter from Mr. R.
To Secretary of State, 16th Oct., 1902. Radclyffe Hall, Acting Professor of Chemistry
To Secretary of State, 17th Oct., 1902. with regard to the volcanic dust which was dis-
charged from the Soufriere at St. Vincent and
fell over Barbados on the 16th October. I enclose also a copy of a report of a
preliminary microscopic examination of the dust made by Dr. Longfield Smith.
I'have, &c.,

Enclosure in No. 57.
'SIR, Government Laboratory, Barbados, October 18, 1902.
IT may be of interest to many to know the following particulars determined
-so far about the Dust which fell here on the 16th instant.
2. I had collected at the Government Laboratory samples from 9-11 a.m., from
11 a.m. to 1 p.m., and from 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.; the blowing about of the dust by
'the breezO in the earlier hours of the morning of the 17th prevented the last sample,
collected between 3 p.m. on the 16th and 8 a.m. on the 17th, being of any statistical
value; the rate of fall was as follows:-
October 16th:-
From 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. at the rate of .48 tons per acre.
From 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. at the rate of 2.10 tons per acre.
From 1 p.m.-to 3 pm.- at the rate of 1.34 tons per acre.
Total from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. at the rate of 3.92 tons per acre.
S'Nos: 42 and 45.

I also collected two samples at "Rosebank," Hastings, where the fall was,
October 16th, from 8.45 a.m. to 4 p.m. at the rate of 4.59 tons per acre, and from
4 p.m. to 7 a.m. (17th) at the rate of .20 tons per acre, of this I estimate about .13 tons
per acre had fallen by 5.30 p.m. on the 16th. These figures suggest that the fall
at Hastings was heavier than that in the neighbourhood of Roebuck Street; I.had
previously formed the idea that the cloud was heavier towards its south-westerly
side, and it seemed to me that it was darker at Hastings than further inland and
towards the city.
3. I attach the report of a preliminary microscopic examination made by
Dr. Longfield Smith, and I hope to publish a little later on, a full chemical analysis
of the Dust." It would appear probable that this fall may have a slightly higher
fertilizing value than that of May 7th, and the fact of its being so much finer in
texture will probably render its valuable ingredients more rapidly available to plants.
We appear to have obtained in this case rather the "tail end of the dust storm:
:the coarser particles may have travelled in a more southerly direction than the
previous one of May 7th, and then have fallen in the sea. If this is the case we
should expect to find that the south-eastern parts of the island had a heavier fall
than the north-western.

R. R. HALL, Esquire, October 18, 1902.
1. I have examined the volcanic dust which fell here on October 16th, 1902, and
ind it to be of a much finer texture than that which fell between May 7th and 8th,
all the grains being less than 1 millimetre diameter, while 77.37 per cent. of the
dust from the former eruption of the Soufriere was coarser than 1 millimetre.
2. I collected dust at Nonpareil," Hastings, every hour from 9.15 till 2.15,
and then from 2.15 till 3.45, and found very little difference in texture or composi-
tion between the successive samples.
3. The particles consist chiefly of minute fragments of felspar with a little
volcanic glass, some ferro-magnesian minerals and a very little magnetite.
4. The dust differs, therefore, considerably in composition from that which fell
on May 7th and 8th, which consisted largely of ferro-magnesian minerals and
contained a considerable quantity of magnetite.
5. On this account the dust is likely to prove of greater fertilizing value than
,that of May 7th and 8th.

No. 58.

(Received November 8, 1902.)

[Answered by No. 67.]
Sm, Grenada, October 23, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to forward a despatch I have just received from the
Administrator of St. Vincent, reporting the eruption which took place on the 15th
and 16th instant.
2. I regret to observe that there has been a large increased area of land
damaged by this last outburst, and the prospects are now much blacker than they
3. Coarse gritty sand or small stones seem to have fallen as far south as Argyle
Estate and in the Marriaqua Valley, and I notice with deep regret that the peasants
settled on the acquired estates of New Adelphi and Park Hill have had all their
ground provisions, nearly ready for reaping, destroyed. -'
4. It is a matter for serious consideration whether Georgetown, at. presecit.
deserted, may not have to be abandoned, and, if another violent eruption takes place,

i, and, that time drifts to the west instead of to the east as on the 13th instant, then
SChateaubelair down as far as Mr. MacDonald's property at Wallilabo will be
5. The area of safety for dwellings and cultivation are gradually getting reduced,
and even if land is acquired at the south end of the island, and all the people crowded
there, I do not know how they can exist except in poverty and distress.
6. I !had no idea until the receipt this afternoon of Mr. Cameron's report that
the damage done was so serious, and it is a matter for grave consideration, and one
on which I am afraid I can give no decisive opinion, whether any part of the island
can confidently be said to be without the range of danger from this terrible volcano.
7. It is most distressing to have to write this of what was certainly a beautiful
island six months ago, but I am afraid it must be faced.
8. The south-eastern end of the island is badly off for water, and I am afraid
if more people are crowded there, they will not be able to exist. Forced emigration
seems the 'only solution, but that is a severe measure. The increased cost for feed-
ing all the people now turned out of their homes with the loss of their provisions is a.
very serious matter.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure in No. 58.

SIR, Government House, St. Vincent, October 21, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to supplement my two telegrams of 16th instant with the
following brief account of the violent eruption of the Soufribre Mountain which took
place on the night of the 15th.
2: The first intimation of unusual activity occurred between 8.0 and 8.30,.
when a single explosion took place, and a very large and high column of steam
and smoke ascended.
This was, however, not repeated, and all soon became quiet again, the night being
fine with bright moon.
3. Shortly after midnight I was aroused by the low ominous growl, which has
now become so distressingly familiar, and the usual lightning flashes, and on going out
found that an eruption was in progress.
4. This continued till daylight, and from the loudness of the rumbling and de-
tonations, which was, I think, greater than on any previous occasion, and the enor-
mous cloud of smoke that gathered on the east, it was evident that the eruption was
a very serious one, and that the force of it was being felt mainly on the Windward
5. Sand of a coarse gritty nature began to fall in Kingstown between half past
one and two, and continued till the morning, getting gradually lighter and finer.
6. I obtained information in the morning as soon' as possible' as to the con-
dition on the Leeward Coast and at Mesopotamia, and at once telegraphed the occuc-
arence.to Your Excellency.
: The telephone communication with Georgetown being interrupted I despatched.
a Constable from Mesopotamia to ascertain what might have happened there.
7. Shortly after, however, I got communication, through Mesopotamia, with
the Medical Officer's Quarters at the Cedars," and was relieved to learn from a
Georgetown Constable who had come there on the way to town with a report from
,i;,the. Assistant Treasurer's'Clerk, that there had been no loss of life.
If : ;. confirmed, however, the news from Mesopotamia, and my expectations as to
:' .' he heavy fall of sand up the Coast to Georgetown.
8. I enclose copy of the -Clerk's report above mentioned. Mr. Isaacs, the Magis-
itate, had been. at Nesnpotamia'diiring the 15th, anid was not at Georgetown till next
d'~ )

9. I arranged on Thursday with the Curator, for himself and the Agricultural
Instructor to proceed to windward and make an examination of the country, and a
report on the damage sustained.
This report I now transmit.
The condition of things it discloses is very distressing, and of most serious import
in connection with the consideration of future probabilities and the action desirable.
10. I take this opportunity of bringing under Your Excellency's 'special notice
the prompt, efficient, and valuable services rendered by Mr. Powell on this occasion
as well as after the eruptions of the 3rd of September and 7th May last, in providing
the Government with reliable information as to agricultural losses, to obtain which
he has been unsparing of himself.
11. I also forward a report from the Windward Warden of the eruption as
viewed by him, and of its effect on the Town of Georgetown and adjacent roads which
are his particular care.
12. I have had to authorize Mr. Isaacs to give a supplementary dole to the'
refugees from Georgetown and the neighboring villages, who have again been driven
to quit their homes and are congregated at Colonarie and Sans Souci, and I can start
further relief work on the bye roads mentioned by Mr. Powell.
This, however, touches merely the fringe of the matter. The real question is
what is to be done with the population whose dependence lies within the area affected
by this malign volcano, an area which, with each successive eruption, becomes more
and more of a Sahara.
No term can be fixed to the activity of the mountain, and the people cannot go
on like this indefinitely.
13. It is pretty certain also that a general cry for relief will come in within
the next fortnight or so from all villages to the north of Argyle. A deputation from
Greggs has come in already. Even the Marriaqua Valley is on this occasion devas-
tated to some extent.
To deal with this increased relief work, I must ask that some person be sent.
I cannot do it with all the other work I have to attend to.
14. I may, perhaps, add that I was discussing with Mr. Isaacs on the 15th
the possibility of cutting down some portion of the dole money now being issued at
Georgetown, 112 weekly. He assured me most positively that he could not see how
the people would manage to exist if it were at all appreciably reduced. There was
no work being done; the Estates were doing nothing; the few provisions that had
been planted had been eaten with worm, and there were none to be bought any-
where. Nor could he see the prospect of any substantial difference in the conditions
six months hence.
This new eruption has made such prospect even remoter.
15. There is, I fear, a necessity for steps being taken to bring about a removal,
at any rate for a time, .of the inhabitants of the Carib Country,: and in the face of, the
strong objection to emigration which has been recently manifested, sonie scheme of
re-settlement on the southern side of the island would appear to be indicated. But,
in the notable absence of any industry that would ensure to the people a steady
employment, and a means of earning a decent livelihood, and with the object lesson
of poverty, squalor, and disease, with which one is confronted on every side, I could
only view with grave concern for the future, the crowding into the southern half of the
island, already fairly well populated, of any very considerable further numbers.
16. If any such scheme of re-settlement be decided on, I submit that a strongly
enforced staff is required in order to carry it out promptly and effectively.
I have, &c.,
His Excellency Administrator.
Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G.,
&c., &c., &c.,

Administrator CAMERON to GOVERNOR, Grenada.
(Sent October 16, 1902.)
Regret to report violent eruption last night, midnight, continuing to 5.0, accom-
panied by usual electric phenomena. Slight fall gritty sand Kingstown and Leeward
coast. Reported two inches thick Mesopotamia. Communication interrupted
between this place and Georgetown at present.

Administrator CAMERON to GOVERNOR, Grenada.
(Sent October 16, 1902.)
Just had communication with Cedars. Georgetown Constable reports
no damage to life, but very great fall sand, stones, there to Union. Wires broken
down Byera.

I HAVE the honour to report that the eruption of the Soufribre on the 15th
and 16th instant has ejected considerable quantities of sand on the roads, byeways
and in their drains, and has again levelled the beds of the Byera and Mount Bentinck
The thickness of this sand on the surface of the roads, varies considerably, I am
inclined to think from 1 inch to 10 inches; whilst in the drains, at points, it is heaped
up two or three feet high. I have had gangs put on to clear and clean out all drains
and water-courses, to protect the main roads or highways, on the downfall of rains.
Will Your Honour approve of the expenditure incurred for effecting these works
being charged to "Soufriere Eruption Fund," or otherwise ?
G. D.,
W. W. Dist.

I HAVE the honour to report that a considerable quantity of sand, &c., has
been ejected from the volcano during the 15th and 16th instant, at the town of
Georgetowl, some of the roofs of the buildings, and all gutters on them, quantities of
sand have been deposited thereon; while every drain or water-course has been com-
pletely blocked up, almost level with the streets, the streets have deposited on them
from 6 inches to 1 foot in thickness, the yards of the inhabitants of this town are all
more or less, thickly covered with sand. If the drains in and around this town are
not cleared and cleaned out, on a fall of rain I fear that the town will be flooded.
My co-Wardens are of a like opinion, therefore we are having the drains and water-
courses dealt with, but as'usual it is difficult.to obtain sufficient labourers in this town
to have this work effected as quickly as we should like to. Your Honour is well
aware of the financial position of this town, and, therefore I ask that the expenditure
for clearing roofs of buildings and cleaning out the drains and water-courses be ap-
proved of by Your Honour to be charged to Soufribre Eruption Fund." Your
Honour will note that I have not dealt with the clearing of streets and yards at
present as I am inclined to think it would be unwise to do so now, looking at the
circumstances concerning the volcano.
G. D.,
ber 2W. W. Dist.
SOctober 20 j 1902. :


Si, Georgetown Police Station, October 16, 1902.
HEREWITH I respectfully make report by special messenger P. C. Davy, No.
28, in consequence of not being able to communicate by telephone.

2. About 7.30 p.m., on 15th instant the Soufribre gave signs of activity by
electrical discharges and low rumbling sounds, this continued until about 9 p.m.

3. About (12) midnight it again appeared active, when sharp and vivid electrical
flashes with fiery appearance were being emitted, accompanied with heavy rumblings,
increasing in loudness and followed by the falling of ash, small pebbles, and fairly large
4. It rained heavy showers of sand all night up to about 3 p.m., very coarse
and gritty; and up to time of writing (6 a.m.) sand of a finer quality is still falling,
and the Soufribre appears still active.

5. The darkness which prevailed during the eruption was impenetrable. No
report of any damage to life or property yet known. The whole town is covered with
sand to a depth of 6 inches to 10 inches.

6. The Constable is instructed to make inquiries on his way respecting death or
damage, so as to report to your Honour.

I have, &c.,
'Clerk to Assistant Treasurer.
His Honour
E. J. Cameron,
&c., &c., &c.

REPORT by Curator of the Botanic Station and Agricultural Instructor on damage
done by Eruption of Soufriere on 15th and 16th October, 1902.
His Honour
The Administrator,
Acting on verbal instructions received from Your Honour on the 16th instant,
we left Kingstown the following morning for the Windward District vi& the Vigie,
Mesopotamia, and Greggs, for the purpose of enquiring by personal inspection into
the damage done to provision grounds in general by the eruption of the SoufriBre
on the night of the 15th and morning of the 16th instant. The places visited were-
as follows:-

Mesopotamia, Greggs, Lauders, North Union, Sans Souci, New Adelphi, Lively
Village, Park Hill, Three Rivers, Mount Williams, Byera, Grand Sable, and Mount
Bentinck, and the return to Kingstown was by way of Argyle, Stubbs, and Calliaqua.

At Kingstown the depth of sand from the Soufriere was from I to inch deep.
This gradually increased in thickness right into Georgetown, and at Mount Bentinck
the new deposit averaged 6 inches deep.

Mesopotamia.-This district has suffered damage to provisions and canes; the
weight of the sand a little over an inch deep being such as to break down the leaves,
of the bananas and plantains, and to prostrate canes in patches, also numerous young
branches of breadfruit trees.

At Hopewell and the upper part of the Mesopotamia Valley next to Greggs the
damage was more in evidence, and the wail of the people here, as at other places, was
14986 I

that the provisions were being burnt up. This, in a. sense, was, indeed, true, but
more particularly so where the sand was a couple of inches or more deep. The day
was very hot, and as no rain had fallen (of any account) during, or since, the eruption,
the sand had been so acted on by the sun as to be almost roasting hot. Such pro-
visions as sweet potatoes and yams and tannias planted since May or June last are
within a few weeks of maturity, and we fear the effect of this hot layer of'sand on
these provisions will be to make them what is known locally as "forced ripe," and,
therefore, unfit for food. In any case, severe damage to the crops has already been

The prostrate canes can be made into syrup, and the people were advised to
attend to this without delay.
As no' coarse material of any heavy nature fell at the places visited, no damage
was done tb the stalks of the bunches of plantains, though the sand in the axils of the
leaves, unless removed, will do harm.

At Greggs the sand was about 2 inches deep, and the people reported that the
damage done was greater than on 7th May with the exception of plantains, bananas,
and breadfruits. This is correct, as we view the damage to tannias, yams, and sweet
potatoes as of more consequence on account of the larger areas grown than the
first named.

Union Estates.--The sand here is much about 2 inches deep, and as there are
numerous plots of provisions in this district, much serious damage has been done.

New Adelphi.-The sugar works here are an inestimable boon to the allottees,
some pf whom were engaged making syrup at the time of our visit.

Some good pieces of canes are now on this estate, and though small areas have
been beaten down by the weight of sand, the canes can be turned into syrup at little

In the case of provisions, however, the matter is serious, the sand being close on
three inches deep, and the allottees here had paid attention to the advice given them
in May and' June last to plant up plots of tannias, yams, potatoes, &c., now mostly

Lively Village.-The cultivation here was not of an extensive nature, but what
provision plots are there have suffered as at New Adelphi.

Park Hill.-The depth of sand here varies from 3 to about 4 inches. As at New
Adelphi the allottees had soon after the 7th May recognized that it was to their
interest to cultivate large plots of various provisions, and the destruction of these
has made the people very despondent. In the direction of South Rivers the pro-
vision plots at Park Hill were exceptionally good and consequently the loss is great.

South Rivers.-The excessive damage done by the eruption of 7th May at this
place did ndt admit of planting operations being undertaken as early as at places
further south, but though later in planting the plots of provisions promised well, but
are now ruined, and the condition of the people here unless provided with immediate
relief work will be pitiable.

Three Rivers.-Being in the same 'locality as the preceding, the damage is the

Mount William.-The fine cocoa cultivation here, it need hardly be said, has
received further damage. The branches of numerous trees were bent downwards
and hardly a flower was noticed. The cocoa season has commenced, but not a
single pod was seen on any of the trees inspected, so serious was the damage of the
7th May.

Byera.-The plantains and bananas have made good growth in the valley here,
but as this was the Southern line of total destruction of 7th May, hardly any pro-
vision existed in this district.

'Grand Sable.-The depth of the layer of sand on the arrowroot fields, and the
difficulty which has now arisen in regard to the water supply will probably result
in the abandonment of the manufacture of arrowroot on this estate for a year or
two, even though no further eruptions should occur, and a large number of hands.
will be idle.

Mount Bentinck.-As stated in the opening part of this report, the sand on that
part of the estate near the dwelling house averages 6 inches, but in the direction
of the SoufriBre, it is probably much deeper. The manufacture of arrowroot for
this year, can scarcely be entertained, though there is a spring yielding a plentiful
supply of good water which can be made available for settling" purposes, if the
arrowroot rhizomes should later prove to be of use. Should Mount Bentinck anc
Grand Sable entirely cease cultivation, the condition of the people in the George-
town District will be more serious than before.

Biabou District.-This locality has suffered, though to a lesser extent than
Greggs-just north of same. The damage lessens southwards. At Argyle serious
injury. practically ceases.

Knowing as we do the wide extent and serious nature of the damage to pro-
vision plots, &c., we would most respectfully bring to the notice of the Government
the need of at once starting relief work on the following roads, which are much
in need of good repairs:-
(a) from Mount Greenan Church to Park Hill works.
(b) from Sanders to new Adelphi works via Chapman's Village.
(c) from New Adelphi works via Lively Village and Dr. Smith's Valley to
new Village at Park Hill.
(d) from Lauders old works to top of hill above Greggs.
(e) from New Adelphi works at Public Road via New Ground Village.
(f) the acquisition of Lauders and the allotting of same at the earliest possible
date would be of immense assistance to the people in the near neighbour-
hood, and probably room would be found for others from elsewhere.

October 21, 1902. Agricultural Instructor.

No. 59.


(Received November 8, 1902.)

[Answered by No. 67.]
Government House, Grenada, October 23, 1902.
WITH reference to my telegram of the 19th instant,* informing you that the
proposed emigration of some of the labourers from St. Vincent to Jamaica had

SNo. 48.
14986 T

been opposed by the agitators in the Colony, I now transmit a copy of a St. Vincent
newspaper giving a report of the proceedings at the meeting held there on
Wednesday, the 15th instant, to condemn the scheme.

The night of the meeting there was a violent eruption of the SoufriBre, and
perhaps sbme of the people may change their minds again. If they were left to them-
selves they could be managed easily, but unscrupulous agitators are upsetting them
and leading them astray.

Enclosure 1 in No. 59.

THE SENTRY," October 17, 1902.



The public meeting which we advertised in our columns on Friday last was convened at the
Court House on Wednesday at the time appointed and was attended by a large and representative
gathering including numerous Caribs and other sufferers from the recent eruption, whose
appearance in itself was a fit illustration of their domestic condition. It was a noticeable fact
that whilst the lower storey. of the Court House proved inadequate to hold the people of all
classes that eagerly sought admission thereto, and the majority of whom after all had to remain
outside, some of the leading merchants of the Bay Street were conspicuous by their absence.
In justice to those gentlemen and in support of our statements as to the universal opposition to
the emigration scheme of Sir Robert Llewelyn, we think it necessary to publish the fact that
urgent business prevented them attending the meeting, but the movement had their hearty

The Rev. W. Newlands was appointed Chairman-which office he filled with dignity and
conducted the meeting in an able manner. We publish his opening speech in extenso, showing
as it does that the revd. gentleman was rather in favour of the Governor than otherwise; yet
public feeling is so strong against the inequitable acts of Sir Robert, that in that large gathering
there was not one who thought it necessary to modify the wording of the protest, much less to vote
.against it.

We may also mention that the sentiment of the meeting in condemning the administration
of local affairs was not against the present Administrator of St. Vincent. It is the system of
government which we all despise--a system that actually binds the hands of the Administrator
and places himi and all other officials in a position not far removed from that of slaves.

The CHAIRMAN:-Gentlemen,-I have been asked to act as Chairman and conduct this
public meeting to-day for a particular reason. While residing and working in your midst for the
time being, and on that account naturally deeply interested in the welfare of this poor, stricken
colony, yet I have no personal interest involved on the question at issue. I am not unfriendly
to the Governor and Administrator. So it has been thought I am fitted to act impartially at the
meeting and to take an unbiassed view of the situation.

At the outset permit me to say that in anything I have had to do with him in connection
with the relief of the sufferers I have found Sir Robert to be exceedingly fair and just. But,
gentlemen, he has recently issued a letter or minute, and this letter has aroused, I am led to
understand, a deep feeling of resentment and indignation amongst you; especially the emigration
clause in that letter.

Now, gentlemen, if it is the case that there is now, if it is the case that there has been for
years a large number of idle people who could not obtain employment, then it is not only a wise
and statesman-like policy, it is a humane policy to take these to a place where they can get
a living. If on the other hand, as planters have told me, there is a difficulty sometimes in
obtaining labourers, then it is for the meeting to-day to prove that.

Prove to-day, not by sound and fury, which can prove nothing, but prove by solid argument
that Sir Robert is wrong in his proposals, then not only the Administrator and Governor, buf
Mr. Chamberlain himself will listen to you with respect. Mr. Chamberlain's policy I hold to

be the right one. What, gentlemen, would it profit to spend the 53,000 in merely temporary
relief, and after the money is all spent, find that no permanent industry is re-established, nor
regular employment is left? The last state of the Island then would be worse than the first.

Relieve the sufferers, gentlemen, as Mr. Chamberlain suggests, by re-establishing the estates
.and industries of the island, and thus affording regular and constant employment, and means
-of livelihood to the labourers.

I wish to indicate briefly the spirit and temper which ought to characterisee the meeting
to-day. I wish a lofty and serious tone to pervade your speeches and discussions. Mere
harangue and declamation is worse than useless. Don't let it be said of you that this is an
instance of No case, abuse the opposite attorney." Passion, prejudice, and personalities should
.all be put aside.

Address yourselves to the question at issue as men who are living in facie 6aternitatis,-face
to face with eternity. Why, this very night, gentlemen, for all we know, the giant of the
mountain may wake up in wrath and devour us all. At any moment, from quite a different
quarter, death may lay its diseased hand upon any one of us. If you listen intently, as John
Bright said in his ever memorable speech in the British House of Commons, if you listen intently
"you may almost hear the beating of the death-angel's wings." Gentlemen, this is no time
for mere bickering and abuse. For this reason I strongly advise one or two alterations in the
resolution which I have been asked to put. Sir Robert is called obstinate, cruel, and
:arbitrary," &c. This is nonsense. It is always childish to call names. Don't sink yourselves
to the level of the low Irish agitators, who used to call Mr. Balfour the base, bloody, and
brutal Balfour." The violent may take the kingdom of Heaven by force; certainly you will
never take Mr. Chamberlain by force. Also don't ask for the recall of anybody. You have
no voice in the appointment, you can have no voice in the recall. You are right, seeing you
are dissatisfied, to ask for a Relief Commission. Gentlemen, I repeat, by the solid arguments
,of serious, earnest men alone can you influence the decision of the authorities.

There are just really two possible policies. One is a policy of despair. If the situation
is absolutely hopeless, then let us all emigrate, labourers, proprietors, all. If on the other hand
there is still some hope, as Mr. Chamberlain thinks, of re-establishing the island, then let us
,all combine to do it. The interests of all classes are bound up together. At this critical moment
so fraught with fateful consequences to the future of the island, let us all join together to
bring order out of chaos, to restore some measure, at least, of happiness and prosperity to this
.poor distracted land.

The Chairman called on Mr. J. E. Sprott to move the resolution.

Mr. SPROTT, introducing the paper, said:--He regarded it as a very great honour conferred
,on him in being called upon to move the resolution for the discussion of which this meeting,
representative of all classes and interests in St. Vincent, had been convened. In compliance with
the request of the Chairman, before submitting the resolution, he had much pleasure in making
.an amendment thereto, rendering it free from any personal attack on Sir Robert Llewelyn.
Whilst respecting Sir Robert as a gentleman, he thought that as Governor, he had proved himself
unfit for the position of Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands; and felt certain that
.abundant proof of this would be produced by the seconders and supporters of the resolution.
Continuing, Mr. Sprott made the following remarks :-" Our island home is blessed with latent
resources, the development of which would certainly contribute to the prosperity and happiness
of the people; but no other place in the West Indies is so unfortunate as St. Vincent. We have
been frequently visited by seismic and atmospheric disturbances, but even the havoc wrought
by these cannot compare with the evil done to the Island by gross misgovernment; and now
we are in the hands of a Governor who seems bent on completing the ruin of the colony. But,
thank God, we live under a glorious constitution that safeguards the rights and liberties of loyal
subjects of the King. We possess, as British subjects, the invaluable boon of a free press and
liberty of speech; and these are the weapons we must use, in a constitutional manner, to protect
ourselves from Governmental oppression. I have endeavoured to do my duty as a public
journalist to expose the rottenness in the administration of local affairs. But now let us with
a united press and unanimous voice make an earnest appeal.to the Rt. Hon. the Secretary of
State to intervene between Sir Robert Llewelyn and this colony, and save us from the disastrous
results of the inequitable measure of the Governor. If we may not ask for his removal, we can
-at least pray for the appointment of an Administrator directly responsible to the Colonial Office.

For these purposes I now have the honour to read the resolution, which I trust will be
-freely discussed and gain your unanimous approval:-

"Whereas by the volcanic eruption of the 7th May last, a large portion of the cultivated
.area of the Colony was devastated and thousands of the people were rendered homeless and

"And whereas, in addition to abundant supplies in kind, large sums of money were
.contributed, fully sufficient to relieve the distress, to re-house all the homeless population and
re-establish the industries of the Colony;

"And whereas, under the pretence of there being no land .available, or obtainable, at
reasonable rates, large numbers of the sufferers, after the lapse of five months, have not been
provided with homes and lands; and the Governor insists that they shall emigrate to Jamaica
under the following threat, contained in his published minute to the Administrator of the
24th September, 1902:-'You should make them clearly understand that if they refuse this
opportunity no more relief will be given them.'

"And whereas it is a matter of public notoriety that, while many of these people are
starving, large quantities of supplies contributed by the American Government for their relief,
have been gradually shipped from the Colony, and other supplies are now lying rotting in the
rooms in which they are stored;

And whereas, notwithstanding the Governor's statement to the contrary, there are suitable
lands available on which to settle the people-lands that can be obtained at rates no higher than
those charged by the Government to purchasers of Government lands-as well as a large stock of
building material in the Government lumber yards;

"This meeting, representative of all classes of the community, including the Carib
and other sufferers from the recent eruptions,-
Protests against the compulsory emigration scheme contained in the Governor's.
Minute to the Administrator of the 24th ultimo as a monstrous violation of the rights
and liberties of these loyal subjects of the King, and as an inequitable attempt to deprive-
them. of their rightful share of help from the Relief Fund, thereby frustrating the
intentions of the generous contributors thereto;

"'Flatly contradicts the Governor's statement in the 5th paragraph of his Minute-
referred to, namely, that the Government cannot _fnd homes for these 'people in St.
Vincent '-the Government holding in trust for these very people at the present time,
a large sum of money, as well as abundant stores of building material, sufficient, not
only to acquire all the lands necessary for locating these sufferers and starting them in
life, but to assist in restoring the industries of the Colony as well;

";And hereby calls upon the Secretary of State for the Colonies to intervene between
the people and the obstinate, cruel and arbitrary policy of the Governor, and to direct that
the people be located in their own colony and home without further delay.

"lAnd in view of the confusion and mismanagement of our affairs resulting largely
from the want of continuity in the Government's policy, and especially of the gross misrule
and incapacity which have so plainly marked the course of the Governor's administration
of the Colony; this meeting further appeals to the Secretary of State to relieve Sir Robert
Baxter Llewelyn of the Government of this Colony; to appoint a capable officer to execute
the Commission which Mr. Ashmore was selected to fulfil; and also to appoint a competent
Administrator, who shall deal directly with the Colonial Office in all matters relating to,
the government of St. Vincent.

This meeting further desires that copies of this protest and appeal be forwarded'
to His Excellency the Governor for transmission to the Secretary of State for the Colonies."

The Hon'ble the Revd. J. H. Darrell, seconded the resolution for the adoption of the protest,
and appeal:--Hle said it was to the discredit of the Government that five months after the first
eruption in May last, and notwithstanding the Government had received abundant supplies both.
in kind and money, quite sufficient to settle and hbuse all the sufferers from the eruption, as well.
as to re-establish the local industries of the Colony, there were to-day hundreds of people from
Wallibou. Richmond, Owia, Fancy, Waterloo, Overland, and other parts of the devastated area,
who were wphndering about in a starving, half-naked condition, without houses or an inch of
land on whidh to grow food for themselves and their families. This state of things was not only
lamentable but criminal--for apart from the large amount of money, over 50,000, now in the.
hands of the Government-money which had been contributed for the very purpose of helping-
these people, there were tons of food supplies now lying in the store-rooms of the Government
rotting, while the people were starving, and abundant building materials in the lumber yards
of the Government to furnish houses for every refugee family. The lame excuse offered by the
Governor in his Minute to the Administrator, viz., that our land owners would not sell him
land for the purpose of settling these homeless sufferers," was all fudge. There was a Land
Acquisition Ordinance in force by which the Governor can acquire land. There was plenty of
suitable land to be had, and the owners were willing to sell at reasonable rates; but the Governor
wished people to sell him land at rates considerably lower than the Government had been exacting-
from the purchasers of Crown Lands. The fact was Sir Robert Llewelyn had undertaken a bigger
task than he imagined, and one that demands for its fulfilment more statesmanlike wisdom and
ability than he seems to possess; but having made himself responsible for the distribution of the-
Relief Fund, and refused all local assistance and experience, even the help proffered him by
Mr. Chamberlain, who suggested he should get a capable officer from Trinidad or elsewhere-
to aid him in the settlement of the people and the administration of the funds sent for the
purpose-Sir Robert must be left to reap the result of his own blundering and gross mis-
management. Why should he lay it down as a sine qua non that unless the unprovided for-

sufferers consent to emigrate to Jamaica, they will be left to themselves, and will get no
assistance from the Relief Fund? They have as much right to a share in the benefits of that
Fund as any one. They do not wish to leave their country--the Caribs especially, he found,
were most reluctant to be separated from their homes, the land of their birth and of their
ancestors, and to be sent away from their relatives and life-long associations. If there was a
necessity for it, said the hon'ble gentleman, he would not be so surprised-but there was room
for every family now wandering about, homeless and destitute; lands were available, the money
for the purchase of them lay in the hands of Government, the material for building homes for
these people was also on hand, and he failed to see in the face of all these facts why the Governor
should wish to rid himself of the responsibility he had assumed in constituting himself Trustee
and Guardian for these people, by banishing them from their country. He heartily seconded the
protest and appeal, and trusted it would result in the speedy ending of all the present distress.

The Chairman then called on the Hon'ble C. J. Simmons to support the resolution:

Mr. SIMMONS said he did so heartily, as, unfortunately, the time had come for the people
'of St. Vincent to protest in a constitutional manner against, not only the maladministration
of relief matters, but also the Governor's system of, or want of system in, the government of
this Colony generally; and to appeal to the Secretary of State to remedy the evil referred to.

The speaker argued that the strongest argument, he thought, in favour of this appeal was
that it seemed-with but one addition-to ask that Mr.-Chamberlain's policy suggested to Sir
R. B. Llewelyn in the former's published dispatch to the latter, dated 27th May, 1902, be carried
into effect. That policy, Mr. Simmons submitted, embodied the solution of the difficulties which
-exist in St. Vincent to-day:-the relief of the destitute, the housing of the homeless, and the
re-establishment of the industries of the Colony. We want the Secretary of State to send us
someone, he continued, capable of carrying out Mr. Chamberlain's policy, and of taking an
interest in the welfare of St. Vincent.

The Revd. A. H. LESLIE, expressing himself in favour of the resolution, said:-

This was not a political question, but lay at the heart of the present and future prosperity
*of the country. They were passing through a severe crisis, but it was the business of the pilot
in the storm to keep a clear head. By the present policy of the Government, when the storm
was past the ship would be upon the rocks. The natural and healthy supply of the labour
market came from the man on the spot. It was a far reaching question: it would not do to
-deport one class of the people. If emigration was the order of the day all must go. Ile had'no
mandate from the people of the district in which he lived, but he expressed the sentiments of
ninety-nine out of every hundred of them when he said they were unalterably opposed to any
policy of emigration. They wished to be firmly planted upon the soil of this island. The central
fact was not the difficulty, real or exaggerated, of securing land, but the existence of 50,000
which the people demanded should be spent in their interests. The benefit of the sufferers by the
recent eruption had been contemplated by the donors of that money. They owed it to them
,to see that it was well spent.

Mr. JAMES E. RICHARDS, spoke with much warmth, particularly on the Governor's unfairness
towards these sufferers from whom relief is being withheld. His blood boiled with indignation,
said the speaker, when he studied the proposal that those sturdy labourers of Fancy and Owia,
.amongst whom he had spent 13 of the most valuable years of his life, and many of whom were
Caribs, the aborigines of the Island, should be sent adrift to make new homes in a strange
island, whilst their fellow-sufferers of the Leeward quarter (admitting the Governor's statement
,contained in the Minute in question to be correct) had been relieved and given homes. Why
:should the Governor display such partiality? There were many other reasons why the labouring
class should be re-settled in St. Vincent-in the interest of trade and for the development of
.agriculture-and because the people, especially the Caribs, were exceedingly attached to their
island home; but noticing that this point of gross unfairness to relieve the sufferers on one side
of the Island and not those on the other, had not been emphasized by.preceding speakers, he
-could not be silent on the matter.

Mr. W. E. STEPHENS and Mr. P. F. HUGGINs also supported the resolution in its entirety.
A labourer, RAGGUETT, at his request and at the request of several others, was allowed to
address the meeting. In his own style he condemned the policy of the Government, and in
the course of his speech, by asking several questions of the large body of labourers, evoked replies'
that unquestionably proved the people were positively unwilling to emigrate.
The resolution was then put by the Chairman, who enquired whether anyone wished to
propose any amendment thereto. No amendment was proposed. There was not a dissenting
voice, and the protest and appeal was carried.
A vote of thanks, moved by Rev. Mr. Darrell, seconded by Mr. Simmons,. was heartily
-accorded the Chairman, and the meeting terminated.

No. 60.
MY DEAR LORD MAYOR, Downing Street, November 8, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 3rd instant,*
enclosing a further contribution of 5,000 from the Mansion House Fund for the
relief of distress in the island of St. Vincent; and I shall be glad if, in accordance with
your suggestion, you will be good enough to pay over the balance of this fund now
remaining in your hands to the Crown Agents for the Colonies, who have been
authorised to receive it.
2. I take this opportunity, at the close of your term of office, of expressing to,
Your Lordship my sincere thanks for the interest which you have taken in this matter,.
and my warm appreciation of your efforts on behalf of the sufferers in St. Vincent, which
have met with so generous a response.
Believe me, &c.,
For the Secretary of State.

No. 61.
(Received November 10, 1902.)
SIR, Government House, Belize, October 23, 1902.
WITH reference to the second paragraph of your despatch of the 19th
June last,* I have the honour to transmit herewith pr6cis of correspondence which
has passed between Mr. H. J. Cramer, of Sarstoon, and the Colonial Secretary, on.
the subject of the importation of labourers from St. Vincent, with a copy of Mr.
Cramer's letter of the 12th instant, submitting the terms on which he is willing to
receive the labourers.
2. What might possibly be considered the chief objection to Mr. Cramer's pro-
posal is that his estate is in a very remote district far up the Sarstoon River, at
present far from police supervision, and there is no medical officer in the district. It
is, however, a district capable of great development.
3. I shall be glad to hear whether these terms meet with your approval, and
whether there is any likelihood of Mr. Cramer obtaining the people if he sends a
schooner for them.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 61.
Importation of Labourers from St. Vincent.
July 25, 1902.--Mr. Cramer asks if there is any chance of his obtaining labourers,
and expresses his willingness to send a schooner for, say, 100 families.
August 4.-The Colonial Secretary informs him that the Governor has already
made an offer through the Secretary of State to take labourers for the Colony, and
the matter is under reference to the Governor of the Windward Islands. In order
to save time he, however, invites Mr. Cramer to say (1) what house accommodation he
proposes to offer the people, (2) what rate of wages for men, women and children,
(3) what food he will supply them with free of cost, (4). how many hours of work
per day he will expect of them, (5) would he fence in from stock and set aside for the
people a sufficient area of land for them to grow vegetables for their own consumption
when not working for the estate?
Not printed.

September 11.-Mr. Cramer replies: (1) Houses with iron roofs and, if necessary,
board flooring will be provided. (2) Wages: men, 25 cents; women, 15 cents;
children, according to ages, 5 to 10 cents per day. (3) If necessary food will be given
till such time as their gardens are producing, or they have earned sufficient money.
(4) Working hours, nine hours when working by the day, but usual method of work
is by task, two lines (equals 50 yards) by one line for men, &c. (5) Will give as much
land as they can cultivate and protect from stock, but if they produce staples, such
as bananas, cacao, vanilla, &c., they must sell the produce to the estate at 25 per cent.
below market price.
October 3.-The Colonial Secretary informs Mr. Cramer that the Governor does
not consider it probable that the people of St. Vincent would be tempted to emigrate
on the terms specified. As the proposal is to pay by daily wages instead of by annual
contract, according to the present custom in the Colony, it would seem necessary that
some arrangement should be made for the issue of food and for nursing and attendance
on. the labourers when ill. Suggested that the proposals made might be somewhat
improved, and a definite scheme for employing and settling the people submitted for
transmission to the Secretary of State, &c.
October 12.-Mr. Cramer submits his scheme, a copy of which is annexed.

Enclosure 2 in No. 61.
SSIR, San Pedro, Sarstoon, British Honduras, October 12, 1902.
I BEG to acknowledge the receipt of your valued communication of the 3rd
instant, No. 1754/1902, dealing with the recruiting of St. Vincent labour.
In reply I will make the following propositions:
The standard task in cultivated areas to be 50 yards by 25, which will be paid
for at 25 cents per task.
Women and children will be allotted as much as they can do, whether three-
quarters or half or a whole task.
Men can do as much work as they like-that is, to complete as many tasks in a
day as they care to. *
Hoeing task is 25 by 25, the last paragraph also applies.
Should day work be required of them, the price paid will be 30 cents men, women
three-quarters that price, children half men's. I would be willing to give rations
on a similar scale to that given in this Colony, viz., 4 lbs. salted or 8 lbs. fresh meat, 7
quarts flour, 6 rice or fifty plantains, cassava or other plantation vegetable that the
labourer may desire, and that is growing on the plantation.
In regard to the second paragraph in your letter, I would be willing to hire and
to pay by annual or five years' contract, paying the worker per week or month, as
A house would be set aside where the sick would be looked after and medicines
Paragraph 3.-I would be willing to give all the land that may be wanted to
genuine settlers on condition that they sell me all their produce at 25 per cent.
below market price. This produce could be sold to the estate on the estate or other
arrangement that would prove mutually agreeable. The land taken must be kept
under cultivation, and such plants as bananas, cacao, rubber, nutmegs, vanilla, &c., to
be planted.
Live stock could be also kept, if corralled on the owners' property.
All seed within a reasonable quantity would be given for planting, and any help
to procure implements necessary for working.
These lands would be the property of the occupier, on condition that the same
fulfilled his contract or agreement, and did not lose it by any criminal act, such as
murder, or such act as would cause a prolonged detention in prison.
Any misunderstanding or disagreement between any parties to be arbitrated.
14986 K

No shops would be allowed on these properties, but every facility given for pur-
chasing at moderate prices.
I should be obliged if you would give me some definite idea whether or not I
would be able to procure labour, and how long it will be before I can obtain same, as
I have had a great deal of correspondence with other parties who may be able to
supply me with other labour.
Thanking you'for the trouble you have taken in this matter,
I am, &c.,
The Colonial Secretary.

No. 61A.
:Sm, Downing Street, November 12, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the
21st ultimo,* on the subject of the money which has been placed at your disposal
for the relief of distress caused by the volcanic eruptions by the Associated Relief
Committees of New York.
2. I approve of your distributing this money in the manner which you propose.
I have, &c.,

No. 62.
[Answered by No. 90.]
SIR, Downing Street, November 15, 1902.
WITH reference to my despatch of the 21st of June,t I have the honour
to transmit to you, for consideration by yourself and Captain Young, the accom-
panying copy of a despatcht from the Governor of British Honduras, submitting
proposals put forward by Mr. H. J. Cramer, of Sarstoon, for the establishment in
British Honduras of emigrants from St. Vincent.
2. You are at liberty, should you consider it desirable, to communicate direct
with Sir David Wilson on the subject, but, as at present advised, I am not inclined
to sanction emigration to what is described as a very remote district, far from police
supervision and without a medical officer, where the emigrants would apparently be
subject to a truck system without any safeguards.
3. If other and more suitable fields for emigration do not present themselves
you might think well to send some officer or representative of St. Vincent to British
Honduras to make personal enquiry.
I have, &c.,

No. 63.
(Received November 19, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 67 ]
SmR, St. Vincent, November 5, 1902.
WITH reference to my telegram of the 25th ultimo, reporting briefly on the
damage done to the land of St. Vincent by the eruption of the Volcano on the 16th
ultimo, I have the honour to inform you that I decided to come here by the first
opportunity which was the Canadian Mail steamer on the 1st instant, and I notified
you by telegram of my arrival here on that day.
2. I have seen the leeward side of the Island up to the extreme north end,

t No. 138 in [Cd. 1201J, September, 1902.

t No. 61. : No. 52.

* No. 56.

and notice considerable change in the configuration of the slopes of the Soufriere
and general appearance of the mountain since I last saw it in the middle of August.
From Chateaubelair to Kingstown it looks green as before. I attach a copy of an
account written by Mr. Powell, describing his venturesome ascent with the two,
Curators now here from the West Coast of Africa.
3. I have not yet been able to visit the windward side, but the report I for-
warded to you in my despatch of the 23rd ultimo* is, I gather from conversations:
I have had since my arrival here, not at all exaggerated.
4. The Soufriere has continued in eruption since the 16th ultimo, and light
clouds of steam, with occasionally a darker cloud, are now daily seen rising from the
crater, and when and how it will end is the one question.
5. It is, however, certain that no estates north of Georgetown can be culti-
vated for years, and as the labourers employed on those estates kept up the town of
Georgetown, it seems inevitable that that town must dwindle down into a village
for a time-a very sad fact! It has a good stone Church and Wesleyan Chapel,
nearly restored after the Hurricane, water works and good private residences and
stores, all of which were maintained by the money circulated. in the manufacture
of sugar and arrowroot, on the estates of D. K. Porter and Company in' the Carib
country adjoining the town.
6. In the eruption of the 7th May sixteen hundred of these people, not residents
of Georgetown, were killed, but there remain unprovided with work the labouring
classes and all the clerks, seamstresses and usual helpless dependents that exist in all
towns in the tropics.
7. I have ascertained from the Administrator that about 2,000 per month is
now required to keep the people from starving; about half is issued as doles," and
the other moiety is worked for on relief works on public roads. This seems a large
sum compared with what would have been circulated in wages if no disaster had
happened, but it must be remembered that all the people had provision grounds which
helped out their existence, and unfortunately those provision grounds have been de-
stroyed. The labourers too now have to pay very dearly, on account of the reduced
supply, for the necessary articles of subsistence which formerly they gathered 'from
the patch of ground they cultivated. Distress throughout the Island existed before
the eruption of the SoufriBre; it is now intensified, and I see no prospect of any
improvement for at least five years. That date too is given on' the hope and assump-
tion that no further eruptions will take place, but as I understand that the Volcano
is undoubtedly more active now than it has been at all, the difficulties and distress will
probably have increased before' this despatch reaches you.
8. The position of the town of Chateaubelair is perilous. I noticed fissures
on that side of the mountain, and that the rim of the crater is lowered. A violent
eruption on that side would, I fear, cause a terrible catastrophe. Many people are
leaving both Chateaubelair and Georgetown and applying for help, and at night the
towns are deserted. It is difficult to describe or realise what these unfortunate people
are suffering, but they cling to their homes with a courage that must be admired.
9. A general abandonment of the Island is not to be thought of, but the con-
centration of 40,000 people on 20,000 acres of land, with very little employment,
dependent entirely, for some years; for a living upon what they can grow in the shape
of ground provisions seems a hard fate.
10. To add to all their other troubles anthrax has appeared and several horses,
cattle, and sheep have died, as well as a few human beings at the Hospital. I have
been obliged to announce the disease to the neighboring Colonies, which have
naturally prohibited the importation of any live stock from St. Vincent, so that little
trade is now stopped, producing additional trials to those engaged in it.
11. Over six thousand (6,110) persons are now receiving weekly doles, 1,450
are engaged on road making. Three hundred huts have been built, and families
located, and it is estimated that about 300 more are required, but there are many
single persons, male and female, old and young, and women who have illegitimate
families deserted by the fathers, and who will have eventually to be found lodgings.

SNo. 58.
14986 K 2

12. The eruption on the 16th October, will probably, if Georgetown has to be
abandoned, add about 2,500 souls to the list, and require another 500 huts to be
built; but all figures must be considered as speculative as long as the Soufribre con-
tinues to erupt.
I have, &c.,

Enclosure in No. 63.
THE SENTRY," October 31st, 1902.


Favoured by fair weather, Mr. H. Powell, the Curator of the Botanical Station of this
Island, and Messrs. J. P. Quinton and E. W. Foster, of the Botanic Stations of Sierra Leone and
Lagos respectively, made an ascent of the Soufriere on the Leeward side on Tuesday morning,
28th inst., and spent an hour and a half on the summit of the mountain. In view of the fact that
the crater has been daily emitting large volumes of steam, sometimes accompanied by ashes,
since the eruption of the 15th and 16th instant, this ascent is considered a daring feat, and the
gentlemen merit hearty congratulation for the extraordinary courage they have displayed. A
vivid demonstration of the intrepidity of the party is the astonishing fact related by Mr. Powell,
that whilst Mr. Quinton stood on the west rim at a point that enabled him to advise them how
far they could proceed, Mr. Foster and himself went down into the crater at a distance of about
120 yards-as far as they could reach having regard to their immediate safety-and from that
point, after which the walls assume a precipitous form, they saw right down to the bottom,
where the apparently muddy water was boiling furiously.
'We interviewed Mr. Powell yesterday on his return to Kingstown, and received from him
the following interesting account of their journey up the mountain, and of the altered features
of the crater. The journey from the sea shore at Wallibou to the first ridge leading to the
Soufriere is exceedingly difficult, several new cliffs and ravines having been formed there; but
afterwards, except for the still more narrow knife ridges than after previous eruptions, the road
is easier. Arriving on the summit, after the toilsome journey of two hours and a half, the visitors
found the old crater active-discharging-volunies of steam and throwing up numerous cones of
ashes to a height of 30 or 40 feet from a fissure close under the southern wall.
The crater has assumed more of a funnel shape, being deepest in the centre. The ejecta is
heaped up round the inner walls to a height of several hundred feet, and is almost red hot and
smoking profusely. The rim of the crater has been considerably widened, and on the western
edge overlooking Morne IRonde the depression is now very much lower. From a fissure in the
rock, within four yards from where the visitors stoqd, jets of steam were issuing; and from about
this same spot on the following morning vapour and ashes were seen to escape in large volumes.
From a brink inside, at a distance of 120 yards from the top of the crater, could be clearly seen
in the centre a boiling cauldron of muddy water, and close in under the southern wall is located
the fissure from which the large volumes of steam and ashes are seen from a distance to emerge.
This cloud of steam and ashes follows the trend of the depression close in under the south-eastern
wall, and on gaining the summit is blown westward, which gives the appearance of its having
come from the new crater. But Mr. Powell, who, from frequent visits, is well acquainted with
the various features of the mountain, is satisfied that the new crater shows no signs of having
been in eruption lately. The saddle between the two craters is intact. The visitors were very
anxious to cross the mountain to the Windward side, and even made an attempt to do so, but
found the southern rim more sharply defined than before, and the ashes just under the surface
were almost red hot.
The top of the mountain and a considerable distance down the sides are covered with
portions of rock and coarse gravel thrown out in the last eruption. We are further informed
that no lava has been ejected. The configuration of the mountain is very much altered. The
descent was much harder than the ascent. At some points the visitors had to sit astride and
thus move over the dangerous ridges, some of which were only about .6 inches in width, and on
either side awful precipices over a thousand feet deep. However, the party got over all obstacles
and, with their native guides, reached back to Wallibou without a single accident having
The sea is still encroaching on lands of Wallibou Estate. The Wallibou River at its mouth
and for some distance inland is dry, but just about Petit Wallibou it was seen running in fair
volume, having a number of small channels.
During that night and the following morning clouds of vapour and ashes were discharged
from the old crater, and at 8.15 p.m. on the 29th a loud groan was heard from the Soufriere,
followed by a column of dark vapour. Mr. Powell is also of the opinion that, from the general
appearance at the time of his visit to the volcano, an eruption of a serious nature may occur
:at any time.

Ill l I[ I

No. 64... ,

(Received. November 19, 1902.)

Sm, Kingstown, Saint Vincent, West Indies, November 5, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to enclose a copy of a petition drawn by me in behalf of
the people of Owia and Fancy Estates-refugees from under the SoufriBre mountain
-to His Excellency .Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G., Governor-in-Chief of the Windward,
The Governor having refused to accede to the prayer of the petitioners to settle
-them on Ottley Hall Estate, their favourite place, they have desired me to approach
you with a copy of their petition and ask you to cause their prayer to be granted
:as Ottiey Hall Estate, despite what is said of it, will be more convenient to them than
-any other place in the Colony.
I have, &c.,
"To The Right Honourable
Joseph Chamberlain, M.P.

Enclosure in No. 64.

To His Excellency
Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands.
Saint Vincent, September 5, 1902.
The humble Petition of the unfortunate people of Fancy and Owia Estates who
-were deprived of all they possessed by the eruption of the Soufribre
That in consequence of not being able to state their case and express themselves
to Your Excellency in the way they should they have hereby appointed Mr. William
Eveiard Stephens to represent them, and forward you this Petition.
2nd. That your Petitioners cannot possibly reside at neither Fancy nor Owia
Estates in the devastated district of this Colony, the Estates being rendered unfit by
the eruption of the SoufriBre for human beings to reside on;* that they have not been
settled on land, nor have they been provided with a shelter of their own to live in,
but they have been told that the delay in doing so-on the part of the Government-
existed because no convenient place could be obtained on which they could be settled.
3rd. That they have been told that the Ottley Hall Estate would be sold by the
owner, His Honour the Chief Justice, C. O. Hazell, Esquire, and that the price asked
by him for the Estate is a -reasonable one, viz., 4 per acre; that owing to the Estate's
close proximity to the chief market of the Colony, to its beautiful sea beach, its
adaptability to the production of cocoa, coffee, and all vegetables and fruit, it is in
consequence rendered more valuable than those Estates situated far away from the
chief market of the Colony, and your Petitioners have seen no place in the Island
-on which they would like to be settled so much as Ottley Hall Estate, and they are
,certain that it will make one of the finest peasant settlements in the Colony.
4th. That your Petitioners are people who cannot possibly exist on fifteen cents
-per day without free house and vegetable gardens, and that owing to the want of
-vegetable gardens at this moment many of their children may die from starvation.
5th. Your Petitioners therefore ask Your Excellency to purchase Ottley Hall
Estate, and settle them on it as quickly as possible, so that they may cultivate vege-
tables before the balance of the planting season is passed.
6th. Your Petitioners are utterly against leaving their native country, but not
,on any account will they return to the devastated district from which they were
.removed by order of Your Excellency.

7th. By Your Excellency making a purchase of Ottley Hall Estate, and at once-
settle your Petitioners thereon, you will view your action in the future with pleasant
recollections, the community and also your Petitioners will ever bless you for your
admirable administration of the Relief Trust.
As in duty bound
Your Petitioners
will ever pray.
Signed by 84 Signatories, comprising, with their families, 497 persons, and forty-
other families with over three hundred souls.

No. 65.


(Received 2.10 p.m., November 20, 1902.)

[Answered by Nos. 67 and 70.]

Referring to your despatch October 28.* People repudiate petition signed.
Young considers that emigration can be arranged only on compulsion; I agree.
May I purchase some more land price at 3 acre for permanent settlement ? Matter
is urgent.

No. 66.


(Received November 21, 1902.)

[Answered by No. 71.]
DEAR SIR, York, November 20, 1902.
WE have read with much regret in yesterday's paper the despatch- from the
Governor of the Windward Islands giving an account of the great distress in St..
Vincent caused by the recent volcanic eruptions.
During the past four years we have been laying out a considerable area of land
in Cocoa in the Northern part of Dominica, but we shall not be able to do much more
than we have already done, as we appear to have about reached the limit of the local
labour supply.
If the Government have under consideration any schemes for the emigration of
distressed families from St. Vincent, and establishing them in small holdings on Crown
land on any other of the islands, we beg to say that we should be able to find employ-
ment for from 50 to 100 families for the few years which would be needed to enable
them to get permanently settled.
We could not definitely say exactly how many labourers we could employ without
first communicating with our manager in Dominica, but we should like to take this.
opportunity of placing these facts before you in case they may help in any way towards.
the mitigation of the present distress.
Yours, &c.,

t Extracts from No. 58 were communicated to the Press.

* No. 54.

No. 67.
:SIR, Downing Street, November 25, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of
-23rd ultimo, forwarding a newspaper report of a public meeting held in St. Vincent
to protest against the proposed emigration to Jamaica; of your despatches
of the 23rd ultimo and 5th instant,t in which you describe the continued
.activity of the volcano, the serious nature of the damage done, and the increase in the
.area affected, and the very large scale on which it has been found necessary to grant
relief to the population; and of your telegram of the 20th inst., in which you inform
me that both you and Captain Young are of opinion that emigration can only be
arranged under compulsion, and in which you request authority to purchase more
land for permanent settlement at 3 an acre.
2. The situation of affairs in St. Vincent is causing me very great concern and
anxiety. In my despatch of the 28th ultimo, to which you refer in your
telegram, I intimated that in my opinion the increTase in the affected area emphasized
the necessity of finding homes elsewhere for some of the people of the Colony. The
despatchess which I have since received from you have strengthened my conviction
that this policy is the proper one to pursue under the existing circumstances of the
island. I am fully assured that no efforts have been spared either by yourself or by
"Captain Young to give effect to my wishes in this matter; and in face of the persistent
refusal of the people to accept the advantageous offer made to them from Jamaica,
-I sympathize with the motives which have led you to advocate the purchase of more
land for permanent settlement, in order to diminish the evils inseparably attendant
upon a system of charitable relief upon so large a scale as you describe.
3. But you have yourself laid stress upon the fact that there can, for the present
at any rate, be no guarantee of the security of life and property in any part of St.
-Vincent. And even if, as is to be hoped, the area of destruction is not further in-
,creased in the future, it must be a serious question whether the diminished amount of
,.cultivable land will be sufficient permanently to support the population of the island.
The people of St. Vincent will, I hope, believe that I should have no desire to
encourage, much less to compel, emigration, if I were not convinced that it is an
:absolutely necessary measure to relieve the existing distress.
4. It is a pressing necessity to find some means of permanently ameliorating
the condition of those who have been dispossessed. A system involving the distri-
bution of charitable doles to several thousands cannot be allowed to continue indefi-
-nitely. It is clear to me that you have done everything in your power to discover
a satisfactory alternative. But so long as such doles continue to be given-and if the
alternative is starvation they cannot be refused-the knowledge that relief is to be
-obtained from Government will operate as. a powerful inducement to remain in the
island to those who might otherwise consent to emigrate and find work elsewhere.
This has been proved by experience to be the invariable result of an extensive system
"of charitable relief.
5. I have accordingly instructed you, in my telegram of to-day's date, to insti-
tute something in the nature of a labour test; and I now proceed to describe in
-further detail the manner in which I consider that such a test should be applied.
6. I have instructed you to refuse relief to able-bodied applicants over sixteen
years of age, except in return for a bond fide day's work upon the roads, in cultiva-
-tion, or in some other occupation. Outdoor relief should also be refused to aged
-persons living with able-bodied persons, who might support them, but who decline to
perform or abstain from performing such work; and such aged persons should, if
-necessary, be offered maintenance in a refuge provided for the purpose. The mothers
,of young children should not be allowed to plead the impossibility of leaving their
children as a ground for demanding relief without work, as it is possible, and I believe
usual in St. Vincent, for such children to be left under the charge of their older
-brothers and sisters.
7. I have already communicated to you proposals for accommodating emigrants
from St. Vincent in Jamaica and British Honduras, though in the case of the latter

f Nos., 58 and 63. t No. 6.5.

No. 54.' 11 No. 70.

* No. 59.

Colony I informed you that the conditions under which it was proposed to give them
employment appeared to me to be unsatisfactory. I have also had under my con-
sideration proposals submitted to me by Mr. Spicer, of the West Caicos Sisal Com-
pany, for obtaining 100 labourers from either Barbados or St. Vincent to work on the.
Company's plantations; and if he is able to make such arrangements as will satisfy
the Commissioner of the Turks and Caicos Islands, it is possible that he may com-
municate with you on the subject. I have now the honour to transmit to you a copy
of a letter from Messrs. Rowntree and 'Company,* in which they intimate that they
could find employment for from 50 to 100 families upon their estates in Dominica.
The offer appears to me to be an advantageous one, and I propose to communicate'
further with the firm with reference to it. I do not doubt that the Administrator
of Dominica would welcome the proposal, and render every assistance in carrying-
it out.
8. But in addition to the Colonies of which mention has been made, I am of"
opinion that Trinidad and Tobago offer a favourable field for emigrants from St.
Vincent. I understand that a certain movement of labour to that Colony from St.
Vincent has long been in existence, and it is possible that the people might prefer it
as a home to less familiar Colonies, such as Jamaica. I would suggest, therefore,
that either you or Captain Young should visit Trinidad, and discuss the, question with
the Officer Administering the Government of that Colony. I am communicating
with him on the subject, requesting him to co-operate with you in the matter, in the,
event of your consulting him.
9. In conclusion, I request that you will favour me with a report on the-
enclosed petition f from former inhabitants of Fancy and Owia Estates, praying that
they may be settled upon the Ottley Hall Estate, belonging to Mr. Ormond Hazell.
This petition I have received through Mr. W. E. Stephen, and I send it to you in
original, with his covering letter.
I have, &c.,

No. 68.
[.Answered by No. 96.]
SIR, Downing Street, November 25, 1902.
MY attention has been much occupied by the very serious state of affairs at
present existing in St. Vincent, where the Governor informs me there are at present
over 6,000 persons in receipt of regular relief from the Mansion House Fund.
2. The serious diminution in the cultivable area of the island, which may be-
permanent and will, in any case, be of long duration, renders it almost impossible
to provide in any way for the resettlement of the population under conditions which
will enable them to support themselves.
3. In these circumstances I am urging the Governor to do everything in his-
power to induce some of the people to emigrate to other Colonies, where they may
hope to find more favourable conditions, and I have suggested to him that of such,
Colonies Trinidad and Tobago are likely to prove among the most suitable.
4. By the mail which carries this despatch I am authorizing him I to visit
Trinidad himself, or to send Captain Young there, to discuss the question with you.
I understand that labourers from St. Vincent are not commonly regarded with great
favour in the Colony under your Government. But the ready generosity with which'
Trinidad has come to the assistance of both St. Vincent and Martinique in their recent
misfortunes, leads me to hope that both the Government and the planters will do all
in their power to render the experiment, if adopted, a success.
5. I, therefore, request that you will co-operate with Sir R. Llewelyn in the-
matter, if he decides to approach you.
I have, &c.,

* No. 6G.

t Enclosure in No. 64..

t No. 67.

No. 69.
GENTLEMEN, Mansion House, E.C., November 25, 1902.
I AM directed by the late Lord Mayor, Sir Joseph Dimsdale, M.P., to send youth
the balance (3,354 10s. 3d.) of the St. Vincent Relief Fund, which is now closed.
He had promised a grant to the injured men on board the S.S. "Roddam," but, as.
it is difficult to find them, he does not think it desirable to keep open the fund
indefinitely on the chance of ascertaining where they are. If, ultimately, the infor-
mation is obtained, perhaps you will not mind making them a contribution from this,
balance or recommending the St. Vincent authorities to do so.

Yours, &c.,

No. 70.


(Sent 10.50 a.m., November 26, 1902.)


In answer to your telegram of November 20th* consider that emigration should
be pressed as far as possible. If possible await arrival of despatch by mail. If
reluctance to emigrate is in some degree due to possibility of obtaining relief from
Government, you should refuse relief to able-bodied applicants over sixteen, except
in return for bond fide day's work on roads, cultivation, or at some other occupation;
you should make public adoption of this policy as being in accordance with my

No. 71.


[See No. 78.]

GENTLEMEN, Downing Street, November 26, 1902.
I AM directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 20th instant,t
in which you offer to find employment on your estates in Dominica for from fifty to
one hundred families from St. Vincent.
I am to thank you for your letter, and to state that there is every desire to
encourage emigration from St. Vincent, and that any prospect of establishing some
families in Dominica as suggested in your letter would be welcomed; but that great
difficulty is being experienced in inducing the people to move.
I am to enquire whether a representative of your firm could call at this office and
discuss the matter with me.
I am, &c.,

No. 65. t No. G6.
14936 L


No. 72.
(Received December 4, 1902.)
SIR, Government House, November 14, 1902.
IN continuation of my despatch of the 22nd October,* I have the
honour to transmit to you a copy of the results obtained by a full analysis of the
volcanic dust from the Soufriere, at St. Vincent, which fell in Barbados on the
16th October.
2. The Acting Professor of Chemistry reports, with regard to the analysis
that the dust is not likely to be of any high fertilizing value, though its mechanical
effect will probably prove of advantage to many soils and notably also to grass lands
and lawns.

I have, &c.,


Enclosure in No. 72.
Analysis of the Volcanic Dust of the 16th October, 1902.
The complete mineral contained in 100 parts:-

M oisture ... ... ......
Loss on ignition ....
Potassium oxide (potash)... ... ...
Sodium oxide ... ......
Calcium oxide (lime) ... ... .
Magnesia ... ... ...
Manganese oxide ...... ...
Alumina and Titanium oxide ... ...
Iron oxide ... ...
Phosphoric anhydride (phosphoric acid)
Silica (by difference)

.. ... 0.520
.. ... 0.130
.. ... 0.753
.. ... 3.979
.. ... 9.409
.. ... 0.150
.. ... 20.134
... ... 9.596
... ... 0.148
... ... 51.138


Of the above the following percentages were soluble in Hydrochloric Acid:--

Potassium oxide (potash)...
Sodium oxide ... ...
Calcium oxide (lime)
Magnesia ...
Ferrous oxide
Ferric oxide, Alumina and
Phosphoric anhydride (pho!
Sulphuric anhydride ...
Soluble in Citric Acid solut



... ... ... ....087
... ... ... ....627
... ... ... ... 3.200
... ... ... ... 1.284
... 1.410
anium oxide ... ... 8.666
)ric acid) ... ... .061
... .......148
1 per cent. ... .027
,, ... ... .028

No. 73.
(Received December 4, 1902.)
[Answered by No. 82.]
St. Vincent, November 17, 1902.
Report of Captain Young, November 17, 1902. Forwarded.

No. 57.

REPORT from Captain Arthur Young, appointed to assist the Governor of the Windward
Islands in connection with the Relief of those who have suffered from the
Eruption in St. Vincent.
By letter of the 28th October, 1902, from the Under Secretary of
State, I received copies of correspondence, mainly relating to the proposed emigration
to Jamaica of certain villagers of St. Vincent, and I was directed to give my early
attention to this matter in the event of the attempt to induce them to emigrate proving:
2. On my arrival in the Island on the 12th instant, His Excellency Sir Robert
Llewelyn informed me that he had received no answer from the Governor of Jamaica
to his despatch, Miscellaneous, No. 50, of the 25th September, 1902, a copy of which
had been sent to me by the Under Secretary of State's letter of the 28th October,
3. The letter from Jamaica appears to have gone astray, but a telegram from
the Governor of that Island giving the purport of the letter states that it would be
desirable that immigrants should be compelled to accept employment, and that suitable
land could probably be obtained at 8 an acre.
4. On the 15th instant His Excellency received a deputation of twelve persons
from the inhabitants of Fancy and Owia, the two villages the inhabitants of which
it was proposed to send to Jamaica.
The members of the deputation stated that they had never authorized anyone to
write a petition to the effect that they desired to go to Jamaica, and as it was impossible
for them to return to their villages they desired to be located in the Island in the same
manner as other villages that had suffered from the eruptions.
A certain Jonathan Joseph, of Owia, who happened to be present, stated that he
had had the petition written at Kingstown, and had given the names to the writer;
he was, he added, of opinion that those names which he had inserted were willing to
Four persons of the deputation, whose names were in the petition, stated that they
had never authorized their names being entered in such a petition; They were always
averse to emigration, and nothing would induce them to emigrate.
How far the petition was in the first instance written in good faith it is difficult
without further enquiry to express an opinion.
5. The purport of the answer from Jamaica is given in the telegram of the 13th
November, although the letter itself is missing; this telegram alters the state of
affairs; the suggested conditions as to compulsory acceptance of employment would not
be acceded to, and the price of land as given in the telegram is prohibitive.
Taking the above into consideration and the fact that the inhabitants are averse to
emigration, steps will be taken to resettle in the Island those that possessed houses
and resided at Owia and Fancy, and it is hoped that some of the younger portion of
the community may be induced at a later date to emigrate; nothing, however, can be
done with regard to emigration until the letter from Jamaica has been received with the
further promised enquiries as to land.
6. With regard to the relief of those distressed, and apart from the question of
emigration, I have received the lists of losses incurred; these lists have been tabulated
by villages and a careful summary has been made; great care and trouble has been
taken in a work which must have entailed a large amount of labour and considerable
credit is due to the Private Secretary, Mr. Preston, who, I understand, with the
assistance of Mr. Rice, one of His Excellency's clerks, carried out this work.
The losses stated in these lists have to be checked and this work is at present being
carried out by me.
St. Vincent, November 17, 1902.

14986 T .

Nb. 74.

(Received December 4, 1902:)
[Answered by No. 82.]
SIm, St. Vincent, November 18, 1902.
I HAVE the honour to forward a "Protest and Appeal" passed at a Public
Meeting held in Kingstown on the 15th ultimo.
2. I attach .a copy of a Minute which I have received from the Administrator
explaining the action taken in selling the superabundance of stores poured into the
Colony which had to be sold (1) to prevent them from spoiling; (2) to save expense of
Warehouse rent; (3) to save expense of wages of Officers hired to look after the stores;
(4) to enable money to be circulated in the shops which the issue of money doles did,
and so to help the shopkeepers; and (5) generally in the best interests of the
3. I deny that anyone in the Colony is starving! Many are suffering hardships
inevitable after such a sudden and prolonged calamity, but I believe the rapidity with
which the re-settling of the people has been carried through is one deserving of praise.
4. No attempt at compulsory emigration has been proposed by me; the words
complained of were addressed by you to me in your telegram of the 19th of Septem-
ber, and subsequent despatch of the 26th September.*
I have, &c.,

Enclosure 1 in No. 74.


Passed at a Public Meeting, held in the Court House, Kingstown, St. Vincent,
October 15th, 1902.

Whereas by the Volcanic Eruption of the 7th May last, a large portion of the
cultivated area of the Colony was devastated and thousands of the people were ren-
dered homeless and destitute;
And whereas in addition to abundant supplies in kind, large sums of money were
contributed, fully sufficient to relieve the distress, to re-house all the homeless popu-
lation, and re-establish the industries of the Colony;
And whereas under the pretence of there being no land available or obtainable,
at reasonable rates, large numbers of the sufferers, after the lapse of five months, have
not been provided with homes and lands; and the Governor insists that they shall
emigrate to Jamaica under the following threat, contained in his published Minute to
the Administrator of the 24th September, 1902:-"You should make them clearly
understand that if they refuse this opportunity no more relief will be given them ";
And whereas it is a matter of public notoriety that, while many of these people
are starving, large quantities of supplies contributed by the American Government
for their relief, have been gradually shipped from the Colony, and other supplies are
now lying rotting in the rooms in which they afe stored;
And whereas notwithstanding the Governor's statement to the contrary, there
are suitable lands available on which to settle the people-lands that can be obtained
at rates no higher than those charged by the Government to purchasers of Govern-
ment Lands-as well as a large stock of building material in the Government Lumber

SNos. 32 and 35.

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