Implementation plan for the 1985 annual work plan

Material Information

Implementation plan for the 1985 annual work plan
Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Farming Systems Support Project
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida in cooperation with FSSP Support Entities
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida


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Full Text
Farming Systems Support Project
Farming Systems Support Project
International Programs Office of Agriculture and
Institute of Food and Office of Multisectoral Development
Agricultural Sciences Bureau for Science and Technology
University of Florida Agency for International Development
Gainesville, Florida 32611 Washington, D.C. 20523
Prepared by
University of Florida in cooperation with FSSP Support Entities

Farming Systems Support Project
Cooperative Agreement No. DAN-4099-A-O0-2083-O0
Project No. 936-4099 Submitted to The United States
Agency for International Development
Prepared by
University of Florida in cooperation with
FSSP Support Entities

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY..... .. . .. ... .o ... .. .1
Present Support Strutu...... ....... ..... .*.15
Strengthening Through Domestic Workshops...........15
Strengthening Through Technical Assistance....-......16
Projections For 1986-87 and Beyond........ .....o.....o.16
Synthesis for Training and Comparative Analysis-......o19 Units and Their Develom-o ... o ... .0.000 ..... .. 19
Delivery of Training Activities-........ ..o .......... .21
Projections for 1986-87 and Beyond...o.o..............o.21
FSSP/FSR Biodata File.o.. ..... ... .... .o.23
Project Support...... ..... .......
MSTAT (Michigan State Statistics)...............o...26
Publications.. ..... .... o....................... ooo ... o ..........30
FSSP Documentationo.o... ..... ...... o.o.......32
Organization and Management Handbook..o........o.o...35
Intra-Household Dynamics and FSR/E..o..o. ... ....... .36
Comparison of Approaches to FSRo... o..................36
Africa .. ... .. o. ......... -.oo- ...9.o .. o99 ...39
Latin America and the aiba. ooo-o...oo4
Asia and the Near East ... o..o*oo ..... o .... o47* *
SUMMARY CALENDARo... .................... ....-.49
Official MOA Contacts.o. .......... o ....... ...... ...53
Support Entities' Work Plan Summary. ...... o.....-e5

The Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) was created and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to provide technical support to the agency's agricultural research and extension projects in which Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) is an integral part. Through a cooperative agreement with USAID, the University of Florida is expected to develop, strengthen and expand its capacity and that of its support entities to provide
technical assistance, training, and guidance to FSR/E programs in developing countries.
The project is engaged in four types of interrelated activities to accomplish this mandate: 1) Technical assistance under this project provides developing countries with skills required at any stage in the project cycle; 2) Short-term training courses are designed to strengthen the capacity of host-country nations both to perform FSR/E work and to offer guidance in the institutionalization of FSR/E
methodologies; 3) Networking activities facilitate communication among practitioners; and 4) State-of-the-arts provides an ongoing,
comparative analysis of FSR/E experiences and the synthesis of lessons learned for input into project technical assistance, training and networking, and the basis for FSR/E field guidelines.
The FSSP is managed by the University of Florida, the lead entity in an institutional support entity network that includes 21 universities and five private firms. Nearly 800 scientists, researchers and educators represent these institutions, providing a
substantial base of expertise for the project to draw from.
The project offers a variety of support services (the FSSP itself
does not compete for long-term contracts, although institutional members of the FSSP Support Entity Network can and do). In each of the following categories, services can be tailored to accomodate specific project (client) needs. Placement of categories under the various headings has been done for convenience in listing them and should not be considered as absolute in any sense. Many of the categories belong under several headings; infer considerable overlap.

Technical Assistance
Needs assessments
Studies leading to the Project Identification Document (PID)
Preparation of the PID
Preparation of the Proj ect Paper (PP)
Collaborative mode proj ect design
Briefings far design, evaluatiQn or implementation teams
(including replacements)
Project evaluations
FSR/E Training/Learning
Needs assessments
On-farm research: trial design and analysis
for crops and livestock
Socioeconomic analysis
Data management and analysis
Management and institution building
Evaluation of technology
Support materials
Short courses and workshops
Concepts, skills
Stimulate peer contact within and between countries/regions
involved in FSR/E
Sponsor and/or facilitate thematic workshops
FSSP Newsletter
These services are flexible. The FSSP can manage and perform a
wide range of activities in support of project (client) objectives; it is also prepared to assist in the FSR/E initiatives of AID Missions, contractors or host country institutions. In the first two years of the project, the FSSP has worked in over 40 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Training & Networking Technical Assistance
Africa 11 Africa 9
Latin America 8 Latin America 9
Asia 4 Asia 0
Additionally, the FSSP has stimulated support entities to sponsor nine workshops in the United States, which have offered training in farming

systems methodology to nearly 200 participants. The initiative of these support entities has strengthened their university and institutional capability and strengthened the overall capability of
this proj ect.
Proj ect emphasis is directed toward strengthening experience and understanding in the use of the farming systems approach to research
and extension. Although FSR/E is flexible to fit the agricultural and institutional conditions found in different country and cultural settings, the process includes a minimum sequence of basic steps:
diagnosis, design, testing, evaluation and extension.
Diagnosis -identifies problems in specific systems.
Design -generates alternative solutions to specific problems.
Testing -tests tentative solutions under farm conditions.
Evaluation -evaluates acceptability of selected solutions.
Extension -promotes use of acceptable technology.
FSR/E brings scientific method and additional expertise to bear on this process of problem identification and technology generation. Teams of scientists from different disciplines, working with farmers,
can speed up the process and make it more efficient in responding to a rapidly changing world.
For additional information about the FSR/E potential and the support capability of the Farming Systems Support Project, contact either:
Wendell Morse, Project Coordinator
Washington, D.C. 20523 (telephone: 703-235-8946)
Chris 0. Andrew, Director
University of Florida International Programs
3028 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, Florida 32611 (telephone: 904-392-2309 or
TELEX 568757 for FSSP business only)

An earlier draft of this Implementation Plan was reviewed by the project's core staff, the FSSP's Technical Committee, and through a formal FSSP Work Plan Review in AID/Washington. The latter included AID project management and the project committee, made up of representatives from each Bureau, S&T/RD, S&T/AGR and S&T/N. The interest shown by and contributions elicited from various individuals participating in this review process is greatly appreciated.
As a short-term scope of work directed toward overall project objectives, this' Implementation Plan highlights activities and reaffirms current undertakings in a formalized framework. It constitutes a general guide to the project's synthesis and state-of-the-arts work through technical assistance, training and networking support to AID Missions and national farming systems research and extension projects and programs for the coming year.
This document is not to be construed as absolute, either as
criteria for evaluation or progress. It represents the known quantity of demand for services and the initiatives that have been undertaken by the project and the Support Entity Network which it represents. However, experience has shown that a significant portion of the demand for project services remains an unknown quantity at any given time. Efforts to structure that demand are, to a large extent, what comprises the current Work Plan. Priorities have been set based on past demand and experience in responding to that demand.
The development of FSR/E capabilities in developing countries involves synthesis and state-of-the-arts efforts in both technical assistance and institution strengthening. Technical assistance provides immediate help in resolving problems in program management. Institution building helps create within participating countries the professional expertise and commitment necessary for self-sustaining, coordinated national programs. These represent the scope of work for the FSSP and what is reflected in this Implementation Plan.
This report addresses specifically plans for 1985, generally plans through 1987 (the period of the first Cooperative Agreement) and briefly, general perspectives for a second five year agreement to 1992, should such action occur. The FSSP is dedicated to: 1) strengthening the farming systems approach to agricultural research and extension, 2) coordinating program development for research and extension, 3) providing a basis for improved adaptive research, and 4) improved adoption and use of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) technology and methods.

In 1985 the early geographical focus will continue with primary emphasis on Africa and secondary emphasis given to Latin America, Asia and the Near East. In Africa, major program plans are
drawn up for the Western region, with cooperative programming through CIMMYT in the Eastern region. While core funding extends to include numerous technical assistance interventions, substantial importance is placed on networking and training activities. In Latin America emphasis is given to gaining Mission and Bureau support for country-level technical assistance and training efforts. FSSP funding
support will be dedicated nearly exclusively to regional networking and training endeavors. The FSSP support entity structure embodies the capacity to pursue a major program in Latin America, if funds
become available, without interfering with the African thrust. Modest initiatives will be taken to further establish appropriate program and institutional interfaces in Asia and the Near East.
Each section of this Implementation Plan concludes with some
perspectives for the duration of the project, projections for 1986-87
and beyond. These reflect the future direction of project resource allocation as perceived at this time. They also raise a number of questions pertaining to the broader outlook for farming systems
research and extension beyond the life oif- this- project. FSR/E continues to undergo an evolutionary process and the Farming SystemsSupport Project is evolving along with it., while, -supporting it in the process. The state-of-the-art is dynamic, beyond the life and
resources of the project.

The flow of support from the FSSP involves three stages with sequential yet iterative implications:
Stage 1. Needs assessment, evaluation and design.
Stage 2. Training (workshops, short courses, in-service
training, etc.) and general technical assistance.
Stage 3. Monitoring, backstopping, targeted technical
assistance and evaluation.
The project has devoted considerable time to Stage 1 and has established a Support Entity (SE) network that allows the project to respond to needs expressed by AID Missions and bilateral contractors
in support of national research and extension programs.
A transition of emphasis to Stage 2 in 1985 will involve program development activities to provide for a strong support resource base. This will include state-of-the-art synthesis in the development of training materials in the areas of methodology and management,
technical assistance and project evaluation guidelines, and workshops to further advance personnel technical assistance capabilities, both domestic and international.
As the project moves through Stage 2 with necessary continuing
activity in Stage 1, emphasis will begin to emerge through 1985-87 for a sustained base of support through Stage 3 and for extension or renewals of the Cooperative Agreement up to the ten year intent of the project. While the term "farming systems" may evolve to other
descriptors, the concept of more direct farmer participation in adaptation and development of technology will always remain important to improved agricultural research and extension.
Following from experience in Stage 1 of FSSP activity (needs assessment, evaluation and design) the overall implementation
structure of the FSSP has emerged through core staff, AID/S&T and Support Entity deliberations. This structure, depicted in Figure 1, is a program planning, development and delivery model for budgeting and implementing the FSSP.

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Workshops Diagnostic
- Multicountry Design
Courses Evaluation
Iteti Briefing / Debriefing
- Courses Participant add-on
- Workshops
- Meetings Support Base
- Biodata
Support Base Guidelines
- Resources Resources
- Units Personnel
Team Exchange
Figure 2. FSSP Delivery Capacity Through Program Services
Program Development: evolves from nearly all FSSP interventions and
activities through deliberate state-of-the-art synthesis (Figure
3). The approach includes:
- Resources from state-of-the-art synthesis based in
practitioner experience (human), proj ect experience
(cases) and research results (literature).
- Resources for program delivery are provided through
training aids (slide-tape modules, manuals, etc.),
training techniques (team building, group
interaction, etc.) and technicalassistance
-Training/Learning Units focus upon needs in operating the
farming systems approach inclusive of concepts, skills and
impl ement at ion.
State-of-the-Art Synthesis: emerges through use of the units in
course development and team support where the training/learning
units provide inputs for program delivery. The units are points
around which knowledge gained through research and experience is
collected in an ever evolving delivery and feedback process.
Guidelines for program delivery activities are under continuous
development and revision as a focal point for capturing
experience and capacitating delivery teams. It should be noted
that state-of-the art synthesis is addressed throughout the FSSP as
essential to training, technical assistance and networking for both
program development and delivery. This synthesis process, while structured by addressing concepts, skills and implementation, is
focused on improving FSR/E through its components of diagnosis,
design, testing, evaluation and extension.

Resources/ Hu Liratr Training Training Technical
Units Assistance
Units Aids Techniques Guidelines
Concepts "
/ / 'U
2. / /
/ / CL
\/ \/ .
Skills E
"Stateof-the Delivery
; Arts 'U
Implementation / /
/ \//
/ \ \
/\/ 0
Figure 3. Program Development for Training/Learning
The following Work Plan is developed against the backdrop provided by this presentation of the FSSP conceptual model for program development and delivery. The model serves as a basis for establishing priorities for program development activities and delivery of program services. The
functions of program development, program delivery, management and administration, and the processes involved, are incorporated into a procedural manual, which will be used, tested, and refined in 1985. The procedural manual is specifically directed to the interworkings of varied core, SE, AID S&T and Mission activities within the FSSP.

Present Support Structure
Twenty-five SEs have signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with
the FSSP. Of these, 20 are Universities and the remaining five are private consulting firms. At the present time, there is no policy regarding purging or replacement of these entities. There is now in effect a moratorium on signing any more MOAs with other entities.
There are 735 individuals listed in the FSSP Bio-data files as possible sources of support. Of these, 565 are Program Associates (PAs) from the affiliated universities. Additionally, 170 individuals are listed as independent within the FSSP Bio-data. (See Appendix 3) Projected
changes within the SE biodata structure will consist of updating and streamlining the current system.
Strerngthening Through Domestic Workshops
Domestic Workshop I (DWI) has represented the first round of
training activities for the SEs. DWI is primarily used as an introduction and orientation to the farming systems approach to agricultural development. DWI represents a "What is" approach to the concepts of FSR. It presents a framework for thinking about the FSR approach. The primary audience for DWI has been faculty of U.S. universities; international graduate students studying in the U.S. and USAID representatives have also
attended these workshops.
DWI has been used to strengthen the ability of U.S. institutions to do FSR work. The strategy of the FSSP has been to use these workshops to strengthen the personnel base of the SEs by exposing personnel to the concepts of FSR. Often Title XII Strengthening Grant monies used by the participating institutions to send faculty to the various DWIs in 1984,
hosted by the University of Minnesota, Southern Illinois University, and Virginia State University.
It appears that the demand for DWI may be slackening. However, there will probably be enough demand, from new personnel at universities and at USAID, to continue the presentation of this workshop. The FSSP is currently polling all PAs to get a better feeling for the demand for DWI within the FSSP network. The current strategy regarding DWI is to establish DWI at one of the SEs, so that it may continue to be offered annually or as demand dictates.
Future Domestic Workshops are planned, and development strategies 15

are now aimed toward DWII and DWIII. These workshops will be more focused on the "How to" aspect of FSR work. DWII will address the area of "Design and Analysis of On-Farm Trials" and DWIII will deal with the subject of "Management of Farming Systems Projects". The plan is to present the first session of each subsequent DW at the University of Florida, to a selected audience from as many SEs as possible. Comments and criticisms will be incorporated into the curriculum following these presentations, and the workshops will then be given at various SEs in the U.S. during the following year. Minimal FSSP funding will be allocated to those workshops since SEs can use other funds for participants. Projected target dates for these workshops are: mid-year for DWIII, and fourth-quarter for DWII.
Strengthening Through Technical Assistance
General technical assistance activities: Either teams, or
individuals for teams, are selected from Support Entities for needs assessments, project design or project evaluation activities in FSR. The details of these activities are provided under "TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Project Support" in this workplan.
Participant add-ons (PAOs): The concept of a participant add-on (PAO) was added to FSSP Support Entity strengthening activities during 1984. A PAO candidate is defined as a Program Associate who has participated in a general farming systems orientation workshop (or equivalent), has a high degree of interest in working in some facet of FSR, hopes to perform such FSR work overseas (preferably in Africa), and has no
previous hands-on experience in implementing FSR. PAO candidates are nominated by either the Program Leader or the Administrative Coordinator of respective Support Entities from their lists of Program Associates. Each Support Entity can nominate up to five PAO candidates.
The PAO category is intermediate in the general upgrade experience of Program Associates between no experience and some hands-on FSR experience. It is not seen as a replacement for hands-on experience, but rather as a way in which several Program Associates can put their interest in FSR to the test and decide whether or not to invest more of themselves in FSR activities in the future. The FSSP views the PAO category as a
significant upgrade of Support Entity faculty or staff in the use of the tools of FSR methodology. Such individuals should serve to strengthen the international faculty expertise of the given Support Entity they represent.
During 1985, the FSSP core hopes to be able to include as many PAOs as possible in African FSR activities. PAOs will also be considered for Asian and Latin American FSR activities on a case-by-case basis. The FSSP core, along with the Support Entity Program Leaders, believes the PAO concept is vital to the continued upgrading of FSR expertise in the FSSP network, and accords this function a very high priority.
Projections For 1986-87 and Beyond
Support Entity Structure: There is no current plan to expand the Support Entity structure. It will be reviewed to determine networking and

support benefits among various institutions for future and continued affiliation. Biodata files will be updated and purged of those individuals
who neglect to provide full and accurate information needed by the FSSP.
Domestic Workshops: It is anticipated that both DWII and DWIII will
be institutionalized with one or more of the Support Entities. They may also become a part of the course offerings at universities or regional institutions in West Africa and Latin America. Domestically, this will enable these workshops to be given as demand dictates. Internationally, the workshops and the training units developed for use in FSR course offerings have the potential to support the development of an indigenous capacity in farming systems.

Synthesis for Training and Comparative Analysis
Since last year, the FSSP has moved away from the development of training "courses" toward the development of "units" that can better link its training initiatives with comparative analysis and a synthesis of the state-of-the arts. The importance of this approach is inherent in the
project's multiple objectives. As a support project, the FSSP receives requests for training national practitioners; response to these requests is a key element of the project's work. At the same time, FSR/E remains an evolving set of skills. Knowledge of FSR/E skills is not at a stage where one fixed training content can or should be delivered.
The project will continue to synthesize existing FSR/E knowledge, and, more importantly, to provide real-world tests of those skills for comparative analysis as it meets the demand for its training services. The
development of training units will provide a better means to do so through state-of-the-arts synthesis.
Reflexion on project experience to date, as well as discussions at a recent (June, 1984) FSSP workshop at Iowa State University to train trainers, suggested the unit concept as a most appropriate means to meet project objectives. Accordingly, an initial training units workshop was subsequently held at the University of Florida (August, 1984) to define units and plan for their development and testing. Participants in this workshop have been formed into a committee to coordinate the development of the units and to informally serve the FSSP training coordinator in an advisory capacity for training, generally.
Units and Their Development
The units to be developed fall into three broad groups: FSR/E
concepts, FSR/E skills, and FSR/E implementation. First priority will be placed with FSR/E skills. The focus of this effort will be. a state-of-the-arts synthesis to obtain pertinent examples of skills applications for inclusion in the training units.
1. FSR/E Concepts
a) Philosophy, Objectives, Evolution
b) Characteristics of FSR/E
2. FSR/E Skills
a) Diagnosis

b) Agronomic Experimental Design and Analysis
c) Animal Production Experimental Design and Analysis
d) Socioeconomic Analysis
e) Applied Statistics
f) Management and Administration of FSR/E Teams
g) Evaluation of New Technology
3. FSR/E Implementation
a) Organizational Linkages
b) Management and Administration of FSR/E Projects
c) Field Program Development and Implementation
d) Training
e) Policy Development
f) Proj ect Design
g) Proj ect Evaluation
h) Needs Assessment
Since these units can be variously combined, they will strengthen the training effort by affording trainers the flexibility to design and deliver courses that best respond to the needs of a given training milieu. It will still remain for the trainer to adapt the units to any particular training
setting. The need for able trainers, therefore, can never be dispensed with.
A primary purpose in the unit development process will be to give full attention to the broad spectrum of needs in realizing the five stages of FSR/E. In so doing the R/E team will have a reference point from which to extract experience and insights from others in implementing FSR/E, and in turn, a place to report experience for the farming systems community to draw upon.
The first units slated for development are those of the skills
category. These units are given priority since they are needed to train developing-country research and extension practitioners, the recipient population for the burden of the FSSP training effort, in the range of skills required to actually carry out the farming systems research and extension process at the field level. All but units "c" and "e!' will be initiated in a one-week workshop scheduled for the first quarter of 1985. The workshop will be highly structured to achieve its aim and will include FSSP core staff, members of the informal training advisory group, and
individuals selected for their subject expertise. Prof essional trainers will be present to serve the developers as consultants. The units will then be field tested in overseas and domestic workshops by the third quarter of 1985. Units "c" and "e!' will be developed by year's end and
tested soon thereafter.
The concepts units will be developed by the FSSP Gore by mid-1985. These units have a lower priority since there is already considerable quality material for training in this area, so that development will consist of only a modest but creative synthesis. The implementation category, as the units subsumed suggest, is concerned with the implementation of the FSRIE approach. This category has a lower priority than the other two only because the development of units for most of its subject areas must await state-of-the-art research. The preparation of 20

guidelines for proj ect design and evaluation is now underway, so the completion of the development of these units is projected for the end of 1985. The remaining units are to be ready by the close of 1986.
It must be understood that unit development is fluid :training experience, the advent of new training materials and techniques to accommodate a new and ever-changing field, even the presently unforseen need for future units will all modify unit composition as well as the unit
inventory itself throughout the life of the FSSP. Unit development and maintenance, therefore, are never-ending activities.
Delivery of Training Activities
Training that effectively addresses the real needs of a group requires careful planning. With that in mind, the FSSP has adopted the practice of dispatching an advance planning team to the training site to profile the group to be trained, to assess its needs, and to gather
information about local agricultural research and extension that might be useful in making the proposed training activity relevant to the needs of the recipients. The planning team is composed of individuals who will
later return to conduct the training.
Projections for 1986-87 and Beyond
As noted above, all units of the implementation category will be ready in 1986 except those of project design and project evaluation, which will be ready in 1985. But unit development and maintenance, for reasons already given, will necessarily continue for the life of the FSSP and for so long as FSR/E training is in demand.
The Office of International Cooperation in Development (OICD) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has solicited an expression of interest in a proposed FSR/E practitioner course from USAID Missions and other international development agencies. If there is sufficient interest, the FSSP will collaborate with the OICD/USDA in the development of a course to be offered in the United States for foreign nationals. Such a course would be ready for delivery in 1986.
In a similar vein, initial discussions are underway to institute an FSR/E course at a university which could serve West and Central Africa, in
both English and French. This course would be similar to the one instituted by CIMMYT at the University of Zimbabwe. The FSSP is also looking to institute such a course in Latin America, where the prospects for it are good.
These contemplated courses are part of a long-term FSSP strategy to institutionalize FSR/E training through capacitating established entities. The United States domestic FSR/E workshops also work to that end by strengthening American university personnel to ultimately conduct their own
training through bilateral projects.

With the exception of some FSR project evaluations, most of the
demand for technical assistance is not predictable in advance. Such demand tends to be a function of several variables, some of which include (1) the AID FSR project contract, (2) the particular contractor, (3) previous contact with, or knowledge about, the FSSP, (4) lead time given or demanded and (5) the "good old boy" club. Attempts by FSSP core staff to increase the amount of lead time to anticipate AID's plans for FSR project designs have been singularly unsuccessful during 1984, and probably will not represent a major core effort during the 1985-87 period.
As with most other functional areas of the project, the plan is to turn a greater proportion of technical assistance activities over to the Support Entity network. This might follow a pattern similar to that of the University of 00Arizona Jordan Project design activity of 1984. The following three sections divide technical assistance activities into the FSR biodata file, FSR project support, and MSTAT (Michigan State Statistics).
FSSP/FSR Biodata File
The moratorium on signing more MOAs implies that the FSSP Support Entity network is near its final size. This means that no large changes are anticipated in the size or composition of the biodata collection. Those changes which are envisioned in the biodata files are :updates on specific individuals; updates on Support Entity official contact personnel; some additions to both the Support Entity Program Associate (PA) file and to the independent file; and agreement upon an
equitable but highly necessary policy for maintaining and/or purging the biodata collection. The two sub-sections which follow contain a brief description of current biodata uses and projected biodata uses.
Current biodata uses: Since December, 1983,. nearly 50 searches have been made utilizing the FSSP biodata file. Those who use the biodata file to search have included AID, USAID Missions, FSR project contractors, potential bilateral contractors, Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs), FSSP core staff and FSSP Support Entities. Searches have been for individuals for technical assistance and for whole technical assistance teams, as well as for individuals with interest or expertise in FSR training. The trend for the number of searches has been consistent while
growing slightly.
The Support Entities are beginning to make greater use of their biodata files. Policy allows searchers from within the Support Entity 23

network (as well as requests coming to the FSSP from USAID Missions) to have direct access to Program Associate's telephone numbers. FSSP policy states that each Program Associate is responsible for notifying his or her department or unit head, as well as the Program Leader or Administrative Coordinator, if they are contacted by a searcher. In addition, the short list of candidates identified for each search is forwarded to Program Leaders and Administrative Coordinators at each Support Entity which has candidates on the short list. Negotiations for participatory services then can be formalized between the appropriate administrative units.
Projected biodata use 1985: This year will be characterized by
group decisions between the Support Entity network and the FSSP core staff as to how best to keep the biodata system up to date. For example, more than 50 percent of the requests made on the biodata file ask for candidates with "two or more years of FSR field experience." Most of the individuals with this level of FSR experience are either currently overseas on bilateral contracts, working at IARCs, or are located at universities or consultant firms.
To be of the greatest use to everyone involved, the FSSP biodata file should be revised and updated by all Support Entities, in terms of a number of its facets. First, SE information needs to be upgraded as to who is on overseas assignments in FSR and other bilateral proj ects, the length of assignments, and whether or not the individuals can be tapped for
short-term consultancies in the region where they work or on a global basis. Second, there needs to be a revision of Program Associate lists to include all long-term replacement personnel, subject to all the provisions stated above. Third, a revision of Program Associate lists must include the long-term availability status of both individuals returning from overseas FSR assignments and professionals newly-added to the Support
Entity's roster. Additionally, current recommendations for Participant Add-On (PAO) lists should be supplied by each Support Entity.
To be of maximal use to searchers utilizing the biodata, the files must be maintained in as dynamic a state as possible. The FSSP core staff intends to reduce the number of memos to Support Entities requesting update information during 1985.
Projected biodata use 1986-87: Once the biodata files are updated to the satisfaction of the FSSP core staff, and when the system of updates and purging functions well, the project can consider turning the biodata files over to each Support Entity. The FSSP core is prepared to continue as the central clearing house for additions, corrections or deletions in the biodata system if necessary. However, since the Support Entities will outlive the FSSP, the network is urged to consider how the FSR biodata will
be maintained in the long run.
Project Support
Needs assessment: Originally conceived of as the first logical step in project planning and design, FSSP involvement in these types of needs assessments has been infrequent so far. The FSSP still urges that such a first step be undertaken, either before,'or between, FSR projects.

Other needs assessments -- such as for training in FSR methodologies -- may become more important and frequent occurances in the future of the project. It is not possible to predict the frequency of future "technical assistance for training" requests.
Project design: This traditional AID activity consists of both the Project Identification Document (PID) and Project Paper (PP) stages of
proj ect design. The Cooperative Agreement between the University of Florida and AID creating the FSSP specifies that a FSSP core staff person
will accompany each overseas technical assistance assignment sponsored by the FSSP. In practice the volume of requests, accompanied by needs for leadership in program development, make such participation impossible. In fact, during implementation of the project, the FSSP core is attempting to make increasingly greater use of the overall expertise of the Support Entity network in the major area of technical assistance. During 1986-87, this trend will become even more pronounced as FSSP core staff answer less and less of the required FSR technical assistance activities themselves.
Proj ect evaluation: Demand for FSSP involvement in FSR project
evaluations is rather more consistent and somewhat more "predictable" than
other types of technical assistance demands. The FSSP network will be involved in at least two 1985 project evaluations, in Zambia (March) and in the Philippines (February April). Again, the FSSP role in assisting any project evaluation is provision of the most appropriate personnel to carry out the task, based on complete information from the host country and the AID Missions relating to the specific needs of the evaluation. The FSSP can also facilitate such evaluations and provide logistical support upon request and mutual agreement.
The FSR project evaluation revision task force, or ETF, was formed in November, 1984. The ETF will complete its task of suggesting a revised format and method for evaluating FSR projects, including guidelines, during 1985. After tentative agreement on the revised format is reached between the ETF, AID and interested USAID Missions in early 1985, this format and
methodology will be field-tested on a minimum of two FSR project evaluations. The final revised recommendations of this ETF, along with the
final evaluation format, will be presented at the annual KSU FSR-FSSP meetings, October 13-16, 1985. It is expected that such a revised format and methods will address current frustrations felt by all parties involved in the bilateral FSR contract process -- the host country nationals, the contractor, AID and the USAID Missions.
Team/individual orientations (briefings): To date, such activities have been ad hoc in nature. In order to move from this informal to a more routinized basis, the FSSP must be advised of their requested involvement in such activities with considerably more lead time than is usually provided. Standard procedure would indicate that the FSSP should have a minimum of one month of lead time via an "official" notice from any entity requesting assistance in FSR briefings. This lead time is neccessary to allow staff to prepare for such activities, and to avoid reacting to every "possible" request for assistance -- requests which often do not materialize.
The FSSP will assist in either team or individual 25

orientations/briefings. In addition, while adequate, phased FSR orientations are seldom, if ever, carried out in practice, the FSSP
believes that such briefings are highly desirable and could be an inexpensive "add-on"* to routinely scheduled, phased proj ect briefings. The major problem to date is that such briefings themselves seldom occur, yet could be a very cost-effective way of guaranteeing the best start-up possible for any given project.
.The FSSP has not yet 'established a generic FSR briefing format.
The expectation is that such a general briefing format will be one outcome of the "general technical assistance guidelines" to be initiated in 1985 and refined during the final three years of the project. Preliminary to that, the project has supported the development of a series of "country books" representative of 14 West African nations. The prototype of these orientation/briefing books has been completed for Burkina Faso. Development of this series will continue throughout the year.
Additionally, the FSSP has acquired access to the International Data Base of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. This data base includes demographic and economic data for all countries in the world. These data will be used to support the development of the country books and to provide secondary information for inclusion in briefings. FSSP will also use Cooperative Development for Africa (CDA) information, as appropriate, held by Michigan State University.
Team/individual debriefings: FSSP plans are to hold debriefings of teams or individuals who have recently completed FSR assignments for, or been sponsored by, the FSSP network. Such debriefings will feed state-of-the-art and will be included in the "general guidelines" to be developed. The frequecy of these debriefings will depend on the supply of individuals and/or teams during any given time period. These debriefing sessions will not be limited to short-term technical assistance activities, but will also include returning FSR field practitioners (long-term technical assistance) and training activity participants.
The FSSP continues to view debriefings as the final step in the
process of improving the state-of-the-art in FSR project implementation. Nothing should assist the improvement of this delivery more than utilizing the vivid impressions of technical assistance and training practitioners to isolate and eliminate common project problem areas, and to reinforce positive project areas and accomplishments.
MSTAT (Michigan State Statistics)
The FSSP has provided some support for the development of MSTAT and its deployment on a pilot basis in three countries: Malawi in English, Ecuador in Spanish, and Senegal French. To date, MSTAT has held six workshops in four countries, including one of the pilots agreed to with the FSSP. Delivery in Spanish (Ecuador) is tentatively scheduled for early 1985, as is delivery in French (Senegal).
in the long run (1986 and beyond), MSTAT may become the statistical package used by many of the IARCs in their regular training programs. The 26

FSSP would urge AID S&T to assist both MSU and the IARCs to adapt and incorporate this tool into routine useage within these IARCs.
In the next 12-18 months MSTAT faces a bridging crisis with
funding. Since the FSSP has been involved in the development of MSTAT and remains committed to the delivery of a quality practitioner-oriented
product, MSU is encouraged to add the following as a minimum to the MSTAT package: (1) the environmental index and (2) more relevant data sorting programs to address the field needs of FSR teams, especially for analysis of socio-economic data.

While networking activities are a function of the FSSP core staff and the entire program support structure that project management represents, these activities are interrelated with the programmatic areas of technical assistance and training. Through networking activities state-of-the art synthesis is encouraged. Networking activities are
supportive of the regional opportunities and mandates of the proj ect a nd are undertaken to facilitate FSSP accomplishments in these areas. Three specific areas of networking are addressed in this section: Networkshop~s,
Publications, and Documentation.
The term "networkshop" is taken from CIMMYT's East African FSR Programme, and is used to indicate a workshop where peers with common concerns come together to exchange information and results and to determine
common strategies for solving problems. A network of shared results develops from continued support for the same (or nearly the same) group to meet on a regular basis. Technical support to individuals within the
network can come from among the network members, or can be demanded by the network from the larger research community beyond the network. Technical assistance input in one area can be shared with other network members in order to increase the effectiveness and benefits of costly consultancies.
A networkshop differs from a training workshop or course in several significant aspects:
-The networkshop leader(s) must have training skills,
but the objective is to facilitate an exchange of information among peers, rather than a transfer of
skills from trainer to trainee;
-Participants who attend have a certain level of
expertise in the topical area in question.
-A networkshop does not stand alone, but must carry
with it a committment to reconvene regularly, and
to provide a resource base upon which network members
can draw.
In many instances, the basis or need for a networkshop can develop from training activities. For example, training in on-farm research methods and
analysis should be followed by exchanges among trainees concerning the results of their own experiences in on-farm research.

FSSP is prepared to support several regional or sub-regional
networkshops on a variety of topics during 1985. Generally, these will be no longer than one week in duration. A generic format for a networkshop, with modifications according to specific topics, is as follows:
Day 1. State-of-the-Art presentation (involving appropriate IARCs
or other research institutions) Participant research
results reports
Day 2. Continue results reporting
Day 3. Field activity (observation, evaluation,
hands-on application of new technique, etc.)
Day 4. Synthesis of results in small group sessions.
Definition of problem areas and prioritization.
Day 5. Research strategy proposal(s).
Selection of theme, agenda and location of next meeting.
Define calender of technical assistance to network
participants during interval between meetings.
The FSSP is prepared to support networkshops among FSR
practitioners, managers, or administrators. Operationally, these meetings might support networks within a single country, or among countries within a
region, or in some cases, between regions, depending upon the organizing theme of the networkshop. FSSP's role in supporting networkshops is
primarily to facilitate networking around systems-based needs for topical and commodity interactions. Wherever possible, FSSP will support networkshops in conjunction with IARCs and existing research or FSR networks. FSSP's goal is to link those in need of technology information with those who can best supply it through networkshops. Specifically, practitioners can keep pace with and contribute to the state-of-the art. The project will help develop and strengthen networks where there is a demonstrated need and local support for their continued existence.
Having been initiated to address an expressed or perceived need,
FSSP publications can be divided into three general categories: 1) regular publications, 2) publication series, and 3) special publications. Each of
these categories is elaborated on below and a projection for the scope of undertaking in 1985 is made.
Regular Publications
This category includes the FSSP Newsletter, Annual Report,
Quarterly Activity Reports and Work Plan. These are the primary documents of the project and are issued on a regular basis.
FSSP Newsletter: The newsletter will continue to publish quarterly
in English, Spanish and French. In the second quarter of 1985 there will be a purge of the mailing list. This will acquire some demographics on 30

newsl 'etter readership. This information will be compatible with appropriate
FSSP Biodata currently on file. It will facilitate the exchange of newsletter mailing lists to farming systems practitioners with IRRI and
CIMMYT. It will also facilitate the target mailing of various publications to practitioners.
In the third quarter of 1985 there will be a readership survey
issued to the recipients of the newsletter. This will canvass readers to identify newsletter content areas of greatest interest or utility.
Quarterly Activity Reports: Quarterly reports trace the activities
and direction of the project since the previous Work Plan was formulated and prior to the compilation of the Annual Report. These will continue in 1985.
FSSP Annual Report: An Annual Report for 1985 will be published the
first quarter of .1986.
FSSP 1986 Work Plan: The FSSP 1986 Work Plan will be published in
the last quarter of 1985.
Publication Series
Established to facilitate the dissemination of FSSP information and materials, this category of publications includes: an Information Series; a Training Materials Series; Networking Papers; and Wobrking Papers.
Information Series: Brochures on Technical As sistance, Training,
and an overview of the FSSP are to be developed and published in 1985; no target date has been set. This information is to be directed primarily toward AID Missions, explaining the role, responsibility and capability of the FSSP.
Training Materials Series: With the reorganization of the training
focus to include the unit development concept, demand for publications issued under this series remains an unknown quantity.
Networking Papers: This series was established as mechanism to
provide wider circulation for articles, reports, observations, and "think
pieces" that might not be journal material but are of interest to the farming systems community. Submissions to this series are invited. They are screened by the core staff and published with a disclaimer indicating
that the material does not necessarily reflect the views of the project.
This series is published as the need arises to support or facilitate
project interests. Networking Papers have only been announced to date in the domestic internal newsletter, on Networking. In 1985 this series will be announced in the FSSP Newsletter.
Working Papers: These works are published as need arises to support or facilitate technical assistance, training, and networking activities; no specific frequency, topics or dates established for 1985. Working Papers are generated by, or specifically solicited by FSSP core staff.

Special Publications
A variety of publications have been issued under this category, including task force reports, evaluation reports, and publications generated by FSSP support entities on behalf of their proj ect involvement. Anticipated activity with special publications for 1985 is
outlined below.
FSR Project Directory: As the second phase of the FSR Project
Inventory prepared by the FSSP, a Directory will be published during 1985. Distribution will include inventory participants as well as the FSSP Newsletter mailing list.
It is anticipated that the directory will be out-of-date as soon as it is issued. A file will' be maintained during 1985 in anticipation of updating the directory at a future date. Feedback from the Newsletter Survey should contribute information bearing on the interest/ necessity of updating the directory.
FSR Book of Readings: Letters to secure copyright privilege to
publish various selected farming systems works in an anthology have been sent out in the last quarter of 1984. Response will suggest the feasibility of publishing such a collection of FSR writing. A determination will be made early in 1985 by the core staff of the FSSP as to whether or not to proceed with this publication.
A collection of readings in Spanish, or of translations into' Spanish will be completed by the first half of 1985. A collection of readings in French, or of translations into French will continue in 1985.
On Networking and On Demand: These two internal newsletters will continue to be published and distributed to the program associates and management support of the FSSP during 1985. No change is anticipated in content or format, and the newsletters will continue to be issued on a
needs basis (publication frequency to date for on Demand has been five issues in eight months; On Networking has been published 14 times in the same period).
FSSP Documentation
Annotated Bibliography of Readings in Farming Systems: In 1985,
FSSP will continue its committment to publish annotated bibliographies of FSR/E materials. Kansas State University (KSU) will continue to take the
lead in identifying 100 documents annually to include in the bibliography. CDIE/USAID (formerly the DIU) will continue to procure the items on the
selected KSU bibliography, and manage the annotation, translation and publication of the bibliography. Due to delays in document procurement in 1984, which delayed the annotation procedure and thus publication of the 1983 bibliography (Vol. 1, published October 1984), some changes will be instituted in 1985 to insure more timely publication of Vol. II.

- KSU will send the bibliography selections in batches
so CDIE can begin procurement immediately.
- KSU will charge the FSSP Technical Committee to make
the final review of the items proposed for the
bibliography. This review will also be done in
batches, and the review will coincide with Technical Committee meetings. (The first of these took place
during the 1984 KSU FSR Symposiumand FSSP Annual Meeting.)
- KSU will complete the selection and review of the
items for Vol. II by the end of 1984, thus enabling
CDIE to complete and distribute the bibliography by
- KSU will begin selection of items early in 1985 for
Vol. III, so that reviews of batches can take place
at each 1985 technical committee meeting. Final
review of the 100 documents for Vol. III should be
completed by the technical committee at the 1985 KSU
Symposium and FSSP Annual Meeting. November 1 is
the deadline for delivery of the Vol. III selection
to CDIE.
KSU FSR Collection: In 1984, FSSP supported the microfiching of the non-copyrighted portion of the FSR collection at KSU libraries in order to provide KSU with a permanent archive collection, and to facilitate future
copying of the collection for placement in developing country settings where regional FSR/E training programs are regularly conducted. This process will be completed by June 30, 1985.
Microfiching the KSU FSR collection (some 2000 items total) greatly facilitates utilization of the collection either by those physically present at KSU or through the inter-library loan network. However, this does not facilitate international usage, particularly by practioners, usually located in isolated field sites. During the first quarter of 1985,
FSSP will explore possible locations of the entire collection in order. to facilitate requests for documents from developing countries. We hope incorporation into the CDIE collection, along with the 100 selected FSR items provided each year, will be a viable alternative, as CDIE's mandate already allows it to distribute documents by request to virtually anywhere in the world.
Such a system would allow KSU to meet demands for literature from US based institutions and individuals through inter-library channels, while international demand could be met by a separate organization (hopefully, the CDIE.)
FSSP has initiated discussions with several West African
organizations regarding possible location of microfiche copies of the KSU FSR collection. The University of Dschang, Cameroon, and ISRA, Senegal
have both expressed interest in obtaining copies of the entire collection.

FSSP will continue in 1985 to determine the costs, logistics, management and utility of placing the collection in these or other locations.

Farming systems research and extension methodology is relatively more advanced than farming systems research and extension organization and management in terms of knowledge and skills. Much of the farming systems research methodology is captured in the written word, and this constitutes a respectable base on which to build. No such base exists in organization and management.
Organization and Management Handbook
In 1985 a written base will be developed and made as respectable as is feasible. The first draft will be written by a single author, relying on input from a variety of sources. The material will be organized into a handbook following this format:
- Principles (and assumptions) of FSR/E organization and
- Guidelines for project activities
a. development
b. design
c. implementation
d. evaluation
- Appendices Rigorously selected supporting material for the
guidelines will be prepared.
- Annotated Bibliography also rigorously selected.
The draft manuscript will be reviewed and analyzed in a workshop of
personnel with significant international experience in farming systems that is relevant to this undertaking. Following the workshop, the manuscript will be revised and published for use in at least three service or delivery activities: a domestic workshop; an African workshop (with INTERPAKS), for
research and extension directors; and briefing of both long- and short-term technical assistance teams.
A second handbook workshop is tentatively planned for late 1985. It will attempt to involve persons briefed from the original handbook to
the extent feasible.
State-of-the-art initiatives will continue in special activities
areas. These include the Evaluation Task Force, collaboration between the FSSP and ENTERPAKS, and identification of needs for special studies, 35

particularly as they relate to the programmatic support needs of the proj ect.
Several kinds of special studies have evolved from early FSSP
support and will begin to bear fruit in 1985. One is the case study series on "Intra-Household Dynamics in Farming Systems Research and Extension" and the other concerns the comparative analysis of FSR perspectives.
Intra-Household Dynamics and FSR/E
In 1984, FSSP and the Population Council, with funding in part from
Ford Foundation, agreed to co-sponsor a case studies series on this topical area. The objective of the series is to detail several examples of
agriculture under conditions of change and demonstrate how an understanding of the intra-familial division of resources and benefits can better inform the choices at various decision points in the FSR process.
A managing editor has been selected and an advisory committee has
been nominated to provide direction in the selection of case study materials. In early 1985, proposals for case studies will be elicited. The managing editor and advisory committee will select three for immediate development, and rank others for possible future case studies, dependent
upon the outcome and review of the initial three. Of the first three case studies, two will come from Africa and one from Latin America. Drafts of
the three case studies should be ready for final review by September 1985.
Comparison of Approaches to FSR
Due to its considerable involvement in Africa, FSSP has developed a keen interest in the differences and similarities between FSR development in Anglophone countries compared to that in Francophone countries. Through various training and networking activities, FSSP has supported a comparison and synthesis of the existing FSR perspectives in Africa. This was presented at the KSU FSR Symposium, October 1984 (L. Fresco, 1984, "Comparing Anglophone and Francophone Approaches to Farming Systems Research and Extension"). The paper is being issued in the FSSP Networking
Papers series.
Interest from Latin American and Asian FSR practitioners in the
comparative analysis of African FSR perspectives has generated a proposal to hold a networkshop to address this issue. The objective of the proposed networkshop is to analyze the variations in FSR traditions and perspectives with a view to defining the appropriate conditions for specific kinds of
FSR approaches. The activity would be preceeded by some initial analysis of the FSSP inventory of the various FSR projects and their current perspectives within different settings.
In the first quarter of 1985, FSSP will explore with various donor organizations concerning possible joint support for the proposed workshop. IDRC/Canada has already expressed interest in supporting the activity. Tentatively, the workshop is scheduled for early August, 1985. A synthesis 36

paper from the workshop will be presented in a keynote address at the 1985 KSU FSR Symposium.

FSSP is mandated to spend 50 percent of its resources in support activities within AFRICA. FSSP follows USAID's divisions of Africa into five regions: North, East, Southern, West and Central.. FSSP's activities
as outlined in this section pertain to the latter four of these regions. For planning purposes East and Southern Africa are considered together here, as are West and Central Africa. Inter-regional activities planned for 1985 and beyond are outlined using these delineations.
East and Southern Africa
In East and Southern Africa, FSSP supports on-going FSR activities
through two mechanisms. First, FSSP responds to requests for technical assistance and training from AID Missions or from REDSO/ESA Nairobi. Second, FSSP collaborates with IARC activities, particularly those of CIMMYT (through its AID-financed FSR programme) and ILCA (regarding on-farm research with animals). As much as possible, FSSP tries to align Mission requests with IARC activities and vice-versa.
FSSP activities foreseen in this region for 1985 fall into the following categories:
FSR Team Briefings (Jointly with CIMMYT):
Rwanda No date yet
Burundi No date yet
FSR Country Level Training (Overview/Diagnostic Jointly
with CIMMYT)
Rwanda No date yet
Burundi No date yet
FSR Project Evaluations:
Zambia February/March
West and Central Africa

FSSP activities in West and Central Africa are generally more pro-active than in any other region. FSSP collaborates with
IARC activities in the region, especially those of IITA, ICRISAT, WARDA, and ILCA. FSSP works closely with AID missions to determine needs for FSR training, technical assistance and networking, however, as FSSP expertise
in the region develops, collaboration shifts to a more direct interface with national FSR project and program leaders. FSSP has been defining a support role to play in relationship with the development of the West African Farming Systems Research Network (WAFSRN). Activities programmed (both firm and tentative) for 1985 within the above parameters are described below.
Networkshops: In the West and Central African region, these are designed to develop around specific themes generated by participants in previous "FSSP activities. The themes selected for 1985 also correspond to themes designated as priorities for WAFSRN attention. FSSP views these networkshops as contributory to the overall networking need addressed by WAFSRN, and does not view them as precursors of separate FSR networks, but rather as sub-units of the larger regional network. WAFSRN steering committee will participate in FSSP networking activities as they deem
appropriate. As WAFSRN develops, FSSP hopes to draw the directions for future networkshop from prioritiy topics designated by WAFSRN members.
Networkshop #1. "Animal Systems in FSR/E"
Togo, March 4-8.
Networkshop #2. "Role of the Agricultural
Economist in W. African FSR Programs" (May-June, tentatively in Ivory Coast)
Networkshop #3. "On Farm Research Results in
West Africa" (July August, tentatively in Burkina Faso) This workshop will be conducted
in collaboration with Purdue/ SAFGRAD/FSU.
FSR Team Exchanges: As a part of its networking activities, FSSP
will facilitate exchanges between FSR teams. This is seen as especially useful for newly established teams who need to visit with teams having more hands-on experience. ISRA/SENEGAL has offered to host a limited numbers of these for French-speaking teams. For English-speaking teams, FSSP will look to CIMMYT East and Southern Africa programs for exchanges.
- Rwanda/Senegal FSR Team Exchange.
(Requested, exact date unknown)
Regional Training Activities:
- Data Analysis for On-Farm Research.
FSSP will assign a SE task force to develop this course for
delivery in English and French in West Africa during the second half of 1985. Exploratory discussions with MSTAT personnel and CRED/University of Michigan for leadership in the design of the
course have been initiated.

- Permanent FSR Training Program.
FSSP has initiated discussions with the USAID Mission Cameroon and Univ. of Florida staff with the University Center, Dschang,
Cameroon, concerning the possibility of developing a
University-based FSR training program in West Africa similar to
the one CIMMYT helped to establish in the University of Zimbabwe.
A workshop to discuss the issues surrounding this proposal is
scheduled for April. Support and collaboration in course
development and delivery will be discuss with IITA Staff in
FSR Team Briefings/ Technical Assistance input:
- Gambia Design Team Briefing January
- Guinea Design Team Briefing Pending request from
Title XII University contractor.
- Sierra Leone CSD Design Team Support Pending request
from Title XII University contractor when selected.
- Gambia FSR specialist will be placed on design team
Country Program Support:
- Liberia Overview/Diagnostic Workshop, Requested for June July
- Gambia Overview/Diagnostic Workshop, Requested for May
- Cameroon Technical Assistance Seminar, April
- Informal workshops at Univ. Center, Dschang, April
- Ivory Coast Support to IDESSA Regional FSR workshop, Nov.
- Senegal Support for publication and distribution of
proceedings from FSR workshop held with trainer and backstopping
support from FSSP, Oct. 1984.
WAFSRN: FSSP will support, together with other donors, the next
WAFSRN meeting, currently scheduled for September, 1985.
Other Support Activities for the Region:
- Country Briefing Notebooks Subcontract with the African Studies
Center, University of Florida. Priorities placed on selected
West and Central African countries.
- Intra-Household FSR/E Case Studies At least two of
the initial 3 cases selected for this series will come
from the African region.
- FSSP support for a WAFSRN newsletter (in negotiation)
Inter-regional Activities
FSSP can play a unique role in creating opportunities for FSR
exchanges across regions. Two such activities are being planned for 1985. These are in addition to the main cross-regional symposium at KSU to which 41

FSSP will continue to sponsor African participants.
FSR Training in the African University
Tentatively scheduled for late 1985, at a West Africa University
(to be selected). Virginia Polytechnique Institute (VPI) will be
asked to take the lead in coordinating this activity. This workshop
will bring together University faculty, administrators and farming systems practitioners from West, East, Southern and Central Africa
to discuss the role of the African University in FSR/E development,
training and institutionalization.
Regional Farming Systems Workshop for Sub-Saharan Africa August 1985
FSSP will co-sponsor this activity with Egerton College, Kenya by
providing support for selected West Africa participants and input to the Workshop design. The aim of this workshop is to bring together
East and West African FSR scientists to share views on issues of
methodology, practice, and training as different FSR approaches are
currently employed.
FSSP African Support Planning Sessions
To again take advantage of the FSR practitioners attending the KSU FSR Symposium, FSSP will host a series planning sessions to
gather input for support activities to be carried out in 1986.
Projections for 1986-87 and Beyond
While it is difficult to project specific country demands for the FSSP, planning for the kinds of regional training and networking activities
which should be forthcoming is possible.
In the networking area, FSSP will support the topical subnetworks created within the WAFSRN's domain through the networkshops. This will
include annual meetings and technical support as demanded. A goal of the FSSP will be to set these sub networks in motion, help them, through WAFSRN, to secure funds to continue networking activities, and provide linkage support between subnetworks, WAFSRN, and the larger network of FSR practitioners worldwide. The FSSP will work to tie the subnetworks to support entities or groups of SE's to provide long term institutional
backstopping and technical assistance. In 1986-87, FSSP envisions supporting networkshops on topics such as FSR Management and Administration, Agro-forestry and FSR/E, and Integrated Pest Management in FSR/E Approaches. Beyond 1987, the project will move to build linkages between regions, as well as within regions. These activities should help to facilitate such crossovers and interchanges of FSR/E results as those between Africa and Latin America, between the Sahelian countries and the arid lands of the Near East and Sub-Continent, or between the Francophone countries of the Caribbean and West Africa.

In the training area, a growth in the 1986-87 demand for in-country training programs is anticipated, to meet the short-term requirements of staffing newly created FSR projects. More trainers will have to be located and trained to meet this demand. To more fully and securely meet the projected training demand and needs from the West and Central African Region, FSSP is investigating the potential for institutionalization of a permanent training base, hopefully within a University location, where training in French and English can take place. The FSSP anticipates that this program will be operational by the end of 1986, however, to fully develop to needed capacity, such a program will require continued support from outside sources for at least five years. Concomittantly, FSSP will need to support the training base with materials appropriate to the region and bt providing access to relevent literature.
In the technical assistance area, FSSP looks forward to greater emphasis on capacitation of the U.S. university support entity group in
order that they can be more fully capable of supporting their own international technical assistance demands in Africa. FSSP sees clearly
its role to provide mechanisms for countries to draw upon the technical assistance capabilities within their own regions. Networking activities will contribute to development of this avenue for cooperative technical assistance. In 1986-87, FSSP will increasingly draw upon practitioners within the African region to meet requests for technical assistance. Beyond 1987, it is anticipated that linkages between countries and project activities will begin to solidify and FSSP's role could be one of greater facilitation, than direct action in this area.
Finally, in 1986-87 and beyond, FSSP will need to focus greater
support on the synthesis of the disparate results from FSR activities, not
only within the African region, but from all areas engaged in FSR activities, the comparison of FSR approaches and perspectives for determining their suitability to specific conditions, and on the programatic institutionalization of FSR at the national and regional levels. These activities will necessitate a merging of the information generated by topical networkshops, inventories of FSR projects and project results, case study analyses, documentation efforts and evaluation activities. Synthesis and comparison of FSR results must take place before their wider utilization through institutionalization will be possible.

Latin America and the Caribb ean
As stipulated in the Cooperative Agreement, no more than 25 percent of project funds may be allocated to Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The proj ect has experienced its greatest demand for services from the LAC region, a demand that shows no signs of abatement, and even signs of increase, for the near future. The problem posed for the FSSP in 1985 and beyond, therefore, is how to meet an expanding demand for services. The project proposes to address this problem through encouraging AID Missions to obtain solicited services either on a cost-sharing basis or through "'buy-ins." The FSSP also will prioritize its resources for the region by project functional area.
Priority for project resources: In order of priority, the
functional areas to which project resources will be allocated for 1985 are networking, training, and technical assistance. Up to nine percent of FSSP funds for the year will be budgeted for networking (e.g., regional workshops), with a maximum of eight percent each for training and technical assistance. Considering only proj ect funds allocated to the region, the respective percentages become thirty-six, thirty-two, and thirty-two. Missions will be expected to cover fifty percent, through buy-ins or cost-sharing, of all training and technical assistance activities until
FSSP budgeted funds are depleted. All costs for training and technical assistance conducted thereafter must be borne by Missions. Regional networking activities may be undertaken on a cost sharing basis, or may not involve any costs to Missions.
For the above scheme to work most effectively, Missions must
request supporting services well in advance, preferably at the beginning of the year, and have been so advised. The FSSP will respond to requests in the order that they are received, subject to the qualification that projects or countries where there is a greater prospect for positive impact will receive preferential attention and have first claim on resources.
Missions were also advised to budget for training and technical assistance in their projects as the most reliable way to secure support from the FSSP.
Activities in 1985: FSSP planned activities in Latin America and
the Caribbean are fewer than in Africa since the proj ect continues to assume a reactive (rather than proactive) stance there.
As a networking activity, the FSSP will support the Centro 45

Agron6mico Tropical de Investigaci6n y Ensenanza (CATIE) in the preparation and conduction of a one-week workshop during the second quarter in Turrialba, Costa Rica. The workshop will involve the presentation and analysis of five FSR/E cases from Latin America by FSR/E researchers in the region.
While no training or technical assistance activities are yet on the calendar, preliminary information suggests likely requests from several countries, including Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Paraguay,
Peru, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala.
Projections for 1986-1987 and Beyond: Barring a significant
increase in the project resource base, the FSSP will continue in a reactive mode with regard to its activities in Latin America and the Caribbean. Should there be such an increase, or should the project mandate otherwise change in favor of the Americas, the FSSP stands prepared to assume a proactive stance in a region where it already has the personnel capacity to operate considerably beyond present funding levels.
The capabilities of the FSSP square well with current USAID interests in Latin America and the Caribbean. For example, the FSR/E approach lends itself to developing and testing appropriate technologies for "fragile lands," which are settled in the main by small farmers. The approach can also be used to enhance export capability on the production side. And with all the emphasis on the private sector, it must be noted that the small farmer belongs par excellence to that sector.

Asia And The Near East
Asia, 1985: With the exception of the fact that policy in Asia was to be reactive in nature, the FSSP began 1984 with no specific Asia policy. In the Spring, an Asia FSR ad hoc Strategy Advisory Committee agreed to serve in an advisory capacity to the FSSP core staff on Asia issues. By mid-July, a cable outlining in broad terms the capabilities of the FSSP network in FSR was sent to all Asian Missions by Wendell Morse, AID S&T, and Charles Antholt, AID AS Bureau. This cable included the mechanism to
initiate requests for FSSP services, and indicated that the FSSP would be glad to conduct initial, exploratory visits to USAID Missions and relevant host country institutions at Mission request.
Initiation of exploratory USAID Mission visits began in October,
1984, with a visit to the Philippines. Two final exploratory USAID Mission visits are scheduled to occur in late 1984, to Indonesia and Thailand. In addition, the FSSP network supported a technical assistance visit to Sri Lanka and Thailand in October, 1984, to backstop a FSR workshop in that country.
During the recent KSU FSR-FSSP meetings, the Asia FSR ad hoc
Strategy Advisory Committee was expanded from six to thirteen individuals representing ten Support Entities and AID/W. The committee has been upgraded and expanded, as reflected by its new title: the Near East and Asia Advisory Committee (NEAAC). The strategy for 1985 is to continue, when requested, exploratory Mission visits, and to participate, pending
invitation, in the Asian Farming Systems Network (AFSN) annual meeting and site monitoring visits as well as the South East Asian University FSR meetings. The Committee has expressed a concern that the FSSP core invest sufficient time in Asia to (1) become familiar enough with FSR in the
region to understand some of its complexities and be better equipped to deal with same and (2) be able to plot a strategy for the use of Asian FSR expertise in backstopping other Asian FSR field teams and African FSR activities.
It is also anticipated that on-site training for host country FSR
teams working mainly in newly begun upland (non-paddy based rice) or rainfed systems projects may be in demand in the region. The Committee advised that there may be a latent demand for FSR activities in the region in general, and that regional, or sub-regional, workshops for FSR practitioners may be a current demand which is not being met by all of the IARCs working in the region. Finally, the FSSP may provide the means for allowing all of the IARCs which work in the region to meet together to move 47

into a joint planning mode to lessen the likelihood of unnessessary duplication of effort and to define for each other's satsifaction their own FSR terminologies.
In attempting to deal with this last point, as well as to consider any possible requests for training, every effort is being made to
coordinate FSSP activities with the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), the outreach staff of the International Center
of the Improvement of Corn and Wheat (CIMMYT), the International Center for Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the International Rice Research Center (IRRI). The FSSP core visit to IRRI included an exchange of mailing lists. Joint sponsorship of FSR activities between any of these IARCs and the FSSP may occur in the future. The FSSP must be very careful in Asian expenditures, based on the overall priorities of the project.
Asia, 1986-87 and Beyond: It is expected that the Support Entities who have expressed the most interest in Asia will perform more activities
in Asia during subsequent years. In addition, it is expected that FSSP core staff travel to service Asia requests will be much reduced during the 1986-87 years of the project. By this time, the Support Entities will be expected to respond to most, if not all, of the Asia FSR requests.
Near East, 1985: The FSSP has no explicit policy to address the needs of Near East USAID Missions. There is already some demand for FSR
services from the FSSP for example, the Jordan project design effort in July and August, 1984 and in fact the implementation policy will be identical to that for Asia. This means that FSR activities in the Near
East will occur on a reactive basis, after being reconciled with overall FSSP priorities.
. Near East, 1986-87 and Beyond: No policy changes are anticipated for this region during the final two years of the project. Again, greater and greater dependence upon the Support Entity network to answer FSR requests is anticipated.

Page Activity Ist 2nd 3rd 4th
11 FSSP Procedural Manual Use and Testing ----------------------- >
14 Establish DWI at one of the SEs 14 Projected target date for DWII X
14 Projected target date for DWIII X
14 PAOs in African FSR Activities ------------------->
18 Units Development, Skills a,b,d,f,g X----------------------->
18 Field test units a,b,d,f,g X--------->'
18 Units Development c and e -------------------- X
18 Units Development, Concepts ------------ X
18 Units Development, Implementation ------------------------ X
19 Practitioner Course (OICD/USDA tentative 19 Explore the institutionalization of
a FSR/E Course in West Africa ------------------------>
19 Explore the institutionalization of
a FSR/E Course in Latin America ----------------------- >

21 Update and Maintenance of Biodata file --------------------- >
22 Biodata Files to SEs
23 Project Evaluation, Zambia X
23 Project Evaluation, Phillipines X
23 Project Evaluation Guidelines --------------X
23 Evaluation Guidelines field tested ------------------------>
23 Revise Evaluation Guidelines X
24 Develop briefing/debriefing guidelines ------------------------>
24 MSTAT, Ecuador (Spanish) X
24 MSTAT, Senegal (French) X
28 FSSP Newsletter issued quarterly X X X X
28 Purge Newsletter mailing list X
29 Newsletter readership survey X
29 List maintenance and exchange ------------------------>
29 1985 Annual Report X
29 1986 Work Plan X
29 Information series brochures: TA, FSSP, TRNG 29 Training Materials Series
29 Networking Papers X X X X
29 Networking Papers Newsletter announcement X 29 Working Papers ------------------------>
30 FSR Project Directory ------------------------X

30 Book of Readings English ------ >
30 Book of Readings Spanish X
30 Collection of Readings French ------------ >
30 On Networking, On Demand ........ >
30 Bibliography of FSR Readings Vol.2 X
31 Bibliography of FSR Readings Vol.3 X
31 Microfiche KSU FSR Collection ---- X
31 Explore location of collection in LDCs ...................... >
33 Organization and Management
Handbook Workshop I X
33 Handbook Workshop II X
33 African Workshop (with INTERPAKS)
34 Intra-Household Dynamics and FSR/E ----------- X
34 Workshop on Comparative Analysis of
FSR/E Approaches (tentative) X
35 Workshop Synthesis Paper Presentation X
37 Rwanda FSR Team Briefing (with CIMMYT) (no date set)
37 Burundi FSR Team Briefing (with CIMMYT) (no date set) 37 Rwanda FSR Training (with CIMMYT) (no date set)
37 Burundi FSR Training (with CIMMYT) (no date set)
37 Zambia Project Evaluation X

38 Networkshop #1, Togo : Animal Systems X
38 Networkshop #2 Role of the Agricultural
Economist in W. Africa FSR Programs (May/June tentative)
38 Networkshop #3 On-Farm Research Results
in W. Africa (July/August tentative)
38 Rwanda team exchange to Senegal (tentative)
38 Develop Date Analysis For On-Farm
Research Course -------- X
39 Gambia team briefing (no date set)
39 Gambia ARD design (pending request)
39 Gambia FSR specialist placed on design team X 39 Liberia Overview/Diagnostic Workshop (requested for June/July)
39 Gambia Overview/Diagnostic Workshop (requested for May)
39 Cameroon TA Seminar (April)
39 Cameroon FSR Workshop: (April)
39 Ivory Coast support to IDESSA FSR Workshop (November)
39 Senegal publication support X
39 Support WAFSRN Network meeting (September)
39 Farming Systems Symposium, KSU X
40 FSR Training in the African University (Tentative late '85)
40 Regional FSR Workshop for Sub-Saharam Africa
(Co-sponsered with Egerton College, Kenya) (August)
Latin America and the Caribbean
43 FSSP/CATIE Workshop: Case Studies X
Asia and the Near East
45 Exploratory AID Mission visits (on demand)

This list provides the FSSP network contacts the verified telephone
numbers of all Administrative Coordinators (AC's) and Program Leaders (PL's) for the 26 entities with signed MOA's as of August 1984. Those contacts which are UPPER CASE have been designated as "official" contacts by their entity for technical assistance requests or inputs. Abbreviations:
AGRIDEC=Agricultural Development Consultants, Inc. DAI=Development Alternatives Inc. IADS-International Agricultural Development Service RTI-=Research Triangle Institute WI=Winrock Institute CSU=Colorado State Univ. CU-Cornell Univ. ISU=Iowa State Univ. KSU=Kansas State Univ. LU-Lincoln Univ. MSU=Michigan State Univ. NCSU=North Carolina. State Univ. PSU=-?enn State Univ. SIU=Southern Illinois Univ.. TI=Tuskegee Institute UOAR=University of Arkansas UOAZ=Univ. of Arizona UOF=Univ. of Florida UOH-Univ. of Havaii UOI=Univ. of Illinois UOK=Univ. of Kentucky UMN=Udiv. of Minnesota UNC=Univ. of Missouri (Columbia) VPI=Virginia Polytechnic Institute VSU=Virginia State Univ. WSU=Washington State Univ.

MOA AC Phone Number PL Phone Number
AGRIDEC FEDERICO POET 305-266-4819 Ramiro Ortiz 904-392-7285
DAI A H (Tony) Barclay 202-783-9110 EUGENE (TONY) BABB 202-783-9110
IADS Colin McClung 703-525-9430 GUY BAIRD 703-525-9430
RTI Ronald Johnson 919-541-6000 GUSTAVO ARCIA 919-541-6000
WI Ned Raun 501-727-5435 HENK KNIPSCHEER 501-727-5435
CSU Jim Meiman 303-491-7223 JIM OXLEY 303-491-7223
CU Larry Zuidema 607-256-3035 RANDY BARKER 607-256-2105
ISU J.T. Scott 515-294-4866 ERIC ABBOTT. 515-294-4340
KSU Vernon Larson 913-532-5714 CORNELIA FLORA 913-532-6865
LU Collin Weir (Int'L)314-635-4547 EDWARD WILSON 314-636-5511
Helen Swartz (Dom.) 751-3797
MSU Don Isleib 517-355-0174 MERLE ESMAY 517-353-0767
NCSU J.L. Apple 919-737-2665 LARRY NELSON 919-737-2534
PSU Dean Jansma 814-863-0249 JOHN AYERS 814-863-3543
SIU HOWARD OLSON 618-536-7727 Steve Kraft 618-453-2421
TI Eugene Adams 205-727-8953 205-727-8 [114
UOAR Tom Westitng 501-575-2252 DON VOTH 501-575-2409
UOAZ MICHAEL NORVELLE 602-621-4416 Timothy Finan 602-621-45z2
UOF Hugh Popenoe 904-392-1965 KEN BUHR 904-392-123
UOH Harold J. McArthur 808-948-6441 VICKIE SIGMAN 808-948-64.2
UOI EarL Kellogg 217-333-6337 SAM JOHNSON III 217-333-5512
UOK Herb Massey 606-257-1711 BILLIE DEWALT 606-257-2796
UMC Mike Nolan 314-882-6085 DONALD OSBURN 314-882-4512
UMN Delane Welsch 612-376-3563 MARTHA GAUDREAU (Int'l) 612-376-1061
373-1498 MICHAEL PATTON (Dos.) -3974
VPI P H Massey 703-961-6338 JOHN CALDWELL 703-961-7433
WSU James Henson 509-335-2541 ROBERT BUTLER 509-335-2980

The following sumary is based responses to a form sent by the FSSP to all Support Entities requesting information on their workplans. Of the twenty-five current Support Entities, 11 submitted proposed workplans for the coming year. Out of the 11 Support Entities submitting reports, 7 have been signed with the FSSP Network for over one year.
1. Seminars:
A. Planning to give seminars that are FSR related:
KSU (including the use of the FSSP slide modules)
MSU (including collaboration for joint training and orientation
with North Carolina A & T)
TI (including-the use of the FSSP slide modules)
B. Planning to attend seminars that are FSR related:
2. Workshops:
A. Planning to give workshops:
B. Planning to attend workshops:
3. University Credit Courses:
A. Plan to give courses:
4. FSR Symposium:
A. Plan to participate in the Annual Symposium:
KSU Host
AGRIDEC attend
MSU contribute UOA contribute
5. Program Associate Meetings:
A. Plan to hold PA meetings:
TI biweekly
6. Orientation:
A. Plan to offer orientation to staff (pre-departure):

7. Domestic/Int'l FSR/E programs:
CSU international
MSU possible domestic
UOI expand domestic and link with international
UOA arid lands
8. Computers:
MSU develop and implement use
AGRIDEC study uses
9. Participant Add-Ons:
UOI encourage use KSU encourage use MSU encourage use TI encourage use UMN encourage use 10 .Language Training:
UMN offer classes to staff

1. Technical Assistance:
A. To provide TA:
MSU (including MSTAT)
CSU (includirg follow-through on Management task force
UOI (participate with FSSP to develop and Asian Strategy for
farming systems support)
UOA (computerized data base-biodata information data base- for
UOA PAs available)
2. Training:
AGRIDEC I. participation in Training Units Development
2. -Delivery of training workshops:
a. Guatemala/ Sondeo Seminar
b. Guatemala/ Regional On-farm research applied course
c. Costa Rica/ Seminar strenthening research and extension
d. Panama/ Seminar strenthening research and extension
e. Peru/ Seminar for FSR/E
f. Paraguay/ course for animal production research and
extension with a farming systems concept.
CSU 1. support for Animal traction workshop in Togo, 2. Animal
Science research needs workshop, 3. USDA/OIDC course in
Livestock/Crop management, 4. Develop a tutorial model on
mechanization of small farm limited resources systems.
TI 1. PAs to serve as resource persons in training, 2. PAs to
develop curriculum for training international students (
and inviting policy makers).
UMN 1. West African training activities, 2. Hold FSR training
activities on campus for local domestic farming systems
projects, 3. conduct pre-departure training for the Rwanda
farming systems project.
UOA 1. Hosting a workshop on arid lands farming systems.
3. Networking:
KSU 1. Participate in networking activities, 2. participation
in international conferences- 3. act as documentation
center for FSSP, 4. continue to reorganize and streamline
100 bibliographic items for DIU.
TI 1. make contributions to the FSSP Newsletter, 2. PAs will
develop internal networking on FSR/E through bulletins and
newsletters printed at TI.
UMN 1. Develop exchange of ideas with Institute Hassan I, 2.
interested in integrating FSR into the research
institutions in Uganda.
UOA 1. Develop an Arid Lands Farming Systems bibliography.
AGRIDEC 1. Make follow up visits to project areas to facilitate
4. State of the Art:
CSU 1. Research methodologies and priorities involving
livestock in mixed farming systems

2. FSR/ Livestock,
3. research management and project evaluation,
4. relationships between agricultural production economics and management behaviour of small, limited resource farms,
5. structure analysis of the economics of small farm
agriculture for field practitioners,
6. assist with revision of training modules covering
economics of small farm agriculture.
KSU 1. Intrahousehold case studies/ conceptual framework, 2.
literature review of on-farm trials,
3. sponsor FSR/E Sysmposium.
TI I1. Work with the University of Missouri on FSR/D, 2. TI is
open for collaborative work.
UMN 1. Interested in the task force on evaluation.
UOI 1. Analyze role of extension in Farming Systems programs
to develop guidelines and plan workshop,
2. Management/Institutionalization of farming systems
programs in national agricultural research and extension
syst ems.
AGRIDEC 1. Follow up on visits to project will provide
KSU Participate on the Technical Committee
MSU Active involvement in manangement/institutionalization
task force.
PSU Open offer to serve on committees

1. Africa:
CSU 1. Gambia/ Mixed Farming Project
2. Gambia/ Project proposal development/implementation
IADS I. Burundi/ collaborating with a group of universities
2. Uganda/ to rehabilitate the faculty of Agriculture and
Forestry of the Makerere Univerrsity
KSU 1. Botswanal MIAC Project
2. Liberia/ MIAC and FSSP (tentative)
MSU 1. Senegal/ Senegal Farming Systems Project
3. Zimbabwe/ explore expansion of FSR/E in MSU/Zimbabwe
UMN 1. Rwanda/ Rwanda farming systems project
2. Uganda/ Manpower development project (not officially
FSR but shows potential)
UOI 1. Zambia/ Zambia Agricultural research and extension
project evaluation
2. Asia:
CSU I. Pakistan/ (tentative) Farming systems with livestock
component, the networking activity deserves monitoring.
IADS 1. Bangledesh/ Bangledesh Agricultural Research Council
2. Nepal/ Integrated cereals research project
3. Indonesia/ National Agricultural Reseach Project
4. Indonesia/ Sumatra Agricultural Research Project with
Sukarami Research Institute for food crops (SARIF).
5. Philippines/ Rainfed Resources Development Project
6. Pakistan/ National Agricultural Research Center (NARC),
Pakistan Agricultural Research Center (PARC).
7. Pakistan Sind Agricultural Extension and Adaptive
Research Project.
8. Pakistan/ Punjab Extension and agricultural development
9. Pakistan Agricultural extension and adaptive research
in Baluchista (tentative)
10. Pakistan/ Forestry Planning and Development
(collaborating with Winrock) (tentative)
3. Latin America:
AGRIDEC Paraguay/ Training course for animal production research
and extension with a farming systems concept.