Program for water and power development in West Pakistan through 1975

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Program for water and power development in West Pakistan through 1975
Harza Engineering Company International
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Chie f.-coomi

TELEX NUMBER 312-222-9334
January 22, 1964
Mr. Ghulam lshaq, Chairman,
Water and Power Development Authority,
Sunny View Estate, Kashmir Road,
Lahore, West Pakistan
Subject: The 1975 Program
Dear Mr. Ishaq:
We are pleased to submit our Report on the proposed program for water and power
development in West Pakistan through the year 1975. This program represents the initial phase of a Master Plan which will provide for the progressive development of the water and power resources of West Pakistan in the joint interests of irrigation, drainage, power, flood control, navigation, domestic and industrial water supplies, and other beneficial water uses. Our Report is presented in three sections. The first section is an Introduction, which provides background information concerning our sources of data, the scope of our studies, and the conclusions around which the Report was developed. The second section defines and discusses the proposed program. The remaining section# summarizesour
supporting material for the several phases of the program.
The proposed program is based on the investigations which we have been making under
the provisions of our Agreement of December 19, 1959. This Agreement provides for the preparation of a Master Plan which will utilize and conserve, to the maximum practicable extent, the entire water and power resources of the Province. The resulting Master Plan
is intended, as stated in our Agreement, to"I. Utilize these resources in a manner which will provide the maximum
possible return in benefits to the people of West Pakistan; and

"12. Provide a plan which will not block any possible future potential projects on the rivers through partial-development schemes, regardless
of how attractive such schemes may be initially."
The proposed program, when combined with a collateral program of agricultural development, will provide the basis for increasing the net annual food production from the present-day level of I I million tons to 25 million tons in 1975. The resulting gross value of crops in 1975 would be about Rs. 9,000 million, an increase of Rs. 5,000 million, or 125 percent. over the present day level of Rs. 4,000 million. This improved agricultural production would provide an average daily per-capita intake of 2,300 calories for the estimated 1975 population of 65 million persons, an increase of 15 percent over the present average daily per capita consumption. A proportionate increase would also be realized in agricultural production for industrial raw materials and exports. A significant improvement should be realized in the rural economy, also. The production of electric energy would increase from the present output of 1.,00 million kilowatt-hours to about 9,500 million kilowatt hours, an increase in annual per-capita consumption from 37 to 130 kilowatt-hours.
To reach the projected 1975 level of development will require the reclamation of about 19 million acres of land through a system involving 34,000 tubewells and nearly 6,000 miles of surface drains. Irrigation water supplies will be increased by 21 million acre-feet of surface storage in the Mangla, Tarbela, and other reservoirs, and 27 million acre-feet of ground water pumped from the tubewells. Some 390 canal miles of link canals will be added to the water conveyance system, together with five major barrages and the necessary appurtenant structures. Provisions are included for the remodelling of e xisting canals and appurtenant structures to meet the operating requirements of the 1975 system. The total generating capacity will be increased from the present nameplate rating of 600,000 kilowatts to over 2,200,000 kilowatts by adding over one million kilowatts of hydroelectric capacity and approximately one-half million kilowatts of thermal capacity to the system.
The program costs through 1975 will total Rs. 21,400 million, of which Rs. 8,540 million will be required for construction of the Indus Basin Project, and the remaining Rs. 12,860 million represents the cost for the other sectors of the program.
In a development plan of the scope and magnitude of that proposed, it is inevitable that some aspects must be based initially on preliminary evaluations. Further data collection and additional studies must be undertaken to firm up these areas. This further work in-

volves field investigations, applied research, and technical studies extending over the next several years. Because of the lead time involved to bring the projects to the construction stage, early action will be necessary to complete the investigations on those reservoirs which are not included in the Indus Basin Project, but which are planned for completion by 1975. A similar situation exists with respect to hydro-electric developments. The regional planning now under way in both the Punjab and the Sind also will be yielding results which will contribute to the firming-up of the present program.
As requested by you in our conferences in New York on 20 December 1963, we are proceeding with the work necessary to firm-up the present program and to extend the program through the period 1975 to 1990. From our work to date, it is apparent that the general character of this program extension will follow along the lines of the present program. To a very considerable extent, the further work discussed in the Introduction will contribute materially to the program extension. We are scheduling our Report on the program extension through 1990 for completion by the end of 1.965.
Very truly yours,
Calvin V. Davis

Program. for Water and Power Development 'in West Pakistan
through 1975
(Master Plan-initial Phase)

Annex A 4
Annex B 13
Table A 22
Food and Population 25
The Productive Lands 26
The Present State of Agriculture 27
Future Production 28
The Water Resources 35
Present Use of Water 39
Surface-Water Development 40
Flood Control 44
Reclamation and Ground-Water Development 47
Other Water Development 52
Future Use of Water 53
The Power Needs 61
Power Potentials 62
The Power Supply 63
Engineering 69
Construction 70
Administration of the Program 70
Operation 72
Investment in the Program 73
Economic Returns 74
GENERAL MAP Inside back cover

Eastern Rivers-Ravi, Beas and Sutlej I
- Designation from Indus Waters Treaty 1960. Western Rivers-Indus, Jhelum and Chenab ] Kharif-The summer growing season has been taken herein to be May through September, even though some
summer crops are harvested as late as November. This differs from the usually accepted period for
kharif of April through September.
Rabi-The winter growing season is used herein as October through April. Perennial-pertaining to areas with irrigation supplies available during both the kharif and rabi seasons. Non-Perennial-pertaining to areas with irrigation supplies available only during the kharif season. Canal commanded area-land which can receive water from a canal system by gravity flow. Cnlturable area-land suitable and available for agriculture. Culturable commanded area-land that is culturable and under canal command. Cropped area-land on which crops are actually grown in a given season. Irrigationintensity-the ratio of the sum of the maximum area cropped in each of the two seasons (Kharif
and Rabi) to the culturable commanded area, expressed as a percent. As used herein, the maximum intensity of field crops in a season is 100 percent; in a year, 200 percent, Ton-(long ton) 2,240 pounds.
Maund-82.3 pounds
Doab-the land between two converging rivers. Canal miles-Canals and drains in West Pakistan are measured in miles of 5,000 feet.
AF acre-foot kw kilowatt
MAF million acre-feet kv kilovolt
BTU British thermal unit mw megawatt
CCA culturable commanded area ppm parts per million by weight
IBP Indus Basin Project cusec cubic foot per second
WAPDA Water and Power Development Authority
of West Pakistan

In December 1959, the Harza Engineering Company International (HARZINT) was engaged by the Water and Power Development Authority of West Pakistan (WAPDA) to prepare a long-range master plan for the development of the water and power resources of West Pakistan. By mutual understanding it was agreed that the preparation of the plan would proceed in several steps. The water and power development program through 1975 presented in this report represents the first step in this assignment. The second step, which involves extension of the program through an additional 10 to 15 years (1985 to 1990), has now been authorized and the work under this second step is under way.
In approaching the first step in the assignment it was evident that the following factors relating to water and power development would require evaluation prior to the preparation of a development plan:
1. The existing level of agricultural production, and water and power use.
2. The needs through 1975 for agricultural production, water and power.
3. The means available to meet these needs, particularly in the Indus Plains.
To aid in this evaluation, there was available a considerable volume of source data covering all aspects of the assignment. A selected bibliography listing the more important of these follows as Annex A to this introduction. Additional data to supplement and extend these sources were gathered through field investigations of such critical factors as river discharge, sedimentation, rainfall and snow melt. The present use and a projection of energy requirements were obtained through a power market survey.
Based on these data, studies were made concerning (1) losses and gains in various reaches of the rivers in the Indus Plains; (2) water losses from the canals and water courses in the canal systems of the Indus Plains;
(3) system operations involving routings of the river and canal systems (iiluding storage reservoirs and link canals to be provided under the Indus Basin Settlement Plan) to meet projected irrigation water requirements throughout the Indus Plains under various levels of development; (4) irrigation water requirements of various crops and preliminary monthly water requirements for the several canal systems in the Indus Plains for assumed typical cropping patterns and irrigation intensities; and (5) potential water balances for the various canal systems involving surface-water input, ground-Water recharge, ground-water pumping, and drainage requirements for unusable ground water. In addition, studies were made to indicate the potential river salinity under future development conditions and requirements for ground-water mining as alternatives to surface-water storage developments.
The results of these studies have been documented in a report entitled "Supporting Studies--An Appraisal of Resources and Potential Development'" dated September 1963. As the title implies, these studied serve to

support the program presented in this report. While it would be impracticable to assemble in a single reference volume the total support for a program of the scope presented, the report describes the sources of basic data, the methods which were employed in carrying out the studies and the results achieved. In addition, it makes reference to other source reports which will be of interest to those persons dealing with the more detailed aspects of the programme.
From an evaluation of these studies, the following basic conclusions have been reached regarding the developmnent of water and power in West Pakistan:
1. The accelerated agricultural production to develop acceptable dietary levels can be
generated most efficiently by reclaiming lands in the Indus Plains already commanded by existing canal systems, and by providing optimum water supplies for more intensive
irrigation of these reclamined lands.
2. Both surface- and ground- water resources should be developed to provide the future
irrigation requirements.
3. The regulation of ground-water levels by tubewells is the most economical means of
controlling waterlogging and salinity within the Indus Plains, and will ultimately yield
- about 40 MAF annually of usable water at the water course head. By 1975 the annual
yield will be between 25 and 30 MAF.
4. The probable ultimate reservoir storage requirement for surface water regulation
for irrigation in the Indus Plains will be in the range of 20 to 30 MAF, of which about
17 MAF will be required to meet 1975 needs.
5. The existing system of canals might be remodeled to provide appreciable increases in
diversion capacity. However, available data are not at hand to permit reasonable evaluation of the physcial and ope rational factors involved in such remodelling and the preparation of reliable cost estimates for the necessary modification of facilities which must continue in service during construction; therefore in order to meet the requirements for 1975, it is desirable to include the raising of both the Mangla
* and Tarbela Dams in lieu of major increases in canal diversion capacities.
6. Power requirements through 1975 can best be met through the utilir'ation of the hydroelectric power potential at the storage reservoirs, supplemented by thermal generation.
The programme for water and power development in West Pakistan through 1975 presented in this report is based on the conclusions listed above. It is a program which will guide the formulation and execution of those projects which will be initiated before details of the development progn have been resolved, and represents a framework for development activities through 1975.
In determining the required water development, it has been assumed that there will be a collateral program of agricultural development that will permit full use of the water which will be made available under the program.

The agricultural development program is beyond the scope of this report; however it has been assumed that such a program will include improvements in seed characteristics, plant protection, and farm practice-s, as well as increased usc of fertilizer.
The power provisions in the 1975 program reflect the total requirements obtained by combining the load growth anticipated from increased industrial, commercial, and residential consumption with the specific power requirements associated with the water development program. The estimate of industrial, commercial, and residential use was based on the recently completed power market survey. The specific power requirements associated with water development were based directly on the program presented in this rep ort.
As might be expected in a development plan covering the scope and depth of the present program, it is inevitable that sonic of the elements must initially be based on preliminary evaluations and that further data collections and investigations must be undertaken to firm up these elements. The field data which must be collected, the research investigations which must be undertaken and the engineering studies which must be completed to firm up the present program are discussed in Annex B to this introduction. This annex outlines thle planning activities to be performed during the next several years. These investigations will result in better definition of detail within the program framework, and provide the basis for any required modifications in the priority or the design of the projects now proposed for implementation 'within the program period. They will also provide information useful in extending the program period to 1990. Meanwhile, project formulation can continue along the lines proposed in the 1975 programme with the assurance that such projects will be compatible with the efficient long-range untilization of the water and power resources of West Pakistan.

1. "Supporting Studies-An Appraisal of Resources and Potential Development", Harza Engineering
Company International, September 1963.
2. "'Sodium Hazard of Punjab Ground Waters" by C. A. Bower and M. Maasland, October 1963.
3. "Development of Ground Water in the Indus Plains" by M. Maasland, J.E. Priest and M. S. Malik,
October 1963.
4. "Salinity Control and Reclamation Program in the Lower Indus Basin-a review made during July
and August 1962" by V, E. Hansen, C. A. Bower, and F. J. Williams, Harza Engineering Company
International, March 1963.
5. "The Ground-Water Hydrology of the Punjab, West Pakistan", WASID Bulletin No. 6 by D. W.
Greenman, W. V. Swarzenski, and G. D. Bennett.
6. "Waterlogging and Salinity in West Pakistan", U. S. President's Science Advisory Committee
(White House-Interior Panel), First Draft, September 1962.
7. "Programme for Waterlogging and Salinity Control in the Irrigated Areas of West Pakistan",
WAPDA, May 1961.
8. "Agricultural Census, 1960" (Summary) Preliminary Report, West Pakistan Agriculture Census,
Karachi, 1961.
9. "Report of the Food and Agriculture Commission", Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food and
Agriculture, November 1960.
10. "Landforms, Soils, and Land Use of the Indus Plains, West Pakistan," Colombo Plan Cooperative Project, 1958.
11. "WAPDA Grid System Power Data Reference Book", Harza Engineering Company International, October 1963.
12. "Power Market Survey and Forecast of System Loads", Harza Engineering Company International, June 1963.
13. "Network Analyzer Study, WAPDA Main Grid System", Harza Engineering Company International, June 1963.
14. "Meeting the Power Needs of West Pakistan 1965-1968", Harza Engineering Company International, November 1961.
15. Records of flows of river and canals available from the Irrigation Department, West Pakistan, and the Surface Water Circle, WAPDA.
16. Unpublished operation studies of proposed reservoirs and the irrigation system of the Indus Plains by Harza Engineering Company International.

ANNEX A (Continued)
Other References
WASID Title Subject
Preliminary Report No. 1 "Evaluation of River Discharge Measurements in West Pakistan."
Bulletin No. 1 "Soil Survey Manual for the former Punjab Province Area, West Pakistan."
Bulletin No. 2, Part I "Soil Survey, Rechna Doab, West Pakistan. Introduction and Description
of Soils."
Bulletin No. 2, Part II "Location & Description Soils Unit 1."
Bulletin No. 2, Part III "Soil Survey Rechna Doab, West Pakistan. Location and Description of
Soils Unit No. 5, Haveli Area."
Basic Data Release No. 1 "Quality of Ground Water, Rechna Doab."
Basic Data Release No. 2 "Quality of Ground Water, Chaj Doab."
Bulletin No. 3 "Land Classification Manual for the former Punjab Province area, West
Basic Data Release No. 3 "Records of Ground Water Levels Rechna Doab."
Basic Data Release No. 4 "Quality of Ground Water, Bahawalpur Area."
Technical Paper No. 1 "Analysis of Precipitation data from Rechna, Chaj and Thal Doabs."
Technical Paper No. 2 "Analysis of Aquifer Tests in Rechna and Chaj Doabs."
Basic Data Release No. 5 "Records of Ground Water Levels, Chaj Doab."
Basic Data Release No. 6 "Records of Ground Water Levels, Thai Doab."
Technical Paper No. 3 "Analysis of low flow discharge records for the Rivers Ravi, Chenab, and
Bulletin No. 4, Part I "Soil Survey, Chaj Doab, Introduction and Distribution of Soils."
Bulletin No. 4, Part II "Location and Distribution of Soils, Unit 1, (Chaj Doab)."
Bulletin No. 4, Part III "Soil Survey, Chaj Doab, Location and Distribution of Soils, Unit No. 2."
Bulletin No. 4, Part IV "Location and Distribution of Soils, Unit No. 3."
Bulletin No. 5 "The Geology of Rechna and Chaj Doabs, West Pakistan."

ANNEX A (Continued)
1. "Drainage, Waterlogging, and Salinity problems of West Pakistan, Reconnaissance Report," by C. R.
Maierhofer, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, 30 pp., 1952.
2. "Report tothe Government of Pakistan on the History and Causes of Rising Groundwater Levels in tlie Rechna Doab," by C. W. Carlston, FAO Report No. 90, FAC/53/3/1839, Rome, typewritten, 29 pp. with
extensive bibliography, March 1953.
3. "Report on Irrigation Water Requirements for West Pakistan" by l. F. Blaney and W. D. Criddle, Tipton & Kalmbach, Inc., 17 pp. with 22 tables and 18 exhibits, 1957.
4. "Report on Drainage Requirements for Irrigated Area of West Pakistan" by C. R. Maierhofer, Tipton & Kalmbach, Inc., 22 pp. 1957.
5. "Project Number One, Salinity Control Programme in West Pakistan," subtitled "Investigations and background information, reclamation and construction programmes, and construction estimates,"
112 pp. with 26 annexures, one folder of exhibits and one accompanying volume of computed water
requirements and pertinent data for each tubewell, WAPDA, January 1959.
6. "A Review of Project Number One, Salinity Control and Reclamation Program in West Pakistan," 43 pp., Tipton & Kalmbach, 1959.
7. "Supplement to a review of Project Number One, Salinity Control and Reclamation Program in West Pakistan" by C. E. Jacob, consisting of 2 volumes, Vol. 1 "Text," 57 pp. with a List of Recommendations of 8 pp., and a Summary of Appendices of 4 pp., Vol. 2 "Appendices," with Appendices A-K, Tipton &
Kalmbach, 1959.
8. "Memorandum on the Management and Operation of Project Number One-Salinity Control and Reclamation Program in West Pakistsn," 13 pp. with attached organization chart, Tipton & Kalmbach, 1959.
9. "Chuharkana Reclamation Project," Soil Reclamation Board, 22 pp., 1959. 10. "Tender Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Tube-wells and Procurement and Installation of Equipment," 49 pp., with 18 tables and 2 drawings. Tipton & Kalmbach, 1959.
11. "Coordinated Use of Ground and Surface Water in West Pakistan for Meeting Irrigation Requirements of the Existing Projects," 40 pp. with several appendices. Tipton & Kalmbach, 1960.
12. "Control of Water Table and Salinity by Open Ditches," by J. J. Westerhof, Directorate of Land Reclamation, Irrigation Department, Lahore, 44 pp., November 1960.
13. "Three Decades of Research in the Irrigation Research Institute, Lahore," subtitled "Series 1, List of Publications," edited by Dr. Nazir Ahmad. Irrigation Research Institute, Irrigation Department, 59 pp., 1960. 14. "Feasibility Report on Salinity Control and Reclamation Project Number Two (Chaj Doab) West Pakistan," 95 pp., with 10 maps, Appendices A-G, 13 tables and 13 figures. Tipton & Kalmbach, December

ANNEX A (Continued)
15. "Some Aspects of Water-Control in West Pakistan" by H. Vlugter. Lecture 12th Pakistan Science Conference, 4 pp., 1960.
1.6. "Thai Multi-purpose. Project" by H. Vlugler. Office of Chief Engineer, Irrigation, West Pakistan,
Lahore, 16 pp., 1960.
17. "Supplement to the Feasibility Report on Salinity Control and Reclamation Project Number Two (Chaj
Doab) West Pakistan," 22 pp. with 4 figures and Annexures (Financial Study) of 13 pp., Tipton & Kalmbach, Inc., 1961.
18. "An Interim Report on the Effectiveness of Tubewell Reclamation in the Former Punjab Area of West
Pakistan," (Jaranwala Report), 15 pp., Tipton & Kalmbach, 1961.
19. "Jaranwala Reclamation Scheme," 165 pp., with 25 tables and 15 maps and graphs, Soil Reclamation
Board, Irrigation Department, 1961.
20. "Investigations of Encrustations on Tube-well Casing from Pakistan" by Woodward-Clyde-Sherard and
Associates, 6 pp., with appendices I-III and 5 plates, Tipton & Kalmbach, Inc., 1962.
21. Ghotki Area Ground Water Investigations and Tubewell Tests," Hunting Technical Services Ltd., 1962. 22. "Ground-Water Investigations and Tubewell Tests," Sukkur-Gudu Right Bank and Khairpur Commands, Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., 1962.
23. "Feasibility Report on Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. 3, Lower Thai Doab," Tipton & Kalmbach, 1963.
24. "Saline Characteristics of Waters in Old Canal Colonies of West Pakistan" by A. G. Asghar, Paper No.
342, 44 pp. with maps and tables, undated.
25. "Symposium on Waterlogging and Salinity in West Pakistan," West Pakistan Engineering Congress, October 1963.
Progress Reports
26. "Progress Report for the Operation of Tubewells under Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. 1, September 1961 through September 1962," Ground-Water and Reclamation Division, WAPDA.
27. "Progress of Reclamation in Soil Reclamation Schemes of Project No. 1 (Rechna Doab)" by Soil Reclamation Board, Directorate of Land Reclamation, West Pakistan, November 1962.
28. "Progress Report for the Operation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. 1 for the Period October 1962 through September 1963," by the Land and Water Management Directorate, Department
of Irrigation and Power, West Pakistan, November 1963.

ANNEX A (Continued)
Ground Water and Reclamation
1. "Feasibility of Chiniot Project on Chenab River," Leeds, Hill and Jewett, Inc., March 1960.
2. "Sukkur-Gudu-Ghulam Mohammad Drainage and Salinity Control Project, Khairpur Command," consisting of three volumes:
Vol. I "Soil and Agricultural Investigations," 107 pp.
Vol. II "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 69 pp. with 33 exhibits.
Vol. III "Supplementary Report" by Hunting Technical Services and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners, 14 pp.
Hunting Technical Services, 1961.
3. "Sukkur-Gudu Right Bank Command," consisting of four volumes:
Vol. 1 "Soil and Agricultural Investigations," 177 pp. with appendices I through V, 66 tables and
4 figures.
Vol. 2A "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 128 pp., with 29 tables and 20 figures.
Vol. 2B "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," containing appendices I-VII to Volume 2A. The appendices cover cost estimates, hydrologic studies, operation studies of Manchhar Lake, and irrigation water requirements. Vol. 3 "Ground Water Investigations and Tubewell Tests", including "Part 1. Ground Water Investigations," "Part 2. Investigations of shallow brick lined wells," and"Part 3. Tubewells," 122 pp. with 21 tables and 12 maps and figures. Hunting Technical Services, 1961.
4. "Ghulam Mohammad Barrage Command," consisting of three volumes:
Vol. 1 "Phase 1. Soil and Agricultural Investigationsi" 154 pp. with summary of 30 pp. (I-XXX), 49 tables and 4 figures.
Vol, 2 "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 79 pp., with synopsis of 5 pp., appendices I-V, 21 tables and 8 figures. Vol. 3 "Tando Bago Perennial Area," subtitled "Soil, Agricultural and Engineering Investigations,"
79 pp., with summary of 10 pp., (I-X), appendices I-I11, 22 tables and 4 figures. Hunting Technical Services, 1961.

ANNEX A (Continued)
5. "Gaja Perennial Area." This report covers an area in the Ghulani Mohammad Command, and consists of two volumes:
Vol. 1 "Soil, Agricultural and Engineering Investigations," including "Part I. Soil and Agricultural Investigations" and "Part II. Engineering Investigations," 52 pp., 26 tables, 5 figures and summary of 5 pp.
Vol. 2 "Ground Water Investigations and Tubewell Tests" including "Part 1. Exploratory Bore Programme" and "Part 2. Tubewell Investigations," 89 pp., 10 tables, 5 maps and 3 drawings.
Hunting Technical Services, 1961.
6. "Larkana-Shikarpur Definite Plan Report." This report covers an area in the Sukkur-Gudu Right Bank Command, and consists of two volumes: Vol. 1 "Soils and Agricultural Investigations," 176 pp. with 36 tables and 6 figures.
Vol. 2 "Engineering Proposals by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 46 pp. with 21 tables, 12 figures, and appendices I through VII.
Hunting Technical Services, 1961.
7. "Khairpur Project Planning Report," consisting of 5 chapters and Appendices A through J, Hunting
Technical Services, 1962.
8. "Gaja Project Planning Report,' consisting of 6 chapters and Appendices A through D, Hunting Technical Services, 1962.
9. "Gaja Detailed Planning Report," Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners,
10. "Lower Indus Project," Hunting Technical Services, Ltd, and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners, March1963. 11. "Note on the Development of the Ghulam Mohammad Command," Lower Indus Project. Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners, April 1963. Other Projects
1. "Report on Rawal Dam Project"-Associated Consulting Engineers, Ltd., Karachi, Pakistan
(Azeemuddin), 1958.
2. "Khanpur Dam Project (Haro River), Water and Power Development Authority, West Pakistan,"
Associated Consulting Engineers (ACE), Ltd., Karachi, January 1962.
3. "Tanda Dam Project," Directorate of Planning and Investigation, WAPDA, Lahore, April 1962.
4. "Sibi-Jhatpat (Kachhi Plain) Development Project," Sir M. MacDonald A Partners, Quetta, December
5. "Feasibility Report, Warsak Reregulating Facilities," Directorate of Planning and Investigation,
WAPDA, Lahore, May 1963.

1. "Report on Power Development Plan," Merz Rendel Vatten (Pakistan), 1950.
2. "The Warsak Hydro-Electric Project," The Royal Institute of Technology (Stockholm), 1952.
3. "Preliminary Report on Generation, Transmission, and Utilization of Electric Power in West Pakistan 1954-1964," H. G. Acres and Company, 1954.
4. "Development of Electricity Supply System for West Punjab and Northwest Frontier Province,"
British Thompson-Houston, 1954.
5. "Load and Stability Studies on Electricity Supply System for West Punjab and N-WFP," Associated Electrical Industries, 1954.
6. "An Outline of Five-Year Power Development Plan 1955-1960," Rizvi, Husain and Rahim, 1955.
7. "The Organization of the Power Supply in Pakistan," Ake Rusck, 1955.
8. "Report on Generation, Transmission, and Utilization of Electric Power in West Pakistan for the Years 1954-1964," H. G. Acres Company, 1955; Supplementary Report 1956.
9. "Report on the Network Analyzer Studies for the Future West Pakistan Grid," Sven Svidei,
December 1956.
10. "A Power Expansion Programme for Karachi Electric Supply Corporation Ltd.," The Kuljian
Corporation, October 1957.
11. "The Future High Voltage Grid in West Pakistan," Sven Sviden for the United Nations Technical
Assistance Administration, September 1958.
12. "Secondary Transmission and Distribution in West Pakistan Grid Zone," WAPDA, January 1959. 13. "Quetta Thermal Power Station and Transmission System," The Kuljian Corporation, July 1959;
Supplements, May and September 1960.
14. "Power Market Survey, West Pakistan Grid Zone Interim Report," Harza Engineeriig Company International, December 1959.
15. "Report on Multan Thermal Power Station Extension in West Pakistan," The Kuljian Corporation,
March 1960.
16. "Report on Proposed Natural Gas Power Station at Sukkur," H. G. Acres & Company, May 1960. 17. "A Review of Secondary Transmission and Distribution Grid Project Report," Miner & Miner International Inc., July 1960.
18. "Report on Proposed "C" Station for Karachi Electric Supply Corporation," The Kuljian Corporation, September 1960.

ANNEX A (Continued)
19. "Presentation Report on the Village Electrification Project," Miner & Miner International Inc., September
20. "Report on Proposed Korangi Thermal Power Station," The Kuijian. Corpora tion, June 1961. 21. "Lower Sind Thermal Station Expansion Study," Sandwell Consultants Limited, September 1961. 22. "Study of the Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Pakistan," Gibbs and Hill Inc., November 1961. 23. "Prospects of Nuclear Power in Pakistan, Technical Report Series -No. 7," International Atomic
Energy Agency, 1962.
24. "A Nuclear Generating Station for Karachi," Canadian General Electric Company Ltd., April 1963. 25. "Evaluation of Alternative Thermal Plant Additions to West Pakistan Grid System-Engineering Report
R-954," Commonwealth Associates Inc. for Harza Engineering Company International, June 1963.
26. "Evaluation of Alternative Thermal Plant Additions to West Pakistan Grid System (Supplement)Engineering Report R-954 Supplement," Commonwealth Associates Inc. for Harza Engineering Comapny
International, August 1963.
27. "Report of the Power Commission," Government of Pakistan Power Commission (ad hoe), September 1963. 28. "Feasibility Study for Additional Thermal Generation Facilities in West Pakistan," Commonwealth
Associates Inc., October 1963.
1. "Weather and Crop Report for the Quarter Ending 30th June, 1957," Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Economics and Statistics Branch, Government of Pakistan, Karachi, February 1958.
2. "Agricultural Data," Bureau of Statistics, Department of Power, Irrigation and Development, Lahore,
November 1958.
3. "Land and Crop Statistics of Pakistan," Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Government of Pakistan,
Karachi, March 1959.
4. "Livestock Statistics of West Pakistan," Directorate of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Food and
Agriculture, Karachi, March 1960.
5. "Village Statistics of District Hazara" (Population, Area, Cultivated Area, Wheat Area, Cotton Area),
Bureau of Statistics, Planning and Development Department, Government of West Pakistan,
Lahore, 1960.

ANNEX A (Continued)
6. "Survey Report on Use of Fertilizer in Pakistan," Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Rawalpindi,
April 1961.
7. "Larkana Phase II, Rice-Special Investigation-September-October 1961," mimeographed report, 29 pp.,
Hunting Technical Services, 1962.
8. "Report on a detailed Soil Survey in Khairpur Command," 47 pp. with 8 specimen maps and one integrated soils and land-use map, Hunting Technical Services, 1962.
9. "Survey Report on Utilization of Agricultural Commodities in Pakistan," Department of Agricultural Economics, Rawalpindi, June 1962.
10. "Paddy Rice Cultivation," Lower Indus Project, Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., 1963.

Future studies and, actions required to firm up and extend the development program will include the following:
1. The practicability and cost of canal capacity increases and associated sediment-control measures for
supplemental irrigation water supplies;
2. The desirable level for the ground-water table at various stages of development in the Northern Zone
of the Indus Plains after reclamation and irrigation intensification;
3. The most economical solutions for drainage and irrigation of areas -with saline ground water,
including avoi dance of contamination of water supplies for adjacent and downstream areas;
4. Requirements for local export of ground water to maintain a salt balance in areas with usable ground
5. Design and operational requirements for continuing use or waste disposal of "fresh" ground water
with high concentrations of sodium or bicarbonate;
6. The location, area, and relative productivity of lands in both the Northern and Southern Zones;
7. Costs of agricultural production increases for major categories of crops (through reclamation, drainage,
and improved water supplies) within each canal command or major part thereof throughout the Indus
8. Probable irrigation requirements per acre for surface water or imported ground water for each area
studied under 7;
9. Cost of developing various increments of increased water supplies;
10. Average and maximum usable ground-water supplies in each area with various average inputs of
surface water;
11. Cost and related problems of developing various amounts of additional ground water through
(a) induced seepage of flood flows and reduction of non-beneficial evapotranspiration by pumping along rivers; and (b) artificial recharge through diversion of flood flows to otherwise dry channels,
growth of rice or other crops on permeable soils, and over-irrigation of crops;

ANNEX B (Continued)
12. Permanent allocations of irrigation water supplies to the Northern and Southern Zones of the Indus
Plains and to canal commands within those zones;
13. Requirements for river flows for dilution of saline drainage waters or for the conveyance of salts to
the Arabian Sea; and
14. Requirements for power and energy for tubewell operation for irrigation water supplies and
drainage, including the distribution and variability (month to month and year to year) of those
II. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS Additional reliable basic data are necessary in order that the studies and determinations listed above can be conclusive. Accordingly, the investigation program includes collection of the following field data, some of which involves major expenditures:
1. Damsite and Feeder Canal Investigations. These investigations should include topographic mapping
and foundation investigations of sites for dams, dikes, spillways, powerhouses, stilling basins and
appurtenant structures. Some of the sites to be investigated are:
River Damsite or Structure
Haro ...................................... Ghariala
Akhori J
Indus-Haro Canal
Soan .......................................Dhok Pathan
Indus-Soan Canal
Indus ..................................... Khapalu
Kabul-Swat................................. Khazana
2. Aerial Photography of the Indus Plains. Up-to-date aerial photographs, taken at a scale of 1 to
40,000, should be obtained for all of the canal command areas in the Indus Plains, adjacent river

ANNEX B (Continued)
channels and flood plains. Mosaics should be prepared with a scale of 1 to 20,000 as a basis for compilation of land use data and for determination of cultural details, areas unsuitable for
irrigation, flooded areas, surface-drainage patterns, roads and trails.
Detailed aerial photographs suitable for use in preparation of topographic maps having contours of 1-or 2-foot interval, depending upon the surface relief, should be taken in advance of planning and design of ground-water and reclamation projects. This photography, and the subsequent map preparation, should be scheduled on a doab or canal command basis in the sequence that project activities are to be undertaken. It must be completed for each area in advance of the need for
detailed'determinations of land use, land classification and land development planning.
3. Hydrologic Surveys. These surveys should include river and canal gagings, supplementing gaging programs already under way as necessary to establish the magnitude of surface-water flows at all significant locations and the magnitude and distribution of conveyance losses throughout the irrigation
systems. Investigations of canal seepage should include use of seepage meters and ponding tests.
Measurements should be made of pan evaporation and climatological factors as necessary for determination of free-water evaporation for reservoir studies and estimates of crop evapo-transpiration.
Snow surveys should be continued and extended as a basis for seasonal forecasts of snow-melt runoff.
4. Grauttl-Water Investigations. These investigations should include measurements of horizontal and vertical permeabilities and storage coefficients in the aquifer throughout the Indus Plains. Additional test wells should be drilled, and water samples taken at various depths down to about 400 feet should
be analyzed for sodium, bicarbonates, boron and total dissolved salts.
5. Laud Classification. Additional sampling, field trials, and laboratory analyses concerning the alkalinity and reclaimability of soils in the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains to supplement WASID data as necessary for completion of land classification maps showing the reclaimability, drainability,
and potential productivity of the lands throughout all of the canal commands; and
6. Canal Investigations. Detailed information concerning the physical dimensions, water-carrying
capacities, and seepage characteristics of all of the canals, branches, distributaries, minors, and
water courses throughout each of the canal systems of the Indus Plains.
7. Agricultural Investigations. These investigations should provide statistical data on present crop
yields; effects on crop yields and production costs of changes in irrigation water supplies, fertilizers, plant protection measures, management practices, and the interaction of such factors; land use surveys; and surveys of water distribution and utilization. These data are needed especially for the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains and should be provided by programs similar to those under
way in the Southern Zone.
8. Monitoring of Operating Projects. Detailed information concerning performance of completed
reclamation projects should be collected to permit use of actual experience and operating results to

ANNEX B (Continued)
be applied to the layout and design of later projects. Detailed data should be collected on (a) tubewell performance including lift-discharge relationships; efficiencies of motors, pumps, screens and gravel packs; quality of the water pumped; aquifer storage coefficients and water-table levels at wells and at significant points between wells; (b) the distribution and volume of ground water used for irrigation of crops; (c) ground water used for reclamation of lands by leaching; (d) the distribution and volume of surface water used for irrigation or pre-irrigation of crops or for leaching of saline soils; (e) land used during each cropping season including acreages of each crop, acreages being reclaimed, and acreages in fallow or in other non-crop use; (f) statistics on all crops including yields, amounts of fertilizers applied, planting and harvesting dates,
production consumed on the farm, production costs, and income from sale of marketed produce; (g) the effects of variations in quality of water on yields of crops and on reclamation of saline or alkaline soils; (h) changes in salinity, alkalinity, and permeability of irrigated soils; and
(i) other significant factors.
The investigation and planning portion of the development program includes also essential researchtype studies of the groundwater aquifer under the Indus Plains, involving analog studies and complex mathematical analyses to establish the following:
1. Lateral flow characteristics for different gradients between areas with ground water that is usable
for irrigation and adjacent areas with highly saline ground water, and between canals or rivers and
adjacent ground water;
2. Design and operational requirements for tubewell projects to cope with local variations in recharge,
to avoid waterlogging or soil salinization at all points, and to permit use of aquifer storage to
compensate for annual and short-term fluctuations in surface-water flows;
3. Methods and their practicability for improving the quality of presently saline ground water in certain
areas to make possible use for irrigation of all or part of the recharge;
4. Design crtiteria for shallow wells to develop fresh ground water overlying saline ground water; and 5. Requirements for pumping and exporting usable ground water to avoid quality deterioration from
continuing irrigation.
The above items of field data collection and applied research must be undertaken in the near future if important details of the development program are to be resolved in time to avoid delays in the project construction program. Studies based on presently available data are being undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining and demonstrating the importance of the factors involved and the need for more extensive or more refined data as the basis for more detailed analyses of those factors. These studies are concerned with:
1. Requirements of various crops in West Pakistan for irrigation water r'
'L. Conveyance losses in canal svstems;

ANNEX B (Continued)
3. Ground-water availability adjacent to rivers and effect of its utilization on low-water flows;
4. Maintenance of a salt balance in areas with usable ground water;
5. Optimum average levels for ground-water tables in irrigated areas;
6. Drainage and irrigation in areas with very saline ground water;
7. Maintenance of a salt balance in the Indus Plains and flow requirements for maintenance of suitable
water quality for irrigation use;
8. Use of the ground-water reservoir for flood season storage (artificial recharge); and
9. Problems of ground-water mining.
In addition to the above studies, a continuing program of operation studies for the reservoirs, rivers, and irrigation systems of the Indus Plains is under way. Results of all pertinent specific studies by general, regional and project consultants and by WAPDA will be incorporated in the continuing program of operation studies as they become available.

The primary objectives for 1975 arc to replace the water being lost to India, to arrest and reverse the process of land deterioration, to provide additional water for irrigation, and to b ring about a substantial expansion in electric-power service. Secondary objectives include a measure of flood control on the Indus and Jhelum Rivers; improvements in domestic, municipal and industrial water supply; navigation; and incidental development of water for recreational and other uses.
The average annual runoff of the Indus and its tributaries presently available to West Pakistan is approximately 164 million acre-feet, of which 24 MAF of residual flow is contributed by the Eastern Rivers (Ravi, Beas and Sutlej). About 84 MAF are now being diverted to irrigate some 24 million acres of land in the principal canal systems in the Indus Plains. No surface storage is presently available to increase the utilization of surface waters in the system, and the remainder of the annual discharge either enters the ground-water aquifer, is lost through evaporation, or is wasted to the sea.
In 1961 West Pakistan had a net food production of about 11 million tons per year, which is sufficient to provide the population of approximately 43 million persons with a diet of 1,800 calories per day per person. Food imports of about one million tons per year are now being made to enhance the diet to about 2,000 calories per day.
Two circumstances currently prevail which will result in a decrease in agricultural production in the future unless a substantial development program is undertaken. The first is the loss to India of the waters of the three Eastern Rivers under the terms of the Indus Water Treaty, a loss that will ultimately amount to about 24 million acre-feet annually. The second is the progressive deterioration of farm land through waterlogging and salinization.
In the power field, the present (1964) total nameplate generating capacity in the two WAPDA Grid Zones is 599,000 kilowatts, and the dependable capability on the system peak is 408,000 kilowatts. The annual power generation is approximately 1,800 million kilowatt-hours, of which over 60 per cent is generated at liydroelectric plants. Average per-capita power use is eight watts, and the corresponding energy consumption amounts to about 37 kilowatt-hours per year.
The program for 1975 consists of four principal elements:
1. Surface-Water Development
2. Reclamation and Ground-Water Development
3. Electric-Power Development
4. Other Water Uses

The major projects are summarized in Table A, and the locations of these projects are shown on the General Map enclosed in the back cover of the report.
Surface-Water Development will encompass the construction of surface-water storage reservoirs, link canals, and transfer structures and the remodelling of existing canals and barrages. By far the major portion of this development wili consist of the Settlement Plan works constructed as part of the Indus Basin Project.
Useful storage totalling about 21 million acre-feet will be provided by two major storage dams, Mangla on the Jhelum River and Tarbela on the Indus River, and several smaller storage reservoirs. Mangla Dam, now under construction as part of the Indus Basin Project, will provide useful storage of 7.70 MAF, of which 4.75 MAF are being provided in the initial project to be completed in 1968 under the Indus Basin Project. Tarbela Dam, which is also part of the Indus Basin Project, will create a reservoir with a useful storage capacity of 9.30 MAF, of which 6.60 MAF will be provided in the initial construction under the Indus Basin Project, which is scheduled for completion in 1973. These two projects, the only storage reservoirs provided in the 1975 program for the Indus and its major tributaries, will, in addition to storing water for irrigation, make possible some reduction in maximum flood peaks on the Indus and Jhelum Rivers.
The smaller reservoirs, which collectively will have a useful storage capacity of about four million acre-feet, will be located in valleys tributary to the major rivers. These reservoirs will improve the irrigation water supply in their areas, will provide a measure of flood control, and in some instances will contribute to the hydro-electric generating capability of the power system..
The link canals and appurtenant transfer structures will be constructed as part of the Indus Basin Project. About 390 canal miles of link canals will transfer water from the Western Rivers to replace the diversions by India. The first link canal connecting the Chenab and Sutlej Rivers is now under construction, together with the Sidhnai Barrage on the Ravi River and the Mailsi Siphon on the Sutlej. The second link canal and transfer structures, connecting the Jhelum and Sutlej Rivers, will be placed under contract in 1964i The remaining elements of the replacement system will proceed to construction shortly thereafter.
Reclamation and Ground-Water Development is planned to include a total of about 34,000 tubewells by 1975, of which about 2,500 are to be financed as part of the Indus Basin Project. Of the total, about 29,000 wells will serve for irrigation use, adding some 24 million acre-feet to the water supply to the irrigated farms. The wells will be supplemented by 6,000 canal miles of drains for the disposal of saline water and local storm water. Canal remodelling will be done as necessary to permit mixed use of ground and surface-water supplies by providing for dilution of poor-quality water or for alternating use of ground and surface waters. Increases in canal carrying capacity or diversion capacity as are required to supply the assumed increase in irrigation intensities on the reclaimed lands are included, also. The total additional water supply to the irrigated farms will average about 26 MAF annually. This increased supply, plus a margin of about six MAF to provide for operational contingencies, will be furnished by ground-water pumping, reservoir storage, and some canal enlargements.
The anticipated rate of reclamation will average about 1.0 million acres per year in the Northern Zone and 0.5

million acres per year in the Southern Zone. Tubewell construction is expected to proceed at an average rate of about 2,500 wells per year.
Electric Power Development is planned to include nearly 1.2 million kilowatts of new hydro-electric generation and over one-half million kilowatts of new thermal-electric capacity. In addition, transmission grids will be greatly extended and distribution systems expanded. Electric service will be made available to many rural communities for the first time, and power will be provided to tubewells located throughout an area of 30,000 square miles. By 1975 the total number of power consumers is expected tO increase from its present level of about 500,000 to over 1,500,000.
Hydro-electric capacity rated at nearly 1,200 megawatts will be supplied to the Northern Zone by the construction of generating stations at Mangla, Tarbela, and Gomal Zam projects, and additional units at Warsak. In addition, 327 megawatts of thermal capacity will be provided by plants at Multan, Lyalipur and Lahore. Construction is now in progress on three units at Mangla with a rated capacity of 300 megawatts.
Anticipated increases in power needs in the Southern Zone will be met by new thermal plants at Hyderabad, Sukkur and Moro, having a combined rated capacity of 271 megawatts. Of this total, 33 megawatts is now under construction at Hyderabad and Sukkur. Interconnection of the Southern Zone system with the Karachi system is expected by 1968, with consequent operating and economic advantages to both systems. The first step in this interconnection, consisting of a 132-kv. line from Hyderabad to Dabeji, may be completed earlier.
Other Water Uses will develop as the 1975 program is carried forward. Flood-control benefits by 1975 will result principally from Mangla and Tarbela operations. These benefits are incidental by product of reservoir operations in the primary interests of irrigation and power. The capabilities to reduce flood peaks will depend on the reservoir levels which exist at the beginning of the flood and the plan of operations which is followed as the flood hydrograph develops.
Increasing water-supply requirements for industrial and domestic purposes occur in any program of the scope and magnitude proposed in this report. Experience elsewhere indicates that recreational uses invariably develop when storage reservoirs are constructed. These other uses cannot be precisely defined at this time. The quantities of water involved are small when compared with the total program, but the economic and social significance of these other uses merits consideration as the development program proceeds.
The total cost of the 1975 program will amount to about Rs. 21,400 million, of which about Rs 8,500 million will be for the Indus Basin Project and Rs. 12,900 million will be for the new developments.

The annual expenditures for the program, in millions of rupees, are estimated as follows:
Surface-Water Development R e c l a m a t i o n ElectricPlanning Indus Raising Tubewells, Power
and Basin Mangla & Other Drains and Canal DevelopFiscal Year Mapping Project Tarbela Projects Miscellaneous Remodelling ment Total
(to 1963) (1,429) (105) (1,534)
1963-1964 47 1,004 5 41 150 0 314 1,561
1964-1965 92 1,071 10 59 220 10 372 1,834
1965-1966 94 1,292 2 84 400 50 415 2,337
1966-1967 80 1,310 13 112 440 55 400 2,410
1967-1968 45 894 12 132 500 60 352 1,995
1968-1969 36 525 12 142 500 60 342 1,617
1969-1970 36 425 12 171 500 60 338 1,542
1970-1971 36 360 96 165 420 65 354 1,496
1971-1972 36 170 209 165 420 65 370 1,435
1972-1973 36 60 177 180 420 65 352 1,290
1973-1974 36 0 259 180 410 60 337 1,282
1974-1975 36 0 147 180 330 55 321 1,069
Total 610 8,540 954 1,611 4,815 605 4,267 21,402
Excluding the Indus Basin Project, approximately 42 per cent of the funds for the new development will be needed for reclamation and irrigation improvements in the Indus Plains.
V-ECONOMIC RETURNS AND PROGRAM BENEFITS If the program is carried forward as planned, a level of water supply will be provided which, when combined with land reclamation, will support an agricultural production of 25 million tons per year-more than twice the present production. This level of production will provide the anticipated population of 65 million in 1975 with a diet containing the equivalent of 2,300 calories per capita per day, the minimum level recommended by the United Nations, plus a proportionate increase in industrial raw materials and exports. The present gross value of crops of about Rs. 4,000 million per year will be increased to Rs. 9,100 million, and the increase in net crop returns, after deduction for on-farm costs, will be about Rs. 4,000 million per year.
By 1975, the total annual energy generation of the WAPDA systems is expected to be 9,500 million kilowatthours annually. The per-capita consumption of power and energy for industrial, commercial, and residential use alone is expected to be 22 watts and 130 kilowatt-hours annually, about three times present values. The capital investments in new power development will average about Rs. 2,600 per kilowatt of additional rated capacity, including generation, transmission and distribution. If thermal power were used exclusively, instead of the proposed hydroelectric generation at Mangla and Tarbela dams, both construction and operating costs would be substantially greater.

Estimated Status Estimated
Cost of Year of
Project Purpose (1) Rs. Million Project (2) Completion
Indus Basin Project
Mangla Dam (live storage 4.75 MAF) IPF 2,576 UC 1968
Tarbela Dam (live storage 6.60 MAF) IPF 2,629 PI 1973
Link Canals
Trimmu-Sidhnai (capacity 11,000 cusecs) ,I 208 UC 1965
Sidhnai-Mailsi (capacity 10,100 cusees) I 270 UC 1965
Mailsi-Bahawal (capacity 3,900 cusecs) I 67 UC 1965
Taunsa-Panjnad (capacity 12,000 cusecs) I 120 DD 1969
Rasul-Qadirabad (capacity 19,000 cusees) I 201 DD 1969
Qadirabad-Balloki (capacity 18,600 cusecs) I 377 DD 1969
Balloki-Suleimanke II (capacity 6,500 cusecs) I 124 DD 1969
Chasma-Jhelum (capacity 21,700 cusecs) I 361 DD 1969
Remodelling .. .. .. I 351' UC 1967
Sidhnai .. .. I 158 UC 1965
Qadirabad .. .. .. I 196 DD 1968
Rasul .. .. .. I 196 DD 1968
Chasma .. .. .. I 304 DD 1969
Mailsi Siphon .. .. .. I 163 UC 1965
Tubewells & Drainage .... ID 238 PI 1969
Other Projects
Northern Zone
Tanda (live storage 65,000 AF) I 45 UC 1965
Khanpur (live storage 44,000 AF) IP 62 UC 1968
Munda (live storage 1,500,000 AF) IP 400 R (4)
Gomal Zam (live storage 1,180,000 AF) IPF 172 UC 1970
Works associated with IBP
Raising Mangla (live storage increase 2.95 MAF) IPF 580 PI 1972
Raising Tarbela (live storage increase 2.70 MAF) IPF 447 PI 1976
Regulator and Bridge at Chasma Barrage I 40 PI 1970
Southern Zone
Kachhi Plain
Mangi (live storage 10,000 AF) M 36 PI 1968
S Talli Tangi (storage not determined) ) AT
Babar Katch (live storage 325.000 AF) -(3) IF 60A}- (4)
Naulung (storage not determined) J AJ
Karachi Irrigation (live storage 606,000 AF) IF 90 UC 1968
ur d (3) (live storage 47,000 AF) IF 60 R (4)
Miscellaneous (Both zones) IPF 646 R (4)
Chaj Doab (CCA 2.2 million acres) ID 486 UC 1966
Lower Thal Doab (CCA 1.0 million acres) ID 240 PI 1967
Upper Rechna Doab (CCA 1.6 million acres) ID 360 PI 1969
Lower Rechna Doab (CCA 1.8 million acres) ID 200 A 1969
Bahawalpur (CCA 1.2 million acres) ID 200 A 1969
Eastern Bari Doab I (CCA 1.0 million acres) ID 200 A 1970

Estimated Estimated
Cost Status of Year of
Project Purpose (1) R. Million Project (2) Completion
Eastern Bari Dohib II (CCA 1.3 million acres) ID 200 A (4)
Other (CCA 2.8 million acres) ID (4) R (4)
Southern Zone
Khairpur I (CCA 0.3 million acres) ID 112 DD 1966
Gaja (CCA 0.1 million acres) ID 56 DD 1966
Larkana-Shikarpur (CCA 0.5 million acres) 11) 179 IN 1967
Ghotki (CCA 0.8 million acres) 1) 148 A 1969
Ghulam Mohammed (CCA 0.9 million acres) ID 280 PI (4)
Gaj Dam, Manchhar Lake & Nara
Valley Outtall Drain .. ID 200 A 1970
Rohti (CCA 0.4 million aeres) ID 130 A (4)
Sukkur Right Bank (CCA 1.5 million acres) ID 389 A (4)
Itashmore-Jacobabad (CCA 0.9 million acres) ID 105 A (4)
Other (CCA 0.6 million acres) I) (4) R1 (4)
Canal Remodelling (Both zone) .. I 605 A
Coaeration (Plant and Unit No's.)
Northern Zone
Multan 3 and 4 (62.5 MW each unit) P 140 UC 1963
Lahore 1 3 and 4 (18 MW each unit) P 70 DD 1965
Lyalipur 1 and 2 (65 MW each unit) P 133 DD 1966
Warsak 5 and 6 (40 MW each unit) and rereg. (5 P 80 A 1967
Mangla 1 and 2 (100 MW each unit) P 182 UC 1968
Mangla 3 (100 M P J 1969
Goal 1, 2 and 3 (43 MW each unit P 75 PI 191
Mangla 4 100 MW P PI 1971
Mangle 5 100 MW P 115 PI 1972
Mangla 6 100 M P PI 1973
Tarbela 1 175 MW P } 176 PI 1974
Tatbela 2 175 MW P J PI 1975
beathern Zoue
Hyderabad 3 (71 MW P 5 UC 1963
Sukkur 1 and 2 (12.5 MW each nit) P 25 UC 1964
Hyderabad 4 (15 MW P 1 P1 1965
Sukkut 3 and 4 (12.5 MW each unit P 25 Pt 1966
Moto 1 (66 MW) P 65 P1 1967
Moro 2 (66MW P 65 PI 1970
Moro 3 (66 MW) P 65 Pt 1973
Transedsion & Distrthution .. P 3,308 PI 1963-1975
(1) I-itigation (4) Not yet determined.
P-power (5) Facilities for re-regulating power releases, will
F-flood control add 60 MW of additional capability to existing
D-drainage units.
M-muancipal water
(2) UC-under construction
DD-detailed design
PI-detailed planning and site investigation
A-appraisal and preliminary field investigations
11-reconnaissance only
(3) Projects to be selected when feasibility studies afe completed.

"- NORTHERN ZONE 0 :/;f I / I ::" ~ ~~~~ ~~ J ..... ............
r --
Plateau ........
.......... :Figure i
The Productive Lands
..... LEGEND
Cultivated areas within the Makran Coastal Indus Plains
Region Cliae ra usd
Region ii !ii~i~ii iii .i.., ( ....the I~ndu s Plains... 0
50 0 50 100
...... .: )Scale of Miles
........ ..i......-.
a: : : : : : : :

FOOD AND POPULATION range increase to supply the growing population. For an
The annual production of net food available for average daily diet of 2,300 calories per capita in 1975, the
consumption in West Pakistan is presently about eleven total annual consumption of food products would be million tons after storage, transportation, and processing. Net imports add another one million tons. Figure 2
For the 1961 population of 43 million, this food supply POPULATION OF WEST PAKISTAN
provided a diet of 2,000 calories per day, whereas the minimum average diet considered as acceptable by the -. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization is CEP
fLO.. Probable future
2,300 calories per day. Over the past years, ever 60 rute- 3% per year.
increasing annual imports have been needed just to 60
maintain the present level. At post rate
2.4% per year' A
During the past decade, the population has increased% yr
at an annual rate of about 2.4 per cent. With im- 50
proved medical care and public health services, a future growth rate may reach 3.0 percent. As shown on A
Figure 2, by 1975 a total population of about 65 million 40 people may be expected.
West Pakistan needs a 15-percent increase in food ACTUAL PROJECTED
to insure even the minimum acceptable diet for its present population, and a much greater long- 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975

about 25 million tons. To eliminate imports, domes- Some 50 million acres are not considered adaptable to
tic production in 1975 would have to be more than agriculture, and the remaining 78.5 million acres are
double the present output. By the year 2000, if popu- unclassified, but are principally mountainous or desert,
lation growth continues at the projected rate, total food with very low productivity. These existing land uses requirements will exceed 50 million tons. are illustrated by Figure 3.
THE PRODUCTIVE LANDS West Pakistan has a large irrigated region within
Out of a total land area of nearly 199 million acres the Indus Plains, encompassing the Punjab, the in West Pakistan, about 42 million acres are known to Balawalpur, area and the Sind. Extensive perimeter
receive some degree of cultivation. Of these, 32 million areas of the Indus Plains are generally less developed. acres are equipped with irrigation facilities. The other 10 million acres are dry-farmed and are dependent upon The Indus Plains natural rainfall. The principal cultivated areas are About 80 per cent of the total food production in
shown by Figure 1. An additional 25 million acres might West Pakistan comes from the 24 million acres of land be potentially suitable for cultivation if irrigation regularly irrigated in the Indus Plains. The existing water were available. Only 3.5 million acres within canal systems in this region command a gross area of the entire Province are presently classed as forest land. 36.8 million acres which can be served by gravity from Figure 3 the Indus River and its major tributaries. Of this
LAND USE IN WEST PAKISTAN area, 32.8 million acres are presently sanctioned for
RTO C UL77/ vAr irrigation- 19.5 million in the Northern Zone and 13.3
0 million in the Southern Zone.
DR FARMED The soils within the Indus Plains are derived from
Nthe fresh-water alluvial deposits of the Indus River
2 I Esystem and in places are several thousand feet deep.
e climate is well suited for the growth of crops,
with a year-around growing season and tropical or P=OTENTIAL subtropical temperatures. Desert conditions exist in
25U SUITABLE most of the Indus Plains because the average annual
FOR CU" I.-AOR10 N rainfall is from 5 to 15 inches, except in the northeast
near the foothills.
With proper irrigation and drainage, the lands can be AND DESERT productive as the better lands in other countries; without
78.5 proper use these lands will continue to become waterlogged and saline, as they have in the past. An effective reclamation program is needed to restore the Indus Plains NOTE to its full potential, and to maintain ground water at safe
Figures represent million & acres levels in the future.

The Perimeter Areas Figure 4
About 9.4 million acres are now cultivated outside COMPARATIVE CROP YIELDS
the Indus Plains, of which 4.1 million acres are irrigated. Much of the dry-land farming is in the Potwar Plateau CROPS RELATIVE YIELDS
region between the Indus and Jhelum Rivers, north of the Indus Plains.
Average 1949-59 z
The larger areas of irrigation along the Western side yields in L
West Pakistan I- 0
z o:
of the Indus River include the Kachhi Plain (800,000 per acre
acres), the west-bank tributary basins of the Sulaiman Mounds Pounds W 2 .
Piedmont (1,285,000 acres), and the Kabul-Swat River Basin (1,035,000 acres). Very little is known of the land use in the interior basins of Baluchistan or in the CE
Makran coastal basins, as these areas are not fully covered by agricultural statistics.
9.2 760
The soils of the irrigated perimeter areas are generally good. However, only in part of the Peshawar WHEAT
Vale of the Kabul-Swat Basin do these lands receive an adequate water supply. Here, some 650,000 acres under canal commands are perennially irrigated with intensive cropping. In tile other perimeter areas the .7.... percentage of perennially irrigated land is small. Additional irrigation supplies would be needed for any BARLEY
effective improvement, but water is not: readily available.
7 3 600
.Food production in West Pakistan is far below its MA IZ E
potential in relation to possible crop yields and the available land and water resources. As shown by Figure 4, yields per acre of major irrigated crops in the Nile 10.9 895
Valley of Egypt, for example, are double or treble those in the Indus Plains of West. Pakistan. And yet the COTTON LINT
two regions are not significantly different in their physical environments or their stages of economic and social development. The primary causes of low crop 2.2 185

yields and low land productivity are insufficient irriga- inadequate opportunity to acquire capital or obtain tion water supplies and soil salinization. Less than half credit at reasonable terms for agricultural improvements. of the irrigable land is irrigated in each of the two crop- The low level of literacy of the farm population is a ping seasons. Evaporation of ground water brought to deterrent to the understanding and acceptance of imthe surface in the fallow areas by capillary attraction provements in farm management. leaves salt residues at the soil surface. The resulting The cumulative effect of all adverse factors-physical soil salinization limits or precludes crop production. anhu n-etispretpodcintobutnLow river flows during the rabi season and inade- fifth of the potential food supply from the Indus quate canal capacities during the kharif season generally Plains. limit irrigation water applications to less than those FUTURE PRODUCTION required to sustain optimum plant growth. Insufficient The development program of WAPDA will reclaim water is applied to leach excessive amounts of salts from lands now saline and waterlogged within the Indus the root zone of the soil as required to prevent a gradual Plains, and will thus permit full use of the lands under saliizaionof te sil.canal command. Also, under the program, irrigaOther prevailing conditions which contribute to the tion water supplies will be greatly increased, permitpresent low level of agricultural production include ting more intensive use of the reclaimed lands, and insufficient use of fertilizers, unimproved seeds, in- increased crop yields will be made possible. adequate plant protection and inefficient farming An agricultural-improvement program must parallel
practices. Soils are lacking in phosphorus, nitrogen water developments to achieve all of the potential and organic matter. As late as 1959 the use of ammo- benefits. Such an agricultural-improvement program nium sulphate fertilizer (20 per cent nitrogen) averaged would include fertilizers, plant protection, improved only five pounds per cultivated acre, whereas up to 300 seeds, farm management and farm credit. The essenpounds per acre can be used beneficially under certain tial crop yields will be realized only if reclamation and conditions. With adequate irrigation water, yields increased irrigation water supplies are combined with of three times present averages for wheat, and six times these programs. for maize, have been obtained in experimental plots Increased food production cannot occur at once,
when fertilizers have been used. About 15 per cent of btwl rdal mrv vrapro fyas
present potential production is lost in the field from reasonable anticipation of such improvement has been plan diease, psts nd nsets. osss frm psts used to project the agricultural production possible in during storage and transportation amount to an addi- 17 ne h ae-eeomn rga.Ti
tional five to ten, per cent. Plowing and cultivation projection has been based upon the rate at which lands operations are generally done with primitive implements will be reclaimed, the cropping intensity possible with Which cannot prepare and maintain the soil for optimum increased water supplies, and average crop yields which growing conditions. Sowing is usually done by hand. could reasonably be achieved during the intervening Owners or tenant-operators of small holdings have years prior to 1975.

Crop Yields Table 1
Nveragc crop-yield increases which can be realized
after reclamation are shown on Figure 5. These re- Maunds and Pounds per Harvested Acre
Future Yields-1975
spouses are predicated on fully adequate irrigation 1949-1959 Northern Southern
Crop Average Zone Zone
water supplies and progessive improvements in farm Maunds Pounds Maunds Pounds Mounds Pounds
operation and management, including use of improved Rice(cleaned) 9.2 760 17.2 1,420 15.3 1,245
Wheat 8.7 720 18.7 1,500 12,0 990
seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Weighted Barley 7.3 600 15.3 1,260 8.5 700
average yields for some of the important crops, which Maize 10.9 895 21.0 1,730 9.0 740
Cotton Lint 2.2 185 3.9 320 4.2 345
reflect the effects of the reclamation and agricultural- Cane Sugar 31.3 2,580 61.0 5,020 69.5 5,720 improvement programs to 1.975 on the irrigated production of the Indus Plains, are shown in Table 1. Cropping Patterns and Intensities
Further increases will continue after 1975 as the full Under present conditions, the patterns and intensities
benefits of the WAPDA developments and other im- of cropping in the Indus Plains are influenced by the
provement programs are realized. limited supply of irrigation water and the declining productivity of the land. With reclamation of saline soils, drainage, and additional water, the patterns and intenFigure 5 sities of cropping can be improved greatly.
AVERAGE CROP YIELD INCREASES Both the kharif and rabi intensities can be nearly
IRRIGATED LAND double the present use. With full control of the ground
Years after completion water and with additional surface water, rabi season
of reclamation works
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 IS 20 22 cropping should be increased to the maximum practical use of the available land. During this season,
- -water requirements per acre are least and the avail4L" able supplies will have the greatest effect. Full irriga200 tion of all land under canal commands in the rabi season
would represent the maximum possible use of rabi
season water. However, the average projected cropping intensity has been held to 90 per cent as a practical 100 maximum.
Intensities in the kharif season on perennially irrigated lands are expected to increase to an average of 60per0 cent. A considerable increase in the canal capacities will
be required to achieve this intensity with only a surface-water supply. Ground-water pumping could

supplement the river diversions in the kharif season for During this period soil reclamation will be accomplished
even greater use of the land However, this ground water and improved management will be introduced in the
can just as easily be used in the rabi season when evapo- farm operation. Irrigation intensities in individual
transpiration uses are at a minimum. Kharif season canal commands will vary from these averages, dependriver flows, on the other hand, must either be used or ing upon local circumstances, such as proximity to
wasted, unless surface storage is provided to hold surplus markets and problems of soil and ground-water salinity. water for rabi season Use.
In the Southern Zone some non-perennial irrigation in the kharif season is expected to continue
The present and projected average cropping patterns 80 pn the utraoe ls e asued to e
and intensities in the perennially irrigated areas of the in rice cultivation and 10 percent in other crops.
Indus Plains are shown in Table 2, and the assumed cropping patterns are shown in Fig. 6. A transition period The over-all use of land in the Indus Plains can be
of about eight years will elapse after reclamation before increased from about 24 million cropped acres per year
irrigation intensities will increase to 150 percent in to over 40 million cropped acres when all of the reclaperennial areas and 90 percent in non-perennial areas. mation, canal enlargement, and surface-storage developments have been completed. This ultimate use will Table 2 probably not be achieved until the turn of the century.
ASSUMED CROPPING PATTERNS AND INTENSITIES By 1975, sufficient development can be achieved for an
Percent of
Culturalle Commanded Area annual cropped area of about 32 million acres.
Reported Prejected Projected Production of Food
1960-1961 Future
Sou- Son- The potential production of net food in 1975 is estiNorthern them Northern them
Season Crop Zone Zone Zone Zone mated to be 25 million tons, compared to the present
Kharif Sugar Cane 4.6 0.4 10' 10 supply of 12 million tons including imports, as shown in
Rice 6.0 11L4 81" 10
Table 3 (page 32) and Figure 7 (page 33).
Cotton 11.3 6.1 -'17 15
Food Grains 3.5 8.5 10 5 This total production could give an average diet of
Fodder & Other 15.6 3.6 15/ 20 2,500 calories per day to the projected 1975 population
Subtotal Kharif 41.0 30.0 60 60 of 65 million people. The proportions of various elements
Rabi Wheat 22.0 5.5 50 42 of the food supply do not conform to a fully balanced
Oil Seeds 2.8 3.8 7 12 diet for the minimum diet considered acceptable by FAO.
Sugar Cane 4.6 0.4 10 10 However, shifts could be made in cropping to achieve
Fodder & Other 11.6 17.3 23 26 a better balance without significant change in values or
Subtotal Rabi 41.0 27.0 90 90 in water requirements. This is demonstrated by Table 4
Annual Total 82.0 57.0 150 150 (page 32).

Figure 6
* 80
.0 WHEAT 50%
101SUGAR CANE 10 %
20-1 FODE10
c505J RICE 80%
RICE 10%
30 SUGAR CANE !0% 3020-4, FODDER 10% 20
t0 10..
0O.H R IR p"1
M j J A SO0 NO D F MyjA M J J A SO0 N D J F M A

Table 3
Millions of Tons
Product 1961 1975
Food Grains Supply Potential
Rice 2.95
Wheat J 6.14 5.63
Barley 0.11
Sorghum t 0.46 0.27
Millet r 0.28
Maize J 0.45
Subtotal 6.60 9.69
Gram 0.27,
Other Pulses 0.33 0.13
Oil Seeds J 0.17
Cane sugar 0.69 4.09
Vegetables and miscellaneous' 0.96 3.36
Fruits 1.91
Subtotal 2.86 9.93
Total Crops 9.46 19.62
Animal Products
Meat & Fish 0.31 0.45
Eggs 0.01 0.03
Milk 2.05 4.82
Oils and fats 0.15 0.30
Subtotal 2.52 5.60
Grand Total 11.98 25.22
Table 4
Calories Per Day Per Capita
Acceptable 1975
Product Minimum Projected
Food Grains 1,400 1,462
Other Crops 460 776
Animal Products 440 284
Total 2,300 2,522

o- 50-
-' Potential Production 7
with Continuing
Development A
0)D 30-7 0, Anticipated
SImp rts 'a
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995
Figure 7

bRBE ars Kabul anjor
A oro R Res. Tanda
Barcin Res.
I) // i c
1 oi\ Xi
Figure 8
The Surface Waters
1 975 Program Major storage projects
Minor storage projects Potent 1975 Program 50 0 50 100
Scale of Miles
r O ,>^Sea'

THE WATER RESOURCES themn Pakistan, their moisture is precipitated. somewhat
The.I principal water resources of West Pakistan in proportion to the elevation of the land. However,
iiclude direct rainfall'on the Iagricultural land, surface the upper Indus River Valley above Gilgit receives waters of the Indus River and its tributaries, (Fig. 8) much less precipitation than nearby mountain. and ground water in the aquifers of the Indus Within, the Indus Plains, rainfall is concentrated in
Plains. Very little is .known of the lesser streams out- the three months from July through September, during side of the Indus River Basin or the ground-water po- temnonpro.Termidro h eri
tential of the perimeter areas. quite dry, and irrigation is necessary to sustain effective
agriculture throughout most of the Indus Plains. Dry
Rainfall farming is confined mainly to the northern regions
Precipitation over most of the agricultural areas of having greater natural rainfall. the Indus Plains averages only 7.5 inches per year, Surface Waters
incrasig t 15inces n th reion bewee LaoreThe principal river systems of West Pakistan include and Peshawar. In the more mountainous areas to the
the Kabul, and the Western Rivers-the Indus, the
northeast, annual precipitation averages 30 inches or Jhelum, and the Chenab; and the Eastern rivers-the more. The annual amounts and monthly distribution Sutlej, the Beas, and the Ravi. The location of those
of rainfall are illustrated by Figure 9. rivers and principal sites for reservoir storage are
The rainfall patterns and intensity are related to shown on Figure 8.
the summertime monsoon winds, which carry moisture- The average annual runoff of these river systems,
laden air from the Bay of Bengal in a northwesterly available to West Pakistan above the Indus Plains, is
direction across the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. As presently about 164 MAF. Of this total, the
the monsoons encounter the mountain barrier of nor. Eastern Rivers contribute some 24 MAF. Under

Figure 9
'hnpr J FMAMJ d A SO0N D
Precipitation depths
expressed in inches
" Karac.
the Treaty, India has the right to divert the Eastern Historically, irrigation in West Pakistan has been
river flow, by 1970/1973, and by 1975 the average adapted to the natural variation in river flows, with
annual surface water available to West Pakistan will be greater use in the summer months. In the absence about 140 MAF (See Figure 10). Future diversions by of storage control of the rivers, wintertime use of water
India under the Indus Waters Treaty may ultimately has been restricted during the dry season.
reduce the Iota] supply by as much as 2 MAF.
Ground Water in the Indus Plains
The main rivers have similar patterns of runoff,
although they differ in their source. The Chenab is A most important water resource exists in the
mainly influenced by the monsoon rains and has its ground under the irrigated areas of the Indus Plains.
highest flows in July and August. The Jhelum is like- Today virtually untapped, this ground watcr offers a wise affected by the monsoons, with some snow-melt great potential for increased irrigation supplies. Use
influence, normally having higher total runoff in May, of ground water will require pumping. However, most June, and July. However, the larger individual floods of the necessary pumping capacity will be available from
on the Jheluni are caused by the monsoons and occur in the drainage and reclamation tubewells.
July or August. The Indus River receives most of
its flow from snow-melt in high altitudes and usually Approximately one-third of the irrigation water
reaches a maximum in July. These characteristic runoff diverted from the main rivers percolates into the underpatterns are illustrated by Figure 11. ground aquifer of the Indus Plains, in addition to

direct infiltration from the rivers and from rainfall. This igure 10
region is so flat that the ground water cannot drain away as fast as new water is added. SURFACE WATER SUPPLY FOR
During the historic period of irrigation, water tables THE INDUS PLAINS
have continually risen, in some areas as much as 60 feet, as the surface waters of past years have accumulated in 10 BE DIVERTD 1 0
the ground. This ground-water reservoir is presently r 8Y 19 ..
estimated to contain more than 500 MAF of stored water in each 100 feet of depth underlying 33 million acres of the Northern Zone alone. Ground water has also accumulated under the Sind, but data presently a ailable do not permit reliable appraisal of the volume of usable water. Chenob River
Ground-water levels are continuing to rise, but the 25 MAF
rate lessens as the surface is approached. Where the water table has approached the ground surface, severe waterlogging and salt accumulation have resulted. The Indus River Jhelum River
annual volume of the present ground-water accretion is 92 MAF 23 MAF
estimated to be about 22 MAF in the Northern Zone and 14 MAF in the Southern Zone of the Indus Plains.
Not all of the stored ground water or the annual recharge is suitable for irrigation use. Salinity concentrations vary from a low, acceptable value of 500 parts per million in the Northern Zone (See Figure 12) to an intolerable high of 30,000 ppm in some areas of the Sind. In some localized areas the presence of sodium and boron may make the ground water unusable for agriculture.
The presently estimated distribution of ground-water Figure A1
salinity in the Northern Zone is summarized in Table 5. ANNUAL STREAMPLOW
Similar estimates are not yet available for the Southern DISTRIBUTION
Zone. ,400
Salinity Gross Area Percent
Concentration Millions of Acres of Total Area tD
Parts per Million T
Below 500 10.7 31
500-1,000 9.5 28 7 RE R
1,000-2,000 5.3 16 L
2,000-3,000 1.5 4 ?100 A
3,000-5,000 1.5 4
Above 5,000 3.6 11 o
Unknown 1.9 6
Total .. 34.0 100 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D

Figure 12
Riv r
'DESE RT.:'.'
sMore than 3,000 ppm.
Less than 3,000 ppm.
*RAHIVAR KHAN ..Scale of miles
S0 50 00
In general, ground water containing 2,000 to 3,000 Northern Zone and 2.0 feet from 2.6 million acres along ppm can be used in irrigation if supplemented with the Indus River in the Southern Zone. The estimate
fresh water. Some 27 million acres, or about 80 percent for the Southern Zone needs further confirmation from of the Northern Zone, have ground water with salinity studies now under way. concentration of less than 3,000 parts per million. In addition to the ground-water supply from annual
recharge, the accumulated waters from past years could Future increases in surface-water diversions for irribe recovered by tubewells. For each foot that water nation will also increase the annual ground-water re- tables are lowered, approximately 5 MAF could be withcharge. With the ultimate use of surface waters, the drawn from the ground under the irrigated lands in the
potential supply of usable ground-water recharge is Northern Zone of the Indus Plains. Of this total, about
estimated to be 40 MAF per year throughout the 3 MAF are estimated to be of usable quality if mixed
Indus Plains. This total is equivalent to 1.6 feet of with surface water. A much smaller volume of usable acceptable water from 22 million acres of land in the water is expected in the Southern Zone.

PRESENT USE OF WATER through 38,000 canal miles of main and secondary
The dominant use of water in West Pakistan today canals in 43 separate systems. Individual canal systems
is in the diversion of the river flows to the irrigated areas have capacities up to 15,500 cusecs, and the combined of the Indus Plains. In terms of quantity, the irriga- diversion capacities of all the main canal systems is
iion, domestic, and industrial uses from wells are much nearly 250,000 cusecs.
smaller. The gross area within the Indus Plains commanded
River Diversions by the irrigation systems totals 36.8 million acres, of
which about 32.8 million acres are classed as culturable. About 51 percent of the total surface-water supply Some 21.4 million acres are sanctioned for perennial
to thme Indus Plains is presently being diverted into the water supply, while the remaining 11.4 million acres are canal systems. About 12 percent is lost through evapto be irrigated during the high-flow season only. oration and seepage along the main river channels,
and the remaining 37 percent passes on to the Ara- The existing canals are almost entirely unlined.
bian Sea. The average seasonal diversions from the More than 35 percent of the water diverted from the
rivers is estimated to be lost in conveyance from the principal rivers are shown in Table 6.
headworks to the farms. These substantial losses might suggest a program of canal lining. However, the proposed PRESENT RIVER FLOW DISTRIBUTION tubewell program, which is needed in any event for
Millions of Acre-Feet reclamation and regional drainage, will recover most October May
through through of these canal losses.
Item River April Sept. Annual
Indus Plains Diversions Use of Surface Water
Northern Zone Jhelum 2.4 2.5 4.9
Chenab 5.0 6.7 11.7 Within the Indus Plains, the lands are generally
Ravi 3.8 4.2 8.0
Sutlej 4.0 6.9 10.9 under-irrigated. Presently in each of the two cropping
Panjnad 1.6 2.6 4.2
Indus 3.0 5.5 8.5 seasons about 12 million acres are being irrigated.
Subtotal 19.8 28.4 48.2 Farm deliveries of surface water in the Northern Zone
Southern Zone Indus 11.4 23.9 35.3 are estimated to average 2.2 acre-feet per cropped acre
Total Diversions 31.2 52.3 83.5 during the months of May through September and 1.6
Net River Loss or Gain -2.6 +22.7 +20.1
Flow to Arabian Sea 5.6(1) 55.3 60.9 acre-feet during October through April. These deliveries
Total River Supply 34.2 130.3 164.5 should average 2.7 and 2.4 acre-feet in the respective
(1) About 3.3 MAF of this occurs during the first half of October. seasons for a fully adequate water supply. Present
Diversion of the river flows for irrigation use water use in the Southern Zone is similarly deficient.
now averages about 52 MAF in the high-flow season and Use of Ground Water
31 MAF in the low-flow season. These diversions are Much of the rural supply of domestic water and some generally limited in the high-flow season by the capacity irrigation water comes from wells equipped with Persian of the canal systems, and in the low-flow season by the
avaiablewate suplywheels and operated by animals. Only in the larger
available water supply.
towns have modern, electrically powered pumps been Existing Irrigation Systems used for domestic and industrial supplies. The reclamaWater diverted from the rivers is presently distributed tion tubewell program has just begun to make high39

capacity ground-water pumping a significant factor in tions is summarized in Table 7, and is shown graphically
irrigation use. on Figure 13.
No statistics are available of the historic use of well SURFACE-WATER DEVELOPMENT water, but the total is undoubtedly very small in comparison with the use of surface water. Within the The surface waters of West Pakistan are not presNorthern Zone of the Indus Plains, all pumping from ently controlled by reservoir storage, except for minor
wells is estimated to total two MAF per year. storage totallingless than 0.3 MAF. The ultimate need
for storage will be so great that all potential reservoir The Present Water Balance sites must be studied.
The approximate balance of surface water and Ultimate Surface-Water Control
ground water in the Indus Plains under present condiA program of canal remodelling is to be undertaken, Table 7 which, over the next 30 years or so, will increase
PRESENT WATER BALANCE IN THE substantially, within the limits of practicability,
INDUS PLAINS the potential for kharif season diversion. Canal capacMAF
River Balance Per Year cities are generally the limiting element for such diverTotal Surface-Water Supply 164.5 sions. Surface-storage water will be required only at
Net percolation to ground water -4.0 the beginning and end of this season.
Other losses -16.1
Flow to Arabian Sea -60.9 Greater use of surface water in the rabi season will
Total Surface-Water Diversion 83.5 require reservoir storage. The maximum reservoir
Canal Balance (including Water Courses) capacity to be utilized should be determined on the basis
Total Surface-Water Diversion 83.5 of a comprehensive economic analysis of alternatives
Pumped from ground water 2.0
Evaporation losses -8.0 for integrated use of surface and underground storage of
Percolation to ground water -23.0 water for irrigation, and the effect thereon of canal diTotal Farm Delivery 54.5 version capacity increases. Use of the huge natural
Farm Irrigaton Balance ground-water reservoir will reduce the -need for surTotal Farm Delivery 54.5 face reservoir storage to about half of that which
Surface loss -5.4
Percolation to ground water -8.2 would be required for optimum use of the water resource
Net Crop Use 40.9 with surface storage alone. Present indications are that
Ground-Water Balance surface storage requirements for the irrigation of the
Percolation from rivers 4.0 Indus Plains will ultimately be in the range of 20 to 30
Percolation from canals 23.0 MAF.
Percolation from farms 8.2
Percolation from rainfall 1.2 With ultimate development, the average annual
Total Inflow to Ground 36.4 diversions from the rivers are expected to be about 40
Pumped .to irrigation use -2.0
MAF in the rabi season and 80 MAF in the kharif season, Evaporation, transpiration, and
ground-water accumulation 34.4 or about 87 percent of the total river supply.

RIVER INPUT 164.5 million acre-feet NORTHERN ZONE Evaporation
Evaporation K 2 Canals
9.0 116.3 48.2 2.0
II.5 35B Evaporation
1l.8 .
107.3 13.3 Water32.2
13.3 32.2
3.2 w
Seepage 24.2
Rain 1.0 17. 3 C> 1
22.1 Recharge 20.1 2.01
Evap. or = GROUND
Storage WATER
< ] 2 4.7 3. Water 8.5 69.0
Evaporation courses 69.0
Evaporation 22.3 Figure 13
16.7 Seepage
68.0 Evaporation
3.4 ai
0.2 .4 7.11
14.3- Recharge percolation
--- 14.3
GROUND Evaporation
WATER or Storage

The Indus Basin Project MAF. The dam is designed for future raising to add
On September 19, 1960, Pakistan and India signed 3.0 MAF of live storage. Approximately 120 million
the Indus Waters Treaty, which divided the waters of cubic yards of earth- and rock-fill will be needed
the Indus system of rivers between the two countries, initially in the main dam and reservoir dikes. The In essence, the Eastern Rivers were allocated for use by service and emergency spillway will have a cornIndia, and the Western Rivers, for the most part, were bind discharge capacity of more than 1,200,000 cusees. held for use by Pakistan. Irrigation outlets and the powerplant will be served by
The Eastern Rivers have long been used for irrigation five tunnels, each 30 feet in diameter. The initial power on lands now in Pakistan. Diversion of these waters plant will contain three generating units of 100,000 kiloby India would be an economic and social disaster if watts capacity each, and provisions are being made for
replacement were not provided. In recognition of this the future installation of seven more such units. difficult situation, certain countries have undertaken to The Tarbela Project will have an earth- and rock-fill finance the program of works collectively termed the dam about 400 feet high and 9,000 feet long, impounding
Indus Basin Project (IBP). Commitments for this a gross storage of 8.4 MAF. This dam is also being desigsupport are contained in the Indus Basin Development ned for future raising, to add 2.7 MAF of live storage.
Fund Agreement of September 1960. (Signatories are Earth- and rock-fill will total about 145 million cubic
Australia, Canada, W. Germany, New Zealand, Pakistan, yards for the initial project. Service and auxiliary United Kingdom, the United States of America and the spillways will have a combined discharge capacity of
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.) more than 1,600,000 cusecs. As presently planned, the ultimate powerplant will contain 12 generating units of
The locations of major elements of the IBP are shown 1500klwtscpct ah
175,000 kilowatts capacity each.
on the General Map. Storage on the Jhelum River is
The useful storage to be provided under the IBP will
being implemented by Mangla Dam, now under construction and scheduled for completion in 1968. Con- be 4.75 MAF at Mangla (to be completed in 1968), and struction of a number of the link canals and barrages 6.60 MAF at Tarbela (to be completed in 1973). Sediment encroachement on this storage is estimated to
is also under way. Indus River storage to be provided es
by the IBP will be at the Tarbela site, but construction average 30,000 acre-feet per year at Mangla and 100,000 has not yet started. acre-feet per year at Tarbela.
hThe proposed program for development through
The primary function of the IBP is to replace the
surface waters to bediverted by India, for which appro- 1975 includes the raising of both Mangla and Tarbela ximately 24 MAF must be transferred from the Western dams, during the period 1970-75, to provide 5.7 MAF of
rive throughmthenelinkcanals.Wat transferred fromthlive storage capacity in addition to that included in the riv ers th ro u gh th e n ew lin k can als. W aters tran sferred I d s B s n P o e t o s r c i n o h s a d t o a Indus Basin Project. Construction of this additional
in the rabi season would reduce the supply to present
downstream users of the western rivers; therefore
Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs are needed to offset this of canal capacity increases corresponding to about 5 reduction. MAF at the canal heads and 3.6 MAF at outlets to the
The Mangla Project will consist of a main earth dam water courses.
about 380 feet high, impounding a gross storage of 5.6 Irrigation requirements during the high-flow season in

excess of canal divers-on capacities would be supplied by combined volume could total five MAF, exist on the ground-water pumping. During the low-flow season, irri- tributary streams. gation requirements which could not be met by ground- Table 8
water use consistent withan annual balance between local MAJOR POTENTIAL RESERVOIRS
local pumping and recharge, would be met by surface- ve Power Status
Live Power Status
water diversions including water released from storage. Storage Potential Functions of
A review of this feature of the development program River Project MAP MW (1) Study(2)
Review of this feature of the development program Shyok Khapalu 10.0 600 IPF R
should be made as soon as physical data and operating Indus Skardu 15.0 1,400 IPF R
requirements have been collected to allow the prepara- Tarbela 9.3 2,100 IPF PI
Kalabagh 6.4 1,200 IPF A
tion of reliable cost estimates for canal capacity enlarge- Chasma 9.0 500 IPF A
ments, giving due consideration to canal operation Jhelum Panjar 2.5 1,500 IPF R
Rohtas(3) 1.8 60 IPF A
during construction. Mangla 7.7 1,000 IPF UC
Chenab Chiniot 1.4 None I A
Potential Storage Reservoirs Swat Kalangai 6.5 700 IPF A
Kha7ana 3.0 300 IP A
There are within West Pakistan potential reservoirs Munda 1.5 800 IP A
totalling some 70 MAF, exclusive of the storage at Soan DhokPathan(3) 10.0 1,100 IP A
Mangla and Tarbela. Sites exist on the Indus, Kabul- Makhad(3) 5.0 700 IP A
Swat, Jhelum, and Chenab Rivers. In addition, reser- (1) I-irrigation, P-power, F-flood control
voirs with only local significance can be built on many (2) R-reconnaissance only, A-appraisal with some topographic
and geologic study, PI-detailed planning and extensive geo.
of the smaller tributaries. By constructing a dam at logic study, UC-under construction.
Tarbela, diversion of Indus River water to off-stream (3) Requires diversion from major river
storages on the Haro and Soan Rivers is also possible. Storage in the 1975 Program
These reservoir sites have not been investigated The principal storage reservoirs included in the
adequately, and probably not all will be found program through 1975 are the initial Mangla and Tarbela
economically feasible. The major potential reservoirs reservoirs of the IBP and the Munda reservoir on the
are summarized in Table 8. In addition to these Swat River. The other projects now under way or
larger projects, about 20 smaller reservoir sites, whose proposed for construction by 1975 are given in Table 9.
Table 9
Live Storage Power Capacity Func- Year of
River or Tributary Project 1000 AF Megawatts tions (1) Completion
Swat Munda 1,500 (3) IP (3)
Haro Khanpur 44 5 IP 1968
Kohat Toi Tanda 65 I 1965
Gomal Khajuri Katch 1,180 129 IPF 1970
Khost Mangi 10 M 1968
Nari Babar Kach 325 IF (3)
Chakar Talli Tangi (2) IF 3)
Mula Naulung (2) IF (3)
Gaj Gaj (2) IF (3)
Manchhar Lake Manchhar (2) IF (3)
Hub Karachi 606 20 IF 1968
Porali Porali (2) 47 IF (3)
Kud Kud J (3)
(1) I-irrigation, P-power, F-flood control M-muncipal water
(2) Projects to be selected when feasibility, studies are completed. (3) Not yet determined.

The reservoirs of the IBP and the smaller projects Figure 14
will give a total storage of about 21 MAF by 1975.
Only the Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs will have appreciable effect on the water supply to the Indus Plains. Jheum
The smaller reservoirs will be used for local areas in
the tributary valleys, and the net reduction in flow to the I / -.
main rivers will be insignificant. Furthermore, some Lahore
of these projects, such as the Gomal Zam and Karachi Lhr
Irrigation Projects, are being designed for hold-over storage greater than the annual inflow, so their volumes are not indicative of annual irrigation water supplies.
Operating studies of the Indus River system have
included the effect of only the Mangla and Tarbela res- (
ervoirs on the surface waters available to the Indus /
Plains for irrigation in 1975. r,\,
The importance of flood control has long been recog- ( Eisting bounds
' --'--.-Programmed bunds
nized in West Pakistan. Generally, flood bunds have roeasmjed tods
been provided by the Irrigation Department. The recent flooding
Punjab Flood Commission was appointed after a disastrous flood in 1950, during which nearly 3,000 lives were lost. The duties of this commission were taken over in %
1957 by the West Pakistan Flood Commission, which represents the entire Province, and which is preparing a comprehensive flood-control plan for West Pakistan. Because flood-control measures are part of an integrated A network of radio stations to report river conditions
water resource development, the WAPDA program will at 107 locations is operated by the West Pakistan Police
incorporate the flood-control plan. Areas in the Indus for the Flood Commission. This flood-warning system
Plains which are subject to flooding are shown on has been extended to aid in the construction of the
Figure 14. Indus Basin Project.
An-extensive system of bounds now exists along many
Flood Damages
of the main river channels which pass through the
Indus Plains. Construction and maintenance of these Damaging floods occur on the main rivers and their
bunds have generally been carried out by the Irrigation tributaries nearly every year during the peak of the Department in accordance with the plans of the West monsoon season. In spite of the existing bounds, annual
Pakistan Flood Commission. flood losses have reached as high as 200 million rupees.

ruptures of existing bunds, and canal breaks in the flat MA M Fr 15 plains cause serious flooding of agricultural land, interEACH MONTH WITH YEAR ruption of transportation networks, and damage to irriOF OCCURRENCE gation works, villages, and towns. Important cities such
Thousand as Lahore and Jhelum have suffered severely in the
cTHE IN DU RIVER past, and many smaller communities have been completely
AT ATTOCK submerged. Poor drainage in the flat Indus Plains
800 0 ~ prolongs periods of inundation.
0Flood Intensities
600 The normal distribution and maximum intensities of
floods recorded on the Indus River and the Jhelum River are shown on Figure 15. Potentially, much lar'2_ ,a fer floods could occur on each of these rivers.
CDThe highest discharge recorded for each of the major
0 -rivers is given in Table 10.
0 N D J F M A M J d A S
Table 10
River Location Date Cusecs
1,000 Indus Attock August 1929 820,000
,HIndus Sukkur August 1958 1,100,000
AT MANGLA Jhelum Mangla August 1929 1,043,000
Chenab Marala July 1959 871,000
Ravi Shahdara October 1955 542,000
600 Sutlej Suleimanke October 1955 422,000
W- Panjnad Panjnad September 1950 677,000
400 -40The floods are caused by monsoon rains with some
,0 snow-melt contribution. Rare but significant floods
20 -can occur in the Indus basin by the sudden rupture of
temporary dams created by landslides or glaciers in the 0 N D J F M A M J J A S headwaters. Such floods have high intensities but are
of short duration.
Over the years 1948-1960, more than 4,800 lives were lost, and direct flood damages exceeded 1,000 million Flood Protection rupees. The existing bunds will be extended and reinforced
Approximately six million acres are subject to flooding under the Flood Control Plan. By 1975 many miles along the main river systems. Overflow of river banks, of new bunds will be added, mostly in the Northern

WATER Figure 16
Thou tand ,..Thousand
c.f.s. I I c.f.s. e I I
DESIGN FLOOD JULY 1959 Reservoir drawn down to
Peak inflow FLOOD rule curve elevation(El.
P a inl wFLOOD I'71 total storage 35.95
2,600,000 cfs. Assuming reservoir full 171, tot storage 3.95
2,500 (El. 1202, total storage 500MAF)t start of flood.
2,500 i -7 -
55MA ) at start of Voluntary Storage
flood. 1R ese
2,0U 0 2 3
Involuntary Time in days
Storage AUGUST 1929 FLOOD
__,_ oo__I
Peak outflow 1,217,000 cfs Assuming reservoir fuli(El.1202,
El. 1225.3,total storage 7.2 MAF) total storage 5.55 MAF)ot
start of flood."
1100 Involuntr Released Storage Released
1 M A N G L A R E S E R VOiR
0 ... 2 3 4 2
Time in days Time in days
c.f.s. I I
Peak inflow NTS
Peak inflow Assuming reservoir Voluntary storage represents storage of inflow
2,040,000 efs full (El. 1490, storage in space between rule curve elevation and
2,00C 7.8MAF)ot start of normal full reservoir. When reservoir is in
inn flood. This range, release may be restricted as D~voluntary Peck outflow
Storage 1,650,000 cfs. desired.
i,500 nvoluntary storage represents storage of inflow
a1,500 esd in surcharge space above normal full
Reservoir. When reservoir is in this range, releases must equal full capacity of spillway, for the safety of the structure, ,000 and any storage or flood reduction that
is accomplished is entirely incidental.
01 1. 2 -+ 3
Time in days

Zone of the Indus Plains. The reservoirs to be construct- Ultimately, a total of about 26 million acres is expectedto ed by WAPDA under the IBP will, however, contribute require tubewell drainage, and about five million acres
to the over-all flood protection of the Indus Plains. will be served by deep. surface drains. Extension of
Use by India of the waters of the Eastern Rivers will reclamation to this ultimate area will probably take
reduce, but not eliminate, the occurrence of flood flows about 30 years. in the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers. Regulations to prevent
- Reclamation-of waterlogged and saline lands and con.s
encroachment on the usually dry flood channels will ec to of water a sal aco.
tinued control' of ground water are essential to achieve
probably be necessary. Deterioration of the flood
full productivity of the Indus Plains. Sub-surface
channels may increase the flood hazard.
drainage with ditches is economically preferable only
Flood Storage in limited areas; most of the plains are too fRat and
Rangla and Tarbela reservoirs will be operated for pumping is necessary. Therefore, the reclamation
irrigation and power needs, but flood retention and program will require extensive use of tubewells.
storage will be significant under some conditions.
The current reclamation program was started in the
Even if the reservoirs were full at the time of peak Rechna Doah of the Norther Zone. This project,
floods, surcharge above normal levels would temporarily called Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. I retain some of the inflow and reduce the peak discharge (SCARP 1), has provided about 2,00 tubewels within downstream. The effect on large historic floods and on
a gross area of 1.2 million acres; full operation of this
mtaximnum probable flood's with inital IPsoaei hw
maximum probable floods with initaBP storage is shown project was achieved early in 1963. (See Figure 17) on Figure 16, At Mangla, a maximum probable flood of
21.6 million cusees would be reduced to 1.2 million, or As a result of the short period. of operation of
approximately to the historic maximum. At Tarbela, the SCARP 1, about 57,000 acres of formerly unusable land
reduction would be about 19 percent of the maximum have been restored to cultivation, and water tables have
probable Rood,. been drawn down an average of seven feet. CropLesser floods originating upstream and occurring, in ping intensities in the area have been increased by an months when these reservoirs would not be full can be average of 24 percent, and marketed crop production
completely absorbed or greatly reduced. Floods of has increased by about 40 percent. This response, is
intermediate size which occur when reservoirs are fl most encouraging. It is significant that the individual
would probably be passed with little or no reduction in farmers intensified their cropping and achieved greater peak intensity. yields almost immediately after the land was drained
and tubewell irrigation water was made available.
DEVE!OPMENT Two more projects are under way in the Northern Zone.
About 16 million acres of irrigated lan4 in the Under SCARPI 2,in Chaj Doah, wells are being installed&
Indus Plains are adversely affected by inadequate construction plans are ready for the entire doab. Under
drainage and excessive salinity, and each year SCARP 3 and SCARP 4, investigations are being made
about 100,000 acres are lost for useful productil9n. of the lower end of Thai DoAh and the upper end of

/" Tarbela,
/ eshawar
- Vale
"/| JBa rrage
0!1 ...
N .wU,.o1t
- I ,.. .. '
Gudu \I. Barrage ..
/' The Ground water and
I w"
aReclamation Program
tt.,,... Reclamationokinte7 Program
Reclamation works in the 1975 Program Reclamation works to be constructed after 1975
50 0 50 100
hulam Scale of Miles
Mohammed Barrage

Rechna Doab. Further extension to the entire Northern wells required, but the average well capacity must be
Zone is being planned. increased, if the area to be served is increased, to maintain the same relationship between area irrigated and
Detailed programs for the Southern Zone are pres- eusecs of water supply.
ently being prepared in anticipation of early construction for reclamation of the Khairpur area in the Sukkur Wherever feasible the wells drawing usable water
Barrage command and of the Gaja area in the Ghulam. will b6 located at the heads of the water courses serving
Mohammed Barrage command. groups of individual farms. At these locations, the
wells can best be coordinated with surface-water supplies.
The reclamation and drainage problems in the South- Some wells will be required for drainage only. These
ern Zone are considerably different from those in the are usually locatted in areas of unusable ground water.
Northern Zone, since much of the ground water in this In some locations these wells will serve as a barrier
area is too saline for irrigation use. Here the major to prevent infiltration from adjacent saline waters.
problem is the one of disposal. Regional planning stud- These drainage wells will be located for the most ies are now under way. In some areas along the lower efficient disposal of the unusable waters, and some
Indus River, ground water has been found to be suit- will require new drainage ditches extending to the
able for irrigation use. natural drainage channels and rivers. Approximately
Tubewells one-fourth of the tubewell capacity required for the
Individual wells will vary somewhat with local reclamation program will be located in saline ground
conditions, but in general the wells will average about water. 300 feet deep, and will be equipped with pumps which The useful life of a tubewell is expected to average
will operate down to a 70-foot depth. The wells are about 20 years, considering possible corrosive effects of
drilled to a 22-inch diameter. Solid casings, 16 inches saline water and soils. Replacement of wells and in diameter, extend down to about 100 feet; slotted pumps will represent a large part of the long-range cost
casings, 10 inches in diameter, are used below. Both of tubewell projects.
solid and slotted casings are surrounded with gravel.
Electric motors of 40 horsepower will serve for a well discharge of about four cusecs at a water-table depth As a supplement to the drainage wells and irrigationof 25 feet. drainage wells, an ultimate total of more than 10,000
miles of open drains may be needed. These will norThe spacing and numbers of wells will depend upon
The p il laou ofanalbs ond drs a nd pona ally be unlined and of small capacity. Although each area will differ in its needs- an average of about 300 miles
variations in recharge and quality of the ground water.
of these drains is expected for each million acres to be
Data presented in this report are predicated on the
assumption that the average, well will have a capacity reclaimed. of four cusecs and serve an area of about 500 acres. Use of Pumping
The latest designs for tubewell projects provide one well The capacity of the tubewells will permit the pumping
for 650 to 700 acres. This will reduce the number of of the full annual ground-water recharge in any one sea49

son. Under the cropping intensities considered herein that ground-water supplies will be available for use
for the Indus Plains, water requirements during the when canal closures are required for construction
kharif season could be supplied most of the time by unre- activities. Expenditures required for operational gulated river flows if the capacities of the canals were in- reasons must be included in analyses of canal enlargecreased sufficiently. Alternatively, allor part of the kharif ment; these include increased maintenance costs requirements in excess of present canal capacities could be resulting from siltation. met by ground-water pumping; and the flood flows, which Under the proposed use of ground water during
would otherwise be unused, could be stored for delivery the rabi season, pumping can be coordinated both during the rabi season. In this way advantage could with surface-water supplies to meet irrigation needs
be taken of the flexibility of ground-water use without and with operation of the storage reservoirs for both upsetting a balance between ground-water pumping and irrigation and power purposes. This combination offers
recharge. the maximum flexibility of operation and will permit
The 1975 program is predicated on the use of ground- optimum use of the water and power resources. The water for irrigation during the kharif season to minimize ground-water reservoir is in effect an extension of requirements for canal enlargements. Revisions in the surface-water storage.
program, including deferral of raising of Mangla and/or Schedules for Reclamation Tarbela dams and increases in canal enlargements, The proposed reclamation program in the Indus
can be made if justified by economic analyses. Such Plains is summarized in Table TI. Progress schedules analyses will require cost estimates for canal enlargeare included on Figure 18. Some 34,100 wells are
ments of the same reliability as those which can be made for the costs of raising the dams. planned for installation by 1975; of these, 85 percent
are expected to yield ground water satisfactory for Because of the need for continuing irrigation water irrigation use. The rate of reclamation up to 1975 should service, major canal enlargements will present complex average about 1.0 million acres per year in the Northern
operational and administrative problems. Construc- Zone and 0.5 million acres in the Soutnern Zone.
tion of canal enlargements should be scheduled to Tubewell construction should proceed at an average
follow completion of tubewell installations, in order rate of about 2,500 wells per year.
Figure 18
(Thousand cusecs) (Thousands of miles) (Millions of acres) (Millions of acres)
1995 1995
200 40 40
".1995 1963
1975 ... 197
.. .
1995 199517..
1 197957. 1995
1963.... .... 1963
0:::: 190 ......

Table 11
By 1975 Ultimate
Northern Southern Northern Southern
Item Unit Zone Zone Total Zone Zone Total
1. CCA Reclaimed million acres 12.8 6.0 18.8 21.9 10.0 31.9
2. CCA with Water-Table
Control by Tubewells million acres 12.8 3.0 15.8 21.9 4.2 26.1
3. Tubewells
In Fresh Ground Water number 23,700 5,200 28,900 37,300 5,200 42,500
In Saline Ground Water number 1,400 3,800 5,200 6,300 6,900 13,200
4. Tubewell Capacity
In Fresh Ground Water 1,000 cusecs 95 21 116 149 21 170.
In Saline Ground Water 1,000 cusecs 6 11 17 25 21 46
5. CCA with Water-Table
Control by Deep Drains million acres 0 3.0 3.0 0 5.8 5.8
6. Surface Drains Completed
In Areas with Tubewells canal miles 2,500 600 3,100 4,200 800 5,000
In Areas without Tubewells canal miles 0 2,600 2,600 0 5,000 5,000
7. Remodelled or New Canals canal miles 11,000 5,000 16,000 28,200 12,800 41,000
8. Area Irrigated Annually million acres 23.0 8.7 31.7 29.8 11.7 41.5

Disposal of Saline Water gations, the Government of Pakistan decided against
As the Reclamation program facilities are completed, equipping the link canals of the IBP initially with large volumes of saline ground water will be removed facilities for navigation. Some of these canals would
from affected areas by tubewells and surface drains. lend themselves to navigation use; this posibility must
These drainage waters can be mixed with surface water be investigated further.
and' used for irrigation downstream so long as the mix- Present indications are, however, that future use of
ture is not too saline. Highly saline outflows from the river water for increased irrigation Will cause greater
canal areas in the Northern Zone can be discharged into reductions in the dependable water depths, and that there the river channels during seasons when flows are suffi- will be few river reaches where inland navigation will cient for the necessary dilution. In other seasons, the be practicable. Potentials for navigation must, of saline outflows must be withheld in ponds or reservoirs course, be considered in regional and master planning for later discharge into the rivers or for disposal by for water-resources utilization.
evaporation. Preliminary studies indicate that at Domestic and Industrial Water Supply
least half of the saline drainage water can be emptied Rawal reservoir has been completed as a source
intoa reeroi ivers Recamaio compjects ass ainclude
into the' rivers. Reclamation projects must include of water supply for the cities of Islamabad and Rawalfacilities for disposal of these drainage waters without piudi and investigations are under way of the detriment to downstream irrigation. Part of the drain- Sambli site in the Soan River basin for additional
age' waters from the Southern Zone can be discharged
directly to the Arabian Sea. water for Islamabad. The Mangi Dam Project on the
the Khost River is included in the program to provide
OTHE WATE DEVELOPMEmunicipal water for the city. of Quetta. Tie planned
Inland Navigation
investigation program will cover provisions for supplyHistorically, navigation on the Indus River and its i p e n
ing projected needs for municipal and industrial
tributaries was an important means of communication
supplies from available surface and underground
aid transport. In recent years rail, highway and air
transport- media. have been developed or improved.
Also, the construction and operation of barrages and The reclamation tubewells may in some cases serve
.i non- agricultural uses. M uch of the present rural water
irrigation canals have precluded or interfered with nt
navigation. Consequently, existing navigation is mostly supply comes from shallow wells served by Persian wheels. in the reach of the Indus River between Sukkur Barrage, The extensive power distribution system required to 34Q miles above the mouth, which has no lock; and serve the tubewells will also make available an electrical
Taunsa Barrage, 780 miles above the mouth, which has supply for independent rural wells. Domestic wells
only log-passing facilities. All, of the river flow is can be sized to meet community needs and operated diverted to irrigation canals at Sukkur Barrage during independently of the -irrigation and drainage system.
major portions of the rabi season. Use of the irrigation In some parts of the Province, wind may provide a sufcanals other than the Fuleli canal for navigation has ficiently dependable source of power to operate pumps
been precluded by the construction of many low bridges for water supplies for domestic and livestock use and for
and regulating structures. After preliminary investi- irrigation of gardens.

Fisheries way to assess general problems. It is not likely, howThe extensive river and canal systems of West ever, that these efforts will result in appreciable reducPakistan are inland waters which could produce large tion in sediment loads in the rivers, but they will have
amounts of fresh-water fish. At present, operational great local importance because of the increased or prcclosures of most link and irrigation canals render them served land productivity which may be achieved.
unsuitable for fish culture. Opportunities for improve- Recreation
ment of fishery conditions, through improved manageThe formation of the large Mangla and Tarbela ment of the facilities, may be found in some areas to be reservoirs will create recreational opportunities for boatcompatible with use for conveyance of irrigation or iiig, swimming,, and fishing And for shoreline resorts drainage waters. Other possibilities for inland proand camps. It 'will be the function of WAPDA~to enduction of fish include combination of rice and fish cultvation as is done elsewhere, and use of w l d courage such use and' to make available necessary
Facilities such as access roads, landings, marinas, and areas, or areas developed for the disposal of drainage waters by evaporation, for the growth of those fish other public services, either directly or through concessionairs and other agencies. It must be recognized with sufficient tolerance for saline waters. Increased production of fish is desirable in West Pakistan, in order that extreme fluctuations in the reservoir levels eaeh year will limit recreation values. Developments along the shoreto increase the availability of high-protein foods.
lines will have to be restricted during early years of operaWatershed Management tion to avoid interference and expense when the dams
Soil erosion is a serious problem in West Pakistan. are raised.
Large areas, notably the Potwar Plateau, have been PublicHeah
severely damaged by gullying. Overgrazing and cutting WAPDA's responsibility in this field is mainly the
of forest growth have denuded areas and accelerated prevention of ill effects resulting from its programs. the rate of erosion. Average annual sediment loads in The reclamation program- will be a positive health meathe upper Indus and Jhelum Rivers exceed theec acresure in its elimination of many stagnant swamps. Howfeet per square mile of catchment area. High concentraever, the new reservoirs and link canals will nieed' c6ntions of suspended sediment in the river flows limit the trol to avoid increased mosquito breeding along their useful life of reservoirs and cause problems in the design, banks. Water levels will be fluctuated when possible operation, and maintenance of canals.
to destroy larvae, or banks will be sprayed Efforts to control erosion in the mountains have,
so far, been. limited to educational efforts and installation of small check dams. An active program of water- Operation Studies
shed management and construction of erosion-control The 1975 and ultimate uses of water for irrigation in
'works has been initiated in portions of the watershed the Indus Plains have been computed from preliminary,
above Mangla dam. In addition, a study program of system-operating studies. In these studies, each canal
50,000 square miles of the Indus catchment is under command has been analyzed for capacity requirement,

Figure 19
es '0-8
U 4
607 0.7
006 00:.6
"L 0.5 5-0.
.1 75 2.00 2.29 V -o. i32 1.58
ANNUAL- 3.75 ;.. ANNUAL- 2.90
01M J J A S 07N D' J F M A M J -J A S 01N D J 'FMA 1M J'T A S'O'N' D J 'F'M A!
assumed rate of reclamation, usable ground water, and Of the water diverted from the rivers, an average
monthly water needs. of about 30 percent will be lost in the canal system.
Water requirements in each area reflect local precip- With ten percent additional loss in the water courses, itation and evapo-transpiration characteristics. For the field delivery of surface water will be only 63 per lands not reclaimed, a full water supply was included, cent of the river diversion, Losses and gains in the river but only for the present cropping intensities. Newly channels were included in the operating studies on the reclaimed lands were assumed to require eight years to basis of historic values. reach full cropping intensity. Estimated average water Future River Diversions requirements at the farms in 1975 are shown on Figure By 1975, annual diversions from the rivers should
19. reach 92.1 MAF, an increase of 10 percent over presAn allowance of 25 percent of farm deliveries was et use. Average flow to the Arabian Sea will be
made for farm losses and waste, deep percolation, and reduced to about 38 MAF per year. A summary of
leaching. Seepage and evaporation losses in the water 1975 and ultimate river diversions is given in Table 12. courses were estimated to be ten percent of deliveries
to the heads of water courses. The tubewells will Ftr ae aac
generally be located to discharge into the heads of the The approximate balance of surface and ground water courses; hence 90 percent of the usable ground water in the Indus Plains, projected to 1975, is shown on
water pumped is assumed to reach the farms. Figure 20. Total irrigation deliveries to the farms will

Table 12 Table 13
Million Acre-Feet per year Million Acre-Feet per year
1975 Ultimate River Balance 1975 Ultimate
River Rabi Kharif Annual Rabi Kharif Annual Total Surface-Water Supply 140.0 138.0(1)
NORTHERN ZONE Net percolation to ground water -3.1 --5.2
Other losses -11.9 -8.5
Jhelum 13.1 6.2 19.3 9.4 11.0 20.4 Inflow from drainage pumping 5.0 4.0
Chenab 5.3 17.4 22.7 6.3 15.6 21.9 Flow to Arabian Sea -37.9 -8.0
Ravi 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sutlej 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Surface-Water Diversion 92.1 120.3
Panjnad 0 0 .0 0 0 0
Indus 6.8 12.2 19.0 6.9 24.5 31.4 Canal Balance (including Link Canals and
- -Water Courses)
Subtotal 25.2 35.8 61.0 22.6 51.1 73.7 Total Surface-Water Diversion 92.1 120.3
SOUTHERN ZONE Pumped from ground water 26.9 40.0
Evaporation losses -10.2 -13.4
Indus 7.7 23.4 31.1 12.4 34.2 46.6 Percolation to ground water -28.6 -37.2
Total Total Farm Delivery 80.2 109.7
Diversions 32.9 59.2 92.1 35.0 85.3 120.3 FarmIrrigationBalance
Net Rliver,
LNsses 3.9 6.1 10.0 2.6 7.1 9.7 Total Farm Delivery 80.2 109.7
Surface losses --8.0 -11.0
Contigency to Percolation to ground water -12.0 -16.4
Arabian Sea 9.5 28.4 37.9 1.0 7.0 8.0
Total Surface-- -Net Crop Use 60.2 82.3
Water Supply 46.3 93.7 140.0 38.6 99.4 138.0 Ground-Water Balance
Percolation from rivers 3.1 5.2
Percolation from canals 28.6 37.2
be about 80 MAF, or 1.5 times the amount now used. Percolation from farm 12.0 16.4
Percolation from rainfall 2.5 3.4
Of the increase in farm deliveries by 1975, about 4 Totl nfow o rond46.2 62.2
MAF will come from additional surface water and 22 Total Inflow to Ground
Pumped to irrigation use -26.9 -40.0
MAF from ground water. The 1975 and ultimate dis- Pumped for drainage to river -5.0 -4.0
tributions of water in the Indue Plains are projected Evaporation, Transpiration, and Storage 14.3 18.2
as shown in Table 13. (1) With agreed future uses outside West Pakistan.
changed water-supply conditions as well as to improve The Water Supply by 1975
cificiency of water service.
By 1975, the unregulated river flows available for A contingency allowance must be included in the esdiversion to the Indus Plains will be augmented by timated water-supply requirements to insure the irrigators
storage releases from Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs, against water shortages caused by (1) imperfect coordinaand by the pumping of ground water. At present, tion of several water sources and (2) unexpected increases
irrigation is dependent entirely upon diversion of un- in needs or conveuance losses. In many respects, such a
regulated river flows. contingency is analagous to the inclusion of an item for
Operation of the canal systems will become more for contingencies in a detailed estimate for the construccomplex as the use of tubewell water increases and as tion cost for a major structure. In river and irrigation
storage reservoirs come into use. Procedures in use system operations this contingency may be applied as a
for operation of the canal systems, which have evolved scheduled margin of flow to be available in excess of
over many years, will have to be modified to suit the computed requirements. An average allowance of six

RIVER INPUT 140.0 million' acrefeet
Evaporation Evaporation
3.0 61.0 3 Canals
76.0 16.8 Evaporation
<^]3.1 co re 3.
19.9 Evaporation
5.6 it
Evaporation 9 NET CROP USE
Seepage 42.4
52 218
68.9 Rain 23A 24.1 1a.
percolation Ua 32.6 -Recharge Evapot nation
4.5 0 / <^n 21.8 Evaporation 26 Oater
S courses 7.4 42.8 Evaporation
._ Evaporation
2.4 8 7
17. 8 Seepage Figure 20
< 1.1 BY 1975
a-, 0.2 Rain
13.6 Recharge
9.1 Gravity
To Sea

million acre-feet annually is proposed for this purpose in add 26.9 MAF of usable water at the heads of the 1975. This represents about ten percent of the irrigation water courses. The total 1975 supply of irrigation water requirements at the heads of the water courses (where to the Indus Plains during a critical dry season from
ground-water supplies will enter the canal system) during October through May is shown in Table 14. the low-flow season. Only about two million acre-feet By 1975, critical dry-season supplies will balance the
will be available for this purpose during a erritical dry farm requirements with a small margin. season such as 1939-40.
The values in Table 14 are for a year of low river
Irrigation supplies during the wet season will be flow. In an average year the unregulated inflow would
obtained primarily by diversions from natural river flows, be about seven MAF greater. Even in this case, the Surplus flows through 1975 will ordinarily be available surface-water reservoirs will be needed to redistribute
to supply any contingency margin needed, or unused the unregulated flows to conform to irrigation demands.
tubewell capae~ty can be utilized to avoid shortages which
might occur otherwise. The Salt Balance
By 1975, the Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs, as now The waters of the Indus River system are relatively
planned, will add 16.4 MAF to the dry-season river flow. free of salts, averaging about 250 parts per million. In addition, pumping of ground-water recharge could Past irrigation practices in the Indus Plains, however,
Table 14 have tended to accumulate this salt in the root
1975 WATER SUPPLY-CITICAL DRY SEASON zone of the soil. Inadequate irrigation applications
and lack of subsurface drainage have allowed soil mois(obe through May)
ture to be evaporated from the land, thus leaving
Unregulated River Flow MAF
Total inflow 37.2 behind a high concentration of salt. In some areas,
Drainage return from Northern Zone 0.5
Losses -4.5 part of this accumulated salt must be removed before
Flow to Arabian Sea 0 the lands can again become productive.
Available for diversion 33.2
Contribution from Storage The Indus Plains receive annually some 84 MAF
Mangla .4 of water with an average salt content of 250 ppm. Of
Tarbela 9.0
Losses in river channels -1.6 this, 54 MAF are delivered to the farms. Thus, about
Available for diversion 14.8 37,000 million pounds of salt are added to the irrigated
Total Surface-Water Supply
Available for diversion 48.0 soils each year. This represents about 1,500 pounds of
Canal losses -15.9
Water course losses 3.2 salts on a typical acre. Only a small percentage of the
Available for farm delivery 28.9 irrigated area receives sufficient irrigation water to leach
Ground-Water Supply out these salts. In time, the soil becomes unproductive.
Usable recharge 22.1
Water courses losses -2.2 Modern irrigation practices require a supply of water
Available for farm delivery 19.9 in excess of minimal crop requirements to flush accumuTotal Supply Available to Farms 48.8
Total Farm Requirement 46.9 lating salts down below the root zone. Drainage must
Contingency 1.9 be provided to remove this leaching water so that at

least as much salt is removed from the soil as is added. posed of by surface evaporation or discharge to the This drainage will be accomplished in West Pakistan by rivers in times of flood, When adequate dilution water is the tubewells and drains of the reclamation program. available. Disposal of saline water by evaporation Some waste water will be returned immediately to the may be-accomplished in numerous small ponds created rivers, but not in such quantities as Will cause extreme in unproductive areas. This method of disposal would salt concentration in irrigation water at the downstream minimize expenditures for systems of collector drains. barrages. The remainder will be impounded and dis58

V,- :A ... ..... .. ..
.Y ... .. ... 7.
od i r :, o n .::'2*
\ . . . . . . .~ i i. . .i i i. . . . ...
\ : :::: :::: :::: :::: :::: I : ........ i!
:KH A JURI:.. .* :. :. ... ...
i~~~~~. . .....: .== = = = = = = = = = = = ....,
su< !! i] )Figure 2'
SThe Electric Power ems
. .. . . . . . . .
Interconnection of Southern "" Zone and Karachi systems .il! l ;:/" "
planned~~~~~~~~~ by198....:...........LE.... Eisin.Po
In 1975
( River hydro plants A
-Canal hydro plants A
L ~Thermal. plants [
AB .DA BA. Main grid zones
KalatScale in Miles
0 ... .. .
SuI GAS ...
Figure 21
The Electric Power Systems
interconnection of Southern ...:. Zone and Karachi systems n 1975
planned by 1968 LE.. GEN..Dn 97
River hydro plants
Canal hydro plants
Therrnal plants
HYDER'ABAD Main grid zones
ARACH 50 o s lo
. ......... Scale i ie

THE POWER NEEDS As part of the power market surveys conducted by
WAPDA, detailed studies have been made of the future A rapid increase in electric-power service must aeneeds through 1967. Extensions have been made of
company the agricultural and industrial development.
the urban loads from 1967 to 1975 on the basis of the
Other countries in a comparable stage have had to preceding annual trends. The projected demands for double their electric power supply every five to seven total power generation through 1975 are shown in Table years. West Pakistan must be prepared to meet similar 15. Estimates are given for the Northern Zone for estimatgrowth in the power needs of the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors of the urban communities. ed requirements in April (when the capability of hydroelectric plants will be least) and in December, when the In addition, tubewells constructed under the reclama- electric plant s will be at the nu
hydro-electric plant capabilities will be at the minimum [Ion program will add substantially to the power value which might coincide with the annual peak load
demand. Figure 22
Through 1975, West Pakistan will have one major E COMPARISON OF ENERGY USE
interconnected power grid in the Northern Zone, including the Civil Divisions of Bahawalpur, Dera Ismail 200
Khan, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and 2St
~WAPDA System
Sargodha. A second, and considerably smaller, power C I50 1962-1975 projections
grid in the Southern Zone includes the Divisions of Khairpur and Hyderabad. The locations of these grid a- too
zones are shown on Figure 21. In addition, other isola- i
ted systems exist in the Divisions of Quetta and Kalat. 50
WAPDA provides the generation, transmission, and 0
distribution facilities in all of these areas. The Karachi o_ 0
0 5 I0 15
Division is outside of WAPDA's responsibility. Y e ors

Table 15
Northern Zone Southern Zone
April August-December August-December
Basic Tube- Basic Tube- Basic TubeYear Load wells Total Load wells Total Load wells Total
1963 253 325 19 19
1964 301 27 328 358 42 400 39 2 41
1965 359 46 405 417 51 468 65 5 70
1966 418 56 474 477 76 553 76 11 87
1967 478 83 561 536 106 642 85 17 102
1968 537 116 653 596 140 736 98 26 124
1969 597 153 750 660 176 836 109 34 143
1970 661 192 853 730 214 944 120 42 162
1971 731 233 964 800 254 1054 132 50 182
1972 802 277 1,079 875 294 1169 143 58 201
1973 877 321 1,198 955 320 1275 153 68 221
1974 957 349 1,306 1040 339 1379 164 69 233
1975 1,042 370 1,412 1130 354 1484 176 70 246
on the system. Recent experience indicates that the kilowatt-hours per year, or about three times present date for the annual system peak load in the Northern values. As shown on Figure 22, this projected rate of Zone has shifted from December to September or August. increase is no greater than that which has been experienThis is influenced by the increased use of air-conditioning. ced in other countries. The difference between the estimated peak in August or POWER POTENTIALS September and the December requirement will be less than the reduction in the hydro-electric capability from the potes for hro-l generation and the
September to December caused by seasonal lowering of natural.gas supplies for thermal generation far exceed the Sptemeror, Delectric power needs of West Pakistan through 1975. the reservoirs.
The Northern Grid Zone presently serves a region of Hydro-electric Generation
about 33 million inhabitants. Per-capita demand, At Mangla, three generating units of 100,000 kilowatts
including both urban and rural population, is only each are included in the initial project, with two units to eight watts. Corresponding annual energy consumption start generation in 1968. Seven more units will be adamounts to about 37 kilowatt-hours per person. By ded as needed.
1975, the population of the region served will A total of twelve generating units, each of 175,000
have increased by about 80 per cent. In this same kilowatts, is planned for the Tarbela Storage Project on
period, power and energy uses per capita, not includ- the Indus River. The first of these units could be ing tubewell use, are expected to reach 22 watts and 130 put in service during 1973 if needed.

The Gomal Zam multipurpose project is included generation and transmission of bulk power in the major
in the water development program for completion in systems of the Northern and Southern Zones. Al1971. Three generating units of 43,000 kilowatts each though detailed plans are not yet developed for distriare planned for this project. bution to urban, industrial, and rural consumers, these
The only other major hydro-electric development needs have been recognized in the over-all investment
which has had extensive study is the future program. The smaller, isolated systems are important
600,000-kilowatt Kunhar Project in the Jhelum River locally but have little effect on total capital requirements.
basin upstream of Mangla. Power for the Northern Zone
A potential of as much as 30 million kilowatts exists
By 1975, a total of about 50 million inhabitants will
at other sites on the Indus River and its principal tributaries. These sites have not yet been fully explored rer antal of 2.2p millonekilowattsrofmelectricand could not be developed prior to 1975. Furthermore, powr fa lst
distribution facilities.
there will be ample power available by 1975 from Mangla,
Gomal, and Tarbela, without need for the Kunhar Pro- Generation. In 1960 the Warsak hydro-electric plant
ject or for the less definite Indus River projects. was inaugurated on the Kabul River, with 160,000
Thermal-Electric Generation kilowatts of installed capacity and with provisions for an
The principal natural-gas deposits of West Pakistan ultimate installation of 240,000 kilowatts. The pondage are near Sui, on the Northern edge of the Sind. Total available for power generation is limited, and is adequate reserves here are estimated to be five million million for only daily fluctuations required for generation at the cubic feet. This gas has a satisfactory heat rate of 935 time of peak power load. However, the plant discharges serve a series of important irrigation diversions, and no
BTU per cubic foot but requires some processing to remove impurities. reregulation pondage has been constructed. As a result,
the Warsak plant is restricted to an output of 100,000
Gas is now conveyed south to Karachi and north to
kilowatts during months of critical power demands.
Multan through 16-inch pipelines. A 16-inch extension
to Lyallpur and a 10-inch line to Lahore are planned, Until the Mangla hydro-electric units begin operation
which will ensure an adequate supply of gas for the in 1968, the Northern Zone must depend upon thermal
thermal plants scheduled through 1975. Gas deposits generation to meet the increasing system load. No new
have been discovered at Marri, near Kashmore, which major hydro-electric plants could be placed in service
could also be used for power generation. Reserves in earlier than Mangla. Extension of the Warsak plant is
the Marri field are estimated at three million million possible by 1967, and has been recommended to meet cubic feet. the deficiency in capacity in that year, but the local
Some isolated systems, such as Quetta, are outside problems of associated irrigation changes may delay the gas delivery area and must be served by plants burn- the installation. Figure 23 shows the projected relationing coal or oil. ship between power demand and supply in the Northern
A program through 1975 has been prepared for the The dependable capability of the connected system in

Table 16
Incremental Plant Capacity-MW Total Dependable
Peaking Peaking Capability
Year Installed Plant Type Rated April December April December
Existing (All) Hydro 267.8 155.0 155.0
Existing (All) Thermal 164.7 159.0 159.0
1962 Total Generation 432.5 314.0 314.0 249 249
1963 Multan 3 & 4 Steam 125.0 130.0 130.0 249 379
1965 Lahore 1, 2, 3 & 4 Gas Turbine 72.0 72.0 72.0 379 451
1966 Lyallpur 1 & 2 Steam 130.0 130.0 130.0 451 581
1967 Warsak Reregulating 60.0 60.0
Warsak 5 & 6 Hydro 80.0 80.0 80.0 581 721
1968 Mangla 1 & 2 Hydro 200.0 104.0 200.0 825 886
1969 Mangla 3 Hydro 100.0 52.0 100.0 877 986
1971 Mangla 4 Hydro 100.0 52.0 100.0
Gomal 1, 2 & 3 Hydro 129.0 100.0 100.0 1,029 1,186
1972 Mangla 5 Hydro 100.0 52.0 100.0
Retirements Thermal (22.0) (16.0) (16,0) 1,065 1,270
1973 Mangla Raising 155.0
Mangla 6 Hydro 100.0 83.0 100.0 1,285 1,370
1974 Tarbela 1 Hydro 175.0 86.0 146.0 1,368 1,470
1975 Tarbela 2 Hydro 175.0 86.0 146.0 1,454 1,616
Total Hydro 1,426.8 1,065.0 1,287.0 -Total Thermal 469.7 475.0 475.0
1975 Total Generation 1,896.5 1,540.0 1,762.0 1,454 1,616
the Northern Zone at the end of 1963 was 379,000 kilo- 1975. Also shown are the total dependable capabilities of watts, compared with an installed capacity of 558,000 the system in both April and December, with the largest kilowatts. All of the existing hydro-electric plants are unit of the system out of service. The schedule for influenced by irrigation requirements and cannot installations of units has been selected so that the dependproduce full output at the time of the annual peak load able capability will equal or exceed the projected power because of limitations imposed as fluctuations in river demands of the grid zone as shown in Table 15. flows and requirements of other water uses. The older thermal units have limited output because of age or other rough ther te Zoe wil enppie
restictinsprimarily with thermal-generated power and energy.
The introduction of the Mangla power plant in 1968 and
A summary is given in Table 16 of existing and pro- the Tarbela power plant at a later date will continually posed generating plants of the Northern Zone grid through increase the proportions of hydro-electric generation.

Transmission. The Northern Zone transmission sys- 66, 33, and 11 kv to new towns and to the substations tern is presently dependent upon a double-circuit 132-ky serving the reclamation tubewells. loop circling from Warsak through Rawalpindi, Lahore, Distribution. Both urban and rural distribution sysLyallpur, and Daud Khel. The major steam plant, at tems must be extended and augmented to deliver power Multan, is connected to this loop at Lyallpur over a to new areas and to meet the increased demands of presingle-circuit, 220-ky line. Subtransmission is at 132, 66, sent customers.
33 and 11 kv. The Mangla and Tarbela power plants will also be connected to the grid by multiple-circuit, 220- In the rural areas of the Indus Plains, an extensive kv lines-the Tarbela plant to Lyallpur, and the Mangla distribution system at 33 and 11 kv will be required to plant to Lyallpur and Lahore. Extensions to serve serve the tubewells. Many smaller towns and villages, the perimeter areas of the Northern Zone will be at 132 otherwise too remote for an economical power supply, kv, and sub-transmission service will be expanded at can be served from the tubewell power system.
Figure 23
WAPDA Rated Capacity
5 WAPDA Dependable Peaking Capability (1) /
lp 00
O V Projected Demand
_00__r-- ___0
4,0 0 0
2poo -- -- -2,00
1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
(I)Copability with largest unit out of service

Within the urban areas a very sizable program of watts. Future increases in power needs of this system distribution expansion is required, including substa- will be met by new thermal plants according to ]be tions, feeders, individual service connections, and meter- schedule shown in Table 17 and on Figure 24. ing. Within the cities and towns, WAPDA is taking steps to make adequate service available to all custom- The interconnection with Karachi is desirable as early ers. as 1965, since scheduled installations in the Sind and
Karachi would permit a saving in both systems because Powe fortheSoutern oneof diversity in loads and through joint use of reserves.
The Southern Zone is served entirely from thermal- Hlowever, if the interconnection is not accomplished by electric plants. By the end of 1963 these plants had a 1968, as assumed herein, the Southern Zone of the combined dependable capability of 29,000 kilowatts, WAPDA system will need one additional steam unit compared with a total nameplate rating of 44,400 kilo- of 66,000 kilowatts.
Figure 24
200 __Peai Capability (1lrg) nt u f evc

Table 17 1967 a 132-kv line is planned to extend southward from
GENERATION IN THE SOUTHERN ZONE Sukkur through Moro and Hyderabad to Dabeji. Adjacent towns and tubewell substations will be served by Total
Dependable subtransmission lines of 66 and 33 kv. Incremental Plant Peaking
Year Capaeity-MW Capability Power for the Isolated Systems
Installed Plant and Unit Rated Peaking MW
Existing (All) 33.4 29.4 22 The isolated systems of the Divisions of Quetta and
1963 Hyderabad 3 8.0 8.0 29
1964 Sukkur 1 & 2 25.0 25.0 50 Kalat and other areas outside of the Northern and
1965 Hyderabad 4 15.0 15.0 62
1966 Sukknir 3 & 4 25.0 25.0 87 Southern grids represent a very small proportion of the
1967 Moro 1 66.0 66.0 102 total power demands to be served by WAPDA. Power
1968 Interconnection with
Karachi 168 market surveys have been made of these areas only up
1970 Moro 2 66.0 66.0 234 to 1967.
1970 Retirement- (11.0) (8.0) 226
1973 Moro 3 66.0 66.0 292
1975 Tota' Generation 293.4 292.4 Generating plants for these isolated areas must be
Interconnection 66.0 adapted to the power needs of the locality and to the
available fuel supply. These include both hydro-electric 358.4 292 and thermal plants. Specific plans for generation, transThe interconnected transmission system of the mission and distribution for these regions are being formSouthern Zone is presently very limited. However, by ulated by WAPDA.

ENGINEERING A Master Plan is in preparation which will contain a
Execution of the program will require coordination comprehensive inventory of available resources; forecasts between elements of development and proper planning, of future needs; plans for integrated development to make design, and supervision of each individual project. optimumi use of resources in conformity with needs; and For this, a large number of engineers and other pro- projections of the capital requirements of the developfessional specialists will be needed to give technical ment programs. The program for 1975 presented herein
guidnce o th based on studies so far available, and represents the initial phase of the master plan. Development of the plan
WAPDA has presently on its own staff several hun- it self is scheduled for completion by 1968. By the end of dred engineers and technicians. In addition, WAPDA 1965, projects in the development program which should
is making extensive use of foreign consultants, who now be implemented by 1990 will have been defined. have about 200 foreign and many Pakistani engineers
engaged in Pakistan. Further and substantial support Regional Planning is also under way for the reclamais given by the home offices of the foreign consultants. tion programs of the Indus Plains. In both the Northern In the next two or three years, as the development pro- and Southern Zones, consultants are studying the regional gram gains momentum, the number of engineers and problems of drainage and water use. To approach these
specialists may rise to twice the number now em- problems on a piecemeal, or individual-project, basis
ployed. could result in solutions satisfactory to one small area but
Planning detrimental to adjacent areas.
Three levels of resource planning are now being car- Detailed Project Planning is now being or will be ried for-ward by WAPDA: carried out for each individual project, either by the

WAPDA staff or by assignment to a consultant. This ing, and 6,000 canal miles of surface drains.
detailed planning is aimed at the definition of project To meet anticipated industrial, commercial, residenstructures, estimates of costs and benefits, and the deter- tial, and tubewell power demands, 1.2 million kilowatts mination of economic justification. Final inclusion in, or of hydro-clectric capacity plus more than 0.5 million exclusion of a project from, the construction program kilowatts of thermal capacity will have been added to the
will depend largely on the results of detailed planning. present generating systems. Design and Supervision In addition numerous smaller multipurpose projects
Engineering designs, specifications for construction, are to be built, involving dams, dikes, canals, and regula. and detailed drawings are prepared by the WAPDA tory works.
staff or by the appointed consultant for each individual Preliminary estimates have been made of the manproject. In some cases, this work is done largely out- power and material needs of the total construction
side of Pakistan in the consultant's home offices. Designs program. About 50,000 skilled and 30,000 unskilled and specifications are reviewed by WAPDA's staff and workers are expected to be employed during peak periods.
general consultant for adequacy and conformity to Large quantities of equipment, supplies, and fuel will
Pakistan conditions. have to pass through West Pakistan's ports and over the
Supervision of construction is carried out by surveil- transportation system in addition to normal traffic. lance teams of WAPDA and the project consultants. Cement, crushed rock, and other locally produced mateFor most projects the consultant provides the resident rials must be processed and also transported internally.
engineers, who are responsible for the technical inspec- With each passing year, the dependence on foreign
tion of the works. Administration and accounts are under technicians and imported materials will give way to the WAPDA's project director. Inspection forces are made newly developing skills and resources of Pakistan which
up of both Pakistani and foreign engineers, this program will foster. Expansion and more efficient
use of basic utilities and training of workers demanded
by the immediate needs of the programs will be of
To attain the 1975 development, West Pakistan must benefit to the long-range progress of the Province and
carry out a widespread and costly construction program. the Nation. For surface-water development, including the IBP, this
entails the building of 390 canal miles of link canals and ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM the remodelling of several hundred miles of existing Effective organization and management are also
canals. Four new barrages and a major siphon must needed to administer the engineering, construction, and
be constructed and two existing headworks improved, fiscal aspects of the program. WAPDA, as an autonoThis period will also see the completion of Mangla and mous public corporation, has sufficient independence to
Tarbela Dams to the ultimate capacities now envisioned, provide efficient administration.
By 1975 the reclamation works will require more than Policy of WAPDA is set by its Chairman and the two
30,000 new tubewells, totaling nine million feet of drill- other Members of the Authority, within the statutory

limits of the enabling act. Execution of policy is carried connections to new customers, promote electrical use, out by two principal wings-one for power and one for establish rates, and collect revenue. To date, the water. The WAPDA organization is illustrated in tariffs charged have not been subject to review by any
Figure 25. other regulatory bodies.
The Power Wing The Water Wing
The Power Wing already has both development and
operational responsibilities. This wing must plan and Thus far the Water Wing has been mainly concerned construct new generation, transmission, and distribution with planning and construction. Even so, the multifacilities in the areas served by WAPDA. The only tude of its responsibilities and the size of the water and
exception is the construction of hydro-electric plants reclamation program have taxed its administrative at dams having irrigation or flood control as principal capabilities. It is presently divided into four major functions. The Power Wing is in complete charge divisions: the Indus Basin Project; Ground Water and
of the operation of all generating plants and of power Reclamation; Water and Soils Investigation; and service to the ultimate consumers. As an integrated Development and Coordination. Close collaboration is electrical utility system, the Power Wing must provide carried on between these divisions.
Figure 25

Personnel requirements of the Water Wing will salt input and salt output in small local areas as well as
increase materially as the program proceeds. Planning in large regions. Irrigation requirements will vary
and review staffs will be faced with increased workloads locally due to the crops grown, the stage of growth of
as the regional and project consultants complete their those crops, the soil characteristics, the quality of the
studies. Also, if WAPDA is to participate in the opera- water applied, and weather conditions. Conveyance
tion of completed water developments, personnel must losses in the river channels, link canals and other canals
be hired or trained, procedures established, and the will vary with changes in rates of flow, fluctuations in
necessary operating departments created. adjacent ground-water levels, and weather conditions.
OPERATION The time for changes in outflows from the reservoirs to
The irrigation system of the Indus Plains is not only be effective at diversion points several hundred miles
the largest integrated system in the world, but will away-10 to 15 days in some cases-must be allowed
become the most complex as well. Surface-water for in the water-control operations.
operations will be more complicated with completion of Plans for coping with these complexities must be prethe Settlement Plan Works, including link canals and pared in advance of actual need, in order that the new
reservoirs. Ground-water operations must be integrat- improvements may be integrated smoothly into the
ed and coordinated with suface-water operations to established systems. These will include criteria and
provide: (1) the needed irrigation water, (2) suitable technical procedures for determination of short and longwater-table levels, (3) minimum pumping costs, (4) local term requirements for irrigation-water applications for
and regional salt control, (5) efficient use of reservoir crop growth and salinity control, integrated use of surcapacity both above ground and below ground, (6) opti- face and underground reservoirs, control of tubewell
mum hydro-electric output, (7) control of floods and (8) operations, water-quality control, control of groundfor other purposes. The problems and needs for coordi- water levels, and proper use of contingency allowances in water dispatching to avoid irrigation-water shortages
nation will grow with time as the development program wich dslt fo unprditblewater hages
is accomplished. Efficient water management is essential to the achievement of the required agricultural and gaging errors, and other factors.
power production. An efficient communication network throughout the
Releases of stored water from reservoirs must sup- Indus Plains %will be required to transmit data on river
plement natural river flows to meet needs for diversions and canal flows, ground-water levels, and weather confor irrigation use and must be integrated with tubewell ditions to central offices for analysis, and for transmitting
supplies in reclaimed areas. Local vagaries of the operating instructions.
weather-temperature, humidity, wind and rainfall- Many of the computations and analyses -will be so
influence crop requirements and conveyance losses, complex, and must be completed so rapidly, that the use
and thus will require variations in reservoir re- of electronic computers will be essential. These modern
leases and tubewell operations. Water-table levels tools will be needed when the link canals and storage
must be controlled and a balance maintained between reservoirs of the Indus Basin begin operation.

Undoubtedly, organizational changes will be required, Figure 26
in addition to the changes in technical data and proced- COSTS OF THE PROGRAM 1963-1975
ures, to cope efficiently with the operational requirements ( Excluding the Indus Basin Projects) of the more complex water and power systems. Thought Million of Rupees
must be given soon to the framework under which these changes will be effected. ,,:,NELOPMENT
The cumulative administrative, engineering, and
construction costs of the program from 1964 through RECLAMATION
1975 are estimated to total Rs. 12,757 million, exclusive 4,710
of d.e IBP. The annual distribution of these costs is MA REM
shown in Table 18 and on Figure 26. Any financing ex- a PLANNING
TOA10.2,5 million MANGLAa
penses which may be incurred will be additional to the TARBELA
amounts shown. 954
Approximately 45 percent of the amounts shown in POWER PROJECTS
Table 18 viii be for imported goods and services, or a total through 1975 of Rs. 5,740 million. This estimate reflects an expected reduction is foreign-exchange components of the various development costs as the indus- 4
trial capacity of Pakistan increases.
'Table 18
Fisceal Planning Tubewells Canal Raising Mangla Electric Other
Year and Mapping and Drains Remodelling and Tarbela Power Projects Total
1963--1964 47 150 0 5 314 41 557
1964-965 92 220 10 10 372 59 763
1965-1966 94 400 50 2 415 84 1,045
1966-1967 80 440 55 13 400 112 1,100
1967-1968 45 500 60 12 352 132 1,101
1968-1969 36 500 60 12 342 142 1,092
1969-1970 36 500 60 12 338 171 1,117
1970-1971 36 420 65 96 354 165 1,136
1971-1972 36 420 65 209 370 165 1,265
1972-1973 36 420 65 177 352 180 1,230
1973-1974 36 410 60 259 337 180 1,282
1974-1975 36 330 55 147 321 180 1,069
Total 610 4,710 605 954 4,267 1,611 12,757
(% of total) (5) (37) (5) (7) (34) (12) (100)

Table 19 improved farming practices, fertilizer, seed, pesticides,
ESTIMATED COSTS OF THE INDUS BASIN PROJECT etc. Howevr, the reclamation and canal programs are
Millions of Rupees indispensable to the increased production.
Feature Cost At oday's prices, the 1975 annual crop production
Mangla Reservoir and Power Plant 2,576
Tarbela Reservoir 2,629 alone would be worth about Rs. 9,100 million, or Rs.
Barrages 1,018
Link Canals 1,728 5,100 million more than the present value. This is
Tubewells and Drainage 238
Remodelling of Existing Works 351 illustrated by Figure 27. The direct farm costs to
- achieve the increased production, excluding family labor,
Total 8,540
will be on the order of Rs. 1,100 million per year, and The cost of the IBP is now estimated at Rs. 8,540 the net crop return from the program will be about
million, as shown in Table 19. That figure includes Rs. 4,000 million per year. In addition, substantial
about Rs. 167 million in taxes and duties which would gains will be achieved in production of livestock and
normally be levied on the contractors and suppliers for non-food crops. the Project. Interest during construction on the long term loans is not included in the estimated costs in Table 19. The comparisons shown in Table 20 give some
measure of the possible economic returns from the
Approximately Rs. 5,750 million have been pledged reclamation and canal remodelling programs.
by the contributors to the Indus Basin Development
Fund Moies romthe undinclde ome utrghtNet crop values in 1975 alone will be about threeFund. Monies from the Fund include some outright grants and some long-term loans, fourth of the cumulative investment through 1975. Even
though operating costs of the reclamation program may ECONOMIC RETURNS
Figure 27
The Indus Basin Project
The large investment in the IBP has been made
necessary by events over which Pakistan has no control.
As an essential replacement project, the IBP as a whole -V 0 Q
is not amenable to economic evaluation. > a
Reclamation and Canal Remodelling 151O0- -The large increase in agricultural production through
1.975 will be most directly achieved by the reclamation 1,O00 -..
and canal remodelling programs of the Indus Plains.
Increased :Value
By 1975 the total food supply in West Pakistan can with the Program
be increased by 13 million tons annually, most of which 5,000
will come from the reclaimed lands of the Indus Plains. Some of this increase will result from greater crop yields per acre and the remainder from more intensive use of 0
land. Part of the increase in yields will result from

be high, a very substantial return will be achieved on the total, 300,000 kilowatts of hydro-electric power will be investment. provided under the IBP at Mangla. If the remaining
Power hydro-clectric power from additional un:ts at Mangla,
Tarbela, Warsak and Gomal were replaced by equivalent The economic return from the WAPDA power program thermal capacity, both construction and operating costs
can be measured only by a comparison with the cost of would be substantially greater. The construction of the
alternative sources of generation. By 1975 WAPDA Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs under the IBP is, of
will have added more than one million kilowatts of course, the reason that such economical hydro-electric installed hydroelectric capacity and over one-half million generation is possible. Nevertheless, these benefits kilowatts of thermal capacity in its systems. Of this accrue to the entire WAPDA program.
Table 20 Other Projects
Projects outside the Indus Plains, such as Tanda,
CANAL REMODELLING Mangi, Khanpur, Gomal Zam, Karachi Irrigation, Kud
Total investment by 1975 Es. 5,420 million and Porali Projects will be justified primarily on the
Gross crop value in 1963 Rs. 4,000 million
Gross crop value in 1975 Rs. 9,100 million basis of local benefits. These benefits include improveGross annual crop value per acre ments in the food supplies and economic status of
1963 Rs. 120
1975 Ea. 280 outlying areas, as well as elimination or avoidance of
Gross annual crop value per capita social and economic inequities which would accompany
1963 Ea. 90
1975 g. 140 the concentration of development in the Indus Plains.

Canal ,--- r-. C H IN A
Proposed Extension -"
Link CanalI
L Barrage or Headworks.
Dam and Reservoir "
-Hydro-electric Plant .
S Thermal -electric Plant ,
.. Link Canal
Link Canal to be remodelled
Barrage or Headworks .ILGIT
Barrage or Headworks to be remodelled *ILG---Storage Dam and Reservoir
Hydro-electric Plant tvous
Areas to be reclaimed '1975
by Areas to be reclaimed or developed a 1975 /teeV .n
Dam and Reservoir KUN BOTABAD
A Hydroa -electric Plant- .PE S .
0 Thermal -electric Plant KHANP
C-I Re KHA e '
I-This map is generalized because of the very KOHATvr
extensive areas covered. M ANGLh
2-Large areas within the ThaI, Taunsa, Gudu, and Tando Rev s
Ghulam Mohammed commands are not yet S.0
actually irrigated. rock a HELUM
3- Extensive areas of non- irrigated lands within the KEL JAMMU
principal canal commands are not shown. R H/
4- Scattered irrigated areas in many coastal
and desert basins of southwestern Pakistan o m..
(former Baluchiston area ) are not shown. Al
5-Scattered irrigated areas in many small
mountain stream basins in the upper reaches
of the Indus River and many of the Indus DRA
right bank tributary basins are not shown. KAUIK
. .- ..--U-E IE
. .. 2 O MASTUNG ea. c
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