AID No. 18
INFORMATION AND UTILIZATION q' -jr
for pulling power
"A new emphasis is being placed on an-imal traction-it results from the increased .7 ~
cost of machinery, tractors, and parts for
repair. The poorest countries find that costs
of diesel and other fuels for power machinery are generally beyond the acceptable costs for agricultural production,"
according to Douglas Butchart of AID's Doubletree to wagon hitch. From Animal Traction.
Office of Agriculture. erinary and artisan support systems, mar- Tables in the manual show power reThe advantages of animal traction are keting systems, and equipment supply and quirements for various farm implements numerous: distribution procedures. and field operations and list power poten" I isuseul or vriey o pulin poer The most common draft animals are cat- tial of donkeys and oxen by weight and
needItislfae varetyohing powr tle, domestic water buffalo, horses, and numbers in the hitch (combination of annstionandpmge, thesigranpot -mules, but donkeys, camels, yaks, dogs, imals used). The choice of hitch is related
tion an pupin waer.reindeer, and elephants are used for trac- to the availability and cost of animals,
" It lightens human workloads. tion in some parts of the world. A chapter daily work potential, cost of harness, and
* It increases crop yields by expanding on selection of draft animals gives phys- availability and cost of feed.
-the area of cultivation. ical characteristics, work potential, and An animal traction program involves
geographic suitability for various animals, more than animal feeding and care, train*It is affordable and culturally acceptable Work expectations from animals are re- ing, and implements. -An advisor should
when effectively introduced. lated to horsepower. A large horse can assess a farmer's habits and needs, discuss
* Animals and equipment can be supplied pull a 150-pound load on a wheeled ye- costs and profits, proper equipment, loaly.hicle at 2-1/2 miles per hour. Light horses, whether donkeys would be more efficient
localy.bulls, buffalo, mules, and camels all pro- than oxen, and how the use of animals
" For small farmers, it does not require vide about three-quarters horsepower, and would affect the distribution of labor.
radical changes in cropping patterns or donkeys one-third horsepower. An important factor in deciding to use
the role of family or hired labor. At a natural pace and over an extended animal traction is its effects on the social
period of time, an animal can be expected structure of a community-the increase in A Peace Corps manual, Animal Trac- to pull a load approximately one-tenth its the amount of labor needed for land preption, is a practical guide to the selection, body weight. aration, planting, and harvesting, and the
care, and training of draft animals and to Animal personalities. There are ani- decrease in labor needed for primary tilthe equipment and field techniques used mal traits that also affect work potential. lage and weeding. in animal-powered fanning systems. For example, oxen will work longer hours Extension agents should be aware of
The manual is also a guide for extension with a split shift, but donkeys may refuse ways to help farmers get financial assisworkers who teach animal traction skills. to work beyond three or four hours re- tance. Getting credit for the purchase of It helps familiarize them with farm plan- gardless of work distribution or reduction animals may require provision of an anining, financial assistance programs, vet- of load. mal care plan, acquisition of an animal
Publications discussed in AID Resources Report may be ordered by using the enclosed Response Checklist.
health card, enrollment in an animal insurance policy program, and membership
in an animal clinic. Education of farmers
in the controls that credit agencies use for
monitoring (contracts, collateral, defaults,
repossessions) is important in the success
of a new animal traction program.
Care and feeding. The section on proper
care of animals covers feeding, shelter,
corrals, tethering, grooming, and minor
medical problems and first aid. Appendices include disease recognition and control (anthrax, blackleg, pleuropneumonia,
worms, scabies, and ticks) and animal nutrition (energy and nutrient needs, feeds
and their composition, and tables for calculating rations).
Catching and controlling animals, without hurting them or oneself, requires skill.
The training section details, with many Collar harness. Illustration by John Homnick for Creative Associates.
illustrations, how to catch and break var -___________________ious animals and how to teach them to
obey commands, accept harnesses and Beyond the advantages seen in farming, from Resources Report.
yokes, and pull loads. Different.yokes and animal traction encourages livestock pro- "The paraprofessional study was preharnesses are diagrammed and explained duction, increases meat and milk supplies, pared with practitioners in mind," notes for construction and use with individual and creates income-generating opportun- Milton J. Esman, co-director of the projor teams of animals. Steering systems and ities for blacksmiths, carpenters, leather ect, "and while it doesn't pretend to offer hitches for implements and vehicles are makers, and artisans. any absolute formulas, we think it will be
covered in detail. Animal Traction is available free to most valuable in identifying viable options
A chapter on field operations and im- overseas readers of Resources Report. U.S.- that project people can draw on."
plements discusses plows and plowing, readers may purchase it for $14.95 from Paraprofessional profile. The Cornell correct lines of traction (vertical and hor- P.D. Press, 4419 39th Street, NW, Wash- group includes in its investigation frontizontal regulation), harrows and harrow- ington, DC, 20016, U.S.A. (Price in- line workers in health and agriculture. The ing, weeding, seeding, and ridging. cludes postage.) 0 persons referred to as paraprofessionals
____________________________ ____________________________ usually have limited formal schooling or preservice training. They originate and have
their roots in the service regions, speak
RURAL DEVELOPMENT the local dialect, understand local customs, and share local conditions and life
styles. They maintain direct contact with
the population, are part of an organized
Exte d n wih p rapo~esio a~sprivate or public agency, and have a semiExte din sevic s wth p rap ofe sio alsautonomous role in day-to-day operations.
Role. The roles of paraprofessionals are
Due to a shortage of trained technicians, can offer effective services, says the study vaidThyncue many developing countries are turning to from Cornell University's Center for In- 0 educating communities about improved "paraprofessionals" to extend agricul- ternational Studies. The Center is engaged practices or techniques; ture, health, and community development in a research project to determine strateservices to rural communities. gies of rural development that encourage 0 helping rural communities to acquire
Professionally qualified people, even participation of rural people in the activ- outside goods and services; when available, often resist placement in ities which affect their economic producrural areas; and when they are placed in tivity and their quality of life. 0 referring persons whose needs cannot
isolated communities they often feel ali- What are the criteria for selecting para- be met locally to appropriate facilities; enated and ill-equipped to work in a re- professionals? .How much and what type source-poor situation, according to Para- of training do they require? Should they 9 keeping records, maintaining equipprofessionals in Rural Development, receive compensation? What are the ele- ment, collecting and analyzing data;
Paraprofessionals should not be re- ments needed for their supervision and
garded as merely low-cost substitutes for support? What is the role of community demonstrating and testing innovations. qualified technicians. They often are more participation in projects using paraprofesculturally in tune with rural communities sionals? The Cornell research program, which
than are highly trained specialists, and with These are just some of the many topics conducted field studies in Bolivia, Guaappropriate organizational support, they covered by this 149-page study, available temala, the Philippines, Senegal, Sri Lanka,
and Upper Volta, confirmed that para- technical books and plans. Each entry con- A chapter on local self-reliance and approfessionals can and do provide to the tains price and availability information. propriate technology lists books about inrural poor-at relatively low cost-useful Most of the materials reviewed describe tegrating high-level development policy services that would otherwise be unavail- tools and techniques that: with locally based decision making. The
able. However, because of defective pro- fact that choices made "at the top" crugram design, inadequate training, and, emphasize the use of locally available cially affect what is possible "at the botabove all, inadequate support, many para- materials, in order to lower costs and tom" is the focus of this section. professional services are producing results reduce supply problems; Volume I lists titles from Volume I
far below potential. with page numbers for annotated refer"We see programs operating with very ence. A list of periodicals and the admodest support systems at the periphery are relatively labor intensive but more dresses of development organizations, toof the main organization," comments Royal productive than many traditional tech- gether with informative writeups at the D. Colle, co-director of the study. "But nologies; start of each section, make this book much
the emphasis needs to be changed; para- more than just a bibliography. N
professionals need to have much stronger 0 are small enough in scale to be affordorganizational support out in the rural areas able to individual families or small if they are to contribute significantly to groups; DISASTERS
the development of those areas."
The study details recommendations for 0 can be adapted, manufactured, and *
program designers and managers based on maintained by villagers whenever pos- Survival planning: the field research and a wide-ranging lit- sible, without a high level of special erature survey. training. coping with disasters
Tools and techniques should be adapted Most injuries happen within the first one tofitol andtehiqs shold adad- or two days of initial impact of earthto fit local materials, skills, and condi- quakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, tidal APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY tions, and then carefully tested to be sure waves, o eruti ns. As al
that they are genuinely valuable in a new the modest aid s a resue the immediate first aid, search, and rescue
setting, according to the authors, is provided not by international agencies
The book contains some 300 illustra- but by the survivors themselves. W ritten resources tions and plans for technicians, as well as A country's preparedness determines the
strategies for implementing technologies, success of the organization and delivery for development The importance of community involve- of transport, first aid, medical care, and
ment is reinforced by the inclusion of a supplies, according to Emergency Health Whether you are looking for books about nonformal education section which de- Management After Natural Disaster. The agriculture, beekeeping, water supply and scribes books such as Paulo Freire's Peda- manual, by the Pan American Health Orsanitation, or any other development topic, gogy of the Oppressed and Lyra Sriniva- ganization (PAHO), summarizes the efthere is bound to be a book about it; and san's Perspectives on Nonformal Adult fects of disaster on human health and the chances are it will be listed in one of the Learning. most effective ways of providing relief.
Appropriate Technology Sourcebook's two The manual, available from Resources
volumes, produced by Volunteers in Asia. Report, dispels many widespread assumpThe two volumes serve as a guide to prac- tions about post-disaster events. Supristical books and plans for village and small ingly, it shows that massive social dis-community technology. ruption, outbreaks of epidemic disease and
The second volume, available from Re- need for vaccination campaigns, famine,
sources Report, reviews 500 publications and total dependence on outside relief do
from around the world, covering such top- not commonly follow disasters.
ics as renewable energy devices, intensive The information given is for decision
gardening, crop preservation, housing, and makers and senior administrators in dishealth care. Published in January 1981, aster-prone developing countries who are
Volume II updates Volume I and adds new responsible for providing health services
subjects such as forestry, aquaculture, in the three or four weeks immediately
nonformal education, small enterprises, following a natural disaster.
strategies for self-reliance, and transpor- Predisaster planning. Effective mantation. (Volume I was reviewed in Re- agement of health relief services requires
sources Report's June 1978 issue.) extensive support from the public works
The introduction raises some of the main ministry, the armed forces, and the private
concerns and issues about the state of ap- sector. A national emergency committee,
propriate technology in relation to insti- with at least one senior health official,
tutional change, policymaking, research should be established to prepare disaster
and development, science teaching, com- plans and to coordinate or command emermunications, and income distribution. agency activities.
Written for use by individuals and groups A pedal-operated grain mill.gecatites
From Appropriate Technology Sourcebook, Volume 11. A country's predisaster planning does around the world, the reviews cover basic Volunteers in Asia. not consist of one-time preparation of a
plan but is a continuous process in all es- PH'DiatrrerdnsOfcin necessary practices; instead they help
sential public sectors such as health, water, copaio Diter PAeDes Office rin identify what is being done now and what and power. Drawing up operational plans, coopserAnsita DOfce, prvdsbokfFrigns might be appropriate. stockpiling supplies, and compiling in- Dlisaer shsistance prvidne booksste The manual helps the book's user assess foratin i no adquae pepaan. preparedness courses. PAHO also pub- such management concerns as standardSpecific training in first aid, search ad lishes Disaster Preparedness in the Amer- ization of supplies and equipment, use of rescue techniques, and public hygiene icas, a qartly nwletteri Engih ad centralized purchasing, personnel responshould be taught to the population at risk,.ur eseri gsa sibiities by job description, inspection and
After the disaster. Of primary impor- Spanish distributed around the world. Write:
tanc intheimmdiae stuaionis nvi Editor, Disaster Preparedness in the recording of receivables, knowledge of tanc intheimmdiae siuaton s evi-storage space security and utilization, and ronmental health management. Most crit- Americas, Pan American Health Organi- how well employees understand the varical are adequate supplies of safe water, zation, 525 23rd Street, NW, Washington, ious basic sanitation facilities, disposal of ex: DC, 20037, U.S.A. systems.
cretaandliquidandsolidwastes,_andshel- The manual's management approach
ceretah anx liquid nsi ates anod hee, focuses on task groups rather than on an
ter.The extconcrnsare oodhygineindividual manager. Participants in the vector control, and personal hygiene. RURAL DEVELOPMENT process should represent all levels of the
After the first few weeks, priorities organization, thus making it their own
change from casualty treatment to primary process with their own standards-not
- health care to environmental health to -tem- M anagement something imposed on them from the outporary shelters. ofs se sside.
Also available from Resources Report ofhealth 1y t m Materials and Facilities Management,
is Transition Housing for Victims of Dis- Some of the highest costs in operating a available from Resources Report, is not
ofctractor-uilt ousingponet folow-in health service are for materials and sup- intended as a master plan for restructuring in cometfamtrbil.th housingois designed plies, replacing and servicing equipment, an entire organization. The manual helps
and constructed to provide for immediate and maintaining capital assets such as the management unit gather the approprishelter needs in a way that prepares for buildings. It is all the more expensive in ate information for problem assessment the orderly transition to permanent com- countries dependent on imported goods. and decision making. The questions should munities.hsgInta A well-planned and operated materials and be selected or modified to fit the purpose
Core hosn.Isedof a complete facilities management system is cost ef- of the assessment and the character of the
structure, the responsible organization fective and can serve more people. organization.
provides foundation, frame, supports, and Materials and Facilities Management, For more information on the series of
roo stuctre hataredesgne an ren- a manual from AID's Office of Rural De- MAPS manuals: Personnel and Human roo stuctre hataredesgne an ren- velopment and Development Administra- Resources Management, Patient Services,
thed lso wtha avile oorca aeil an to, presents an innovative approach to Financial Management, Organizational proeslsiel uadbe thea stertur ate management improvement based on self- Design, Community and External Relamovigesin.l Victmsrane bhegi movingur itor analysis. It is one of a series of Manage- tions, and Options Analysis and Implethi g core houtisin fei asolittl asto ment Problem Solving (MAPS) manuals mentation, write Jeanne North, S&T/RAD, mths.r osn fera itea w for assessment and planning meant for Room 506, SA-18, AID, Washington, DC,
Podue trughIDsOfieso specialists involved in the improvement of 20523, U.S.A.
Hou ead U.S.roeg n A DOisste As- health programs; the improvement of mansistance (OFDA), the manual gives guide- agoement ys atems an gmn patclryteimlines for local-governine-nt reconstruction pnroveloeng ofueatrmnemetsytm The goal of Resources Report is to identify
officials as well as AID technicians. It ndvlpngcutis approaches to development which have worked
addresses land acquisition, site planning, A well organized materials manage- or seem promising, to describe new projects,
site development, and housing construc- ment system delivers the right item to the and to provide a useful medium for exchange of plac whre i isneeed, t te tie i is information. Comments and suggestions are tion with specific designs for earthquake plcwhits needed,an at the lwsco ti e teis welcome.
ac chaptnerscotncles. ihlesn consists of various functions: planning and
Eahe cthrg exences ih proas budgeting for materials; purchasing, re- AID Resources Report
using contractor-built, low-income hous- ceiving;an inseocnstrorag awrequsto- office of Development Information
ing. Among these are: hosn;ivnoycnrl eusto- and Utilization
ing and distributing materials; maintenance Bureau for Science and Technology
* The longer land acquisition takes, the and repair; and environmental manage- U.S. Agency for International Development
greater its cost and the more likely that ment. Washington, DC 20523, U.S.A.
victims will relocate elsewhere. The manual helps a management unit
" edvlomnto dmlihd osig assess each of these functions. It is written***
areas is unsuccessful due to clearance in a question and answer format. When
tim an lad oneshi prbles. completed, it can serve as an organization Produced byy Creative Associates, Inc.
tim an lad oneshi prbles. handbook with the names, job descrip- Project Director: Perry Ketchum
* Adequate sanitation is the most impor- tions, inventory, and budget figures for Editor, Issue No. 18: Diana E. Talbert
tant utility to be provided and a key to the organization assessing itself. The Associate Editor: Stephen M. Goldstein project success. E questions are not a checklist of good or Production___Editor: ___Marcia__Roman