OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS
U.S. AID TITLE XII
FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH
KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY MANHATTAN, KANSAS 66506 U.S.A.
Farming Systems Research & Extension:
Implementation and Monitoring
Edited by Cornelia Butler Flora
Paper No. 8 October, 1984
Symposium Planning Committee Cornelia Butler Flora, Chair
Jim Jorns, Co-Chair
Wayne Geyer Wayne Rohrer
Carole Harbers Meredith Smith
Vernon Larson L. V. Withee
FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH PAPER SERIES
Kansas State University's Farming Systems Research (FSR) Paper Series is supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development Title XII Strengthening Grant. The goal of the Strengthening Grant is to increase the University's capacity for, and focus its commitment to, implementing Title XII agricultural and nutritional development assistance programs in less-developed countries. This series is maintained by the FSR Program Associates-a multidisciplinary team of professors who are focusing their activities around applied research on farming from a systems perspective.
The purpose of the FSR Paper Series is to provide an avenue for disseminating information on FSR to those interested. Publications to be included fall into the following categories: updated bibliographies from KSU's FSR data base; proceedings from KSU's annual Farming Systems Symposium; selected papers presented in KSU's FSR Seminar Series; selected papers prepared by KSU's Program Associates.
Copies of these papers may be obtained by writing: Distribution Center, Umberger Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506. There will
be a charge for selected papers and multiple copies to help defray cost of printing.
Vernon C. Larson
NOTICE OF NON-DISCRIMINATION
Kansas State University is committed to a policy of non-discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, handicap, or other non-merit reasons, in admissions, educational programs or activities, and employment, all as required by applicable laws and regulations. Inquiries may be addressed to: Director, Affirmative Action Office, 214 Anderson Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (913-532-6220), or Regional Director, Office of Civil Rights, Department of Education, 1150 Grand Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64106 (816-376-2356).
Institute for Agricultural Research
Ahmadu Bello University
Institutionalizing Farming Systems Research:
The case of Farming Systems Research in Nigeria
The evolution of development thinking and experiences with past research strategies would suggest that future agricultural and rural
development efforts in developing countries should focus more on the dynamics of small scale farm operations with a more holistic and inter-disciplinary understanding. In this regard, Farming Systems
Research (FSR) with its distinguishing features from traditional research strategies is being increasingly regarded as a strategy with considerable promise. Experiences from Nigeria with FSR at both the research centre and national levels are used to illustrate the feasibility of organizing and managing FSR programmes in third world countries.
These experiences suggest that the entire FSR process, including the analysis of farming systems, technology development and testing, and the verification of research results can be successfully carried out by
inter-disciplinary teams of social and biological scientists. FSR is, however, more costly than conventional research. Nigerian experiences would nonetheless suggest that the potential benefits of FSR could be great enough to justify the cost, hence the chances of converting a research dream into reality are very good.
KAgori-Iwe. E. C. Nwagbo. UT. CheeZev
Institute for Agricultural Research
Ahmadu Bello University
Simulating the Technology Adoption Process:
A Case of Groundnut Farmers in Northern Nigeria
Improved and promising technology packages are designed by interdisciplinary research teams of the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru from time to time. A typical team involves bio-physical as well as socio-economic scientists. On farm test of these packages are carried out in selected areas in Northern Nigeria. -There are several improved as well as promising items within a typical package. These packages have initially been tried in experimental field plots before being recommended for on-farm test; often times the on-farm test comprises two groups of trials one acting as a control and the other testing the recommended technology. Because of the various combinations and permutations of farm plans possible, it is often impracticable to carry out on-farm test of all the possible plans. Rather a plan
adjudged superior to the rest based on limited indices is tested.
Computer simulation is particularly amenable to complex situations requiring expensive and time consuming experimentation. In this paper
we describe a package of improved and promising technology recommended for farmers in Northern Nigeria who adopt a groundnut based crop mixture.
A computer simulation model of' the technology adoption process incorporating a total farming systems approach is built to trace the results from a typical farm which follows the recommendation. Actual data from on-farm testing of the same technology is used to validate the model. Highlights of the study indicate the identification of tight constraints, such as, for example, a clearer picture of why farmers do not adopt certain improved and promising technology.
M. Ashraf. P. Balogun
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria
A Case Study of On-Farm Adaptive Research at Bida
Agricultural Development Project (ADP)
Bida ADP, jointly funded by the Nigerian government and the World
Bank and with a 5 year lifespan from June 1980, has the objectives of increasing agricultural production by 25% and raising farm incomes. It covers 17,000 sq. km. of guinea savannah in the sub-humid zone of Nigeria. In 1980, Bida ADP ih collaboration with the Agro-economic unit of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) initiated an on-farm adaptive research (OFAR) program to test and evaluate technologies for possible recommendation to the Project Extension Unit.
A diagnostic survey was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team from IITA to delineate recommendation target groups and then quickly set up an on-farm experimental program. Subsequent formal surveys have verified and refined these target groups, validating the time and cost effectiveness of this approach. Farmers were grouped by their cropping systems, of which there are four: (a) rice-sorghum based, (b) yam-sorghum based, (c) cassava-sorghum based, and (d) cereals based. Type of cropping system was largely governed by agro-ecological factors (land type, rainfall), biological factors (weeds, pests and diseases) and socio-economic factors.
The cropping systems and fluctuations in labor demand were then analysed to identify opportunities to introduce improvements into the local farming system. The results suggested that although productivity could be raised by introducing better crop varieties and pest management for rainy season crops, major potential for improvement in the rice-sorghum system lay in the dry season between November and April, when the opportunity cost of labor is low and conflicts of resource allocation within the farming system are minimal.
Investigation into major cash expenditure on food revealed that farmers spent a considerable amount purchasing cowpeas. There had been a rapid decline in the area planted to the local cowpeas due to the very high crop failure risks posed by insects. Introduction of short season cowpea (60-75 days) varieties which require minimum pest management offered the possibility of alleviating this food deficit and improving productivity of the system.
Exploratory experimentation at two sites under farmer management on lowland fields after rice revealed that short season varieties of cowpeas could successfully be grown on residual moisture: moisture which seeped from the uplands into the lowland swamps after the rains finished. The success of these cowpeas sparked such interest in the Extension Service and among farmers in the area, that in the following dry season a program involving over 250 farmers in 41 villages was pursued. Spraying against insects was unfamiliar to farmers, so the
M.Ashraf. P. Balo-un-Page 2
project provided a spraying service to the farmers at a cost. Although not all plots succeeded, the. farmers have become enthusiastic enough to want to re-introduce cowpeas into the main as well as dry season.
Realizing that it is impossible for the project to spray the cowpea in the future, as the area grown expands, farmers are now being encouraged to buy their own spraying equipment. Other than insects, the
major constraints to the introduction of the crop are moisture status and the conflict between the nomadic herdsmen, who graze their cattle in the lowlands during the dry season and the settled farmers who want to plant crops.
With cash costs of N83/ha for seed and 2 sprayings, the net return to the 65 mandays of family labor (opportunity cost of the labor is very low) amounted to N937 or N14.40/manday (N = U. S. $1.40). Thus the benefit/cost ratio of this new enterprise was 12.3.
This intervention into the rice-sorghum system of cowpea as a major
dry season crop has also affected the main season cropping pattern, since many of the farmers now wish to re-introduce the crop in the main season as an upland crop. Farmers in other systems, such as the rough cereals system, which has the lowest income, are now also showing interest in cowpeas as a component of their cropping system in the main season.
The potential gains from this intervention for West African Countries could be large. There are over 23.5 million hectares of land classified as river valleys suitable for rice growing in West Africa. Much of the land can be planted with cowpeas after rice, thus increasing
land productivity, improving the rural food security situation, and adding another protein source to the diet.
The program has generated valuable feed-back information on areas in need of further research, especially if this intervention is to have wider applicability in the West African region, such as, the optimum
planting date and appropriate tillage methods in the different types of lowland and the need for better hand tools. For example, the efficiency of reaping labor for rice can be improved by 30% by replacing the local sickle type with a serrated sickle. This intervention would alleviate the labor constraint at harvesting and would allow farmers to plant cowpeas earlier in the dry season and avoid problems of moisture stress. Through this process, Bida ADP has identified another simple intervention for the improvement of the local farming system.
The experience of Bida ADP in OFAR has shown that it is possible to quickly identify areas for improvement in the local farming system and successfully exploit them, if the necessary technology exists. OFAR is still in progress on other potential areas for intervention into therice-sorghum and also into the other cropping systems. Experiments with new disease resistance cassava varieties for introduction into the cassava based system show promise but the research is comparatively slower due to the long life-cycle of cassava. The maximum potential benefit of this OFAR approach to a project, can only be fully realized if it is initiated at the pre-project stage and the research results are available for selection of priorities within the project mix.
Washington, D.C. 20523
Institutionalization of Farming Systems Reasearch and Extension'
in Botswana: Current Programs, and Advantages of' Improved Research-Extension Linkages
The Government of Botswana has recognized that two important issues need to be resolved in order to promote agricultural development. a) Extension, planning and research are all vitally important in agricultural development and, therefore,, linkages between agricultural extension, planning and research departments need to be strong and effective.
b) It is important that agricultural policies and technologies be
developed that are attractive to farmers if the extension service is to have any hope of being effective in promoting agricultural change.
The Ministry of Agriculture in Botswana hias consequently decided in the last few years to pursue a farming systems approach to research and extension. There are already a number of programs in Botswana, which, although not always called farming systems projects, have many characteristics of the farming systems approach. The oldest of these are IFPP in the Southern District and EFSAIP concentrated around Gaborone. More recent projects include NADP centered in Gumare and the Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP) mandated to do FSR in the Central and Francistown Agricultural Regions.
Each project has followed a somewhat different approach to farming systems research, in terms of both issues addressed and research methodology. Also, each project has developed its own approach toward establishing institutional linkages with experiment station research and
the extension service. By comparing and contrasting the approaches followed by the four projects, several insights into the problems and alternatives facing the Ministry of Agriculture as it decides how to institutionalize the farming systems approach can be highlighted.
The author(s) are from the Agricultural Technology Improvement Project and, therefore the paper begins with a review of the approaches (there is more than one ATIP field team) being taken toward FSR and extension linkages by ATIP. The paper then compares and contrasts the approaches being taken by ATIP with those of other farming systems programs in Botswana. The last part of the paper steps back' from particular institutional alternatives found in Botswana to address two general questions: (a) how can the farming systems approach and results of FSR field teams help extension agents and (b) what can extension agents do to help FSR field teams. These general questions must be considered if the full benefits of the farming systems approach are to be realized by extension as well as research, regardless of which
institutional approach is adopted in a given country.
Samm Bbuvemusoke. Thomas A. Banta
Institute for Agricultural Research CIAR) Faculty of Agriculture
Ahmadu Bello University
This study set out to make an evaluation of the socio-economic and technological appropriateness of an improved Sorghum production technology package disseminated in Giwa District of Kaduna State.
Gross margin analysis showed that the technology 2= %o_ was profitable. However, when the farmer's resource base, particularly capital, labour and management, his allocation of resources between competing enterprises, and his minimum subsistence requirements were incorporated into a linear programming model, the results showed that farmers were more rational in sticking to their indigenous technology, rather than adopting the improved practices. The relative
unprofitability of the improved technology is further confirmed by the fact that the total farm gross margins of the farmers that grew improved Sorghum was lower than those who grew only indigenous Sorghum
Not surprisingly, there were very low adoption levels associated with the improved package's recommendations. Partly, this was because the improved package was so specific in its requirement of cultural practices. For example, while indigenous Sorghum varieties required little or no fertilizer for a dependable yield, the improved SK5912 variety could end up in total crop failure if no fertilizer was applied. Also, the tall stalks of the indigenous varieties had other uses for the peasant farmers which the short-stalked hybrid varieties could not provide: these included roofing and fencing. It is implicit that
resource requirements for growing the improved variety are greater than for growing the indigenous varieties, while at the same time there are less by-products from the former than from the latter.
It is contended then that the improved Sorghum production technology was not developed with poor farmers, such as those in the study area, in mind.
Robert J. Bevins. Melvin Blase Nvangavezi Macala
Department of Agricultural Economics Botswana Ministry of Agric. University of Missouri-Columbia Gaborone, Botswana
Row Versus Broadcasting Cropping Systems in Botswana
This paper focuses on the farm level cereal grain under dry, average, and high rainfall conditions. Broadcasting and row planting are considered under both cattle and tractor power options. An LP model is utilized.
The results are discouraging in that a switch to row planting seems to have limited impact except in years of favorable rainfall. But these results are obtained only when row planting is complemented by adequate credit and an increased supply of labor. Harvesting labor becomes restrictive.
In short, row planting is shown to be an improvement over broadcasting but the net income remains low.
John S. Caldwell_. Mary Hill Rlojas. Angela Neilan
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VA 241061
Applying the Farming Systems Team Approach
in the Extension Structure and Program Cycle
Farming Systems is a methodology which has developed over the last decade primarily outside the United States. Only recently has Farming Systems begun to be tested within the United States. This paper
examines a pilot project which applied the Farming Systems team approach within the Cooperative Extension system in Southwest Virginia during 1982-841.
The project utilized the multi-disciplinary team approach at 2 levels within the extension structure: the campus-based specialist level and the field-based para-professional technician level. At both levels, the project linked agriculture and home economics. At the
specialist level, team involvement began with problem identification in the development stage of the Extension program cycle, corresponding to the diagnostic stage in Farming Systems. Traditionally, however,
specialists are usually called in by extension field staff only after field staff have identified a problem needing an educational program. This corresponds to the design stage of Farming Systems.
At the technical level, a female home management para-professional with responsibilities in-both agriculture (horticultural production and marketing) and home economics (nutrition, food preparation and preservation,.home products, and financial management) worked with male,
predominantly livestock agriculture technicians. The team worked to implement introduction of broccoli for market sale and nutritional
benefit in the implementation stage, corresponding to the transition between design and testing in Farming Systems.
Agent-level extension field staff saw the project as a return to the older generalist approach of the 1950's Farm and Home Development Program, had difficulty determining appropriate lines of supervision for the agriculture-home economics para-professional team,, and questioned the cost-benefit ratio of more than one technician working with the same families. Decreased specialist- technician alienation was a positive effect of the approach.
S. Chamala. K. J. Keith
University of Queensland
Development of Extension Programs Within the Context of FSR&D- Conservation Cropping Case in Queensland
Current literature on FSR&D has emphasised the research process in detail. Extension is implied or assumed to be comparatively easier once the relevant technology is developed. Studies on the adoption and
diffusion process suggest that extension of technology is not simple when a complex set of inter-related innovations are involved. Complex farming system changes call for a well planned extension program based
on complexities of existing farming systems and extension organization constraints and potentials. This is important for both developed or developing countries.
This paper reports the methodology used in developing extension programs for promoting conservation cropping in Queensland, Australia. This case represents an example of a complex farming systems change in adeveloped country.
The development of extension programs in this case uses most of the criteria of FSRD (Shaner et al, 1982) namely;. it is farmer-based, problem solving, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, complimentary,
dynamic and responsible for society's shorter term production and j&M& term stability. A model is described in which research, development, extension are recognized as parallel activities to be planned from a
common problem identification (situational analysis) process, rather than having extension tagged onto the end of the chain of research methodology. This approach enables the extension, personnel to identify the homogenous groups of farmers who are at various stages of using the existing technology as well as enabling directions for research and development to be identified.
An extension research project carried out jointly by the university and the government agency responsible for agricultural extension is described. The project included surveys of farmers and extension staff.
This process helped to identify socio-economic factors and details of cropping practices to be considered in extension planning, as well as staff constraints and traifiing needs. Armed with this data appropriate communication strategies are planned for each of these target audiences as well as planning appropriate training for staff. This methodologyfurther improved the cohesiveness of the extension and research efforts
Principles of this methodology could be applied elsewhere.
S. Chamala. K. J. Keith
University of Queensland
Development of Extension Pr'ograms Within the Context of FSR&D Conservation Cropping Case in Queensland
Current literature on FSR&D has emphasised the research process in detail. Extension is implied or assumed to be comparatively easier once the relevant technology is developed. Studies on the adoption and
diffusion process sugges.t that extension of technology is not simple when a complex set of inter-related innovations are involved. Complex farming system changes call for a well planned extension program based on complexities of existing farming systems and extension organization constraints and potentials. This is important for both developed or developing countries.
This paper reports the methodology used in developing extension programs for promoting conservation cropping in Queensland, Australia. This case represents an example of a complex farming systems change in a developed country.
The development of extension programs in this case uses most of the
criteria of FSRD (Shaner et al, 1982) namely; it is farmer-based, problem solving, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, complimentary,
dynamic and responsible for society's shorter term production and 1,=l .te~rm stability. A model is described in which research, development, extension are recognized as parallel activities to be planned from a common problem identification (situational analysis) process, rather than having extension tagged onto the end of the chain of research methodology. This approach enables the extension personnel to identify the homogenous groups of farmers who are at various stages of using the existing technology as well as enabling directions for research and development to be identified.
An extension research project carried out jointly by the university and the government agency responsible for agricultural extension is described. The project included surveys of farmers and extension staff. This process helped to identify socio-economic factors and details of cropping practices to be considered in extension planning, as well as staff constraints and training needs. Armed with this data appropriate communication strategies are planned for each of these target audiences as well as planning appropriate training for staff. This methodology further improved the cohesiveness of the extension and research efforts
Principles of this methodology could be applied elsewhere.
James A Chapman
Chemonics International Consulting Division Washington, D.C.
Incorporating Socioeconomic Environmental Variables
,in Farming Systems Research and Development
Recent trends in the development of new agricultural technologies for small farmers have focused almost exclusively on the issues of
understanding and changing small-scale farming systems within a presumably static social, economic and political environment. Such an approach is typical of most farming systems research methodologies presented so far. While some FSR practitioners have mentioned the
importance of socioeconomic environmental variables, none have offered practical framework for incorporating them into a more holistic FSR strategy.
The difficulties involved in identifying and developing new technologies appropriated to small farm systems are well known. Taking
the socioeconomic environment as given, it seems possible that progress can be made in obtaining at least marginal improvements in agricultural productivity. However, by limiting the scope of research/ extension activities to the farm-level, opportunities may be missed for obtaining even greater magnitudes of change by first (or simultaneously) changing some of the environmental variables which influence the incentives farmers have to adopt or adapt new technology.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest an analytical framework which broadens the scope of farming systems research, emphasizing the endogenous nature of technological change to small farm development, which is in turn influenced by forms of social articulation by which public policies define the socioeconomic environment. Besides
identifying on-farm variables, the framework defines certain social and economic relationships occurring within the small farm sector and
between the small farm sector and other social sectors. The specific nature of the relationships plays an important role in determining the nature and magnitude of small farm family income-generating opportunities, which in turn strongly influence possibilities for significant technological change and improve welfare.
Coordinator, Farming Systems Research Project
Faculty of Agriculture
Khon Kaen University
Khon Kaen, Thailand
The Rainfed Farming Systems Research in Northeast Thailand: A Ten-Year Experience
Northeast Thailand is the poorest region in the country. More than 80 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture--mostly
small-scale farmers on rainfed land. The major constraints to crop production in the Northeast are low soil fertility and organic matter combined with the low water holding capacity and erratic rainfall.
Given these poor natural resources endowments, the farmers have developed cropping systems under rainfed conditions that are mainly monocropping of rice, kenaf and cassava.
The Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, started its research project in 1975 by using the cropping systems approach to examine how available resources can be better used to increase farm income. After several years of testing both in the university experimental farm and farmers' fields with farmer participation, the project was able to identify several promising cropping patterns. There was a varying degree of farmer adoption of these new cropping patterns,
however, which apparently depended upon social factors. The project then enhanced its activities in the social studies. The concept of human ecology and system analysis were introduced to promote interaction and integration between natural and social scientists. Several
workshops on human ecology and agroecosystem analysis were held during the past four years.
Recognizing that the rainfed farmers derive a significant percentage of their income from livestock and fishing, the project also expanded its scope by integrating animal science into what was previously cropping systems research. The farming systems research approach is used to develop farming system practices fitted to the
unique socio-economic and cultural conditions of rainfed area in the Northeast.
Being university based, the project aims to develop methodology and to generate technology and information in farming systems which will be
used by the implementing agencies. Lessons learned from several years of experience of conducting farming systems research will also be discussed.
Alex C. Cunard
FSR/E Tanzania Project
Dares Salaam (ID)
Department of State
Washington, D.C. 20523
PREVAILING FARMING SYSTEMS IN EAST AFRICA I: The influence of environment in the Development of Farming Systems in Moshi and Arumeru Districts, Tanzania
In the Moshi and Arumeru District of Tanzania the two mountains, Kilimanjaro and Meru dominate the environment and have played a major role in influencing the development of the farming systems of the peoples who have settled on their flanks and in their vicinity. The crowded communities that live on the rich soil of the slopes of the mountains have developed intensive systems of agriculture in which
intercropped food and cash crops are integrated with the rearing of livestock for milk production. Soil fertility in the "kihambas" (traditional fields) is maintained with the use of manure from the stall fed cattle.
On the plains in the vicinity of the mountain younger generations, mainly deriving from the families settled on the slopes have established
villages and fields in which cereal/legume combinations are grown for food, either as sole or intercrops. Animal traction is used and the farming is extensive. The linkages between the two systems, existing side by side are examined, and the similarities and differences compared and contrasted.
The problems and constraints confronting the farming systems are identified and proposals as to which directions on-station and on-farm research should take are made.
The major area of the Kilosa District in the Ilonga Zone is comprised of the Mkata Plain, a fertile peneplain drained and sometimes flooded by the Mkata and Wami rivers originating from the Kiborian and Rubeho mountains to the west. There are sizeable tracts of "Mbuga" or black cotton soils in which the crop is grown. The annual rainfall amounts to around 800 mm. and is bimodal in nature, occurring between
November and December (Vuli) and between March and May (masika). The occurrence is also unreliable and this causes short periods of drought at any stage of the crop cycle.
During the short rains which last only about a month and a half farmers plant local varieties of maize, which they expect to harvest at the beginning of February, which is a drought month and a period of food shortage. Sorghum is also planted as an insurance crop, since, if the rains fail it will give some harvest. In the second rainy season maize is planted again and intercropped with cowpeas, green gram and/or chickpeas.
Alex C. Cunard Page 2
Government -policy requires the farmer to plant an acre of cotton. Generally the crop brings negative returns and occasionally floods destroy it. Successful cash crops are interplanted bananas and
sugar-cane and swamp rice which are grown in low-lying areas where the moisture reserve is high throughout the year.
The rainfall pattern is analyzed and an alternative cropping system
is proposed integrating possible solutions to most of the constraints such as suitable crops to sow in the short and long rainy seasons.
Proposals are also put forward to direct breeding research to incorporate farmer desirable characteristics in so-called "improved maize varieties", which take into account water relations in the
environment in which the crop is grown.
The Dodoma District falls within the semi-arid zone of central Tanzania which is reminiscent of the northern Savannah or southern Sahel. Annual rainfall rarely exceeds 600 mm. and falls mainly between December and May with a slight lull in February. The favorite food crop
grown is Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Typhoides) which is planted around each homestead which in turn is sited on poor infertile sand, fertilized with manure from the cattle "bomas". Other crops are interplanted cowpeas and sole groundnut.
On the more fertile soils with a higher moisture reserve sorghum and grapes are grown, the grapes being fertilized by the use of manure. Livestock are an integral component of the farming system although no animal traction whatever is utilized, efforts by the Extension Division to introduce it having ended in failure because of the socio-cultural problem.
The system is analyzed and the major constraints are identified. Suggestions are made for development or for further on-farm and on-station research. The study and analysis of local varieties of sorghum are recommended in order to identify farmer referred characterestics which could be incorporated into improved varieties developed in breeding programs. Proposals are also made to overcome the constraint to the introduction of animal traction.
Robert Deuson. Richard Foote. Eman El-Gamass
International Programs in Agriculture Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana
A Case Study on Evaluating New Technology in Farmers'
Fields, With Emphasis on Plant Drills for Wheat in
Charbiya Governorate, Egypt, 1982-83
As a part of the 1982-83 Egyptian Major Cereals Improvement Project (EMCIP) Production demonstration programs for wheat, farmers were asked to consolidate their plots in two 25-feddan fields, one each in Sefta and El Santa districts in Charbiya Governorate, Egypt, for which seed was planted by a plant drill. The two districts were hypothesized to be two different recommendation domains.
Ten farmers were randomly selected from (a) those in each of these fields, (b) those from nearby areas who did not consolidate their fields and did not take part in the demonstration plots in each district for which seed was broadcast, making a total of 60 farmers in all. For each of these farmers, data needed to compute yield and gross returns, variable costs and net return were collected by a cost-route survey. Analysis of variance was applied based on a 2BY3 factorial design for 2 districts and 3 levels of technology.
In all cases, important interaction terms were found, indicating the need to study the 2-way tables of means based on least significant differences (LSD). Important differences in economic response between
the two districts were identified. The economic analysis made use of dominance and marginal analysis, as developed by economists at CIMMYT in Mexico. The findings appear to be domain specific which tends to conform our hypothesis that the two districts represent two different recommendation domains.
08 BP 1295 Abidjan 08,
The O.F.R.I.C. Approach to Site Selection
The OFRIC project (On Farm Research in Ivory Coast) is composed of three teams: one in the north, one in the center and one in the south. Selecting research sites for these teams in the three zones involved four steps:
-Making an exhaustive listing of all possible sites in each zone.
- Selecting five of these sites on the basis of personal reasons by raising hands.
- Choosing two of these five sites on the basis of ten defined criteria using selection forms.
.agro ecological factors,
.the Research matter,
.high probability of significant results,
.low coverage of the region by research activities, .local language spoken by at least one team member,
logistic support (presence of Development societies),
.all-season accessibility, .socio-ethnic homogeneity,
.failure of a past regional project,
-Finally conducting a preliminary site selection survey before the exploratory surveys. This survey is carried out on all the selected sites to get down to three.
Following this procedure, the OFRIC project has selected its three research sites:
1. Touba in Northern Ivory Coast.
2. M'Bahiakro/Daoukro in Central Ivory Coast.
3. Divo in Southern Ivory Coast.
This paper describes these four steps in some detail and comments are made as to the shortcomings and the strengths of the approach.
Glen Easter. Donald Hlope
Cropping Systems and Research
P. 0. Box 14
Malkerns Research Station
Constraints and Opportunities to Extension Training in Swaziland
This paper is an analytical look at the empirical experiences of the Training Specialists, *Swaziland Cropping Systems Research and Extension Training Project*, during the project's first two years ( 1982-1984). The authors discuss the state of the Extension Service at the initiation of the Project and their approaches to organise training to alleviate the deficiencies using existing facilities and financial supports. This time period coincided with the conclusion of Phase II of the Swaziland Rural Development Areas Program and the evaluations of the
effectiveness of Extension during Phase II and the subsequent recommendations for Phase III are discussed. Shortcomings in
incentives, effectiveness of preservice and in-service training, and the absenses of follow-up and training materials are identified. Importance
of and satisfaction with Extension by the Swazi Nation Land Farmer and his family are cited. The relationship between the available preservice training and the attempts to revitalize the in-service training are discussed as they apply to the ability of the new graduates to meet performance expectations in the field.
Implementation of a structural reorganization of Extension, reemphasis of Subject-Matter Specialists role in training and materials, adaptation of the Training & Visit Method of Extension, and the organization of an annual training calendar are given as advances.i The
lack of a sound link between extension and research is noted with the activities being pursued by the Farming (Cropping) Systems Research Approach to create that link discussed. Lastly the author comments on the conflicts between establishing a sound, realistic, affordable!, base to build training on and the immediate need to produce the results of workshops, seminars, field days, and other training events.
*A cooperative project between the Swaziland Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Pennsylvania State University, Tennessee State University, and the United States Agency for International Development.
Economic Analysis Within the Farming Systems Research and
Technology Development Methodology, An Empirical Application in Central America
The implementation of farming systems research and technology development (FSR/TD) applied to small farmers calls for
multidisciplinary teams to cover not only the bio-physical topics, but the socioeconomic and communication aspects of the farming systems. This paper examines the role of the economic analysis in a FSR/TD project in the North Atlantic area of Costa Rica, according to a methodological framework developed by CATIE for its mandate area.
The functions of economic analysis are twofold: assessing the farmer's own economic rationale for allocating production factors within his own production constraints, and evaluating the development of
technological alternatives to ensure they provide farmers with higher production and/or productivity levels than their own production technology while informing about regional and farm limitations. However, a simplified applied economic analysis should be pursued if national research teams are expected to undertake such analyses.
Following the former approach, economic information is- provided for the methodological phases of a) area selection, b) a hierachical characterization of area, farm and cropping systems conditions and limitations, c) the alternative technology design, d) the on-farm experimental trials, e) the validation of the alternative technology by farmers, and f) the dynamic farm analysis which includes farmers monitoring to evaluate the adoption of technology. Emphasis is given to the contribution of analyzing a major area and farm level constraints, and the evaluation of the technological alternative in view of that limitation. The use of economic information to help select promising production technologies is also stressed in the paper, as well as a simple farm planning analysis to evaluate a technological alternative for maize production within the context of the farm system.
Timothy R. Frankenberger
University of' Kentucky
Inclusion of' Food Consumption Concerns in Farming Systems Projects
A significant shortcoming of' past FSR efforts has been the lack of' emphasis on consumption concerns in the design and testing of' new agricultural technology. For instance, in the Farming Systems Research and Development Guidelines developed by Shanner et al., 1982, no mention of' nutrition/consumption concerns is made in the table of' contents or appendices. Two critical reasons can be cited f'or why such concerns are important. First, consumption considerations help identify technological alternatives that are compatible with consumption preferences of' farm families, thereby ensuring their likely acceptance (Tripp 1982). Second, such consumption concerns may help to ensure that
technological change contributes to improving the welfare of' the rural poor. Numerous instances can be cited of' past agricultural development
projects which did not bring about such welfare improvements (Fleuret and Fleuret 1980; Reutlinger 19T6; Martin 1982; Jones 1980, etc.).
This paper will address the shortcoming and make suggestions for ways in which consumption concerns can be better integrated into farming systems methodology. These suggestions are derived from a synthesis of' the works of' Tripp 1982, Wheelen 1982, DeWalt 1983, Smith 1983, and others, as well as my own attempts to incorporate consumption concerns in-to my farming systems fieldwork. The paper will not attempt to
outline a methodology for conducting separate, full-blown nutritional studies, but rather will focus on how consumption concerns might be better integrated into production-oriented farming systems research procedures. Special emphasis will be given to the linkages between agricultural production and consumption. Aspects of production which are closely linked to consumption include: 1) seasonality of production (seasonality of food availability, malnutrition, energy expenditure, incidence of disease, terms of trade for poor, etc.); 2) minor crops and crop mix; 3) the role of women in production and division of labor; 41) income (regularity, kind and recipients); 5) food and other commodity prices and their seasonality, and 6) cash crops.
Timothy R. Frankenberger page 2
Taking these linkages into account, this paper will outline how consumption considerations can be incorporated into each stage of the FSR research process. For instance, inclusion of such concerns in target area selection might ensure that nutritionally vulnerable groups
are taken into consideration by the project, to maximize nutritional benefits and minimize adverse impacts. Suggestions will also be made as to the types of consumption data that would be feasible and desirable to collect during reconnaissance or sondeo surveys and formal diagnostic or verification surveys. How these data could be used with other
production data to delineate recommendation domains will also be discussed. Similarly, the discussion will deal with what types of consumption data would be useful to collect during the on-farm research stage. Finally, the paper will address what types of consumption criteria might be useful for evaluating project impact and what types of minimal data requirements might be necessary for successful product extension.
Brouwersgracht 865, 1C15 GK
Brouwersgracht 865, 1C15 GK
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Approaches to the Study of Farming and Cropping Systems
Although the systematic study of farming systems started early this century, the FSR approach ias first institutionalized in 1968 with the creation of the Unites Exp~rimentales in Senegal. The objective of the Unites Exp~rimentales was to develop recommendations leading to an intensification of agriculture production and test these under realistic circumstances.
Along with other programs with a FSR perspective, the Unites
Exprimentales were instrumental in formulating the key concepts of the Francophone FSR approach. Central to this approach is
"Recherche-Devgloppement" which involves defining itineraries to realizing the agricultural potential of a region through linking research, extension and development. Such itineraries comprise two complementary sets of innovations: (1) those that introduce improvements without altering the structure of the traditional farming systems, and
(2) those that aim at a radical transformation of the entire farming system.
Although generalizations are dangerous, there are without doubt a number of major differences between this approach and FSR as developed
primarily by USA institutions and the International Agricultural Research Centers. Francophone FSR appears as a large-scale effort directed at the long term development of a region, closely linked with extension and input delivery, whereas FSR mostly focuses on adapting research results to the needs of small farmers within the existing institutional constraints.
A comparison of these different approaches yields recommendations for FSR programs in West Africa, and raises issues relevant to the role of FSR in general. In many cases the Francophone approach may be complementary to the one used in FSR projects.
Development Alternatives, Inc.
Comparing the Results of an Informal Survey with Those of a
Formal Survey: A Case Study of Farming Systems
Research/Extension (FSR/E) in Middle Kirinyaga, Kenya
One of the most salient issues in FSR/E concerns the roles of informal and formal surveys in the diagnostic stage. Informal surveys are surveys in which researchers interview farmers without using questionnaires, allowing interviewers and interviewees to pursue topics of interest freely and in depth. These surveys generally do not involve random selection of farmers and generally are completed over a short period of time -- one week to two months. Formal surveys, on the other hand, are surveys of randomly chosen farmers who are interviewed by trained interviewers using a questionnaire. Formal surveys generally extend over a longer period of time -- six months to several years.
Most FSR/E projects rely heavily on formal surveys for diagnosing farming systems, using informal surveys primarily to help design the formal survey. However, in recent years, certain researchers have begun
to attach greater importance to the informal survey. Hildebrand (1980) claims that well-managed informal surveys can generate the information necessary for identifying principal farmer problems, and planning experimentation to solve these problems. Collinson (1982) calls the informal survey the pivotal stage of the diagnostic survey but favors conducting a short, very focused single-visit, formal survey following the informal survey in order to verify the results of the informal survey.
This paper reports on an FSR/E exercise carried out in Kirinyaga District, Kenya, 1981. The exercise consisted of an informal survey followed by a single-visit formal survey; both of these surveys were used for developing a program of experiments to address farmer problems.
Both surveys were carried out in the same area, during the same growing season, and by the same team of researchers. We evaluate the utility of the formal survey by comparing the information and resulting experimental program to those derived from the preceding informal survey. If the formal survey does not make an important contribution to
understanding farmer circumstances and formulating an appropriate experimental program, one can argue that it is superfluous.
* Steven Franzel -Page 2
Our analysis examined the variation in findings between the
informal survey and formal survey. We assume that parameters estimated in the formal survey are more accurate, since in the formal survey, questions are standardized and the questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected group of farmers. Findings in the informal survey are
rated for closeness relative to those of the formal survey on a three point scale -- very close, moderately close, and not close. ,Our analysis shows that about 6.0% of the parameters we estimated in the informal survey were very close to those of the formal survey, and about 90% were very or moderately close. Sources of variation in parameter estimates between the two surveys are also analyzed, in the hopes of
contributing to greater accuracy in future exercises.
Furthermore, there were relatively few refinements made in our
research priorities and experimental program as a result of new information from the formal survey. Therefore, our findings support the hypothesis that the informal survey is an effective and sufficient method for planning experimental programs for farmers. They also
suggest that a formal survey may be replaced by either (1) a slightly longer and more carefully managed informal survey than would otherwise be mounted or (2) additional informal surveys. However, it is important to emphasize the danger in over-generalizing from our conclusions. For example, a frequent-visit formal survey may have elicited different data than those obtained in our single-visit formal survey. Moreover, it is
likely that different survey methods are appropriate for different sets
1. Collinson, M.P., 1982. "Farming Systems Research in Eastern
Africa: The Experience of CIMMYT and Some National Agricultural Research
Services, 1976-81 Michigan State University International Development
Paper No. 3.
2. Hildebrand, P.E., 1981. "Motivating Small Farmers, Scientists,
and Technicians to Accept Change", Agr'icultural Administration, 8,
Department of Rural Sociology
Ithaca, NY 141850
Agricultural Research and Development:
Viable Objectives for Smallholder Programs
This paper applies sociological theories of stratification to the design of farming systems research programs. Its purpose is to
interrelate strata characteristics with viable objectives for
agricultural programs, thereby providing a guide to planning.
After a brief discussion of a farming systems approach, the paper explains the distinctions among three strata of smallholders. These distinctions are then applied to the definition of viable objectives for work with each group. These ideas are sdmnmarized in a table.
The conclusion addresses implications of the analysis for planning. To appreciate that technologies with certain socioeconomic characteristics are likely to benefit specific groups has a correlary: these same technologies may threaten others. Precisely because benef its. for one group may constitute liabilities for another, the impact -of technologies must be evaluated in a global context.
Agricultural research and development activities, therefore, should pass, through two phases. The first is to match general policy objectives with social strata and the second is to anticipate the
consequences of technology for different landed and landless strata. Each step is necessary if a coherent agricultural policy with known consequences for smallholders is to be developed and implemented.
Albert R. Hagan
Emeritus Professor in Agricultural Economics University of Missouri-Columbia
Balanced Farming in Missouri
A Farming Systems Approach in Assisting Farm Families
Balanced Farmings, as practiced in Missouri over a period of several decades, is a unique program from the standpoint of its orientation, its historical evolvement, its influence on extension and research methodology, and its impact upon the productivity and welfare of individual farm families and the communities in which they live.
Balanced Farming is farm-family and farming-systems oriented. It is centered upon the unique net of resources, goals, problems, and needs
of the individual farm family. It is based upon a long-range plan for the whole farm and family unit to serve as a guide or blueprint for the year-by-year application of the new technologies and investments essential for a well-balanced system of farming and family living.
A key feature of the Balanced Farming approach is a complete analysis of the overall farm and home plan before any changes are made--before any new technologies are actually applied. It begins with an analysis of the present system for comparison with acceptable alternatives ones before a plan is chosen for long-run development.
Each long-run plan is evaluated from the standpoint of the capital and labor requirements, the profit potential, the economic cash-flow feasibility, the debt-repayment capacity, the cash available for family
living, and the actual layout of fields, lanes, lots, water management, kitchens, etc. for maximum efficiency in use of labor and equipment.
The approach differs from most early-day extension work in Missouri in which new technologies--as discovered and proven through research--were introduced and tested on various farms as individual practices. These often involved a fertilizer trial on one farm, a variety yield tried on another, and perhaps a livestock feeding trial on another, without any attempt to evaluate the economic impact on the entire farming system. These research/extension efforts are now considered the on-farm technology approach rather than the farming systems approach. Results are measured by the performance of the crop or livestock enterprise to which applied and continue to serve a very useful on-going need. In contrast, the results of the farming systems approach are measured by records of performance of the entire farm family unit, year-by-year, in comparison with the plan initially evaluated and implemented over time.
Albert R. Hagan -page 2
Balanced Farming was initiated as a state-wide extension program, with associated research, in 19411 but it evolved by phases or stages through several decades, starting before 1910 and continuing through various modifications to the present time. The most productive period was from 19415 to 1965--the Balance Farming Association phase--in which farm families paid membership fees in their own associations to help finance the services of a special extension worker (a Balance Farming Agent) who helped them plan-, evaluate and implement new systems of farming and family living over a period of years. At the peak period, 75 such Balanced Farming agents served several thousand farm families throughout the state each year. After termination of Associations by administrative decree, the farming systems work was continued through more diversified programs such as research panels for special types of farming, special programs for beginning farm families and the Small-Farm Program to be discussed later by Dr. Enloe and Dr. Swartz.
Farm families were assisted in planning and implementing long-range
Balanced Farming plans through special schools, workshops, demonstrations, and farm and home visits by extension workers and researchers. Pilot studies (case studies with individual farm families and community groups) with on-going records of performance provided a sound basis for extending and expanding the program over time. Some have been continued for more than 30 years without interruption.
Success of the Balanced Farming program in Missouri hinged upon a few key factors: strong administrative support; integrated inter-disciplinary efforts in extension and research; an adequate, well-trained field staff; providing markets and facilities for implementing. plans; an on-going informational and promotional program; and a systematic, step-by-step procedure for planning and evaluating a proposed Balanced Farming system before starting to implement it. A planning procedure developed in Missouri through several decades includes 10 steps and associated worksheets as follows: (1) Inventory
resources: (2) Specify goals; (3) Identify problems; (4i) Analyze alternative plans; (5) Choose'a plan to develop; (6) Implement the plan;
(7) Assume and allocate responsibilities; (8) Evaluate progress; (9) Establish controls; and (10) Adjust as conditions change.
In summary, these 10 steps will be illustrated with pictures and records from a small Missouri farm for a period of 20 years--a periodlin
which farm productivity, farm and home improvements, farm income, and family living improved dramatically.
H. H. Hagerman
Professor of Biology
Lyman Briggs School
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
The Sorjan Cropping System as a Method of
Growing a Dryland and a Wetland Crop Simultaneously
The sorJan cropping system is a series of constructed raised beds and lowered sinks that are traditional in some areas of Indonesia. The sorJan method provides space for one or more dryland crops and a wetland crop simultaneously.
The sorJan method is especially applicable in constantly wet or intermittently flooded conditions. A sorJan may be constructed using manual labor, animal help or mechanized equipment. Construction is ordinarily labor intensive and may be an initial constraint, but the possibility of raising high valued crops during peak demand periods can offset the construction costs quickly.
Some of the advantages of the sorjan system are:
1. Nutritional- the farmer can enrich his diet by raising
foods that he may not otherwise afford.
2. Income some crops may be grown during "off season"
bringing a higher market value.
3. Soil Conditioning (a) better drainage of the beds
during the wet season and (b) loose bed soil allows
roots to grow deep toward residual moisture.
At the International Rice Research Institute, several cropping patterns were tried on the raised beds along with rice and fish (Tilapia) in the sinks. The most profitable pattern was
tomato-onion-bush beans in consecutive order with the onion crop as the most profitable single one. The planting of one successful high valued crop was enough to offset the cost of sorjan construction.
B.P. 22 R. I. Mauritania
Research and Development Programs Orientation in Mauritania
The study of horticultural crops represents a very diversified discipline. Several species are studied at the three following levels:
1. The station level I. .
2. The on farm with feedback element level
3. The implementation level
1. The Statiol:
The different requirements for experimental station trials (equipment, location, etc.) are discussed. The discrepancy between these requirements and the center (C.N.R.A.D.A.)'s lack of resources and infrastructure is pointed out. A number of problems related to potatoes, onions and tomatoes are noted and some recommendations have been made. Mixed crops systems and irrigated crops systems have been suggested as potential solutions to the difficulties faced in Mauritania with respect to horticultural crops.
2. The On Farm Level:
At this level it is suggested that the results obtained from research are to be transmitted to the farmer. The two contacts
considered are the individual producers and cooperatives. It is pointed out that the part of the program regarding research at the station level is completed and that the results are to be tried on farms.
3. The ImDlementation Level (real milieu)
To increase horticultural productivity two ways are considered
-improve productivity of existing crops
-expand the area under cultivation
Four major elements are discussed which are a) intensification of production b)expansion of cultivated areas c) commercialization of products d) provision of seeds
The report deals with Research, Development, and Liaison. These three phases of the agricultural development process are currently going on in Mauritania. Three elements are to be emphasized.
1. The Liaison Research Development 2. Input-output aspects of development
3. Provision of seeds and commercialization of products
The Liaison Research-Development may be sponsored by the C.N.R.A.D.A. (The National Center of Agronomic Research and Agricultural Development). Some developmental sectors may need special programs. The Horticultural branch of the Center is ready to answer any questions, can establish detailed projects regarding the Liaison Research-Development and fully participates in the elaboration of development projects.
Robert D. Hart
Morrilton, Arkansas 72110
A Microcomputer Spreadsheet Farm System Model as an Analytical Framework for On-Farm Experimentation and
Linkage Between Research and Extension
Microcomputer spreadsheet software programs can be used to develop farm-level budgets that tract the flow of capital, land, labor, energy, etc. through a farm system. These farm models, representing various
types of target farms in various agroecological zones, can be used both as an analytical framework for the design and analysis of on-farm experiments and as dynamic information packages that can link research and extension. The potential utility of microcomputer spreadsheet farm models in the design and analysis of on-farm experiments is illustrated using examples from a farming systems project in Western Kenya.
Two farm models were developed that tract the flow of feed from various feed resources to cattle, sheep, and goat herds. Feed from
different cropping systems, fallow, fence-row, and off-farm areas are quantified in dry matter, crude protein, and digestible energy units. The model allows the user to change the allocation of land to the various enterprises, the quantity and quality of crop and feed production, the structure of the livestock herds, and the energy demand from the livestock. The model has been used primarily as a tool for team members to do _a te evaluation of potential technology to be included in on-farm experiments, but as better data becomes available, it should be possible to also use the model in the evaluation of on-farm
experiments. The potential utility of the farm models to link research and extension is discussed in relation to a farming systems research and development project in the Eastern Caribbean. This project is developing Technological Improvement Files (TIFs) that will be initiated by research, transferred to extension, and then continuously updated by research. It is probable that the farm models will be an important subfile of the TIF's.
G.C. Hawtin. M.C. Saxena. T. Nordblom B.1hrdwaj
ICARDA, P. 0. Box 5466 ICARDA, P.O.Box 2416
Aleppo, Syria Cairo, Egypt
M. M. Hussein A. M, Nassib
Hudeiba Research Station Field Crops Research Inst
Ed Damer, Sudan ARC. Giza, Egypt
The Nile Valley Project: A Model for Cooperation Between
International and National Programs in Research and Extension
Although oriented towards a single crop (faba beans) the ICARDA/IFAD Nile Valley Project began with extensive literature searches and farm-level surveys in a broad attempt to diagnose technical and .socio-economic constraints to production within the context of the prevalent farming systems. In the five years of the Project it has progressively embraced experimental, on-farm testing and extension activities in several target areas in Egypt and northern Sudan. The Project involves the part-time input of over 30 national scientists working in multi-disciplinary teams and about 10 ICARDA scientists based in Aleppo, Syria, are also closely associated. An important feature of the Project has been the direct involvement of extension workers and farmers themselves in the on-farm research.
The Nile Valley Project has been cited by several development assistance organizations and governments as a successful model of
collaboration between an international research center and national research programs. Not only has the Project been effective at the farm level but has also strengthened the research capability and capacity of the national programs. A unique strategy has been adopted for the management and operation of the Project. Unlike most other
national/international projects, leadership and coordination at the national level, and the execution of research and extension activities have, as much as possible, been the responsibility of Egyptian and Sudanese nationals. The model represents a highly cost effective approach to research and development.
This paper focuses on the organization and administration of the Nile Valley Project, its implementation and monitoring. Details of the many successful research results have been described elsewhere and are only highlighted here.
J.B.Henson. J. Noel. M. Ingle
International Program Development Office Washington State University
Farming Systems Project Implementation Start-up and
Replanning: Experience from the Eastern Caribbean and Sudan
Many regional and national agricultural institutions are giving increased emphasis to projects and programs that are systems-oriented, and that involve on-farm research from the farmer's perspective and with the farmer's involvement. In the last 5 years substantial attention has been given to policy and design issues of such Farming Systems Research
and Development (FSD/D) efforts. However, relatively little emphasis has been given to the implementation requirements of FSR/D efforts.
This paper will address this "implementation gap" by examining the implementation experience with two FSR/D projects: (1) the recently initiated CARDI FSR/D project in the Eastern Caribbean and (2) the 4 year FSR/D project in the Western Sudan. Specifically, the
implementation start-up of the CARDI project will be compared with implementation replanning activities in the Western Sudan. Two key issues will be considered: (1) What difficulties and positive outcomes were associated with the implementation approaches? and (2) What
conclusions can be drawn for the use of similar implementation approaches in other FSR/D projects? The paper will close with an assessment of potential implications for various actors involved in the design-implementation of FSR/D efforts.
R. E. Hudgens
Farming Systems Agronomist and
Adaptive Research Planning Team
P. 0. Box 80908, Kabwe, Zambia
Subregional Issues in the Implementation of Farming Systems Research and Extension Methodology A Case Study in Zambia
Much has been written and discussed concerning the institutionalization of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) at the national level in developing countries with the division of agricultural research efforts into commodity and on-farm adaptive research units. Less attention has been directed toward practical issues of FSR/E at the subregional level.
The USAID financed FSR/E project in the Central Province of Zambia, which is in its third year of operation within the Adaptive Research Planning Team (ARPT) structure of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water
Development (MAWD), has established successful linkages between farming systems and commodity research teams within the Research Branch and between farmings systems researchers and extension workers at the field level. However, in the process of applying FSR/E theory to the real world conditions of the Central Province of Zambia several procedural issues have arisen.
One such issue concerns the different criteria used by the Research and Extension Branches of MAWD in zoning recommendation domains. The Extension Branch is organized and financed according to microregional political boundaries. In the Central Province of Zambia the structure for technology transfer is divided into five units (districts). On the other hand, the Maize Research Team partitions the same region into only three recommendation domains on the basis of agroclimatic factors, while ARPT diagnostic studies have identified six distinct farming systems among the traditional and small scale commercial producers. Given the
inflexibility of political and agroecological divisions, it becomes the duty of FSR/E to incorporate biological, socioeconomic, and political considerations into a workable and compatible system for generating and transferring new production technologies.
R. E. Hudgens Page 2
This paper discusses steps taken to instill a farming systems
perspective into the Extension Branch and to increase the capacity of extension workers to tailor recommendations according to the socioeconomic and agroclimatic resources of farmers in their areas. A comparison is made of FSR/E zoning using the rapid rural appraisal method with subsequent findings of formal surveys in three ARPT recommendation domains. A comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of different in-service extension training activities is also presented.
Other issues addressed in the paper include techniques to involve farmers and enhance farmer understanding of on-farm research, mechanisms to encourage cooperation between FSR/E and other regional development projects, and agronomic methodology in on-farm research, particularly in reference to the control of non-experimental variables and treatment comparison on the basis of yields per unit labor invested. Although this paper deals with problems encountered in the implementation of FSR/E methodology at a subregional level 1n a specific country, the lessons learned are applicable on a much wider basis throughout the Third World.
Ronald Jaubert. Mahmoud Oglah
Farming Systems Program, ICARDA
P. 0. Box 54~66 Aleppo, Syria
The Semi-Arid Areas of' Syria: Farming Systems in Decline
The paper presents a case study focusing on the semi-arid
cultivated areas of Syria. 'These areas raise some challenging problems for the country's agricultural future. Previous studies by the FSP have
shown that the study areas have a low productivity, a substantial out-flow of' labor and have not contributed, in the last 15 or 20 years,
to the increase in agricultural production at the national level.
A complementary diagnostic study, using a historical approach,
showed that the study areas are undergoing rapid agro-ecological degradation. For example, barley yields have fallen by 50% or more in the last 20 years. Several factors underly the on-going degradation
-Agriculture throughout the study areas has become a "mining" activity.
In most cases no inputs are made to 'the intensively cropped areas and uncultivated lands are subjected to heavy and uncontrolled grazing. The
fall in productivity results from the failure to maintain renewable
- The adoption by farmers of' short term "mining" practices is related to several factors such as land tenure, population pressures, and market forces. Furthermore, agriculture is becoming a secondary source of income for many rural families. Finally, the study areas do not have
high priority in national development policies.
The current situation raises several methodological and
- The study area requires a strategy combining technical changes
and socio-economic measures.
- The problem does not affect a specific group of farmers but an
area as a whole.
- There are apparent incompatibilities between farmers' short term
strategies and the national community's interest.
* Technical changes will likely have to be based on low-input
Ronald Jaubert. Mahmoud Oglah Page 2
A sub-area in which ICARDA is currently testing several technical innovations was selected in order to refine our diagnosis and to evaluate the potential for arresting degradation. Out of 20 villages, studied in a preliminary survey, a group of, 4 was selected as subjects of intensive farming systems research. This research focuses on the
management of the resource base. The study, initiated in 1983, includes several disciplines: livestock, agronomy, range management, soils and economics. The research is 'based on the monitoring of 15 farms and on-farm trials. The study indicates several areas where improvements in
management practices can be made, but these are often closely interdependent. This is the case, for example, for changes in feed practices, range management and forage production, which raises problems with regard to the design and implementation of future on-farm trials.
Sam H. Johnson. John B. Claar
Department of Agricultural Economics
305 Mumford Hall
1301 West Gregory Drive
Urbana, IL 61801
Farming Systems Research: Necessary But Not
Sufficient for Agricultural Development
For almost all of the less developed countries (LDC's) increased agricultural production is both economically and politically important. This is particularly true for Africa where high population growth rates and stagnant agricultural production has resulted in net declines in per capita food output. Crucial to the improvement of agriculture is a production research and extension system. Yet, primarily due to
historical factors both research and extension are among the weakest organizations in most LDC's. Dissatisfaction with the ability of these traditional research organizations to solve problems of limited resource farmers has led to the development of more holistic research methodologies. Such approaches, popularly known as farming systems research (FSR), have grown to focus on strengthened linkages between farmers and researchers and to emphasize research under actual farm conditions. However, in spite of the fact that research and extension are simply different parts of a single continuum, extension has yet to receive the same focus, and revitalization, that has occurred in countries that have implemented successful FSR programs.
The purpose of this paper is to identify and emphasize the interconnection between research and extension and to detail the opportunities that are being created for extension by FSR approaches to research. It is urgent the authors point out for extension to modify its historical mission, organization, staffing and training approach in order to exploit opportunities offered by a farming systems perspective. In particular, as effective FSR programs result in shifts of feedback mechanisms along the research-extension continuum, it is necessary for extension to co-evolve and change as research changes. Changes in traditional research programs in LDC's are necessary if agricultural production is to increase, but these changes in isolation are not
sufficient; it is also necessary that the two bureaucracies change in unison in a co-evolutionary process in order for research and extension to take advantage of the potential for dynamic agricultural development provided by FSR. Examples from Zambia are used to illustrate this
process and to show how, in one country, top administrators are using FSR/E to bring about an effective co-evolutionary change in both research and extension.
Sam H. Johnson. III. John B. Claar
Department of Agricultural Economics
University of Illinois
305 Mumford Hall
1301 West Gregory
FSR/E: Shifting the Intersection of
Research and Extension
The main objective of this paper is to identify the changes that extension must make in order to take advantage of the opportunities that are created by adoption of farming systems approaches to research. In particular, the paper focuses on the point of intersection between research and extension and the necessity to shift this point as A farming systems perspective is adopted. As research adopts FSR and consequently changes its methodological approaches, extension must co-evolve and change also. If this does not happen it is unlikely that a change in research such as a shift to FSR or a change in extension such as adoption of the Train and Visit (T&V) System will be
particularly successful in its long-term impact on agricultural development.
It is urgent for extension to modify its historical mission, organization, staffing and training approach in order to exploit opportunities created by FSR. As effective FSR progress result in
shifts in feedback mechanism along the research-extension continuum it is necessary for research and extension to make the necessary bureaucratic changes required to facilitate these feedback shifts. In the paper these points are illustrated and then examples from Zambia are selected to emphasize various aspects of the process.
Farming Systems Approach to
Animal Husbandry Problems in Botswana
The Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP) Francistown team includes two economists, two agronomists and two animal scientists. At least two other farming systems projects in Botswana, the Integrated Farming Pilot Project (IFPP) in the Southern Region and the Evaluation of Farming Systems and Agricultural Implements Project (EFSAIP) in the Gaborone area have animal husbandry components. However, the ATIP team is proceeding under a somewhat different format than either IFPP of EFSAIP.
Experiment station research (Department of Agricultural Research DAR) has produced and published a large "body of knowledge" in Botswana concerning the feeding, care, health and use of farm animals. The Department of Agricultural Field Services (DAFS) has developed and is recommending various programs and practices based on that research. By following recommended programs the farmer should be able to increase his cash income and improve his way of life. However, many of those
recommended programs and practices have been very poorly accepted by the farmers with small herds and flocks.
One of the practices recommended by DAFS (supplemental mineral feeding) was chosen by animal husbandry team members for further study. Supplemental mineral feeding should be economically and socially acceptable to every farmer producing animals. It requires a very small monetary outlay. It does not require a large change in management or husbandry. It has been recommended to farmers for several years. Government'is subsidizing cost of both bonemeal and salt to encourage the practice of feeding mineral-mix. Yet less than 10% of the farmers in Central Region and less than 5% of the farmers in Francistown Region feed bonemeal and salt to their animals according to recent government figures.
Bgrl Koch page 2
Early on, ATIP team members decided that, where possible, animal studies would utilize the same farmers as economic and agronomic studies. All team members were involved in the selection of villages and farmers. The team was mandated to work in Tutume district. Three villages, Matobo, Marapong and Mathangwane, in that district, were selected for the ATIP project and ten farmers were selected in each village to participate in the Multiple Visit Survey (M.V.S.). Farmers were selected to represent a wide range of resource endowments and agricultural practices. Most of the farmers own animals and/or poultry. The selection procedure will be described in the paper.
A mixture of 25% salt and 75% dicalcium phosphate (bonemeal is seldom available in Tutume district) was prepared and packaged in small quantities (500 grams or less). This is supplied to M.V.S. farmers who agree to follow feeding directions and monitor results. A livestock practices survey has been prepared and presented to those same farmers. It is being summarized and results will be reported in the paper.
Monitoring results is a problem. Most farmers have only a few animals and very poor holding or handling facilities. Also, they expect instantaneous and spectacular visible changes in their animals whenever they follow a recommended husbandry practice. Technicians are
attempting to record reproductive rates, survival rates of young animals, dry-season survival of mature animals and visual condition of animals. Preliminary results will be reported in the paper.
On most small farms efficient utilization of draft power'appears to be reduced by poorly-fitted ox yokes and donkey harnesses. Plows are often poorly maintained. A plow-condition survey has been completed on the MVS farms. Results are being summarized and will be reported in the paper.
M. A. LePladieur
IRAT/GERDAT B.P. 5035
34032 Montpellier Cedex
The Cameroun Project
1. On Cameroun
The two time periods of the IRAT-GERDAT program
- analyse peasants production systems in Central South Cameroun
- model the forms of their economic decision
- integrate the conclusions in order to propose a new development
project for the region.
Organization of the PrQgram
The 5 different stages of the research are:
a. The analysis of peasants' production systems in Cameroun has been achieved over the period 1975-1978. On the basis of earlier works survey networks have been set up for the analysis of peasants' behavior in its agronomic, economic and sociological aspects.
b. The elaboration of a first cognitive model (1978): The surveys undertaken between 1975-1978 allowed the elaboration of hypotheses regarding the systemic functioning of the peasants' agro-economic behavior.
c. The elaboration of a second cognitive and simulation model (1981): At this stage, the previous model is being simplified in order to increase the number of trials on different productive units. Important elements have been kept whereas minor details have been eliminated.
d. The results of these works have then become the basis for the elaboration of a new development project.
e. The writing and synthesis of these acquisitions are currently underway and must be published by the end of 1984.
- Several Publications
- Two 'data banks' on peasants in the Central South Cameroun.
- Two pedagogical cases: one on survey methodology, the other
- A development project.
2. On Methodology: System Approach and Elaboration of Models
The research program has three objectives:
- Reinforce a multidisciplinary approach
- Modernize multidisciplinary survey methodologies
-Select the model types most adapted to a multidisciplinary
approach focusing on regions in developing countries.
M. A. LePladieur -page 2
The Multidisciplinary System Approach
The specialists associated with this approach were all tropical with experience in geography, pedology, agronomy, animal sciences, socio-economics.
The New Methodologies of Multidisciplinary Surveys
The new methodologies must take into consideration the following elements:
-Voluntary multidisciplinary diagnostic
-Lack of files except the topographical map
-Partial treatments of obtained data.
Ben W. *Lindsav
Somalia Extension Project
Utah State University
Logan, UT 841322
A Farming Systems Approach to Extension in Somalia
One of our greatest successes in Somalia has been to create an
objectivity of the Field Extension Agents in keeping farm records for decision making purposes. Until dependable records are kept, Farming Systems and Farm Management as a whole are very limited. Keeping
records for practical purposes had never before been taught to the
Extension Workers of this East African country. One of the challenging tasks was to convince college trained Field Extension Agents that records were not being kept for some- government official, but for their
own use while working with the farmers.
One of the great needs in Third World Countries is reliable farm
data and research of what is really happening and what could happen with
agriculture in these countries. Agriculture research is a must unless data can be accumulated from areas of like circumstances and transferred to local conditions. Often the old traditional seed or method of planting is more secure than introduced new ideas without any
Extension Workers, well prepared scholastically, are ineffective
without back up data from agriculture research to support new ideas.
Most of the farms were small, producing mainly their necessary food.
They felt they could not afford to gamble on the thinking of people they hardly knew. Some practices could bd introduced without taking a gamble
and with a minimum of cost. Some of these practices were:
A. Seed germination for quality seed.
B. Number of good seeds per hill.
C. How planting.
We tried to establish a system of gathering basic data such as: the
size of a field, what a quintal of grain is worth to the producer, etc.
Measuring tapes or survey equipment had seldom been used. Scales or weighing equipment were unheard of for farming purposes, so how could Field Agents determine what an improved seed or cultural method would
* accomplish when they didn't have measuring tools to establish a known
size or quantity?
* Ben W. Lindsay -page 2
We started a system of gathering market prices of the five most
important grain crops. The agricultural leaders, Extension Workers and more progressive farmers were excited to see how the prices fluctuate
* from one village to another and from one season to another.
To get better input-output data a concentrated effort was extended
to selected farms in the Mareeri Village along the Shebelli River. We
found the following ideas to be very helpful with the FSR&D program we
A. Select representative type farms of the area.
B. Prepare a history of how and when practices had been
performed on that farm for the past seasons.
C. Decide on what comparisons would be made and what would be
learned if the demonstration went according to plan.
D. Fill out a questionairre for each farmer so data collected
in the future can be more readily analyzed and compared.
E. Involve recognized research personnel so Extension and
Research are moving together in making recommendations
to the farmers.
F. Involve the Village Chief and his council so what is
learned will be readily accepted by community leaders.
Mahlon Long. Mike Roth
Crop Production Risk Perceptions and Risk Management Burkine-Fasso
Crop production risk is a major factor in the lives of all farmers. But some farmers have a greater variety of risk management tools at their disposal than do others. In the United States crop failure can create a great financial burden, but this is reduced by crop insurance and other risk-spreading mechanisms available to farmers. In
Burkine-Fasso (Upper Volta) however, crop failure can be life-threatening. To make matters worse, few risk spreading mechanisms are available to farmers. Principal among these are the extended family and the maintenance of sheep and goats to sell during bad years.
Research conducted in Burkine-Fasso by the Purdue FSR team was designed to describe the farmer's risk environment and to analyze his methods of dealing with risk. This report explains the initial findings of that research. It focuses on the farmer's risk perceptions, their
effects on his cropping patterns and the use of small livestock as a risk-spreading mechanism.
Stenhen P. Malvestuto Greaory M. Sullivan
Dept of Fisheries and Department of Agricultural
Allied Aquacultural Economics and Rural Sociology
Auburn University Auburn University
Auburn, AL 36894I9-4I201 Auburn, AL 3689419-4201
A Farming Systems Approach to Management of the Niger River System
Resource management of river systems has been difficult to obtain,
yet these are important biological systems which are critical to the economies or many developing countries. River systems experience
problems similar to the "tradegy of the commons" with unlimited access to the resource with resultant overexploitation. For example in Niger, traditional fishing management plans have not dealt adequately with the complex problem of optimizing a multiple use resource. Thus, a farming systems approach is being used to collect information on an artisinal fishery for the design and implementation of extension-management programs that will effectively impact on the river fishery for this
The field study in Niger includes both a traditional method of data
collection by conducting a river catch assessment survey combined with a
farming systems approach for collection of socioeconomic data for a holistic analysis in designing management plans. A conceptual model has
been developed that allows the researchers to identify and measure key
variables of the river system.
Collaboration between the Government's Extension Office of Lands
and Water and three donor agencies: FAO, Peace Corps/Action and USAID, comprise a multi-donor effort in this project. Field research is being conducted by Peace Corps volunteers with their Nigerienne counterparts.
Problems encountered with collecting information will be discussed
especially with regard to the extreme hydrological phases of the river.
A companion effort is being undertaken to collect information on
socioeconomic factors that influence fishing effort on the resource and utilization of the fish harvested. Empirical data is being collected from three sources: fish landings, households and the markets.
-Evaluation of these methods of data collection will be useful on how to
achieve a holistic approach to management of a riverine system.
*Peace Corps volunteers with their counterparts are being used as extension agents to introduce appropriate technologies and management plans for the resource. A careful appraisal of any proposed changes is
* being done knowing that fisher households are extremely dependent on
fish for both food and cash, especially during the long dry periods when food becomes critical. An immediate problem are the enormous fish losses which occur during processing, storage and distribution of the fish. Extension efforts are being made to correct these problems insuring that recommendations are compatible with available resources
and existing customs.
Harold J. McArthur. Jr.
University of' Hawaii
Application of' the FSR&D Approach to Domestic Agriculture:
Some Lessons and Questions From Hawaii
The College of' Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources became
interested in the' farming systems approach to agricultural development four years ago. Although FSR&D emerged largely as a result of' experience in the developing nations of' Asia and Latin America, our initial interest was in its possible local application.
Because of' a range of' similarities between the basic operating
conditions and constraints of' small farmers in Hawaii and those in many parts of' rural Asia, we felt the FSR&D approach might have relevance to domestic agriculture. The majority of' Hawaii's small farmers, like those in many parts of' the tropics, farm marginal lands not suitable f'or plantation use. Many of' them rent the land they cultivate. They are dependent on costly imported equipment and agricultural inputs. Most
have little control over market conditions and find themselves in competition with foreign and Mainland producers.
As part of' our plan to assess the applicability of' FSR&D in Hawaii, a group of' faculty from 11 disciplines and extension conducted intensive sondeos, or rapid reconnaissance surveys, in two local farming communities.
Key findings that will be discussed in terms of' their implications f'or the use of' FSR&D in Hawaii include the following:
1. Farmer Participation
This exercise generated a rich body of' farmer-based knowledge that demonstrated the non-applicability of' most of'
the recommendations made by agricultural researchers.
2. Recommendation Domains
The most important finding was the lack of' truly homogeneous farming communities. This raises fundamental questions
about the local application of' FSR&D.
Harold J. McArthur. Jr. -Page 2
Most problems identified by farmers were not agricultural in
nature. The real need is for work in the area of farming systems infrastructure and policy (FSIP), rather than on
improving local agricultural systems.
4.* Interdisciplinary Coordination
It is difficult to maintain the desired level of interdisciplinary interaction' over a long period of time.
While individual faculty members were working and living in the field they functioned well as a team. Weekly meetings on campus, however, were not sufficient to sustain the same
level of interdisciplinary synergy.
The major dilemma faced was that senior decision makers wanted to see demonstrated results, that could be measured in terms of increased production and income generation potential, before committing themselves to major policy and organizational changes necessary for the institutionalization of FSH&D within the land grant and
state agricultural research and delivery system.
Although this discussion is focused on the domestic application of farming systems, increasing evidence suggests that projects in developing countries are encountering similar constraints.
Della E. MoMillan
Center for African Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
The Role of Longitudinal Case Studies in Evaluation Research
A comparison of a followup study with baseline research on a land settlement scheme reinforces the need to integrate longitudinal studies focusing on smaller data sets within national research programs. The project, the Volta Valley Authority (Amenagement des Vallees des Volta or AVV) is the Upper Volta government agency in charge of the settlement and development of Upper Volta's land in the Onchocerciasis Control
Program (OCP). The agency has attempted a capital intensive program of planned settlement and agricultural extension in the disease control area.
The research on which the case is based was conducted in two periods: (1) a two-year baseline studyothat looked at the economic and
social consequences of the AVV for a single group of settlers from the same home village; and (2) a three month followup of the same group of settlers. The analysis focuses on global changes and changes in the intrahousehold organization of the settlers' crop and animal production, marketing and income. The methodological problems of incorporating this type of information into traditional evaluation research are addressed through a comparison of the village studies with: (1) the results of the AVV Statistical Service's farm monitoring program (1979 sample=313 households); and (2) the project records that the extension workers keep on each family.
David C. Meyers
Rural Development Institute
Cuttington University College
P. 0. Box 277
The Farmer Involvement Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach
to the Teaching of Agriculture at the Rural Development Institute Bong County, Liberia
The Rural Development Institute (RDI) in Bong County, Liberia
offers a two-year Associate Degree in General Agriculture. Graduates serve as mid-level managers in national extension programs, teach vocational agriculture in high schools or work in the private agricultural sector.
The Farmer Involvement Program (F.I.P) a Near East Foundation/USAID funded program added a new component of agricultural training to the Rural Development Institute. The implementation of the F. I. P. called for an integration of the various disciplines offered at
the RDI: animal science, plant science, soil science and agricultural engineering.
The objectives of the F.I.P. are to provide on-farm practical agricultural training to RDI students and also to improve the welfare of
local farmers by demonstrating first hand, improved methods of crop and animal production.
Farmers identified as participants in the Program were typically educated or semi-education with some formal training in agriculture. Most were familiar with the use of agricultural chemicals and acquainted with modern methods of agricultural production. Capital is the limiting factor for this class of farmers.
A multidisciplinary team consisting of Instructors and Technical Assistants coordinated and integrated the student practical exercises to
be conducted on-farm. The on-farm practicals provided a more realistic agricultural experience for the RDI student as opposed to the somewhat artificial setting that many of the on-campus practicals tended to have.
Students experienced complete cycles of crop and animal production on-farm and became familiar with the constraints the farmer faced in completing the cycle. The farmer's participation in the Program increased his cash income and generated agricultural interest within his community.
International Rice Research Institute P. 0. Box 933
A Decade of On-Farm Research in Lowland Rice-based Farming Systems: Some Lessons
When implemented with linkages to conventional agricultural research programs, on-farm cropping systems research complements experiment station research. Technologies tested in on-farm cropping systems research projects are those perceived as having a potential to increase the productivity of a farming system, but which fit within physical, biotic, and socioeconomic limits.
In tropical Asia, rice is central to most farming systems because it is well adapted. Moreover, governments and households place high priority on rice production. Although rice cultivation remains central to farming systems, greater frequency of harvests of rice and other crops is regarded as an important strategy to increase food production because land for agricultural expansion is limited while population is increasing. Increased cropping intensity is also regarded as a means to increase rural incomes by increasing opportunities for gainful employment.
Among rural households, those farming rainfed fields commonly have low incomes and are most exposed to weather and market fluctuations. Experience with on-farm research methods and modern agricultural technology in rainfed rice farming systems has yielded lessons. The technical aspects of opportunities and constraints to increased harvest
frequency under lowland rainfed conditions are discussed. Methodological and organizational matters are also discussed. Among these are relationships with research station-oriented scientists who are responsible for generating'appropriate new technology, with extension and development agent officials and with community leadership. Because of their importance to interpretations and conclusions, the nature of research arrangements with farmers is discussed.
Angela Neilan. John S. Caldwell. Mary Hill Rojas. Miew Lerut-Mark-Teo
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VA
Net Nutritional Benefit:
A Method of Marginal Analysis
of the Nutritional Impact of' Agricultural Interventions
Most Farming Systems projects, and most agricultural extension programs, usually share a common implicit assumption: increase farm production and income and the household, including nutrition, will take care of itself. Home economists, however, recognize that increased farm income does not always lead to improved family nutrition and challenge this assumption.
There are two ways to consider nutrition in Farming Systems. The first way is to determine nutritional inadequacies in the diagnostic stage and let these guide the design of an intervention. This is
nutrition-guided intervention. The other way is to choose an
intervention on the basis of its potential for increasing farm income, but consider nutritional impact as an additional evaluative measure.
In either case, food consumption surveys have traditionally been used, but these are usually too expensive, time-consuming, and complex for most Farming Systems projects. Food consumption surveys are
analogous to whole-farm cash flow records and economic analysis, whereas
Farming Systems projects more frequently employ enterprise records and marginal analysis only for the intervention being tested. This paper proposes an analogous marginal analysis of nutritional benefit. The analysis only requires determination of which foods are displaced and which foods are added as a result of the agricultural intervention being
tested. An example is given from Southwest Virginia in which broccoli was substituted for another "green" in the diet, green beans. The
percentage of change between the old and new diets are calculated for key nutrients in terms of Recommended Daily Allowances for an at-risk target group, women with off-farm employment.
Henry B. Obeng
Department of Agronomy
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
A Case Study of a Successful Soil Management, Research and Extension Project in Ghana
1. Sufficient research data exists to substantially increase agricultural production in Ghana.
2. Improved practices recommended by agricultural scientists are not widely implemented because of ineffective extension services.
3. Research data do not, therefore get to the small-scale farmers who need them most because of (i) the absence of strategically located research fields (farms) and (ii) the inability of the extension services to attract adequate professional and technical personnel and make necessary transport available for them to reach as many small-scale farmers as possible.
1. Establish research and extension farms within each of the five
agro-ecological zones of the country [high rain (very humid) forest; semi-deciduous rain (humid) forest; forest-savannah transitional; coastal (short grass) savannah and interior (subhumid wooded) savannah zones (Figure 1)].
2. Conduct field trials on new crops with export possibilities.
3. Extend research data directly to small-scale farmers via "open days" and simplified handouts.
III.ESTABLISHMENT OF FIRST SOIL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND EXTENSION FARM--SEMIDECIDUOUS RAIN (HUMID) FOREST ZONE.
1. A 36-hectare farm site representative of the soils of the zone was selected.
2. A detailed soil survey of the farm-site was conducted and relief and drainage, soil, vegetation and land-use, and soil-crop suitability maps were compiled, each at a scale of 1:6,650.
3. The farm-site was cleared of vegetation prior to the cultivation of crops using chainsaws and cutlasses instead of bulldozers in order to avoid loss of the organic topsoil and exposure of the soils to erosion.
4. Crops were then planted in accordance with soil suitability and recommended cultural practices.
5. The soil-crop relationship is as shown in Figure 2.
IV. ORGANIZATION OF "OPEN DAYS" FOR FARMERS AND EXTENSION OFFICERS
1. Timing The first in the series was organized in 1978, three years after the start of the farm and then every year thereafter.
2. Strategy In order to attract as many farmers as possible to attend the "Open Days" effective contacts were made with influencial personalities in the society who accepted invitations to play key roles as follows: i) The Asantehene the well-respected, powerful and very popular Traditional Head of the Ashantis as chairman and to
deliver the closing remarks.
Henry B. Obeng page 2
i) The Regional Commissioner the Political Head of the Ashanti Region to deliver a welcome address in order to convince the farmers that the program had the blessings of
iii)The Regional Chief farmer who had some days earlier toured the farm to deliver a speech to the farmers about the advantages in adopting the improved practices on their
iv) The contacts with the aformentioned three influential personalities were so effective that farmers within the
Ashanti Region attended the "Open Days" in great numbers.
V. FOLLOW-UP PROGRAMS
1 In response to a unanimous request from the farmers, "Special Project Soil Surveys" were organized free of charge for small-scale farmers to offer direct advice on:
i) the suitability of the soils of their respective farms
for climatically adapted crops and
ii) the institution of improved practices in order to
substantially increase crop yields.
2. The project was so successful that the Asantehene together with a considerable number of both Paramount and Divisional "Chiefs" under him, also requested assistance in establishing modern farms for their various "stools" and for themselves.
Cropping Systems Agronomist
IRRI/Burma Research Project
Rice-Based Farming Systems Research With Focus on South Asia Condition
The conduct of on-farm rice-based cropping pattern trials under farmer-cooperators management, utilizing their individual resources, is considered the most effective and practical way of developing and disseminating farming systems technology to farmers who become researchers partners in this exercise. The cropping sequences are patterned upon the arrival and departure of monsoon with rice as the monsoon crop. The trials are usually superimposed with the test of few outstanding varieties of other crops and component technology to cropping patterns, pre-tested at experimental stations. Outstanding cropping patterns verified under these trials are further screened in multilocation testings and, later, at pilot production program before finally included in the production program.
These pattern-trials are backed up by experiment-station researches
like intensive cropping variety trials of crops sown before or after monsoon rice, *crop establishment studies for cropping systems, the use of animal as power source as well as supplier of meat and milk, and development of simple farm implements appropriate in rice-based farming systems. Results of these studies will be discussed in relation to overall1 rice-based farming systems program with focus in South Asia condition.
Central Research Institute for Food Crops Jalan Merdeka 99
Technological Innovations and Impact of Cropping Systems Research in Different Sites in Indonesia
The cropping/farming systems research approach which is widely used in Indonesia is discussed. On farm research was implemented by an interdisciplinary team in carefully selected target areas. Thorough descriptions of the target areas were made and the research activities phased accordingly. Technological innovations were evaluated through research in the different sites. These technologies were systematically
added to existing cropping patterns and tested. The cropping patterns tested included the existing and usually two or three introduced patterns that required increasing levels of inputs. Direct and indirect
impacts of new technology on the overall farming practices are also discussed in terms of labor and input use, productivity, income and adoption.
KLB. aa Donad Vot
Lincoln University University of Arkansas
Jefferson City, MO 65102 Fayetteville, AK 72701
Designing a FSR/E Project in Rwanda
The Country, Its People, and Problems
As part of' a six-member design team, the authors spent 5 weeks in the small East African country of Rwanda, under a US-AID contract awarded to a consortium of five universities with University of Arkansas serving as the lead institution. About the size of the state of
Maryland, this country has a population of 5.5 million, and it is the most densely populated country in Africa. Rwanda is characterized by a series of sharply defined hills with steep slopes and marshy plains in between. It has a year-round moderate temperature and well-distributed rainfall. It is truly a very beautiful country.
Rwanda is one of the poorest nations in the world. Over 95% of-the
population live in rural areas, mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture. A typical farm family operates a complex farming system on a mere 1.15 ha of land. Main food crops grown are beans, banana, sorghum, maize, sweet potato, Irish potato, cassava, peas and colocase. Coffee is the countryts most important export crop. Through a series of slides, the authors will provide some background information on Rwanda.
The primary objective was to design a five-year development project
for Rwanda to improve its agricultural productivity through a farming systems approach, with special emphasis on the production of food crops. The project goals included improving the capability of the Rwandan Institute of Agricultural Sciences to perform adaptive agricultural research; improving the ability of the Extension Service of the Rwandan Ministry of Agriculture to work with farmers and disseminate improved, appropriate agricultural technology; improving linkages between these two key agricultural institutions; and improving linkages between the technical and administrative/political services that affect agricultural development and social ecology at the local level. Establishment of national and international networks that support both the project itself and Farming Systems Re sear ch/Exte nsion in general was another major objective. The authors will highlight their project design experiences and discuss some of the preimplementation difficulties.
Agricultural Development Consultants, Inc. Coral Gables, Florida
Conducting On-farm Research by Extensionists: An Approach to Effective Transfer of Technology
The lack of effective communication between the research and extension institutions in developing countries is seldom the most important limitation for the successful transfer of technology to small farmers. Attempts to integrate efforts through high level commissions and institutional agreements commonly fail to achieve the objective.
Common causes for the lack of integration between research and extension include the administrative and some times institutional separation, their difference in personnel and budget magnitudes which usually favors extension and the higher professional status which generally favors research.
Under the farming system approach to research this separation tends
to aggravate; it is often times taken as an invasion to the extensionists realm because of the farmers participation and
misunderstanding of the validation process interpreted as a demonstration activity.
To overcome these obstacles an active involvement of extension in the later stages of on-farm research can eliminate or reduce many of the friction elements with research. By sharing the fatherhood of the
alternatives to recommend, a positive attitude of the extension unit towards the farming system approach should contribute to a more effective transfer of technology.
The following aspects need to be considered: extension has to identify or train a selected number of extensionists that would team up with a lesser number of research specialists to work in specific regions in the validation phase of research. A transfer plot design to be conducted by farmers should be implemented for eventual promotion by the main force of extensionists. Under their management research then
relinquishes its recommendation decision to a joint research-extension mechanism.
Federico Poev Page 2
An experience in Paraguary where the extension service is conducting adaptive research illustrates elements of the suggested approach.
An Aid financed extension project called PTPA (Proyecto de Transferencia para Pequen -os Agricultores) was conceived through a farming systems approach that included a team of multidisciplinary specialists assigned to each of 8 selected regions that was to identify
researchable problems and implement its realization with the farmer's participation. The concept clashed with the traditional independent criterion between the research and extension departments increasing the already tense relationship of those departments. The concept was eventually implemented after accepting recommendations of an evaluation systems with participation from research and extension personnel in both events. Also a farming systems specialist, who participated in the applied course, remained as a full time consultant in the project. This
interaction allowed for a clear definition of the adaptive research to be conducted by the extension team of specialists. Research staff involvement is limited to their participation in the sondeo practice and in the technical recommendation working sessions of the region's specialists' team. Non-adaptive research coming from the working sessions are referred to the corresponding research program.
The modified approach began in February 1984. As of May 1984, detailed adaptive research work plans, including their budgeting, had been elaborated for the eight regions after their corresponding interdisciplinary sondeo. The plan calls for a total of 160 on-farm trials to be distributed on a pilot area in each region.
The sondeos identified common researchable projects like maize experimental varieties that resulted in a common design for all regions. Many more specialized research projects were defined for the needs of each region, including livestock and household activities.
M. Price, V. Balasubramanian
ISAR/IITA FSR Project
B. P. 629, Kigali, Rwanda
A Case Study of the Rwanda Farming Systems Research Project
The Bugesera Gisaka-Migongo (BGM) region, situated in the southeastern part of Rwanda, is characterized by semiarid climate and poor soils. To improve the food production potential/capability of this newly developed and inhabited region, the Institute of Agronomic Sciences of Rwanda (ISAR) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria started a FSR program in 1983. This program forms a component of the BGM Phase II Agricultural Development Project and is financially supported by the International Development Association (IDA) and the Government of Rwanda.
The FSR program aims to identify the food production constraints of local farming systems (FS), develop appropriate technologies to overcome them, and test them under farmers' conditions so as to promote their successful adoption. For the purpose of implementation, the FSR program consists of five categories:
2. Station research
3. On-farm adaptive research
4. Diffusion 5. Training
This paper discusses in detail the methodology adopted by the Rwandan FSR team for each of the stages, pointing out the problems encountered during implementation.
The constraints identified through surveys are related to (a) farm family (b) rural infrastructure and supply of inputs, (c) crop production and (d) livestock production. The problems related to rural infrastructure and supply of inputs should be addressed from the national perspective. Two essential research strategies pursued in the FSR Project to alleviate the technical constraints are:
1. Development of appropriate crops/varieties with
high yield potential and resistance to drought,
diseases and insects, and adaptable to poor soils; and
2. Development of multipurpose, low-input systems to
increase the production of food, fodder, fuelwood and construction wood as well as to restore and maintain
All the multipurpose systems under investigation have been mentioned but only one system is described in detail as an example. Obviously the low-input systems under investigation are labor-intensive, but the
trade-off of labor for the expensive purchased/imported inputs is worth considering in resource-poor countries like Rwanda. These systems are sustainable for long term with locally available resources, economically viable, if properly managed, and ecologically stable.
Chandra K. Reddy. Issaka Mahamane, Scott SwintoQn
Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques du Niger Purdue University
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
Agronomic Verification of Agricultural Recommendation Domains in South-Central Niger
Three useful agricultural recommendation domains: a) Compact soils, b) sand dune soils, c) sandy valley soils, are identified by 1982 survey of 348 farms in Madarounfa Arrondissement in South-Central Niger. To verify these recommendation domains, several soils and agronomic studies have been initiated in 1984. Soils studies include structure, texture, water infiltration rate, water holding capacity and nutrient status. Agronomy studies include adaptability of different cropping systems in the three recommendation domains. Preliminary results of these studies will be reported.
Criteria for Re-Appraisal and Re-Design: Within-Household
and Between-Household Aspects of Farming Systems Research and
Extension in Three Kenyan Agroforestry Projects
Three distinct agroforestry -projects in Kenya have adopted a farming systems approach in combination with community level interventions. Implementation of these projects has required the development of feedback mechanisms not inherent in the original research designs.
Farm trials have raised the issue of further involvement of clients
(as individuals and in groups) in the design and planning of research. Implementation has also forced a clearer definition of client and
participant groups and resulted in development of intra-household and community level monitoring and evaluation criteria. The inclusion of women-as-clients in all three projects has provided an opportunity to explore the kinds of adaptations required in technology and in research/extension methodology to better serve their interests. In the particular cases under study women (as compared to men) are more involved in groups (labor exchange and marketing) and make greater use of off-farm and boundary lands to meet on-farm needs. Monitoring, evaluation and re-design criteria have been adjusted to account for project effects on farm women's domain, including their individual and communal use of off-farm lands.
The scope of research has also expanded to include alternative
extension approaches to integrate intra-household and community constraints and opportunities related to farming systems innovations.
A Comparative Analysis of Two Representative Farm
Systems in Upper Volta as it Pertains to Evaluation of New Technological Innovations
The paper will present a comparative study of two representative farming systems in Upper Volta. One farming system is representative of
the central Mossi plateau region, an area characterized by higher population densities, relative land scarcity and poor and declining levels of soil fertility. The other farming system is representative of
agriculture in the more eastern part of the- country, an area in which population pressures are less extreme, land more abundant and agricultural productivity higher than that of the Mossi plateau.
A representative farm analysis is developed for each region using data collected by farming systems projects in Upper Volta. The
methodology will be used to evaluate the impact of donkey and oxen traction on the farming system as well as the impact of other
technological innovations being identified by in-country research institutions. In particular, the impact of new technologies such as fertilizer and/or tied-ridging and/or animal traction will be evaluated. The intent is to use the methodology to evaluate the liklihood of farmer
adoption of-new technology to facilitiate the research and extension efforts. The research is also intended to aid policy makers with evaluating the impact of agricultural policy; the effect of a fertilizer subsidy, agricultural price controls, etc. on the farming system.
Nicanor M. floxas. Edwin C. Price
P. 0. Box 933
On Developing Upland Rice-Based Technologies in
Shifting Cultivation System of' Sierra Madre, Philippines
A farming systems research (FSR) project has been initiated to explore the potential of' developing alternative agricultural technologies in a shifting cultivation-based production system of Sierra Madre. The target area (watershed) is quite diverse and heterogenous in terms of the environment and farmers' use of resources over time.
This paper outlines the research approaches undertaken, with emphasis on:
(i) Developing farming system model based on empirical
data through monitoring activities, i.e. farmhousehold record keeping study and
(ii) On-farm research in the design, test and evaluation
of upland rice-based cropping patterns through
cooperative activities between farmers and researchers.
Analytical techniques, are proposed to describe and quantify variables that can explain the interrelationships among the different components of the farming system. On the other hand, on-farm testing of
technologies is carried out with emphasis on research activities that can help the highland farmers.
Partial results of the study reveal that farmers are actively
engaged in kaingin (swidden farming) and in cash-generating activities from secondary forest-based products. Crop production is diverse and highly dynamic in relation to the land use and management of the watershed. Moreover, twenty percent (20%) of their cash income is derived from the crop production. This is supported by the fact that low level of inputs, particularly technical inputs, is used, thus the level of production is very low. Upland rice yield for example, is only 5-15 cavans per hectare. It is grown under poor management with
practically no fertilizer and no pesticides. Crops other than rice are mostly subsistence crops, the economic value of which is relatively low. Farmers are spending almost 75% of' their cash income in food items, with 60% in rice alone. On the other hand, farmers are preoccupied in charcoal and firewood activities. They obtain at least 50% of their cash income from these sources, thus degradation of the forest from these activities is apparently very significant.
The need to develop crop-based technologies on a farming systems framework, that will increase farmers' income from crop production and at the same time reduce the pressure on exploiting the forest is relevant and timely.
Sergio Ruano. Federico Poev
Agricultural Development Consultants, Inc. Coral Gables, Florida
Organization of the Sondeo Report
The Sondeo is a multidisciplinary and interinstitutional field methodology designed as a rapid modified exploratory survey. Its purpose is to provide information on the problems, constraints and
researchable alternatives in a given region where a generation, validation and transfer of technologies are sought. Although, the collected information is qualitative, it should be valid enough to
orient research activities, institutional recommendations and further regional analysis. Therefore, a good organization and presentation of the information in the sondeo report will contribute to the best utilization of that methodology.
Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the sondeo team and the little time available ina typical sondeo practice, the consolidation of the information has to be well planned for maximum efficiency. Individual writing responsibilities need to be assigned early in the process and discussion sessions well programmed. Each partial contribution should fit a predetermined pattern in the sondeo report in order to achieve a balanced product that includes maximum multidisciplinary perception that will prove useful to its objectives.
It is probable that each sondeo will present unique characteristics so that the information obtained requires some specific organization.
But even in these cases a general format should help to consolidate the information in the most meaningful form. The following format is suggested:
1. Introduction: General aspects related to the participating institutions and team members; dates and general location; overall purpose and justification within an established project, etc.
2. Objecti: Immediate purpose, identifying intended users.
3. Physical Description of the area: Geographic location and map; political assignations; topography, climate, accessibility, soil type, rainfall, pattern, altitude, etc.
4. Social and Economic Descrition: Family and contracted labor availability farm size, land tenance, household description, health and education facilities, women role in the household, etc.
Sergio Ruano. Federico Poev page 2
5. Main Farming Systems: Relationships among crops, livestock, use of labor, soil types, topography, etc.
5.1. Crop description: For each major crop includes varieties, cultural practices, planting distances, planting and harvest times, pest control, etc.
5.2. Livestock description: For each species, includes races, management, nutrition, pests, etc.
5.3 Forestry description: For major tree species, includes varieties, management, cultural practices, uses, etc.
5.4 Pasre1Lan: For each major pasture species, includes varieties or types, management, pests, etc.
6. Recommendation domains: Farming systems, geographical boundries and socioeconomic characteristics identified for each recommendation domain.
6.n. Each recommendation domain
6n.1.Q nstrgint: Major limitations and problems within the systems and within the individual components of the systems; priority of constraints.
6n.2.Research alternatives: Specific research possibilities on constraints, defining experimental objectives, and a general variable and level definition; priorities.
7. _goncl.usioI: Summarizes relevant finding including Recommendation Domains, major general constraints and research alternatives, etc.
8. Recommendations: Separate sets of recommendations for Farming Systems Research (FSR) teams, and for outside programs and institutions; those for FSR team should be very specific, setting priorities.
Michael D. SchulMan Patricia Garrett
Dept of Sociology and Anthropology Department of Rural Sociology Box 8107 Cornell University
North Carolina State University Ithaca, New York 14853
Raleigh, NC 27695
Stratification and Differentiation With Small Holder Strata: A North Carolina Case Study
Farming systems research generally assumes that all small holders are similar. It thus tends to ignore how the socioeconomic
characteristics of farming households and enterprises limit the range of viable farm enterprise alternatives. This paper examines how
socioeconomic characteristics differentiate small holders. Data are based upon a sample of ninety small holders from the North Carolina Piedmont, the majority of whom are black and raise flue-cured tobacco. Factor analysis of variables relating to the characteristics of the farm enterprise, the farm operator, and the farm household reveals that the major dimensions of socioeconomic differentiation are scale of the farming enterprise, off-farm family labor, the demographic characteristics of the farm operator and household, and land tenure. The implication of these dimensions for farming systems research and extension are discussed.
Economista Agrlcola Departamento de Investigacibn Honduras
Generation of Technology Appropriate for the Small Farmer: The Honduran Case
Surveys carried out at Olancho and Comayagua within the Honduran agricultural technological system, showed that the main production problems of corn and rice were related to varieties, rate and timing of fertlization and weeds. Experiments were designed and conducted at the farm level through different location and time, from which new technological alternatives were identified. Further screening of this alternative was done in semi-commercial plots (Prueba del Agricultor) under direct responsibility of the farmer. An evaluation of the work
done through two years, showed that some adoption was being made by the farmers that depended upon his resources and goals. It was concluded that the approach of coordination and integration of activities of Research and Extensibn (Technical linkage) should evolve to a more hollistic approach, including the other services provided by the Secretarla de Recursos Naturales (Agencia de Desarrollo).
P. 0. Box 766
St. John's-Antigua, W. I.
Farming Systems Research/Development and
Agricultural Engineering in the Eastern Caribbean
Field operations for food crops production in the Eastern Caribbean
are generally performed by hand tools (hoe, fork, cutlass) supplemented by rental service of tractor ploughing by public agencies, as and when available. Thus, agricultural production systems are restricted to small plots producing for home use and/or market. Lack of farm power and more efficient implements put constraint on intensive/extensive land use and post harvest handling and marketing (headloads, donkeys and/or public/private autotransport are used for hauling the produce).
Productivity and production can be improved by use of more
efficient farm tools and additional farm power, within the reach of individual farm families and/or community. The younger generation which
is getting weaned away from farming (average farmer's age is 50 years) in tourist oriented economy could be partially lured to farming if it is made somewhat more comfortable. Constraints to production and
productivity in the Eastern Caribbean as mentioned above, let to the programmes involving introduction, improvisation and testing of farm machinery for preliminary cultivation, intercultivation, harvesting and post harvest handling under a variety of production systems. In
addition, component has been added to improvise on-farm water harvesting and conservation techniques in semi-arid parts of the Eastern Caribbean. Some aspects of these programmes of Farming Systems Research and Development Project of the Eastern Caribbean are discussed in this paper.
Chris Smith, Jim Chapman
Chemonics International Consulting
Suite 2000, 2000 M. Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Sustainability as an Objective of Farming Systems Research and Development
Current FSR&D objectives and methodology focus on the farm family and farm-level oriented technology development. Results or consequences
of on-farm decisions and activities effect not only each individual farm, but also have off-farm effects, particularly in the soil and water regimes of a region or watershed. Thus, FSR&D methodology may result in activities which may not be in the long-term interests of the society or region. FSR&D activities which fail to take account of sustainability as an important objective result in technologies which may be descructive of the resource base, thereby accelerating the cycle of poverty and decreasing productivity, especially in upland environments. It is necessary to develop resource-conserving technologies which not only meet the needs of the farm family, but also provide the basis for future production. Agroforestry, soil conservation, and watershed management techniques are indicative of the types of activities which may contribute to sustainable farming systems on upland areas. More research is needed to combine natural resource and farming systems into a practical, sustainable approach towards upland development.
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Trials and Errors: Using FSR to Reach Farmers Who Are Often Neglected
The prevailing training for women agriculturalists in many African countries is home economics. In Malawi, FSR was used to counteract the notion that women are "farmer's wives" or occasional farmers rather than cultivators of field crops in their own right. As a result of a project on Women in Agricultural Development sponsored by USAID, women participated in commodity demonstrations and farmer-managed research trials. FSR was used to 1) document women's contribution to smallholder agriculture, 2) identify farmer's difficulties with the crop, 3) suggest solutions, and 4) provide feedback to the extension service.
Helen A. Swartz, George W. Enlow, S. Morris Talley
Lincoln University Cooperative Extension Jefferson City, Missouri 65101-3594
The Missouri Small Family Program
A pilot program started in 1971 in selected counties funded by Missouri Cooperative Extension Service, using education assistants to work with interested families who needed more income and were not currently involved in regular Extension programs.
The majority of Missouri farm families live on small farms. The 1974 census of Agriculture reported 115,711 farms in Missouri, and 75 percent of these farms had annual sales of less than $20,000. Records kept by farm families show that 70 to 80 percent of farm sales were spent for farm production expenses. Assuming no other income, many of these families would have a net income of about $4,000 per year.
In early 1976, two program components were added: family resource management and home gardening. Prior to 1976 the title of the program was The Missouri Small Farm Program. In 1976, the title was changed to Small Farm Family Program in order to reflect the emphasis on the total family..
Supervision of the program at the area level was provided by Agricultural designees and Home Economists. Training for education assistants was provided by these designees and other State and area specialists. Education assistants were employed from the counties they would serve.
Before the Small Farm Family Program started, needs and interests of families living on small farms were identified in each county. A survey was conducted under the leadership of area Extension staff to determine management practices and needs of families living on small farms. This information determined the bqsis for the Small Farm Family
Program. There were some 34 counties in 11 Extension areas where the program functioned.
Leadership for program development and implementation for family resource management, home weatherization and maintenance, and home gardening came from Lincoln University. Leadership development for agricultural production and management came from the University of Missouri-Columbia.
The Missouri Farm Family Program was implemented in 1971 and was directed by a program leader at the University of Missouri-Columbia, the
1862 Land Grant Institution in the State. In 1983, the leadership role was shifted to Lincoln University, the 1890 Land Grant Institution located in Jefferson City.
Helen A. Swartz. Georize W. Enlow. S. Morris Tilley-page 2
Lincoln University was founded in 1866 and recognized as a Land Grant Institution in 1890, following the second Morrill Act. Congress added a "separate but equal" provision authorizing the establishment of colleges for blacks. In 1891 money was allocated from the state's share of the Morrill Land Grant Fund.
Lincoln University was excluded fr om funding provided by the Hatch Act of 1887 for research and also the third component of the Land Grant Institutions, the Smith-Lever Act of 19141, authorizing federal appropriations for the extension service.
Federal funding for the sixteen 1890 Land Grant Institutions and Tuskegee Institute became a reality in 1967 to support agricultural research and in 1971 funding was granted for extension program. Lincoln
University Extension programs have a basic mission of education through application of research-based knowledge to improve quality of life for small farm families, to strengthen family and community life and develop
leadership capabilities in youth and adults. With its rich minority heritage, the primary audience is considered statewide minority and limited resource families.
The objective of the Small Farm Family Programs is to assist families living on small farms, not currently participating in Extension programs, to use their available resources to improve their quality of living. This objective is accomplished through education assistants who hel~p families improve their economic and social well-being by increasing their knowledge and skills in agricultural technology, the management of family resources, and home gardening.
Scott M Swinton Ly Saba
Agricultural Economics Director, Dept. de Recherche
Purdue University en Economie Rurale, Institut
Lafayette, Indiana National'de Recherches
Agronomiques du Niger
Defining Agricultural Recommendations Domains in South-Central Niger
To define useful agricultural recommendations domains, four criteria are applied to data gathered in a 1982 survey of 348 farms in Madarounfa (Arrondissement) in South-Central Niger. The criteria
average rainfall, soil fertility, soil texture and proximity of the water table are first examined using T-tests of data on cropping systems, livestock ownership and agricultural practices. Soil texture and proximity of the water table prove most useful in defining the following recommendations domains:
1. Compact soils
2. Sandy valley soils, and
3. Sandy soils outside the valleys.
Subsequent evaluation of these three domains using socio-economic variables demonstrates that they also differ significantly in population density, ethnicity and access to markets.
R. L. Tinsley
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523
Mechanization of Small Farm Systems
Mechnization of small farm system usually involves contracted equipment. This may require evaluating mechanization more on a community basis than an individual farm, and place individual farmers at the mercy of the equipment owners. This can produce a high level of uncertainty as to when equipment will be available. Planning will be difficult, and timing of operations unknown, compromising the ability to adopt certain technical advances. In the Philippines, where each farmer owned one draft animal, most farmers could adopt double cropping rice on part of their land, but not all. In contrast in Sri Lanka, where farmers contracted tillage, only a few farmers could adopt the recommended planting time, but those who did adopt, did so on their entire holdings.
Important in contracting equipment is the density of the machinery. This can be a straight economic analysis from the equipment side. The returns to the crop will determine how much the farmer can afford to pay. The less the returns the less the farmer can pay, and the more land the tractor owners must till to recover their cost. The equipment density will decrease while the time to complete operations increases to the determent of the crops.
'Equipment efficiency in small farm environment, especially for 4-wheel tractors, can be sharply reduced. In Egypt it was estimated that 50% of the operators time could be consumed in just getting to the field. Once there, efficiency dropped 25% because of the numerous turns
required in fields of less than 0.5 hectares. The result was less than 2 hectares could be prepared in a day, and opened questions of how the operator could most efficiently serve the multitude of requests he might have, and limit the number of operations that could be mechanized.
These are several of the concerns that require a farming systems approach when evaluating the mechanization of small farm systems.
Michael Yates. Juan Carlos Martjnez
On Farm Research Methodologies at Work Progress Report from Les Cayes, Haiti
In 1980 the Department of Agriculture (DARNDR) of the Governent of Haiti decided to explore the potential contribution of on-farm research methodologies (as a liaison and needed complement to traditional station research and extension activities), to increase the technical and institutional capacities of the country to provide the Haitian farmer with technological alternatives appropriate to his agroeconomic circumstances. In this framework an area-specific on-farm research program was defined to be carried by national staff with CIMMYT's cooperation. The program started in February 1981 in the Les Cayes area (south west of Haiti) with maize as a target crop.
The goals of the program were twofold. On one hand to generate appropriate maize technology for increasing productivity and income of representative area farmers in the near term. On the other hand it was intended to be a source of concrete methodological experience which would contribute to guide the Haitian National Research Program in establishing an OFR operations at national level. The paper describes the different stages in the implementation of this program, which led to a final evaluation of the experience in 1983 by the Government of Haiti. This process should start early 1985.
Beyond its technical parts, the paper also illustrates the bottom
up CIMMYT strategy, centered in on-farm research, addressed to strengthening the capacity of national programs to generate and transfer appropriate technologies for target groups of farmers.
David Youmans. Tom Trail Thooe Matobo
Washington State University Ministry of Agriculture
Pullman, Washington Lesotho
Farming Systems Research and Development approach to meeting the needs of the small farmers in less developed countries is having successful impact in many areas such as Guatemala, Honduras, and Lesotho. This approach focuses on aiming the research and development of new useful technologies specifically at the needs of the farmer. A major problem in many FSR projects has been the effective involvement of local farmers in the various stages of FSR, and in the widespread diffusion of FSR generated technologies in the Extension phase.
The development of Village Agricultural Committees (VAC's) in Lesotho is an extension model introduced and encouraged by the Director of Agricultural Research in Lesotho, Winston Nts'ekhe. The purpose was to foster maximum utilization of the USAID funded FSR Centers by farmers and bring FSR philosophy and involvement of FSR closer to the farming community. A secondary purpose was the selection of a method to help promote the diffusion of proven FSR technologies in the Extension phase.
Bkground. The history of the Village Agricultural Committees in Lesotho is congruent to the presence of the Farming Systems Research effort within the Research Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, essentially dating from 1978. The success of those committees as both program support groups and in diffusion of tested technologies has been notable. In 1982, the VAC model was adopted as a national norm by the Extension Division of the Lesotho Ministry of Agriculture. The current status of these committees in the Farming Systems prototype areas of Molumong, Nyaksosoba and Siloe is the product not only of constant
organizational and maintenance efforts by Resparch/Extension personnel, of carefully organized training courses over the period of the last three years.
Village Agricultural Committees. Village Agricultural Committees are active in the FSR prototype areas of Molumong, Nyaksosoba and Siloe. Members are elected by villagers living under the same area Chief in each prototype area. A committee is composed of a chairman,
vice-chairman, secretary, treasurer and three members. Twenty-two
committees operate in the three prototype area. Elections are held on an annual basis.
The elections take place under every area chief. The Chief by his messenger convenes a "Pitso". This is a village meeting. All members must be involved in farming and have demonstrated leadership ability.
VAC members have specifically designed roles which relate to FSR
researchers and extension personnel. Generally members are responsible for all activities relating to crop and livestock systems in the village area. These are activities that relate to decisions made by farmers and the village chief which relate to farming and production matters. The VAC's serve an additional link between the FSR researchers and extension
personnel and member of the farming community.
David Youmans. Tom Trail. Thope Matobo Page 2
The first major step of the VAC is with FSR researchers in the problem identification and development of a research base phase of the FSR and D process. Researchers meet with VAC members to identify key problems and constraints in the prototype village areas, and to "legitimize" their presence in the community with other farmers. A number of other specific roles are apparent in the planning on-farm research, on-farm research and analysis, and the extension of results phase.
Training of Village Agricultural Committees The Training of VAC members is an important factor in the success of FSR work. Training has been carried out in both formal and informal basis. Informal education occurs through interaction with researchers and extension workers in the fields and at committee members.
Formal educational activities are held at Farmer Training Centers. Major topics have included agronomy, horticulture, livestock production, small farm holder equipment, fertilizer usage, fodder production, and rotations. Much of the training deals with FSR generated and test technologies and practices., Members are taught how to teach other farmers.
The basic Village Agricultural Committee Education Model or approach is outlined in Figure 1. Like all attempts to communicate a complex process, the model is an oversimplification. The major aspects are somewhat overlapping, and the sequencing illustrates general emphasis areas over time rather than a strict step-by-step process. In spite of these shortcomings, the model does serve to emphasize critical aspects and considerations which were essential to successful VAC member training in FSR and agricultural education activities.
IMDlications. Village agricultural committees have been utilized successfully in Lesotho. Committee members serve as an important bridge
or link between the vested village leadership,. FSR personnel, and the farming community. The committee is actively involved with FSR research
and extension personnel from problem identification to the extension of results. Members also have an important role in training farmers in the community.
The training of VAC members is an important role in FSR educational activities. The tni-sensory FSR Education has been effective in training committee members. Many conditions,' however, are vital to its implementation. Among those key factors are shared planning, timing, appropriate location, shared logistics, proper instructional level, team
teaching, on-site rehearsal, bilingual delivery (Sesutu), opportunity for learners to see, hear, feel, and interact, and receive a recognition certificate. The approach suggests that Village Agricultural Committees!
and the use of the Tri-Sensory Educational Model in their training may be effective in other countries of adapted to fit socio-cultural considerations.