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Annual report on USDA international training activities

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Title:
Annual report on USDA international training activities
Series Title:
Annual report on USDA international training activities
Creator:
United States Department of Agriculture, Office of International Cooperation and Development, International Training Division
Place of Publication:
Washington, D. C.
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United States Department of Agriculture, Office of International Cooperation and Development, International Training Division
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English
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v. : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Agriculturists Ç‚x Training of -- Periodicals -- United States ( LCSH )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
_United States
Department ofAnnual report
Agriculture A n a e o to
Office of
anopment USDA International
International Cooperation
and Development U D ne n to a
International Training Division Washington, D.C. 20250
1984
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INFORMATION
For additional information on ITD's training program for FY 84, cable or write to:
Acting Director of International Training Office of International Cooperation
and Development (OICD) Room 4118 Auditors Building United States Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. 20250
Cable address: AGRI/WASH 64334, OICD




FOREWORD
The 1984 Annual Report of the International Training Division (ITD) of the office of International Cooperation and Development (010)) highlights the activities and programs of our Division during fiscal year 1984. We trust this Report will provide the reader with an understanding of our mission.
In general, the 1984 Annual Report indicates few changes from the previous year' s report. One change, however, is significant. The percentage of nonacademic participants has increased whereas the percentage of academic participants decreased. This change indicates among the sponsors and participants a greater emphasis on the more technical, "hands on" programs. Though the design and implementation of these "technology transfer" programs demand considerable time and expertise, ITD can adequately meet these needs effectively utilizing the numerous USDA agencies, the scientific and university community, agribusiness companies, and private sector organizations.
Another change since 1983 is the increased focus upon the middle-incomne countries who wish to increase their domestic agricultural production. The International Training Division has worked closely with the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service and the U.S. private sector in this progranining.
For 1985, we look forward to another successful year building upon the successes, improvmnts, and strengths of this past year. We stand prepared to help developing and middle-inccue nations utilize the various U.S. resources for training programs in agriculture and rural development.
We would like to express our appreciation for all those who have worked closely with us.
William S. Hoofnagle
Acting Director
International Training Division




ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Our appreciation to Gloria McCaskill of the Internationil Training Division, Office of International Cooperation and Development, for organizing, writing, and editing the Annual Report. Appreciation is also expressed to the Program Leaders in the International Training Division and Vernon Azucenas for their assistance.




Page
Introduction ...... . . . ... 1
Participant Programs ........ .. ....... 1
Specialized Courses ......... .. ....................... 2
Overseas Projects ........ ........................ 3
Middle-Incame Countries ........ .. ...................... 4
Country-Financed Projects ....... ... .................... 6
Table 1 Number of USDA-based Participant Programs in FY 1984
by Sponsorship and Type of Program ..................... 7
Table 2 Number of Person-months of USDA-based Participant
Training FY 1984 by Sponsorship and Type of Program .... 9
Table 3 Number of USDA-based Participants in FY 1984 by Field of
Study and Sponsorship .................................. 11
Table 4 Number of USDA-based Academic Participants in FY 1984 by
Sponsorship and Degree ................................. 11
Table 5 Number of Participants Trained by International Training by
Country and Sponsorship-Africa Area (Map) .............. 12
Table 5 Number of Participants Trained by International Training by
Country and Sponsorship-Latin America Area (Map) ....... 14
Table 5 Number of Participants Trained by International Training by
Country and Sponsorship-Asia Area & Middle East Area
(Map) .................................................. 16
Table 5 Number of Participants Trained by International Training, by
Country and Sponsorship-Europe Area (Map) ................ 19
Table 6 Number of New Participants in USDA, FY 1978-84,
by Sponsorship .......................................... 21
Table 7 Number of Participants Trained in USDA, FY 1978-84,
by Sponsorship ....................................... 21
Table 8 Number of Person-Months of Participant Training in USDA,
FY 1978-84, by Sponsorship ............................. 22
Table 9 U.S.-Based Short Courses Conducted in FY 1984 ............ 23
Table 10 Summary of U.S.-Based Short Courses in FY 1984 ........... 27
Table 11 Short Courses Conducted Overseas in FY 1984 .............. 28
March 1985




PRODUCTION
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in cooperation with U.S. universities, other Federal agencies and the private sector, conducts and manages
training programs in agriculture and related fields in this country and overseas. Participants include foreign agricultural administrators, scientists and technicians. Funded by the Agency for International Development (AID), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), international development organizations, and many foreign governments, these programs are a major means by which U.S. agricultural technology and management expertise are shared with developing and middle-income countries.
The responsibility for coordinating these programs within the Department is carried out by the International Training Division (ITD) of the Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD). Over the past 32 years ITD and its predecessor agencies have assisted with the training of over 72,000 foreign agriculturists, most of whom continue to work in their home countries to increase food production and to improve the quality of urban and rural life. In recent years the international training program has evolved from one concerned almost exclusively with placing participants from developing countries in U.S. institutions to one responsive to a wide range of developing countries' needs for human resource development. This report provides statistical information on the programs coordinated and conducted by ITD in fiscal year 1984, together with historical data.
PARTICIPANT PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES
During 1984, lTD administered training programs in the U.S. for 2,005 participants fromn 110 countries. The majority (68 percent) were sponsored by AID. Of these participants, 857 were enrolled in academic programs at 100 universities; 1,148 participated in nonacademic programs at a variety of institutions. Programs for new participants comprised approximately 59 percent of the total number. ITD coordinated 9,440 person-months of U.S. training, the majority of which (63 Percent) were sponsored by AID.
Of the 2,005 U.S. programs administered by ITD, 857 were degree programs (B.S., 202; M.S., 457; Ph.D., 186; and other degrees, 12). The rest of the trainees (1,148) came for specialized short courses, individually tailored study tours and on-the-job training. Most participants (60 percent) were trained in agricultural production subjects (agronomy, forestry, animal science, etc.), with the balance (40 percent) studying economics, management, or human resource development.
All the world's major regions were represented, with African accounting for almost half of the total number of participants (41 percent). Near East/ South Asia had 25 percent and Latin America, 16 percent of the participants; East Asia 15 percent and the remaining 3 percent came from Europe. Three countries-Indonesia, Egypt and Kenya-each sent 100 or more participants. Participants from these three countries comprised almost one-fifth of the students in U.S. training programs.




Current trends appear to indicate that more World Bank funds will be provided through FAO. Currently, we have 103 FAD-World Bank participants through Pakistan with 35-40 already in the United States.
SPECIALIZED COURSES
Specialized courses were organized by IMD and conducted by ITD/OICD, other USDA agencies, and over 20 U.S. universities. These courses provided participants with a mixture of academic (classrom) activities, practical training, and field experience. A total of 44 courses were taught in the United States in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic. The courses ranged fran 2 to 12 weeks in length and covered a broad scope of technical and managmnt subjects including project management, irrigation, soil fertility management, seed improvement, land use planning, small farmer credit, statistics and research methodology, agricultural communications, and organization development. (See table 9.) Course development has increased dramatically in recent years. In FY 1984, 44 courses were presented in the United States caupared to only 15 courses in 1975. Last year, 16 courses were conducted overseas ccaupared to only 2 courses in 1975.
Ola) manages eight courses in Washington each year. These courses provide a "laboratory" where new innovations in training techniques and materials can be tested and evaluated. One example is the increased use of video. During FY 1984, use of video in Washington-based courses continued to expand. Video is used primarily as a mirror for participants to observe their own behavior and assess their strengths and weaknesses in certain management and training situations. It is also used in orientation sessions and to teach certain subject matter skills. There has been a heightened interest in the applications of video and other audiovisuals by participants. Individual consultations with participants as well as representatives of various governments have focused on specific applications of audiovisuals, including increased use in overseas presentations.
Another major focus during FY 1984 was strengthening of fieldwork exercises and course content so that learned skills could be applied more easily in participants' own countries. Increased work with 1890 and minority institutions increased the effectiveness of the courses in this regard; small farms and enterprises common to areas where 1890 institutions are located presented a more realistic setting for discussing "back home" applications.
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OVERSEAS PROJECTS
International Training provided ongoing training support through resident assignments of personnel in Tanzania and Indonesia. Short-term training and consultation services were provided to USDA projects in Guatemala, Portugal and
Zaire and short courses were conducted in 12 countries. Further information about the major training projects being managed through USDA appears in table 11.
ITD provided approximately 363 person-nonths of training through course presentations in other countries for 429 participants. (See table 11.) The use of precourse planning visits was established as standard policy to improve the targeting of course content for participants and sponsoring agencies. The length of overseas presentations has been standardized at 3 weeks, preceded by
1 week incountry preparation.
USDA continued to upgrade its ability to provide training materials in French, presenting courses in Zaire and other French-speaking countries this past year. To improve the quality of translations and hold down costs, incountry translation was encouraged.
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USDA ARICULTURAL SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM FOR MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIESS (MIC)
In 1983, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds "to support an agricultural scholarship program for foreign students from countries which have graduated from AID assistance." These funds resulted in the USDA Agricultural Scholarship Program for Middle-Incame Countries administered by OICD. Six years earlier, Section 1458 of the National Agricultural Research Extension and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to work with middle-income countries on food and agricultural research and extension, including the training of persons from such countries. This scholarship program helped realize this authorization.
During its first year, fiscal year 1984, the MIC Program selected more than 100 senior and mid level specialists and administrators for advanced training in the United States.* Participants from six middle-income countries (Colcmbia, Ivory Coast, Korea, Mexico, Turkey, and Venezuela) enrolled in university classes,
conducted research in USDA laboratories, and participated in "hands-on" learning experiences in the areas of agricultural production, processing, marketing, management, disease control, and animal science. ITD worked very closely with FAS Agricultural Counselors in identifying training needs and selecting participants and programs.
Once a participant was selected, ITD developed a training program in conjunction with NASULGC, the university and scientific commnity, and private sector organizations.
One of the most positive results of the 1984 MIC program for OICD has been the continued development of working relationships with the United States Congress, FAS Cooperators, various USDA agencies, the universities, and private sector organizations.
Congress, after reviewing the first year of the MIC Program, has appropriated funds for the 1985 fiscal year. The Senate cited the program as an avenue for the development of long-term friendships, scientific cooperation, and enhanced trade relations.
*For FY 84, 102 participants were selected. As of September 30, 1984, participants who had begun training totaled 65. All tables in the Annual Report are based on training arrivals. Thus, for MIC the number for FY 84 is 65.
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Highlights of MIC Participants (FY 84)
Sector Percent Field Percent
government officials 58 agricultural marketing 16
university officials 9 agricultural economics 13
private sector 33 land usage 13
animal science 13
Total 100 crop production/processing 12
education/extension/research 12
ype disease/pest control 8
academic degree 10 agricultural management 7
non degree (3-6 months) 37 plant science 6
technical short course 53
Total 100
Total 100
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COUNTIRY-FINANCED PROJECTS
USDA had active agreements or reimbursable training with four countries during FY 1984. These countries were Argentina, Soalia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Under these agreements, ITD provided programming services for both study tours and academic participants.
Under the terms of these agreements, the sponsoring country provides all necessary funds for implementing the programs. The programming services provided include establishing, monitoring, and evaluating the training program. ITD also provides financial services by sending participants their living and other allowances and by paying tuition and other fees to the training institutions.
Training programs are established with private businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities and colleges, and/or with government agencies at the State, local or national level. The training projects are in all aspects of agriculture, including forestry and natural resources.
In addition to the above, ITD also has provided programming services for individuals funded by their governments or by private foreign companies to attend USDA short courses.
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Table 1.--NUMBER OF USDA-BASED PARTICIPANT PROGRAMS IN FY 1984,
BY SPONSORSHIP AND TYPE OF PROGRAM
New programs
Sponsor Acadenic Nonacademic Total
AID Primary 142 498 640
AID Secondary 3 102 105
FAO 69 159 228
MIC 6 59 65
Othera 4 142 146
TOTAL 224 960 1,184
Total programs administered
Sponsor Academic Nonacademic Total
AID Primary 575 597 1,172
AID Secondary 29 124 153
FAO 197 196 393
MIC 6 59 65
Othera 50 172 222
OITAL 857 1148 2,005
aIncludes:
- International development organizations AID: Agency for International
- Other U.S. Government agencies Development
- Foreign governments FAQ: Food and Agriculture Organi- Miscellaneous zation
MIC: Middle Income Countries
OTHER: including World Bank
-7-




OICD
INTERNATIONAL TRAINING DIVISION PART I CIPANTS
SPONSOR
0 OLD
]6 ACADEMIC
MIC 4
\\\\\59 \ NEN
26 ACADEMI C
265 SEC OLD NON
A 222
. \\\\\1 102 ACADEMIC
FO 28 ACADEMIC
FAO9
A I D 142 433
OTHER
\1142
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 PARTICIPANTS
AID: Agency for International Development SEC: Secondary
FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization MIC: Middle Income Countries OTHER: Including Norld Bank




Table 2. --NUMBER OF PERSON-MONTHS OF USDA-BASED PARTICIPANT TRAINING
IN FY 1984, BY SPONSORSHIP AND TYPE OF PROGRAM
Sponsor Academic Nonacademic Total
AID Primary 5,052 962 6,014
AID Secondary 247 221 468
FAO 1,587 527 2,114
MIC 8 97 105
OtIera 446 293 739
TOTAL 7,340 2,100 9,440
aIncludes:
- International development organizations AID: Agency for International
- Other U.S. Goverment agencies Development
- Foreign governments FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi- Miscellaneous zation
MIC: Middle-Incme Countries
OTHER: including World Bank
-9-




OICD
INTERNATIONAL TRAINING DIVISION PERSON MONTHS
MONTHS
6014
5500 .'. NON
5000 ACADEMIC
4500 ACADEMIC
4000 3500 3000
2500
2114
2000 1500
1000 739
500 468
0 105N
0
AID SEC FAO MIC OTHER
SPONSOR AID: Agency for International DevelopMent SEC: Secondary FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization MIC: Middle IncoMe Countries OTHER: Including World Bank




Table 3.--NUMBER OF USDA-BASED PARTICIPANTS IN FY 1984, BY FIELD OF STUDY AND SPONSORSHIP
Field of Study AID SEC FAO MIC OTHERa TOTAL
Agricultural Production
Programs 672 76 332 8 124 1,212
Economics & Management 386 57 55 25 72 595
Course Development &
Overseas Projects 105 19 6 25 155
Special Programs 9 1 32 1 43
TOTAL 1,172 153 393 65 222 2,005
Table 4.--NUMBER OF USDA-BASED ACADEMIC PARTICIPANTS IN FY 1984,
BY SPONSORSHIP AND DEGREE
OTHER
Sponsor B.S. M.S. PH. D. ACADEMIC TOTAL
AID Primary 168 286 115 6 575
AID Secondary 2 23 4 29
FAO 32 117 46 2 197
MIC 6 6
Othera 25 21 4 50
TOTAL 202 457 186 12 857
aIncludes:
- International development organizations AID: Agency for International
- Other U.S. Government agencies Development
- Foreign governments FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi- Miscellaneous zation
MIC: Middle-Income Countries
OTHER: including World Bank
-11-




Table 5. --NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS TRAINED BY INTERNATIONAL TRAINING DIVISION IN FY 1984, BY COUNTRY AND SPONSORSHIP
AFRICA:
AID AID
Country PRI. SEC. FAO MIC Othera TOTAL
Algeria 0 0 2 0 0 2
Botswana 24 7 2 0 4 37
Burkina Faso 14 4 4 0 0 22
Burundi 7 0 0 0 1 8
Cameroon 27 5 0 0 0 32
Cape Verde 17 0 0 0 0 17
Chad 2 0 0 0 0 2
Congo 0 0 1 0 1 2
Djibouti 1 0 0 0 0 1
Equatorial Guinea 7 0 0 0 0 7
Ethiopia 2 0 35 0 0 37
Gambia 21 0 3 0 2 26
Gabon 1 0 0 0 1 2
Ghana 4 0 1 0 2 7
Guinea 11 0 0 0 0 11
Guinea-Bissau 5 0 0 0 0 5
Ivory Coast 0 1 0 14 4 19
Kenya 85 6 14 0 0 105
Lesotho 1 2 7 0 1 Ui
Liberia 15 0 1 0 4 20
Libya 0 0 4 0 0 4
Madagascar 6 0 0 0 0 6
Malawi 5 0 11 0 1 17
Mali 18 1 3 0 2 24
Mauritania 8 3 2 0 1 14
Morocco 8 2 1 0 2 13
Niger 29 0 0 0 0 29
Nigeria 1 1 5 0 8 15
Rwanda 13 0 0 0 0 13
Senegal 50 3 0 0 6 59
Sierra Leone 9 3 0 0 1 13
Somalia 37 0 5 0 12 54
Sudan 13 1 4 0 0 18
Swaziland 8 1 2 0 1 12
Tanzania 45 1 17 0 1 64
Togo 2 0 0 0 0 2
Tunisia 3 0 0 0 0 3
Uganda 13 0 5 0 0 18
Zaire 10 1 0 0 1 12
Zambia 12 27 2 0 1 42
Zimbabwe 7 1 0 0 1 9
Subtotal 541 70 131 14 58 814
Continued
aIncludes: AID: Agency for International
- International development organizations Development
- Other U.S. Government agencies FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi- Foreign governments zation
- Miscellaneous MIC: Middle Incom Countries
-12- OTHER: including World Bank




Number of Participants Trained by International Training Division During Fiscal Year 1984-Africa Area
Tunisia 3
Morocco 13
Western Alger(Egypt included in
Sahara 2L.Egypt- Middle East Area)
Cape
Vauritania 14 B .rki n Iels.17 ::Senegal 59-Faso ...............!*:* 22 Niger 29
The **. Mali 24 C Sudan 18 Djibou
Gambia 1
Guinea
Bina 5 1 Ivory iia 1 18 Ethiopia
Sierra Leone asCentral African Uganda 37
13 Republic
Liberia 20 Ghana T Benin
7 iZaire 12
Cameroon 32 2 Kenya \
Equatorial 2 Rwanda 10 Somalia 5
Guinea 7 C Bundi
8 Tanzania 64
Madagascar
SAngola h Malawi
Zambia 17 .l
0 35 Participants Namibia imbabw
way :Mozambique 36 70 Participants otswana
71 105 Participants
SouthSwaziland 12 South L
Atrica Lesotho 11




Table 5-NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS TRAINED BY INTERNATIONAL TRAINING DIVISION IN FY 1984, BY COUNTRY AND SPONSORSHIP-Continued
LATIN AMERICA & CARRIBEAN:
AID AID
Country PRI. SEC. FAO MIC Othera
Argentina 2 0 1 0 16 19
Barbados 4 0 2 0 0 6
Belize 6 0 0 0 0 6
Bolivia 2 0 1 0 1 4
Brazil 2 0 6 0 2 10
Chile 3 0 2 0 0 5
Colombia 13 0 0 9 6 28
Costa Rica 5 0 0 0 2 7
Dominican Republic 11 0 1 0 0 12
Ecuador 37 0 0 0 1 38
El Salvador 20 0 0 0 0 20
Grenada 0 0 0 0 1 1
Guatemala 19 0 0 0 0 19
Guyana 0 0 0 0 1 1
Haiti 14 1 0 0 0 15
Honduras 5 0 0 0 0 5
Jamaica 15 0 0 0 3 18
Mexico 10 1 0 9 6 26
Montserrat 0 0 1 0 1 2
Nicaragua 2 0 2 0 0 4
Panama 31 0 0 0 0 31
Paraguay 1 0 0 0 0 1
Peru 18 0 0 0 2 20
Uruguay 4 0 1 0 1 6
Venezuela 4 1 0 9 3 17
St. Kitts 1 0 0 0 0 1
St. Vincent 1 0 0 0 0 1
Subtotal 230 3 17 27 46 323
Continued
aIncludes: AID: Agency for International
- International development organizations Development
- Other U.S. Government agencies FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi-Foreign governments zation
- Miscellaneous MIC: Middle-Inccre Countries
OTHER: including World Bank
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Number of Participants Trained by International Training Division During Fiscal Year 1984-Latin America Area
26Cuba AHaiti 15
~Belize 6 -"
Honduras 5 C = "Other" CaribanIl
Gaeaa9 .: Jamaica 18 Puerto i .?:. (Barbados, St its
Gutml 19Niacou Grenada, S.Vnet
El Salvador~fNcrga a--Trinidad Montserrt
20 \\\eeul Guyana 1
Costa Rica 7 enzeSuriname
Panam 31 Colombia
Ecuador 38 ..:!
02 .... 12Patiip nt.
.. .. .. ..nB a il .. .. .. .. .
1 3 -. .. . . . . ..s l.
... ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... ..
26 38Particiants ..
..\.\..\.\.




lable 5-NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS TRAINED BY INTERNATIONAL TRAINING DIVISION IN FY 1984, BY COUNTRY AND SPONSORSHIP-Continued
ASIA:
AID AID
Country PRI. SEC. FAO MIC Othera TOTAL
Bangladesh 1 7 32 0 12 52
Bhutan 0 0 7 0 0 7
Burma 9 3 15 0 0 27
China 0 0 23 0 9 32
India 50 0 37 0 1 88
Indonesia 63 52 7 0 29 151
Japan 0 0 0 0 5 5
Korea 0 0 8 15 0 23
Malaysia 4 0 0 0 6 10
Nepal 3 6 3 0 3 15
Pakistan 18 2 48 0 4 72
Philippines 30 1 6 0 4 41
Singapore 1 0 1 0 0 2
Sri Lanka 27 0 10 0 3 40
Thailand 5 0 9 0 5 19
Subtotal 211 71 206 15 81 584
MIDDLE EAST:
AID AID
Country PRI. SEC. FAO MIC Othera TOTAL
Bahrain 0 0 1 0 0 1
Cyprus 0 0 1 0 0 1
Egypt 120 0 9 0 0 129
Greece 0 0 1 0 0 1
Iran 0 0 1 0 0 1
Iraq 0 0 2 0 0 2
Jordan 14 1 1 0 5 21
Kuwait 0 0 1 0 0 1
Oman 0 0 0 0 2 2
Saudi Arabia 0 2 4 0 8 14
Syria 14 0 0 0 0 14
Turkey 0 0 1 9 3 13
U. Arab Emirates 0 0 0 0 1 1
Yemen 9 3 10 0 4 26
Subtotal 157 6 32 9 23 227
Continued
aIncludes: AID: Agency for International
- International development organizations Development
- Other U.S. Government agencies FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi- Foreign governments zation
- Miscellaneous MIC: Middle-Incme Countries
OTHER: including World Bank
-16-




Number of Participants Trained by International Training Division During Fiscal Year 1984-Asia Area
Japan
.. .. . 5
Afghanistan.....
hna: Korea
32 23
. Taiwan
Pakistan 8.Burma
72 2.
Bangladesh Vietnam Philippines
52s
52 41 Western
Arabian Thailand nSamoa N
Sea Sri Lanka 19
Nf40 *-*.Brunei Fili-O.
.. mpuchea
Bay of P. 10
Bengal M alaysia
Papua
New Guinea
0 50 Participants Indonesia
Singapore 151
51 100 Participants 2
101 151 Participants




Number of Participants Trained by International Training Division During FY 1984-Middle East Area
Turkey
13
Greece
1
Cyprus Syria
Lebanon 14
Jordan Iraq
212 Israel Kuwait
Iraq-Saudi Arabia EgypIt Neutral Zone
12
Bahrain Arabian 1 GUlf Saudi Arabia
Red 14 Qatar U.A
Sea
0 64 Participants
65 129 Participants Yemen
EM Yemen (Aden)
(Sanaa),
26/




Table 5-NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS TRAINED BY INTERNATIONAL TRAINING DIVISION
IN FY 1984, BY COUNTRY AND SPONSORSHIP-Continued
EUROPE:
AID AID
Country PRI. SEC. FAO MIC Othera TOTAL
Belgium 0 0 0 0 1 1
Bulgaria 0 1 0 0 1 2
France 0 0 1 0 3 4
Germany 0 0 0 0 1 1
Hungary 0 0 0 0 2 2
Ireland 0 0 0 0 1 1
Netherland 0 0 0 0 1 1
Poland 0 0 6 0 0 6
Portugal 31 2 0 0 0 33
Scotland 0 0 0 0 1 1
Spain 2 0 0 0 0 2
Sweden 0 0 0 0 1 1
Yugoslavia 0 0 0 0 2 2
Subtotal 33 3 7 0 14 57
REGIONAL SUBTOTAIS:
AID AID
Area PRI. SEC. FAO MIC Other TOTAL
AFRICA 541 70 131 14 58 814
LATIN AMERICA &
CARIBBEAN 230 3 17 27 46 323
ASIA 211 71 206 15 81 584
MIDDLE EAST 157 6 32 9 23 227
EUROPE 33 3 7 0 14 57
TOTAL 1,172 153 393 65 222 2,005
aIncludes: AID: Agency for International
- International development organizations Development
- Other U.S. Government agencies FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi- Foreign governments zation
- Miscellaneous MIC: Middle-Income Countries
OTHER: including World Bank
-19-




Number of Participants Trained by International Training Division During FY 1984-Europe Area
~U.S.S.R.
Sweden
1PFinland
S13Denmark
Ireland United Kingdom
Nterlands ). East Germany
BegumWs Czechoslovakia
1egu Germany., J
Switzerland Rumania
Portugal ugoslavi
Ital , Greece
< Albania t
0 0- 16 Participants S17.- 33 Participants




Table 6.--NUMBER OF NEW PARTICIPANTS IN USDA, FY 1978-84,
BY SPONSORSHIP
Sponsor 1978 1979a 1980a 1981 1982 1983 1984
AID Primary 515 539 515 646 490 617 640
AID Secondary 135 105
FAO 169 188 191 235 171 191 228
MIC 65
Otherb 322 344 363 282 165 128 146
TOTAL 1,006 1,071 1,069 1,163 826 1,071 1,184
Table 7.--NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS TRAINED IN USDA, BY 1978-84,
BY SPONSORSHIP
Sponsor 1978 1979a 1980a 1981 1982 1983 1984
AID Primary 934 1,059 1,032 1,221 1,153 1,208 1,172
AID Secondary 186 153
FAQ 320 332 334 379 389 374 393
MIC 65
Other 372 360 385 325 275 241 222
TOTAL 1,626 1,751 1,751 1,925 1,817 2,009 2,005
aEstimated
bIncludes: AID: Agency for International
- International development organizations Development
- Other U.S. Government agencies FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi- Foreign governments zation
- Miscellaneous MIC: Middle-Income Countries
OTHER: including Wrld Bank
-21-




Table 8.--NUMBER OF PERSON-MONTHS OF PARTICIPANT TRAINING IN USDA, FY 1978-84 BY SPONSORSHIP
Sponsor 1978 1979a 1980a 1981 1982 1983 1984
AID Primary 4,824 6,575 6,607 7,951 7,393 6,659 6,014
AID Secondary 725 468
FAO 1,609 1,912 1,950 2,221 2,277 1,886 2,114
MIC 105
Other 1,186 1,356 929 739
TOTAL 6,433 8,487 8,557 11,358 11,026 10,199 9,440
aEstimated
bIncludes: AID: Agency for International
- International development organizations Development
- Other U.S. Government agencies FAO: Food and Agriculture Organi- Foreign governments zation
- Miscellaneous MIC: Middle-Incme Countries
OTHER: including World Bank
-22-




Table 9.-U.S.-BASED SIURT NURSESS CONDXC ED IN FY 1984
Animal Science and Natural Resources
Course No. Title Training Institution Participants
TC 120-8 Resource Development of Watershed Lands University of Arizona 21
TC 120-25 Water Harvesting for Agricultural Production University of Arizona 5
TC 130-4 Range Management and Fbrage Production New Mexico State Univ. 24
TC 130-9 Intensive Poultry Production Systems Stephen F. Austin State 6
TC 130-10 Small Ruminant Production Techniques Calif. Polytechnic Univ. 7
TC 170-7 Ecological Analysis for Management of University of Tennessee 7
Natural Resource Areas
TOTAL: 70
Economics and Policy
Course No. Title Training Institution Participants
TC 140-1 Agricultural Policy Seminar (for senior level University of Minnesota 11
officials)
TC 140-2 Analysis of Agricultural Capital Projects USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.) 20
Section 1
TC 140-8 Small Farmer Credit Policy and Administration USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.) 15
TC 140-3 Strategies for Developing the Agricultural Texas Technological Inst. 10
Sector
TC 140-11 Establishment and Management of Agricultural Southern University, Louisiana 12
Cooperative Organization
TOTAL: 68




Table 9-U.S.-BASED SHORT COURSES CONDUCTED IN FY 1984--Continued Econatics and Policy (continued)
Course No. Title Training Institution Participants
TC 140-15 Project Planning for Agriculture and Rural
Development USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.) 6
TC 140-16 Agricultural Project Implementation USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.) 32
TC 140-19 Policy Formulation and Analysis for Agriculture
and Rural Development University of Missouri 12
TC 140-22 Economic Forecasting for Agricultural Policy
and Decisionmaking Washington State Univ. 14
TC 140-26 Establishing Data Bases and Analytical Systems
for Econcmic Decisionmaking in Agriculture New Mexico State Univ. 12
TC 140-28 Effective Livestock and Crop Management for
Small Farms Colorado State University 5
TC 150-5 Developing Markets for Agricultural Products Colorado State University 14
TOTAL: 95
Management, Education, and Human Resources Development Course No. Title Training Institution Participants
TC 110-3 Agricultural Ccmm--unications and Media
Strategies Iowa State University 8
TC 110-5 Development and Operation of Agricultural
Extension Programs (Section I) University of Missouri 26
(Section II) University of Wisconsin 23
TC 110-14 Application and Diffusion of Agricultural
Research Results to the Ccmmunity Level Iowa State University 5




Table 9-U.S.-BASED SHORT COURSES CONDUCTED IN FY 1984-Continued Management, Education, and Human Resources Development Course No. Title Training Institution Participants
TC 110-15 Training of Trainers for Agriculture and
Rural Development USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.) 26
TC 110-18 Communications Planning and Strategy Cornell University, New York 3
TC 140-14 Management and Organizational Change An
Organizational Development Approach George Washington University 7
TC 140-17 Management and Role of Women in Development Virginia Polytech. Univ. 11
TC 140-23 Management of Agricultural Organizations USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.) 29
TC 140-24 Management of Agricultural Research USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.)
Facilities and Organizations 27
TC 140-25 Initiating and Managing Integrated Rural
Development Programs USDA/OICD (Washington, D.C.) 25
TC 140-32 Keys to Agricultural Development at the
Local Level (Section I) New Mexico State Univ. 13
(Section II) Wisconsin 21
(Section V) Washington State Univ. 12
(Section VI) Tuskegee Institute, Alabama 11
TOTAL: 247
Production and Technology
Course No. Title Training Institution Participants
TC 110-17 Agricultural Research Methodology University of Missouri 14
TC 120-1 Irrigation Problems and Practices Colorado State University 18
Continued




Table 9-U.S.-BASED SHCRT COURSES O)NDUCTED IN FY 1984-Continued
Production and Technology
Course No. Title Training Institution Participants
TC 120-5 Soil Testing, Soil Classification and
Fertility Management Auburn University, Alabama 9
TC 120-6 Technical and Econcmic Aspects of Soybean
Production University of Illinois 7
TC 130-7 Soybean Processing for Food Uses University of Illinois 5
TC 130-3 Seed Improvement Mississippi State Univ. 17
TC 130-5 Plant Quarantine APHIS (Washington, D.C.) 9
TC 130-8 Integrated Pest Management Purdue University, Indiana 13
TC 130-11 Vegetable Crop Production and Marketing Rutgers University, New Jersey 12
TC 150-2 Grain Storage and Marketing Kansas State University 27
TC 150-7 Post-harvest Loss Prevention of Perishable
Crops Cornell University, New York 8
TOTAL: 139




Table 10.--SUMMARY OF U.S.-BASED SHORT COURSES IN FY 1984
Number of courses 44
Number of participants 619
Participants in U.S.
solely for a course 502
Participants enrolled to
supplement other training 117
Person-months of training 1,013
-27-




Table 11.-SHORT COURSES CONDUCTED OVERSEAS IN FY 1984 Person-months
Country Title of Training Participants
\Indonesia Training of Trainers for Management 12 16
K nya Management of Government Organizations 20 26
Kenya Training of Trainers 17 23
Guatemala Use of Audio Visuals in Training 3 ii
Portugal dBase II 10.5 14
Portugal Training Center Coordinators 12 12
Portugal Training Center Directors 10 10
Portugal Use of Audio Visuals in Training 9 39
Zaire Training of Trainers 76 19
Sudan Projects Analysis 19 25
Togo Small Farmer Credit 17 23
Pakistan Management of Agricultural Research 21 28
Senegal Management of Pest Management 13 17
Tanzania Executive Management 17 17
Tanzania Project Management 19 25




Table 11 (cont'd).--SHORT COURSES CONDUCTED OVERSEAS IN FY 1984
Person-months
Country Title of Training Participants
Tanzania Project Management 14 14
Tanzania Village Level Training 33 66
ESAMI (Tanzania) Agricultural Policy Seminar 4 5
Jamaica Economic Forecasting 19 25
Jamaica Marketing of Agricultural Products 18 24
TOTAL: 363.5 429
*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1985-46O-941:2OO67?-OICD




Office of International Cooperation and Development
Responsibilities
The Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD) coordinates USDA's technical assistance and international training programs. The agency also sponsors international research projects and is involved in a growing network of scientific and technical exchanges with other nations on topics of interest to U.S. farmers and agribusiness. OICD encourages the private sector to get involved in development overseas and acts as USDA's liaison with international food and agriculture organizations. To carry out its responsibilities, OICD draws on the resources of other agencies within USDA and the Federal Government, the Nation's universities, and the private sector. OICD has designed its programs to enhance farm production, remove impediments to trade, and improve relations between the United States and both developing and developed nations.
Programs Scientific and Technical Exchanges: These
exchanges are designed to solve agricultural
Technical Assistance: The primary goal of problems that concern both the United States
technical assistance is to help developing coun- and other countries. For example, U.S. teams tries become more self-reliant in producing food may collect germplasm to breed hardier crops or and fiber from limited resources. These efforts parasites to control insect pests. Some 135 help reduce the hunger, poverty and illness that exchanges involving 340 U.S. scientists were still scar the lives of millions in the developing carried out in 27 countries in FY 1983. world. OICD provided nearly 1,000 experts to International Organization Affairs: Internationconduct assistance programs in 85 countries in al organizations have taken on a greater role in
FY 1983.shaping international food and agricultural poliInternational Training: OICD offers training cies. OICD is responsible for maintaining effecand education in agriculture and rural develop- tive working relationships between U.S. ment to foreign administrators, ministry offi- Government and major international food and cials, scientists, and technicians from developing agriculture organizations. These include the countries. More than 72,500 agriculturists from World Food Council, the Food and Agriculture foreign countries have taken part in training Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the programs since the early 1950's. Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in
International Research: More than 1,800 inter- Agriculture, aind the Organization for Economic national cooperative research projects have been Cooperation and Development. coordinated by OICD under the Special Foreign University Relations: USDA and the National Currency Research Program since 1958. Other Association of State Universities and Landresearch programs are carried out with one or Grant Colleges (NASULGC) established an more countries under cooperative agreements. International Science and Education Council in A University Linkage Program ties research at 11 1974. OICD works closely with ISEC to involve U.S. universities to work at institutions in Bra- land-grants, the 1890's, and other colleges and zil, China, Nigeria, Colombia, and Mexico. universities in the international development
activities of USDA.
Organization
OICD is under the jurisdiction of the Under Secretary for International Affairs and Commodity Programs, who also oversees the Foreign Agricultural Service and the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. OICD is headed by an administrator, an associate administrator, and two assistant administrators. Its six divisions, headed by directors, are: Technical Assistance (TA), International Training (IT), International Research (IRD), Scientific'and Technical Exchange (STE), International Organization Affairs (bA), and Planning and Policy Analysis (PPA). Additional units include Private Sector Relations, the Far Eastern Regional Research Office, Administration, and Information.
Information Contact Room 4103, Auditors Building
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Chief, Information Staff Washington, D.C. 22052
Office of International Cooperation and Development Telephone: (202) 475-4071 or 382-8041