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An integrated approach of strategies for poverty alleviation

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Title:
An integrated approach of strategies for poverty alleviation a paramount priority for A[f]rica
Series Title:
International working paper series
Creator:
Lele, Uma J
Adu-Nyako, Kofi, 1952-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Food and Resource Economics Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
32 p. : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Economic assistance, Domestic -- Africa, Sub-Saharan ( lcsh )
Economic policy -- Africa, Sub-Saharan ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Africa, Sub-Saharan -- 1960- ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Africa, Sub-Saharan -- 1960- ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 31-32)
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"This document was commissioned by ADB"--Leaf [i].
General Note:
"October 1991."
Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Uma Lele and Kofi Adu-Nyako.

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IW91-6







AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF
STRATEGIES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION:
A PARAMOUNT PRIORITY FOR ARICA by

Uma Lele and Kofi Adu-Nyako

1W9 1-6 October 1991


INTERNATIONAL WORKING PAPER SERIES


FOOD AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

























This document was commissioned by ADB to a group of
consultants. The content and views expressed
in this report do not necessarily reflect
the official opinion of the
ADB Group or staff.








IMI2UCIQD


1.01 Growing poverty in Africa has once again begun to sound alarming bells. It is a problem which must receive urgent attention. However, solutions must be seen from an historical perspective if mistakes are not be repeated, and if constructive lessons are to be learnt and applied in an operational context. A question may be asked why so much concern about poverty in Africa today? In 1973, Mr. McNamara's famous Nairobi speech at the World Bank's annual meeting of the board of -governors was followed by a widespread interest in the international donors' community to make a direct "Assault on poverty" (World Bank, 1973). The donors' concern rose at the time of a major drought which had led to rising world food prices and a sharp rise in the food import bill of African governments. The oil import bill had also burgeoned following the first oil price shock. Then African governments resolved to achieve food self sufficiency by giving a high priority to food production. Donors vowed to provide for basic needs of Africans. External aid rose sharply. Nearly a quarter to a half of the rise in external aid was directed to integrated agricultural and rural development projects. Amounts committed to agricultural and rural development increased by up to 7 times in less than ten years in several countries. To mitigate poverty, project interventions shifted away from export to food crops. Investment focus also shifted from areas of well demonstrated agricultural potential where rural incomes were already better, to poor relatively marginal areas that had low and variable rainfall. Assistance to agriculture was combined with investment in health, education etc. In this way governments intended to achieve political integration and regional equity. Donors hoped to reach the poorest of the poor.

1.02 It is now generally believed that most integrated projects failed. They were too complex and tried to do too much too quickly. Public services expanded, but their quality left much to be desired. Projects were also based on very little knowledge of the precise constraints the poor households faced. For example, they pushed production of maize where only millet and sorghum could grow for climatic reasons. Governments and donors also overlooked macroeconomic management in their tunnel-visioned focus on projects. As macroeconomic problems mounted by the end of the 1970's, donors were quick to abandon integrated rural development and eager to dissolve the projects entities (Lele). After a decade of structural and sectoral adjustment, much of the planning and implementing apparatus created for agricultural and rural development in Africa, albeit on ad hoc basis, has been dismantled. As criticism that adjustment programs are adversely affecting the poor mounted, new interventions have begun to be designed to compensate for the adverse impact of structural adjustment. All too often these interventions do not draw on the past experience. They overlook the fact that the problems of poverty in Africa are deep rooted, long-standing and often not necessarily related to structural adjustment.








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1.03 The poor earn their living by mostly selling their labor. Therefore, uprooting poverty requires rapid and broadly based growth to create productive employment so as to outpace high growth rates of population. Given the extensive initial underemployment in Africa it will take a long time to soak up the unemployed labor force before real wages can increase. The pace and pattern of development are crucial to the amount of productive employment and income generation. No matter how rapid, the normal process of development will not however, be able to benefit some sections of the population that are too poor to participate in the normal growth process. For these sections direct programs of poverty alleviation are essential. However, experience in Asia indicates that to be effective such programs tend to be highly resource intensive, mainly of indigenous leadership, administrative and management skills. They also require a strong political commitment to uproot poverty. Africa, which now receives nearly $4 billion worth of technical assistance, will need to examine how it will reduce that dependence and increase the mobilization of its own people to solve the complex problems of poverty. Finally, there is an urgent need for an active population policy that will bring down the population growth rates and increase ,apija benefits of growth. This requires massive investment in the education of women as a way of uplifting the entire families. This paper therefore deals with the problem of poverty uprooting at three levels:


1. Those which can be addressed by an effective long term strategy of rapid and
broad based economic growth.


2. Those which require active population and human resource development policy.

3. Those which need special programs to uproot poverty.

1.04 As the premier regional development agency, the African Development Bank has a critical role to play both at the levels of helping African governments to establish effective long term economic development strategies and human resource policies, as well as in getting underway direct action programs to redress problems of the very poor. The implications of our diagnosis for future long term policy analysis and policy reform, monitoring, evaluation and programs of action for poverty uprooting are spelled out at the end of the paper.





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The Nature and Eutn= of Poverty in Africa

2.01 Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the most deprived regions in the world. Based on a poverty line defined as per capita incomes below $370, the World Bank's 1990 World Development Report (WDR, 1990) estimated that in 1985 over 1.15 billion people in developing countries were living in poverty. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 16% or 180 million people, South Asia 47%, East Asia 25%, Latin America and the Caribbean 6%, the Middle East and North Africa round up the rest. However, if present trends of low growth in incomes and rapid population growth exceeding well over 3% continue, the WDR projects that by the year 2000 the number of the poor in Africa will increase to 265 million people accounting for 30% of the developing world poor. This contrasts sharply with a projected decline in the number of poor in South Asia to over 365 million by the year 2000. The growing incidence of AIDS and its likely impact on future population growth rates in Africa and elsewhere in the world are however a major enigma. Its impact on incidence of poverty and implications for policy will need systematic analysis. However, it is a subject which is beyond the scope of this paper.

2.02 The paucity of intertemporal data on income distribution in Sub-Saharan Africa makes it difficult to estimate trends in the incidence of poverty for individual countries. Available evidence, however, suggests that Tanzania's real rural living standards declined at an annual rate of 2.5% from 1969 to 1983, urban real wages fell by a drastic 65% over the same period. Real private per capita consumption has fallen by 43% since 1973 (World Bank, 1990). The likely effect of structural adjustment on incomes in Tanzania and elsewhere is explored later. Trends in the incidence of poverty in Nigeria with a quarter of African population have fluctuated rather than declining. In the 1970's, with the oil price increases, per capita consumption and incemes increased, but with the oil price decline in the 1980's, consumption fell by 7% annually. Nigeria did not make use of its substantial oil revenues to achieve a sustained rate of broad based economic growth as did Indonesia (Gelb). The evidence on caloric intake showed no improvement between 1952 and 1985 (World Bank, 1990). Even in Kenya, which has had a relatively better record of economic growth, the FAO estimated per capita food availability of 2013 calories and 54.6 grams of protein per day for 1979-81. Using a similar methodology, the World Bank estimates for 1987-88 of 1800 calories and 52 grams of protein indicate that per capita food availabilities may have declined by 10% over the decade.








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2.03 Despite rapidly rising food imports, a declining per capita food availability in Kenya and elsewhere is due in part to the high rate of population growth. In addition, African countries have experienced little, if any, growth in agricultural productivity. Much of the growth in food and other agricultural production has come from area expansion to marginal lands, or lands previously under forests and grasslands. Population pressure has also reduced the fallow period, causing declining soil fertility.

2.04 Malnutrition is a serious problem in Africa. Two broad regional patterns of malnutrition have been noted: in West Africa malnutrition in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and Benin rose sharply in the first half of the 1980's then declined until 1986, and is on the ascendancy since. In Ethiopia, Niger, Rwanda, and Madagascar malnutrition has shown a more persistent rising trend (World Bank 1990a). Surveys indicate that in Malawi over 35-50% of children under five years are classified as malnourished. Some of the recent information from food security studies in Malawi suggest that nearly 70% of the households in the Southern region of Malawi run out of food months before the next harvest season. These data mean that apart from a renewed emphasis on food production by the poor, the process of liberalization of food markets must also be considered from the viewpoint of ensuring stability of prices and supplies. The poor spend nearly 80% of their income on food, most of which they purchase in the market. Increased food prices therefore have major adverse effect on their welfare. Until now, far too much reliance has been placed on the use of high producer prices- as a means to increase production without considering its adverse effect on consumption. Much greater reliance wiLl need to be placed in the future on improvement in technology as a means of increasing production.

2.05 Given the state of nutrition, it is not surprising that life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa is only 54 years compared to the average of 62 years for all developing countries. In other social indicators as well, Sub-Saharan Africa is behind most other regions in the developing world. The under five mortality rate is 196 per 1000 for Sub-Saharan Africa, compared to 172 for South Asia and 56 for East Asia. In Asia, only India with under five mortality rate of 200, has a high rate comparable to Africa's. While China and other countries in East Asia and Latin America have achieved primary school enrollments in excess of 90% of the age group, the enrollment rate in Sub-Saharan Africa is a low 56%. Even in South Asia, which lags behind the rest of Asia, the rate is 74% and for India it is 81%.





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2.06 Notwithstanding the recent decline in urban living standards experienced in most African countries, poverty in Africa is predominantly a rural phenomenon. In 1980, 86% of the rural population in C8te d'Ivoire, 80% in Ghana and 96% in Kenya were categorized as poor (WDR, 1990). Although up to 60% to 80% of the income of the poor is derived from wage employment outside one's own farm, sectorially, poverty is reported to be concentrated in agriculture, followed by the informal sector. Within agriculture, higher incidence of poverty is recorded for food crop producers than those who produce both food and export crops. Nomadic cattle herding populations that tend to have the least political representation also tend, on average, to be poorer economically than settled populations cultivating crops, although there is much skewness of income and wealth among cattle herders. There is also growing evidence of increased absentee ownership of cattle by urban elite with the traditional herders mainly becoming wage earning managers. Similarly, there is growing evidence of social differentiation among producers. A small body of commercially oriented crop producers and livestock owners are contributing to the marketed surplus. A large body of the peasantry is experiencing a gradual but certain process of innizerization. The access to land is constrained by a complex set of customary laws that restricts the ownership of land, based on cultural, ethnic or gender issues as well as by political factors. The land, population growth and the environmental dynamics raise sociopolitically sensitive issues which need to be addressed in policy.

2.07 Cattle herding, and food and export cropping patterns are of course determined by rainfall. Therefore a North-South pattern is noted in the incidence of poverty. Using the physical quality of life index (PQLI), UNICEF, (1984) estimated that the incidence of absolute poverty in Ghana is highest in the Northern and Upper Regions. A similar pattern is identified in Cameroon, Senegal, Nigeria and the Cote d'Ivoire. Improvements of pastoral households have received little attention from donors after the initial spate of failure of livestock ranching projects in the 1970's. For instance, less than 5% of lending by the World Bank in the 1970's went to livestock development. Low incomes and adverse climatic conditions mean that susceptibility to droughts and other risks arising from frequent famines, including from the depletion of cattle herd, is greater in the Sahelian than in the Sudano Sahelian or the Sudanian zones. In Kenya, also connected with rainfall, lower average incomes have been documented in the relatively more arid Western and Nyanza provinces, which account for 60% of those suffering from food poverty (World Bank, 1990 KFNP). The regional concentration of poverty means that:

1) long run policies should be pursued which would promote growth and migration
into the areas of relatively high physical productive potential, and











2) in the short and medium run, the public sector must play an active role in
stabilizing food supplies and prices in areas where susceptibility of populations to
climatically induced shortages is acute and frequent.


2.08 Incidence of poverty is lower in urban areas where rapid growth of government and industrialization policies expanded employment in the formal sector at unsustainably high wage and employment rates, although recent reductions in public expenditures and wage employment have also swollen the ranks of the poor, mostly by increasing the size of the informal sector. As a result of articificially pegged wages and employment, the rate of urbanization has been far more rapid in Africa than in other regions of the world. In 1965, the urban population was reported to be 14% of the total; by 1985, the reported urban share had constituted 28 % of the total (World Bank, 1990a), with urban population growing at an annual average rate of 5.8% between 1965 and 1980, and the rate accelerating to 6.2% in the 1980's. In contrast, in South Asia the rate of urbanization stagnated at 4% and in the Caribbean and Latin American region the rate of growth in the urban population declined.

2.09 It needs no stressing the high rural-urban migration in Africa is a reflection of the low levels of opportunities for employment as well as low levels of social services in the rural areas. Migration to urban areas undoubtedly reflects possibilities for improved family income and welfare. However the predominantly male migration has also had far reaching social effects, including breakdown of families, and poor health of rural women and children, in turn leading to a desire for large number of births. Data suggest that the incidence of AIDS is several times higher in urban than in rural areas. There is a growing danger that the already limited budgets allocated to health services in rural Africa will be preempted by the needs to deal with AIDS, while the chronic problems of malaria, cholera, etc. that are prevalent in rural areas will remain unattended. It is an issue which needs attention for designing effective future policies.


Women and povety in Afrca

3.01 Women headed households tend to be disproportionately represented in the poverty group. There is evidence that women headed households are on the increase especially in Southern and Eastern Africa (Buvinic and Lycette). Such households tend to be smaller and their composition is dominated by dependent children, frequently born out of wedlock and therefore without the benefit of a stable family. Women often do not have right to cultivate land, and earn their living primarily by selling their labor. Even women with access to land are mainly





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producers of food crops. They work long hours at low remunerative wages. Their lack of collateral limits their ability to obtain institutional credit and other modem inputs, and to adopt new innovations. Extension agents often have little contact with female farmers. Data on education show a disparity between educational attainment of females compared to males. In 1980, the literacy rate of women was only 60% of that of men. Enrollment at all levels of education was lower for women than men. The good news is that progress in female enrollment in primary schools has been more rapid than that of men, and inproved from a low of 30 % of the total to 57 % in 1987 (WDR, 1990a). However, at the secondary and tertiary levels, females still lag behind men.

3.02 The link between women's educational level, and the quality and productivity of the labor force through effects on the quality of child care and reduction in the fertility rates, is well established and has clear implications for a population and human resource policy. The social return to primary education is known to be higher than for higher education. Empirical evidence from Kenya, Brazil, Korea and Nepal indicates that in the presence of complementary inputs farmers with four years of education on the average improved productivity by 13.2% and even when complementary inputs were not available, significant productivity improvement was achieved (World Bank, 1980). We have already pointed out that the high and accelerated rates of growth of population have caused a sharp reduction in per capita incomes and the growing incidence of poverty. Some initial acceleration in the rates of growth of population occurred as a result of success of public health campaigns, e.g. the eradication of malaria and cholera, leading to decline in the infant and child mortality, and death rates in general. However, the long delay in the drop in fertility rates is related to the poor, or no access of women and children to basic amenities of life. The link between good health and the capacity of a child to learn has been documented in a number of studies. Low cognitive performance has been associated with protein energy malnutrition in Kenya, China and India. Micronutrient supplementation in primary school children in Thailand and Indonesia has been shown to improve test scores. Other benefits of education, better health and fertility reduction have been shown to exist for women.

3.03 Poor health, inadequate education, unclean water, shortage of food and malnutrition increase the incidence of infant and child mortality, in turn increasing the desire for larger families as a cushion against social insecurity and old age. Low productivity of labor in agriculture and rural activities in situations of extreme reliance on handhoe cultivation also increases the demand for children as a means of increasing the supply of labor in fanning, fetching water and fuel wood, in minding cattle and transporting the small surplus to the market. Whereas only about half of the value added in smallholder agriculture in Asia is by labor,










in most African countries the proportion is close to 80%, reflecting the low level of capitalization of agriculture. Quantity of children therefore becomes a substitute for their quality, leading to a spiralling vicious circle of poverty. The cost to the poor households of raising children tends to be low in relation to the benefits they derive from large families, in contrast to the situation in more advanced countries where the cost of schooling, health care and other activities of children often outweighs their benefit. The economic benefit of large families is not to deny the high cultural value placed on large families by African societies. Cultural preferences are however, themselves invariably related to the level of education of women and the other constraints faced by them.

Impact of Slow Growth on Povrty


4.01 Since a major part of the reason for the growing incidence of poverty in Africa is the slow growth of GDP the causes of slow growth must briefly be reviewed from the viewpoint of future policy. Whereas the African continent generally outperformed Asia in the 1960's and indeed was held as the model for Asia when the Asian continent faced a share of its difficulties, the reverse was true in the 1970's and 1980's. African GDP which had grown at an annual average rate of 5.9% between 1965-73, decelerated to 2.7% over the period 1973-80, and to only a 0.3% during 1980 to 1986. GDP declined by 1.1% in 1987, grew by 2.5% in 1988, and the preliminary estimate for growth for 1989 is 3.5% (WDR, 1990).

4.02 GDP performance is closely related to the growth of exports in small African economies in which trade plays an important part. Whereas minerals including oil have dominated exports of some countries, agricultural exports have been important in virtually all countries and they have been the real barometer of the health of the economy. Unlike mineral exports which can be realized by small enclave sectors, agricultural exports have traditionally come from a large number of small farmers. Production and processing of agricultural crops is a highly labor intensive phenomenon. Increasing the productivity of export crops is thus not only an important way of increasing exports but of creating employment, increasing incomes and reducing poverty.

4.03 It is now broadly agreed that Africa discriminated strongly against agriculture by implicit and explicit taxes on exports through an overvalued exchange rate which rendered export crop prices lower than they would otherwise have been. Export taxes became an important source of government revenue. Taxation on agricultural output caused resources to be shifted away from





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exportables to non-tradeables including food crops (Lele). Figure (1) shows that the trade weighted exchange rate which measures the extent of overvaluation indicated a strong appreciation of the exchange rate for Sub-Saharan African countries throughout the 1970"s and early 1980's. At the same time, the index declined for the Asian and Western hemisphere developing countries. This situation reduced the competitiveness of African exports vis a vis other developing countries.

4.04 The emphasis on the neglect of export agriculture in the previous paragraphs should not be interpreted as suggesting that export agriculture should have been promoted at the cost of food crops. There has been a tendency to dichotomize the concern about export promotion and food production. Evidence suggests overwhelmingly that the two are highly complementary. Farmers concerned with food security of households frequently devote some resources to export crop production as a diversification strategy of increasing incomes and spreading risks of crop failure. An increase in the productivity of either food or export crops releases additional resources in the form of land and labor for the production of the other. Thus frequently low levels of land and labor productivity of major food crops prevent farmers from deploying resources for tht 2:oduction of high value export crops and vice versa. Many of the requirements for the development of food crop production, e.g. access to a transportation network, credit, Lnputs, markets and technology are similar to those of export crops. The discrimination against the export crop sector thus reflected a more general neglect of smalholder agricultural production and productivity.

EZxwe Temm of Trad vslnmALEQ cka:

4.05 Arguments raged in the early 1980's after the issuance of the Berg report by the World Bank about the relative roles of adverse external terms of trade and poor internal poicies irn explaining export growth of agriculture. The question of terms of trade behavior is of course complex, because the answers depend on the period under review, the choice of base and end years and the commodity composition of exports. Answers for individual countries must be different from those for the continent as a whole. Nevertheless, the World Bank's 1990 WDR has shown that, if a long period, beginning in the 1920's is considered, real primary commodity prices have not declined. In the more recent period, movements in Africa's overall terms of trade have been influenced by the dominance of oil. In the 1970's the oil exporters, many of whc'rn are middle income countries, experienced favorable terms of trade, but in the 1980's they e.rerenced a rapid deterioration. In the case of the oil importing and agricultural exporting countries, many of whom are low income "IDA" countries, the reverse was true. With the exccptio- of 1975 and 1977 their terms of trade declined in the 1970's but remained flat in the 1980's.
























FIgure (1)


MhOBJ 171-72, 100 125



100



75





S0 75 so Wr Bat


Source: The World Bank





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4.06 Some important broadly agreed lessons need to be considered with regard to the old terms of trade debate from the viewpoint of implications for resuming growth and uprooting poverty. First, the same international price environment was interpretated differently by Africa and its competitors mostly in the developing world. Sub-Saran Africa's share of major non-oil commodities in world exports fell by 2.4% annually in the 1970's but increased slightly in the 1980's. By contrast, Africa's competitors in Asia and Latin America gained shares in agricultural exports rapidly. Second, while primary commodity exporters experienced greater volatility in export earnings and government revenues than their manufacturing counterparts, they expanded government expenditures rapidly as if the commodity booms were permanent rather than transitory. Thus government expenditures as a percent of GDP increased from nearly a fifth in the early 1970's to well over a quarter by 1986 (IMP). Over the same period, the government incurred public sector deficits of 4% to 6% of GDP. Admittedly at an early stage of development in which governments must provide a variety of public goods which countries lack, e.g. roads, electricity, water, schools, etc., and which result in the development of markets and make private actors productive, requirements of government revenues can be considerable. Even with the rapid rise in government expenditures, however, the primary problem in Africa has not been so much the overall level of government expenditures as their allocation and quality.

4.07 Wages and salaries have constituted a rising and high share of total government expenditures in Africa relative to Asia. Not surprisingly, there were limited budgetary resources left to provide the necessary complementary operating and maintenance expenses to make public employees productive. As a result despite a rapid rise in special expenditures, effective social indicators have not improved commensurately. Moreover, bloated and inefficient marketing boards, the neglect of rural infrastucture including farm to market roads, and little or no attention to agricultural technology and its extension have affected the growth of the export sector adversely.

4.08 Government subsidized services have mainly benefitted the relatively better off urban populations leaving few resources for the provision of primary education. In Sub-Saharan Africa subsidy on education is estimated to increase sharply from a low of $48 per primary pupil to $233 per secondary student and $2710 at the tertiary level (World Bank, 1990a). Similarly, expenditures on hospitals in the capital cities have expanded rapidly while rural clinics have experienced shortages of medicines. In Ghana the bulk of the Ministry of Health budget has been directed at curative care that serves the urban one-third of the population. Even Tanzania which





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has had a strong commitment to broadbased development allocated only 5.9 per cent of the 1988-89 health budget for preventive health services (World Bank, 1990a). Such urban bias existed before the process of structural adjustment began and has reflected the political influence of vocal urban populations.

4.09 Growth in government expenditures was predicated on the expectations of the favorable terms of trade and continued levels of foreign aid. As both these faltered in the later 1970's, governments increasingly resorted to external borrowing to sustain expenditures. The growth in real interest rates in the latter part of the 1970's and the 1980's have contributed to the growing service obligation. The debt burden has increased dramatically since the mid 1970's. In 1975 debt disbursed and outstanding was $20 billion and by 1987 this had risen to $128.8 billion. Debt service payment as a percentage of total exports increased from 7 percent in 1975 to over 25 percent in the mid 1980's. In 1986 debt service obligations amounted to 45 percent of Sub-Saharan Africa's export earnings (World Bank, 1989). Without some debt rescheduling it is difficult to know where the resources for poverty alleviation will come from. However, debt rescheduling alone is not sufficient. A necessary condition is for the governments to get their house in order by

1) maintaining a level of expenditures on a long term basis consistent with the level
of domestic resources and external aid that can be realistically expected;

2) controlling the level of government budget deficits

3) improving its balance between a) salaries and wages vs. maintenance and
operations, b) urban and rural sectors and c) social and industrial sector
investments.

ExporCrop Pessimism. Smalolder Development and Overall Economic Dive .ification and Modernization: Some Empirical Examples

5.01 Countries that attempted to diversify out of agricultural exports by industrialization through acute import substitution policies were paradoxically the least successful in reducing the importance of agriculture, in contrast to countries who encouraged agricultural production and exports (Lele and Agarwal). Thus Tanzania pursued a policy of development of heavy industry and agroprocessing. In spite of the strong emphasis on industrialization the share of agriculture in GDP increased from 41% in 1967-73 to 58% in 1985. Ghana, Nigeria, Zambia,








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and Senegal among others, typified countries which launched import substitution industrialization strategies in the 1970's. Besides losing revenue from the foregone production in the export sector, import substituting industrialization policies limited labor absorption and did not enhance the income earning potential for the poor.

5.02 The contrasting case of Chile and Zambia are worth noting. Both countries were confronted with high volatility in the export price of their dominant export, copper. However through the pursuit of its comparative advantage in producing copper, including avoidance of Dutch disease, by maintaining a competitive exchange rate, and control of public expenditures, Chile has been able to diversify its export base including achieving a rapid growth in agricultural based exports. Zambia on the other hand allowed the copper sector to generate a chronic case of the Dutch disease, encouraged the strong labor unions to build a large base of high wages and food subsidies leading to growth of public expenditures, overvaluation of the currency and a stagnation in agriculture. In Zambia the share of agriculture in GDP remained constant at 14%, manufacturing share grew from 6% in 1965 to 25% in 1988, and the share of services grew from 32% to 43% over the same period. The share of the mining sector in GDP fell. By some criteria economic transformation has occured in Zambia i.e. from an agrarian to an industrialized economy, however, over the past two decades, per capita incomes have been declining.

5.03 The lesson is that even though primary commodity production for export may seem less promising, the route to industrialization lies in pursuing corrqarative advantage. At early stages of development this means in most cases in agriculture. There is strong congruence between playing to one's comparative advantage -- promoting export led policies, broadbased agricultural growth of food and export crops and reduction of poverty.

5.04 That simply pursuing an agricultural export led growth without encouraging broadbased smallholder production is not sufficient to reduce poverty is shown by the contrasting strategies pursued by Kenya and Malawi (Lele and Agrawal). Both followed export led development strategies and have experienced impressive growths for their agricultural export volumes. However, because Kenya's growth path involved a smallholder strategy that allowed their access to land, the rights to grow tea and coffee and to eam international prices for their crops, the gains from growth were broadly distributed and moreover, dependence on tea and coffee was reduced through diversification by small farmers into high value horticultural crops. Kenya's approach led to a rapid overall growth in GDP. The share of agriculture in GDP has fallen as the country developed. Accompanying the growth in GDP was also a rapid growth in employment in both agriculture the non-agricultural sector. Despite the high rate of population






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growth, real rural wages did not fall in Kenya to a degree predicted earlier, as they have in Malawi. Broadbased participation by smalholders coupled with substantial expansion of investment in the social sectors, especially in primary and secondary education had a salutary effect on keeping children in school and increasing the reservation price of labor by increasing its opportunity costs. A broadbased smallholder strategy has also had major multiplier effects throughout the economy by increasing saving and investment rates. Kenya (like India) has one of the highest rates of savings - nearly 20% of GDP, a great deal of which is undertaken by rural households. Such savings are invested in a variety of enterprises leading to growth of small towns. An expanding non-farm sector and growth of small towns in turn reinforce agricultural growth. Empirical evidence on Kenya (World Bank, 1982) indicates that rural to urban migration is dominated by households with education who invest their non-farm income into smallholder agriculture by financing increased use of labor and purchased inputs in support of adoption of modem innovations. Kenya's overall success in poverty reduction does not mean that the absolute number of the poor living in poverty has not increased. But their proportion in the total population is not as high as it would have been, if not for Kenya's policies of broad-based agricultural growth based on a combination of price and non-price incentives and investment in the social sectors.

5.05 In the case of Malawi, growth in export performance was due mainly to output from estate production. Originally, estates were confined to very large producers although in recent years there has been a rapid growth in small estates and tenancy farming. Issuance of licenses to grow the high value tobacco, tea and coffee were restricted to estates. Estates can sell their tobacco in auctions at close to world market prices, whereas the certain kinds of low value tobacco that the smallholders are allowed to grow are restricted to being sold to the state marketing board ADMARC at near half to a third of the auction price.

5.06 Restrictions on growing of high value crops and low prices paid to small farmers in Malawi has curtailed incomes and demand of the smallholder population, aborting any growth linkages from agriculture to the rest of the economy. Low public investment in education has also contributed to the low reservation price of labor by increasing the supply of child labor. The low per capita incomes have also resulted in low and declining savings by rural households in Malawi.







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5.07 The lessons from Kenya and Malawi are clear. The example of Kenya (and indeed that of successful smallholder development experience elsewhere in the world e.g. Taiwan, Japan, Indonesia and India) shows the fundamental role of the governement in the provision of basic public goods i.e. agricultural research and extension, rural feeder roads, schools, water points for people and cattle and indeed even support prices for agricultural commodities when an assured market is essential for the adoption of modem technology.

Role of the State: Its Natre w-A Evolntion in Affica

6.01 Widespread concern about the growth of the government has led to a concommitant tendency to assume that the private and the non-governmental sectors will undertake many of the functions which government must perform. Therefore, the role of the state and its evolution in the post independence Africa is apt to consider at this stage.

6.02 In the post colonial Africa, governments introduced many unnecessary monopolies and inflexibilities which have resulted in widespread rent seeking by public officials. For example, while grain trade was supposed to be a dtj= monopoly in most of eastern and southern African countries, de fact private markets already operated and a fixed producer and consumer price across seasons and regions for maize operated more in breach than in effect. Public monopoly of grain marketing however, greatly increased the budgetary costs as well as the risk of operation by the private trade. Public policy is thus arresting the growth of private enterprise.

In addition to displaying monopolistic tendencies, governments have also become more centrist whereas rural development requires highly location specific solutions, which decentralized governments can perform better. However administrative capacity and fiscal authority of local, district and regional governments have been greatly eroded, to undertake many vital functions. This explains why 9,300 kilometers of rural roads constructed with World Bank assistance of 300 million naira in Nigeria have had a tendency to revert to tracks in less than three years of their construction (Gavira, et al.). Even when governments decentralized administration as in Tanzania, they have in effect redistributed the centrally collected revenues as a means of exercising political control over competing regional interests. Growth of foreign aid as a primary source of public expenditures has increased the power of the central governments with whom donors deal exclusively. The role of the legislative and elected officials and grassroot leadership too has been minimal. There is abundant evidence to indicate that emergence of viable co-operatives with genuine grassroot leadership has been perceived by governments in power as a





-15-


threat and often discouraged systematically (Hanak and Loft). Furthermore, whereas de4ure power has often been vested with the bureaucracies for policy formulation and implementation, in reality the state has often resided elsewhere. Its precise location has varied from country to country. Thus in Tanzania the Party became all powerful, in Nigeria the military, and in Malawi and Cameroon power has centered in the presidency. In virtually all countries the offices of President have become powerful with a decline in the power of the ministries of finance, agriculture, and education. Donors have tried to correct this bias in the course of structural adjustment by increasing the power of the finance ministries. However, by and large they have dealt with the problem, not by helping to improve functioning the normal governments, but rather by creating adho structures and arrangements that have contributed to further weakening of the state, by robbing the normal ministries of the vital personnel and planning and implementing capacity. Moreover, much of real planning and implementation of donor programs is still done by external technical assistance, while a large number of highly trained and qualified Africans remain underutilized inside and outside their countries. It is a result of the need to approve adjustment and other loans in rapid succession to provide Africa the vital foreign exchange it often needs quickly. However, it explains the massive use of technical assistance referred to earlier which still leaves the problem of strengthening African governments unattended. It is no wonder then that while dismantling many of the structures created in the 1970's through adjustment programs in the 1980's, there still remains a major institutional void in Africa. Even the private and voluntary sectors on which much hope had been pinned have turned out to be much weaker to make an impact on the poverty problem on a global scale.

6.03 Which interest groups wield power and exercise influence on governments therefore require careful exploration on a country by country basis to determine the likely political support for putting in place effective development policies and to uproot poverty. One of the reasons why smallholder agricultural led strategy has had a stronger hold in Kenya is that its independence struggle was grounded in the rural sector revolving as it did around the issues of rights to land and to grow and sell export crops, rights which were previously denied to African farmers (Bates). Thus more of the political preconditions for an effective smallholder led strategy have been present to uproot poverty via growth in Kenya. This is in contrast to other countries where the political power has either been urban based as in Zambia, or occasionally narrowly based in the hands of those with large vested interests in land. This explains in part why the local and district governmental administrations and the legislature have been relatively stronger and the bureaucracy relatively more intact in Kenya than in several other African countries. This is not







-16-


to suggest that rent seeking is not rampant, nor that there is freedom of expression or an effective multi-party system in Kenya. Nor that there is an effective lobby of the poorest segment of the population who are bypassed in the normal development process.

Structaund Mj ,, am, I kUmx,&W" of Eov


7.01 We have already stressed why the adverse external enviroment and poor internal policies made structural adjustment necessary to resume growth at a rate sufficient for uprooting poverty. Well over 30 countries have bought this argument and pursued reform. Structural adjustment has required demand management, i.e. curtailment of the role of the government by reducing public expenditures and public employment involving reduction in both public consumption as well as investment. On the supply side, measures are designed to expand the supply of tradeables relative to non-tradeables by changing relative prices, in particular reforms in exchange rate, trade and pricing policies etc. Price reforms are complemented by non-price reforms including reduction of controls on the operation of the private sector, and active divestiture of some public sector activities.

7.02 What, can we say about the impact of adjustment on the resumption of growth in countries that have adopted measures? This is too early to determine. First, compliance with the terms of agreement is difficult to establish, given the large number of conditions and lack of systematic empirical information. For example, there were 70 conditions in the first structural adjustment loan in Kenya. While efforts have been made to simplify loan conditions and to focus them on individual sectors, the adjustment programs tend still to be too complex all encompassing and unrealistic in terms of what can be achieved in a short period. Second, aid flows from bilateral and multilateral donors have shifted in favor of reforming countries making it difficult to separate out the effects of returns to reforms, from those to additional resources which enable greater imports. Third, unforeseen external events, e.g. changes in the prices of primary commodities, droughts, and refugee problems caused by wars and famines, have made it difficult to stick with original intentions or to separate out the effects of adjustment. Finally, several preliminary reviews of reforms suggest that most governments have not had the necessary political strength to implement reforms which affect the status quo.

7.03 Studies undertaken in the World Bank conclude that reforming countries have performed better than non-reforming countries. The economic indicators prepared by the World Bank and presented in table (1) seem to confirm the conclusion e.g. growth in agricultural












Table (I)


Suinry of economic performance indicators (average annual percentage change unless indicated otherwise)

Countr4-


Indicator


Growth of GDP (Constant 1980 prices) Agricultural production


Growth of export volume


Growth of import volume excluding oil exporters Growth of real domestic Investment

Gross domestic savings (percentage of GDP) Growth of per capita Consumption (real)


All countries
With strong With weak or
reform no reform
programs programs


-3.1 (-0.9)
0.2 (-2.5)

-2.7 (-3.0)


-1.3 (-11.0)
4.2 (-2.0)

1.7 (-7.7)
4.8 (6.8)


-3.7
-7.0


-8.1
-0.9

9.9 10.7


1980-84 -2.3 1985-87 -0.4


-1.1
-0.5


Affected-by
With strong
reform
programs


-0.7 (-4.7)
4.9 (3.5) 6.1 (7.4)


Period


1980-84 1985-87 1980-84 1985-87 1980-84 1985-87 1985-87


1980-84 1985-87

1982-84 1986-87


With weak or no reform programs


-5.7 (-2.1)
-3.3 (-6.0)

-4.0 (-2.2)


-7.0
-4.8

0.9 5.6

-1.5
-0.9


Source: The World Bank

Note: Country coverage varies by indicator depending on available data over the entire period covered. Averages are unweighted except as noted. Growth rates are computed using least squares. Periods are inclusive. Figures in parentheses are weighted averages of country growth rates based on total values summed across countries.


-3.5
1.9

7.8 10.7

-2.4
0.7





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production doubled for adjusting countries, export volumes improved more and the decline in real domestic investments was arrested and even showed signs of growing. GDP growth was also slightly better for countries that adopted reform programs. However, it is too early to confirm if adjustment has resulted in rapid growth as claimed, especially the extent to which growth has resulted from genuine improvement in the efficiency of resource allocation as distinct from additional resources available for investment through external aid. Second, the growth in many cases has simply meant resuming earlier peaks in production. Weather has also played a part. Finally, World Bank studies only provide a macroeconomic view of the refoning countries. The distributional impact of adjustment policies is yet to be assessed. Since only a few studies have been done on the distributional impact, one can only speculate on how the instruments typically employed in structural adjustment programs affect the welfare of the poor directly through growth and through affecting prices and access of goods and services they might consume.

7.04 The impact of a devaluation will have a differential effect on different households depending on the kinds of output they produce, i.e. whether tradeables or non-tradeables, the household income and consumption patterns, the extent to which they use imported items and whether they are located in rural or urban areas. A devaluation causes the internal terms of trade to favor export agriculture. A similar effect occurs when trade is liberalized and export taxes are removed. Thus, provided smallholders are the major producers of export crops, adjustment should be expected to have a particularly positive effect on rural poverty both by directly increasing the incomes of rural producers who are often not the poorest as we pointed in the introduction, and through them by creating a strong demand for wage labor in the rural and semi urban areas. However, increased cost of imported inputs and transportation, both of which tend to be highly import intensive in Africa erode some of these benefits.

7.05 The price effects on food crop producers are less clear. The cost of food imports increases due to devaluation. Liberalization of grain markets, removal of food subsidies and restriction on governments as to the level of stocks they hold in reserve, or where and how much grain they purchase and undertake retail distribution of grain in rural areas ame all actions intended to reduce budget deficit and/or contain growth in money supply caused by the costly operations, and to increase markets and prices of food as a way to improve producer incentives. The budgetary and deflationary impact of reduced operations of marketing boards are clear enough. The effects on getting underway a sustained increase in food and agriculture or on consumption of the poor are by no means empirically established as yet. There is not a country











in the world which has successfully developed its agriculture without om role for the government in assuring markets for basic commodities. The main question is how to perform this function cost effectively. This is an issue which could use further analysis by examining experience of countries elsewhere that have been particularly successful. For instance, Indonesia's Bulong stabilizes rice prices at a much lower level of stocks and fiscal costs than India's giant Food Corporation. Marketing boards relinquishing control of imports to the private sector has not always resulted in competition, instead transferring functions to a handful of politically powerful traders that have been able to gain import licenses and acquire control of retail distribution with adverse effects on consumer prices and poor households. While producers may be receiving higher prices they have lost the benefit of an assured market. Moreover, the evidence of weak supply response to price signals in African countries is due in part to rigidities in the marketing structure, lack of or poor state of rural infrastructure and lack of institutions to support both production and marketing. The effect of liberalization of markets on consumption of the poor, especially in remote rural areas i.e. nomadic households and food producing households in semi-arid areas, as well as those in the urban sector who have lost formal employment and swollen the ranks of the informal sector require much more attention. This issue is taken uP in the recommendations.


7.06 An issue which also has the most direct bearing on the poor and which has received much attention is the effect of contractionary demand measures which might have necessitated across the board cuts in government expenditures. Hard empirical evidence on this issue is stiE: ve- limited. A recent World Bank study indicates that contrary to the general perception. tota! real government expenditures increased in the 1980's, suffering only a temporary decline in 1984 (Ferroni and Kanbur, 1990). Although sectoral allocation of government expenditures to health. education and agriculture maintained their historical levels, the intrasectorial allocation of expenditures did not reflect an antipoverty focus. We have stressed in this paper that the .-ha_r bias in public expenditures has been strong in Africa even in the 1970's. Thus, it is not surprising that this bias may have continued, and it is misleading to attribute the continuation to the process of reform. This is not to suggest that the poverty problem does not need addressing urgently but rather to emphasize the need to address the more basic root causes of the problem, highlighted in this paper, including the lack of representation of the poor in the political and bureaucratic processes and systems of many countries.





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7.07 It is clear that allocative efficiency with respect to poverty alleviation will be achieved if public sector spending is reallocated to reinforce services to:

(1) areas where employment opportunities of the poor are the greatest, e.g. in small
holder agriculture and livestock, the services that support that agriculture including in particular investment in technology, feeder and other roads, small scale processing and private and cooperative marketing of agricultural
commodities, etc.


(2) Social sectors that impact on the lower income rural households.

(3) Targeted groups identified as especially vulnerable.

S g rEnh'ncing Eanloo.

Lmd:

8.01 We have argued in this paper that access to land interpreted in the broadest sense has determined the opportunity cost of labor. The African Developement Bank as a premier regional institution has an unusual advantage over its OECD counterparts in helping countries to address the land issue by developing land records, carrying out analysis and generating an informed debate among thoughtful Africans as to the way land policies should be addressed in the future to generate broadbased income and employment generation. This type of work is often less appealing than large scale, short term financing of employment programs to alleviate the perceived impact of structural adjustment. Therefore it does not receive the attention it needs. but it is urgently needed. Among the issues it could address are the effects of rapid population growth on land availability and land degradation including implications for protecting land rights and for investment, e.g. small scale irrigation, soil conservation, etc. to improve land quality. Another major issue is the way large farms or estate production may be causing land alienation by the well-to-do, former party functionaries and retired civil servants for large scale farming. Elitism in agriculture does afford agriculture a larger voice in the policy making process than it would otherwise. However the policies that result are not necessarily conducive for broadbased development. An example is when the rural elite or absentee farmers seek to maintain subsidies on tractors, as in Northern Nigeria, enabling them to intensify the use of tractors.







- 20 -


It causes:

(1) lower demand for labor in production

(2) skews incomes in favor of the few who are able to command the use of tractors
services through the ministries of agriculture


(3) preempts the few recurrent resources governments can devote to agriculture when
the same resources could be used more productively, for instance, to increase the stability of funding for Africain researchers in the national agricultural research
systems to improve the state of technology for small farmers.


8.02 Evidence abounds that shortage of operating recurrent budget rather than the shortage of donor support has been a major constraint to the functioning of the national research systems. The budgetary restraints imposed by structural adjustments has worsened the plight of these national systems, because there is weak constituency in African governments for the support of African science and technology for the small scale farmer, than there is for protecting subsidized use of inputs that benefit large farmers.


8.03 An argument against subsidies for tractors is not intended to suggest that all forms of mechanization should be rejected in a situation where surplus land exists and labor shortages constrain agricultural intensification. Large tractors however, tend to allow extensive land use in the midst of growing population pressure. In contrast, broadbased "capitalization" of agriculture in the form of simple tools and implements, and improved biological and chemical inputs increase labor use and productivity in agriculture. Asian countries are the powerhouse of such intermediate technology. A combination of tied foreign aid, and an attraction of "advanced technology" among African policy makers has however, resulted in much underutilization of the vast potential for the use of intermediate technology in Africa. The African Development Bank can take a major initiative in facilitating such a transfer of technology from Asia to Africa.






-21-


8.04 Access to purchased inputs is another area where a poverty sensitive policy is urgently needed. Fertilizer and improved seeds are the easiest and most scale neutral inputs to raise agricultural productivity. Privatization of fertilizer distribution and generally ensuring institutional pluralism in the sale of inputs is a salutary development. It will increase services in the areas where demand is already well established e.g. in the high potential areas. However the access of the poor to these inputs is limited by the high costs of inputs as well as the high risks in returns under conditions of low and variable rainfall. Technologies for the arid and semi-arid areas where many poor reside are less well established in terms of their profitability or certainty. Trade is not necessarily competitive in such often remote areas, especially where the effective demand for inputs is limited. Whereas there is the need to remove most subsidies on factors of production and to liberalize input and credit markets, governments will have to play an active role in targeting concessionary sales to targeted poor groups. This could perhaps be done by the public sector providing subsidized transport of bulk inputs to remote areas and leaving their retail sale and distribution to private and cooperative sectors. Such "subsidization" of distribution which allows the poor to increase their food production will be more cost effective in budgetary terms and will minimize the need for the public sector to undertake retail distribution of food to vulnerable groups in those areas where market dependence in domestic food consumption is high and the sources of supply of food are few and uncertain. Input distribution may however, not be a complete substitute for concessionary distribution of food.

Credit:


8.05 There are positive examples in Africa of the extent to which ready availability of cash e.g., through remittances from the urban sector, has assisted the hiring of more labor in the intensification of agriculture, and the extent to which lack of cash has been a constraint to increasing use of labor and other inputs. Institutional credit has played an important role in alleviating a cash flow constraint in modernizing agriculture in most parts of the world. And yet when the need for intensification of agriculture is the most urgent in Africa there is a widespread and understandable disenchantment with the use of institutional credit. The reasons include the tendency of the governments to subsidize interest rates and the indiscriminate growth of inadequately supervised credit, inadequate repayment rates by large producers who are usually the beneficiaries of the subsidized credit and the consequent erosion of the financial capital of credit institutions. At the same time countries with a broad-based pattern of dynamic agriculture







- 22 -


such as India and Kenya have tended to have high rural saving rates by low income households. Evidence from Malawi also shows that the poor households can have a high rate of credit repayment, if credit is well administered and highly supervised.

8.06 The challenge is to develop organizational means to mobilize those rural savings, and to deploy them directly for the benefit of the rural poor rather than being siphoned off through the banking system for the benefit of the large farmers and the urban elite as is currently the case. Experiments with "susus" and "tontines" in West Africa with their creativity and flexibility have shown the potential that exists in the informal sector for generating savings. The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh is however perhaps the only example where banking has been developed solely for the benefit of the poor on a large scale. This has required dynamic ndign leadership by a dedicated individual, as well as the use of subsidies which are carefully administered to make the process of developing a financial market for the poor viable in the long run. There are already some attempts in Africa to learn from the Grameen Bank experience. The African Development Bank needs to help nurture traditional local saving institutions as well as local leaders committed to deploying these institutions for the benefit of the poor, while expanding the knowledge of the ingredients of success of experiments such as those in Bangladesh, Malawi and elsewhere. It is generally recognized by experts in the financial sectors of Africa that the usual market oriented price factors such as the liberalization of interest rates etc. while essential to improve financial discipline and in the long run to augment resource mobilization are relatively dull instruments to mobilize and deploy savings productively due to the early stages of development of the African financial markets. A variety of nonprice interventions would thus be essential to ensure that credit is available to poor agricultural and trading households in the rural sector.

MArketing facilities that serve the rural poor

8.07 Evidence of monopsonist situations in rural areas may serve to preclude certain sections of the rural population from responding to higher price incentives for tradeables. Improving rural market organizations including encouraging grassroot cooperatives could serve to break the monopsonist log jam. Competitive markets however only ensure that food supplies go to the areas where households command incomes. Private traders may not hold enough stocks of food and fertilizers accross years to meet shortages of poor households. For this reason, the role of the government in retail public distribution of food at affordable prices to specifically all designated target groups needs urgent reconsideration.





-23 -


8.08 Rural infrastructure development needs to be accorded top priority. Rehabilitation and maintenance of rural roads is essential for transporting the expected surplus to markets; incidents of agricultural produce rotting in remote parts of a country for lack of roads or impassable roads are common place in Africa. Knowledge by the small fanner that agricultural output will be able to reach markets is an incentive to boost production. It should be noted that transportation costs constitute a large proportion of marketing margins in Africa. Thus, providing new roads to serve remote producing regions could elicit a greater supply response, cause to integrate rural and urban markets and reduce the price spread between producers and consumers. If the small rural farmer can command a large portion of the retail value of his or her produce, his or her income would be enhanced. Since lack of capacity of local governments to plan, implement and especially maintain feeder roads has been a major problem, ADB can plan a major role in addressing the issues of strengthening the capacity of local, district and regional governments.

8.09 Maintaining water and irrigation systems should also be top priority as irrigation allows double and triple cropping and is highly employment intensive. Small and medium scale irrigation rather than the high cost large dams may be the way to raise the yield of agricultural production in many parts of Africa especially in the arid regions where moisture is the primary limiting factor in production. Irrigation wil also afford intensification of production and reduce the pressure on extensive use of land for increasing production. The Bura irrigation scheme in Kenya is an example of the wasted donor and country resources in an otherwise well managed agricultural sector. The small scale surface and tubewell irrigation introduced by the World Bank in Northern Nigeria, based on the use of intermediate technology, is an example of a successful case of technology transfer in an agricultural sector which is less well managed than Kenya's. In both cases the type of technical assistance the two countries received determined the quality of technology transferred. (See Lele and Subramaniam)

Researh and extension


8.10 Both the integrated rural development projects of the 1970s and the structural adjustment programs of the 1980's have overlooked the fundamental importance of science and technology in the generation of appropriate technology to suit the constraints faced by small farmers. Agricultural research and extension should be given top priority to increase the productivity and incomes of the rural poor. In Africa, on-the-shelf bio-technology suited to the







- 24 -


resources of small farmers and appropriate for the diverse ecological situations is still limited. The high turnover of African scientists caused by a poor research environment, low and unpredictable budgets and a lack of clearly defined research priorities, combined with an absence of a scientific environment in which output of research is assessed, have been associated with heavy and rapidly turning expatriate technical assistance and an emphasis on buildings and equipment rather than on the management of the research systems. Far too many of the precious resources have been devoted by donors and governments on extension in a situation when budgets of ministries of agriculture have been contracting under heavy pressure of structural adjustment. More objective evaluation of extension programs such as that being initiated by the World Bank on T&V extension should be undertaken to determine the relative resources that should be allocated to extension vis a vis other expenditures, e.g. rural roads, input supply and market developement.







9.01 Shortage of trained personnel make implementation of poverty programs difficult given their need of highly skilled and trained personnel. Educational priorities in the face of cuts in government spending should be to achieve a balance between universal primary education and secondary and higher education. People who benefit from higher education must be made to contribute a larger share of the cost, perhaps through a loan scheme or service to the country at lower than normal pay. The savings arising from this source could be used to expand and enhance the quality of primary and secondary education. Vocational education would need to be targeted to vulnerable groups such as displaced workers in the urban sector and women, to enhance their employability and earnings in the informal sector.

Heah:


9.02 In prioritizing expenditures in the health sector emphasis should be placed on providing primary and preventive health care as opposed to hospital based care. Immunization programs for children are more cost effective in the long run than curative care. The importance of preventive programs that achieve an exhaustive coverage is critical in light of the devastation that has accompanied epidemics such as outbreaks of meningitis, and guinea worms. Endemic diseases like river blindness and sleeping sickness have prevented large areas of the hinterland from being cultivated. The eradication of the tsetse fly in large parts of Africa has enabled livestock production to be income earning in those areas. Similarly, the resettlement of "oncho" infested areas in parts of West Africa has been the result of checking the simulium fly that transmits the parasite.





-25-


9.03 Public health services will need to be targeted to reach the very needy. Delivery of subsidized health services through public health centers have been found to be effective in their c . However, with the poor state of these facilities in many countries and also lack of facilities in remote areas, this avenue of health service delivery is of limited effective use. Alternative means of delivering health services to the rural areas would involve increasing emphasis in using community health workers who reside in the rural conmmunities. Training for community health workers may be needed in most countries in order for them to be effective and for the rural clients to have confidence in them to use their services.

LXerrent= in SpciaLQM:

10.01 While the strategies discussed above are expected to induce growth in the economy and impact positively on the poor, there still are situations where any benefits of these programs would by-pass the very poor. This may be due to their lack of capital, illiteracy, or geographical isolation. Also, in time of emergencies such as droughts, wars, political upheavals and mass migrations the poor suffer disproportionately to other sections of the population. Their economic situation deteriorates and their ability to adequately meet their nutritional requirements is curtailed. Such situations while temporary have become all too common in Africa. They require extraordinary responses from governments to prevent catastrophic consequences. For such disadvantaged people there is the need to effect transfers either in kind or monetary aid in the alleviation of their poverty.

Chronic Food Poverty:

10.02 In the case of chronic food poverty, direct food transfers are needed to alleviate the problem. To be effective, subsidized food aid should be targeted to the intended recipients instead of imposing a general subsidy. The subsidy should be placed on food that is easily identified as that which is consumed by the poor. A thorough knowledge of the consumption patterns of the poor is needed to design an effective food targeting program. Often foods presumed to be consumed by the rich in reality are consumed by the poor. In Senegal, for instance, rice believed to be the rich man's food has been shown to be important in the consumption of the poor due to the relative ease of cocking or buying cooked rice compared to sorghum (Delgado and Reardon). Recommendations to raise the price of rice have been shown to have an adverse effect on the incomes of the poor. The case of Egypt is a good example







-26-


of food subsidy being effectively targeted to the poor by restricting the subsidy to coarse wheat flour which is consumed only by the poor. If the problem is one of inadequate incomes then cash transfers to raise the purchasing power of the poor may be needed. The problem of misdirecting cash transfers to consumption of less desirable items should be of concern and appropriate strategies should be taken to ensure proper use of transfers. Food stamps may be one means to remedy this situation.

Food Policies in Famines:

10.03 Large infusion of food may be needed at short notice. A well developed food trade and distribution system is essential to effectively respond to this situation and swift and decisive action by the government either to release food stocks e.g. as was done in Zimbabwe or bring in imports as in Kenya in 1984 may save an otherwise bad situation. Direct feeding and food transfers coupled with cash transfers to restore purchasing power may be the way to go in crisis situations where food is available in other parts of the country. The case of drought and famine in Bostwana in the 1980's and how it was managed serves as a good model of an effective and integrated approach to dealing with famine crises. The government combined large purchases of maize from South Africa and public work programs that enhanced rural incomes to attack famine. Effective distribution through private channels stabilized prices.

Public Employment Programs and Poverty Reduction:

10.04 Public employment programs have been used extensively in India to provide employment in rural areas that lack any employment opportunities for landless laborers and people who are normally excluded from regular employment. They are also an important way of generating productive assets. Such schemes may be instrumental in providing seasonal employment during the lean seasons in agricultural production. A major consideration in their design should be their labor intensiveness. However, care must be taken to avoid causing labor shortages during the peak demand for labor. Careful design of these programs would preclude the non-poor from participation; for example, wages must be low enough to make it unattractive to people with access to better paying jobs. For the very poor, their low health and poor nutritional status may pose an impediment for their participation and food supplementation program attached to the public works program may elicit the required response. Participation in public work programs by non traditional labor groups like women has implications for their earnings as well as the substitution they make in their time allocation for home work and outside work. Lack of proximity of such programs may be a major detriment for the participation by women. Also,





- 27 -


providing child care facilities will enhance women participation. It is important that the public good output emanating from these programs be beneficial to the local people --e.g. public roads that improve access to local markets or public health facilities. Thus, a locally needed project, apart from providing employment to the poor will have second round benefits to the society at large. Public employment programs should not overly increase public expenditures of the government and cost effectiveness should be a paramount concern in their design and implementation.

Aid Related Issues:


11.01 Aid levels to Africa have been high in per capita terms ranging from $35 to $50 in nominal terms for over a decade compared to $2 for China and India. In real terms however, aid levels have been stagnating. Moreover, the effective level of aid to Africa is far lower than nominal numbers suggest. A high proportion of aid is tied to goods and personnel from donor countries -- both the technology and technical assistance associated with it is frequently more costly than it needs to be -- more an employment program for the donor countries' industries and personnel, and its content is often inappropriate to Africa's factor proportions, availability of trained personnel, physical infrastructure and institutions. There is relatively little emphasis on training of personnel and developing indigenous institutions rather than on "getting the job done". A large amount of aid is thus misallocated in a variety of different ways and yields very little return. Results of a major study (Lele and Nabi) recently completed also, indicate that larga quantities of aid have often had effects similar to those of commodity booms -- they have contributed to the Dutch Disease phenomenon -- helping to increase the size of the government and reducing the supply of tradeable goods. Aid has also been highly unstable in much the same way as commodity booms and instead of helping to stabilize the foreign exchange earnings of countries at an early stage of development, being driven by geopolitical considerations, aid levels and its programming have been difficult to predict. Indeed the study argues that recipients need to treat aid in much the same way as they should treat commodity booms -- they should save and invest the earnings productively to accelerate growth.

11.02 Small amounts of well conceived aid has however had a tremendously positive role in increasing the capacity of recipient countries to plan and implement well conceived policies and development programs, the Green revolution in Asia being a classic example of the role played by external aid in accelerating the rate of growth of food production, virtually eliminating famines and greatly increasing physical and economic access of the population to food while also assistuin the industrialization process.







-28-


11.03 Donor agencies including the African Development Bank will serve African countries well if aid were given to support elements of broadly based long term development policies. Supporting long term programs of infrastructure development, agricultural input delivery systems, primary and preventive health care, and schools may serve the cause of poverty reduction better than exclusive emphasis on short term reform programs.

The Role of the African Develognent Bank:

12.01 The ADB should assume a leading role in galvanizing member countries to address the problems of economic growth in general and issues of poverty in particular. It should be instrumental in focussing ideas on the solutions to aid and development related problems at the regional and country specific levels. It should strengthen capacity to analyze long term development strategy issues as well as short term macroeconomic developments, to be incorporated in the design of recommendations for country programming. The bank staff should be sensitized to poverty issues in order to incorporate poverty concerns into the design of each country project or adjustment loan. To attain that level of sensitivity, the bank staff will require a strong information base to trace the link from the individual to the household and on to the macro level a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of the household as consumers, producers as well as suppliers of services to the economy, and to establish how macroeconomic and sectoral policies and programs affect them.

12.02 Lessons from the dismal performance of rural development projects in the 1970s is that to design appropriate, location specific interventions to complement reforms being undertaken at the macroeconomic and sectoral levels, requires substantial input from African professionals (social and physical scientists), voluntary agencies and African rural poor people themselves with a strong backing of their governments. Even the experience of the United States suggests that antipoverty programs do not always benefit the intended beneficiaries. Therefore a substantial emphasis should be placed on simple, quick and small household surveys godazf directly todesign interventions of these programs, to ensure that the design can be adjusted to address the problems that art encountered in the course of implentation, and there should be substantial flexibility in the implementation of these programs.






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13.01 Conclusions

(1) Poverty is mainly a rural phemenon in Sub-Saharan Africa

(2) To attack the high incidence of poverty requires:


(a) Rapid and broadbased overall economic growth through an effective development policy.


(b) A population and human resource policy which increases per capita growth.

(c) Special programs of action for those who are bypassed in the normal process of growth.


(3) Broadbased agricultural growth strategies that employ intensively the rural poor
are the best way to alleviate poverty. This implies assured access of the poor to productive factors of production such as land, credit and fertilizers. Also, an enabling environment through the provision of complementary services such as rural roads, irrigation infrastructure, markets, research and extension services are
needed to accelerate growth.


(4) Past policies of African governments were inimical to agricultural growth.

(5) Public expenditures need also to be geared to providing basic social goods such as
health care facilities, mass health intervention programs and emphasis on primary school education that ensure high quality of services while also allowing broad
coverage of the people.


(6) Transfers need to be effected to reach the very poor. Targeted interventions may
be the best approach although this may be more difficult to implement than general subsidies, and tends to be highly intensive of detailed information and
experienced personnel.


(7) An effective overall strategy to uproot poverty requires a thorough knowledge of
the interrelatedness of the various facets of macroeconomic policy, population
policy, markets, and the microlevel constraints and potentials.


(8) African Development Bank can help in a variety of ways outlined in this paper to
uproot poverty.







- 30-


Introduction I The Nature and Extent of Poverty in Africa 3 Women and Poverty in Africa 6 Impact of Slow Growth on Poverty 8 External Terms of Trade vs. Internal Policies 9 Export Crop Pessimism, Smallholder Development and Overall Economic Diversification and Modernization: Some Empirical Examples 11 Role of the State: Its Nature and Evolution in Africa 14 Structural Adjustment and Uprooting of Poverty 16 Strategies for Enhancing Employment Opportunities 20
Land 20 Purchased Inputs 22 Credit 22 Marketing Facilities that serve the rural poor 23 Infrastructure 24 Research and Extension 25 Social Services 25
Education 25 Health 25 Interventions in Special Cases 26
Chronic Food Poverty 26 Food Policies in Famines 27 Public Employment Programs and poverty reduction 27 Aid Related Issues 28 The Role of the African Development Bank 29 Conclusions 30






-31-


BIBLIORAPHY


ADB (1989): Bates, R.H. (1981):



Buvinic, M. and M.A. Lycette (1988):




Ferroni, Marco and Ravi Kanbur (1990):



Gavira, Juan, Vishva: Blindish, and Ura Lele (1989)

Hanak, E. and M. Loft,





IMF, (1990): Lele, U. (1989)




Lele, U. and Manmohan Agarwal (1989):


Africa and The African Devl.pa=n Bank: Crrent and Future Challngg, Abidjan, C6te d'Ivoire.

Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The Political Basis of Agricultural Policies Univ. California Press, Berkeley.

"Women, Poverty and Developient in the Third World. "In Strengthenng the Poor: What have we learned? ed. J.P. Lewis, ODC Policy Perspective N0. 10. Transaction Books, New Brunswick, NJ.

"Poverty Conscious Restructuring of Public Expenditure. "SDA Working Paper N*. 9. World Bank, Washington, DC.

"The Rural Road Question
and Nigeria's Agricultural Development" MADIA Discussion Paper N0. 10. World Bank, Washington, DC.

"Danish Assistance to Tanzania and Kenya, 1962-1985: Its Importance to Agricultural Development, "in Aid..o African Agriculture: Lessons from two Decades of Donor Experience,
forthcoming, World Bank, Washington, DC.

International Financial Statistics.

"Structural Adjustment, Agricultural Development and the Poor: Lessons from the Malawian Experience, "MADIA Discussion Paper N0. 9. World Bank, Washington, DC.

"Smalholder and Large-Scale Agriculture in Africa: Are there Trade-Offs Between Growth and Equity?" MADIA Discussion Paper N0 6. World Bank, Washington, DC.







- 32-


Lele, U. and Ashok, Subramanian,




Lele, U. and Ijak, Nabi, (1991)




World Bank (1975),




World Bank (1980), World Bank (1982),



World Bank (1987), World Bank and UNDP, (1989)

World Bank (1990 a), World Bank (1990 b),


UNICEF (1984)


"Strategy for Irrigation Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Experience. In Devel ntof Small Scale and Private Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed, Shawki Barghouti, World Bank, Washington, DC.

"Concessionary and Commercial Flows in Development, "in Transition in Development. The Role of Aid and Commercial Flows, eds. Uma Lele and Ijaz Nabi. Intemrnational Center for Economic Growth, San Francisco.

The Assault on World Poverty: Problems of Rural Development. Education and Wealth- John Hopkins Univ. Texas, Baltimore.

Poverty and Human Development, Washington, DC.

"Growth and Structural Change-Basic Economic Report, "(Kenya) Report N0. 3350, Washington, DC.

The Alleviation of Poverty Under Structural Adjustment
Washington, DC.

Africa's Adjustment and Growth in the 1980's,
Washington, DC.

World Development Report: Poverty, Washington, D.C.

Kenya Food and Nutrition Policy. A World Bank Sector Report, Washington, DC.

"Ghana: Situation Analysis of Women and Children" Accra




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'74167' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWSU' 'sip-files00030.pro'
ce54d1f4cf7b2611bc606dbf6fc338ab
4f14dba57228643c5bf97c97f3b98f7203166b0d
'2011-10-15T16:13:38-04:00'
describe
'76405' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWSV' 'sip-files00031.pro'
62ee6acdd5d4e1be845ac6ff0925d922
69d71b29f150d0c255e3f810c762446f0161a0fe
describe
'64378' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWSW' 'sip-files00032.pro'
9145fbdeaf4406b876825456f6136ffb
9818bb934e479b2541fa4e4680f554c6213fabe2
describe
'47690' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWSX' 'sip-files00033.pro'
e37d5799c5e6900268104133838fa2a5
fe929e812389590a5d76ac10d4052d1fdcf6a678
describe
'35750' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWSY' 'sip-files00034.pro'
dce3cf5bd26a2faf56fc4362962324f5
619a139821bf2a8cd2924ec6bc5bc77ba728feaa
describe
'39630' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWSZ' 'sip-files00035.pro'
20fbe315ec937a78abd0bdaca99e1144
7c4fc2413918def8f55813b3ac27afe8bfc5a13c
'2011-10-15T16:13:27-04:00'
describe
'32883' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTA' 'sip-files00036.pro'
06605774dfaaed25c65939ff2c9ae074
0956b6dce1616fd29f819a875a49a43ae7b2d3de
describe
'60451' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTB' 'sip-files00001.jp2'
b884a36572e51c896c235a1ff8ae224d
9ec347d708184d7cab86a2a59913ead06a7c9f65
'2011-10-15T16:12:57-04:00'
describe
'16848' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTC' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
dab3f4077d4244e45f3fa4f6eca322ae
dbba90b9fd0dfd91944151b2c2314d063ba65ef7
describe
'160687' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTD' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
e902992a6c0f059d56792efd13411389
960802b046173caa45fdef6608d01676ae37c1e3
'2011-10-15T16:13:02-04:00'
describe
'121998' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTE' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
85b0af35cfee7c04a05efcbe2303fc42
ccb5b5d60a6c7bef59cab647cb4580c14f3499c4
describe
'141668' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTF' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
cf70f6e99946baed2525eccda5316e4e
91d8e7ffab34d0003a42c8e09f0c372b8a3a4168
describe
'140323' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTG' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
92f4fc847b6f8f1ee95e0b3a5fd9eeaf
c4abf36a248a8adcfef258271b1b69c6ee5a7f1b
describe
'157179' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTH' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
087e04c2225eb241a36c9375aa07d67e
15b45d8a0e03214a3948a419a77df06973715821
describe
'140908' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTI' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
40f325a4fdf72c5c4a1328e0be9fb286
1e227ae23198cd0041bb24795d81c4a6c2968b17
describe
'159845' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTJ' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
078d6966d1760f2ecb012f4e47cf2a54
b2e9d1cdedc0b8239d867483945f38c0d08168ab
describe
'139222' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTK' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
a6e05817598dcd304dae4571111dabfa
da060818f540ba0d0eb6ceef40ff183b80a906f5
'2011-10-15T16:12:59-04:00'
describe
'157797' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTL' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
7af12f6966caf2c14414fd4458138cc8
8f5356aedbeb0d57121f4bf7d89af0b69ec74ae1
describe
'20420' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTM' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
bd10d5b2ab554cf61f2e9fab93c7427a
5c2faf0544e33a799051eef668c4b6dcbcc82e80
describe
'153545' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTN' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
28c51094fce613c9d65e30e815b1d9fb
41f1a36d732ea04c21f6cfa650b282afe5afdc86
describe
'129871' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTO' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
7332d88dc1732dac95ce305f1725abc3
b427685885ebfcc513471d1f7e036df08a555154
describe
'156876' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTP' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
5a192d8af06d20a0f204ccb2106e220e
41fb438cf39aabfdd9c72efe14ec6729b9a94c6b
describe
'136865' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTQ' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
dfd39c7544ff7be295c98c6739e4c5f1
97f4121f83e68393caeceb6f51f6ea0b6010e4d6
describe
'145774' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTR' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
02a343fc4d2347c58b9642f0586a75ce
9e4757ddba9a81800f48a2f4049871c20ab20ff9
describe
'157752' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTS' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
323539799616288d6ab285d676b10698
a29f24e6fa9f09f4ac488aa48a4114a75f77e1d9
'2011-10-15T16:13:12-04:00'
describe
'141844' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTT' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
82ce1fcb89c2678c46b8744813be0e10
5432355ecda34dbdb6e184e53c1972b05d672e99
'2011-10-15T16:13:07-04:00'
describe
'84623' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTU' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
327e76dea4d76b4f3401fa958e4a6014
f4b22759b7f9276d4b137ac8dbf42d0e7ac7264f
describe
'153057' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTV' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
f27db940234253d770e0b95958a654ae
e568d810bcc8b63b0d4e65015a6000de7148f458
describe
'141730' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTW' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
3b971d9200143236122bec0d7dda3009
4febc9ff9d6fa670cbbba4c6656a895a3d128444
'2011-10-15T16:13:42-04:00'
describe
'119273' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTX' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
32ffe709ad0cd48d066950692ac9cc84
1c336183e32ca1e6833d2ce13e72fb1aedaf9072
describe
'103182' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTY' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
363ad77bf121f16e719ba5f7323913fb
c65af748290402617e3634bca05f300be3472d56
describe
'146779' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWTZ' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
06d52d14e01a87dc70613283269f9d51
425f3cf4a1f6bf8fd623094331a5224646947b24
describe
'145916' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUA' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
26cd393b18a9e2b69de82743ac7d79b4
c7429dbfb42d8463f86c63be518e0db1fa1b2ef6
describe
'142286' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUB' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
e3eb42f49e7fc4f1e185ff389bc87670
742c47c127060685a4bd80a4f20952f261bba92d
describe
'143721' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUC' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
4124c58c76a12b120aaad9ffc0a1ff44
46b76e71f54fcf0d5549b7c6cf7fe0c1775a03d4
describe
'135601' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUD' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
cf4d04eeeea17cdd397cf918dc316ba0
71bb6be42df6d517b9d4937d2a9feed1f362403d
describe
'146678' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUE' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
7a68c69d7d223fbf1eb03fd81201cf74
fe184de02d40d6350f5c4e76cff985268c0a33a2
describe
'148272' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUF' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
73230dcf68d0fffebacfac633538b2db
a17970d2101ee5f474f603a2fbccc7dca61d5471
'2011-10-15T16:13:04-04:00'
describe
'128587' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUG' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
4088a5e0e626359e5fb64b6bd56de66b
e5d512de7b4d1707c23584a2385df336af4bc8ab
describe
'98958' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUH' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
42343b925758dd2b6437b4dea9dd7b5a
15a72665b2524a84f6a76c4035323dbf8b90d890
describe
'54879' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUI' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
3718dbe71895569b86998e83dfde8626
654b66a14f331a10daf3d89b3e2bf5e45049857e
describe
'89107' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUJ' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
07d5d9a4cde608b41521e2db1f9ac653
6ade3347f5979b64bbce1fd67213ee47fb228a8f
describe
'76731' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUK' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
ea0f79ffc761533a5f9c54c28dcf9671
b1958f7c014fd2ae71fb2251f94c0fb917c30d88
describe
'990536' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUL' 'sip-files00001.tif'
ccbf693a11ec8263fc34a230ad71e441
7f85e443ce7b282d7d1801e05437a507c53be5db
describe
'982792' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUM' 'sip-files00002.tif'
6e2fe3959782e3f83ea14c058d483635
6a37c723fe0d77221493a493f5af2da5835cecdc
describe
'1002288' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUN' 'sip-files00003.tif'
c1a49d075ae456608336835f237c067c
757ba8fb1fc3c6ed4bb45c1ad84ec79e7abac23e
describe
'997812' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUO' 'sip-files00004.tif'
63b524daae5386c5fcf07d874ce55abd
87234aa59377f31391e68c3719c11d1d124836a0
'2011-10-15T16:13:37-04:00'
describe
'999548' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUP' 'sip-files00005.tif'
5fabcc2082f31e8731e2df87e4a52406
fb8a26cb47256d4c63d7d6b22b2057b90d900bb6
describe
'998768' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUQ' 'sip-files00006.tif'
8b56636aba39d4827ea4adcc06780c91
d51ff3b6940dd588e750a66ad7c9f6b549ab900f
describe
'1001240' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUR' 'sip-files00007.tif'
a0d4a77fbf8428973974abe62503b622
c1b1774504092de2e9cc177d576a5327cd2571d4
describe
'998892' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUS' 'sip-files00008.tif'
a9f68400b79746c4efac76164d919ee5
cf7bb43d77aec232f95eb164297accfe67a0905d
describe
'1002064' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUT' 'sip-files00009.tif'
e0bb8c1fda4decee280b4104d27bfd2b
fd25f26fd6114246fc1c231f48c5c615f4b1a7bd
describe
'999496' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUU' 'sip-files00010.tif'
63df92419bb1c1ce660b8d93283d5a3e
94fc838f4f8a0022e55fcb27e2683d99679c652e
describe
'1001320' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUV' 'sip-files00011.tif'
7c0e8fd74962eb5b4008b40fecdacfee
9fa26295e8b6a19ced90884dbb167de71b840cec
describe
'984640' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUW' 'sip-files00012.tif'
fcd461e0ea1e33e253d52e71cb55b404
9b1a4e49236cff61f2e29e91217ff1c4a2688905
describe
'1001008' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUX' 'sip-files00013.tif'
c9ac72e16bb1b98d1f56da3f1e610eb0
a783c5b3bab45e392855eea357f43ae1e0ba53f9
describe
'999452' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUY' 'sip-files00014.tif'
cfe16b4d976ca4e240ff0ccaf9a43656
bcf56409d985f6e105c5184d9dcd19ea85617ad4
describe
'1001328' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWUZ' 'sip-files00015.tif'
0087365a3cd04f09836e81fa70a14d0c
2bcccb78f138492c548fb8de35c776ba5897e64f
'2011-10-15T16:13:08-04:00'
describe
'999120' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVA' 'sip-files00016.tif'
9336c79cd0fb18f87a720f63e6902146
d259e3ef56c5f0179b5fd76cd8df8a3e59a8f927
describe
'999948' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVB' 'sip-files00017.tif'
e704042f3b9e4fca4cc5eb92bac2dcb2
f86c64435c30e658914bccadf01e17299373ca7b
describe
'1001852' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVC' 'sip-files00018.tif'
3deede1317cc0db8af440c8d9318c84a
e64c5fdb84dc1e07d38be2c901c7d0570a043bf4
describe
'1000424' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVD' 'sip-files00019.tif'
fb46b8d07c05059aa3577e992ac15801
5f5fb952c858b27495880363580202b33f3f2e4b
'2011-10-15T16:13:03-04:00'
describe
'1063848' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVE' 'sip-files00020.tif'
6aaf4325b99442c4821bc3ac88ee4e01
2d2fa51b92698cb3cbf799aacc6e2be8b88d2e42
describe
'1001424' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVF' 'sip-files00021.tif'
29fc5573a310055f4751c36ccf33d31b
cc26ceda1faa077aa7f4d8143b9d51a31550c1ce
describe
'998472' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVG' 'sip-files00022.tif'
ea28b820427d527c7d5911ff7b20bdb1
5fb02dc1bfc3a5acba16021030d11671ba051826
describe
'996772' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVH' 'sip-files00023.tif'
11f24ac14dc40c736f13286bb95aefa2
feffa9d12dfdf7e4cf06087b603f60abf44fb47c
describe
'994656' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVI' 'sip-files00024.tif'
c47de926a7a9be23ddb3287af5b22a6d
c563f130e024afaf1df609a740599a66980cc075
describe
'999804' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVJ' 'sip-files00025.tif'
f2c80b9d5ef5e479df44408461209966
a4dc12c57d90d1ef8276a5a1c6389baf08c4da02
describe
'999532' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVK' 'sip-files00026.tif'
dabf57508383b45fa18b59e104a953c6
b3a82dadb7bd3089c57c3d45bd8dd0bf28a01d44
describe
'999348' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVL' 'sip-files00027.tif'
9a7806968eb07a0a45d6c3fc56129567
76edbc5084b4fc2e9d916fbcc3103d1bdf986c68
'2011-10-15T16:13:36-04:00'
describe
'1000612' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVM' 'sip-files00028.tif'
e6e875731b02ff329cc25f83d10b1962
8b298aca6e01fb2c4149db25cb2c6bad772c50ce
describe
'999332' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVN' 'sip-files00029.tif'
1510796ec3accffcbd89dd2e7c84b10a
36f2f79ec30e16f36d72b223bd89d57696886d74
describe
'1000444' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVO' 'sip-files00030.tif'
957925111a1945bf27c6758b5fbcb1fb
e50fac7f93348751994a8cef7694c8b66a67c6bc
describe
'1000764' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVP' 'sip-files00031.tif'
63e3dfe18cb71bafdc0f32f8d8f7ea96
aa5f29feca2feae2637d2622beb031cc2c578d58
describe
'998056' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVQ' 'sip-files00032.tif'
f680aa997d7b88cd6d6319dad3c93313
9b9104dc662a7f92a956b9b4329b44f5d9a05845
describe
'995044' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVR' 'sip-files00033.tif'
27f24521479f57a5344c3c3e954f70ce
437f808ac630c23f9c0f43de21159ab107fbd21b
describe
'988780' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVS' 'sip-files00034.tif'
76cefa5d41cef30ccbbb1002079e1a0b
bf2c34ea6cfcea4239f49ad1a7f6e285c46cd98e
describe
'994696' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVT' 'sip-files00035.tif'
cd4c073f8cd312085e1d07f880061ba7
1111effc1eb5feb6d7cf6cb58f525474fdd5c31d
describe
'992100' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVU' 'sip-files00036.tif'
3a8e0c77be977a2b6fe553c72ae8b013
f3d7d5e6c9f84efc5cdee5c745def3b151b691da
'2011-10-15T16:13:05-04:00'
describe
'95254' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVV' 'sip-files00001.jpg'
30e64d11e5997010fdc8e8c9c972f29a
3d7016c0f2292ef34f02e1f28d20445609d59970
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'34207' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVW' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
a9b65784cc6ca5168ac8ad828a74bc43
10df6f59c93f9bd4fd5891ac9e0bd2935ee2010f
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'235854' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVX' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
b87e77bc7563a998cd2b38581cdd14b3
4d24a9afb19d2ad1d701b1e025033cfa1a1d9192
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'178507' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVY' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
39c603047b5b2c31966fe23441d36df6
7d67ae31047d9ab8f002709802265e5ba314733a
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'210515' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWVZ' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
0995116dfa71265437e7507cfb45d244
cd21ea87c77a80a0f506cb1122f41439ee15bd95
'2011-10-15T16:13:47-04:00'
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'205035' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWA' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
3b066bacdaf578c328dfeec0132ae7fa
e13ab5ffafa609784ae1dd99c0ab49da1232393f
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'230800' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWB' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
058452c099e61a843483d0ac794a7434
0116f50d23b33e05c0dfb822d7c8e4c67a6ad5ca
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'204998' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWC' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
c9606424abfc60a9b28bebb212d788a3
dcf091da1e33021196cc93351dd80cb8e8737282
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'236654' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWD' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
db264722612a52fdab92b617becc36cd
53449a04c99b5e6d554d153063840e1e86e48d0a
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'203274' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWE' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
e1c18c3c4f78fb6da7cd2a97804b7518
135ef119759ecd65708754e707cefeb87e2cadbe
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'230012' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWF' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
a61cbbb3294be00d27bed239366c3724
d3929d06920740da09c6e654ebbf54dbc3110fd5
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'43382' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWG' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
783b7ff6700c75b599fa1b9812c5b3e8
114b320ca6757485a1818620fa0e17741392eec1
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'228834' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWH' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
a740fe277e829467bda0dcc8fc48cc20
690b06b358c7686b6068cf7e1f2acaef08490f63
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'190891' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWI' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
c60549bcae4176665f80c3d1103dbff8
14bba3c00f7ccfa328f57ea0f2a6d9b83999a878
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'226921' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWJ' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
702df8a0e31c352ddd695bef4526981f
2c7b4eaa6a282d8ab0d10f5e57b13210c49aadb7
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'201329' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWK' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
5098906a82e9cd8333791804f3cfb4c4
387992afdfd55351ec695e74693a74104c9da516
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'207278' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWL' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
e2098b9709d80b3616425ce0bb6514d5
05ccbf71105ec740b49af1e1423f65a8dd845af4
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'231481' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWM' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
d956ce8f7f21b9f8a2800b69621ccb58
f8e2b4a5d1c31fdf0f504f12698485488718eac3
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'207904' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWN' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
c6f52560d33401f4d875e86cbdfe0ff6
0da9cd7a555cf03bd4179664ffa174df7e55f936
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'87041' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWO' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
3c00a646e17f95f762d55f1e566ab19c
64247e614a4bfc6ac616e4590e4e7a292a0a4600
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'223962' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWP' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
190dfedb5116e0ec8ded503a91c1ce65
c035508a13490c914c51b1705df46cc723ebf787
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'202391' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWQ' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
a06758ee23bf25c71928fd2cd23457ba
87bda09b43e2ae642b0b1298307e8c858a8f5d5c
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'174619' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWR' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
56abe75ef29ebf36f76c7766e94dbc13
467d415b8850e584a9fb8fa4ea4ec583f1a3b512
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'151476' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWS' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
d5796cd4199e9ca0dd4fce2a3a0e197f
aefd1ecd6bccec1573451466dd1964bea35e98e8
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'213791' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWT' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
f71c99ad39b909e5a49415adb6d8d91e
5372302779c8d4e4e0a6d9c9daa07ed6ddbbac19
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'210924' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWU' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
a94b037a3e63d0975a36c33cd5fc7027
328d6389dc4017347dea102724067b26a10937be
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'206198' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWV' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
3a4d136fc813c27a903da1dd351f8ecd
b03301e87d2ba5c4f922e1da39e4f9d44a014698
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'209312' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWW' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
d7ac58330923161888a344320530a7f7
abb37bc3106a4cd1eff1b3e4e6d3fb2ffe214586
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'198719' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWX' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
fe665df9c19b037051cf6fe1af421208
b41704901ba146d42e6d1e89cbd5b261a57e5914
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'211865' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWY' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
76b6bc445dfa9c7ad28c7940b13204b8
344b84b08ff20008ef9882415d143ac018fe1b29
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'214480' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWWZ' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
0e287bc9014c514393203eec00e21ced
afde09ef44c7bcbe6e15e48b5fed7cd01dc0c0a7
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'189202' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXA' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
df7e39109d5eb428595b2285a760293f
039e77e1c3e60e9eeae3e0f0fb136cf54cb935b5
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'145660' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXB' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
82c0c3e8b43107c458dae9eb16d7e679
bc9c4d9c590fcce828278f8ac380e9450e95d627
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'86151' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXC' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
621fab7f690446a29478aeeac6b2e8c8
ef570374a7ca77f0b914254916dddea30294b4c2
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'134866' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXD' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
8f5bfe8eb656374a573a91cc48e673aa
6b822d1cf1147a4563580b533ade945f7b96d725
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'114393' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXE' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
81ae39ff3cf8bed00a6103498d023805
dfab497d0f79e7f4a50cba6dd35e58d8eaf83d23
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'43137' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXF' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
20f9efbd0429122890002457096221bc
f71e0109a4833c2258f6cb70fd9e5044fc1f6590
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'24975' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXG' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
2e760cc71e565710828ff744eaa9c466
a123f4688cc32a736f6b0b46ba638274afa0fb2e
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'18873' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXH' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
64f0e92166c745d1c09b19a0e355e1f5
2eb42ec2af68176e981bb276d5721c110825dfd0
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'84344' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXI' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
c05bc2fb8303500453f01a4d44857817
f9bd390b333c1407f0a92f056fc5e497475e3978
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'67287' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXJ' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
6c5de25810b18c330c7eabc8fcec9398
4d65fc5dfd6777b2ecec33229e2ed7f065d219e3
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'76413' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXK' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
eb0b21d952d63d664367fd17db839def
592322f612130d44952c37ceb44a8e7520cd7864
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'74358' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXL' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
8a8e05965eecaf214e43aa3db75d0ab3
095d350916516c45b2820b34b656e786c7afc372
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'82987' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXM' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
fbd586b0b3a5eb1d8ba985febc16019e
0dcf3f050cdb4cb147b01c066f50016b201d4632
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'74953' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXN' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
67649812470e6b90af6534d5b8052a0b
ac6daf401cf5a877f0cb432eff74892f770ed80d
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'85156' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXO' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
9ed504588861eb51dcb586c95a9be9e0
c0293f5a1a42be9865bc819f4181accc436cbfb6
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'73995' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXP' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
d249db59561a968850e2bb8e42fbbd23
2d9b38f9801957c83600c4a517e396c47d0b1863
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'84014' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXQ' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
37d1c697696a0c17d6e2d628fbd0c54e
d574ca3a0ff94e3b56c5c592ae979e0cdde6caa8
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'24165' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXR' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
3b752c65955f369830a8b1588dce0773
bbfb456411345ee735b574a068b6bf5d6b8d6e2a
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'81797' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXS' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
78142409eed097fe3e57f5b8d9f75010
4f26ddecfe9fce3414565bb01d0d41eedb780a73
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'72831' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXT' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
6a26b1ce790a2854f229a8a2cc7c212f
d1d20f5c32079a5efe841d1fd5b556f2a1e6125f
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'82080' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXU' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
5729354741a9bbee729ab4dd6b4b3b82
e2b732afd7c395aa5e1557f3672ca8a98d250062
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'75874' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXV' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
0f622ec319823c452304be56811e2966
e898a4b2abca0aff442fda7398add31003353122
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'76082' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXW' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
cce0acceb48ab1dd4c37383660a00665
09809cc8c4a11d61a0b5572bdc6511a2515553c6
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'82544' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXX' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
eeec422557be569cd7fde266049fdd88
335b0c1837041a201c623a981ba238c66cf53675
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'77662' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXY' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
0ecb5562307f407a678b6410104c7594
007cac6e9ff0065de3d0fe831576fa5d8aa2647a
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'39920' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWXZ' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
ff7949b9c43d5a71bf142e689a9e5786
f9f2b0f8a461b4711a4f5c0155ac6903dbb7dcdd
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'81254' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYA' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
5894222f446f588dc79120490f4640b0
97443a1d65d7f480a77f74b0b47d81ad080fb844
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'72084' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYB' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
af67f0f53d1b7455981ad8b9b3088575
5304222e8b01e2bd4c1906b3d7b55f379153a54c
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'65718' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYC' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
44110b681895c4edec451ceb68ce9d40
3db5dbef8bfdbe9cc6ab5e14dde5ce8afad097db
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'57793' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYD' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
2db820736d0dcc88e1fb2330aa933ebc
db069f1e117111f2da63a1db8947a0cd8fad12c8
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'76891' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYE' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
d0a9cbc513530b757cef10f3c1c44a62
04d06b0f7ca57a3a76a768787d9e7e88d6525b13
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'76133' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYF' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
f245929dd32fd579ae2df72e4ab48a0d
3061fb80d4792f9b9eb28b9c4c4c65ebd5790423
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'75992' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYG' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
d7d253e2a926a1bbccf3d8085efe6385
cf7069df2fa55dfd3c6fc707d324d9cf2618b250
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'76203' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYH' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
d7a42be2e415829f497db4f9c90aea71
bc7cb2d81b53b4a3ccd99e6fb6c1ca8d87525848
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'74220' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYI' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
dc81b96b10c4aab5f1d7d7972b6f96fa
acf050dfe52621f0245ea01d6490b49d979402e9
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'77571' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYJ' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
6d392fbe02a04be1650ad055ca7f3fec
10ca3abc307b168c184cc394ea09f7dd22bd69b2
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'78516' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYK' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
f4b168b43884f8ef1d3cc12fdd40934f
2bdbd6b34aaeec812f41516b0e63473536fa546c
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'71173' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYL' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
73cd04bb9bd678213fafe8568aaf0447
5c4594606926fe0b514c07108456a2313014a080
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'58862' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYM' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
814bf78d94743ce4ef647e590c6f0e8d
35ef5b4b538dd818f995c4cf006ded9d2147ec1e
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'38354' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYN' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
539059fa7f2f7b0870cc771298e9151c
9c1ed5bf588afccbeb4be379aa20b6f8ee455f24
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'55526' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYO' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
5d5ba1369d19b6c79c94a38d0095ee1f
c0782cbfdc74893964987cec8e0069d9dcc0b192
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'49520' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYP' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
7976b30d35148b2fe66e6028afbb75af
8e34787d3d47ba42e86be259175e79a3e9c97b53
describe
Value offset not word-aligned: 173Value offset not word-aligned: 153
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
Value offset not word-aligned
'68326' 'info:fdaE20080419_AAAAGHfileF20080419_AACWYQ' 'sip-filesUF00054799_00001.mets'
5bd9af2099017f7f09d07a04d664ddb5
d18ce3cae1f282cb2661885c9cc53b504e55983c
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
BROKEN_LINK schema http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID ERUMGU8EC_GR8U4G INGEST_TIME 2015-09-11T16:55:04Z PACKAGE UF00054799_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES