Adaptive Crop Research and Extension (ACRE) Project : Annual report for the period 1982-1983

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Adaptive Crop Research and Extension (ACRE) Project : Annual report for the period 1982-1983
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Annual report for the period...
Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project
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Africa ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
serial ( sobekcm )
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Africa -- Sierra Leone


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Full Text
1982 -1983
January 198f


FOREWORD .. .. .. .. .
Introduction .. .. .. .. ...... 1
Organization of Adaptive Research .. 2
Baseline Surveys .. .. .. ...... .. 9
Station Research .. .. .. .. ..... 43
On-Farm Trials and Demonstrations .... 46
International Linkages .. .. .. ...... 46
Research Highlights .. .. .. .... .. 47
Introduction .. ... ...... .. 50
Scope of Work .. .. .. .. ...... 50
Adoption of ACRE Technology ... ...... 51
Zonal Spread of Work .. .. .. .. .... 51
Trials and Demonstrations .. .. .... 58
Nutrition Activities .. .. .. .. .. .. 61
Consultancies .. .. .. ...... .. 61
Some Extension Observations .. ...... 62
Some Extension Activities .. ...... 63
Problems and Recommendations .. .. ...... 64
TRAINING REPORT SUMMARY .. .. .. .. .... 69
Introduction .. .. .. ..... .. 69
Structure and Support o.. .. .... 69
Training Progress for 1982-1983 .. .. .. .. .. 69
APPENDIXES .. .. ...... .. 73
hiather at Njala Station in 1983 .. .. .. .. 7
List of Publications (1983) .. .... .... 75
Consultancy Reports in Research and Extension (1983) 99 77
Organizational Structure of ACRE Project 9 .. .. 73
Executive Steering Committee Terms of Reference & Membership ., 79
Management Directorate .. Terms of Reference & Membership .. E0
Research Advisory Committee Terms of Reference & Membership .. 81
List of Research and Extension Staff .. .... .. E2

Since the beginning of active functioning of the ACRE Project in
1980 to 1982, the emphasis has been on A general approach in the layout of adaptive crop research trials and demonstrations on the farmers fields. During this period, as can be expected, much experience has been learnt by the research scientists and the extension staff, in relation to the way the farmers perceive such activity of which they are expected to be an important component. As a result of the experience gained, the on-farm adaptive trials and demonstrations have now been modified to reflect specific differences between the zones where we operate. In some cases these differences which may be purely due to ecologic, social, economic and cultural factors have also influenced the nature of the On-Farm Trials and Demonstrations within and between the zones themselves. In short, these activities have been modified over the years in an attempt to focus specifically on the farmers' need as is influenced by the cropping characteristics as practised in the zones.
An important consideration that is beginning to affect our agricultural research and extension effort is the scarcity of vital resources that are being recommended for use by farmers. These are mainly in the areas of fertilizers, pesticides and other agro-chemicals. This issue of resource scarcity which is closely linked with the present adverse global economic situation, Is affecting developing countries like Sierra Leone. Unless the situation improves, the only remedy would be for our scientists to find more imaginative means of overcoming the problems of declining soil fertility due to shortened bush fallow period, and the losses that are caused as a result of ravages by pests and diseases.
The future success of the activities and achievements of the ACRE Project !.,ould depend on the institutionalization of a strong Research and Extension linkage at the-Vational level. With the present integration and restructuring that is going on within the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, it is hoped that the research/extension model experience of ACRE will be formally established at the National level.

This report represents a summary of the ACRE's Research, Extension
and Training activities for the period under review. It provides highlights
of the achievements, the problems and possible solutions. As can be seen
much has been achieved and much needs to be done. The establishment of
strong national extensionlresearch linkage, and a multidisciplinary approach
to solving the problems that limit the Agricultural production by the small
farmers, will go a long way to help us achieve our objectives of increased
* productivity.
W. E. Taylor

Prof. E. R. Rhodes Research Coordinator
The broad objective of the Research Division of the ACRE Project is to solve agronomic problems which have been identified by research, extension workers and farmers during the cropping season.
The core problems that are now occupying the attention of research staff are the causes for the low yield per unit area that is reported for all the important food crops in Sierra Leone. Some of the factors that have been identified as being responsible for low crops yields include weed infestation, poor soil fertility, pest infestation and the use of low yielding crop varieties. The problems of post-harvest crop losses are also receiving some attention by researchers.
Although there are no sharp dividing lines between any of our research activities, yet it is convenient to classify these into STATION RESEARCH and ON-FARM RESEARCH.
Station Research is mainly done on NJala University College Campus (NUC), out of NUC Campus in the zones and sometimes in collaboration rith the Integrated Agricultural Development Projects (IADPs). The results obtained from Station Research are used in the design of simple On-Farm Adaptive Research Trials (OFART). It is on the basis of the result of these OFART that the On-Farm Demonstrations (OFD) are developed and put out for the benefit of the farmers on their farms.
(a) Crop Working Groups
Three Crop Working Groups were established in 1983. The idea was to promote a team effort in solving agricultural problems. Extension personnel participate in meetings of the groups. The following are the groups and respective leaders.

Root and Tuber Group Dr. M.T. Dahniya
Cereal Group Dr. J.B. George
Legume Group Dr. A. Sesay
A joint meeting of the groups was held and new research proposals were thoroughly scrutinized.
(b) Work Programme Conference
This provides an annual forum where feedback on previous year's On-Farm Trials and Demonstrations are discussed and the Research and Extension staff decide on the nature of On-Farm Trials and Demonstrations to be put out in the current year. Station Research Projects approved by the CWG are also put forward for ratification.
Participants to the conference come from ACRE Project,
Njala University College; North Western IADP; IADP North; IADP Moyamba; IADP, Magbosi; Seed Multiplication Project: USAID Freetowm and the USAID sponsored Agricultural Project in Conakry. A total of 43 persons attended the conference in 1983.
(c) Advisory Research Committee
The above committee was set up initially to consider research
proposals submitted by non-ACRE staff for funding by ACRE. Its term of reference were subsequently expanded to consider all research projects, not necessary submitted for ACRE funding, and to set up research priorities. The composition of.members is drawn from NJala University College, ACRE Project, USAID Mission, MANR and Rice Research Station, Rokupr.
Several surveys were initiated during the period between 1980 and 1982. These surveys which included socio-economic, agronomic, nutrition and appropriate technology were intended to aid in the identification of field problems and also to serve as "yard sticks" against which the impact of the Project activities in the zones of operation could be assessed. Two of these reports Baseline Socio-Economic Survey and the Baseline Agronomic Survey were published in 1983 and are summarised below.

3.1 Baseline Soclo-Economic Survey
(D. Tuthill, P.R. Katewu, J.N. Kamara, A. Lakoh & A.T. Roberts)
(a) Sampling Methodology
The study area was a 25 mile radius centred around Kenema, Njala, Makeni, Rokupr and Kabala. Five chiefdoms representing Resource Regions in each zone were randomly selected from those identified in each of the five chiefdoms. A total of 50 enumeration areas were thus demarcated. According to the 1974 Population Census, an enumeration area is estimated to cover an area of about 10 square miles and to contain an estimated 200 Farm Families. A total of 1500 farm families were interviewed.
(b) Socio-Economic Forces among the Farm Families
i) The average family size for all zones was 8.18 persons which
varied from 7.37 in Kenema to 9.27 in Kabala. The sex distribution was very nearly eaual. Only 3.8% of household heads
were female.
ii) The mean age of all families was 25.85. Age distribution In
all zones was largest for the 0-10 year bracket, and diminished
to 6.3% in the 60+ age bracket. One result of this is a large
dependency ratio.
iii) Age distribution among heads of households was almost the
reverse of age distribution. Decision making is carried into
relatively old age but the 21-40 year age bracket contained
28.3% of heads.
iv) The average number of wives per farmer was under two. It
varied from 1.8 in NJala and Makeni to 2.3 in Kabala.
v) Formal education of the farmers was meagre with almost 2/3
of all farmers having no formal schooling experience. Very
few farmers had any adult extension training experience.
vi) Attendance and observance of society functions affects farm
work, particularly in activities like brushing, ploughing and
harvesting because of conflicting seasonal aspects. Participation in the society functions also incurred cash and in kind

vii) Farmers Goals and Resource Constraints
- Although the prime concern of most farmers is to fulfill
the family's need for food, yet over 80% also produced for
the market. Most farmers needed a package of rcscurces
inciuding capital, labour and mateials- in order to produce
more food.
- Most farmers were not satisfied with the farm sizes and
yields. Farmers located in IADP areas were more satisfied
than others. However, practically all farmers indicated
their need to acquire more knowledge in farming.
- Extension-farmer contacts were found to be low. However,
farmers do appreciate the purpose of extension contacts.
- Around 90% of farmers showed a high degree of innovativeness
meaning they would adopt locally proven technology given
the right incentives provided they are within their
resource capabilities.
viii) Productive Resources, Farm Costs and Returns
- The Land Resource: Little land is bought and sold and land
was therefore not entered as a cost in the study.
- The Capital Resources: Investment in Farm tools and equipment
averaged Le48. Value of sheep averaged Le28.00 mith goats
just under this and chicken the lowest at Lel4.00 per farmer.
Ownership of cattle was concentrated in the Kabala zone
among a few farmers. The average herd for all fLir-mers was small but a few farmers had herds of between 20-30 or more
heads. The average overall investment in livestock was
Le437 per farmer, the value of all zones other t'n Kabala being Le81.00 per farmer. The average value for houses and household effects was Le952. The proportion of zinc roofed
to thatched houses varied among zones, with the proportion of the former being greatest in Kenema and the latter predominating in Kabala zone.
- The Labour Resource: Family labour provided 72% of all
labour. Hired labour was paid in cash or in kind. Group exchange labour was used in some areas especially in the
Makeni zone.

- Farm Equipment and Variable Capital Cost: The average
total annual cost for farm equipment was about Le72 per
farmer and home processing equipment was just over Le9.00 for all zones. The cost of rice seeds was the largest and
most universal cost. The average was Le49.6.
- Labour Costs: Labour inputs were obtained by farmer estimates
of mandays spent in the various crop production activities.
The average wage was taken as Le2.00 per manday. Cost of
hired labour for mixed upland farms averaged Le327 per farm with Kenema at Le174 and Makeni at Le493. Inland Valley Swamps used Le217; however they used more labour per unit area than mixed upland farms. Corresponding figures for boliland and mangrove rice were Le504 and Le331 per farm.
- Farm Crop Returns: Crop returns were calculated as the
gross income from the crop or crops produced on one farm.
Mixed upland farms provided a gross income per farm ranging from Le270 in Kabala to Le683 in MAkeni, for an overall
average of Le430. Mangrove swamp rice provided the highest gross income of Le1353, in fact the highest return from any
crop in any zone. Inland Valley Swamp gave an income ranging
from Le172 in Rokupr to Le603 per farm in Kabala with an
overall zonal average of Le400. Income from boliland rice
farm was Le444 per farm.
- Net Returns to Farmers: Many farmers had farms in more than
one ecology or crop system and their total income would be the sum of the net incomes from each of their farms. This
net income would be the return to the farm families total
land, labour and management resources. Average total costs
ranged from Le330 to Le570 with an average of Le410. The
Rokupr zone had the lowest total cost due to low labour
costs whereas in Makeni this was high in total costs because
of high labour costs.
In gross returns, Kenema was the highest (Le740), because of
good contribution in value from mixed upland, IVS and tree
crops. The Rokupr zone was next in total returns because of high returns from mangrove swamp farms. Njala was lowest at

Le546 because of relatively low average returns from all crops except mixed uplands.
In net returns, Rokupr tanked first with Le404 due to low costs and high returns from mangrove rice. Kenema with higher costs ranked second. irakzii iacns lowest with a net return of only Lelil because of high labour costs in mixed uplands and net losses in bolilands. The Kabala zone had returns about equal to the average Le259) as farm returns from IVS and especially dry inland swamp overcame losses in mixed upland farms. In Njala the overall returns were low and were weighed down by farmers in mixed upland who had high labour costs and net losses.
(c) Major conclusions
i) ACRE Project should strive to increase rice yields and total production. The main emphasis should be on upland production which predominates as a system most familiar to farmers.
ii) Less than 30% of decision makers were under 40 years but this
should provide a core group of flexible receptive and innovative managers willing to adopt ACP recommendations. iii) ACRE must recognise the times and seasons when field visits and added work loads would be circumscribed by society activities. Communications and programmes may be enhanced by tapping into some society functions. iv) One of the major goals of ACRE should be to improve the extension structure and delivery of services. v) Seasonal demands on labour create periods of critical labour supply. Labour is the major cost at present and its efficient use is emphasized. More labour intensive operations must be cautiously recommended based on the cost and availability of labour. Capital substitution for labour must also be carefully studied for its cost and application on the farm. vi) Net returns were low on the average upland farms. The yields of rice were low but an increase of only 180 kg/ha will wipe out loss. Increasing yield per unit area is of critical concern for the upland ecology.

vii) The net return is the bottom line in denoting the well being
of the farm family; the net return can be increased by:
a) Increasing the farmers output by increasing his yield,
expanding his operation, maki g sure that additional returns
from the increase on change more than cover the additional
costs. The determination of costs and returns in difficult to calculate under farming conditions, but ACRE must attempt
to determine these costs and returns as a basis for making
recommendations to farmers.
b) Increasing the farm price of the produce by raising overall
prices or by increasing the efficiency of the marketing
3.2 Baseline Agronomic Survey
(E. Rhodes, P.R. Katewu, D. Tuthill)
Agronomic data obtained from a total of 300 contact farmers. This number was made up of 60 from a radius of 25 miles of each of the five zones. The following serve to highlight important observations and implications that should be taken into consideration in the design of On-Farm Adaptive Research Trials and Demonstrations.
(a) The following were the most common farm sizes in the zones: Upland (ha) IVS (ha)
Kenema 1.4 0.4
Kabala 0.7 0.8
Makeni 1.0 0.4
Rokupr 1.6 0.4
Njala 1.7 0.4
Farm size can determine when mechanization/herbicide use becomes a viable proposition.
(b) The mixed-crop upland system followed by the wet season IVS system
were the most frequent cropping systems.
(c) Crop mixtures varied considerably between farms but the following
were evident:

Maize in mixture with upland rice was most common in the
Kenema zone.
Cassava in mixture with upland rice was most common in the
Kenema, Kabala and Njala zones.
Broadbean was the most common legume planted in mixture with
upland rice in the first year of clearing, but groundnut became
the most common during the second year of cropping.
The variation in crop mixtures implies that very careful thought
should be given before recommending intercropping systems to farmers.
(d) Based on farmers estimates, it appears that for most ecologies, there
has been no increase in rice yield per unit area over the past 14
FAO 1968 Data ACRE 1981/82 (Kg/ha) Data (Kg/ha)
Mixed upland rice 700 518
IVS Rice 1250 1132
Boliland Rice 700 592
Mangrove Rice 1200 1852
Since little or no increase in rice yields has occurred in 14 years,
there is a clear need for undertaking, variety/plant population/
fertilizer trials on farmers fields with rice.
(e) Widespread use in the uplands of local varieties of rice, maize,
cassava, sweet potato, etc. suggests that there is a strong case
for pushing out improved varieties of several crops.
(f) The most common length of the bush fallow in uplands is now down
to 7 years or less, and the present system of upland farming is
becoming precarious. There is clear justification for research on
soil management for sustained cropping systems.
(g) Flood plains and terraces which are usually recommended by soil
surveyors for productive cropping were being cultivated by only
a very small percentage of farmers.

(h) Steep slopes which according to regular soil conservation practices
should be under forest or pasture are being farmed in all zones
with rice. The problem is especially acute in the Lower Bambara
Chiefdom of Kenema, and also in the Kabala zones.
(i) Uplands are made up of different land units and forms. There is a
case for investigating appropriate technologies for farming steep hills, level uplands, and hydromorphics as opposed to the present
tendency of treating all uplands as being the same.
(j) Similar soils/landscapes/agro-ecologies sometimes occur in the
different zones. Management in such cases may therefore be the same
irrespective of the distances separating them. On the other hand
there are sometimes substantial variation in the length of the fallow
and land types even within the same ecology and zone. There is
therefore a case for proper characterization of previous vegetation
and land types of facilitate interpretation of data from On-Farm
Trials and Demonstrations.
(k) In Kabala, there is a case for siting more rice trials and
demonstrations in IVS than in the other ecologies.
(1) Choice of crops for trials/demonstrations should among other factors
also consider how common they are in a particular zone or ecology
and how they fit into the cropping systems.
The following are information regarding the Station Research work.
4.1 Crops Research
4.1.1 Studies on Cassava
(a) Cassava Improvement Pzogramme M.T. Dahniva
Average cassava yield in Sierra Leone is 2.2t/ha which compares unfavourably with a yield of 9 t/ha in Africa. The Root and Tuber Improvement Progr.amme of the ACRE Project was therefore initiated to develop cultivars which are high yielding, resistant to major diseases and insect pests, adaptable to a wide range of environment in Sierra Leone and possessing acceptable consumer characteristics.

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The selection stages consisted of the establishment of seedling nurseries, and the conduct of preliminary yield trials (PYT), advanced yields trials (AYT) and finally uniform yield trials (UYT). The source of seeds was mainly IITA 1n igeria but there were a few from Njala. Results for the AYT and UYT are given below:
(i) Advanced Yield Trial (AYT)
Table 1 shows the results obtained from the AYT. Fresh tuberous root yield ranged from 4.9 t/ha for clones 81/61 to 27 t/ha for clones 81/31. The local variety cocoa produced 6.3 t/ha.
Based on the fresh tuberous root yield, petiole colour, tuber skin
colour and cooking quality, ten clones were selected for further evaluation in the 1983/84 uniform yield trials. The selected clones are 81/1, 81/42, 81/58, 81/73, 81/113 and 81/117. They also exhibited desirable cooking qualities during tests in June 1983.
(ii) Uniform Yield Trials (UYT)
Clone 80/29 outyielded all the other clones in the three locations. The fresh tuberous root yields obtained at NJala were-much higher than those at Taiama and Warima. This may be due to the fact that the area used at Njala had been under bush for several years while the land at Warima had been continuously cropped for many years. The plots at Taiama were subjected to very severe flooding and this adversely affected the growth and yield of the plants.
The tuberous root yield of 53.5 t/ha from clone 80/29 at Njala is
the highest ever recorded for any clone since the Root and Tuber improvement Programme was initiated several years ago.
Under waterlogged conditions at Taiama, clone 80/29 produced 19 t/ha. This is of great significance because local farmers grow the crop on raised beds in swamps during the dry season. Experience has shown that the improved varieties so far released do very poorly under such conditions. If clone 80/29 could produce relatively high yields under poorly drained conditions and its cooking qualities are acceptable, then it is very likely that it will be popular among local growers.

TABLE 1.: Performance of cassava clones in the 1982/83 Advanced Yield, Trial
No. of No. of Fresh Fresh Tuber
CLONE marketable tubers! marketable Yi-eld
tubers/plant plant tuber yield (t/ha)
(t /ha)
81/1 1.4 2.3 9.5 14.0
81/6 1.3 1.7 11.0 11.5
81/7 3.4 4.6 22.3 25.5
81/9 2.2 3.0 15.0 16.0
81/15 2.1 3.7 10.8 13.0
81/16 2.2 3.4 12.5 14.8
81/17 2.0 4.2 7.5 11.0
81/25 1.8 2.8 17.8 21.0
81/26 2.4 4.0 11.5 13.8
81/30 2.5 3.7 16.0 17.5
81/31 2.5 4.2 23.0 27.0
81/42 2.0 3.5 13.0 15.5
81/50 1.5 2.7 8.5 11.0
81/53 0.9 0.9 7.0 7.5
81/58 1.7 2.6 10.0 12.8
81/61 0.6 0.9 4.6 4.9
81/66 1.7 2.8 9.3 11.0
81/73 1.8 3.5 9.0 11.5
81/77 1.8 2.8 9.5 11.5
*81/78 1.2 1.7 7.5 8.8
81/80 1.4 2.6 7.5 9.3
81/81 1.5 1.8 12.5 14.0
81/85 1.9 2.6 17.5 19.0
81/94 1.5 2.5 17.5 19.8
81/100 1.9 3.3 8.3 10.8
81/113 1.9 3.0 16.5 19.8
81/117 2.0 2.8 15.8 17.5
Cocoa 1.1 2.0 5.3 6.3
LSD % 0.9 1.3 7.7 8.6

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Four of the clones have been selected based on their tuberous root yields, resistance to pests and diseases and good consumer acceptability. These are now being multiplied on a small scale at Njala for distribution to the ACRE zones where they will be evaluated for adaptation to local conditions during the 1985/86 growing season, following multiplication in the zonal multiplication sites in 1984/85.
TABLE 2: Performance of cassava clones over locations in the 1982/83
Uniform Yield Trials.
Fresh Tuber Yield (t/ha) of Average fresh Cassava Clones at tuber yield**
CLONE P A R E N T Njala Taiama* Warima (t/ha)
80/11 TMS4 (2) 0763 26.0 4.9 11.4 14.1 (243)
80/14 TMS4 (2) 0089 39.5 7.3 12.9 19.9 (343)
80/22 TMS4 (2) 0087 34.8 4.1 12.6 17.2 (297)
80/27 TMS 30578 28.3 3.1 11.0 14.1 (243)
80/29 TMS 30572 53.5 19.1 19.2 30.6 (528)
80/32 TMS 30572 44.3 7.3 14.3 22.0 (379)
80/36 TMS4 (2) 0850 29.0 1.9 9.4 13.4 (231)
80/37 TMS4 (2) 0850 42.3 5.6 9.3 19.1 (329)
80/40 TMS4 (2) 0850 29.0 4.5 13.5 15.7 (271)
80/48 TMS4 1833 17.8 3.2 6.2 9.1 (157)
80/49 TMS4 1833 20.3 5.9 11.4 12.5 (216)
80/52 TMS 4832 41.0 8.6 10.1 19.9 (343)
80/54 TMS4 1832 31.0 14.3 18.2 21.2 (366)
Cocoa Unknown 8.0 4.8 4.6 5.8 (100)
Nucass 1 Unknown 27.0 6.3 15.6 16.3 (281)
Nucass 2 Unknown 29.5 10.0 10.5 16.7 (288)
Rocass 1 Unknown 14.8 4.1 12.9 10.5 (183)
Rocass 3 Unknown 21.0 6.8 13.9 (240)
Yakanu Unknown 6.9 6.9 (119)
* The experimental plot at Taiama was subject to severe flooding during
part of the growing season.
** Figures in parenthesis refer to percent of average yield over the local
Variety, cocoa.

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iii) Crop Protection
Outbreak of Cassava Green Spider Mite (Mononychellus tanajoa)
in Sierra Leone
The outbreak of cassava green spider mite (Mononychellus tanajoa was reported for the first time in Sierra Leone in September 1983 by the author.
Infected plants were observed in the Bo District and examination by one of the root and tuber Entomologists at IITA has confirmed that they are green spider mites.
The cassava green spider mite is believed to have been accidentally introduced into Africa from the Americas through Uganda in 1971. Since then, it has spread throughout East and Central Africa, Benin, Senegal, Gambia, Nigeria, Ghana and Ivory Coast. It was first observed in Liberia in 1982.
The cassava green spider mite attacks young cassava shoots. It causes serious damage and yield losses have been reported of 46% in Uganda and 50 to 80% in Tanzania.
The pest is a dry season one. As soon as the rains stop and draught stress on the cassava plants increases, green spider mite colonies appear. Damage by the mite is likely to be very severe in areas of the country where cassava is planted towards the end of the rains.
Since cassava is the most important food crop after rice in
Sierra Leone, it is important that effective measures should be taken to minimise the effects of the pest. It may not be too long before the cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihotis) is reported in Sierra LeoNe.
(b) Cooking and Processing Quality of Improved Cassava F.N. Dahniya
One of the main problems with improved cassava is that the tubers do not usually cook well to produce a soft product. It is therefore necessary to evaluate improved cassava in terms of their cooking characteristics in addition to their agronomic characteristic. Boiled cassava is the most popular form of preparation for the farming community.

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i) Boiling Characteristics of Cassava Clones 1982/83
Uniform Yield Trial
The following clones were evaluated 80/29, 80/32, 80/40, 80/57, 80/54, Rocass 3, Nucass 2, Rocass 1, Rocass 1 and Cocoa. Only Rocass 1 consistently cooked well in 25 minutes. The final product was sweet and dry.
The following tables (Tables 2, 3 and 5) show the cooking time and other characteristics of several improved cassava clones sampled from other trials, which cooked satisfactorily to produce a relatively soft product.
TABLE 3: Characteristics of Cassava Clones from the 1982/83 Advanced
Yield Trial
81/78 30 Bitter
81/80 25 Sweet/watery
81/77 25 Sweet/dry/fibrous
81/42 25 Slightly bitter/dry
81/126 25 Bitter/watery
81/78 18 Sweet/dry
81/73 20 Sweet/dry
81/25 15 Very bitter
81/15 25 Sweet/dry/fibrous
81/1 25 Sweet/watery
81/58 25 Sweet/dry
81/16 25 Very bitter/watery
81/6 25 Bitter/watery
81/117 12 Sweet/watery
81/17 15 Bitter/watery
81/113 20 Sweet/watery
81/85 23 Sweet/dry
TABLE 4: Characteristics of Clones from the 1982/83 Preliminary Yield Trial
82/140 25 Watery/sweet
82/216 25 Watery/sweet
82/219 25 Watery/bitter
82/147 25 Watery/sweet

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TABLE 5: Characteristics of Clones from the 1983/84 Preliminary Yield
83/2 20 Sweet/dry
83/7 25 Watery/sweet
83/9 40 Dry
83/15 22 Sweet/dry
83/24 60 Watery/sweet
83/26 60 Tasteless/dry
83/47 20 Sweet/waterish
83/49 25 Sweet
83/54 60 Tasteless
83/57 25 Sweet/watery
83/58 25 Sweet/watery
83/90 25 Tasteless/dry
83/92 25 Sweet/dry
83/98 60 Sweet/dry
83/136 25 Sweet
83/142 20 Sweet/dry
83/205 60 Sweet/watery
83/212 25 Bitter/dry
83/220 25 Sweet/dry
83/233 25 Very bitter
ii) Preparation of Cookies from Cocoa and Nucass 2 Cassava
Sierra Leone spends a lot of valuable foreign exchange in the import of wheat flour. The exploitation of alternate local sources of flour for baking and production of confectionary would expand the possible uses of cassava, as its production increases.
Cookies were made from cassava pulp or cassava flour mixed in various proportions with wheat flour. Cookies prepared from 100% wheat or 100% cassava were included in the comparisons. Results showed that:
Both fresh cassava pulp and flour were readily incorporated
into mixtures with wheat flour.

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Cookies made out of mixtures of cassava and wheat were almost
as good as cookies made of 100% wheat flour at a proportion
of 1 part of cassava to 2 parts of wheat flour. However,
cookies made solely out of cassava were of poor quality.
Cookies made from Nucass 2 were not as crisp, or as sweet as
compared to cocoa cassava.
4.1.2 Studies on Sweet Potato
(a) Sweet Potato Improvement Programme M.T. Dahniya
Average sweet potato tuber yields in Sierra Leone is 2.7 t/ha, which compares very unfavourably with yields of 20 t/ha reported in several countries. The objectives of the programme are therefore to develop adapted short duration high yielding cultivars with resistance to important disease and weevils, and with good consumer nutritive qualities. The procedures for selection are similar to those outlined for cassava. IITA was the source of seeds. Results for the Advanced Yield Trials are given below.
Tables 6 and 7 show the results of the first season AYT at Taiama and Njala respectively.
There was a wide variation in the total numbers of tubers and marketable tubers obtained from the various clones.
Tuberous root yields obtained at Njala during the early season was generally higher than those at Taiama. This may be due to the severe flooding of the plots at Taiama which severely retarded plant growth.
The highest tuberous root yield at Njala was 11.38 t/ha from clone
80/80 while at Taiama, clone 80/83 produced the highest yield of 4.55 t/ha.
In the second season, the highest tuber yield of 5.22 t/ha was
obtained from clone 80/37 at Taiama. At Warima, clone 80/30 outyielded the others with 5.79 t/ha. It is important to note that all the trials were conducted without fertilization so that clones which perform well under sub-optimal conditions could be identified. Such clones will be better adapted to the growing conditions of local farmers. The yields of the clones could be substantially increased if fertilizers are used.

TABLE 6 Sweet Potato AdvaIced Yield Trial 1~t Cropping 1982 Taiama
No. of Marketable
No. of Marketable Tuber yield Fresh Tuber Scab Virus Weevil
CLONES PA R E N T Tubers/plant tubers/plant (t/ha) yield (t/ha) incidence incidence incidence
80/13 TIS 5270 ex IITA 0.8 0.3 0.08 1.33 V. severe None
80/29 2.8 1.2 2.91 4.18 Mild "
80/30 2.8 1.6 4.45 3.08 Mild
80/33 TIS 2154 ex IITA 0.6 0.0 0.00 0.21 Severe "
80/34 2.2 0.7 1.78 2.72 Mild "
80/37 2.3 1.4 2.47 3.02 Mild "
80/43 0.3 0.0 0.00 0.10 Severe "
80/46 1.1 0.3 0.85 1.49 Mild "
80/49 TIB 8 ex IITA 0.7 0.0 0.00 0.44 Mild "
80/54 1.2 1.3 2.16 2.70 Mild "
80/56 1.1 0.1 0.28 0.80 Mild "
80/60 0.8 0.0 0.00 0.08 Severe "
80/70 TIS 2532 ex IITA 1.4 0.6 1.47 2.06 V. Mild "
80/71 1.0 0.1 0.26 1.07 Mild "
80/72 TIS 2328 ex IITA 1.6 0.7 1.58 1.81 Mild
80/77 TIS 3270 ex IITA 2.2 0.6 1.17 2.50 Mild "
80/79 1.1 0.2 0.61 1.17 Mild "
80/80 1.1 0.7 2.24 2.70 Mild "
80/83 3.4 1.4 3.38 4.55 Severe "
80/97 TIS 2153 ex IITA 1.1 0.4 0.91 1.78 V. Mild "
80/99 1.0 0.4 1.11 1.67 Mild "
80/102 TIS 3053 ex IITA 2.8 0.9 2.44 3.79 Mild "
80/111 2.1 1.1 3.53 3.93 "
80/119 TIB 11 ex IITA 2.1 1.2 2.40 2.81 V. Mild
80/120 1.0 0.5 1.07 2.05 Mild "
80/121 1.9 0.8 1.54 1.98 Mild "
LSD (5%) 0.8 0.6 1.69 1.59

TABLE 7: Sweet Potato Advanced Yield Trial 1st Cropping 1982 Njala
No. of Marketable
No. of marketable tuber yield Fresh Tuber Scab Virus Weevil
CLONES P A R E N T Tubers/plant tubers!plant (t/ha) yfeld (t/ha) incidence incidence incidence
80/13 TIS 5270 ex IITA 1.1 0.6 1.33 2.25 Sever Mild None
80/29 2.5 1.3 6.53 7.89 V. Mild Mild "
80/30 1.5 1.0 3.87 4.58 Mild V. mild
80/33 TIS 2154 ex IITA 0.8 0.4 1.07 1.54 Mild V. Mild "
80/34 1.5 0.8 3.27 3.91 Mild V. Mild "
8C/37 1.2 0.4 1.37 1.71 Severe Severe "
80/43 1.1 0.4 0.87 1.01 V. severe Mild "
80/46 1.5 0.6 2.23 3.12 Severe V. Mild "
8(/49 TIB 8 ex IITA 1.4 1.1 4.07 4.69 V. Mild None "
8C/54 1.0 0.5 1.30 2.42 Severe V. Mild "
8(/56 2.3 0.7 2.67 4.35 V. Mild None "
8(/60 1.8 0.8 1.33 2.23 V. Severe Severe "
80/70 TIS 2532 ex IITA 1.4 0.7 1.40 3.29 Mild None "
80/71 0.7 0.4 1.23 1.46 Mild None "
80/72 TIS 2328 ex IITA 1.6 1.0 2.33 4.79 Severe Severe "
80/77 TIS 3270 ex IITA 2.1 0.7 1.57 2.76 Severe V. Severe
80/79 0.9
80/80 2.0 1.6 0.07 11.38 V. Mild None
80/83 2.0 1.5 6.60 6.63 Mild Mild "
80/97 TIS 2153 ex IITA 1.2 0.6 2.57 3.38 Mild V. Mild "
P0/99 1.9 1.0 4.57 6.13 Mild None "
E0/102 TIS 3053 ex IITA 1.5 0.6 2.00 2.91 V. Mild None "
0O/111 2.4 1.3 5.87 7.04 Mild V. Mild "
80/119 TIB 11 ex IITA 1.5 0.5 2.17 3.23 Severe None "
80/120 1.2 0.2 '0.50 1.14 Severe None "
80/121 0.9 0.4 2.17 2.58 Mild None "
BASIRU Local ex Talama 0.1 0.0 0.03 0.07 Severe V. Mild "
MADAM Local ex Warima 1.2 0.6 2.70 3.58 Mild V. Mild "
ROPOT 2 Local ex Rokupr 2.3 1.4 5.37 6.33 Mild V. Mild "
WARIMA Local ex Warima 0.6 0.2 0.60 0.99 Severe None "
LSD (5%) 0.8 0.5 1.9 2.3

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There were wide variations among clones with regard to resistance to weevil, scab and virus. It is therefore evident that sources of resistance to these diseases and insect are locally available which could be used in future improvement work.
. Taking into account the tuberous root yields, resistance to the
weevil, scab and virus and acceptability of the leaves for use as vegetables, clones 80/29, 80/30, 80/37, 80/54, 80/56, 80/80, and 80/111 have been selected for future evaluation in a Uniform Yield Trial during the 1983 growing season.
(b) Effects of Variety and Method of Planting on Sweet Potato Tuber Yields S. Monde
ACRE Project has succeeded in popularising the cultivation of an
improved variety of sweet potato (Ropot 2). It is generally accepted that sweet potato does better when grown on ridges than flats, but there has been little or no attempt to quantify accurately the benefits of ridging on tuber yield. The study was therefore undertaken to provide such information for a popular improved cultivar (Ropot 2) and a local cultivar (Madam).
TABLE 8: Tuber Yields as affected by Variety and Ridging (t/ha)
----------------------------------------------------------------Planting S P A C I N C (cm)
VARIETY Method 15 20 25 30 35
ROPOT 2 Ridges 4.78 4.36 3.63 4.73 3.40
Flats 2.56 2.77 1.36 1.93 2.19
Ridges 2.95 2.44 2.40 1.45 1.38
MADAM Flats 1.75 1.97 1.23 1.70 1.53
LSD (5%) = 1.74
Table 8 shows that Ropot 2 gave higher tuber yields than Madam under both methods of planting across all spacings. Planting on ridges resulted in higher yields for both varieties. However, the increase was in the order of of 94% for Ropot 2 and 29% for Madam. Thus ridging is more important when a farmer moves on from his local to an improved cultivar.
(c) Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Leaf Harvest Frequency on Sweet Potato M.T. Dahniya
Nitrogen fertilization and leaf harvest frequency did not significantly affect the total number of tuberous roots and marketable tubers produced (Table 9) by Ropot 2.

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TABLE 9: Effects of nitrogen and Leaf Harvest Frequency on Fresh Leaf
Yield and Tubers of Sweet Potato.
Tubers No. of Tubers
Levels of Leaf No. of fresh Marketable fresh
Nitrogen Leaf Harvest yield tubers/ yield tubers/ yield
(kg/ha) fr-guency (t/ha) plant (t/ha) plant (t/ha)
None 0.00 1.5 4.06 1.0 3.50
Once/2 weeks 2.94 1.3 2.85 0.9 2.55
Once/4 weeks 3.85 2.0 4.69 1.3 3.45
Once/6 weeks 1.72 1.9 4.38 1.0 4.20
None 0.00 2.0 5.99 1.3 5.05
0 Orce/2 weeks 4.39 1.5 4.29 0.9 3.40
50 Once/4 weeks 3.47 1.9 4.57 1.1 4.25
Cnce/6 weeks 2.35 1.9 4.91 1.3 4.20
None 0.00 2.3 7.17 1.6 6.31
Once/2 weeks 4.75 1.8 4.39 I.1 3.85
100 Orce/4 weeks 4.88 1.6 4.70 i.1 3.55
Orce/6 weeks 3.14 1.9 5.66 1.3 4.80
The corresponding decrease at 100 kg/ha N were 39, 34 and 21 per cent.
There was an increase in total leaf production as the leaf harvest frequency decreased from once every two weeks to once monthly but leaf yields were the lowest when the leaves were cut once every six weeks.
The yield of tubers and marketable tubers were significantly affected by the levels of nitrogen fertilization and leaf harvest frequency (Table 9).
At N rates of 50 and 100 kg/ha, fresh tuber yield decreased with an increase in the frequency of leaf harvest.
Compared with plants whose leaves were not harvested, there was a
tuberous root yield reduction of 28, 24 and 18 per cent at 50 kg/ha N with 2, 4 and 6 weeks intervals of leaf harvest, respectively.
Nitrogen fertilization at the rate of 50 kg/ha and leaf harvest once every two to four weeks appear optimum for the production of both tuberous root and leaves of sweet potato.

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(d) Optimum Plant Population for High Root and Leaf Yields of Sweet Potato
- M.T. Dahniya
The number of tubers and marketable tubers produced per plant was significantly affected by leaf harvest and plant population (Table 10).
Compared with plants whose leaves were not harvested, there was a
decrease in total tuber numbers of 24, 26 and 19 per cent as a result of leaf harvest of plants at population of 100,000; 50,000; 33,333 and 25,000 plants per hectare, respectively.
Plant population did not significantly affect the total amount of fresh leaves harvested (Table 10).
TABLE 10: Effect of plant population and leaf harvest on fresh leaf
yield and tuber numbers of sweet potato.. Plant Fresh leaf
population Yield No. of tubers No. of marketable
(plants/ha) Leaf harvest (t/ha) per plant tubers/plant
100,000 None 0.00 2.5 0.5
Once/2 weeks 5.38 1.9 0.2
50,000 None 0.00 2.7 0.9
Once/2 weeks 4.93 2.0 0.4
None 0.00 2.8 0.9
Once/2 weeks 3.90 2.2 0.6
None 0.00 3.2 1.4
25,000 Once/2 weeks 4.47 2.6 0.7
The fresh yield of marketable tubers were influenced by periodic leaf harvesting. At the higher populations of 100,000 and 50,000 plants per hectare,total fresh marketable yield was reduced by 65 and 68 per cent, respectively by leaf harvest. This percentage decrease reduced to 49 and 53% as the population was decreased to 33,333 and 25,000 plants per hectare respectively.
Total fresh yield of tuberous roots was significantly affected by leaf harvesting and plant population. Leaf harvesting led to a decrease in total tuber yield of 54, 53, 42 and 44 per cent for population at 100,000, 50,000, 33,333 and 25,000 plant per hectare, respectively.

At the higher plant populations of 100,000 and 50,000 plants per hectare total and marketable tuberous root yields were more severely decreased as a result of leaf harvest than was the case at the lower population.
Total root yields were higher at 100,000 and 50,000 plants per hectare than was the case at populations of 33,333 and 25,000 plants per hectare in plants receiving leaf harvest treatments. However, the percentage of the total yield that was marketable at 100,000 and 50,000 plants per hectare were 50 and 67 respectively compared with 70 per cent at 33,333 plants per hectare and 72 per cent at 25,000 plants per hectare.
Plant population did not significantly affect total leaf harvest. It is therefore evident that for good yield of leaves and tuberous roots with a high percentage of marketable tubers, populations of 25,000 or 33,333 plants per hectare are optimum. under upland gravelly by conditions.
(e) Sweet Potato Storage J.B. George and S. Smith
One of the problems facing farmers who grow sweet potato on a large scale is storage. An alternative to providing suitable storage structures or methods is to identify varieties which store relatively well,
Ten clones from the 1982 Advanced Yield Trial of the Sweet Potato
Improvement Programme 80/111, 80/83, 80/56, 80/99, 80/119, 80/80, 80/77, 80/29, Ropot 2 and Madam were evaluated. The potatoes were stored in a well ventilated rodent proof room. Mean temperature and relative humidity during storage were 76 + 30F and 84 + 8% respectively.
M Weight lossand Cooking 22ality during Storage
Table 11 gives the mean weight losses during storage. All clones but two had weight losses of over 1% per day, with clone 80/80 having the highest (2.2% per day) and 80/56 the least (0.82% per day). During the 4th week the rate of weight loss for all clones dropped to about 0.5% per day. Cooked tubers of sweet potatoes which had lost moisture had a dry taste. The cooking time and amount of water necessary increased with length of storage.
Shrivelling was predominant in 80% of the clones within the first week of storage. This did not however affect the quality of the cooked product. The local Madam appeared to shrink at a faster rate than all the others.

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TABLE 11: Mean Rate (% per day) for weight losses for the various sweet potato clones at specified storage periods.
7 14 21 28
80/111 1.65 0.13 0.40 0.42
80/83 1.29 0.27 0.42 0.36
80/99 1.01 1.01 0.42 0.34
80/77 1.49 0.36 0.27 0.19
80/119 1.20 0.48 0.36 0.38
Madam 1.42 1.14 0.39 0.32
80/29 1.17 0.57 0.44 0.15
Ropot 2 0.88 0.47 0.43 0.28
80/56 0.85 0.46 0.25 0.59
(ii) Rot and Cooking _Quality during Storage
During the first week of storage rotted tubers were observed in only
clones 80/119 and Ropot 2 (Table 12), thereafter about 80% of the clones
* suffered from rots. In general clones 80/119 and Ropot 2 were most susceptible to rots. In all the clones rots started at the point where the tubers
were observed soft and hard (dry) rots. Soft rot is usually caused by
bacteria and hard rot by fungi.
TABLE 12: Cumulative percentage rot for the various sweet potato clones at specified storage periods CLONE D A Y S
7 14 21 28
80/111 0.0 2.0 10.3 12.7
80/83 0,0 2.7 17.8 29.1
80/99 0.0 0.0 16.0 36.0
80/77 0.0 0.0 15.4 15.4
80/119 6.7 37.5 98.5 100.0
Madam 0.0 15.0 38.5 61.5
80/29 0.0 12.5 29.6 60.6
80/80 0.0 4.3 Z.6 4.6
Ropot 2 8.0 71.0 89.0 98.8
80/56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Most of the characteristics observed during preparation and cooking of the potato tubers did not change except when rot developed. Colour, taste, odour and texture were most acceptable at the beginning of the storage period. During storage, the taste, and colour were affected most. The overall acceptability of the various cooked into local dishes was determined. This is shown in Table 13.
TABLE 13: Percentage consumer acceptability of cooked sweet potato
Week Week Week Week Week Week
1 2 3 4 5 6
Ropot 2 100 60 35 0 0 0
Clone 80/29 60 40 25 0 0 0
Madam 85 80 70 45 20 0
Clone 80/119 55 45 30 25 10 0
Clone 80/111 75 70 70 55 15 0
Clone 80/99 60 55 40 35 35 0
Clone 80/83 70 70 70 65 60 45
Clone 80/80 60 60 55 40 15 0
Clone 80/56 75 75 70 70 65 40
Clone 80/77 60 60 45 40 15 0
The results in Table 13 indicate that varieties which were very much acceptable by consumers were not necessarily those which had good storage qualities. Ropot 2 which was 100% acceptable has the least storage quality. Clones 80/83 and 80/56 could be stored for more than 6 weeks but may not be easily accepted by consumers. Clones 80/80, 80/56 and 80/29 and local variety Madam were found to be very fibrous on tasting the cooked tubers. Fried slices of Madam were very soggy compared to the improved varieties.
There was variation in sprouting among the clones during storage,
but in Sierra Leone, sprouting during storage is not considered a serious problem, as the sprouts can be easily removed by hand.
(f) Sweet Potato Based Recipes F.N. Dahniya
Recipes were developed for the preparation of the following from
Ropot 2 variety sweet potato pancakes, sweet potato/wheat pancakes (sweet potato/wheat ratio ranged from 1.1 to 2.1), sweet potato/rice pap, sweet potato pap, (1 part of sweet potato to 1 part of rice), sweet potato pudding, and sweet potato/wheat cakes (1 part of sweet potato to 1 part of wheat).

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4.1.3 Studies on Maize
(a) The Effect of Hand Weeding and Herbicide Application in the Control
of Weeds in Maize J.B. George and B.M.S..Turay
The trial was laid out on an upland gravelly soil (Njala series of low organic matter content). Bladex (Cyanazine) was applied at the rate of
4.5 1/ha at each application. Table 14 shows mean yields resulting from the various treatments. Differences were not significant but 2 applications of bladex gave relatively the highest yield. TABLE 14: Effect of treatment on grain yield of TZSR Yellow maize
Treatment Grain Yield(Kg/ha)
No weeding 1225
Hand weeding 4 weeks after planting 1634
Bladex applied 2 weeks after planting 1761
Bladex applied 4 weeks after planting 1150
Bladex applied 2 and 4 weeks after planting 2239
LSD (5%) 1124
Spemacoche pilosa was the most susceptible weed to Bladex and
Croton hirtus. Clerodendrum umbellatun and Borreria spp. were the least susceptible (Table 15).
TABLE 15: Iientification and susceptibility of weed species to Bladex
Scientific Name Family
*Borreria spp. Rubiaceae
Calapogcnium mucuniodes Desv. Papilionaceae
Cleome ciliata Capparidaceae
Digitaria spp Graminae
Mariscus alternifolius vahl Cyperaceae
*01delandia conimbosa L Ruliaceae
Pennisetum subangustum
(Schumach) Stapf, C.E. Hubbard Graminae
*Scoparia spp Schrophularuaceae
*Spermachoche pilosa (Schumach Thonn) D.C. Rubiaceae
*Spigelia anthelmia L Longaniaceae
*Croton hirtus L'Herit Cyperaceae
Cyperus sphacelatus Cyperaceae
Boerhaavia diffusa L Myetagiraceae
Roettboelia exaltata Linn. F. Graminae
Eleusine indica (Linn)Gaertn Graminae
*Clerodendrum umbellatum Verbanaceae
* Weeds that show signs of susceptibility to Bladex.

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Although some weed species showed signs of susceptibility to bladex, they later recovered,suggesting that the concentration of 4.5 1/ha applied post emergence on first season maize was probably not lethal to kill the weeds.
(b) CIMMYT International Maize Trials J.N. Henshaw
Three trials were planted in 1981 (1) Elite variety trial (ELVT 18A,
24) late maturing (110-120 days) varieties; (2) Elite variety trial (ELVT 18b, 11) intermediate maturing (95-105 days) varieties and (3) Quality protein maize trial (QPMT 11A 20) varieties of improved protein quality grain of intermediate maturing class. Data were collected on plant height, ear height, root lodging, stalk lodging, ear number, rotted ears and days to flowering.
(i) Njala Area 1st Season Planting
Yields for the full season maturing variety on the Njala series ranged from 3633 (local takoo) to 6873 kg/ha (Ferke (1) 7928) with an average of 5912 kg/ha. Many of the varieties tested had significantly better yields than Western Yellow. Yields for the intermediate maturing varieties in Trials ELVT 18B ranged from 3867 (Takoo) to 6500 kg/ha (across 7835) with a mean of 5237 kg/ha. Yields for OPMT 11A ranged from 3930 (Takoo) to 6233 kg/ha across 7740 RE with a mean of 5455 kg/ha. Full season varieties tended to have better husk coverage than the earlier maturing varieties and therefore exhibited less ear rot at harvest.
(ii) Njala Area 2nd Season Planting
Yields for the full season varieties ranged from 2213 (TZPB ~hite) to 4327 kg/ha (Western Yellow), with an average of 2990 kg/ha. Yields of ELVT 18B ranged from 2287 (Tocumen (1) 7931) to 3487 kg/ha (Jupita (1) 7930) and averaged 2728 kg/ha. Yields of QPMT 11A ranged from 2857 (Takoo) to 3807 kg/ha (Guanacaste 7940).
(iii) Magbosi Area 2nd Season Planting
Yields for the full season varieties ranged from 3280 kg/ha (local Takoo) to 6290 kg/ha (Ferke (1) 7928), with an average of 5157 kg/ha. ELVTA 18B and QPMT 11A averaged 4373 and 5434 kg/ha. Several varieties in the ELVT 18A significantly outperformed the checks (Takoo and Western Yellow).

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In trials involving intermediate maturing varieties, however, more of the varieties had better yields than TZPB White (the check). The same trials were repeated in 1982 and the following results were obtained.
(iv) Njala Area 2nd Season Planting
Yields for the full season varieties ranged from 2807 kg/ha (TZPB
White) to 6073 kg/ha (across 7843), with an average of 4960 kg/ha. Several of the varieties tested had significantly better yields than Western Yellow which was the better yielding check. Yields for the intermediate maturing trial ELVT 18B ranged from 2493 kg/ha (across 7635) to 3380 kg/ha (Posa Rica 7926) with an average of 4408 kg/ha. Yields for the OPMT 11A trial ranged from 3793 kg/ha (TZPB White) to 6173 kg/ha (across 7726) with an average of 5209 kg/ha.
4.1.4 Studies on Sorghum and Pearl Millet
(a) Sorghum Improvement Programme B.S. Gill and S. Monde
A total of 566 panicles were collected from farmers fields in Kenema, Makeni, and Magbosi. Observations on length of panicle, sterility, grain colour, yield per panicle were collected from 563 panicles and 100 grain weight from top 5% high yielding panicles.
The information collected represented a wide range of variability (Table 16) and provided opportunity for effective selection.
TABLE 16: Variability in Yield per panicle from collections made from
Farmers' fields.
0 5 66
6 -10 101
11-15 107
16-20 77
21-25 55
26-30 53
31-35 40
36-40 27
41-45 21
46-50 9
51-55 4
56-60 2
61-65 1

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The top 5% high yielding panicles had yields ranging from 41.8 to 62.5g with an average of 47.6g. A replicated yield trial was conducted on these 28 entries at Njala and Moyamba. Data obtained from Njala is reported below.
TABLE 17: Variability in Yield per panicle from field trial at Njala
9 -11.5 2
11.6-14.5 4
14.6-17.5 1
17.6-20.5 8
20.6-23.5 5
23.6 26.5 2
26.6-29.5 6
The yields per panicle from the field trial (Table 17) were markedly lower than those obtained from single plants. High plant population in the field trial may have been one of the factors responsible for the disparity. A trial on optimum plant population is underway.
(b) Pearl Millet Improvement Programme B.S. Gill and S. Monde
A total of 150 panicles were collected from farms in the Magbosi
area. Observations were made on panicle length, panicle breadth, sterility, yield per panicle and disease. Yield per panicle showed a wide range of variation. However, because of a high incidence of smut and sterility no selection could be made.
It was therefore decided to plant all 150 cultivars in a field trial, and collection information on yield and disease incidence as a basis for selection.
4.1.5 Studies on Cowpea
(a) IITA Cowpea International Trials W. E. Taylor
Trials 1 and Trials 2
The trial planted in the second season consisted of semi erect to spreading plant types with an indeterminate growth. In terms of yield performance the first four entries significantly outvielded the rest (Table 18).

TABLE 18: Observation on Cowpea Variety Trial 1
1. VITA 5 960.25 1336.00 72.12 54.75 46.00 66.25
2. TVU 3629 826.65 1043.75 79.13 55.50 44.50 66.25
3. TVX 3236-01G 910.15 1139.78 79.73 54.00 49.50 66.50
4. TVX 3627-012F 1043.75 1444.55 73.00 58.25 43.00 66.00
5. TVX 3671-7C-02D 622.08 814.13 76.48 54.00 43.25 66.25
6. TVX 3671-14C-01D 663.83 1110.55 61.30 50.50 47.00 66.25
7. TVX 4262-09D 580.33 876.75 67.79 46.25 44.50 66.50
8. TVX 4262-014D 701.40 926.85 75.64 52.25 45.25 66.75
9. TVX 4659-03E 793.25 1290.08 63.06 59.25 44.00 66.50
10. LOCAL CHECK (Tabe) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------OVERAL MEAN 710.17 998.24 64.83 48.48 40.70 59.73
STANDARD DEVIATION 135.83 179.84 10.99 4.62 0.67 0.47
COEF. OF VARIATION 19.13 18.02 16.95 9.52 1.66 0.73
LSD (5%) 197.087 260.946 15.941 6.698 0.979 0.677
This trial consisted of erect plant types with determinate growth habit. The local check outyielded nine of the improved varieties (Table 21). The average yield of the indeterminate types was higher than the determinate.

TABLE 19: Observation on Cowpea Variety Trial 2
1. VITA-7 571.98 830.93 69.17 29.00 44.50 63.50
2. TVU 3629 455.08 647.13 70.24 19.25 45.25 66.75
3. TVX 1836-013J 513.53 734.80 68.47 23.63 43.25 65.25
4. TVX 1948-01F 475.95 705.58 67.61 25.50 45.50 65.75
5. TVX 133-1602 567.80 910.15 62.04 31.00 42.00 58.50
6. TVX 2394.02F 521.88 734.80 70.95 30.38 44.25 65.50
7. TVX 2724.01F 705.58 1047.93 67.72 29.38 44.75 65.00
8. TVX 3381-02F 480.13 626.25 76.87 30.38 42.25 65.50
9. TVX3410-02J 521.88 764.03 68.30 30.50 42.00 65.10
10. TVX 3627-03G 713.93 1064.63 67.39 31.00 42.00 65.00
11. TVX 3871-02F 709.75 1035.40 63.62 30.50 42.50 65.00 w
12. TVX 4577-02D 538.58 801.60 67.92 27.38 43.00 65.00
13. TVX 4661-07D 597.03 864.23 69.57 31.38 43.75 65.50
14. TVX 4677-088E 680.53 951.90 71.15 30.63 44.25 65.25
15. TVX 4678-03E 830.83 1164.83 70.97 29.63 42.25 65.00
16. LOCAL CHECK 642.95 905.98 70.81 31.25 42.00 58.00
OVERALL MEAN 595.46 861.88 69.24 28.80 43.34 64.34
STANDARD DEVIATION 177.73 242.70 5.83 1.87 0.84 0.88
COEF. OF VARIATION 29.85 28.16 8.42 6.50 1.94 1.37
LSD (5%) 253.110 345.638 8.307' 2.664 1.195 1.259

- 31
The local cultivar (Tabe) performed very poorly presumably as a result of poor quality seeds and the rather dry weather at planting.
(b) Cowpea Storage J. Roberts and W.E. Taylor
Six cowpea (Vigna inguiculata (L) alp.) varieties including two local and four improved' cultivars from IITA were used in field and laboratory studies of ballosobruchus maculatus (F) infestation of cowpeas. The cowpeas were-grown during the dry-planting seasons of January (1980, 1981) and the wet planting season of October (1980) at the Njala University College experimental- it~es, Njala.
The harvested grains were used in three separate but related observations and experimen" to determine:
- the most suitable harvesting period ensuring low weevil infestation
- susceptibility to infestation due to certain seed physical properties
- plantsubstances which could be used as insecticides against
C. madulatus,adults.
Delayed harvesting of the crop resulted in an increase in infestation and a decrease in petio~ to emergence of the first weevils. With high relative huggdities and low temperature conditions in the field during and after the 50% Physiologic Maturity (PM) stage of the crop, longer periods to adult weevil emergence were observed irrespective of the planting season.
In both m iltiple,and single cultivar choice situations, seeds with a smooth testa did-uot deter oviposition but allowed a lower percentage adult emergnce.' Alternatively seeds with a rough testa deterred oviposition but allowe4a higher percentage adult emergence. Large seeds were preferred for oviposition to smaller seeds and also showed a higher percentage adult emergence.
Palm, Groundnut and Palm Kernel oils, prevented progeny emergence
even at the lowest concentration level of 0.25 ml/100g seed when C. maculatus adults were exposed to seeds treated with the oils. Oviposition on treated seeds was not prevented and seeds were still viable after a ten month storage period.
Clove powder deterred oviposition and inhibited progeny emergence even at the lowest concentration level of 0.5% weight by weight of seed. The treated seeds did not lose their viability. Cowpea with ash or with orange peel powder appeared to promote oviposition as well as progeny emergence.

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The treated seeds lost their viability after a ten month storage period. The viability of uninfested treated seeds was not destroyed even after a month's storage.
(c) Cowpea Recipes F.N. Dahniya
The dietary intake of rice always falls below nutritional requirements especially in the rainy season. The cost of animal proteins has gone beyond the purchasing power of the low income groups; plant proteins are cheaper alternatives. Cowpea apart from having high protein content also has Vitamin B and minerals. Cowpea used as a complement to other foods like rice and yams will contribute towards the provision of a balanced meal. In the past, cowpeas were mainly prepared for consumption in three forms Aborbor (bean cooked with vegetable seasoning), Akara (bean cake fried in deep fat) and Oleleh (steamed pudding).
The improved varieties used to formulate the recipes were 1190, 4557, 439-19B and Ife Brown. The following recipes were prepared which could be used by different members of the family and in different situations invalids, convalescents, babies and adults (Table 20).
TABLE 20: Cowpea Recipes
Recipe Qualities :cnv.tigated
Cowpea Flour pap Amount of water used in making
paste, consistency of product before and after cooking, texture, colour, smell and time of cooking. Cowpea maize pap ditto
Cowpea custard "
Cowpea rice pap "
Rice + Cowpea Taste, texture, appearance, time
of cooking.
Couscous + Cowpea ditto
Mashed cowpea
Cowpea-Rice Bread Taste, texture, appearance,
baking/frying time.
Cowpea banana akara ditto
Cowpea fish pancake "

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4.1.6 Studies on Groundnut
(a) Groundnut Improvement Programme A.Sesay
(i) Germ Plasm Collection
Increasing the germplasm collection to provide a broad genetic base for selection remained a continuing activity of the programme. The collection was increased from 61 to 136 accessions. To date most of the collection is made up of entries from ICRISAT in India, the USA and Sierra Leone.
(ii) Nursery Evaluation Trial, Early Planting
The materials tested were seeds harvested from the previous years trial. The planting was on 4th May, and plants received no fertilizer or insecticide application. Although Gil, G12 and 013, the highest yielding entries showed good performance under the conditions of the trial they were outyielded by the local check, Mares, though not significantly. Mares gave the highest yield of 1319.4 kg/ha outyielding the highest entry Gil by about 10% (Table 21). The effect of stand establishment of seeds carried over from previous plantings on pod yield seemed important. While Mares gave a higher pod yield under no fertility conditions than when fertilized, all the introduced lines tended to give higher pod yield under fertilized conditions than under unfertilized conditions (Table 22).
TABLE 21: Performance of selected entries from NET-Early Planting (1982) % Stand
Establi- Leafspots No. Pods/ Pod Yield ACCESSION P E D I G R E E shment Scores* Plant (Kg/ha)
Gi Mares (check) 82.1 9 21.0 1319.4G3 Philippine Pink (check) 81.1 9 19.3 1166.7
GIO Shulamith 54.1 9 11.7 646.8
Gil J-11 82.9 9 20.8 1198.6
G12 Robut-33-1 72.1 8 17.1 1115.7
G13 (GH3-20 x USA-20) 71.2 8 13.9 1185.21
F2-P4-P1-B-B1-B -B -B1
G22 (Robut-33-1 x NC ACC 2821) 70.4 8 16.1 1074.1
F2-P -B -B -B -B -B -B Z2 5 1 1 1-Bl-1 1
G24 (Robut-33-1 x NC ACC 2698) 76.7 8 -17.7 675.9
F2-P 5-B 1-B I-B 1-B -B-B
G26 (Robut-33-1 x TMV-7) 73.3 8 16.1 1078.7
F2-B -B -B -B -B-B -B
G40 (MANFREDI x M-13) 58.8 6 15.5 819.4
F2-P 6-B1-B 1-B 1-B 1-B1-B1
G48 (GOLDIN x FA12PURI-5) 76.7 8 18.0 921.3
F2-P I-B I-B -B1B -B1-B
G57 CONMT 45.4 8 21.3 643.5
LSD (5%) 427.2
A Scored on a 9-point field scale where 1=no disease,& 1050-100% foliage desti

TABLE 22: Pod yield of Groundnut genotypes under different fertility
ACSINFertilizer- No Fertilizer Mean
G1 17.1 21.0 19.1
G3 23.7 19.3 21.5
G10 14.6 11.7 13.2
G1l 25.3 20.8 23.1
G12 20.3 17.1 18.7
G13 19.3 13.9 16.6
G43 29.9 13.0 21.4
G23 18.3 17.3 17.8
G26 18.7 16.1 17.4
G40 14.9 15.5 15.2
G48 25.3 18.0 21.6
Y/ 30 kg/ha P 20 51 1981 Data
The indication therefore is that yield potential of the exotic genotypes
tend to be well expressed only under high input conditions. Since farmers in Sierra Leone do not normally apply fertilizer to groundnut, a possible
approach is to select under unfertilized conditions. Such an approach
however, is not likely to produce an array of improved varieties for local
conditions soon. It is perhaps desirable also to improve the local genotype
by pure line selection.
(iii) Nursery Evaluation Trial, Late Planting 1982
The trial consisted of 76 entries including fresh materials received
during the year. The plants received no fertilizer and insecticide application. Pod yields were low ranging from 18.7 filled pods per plant for G69
(ICGS-7) to 4.4 for G129 (P 1390595). This was probably related to the
late planting and the rather adverse growth conditions of the trial.
However, 24% of the breeding lines yielded more pods/plant than the local
check (Mares) indicating a potential for adaptability to low input local
The ACRE Baseline Agronomic Survey indicated a need for soil management
studies with a view of lengthening the cropping period beyond the few years
that is typical of the bush fallow system. Possible approaches of making
the soil more productive include the following:

- 35
a. Return of crop residues to the top soil and minimum tillage
b. Crop rotations c. Alley cropping
d. Balanced fertilization
e. Use of organic and farm yard manures
f. Exploitation of soil survey land capability groupings.
4.2.1 Field Trials
(a) Fertilizer Trials on Maize and Rice R.L. Beacher
(i) Maize
On a Njala soil series which had been cropped and fertilized the previous year, maize yield increased up to 2000 kg/ha at 150kg N/ha. Phosphorus increments gave small increases above the 40 kg/ha rate. Potash and zinc did not appear to affect yields. On a newly cleared Niala series response to zinc was marked at all levels of phosphorus,and maize responded to incremental increases up to 200kg P205/ha.
(ii) Rice
A nitrogen x phosphorus factorial with/without zinc in an IVS
(Pelewahun series) resulted in good yields of CCA variety but not significant differences among treatments. Water control was satisfactory but soil variability and rodent problems apparently caused erratic yields. Nitrogen and zinc treatments were visibly beneficial.
(b) Nitrogen Reauirement of Improved Rice Varieties F. Smith
Past research has indicated that for a given N fertilizer source and agro-ecology the shape of the response curve depends on the duration of the variety and the timing of N fertilizer application. However, the response curves have not always been complete, and there is a lack of information on the newer improved rice varieties.
On a river terrace soil maximum yield of 1660 kg/ha of ROK 16 rice variety was obtained at 120 kg N/ha, but for both single and 2 equal split applications the differences in yield between 80kg N/ha and 120kg N/ha were not significant. Application at 80kg N/ha and 120kg N/ha N applied in 2 splits gave higher yields than when applied in a single dose, but differences for a given rate were not significant.

- 36
In an IVS (Pelewahun series) CCA rice variety, achieved maximum yield of 4500 kg/ha at 80kg N/ha. At all rates of application below 120kg N/ha, nitrogen applied in 2 equal splits gave a higher yield than single application.
(c) Effect of Rice Straw Compost on Maize Yields E.R. Rhodes
For the 2nd year running compost made from rice straw by the
Agromax Process was compared with commercial N, P and K fertilizers. The agromax process involved fortification with (i) additives to speed up decomposition (ii) small quantities of macro and micronutrients to enrich the final product. The trial was located on an upland Njala soil series.
TABLE 23: Effect of Commercial Fertilizers and Rice Straw Compost on
Maize Yields.
T1 = No fertilizer or compost 521 a
T2 = 150kg N/ha + 40kg P/ha + 30kg K/ha in 3 split applications 2689 c
T3 = 75kg N/ha + 20kg P/ha + 15kg K/ha in 3 split applications 1750 b
T4 = 150kg N/ha + 40kg P/ha + 30kg P/ha + 10kg Zn/ha in 3 split applications 2791 c
T5 = 75kg N/ha + 20kg P/ha + 15kg K/ha +10kg Zn/ha in 3 split applications 2036 bc
T6 = Rice straw compost at 7 t/ha 458 a
T7 = Rice straw compost at 14 t/ha 821 a
T = Rice straw compost at 7 t/ha + 75kg N/ha + 20kg P/ha + 15kg K/ha 2584 bcc
T9 = Rice straw compost at 21 t/ha 817 a
T10= 150kg N/ha + 40kg P/ha +30kg P/ha in a single application 2312 bc
L.S.D. (5%) 922
Means with the same letters are not significantly different.
Table 23 shows that maize yields were not significantly better than the control at all rates of compost application. This confirms the results of 1982. Highest grain yields were obtained with 150kg N/ha + 40kg P/ha + 30kg P/ha in split applications with or without zinc. However, these yields were not significantly different from those resulting from a lower fertilizer rate, with or without compost.

- 37
(d) Crop Rotation on an Upland and River Terrace Soil E. R. Rhodes
The upland Njala soil series of the NUC Agronomy Department has been cropped fairly intensively with cassava, sweet potato, maize, cowpea, groundnut and short periods of gra~s fallow for over 10 years. However, no experiment has been designed to systematically monitor crop yields under intensive cropping with short fallows, and rice has scarcely featured among the crops cultivated. An experiment was therefore designed to evaluate on 2 contrasting soil types the effect of a rotation of maize/ cassava (relay), rice and pigeon pea (2 durations) in all sequences on soil productivity. Crops were fertilized at local recommended rates, but pigecpea was unfertilized. As much as possible of the crop residue was returned to the soil surface. Indications are that (Table 24):
- Rice as a second crop on the poor NJala series results in low
yields even with NPK, Ca and Zn fertilization, and proper weed
- Rice as a second crop following maize/cassava on the Gbessebu
series gives satisfactory yields.
- Rice following fertilized maize/cassava relay yields better
than rice following unfertilized pigeon pea on both soil types.
- Yield of maize/cassava relay following rice or unfertilized
pigeon pea are similar.
- Maize yields on the Njala series is comparable to that on the
Gbessebu series. Howsvev yields of Pigeon pea, cassava and
rice are clearly superior on the Gbessebu series.
Pigeon pea stalks (possible source of firewood) can weigh up to
4.9 t/ha at harvest.
Major problems with pigeon pea fallow are that it dies out
after 1 year of growth especially on the Njala soil, thus
making replanting necessary.
It also leaves the soil exposed to rainfall for an appreciable time before the pigeon pea canopy protects it.

TABLE 24: Yield of Crops in Rotation
1981 1982 1981 1982
CROP PHASE Maize/Cassava Rice Maize/Cassava Rice
YIELD (t/ha) 4.590/10.011 1.446 4.56/20.516 2.153
CROP PHASE Rice Pigeon Pea Rice Pigeon Pea
YIELD (t/ha) 1.302 0.369 1.687 0.584
CROP PHASE Pigeon Pea Maize/Cassava Pigeon Pea Maize/Cassava
YIELD (t/ha) 0.742 3.174/11.209 1.341 3.553/26.258
CROP PHASE Maize/cassava Pigeon Pea Maize/Cassava Pigeon Pea
YIELD (t/ha) 4.03/11.128 0.466 3.73/20.824 0.675
CROP PHASE Rice Maize/cassava Rice Maize/Cassava
YIELD (t/ha) 1.509 2.937/11.209 2.418 3.512/M*
CROP PHASE Pigeon Pea Rice Pigeon Pea Rice
YIELD (t/ha) 0.594 0.614 1.122 1.064
* = Miss Data
(e) Tillage/Crop Residue Management Studies E.R. Rhodes
Continues maize has been grown successfully for 5 years on an
Alifosol at the International Institute of Agriculture, Nigeria, by minimum tillage/mulch techniques. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of tillage/mulch techniques and fertilization on soil productivity and yield maintenance on 2 contrasting soil types.
The Njala series and Gbessebu series are ultisols. Residues from
previous crops were returned to the soil surface. For the plots tilled by tractor ploughing/harrowing, the residue was ploughed into the soil at land preparation, and subsequent hoe weeding. Weeds in the minimum tilled plots were controlled by preplant and pre-emergence herbicides and by limited hand weeding. Half of the plots were fertilized at the locally recommended rates and the other half received fertilization at 1 times this amount.
Table 25 shows that (a) there has been no effect of tillage method on yields in 3 croppings (b) after the Ist cropping there was a consistent yield response to level of fertilization, (c) yield levels of improved maizc TZSR Yellow have been maintained at a satisfactory level over 3 successive croppings.

- 39
TABLE 25: Effect of Soil Type, Fertilization and Tillage on Yields
of continuous Maize (t/ha)
1st 2nd 3rd
Cropping Cropping Cropning
Njala series 3.64 a 3.06 a 4.86 a
Gbessebu series 3.88 a 3.45 b 4.07 b
LSD 5% 0.460 0.355 0.393
Fertilization 1 3.63 a 3.02 a 4.19 a
Fertilizer level 2 3.89 a 3.49 b 4.73 b
LSD 5% 0.460 0.355 0.393
Minimum tillage 3.67 a 3.24 a 4.48 a
Tractor ploughing/harrowing 3.85 a 3.27 a 4.46 a
LSD 5% 0.460 0.355 0.393
Means with the same letters are not significantly different.
(f) Intercropping Studies on Maize and Cowpea E. R. Rhodes
A higher productivity at Njala of intercrops of maize and cowpea over their sole crops has been reported. Ground cover, nutrient leaching and uptake under intercropping systems are different from that of sole cropping systems. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of cropping systems, fertilization and crop residue management on productivity of 2 contrasting soil types under continuous cropping.
TABLE 26: Effect of fertilization and crop residue management on land
equivalent ratios.
Njala Gbessebu
SY S T E M Series Series
Sole maize, sole cowpea versus intercrop of maize with cowpea under major nutrient fertilization 1.152 0.843
Sole maize, sole cowpea versus intercrop of maize with cowpea under major + micronutrient fertilization 1.246 1.113
Sole maize, sole cowpea versus intercrop of maize with cowpea under major + micronutrient fertilization + crop residue returned 1.228 0.796

- 40
Land ecuivalent ratios are presented in Table 26. Where the LER is greater than I should imply that the intercrop is more productive than the sole crops. However, since the values do not seem to differ much from
1.00, no firm conclusion can be drawn at this early stage of the experiment.
(g) Alley Cropping Studies E. R. Rhodes and D. Amara
The management of arable crops, between rows of leguminous trees
(Alley Cropping) is being strongly recommended by IITA as a minor modification of the bush fallow system, where a small farmer still uses the nutrients stored in vegetation to fertilize crops, without having to move from place to place. As in the bush fallow rotation, leguminous trees reduce soil erosion.
The main objective of the experiment was to test a hypothesis made at IITA that in Sierra Leone, fertilizing upland rice with prunnings obtained from Leucaeno trees would be more productive than with Urea fertilizer. In addition the appropriate distance of Leucaena rows from a crop, and the optimum proportion between Land area allocated to Leucaena as against a rice crop were to be determined. Growth of the Leucaena in the year of planting was very poor on a Njala series that had been previously, cropped. Growth improved considerably during the 2nd year. Rice followed by cowpea will be planted in 1985 in the alleys.
(h) Soil Test Correlations with Crop Response F. Smith and R.L. Beache
The ultimate objective is being able to advise farmers on profitable fertilizer use and to recommend to Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (MANR) the correct formulation of fertilizers needed in the country.
The correlation work has been beset with problems related to very simple incomplete designs used in the initial stages of the project, and improper data collection. So far a tentative relationship between upland rice (Lac 23) response to P fertilizer at 45 kg/ha of P205 and Bray PI soil test has been established, for soils treated with 90 kg/ha N and 45 kg/ha K20.
Yield response (kg/ha) = 1172.50 39.9 Bray P1 (kg P/ha)

- 41
Assuming a cost price of LelO per 50 kg SSP and a selling price for husk rice of LeO.66 per kg, it is profitable to apply 45 kg P205/ha on upland soils with a Bray P1 of 13.9 ppm (27.8 kg P/ha) and below. Even if the cost of SSP were to increase to Le20 per 50kg, the critical level for profitability will only decrease to 13.1 ppm available P.
It is hoped that a target of 30 samples analysed per day will be achieved with an improvement in staffing and provision of adequate water and electricity supply to the analytical laboratory.
(a) Equipments
The Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the Flame photometer became operational. As such the laboratory was able to extend its soil analysis work to include calcium, potassium, sodium and micronutrients. A block digestor has been received and with the completion of the digestion room, plant analysis will be undertaken.
(b) Soil Chemical Composition Data
Large number of top soils from farmers fields in the 5 Project
zones have been analysed as part of the soil test correlation work. Because of the nature of the ACRE Project, it has not been feasible to tie up these analysis with specific soil types. The data (Tables 27, 28, 29), however, give a fair idea of the levels and variations in top soil chemical composition between agro-ecologies and zones. Collaborative work with LWDD in soil characteristisation would be helpful.
(c) Services to other Institutions
Soil samples were analysed for the Land and Water Development
Division, Work Oxen Project, IADP North and Njala University College. It is hoped that in the future many more Institutions will benefit from these services.

TABLE 27: Soil Test Data for Upland Ecology
ZONE/ECOLOGY .M (%) pH P (ppm) K (ppm) Ca (ppm)
S.D. x S.D. x S.D. x S.D. x S.D.
KENEMA 4.3 -1.9 4.8 -0.5 13.3 -10.6 107.0 -151.6 463.0 -403.1
KABALA 4.9 1.5 5.3 *0.4 10.2 + 8.1 174.6 *136.8 695.4 465.5
+ + + + +
ROKUPR 4.5 -2.2 4.7 -0.6 15.0 -28.4 77.7 93.2 433.9 -393.9
+ + + + +
NJALA 4.5 -1.9 4.9 -1.3 10.7 -26.4 165.9 -165.6 458.2 -373.5
+ + + +. +
MAKENI 4.3 -1.8 4.8 -0.4 8.4 -13.8 940 66.4 121.5 -185.7
TABLE 28: Soil Test Data for IVS Ecology.
+++ + +
KENEMA 4.0 -1.6 4.7 -0.5 12.6 8.3 65.3 56.2 363.2 -339.5
KABALA 3.6 0.2 5.1 -0.4 6.5 5.2
+ + + + +
ROKUPR 4.3 -1.8 4.8 -0.8 14.1 -12.9 70.5 62.9 256.3 -293.3
++ + + +
NJALA 5.3 -1.8 4.6 -0.3 8.5 3.4 133.3 -106.5 109.2 25.4
++++ +
MAKENI 4.2 1.8 4.8 0.5 7.9 - 3.9 80.1 62.8 123.8 -116.3
TABLE 29: Soil Test Data for Mangrove and Boliland Ecology
ROKUPR MANGROVE 7.6 2.3 2.9 +0.9 6.1 5.0 M M 127.2 86.4
MAKENI BOLILAND 3.6 -1.3 3.8 -1.33 9.2 - 4.7 34.3 + 18.53 88.6 -107.4

- 43
The following is a summary of the results of the 1980/81 field work.
A large number of trials and demonstration were conducted on farmers fields, and the detailed report has been published.
5.1 On-Farm Adaptive Research Trials 1980/81
(i) In the rice variety trial, improved varieties in general significantly
outyielded local varieties under local as well as improved management
in all ecologies. Averaged over all levels of management, yield
increases of improved varieties over local varieties were 24%, 24%,
32% and 9% for Uplands, IVS, Bolilands and Mangroves respectively.
Averaged over all varieties, improved management (correct spacing +
fertilization + weed:ing) ouyielded local management by 36%, 45%, 77%
and 54% for Uplands, ZVS, Bolilands and Mangroves respectively. In
the Upland ecology Lac 23 (released variety) was the best variety. In
the IVS, the Pre-released variety BQ5B (its yield under improved
management was 3.5 t/ha) was the best. BQ5B also did well in the
Boliland and Mangrove ecologies. Low land varieties already released
to farmers such as RGK 10, Andy 301 and CP4 generally outylelded local
(ii) In general response of improved rice to fertilization was significant,
but rather moderate in all ecolcgies. In the Uplands, response to N
was about 48% over the control; in the IVS, it was 29%, in the Bolilands
43%, and in the Mangrove 18%. In the Uplands response to P averaged
24%, in the IVS, response was 44%, in the Bolllands it was 26% and in
the Mangrove it was 15%. In the Uplands response to K averaged 20%;
in the IVS, it was 47,; in e z!ilands it vas 36% and in the Mangroves
it was 16%. Bearing in mind the cost of fertilizers, it would seem
that fertilization should be regarded as only part of an improved
(iii) Ginger planted under plantation crops outyielded ginger grown without
shade by 33%.

- 44
5.1.1 On-Farm Extension Demonstrations 1980/81
(1) Nucass 1 cassava grown under improved management in Uplands outyijlded
local cassava under local management by about 104%. Ropot 2 Sweet
Potato under improved management outyielded the local variety grown
under local management by 62%. Nucass 1 under improved management
averaged 12 t/ha and Ropot 2 under improved management averaged 11 t/ha.
(ii) Top improved upland rice varieties grown under improved management
averaged 2.4 t/ha and outyielded the local variety under local management
by 65%.
(iii) Top improved IVS Rice varieties grown under improved management
averaged 3.1 t/ha and outyielded the local variety under local
management by 62%.
(iv) In the mangrove ecolog/SROK 5 grown under improved management averaged
4 t/ha and outyielded the local variety under local management 110%.
(v) In the boliland ecology CP4 grown under improved management averaged
2.1 t/ha and outyielded the local variety under local management by 83%.
(vi) Split application of Urea to upland or mangrove rice accompanied by
at least one timely weeding gave significant rice yield increases.
Compared to the local practice of no nitrogen fertilization accompanied
by local weeding, split application + 2 weedings gave yield increases
averaging 48%.
(vii) Dibbling rice in Upland resulted in yield increases of 33% over
(viii)Two timely weedings of upland and boliland rice gave yield increases
of 35% and 33% respectively over the local method of weeding.
(ix) In the IVS and Mangroves, closer spacing compared to the traditional
wide spacing resulted in increases averaging 39% and 68% respectively.
(x) Row intercropping of upland rice with maize or cassava or sorghum or
millet gave increases of the order of 38% over the traditional mixed
intercropping of these crops.

- 45
5.1.2 Conclusion
The Adaptive Research Trials and Demonstrations clearly showed the Agronomic superiority of improved varieties and management practices over the traditional practices. A major limitation however of the year's work was that especially for cases where improved management was not highly superior to local management, recommendations cannot be made with complete confidence as regards acceptability by farmers since no economic data were collected.
It has been estimated that Sierra Leone imports less than a third of its rice needs. If every farmer in the country can be made to increase his yields per unit area by this magnitude and the surpass gets on to the market, then the problem could be minimised (all other factors being favourable). The data collected in 1980/81 showed that such increases are possible on farmers fields.
5.2 On-Farm Trials and Demonstrations 1982/83
(E.R. Rhodes, E.J. Mammy, J. Squire, F. Ngebeh, S. Kassibo
M. James, P. James, A. Agard, A.B. Gbani).
Trials/demonstrations on weed control, variety performance,
fertilization and plant population were conducted. The data are being statistically analysed. A major bottleneck has been inadequate staffing and computing facilities to handle the large volume of data quickly. As a stopgap measure, a preliminary report was released. The following tentative observations were made:
(a) Research Trials
i) Two weedings of rice appeared to be adequate but a single
weeding may be more economical. The application of herbicide
at 21 days or 28 days to reduce weed infestation appeared to be effective. However, the use of herbicides would have to depend
on the cost and availability of the material.
ii) ROK 3 and ROK 16 seem to have wide adaptation under improved
management in the upland with the exception of the Makeni zone.
Pre-released varieties Mashari, Djabon seem promising in the
IVS ecology.
iii) Western Yellow and TZPB white are promising improved maize

- 46
(b) Demonstrations
i) Dibbling upland rice with added fertilizer was superior to
broadcasting with fertilizer. However, it is doubtful whether
the additional increase in yields would justify the amount of
extra labour required. The yield of improved sweet potato
variety Ropot 2 under improved management was very large
suggesting that farmers should be encouraged to adopt this
ii) In general close transplanting of rice seedlings with fertilization in the IVS gave the higher yields compared to local wide
transplanting in all zones except Makeni. However, the additional
increase in yield was not large. A similar situation existed
in the mangroves.
5.2 Economic Analyses of ACRE Packages on Farmers Fields
(D. Tuthill, I.S. Barrie and J. Lappia).
Collection of data on labour required for carrying out specific
improved technologies, cost of inputs, value of produce etc. commenced in 1982. The objective was to guide research and to ensure that financially beneficial packages are pushed to farmers. A comprehensive report on costs and returns of ACRE packages on farmers fields will be published. The indications are that the packages are cost effective. This report will be a mile-stone in farmer-oriented Agronomic Research and Extension in Sierra Leone.
IITA Improved cassava clones (tissue culture) sweet potatoe seeds, rice
maize and cowpea seeds were received for evaluation under local
CIMMT Improved maize seeds were received in the form of International
Trials. Promising materials identified in previous trials were
received for increase.
WARDA Improved rice seeds were received. Data obtained by ACRE Project
in its On-Farm rice variety trials were reproduced in the Report
of the 1983 WARDA Annual Rice Review for Zone II.
IFDC Urea supergranules, calcium ammonium nitrate and Togo Rock phosphate
were received for testing as part of the low input technology and
fertilizer efficiency soil management research.

- 47
Areas of research in which significant findings have been made in
the period under review are summarised below. This should not be misconstrued to mean that areas not mentioned are not important. Rather it means that research is relatively in an early stage in those areas, not mentioned or there are still serious problems to be overcome.
(a) Extra High Yielding Cassava Clone Selected
Clone 80129 gave at Njala station tuberous root yield of 53.6 t/ha which is easily the highest ever yield recorded for any clone since the Root and Tuber Improvement programme started in Njala University College/ ACRE Project. This yield is 24 times greater than average cassava tuber yields in Sierra Leone. Tests will be carried out on its cooking, foofoo making and garification qualities.
(b) New Sweet Potato Varieties for On-Farm Trials
The highly popular Ropot 2 Sweet Potato variety is becoming Increasingly susceptible to virus diseases. Newer sweet potato varieties of somewhat longer duration than Ropot 2 which show resistance to virus diseases have been advanced from Station Research and will be tested in the 1984 On-Farm Trials for adaptability in the various zones.
(c) Improved Cassava Variety with High Rate of Garification and Foofoo
Production Released
Improved cassava varieties outyield by several fold local varieties. However, because of relatively poor cooking qualities when compared to local cassava, attention is being given to identifying varieties which can be processed well into gari and foofoo. Tests have shown that Nucass II cassava gives a very high foofoo and gari yield.
(d) High Yielding and Stable Cowpea Variety Released
Over a period of about 10 years, improved cowpea variety TVU 1190 has demonstrated its yield superiority over other improved cultivars in experimental plots at Njala as well as on farmers fields. Given adequate crop protection against rodents it can outperform local varieties. Despite its reddish seed coat which does not dehul readily in cold water, it makes good quality Oleleh and Akara. Another improved variety with excellent cooking quality is Ife Brown, but it requires a high level of management in order to obtain good yields.

- 48
(e) High Yielding Maize Variety for On-Farm Trials.
A promising high yielding variety of maize (Ferke (1) 7928) for early season cropping has been identified from the CIMMYT International Trials conducted in 1981. Its yield of 6600 kg/ha was about double that obtained for a local variety under the same management, at Njala Station. The ear colour is yellow and the duration is 110-120 days. Pure seeds of this variety were received from CIMMYT in 1983, to be multiplied in 1984. This variety will be one of the entries in the 1985 On-Farm Maize Variety Trials.
(f) Improving Cowpea Storage by Using Local Materials.
Clove Powder deferred oviposition and inhibited progeny emergence at a low concentration of 0.5% by weight of seed. Treated seeds did not lose their viability over a period of ten months.
(g) Maintenance of Maize Yields under Continuous Cropping
As part of the soil fertility management studies, on the Njala soil series, it has been demonstrated that maize yields of Improved variety TZSR Yellow can be maintained at around 3500 to 4000 kg/ha over three cropping seasons on the same site, provided that adequate fertilization, crop residue management and crop protection practices are followed. Clear indications are that more crops can be grown with satisfactory yields.
(h) Improved Crop Varieties/Management Practices Outperform Local Crop
Varieties/Practices on Farmers Fields
It is quite normal for improved crop varieties to do well in Research Stations where optimal conditions obtain. The real test of a new variety or practice is therefore under the farmers condition. The results of the On-Farm Trials from 1980-83 show the agronomic superiority of improved crop varieties and practices over local varieties and practices. The magnitude of yield increase of improved crop varietieslmanagement over local varieties/ management depends on the type of crop but average increases are of order of 50 to 100%.
(i) Soils and Plant Analytical Laboratory Operational
A well equipped analytical laboratory has been established. It is
equipped to determine and host a macro and micronutrients by modern methcds. With an improvement in staffing, water and electricity supplies the services

would be extended to several agricultural institutions operating in Sierra Leone. The laboratory is a pre-requisite for soil fertility management research and extension work.
(j) Surveys indicate Priority Research Areas
The Baseline Surveys showed that local low yielding varieties of all crops are being used by the vast majority of farmers in all zones. There is therefore clear justification for identifying and pushing out improved varieties that will outperform the local varieties,
The surveys also showed that farming in the uplands is becoming
precarious, because the bush fallow has declined to 7 or less years. There is therefore a need for upland management techniques that rely less on the bush fallow rest period, for replenishing the soil and avoiding weed problems.
(k) Surveys Show that Farmers are Innovative
Around 90% of farmers showed a high degree of innovativeness meaning they would adopt locally proven technology given the right incentives, provided they are within their resource capabilities.
(1) Recipes Based on Improved Crop Varieties Developed:
A number of recipes based on improved varieties of cowpea, sweet potato and cassava have been developed for adults and infants.

- 50
James Sundima Scuire
Acting Extension Co-ordinator
8. For the period under review, ACRE Project's extension and research activities continued to centre around the main project objectives which are:
- To identify food crop production technology that can increase
food crop yields in forms acceptable to farmers.
- To develop a two-way communication between research and
To develop a replicable technology delivery system that is
cost effective in relation to the country as a whole.
To reach as many farmers as possible (20,000 farm families
mandated in the project paper).
To influence contact farm, as well as interested families with
relevant nutrition education and activities.
The strategy continued to be the initiating and development of an agricultural research and extension system which facilitates an increase in the small holder's crop production, crop utilisation and crop income. Participating farmers continue to conduct adaptive research trials and extension demonstrations on their farms.
ACRE Project continued to cover the upland (UPL), Boli (BOLl),
Mangrove (MANG) and inland valley swamp (IVS) ecologies. Crops promoted included rice (Upland, Boli, Mangrove, Inland Valley Swamp), Cassava, Sweet potato (Ropot-2), Cowpeas, Maize and Groundnut (added in 1983). Of these sweet potato has gained the greatest popularity (probably due to its easiness in cultivation, short duration of 2 -3 months and cheapness). Rice is indeed popular, but it is difficult to recognise its adoption.

- 51
With the new price increase Maize,adoption is also growing very widely in the Moyamba and Kenema zones in particular.
Cassava and Cowpea adoption is relatively low. In the case of cassava this may be because of the poor cooking quality and the white skin colour of the tubers of the improved cultivars. Cowpea adoption might be low because of its cultivation problems, such as diseases and pests.
An index of the relative adoption rates of the various crops promoted
by the project can be measured in terms of the amounts of materials distributed as shown in Table 30.
TABLE 30: Seed material distribution to farmers in the different zones
Sweet Groun- R I 0 E
Cassava Potato Maize dnut Cowpea Boli Hang IVS UpI.
ZONE (Cut.) (Cut.) (Kg) (Kg) (Pkts) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg) (Kg)
MAKENI 27047 141522 70.5 20** 14 ( 133.4"* )
NJALA 19252 137037 328.35 6.0 ( 150.4 )
ROKUPR 9580 140222 13.0 ( 39.0 )
KENEMA 82262 11015 41.0 ( 74.7 )
KABALA 14555 137035 67.0 ( 60.0 )
TOTAL 152696 566831 519.85 20 20 457.5
* The grestest % of Cassava distribution is to IADPs, and other
similar institutions.
* Low figures are due to the lack of seeds and not low adoption
Although the project document spelt out a zonal working radius of 25 miles (Figures 1-5), this was exceeded in the 1983 cropping seaon.
The number of chiefdoms and villages in which ACRE operates has
increased considerably (See Table 31). The operational zones continue to be located at Kabala, Makeni,-Rokupr, Kenema and Njala.
The number of contact and interested farmers has also increased considerably (See Table 32).

N, 0 SOK<;.tema ;bo ; i
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pvb. a Ngandorhun Ngologutiloo Mcoboyee.
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Zonal Headquarters and S A EOs Base
Extension Instructor's Base
Operational V illoges
Acre Project Zonal Boundary
Chiefdom Boundary
Rood/ Path
0 5 to Is 20Miles River
J Principal To ns
EAO v 5 to Is 20 25 301(hometres

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BLAMA KENEM 0 Y, J, .0 ki Kom i a Nyeawano
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aa: y .. Diarm. -geleh ajama
me OG omb&; Kong, Kpand mei
MbOoma jaime "' Ka itno
Zonal Headquarters a ad S A EUs Base
Extension Instructors Base
Operational villagell
Acre Project Zonal Boundary 0 1
Chiefdom Boundary
0 S 10 Is 20Miles Road
Principal Towns
FAO 0 5 10 Is 20 25 30Kilometres

1983 Kcrinl Ba eya 0
Ndarcyl bet
PENDEmOU godanot
Ka"WO r a)y,*
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M*nakrie ; tl cc moforay Modlf
Kursho 130 balibora BINK01-0
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h Mabor4o
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a o ll-oorl makofto
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matom Owasso
ma I karo Ac6bom
..l. 0 mclahm
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'oo Qtofll Roblo Uab-p Mapaki
0 s 10 is Tmilts Road
Prbdpoi TOWA
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le 4S'
a a Mlil, *M ssfe
e IN Kdeo 1 Snre uby
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Zonal Headquarters and SAE 0 Base
Extention, Instructor's BaseA Operational Vi llages Acre Project Zonal Boundary Chiefdom Boundary
Road / Path -0 10 15 2CMiles Riner
EAC I IPrincipal Towns
0 I 0 215 3O01iloenetres international Boundary
-~12' 4S5

F--yq L ya."
Kor Mi M1.82
Affl T' ngn'h
0 0 .
Kanuka 50.0rio g Dar-es-salam
M.- mu lo MorketingCentre
" en a Sari Haremankono
benik" 0
Sukurall 9111MIG or.
* dibokoria Mo f..r a KABALA enduqu
Mof. lWalo.. N afclran
Y.toi 0"C"cey" OBambukura
Korko- endem Harema 0
K ombu ofton Sedla
Karncth.n?. 0 Kamasorkola Bombuk &
Kosorla, "roh Kolnodugu
gp3c OB.nd.kuro 03d
H r..c.k o 0 "
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si'" bek K.keko
W. r I do].
Sanbo ba AFADUGU
Zonal Headquarters and SAEO east
Extension Instructors Base
Operational Villages
Acrc Project Zonal Boundary 0
Chiefdom Boundary
Floo 4 Path -
0 5 10 15 20M)I" Lake
Principal Towns
. 04
EAO 0 5 10 Is 20 2S 30Kiloetres

- 57
TABLE 31: Chiefdoms and villages covered presently by ACRE
Z 0 N E 1982 1983
Chiefdoms 4 6
Villages 50 19
Chiefdoms 5 6
Villages 120 200
Chiefdoms 3 4
Villages 191 206
Chiefdoms 3 4
Villages 53 60
Chiefdoms 3 3
ROKTPR Villages 25 133
T 0 T A L Chiefdoms 18 23
Villages 439 718
TABLE 32: Number of contact and interested farmers in 1982/83 1982 1983
Z 0 N E Contact Interested Contact Interested
MAKENI 90 1519 135 2138
NJALA 89 3032 135 1990
KENEMA 90 1506 135 1519
KABALA 72 1861 135 2445
ROKUPR 90 2135 135 4122
TOTAL 431 10053 675 12214
The front line workers who are the Extension Instructors (EIs), Nutrition Instructors (NIs), and Field Assistants (FAs) also increased in number during the period (See Table 33).

TABLE 33: Number of EUs, NIs and FAs for 1982-83
1982 1983 1982/83
Z 0 N E Els F.A. NIs. EUs. F.A. NIs. Total SAEOs
Kabala 6 1 9 1 2 1
Kenema 6 1 9 1 2 1
Makeni 6 1 9 1 2 1
Njala 6 1 9 1 2 1
Rokupr 6 1 9 1 2 1
30 545 5 10 5
TOTAL 35 60
Total Field Extension Staff was (60) Sixty workers and five (5) Supervisors.
Crop Management techniques extended to the farmers by the project included fertilization (broadcasting and band applications), ridge and row planting,
herbicide application, timely weeding, improved varieties of different crops
and appropriate crop spacing. The acceptability of these techniques has
been varied. Improved varieties of rice, sweet potato and maize have been
very readily accepted by small scale farmers. Although large amounts of
* planting materials were given out, the adoption itself in different zones was
not quite widespread. Technology acceptability was observed to be very
closely related to crop acceptability. For example, in sweet potato
cultivation, ridging, timely weeding and fertilization were readily accepted
by most farmers as a package. WJhere fertilizers were not supplied by
project, all sweet potato growers did buy their fertilizers and applied it.
* Except for a small number, most of the Ropot-2 growers made perfect ridges
for planting the potato.
Technology adoption was difficult where the crop performance itself
was not very rewarding to the farmer.
By 1982 and part of 1983 over 11,000 farmers were effectively reached
by the Project- .
Trials and demonstrations also continue to grow over the period under
review (Table 34). They continue to be adapted to farmers needs. During
the period under review, trials on herbicide use, and dibbling, which did
not gain farmers' acceptance were discontinued while trials on improved
1/ Such farmers were registered and given materials or verbal assistance.

varieties, fertilization and weeding, to name a few of those accepted, were improved upon and continued. On the whole, the number of demonstration has been kept above that of trials, thus showing the degree of emphasis on extension activities.
In 1983, another type of demonstration was introduced to encourage
group participation in crop production. These large Scale Demonstrations
for all crops were injected into the program. These were for both individuals and groups of farmers. The few (5) that took off ground had problems with management of the proceeds from the demonstration. The work and idea itself appeared very viable and attractive to the farmers.
The reasons given in support of group work and demonstrations were as follows:
(a) it reduced the risk of crop failures due to individual inabilities;
(b) it developed cooperative spirit among farmers and rural people;
(c) it helped ease out the labour problems encountered in crop
production by the individual farmer when on his own.
(d) it rapidly and easily magnifies the small plot demonstration
into a more realistic and convincing size.
These purposes were well served in the attempt but work on how to
utilise proceeds from the large scale demonstrations needs close examination for improvement.
TABLE 34: Number of Trials and Demonstrations conducted on Farmers
Fields in 1982 and 1983.
Z 0 N E 1982 1983 1982 1983
Makeni 75 82 56 100
Njala 63 81 36 96
Kenema 62 83 48 91
Kabala 64 79 38 84
Rokupr 69 85 48 98
TOTAL 333 410 226 469

- 60
Contact farmers and extension instructors conducted trials and
demonstrations in farmers' fields. The increase of contact farmers to 675 necessitated an increase of 15 extension instructors in addition to the 30 already in the field.
ACRE Project's main extension method continued to be a modified form
of Daniel Benot and Harrison's Training and visit system. This method trains the Extension Worker rigidly at 2-weekly intervals. Information so received is relayed to farmers within the next two weeks when Extension Workers work with such farmers. The programme itself is very tightly supervised and controlled through visits of Senior Specialist Staff. Every ACRE Extension Instructor worked with 15 contact and 200 interested farmers. More attention was paid to the contact farmers who were then expected to help other farmers. This multiplication effort, it is hoped, would result in the technology reaching many more farmers outside the ACRE Project. ACRE maintains that every contact farmer should influence 100 other farmers. As a result, the Project now has a large pool of interested farmers.
Farmers' monthly training was activated during the period; but towards the end of 1983, the effectiveness was observed to have reduced. The frequency was too high for farmers' bush schedule and the information generated not commensurate with the frequency of the training.
Activities such as field days, field trips, farmers meetings, minikits distribution, large scale demonstrations, village/school demonstrations and crop contests were also part of the Extension functions during the period of this report.
To continue an effective work required, a strong research and extension linkage on the one hand, and a project-to-project linkage, on the other.
These have been effected through inter-departmental meetings and visits of the Senior ACRE Staff to other projects in the country. The Eastern Area Project, Moyamba Integrated Rural Development Agricultural Project, Magbosi Integrated Agricultural Project and the Northern Area Projects, Makeni and the Koinadugu IADP were all visited and a statement

of understanding with collaborative promises made. Since then the zonal personnel, particularly, have had immense cooperation from other projects and Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources staff in their respective zones.
ACRE plans field activities with representatives from most of the Agricultural Institutions in the country. Trials and Demonstrations are conducted for other projects like Seed Multiplication Projects. Large quantities of improved planting materials have been supplied to some of the Agricultural Projects within Sierra Leone.
In July 1983, some 10 Nutrition Instructors, 2 Laboratory Technicians and one Nutrition Officer (all female) were employed by the Project to start the ACRE Nutrition Section.
The objective was to influence contact and other farm families with relevant nutritional education activities to help improve on their health and rural life in general.
To effect this, 2 Nutrition Instructors were posted to every zone where they work with families in the areas of:
encourage the production of ACRE Crops as backyard garden'
crop for domestic use.
Recipe development and trials using ACRE promoted crops.
Baby food preparation from ACRE Crops.
Caring for the pregnant and lactating mothers in nutrition by
appropriate use of ACRE promoted crops.
General sanitation in the home as far as the enhancement of
nutrition is concerned.
- Collaborative work with health and social welfare workers in
the area of Nutrition.
Up to 40 villages were reached with this programme.
Consultancy work in the areas of extension and nutrition has been moderate but very rewarding, particularly for Nutrition. Two such consultancies are noted for their quality and direction. First by Dr. Sevenhuysen and that conducted by a team of four from Southern University and Louisiana State University.

- 62
For extension, there has not been much meaningful consultancy
(except that done by Dr. Durant). There seems to be a great need for this especially in the areas of communication e.g. by using the following:
i) Video tape production
ii) Slide material production
iii) Documentation
iv) Material production
(a) Root and Tuber Crops
i) Cassava:
The improved cultivars are generally higher yielding than the local cultivars. However, their cokking quality is still far short of the local cultivars. In addition, more breeding and selection is needed to provide cassava clones for the various ecologies in which cassava is generally grown, as well as quality acceptable by the consumer. In terms of processing of cassava into foofoo or gari, the improved cultivars that are now available are very satisfactory.
ii) Sweet Potato:
By far the most widely acclaimed crop in the farming communication
has been Ropot 2, because of its high yields and short duration. It also has good cooking and taste qualities.
The limitation of this cultivar is its short life in storage, weevil suceptibility as well as increasing incidence of virus diseases.
(b) Cereals
i) Maize:
Two cultivars, i.e. Western Yellow and TZSR-Yellow are prominent among the maize farmers. The limitations for now are the need for insect resistant cultivars as well as ones that pose less demand for fertilizer.
ii) Rice:
Upland; The rice cultivars, ROK 16, ROK 3 and Lac 23 continue to perform generally satisfactory on the upland. ROK 16 appears to be particularly favoured by the farmers because of its relative resistance to bird damage when compared to other ownless rice cultivars.

- 63
The limitations on the upland continue to be poor soil fertility and severe weed infestation.
Inland Valley Swamp (IVS), Boli and Mangrove: TOS 78, CP4, Djabon, BQ5B and Adney 10 cultivars continue to give outstanding yield in all three swamp ecologies. However, there appear to be local preference for some of these cultivars in nearly all the zones. For example, CP4 was preferred to TOS-78 in Kenema and the Mangrove areas, whereas the opposite was the situation in Kabala and Makeni. In both cases performance was based on the duration which is shorter for TOS-78 than for CP4.
BQ5B performed consistently well in the Boli and IVS, whereas CP4 and ROK 10 were accepted in the mangrove and IVS.
It was observed that rice yields (Transplanted) can be increased by
higher plant population. At 50 plants/m2 the resulting yield was encouraging,.
The problem of swamp rice cultivation, especially in the IVS and Bolis, is the generally low soil fertility. More effort is needed to determine the most economic application and method of application that can be accepted by the farmers in these ecologies. Other problems such as pest and diseases continue to limit the rice output of the farmers.
(a) The number of both contact and interested farmers continue to
grow. In terms of the target of 20,000 farm families, that is
to be reached, ACRE has exceeded this number.
(b) There is now a two-way communication system established between
research and extension. The role of extension specialist such
as Agronomist have been emphasized. Research is steadily becoming
responsive to the farmers' needs.
(c) There is now a constant release of improved crops and simple
packages on a regular basis to the farms through the Extension
(d) There is a gradual nutritional influence of ACRE among the
families that it is in contact with. However, more evaluation
of this aspect of ACRE needs to be done.
(e) Constant visits and training has been the main stay of ACRE's
extension activities.

The following is a summary of the problems that tend to adversely
influence the extension activities. Some of these relate to the extension field staff and others to the field problems that they face in their agricultural activities.
(a) Problems
i) Extension Staff Support: There is a need for an improvement in the management of the transportation system provided to give the prompt service that is required by the field staff. The conditions of service of the extension staff continue to be a constant source of staff dissatisfaction.
ii) Labour availability on the Farm: Labour shortage due to
rural-urban and other migration results in inadequacy in labour at critical times when the crops need to be protected against pests and other harmful agents.
iii) Marketing of Surplus Perishable Crops: High yielding cro>v sometimes create problems of inadequacy in their marketing e.g. the root and tuber crops. This problem is especially serious with crops that have very short storage life.
iv) Unavailability of Recommended Inputs: The severe scarcity of agro-chemicals including pesticides and fertilizer continue to pose serious problems to Researchers, Extension staff and the farmers.
v) Plant Protection Problems: Pests are becoming the most
serious problems that affect crop production. This range from insects, to crabs, rodents, birds, monkeys and in some cases cattle damage. More research is needed to identify appropriate and acceptable control measure
vi) Expensive Extension Method: It is generally accepted that the Training and Visit (T & V) method of extension as advanced by Daniel Benot and Harrison, is expensive. Inspite of several modifications, it continues to be expensive, possibly due to the following:

- Rigid schedule of work
- Rigid supervision
- Rigid supply of inputs
- Zonal operations
- Individual contact visits and Poor financial control measures
Suggested improvement to the system are the following:
- Farmers' group work is suggested as a remedy.
- The use of locally based multisectoral specialists team (midlevel manpower) in needed fields may help. This may cut on travel expenses posed by the frequent travels of headquarter staff to zones.
- More accountability for use of project resources. Seed
multiplication sites are production centres and should justify (in returns) their existence.
- Use of taped instructions for Els/NIs, SAEOs and Farmers and
a two-way radio would be of immense assistance. Demonstration instructions taped and played to groups on group-leaders will be help ful. One extension instructor in this way will be able to reach many farmers at minimum cost.
vii) Training and Information Generation: There were many more
training sessions than information generated to support or warrant them. This
led to discouragement of farmers and Els. More efforts should be made to focus on urgent field problems in the training attempt. For example, the
pest problem, appropriate tools for certain operations, storage, etc. should
* be focussed on in our research so that the findings become bases for field
training. This will generate trainees' enthusiasm. Areas suggested for
research investigation that will supply information should include the
- Use of organic manure of local origin where possible.
- Better land management of the sloppy uplands.
- Better crop rotation for the upland farms that are now
rapidly declining in soil fertility.
- Identification, of f ctors that contribute towards a farmer' s
success with a view to using these information to influence other farmers in a positive way.

- 66
viii) Top-bottom or Manipulating Approach: One many weakness of
the T & V system is its manipulative tendency or service orientedness.
ACRE Project has made strides in helping farmers solve their owen
problems but mainly in crop production disciplines. Similar attempts need to be made in the areas of program planning, implementation and evaluation.
An old extension saying maintains that "if you give a man a fish he is
provided a meal, but if he is taught how to fish then he get a life-long
Field work planning should begin from farmers and Els. Our reserve
of graduate farmers and the experienced extension instructors can help
the Project to achieve this. A bottom-top approach is recommended instead
of the present system.
(b) Recommendations
* For an effective extension service, the following recommendations
are advanced:
i) Focus on people and groups for an effective extension service.
- An extension service should aim at developing skills and knowledge
in people to make them self-reliant. People should be made to participate in every aspect of the program including planning,
implementation and evaluation.
- Farmers' Advisory Committees should be developed to increase
their commitment and participation in the agricultural production
process. This should include local leaders, contact, graduate
and interested farmers and other rural development personnel.
- Research, extension and farmers should plan and discuss together
* problems and other matters relating to the programme.
ii) Program for graduate and contact farmers and other villagers.
Graduate and contact farmers can be effective teachers of other
Interested farmers through the use of:
- Recorded cassette instructions.
- Conveners of discussion groups.
- Village demonstrations.
- Village group leader development/training.

- Group/Community projects.
- Crop production contestants.
- Seed multipliers.
- Village farmers' laboratory
- Youth/School projects.
iii) ACRE's present extension efforts focus the development of
agricultural production and nutrition skills. A broader educational basis
should be sought to include the development of marketing, leadership and
community skills in farmers.
iv) Technology Generation:
Appropriate material production to backstop training should be
emphasized. The training of trainers (SAEOs) should be commensurate with
the training demands on them. Research/Extension problems like need for
* appropriate maize shelling devices; rodent pest control, potato and cassava
tuber storage should be investigated. Findings of such investigations can
become the trainers' (SAEOs) training information.
v) Material Production Unit
A simple and cheap unit capable of producing presentable extension
handouts that could support field training should be established. This
will help maintain effective information flow between Research and Farmers
through Extension personnel.
vi) Coordination of Extension and Research Activities:
For an effective extension and research, there is a need for:
- different. extension and research activities to be coordinated and closely linked.
- Extension committee at zonal and Headquarter levels should be developed to help strengthen field activities. B ore team work should be encouraged amongst different related projects and institutions such as ACRE, CTC, NUC, RRS, SMP, IADPs, etc. etc.

vii) Dry Season Crop Production:
It is observed that very little crop production occurs during the dry
season in Sierra Leone. During this time disease and pest problems appear
to be minimal. Soil and Nutrient losses due to ruui-off and sipage water are
also very low. Prospects for good crop performance during dry season are
therefore high. The main constraint to dry season production is the lack of
water. It is suggested, therefore, that more efforts be made in this
direction (use of irrigation) for greater move in crop production during
the dry season.
viii) Input Availability:
Fertilizers and agro-chemicals were in short supply in some of the
zones. Efforts should be made at the national level to have them available
to farmers who can afford them. Without these inputs, crop production
* may be significantly reduced.

Patrick J. Squire
Training Officer
Training continues to be a very important part of the ACRE Project's
programme of activities. The main objective of the training provided has
been to improve on the skills and efficiency of project staff for their
continued and effective contribution. The training that has been undertaken
is planned to prcv-szde for the technical, administrative, extension and
research support services.
Presently the Training Officer coordinates the training activities at
all levels. Training of both extension staff and farmers at the 5 zonal
levels is directed by the zonal Senior Extension Officers who act as
trainers and local coordinators. The Training Officer maintains a very
close working relationship with the USAID Training Officer in Freetown and
with the SULSU Training Officer in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. This relationship
is particularly vital where the training is provided outside Sierra Leone.
In terms of support and other costs for training, this is the responsibility between the Government of Sierra Leone and USAID.
*(a) Long-Term Training
The Project document provided for a total of 20 long-term training
participants. Of these 14 were to be trained in the U.S. and 6 in
appropriate African Universities. In the case of all long-term trainees,
the programme is generally at the M.Sc. level. However, in a few instances,
it has involved the training at the Doctoral level.
Table 35 sunminrises the number of long-term training. As can be
seen more people have been trained than was originally planned for. This
has been necessitated by a need for more, better and appropriately trained
staff in the areas of Extension, Research and Technical support services.

TABLE 35: Summary of Long-term Trainees 1982183
INSTITUTION Scheduled for Completed
(Sources) In Training Training Training
(a) ACRE 10 5 1 16
(b) NUC 5 1 2. 8
(c) NANR 1 1
TOTAL 15 6 4 25
(b) Short-Term Training (Outside Sierra Leone)
A sizeable number of staff has benefited from the short-term training provisions of ACRE. Table 36 however, shows that the Senior Cadre of Staff have benefited more than the Junior ACRE staff from short-term training. The short-term training is usually for a period of between 2 and 8 weeks after which the trainee may or may not receive a Certificate depending on the programme.
TABLE 36: Summary of staff and institutions that have benefited from
short-term training.
Extension Instructors ACRE I
Junior Lab. Staff Field Assistant I
Accounts Clerk 1
Senior Staff Full Time It14
Senior Staff Part-time NUC 20
Senior Staff (MANR) MANR 5
(c) Local Training for Extension Staff and Farmers
The following tables (37 and 38) serve to highlight the training of
both the Extension Instructors and the farmers at the zonal level.

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(i) Local Training of Extehsion/Nutrition Instructors
TABLE 37: Training conducted for Instructors at the zonal level
Number of
TYPE OF TRAINING D a t e Participants
Extension In-service Jan. 1982 59*
Extension In-service Jan. 1983 50*
Nutrition Instructors (Induction) July 1983 12
Zonal Orientation March 1982 12*
Instructoss bi-weekly training 1982/1983 12**
Zonal orientation March 1983 12
* Participants from MANR, IADPs, ACRE and others.
** Participants from MANR, IADPs and others not recommended.
(ii) Local Training of Farmers at the Zones.
The training provided for farmers included the following themes:
On-farm demonstration of improved technology and practices and
participation in On-farm research trials and demonstrations.
- Field Days participation and meaning.
- Regional Agricultural Shows and farmers participation.
- Zonal orientation for current season's work.
- Field trips to take part in demonstration of technology.
- Workshops to emphasize current farming problems and possible
The following table serves to highlight the level of farmers participation in the local farmer training programmes.
TABLE 38: Farmers taking part in Training May-October, 1983 NUMBERS OF FARMERS ATTENDING TRAINING SESSIONS TOTAL Z 0 N E May June July Aug. Sept. Oct.
NJala 27 127 21 178 85 438
Rokupr 147 95 44 63 28 65 442
Kenema 62 115 418 522 1,117
Makeni 135 238 601 124 1,098
Kabala 84 76 54 53 67 334
TOTAL 344 321 247 794 1,382 341 3,429
* Records incomplete.

In conclusion, the training aspect of ACRE's activity needs to be
in constant review so as to make it appropriate to the needs of the trainees. This is particularly true of the Extension Staff and the farmers.
Because of the richness of ACRE in terms of diversity in its staff composition it continues to play active role in the training programmes of other Agricultural Institutions. It is hoped that the future direction of the training will include a close collaboration with the new Certificate Training Centre at NUC which has the responsibility of training field extension staff of the MANR. In addition, there will be a need for a National Coordination of Agricultural Training Programmes so that there can be a consolidation of the training experience of all the Agricultural Projects. This will introduce some uniformity and direction into the training for Agricultural Workers throughout Sierra Leone.


Total monthly No. of Relative Lxu-dity Relat-ve humidity Maxi Minimum Total Mean daily
MONTHS Rainfall Rainy 0900 hrs 1500 hrs Tcp iature Temperature SFuthine Sunshine
(mm) day () () (Hr) (r)
January 0.0 0.0 88 32 33.7 17.0 184.2 5.9
February 3.9 2 86 38 26.0 20.6 180.7 6.5
March 47.7 1 83 42 36.3 22.7 157.2 5.1
April 114.2 12 84 53 34.9 22.8 215 7.2
May 259.3 18 90 66 32.9 23.3 189.6 6.1
June 292.6 24 92 76 30.5 22.5 126.1 4.2
July 359.2 27 93 78 29.8 22.4 112.2 3.6
August 500.3 30 94 82 29.1 23.1 59.1 1.9
September 414.6 27 93 76 30.1 22.1 120.2 4.0
October 359.6 23 92 67 31.5 21.5 192.3 6.2
November 37.2 10 92 67 31.7 21.8 162.0 5.4
December' 49.4 1 96 62 31.6 20.4 124.1 4.0
NOTE: The 1st planting season begins in May and the second in late August.

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1. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1981). Proceedings of First Work Programme Conference MAF/NUC/USAID.
2. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1981). Mid-Project Evaluation of the USAID/Sierra Leone Adaptive Crop Research and
Extension (ACRE) 636-0102.
3. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1982). Proceedings of second Work Programme Conference MAF/NUC/USAID.
4. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1983). Proceedings of
Third Work Programme Conference MAF/NUC/USAID.
5. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1983). Baseline Socio-Economic Survey Report of Agriculture in Sierra Leone.
6. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (193). Baseline Agronomic Survey Report of Sierra Leone. MAF/NUC/USAID.
7. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1933). Baseline Appropriate Technology Survey Report MAF/NUC/USAID.
8. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1982/83). Preliminary
Report of 1982 On-Farm Research Trials and Demonstrations
A. B. Gbani.
9. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1983). Report of
1980/81 On-Farm Adaptive Research Trials and Demonstrations
10. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1983). Annual Report
for the period 1981-1982.
11. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1984). Labour
Requirement and Different Crops in Sierra Leone and Economics of
ACRE Technology Packages J.R. Jindia (Consultant Southern
12. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1984). The Adoption
and Differences of Crop Technology by Farmers in the Five ACRE Zones in Sierra Leone. Thomas J. Durant Jr. (PRural Sociology
Consultant) SULSU/ACRE.
13. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension Project (1984). The Role
of Soils Evaluation and Improvement in Sierra Leone J.J. Nicholaldes
Soils Consultant Report North Carolina State University.

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1. No. 1 Planting and Harvesting Dates for some Food Crops in some
Districts in Sierra Leone.
2. No. 2 Cowpea cultivation in Sierra Leone.
3. No. 3 Some cowpea recipes.
4. No. 4 General fertilizer recommendations.
5. No. 5 Guide to growing sweet potato (ROPOT II).
1. ACRE Project (1982). A joint USAID/Sierra Leone Project.
2. ACRE Project (1982). Join ACRE Project and Grow more Food Crops.
3. ACRE Project (1984). Facts about ACRE Project's Services to Farmers
4. CERES (FAO Review on Agriculture and Development), 1984.
"Sierra Leone finds new enthusiasm for sweet potato"N 100
(Vol. 17, No. 4) July-August, 1984.
5. Adaptive Crop Research and Extension (1984). ACRE Project Training
Programmes by Training Officer.

1. Augustin, J. (1983). The ACRE Project Nutrition Component. ACRE
Project MAF/NUC/USAID, Njala.
2. Durant, T. (1983). Diffusion of Adaptive Crop Research and Extension
in Sierra Leone some empirical evidence and guidance
for research. ACRE Project MAF/NUC/USAID, Njala.
3. Peters, L.U. (1983). Maize Breeding Programme of ACRE Project.
ACRE Project, MAF/NUC/USAID, Njala.
4. Sevenhuysen, G.P. (1983). Review of Nutrition Extension in ACRE
Project. ACRE Project MAF/NUC/USAID, Njala.

(a) Accounts
(b) Estate
(c) Administration
I & (a) Agronomists (a) Sxtension
ASSISTANTS (b) Nutritionists Officer
(b) PART-TIME (c) Soclo-econo- (b) Instructo
RESEARCHERS mic etc. (c) Support
(c) STATION Staff

Terms of Reference:
- Analyse the implications of national level policy and make
decisions-with respect to the Implementation of the project.
- Ensure adequate levels of on-going technical, logistical and
budgetary support.
- Review progress, work plan and any important problems on
policy issues.
Permanent Secretary MANR Co-Chairman
Principal NUC Co-Chairman
Agric. Advisor U.P. Office Member
Development Secretary MDEC Member
Permanent Secretary MTI Member
Financial Secretary M.F. Member
Permanent Secretary M.Ed. Member
Co-opted Members
Chief Agriculturist MANR
Director (Rice Research Station) RRS O(ANR)
Dean of Agriculture NUC
Director ACRE
Research Coordinator ACRE
Extension Coordinator ACRE
Extension Agronomist ACRE
Accountant ACRE
Estate Engineer ACRE
General Manager SLPMB
Chief of Party USAID Leader ACRE
AID Affairs Officer USAID
Agric. Development Officer USAID
Administrative Officer (in Attendance)ACRE

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Terms of Reference
- Provide advice on Technical Matters.
- Co-ordinate ACRE's Research and Extension Activities.
Director, ACRE (Chairman)
Research Coordinator Member
Extension Coordinator Member
SULSU Technical Staff Member
Heads of Section Members
All Part-Time Scientific Staff
NUC/RRS Members
Dean of Agriculture, NUC Member
Administrative Officer Secretary.

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Terms of Reference
- To consider and recommend food crops research proposal that
requires ACRE's support in terms of funds and logistics.
- At the request of local as well as international Agencies, provide
advice on the soundness, reliance and other considerations of research proposals that they may be interested in supporting.
- To prepare a list of areas that need research investigation.
This must be in line with the Government's priorities in terms
of agricultural development.
Research Co-ordinator, ACRE (Chairman)
Chief Agriculturist (MANR) Member
Agric. Development Officer, USAID Member
Director, ACRE Member
Extension Co-ordinator, ACRE Member
Dean of Agriculture, NUC Member
Leaders of ACRE Crop Working Groups Members
Director, RRS, Rokupr Member
AID Affairs Officer, USAID Member
Head of PEMSU Member
Other coopted Specialists/Administrators as deemed desirable and
relevant to the type of research proposal that is being considered.

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W. E. Taylor Ph.D. (Director) Full Time Plant Protection Pests
E. R. Rhodes Ph.D. (Res. Coor) Full Time Soil Fertility
M. T. Dahniya Ph.D. Part-Time Root and Tuber
J.B. George Ph.D. Horticulture
D. Amara Ph.D. Soil Microbiology
C. T. Pyne M.Sc. Plant Pathology
R. E. Mondeh Ph.D. Plant Breeding
A. Sesay Ph.D. Legume Physiology
A. Gbani Ph.D. Biometrics.
T.J. Lappia Ph.D. Agricultural Economics.
I.S. Barrie M.Sc. Agricultural Economics
H. Turay Ph.D. Rural Sociology
N.G. Kuyembeh M.Sc. Agricultural Engineering
A. Koroma Dip. Agric. Eng. Agricultural Engineering
A. Ndoleh M.Sc. Vegetable Crops
J. Roberts (Mrs) B.Sc. Data Processing
W. Sannoh Ph.D. Analytical Chemistry
B.M.S. Turay M.Sc. Taxonomist/Weed Scientist
S. Smith (Mrs) M.Sc. Nutrition (Home Economics)
F. Dahniya (Mrs) M.Sc. Nutrition (Home Economics)
S. Gbani (Mrs.) Dip. Nutrition (Home Economics)
E. Tucker* M.Sc. Rice Agronomy
A.N.T. Deen B.Sc. Library Science
* Full time employment with Rice Research Station, Rokupr.

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E. Kpolie (Mrs)* B. Sc. Res. Assist. Vocational Home Economics
D. Kamara* B.Sc. Agric. Economics
T,R.A. Winneba* B.Sc. Rural Sociology
K. Sesay* B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering
D.S. Fornah* B.Sc. Agricultural Extension
M.J. Tucker* B.Sc. Crops
J. Tarawalli* B.Sc. Crops
P. Sawyerr* B.Sc. Soils
* = All are training positions.
E.J. Mammy Dip. Extn. Ext. Coord. MAF/Seconded
J. Squire B.Sc. Extn. Agron. MAF/Seconded
P. James B.Sc. Snr. Extn.
Officer Direct Recruitment
S.S. Kassibo B.Sc. MAP/Seconded
M. James B.Sc. Direct Recruitment
F. Ngebeh B.Sc. MAF/Seconded
J. John B.Sc. Direct Recruitment
L. Corneh (Mrs) B.Sc. Nutrition/
Comm. Devel. Direct Recruitment Officer

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Al Agard (Jr.) Ph.D. Extension Agronomist
R. L. Beacher Ph.D. Tropical Soils Scientist
D.F. Tuthill** Ph.D Agric. Economics
J. Henshaw **- Ph.D. Crops
V. Hall M.Sc. (Administration
Chief of Party).
** Positions now vacant due to end of contract.