Salinity control and reclamation project. Project no. 1

Material Information

Salinity control and reclamation project. Project no. 1
Series Title:
Completion report
West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority.
Place of Publication:
Denver; Pakistan
Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- Pakistan -- West Pakistan


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Full Text
Dr. P. E, ITLDEBRAND Chitf Economist

West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority Lahore, Pakistan
Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.
Denver, Colorado Lahore, Pakistan
December 1962

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March 5, 1963 TPERU LIMA
Mr. Ghulam Ishaq, Chairman
West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority Sunny View Estate
Kashmir Road
Lahore, Pakistan
Dear Chairman:
We are transmitting herewith a Completion Report on Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One. This report is intended to provide a permanent record of the construction of the tubewell features of the project, which were substantially completed in 1962. It is understood that a separate report covering the electric features of the project will be prepared by Miner & Miner International, Inc. when those works have been substantially completed. We believe that the material contained in this report, together with the individual tubewell data sheets covering each of the 1796 tubewells constructed under the auspices of the Authority, which are on file in the offices of the Ground Water and Reclamation Division, will provide all the information that anyone may seek in the future concerning the tubewells of Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One.
The accompanying report contains a resume of the background leading to the conception and implementation of the project, a description of the tubewell features of the project as constructed, and a history of the construction carried out by WAPDA and that carried out under contract. At the back of the report there are several appendices containing statistical data and other information of interest. One appendix contains a summary of the experience gained in the construction of Project No. One. It is hoped that this material will be of value in connection with planning and executing future reclamation schemes.
Sincerely yours,

Frontispiece Indus Basin Map . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION . . . . ... . . . . . . . I
BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Conception and Planning . . . . . . . . 4
External Financing . . . . . . . . . 6
Technical Appraisal of the Project . . . . . . f 6
Target, Programs and Estimates . . . . . . 8
ENGINEERS OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . 12
PROJECT WORKS . . . . . . . . . . . 17
CONSTRUCTION HISTORY . . . . . . . . . 28
General 28
CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . 33
General 33
Organization and Plant . . . . . . . . . 34
Permanent Equipment . . . . . . . . 39
Construction Methods . . . . . . . . . 40
Construction Progress . . . . . . . . 42
Gravel Processing and Transportation . . . . 43
Pipe Slotting . . . . . . . . . . 45
Site Preparation . . . . . . . . . 45
Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Development and Testing . . . . . . . 47
Concreting . . . . . . . . . . 48
Equipment Installation, Testing and Cleanup . . . 49
Overall Progress . . . . . . . . . . 50
WAPDA CONSTRUCTION - I . . . . . . . . . 52
General .. 52
Organization and Plant . . . . . . . . . 54
Permanent Equipment . . . . . . . . . 57
Construction Methods . . . . . . I . . 57
Construction Progress . . . . . . . . . 60
Overall Progress . . . . . . I . I I 63

OPERATION OF THE PROJECT ...................70
Motor Failures........................71
Tubewell Incrustation.....................74
Number Title
A Development Loan Fund Agreement DLF No. 25
B Organizations and Key Personnel
C Summaries of Tenders, Change Orders and
Related Matters
D A Review of Project No. One

1. Preliminary Estimate of Cost of 1800 Tubewells and Appurtenant Power Facilities ..... ................ 9
2. Target Estimate of Cost of 1800 Tubewells (Abstracted from estimate prepared in August 1960) ..... .. 10
3. Distribution of Engineering Activities by Principal Functions ......... ........................ 14
4. Numbers of Tubewells and Construction Methods ... ...... z1
5. Characteristics of Tubewells Part I ..... ........... 2z
6. Characteristics of Tubewells Part II ..... ........... 23
7. Characteristics of Tubewells Part III ..... ........... 24
8. Project Areas ........... ...................... 26
9. Water Supplies ........... ..................... 27
10. Summary of Personnel Employed by Contractor ......... .. 35
11. Estimated Construction Cost of Base Camp provided by
Contractor near Sukheki ...... ................. 36
12. Principal Items of Construction Equipment used by
Contractor ......... ....................... 37
13. Principal Items of Construction Equipment used by
WAPDA forces ........ ..................... 56
14. Summary of Permanent Equipment and Materials
Installed in WAPDA Constructed Tubewells ........... .. 58
15. Summary of Expenditures ...... ................. .. 65
16. Comparison of Estimate and Final Cost .. .......... 66
17. Cost of Tubewells Constructed under Contract and by
WAPDA .......... ......................... 68
18. Summary of Disbursements under DLF Loan No. 25 ..... .. 69

Number Title Page
Map of Indus Basin Frontispiece
1 Project Area 5
2 Organization of WAPDA and the Engineer 13
3. Typical Tubewell Installation 17
4. Typical Discharge Box 19
5. Typical Pumphouse 19
6. Typical Operator's Quarters 19
7. Tubewell Data Sheet 24
8. Construction Program 32
9. Construction Progress 32
10. Contractor's Camp 35
11. Progress of Contract Construction 49
12. Progress of WAPDA Construction 49

West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority
Salinity Control and Reclamation Project PROJECT NO. ONE
December 1962
Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One consists of
approximately 1800 tubewells and their appurtenant electric supply facilities which have been provided by the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority to improve drainage conditions and permit reclamation of about 1. Z million acres of waterlogged and saline lands in the Central portion of Rechna Doab in West Pakistan. The construction of these works was initiated in 1959, and, with the exception of certain features of the electric power supply systems, was substantially completed in 1962. This report has been prepared to provide a permanent record of the history of the construction of the tubewell features of the project, the manner in which the work was carried out, its cost, and other relevant information which may be of interest to those seeking information concerning the project in the future. This history of the construction of the project has been purposely made as brief as possible in the belief that those seeking detail information regarding specific features of the works constructed will want to refer to the more comprehensive reports and record data referred to hereinafter which are on file in the offices of the Groundwater and Reclamation Division of the Authority.
For purposes of general orientation the background leading to the
conception and implementation of the project is first discussed. This section of the report describes also the manner in which the foreign exchange portion of the cost of the project was financed as well as the evolution of the plans and programs developed from time to time for carrying out the construction of the project features and the engineering work in connection therewith. The background information is followed by a description of the works constructed and a history of the tubewell construction, including under separate categories the works constructed primarily by the Authority's own forces and those constructed under contracts by others. There then follows a section covering the cost of the works and a number of appendices containing tables of statistical information summarizing the works constructed. Some of the information contained in these tables, as well as the parameters which have been derived therefrom, may be useful in connection with the planning of similar projects in the future. All of the information contained in this Completion Report pertains exclusively to the tubewell features of the project, it being planned that a similar report covering the electric power supply features will be prepared by others when that work has been substantially completed.

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As noted above, the reader seeking more detail information on specific subjects than is contained in this Completion Report may find it useful to refer to certain other documents and data, the more important of which are listed under various categories of subjects below:
Subjects Source Material
History of reclamation in The basic Project Report prepared by
West Pakistan, conception the West Pakistan Water and Power
of the project, basic design Development Authority in January 1959
of project features, original entitled, "Project No. One Salinity
program and estimates of Control Program in West Pakistan"
cost, and analysis of project consisting of one volume of text and a
feasibility. separate folio of plates and maps.
Supplemental information "A Review of Project No. One Salinity
relating primarily to techni- Control Program in West Pakistan"
cal aspects of the project, by Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc., dated
its program, cost and June 1959.
Detail analysis of ground Supplement to the above review report water hydrology prepared by Dr. C. E. Jacob, Groundwater Consultant, consisting of
Volume I, Text, and Volume II Appendices, dated December 1960.
Financing Various documents prepared for submission to the Government by the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority, and the Loan Agreement between the Government of Pakistan and the Development Loan Fund, the pertinent portions of which appear in one of the appendices to this report.
Details of typical tubewell The "Construction Specifications and
construction Drawings" prepared by Tipton and
Kalmbach, Inc., in June 1959, with subsequent revisions and addenda.
Construction programs Periodic Progress Reports Nos. I
and details of construction through 42 inclusive, submitted to the
progress Authority by Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.,
covering the period from March 1959 through November 1962.

Detail characteristics of Tubewell data sheets containing the
individual tubewells information shown by the sample data
sheet included herein as Figure No.
These data are assembled in files
which list each tubewell under each of the eight scheme areas which form
the project constructed under the
auspices of the Authority.
While the files of the Ground Water and Reclamation Division of the Authority contain voluminous additional memoranda and correspondence relating to the project, it is believed that the information contained in the above documents and the summaries contained in this Completion Report will supply most of the information others may seek in the future concerning the project and its construction. In this connection, it should be noted that, while this document is called a "Completion Report, a project composed of some 1800 individual tubewells is in a true sense never fully completed. As of this date, the operating equipment has not been installed in some of the tubewells within a saline water zone of one of the reclamation schemes pending resolution of the best manner of utilizing and disposing of saline ground water in this area. Many of the tubewells which ultimately will require multi-stage pumping units as the water table descends have only one or two stages installed as a part of the initial construction. Thus in effect the project will be more or less continually modified by the installation of additional pump stages and other work which will be carried out from time to time as required in the future. It is planned that a continuous record of the addition of pump stages and other modifications made from time to time during the course of its operation of the project will be maintained on the tubewell data sheets referred to above.
One other caution should be noted for the reader who has occasion
to refer to the cost data contained in this report. While these data represent approximately the actual costs of the works constructed, a portion of such costs consists of estimates of the cost of completing certain works which are still underway at the writing of this report, as well as works that have been completed but for which final accounts have not yet been fully liquidated. Thus the estimates, while believed to be realistic in an engineering sense, are not to be construed as representing audited amounts. Further, certain construction equipment and other materials and supplies used in the project were derived from stores which existed in Pakistan at the outset of the work, or were made available from sources such as the Colombo Plan, for which no detail information on original costs or value at time of incorporation in the project are available. For this reason some of the cost data contained herein should not be construed as representing valid parameters of cost of similar tubewell projects to be constructed under future programs.

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Conception and Planning
From the time the first of the large canal systems which supply water for irrigation of vast areas of lands of the former Punjab in West Pakistan was constructed more than 60 years ago, groundwater tables in areas under irrigation have been steadily rising. The gradual rise in water table, caused principally by leakage from canals and deep percolation of water applied for irrigation, had no particularly adverse effect during the early years when water tables were at depths varying up to 80 to 90 feet below the ground surface. Nevertheless the Government recognized that inevitably it would be necessary to take measures to provide adequate drainage for lands under irrigation when it created a Drainage Board in 1917 to study the problem and devise remedial measures. With the passing of time, salinization of lands was also taking place, due primarily to the fact that the river supplies available for irrigation were spread so thinly over such large areas of land that very little water remained to leach salts downward beyond the root zone of the crops. This condition was accentuated in some areas because of salts originally contained in the arid climate soils and more significantly during the past two decades as a direct consequence of waterlogging as evaporation from the rising water table took place leaving continually increasing accumulations of salt in.the surface soils. Thus the problem, which by the late 1930's and early 1940's had affected several million acres of land, and was continuing to spread at an alarming rate, required not only the providing of drainage works but also a means of reclaiming lands which had gone out of production. It was apparent that virtually all of the irrigated lands of West Pakistan would inevitably suffer the same fate unless drastic measures were taken.
The original Drainage Board was followed by a succession of
similar Committees and Boards, each progressively vested with more powers and responsibilities, culminating with the creation of the Soil Reclamation Board in 1952. While much work of value was carried out by the Soil Reclamation Board and its predecessors in the collection of data and carrying out remedial measures in isolated areas, the effectiveness of early attempts at reclamation were hindered to various degrees because of lack of sufficient resources and sufficient technical data regarding the nature of the problem and feasible means of its solution. Accordingly, in 1954 the Irrigation Branch of the Public Works Department with the assistance of the former International Cooperation Administration (ICA) initiated a comprehensive investigation of ground water, waterlogging and salinity in the former Punjab area.

It was out of the investigations carried out by the above group that the project later to be known as Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One was conceived. No entity existed, however, with the powers and resources necessary to undertake such a major undertaking until creation of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority in October 1958. One of the first acts of the Authority was to create a Ground Water and Reclamation Division into which were integrated the Irrigation Department representatives which, with the assistance of the ICA, had been carrying out comprehensive investigations of the problem in the former Punjab area. This group immediately undertook the completion of the investigations of the first phase of the reclamation program entrusted to the Authority, which culminated in the publication of a report in January 1959 entitled, "Project No. One, Salinity Control Program in West Pakistan. The implementation of this project was linked with two other projects then under construction, these being the West Pakistan High Tension Grid, linking major power generation facilities of the north-western part of the province and the West Pakistan Secondary Transmission Project for the distribution of electric energy to secondary grid sub-stations in the area encompassed by Project No. One.
The project as envisioned at the time the Project Report was
prepared embodied a total of Z24Z tubewells, consisting of Z083 tubewells within an area of 1.37 million acres in the Central portion of Rechna Doab and a smaller scheme of 159 tubewells to benefit an area of 0. 2 million acres in Chaj Doab. Figure 1 shows the thirteen scheme areas forming the project described in the Project Report. Of the 2083 tubewells in Rechna Doab, 195 tubewells had been provided within four of the scheme areas of the Central Rechna Doab project by the Irrigation Department prior to 1959. The remaining Z047 new tubewells were estimated to cost approximately 67. 8 million rupees, exclusive of the cost of power supply facilities, of which approximately 29. 3 million rupees (6. 1 million dollars) were estimated to represent expenditures in foreign exchange. It was proposed at the time the report was published that 1200 to 1400 of the new tubewells would be constructed through departmental agencies by the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority and that the balance of 600 to 800 tubewells would be constructed by tubewell contractors under contract with the Authority.
As described in greater detail later, the project as actually
constructed consists of approximately 1800 tubewells with their appurtenant electric power supply facilities, all of which are situated within the 8 scheme areas in Rechna Doab shown in green on Figure 1 which, together with the 195 tubewells constructed by the Irrigation Department, form what is now designated as Project No. One in Central Rechna Doab. The balance of the tubewells embodied in the project described in the Project Report comprise those situated in the Lalian area of Chaj Doab, the construction of which is currently being undertaken by the Authority under a barter arrangement between the Governments of Pakistan and Yugoslavia.

External Financing
On the basis of the presentation contained in the Project Report, the Authority initiated negotiations early in 1959 to secure a loan from the Development Loan Fund (DLF) of Washington, D.C. These negotiations were culminated with the signing of a Loan Agreement on February 18, 1959, between the Authority as the Borrower, the Government of Pakistan as the Guarantor, and the Development Loan Fund. This loan in the amount of 15. 2 million dollars was to cover expenditures in foreign currencies for equipment, materials and services required for construction of the project. This amount was intended to cover the foreign currency cost of both the tubewell features and the power supply features of the projects, but the Loan Agreement itself does not specifically divide the total amount of the loan between the two categories of works. It restricted the use of funds to the costs of procurement, importation and installation of equipment, materials and services from so-called "free world" sources other than Pakistan. The loan is repayable over a period of ZO years with interest at 3. 5 per cent.
For convenience of reference, certain of the technical provisions and other sections of interest of the Loan Agreement are presented in abstract form in Appendix A. Soon after the Loan Agreement was perfected, the Authority retained Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc. referred to herein as the Engineer, as engineering consultants in connection with the tubewell program, under an agreement dated March 5, 1959.
Technical Appraisal of the Project
One of the first actions undertaken by the Engineer was to carry out a new technical review and appraisal of the project which had been conceived by the Groundwater and Reclamation Division of the Authority. This review had the two-fold purpose of providing an independent appraisal of the technical feasibility of the undertaking as well as affording a means of familiarizing the engineering organization that would technically supervise the project on behalf of the Authority with the program and the prior investigations carried out by others. To carry out this review the Engineer sent a mission to West Pakistan composed of specialists in groundwater hydrology, geology, electric transmission and other fields. The members of the mission spent approximately two weeks in West Pakistan discussing the program with WAPDA officials, visiting the project areas, and reviewing the Project Report and much of the background data that had been obtained through earlier studies made by the Irrigation Department, ICA and others. The results of the technical review of the program are embodied in a report entitled, "A Review of Project No. One Salinity Control in West Pakistan, dated June 1959. In all of its major aspects this review endorsed the program which had been conceived and developed by the Groundwater and

Reclamation Division of the Authority. It found that the basic concept of the project, including the overall layout of the tubewells, their total number and locations, and the capacities of individual tubewells, was logically determined to provide the most economic facilities for the purposes intended. It confirmed the suitability of the design of the tubewells, the technical and economic feasibility of the undertaking, and its justification. Only a few relatively minor modifications in the program and its various' works were suggested as a result of the independent appraisal of the project, one being the recommendation that the turbine pumps be set at somewhat lower levels in the tubewells to permit unwatering of the aquifer to greater depths, thereby improving drainage conditions as well as exploiting a greater volume of ground water in storage. This modification was subsequently incorporated in the design of the tubewell features.
During the course of the review it was concluded that the foreign currency expenditures required to construct all of the 2047 new tubewells envisioned in the Project Report would likely exceed the amount of the Loan Agreement. On the other hand, the estimate prepared at that time did not take into account the then unknown amount of equipment and materials, particularly electrical supplies such as transformers, conductors, etc. available in various stores within the country and available for use in the construction of the project. It was therefore planned that as soon as an inventory of stores available within the country could be obtained and when sufficient data were available upon which to predicate more accurate estimates, the scope of the works to be constructed would be adjusted as necessary to stay within the limits of the foreign currency funds available under DLF Loan No. 25. As described in the section on cost, it developed that with the greatest possible utilization of existing stores and certain equipment and supplies derived through the Colombo Plan as well as the procurement of a substantial number of pumps and other equipment from sources within West Pakistan, it was possible to construct approximately 1800 tubewells with their power supply facilities. This corresponds to the scope of the project as set forth in the Loan Agreement between the Authority and the Development Loan Fund.
Of interest in connection with the technical appraisal of the project is the fact that Section 4. 07 of the Loan Agreement (set forth in full in Appendix A) required the Borrower to furnish to the DLF evidence that the project would be capable of accomplishing its intended objectives before the whole of the project was completed. This condition was originally interpreted as requiring that no more than about 400 tubewells be constructed and placed in operation and the results of their operation ascertained prior to undertaking the construction of the remaining approximately 1400 tubewells. This condition was totally incompatible with the technical requirement that a large number of tubewells situated over a large area must be operated for an appreciable period of time before any marked improvement in drainage and reclamation of saline lands can be achieved. Upon

recommendations of the Engineer, WAPDA undertook to have this requirement of the Loan Agreement waived on the grounds that the entire program would be jeopardized and its cost increased considerably if it were required to be carried out under separate phases with a longer intervening period to appraise the results of the first stage. This waiver was granted by the DLF and the beneficial results that have been attained over the relatively short period since a significant number of the tubewells have been in operation provide ample assurance that the objectives sought by construction of the project are attainable.
Target Programs and Estimates
Under the program described in the basic Project Report it was
planned to take steps early in 1959 to accelerate the pace at which tubewells were being constructed by WAPDA forces, to award a contract or contracts for the construction of 600 to 800 tubewells by May 1959 and to complete all construction by the end of 1960. During the course of the technical review of the project it was realized that this program was too optimistic and a new program was prepared based on the best information available at that time. This program envisioned that up to 1000 tubewells would be constructed under contract, with the balance being constructed by WAPDA forces, and that the program would be so scheduled as to substantially complete all tubewell construction prior to the monsoon season of 1961 or by the end of June of that year. This was considered to be a desirable target to be achieved if possible but, as noted in the review report, to meet such a program would require the construction of tubewells at a rate greater than had ever been accomplished on a similar scale before. As it developed, those tubewells which were constructed under contract totaling 1014 were completed in essential conformity to this target program. The balance of 775 tubewells constructed by WAPDA forces required much longer to complete and, while as of this date the tubewell features of the entire project are substantially complete, certain of the sub-stations and other features of the electric power supply facilities will not be completed till mid-1963. Notwithstanding the fact that various portions of the work suffered numerous delays for reasons that are set forth in more detail under the discussion of history of construction, it is still considered that the completion of a project embodying approximately 1800 tubewells spread over an area of some 1900 square miles within an approximately 4-year period from the date of the Loan Agreement was a remarkable undertaking. Various charts and tables included under the section on history of construction portray the progress actually achieved in completion of the tubewell features of the project.
As noted earlier, the estimate of cost prepared at the time the review report was made did not take into account certain equipment and supplies available in the country that might be utilized in the construction of the project. In September 1959 revised estimates of cost were prepared,

taking into account the availability of those existing stores as well as other items of equipment which it was believed might possibly be procured in local currencies. On the basis of those estimates it was estimated that it would be possible to construct, within the limit of foreign currency funds available under DLF Loan No. 25, approximately 1800 tubewells with their appurtenant power facilities. A resume of the estimated cost of the program made at that time is indicated below:
Table No. 1
Preliminary Estimate of Cost
of 1, 800 Tubewells and Appurtenant Power Facilities (all values in millions)
Foreign Local Total in
Currency Currency Equivalent (Dollars) (Rupees) Rupees
Cost of 1,800 tubewells 11.79 33.90 90.02
Cost of power facilities 7.72 23.17 59.91
Sub Total 19.51 57.07 149.93
Adjustments for tubewell and
electric stores -4.31 20.51 -0Total Estimated Cost 15.20 77.58 149.93
In August 1960 after all major contracts for the construction of tubewells had been awarded, and orders had been placed for most of the construction equipment and other facilities required for the WAPDA construction operations, a comprehensive re-appraisal of the status of tubewell construction. was undertaken and new target programs as well as revised estimates of cost were developed. At that time the target date. for the completion of all project features was extended to the end of 1961. The earlier estimate of cost was modified slightly to reflect a re-apportionment of the total cost between the tubewell and the electrical facilities and between foreign and local currency expenditures. The estimate of cost of the project prepared at that time is summarized in Table No. 2.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 2
Target Estimate of Cost of 1800 Tubewells
(Abstracted from estimate prepared in August 1960)
Estimated Cost
Foreign Local Total in
Item Currency Currency Equivalent
No. Description $ U.S. Rupees Rupees
1. Construction by Contract
(a) Contract No. 1 (600 tubewells) 4,100,000 6,100,000 25,616,000 (b) Contract No. 2 (400 tubewells) 2,600,000 3,700,000 16,076,000
(c) Subtotal Contract Construction 6,700,000 9,800,000 41, 692, 000
2. Construction by WAPDA (800 tubewells)
(a) Construction Equipment 510,000 5, 100,000 7,527,600
(b) Permanent Equipment
(1) Casing pipe 52,000 6,500,000 6,747,520
(2) Pumps, motors & controls 163,000 8,200,000 8,975,880
(c) Construction 0 8,000,000 8,000,000
(d) Subtotal WAPDA Construction 725,000 27, 800, 000 31, 251, 000
3. Appurtenant Facilities by WAPDA
(a) Pumphouses (1800) 0 2,700,000" 2,760,000
(b) Operators Quarters (450) 0 2, 025,000 2, 025,000
(c) Camps and Shops 0 375,000 375,000
(d) Subtotal Appurtenant Facilities 0 5, 100,000 5, 100,000
4. Contingencies 75,000 1,500,000 1,857,000
5. Construction Cost (1800 tubewells) 7,500,000 44, 200,000 79,900,000
6. Administration and Engineering
(a) WAPDA Administration 0 2, 025,000 2, 025,000
(b) Accounting and Auditing 0 730,000 730,000
(c) Office Equipment 0 300,000 300,000
(d) Engineering 1,450,000 2,245,000 9,147,000
(e) Subtotal Administration and
Engineering 1,450,000 5,300,000 1Z, 202,000
7. Total Estimated Cost of 1800
Tubewells 8, 950,000 49,500,000 9Z, 102, 000
8. Power Facilities 6, 250,000 22, 500,000 52, 250,000
9. Total Estimated Cost 15, Z00,000 72,000,000 144, 352, 000

The estimates and programs prepared in August of 1960 represent the last revisions of programs and estimates made during the course of the construction of the project and are included herein as a basis for comparison with actual costs of the work and progress attained.
The balance of this report describes under separate chapters a
resume of the Engineer's operations, the tubewell features of the project as constructed, and a history of the construction of the tubewell features. The latter section is sub-divided into the work constructed under contract and that constructed by WAPDA. There then follows a resume of the cost of the project works and a section on the operation of the project in which is discussed the procedures for turning over the completed tubewells to the operating agency and initial difficulties encountered in placing the tubewells in operation. At the end of the report, in appendices, are additional details of the DLF Loan Agreement, lists of key personnel from WAPDA, the Engineer and the Contractor, summaries of change orders and related matters, and a commentary review of the project.

G. W.R. D. -- - -I
forces not indicated. 000 CERKS00ASITNS0CIIENIER0CVLEGNER00LCRCL

As originally visualized and as set forth in the agreement with the Authority dated March 5, 1959, the functions of the Engineer were to be primarily of a technical nature in the development of detail plans and specifications for the work and technical supervision of the construction. In brief the Engineer's functions as set forth in the mentioned agreement comprise:
1. A review and appraisal of the technical and economic
feasibility of the proposed project.
2. The development of detail plans and specifications for
the construction of tubewells, and for the equipment and
materials to be incorporated in the permanent works, and
assistance to the Authority in the calling for tenders and award of contracts for the construction of tubewells and
procurement of equipment.
3. The technical supervision and inspection of all construction
work including, where necessary, the inspection by the
Engineer, or through others, of the shop manufacture of
equipment and materials incorporated in the work.
As it developed, the Engineer was also called upon to furnish a
number of construction specialists to assist in the direction of construction work unde *rtaken by WAPDA's forces and in the training of those forces in tubewell construction. Thus, in addition to purely engineering functions, the Engineer's operations were intimately tied to and made a part of the construction operations undertaken by WAPDA. This aspect of the Engineer's operations should be recognized in appraising the costs incurred under the heading of "Engineering."1 While under the section on cost, an attempt has been made to allocate approximately that portion of the expenditures incurred by the Engineer which pertains to true engineering functions and those which pertain to construction and other non-technical operations, no distinction was made in the accounts of engineering expenditures betwen these two phases during the course of the work.
Under the original Agreement with the Authority, it was planned
that the Engineer would perform all engineering work in connection with the electric power supply facilities as well as for the tubewell features, although it was agreed that, if deemed desirable, the Engineer would retain a competent engineering firm to design the secondary transmission system. For this purpose the Engineer retained the electrical engineering firm of Miner & Miner, Inc. of Greeley, Colorado, in July 1959. This

- 13
firm was assigned the task of carrying out all of the functions described above relating to the electric power supply features of the project. Shortly thereafter Miner & Miner, Inc. entered into separate agreements directly with the Authority covering engineering services in connection with the Secondary Grid System and the Village Electrification Program. In order to consolidate all of the electrical engineering activities under one operation, it was concluded desirable by all concerned that the work being done by Miner & Miner, Inc., on the tubewell electrification work should be carried out under a separate contract directly with the Authority. This was accordingly accomplished with the Engineer retaining a general supervisory function with respect to the electrification work under a Tripartite Agreement between the Engineer, the Authority and Miner & Miner, Inc., dated August 4, 1959.
Because of the separation of the electrical work from the tubewell
features in the manner described above, this report covers only the hi story of construction and engineering work related to the tubewell features of the project. It is planned that a similar report covering the electric features of the project will be prepared by Miner & Miner, Inc. when those works have been substantially completed.
The engineering staff resident in Pakistan carrying out the functions described above consisted of two groups; (1) the expatriate staff employed directly by the Engineer, and (2) the Pakistani staff, the bulk of which were employed directly by the Authority and deputed to work under the direction of the Engineer. Except for certain administrative and payroll matters, these two groups operated as a single organization.
Figure 2 portrays graphically the general form of the engineering organization and its principal sub-divisions. The chart on the figure portrays graphically the number of expatriate personnel engaged on each of the major functional divisions of the work during the course of the project's construction. While this chart shows only the distribution of expatriate personnel, the Pakistani side of the engineering organization was, insofar as engineering activities are concerned, distributed in about the same proportions as those indicated throughout the course of the work. It may be noted that up to about mid-1961, the expatriate personnel in the Engineer's organization were about equally divided between engineering functions related to the super-vision of construction and non-technical functions related to the construction undertaken by WAPDA forces. During the entire course of the work the man-months of work by expatriate personnel were distributed among various operations and in approximately the following percentages:

- 14
Table No. 3
Distribution of Engineering Activities by Principal Functions
Percentage of Total Time
Function of Expatriate Personnel
Administration, including
ac counting 18.4
Engineering, including
siting of tubewells 15.1
Construction supervision 26.0
Subtotal technical functions 59. 5
Construction operations 28. 2
Support operations (supply and
motor pool) 12.3
Subtotal non-technical functions 40.5
Total 100.0
Appendix B contains a list of some of the key personnel employed
by WAPDA and the Engineer during the course of construction of the project.
The engineering organization resident in Pakistan under the charge of the Project Engineer was responsible, under the general direction of the Denver office of the Engineer, for all engineering work in connection with the project. The Denver office was called upon to assist in preparation of detail plans and specifications, for special technical studies, liaison with the Development Loan Fund, and for assistance in review of tenders and other similar technical matters. It also carried out the inspection of pumps furnished by the Contractor for the work under contract which were produced at the Worthington Plant in Denver, Colorado. Under separate arrangements the Robert W. Hunt Company of Chicago, Illinois, was called upon to inspect certain equipment and materials supplied for the work by the construction contractor as well as by the suppliers of certain equipment for work constructed by WAPDA forces.
In the field the engineering organization performed the usual engineering functions including the laying out of the tubewell site and inspection of all construction work. On the work performed under contract inspection of drilling operations was carried out from the start of drilling until the approval of the final verticality and bailing of the hole to consolidate the gravel shroud. Three or four inspectors, depending upon the availability of personnel, were assigned to each drill rig. Geologists and assistant geologists were generally used for this work, but when 6 rigs

- 15
were operating it was necessary to use civil engineers as inspectors on drilling operations. The inspectors supervised the taking of samples, and prepared a lithologic log; they instructed the drillers the depth to which the hole should be drilled; they prepared a pipe tally sheet which listed the lengths of the joints of the various types of pipe at site. With the help of one of the Engineer's expatriate staff, the inspector inspected and interpreted the electric log for anamolous features, and by use of the lithologic log, the electric log, and the formation samples, prepared a casing schedule. This casing schedule was given to the driller and he ran the casing according to the casing schedule. During the running of the casing the inspector checked the welds, and saw that the casing was run according to the casing schedule. The inspector passed upon the gravel and also checked and passed on the verticality of the pump housing casing.
The development of the tubewell, under the terms of the Contracts, was the responsibility of the Contractor and was not, as a rule, witnessed by the inspection staff. Spot checks of tubewell development were made by the expatriate staff of the Engineer to insure that proper development procedures were being used.. Testing of the tubewell was witnessed by, and done under, the supervision of the inspectors.
Two Pakistani civil engineers were used to inspect the concrete
construction work. At times during the progress of the work the concrete inspection work was drastically curtailed because of a lack of inspection personnel and/or lack of transportation. It was felt, however, that the inspection of concrete work could be more readily deferred until a later date than could the inspection of work which was "buried." The inspection of each purnip installed was the responsibility of inspectors who were generally mechanical engineers. The Contractor used a maximum of 2 pump setting rigs on this work and, depending upon the number of shifts working, 2 or 3 men were assigned to each rig.
No separate inspection staff, other than that required for tubewell siting and logging operations, was assigned to the construction of tubewells done by WAPDA forces as that work was generally carried out under the supervision of expatriate drillers. Inspection of all other operations, however, including the installation of equipment and its testing, was carried out on the WAPDA constructed tubewells in much the same manner as described for the tubewells constructed by the Contractor.
The engineering staff resident in Pakistan also performed all
necessary office engineering functions including the recording of progress and the preparation of periodic estimates for payments to the contractors and suppliers of equipment and materials. It also inspected all equipment produced in Pakistan for incorporation in the WAPDA constructed tubewells at manufacturers plants situated in Lahore, Karachi and at Wah, West Pakistan.

A small office in the headquarters building of the Authority situated at the Pipals House in Lahore was utilized as headquarters for the engineering organization. These facilities were later supplemented by space in a separate building at Faridikot Road which became available in April 1960. In the field the Engineer's forces responsible for supervision of the work being done under contract were headquartered at a tent camp near Sukheki during the period from March 1960 to July 1961. As no other suitable camp facilities were available, all of the other supervisory personnel working in the field including all of those associated with WAPDA construction operations commuted daily from Lahore to the site of the work which involved round trip distances varying from 60 to 150 miles. This requirement in itself imposed an exceptionally heavy burden on transportation facilities which seldom during the course of the work were adequate in number or condition to meet fully the requirements for efficient prosecution of the work. For more than two years the maintenance and repair of vehicles was handled through arrangements with commercial establishments in Lahore until the requirements for such services became so critical that WAPDA authorized the Engineer to establish and operate a motor pool for the repair and servicing of project vehicles in March 1961. From that time onward, the Engineer was responsible for maintaining transportation equipmentand, although many problems were encountered in procuring and maintaining an adequate supply of spare parts for the repair of vehicles which had been in use far beyond their normal serviceable life, it was possible to maintain the available vehicles in service until the work was completed.

A total of 1984 tubewells are embodied in Project No. One, as
constructed, of which 188 were constructed prior to 1959 by the Irrigation Department and 1796 were constructed by the Authority under DLF Loan No. 25. All of the tubewells are situated in the Indus Valley alluvium which consists in general of fine to medium grain sand of much greater depth than the depth of penetration of the tubewell installations. In general, the uppermost part of the formation is composed of the finer sands, silts and clays, with the coarser sands being more commonly found at increasing depths. The entire formation within the depths of the tubewells constructed is interspersed with occasional layers or lenses of finer silts and clays.
This report describes only the tubewells constructed since 1959 under the auspices of the Authority. Reference should be made to other publications for details of the 188 tubewells constructed prior to 1959 by the Irrigation Department.
Figure No. 3 shows a typical tubewell installation. It consists of a hole drilled to depths varying from approximately Z00 up to 300 feet depending on the formations encountered and the design capacity of the tubewell. The diameter of the hole is related to the method used for construction of the tubewell. All of the tubewells constructed with reverse rotary drilling rigs, which include all of those constructed under contract and certain of the larger capacity tubewells constructed within areas assigned to WAPDA forces, were drilled with a 22 inch diameter bit which produced a hole approximately 24 inches in diameter. All of the tubewells constructed by percussion methods, which includes most of those constructed by WAPDA forces, were sunk through casing having an outside diameter of 18 inches, which when withdrawn left a hole of approximately the same diameter.
Pump housing casing, 14 inches in diameter for tubewells having
a capacity of 3.0 cusecs or less and 16 inch in diameter for tubewells with a capacity of 3. 5 cusecs or larger, extends from the surface to a level
5 to 10 feet below the maximum anticipated depth of drawdown. The bottom of the pump housing casing connects through a conical reducer to the 10-3/4 inch diameter tubewell casing which extends to, or within a few feet of, the bottom of the drilled hole. In the typical installation the 10-3/4 inch diameter pipe is slotted opposite the coarser or more permeable formations, as determined from an examination of the log obtained during the drilling, supplemented in a number of cases by information obtained from the electric logs. These slots which are 1/16 inch wide and approximately 2-1/2 inches long are arranged in groups of three around the periphery of

-- --- --- - 8
I- ~~1
Mtrstarter -T -- Tubewell
c n r l c b n t- 5-8 3 0 5 8"---
--Construction joint v
III 17_11,ii Surface of tube well
casing in contact
Motor ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Pm moteor-= n-7' .. rbwl
S-mwith concrete to be painted before
Electical.'-Discharge pe -concrete is placed.
Electrical -conduit box -Pump house
I -Discharge pipe floor slab
\p/ "Gravel fill "-Pump Construction joii.
'-"Pump house floor slob---__I [ I.-Pump housing
- casing
.4 -----------------------il i SEC T ION B -B
Structural steel frame for
support of control cobinet----Pump motor
-t _-Surface discharge head Weatherproof '-------- 6-0
flexible conduit'
'- ischarge pipe
;...--Rigid metal.-"
conduit -Pump house floor slob .-- -Original ground surface
'i 9 M in .-' 'Y _-Y___', "Construction
Ground rod-._ jn12
C -Pump housing casing
1 Water surface in well
2.0, 2.5 AND 3.0 CUSECS 3.5, 4.0 AND 4.5 CUSECS
TOTAL HEAD IN FEET 50 60 70 80 60 70 80
Length of pump
column A (feet) 50 60 70 80 60 70 80
Nominal dia. of pump
column (inches) 8 8 8 8 /0 10 10
Minimum 0. D. of pump 14 14 14 14 16 16 16
housing casing c(inches)
.--:--Bowl assembly Nominal dia. of pump
discharge pipe 0 (inches) 8 8 8 8 10 10 10
Gravel shrouding No. 16 to
I --Concentric reducer
, If
shrouding 1.
-- "0O. Slotted tubewell casing, 180 slots X by 2" to 3 to provide 30 square inches of slotted opening per foot of casing.
gil --Non -yielding formation
O"O. 0. Plain sections as required
,i --10 0. 0. Plain section
' each tubewell.
i"Sa lt
rirs 10KLBCiCEiiER

the pipe in such a manner as to provide 30 square inches of slot opening per linear foot of tubewell casing. The annular space between the hole and the casing is shrouded with gravel to provide a well graded filter between the formation and the slotted area of the tubewell casing.
Most of the tubewells were constructed to depths varying from
about 230 feet up to 360 feet, the average depth of all the tubewells being about 260 feet. The length of slotted pipe provided for each tubewell was dependent on the formations encountered and the tubewell capacity, varying from a minimum of about I10 feet for a 2.0 cusec tubewell up to about 160 feet for the 4.0 and 5.0 cusec tubewells.
In order to determine the appropriate depth of pump setting and hence length of pumphousing pipe account was taken of the position of the tubewell within the doab and the lowest probable level to which the groundwater table might be lowered during the projected life of the tubewells, which for this purpose was assumed to be on the order of 30 to 40 years. It was assumed that within such a period it will be feasible to lower the groundwater table to depths on the order of those which existed prior to the time irrigation of the doab caused the water table to rise. This resulted in an assumed future groundwater table configuration varying in depth from a minimum of about 30 feet below the ground surface for tubewells situated in the vicinity of the rivers on either side of the doab, to maximum depths of 50 to 60 feet in the central portion of the doab. The pumphousing pipe was generally set at least 15 to 30 feet deeper than the presumed depths to the future groundwater table to accommodate drawdown in the tubewell while maintaining the suction of the pump submerged.
All of the tubewell pumps are of the vertical turbine type with
enclosed impellers driven by electric motors. All of the pumps installed in tubewells constructed under contract and certain of the larger pumps installed in WAPDA constructed tubewells are of the oil lubricated type. The smaller capacity turbine pumps installed in WAPDA constructed tubewells are of the water lubricated type with rubber bearings. To date both types of pumps have given generally satisfactory service. While the oil lubricated pump is a higher class installation, it is somewhat more vulnerable to damage due to inadequate maintenance, lack of oil, or failure of the oil feed mechanism. Since relatively little difficulty was experienced during construction of the project in developing tubewells which will produce virtually sand-free water, the water lubricated pump makes a satisfactory installation and has the advantage that it requires less maintenance and attention than the oil lubricated pump.
All of the electr.ic motors driving the pumps are vertical, hollow shaft, induction type motors operating at 1450 rpm on 400 volt, 3 phase, 50 cycle current. The motors are controlled by a combination starter

and push-button motor control unit with short circuit, overload and undervoltage protective equipment all mounted in a metal cabinet installed inside of the pumphouse.
The discharge pipe of each tubewell terminates in a discharge box,
consisting of a concrete masonry structure, rectangular in plan with vertical walls and an opening in one side through which water is delivered to the water course. Figure No. 4 shows a typical discharge box as provided for the tubewells in the eight scheme areas constructed under the auspices of the Authority.
During the development of plans for the project a number of alternative schemes for housing and protecting the tubewell installations were considered, varying from completely open installations protected only by a fence, to brick masonry pump houses of various designs. Brick pump houses were ultimately selected as the most desirable installation, primarily because they afforded better protection from the weather and animals, as well as security, and required virtually no materials that could not be obtained locally. The earliest installations consisted of a totally enclosed building with a single window and access door. It was found that because of the practice of keeping the door and window closed during operation that these buildings became excessively hot and later designs provided for panels of open brick work in the walls of the pump house to provide better ventilation. Figure No. 5 shows details of the latest type of pump house installation which was constructed for most of the tubewells.
Originally it was intended that one operator would tend anywhere from three to five tubewells and would be provided with suitable quarters for this purpose. It developed however that, because of the relatively great distances between individual tubewells, it was desirable to station an individual operator at or near each tubewell. Accordingly it is presently planned to provide operator's quarters in the vicinity of each tubewe II, and to date such quarters have been provided for approximately Z3 per cent of the total number of tubewells in the project. Figure No. 6 shows the. type of operator's quarters provided for a typical installation.
A number of Plates have been prepared showing the location of works constructed as a part of Project No. One. Plate I is a reduction of a map, the original of which is to a scale of one inch to four miles, showing the boundaries of the individual scheme areas and the location of all of the tubewells constructed as a part of Project No. One superimposed on a base map showing the principal canals, branches and distributaries of the irrigation system, main roads, railways and other features of the project area. Plates II through VIII inclusive are reductions of maps covering the scheme areas listed below upon which have been shown the location, number, and nominal capacity in cusecs of each of the tubewells embodied in Project No. One.

1 II
A_ .- --Inside length L
A |A
1 I
l I
Pump discharge A 4 s
pi e.. I, I i i I
pipe---- SCALE OF FEET
,-Normal ground
4 2
o, Inside length of tank for discharges of: 2"- -3.. .> 13 Cusec L 4 '-O"
- 3 to 4 Cusec L 5'-0"
4 to 5 Cusec L = 6'-" I.- .. -- 5 to 6 Cusec L = 7'- O"

-< - - -.. . . . 11 -4 - -
i 6 ,-3 MS Corrugated sheets 8624.
,. / Side lap of one corrugation
. . ...
S-Control Control cobinet---. -f
cabinet Pump pedestal -2x3 Duct I
for conduit--- -- 43O
"- -"-4-11 ----A corrugat -o n -Bia/ stee bas,~ PLAN SECTION B-B
an.3-0-.. 4 centers- --Bumn ase
rn 4
. ----- 4-0------ -- -- 4-0 ------- 6
T Crest of
2 4'9-''-Die. steel bars corrugation-, ,--cop
on 4 centers -.-8itumen washer
0----D io J-hooks
:--Standard bricks
9"x 41x22
1:5 Cement sand mortar

, A,
A Verando A
Court Yord
0Room 0IO'x 15'
Latrine Both Cooking
Droin E n facilities. y
/------------ 15 -9 --------------- ---------------------- 21-5 --------------------PLAN
.. 5 . . ,
,4"Earth fill .I Mud plaster ,-2"Brick tiles (12'x 6"x2')
-5-0" ---*-2-6'
S 3Cement concrete:4:8)-' '1 Cement concrete(1:2:4) 'Cmn ocee(:4,' 2
7 "'Sandfill '-3 Bituminous coats

- 20
II Shah Kot (5), Chuharkana (3)
III Jaranwala (4), Zafarwal (6)
IV Hafizabad (11)
V Pindi Bhattian (1), Beranwala (9),
Harse Sheikh (10)
VI Sangla Hill (8)
VII Khangah Dogran (7)
VIII Chichoki Mallian (2), Shadman (12)
On the above plates the approximate location and circuit designations of the electric distribution lines supplying the tubewells have also been shown.
The originals of the above scheme area maps are to a scale of one inch to one mile and are so arranged that by piecing together the individual maps a wall map can be prepared covering the entire area of Project No. One to this scale.
Each of the tubewells shown on the above series of plates have been sited as closely as possible consistent with the scale of maps. The electric features are shown in schematic form only and reference should be made to the detail construction drawings of the electric distribution system prepared by Miner and Miner, Inc. for details of the location and characteristics of the facilities which form the electric power supply features for the project.
Tables 4, 5, 6, and 7 contain summaries of pertinent information with respect to the tubewells constructed as a part of the Project No. One. The data contained in these tables, which are believed to be self-explanatory, represent statistical totals of quantities and other information related to the total of the works constructed. In addition to this information, individual tubewell data sheets of the form shown as an example by Figure No. 7 have been prepared to provide a permanent record of the works constructed. These data sheets have been prepared for each of the 1796 tubewells comprised in the eight scheme areas constructed under the auspices of the Authority, the originals of which are in file in the Ground Water and Reclamation Division of the Authority. They show all of the information collected during the course of construction regarding the formations penetrated by the tubewells, the characteristics of the basic tubewell installation including data pertaining to the equipment installed in each tubewell. In many instances multi-stage pumps were installed with one impeller removed because of the low pump head during the initial operating period....

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 4
Numbers of Tubewells and Construction Methods
Scheme Areas Total Number Construction Agency Construction Method
No. Designation of Tubewells I. D. WAPDA Contractor(c) H.B. C. T. R. R.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian 21 21 0 0 21 0 0
2 Chichoki Mallian 12 12 0 0 12 0 0
3 Chuharkana 24 24 0 0 24 0 0
4 Jaranwala 131 131 0 0 131 0 0
Subtotal 188 188 0 0 188 0 0
WAPDA Schemes: 385(a) (a)
5 Shahkot 385(a) 0 385(a) 0 154 227 4
6 Zafarwal 390 1(b) 329 60 135 165 90
7 Khangah Dogran 209 6(b) 0 203 0 0 209
8 Sangla Hill 233 0 0 233 0 0 233
9 Beranwala 126 0 0 126 0 0 126
10 Harse Sheikh 44 0 0 44 0 0 44
11 Hafizabad 318 0 0 318 0 0 318
12 Shadman 91 0 1 90 0 0 91
Subtotal 1,796 7(b) 715 1,074 289 392 1, 115
Total 1,984 195 715 1,074 477 392 1, 115
Notes: (a) Includes 32 tubewells in poor quality ground-water area in which pumping equipment has
not yet been installed.
(b) Tubewells constructed by WASID
(c) Harold T. Smith International S. A.
Symbols in Columns (7), (8), and (9) have following significance:
H.B. Hand boring sets C. T. Cable tool rigs R. R. Reverse rotary rigs

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 5
Characteristics of Tubewells Part I
Total Tubewell Capacities Pumping Heads Motor Power
Scheme Areas Number of Capacity (cusecs) (feet) (horsepower)
No. Designation Tubewells (cusecs) Min. Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)
Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian 21 52.0 1. 5 2.5 3.5 40 50 70 17 24 37
2 Chichoki Mallian 12 26.0 2.0 2.2 3.0 60 60 60 21 28 30
3 Chuharkana 24 48.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 20 20 20 15 21 28
4 Jaranwala 131 293.0 1.5 2.2 4.5 48 50 58 15 17 21
Subtotal 188 419.0 1.5 2.2 4.5 20 47 70 15 19 37 t
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot 385 966.0' 2.0 3.0 4.0 30 52.5 80 15 27.2 50
6 Zafarwal 390 1, 161.5 2.0 3.0 5.0 50 61.0 80 15 29.8 50
7 Khangah Dogran 209 636. 5 2.0 3.0 4. 5 60 72. 5 80 20 33. 5 50
8 Sangla Hill 233 686.0 2.0 2.9 4.5 70 73. 5 80 25 33.4 60
9 Beranwala 126 407.0 2.0 3.2 5.0 50 66.0 80 15 33.2 60
10 Harse Sheikh 44 148.5 2.0 3.4 5.0 50 57.0 70 15 31. 2 50
11 Hafizabad 318 950.5 2.0 3.0 4.5 50 64.0 70 15 30.0 50
12 Shadman 91 261.5 2.0 2.9 4.5 50 56.0 70 15 26.0 50
Subtotal 1,796 5,217.5 2.0 3.0 5.0 30 62.8 80 15 30.5 60
Total 1,984 5,636.5 1.5 2.8 5.0 20 61. 3 80 15 29.4 60
Notes: (a) Capacity of 319 installations in which pumps have been installed.
Values shown in Columns (5) through (10) inclusive represent "design" or "rated" values. Most
multi-stage pump installations have only one stage installed initially because initial pumping head
is less than design head.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 6
Characteristics of Tubewells Part II
Tubewell Depths Slotted Casing Blank Casing(a)
Scheme Areas Number of (feet) (feet) (feet)
No. Designation Tubewells Min. Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) -7 (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian 21 135 207 324 75 100 140 0 38 139
2 Chichoki Mallian 12 195 210 295 140 140 140 0 45 102
3 Chuharkana 24 186 230 290 120 130 140 0 38 102
4 Jaranwala 131 150 250 320 94 107 136 0 36 110
Subtotal 188 135 240 324 94 111 140 0 37 139
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot 385 137 227 358 72 138 160 2 38 148
6 Zafarwal 390 240 260 312 119 134 166 19 38 75
7 Khangah Dogran 209 245 280 335 107 128 149 25 56 120
8 Sangla Hill 233 235 268 344 103 126 158 25 46 109
9 Beranwala 126 230 269 355 111 133 160 25 42 122
10 Harse Sheikh 44 235 275 340 117 138 162 25 45 112
11 Hafizabad 318 230 267 350 106 128 159 25 46 107
12 Shadman 91 226 248 325 115 128 160 21 33 92
Subtotal 1,796 137 262 358 72 132 166 2 43 148
Total 1,984 135 260 358 72 130 166 0 42 148
Notes: (a) Blank casing refers to unslotted portions of 10-3/4 inch diameter tubewell casing and does
not include pump housing casing of larger diameters. All tubewells in Scheme Areas 1, 2, 3,
and 4 provided with brass screen in lieu of slotted steel casing.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 7
Characteristics of Tubewells Part III
Slotted Theoretical Specific Drawdown Quality of Water
Scheme Areas Number of Length-ft. Velocity thru (feet peT cusec) (parts per million)
No. Designation Tubewells per cusec. Slots ft./ sec. Min. Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian 21 40.0 N.A. 7.1 10. Z 18.0 620 815 1000
2 Chichoki Mallian 12 63.5 N.A. 5.6 6.4 6.9 167 365 486
3 Chuharkana 24 65.0 N.A. 5.0 6.4 6.6 170 585 913
4 Jaranwala 131 48.7 N.A. 3.7 4.5 5.6 200 1330 3000
Subtotal 188 50.8 N.A. 3.7 5.5 18.0 167 1115 3000
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot 385 46.0 0.104 2. 2 4.7 12.8 133 1040 2670
6 Zafarwal 390 44.7 0.108 2. 7 5.2 28.0 160 815 2335
7 Khangah Dogran 209 42. 6 0.112 2. 9 4. 2 9.0 133 450 1070
8 Sangla Hill 233 43.5 0.110 2. 5 4.3 8.3 147 870 2335
9 Beranwala 126 41.5 0.115 2. 4 3.9 6.5 167 1070 2265
10 Harse Sheikh 44 40.6 0.118 3.2 4.2 5.4 160 535 1100
11 Hafizabad 318 42.6 0.112 2.4 3.6 6.7 160 605 1330
12 Shadman 91 44.1 0.109 2. 6 3.5 4.8 174 465 935
Subtotal 1796 43.2 0.111 2. 2 4.2 28.0 133 780 2670
Total 1984 43.9 2. 2 4.3 28.0 133 815 3000
Notes: Values in Col. (4) are average values derived from Col. (8) of Table and Col. (6) of Table
Values in Col. (5) based on 180 slots 2-5/8" x 1/16" per lineal foot of slotted pipe, equivalent to
30 square inches of slot openings per foot.
Values in Cols. (9) through (11) inclusive represent initial conductivity (Micromhos) measurements
converted to ppm. using factor of 0. 667.

- 25
Spaces are provided on the tubewell data sheet forms to record the installation of additional stages and other modifications that may be made in the future and it is planned that these records will be maintained in such a manner as to provide a complete record of the equipment installed in the tubewells at any particular time.
Table 8 summarizes the areas served by the tubewells provided for each individual scheme area. The pumping capability of the tubewells, together with the canal supplies of the areas under command of the canal system, and the combined canal and tubewell supplies expressed in terms of acres per cusec are shown in Table 9. It should be noted that in this and other tables, the capacity of individual tubewells, as well as the pumping capability of groups of tubewells, indicated refer to the "design" or "rated" capacities of the tubewells. The design capacity of the tubewell is the theoretical capacity of the pump with all stages installed and operating under its design head. The actual output of an individual tubewell at any particular time will depend on the number of stages installed and the head, or pump lift, under which it is operating. Because of the present high groundwater table in the area pumping heads are less than those for which the installations are designed and therefore, at most installations, one impeller was removed from the multi-stage pumps. When first placed in operation an installation working at less than the designed pumping head for a single stage, may actually be pumping as much as 25 to 30 per cent more water than its rated capacity. As the water table gradually descends and the pumping head increases, the discharge will gradually decrease. When the discharge has decreased to about the rated capacity of the tubewell, the additional impeller will be installed in the pump and its discharge again will likely be somewhat greater than the rated capacity of the tubewell until such time as the pump lift has increased to that corresponding to the rated head of the multi-stage unit. Thus at any particular time the actual discharge of an individual tubewell may vary anywhere from roughly 25 per cent above or below its nominal design capacity depending on the number of stages installed and the level of the water table. These variations in discharge are of little significance in so far as drainage and utilization of the water for irrigation are concerned as the total volume of water pumped can be controlled by varying the period of pumping.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 8
Project Areas
Scheme Areas Number of Gross Area C.C.A. Acres Average Acres per Tubewell
No. Designation Tubewells (acres) Present Proposed Gross Area C.C.A.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian 21 8,305 4,823 7,969 395 378
2 Chichoki Mallian 12 7,122 6,442 6,556 594 546
3 Chuharkana 24 10,769 7,907 9,255 449 386
4 Jaranwala 131 90,873 69,035 83,235 694 635
Subtotal 188 117,069 88,207 107,015 623 570
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot 385 Z45,291 203,515 229,881 637 596
6 Zafarwal 390 204,258 136,702 192,353 524 494
7 Khangah Dogran 209 119,083 91,990 113,397 569 542
8 Sangla Hill 233 136,602 111,188 127,038 585 545
9 Beranwala 126 125,920 102,677 114,441 999 908
10 Harse Sheikh 44 22,000 18,899 20, 627 500 469
11 Hafizabad 318 170,560 127,590 152,086 536 479
12 Shadman 91 82,995 76,194 76,194 911 836
Subtotal 1796 1,106,709 868,755 1,026,017 616 571
Total 1984 1,223,778 956,962 1,133,032 617 571
Notes: C.C. A. designates "Culturable Commanded Area".
Values in Col. (5) represent areas commanded by canal systems.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One
Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 9
Water Supplies
Tubewell Pumping
Tubewell Canal Combined (a) Water Duty of Capability
Scheme Areas Number of Supplies Supplies Supplies C.C.A. Combined Supplies Depth-ft. /
No. Designation Tubewells (cusecs) (cusecs) (cusecs) (acres) (acres/cusecs) MAF/yr. gross acre/yr.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Departmental Schemes:
1 Pindi Bhattian 21 52.0 0 52.0 7,969 153 0.04 4. 6
2 Chichoki Mallian 12 26.0 17. 6 43. 6 6,556 150 0. 02 2. 7
3 Chuharkana 24 48.0 16.0 64.0 9,255 144 0.03 3. 3 r
4 Jaranwala 131 293.0 237.0 530.0 83,235 157 0. 21 2.4
Subtotal 188 419.0 270.6 689.6 107,015 155 0. 30 2. 5
WAPDA Schemes:
5 Shahkot 385 966.0(b) 382.0 1348.0(b) 229,881 170(b) 0. 70(b) 2.9(b)
6 Zafarwal 390 1161.5 330.0 1491.5 192,353 129 0.85 4.2
7 Khangah Dogran 209 636.5 136.5 773.0 113,397 147 0.46 3.9
8 Sangla Hill 233 686.0 202.0 888.0 127,038 143 0.50 3.7
9 Beranwala 126 407.0 148.0 555.0 114,441 206 0.30 2.4
10 Harse Sheikh 44 148.5 32.0 180.5 20, 627 114 0. 11 4. 9
11 Hafizabad 318 950.5 200.0 1150.5 152,086 132 0.69 4.0
12 Shadman 91 261.5 145.5 407.0 76, 194 187 0. 19 2. 3
Subtotal 1796 5217.5 1576.0 6793.5 1,026,017 151 3.80 3.4
Total 1984 5636.5 1846.6 7483. 1 1, 133,032 151 4. 10 3. 3
Notes: (a) C.C..A. denotes culturable commanded area.
(b) Capacity of 319 installations in which pumps: have been installed.
Values in Column (5) represent 70 per cent of authorized full supplies of channels serving the area.
Values in Columns (9) and (10) based on continuous pumping.

- 28
At the time active work on Project No. One got under way (taken for purposes of this report as April 1, 1959, the date the Project Engineer established his office in Lahore) a small Departmental group working under the jurisdiction of WAPDA was engaged on constructing tubewells in the Shahkot area. With the perfection of the Loan Agreement and engagement of the Engineer, WAPDA was anxious to accelerate the program as quickly as possible by: (1) procuring badly needed transportation facilities and construction equipment and augmenting the Departmental forces engaged on tubewell construction, and (Z), taking the necessary steps to place the first block of tubewells under contract at the earliest possible date. To accomplish the second objective the Engineer initiated preparation of technical plans and specifications for the work concurrently with the task of carrying out the overall technical appraisal of the project.
Because of the specialized nature of tubewell construction it was
concluded desirable that prospective contractors be pre-qualified before being invited to tender on the work. Accordingly the Engineer prepared a prequalification document which described the project and set forth the information required to appraise the qualifications of prospective contractors. This document was mailed to Z5 tubewell construction firms domiciled in nine countries around the world. The information called for by that document was received from all but three of the 25 firms and after reviewing this material, the Engineer recommended to WAPDA on June 8, 1959, that the following eight firms be invited to submit tenders for the first tubewell contract embodying the construction of 500 tubewells:
LeGrande Adsco Ltd. England
Harold T. Smith International, S.A. Panama International Water Corporation U. S. A.
German Water Development Corp. Germany
Geoistrazivanja Yugoslavia
B & W Drilling Co. U.S.A.
Nebrado Irrigation & Water Dev. Co. U.S.A.
Associated Tubewells International Ltd. England
On 16 June 1959 the technical specifications for the construction work, together with an invitation to submit a tender for the construction of 500 tubewells were sent to the above firms. The invitation called for tenders to

- 29
be submitted to WAPDA on or before Z4 July 1959, it being contemplated that, if acceptable tenders were received, two contracts of 500 tubewells each or a total of 1000 tubewells would be awarded. By the specified time four tenders were received in the amounts indicated below:
Summary of Tenders Received for the Construction of 500 Tubewells
Amount of Tender
(all values in millions)
$ U.S. R2 Rupees
H. T. Smith International, S.A. 3.42 4.92 21.18
International Water Corporation 4.29 4.09 24.49
Haniel and Lueg 4.35 7.35 28.04
Le Grande Adsco Ltd. 4.32 7.89 28.43
Engineer's Estimate 3.69 5.98 23.60
Actually a tender had also been received from the Yugoslav firm, Geoistrazivanja, but was returned to that firm unopened because the DLF had ruled shortly before the date set for receiving tenders that the firm did not fully meet the requirements of DLF regulations regarding development of private enterprise.
H. T. Smith International, S.A. submitted with their basic proposal an alternative tender for the construction of 600 tubewells which embodied a price reduction equivalent to 900 rupees per tubewell and all of the tenders contained a number of stipulations which had to be taken into account in their evaluation. After evaluating all tenders WAPDA accepted the Engineer's recommendation that a contract be entered into with H. T. Smith International, S.A. for construction of 600 tubewells. This contract was consummated in Lahore on 7 August 1959 and subsequently approved by the DLF on 13 August 1959. It is referred to herein as Contract No. 1.
No action was taken at that time regarding the award of a second
contract because the proposals of the other bidders were either too high to be considered or their cost was made ambiguous by certain stipulations. Further it was not entirely certain at that time whether the funds available under the DLF Loan No. 25 would be adequate to accommodate a second 500 tubewell contract as well as the other work it was desired to complete under the original program. On the basis of estimates prepared by the Engineer it appeared that no more than about 400 additional tubewells could

- 30
be constructed under contract with the funds available. Accordingly on the instructions of the Authority the Engineer sent cables to each of the firms which had been previously qualified, with the exception of the Yugoslav firm, inviting them to submit tenders for the construction of 300 and 400 tubewells under alternative schedules. Three of the seven firms submitted tenders to the Authority on 20 October 1959 which are summarized below:
Summary of Tenders Received for the Construction of 300 and 400 Tubewells
Amount of Tender
(all values in millions)
$ U.S. Rs Rupees
Alternate A 300 Tubewells:
Haniel and Lueg 2.14 3.22 13.40
B & W Drilling Co. 1.62 5.27 12.97
H. T. Smith International, S. A. (No tender)
Engineer's Estimate 2.15 3.57 13.82
Alternate B 400 Tubewells:
Haniel and Lueg 2.68 3.90 16.66
B & W Drilling Co. 2.09 7.03 16.98
H. T. Smith International, S.A. 2.50 3.54 15.44
Engineer's Estimate 2.87 4.75 18.41
All of the proposals being less than the cost of this work included in the estimates for the entire program prepared by the Engineer in September it was concluded that the available funds would be adequate for the construction of an additional 400 tubewells under contract. After giving detail consideration to the several proposals the Engineer recommended that the second contract be awarded to H. T. Smith International, S.A. This recommendation was accepted by the Authority and the contract was consummated in Lahore on 14 November 1959 and subsequently approved by the DLF on 18 December 1959. It is referred to herein as Contract No. 2.
Each of the two contracts cover the construction of the complete
tubewell installation, with the exception of the pump house, discharge box, and operator's quarters which were constructed by WAPDA's forces. Under each contract the Contractor is required to supply all casing, gravel, pumps, motors, motor controls and all other equipment and materials incorporated in the permanent construction. The contracts are of the fixed unit price type

- 31
under which the Contractor is paid on the basis of actual quantities 'of work completed and accepted by the Engineer and the rates set forth in the contract and tender. For information purposes, the tender unit price rates for the various items of work under each contract are set forth in tables contained in Appendix
Upon the award of the second contract to H. T. Smith International, S.A. that firm became responsible for the construction of 1000 tubewells of the program. The scheduled completion date of both contracts was 7 July 1961, an elapsed time of 700 and 600 days respectively from the dates of signing of Contracts Nos. 1 and Z. The manner in which this work was accomplished by the Contractor, the organization and plant utilized, the construction methods and progress of the work are covered under the section on history of Contract Construction. Although during the course of the program H. T. Smith International, S.A. were assigned certain other special work under separate contracts, that work pertained largely to tubewells situated within scheme areas assigned to WAPDA forces for construction and hence the work performed under those contracts is covered under the section on history of WAPDA Construction.
At the same time the work leading to the contracting of the construction of 1000 tubewells was underway, steps were taken by the Authority and the Engineer to accelerate the construction being undertaken by WAPDA's forces. This task involved the recruitment of a number of expatriate drillers and other technicians, the augmenting of the Pakistani construction staff, the inventorying of available equipment and supplies, and assisting WAPDA in the preparation of lists of construction and transportation equipment required for both WAPDA's construction operations and the Engineer's operations, together with many other similar preparatory functions needed to mobilize the work to be undertaken by WAPDA's forces. The manner in which this work was undertaken, the construction methods utilized and progress attained are described in more detail under the section covering WAPDA Construction.
The overall program and division of work which evolved as described above resulted in a total of 1796 tubewells being constructed. Of this total, 1014 tubewells were constructed by H. T. Smith International S.A. in six scheme areas, 775 tubewells were constructed in two scheme areas by WAPDA forces, and 7 .of the original test wells were incorporated in the project as follows:

- 32
Scheme Tubewells
Agency Areas Constructed
WAPDA Shahkot 385
Zafarwal 390 (Includes one tubewell
775 in Shadman Area)
Contractor Khangah Dogran 203 Contract No. 1
(H. T. Smith) Sangla Hill 233 it i
Beranwala 126 "
Harse Sheikh 44 It "
Hafizabad 318 Contract No. 2
Shadman 90 "
WASID Khangah Dogran 6
(test wells) Zafarwal 1
Total 1796
Figure No. 8 is a bar chart showing periods during which principal
operations performed by WAPDA and the Engineer, as well as the Contractor, were carried out compared with the periods originally planned for the same operations at the time the project was implemented. Figure No. 9 portrays graphically the overall progress of tubewell construction achieved. It consists of two charts, one of which shows progress on tubewell construction (excluding the installation of equipment) and the other progress on tubewell completion (including equipment) under the WAPDA operations and under the work done under contract, together with the combined rates of progress of both phases of the program. Referring to the uppermost chart of Figure No. 9 it may be noted that the construction of tubewells, not including the installation of the pumping equipment, was completed in substantial conformity to the target program that was originally adopted in September 1959 in that more than 90 per cent of the total number of tubewells embodied in the program had been constructed by mid-1961. Referring to the lowermost chart, it may be noted that the installation of equipment in tubewells constructed under contract was completed in substantial conformity to the original program. Many delays, however, were encountered in securing equipment for installation in the WAPDA constructed tubewells and in the installation of that equipment which resulted in the completion of this work extending more than a year beyond that originally programed. More detail information on the subject of progress is contained under the histories of construction performed under the two phases of the program. The work done under contract is discussed first and followed by that carried out by WAPDA's forces.

- 33
The work covered under this section consists of that pertaining to the 1014 tubewells constructed by H. T. Smith International, S.A. under the two contracts designated as Contract No. 1 and No. Z. Under the terms of these contracts of which the tender documents and specifications were a part, the Contractor was required to designate a banking authority acceptable to WAPDA and the DLF and to provide a Fidelity Bond to insure proper use of the funds advanced for mobilization and the procurement of equipment. The Contractor nominated the Chase Manhattan Bank of New York to be his banking agents. The Fidelity Bond was provided by the American Surety Company of New York. The prime letters of credit covering foreign currency expenditures were opened under DLF letters of commitment Nos. 391-8 and 391-16 on September 2, 1959 and December 18, 1959 for Contracts Nos. 1 and 2 respectively, and firm purchase orders for construction equipment and materials were placed by the Contractor shortly thereafter.
During the course of the work, a number of change orders were
issued to the Contractor embodying a total of Z2 changes under Contract No. 1 and sixteen changes under Contract No. 2. Some of these change orders covered identical changes under each of the two contracts. Most of the change orders pertain to relatively minor details of the tubewell construction or modification of requirements relating to the equipment installed in the tubewells, such as for example an increase in the height of the concrete pedestal upon which the pump is supported, and a reduction in the depth of pump setting and horsepower of the motors for certain installations. As such most of the change orders involved very little or no adjustment in the tender prices. In their sum total, the value of all of the change orders issued during the course of the work resulted in a reduction in the foreign currency cost of the tubewells constructed under contract equivalent to less than 0. 6 per cent of their total cost and an even lesser increase in the local currency portion of that cost. Tables contained in Appendix list the pertinent matters embodied in each change order under both contracts and the respective modifications in unit costs. In addition to the above change orders, a total of five separate work orders were issued to the Contractor during the course of the work, four of which pertained to construction under Contracts Nos. 1 and 2. These work orders covered additions to the work not contemplated under the original contract, such as the installation of rock guards at the ends of the discharge pipes and the installation of additional impellers on certain tubewells. These work orders are also summarized in Appendix

- 34
Organization and Plant
The Cotaco' organization was made up of a number of expatriate personnel in administrative and supervisory functions and a much larger number of locally employed Pakistani personnel. During the period when construction was at its maximum tempo extending generally from mid-1960 to mid-1961, the Contractor's organization was composed of almost 900 Pakistani personnel and 45 expatriates. These numbers represent the maximum working forces employed at any one time, the total number of personnel employed during the course of the work being, of course, much greater because of fluctuating labor requirements, turnovers, resignations, and discharges. Table No. 10 shows a summary of personnel employed by the Contractor during the period of peak construction activity. It may be noted that personnel employed directly on construction operations represented 63 per cent of the total work force and administrative and support functions the remaining 37 per cent. Nationality wise, 95 per cent of the total force was composed of Pakistani personnel.
The Contractor elected to establish a single base camp for all of his operations at a site 51 miles west of Lahore and 2-1/2 miles east of the village of Sukheki on the Sheikhupura-Sargodha Road. A Rawalpindi firm of British architects prepared plans for the camp and on 21 November 1959 a local contractor commenced construction. This base camp, commonly known as the "Smith Camp, is bisected by the main road. The main office, the supervisory mess hall and the expatriate residential area are on the south side of the road. The workshop, the warehouse and storage area, and the National quarters are located on the north side of the road. Figure 10 is a plan of the camp showing the layout of the principal buildings. Table 11 shows a summary of the cost of construction of the camp facilities, exclusive of the cost of land, equipment and furnishings.
The base workshop was responsible for the assembly, repair and
maintenance of all construction equipment and accessories, for the fabrication of items used in tubewell construction, such as reducing cones and motor control support brackets, for the manufacture and fabrication of small tools and accessories, for the driving staff and their motor vehicles, and for the maintenance of camp area machinery. The base workshop was divided into 14 sections: machine shop, repair shops, welding shop, powerhouse, slotting plants, tire shop, battery shop, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, service ramp and vehicle bays, paint shop, fuel station, parts and tools store, and works office. The first work was done in the workshop in December 1959, and consisted of the assembly of equipment. The workshops, as such, were organized and went into operation 1 February 1960. Work was done generally on a 3 shift basis until May 1961, when most of the sections were reduced to
1 shift per day. Between February and June 1960, 116 items of equipment

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 10
Summary of Personnel Employed by
Contractor (H. T. Smith International, S. A.)
Percent of
Expatriate Pakistani Total Total
Administration and Related Functions:
General administration 4 7 11 1,2
Accounting 2 17 19 2.1
Engineering 2 13 15 1.7
Subtotal 8 37 45 5.0
Construction Operations:
Gravel production
(at Campbellpur) 1 31 32 3.6
Pipe slotting
(at Sukheki shops) 2 26 28 3.1
Site preparation 1 138 139 15.6
Tubewell drilling 14 149 163 18.3
Electric logging 2 4 6 0.7
Developing and testing 3 43 46 5.2
Concrete slabs and pedestals 2 42 44 4.9
Installation of equipment
and testing 5 98 103 11.6
Subtotal 30 531 561 63.0
Support Operations:
Workshops 3 120 123 13.8
Motor pool 0 24 24 2.7
Warehouse and stores 1 22 23 2.6
Camp operation 3 79 82 9.2
Security 0 33 33 3,7
Subtotal 7 278 285 32.0
Total 45 846 891 100.0
(Percent of total personnel) (5.0) (95.0) (100.0)

--- Latrines
[ M" Bothroom Vehicle wash rack---SWelding and
blacksmith shop. -**
Latrine and bathCO
Latrine and bath--0 156
SStorage Service ramp --- S
,,-'-ion-Quar er- -Storage Repair shop-- S.
.-We ter @ ank Er Machine shop-SW Office-SNational club and mess
S--Power plant Warehouse---
@ Slotting plant No.1-.,
Slotting plant No. 3- Gas pump-, RO.L. Office
Fuel storage---
0 Slotting plant No. 2-- ,r-Diesel fuel
Electric shop--, .. storage
@Compound wall-' 644.6 ---Gate -Gate
- Sukheki 3miles Lahore- Sarqodha Highway Lahore 51 miles--
646.8 (-'Gate
@Recreation hall L '-Storage( @Grage
and club-. ,--Project manager's GaraeS -School room quarters
S --Store 0 Wae t0 Storage- .
-water tank
r" II "
6 0F AREA A -Mess Hall 0 ffice
'.,"'1 '"Swimming pool @Guest House @ First aid
@ Gus oueroom ----- .............. --Kitchen@
@ Married Quarters @Married Quarters (.-aKit l Quarters
@ Compound wall--" 650 @ Laundry--" -Storage ()

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 11
Estimated Construction Cost of Base Camp
provided by Contractor (H. T. Smith International, S. A.) near Sukheki
(See Figure No. 10 for location of facilities listed below)
Approximate Cost
Ref. No. Feature (rupees)
Area A (south side of highway) 3. 1 acres
1 Offices and storage facilities 47, 091
2 Car shelter 1,200
3 First aid room 5,344
4 Bachelor quarters (20 units) 45, 533
5 Married quarters (19 units) 216, 037
6 Project Manager's quarters and guest house 37,946
7 Mess hall, kitchen and cold storage 39, 854
8 Laundry 3,601
9 Recreation hall and school room 30, 373
10 Swimming pool 12, 586
11 Water tank 6,435
12 Compound wall Suttl10, 426 46
Area B (north side of highway) 7. 2 acres 13 Warehouse, machine and repair shops, fuel depot 41, 275
14 Power plant and storage 31, 908
15 Pipe slotting plants (3) 19, 279
16 Welding shop 13, 199
17 Vehicle wash rack 3,356
18 Electric shop and security office 3, 250
19 Living quarters (45 units) 57, 214
20 Mess hall, kitchen and clubhouse 18, 814
21 Compound wall Suttl20, 819 0 ,1I
Architects' fee 20, 118
Total Cost 685, 658
Above costs are for buildings only and do not include costs
of equipment and furnishings nor cost of land and the tubewell
for water supply.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 1Z
Principal Items of Construction Equipment
Used by Contractor (H. T. Smith International, S. A.)
Quantity Equipment Manufacture
(1) (2) (3)
.7 Reverse rotary drilling rigs "Winter Weiss'', model RV-6
1 Rotary drill, truck mounted "Failing", model 150055
2 Earth augers with 9" heads "Truco"
32 Wheel tractors, diesel International B-450
6 Crawler tractors, diesel,.with
blade International BTD-6
2 Crawler tractors, dieseL.with
shovel International BTD-6
3 Wheel tractors, dieselwith
loader International B-275
25 Trailers, 4 wheel, 5 ton Bunger, model BU6. 0
29 Trailers, 4 wheel, 6 ton Bunger, model BU6.6
2 Trailers, 4 wheel, 7 ton Bunger,
2 Electric logging unit, dieselelectric Failing, model LM-D-3P
1 Electric logging unit Widco
2 Pipe slotting machines, 12 spindles Allen, model B
1 Pipe slotting machine, 16 spindles Allen
1 Gravel screening and washing
plant Parker 12.5 tons/hr.
4 Concrete mixers Worthington, model 3- NST
5 Pump setting rigs, truck mounted Truco, model THD-B-55
4 Test pumps, diesel driven,
1550 gpm Worthington, model ZHll0E2
5 Test pumps, diesel driven,
2120 gpm Worthington, model 12HH165EZ
3 Test pumps, diesel driven,
2820 gpm Worthington, model 12HH200E2
13 Centrifugal pumps, diesel
powered Auto Diesel, model ADP 3 x 4
and 4 x 4
1 Centrifugal pump, electric
motor driven Auto Diesel
1 Air Compressor Holman, model 13-D
16 Generators, 1. 5 kw, 250 v PAZ
8 Generator, 37. 5 kw, 440 v,
diesel powered Auto Diesel, model ADD-57-A

Alexandra Bridge I Amritsar
C4, azTrabid I
Hafizbb~ H OR
SCALE OF MILES I- Pindi~ Bhattian 8- Sangla Hill
2- Chichoki Mallion 9- Beranwala 3- Chuharkana IO- Horse Sheikh
Gujra4- Jaranwanwalaa I- Hafizabad amoke
D.A. Program 5- Shahko S2- Shadman
6- Zafarwl 13- Lin
I 2
Constructed by 7-Khangah ogran
Irrigation Department
Future Construction WEST PAKISTAN
2- Chichoki Mollo BrnW
Future onruio
P J NO 1 ......

,-Top of pedestal
0 -o Doab......R@9.hna ............... Scheme Area..9H ?.a d
Canal System. Hqfi.z.q a.bad Di'stry... Tubewell No.... HFD..118C..
20-- '" Walla
o Village.. Mudhrian Wqla .......Square/Killa .............
L Gross/Culturable Commanded Area........... / ..........Acres
Electrification Circuit ......G 95 ............................
S.Constructed by ....... T. SMITH, INT., S.A.
0 ...0on t uc ed b ........... . . . . . . . .
o 40 --:-"IDrilling method .....Rotary .........................
~~50 77 ."".
, so -LEGEND
6:sd. Sand Clay
'S s Silt 1Ka Kankar
C T Blank Casing Iil llI Screen or Slotted Casing
1 00
- ", -l.
"o1'o "1 22 244
120 -. Borehole ... ...... Ground level
Holln Casin 14 80
S II .. Housing Casing .... 8....... Pedestal top
o 0 130- Reducer 1.
-c "Blank Casing I0 50.5
10 141
40 .Slotted Casing (a) 10 4.
I ll Brass Screen (b) .o.. ..
(D 150I" 5"
(a) Slots T x 2- 30 Sq. in. per lin. ft.
-160 -(b)
I "6 (D ) ..................... ............ ..............-.-.
- - ~li 1.1.
M--- Wo..(rth ington _Corp: .... q. El e-ctr ic
CM ake......o. thig .PP P:.......... M ake ..... Elec. .i.
190. Capacity....-.5 ... cusecs..2 ...gpm Hp.....2...5
SHead.......9Q.....feet Rpm....... .............
1 1 1 200 Stages...... Volts ... o0.............
I' l I "Impeller dia..8...inches Amps... 5
210 Suction pipe. ..... feet Cycles.- ..5 ...........
Illll Lubrication.... .I.L................. -Model No...??4
KI 11 11 1 22 Model No-. 121-135 Serial No. 2962556
II". II2 0M d l N .......0.-.. ................. Ser al.N...?? 9... . . .
.... ,Serial No.....TP. ............. MOTOR CONTROL:
230- ., COLUMN PIPE: Make ..Allen B.radley
~II11,II, 1Diameter.. .- ..... inches Model No ...... Nema
240 Length ..... ...... feet Size motor rating....H.P
".Shaft diameterJ...inches 250 Design characteristics of pump. See test data
26 for number of stages installed and performance
I 270270- Depth measurement from ground level
I280. Date 10-60
Depth water table (feet) 8.60
I 290 Pump stages installed I
Drawdown (feet) 8.87
300 Discharge (cusecs) 2.7
SSpecific capacity (gpm/ft.) 136
310 Conductivity (micromhos) o80
I iVolts 400
320 Amps 18.9
Cycles 50
I 330 Rpm 1465
Kilowatts 10.7
I 340 Power factor 0.82
350 "" Values in first column obtained from acceptance test c
.----Borehole diameter TUBEWELL NO. HFD-1l8C m
- ...... oreh le dimete

1959 1960 1 1 961 __ 1962
FM A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M h M J A S 0 N D J F M A M I J IAS N D
I. Negotiation of the Loan Agreement with D L F I
(a) Original Letters of Commitments I
(b) Revisions to Letters of Commitments I
2. Staffing of Administrative Organization of WAPDA I
3. Services of Supervisory Engineer *
I c'J
(a) Recruitment of Foreign Specialists IIIEEE *inini m I
(b) Recruitment of National Staff. EE
(c) Review and Appraisal of Project I
(d) Supervision of ConstructionE
I t(e) Preparation and Review of Project Completion Report t
4. Procurement of offices,engineering and transportation facility I
I. Procurement of construction equipment and supplies o
I C2. Procurement of pipe casing m mmmmm m-.....mK'mn
3. Procurement of pumps, motors and motor controls *
4. Drill tubewells including setting casing, shrouding and 1 velo-m
5. Installation of pumps and motors 7 FI -o
6. Contract No. 3 (H.T. Smith International -S.A.) ,-Original Target Completion
7. Contract No. 4 (H.T. Smith InternationalI- S.A.) Date -30June 1961.
8. Contract No. 5 (H.T. Smith International S.A.) I
I. Prequalification of Contractors
2. Preparation of construction specifications
3. Calling for tenders
4. Contract No. I (H.T. Smith International-S.A.) mEmEElE mmmI EEmmmmmu m...
5. Contract No. 2 (H.T. Smith International-S.A.)Eh

1959 1960 1961 1962 L EGEND
2000 oo J F MJI A s J F A M J J A S 0 N J F M M D J F M J F M A M J J A S 0 N
III ----- Contract Progress
Note: Progress does not include ................. W APDA Progress
installation of pumping Combined Progress
/= I
1500 1
.m .NOTE
EC n *lDoes not include 188 tubewells completed in Combined Scheme Areas 1,2,3 and 4,or 7 WASID
= P~rogress-" 1
r -ress- _ tubewells in other Scheme Areas. Includes
1O00 - -/- -4
0 Cl Q only work completed through 30 November
SI 1962.
1 .... ,
Contract 0 iI
z Progress- j__-.
500 L I- - --..-./ I
WAPDA ... I o
Progress- r*.. .. ... ;01
1500-------------------------------------------------------- ---------0I
1500 -- =
o cCombined
W PProgress
I- I OI -
1000 L4
0 Contract I -T
oProgress "/r'-S
I --I
= I 1..
o------------------ ----------------------------~---------------- SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
5 960 I96 962 PROJECT NO.1

-'--" +" " '--- ---------co son
-- -- Roads
. .,Railway
. Towns and Vilges
as ot ... Water Qality, Conductivity, Micromhos @ 250

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Table No. 12 (Cont'd.)
Quantity Equipment Manufacture
(1) (Z) (3)
1 Generator, 60. 0 kw, 440 v,
diesel powered Auto Diesel, model ADD-87-A
3 Welding machines, 150 amp. Lincoln
1 Welding machines, Z00 amp. Lincoln
1 Welding machines, 300 amp. Lincoln
2 Motor analyzers Westinghouse, Type TA
4 Dump trucks, 5 ton, diesel Leyland, model ECOZ/2R
2 Oil field trucks, 5 ton, diesel Leyland, model ECO2/4R
2 Flatbed trucks, 5 ton, diesel Bedford, model J-5
5 Trucks (for pump setting rigs),
diesel Bedford, model J-2-LC7
2 Pickups, 1- ton, diesel Bedford, model J-1
40 Pickups, 3/4 ton, diesel Land Rover
5 Jeeps, gasoline Willys Jeep, model CJ-5
1 Bus, diesel Bedford, model CAV5
4 Sedans Various

- 39
were received, assembled, serviced, and put into operation. All major equipment idled by the monsoon during July, August and part of September of 1960 were given major overhauls. The workshops also carried out extensive overhaul, modification and renovation of construction equipment upon completion of the contracts.
The Contractor elected to procure all new construction equipment for carrying out his work. A summary of the numbers, types, and manufacture of principal items of construction equipment utilized by the Contractor is indicated in Table No. 12. It may be noted that the Contractor utilized equipment manufactured in several countries. He selected diesel engines for essentially all of the powered equipment for reasons of economy as well as to minimize fuel supply problems. A later section summarizes the general suitability and performance record of the principal equipment utilized by the Contractor.
On the night of 30 April 1961 a fire broke out in the machine shop
adjacent to the warehouse used for storage of spare parts, and for the storage of some equipment items for tubewell construction. The fire soon spread from the machine shop to the warehouse. The reed matting material of the roof, the roof trusses, and the contents of the warehouse were all reduced to rubble and ashes. All warehouse records were destroyed. The loss and damage to the contents of the shops and warehouse was estimated at $ 102, 000. The loss of the buildings and one Land Rover which was destroyed, was estimated at Rs. 41, 963.
Permanent Equipment
Under the terms of Contracts Nos. 1 and Z the Contractor was called upon to procure all permanent equipment to be installed in the tubewells in conformity with the requirements of the technical specifications. The manufacturers and sources of principal items of permanent equipment and materials installed in the tubewells constructed under contract are:
Equipment Source
Pumps Worthington Corporation,
Denver, Colorado, U. S. A.
Motors U. S. Electrical Motors, Inc.
Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
Motor Controls Allen-Bradley Co., Inc.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Steel Pipe Dalmine Sp. A., Milan, Italy and
Casing Stewart and Lloyds, Glasgow, Scotland

- 40
The tubewell and pump housing casing were fabricated at the supplier's plants in Italy and Scotland. The reducing cones connecting casing of different diameters were fabricated at the Contractor's base shop, where the slotting of the tubewell casing was also carried out. The characteristics of each unit of equipment installed in each tubewell are recorded on the individual Tubewell Data Sheets.
Construction Methods
All of the tubewells constructed by the Contractor were drilled by
reverse circulation drilling methods, using a bit with a diameter of ZZ inches. The use of drilling mud was expressly forbidden. In addition to the log obtained by taking samples continuous electric logs were run in most of the bore holes to obtain self-potential (spontaneous potential or S. P.), and resistivity curves. Upon completion of the electric log, 10-3/4 inch blank and slotted well casing was run into the hole as indicated on the casing schedule prepared by the inspector. After the scheduled amount of 10-3/4 inch casing was run, pump housing casing of 14 inch diameter in the case of
2.0 to 3. 0 cusec tubewells, and 16 inch diameter in the case of 3. 5 to 5.0 cusec tubewells, was attached to the 10-3/4 inch casing by use of a reducing cone, and run into the hole. When the well was cased as scheduled, the annular space between the formation and the casing was shrouded with gravel. Gravel was placed up to the level of the reducing cone at which time the determination of the verticality of the pump housing casing was made. Verticality was determined by lowering a round plumb with a diameter 1/2 inch less than the inside diameter of the housing pipe. The plumb was centered in the housing pipe and was lowered into the housing pipe in 10 foot increments. The deflection, if any, of the wire suspending the plumb was measured and the direction of deflection noted. By simple proportion the deviation of the housing pipe from the vertical could thus be obtained. When it was ascertained that the housing pipe was vertical and plumb to within specification tolerances, gravelling was completed to the surface. A final verticality check was then made. The tubewell was then bailed to consolidate the gravel shroud. This completed the construction of the tubewell.
The tubewell was next developed and tested. A test pump capable of pumping at a rate of at least 135 per cent of design capacity, and preferably 150 per cent of design capacity, was installed in the tubewell. The Contractor then step-developed the tubewell by surging and backwashing until it would efficiently pump clear water which contained less than 30 parts per million (ppm) of sand 10 minutes after the start of the sand test and would not increase in specific capacity more than 10 per cent in a 4 hour period, all the while pumping at 135 per cent of design capacity for wells up to a capacity of 3.5 cusecs, and 125 per cent of capacity for tubewells of 4.0 cusec capacity and greater. When these criteria were met the tubewell was tested.

The tubewell was allowed to stand idle until the water level had
stabilized and a static water level had been established. The tubewell was then pumped for a period of 1 hour, during which time water level measurements, discharge measurements, and sand content determinations were made. From the water level and discharge measurements a specific capacity was established. The tubewell was then developed for a period of 4 hours by surging and backwashing. Following this, pumping was stopped and the water level was again allowed to stabilize. A pumping period of 1 hour at 125 135 per cent of capacity then followed, during which sand samples were taken at 3, 5 and 10 minutes, and every 10 minutes thereafter. Water level measurements were also taken during this period. This 1 hour period constituted the qualifying sand test. A second specific capacity was obtained from data collected during this 1 hour period. This specific capacity, when compared with the previously obtained specific capacity, indicated whether or not the specific capacity had increased more than 10 per cent during a 4 hour period. Pumping was again stopped and the water level in the tubewell was allowed to stabilize. The tubewell was then step-tested in increments of 25 per cent of capacity starting at 25 per cent and ending at 125-135 per cent. The tubewell was pumped for 30 minutes at each increment. At the end of the 30 minutes of the 125-135 per cent step, a 7-1/2 hour period of pumping at the 1Z5-135 per cent rate was started. When this was completed, the testing was considered complete.
Following development and testing, a concrete pedestal and slab
were constructed. Generally, the pedestal was constructed prior to the slab, but under certain circumstances, the Contractor constructed the floor first. The concrete was poured and then cured for a period of 7 days. The motor control support brackets were imbedded in the slab and placed in position at the time of slab construction.
After the concrete pedestal and slab had cured for at least 10 days, the permanent pumping equipment was installed. The tubewell was first sounded and if there was more than 4 feet of material in the casing, the well was bailed. Also if there was any foreign matter floating on the water, it was removed.
Following installation of the pump, the wiring and the motor control were installed. The tubewell was then ready for the 4 hour equipment performance test. A generator was then brought to the site and the equipment given a 4 hour running test. During this time hydraulic and electrical measurements were taken to ascertain the performance of the tubewell and the equipment. Upon completion of the equipment test the pump discharge head was grouted to the pedestal top and the surrounding area cleaned up. The tubewell construction performed by the Contractor was then complete and ready for the construction of the pumphouse by WAPDA forces.

- 42
Construction Progress
Upon being awarded the second contract the Contractor prepared a
consolidated construction program which combined work under the two contracts into one schedule of construction operations. This program envisioned that preliminary preparations for construction, mobilization, and procurement of construction equipment would require until the end of 1959, that tubewell construction would begin in January 1960, and that all work would be completed by 7 July 1961, the completion date established under both contracts.
The Contractor's Project Manager arrived in Pakistan during the
first week in October 1959 and a temporary office was established at Faletti's Hotel in Lahore. The Project Manager immediately undertook the task of registration of the Company in Pakistan; establishment of banking facilities for the Company; establishing liaison with WAPDA and the Engineer; arranging for the import of materials, equipment and other supplies; appointing of customs clearing agents in Karachi, finalizing the site and location of gravel supply; arranging for quota and priorities for railway wagons; arranging for stockpiling materials; recruiting of local personnel, and other necessary preliminary operations.
Construction equipment and materials began to arrive in Karachi at
the end of November 1959. There was difficulty in clearing the first shipments through customs because the documentation on the goods was received after the goods had arrived. This condition was remedied and little trouble with customs clearance was had thereafter. The first shipment of construction equipment arrived at Sukheki by rail from Karachi, near the end of December 1959. The shipment consisted of wheel tractors, tractor spare parts, pipe perforating plant and saws, and front-end loaders. On 22 January 1960, 22 Land Rover pickups and 4 Leyland dump trucks, which had recently arrived in Karachi, left there by road and arrived at the Sukheki base camp on 25 January. These trucks were loaded with equipment and supplies which had also recently arrived in Pakistan. The gravel plant reached Campbellpur on 23 January and erection of the plant on a previously constructed foundation began immediately.
In the early part of January, the Project Manager moved from
Faletti' s Hotel to the Sukheki base camp which thereafter was the headquarters of all the Contractor's operations. By the end of January the Contractor had 23 expatriate employees in Pakistan, 19 of whom were living at the base camp. At the end of January the Contractor had more than 100 Pakistani personnel employed in this organization.
The Contractor's operations may, for convenience of discussion, be subdivided into the following principal items of work:

- 43
Preparatory and Production Work
Gravel Processing and Transportation Pipe Slotting
Site Preparation
Construction Operations
Developing and.Te sting.
Equipment Installation, Testing, and Cleanup
Each of the above operations are described separately and followed by a discussion of the overall construction progress attained.
Gravel Processing and Transportation
The gravel processing and transportation department was responsible for the quarrying and processing of gravel at the gravel pit near Campbellpur, and for the shipment of the finished gravel to the project area for use as gravel shrouding material in tubewell construction. The "Parker" gravel screening and washing plant was erected, ready for operation on 16 February 1960. The gravel plant operations were under the supervision of one expatriate superintendent who directed a staff of 31 Pakistani employees. The plant operated two 12 hour shifts per day. Twentytwo men were employed on the day shift excavating, stockpiling, and processing raw materials, hauling oversize and undersize waste material to the waste area, hauling processed gravel to the railhead, and loading railway wagons. The night shift was composed of 9 men who processed stockpiled gravel only.
The following support equipment was utilized at the gravel processing plant:
4 Leyland dump trucks
2 Drott shovels mounted on crawler tractors
1 Wheel tractor
1 Bunger trailer
Two of the dump trucks were used to haul raw materials from the gravel pit to the proc essing plant and to haul waste material to the disposal area. The other 2 Leyland dump trucks were used to transport processed gravel from the plant to the rail head, a round trip of 6 miles. The tractor drawn Bunger trailer was used for hauling gravel as necessary, and for hauling water during periods of water shortage. The dump trucks were later augmented, and eventually replaced by the use of leased, owner operated and maintained, trucks.

- 44
The "Parker" gravel plant had a design output of 12. 5 tons per hour using 1000 gallons of wash water per ton, or a total of 100 tons per 8 hour shift, using 100, 000 gallons of water. When the plant first went into operation no water was available so the Contractor initially processed the gravel without water. The production under these circumstances averaged 155 tons per day using 2 shifts of 12 hours each. The gravel produced did not meet specifications, because of material passing the No. 16 screen. When this material was received in the project area, the Contractor was asked to clean it so that it met specifications. This he endeavored to do by hand screening and washing. This proved to be unsatisfactory because of the removal of material which would normally be retained on the No. 16 screen. It was then agreed that if the shrouding material contained 10 per cent or less of material passing the No. 16 screen and if the tubewell was pumped slowly during gravelling, thus removing the fine material, the sub-standard gravel could be used. This procedure was followed until a tubewell was constructed at the gravel processing plant. This tubewell yielded 3000 gallons per hour, which was insufficient for direct operation of the gravel plant. A reservoir was then constructed and water was pumped from the well to the reservoir and from the reservoir to the gravel processing plant. Waste water from the plant was returned to the reservoir. This worked well for 11 days, when the well went dry. Water was then hauled to the reservoir in the IBunger trailer which allowed limited use of water for gravel processing. In August 1960, construction of a new tubewell began and in October was completed and tested. This tubewell produced 9500 gallons per hour and was connected directly to the processing plant. Production immediately rose to 240 tons per day (two 12 hour shifts) In November two 3/32 inch screens and one 1/16 inch screen were placed in the lower deck of the plant at reduced angles. Using this arrangement and the optimum amount of water the quality of the gravel at last met the specifications.
Prior to the time the plant went into operation, some:4770.tons of gravel was purchased from local suppliers in the Campbellpur area, From March 1960 onward local purchases of gravel were only infrequently necessary to augment the output of the gravel plant.
The overall average production at the gravel plant was 45. 6 per cent of its rated capacity, or 5. 7 tons per hour. About 40 per cent of the material processed was recovered. Of the 60 per cent waste, 27. 8 per cent was oversize and 72. 2 per cent was undersize.
It is interesting to note that the Contractor originally scheduled
production of 37, 000 tons of gravel or an average of 37 tons per tubewell. Assuming a unit weight of 110 pounds per cubic foot, this corresponds to an average of 673 cubic feet of gravel per tubewell as compared to the theoretical average volume of the annular space between the casing and the formation, assuming an overdrill of 3 feet, of 542 cubic feet, Actually each well,

- 45
on the average, received 51 tons of gravel, or assuming the same unit weight, 9Z7 cubic feet of gravel. The overrun in gravel take is probably due to the drilled hole being somewhat larger than the nominal bit diameter and to "loosening" of the formation during drilling and its subsequent reconsolidation during the gravel shrouding operation.
Transportation from the gravel production area to the proj ect area was by rail. The capacity of the wagons of the Pakistan Western Railway is between Z0 and 22 tons. Each tubewell required approximately 2. 4 wagon loads of gravel. During June 1960, 7930 tons of gravel were processed and only 2478 tons shipped, due to a wagon shortage and traffic restrictions imposed by the Pakistan Western Railway over certain sections of the line between Gampbellpur and the project area. During July of the same year, shipments were delayed because of breaches in the rail line caused by floods between Gampbellpur and the project area.
Pipe Slotting
The pipe slotting department was responsible for the slotting of
10 inch pipe used in tubewell construction, and for the maintenance of the pipe slotting machinery. The slots were machine cut, 1/16 inch wide, 2 to
3 inches long, and arranged in groups of 3 in alternating rows to provide not less than 180 slots per foot of length and not less than 30 square inches of opening per foot of length of casing.
All pipe slotting was done at the Sukheki base camp. Pipe slotting operations wer Ie under the supervision of 2 expatriate employees who supervised the work of 28 Pakistani personnel. The pipe slotting machines normally operated three 8 hour shifts per day.
Three Allen pipe slotting machines were used in producing the
slotted pipe. Two of the machines had 12 spindles and the other was a 16 spindle machine. Slotting began on 23 January 1960 and was completed in mid-March 1961. The combined production of the 3 machines averaged 15. 5 feet per hour for the 13 months of operation. A total of 149, 640 feet of pipe was slotted, of which approximately 137, 000 feet was used in tubewells constructed under Contracts Nos. 1 and 2.
Site Preparation
The site preparation department was responsible for the field
location of well sites furnished by the Authority; for preparation of access roads; for digging of slush pits and ditches for water supply; for transport of gravel and well casing to drilling locations; and for removal of surplus pipe and gravel following completion of tubewell construction.

The work of site preparation was carried out under the supervision
of one expatriate staff employee. The force which he supervised was composed of 145-150 Pakistani personnel. Site preparation work began on 7 January 1960 and was completed at the end of March 1961, approximately 50 days ahead of schedule. The average time for the preparation of one tubewell site was approximately 10 hours.
The drilling department was responsible for moving the rigs onto
location; for setting the rig up; for constructing a supply well if needed; for drilling the production well; for formation sampling and logging; for electric logging the well; for running casing, including welding; for gravelling; for plumbing the pump housing casing to within the specification tolerances; for bailing, tear down, and moveout.
Expatriate personnel in the drilling department consisted of 6 top drillers and 8 drillers. One field superintendent who was attached to the administrative force was in charge of all drilling operations. These men supervised the work of approximately 150 Pakistani workers who were classified as drillers, assistant drillers, time keepers, welders, mechanics, drivers, bulldozer operators, helpers and laborers.
The Contractor used Winter-Weiss reverse circulation drilling rigs. With each rig was an International crawler tractor, a wheel tractor, and a Bunger trailer. Each drill crew had a Land Rover for transportation to and from base camp or sub-camp. Two drill rigs went into the field on 26: January 1960; two more went in the third week of February; and one more went in March 1960. During the first two months of drilling operations all tubewells, of 3. 5 cusec capacity and larger had to be by-passed because the Contractor had no 16 inch diameter pump housing casing. There had been a breakdown at the pipe suppliers fabricating plant and no 16 inch diameter pump housing casing was received in the project area until the early part of April, 1960.
Between 2 July and 11 July, 1960, 3. 1 inches of rain fell in the
camp area and on 9 July 4 drill rigs were recalled to the base camp from the Hafizabad area. One rig was left in the field to complete the construction of the large capacity tubewells which were by-passed in the Sangla Hill area because of the shortage of 16 inch diameter pump housing casing. During the time the drill rigs were in the base camp yard, they and their supp ort equipme .nt were overhauled. On 1 August 1960 two rigs went into the field to begin tubewell construction work in the Khangah Dogran area. During this month the rig which had been working in the Sangla Hill area returned to camp for overhaul. On 29 August a third rig went into the field; on the 19th

and 29th of September the fourth and fifth rigs went into the field and on 19 October the sixth rig went into the field. From the 19th of October 1960 to the latter part of February 1961, there were six rigs in the field. During portions of this period only 5 rigs were working due to major breakdowns to two of the rigs. On 1 March 1961 one rig returned to the yard and between 25 and Z9 March the other five rigs returned to the yard when construction of 1014 tubewells was completed.
The Contractor was paid for 269, 256 feet of drilling, all but 120 feet of which was successfully developed into tubewells. One bore hole struck non-water bearing bedrock at 120 feet and was abandoned. The average total rig time for the completion of 1 tubewell was 36. 17 hours. This included an average of 7. 78 hours of down time.
The electric logging division of the drilling department was responsible for the running and production of the resistivity and spontaneous potential logs called for in the specifications, and for the repair and maintenance of the logging equipment. This work was performed by two expatriate employees, assisted by four Pakistani employees.
The first logging machine arrived in Lahore on 23 January 1960, after being air freighted from Karachi. Upon arrival it was found that the machine's control panel was badly damaged. This machine was repaired by Schlumberger technicians and went into service two months later. Because of the damaged logging apparatus the Contractor was allowed to construct a limited number of tubewells without running electric logs. ,The second logging machine arrived in February, and the first tubewell log was run on 11 February 1960. The Contractor was paid for running 936 electric logs. It took an average of 31 minutes to run an electric log, but it sometimes took as much as 3 hours travel time to get from camp to rig, and from rig to rig with the logging equipment.
Development and Testing
The developing and testing department was responsible for the
installation of the development pump and driver; for the development and testing of the tubewell; for the disposal of pumped water; for the removal of the testing equipment; and for the move to the next location.
The Contractor had four expatriate pump setters and 25 Pakistani employees in the test equipment setting section. In the development and testing portion of his. operation, the Contractor had three expatriate employees and 20 Pakistani employees.

- 48
The Contractor used a maximum of 2 pump setting rigs in this
operation. These pump setting rigs had 10 pumping units of various capacities to work with. The pumping units consisted of a vertical turbine pump, a right angle gear drive, a drive shaft, and a diesel power supply mounted on a tractor drawn trailer. All equipment gave satisfactory service except the Bedford trucks on which the pump setting rigs were mounted. Because of the breakdown of the Bedford trucks, the Contractor at one time used a tractor drawn, trailer mounted, hand operated rig for setting the test pumps.
Development and testing started on 16 February 1960, and was completed on 18 April 1961. The relatively late start of this phase of the construction operations was due to the late arrival of pump setting rig components, and to the length of time required to modify the equipment so that the pump setting unit could be mounted on the Bedford trucks. A reverse circulation drill rig was used to set test pumps until the third week in March.. During September 1960 the lag time between completion of tubewell drilling and development and testing was at its lowest. At one time during this month there were only 19 tubewells which had been constructed and had not been developed and tested.
A total of 1017 tubewells were developed. Three tubewells were
abandoned and redrilled because of excessive sand content and 1014 tubewells were successfully tested. The average development time was 6. 5 hours with a maximum of 105 hours. The average test time was 16. 9 hours. The average time for setting, pulling, and moving test equipment, including down time, was approximately 10 hours.
The concreting department was responsible for the construction of the concrete pump pedestal, the concrete pump house floor, and for the installation of the motor control support bracket. This department was under the supervision of two expatriate staff supervisors. They supervised and planned the work for approximately 40 Pakistani employees. Worthington Concrete Mixers were used for mixing concrete. Aggregate and cement were moved to the site on tractor drawn Bunger trailers.
At the end of February 1960, two concrete crews were fielded by the Contractor. In mid-April 1960, the number of concrete crews was increased to four, This number of crews was maintained until February 1961, when the number was again reduced to two. These two crews completed the remaining work in April 1961.

- 49
The average construction time for a complete pedestal and slab was 10 hours. Inaddition, an average of 4. 5 hours was taken for material transport, repair work on previous construction, and down time. The concrete department used approximately 4375 barrels of cement, 2700 yards of gravel, and 1350 yards of sand.
Equipment Installation, Testing and Cleanup
This department was responsible for the installation of the permanent pumping equipment; the electric motor and motor control complete with electric wiring and connections; conducting the 4 hour equipment performance test, including the disposal of pumped water; grouting of the discharge head; site cleanup, including the filling of slush pits; and the final preparation of the installation for acceptance.
The staff for this department was distributed as follows:
Expatriates Paki stani
Permanent pump storage and hauling 1 11
Permanent pump installation 4 37
Permanent electrical installation,
final testing and cleanup 1 37
Permanent pump installation was accomplished with the same type of rigs as were used in development pump setting. A maximum of 2 pump setting rigs were used in setting permanent pumps. It was found that the optimum work output commensurate with good workmanship and safety, was obtained by working two rigs one 12 hour shift during daylight hours.
Permanent pump installation began on 1 March 1960 and the last pump was installed on 29 June 1961. Progress at first was very slow because of the lack of pumps of the correct capacity and design head. It was not until the latter part of May that sufficient pumps were available so that it was not necessary to by-pass tubewells because of lack of correct pumping equipment. The late completion of pump setting was caused by the order for the 14 additional pumps not being finalized until January 1961, by the loss of equipment spare parts in the warehouse fire of April 1961, and by the loss of 57 joints of column pipe which were dropped in Karachi Harbor while being unloaded.
The installation of motor control panels, rigid conduit and wiring
was begun on 20 March 1960 and was completed on 29 June 1961. The conduit and wiring for use between the motor and motor control was pre-fabricated in the base camp shop, transported to site, and fitted in place.

- N (A1 4 C"1 -J W 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CD ~~--N AprilI- Project Eng in eer's office established in Lahore
H03~ ~ -IJune- Tenders called for 500 tubewellIs
.. ~ --24 July Tenders received for 500 tubewellIs
_-'.7 August -Contract awarded for 600 tubewells (Contract No.i.)
-, -20 Oct.- Tenders received for 300 to 400 tubewells
-. z
4 Nov. Contract awarded for 400 fubewells (Contract No. 2.)
C= -26Jan.- Commencemenl of drilling operations
(0 /11
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--i April- Project Engineers Office established in Lahore
r--7 July -Tenders received for 400 pumps and motors r-12 July- Tender received for 400 motor controls
Sr-14 July- Tenders received for I steel casings
---6 Oct.-Contract awarded for
_---steel casings
-21 Dec.-Contract awarded for 400 }pumps and motors
--23 Dec.-Confract awarded for 400 motor controls
__F-l0 April- Contract 3
------ -60tubewells
--- May -Contract # 4 CD CD CD --+. developing o 3 -- C and testing
0- CD =3
Of Co <
4 2r-29 March- Contract M5 installation of b 70 m Mequipment
90 ( 2L-17 April- Contract for 100 KSB pumps
0 C) =3 I D
21 38nfl9i z

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The average time consumed for the pump installation, installation of the electric motor, motor control, conduit, and wiring of one tubewell was 15 hours. The average time consumed for this same work during the time when equipment was readily available and it was unnecessary to by-pass tubewells because of the lack of correct capacity and design head pump, was 13 hours. The installation of the motor control and wiring took place generally within 2 days of the installation of the pump, and the testing of the equipment generally was accomplished within 2 days of the completion of this wiring installation.
Equipment performance testing began on ZZ March 1960 and was
completed on 29 June 1961. The start and finish of this work was predicated upon the start and finish of permanent pump installation and thus any delays which were experienced in pump installation were reflected in the progress of equipment testing.
Following completion of the test, generally within a week, the grounds were cleaned up, excavations were filled, and the area returned to its normal appearance. The installation was then given a final inspection by an expatriate member of the Engineer's staff, at which time the work was either accepted or rejected. Prior to this inspection all pertinent records were scrutinized to insure that all specifications had been complied with. If the tubewell was accepted, the Contractor was issued a Certificate of Acceptance. If rejected the tubewell was returned to the Contractor for remedial work and subsequently accepted when that work had been completed.
Overall Progress
Figure 11 portrays graphically the overall progress of tubewell
construction under Contract Nos. 1 and 2. The several curves shown on this chart depict separately progress on the drilling, the developing and testing, and the installation of equipment, all of which was carried out by H. T. Smith International, S. A. Another curve shows progress on the construction of pump houses which work was carried out by WAPDA forces and by local contractors. Referring to the curve showing progress on drilling operations (which includes also the installation of casing and gravel shrouding) it may be noted that with the exception of the monsoon season, extending from July through September of 1960, tubewell construction reached a sustained rate of approximately 80 tubewells per month. To achieve this production an average of 5 drilling rigs were operated three shifts per day, which is equivalent to an average production rate of 16 tubewells per month per rig, operated on a three shift per day basis. The drilling and testing of the tubewells, while lagging the tubewell construction by 2 to 3 weeks and for somewhat greater periods during the monsoon season, attained about the same average rate of progress. Most of this work was accomplished with two pd~mp setting rigs

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or an equivalent fair weather production of 40 tubewells per month per pump setting rig. The installation of pumping equipment lagged several months behind the developing and testing of tubewells during the forepart of the construction period but after all of the pumps and motors had been received from the suppliers, this work progressed at a sustained rate approaching 105 tubewells per month.
A period of approximately 19 months elapsed from the time the first drilling operations were undertaken in January 1960 until completion of the last of the 1014 tubewells in June 1961, an overall average rate of production of about 53 completed tubewells per month. This rate is equivalent to a little less than 650 completed tubewells per year.
Construction of pump houses in the contract scheme areas was undertaken after completion of the tubewell installations. This work progressed at an average rate of about 100 pump houses per month, and by the end of October 1961, all pump houses for tubewells constructed under contract had been completed.

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The portion of Project No. One, designated as "WAPDA Construction, consists of a total of 782 tubewells situated in the following areas:
Number of
Area Tubewells
Shahkot 385
Zafarwal 390 (Includes 1 WASID
tubewell and 60 constructed under contract) Khangah Dogran 6 (WASID tubewells)
Shadman 1
Total 782
Although denoted as WAPDA Construction, since most of the tubewells were drilled by WAPDA construction forces, certain phases of the work in these areas were carried out by other agencies. Under a work order and several contracts, H. T. Smith International, S. A. was called upon to perform the following work in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas:
Work Order
or Contract No. Date Description of Work
WO 1 6 March 1961 Developing and testing of 5 tubewells
in the Zafarwal area. (Later incorporated in Contract No. 4 for purposes of payment. )
C 3 10 April 1961 Construction, including development
and testing, of 60 tubewells of 4. 0 to
5. 0 cusec capacity in the Zafarwal area.
C 4 1 May 1961 Developing and testing 152 tubewells in
the Zafarwal area and 17 tubewells in the Shahkot area.
C 5 29 May 1962 Installation and testing of pumping
equipment, motors, and motor control units in 385 tubewells in the Zafarwal area.

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In October 1961 a work order was issued to the Beco Pump
Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore covering the installation of pumps and motors in 60 tubewells in the Shahkot area. This work order was later expanded on several occasions to cover the installation of additional pumps and motors in the Shahkot area. Other contracts were entered into with local contractors for the installation of motor control panels and internal wiring of the pumphouses. Many of the pumphouses and operator's quarters were also constructed under several contracts with local contractors.
All of the 782 tubewells scheduled for WAPDA construction have been constructed. As of November 30, 1962, pumping equipment had been installed in only 750 of these tubewells, and of this number certain of the equipment installations remained to be tested before final acceptance. The 32 tubewells where no equipment has yet been installed are situated in the southern portion of the Shahkot area which overlies a zone of relatively poor quality ground water where the concentration of disolved salts in the groundwater range upwards from 1500 ppm. Installation of pumping equipment in these tubewells is pending resolution of the best manner of disposing of saline water from these tubewells or diluting it sufficiently to permit its use for irrigation.
Aside from the fact that a number of different agencies were
involved in constructing tubewells in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas the works in these areas are characterized by a great variety of types and sources of pumps, motors and other equipment installed in the tubewells. This came about because of the need to utilize, to the greatest extent possible, certain quantities of casing, electric motors and motor controls which existed in various stores in West Pakistan at the outset of the program, as well as the desire to procure as much equipment and materials as possible with local currencies so as to limit the use of DLF loan funds to only those items which could not be obtained locally. The sources of the principal items of equipment and materials incorporated in the WAPDA constructed tubewells are described in more detail in a later section.
As noted heretofore, and as discussed in more detail later, the entire program undertaken by WAPDA forces was fraught with numerous problems and suffered many delays. To a degree many of these problems and delays had been foreseen, and could not have been avoided, in view of the requirement of utilizing to the greatest extent possible the somewhat limited resources available to the Authority at the commencement of the program and the great variety of equipment and materials which existed in widely scattered stores within the country.

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Organization and Plant
At the time the Loan Agreement was perfected in February 1959
WAPDA' s forces committed to the project consisted of two drilling divisions operating in the Shahkot scheme area. These drilling divisions had only a few hand boring sets, a limited amount of tubewell casing, and virtually no transportation facilities. As a result the work was showing little progress and being done without adequate supervision. There were available in the country, however, a number of mechanical cable-tool machines, some of which were still in their original crates which had formed part of the equipment for the reclamation scheme provided under the Colombo Plan. Soon after the Project Engineer established his office in Lahore in April 1959, steps were taken to inventory the equipment and material available in various stores in the country; to prepare requisitions for the supplementary construction equipment, particularly transportation equipment, which was very badly needed; and to recruit a number of expatriate drillers around which the tubewell construction operations could be expanded utilizing the mechanical cable-tool rigs. In addition to integrating expatriate personnel into WAPDAs field drilling operations, it was also necessary to recruit staff for the planning and technical supervision of the work including that being done under contract, to establish field base camps, and to accelerate the task of siting of the proposed tubewells. The latter operation became a particularly burdensome one which was difficult to keep far in advance of the construction operation because of the limited number of personnel available, time required to obtain adequate maps and other data pertaining to the existing irrigation system, and the need for relocating many tubewell sites after they had once been sited to meet the demands of landowners.
The equipment and plant utilized for the WAPDA constructed
tubewells may be grouped into two categories: (1) equipment available within the country at the time the work started, and (Z) additional equipment procured from the exterior with DLF funds. The first group of equipment consisted primarily of a number of hand boring sets and some mechanical cable-tool rigs, together with a few old trucks, small tractors, trailers, pumps and miscellaneous tools. The hand boring sets consist of an "All frame composed of three pipe poles and a crude winch with cable and bailer. The mechanical cable-tool rigs are of-Australian manufacture, mounted on wheels with a gasoline engine driven cable drum operating the bailer. These units were situated at various locations around the country and had to be gathered together and assembled. The balance of equipment available in the country consisting of a few trucks, tractors and other miscellaneous items, had already outlived its useful life but by makeshift repairs and improvising it was possible to put much of this old equipment into use.

To supplement the above equipment orders were placed for trucks, transportation equipment, welding machines, pump testing sets, jacks and other tools and spare parts required for the work. However, because of delays encountered in establishing procedures for implementing procurement of equipment and other items under the DLF Loan, the time required to obtain quotations and place orders and to ship the equipment to Pakistan, transport it to the site and place it in operation many months elapsed before this new equipment was available for construction operations. Table No. 13 shows a summary of the principal items of equipment utilized on the WAPDA construction operations.
Near the end of 1960 an old Winter-Weiss reverse rotary drilling
rig was rehabilitated and put in service to complete some of the larger capacity tubewells in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas.
Soon after the work commenced it was recognized that it would be
necessary to establish a base camp in the field to form a depot for stores of all types and a suitable site for the overhaul and maintenance of construction equipment. Innumerable delays were encountered in procuring a suitable site for this camp but finally in December 1959 a site some 33 miles from Lahore on the Lahore-Lyallpur Road was selected, but it was not until March 1960 that actual construction on the camp was started. This camp, which became known~ as Mile 33 Camp, was not fully completed and provided with power facilities until the summer of 1961.
The maintenance of equipment, particularly transportation equipment, was one of the greatest problems encountered in the WAPDA construction operations. Initially and for many months the repair and maintenance of transportation equipment was handled through commercial establishments in Lahore and at times certain equipment was sent to the Machinery Pool Organization (MPO) shops at Lyallpur for overhaul and repair. In spite of strenuous efforts on the part of the Authority and the Engineer, neither of these arrangements proved satisfactory because of long delays in carrying out the work and lack of an adequate supply of spare parts. To rectify this situation, which was delaying both the construction work as well as the supervision of construction being done under contract, the Engineer petitioned the Authority to set up a motor pool operation of its own. Sanction for the motor pool was given in November 1960 and after some delay in selecting a suitable site the motor pool was finally established in Lahore in March 1961. Even after this facility was established, it took strenuous efforts to keep the transportation equipment in operating condition. By that time most of the transportation units had traveled in excess of 50, 000 miles, much of which was over unmetalled roads and rough terrain, and it was not unusual to have up to 30 per cent of the vehicles down for repairs at one time. Notwithstanding the many difficulties encountered in all these operations, it was eventually possible to complete the work and much of the transportation equipment purchased for the project is still operating, although it has all been used far beyond its normal useful life.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 13
Principal Items of Construction Equipment used by WAPDA Forces
Quantity Equipment Manufacture
1 Reverse rotary drilling rigs "Winter- Weis s, modified
6 Cable tool drilling rigs Australian Colombo Plan
21 Hand boring sets Composite
- Wheel tractors, gas Various
- Wheel tractors, diesel Various
4 Crawler tractors Italian Ansaldo
1 Crawler tractor Australian Colombo Plan
18 Trailers Various
3* Test Pumps Peerless Pump Div.
4 Test Pumps Various
3 Diesel engines, trailer-mounted Continental Red Seal
1 Diesel engine, skid mounted IH UD 18 Colombo Plan
3 Diesel engines, skid mounted General Motors
- Air compressors Various
- Welding machines Various
3* Power Analyzers Westinghouse
8* Conductivity meters Industrial Instruments
7* Drawdown gauges Fischer Instruments
3* Drawdown gauges Cox
3* Dial indicators w/magnetic base Brown & Sharpe
3 Temp indicating meters w/probes Simpson
48 Sand cones Imhoff
6 Volt-ammeters General Electric
1* Frequency meter G.E. Type P3
4- Watt-hour meters G.E. Type V-3-A
2* Voltmeters G.E. Type APII
5* Trucks w/end dump White Motor Co. 2064
5* Trucks w/oil field bed White Motor Co. 2064
4 Trucks Leyland
8 Trucks Bedford
- Pick-up Trucks Willys
- Station wagons Willys
-: Universal Jeep CJ5 Willys
- Sedans Various
*Equipment purchased with DLF funds.

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Permanent Equipment
For reasons noted earlier a great variety of equipment procured from a number of different sources was incorporated in the WAPDA constructed tubewells. At the commencement of the program some 400 electric motors and motor control panels had been allocated to the project under the Colombo Plan, although they had not at that time been delivered to West Pakistan. There was also available in a number of stores and at various sites in the field a supply of 18 inch diameter casing used to sink holes drilled with percussion equipment and a considerable supply of 14 inch diameter and 10-3/4 inch diameter tubewell casing. In June 1959 an order was placed with the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore for 100 turbine pumps of 3 cusec capacity. An additional order was placed with Beco in December 1959 for up to 300 pumps of various capacities, it being intended that these orders for Beco pumps, together with the Colombo Plan motors would be utilized to equip 400 tubewe lls.
In June 1960 international tenders were called for the supply of the balance of 400 pumps, motors, and motor controls, required for the WAPDA tubevwe Ils. As a result of this tendering, contracts were awarded to the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Lahore for 400 turbine pumps with electric motors and to Siemens Pakistan Engineering Company, Ltd. of Karachi for 400 motor control units. Because of delays in delivery of the Beco pumps, a separate order was placed in March 1962 with KSB Pump Company of Wah, West Pakistan, for the supply of 100 turbine pumps. In July 1960 tenders were called for the supply of 13, 000 feet of 16 inch diameter casing required for the housing pipe of the larger capacity tubewells and the contract for this casing was awarded to Foster International Corporation. Summaries of the tenders received for the above items of equipment and materials are contained in Appendix C.
Table No. 14 shows a summary of the types and sources of equipment installed in the tubewells constructed in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas. The individual tubewell data sheets on file in the offices of the Groundwater Division of the Authority form a record of the equipment installed in each individual tubewell.
Construction Methods
With the exception of 60 tubewells constructed by H. T. Smith International, S. A. in the Zafarwal area and 34 tubewells constructed with the single reverse rotary rig utilized late in the program by WAPDA forces, all of the WAPDA constructed tubewells were drilled by percussion methods utilizing the hand boring sets and the mechanical cable-tool rigs.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 14
Summary of Permanent Equipment and Materials Installed in WAPDA Constructed Tubewells
Quantities Installed
Item Shahkot Zafarwal Total
Beco-KSB 304 11 315 Beco Pump Mfg.
Co., Lahore
Beco-Jacuzzi 36 296 332 Beco Pump Mfg.
Co., Lahore
KSB 13 83 96 KSB Pump Co.,
353 390 743 Wah
2 Motors
McColl 285 69 354 Colombo Plan
Newman 68 321 389 Beco Pump Mfg.
353 390 743 Co., Lahore
3 Motor Controls
Siemens 36 325- 361 Siemens Pak.
Engr. Co.,
Ltd., Karachi
Midland Electric 33 0 33 Local Market
Johns & Phillips 105 32 137 Colombo Plan
Bailey & Grimster 170 1 171 Colombo Plan
Assoc. Electric 0 1 1 Local Market
Schiele Industriewerke 0 14 14 Local Market
East Asiatic Co.
(ASEA) 9 17 26 Local Market
353 390 743
4 Casing
16" dia. (ft) 1,222 6, 677 7, 899 Foster Int'l
14" dia. (ft) 27,357 27, 909 55, 266 WAPDA Stores
10-3/4" blank (ft) 14, 484 14,808 29, 292 WAPDA Stores 10-3/4" slotted(ft) 42, 099 43,247 85, 346 WAPDA Stores (MPO)
10-3/4" slotted(ft) 1, 845 8, 722 10, 567 H. T. Smith Int'l S. A.
8" brass screen (a) 133 WAPDA Stores
(a) Quantity of brass screen installed in tubewells in Shahkot area prior to late 1959 not recorded.
Note: Additional equipment Items 1, 2 & 3 installed at six locations in Khangah
Dogran, and one location in Shadman scheme areas.

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In the so-called hand boring operation an "All frame equipped with sheave is set up over the site of the tubewe II. A hand operated winch is anchored at some distance from the tubewell site and the cable wound on this winch is run through the sheave of the "A" frame and connected to a conventional bailer. Eighteen inch diameter drilling casing is set up over the well and as material is removed from inside this casing with the bailer the casing slowly sinks into the ground. The bailer is operated by a group of men who in rhythm alternately pull and release the cable anchored to the winch. A framework of heavy timbers is placed on top of the 18 inch diameter casing and loaded with earth and extra pieces of casing pipe to provide additional weight to force the casing in the ground as material is removed by the bailer. When the casing has been sunk to the full depth of the tubewell the permanent casing is installed. After this casing has been lowered in the tubewell the gravel is fed into the annular space between the permanent casing and the 18 inch housing casing. As gravel is being fed in, the outer casing is removed by jacks, care being taken in the operation that the gravel pack is kept four to five feet above the bottom of the outer casing as it is being withdrawn. The entire operation with the hand boring sets is carried out by manual labor, a normal crew consisting of 10 to 15 men. While it is a slow and laborious operation, it was nevertheless possible, by working three shifts per day, to complete an average of one tubewell per month per rig. Initially only a limited number of screw jacks were available and the removal of the housing casing by this means was a very slow operation. This part of the operation was speeded up somewhat after hydraulic jacks had been procured.
Functionally the tubewell construction operation with the mechanical cable-tool rigs was identical. to that utilized with the hand boring sets except that with mechanical operation of the bailer and the more efficient means for stringing casing in the hole, the operation was considerably faster. With these rigs it normally took approximately 3 days to sink a 250-350 foot depth tubewell, about 1 day to lower the casing, and another Z days to complete the gravel packing and withdraw the housing casing. On the average, one cable-tool rig, operated three shifts per day, would complete approximately
4 tubewells per month, not including developing and testing.
Except for method of construction the tubewells constructed by the
above means are essentially identical to those constructed by the Contractor with reverse rotary equipment. Although the diameter of the casing forming the drill hole is slightly less than that obtained with the 22 inch bit of the reverse rotary machines, the percussion operation tends to disturb the surrounding formation to a greater degree with the result that the quantity of gravel required is not greatly less than with the rotary operation. Other operations necessary to complete the installation after construction of the tubewell consisting of developing and testing of the tubewell and installation of equipment were similar to the operations described for the

tubewells constructed under contract. One significant difference between the two construction methods was the time elapsed between construction of the tubewell and commencement of the developing and testing operation. Suitable equipment for developing and testing of WAPDA constructed tubewells did not become available until late in the program. As a result there was commonly an extended interval, sometimes as long as 6 to 12 months between the time the construction was completed and the tubewell was developed and tested; whereas with the tubewells constructed under contract, it was seldom more than a few weeks between these two operations. Experience has shown that this long interval of time between construction and developing and testing has an adverse effect on the tubewells, principally through incrustation of slots in the casing. Although with some exceptions it was possible to develop these tubewell satisfactorily, the operation required much more time and in some cases required the use of light explosive charges to jar loose incrustations which had formed in the slots.
Other problems inherent in tubewells constructed by percussion
methods relate to the greater degree of difficulty in maintaining verticality, particularly with the hand boring sets and the fact that because of the greater degree to which the surrounding formation is disturbed in the percussion operation there is a greater likelihood of settlement of the casing string with the consequent likelihood of rupture of the casing or damage to the gravel pack. There were a number of tubewells in the Shahkot area that had been constructed prior to the initiation of full scale operations by WAPDA forces which settled anywhere from 2 to 10 feet prior to being developed and tested. In several cases some of these tubewells could not be developed and were abandoned. In a few cases there was evidence that the casing string had ruptured and the tubewells were abandoned.
Construction Progress
By April 1959 when the Project Engineer's office was established in Lahore approximately 130 tubewells had been constructed in the Shahkot area. Although most of these tubewells had been constructed by the Irrigation Department prior to the time the project was taken over by WAPDA, they are considered herein as part of the WAPDA construction as WAPDA became responsible for their completion. All of these early tubewells were constructed utilizing the hand-boring sets, and less than half had been developed and tested by the time the first two expatriate drillers arrived on the scene in June 1959. This was in the midst of a period of intensive efforts directed towards completion of planning and the mobilization of construction forces; and much of the time of the two expatriate drillers who arrived in June, as well as that of others who followed in July, August and September, was spent in seeking out and inventorying equipment and materials lying in various stores around the country and in assembly

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of the mechanical cable-tool rigs and other equipment. As a result, during the months of May, June and July the drilling operations continued at about the same pace with the hand-boring sets.
By August 1959 the monsoon rains had begun and the work was
slowed considerably because of inaccessibility of many of the tubewell sites. The rains continued to impede the construction work as well as the task of gathering and assembling the cable-tool rigs during September and October, and again by unseasonal rains occurring in November. During that month 10 jeep pickups and 4 jeep trucks were acquired which temporarily relieved the transportation problem which had greatly impeded progress up to that time. After weather conditions had improved in December the first of the cable-tool machines were put into operation, and an intensive program of training of drill crews in their operation was undertaken. This training program continued through January of 1960 while construction continued with the hand-boring sets. Although six of the cable-tool rigs were in operation by the end of February 1960, it was found necessary to keep the hand-boring sets in operation at sites which were inaccessible to the cable-tool machines because of wet ground and lack of adequate roads.
The tempo of construction operations increased slowly during the ensuing months with 6 mechanical cable-tool rigs and 15 to 16 hand-boring sets in operation. By June 1960 enough personnel had been trained in the operation of the cable-tool rigs to permit placing those operations on a twoshift basis. At that time the drilling of tubewells in the Shahkot area was nearing completion, and in July 1960 drilling commenced in the Zafarwal area. Throughout this period it was found necessary to keep the handboring sets in operation and as many as 20 sets were in operation at one time. Although the drilling operations had become fairly well organized by that time, delays were still periodically being encountered because of lack of slotted pipe and a sufficient number of jacks for withdrawing the 18 inch housing casing.
From the outset the developing and testing of tubewells lagged
considerably behind the drilling operations. The old pump testing sets were more or less continuously breaking down and it was not until three new pump testing rigs became available in July 1960 that it was possible to accelerate this operation. The installation of pumping equipment in the tubewells was also far behind schedule, principally because of delays encountered in obtaining the electric motors to be supplied by Australia under the Colombo Plan. Soon after the first of these motors were received in October 1960, the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. undertook the installation of pumps and motors in tubewells in the Shahkot area. By the end of 1960 a total of 560 tubewells had been constructed, 290 had been developed and tested, and pumps and motors had been installed in 58 tubewells. Up to that time it had been necessary to by-pass all of the tubewells of 3. 5 cusecs capacity and larger in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas because of lack of equipment

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to drill holes sufficiently large to accommodate the 16 inch diameter housing pipe required for the larger pumps. Finally in February 1961 the rehabilitation of the Winter-Weiss reverse rotary rig had been completed and it was placed in operation. Nevertheless it soon became apparent that it would be necessary to greatly accelerate the rate of completion of the large tubewells, as well as the developing and testing operations and the installation of equipment, if the program were to be completed within a reasonable period of time. Accordingly in April 1961 a contract was entered into with H. T. Smith International, S.A. to construct, and develop and test 60 of the larger capacity tubewells in the Zafarwal area, which work was completed in June 1961. Under another contract H. T. Smith International, S.A. was called upon to develop and test additional tubewells in the Zafarwal and Shahkot areas, and by July of that year had completed this work on 170 tubewells. By that time all the tubewells scheduled for these two areas had been constructed, developing and testing was essentially completed, but only 125 of these installations had been equipped with pumps and motors. Up to that time and for a number of months thereafter great difficulties were experienced in securing pumping equipment from Beco that would satisfactorily meet the performance requirements of the specifications. Actually a number of the pumps that had already been installed had to be removed because of various deficiencies encountered in their operation and it was not until November 1961 that it was possible to resume work on the installation of equipment in the WAPDA constructed tubewells. Later further delays were encountered because of the failure of Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. to meet promised delivery dates on the second order for 400 pumps and motors. This situation ultimately became so serious that in February 1962 the Authority gave notice to the Beco Pump Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of its intent to cancel the contract for the pumps and motors. At the same time, because of the seriousness of the situation, a separate order was placed in March 1962 with KSB Pump Manufacturing Company of Wah~for 100 pumps. Finally in March 1962 delivery of the Beco pumps was resumed and delivery of the 100 KSB pumps was completed in April 1962. A contract was entered into with H.T. Smith International, S.A. in March 1962 covering the installation of these pumps and motors in the tubewells in the Zafarwal area. By the end of August 1962 pumping equipment had been installed in all of the Zafarwal tubewells and in 353 tubewells in the Shahkot area. It was decided at that time to defer the installation of equipment in the remaining 32 tubewells in the Shahkot area, all of which are situated in a zone of poor quality ground water, until a decision could be made as to the best means of disposing of the saline water or of providing sufficient good quality canal supplies for dilution. As of November 30, 1962, no decision has yet been made on these matters, and the equipment destined for installation in these tubewells is stored at the Mile 33 base camp.

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Overall Progress
Figure 12 portrays graphically the overall rates of progress attained in the drilling, developing and testing, installation of equipment and construction of pumphouses in the Shahkot and Zafarwal areas. The marked differences between the manner in which this work was carried out, and that in which the contract work was carried out as portrayed on Figure 11, may be readily noted. Although because of circumstances previously described the drilling of tubewells progressed at a much slower pace than did the contract construction, essentially all of the tubewells scheduled for the two WAPDA areas had been drilled by the end of May 1961. Developing and testing operations, however, lagged anywhere from 6 to 12 months behind the completion of tubewell construction; and because of the innumerable delays encountered in procuring equipment for the tubewell installations, the installation of that equipment lagged anywhere from 6 to 18 months behind the developing and testing of the tubewells. In the Shahkot area the construction of pumphouses was commonly executed before equipment was available for installation. While this was not originally planned, since it is preferable to complete the installation of equipment before constructing the pumphouse, it was nevertheless not feasible to defer the construction of these facilities because of the long delays encountered in procuring acceptable equipment for installation in the tubewells.

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The total estimated cost of the 1796 tubewells of Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One constructed under the auspices of the Authority is equivalent to 94. Z million rupees. A summary of the estimated cost of these works and related expenditures incurred in connection with their construction is indicated in Table No. 15. Their total cost is made up of foreign expenditure currencies of 8. 87 million dollars and local currency expenditures of 51. 96 million rupees.
The totals cited above, as well as the amounts indicated in Table No. 15, have been determined from the Engineer's records of payments made to contractors and suppliers in so far as foreign currency expenditures are concerned and from the accounting records of WAPDA and other sources of information in so far as local currency expenditures are concerned, As of 30 November 1962, the date of this report, the project accounts have not been closed and therefore it should be recognized that all references made to the so-called "total" cost of the work represent only the best estimates it is possible to make at this time with the data available from the sources indicated. Actually it will likely be a number of months before all of the accounts, particularly those pertaining to rupee expenditures, can be fully closed and audited. Some works have not yet been fully completed arid other pending matters such as disposition of several cases which involve liquidated damages due WAPDA on account of suppliers failing to deliver acceptable equipment in accord with agreed time schedules may also result in some adjustments to the total costs indicated herein. Notwithstanding these circumstances, amounts have been included in the estimates to represent the probable total cost of the tubewell features of the project and related services which it is believed will be reasonably close to the final cost of such work when all accounts have been closed and all outstanding matters have been settled.
Table No. 16 has been prepared to show a comparison of the final cost of the work with the target estimate which was prepared in August 1960 and which is summarized in Table No. Z. It maybe noted that the estimated total cost of the work is some 2. 0 million rupees more than the target estimate prepared in 1960, but of this total increase 3. 0 million represents custom duties paid by the Authority on construction equipment imported by H. T. Smith International, S.A. for which no allowance was made in the original target estimate. Under the contract between the Authority and H. T. Smith International, S.A. the amounts expended by WAPDA in payment of custom duties on construction equipment will be reimbursable to the Authority by the Contractor to the extent that the construction equipment is not re-exported from West Pakistan within a specified period. While there are other significant differences between

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 15
Summary of Expenditures
United States Equivalent
Dollars Rupees Rupees
I Tubewell Construction (1014 tubewells)
(a) Contract No. 1 (606 tubewells) 3,886,508 5,845,858 24,345,636
(b) Contract No. 2 (408 tubewells) 2,461, 169 3,420,574 15, 135,738
Subtotal Contract Construction 6,347,677 9, 266, 432 39,481,374
II Tubewell Construction by WAPDA (782 tubewells)
(a) Construction equipment 504, 550(l) 4, 603, 84Z 7,005,500
(b) Permanent equipment
Casing(2) 52,000 4,575, 180 4,822,700
Pumps, motors and motor controls(3) 152,500 8,554, 100 9,280,000
(c) Construction
WAPDA 0 6,443,882 6,443, 88Z
Contract No. 3 68,226 527,673 852,429
Contract No. 4 41, 112 190,958 386,651
Contract No. 5 0 696,307 696, 307
Subtotal WAPDA Construction 818,388 25,591,942 29,487,469
III Appurtenant Facilities by WAPDA
Pumphouses, etc. 0 3,538,800 3,538,800
Total Construction Costs 7, 166,065 38,397,174 72,507,643
IV Administration, Engineering and Supervision 1,698,606 10,554,517 18,639,882
Total Cost 8,864,671 48,951,691 91, 147,525
Customs Duties 0 3,007, 123 3,007, 123
Grand Total 8,864,671 51,958,814 94, 154,648
(1) Consists of Construction Equipment procured with DLF funds.
(2) Includes casing purchases under contract and an estimated amount for casing from WAPDA stores.
(3) Includes pumps, motors and motor controls purchased under contract from WAPDA stores,
Colombo Plan, and local market.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 16
Comparison of Target Estimate and Final Cost
August 1960 Estimate(a) Expenditures
Equivalent Rupees Equivalent Rupees
I Tubewell Construction (1014 tubewells)
(a) Contract No. 1 (606 tubewells) 25, 616,000 24, 345,636
(b) Contract No. 2 (408 tubewells) 16, 076,000 15, 135,738
Subtotal Contract Construction 41, 692, 000 39, 481,374
II Tubewell Construction by WAPDA (782 tubewells)
(a) Construction equipment 7, 527, 600 7, 005, 500
(b) Permanent equipment
Casing 6, 747,500 4, 822, 700
Pumps, motors and motor controls 8, 975, 900 9, 280,000
(c) Construction 8, 000, 000
WAPDA 6,443,882
Contract No. 3 852,429
Contract No. 4 386, 651
Contract No. 5 696, 307
Subtotal WAPDA Construction 31,251,000 29, 487,469
III Appurtenant Facilities by WAPDA
Pumphouses, etc. 5,100,000 3,538,800
IV Contingencies 1, 857,000 0
Total Construction Cost 79, 900, 000 72, 507, 643
V Administration, Engineering and Supervision 12, 202, 000 18, 639, 882
Total Cost 92, 102,000 91,147,525
Customs Duties 0 3,007,123
Grand Total 92,102, 000 94,154,648
(a) See Table No. 2.

the target estimate and the actual cost of individual items of work it is considered remarkable that the total cost of the project, excluding the item of custom duties mentioned above, is only 0. 96 million rupees less than the August 1960 estimate.
While the summary of final costs indicated in Table No. 15 is broken down into broad categories of work constructed in areas allocated to contract construction and those allocated to WAPDA construction, it does not afford a complete picture of the cost of the construction of tubewells under the .two categories. For example, the pumphouses in the contract scheme areas were constructed by WAPDA forces or under local contracts with others. Similarly a portion of the foreign exchange cost indicated for engineering in Table No. 15 includes the cost of services of expatriate drillers and motor pool personnel which should more appropriately be allocated to the WAPDA construction operations. In order to permit a more valid comparison of the cost of tubewells in the two categories of areas, the data contained in Table No. 15 has been allocated to the cost of construction of 1014 tubewells under contract and the construction of 782 tubewells (including completion of 7 WASID tubewells) in the WAPDA scheme areas as shown in Table No. 17. Referring to this table it may be noted that the average cost of a single tubewell including the cost of the pumphouse and other appurtenant facilities, except power supply, and the cost of administration and engineering in the two categories of areas is as follows:
Average Cost per Tubewell
Number of Foreign Local Total in
Tubewells Currency Currency Equivalent Areas Constructed $ U.S. Rupees Rupees
Contract Construction 1014 6,957 16,986 50,102
WAPDA Construction 782 2,3 15 40,573 51,591
Entire Project 1796 4, 941 27,256 50,775
It may be noted that while the average cost of a tubewell constructed in
the scheme areas assigned to WAPDA forces is slightly higher than that of tubewells constructed under contract, the foreign currency portion of the cost is less than 33 per cent of that of the contract constructed tubewells. A significant portion of this lesser foreign currency cost results from the utilization of Colombo Plan equipment as well as equipment purchases in local currencies for the WAPDA constructed tubewells.
Table No. 18 shows the status of disbursements of that portion of DLF Loan No. 25 allocated to the tubewell features of Project No. One.

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 17
Cost of Tubewells Constructed under Contract and by WAPDA
Item United States Equivalent
No. Description Dollars Rupees Rupees
A. Contract Construction (1014 tubewells)
1. Tubewell construction 6,347,677 9,266,432 39,481,375
2. Pumphouses and corollary works 0 1,997,964 1, 997,964
3. Administration and engineering(b) 707,010 5,958,953 9, 324, 321 4. Total Estimated Cost(c) 7,054,687 17,223,349 50,803,660
5. Average Cost per Tubewell 6,957 16,986 50, 102
B. WAPDA Construction (782 tubewells) (a)
1. Construction equipment 504,550 4,603,842 7,005,500
2. Permanent equipment 204, 500 13,129,280 14, 102, 700
3. Tubewell construction 555,686 7,858,820 10,503,885
4. Pumphouses and corollary works 0 1,540,836 1,540,836
5. Administration and engineering(b) 545,248 4,595,564 7, 190,945 6. Total Estimated Cost(c) 1, 809,984 31,728, 342 40,343,866
7. Average Cost per Tubewell 2,315 40,573 51, 591
(a) Includes 7 tubewells constructed by WASID and equipped by WAPDA (b) Foreign currency cost of Administration and Engineering indicated
in Table No. 15 is made up of the following categories:
Engineering on tubewells 1, 252,258 (1)
Construction on tubewells 413,843 (2)
Engineering on electrical features 32,505
(1)Allocated to two categories of tubewell construction in proportion to number of tubewells
(2) Allocated to WAPDA tubewell construction, Item B-3
(c) Cost of custom duties not included

Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. One Central Rechna Doab
Table No. 18
Summary of Disbursements under DLF Loan No. 25 (Tubewell Construction Portion)
Date of Final Serial Amount Amount Estimated Amount
Eligible Goods Amendment No. (Dollars) Expended Reverting to Loan
Engineering Services 7/20/6Z DLF 91-5 1, 723, 530.00 1, 698,606.11 Z4,923.89
Construction Contracts 12/28/61 DLF 391-8 3,886,510.00 3,886,508.02 1.98 M
12/28/61 DLF 391-16 2,463,667.00 2,461,168.17 2,498.83
12/28/61 DLF 391-42 109,338.50 109,338.00 0.50
Construction Equipment 7/20/62 DLF 91-4 715,354.00 709,049.97 6,304.03
Total 8, 898,399.50 8, 864, 670.27 33,729.23

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It was naturally the desire of the Authority to carry out the program in such a way that tubewells could be placed in operation to perform their function of dewatering and supplying supplemental water to the water courses as soon as possible following their completion and acceptance. Although this plan was followed it was confronted with many difficulties which from time to time delayed the initiation of the operation of the tubewells beyond that which had been originally programed. One very difficult problem was the coordination of the construction of the tubewells with the provision of electric power supply facilities. Some of the delays on this account, however, could not be avoided because, as in the case of tubewell construction carried out by WAPDA it was necessary to utilize a varied assortment of electric stores which existed in the country at the time the program was undertaken. Completion of tubewells progressed rapidly in the contract scheme areas, whereas at the time the program was undertaken the Electricity Department was constructing the electric distribution lines in the WAPDA scheme areas. Because of the time required to obtain construction equipment, electrical equipment and supplies it was not practical to shift the electrical construction work to other areas during the early part of the program, with the result that in much of the areas assigned to contract construction the tubewells were completed before power facilities had been constructed and in portions of the areas assigned to WAPDA construction, the power supply facilities were completed prior to completion of tubewells.
Additionally other delays were encountered in perfecting procedures relating to final acceptance of the tubewells and turning them over for operation. Originally it had been planned that as each group of tubewells was completed it would be turned over to the Irrigation Department for operation and procedures for the "turn-over" were established on this basis. On the electric side it was necessary that the facilities provided by the Construction Division of the Electricity Department be turned over to the Operating Division. Resolution of innumerable matters relating to this turn-over operation took considerable time and it was not until November 1960 that the first of 60 tubewells in the S angla Hill and Khangah Dogran scheme areas were placed in operation on the occation of the inauguration of the project by Mr. Vance Brand, Managing Director of the Development Loan Fund, in ceremonies which took place at Sukheki. From that time onward tubewells were placed in operation in small groups at periodic intervals. Although ostensibly the tubewells were being turned over to the Irrigation Department the operators and other personnel identified with their operation were actually employed by WAPDA. At a later date it was planned that all of the tubewell facilities would be turned over to a new entity which it was planned to create which would be known as the Agricultural Development Corporation. Although

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this Corporation was created, no tubewells were transferred to it and finally in the latter part of 1961 the Authority created, under its own Groundwater and Reclamation Division, a Land and Water Management Organization which became the group responsible for operation of the tubewells. Over a period of time this organization was built up and tubewells were placed in-operation as follows:
Number of Tubewells
Month in Operation
Dec. 1960 572
June 1961 1008
Dec. 1961 1091
June 196Z 1226
Nov.' 1962 1597
It is beyond the scope of this report to cover the operation of the tubewells to date or the results that have been achieved through their operation, which subjects are covered in periodic reports prepared by the Land and Water Management Organization. Two problems that have been encountered, however-, in the operation of the tubewells are of interest, these being the burning out of electric motors of some of the tubewells, and the deterioration of hydraulic characteristics of some of the other tubewells because of incrustation of the tubewell casing.
Motor Failures
Shortly after the first group of tubewells were placed in operation, a number of motor failures occurred. Ultimately, approximately fifty motor burnouts were experienced in the contract construction area and a total of over one hundred occurred in the entire project area. These failures were not limited to any specific manufacturer's motors or motor controls nor were they limited to any particular motor size or pump capacity.
Investigations and tests were initiated to determine the suitability
of the equipment, the adequacy of the electrical supply system and the quality of the operational procedures. In order to isolate the factors contributing to motor failure, it was necessary to inspect these installations in some detail, keeping in mind the possible cause of difficulty. In general, electrical motors can be damaged or burned out due to two basic conditions; improper voltage or high temperature, both of which cause a deterioration of the insulation. These conditions can be brought about by malfunctioning or excessive friction in the pump assembly, faulty bearings or other defects in the pump motor, and defects in the protective equipment of the motor controller or interference with the proper operation of that equipment. Voltage surges, low voltage or low frequency as well as high voltage, unbalanced voltages and single phasing on the distribution and service lines can also create conditions which will result in damage to the electric motors.

In order to ascertain the factors which were contributing to failure of the electric motors, a program of measurement of voltage and detailed inspection of many of the tubewells was undertaken. The characteristics of the motors and motor controls were examined and were found to be satisfactory and in accordance with the specifications with the exception that undervoltage release had been provided in only two phases of each contactor instead of three; this, however, is not a factor which would contribute to motor failure. The following is data obtained from measurements of voltages taken at a number of tubewells during the latter part of 1961 and forepart of 1962.
Number of tubewells checked 188
Number of voltage measurements taken 248
Percent of tubewells showing less than 360 volts on:
First check 35.4
Second check 32.0
Third check 20.2
Percent of tubewells with "no load"
and "running" voltage drop exceeding 5 per cent 4.3
Maximum difference between "no load"
and "running" voltage 60 volts
Some disturbances on the 11 -KV lines would produce unbalanced voltages at the motor terminals. Under the conditions where the motor operating current was considerably less than the full load current, the overload relay devices would not always operate sufficiently fast to prevent motor damage. This does not indicate that incorrect or improperly applied overload relays were installed since these devices are not intended to protect motors from single phasing or unbalanced voltage conditions.
Inspection reports were received on 36 installations at which the
motors burned out, from which the following conclusions regarding reasons for the motor failures were drawn:
Percent of Cases
Cause of Motor Burnout Recorded
Contacts blocked during electric
system malfunction 36.2
Contacts blocked during equipment
trouble 19.4
Contacts blocked type of malfunction
not known 11.1