Project proposal : INIAP/UFLA/USAID

Material Information

Project proposal : INIAP/UFLA/USAID
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias


Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )


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Full Text

P R 0 J E C T P R 0 P 0 S A L

Title: Compile Technology, Train Production Specialists
and Prepare Training materials for Small Farmers in the Humid Tropical Lowlands East of the Andes
I. Summary of the Prob! em
Each geographic region has unique food-poverty-population problems and potentials. Such problems are compounded in the central Andean region because its population has the highest density and birth rate in South America while consumption levels of protein and calories are among the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Traditionally most people of Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru' and Colombia have lived in highland areas.
These countries also contain vast humid tropical lowlands (HTL's) east of the Andes into which highways are being built due to petroleum discoveries and colonization plans (Figure 1). Such highways are leading the poorest of the rural poor away from over-populated highland areas to establish small farms in the eastern lowlands (Addendum A).
Mixed small farm -production -systems are common to these HTL's with livestock/forestry systems having the most economic potential and ecological stability (Addenda B & C). The comparative efficiency of livestock/forestry and food-cropping systems is not ameaningful-questibn in these HTL's where low natural soil fertility and high rainfall limit sustained foodcrop production. As demographic-pressures increase, livestock/forestry can not compete with foodcrops on the more fertile soils of the highlands. The exact opposite is true in the major part of the HTL's east of the Andes.

Efficient livestock/forestry production practices,
however, are not being effectively integrated into small farms in the HTL's east of the Andes. Livestock productivity is less than one-fourth that of Europe and North America. Timber and firewood trees are also becoming scarce. The lack of technology transfer is even more critical when one considers the ever increasing demand for animal protein, housing timber and firewood within Andean America.
Current efforts to transfer small farm technology
mainly employ the demonstration technique on more progressive farms. While this technique is relatively easy to execute, the few farmers that benefit are those with better incomes. The resulting effect tends to widen the gap between the rich and the poor, as technology does not easily 'trickle down' to poorly educated marginal small farmers.
The mass training of such marginal small farmers is essential for harmonious rural development in the HTL's east of the Andes. The mass training of e.oloos in this pioneer zone is one of the most difficult challenges facing national institutions in the region. The proposed project is designed to aid existing national institutions in the compilation of technology, training of production specialists and preparation of training materials for_-_small farmers in the Napo province of eastern:Ecuador (Figure 2).

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Figure 1. Humid tropical lowlands (HTL's) east of the Andes.

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Figure 2. Map of Ecuador showing the Napo province in the
humid tropical lowlands east of the Andes. 45oa
h i i I i I i I i i i i i i i i i i L I II I
Figure 2. Map of' Ecuador showing the Napo province in the
humid tropical lowlands east of the Andes.

II. Pronosed Resnongp
To help resolve the specific problems stated above, the following strategy is proposed:
A. Comnilp cna1l farm technology foQr thp HTT,' r -ast of the Andeg. Whereas technology for education and health components of integrated rural development is widely transferable, small farm technology is largely location and situation specific. The proposed project will form a network for the compilation and exchange of appropriate small farm technology for the HTL's in the Napo province of eastern Ecuador.
The technology compiled will go beyond foodcropping systems to include timber trees, chickens, swine, cattle, firewood--in short--total farming systems. The compiled technology will accomplish as many of the following interrelated objectives as possible:
(1) Produce an improved and secure diet for the family.
(2) Improve forage and feed for animals.
(3) Improve, or at least maintain, soil fertility
and general ecological balance.
(4) Increase yield per unit of land and capital.
(5) Increase market options to consume, store, feed,
barter or sell.
(6) Increase production of firewood-.
(7) Improve cash flow by producing a surplus for sale'
at various times-of the year.
(8)' Improve distribution of demand-on family labor
during the year.
(9) Be acceptable to small farmers in terms of the
amount of risk, capital and labor required.

B. Train ma1l farm production Rpocpial lts for the
HTL',q east of the Andes. The future course of integrated rural development in these HTL's will largely depend on the number of small farm production specialists, their level of training and ultimately on enhanced mass small farmer training programs in the region.
National trainees will be selected from ongoing integrated rural development projects in the HTL's. Emphasis will be given to local technicians who are actively working with small farmers at the village level. The training will focus on:
(1) Mixed foodcrop/small stock/firewood production
(2) Small-holder cattle/timber production systems.
C. Prepare training material' for small farmer :in
the HTL', east of the Andes. Effective training materials are critically lacking for mass small farmer training programs. The proposed project will aid ongoing integrated rural development projects in the preparation of a series of small farmer training materials to be used in local adult education centers, radio education courses and practical classes in rural schools. The threefold response of the training materials will be:
(1) Transfer smal-l- farm technology.
(2) Motivate small farm population toward agricultural vocations and thus reduce rural/urban migration.
(3)- Facilitate adult literacy programs with practical
auxiliary reading materials.

III. Gal Purp e Output, Tnput
Goal- To improve the economic productivity, ecological stability and sociological viability of small family farms in the HTL's east of the Andes through increased implementation of appropriate technology.
hirpoe- To improve small farm technology transfer through enhanced mass training programs relevant to the impact area.
Output- The output will involve improvements in many aspects of small farmer training programs in the area. Specifically:
(1) A consolidated information and reference base
on all aspects of appropriate technology for
small farms in the HTL's.
(2) A corps of trained small farm production specialists in each of the participating institutions.
(3) A network for the preparation and exchange of
small farmer training materials for use in
village adult education centers, radio education
courses and practical classes in rural schools.
(4) In addition to enhancing agricultural education,
the training materials will provide practical
auxiliary reading for adult literacy classes in
integrated rural development projects.
(5) -The training materials will also motivate iural
populations toward agricultural vocations and:
thus reduce rural/urban migration.
(6) A communication network to facilitate information
exchange among those working on small farm technology transfer within the area.
(7) A mechanism established that not only transfers
technology but also identifies lacking technology
for future research..
(8) A "model" that could be replicated in 6ther similar'
HTL's of Ecuador,-Colombia, PerG and Bolivia..

Tnut- The input will involve a stateside university and collaborating national institutions in the impact area.
(1) The stateside university (e.g. University of Florida) will provide specialists in tropical smallholder cattle/timber production and family foodcrop/
small stock/firewood production. Collectively,
the professional staff will devote 18 months/year
to the project.
(2) The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP) will be the national institution
responsible for the project. The following
collaborating national institutions responsible for small farmer training programs in the area
will provide qualified trainees, maintain trainee
salaries and continue publication of prepared
training materials:
a) MAG b) MEC
IV. Firnnji l Plan
Project Year (in $ thousands)
19_3L 19_82 R..B a Total 1. Personnel 90 99 109 298
2. Transportation 20 22 24 66
3. Training 40 44 48 132
4. Publications/ 30 33 36 99
TOTALS 180 198 217 595

V. Pepnef' ciarie
The project inDacL area will be the HTL's in the Napo
province of eastern Ecuador. National institutions responsible for small farmer training programs in the area will be the nlientg receiving training for staffs and compiled technology in the form of training materials for small farmers. Small farm families will be the users through village adult education centers, radio education courses and practical classes in rural schools. Specifically, the benfinia-rio will be the landless rural poor (calonos) from the over-populated highlands and the Amerindic populations of the HTL's east of the Andes. VI. Related Aetivities and Projct Alternatives
National institutions in the HTL's east of the Andes are initiating (in many cases with the help of IDB and IBRD agricultural developmental loans) integrated rural development projects. The most crucial gap common to this developmental process is the under-training of small farmers (snb-aepacitaci6n campnsina). The proposed project will help fill that void.
VII. Project Development
Author of proposed project: Dr. John P. Bishop INIAP/UFLA
Casilla 5080
Quito, Ecuador

East from the Andes 1. Prologue
Pioneer Setflements
in the South American Heartland I, GREAT MAS9 of the rurAl proletariat of Andean America
has always lived a marginal existence, economically, politically, and socially. The core and continuum of their lives have been poverty. Although they are economically, socially, and even cub turally deprived peoples, they have survived. Their "scarcity economy," or "poverty mentality," or "culture of poverty"-the term Raymond E. Crist given currency by Oscar Lewis-or whatever name one pleases to
give it, must have had real survival value, for the carriers of that culture are here today, very much alive, if not exactly thriving, in this last third of the twentieth century. In their desperate struggle for the minimal amount of the food and shelter consonant with their survival, these Andean peasants have been prey to the envy, distrust, deceit, vicious gossip, lies, and, not infrequently, the physi. cal violence of their fellows. But they have survived.
The economic outlook of the Andean peasantry is probably well summed up in the story of tile farmer who, when asked if he had received the price he had expected for his hogs that spring, replied: "No, but then I didn't expect to." And no wonder, Harvests are getting more and more meager as soil fertility wanes, and the soil washes away, and pest problems become more acute. Tech. nology is archaic, Illiteracy is the rule, and folk methods rather than modern science are depended on as guides in farming. Ill health, malnutrition, and desperate, crushing poverty have condi. tioned the population to attitudes of hopelessness, resignation, and fatalism. The circle of life and hope has been so small and so tight that it has been impossible for the individual to escape from the immemorial way of life, or even to think of wanting to escape. Each peasant has been horn into a world of poverty, has known nothing else all his life, and will bequeath to his children as his only legacy the traditions of poverty. A removal of the barriers to
Unlverslty of Florida Press / Gainesville / 1973

economic development is not always enough; as Oscar Lewis has In too many instances, however, "doctors" unfamiliar with the
suggested, the culture of poverty --ay be more difficult to eliminate closed social and economic systems of the peasant have, as it were,
ijsome areas than poverty itself, for certain patterns of life, non- written prescriptions without understanding-or even talking toeconomic life goals, have been perpetuated over generations and the peasant. The problem of loans, or short-term credit, is an exthey: are not going to be changed easily. No man is an island. ample. A government loan represents a windfall that can be adAs Foster so perceptively writes, "In the traditional peasant society vantageously used, for example, to hire someone else to do work
hard work and thrift are moral qualities of only the slightest func- that the campesino has usually done himself. He can sit back in the
tional value. Given, the limitations of land. and technology, ad- ca[6 or cantina and watch someone else work, just as the wealthy
ditional hard work in village productive enterprises simply does patrdn has always done, and this idleness is in no way a threat to
not, produce a significant incrementin income. It is pointless to community stability. Indeed, he is idle or at least underemployed
talk of thrift in a subsistence economyin which most producers are much of the year. Yet if he uses his loan to buy hybrid seed corn
at the economic margin; there is, usually nothing to be thrifty and by planting it increases his yield several fold, he thereby
about."1t n i achieves individual progress and by so doing hie changes his status,
:lSOtC ." thereby upsetting the status quo and stability of the community.
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONTROLS whose fellow members may not sanction such behavior. Such conThe wealthy elite,. The rich and the powerful, ihe dominant class, servative attitudes have spelled survival for the closed peasant comwish to preserve the status quo of the Andean peasantry; they tend munity and will continue to be held as long as those communities
to explain away low economic status as being the result of personal continue to exist as peasant societies. Once the peasant's view of
inferiority and inadequacy. But the peasants are aware that the his social and economic universe is one of expanding opportunity
dominant people in society neither toil nor spin, that they were in an open system where initiative is rewarded and not met by
born as owners of land and wealth, able to manipulate those con- negative sanction, he acquires initiative-fast.
trols and sanctions which the police, priests, teachers, and govern- Natural and supernatural forces.-The peasant everywhere lives
ment officials are able to impose. Peasants know that the powerful in a world pervaded by fears. His life is hemmed about by taboos, lor
do not prize thrift simply because they do not have to-they have evil spirits are at work all around him. He may not be able to enter.
their propertyand wealth, hence they do not have to accumulate it. much less to clear and grow crops on, certain pieces of forest bcThey can literally afford the "caballero" or, "'gentleman" complex, cause of the spirit or spirits that live there. He may have to work on
feeling superior to those who have to work with their hands and an infertile hillside instead of a piece of fertile alluvial river Iotitoi
walk to market with their produce. They can indulge in conspicuous land, over which hovers the ghost of his old friend atd compare.
consumption and waste by buying Parisian gowns, cream-colored Juan L6pez-for Juan, late one night and full of aguardiente, fell
Cadillacs, and walled-in, nonfunctional homes because they have face down in the little pond there and breathed his last. In Hlaiti,
the means to do so-means which seem limitless to the peasant, who the peasant may have to spend much time keeping the voodoo of
knows that those who have not, are, notl his enemies off his own plantings and at the same time harnessing
Institutionalized thinking.-To change peasant, mentality it is those occult forces of black magic for his own ends of bringing disnecessary to understand, and to work from within, the peasants' comfiture and bad luck to those who wish him ill. lie may have to
institutional environment. Most peasants do not feel sorry for them- bury the head of a white rooster in his neighbor's dooryard, or hang
selves, or feel,beset by insoluble problems unless guch factors are the right wing of a guinea hen in the palm tree closest to his door.
pointed out byoutside observers who would act. as diagnosticians. Thus, phantoms, demons, and horrible apparitions will be called >
forth to haunt his neighbor.
1. CeorgeM. Foter, 'IPeaant Society and the Image of Limited Good," In h
Peasant Society: A Reader, cdi. Jack M. Potter. May N. Diaz, and George M. Fundamental beliefs.-lt is important to take into consideration
Foster (Boston: Little: Brown and Company. 1907) p. 17, those fundamental beliefs abshout life and its meaning which are held

by the general population. If everyone is basically convinced that tion at the hands of one who claims to own the land on which the
what will be will be, then striving for change is futile. The inertia produce was grown. Further, native peopies, ignorant. of the oiicwial
often imputed to tropical peoples, even in the higidahlnds, miay be l1:ug age, Vwho occasionally try to enter the market economy aue
due more to malnutrition. diseases, and parasites than to basic frequently, and sometimes even openly and flagrantly, robbed by'
philosophy. They may seem to feel that all things come to him all, even by the small village shopkeepers.
who waits simply because they do not have the energy to stand the One may wi ness a scene such as this oac. An Jldian from a
process of helping themselves. Further, the conservatism, the resist- community high in the mountains arrived in a smal village of the
ance to change, that peasants everywhere are said to be imbued Andean foothills on market day, his donkey laden with onions, al
with has served as a means of survival, for those near the margin neatly arranged and tied in hiunches convenient for the shopper.
of subsistence dare not take chances with new crops, new tech- Even before the farmer and his donkey arrived at the square where
niques, or with anything new, They have to know that any new the vendors' stalls were located(, the pair was surrounded by a small
method must increase their returns, for any decrease might be crowd of people who began pulling lmches ofi onions off the ackr
fatal. They have had to struggle within the way of life that they. animal, asking the driver in Spanish the price of this bunch or
have evolved, and they should be studied from within that way of that. The poor man answered hesitantly in broken Spanish only to
life. realize that his interlocutors were moving oNl with the bunches they
Every culture passes on knowledge to the next generation, but the had selected; he tried to stein the ide by following one or two
nature of that knowledge suits the survival requirements of the in- persons and stating the price, only to have the thieves pay no. athabitants of each particular place or region at a particular time. iention to him and merely quicken their pace. Meanwhile, ohers.
Geography and history are different threads of the same closely taking advantage of his having left his paticut donkey for a few
woven fabric that is human society on this earth; and it is very dilfi- minutes to plead in vain for Iyrnmeit, just helped themiscives. Tie
cult to separate them. poor frustrated mani caine runi ing back to try to stop the open
The crux of the whole problem of settlement is to convince robbery, but the predators tugged aid pulled, laughing and si'outpioneers that by accepting innovations and( the winds of change, ing at the good fun they were having, and within miiunices the
thus moving into new areas and with new technology, they will whole load of produce was gone. The bewildered peasant, choking
alter the pattern of their daily lives so to be able to live a more with wrath and muttering to imiiself in Quclhua, alone in a hostilc,
abundant life, spiritually as well as materially. unjust world against which he l ad no recourse, gradual y made his
way to the fountain of cool water in the center of the plaia where
RURAL-URnAN CLEAVAGE Ihe bathed his tired feet. For the produce which had cost hima s,
It is a sad fact that, in the nations of Andean America, the gulf be- much in time and effort he had nothing to show but clings of intween peasants and urban dwellers has been profound, especially feriority, rancor, and injustice. HIe could not take advantage of his
where there is a language barrier as in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. day in town to purchase a few necessi lies and perhaps a drink or
The peasant has not been merely neglected; he has been gramitously two in the local cafe or l)ar. There was notlhiing left for h;u to (o
ridiculed and humiliated when not actually physically mishandled, but sit around dejectedly for a few hours, then get astride hii
in the army, in church, in the courts, in the post office, and espe- animal, and, his heart black with bile alm( frustration, follow tic
cially in the shops and in the market place. narrow rocky trail back to his home a(nd family. The omly creu;iiCs
The average peasant is only mildly surplus, or iarket-minded, below him in the pecking order are his wi e aid chiiidren, upon
for all too often the trail, road, or river that ties him to the outside whom all too often his suppressed fury is vented. T'he wife caw
world tends to be a one-way street: the products that move over escape, but the children, especially thle boys, calInot OC exper(ic ;
it tend to lose most of their value en route, as the peasant must pay tarry at home oce they can get out, even run away, ;o maae a A,;
high transportation cost, or high taxes, or siulfer outright conCrca- for themselves in lhe cities, or in the new lands to th east.

Incidents such as this are lessons-part of the educational process what was meant to be an access road may even drain out of (he
-that the poor peasant and his family are quick to learn and slow territory the few subsistence fiAriers already living there
to forget. When trails, roads, and rivers enjoy two-way traffic, with
produce flowing to market in exchange for cash or goods of suflli- IMOBILITY, Arraus's)ir FAcErs or GCIANG;;
cient value to make the trip worthwhile in the mind of the producer If new ideas are carefully but unobtrusively planted in what vwe
of raw materials, then, he will be motivated to further trips to that smugly think of as a "backward" society, "conservative"attitudes
market-and only then. may possibly change to thile extent that the canmpesino wants to
MOTIVATION, PRODUCTION, EXCHANGE change; the reaction thus elicited, ithe new motivation, lmay ake
him reveal capabilities of which he himself had been un;laware. The
In order to escape his own personal closed economic system, his progressive attitude with which the people who make up the ilcocoon of self-sufficiency, the peasant or villager must produce some- digenous cultural environment may be imbued might indeed prove
thing that is saleable, whether it be a bunch of cooking bananas, a to be more important in development than a grandiose, preIabiiload of firewood or charcoal, or a piece of woven goods. If a road is cated infrastructure inserted in the peasant society by forces focigi
built by the central government, it might be easier for the product to it.
to get to market, but both the saleable product and the market are The education behind this change in attitude is not eccc:,,t
the basic ingredients of a diversified economy-the funldamientals, to one of formal book learning. Wieucever a peasa, a
be sure. Only when a peasant knows that someone wants and will nearby caserlo, or village, no mater how seldom, ic gets ICw ic.d .
pay for his products will it, or can it, occur to him that it might be Further, it is likely that ruembers of a gang oi labors engaged iI
possible to increase his production. He produces a surplus in the building a road into remote areas are themselves part of the cm
first place because he hopes that with it hlie can get something hlie tional process for the few inhalitants living in these sectors. i,
wants but cannot produce. The better the peasant is rewarded for was certainly the case with the gangs of iLaborers; wilh o ib ilt t lic i
whatever surplus he can produce, the more willing is he to accept roads in Mexico under Porfirio Diai. the c:uncesino is cxpi,i(,
innovative practices, if by so doing hlie can increase production. by those of the village, or by members of the road-buildhiig c ,,:V
Unfortunately, millions of human beings, pporly qualified or or by a local landlord or bigwig, ihe will merely want to get ;wiii;
equipped to cope with modern agricultural problems, are relegated away from them-either by ;movig into a distalt lriln cciiter
by history and cultural controls to precisely those areas where the by going ever more deeply into the protecting forest.
problems of soil management are most difficult. Most often those Vast changes in hal)its and attitudes are already under way. i
with wealth and training have control over large land tracts of clay, one may meet a barefoot canesino on a natio ; i w.
physically good land within easy reach of markets. Such people can his prize fighting cock under his arm or in a makeshift ca 0", o hs
apply the techniques of modern scientific management to produce way to the weekend cockfights in a neighboring town. ile will be
crops for the market, domestic or foreign, and thus achieve a high paring the spurs or plucking the leg and neck featliers of his pmi.
profit per acre. Further, they are powerful enough to acquire con- with as much nonchalance as if he were at iome. Sui an cotrol of other good land to hold for speculative purposes, that is, counter would have been unthinkable a few decades a;,o.
to hold it at prices which the land would have if it were already Channels of communication opened up in the past few ded's
settled and being farmed, now link the campesino to the larger national society and eve to
In other words, by keeping vast acreages out of production, they some extent to the world outside. The recent network of roads las
are able to price this land out of the market for any small-scale vastly extended the horizon of the peasant, beckoning iia to ic.v,
farmer. When access roads are constructed into sparsely settled his smoke-filled, malodorous, flea- or bug-ridden ihvel, iwhcre h,
areas, politicians and speculators often control the very lad that and his family live inll frienliy symbiosis with his (domestic abii
the road was ostensibly built to make accessible, with the result that If thile siren call has not been strong enough for the alr faiii .

it often has been effective in luring away the sons and daughters. r State, a wel s t ridged fields mentioned by Castelnos,
By the tens of thousands they have gone to the city whcre they have were undoubtedly built by the quiet, hard-working, agricultural
run into that.almost impenetrable wall of joblessness characteristic Arawaks, possibly for purposes of defense. The Caribs, bent oI
of pre-industrial, urban agglomerations. But some have followed conquest, came up the rivers in dug-out caniocs. From the river it.
the trails and roads to the virgin tropical lands of the cast. would be almost impossible to sec the enemies' settlements in the
This migration, largely into the Oriente, this slowly growing open savanna becallse of the gallery forest. Even when seen, it would
exodus to new lands and new hopes, is our concern in this book.2 be difficult to effect a surprise attack. Besides, the causeways could
ISORIoCAL~ BACKGROUND) be used by the Arawaks for flight or for bringing inl reserves. Ill the
dry season, the Car Ibs, adept on the wat er, would be forces to
Never in the history of the world were there events comparable to drossonlarge pen savada O ft oe ale Tus, the t
i i ~cross a1 large opcin sajvannla on foot becforec battle. Thus, tile at tickris
the discovery and exploration of the New World by the Spaniards would be placed at a disadvantage in many ways. At all evets, ic
and Portuguese. The first sight of the shores, covered with heavy Arawaks did not hes.itate to settle in the savannas despite the tretropical forest or sand dunes and giant cactus, must have been a miiendous work involved in building these great earthen structures.
wondrous thing to these adventurous men of action. They were On the north (left) bank of the Orinoco, immediately below the
not philosophical over what they saw, for their compulsion was to i the Aphe banr o re Indian segments which weree
influx of tie Apure. there wvee -nia ettlemelnts le wr
dominate what they came in contact with, whether man or nature, famed among the Orinoco Indians because of tile fertility of tIheir
animate or inanimate., Hungry for gold and glory, in the course of soil and the abundance of their food supplies. When the Orinoco
two generations they had crossed deserts and penetrated rain forests. slbSides Iat the beginnMilng of tile dry season, a dIeposit of fine, fertile
The Spaniards dismembered the Inca and Aztec empires, began to silt is left behind, il the same manner as the deposit lft by the
indoctrinate the conquered people with Christianity, and sent Nile after its annual overflow, Padre Gumilla relates how va ricUs
galleons of fabulous treasure back to Spain. And they gradually tribes-Otomacos, Guaunos, Paos, and Serrucos-were cult ivat ing,
became aware of the outlines of the main physical features of what in this fertile deposit a kind of lmaize which matlred in two mIwllhs.
is now South America, with its huge chain of mountains-the Andes But great agricultuiral activity had been carried oil by the aboriginal
-and its vast, tropical, forested heartland-the trackless, almost Indians; as early as 1584, well I Terera's expedition arrived at
uninhabited Amazon and Orinoco lowlands cast of the Andes. Cabruta, his soldiers found "in caves' which they had Iade in low
At the time of the Conquest, the plains Indians of what is now knolls a large qua ntl Ity of ml ie which they must have kept there
Venezuela lived in villages, or caserfos, widely distributed over the to avoid the inundations of tle river.4 Mai yielded well, for
ilanos. In the selection of sites for these settlements, the available liese fearing people hal become such epicures that coI ol Ihe.
supply of food and water had been the dominant factor, especially cob was a favorite disi. "In truth, so much is eatell when the ears
for the Caribs. However, as the Acliaguas'and other Arawak tribes still have tender grains, that tie Illdians themselves notably dewere pushed from the rivers by the fierce Caribs, they probably crease their harvests [of ripe ears]."
sought out easily defended or easily vacated sites. The pre-Colurm. There was a very important trade rolte for "old which followed
bian causeways and watch towers in the vicinity of Ciudad Bolivia- the Front Ranges along the sou;Iheastern slopes of the Venezucin
2. Ikiahl n in is cla~~ic volkne Tire Pio r ring, mae no mel~ntion Andes. The exce le tt water supply and the fertile alluvial sil of the lowland hintild tropi; he did not consider them a potential pioneering aloili tilis rolite made pr5ssibll a rather (elise Iidian populaiion
zone. The area cast of the Andeq ik an excellent example of the penetiationil and There were numerous thriving hamlets. Along this route, gold front acttlement of the humid tropical lowlands during the forty years since the publi- the Chibcha dominil, probably even from the Inca Empire, weilt cation of The Pioneer Fringe, tie last great land frontier zone on caiik. As will
be scen, failure of settlement and colonization scheme i ave resulted lnq r n an fie Castelio o, Elegias de varnars iiltre.< de IIlisv, 1:5!9 the inftence of physical and culrlnai factors timn fiomi socironomc reality L n Law in ''The Orinoco in Old tuian Dates,.i
wh ich lost ou1t to sociopolitical ex ietl l1Cr .. .,. lrv ns a FI hOrinoo i 1 loi 1' 1 279.

to Venezuela, eventally sent as far cast as Barcelona, Mlaracapana, Ill'jj th vinyo Papa1laiaa, s in tie tMUiii vre faun? d. tw
and Culliani. Lovtdn sugct htteewr ag mut fgl were buried in excavations ini the igrtnu, or wIMM, alld in Cavi 1in~
in the uplands of Cuniani because the Indians there raised coca,rokorpteedbovhaggrcs.Irlc aii,;a: for. which their neighbors eagerly, traded gold.0 On this route, beyond Bacza, prehistoric roads, great c'clolpill walls, arlul rilut)
Tenauren ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I (nwTri utes f h ouwaRt mnIlibs covcrcd wall strange figures And symbols have been kii5covC Cd,
to' have been the point farthest east where, gold was cast. rhe iswl sarclua ercs oteetrb rn;-7,dsrp
Achaguas, a branch of the Arawaks, inhabited the strip of land just tions, and what Sem to lbe boundary mlarkers or- (101lulCiis.
east of the Cordillera, the greater part of winch. was above the an- I h lio l oo fnrhatr oiipeCiuu~
nual iniundlations Suffered by the lower Ilanos. Mhy were peace- aoiia epeahee h is.itnieuiiaino
loving and industrious and had come in friendly contact with dhe Igrasslands known inl the history of the Newv Wor-ld. llc iizc ows cultured Gljibchas. Asi a result of Contact with this affluent peoplee, MYjo adapted to annual flooding by comntuctng vadis typesQ
they had become the chief traders in gol between the people of earthworks to provide dry ground for dwvelii ig, culivation, Mi
the plateau and those of the Ilanos and northeastern Venezuela. conntounicain.a ri ire in wha il s, so w 50,000ae re al~va
Eastern Ecuador has for long been a kind of terr itircognila, Cs- iettosalnaarcuurinwtisow orhserBtiv.
pecially from the view of archaeology, Parts of this area have re-thywresiad.ohveupre eealunlCI
cently been most successfully and profitab~y studied by Father Pedro people upj to the seventeenth (ceiury.R [From A t6c2 to MY7;i seti it
Porras Garcds, who has bult up in the town of hA birth, Anibato, j ients wvere founded, bu t tile population was rapildly rcedl.ce~
an, archaeological museum with emphasis onl the culture of the E'uropean diseases, and the ntive cultures oif thle Arawak-slwaitiy
Quitus atid tie Pansaleos. During his many apostolic iiI5miois lie Mojo auI Mainre Ind(ians dierioa ied.
has found races, of manl's occupance tin what? is now dlense forest. It is significunit that in ths hiarsl savnnma eiivtronmaie, WUM~
lie has carried out explorations covering thousands of sq uare miles floods alternate with drougi i, ])re-Spanisk p)eoples Win iixtrenow)v
over a lperiodl of more than six years in these for-ests, begin nin in primitive techliniq ai.chiieved a )r-od ai ty and ljpui at i Kenlthe vicinity of Papallacta, gradually cx tendinig fartlr icrastwartd inkt)it'w c aents iebeiC1iii~.Snesv ac tiai
the Valley of lie Quijos River ud into tie Vall dy of the M isaguall i, Ims 1iodulileti"~A andl P1imps rm'liics --'-'' lahlri n ftil n w
a tributary of the Napo. cultivationi, Dene'ati Suggests thIat, since Stolle fo tol wa -a
The pottery of Quijos shows that there were close commercialsl it maty have actually been easier io rinse earth in savanna land tiia a
ties with the people, of the Ecuadoriani altrlpn n, that there was it was to clear fore!t Yit is fu t Ir styie that pouin wm ay
sonic, trade in Loja. wi th the Palmts or J1baros of bhe Ca taniyo Nfal- have become so dense t hat there was not enough forest avdai o mab ley Perhaps there was also somne interchange with the zone of support Successful Shifting cultivation based onl a long for-c.,t i l
Tieradetroin olobia whre te geatmuouiment ofSanAs in the Venezuelan Ila nos, ;ribal territorial1 cl;a mis may hi vc pc Agustfn ar fond.~ ha hr egea oimnso a vented migration and thereby iieccssitaled iitcli-sive cultiivation(Im
Itis possible that' im Valley of Quijos was tlicfiiial Stronghold of whatever land was available. At aill events,, Savanina farn~ioi
cultures o ,f thme central in ter-Andean Valley of Ecuador w hose in-i given uip early in thte coloniial period, for lihe (GoiiqkCL netildl' 0 w i
habitants emigrated eastward as a, result of the limiaic invasions. mnetal tools for clean g forest, drastically reduced thle 0pp"Iithni
Here in thieeast they built fortifications which Uhey had not felt and established new groupings of the Indians.
necessary in their, hgh heartland. The armies of thme incas were cr1.ti tCu -,Coihuiua.ffltWd '"'usdr/ c
afraid of time hot tropics and, except for short miilitary forays. did (de Ins V'nites cQuijoi y ?ltigualli (A Io Nalm) enl ia rrg,6n otiefdnI 44 tcvi
not penetrate such lands either in coastal Ecuador or in the east. S.A. 1. 12. tccsTeib~gnIC~in tvrp~ fie1,oa
Atojos of flotivitipp. 90l, 96,
0. hLov~i, "Thec Oritioco Ini OW1 tidti Tics," p. 719. 9. Ibid., pp,9-5

The sixteenth-century explorers of the Aioti01, such as (l')lla lord, not thle lIldianl. Thulis, tile primnitive gathering eoliiy wa
and Orsuia and Aguirre, provisioned thenocisels from tile food sup-) largely frozen as found. As oing, is I hose cooin tries ColltUoli Ig
plies of thle Indianls they mect, cornpiandcred their canioes, and~ took primtitive"' tropical areas were Con telit Wi th aI ga heiC611-CMamy
into slavery' those that they wanted. The result was-very cariy-a IstatuIs (11i0, thereC could be no0 Change. complete breakdown in native life and ant appallig decrease in tic lDiiring the past half century, Ill( world has cxp)erieiicedi a revolt
Indian population. By the mid-eighiteenth Century, Portugiiesc slav- G onl of rising expectations to which III, hco l)C'Ovs of (telisely OJ~opiers were do ing a thriving busi ncss, capturing Indian slaves iii t ie iat ei Andean Ameri ca have not iwcn ini nie. Theiy have begil n
upper reaches of thle: Amazon and its tributaries and selling thenm to break their medlieval bonds(1. G~oo!";jahic 1"-d soeiai lziobniliy ;u(
plantation owners downriver or along thle Cast coast. Vonl 1Hun1- increasing, effecting mssive (ha ilgecs ill d ie thistjilmti on of lopilut.
bold, noted, ,tht:a t along thle banks of thle Cassiqulare River, or lion and in the manner of living.
"CGa~l," which connects the Orinoco arid Negro rivers, the idians had fled the slavers and taken refugee in thle huish to tile east. lAururur N A1. T AFF ZONFN
Even as late as'the rimid-nineteenthi century, thie English exp~lorer Mnlt n vrwhr 101i) it : ae ii ctr eat e r
Bates remarked on the common but illegal practice of obtainig II lwrdb ho 3dgre o vr-,01feteeain hti
(han children as slaves fromt the wild tribes of the interior. Anid H-.loedbyaut3egesfrvry100etcvtil.Nm 4;
1-1. Rusby, writing of is experiences,, observed: "At the time of tile tI u~i fa h retoisi onIfoisaivit ieea
tion of about 3,000 feet, anid t his alt itidilna life zoone is referred! to occurrences which I have related [18851, these Inidians [Arauina Tinclians ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a oftl ti]wr lreadpoeflrrbocpin 1-, fc lc nc, or hot coiltry. Fromi there to (i,0GO-8,000 J et
dias o th Ibn] erea lrgeandpowrfu trbeoccpyig a(depcnldingf Onl a ogle of slope ai ud hiour-s of sil nshi ie) t i c % ;s wide area of country. In the nicantime the aggressions of the whites, iiOhfelto Ica lnae iescosheweitoeCltt
not merely by the invasion of their territory, but through tile raid% nw ster enpndo er r ecniir.Ahs il 7
for prisoners to be enslaved as peon wvorkmen inl tile rubhbher tori traf/a r(0( omtrweengtt-n)illiS0
dustry, have resulted iii theit- almost complete annihiilation."10fceina(ocaoalyveibiwarsuedd o aIljy
As 'late as 1906, Colonel Fawvcett wrote of the wholesale capJtureof wild Indians who were enslaved to' work, tapping ruibber it was b hd enirtte nteffis 1legetms fAd~
plentiful and brought a high price on the world market, bt was diauis and riestizos still live inl the tierra fria of the alti pjIjulmo (tIieI
(hificul at ree wer ove ahig pglt aneau between thic ewitern ;ktid wvestern Anden iCori ;i )
'to et bcaue ruberscatere'h hgeInd ini the high valleys. Front t heir ranks come aI uflaori ty of the( area and increasing toil was necessary to locate and work t hem,.eteso h ine rne7'ii~ i i iuiii i is
Womren and children were wanttonly Ibutchered, ais were ;uuy menlstlr ftePilerfig olsil ie"lildtois
who became ill or who couldh not gather their assigned quota.itOCAGUss.NI.Ot VAA.
Colonel Fawcets observations of conditions inl eastern Bolivia tbear out Completely Sir Roger Casemnirt's report onl tile shiockinmg condi- Thie hilmiid tropical Sector I teweli1 Veiietucla a tud B~olivia coilsusi,
tions onl the Putumayo River inl eastern Colombia a few years later. largely of grassy savannas inl Venezuela, easter-n coiomubia, a in
And according to newspaper reports,'such activities have by 110 much of Bolivia. 'Ihlese sectors have a (listinct dry seasoii (i'remaro)
means ceased iii the remote areas of tropical South America. during periods of low sunl, and(, rai us fall du ingle wet sealsoni illThe white man, bearer of civilization, did not superimpolse a vierno) .the period of high sunl. Even in these grassLa ads rivers ale
new technological order' on tropical South America, Rather, lie en- lined by gallery forests varying in width from several himndred yai';.s
slaved thle Indians. an(I forcibly made them Continue a gathering to a mile or- more. Latd that is very steep) or stoiiy induIIce, ial)Ui
economy the profits of which resounded to the benefit of [lhe over- runoff of precipitation; sandy soils may be exlreniely peruneahic;
in such areas, even wilere 1preci pitatiolI is fieav, and webi distO1I.I. Ruimy, Jimglp Mmtn,'frb (New Yoik, 1 955) pp. 297-98-. tribtited, edalh~ p i aauas of coarse grasses nilma' reCsult.

TROPICAL. RAIN FORESTSN OR S KLVAS isli i aaswsC-licC odol. anii a iii) C W4 2,.
iaiy LeaveS su ;i ;;'s 'p e, I .U(
rue rain forest is found where rainfall is li avy (usually 80 toarc Goni., ky's;.; l; A Vi).
100 inches or m1ore) and well distributed i irnutglut tile year. This elWavl1(Cin a4 .c.A>C ;tS.
is what is usually calledil tigle. Th'lis is thle woz id of giant bill- paiur ;nh>l a.';a.C. 4.W
tressed trees fcstoonedl with jianas and ladlen wvith epiphytes that pro- C~2( aitI sisi fa ii ~ 'i4
dluce here and there brilliant red or white flowers that gleaml inl thie o cni rwl U~ ~y~.s ;c Ca/a
(dark foliage, Even onl sunny days the forest. canopy shuts out 1110st LCI iyo i jb. ..;
of the sunlight. W~hen it rinis, great drops patter loudly oil tile reccntf~. sud a5,ic Cob oi ;C ;i i!C acc>aa ..Ai&
millions of leaves andl then drip front leaf to leaf to thle groundli ic1ofli,
floor; tins is a dim twiligh t world of greens anid browns and dali p. gras .nraria m atira Pin irz iA; 2
ness, of rotting, terinite-iliftstedl wood and of wel, soggy v(cgtoiibl. kIb~ra~~ n~Oi a. >IC, aaa; ;~a
The layer of leaf mould onl the ground is thin or iioniewt~i he- ~~hlll>2aol i..,Hc. r
cause of the rapid rate of oxidlation. Soluble salts have beenl leaclied 0; '111inC heo ~2;a lpia. o i 2 ;
out andtile resultant acid soil is well adapted to thle growl I of [trees *Q~ na~ urvU ..>; .'.
and shrug bs. Such forest-covered land is ex tremiely d ifficult to cleair,4A especially for a person earned with only a machete or an aixe. Tihe ~ I' 2. ala,.,,,,li' .4'
clearing of such forests onl steep slopes makes the soil a prey a ..l a>
FROM TROPICAL RAIN FORE.S'r -1-0 PA-STUREJANi) ;mIi AlFli .-'r ai'' .
When such forests onl hill lands are cleared for ( lie grolvin l' crops,.4 .~.vam4~ia v .'.' '~
erosion would be even worse ilhan it is if it were not for thec faci ~~ f1124)~4' ', .*,A'
that aggressively colonizing species of perennial Afirican l grasses, -a:;; foec-ts aire .'pnail,'';,> ;A2'
readily disseminated by seed or cutting, have been widleiy md, ;ill(] hays ;Yrtlaps)x ;C.(AAAC,.. ..A
rapidly niaturalized in the forestlauds of tin it tropical America. v;Woroits 2;~.4.. .A ricar ;iil.A'...4..,.
Areas newly cleared of forest, cropp]ed for afew yea rs, arc ei thier '11 ;iniortanl Ct. a. ill tile o>.~ ..AAf24AA, .........
planted to grass or invaded by aliiaggressive volunteer gr-ass. Crop ba>se of tile ;ew )e fiC i .e <:1" *.,
agriculture is thus just a step it the process of converting f i esi- livestock indl'l~ y 4:ill-wd 10> .litlcs o44, c( 'A
land into p~astureland.
Such grasses also* coinilcte successfully with native grasises. t hat.11 IiitAi. ''* SAl;lAU C;l >4.. ..444CA;'
evolve under very low grazing pressure. A case in.point, yar-aga'la or, i'oic" Joiil Ai fle iu
jaragt'ma (Hyparrienim rufa), has been able to compete with nat1iive '.Ii. 7
savanna grasses in tile Venezuelan 11ia1oS (InIC to its liggi eSsiVenest; anid ability to self-seed. This African invader, aIpparently aided by being regularly burnedl, wi thin a decade or two mlay well lie tile dominant grass in the opeii Venezuelan flanos, wiicec it is fire(' each year in the dry season and gra7zed closely duinig the rainy seasonl to preventL its becoming rank and fibi oms
Afelinis minuliflora, or inilases gass, so Imiaiied for its, character-

4. Ekwador
C, 0 cl -,%..
NUADOR A dividul phpimlly in is climate, landward, and
% VILAVICENNO clilture. -Flic massive, cool-io-cold Andean coldillum stlelvil Nvilli
VolcalloeS, 111014 Of whiCh. are ext.ind, and ill(. ill tei'llionta tic, Valleys Contain all the important towns, CXCCpL Gilayaquil, and 51 pcr Cent
UITO %1 of tile country's people, 7rhe great nufmily of tile illhabila'ji(s -;to
D10 hidians who (ling to dicir clAmered ivay of life; they have Ii(tIc
1. % national feeling, and are gencraNy lillillievested ill L11-j"e-scalc corilr
mercc. West of' (he Andes, (ire hot, generally low and daily coastal ain is peopled by Indians. Negiocs, and illesLizos who grow illost IU
of Ile cmintlys ex1mil croy and Carry Oil most of it% ('011111ICKC.
-,TAnAro4 Fast of the Andes, (It(,, great, )lot, forested plain of tile Oli("llw.
Lbrough which meander the headwater iribularics -)I' the Aniamn, TUDY 2WIE or is nearly empty, w5h wily 2 Imr cent of lNuador's POMM OIL (110
COLOWZATMN gently it is of abnost no econornic significance in tile agricul(orall
L -Illc forests of Exuador's "Wild F,,ast" begin at the tree line oil thc
LIMA I,.,- eastern Hank of the casmi umnlillem, awer We numulmhus and hill
0 lands of tile mountain front, ;in(] mciid in unbroken trec."'cape
I casimard. to tile Puummyo River and (c) tile disputc-d bolder with
Peril. Ill sphe ot-perimps because of-Ole 'Iclivilics ill this vast alca
of sixtcentli-mmily gold Wets ;in(] rimle recent rubber J."allielcis "WAZ
0". and advermirer.s. perniallcul. sotlellicults have bec., csI;G2Jshcd1 iln!";
"Ile -'sions of ill(' scvellicellill
ran Amtrican Highway SANTA CnUZ Nvitil tile. gl aiest difficulty. '. jesuit mi",
Marginal rottst Highway C.CnLury did not have church icadership long c1longh to pill all iiiNational Sovmdnry VIA& sWmp on t1m cnimtry as did Ilw jeoit reductionss" along
00 ?101) 400 tile Rio dc la Pialm ]WHdRig a niad NO a qwWwo Soto! arva mich
as (Ile Eciladoriall Oriente does not alwayci Too It should always be kqg in And drat a highway is bubt and tom
.0phor 314VT TOM#
for two-way iraftk. If a road is built hotu a AwQ ImpiTiawl wow X, to a front;ci- iolm 10 in whkh a Sf)arse i)(,j)jjjatjojj i .

established, the nmd can he a hooll to the people of V, fol. I kc now send prodm-c to and impoli WoOs froin X. I i0wevcu, it all Vj? denlic should break Otit, or if the political sitnatiol" Sholliki bciollic racnacing, or if other phyMcal or iiianquadc caust"qAws sho"hi arise, Lhen the rolic of the road is revised. That. is, people wiii s
C 0 it to Bee fmra X in order to achieve the r6whT sakty M % smi
ISWPALDA % LWENIq Wil he drahwd of in itlimbitanm A cme in point. h We M kuw
0 %
YLLCAN Ecuador, where the Jesuits established inoic or 1c,".s ill i). pci (ow;
missions aniong the Indians ill the seventeenth cCului)-, Vi'hc i iiw Jesuits were expelled by the Spanish ciown in th
Lury, their charges becarne a lacy to ralutdous ranches, mi=N.
12. N and traders looking for cheap or free J.ibov,
M NTA A iniliuary colonization project in the Anial0l, Basin, .1 1 1 1 (1
)UEVE bqRn in 1962 on the right bank of the S;kn Mliguci I ivc.- in
r NA"
k rpA tiordicast. llaiadoiian Oriente. Funded b-y dic Ailian(c or
PK)OwA the lWojccL is the cooperative cilml of thc Ministry of Oc.t-4-i'
a, and -nian inilitary inission r )i the Uiiiw, Acciem Civic. a two f,( 11
Rolf Wcschc provided the hilowing tiem-riition of the cokaly: ICA"
the faciject. still Ims the alqwuwK-e of a consumakri G"n,
CUENCA When visited.... One conqAcx of 10 cmuenullkwk sculler houm,
LI N has been couipleted. Four of W e are occulAcd by
P W)LrAq Nk
lip MaKe pcmanK and alundy am scarred with signs of tKapdation. On the oplmsite end of the blua on Wich the Map i Inching WHO an idenucal "unIllex in under co"Mrialkni. Wil,
LCIJA center of dw selticitient is couilmmml of smoul = kdoqn, i
ZAUOPA 6.7-kilowatt diesel-power plant, a barracks for III,- (,W
stniction workers, and a iwo'loolli school. FurthC'n. pl iils ill I clude a chinch, central Slow, (- Vic celiter, all(! a cell-wic')..
has already been demo! Q an 801inewr ir m6p and a mn t v, field. Slippery clay roads connect Ille v i 1!:c ;clilc
T 11110111 Ilient. Collsideri Ili; I I ic (I I I ra t i o 11 of col-INI rllc'i ioll ac k i v i jP
involvement of an emim nnnpiq of mAiVers (abow 60 100i), 20 veteran Wers. 2 Imam am! 2 tranors, mW Ac immvy o; the government in the veniur& s"am% the raw of juanm Scellis disappointing.
As happens so oken in Latin America, the plans foi ;ill orderly sellicincut. have. ;iIic;i&,' bren dilklicd. Jill(s of llonmilitary settleis am spioutiiy in and around the Vcl-

crans, unable to wait for thile completion of their homes in the Agrio. To thile south at Coca onl the Napo River, the company has
village, have built houses on the plots assigned to them along spudded in a fourth well. On concessions of nine other comllpanics.
the river.t acromagnetic surveys are being carried out as well as piotogeoThe twenty veterans, all within a mininiium of fifteen years in the logical studies; other companies are engaged in seismograph surveys.
military and thus familiar with life in the Oriente, form the nucleus Ecuador, with reserves estimated at 5 to 7 billion barrels, may
of this service and regional'development center; their plots, front- soon become South America's largest oil exporter The Ecuadoial
ing 220 yards along the river, may not be sold during the first ten State Petroletumn Corporation (CEPE) was established inll 1972 to
years of occupancy. New nonmilitary settlers and increased appli- coordinate this new industry.
cations from the military'iuger well for continued growth. Millions of dollars are being invested in thile Oriente in cotlinecBut Palmna Roja, its construction motivated also' by Ecuador's lion with the further development of oil fields; thousands of floatneed to secure the border zone, yet without a tic-illn to thie nation's ing laborers have been attracted to this area, but very few of them
road network, cannot survive without trading across the nearby come with the goal of becoming pernmalent residents engaged in
Colombian-Ecuadorian frontier. Although insisting on supplying agricultural pursuits. Indeed, some who have been producing crops
the settlement strictly from Ecuadorian sources during its emlbry- on small plots abandon then to seek enmploymnent at high wages ini
onic state, thile Ecuadorian government has not followed this policy the oil field. However, once production is stabilized, it is estimated
of certain isolation but has permitted across-the-border movement, that the services of a total of not more than 500 to 1,000 full-time
The colony, with a population of 250, sees for itself an increasing employees will be required to operate the oil field, service the rerole in the Oriente's development. cently completed (July 1972) pipeline from the oil-producing. area
to Esmeraldas, and care for tile storage tanks and port installations
PETROLEUM ill Esimeraldas. When this time arrives, there will be uticinployIt was generally assumed that the accord signed in 19,2 in Rio de ment, outmigration, and economic depression inll the area, as has
Janeiro had settled a long-standing boundary dispute between Ecua- been the case with the Orito oil field across the border in Colombia.
dor and Peru; However, as far as Ecuador is concerned, there is Such conditions do not favor effective settlement of rain forest
still a zone in dispute'(zona controveri da) in the southern part of lands, as many of those who come to make their fortune in the oil
the country. Vast quantities of petroleum have been discovered in fields have neither the spirit of the pioneer nor a penchant for the
southwestern Colombia, in the northeastern Oriente of Ecuador, sedentary life of thie farmer, Perhaps the government is anticipating
and morfrecently (1972) in the Pavayaci area, sonie 150 miles west this eventuality, for one reads in the Alliance for Progress IVeehly)'
of Iquitos, in northwestern Peru. This is a powerful motivation be- Newsletter (September .18, 1972) that a lixed hiighway-waterway
hind the determination of tile Ecuadorian government to inror- known as tile "Inter-Occanlic Way" is being bililt to connect the
porate the Oriente into tile national economy. hVilh the rapid Ecoadorian seaport of San Loretnzo to the river port of Manauls,
development of large oil fields nearby in the Pttulayo basin of State of Amazonas, Brazil. A highway will link Sani Loreto to
Colombia, active oil exploration in Ecuador's Oriente has suddenly Puerto Putumayo on the Putumayo River; the remaining distance
rejuvenated the area, now patterned with large concessions. In April to Manaus is to be covered by riverboats.
1967, Texas Gulf Oil Company spudded in its first wildcat at Lago EINEiRATION ROADS TO TiE EAST
Agrio, forty-five miles southeast of Colombia'4 Orito field. In May, Ro Ri o E S
thirty miles west at Bermejo, the company struck oil in a second he road eastward fot Qit losses two deep goges i seild
wildcat and in August completed a second producing well at [ago country and ascends to a very high, cold pass before the descemit It
wt p i Papallacta. In 1970 this road was improved by tie oil company oant
T. Rolf JUtlrge Wesche. "'Thie Settler Wedge of the Upper Putuirmayo River," extended to the producing field at Lago Agrio, via Bae.a.
pp. 267-48. Most of thie easily accessible land along the Quito-Lago Agrio

road was rapidly occupied by spontaneous colonists. A town, Nueva altitude of 1,700-3,700 feet, there is one area of the Ectl~(h)I 1;11;
Loja, grew up ncar tile Texaco-Gulf Camp, consisting originally of Oriente primiing for incorporate iroi into the nlationtal ecotloilly: (t(',
a 'muddy street, without sidewalks, lihfed with primitive bars and relatively flat Upano River Vallcy, an area. recently designated by
ranisliackled' Irctaurantts and rooming houses. -Thle" population) of the Junta de Planificacion as one of the most important for colomiNueva Lojaoiin early 1973 num1ibered about 2,000; 'small but sub- nation. Previously, sonic adjacent highilandc settlers, two or thre
stanitial stores handling general merchiandlise and notions were he- thousand from Cuenca, imbuled wvit LI ad(esire for advent Lure oring built, and 'property lines were being laid out' according to the mecrely tired of trying to live oil thc pittance to he earned makiii,
specifications of the Institito Ecuiatoriano de Refornia Agraria y PaiainiA, or jilpija pa, hats, came to thie Upanio River Valley to seachI~
Golonizaci6n (IERAC). Ifor- gold ;iear NUndez. Here, despite very hard work, they seldoml
Some 10,000 settlers,' largely from the clrought-strickell Loja make more than a bare living, bitt they are noticeably iw icr oil'
Province anItd the liortliern coastal prov'inces, have conie into the than they were in the uplanids. Anid from these ilplaiids addl IiilI
whole -Aguaricol region. Tliose living outside tile town are for the 'waves of mligrantis have poured intio hiagiila~(I ci tCie iic the Sou lii.
most part engaged in; subsistence farmliig pro tern, that is, their east Orien te, fleci ig periodic (droughts, heavy ersonoi h ai?
immediate goal is to raise as munch of their own food 'as possible, bilt cultural lands, and( extrne m iiiliw. fgI )
they hope in, the future to produce somec surplus for the Sierraii There are already 15,000 squiatters inl (lie valley, uitiliziii 0(),( ))
market with which to buy such staples as sugar, rice, aind potatoes, acres of land priumaIrily for tile raising of cattle. Scat teredl aloi g I liC
and cloth ing, tools,; and household utensils. Hencrce, 'they settledl on left side of tile U p~aiio are jfilaro I midianls whlo, hecauise of iiSioll
or as near as possible to thle roads that give then access to tile miar- enlcouragemenclt and trainling, have shliwi a teil(lelncy to triade 1ii .
kets of tile Sierra. ''' ''nomadic way of life for oII'c more peila lt. Tu'le 0)1111ihletifl oi 0
'Thle road 'from Ambato 'eastward hias 'long becen open, as far as the primary )cilet rationl roads to ~ 6(.a iid beyond will 1imi
Baiois. Even before there was a roadl for whieeledl vehicles, people the immediate set tleient of 1,150 faiilies; anlot her 5,100 ili1w
came on horseback to bathe ill tile hot mineral springs there, InI thle 'will be settled later oil 280,000) acres, apjproximiately 75 a les plallmil
1930s tile Shell Oil Company openedl the road as far, as Mera, dlrilled jper family. Bt now these ale only papler exercises. The pilali%, N.0
,q'few dry hioles, and abandloned tile well sites, The few floaters whlo to be fully intIjAdcentd, call for tlie selections of C0olon as anld aid ((rI
came in at that time 'as laborers (drifted away. During tile ear-th- their migration (oly) t(]lose withl private resources r11- II eno c ltc hl~l
quake of 1919,' the town of Pelilco, between Anihato' and Barjos, was tile zine of coloniaition, exciidimmig those whlo are hai ely siibsisi.
deceply buried under a trendous landslide of m~lillionls of toils of, ng oii small, drought- and erosioii-plagncd sierra plots). 1 'lii e wll1
volcanic ash.' Tilis horrible catastrophe cast its shadow onl roadl 'aslescodary roads5, conistruict ion of schools, mledlical d ispenlconstructionfor several yecars, Even twenty years after the event the saris, a cold storage warcliouse for- meat, expcrinleiital favill';new town called Pelilco, built onl a Steep) bIlarre slope not far from narkeh ng and (-oismucir cooperatives, ti ti iig of propert ies by Ihle
its buried p~redlecessor, was far froml flourislhig. In spite oif frequent 'IERAC,2 all to Ile finan11ced b~y aj$3 ud lioti loanl fromIl tile lii IV alii landslides and 'Waslouts, 'tile road is kept open and has been coll. canl Development. 1atk for road construction allil $6, imill ion frorn
tinueci as far as Tena onl tile Napo River. A'small'b'ut steady trickle ainlagenicies for colon-iization costs.
of settlers is coining fin nd tile faithful misls (trucks that haul both W,4ith the bank loan, coiistrrtctioul of the royals to ai id wi liii i
freight anol passengers) have regularly scheduled service from 11aftois frontier zone is progressinig. A major peiletratioll routle lo M\t C1ii 1(1
toTra ntd'ft'6rm Btfiro.1 to Quito. '' 'cniedin19adfiiaily (decided upon01 in 1962, has Ii'cici
UI'ANo Rivr.R VALLEY 2. From I164 to September~ci 30, 1967, 728 flraitfr eceived titr to MO i,00 as
lietween the forested Cordillera O~riental atil tile Cordillera Cutit, of lanid. Ani iiiiliiciiil 190,000 ani iis arc now )ctiig iklra~ (imiiiiiio FI'iwiimi'w
de itedonina Agrain '1 y Cot oni;diac i~, l, ito dlttiras dle in% ren lizrio iie'j l rfo 4
extending approximately* front NM1ndez nortllward to TNlacas at an agraria y colnnizarii'm [Quito, 19681)

the Negro River, eighty miles front Cuenca. A road within the valley around the lasa in Macas (ontasts within tile coteiy Iics's of humbdextending south from Macas, as of mid-1968, was inching souli, six ings around the plaza in Suciu, and this pattern holds throulghout
miles east of M6ndez, eventually to be joined with the penetration the towns. In Macas, the early )attern of scattered hmical c sites
road and with a proposed intravalley road from ,im6n. Lim6n is surrounded by subsistence crops, fruit trees, sugarcane, mid pasture
the terminus of a completed second penetration road from Cuenca. continues. Sucuxi, although the houiesites are somiewhat spaced out
Seventy miles of short secondary roads, eight miles of which are has a more compact settlement form and has several streets near the
completed, will cut from both sides of the Upano River, east and central plaza with wall-to-wall houses.
west into more virgin territory. When completed, this road net- Macas does not accept newcomers and especially (Oes not like
work will funnel the products of the region's major economic activ- coloinos from Cuenca, for the long-time residents fcar erosion o
ity,, cattle raising, to the Sierra. Cattle are now removed by airplane. their positions of economic iul social superiority. They see CoanAn estimated 50 per cent of crop production in the valley now rots ca nos as special villains because ihese people secem to ave a knack
because of the lack of inexpensive means of reaching highland for business. The Spanish Iackground of Iiiany of the resident ts is
markets, With roads, trucks will haul out coffee, yuca, rice, peanuts, also a possible reason for the (oliess toward Indian au iniesti
plantains, citrus, soybeans, nuts from the wild alnond tree, and so migrants from the Sierra provinces, The population of Mfiacs in
on. Now almost all crops are grown for subsistence by primitive agri- 1858 was around 370; in 1912, 190; iy 1960, 1,800; in 1968, ain coicultural methods, by colonos waiting for the-colonization project to mated 2,000. Families are exceptionally large, thus providinga pool
move beyond government offices. of cheap labor. Inbreeding is prevalent; consequent physical and
A case study. Macas and Sucud.-The towns of Macas awl Suctii mental defects such as albinisn and mental retardation seem esn
are located in the zone of active colonization in tlie Upano River pecially common.
Valley; both have been described by Richard Minsk.' His findings Suculi does not have the closed amosphere found in M idas. fs
are included here to compare and'contrast twoOriente frontier inhabitants accept newcoieris, since they Iemiselves are rlf; ively
towns, one geared to. the traditional, the other to the innovative. recent colonos, T'he jealousy of Cuenca is not found here, in fAi
The contrast between Macas, a settlement for over 360 years, and many of the migrants are froi the provide of Away capitall,
Sucui, a relatively new town of approximately 40 years, is striking. Cuenca). The doubling of tihe population of the urban area of
The inhabitants of Macas are, for the, most part, descendants of SucumA in three years (1965-68) has iesulted in a population of alboxt
serranos who came several centuries ago from the Sierra and have 2,300. Growth is mainly the result. of migration.
historical ties with Guamote and Riobamlha, Cueia, as the early The tradition-bound people of Macas seem unable e t) unite inl
center for expeditions: to this part of the Oriente, lost its influence group effort. Petty quarrels Inhibit the effective functioning of
after the founding of Riobamba. The trail leading to Cuenca served groups such as men's and womeims Red Cross clubs. Most of thc
Macas as a connection to other settlements in tie valley and occa- leadership is provided by th iResian Mission, several Aoreil isionally as a means to market products. Macas is dominated by te migrants, and Peace Corps voliuteers. Sucu;', on the oixher hnand.
inertia of centuries. Several families are important because of early does not have these problems. Here, dynanic iWividuals xave led
connections. Sucuil, however, has not had to break with heavy tra- in the organization of several rous t fiat have proved lective. A
ditions and has not been saddled with similar prolhlems. SucuA is radio station in Sucui is the result of individum ifort and cu rcfreer to choose a more pragmatic approach towards solving problems preneurship; Macas does not have one. The movie theacr in Mda"is
and encouraging growth, was built by the Salesian Mission several years ago. wic theoeLength of settlement plays a part in the distribution of houses year-old theater in SucuA is the result of private initiative.
within the two towns. The central plazas of both Macas and SuicuA Macas has a credit cooperative founded in 1965 witid 35 ineibou
are roughly comparable, but the scattered location of buildings and a capialization of 3580. dy the end of 1967, iA had ;;n'w to NJ
3, "Coloniition in the Upin River viley, Ecoinidor. members and $1,200. The iei, coopeitive in Suiv'i iias moi

F"Asr inoNt TIM ANI)r %
bus aml gmawr cNiMlization. Financial stiPpol-L and advice Both Macas ami Sl;cnA havc isvncies ol, the
both W mml and inwniaumml, coopmatNe tviganizadons are FOM0.0. J-1owCMq the one in SIWUA ims a Limiter W"W"m J :WWO-y
loanmL The ralim"de behhul iWs Mem"m Us i" the coh,"d "wavailable. The nimbus were aWe to oNaM thh; a4l. dwo"gh plailnilIg and posizveranc% cpalido whWh also am founcl in Nincas but look aml sociucculiminic podibun '10c recen, lc
are limited by the I ; uk of intaiml Imnuony and dynarnic M cp imwe rcwlWve to dimye am! "cw Alcas W"i Mc Acge iwdvnwvi
popuial-ion of M; Ile numvo of AM "S iwmicy ""d wo
Macas, as capital of the province of Morona-Sandago, has govern- z-C;;d", to obtain ii. The colon"! ill k lilo'e.
nient offices and agMldCS not, Kind in AM. Ile only exWing agi? CaRy Secum-he ilmmuy has, m ill(! iiiilliw, ;Iil, 1104it Of
Cnitilral extension agency, Inallne(l. by a. VC(el-inariall and all exten- lh;lli his Coll In cri),i i-I in sncki;'i an(i is lcss o jol; o) W sion agent, is fonnd in Macas; them are plain for one in S"citli, piopollsity [(,)I. obl airing a lo;m i,, anucli tw;lli t-,
Macas Ro has a national hedth agency aml a new c1hic i0lich are colono of Sucll;,4,
not found in StICIIA. Oil closer inspection, Illis does not allionlit to 'I''he Salesiall i\;i" ioll ill M ikas is stroiq;; :;s
11111ch ill differential development of tile to'lvils, for SkIcili does have Illay ho ()lie of kc "Ymnm hw ST id All"ankmL AAWwq" thin b
a hospital in the ndWon whmv nioa prqAv W) whh W nm Whii Of Ille Roman C; ill iif: Chilrcw iins tile
problems. CWNHC 1Qh" in 1"0 iQM"o WA ,;q, ;Inti illic only nlovio
SUMAN opial U) me exteIniun agency in Maras is tile office of tile Macas, litde change ran In& pl;wc Nvii;imii is appi-ov;,j.
Institwo Nacional de Refornia Agraria y G)loiiizaci(')n which opcr- %inple, a girl it) im awa's 0"t y
ates five days -I week to deniarcate land:; ;in(] help colo in ima""I sNyo;l ol the -;.6 WX,
c1car titles: The office opens oNy on ITAlay and Sminday mornings school; tile gh is wol 4n, fo, ;I"" "oiow. %,;o vc
in Afacm. Thk opumim Ts a ivsidt of the coloidiadon acUv4y Wk- lVacc Wq. v""WCc;, WaS n;"i, -,1loVr,6
ing place ill tile areas stIrrotinding the hvc; settirine"is. In 1964, the ill wv Inisioll Y ilo p; fOr 1)arroqitia (parish) of AM showed 6 %tilien receiving id,10 arms; of OW fialesial Wvo" is W w SIWK
in 1965, 186 familln rmTiv"! 6JR5 acmq in 1966, 63 families re- hul that the QV;mt coine
ceived title to 4,020 aucs; until Sclaellibu 30, no land had been lif"161v dolllin; icil 1)), the CAWQ Wt,
60cd in 1961 Tim only year Wat the parn"pda A Micas showed its les""MI ho"OUV is Ow ex"n"T "i ;l
tilling activity was In 1966, when 12 acres wem petitioned foi- and direc-led by a &yli u;lic and clowl );;sing
granted, sivulnel"al in We indicting of AW oil A.
Anotha boor Wat sets SumA apart fro"i Macas W; is nnilii- ;u;d )i-ongiil i;w AW plane to MW in 194G,
porpow center presently tinder consirlictioll. Since Sticlull lics nbont twc;"Y-5vc yrals h'is bCell o nlcaicnlabk
halfway between Njacas and NhIndez, and is near tile siw whole :1 M esta"I inli"M"V k nvoohle Al hln % &I two sn Aln V"kWA.
bridge MI. be hnilt across the Upano Rivet, it will i Ile tile center of 1hC wo;; Ai 6;0
convergence for tile entire valley, III ad(lition to it% probable posi- the schitw, iC. ailjl(V4
don an the cmuer of corninuchil activity, it will also become an ad- of lw (liffercm-c", twiv"Cen the of iw
ministraUve center in spite of the fact that Macas is the provincial Nviiii.i;h colegio il; % all a6van, kivvicapital. The rinilliptirpose center will Ile tile general administrative I'lowcver, SticuA ins We advamaqc of tin& ;.v, volol.i i"Yn.
seat for Centro de Rcconvvisi6n F-conelinica del Amay, Caflar, y lion thaz rdhoiloi 10
NIorona-Sa tit iago (CREA) and Institnto Ernalmiano die Rcforloa Ciliwi, facilwk;c!, 0; t-,
Agrarian y Colonizaci6li ollirinis it) tile 11pallo Valley' SlIrnA will two colln-1lunil;C:-. "O'h, Mso have a rehigeralrd Wal-Cholise for silent stol"ag C, Clinlinating (lie iiphls (ow to
last-minute slaughtering of cmliv only whell airplanes can land. Sucli;'i Nwips ()io to ...... .

Sierra and beyond; Macas sends only 12,000 to 15,000 pounds. traditional native pasture, which supports no mnore than one aid
Meat from Sucu,, sent immediately upon slaughter at the airport one-half head per two acres.4
and without any protection, is loaded on i)C-3's and flown to 'The lack of migrants to Macas is reflected ini thie high perccntt;Ie
Cuenca. From Cuenca, it may go as far as Guayaquil or northern of families having a minimum of1 fiflteen or tweIIty head of cattle.
Peru. Meat butchered in Macas is wrapped in cheesecloth-type But tihe long residence of the colonos is not the only reason for tile
covering and taken from the slaughterhouse by truck. Four nimeat- relative prosperity. The arrival of an agency of the Banco dc
transport flights per week carry the beef to Pastaza, in the Oriemte to Folento within the last ten years has allowed many of thie poorer
tie north, where it is loaded on trucks and hauled to Sierra comn- families to acquire cattle and to close partially thie economic gap
munities, between themselves and the wealthier f;unilies. SuIcuI is different
The recent extension of the road south of Huambi and LIogrofio in this respect. because of the constant imnnigration of families. Tiey
has greatly facilitated the transportation of beef from Sucu. do not have the means to buy caltle when they first arrive. T"he
Slightly higher prices in Sucui may expllain why cattle are trucked same problem applies to lanidholdin g. Macas, with native-borni
or driven by night from tle Macas zone to Sucuit to be slaughtered. colonos, has few lanldless families; holdings are usually seventy-live
This movement from canton to canton is illegal. There is also drain- acres or more. Smaller holdings are characteristic of Sucu;iA and he
ing of cattle in the Sucti zone without regard for the future. area between Macas and Sucui.
Strong efforts should be made to encourage building up of herds As a result of inunigration to tie SucuA area, farm labor is avaibefore the penetration road is completed. The zone of commerce of able. These recent innigrants want to earn money to acquire tleir
Macas is not as large as that of Sucui because of the limits imposed own land and cattle. .'hus, imore l;bor-intensive crops can be growl.
by the lack of roads and trails and the consequent lack of colons although lack of narkets discourages this type of production. A
to the north. major problem in Macas, according to the colonos, is tihe lack of
Physical geography accounts for only a small part of the vari- labor. Previously, jilaros tended calie and cleared Iai. ile iNation. Although there is a difference in altitude between Macas sion, in the last live years, has separated tlese Indianis from the
(3,000 feet) and SucuA (2,400 feet), this is not too important. It is conIMos so that they would leave their nomadic way of life for one
true that thie slightly warmer temperatures may have a minimal of land and cattle ownership. Lack of labor is reflectied in the comeffect on the rate of growth and types of crops. But the only notable paratively high daily wage of 83 cents to $1.38, plus animals. 'lhe
variations is the rice growing around Sucud; the existence of an im- laborer in the Sierra earns around 55 cents per day. Another relictpermeable layer of rock a short distance below the surface is one of tion of labor scarcity is tihe lack of vegetables, a labor-inttcnsivc
the physical factors, in addition to temperature, affecting the quality crop. Peas, tomatoes, and other vegetables are Hlown in from ibc
of rice grown. Yields reach more than 8,000 pounds per acre. to lime. Even wood for cooking is expensive-an incolgruity, willt i
Experimental farms in the area also are influencing the crops so much forest-because of tihe scarcity of labor.
grown. The new cattle-breeding unit near Macas has been in opera- The Proyccio de Colonizaci6n delC Valic del Rio Upano estiiinatcs
tion only for a short time anrd thus has had little effect so far, that 23 per cent of the people in the Upano Valley are engaged in
The experimental crop station on the edge of Sucu.i, testing for the commerce and 1i per cent in artisaushiip. Macas may show such
crops best suited to the Upano Valley, has led to the introduction percentages, but in addition to running a store, a fainily will alko
of soybeans by thile more innovative farmers of Sucind. Farmers ill have land anrd cattle. Sucufi shows tihe same division of empidoyrin,
the Macas area have not yet begun to sow soybeans. Another ex- but fewer people clgage in both commerce and cattle raising.
ample is the type of grass grown for pasture: the majority of farmers SucuA, with increasing nuriml ers of migrants aind more iacivity,
around SucuiA grow elefante grass which can support one head of
4. An exception in the use of erauintore~ lt psamre in the Mag touris
cattle per acre, but tihe extension agent in M acas estiiales that 4. An exception wto the tasr of in tr e a ona for l ifeen years. rai 225 nr in o
iallfarmers there |lligi;ow 95 ter cent of their pastures in gr lt te auone for ifre are in 2n ac ofe.
farmers there sow 95 per colt of tlheir pastures in gratnalote,. the paqut~e are in dlefaiile.

has more prolAcins with thievery than Macas, a less dynamic place it)([ promising part of the coliwl )-and olle of t1kc 'llosi lvi w lkii".
where everybody knows everybody else and iviiat possessions each promising rally liopical lo vlawls ilk the Westciii icilii plici(
family has. Repayin ent of loans is no problem in Macas cither- PrOvidCd, agaill, thaL tranSIMI'L IaCiliLiCS al-C iliiploVed. Timils iilwi
even the formuly scininoniadic jfharos repay them. Of acres of these folemlands ire WC11 SUiLed to crops aiidi imstuics,
Many variables enter into tile differences hcl.wCen tile two towns, San1r) Dontitigro de los Golmados-A vast new area uir. t o Ilic
only thirtemmilcs apart, What will happen in the future has been Arides was o wne(l up for a),I icill.1 ilre wit,i tile c0;jjpt(-ii();l ()l kiw
suggested. The deterinhiing factor will be a penetration load, 'Flic road from Quito to Santo 00min""o de los Colorados ill ")117 ;;ieffects will be far-reaching and will probably change Macas more beyond to Esilicraidas ill 19,19. 'i'lle govelmlicuL 11;ks alle.;i6y wihc4
than Sucmil since it has to makc a greater -adjustment to tile in- about 1,600 fatnilics oil 120,000 ;icrcs o'I 1,111(l aild is !A"llimw" thc
creased circulation and traffic that tile road is certain to bring. What settlellient of another 4,400 f;ku-iiiics. The soils are itile,
Crosion to tile traditional ways of life in Macas, which have survived tell) peraturcs riiiige between 75 and 79, Faimill is betwceal (10 aii(! iO
over 550 ycars,,will occtjr.? hitches a year, aild there is lio (It-), season. I 1cre ballaims, c;l(ao' ali6
Eastward from Zamorn.-Thc road from Loja to Zamora lias not rolFcc are grown foi- the domc ic market ill Quito. ""Aloils;iwk
penetrated farther eastward toward theatre claimed by both I"Ictla- Independent bamil-'a farms, Illomly smail holdiw's of 10 to 5, j
dor and Peru; until the.boundary dispute is settled to tile satisfaction acres, many of tho,ju owned by Negros, now 11ine tiiis road
of both tile governments, development, in tile disputed area will ward from Sallto Domiligo lo Flsmeraldas. A sine qu;,, iimi :oicertainly be millillial. parable favorable i'csults of ('11'01AS ;lt C010ili/. itiClil ',ill(l
developmetlL cas? o' the Andes is ihe 0;
petioration roads ;lit([ makiiig land avail;;6le for t:ic 1;tl.oi iililyl)'
It has becri impossible over the years to get a national effort behirld
the construction of a few but significant penetration roads into the RFUETUENCEs: ECUADOR
Oriente; rather tile residents of caqj-ltm1 picil)in or county have 11"llilleco, Domillet). 11i.1107-in de Araras. quito: cxiino misimmi ;f.
tried to getnational funds for tile construction of a road from their ciotlrR Cictitificas, I ll") 11. .
own locality to the cast. I When such funds ire not forthcoming, or Bef"1011, Frincisco javlel. "Colldicimws dc Relvidumbic vi,2't7lflri ('11 1;1
(ld Olicilte Colatolimm." 111(milwarii'm 1, im. 2 Olayo P10):8i-99.
arespent on other road projects, local resident% and their leaders Blimmi, ricr C. "Ii piovincia Mot lit i lgn liell'o6cute r(plaimimm.
-riimido ille vall;i(e l1p;mo-Nam;mgoi;i v Zanit'la"* Rroi ll ii
are nolonger interested. For instance, therc is in ungraveled, fair- Imllicolare i "
weather road that leads from Latacuriga across the highlands to tile Agricultura Stibimpicale e 'j'iopirair 54. iioq. 1-3 (Gctm;do-,'bi7,,
cast as it d descends oil the eastern flank of the cordillera it becomes Milt, Aithur 1,,, et al. "santo i)omiiig p (ic jo.s oimmlos--A Nviv Vioncet 1.omr
a trail., Regional leaders ill Latacilliga. Spend 11111ch tillie and energy ill ',cuador," Ermiomir Geograplo 16, no. .9 (Jilly 1960):2'11 :k).
Gm'lglalldc' j. B., Ct 'It. "Gololki,,,lim, ,q a it"rarch Fionlier: The VXimdmt;,i
on making this trail into a road. They ire riot at all interested in Casc." Ill Pforris atirl Paltrin ill Culhor, c(lited by Robvit Al m M;miicis.
lielping pay the costs of road building eastward from Quito, or Chicago: Aldhic PidAkiiing G).,
from Ambato, or froni'any other center of tile Sicr a. And it is re- Cisliclo's Cislier0q, "Indisli Nlij;ialimis hom the AmIcan /mw
I to llkf. Lowlands." Aln6irn Imilyrija 19, jio. 3 (.Jill), 059):226 lI.
ported that the people of Arnbato, have ste-milastly opposed tile
CoMite., Ilitcralne6calill de Drsariollo Agiiculh. Trnellcia de, bi tirla 1, dr'l'olm'lo
efforts to.improvc the Quito-Papallacta road, especially its extension 'lor io-rcoll6rniro (let srrinr ag?;ro1(,: [,,rtjndor, Nvasl iiij;itm: ;';ill Am(.6-111
to Tena via Bacza, because they fcar that pro(hicts from 1'ena would 1965.
then flow to tile Quito I market rather than t : o Ainbato. Confol-ti, Ellillio. "PoRibilitimles CCAY116111ir;1% para la ilitroducr k';n dc nui-vo, rid
tivos en el Ecumlor." Plattificario'm 1, 110, 1
By way of contrast, brief mention night be made of western 122,47.
l"Cluldol. CCI)tlo Ov Accolm ".9i6l) Vcow'mica del Azija), C;iilai N,
1'1 cuador. The 27,000-odd s(piare miles of coastal Fcuado r produce Sataiqgo, 1'rojeclo (if! rolonizari,'7j drl I'alle del Mo r7pmo. Cuuiic,,, li;;i.
a large exportable surphis of barianas, coffee. cacao, rice, sligir, Illstituto EC11:11oli'llm fle '1'te[onim Agraria y Colonliaci6ii.
cotton, citrUS frldtfl, i1nd j)i1lCRj)fACS. In fact filiS is t1lV 1110st fertile de las realizarionet en reform agmiia y colotiizaribit. Quiio,

S~~~~&LL~HIL FAN H ili ?O0 AT FTHE A ND S.*
Injl~t ~john P. Bishop**
E"stac:1on 'Exper-3mnta !iaTo/Cen-Lro Lrzrc lmoncocha*
Acartado 2600 Q4-ui'to, E-ao
Each 1s:ozr'aphic region has~ unique food-Dover'y-population ro-:.,ems and- pootentials. Such problems are compounded in
z~e en~a~ ndean regi on because :-s poplation has the h Lghest d ensi-1ty and birth rate in South America while cons-um-rition levels of pr-otein and calories are among the lowest in the Woestern Hemisphere. Traditiona~lly most people
ofEcuador-, Bolivia, Per~a and Colombi hav lie n ih land areas.
These countries also contain vast humid tropical lowlands east of the Andes into which highways are being built due to Detroleum discoveries and colonization plans (Figure 1). Such highways are leading the poorest of' the r-ural poor aw~ay from over- popul ated highlandm-areas to es--tabli-h small far-ms in the eastern lowlands (9)'-.-- A si-zea-ble partc of each fLam,'ily_ farm is utilized for products of primarv~ need such as foodcrops, small stock and firewood.-.* FaDer presented to International Conference on Small
Farm Vanazeaient, sponsored by Food and Aa-ricultu-re OrEanizat ion (FAQ) Kingston, Jama:;ica, July, 1980.
(K~anuscript in preparation)
M*Iember of INTAP/UF'LA/IBRD -Techni-cal Assistance Mission.
Author acknowledges assistance given by Summer Institute
of Linguisti -s.
**Average annual precipitation 3102.mir, elevation 243. masi,
latitude 0024'S.

A shifting form of aricultu-r is practiced cy al
farmers east of the Andes (26, 27,33). As nm an onulatlons and expectations increase, rest periods in shifi cufivation are shortened, accelerating in an alarmLn rate soil deterioration and weed/pest invasion, and critically decreasing yields precisely as needs are increasing (26,31,33).
One promising solution is to intensify the rest period w ,th swine, hair sheep, chicken and firewood production (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,18,20,22,29,35,36). Forage and firewood legumes increase soil aeration, organic matter, nitrogen and available phosphorus, as well as control soil erosion and leachIng (5,6,21,28). Swine, hair sheen and chickens improve soil fertility by depositing organic matter which
stimulates legume/-P-- h-rm symbiosis and by supplying fecal microorganisms which mineralize crop residues (5). In addition, swine and hair sheep improve small farm income
(8) and produce low cost animal protein without cereal grains (3).
The American lowland tropics have the highest per capita swine population in the world (Table 1 & Figure 3), more than five times that of tropical Africa and Asia (34). Most swine, hair sheep and chickens in the tropical lowlands east of the Andes are produced on small farms (Table 2) utilizing an open range production system with banana as the principle swine feed and corn as the
supplemental chicken Teed.
Focrorn./S-mp1 Stor-W/F'i rpwond P'-nr',w otr
In Amazonian Ecuador, studies are being realized to
intensify open range small stock husbandry and firewood production utilizing the following mixture of perennial species in a multi-strata production system: D1m1 dMi ovalifolium (tr'bol tropical), Canna d ulis (achira), MusaT acuminata x M. T b n ABB (orito) and In-a Pi _in? (guaba).

The umbraphilus legumb D LEIum exM *c~Th consti tutes the ground floor (2) as forage legumes -are more palatable and more efficiently utilized by swi and hair sheep than are grasses (11, 15) The root forage C~nna S and banana Zusa, P r_ __ -" x M. b i .n ABB are
local perennial crops with low labor and soil fertility reoquirements and Droduce low cost feeds for direct consumetion by swine and hair sheep (12, 16, 17,19,25,32,34). The fast growing native_ lume tre Ina dli improves soil
fertility and structure (23) as well as produces firewood (1,2,3,4) on an eight year rotation cycle (Figure 4).
Initially, conventional agriculture is practiced on a new plot each year: land clearing and production of short cycle species in conformity with one or another classical multiple cropping system. The perennial species of the future multi-strata system are interplanted during short cycle cropping (Figure 5). Following a two year period of short cycle cropping, the mentioned perennial components will have reached a vertically stratified state of development. Four distinct strata are rapidly differentiated and the resultant multi-strata structure and multi-species composition ecologically and biologically approaches a sustained yield forest ecosystem (10,13,14).
A ten hectare family unit (Figure 6) is divided into
eight lots (1 ha. ea.) which are used following field crops (Table 3) for swine and hair sheep. Also, eight lots (0.2 ha. ea.) are formed and used following garden crops (Table 4) for individual maternity pens. Six strands of barbed wire and closely woven living Jatr pha- curs (pion) posts are used as-fencing (24). Internal swine and hair sheep parasites are chemically controlled (levamisole) every three months synchronized with alternate. grazing. Also, a 0.4 ha. lot is used for the farm home, chicken house and fruit trees (Table 5).

A ten hectare family farm with 1 .5 an i un- ts (1 A. U. 5 adult pigs) per hectare can mantain 12 sows and produce 5 pigs per-sow per year. Est imatin each pig at US $75, swine income per year can reach US $~5 00.
Therefore, mixed foodcrop/small stock/___firewood production has great potential to imDrove the economic Droductivity, ecological stability and sociological viability of small family farms in the humid tropics east of the
For technology transfer to the rural masses, small farmer training materials are being prepared for use in local adult education classes, regional radio education courses and practical classes in rural schools.

Mlo" 7no 7043 no _____ Con
00-y >; (
50~~ ~~~ ~~ LL-F r~ i ~r I:J I f ,:r L .,_______6. IT .I
-1 x -14
r-- l L1 f 1C
oe 0 1t Jr Ji i -r ~J1I4 ,F r
'<:~~~~~**~~ f-.** **:* 'QL I LZ
Lr I -i j -1 .4 F-1 +' .
~\K. ~ *L~ ~~:jL1:I rci .r I**~'r~i
~ :..L~k ii .1 d
[~Tfl Humd TropicsFL~h1WeVry Troic Hl" r rpc
_____I 0 r oth 50 r oth i +6~y m na~
X T TI~c 11U5
FigureI x, Dr otsi tetoia lwad at h ne
(SUCV17.IT nulRpr)

000 1
7.000 i
1.0000 20 ba ha I -0 e )0-1C
Siz of Farm
Fiur 2. Nme ffrsbIiz n.mzna-cad (SUC: iitri eArcluay aaei,17)

Ca't--,-- Swine
4o% 3:
Figure 3- Percent catt"L-e, swine and sheep in Ecuador.
(SOURCE-i -Xiinisterio de Agricul turay
Ganaderla,- 1978).

VIflwe 7YOX !4 11
t",7 years
3 4 51
cut firewood Small stock/firewood production
Plant foodcrop,,,
-p aasod i 11 Oval i. ol inm
(Tre'bol tropical) Ona pdulia
- (Achira)
~ Musa aai mn;it x IM. ba-IhirinRa AB (onito)
- (Guaba)
Foodcrop production
Figure 4. Mixed foodcrop/small stock/ firewood production.

4-'1 350
250- -- - - -0
-p20 -~
ON D j F M A 'MJ J A SO0N D j F M AM dU A Omnh
1st Field NazYuca _________________________m___1 al s ;oC
5 ha, [ireWoQwi
(6 years
2nd Field IYaz-YuaAh Piflfloil 13O~
(0.5 :ha) PlaLano, Papaya, Papa mandi, OriLQ rsocol'
Tr~bol toia b_(years)
Figure 5. Average precipitation (15 years) and cropping practices in the
Centr'o Arnaz~nico Limoncocha

Field Crops Field Crops
80 m
I ha. I ha.
Small Stock/Firewood Small Stock/Firewood 80
80 m
1 ha. 1 ha.
Small Stock/Firewood Small Stock/Firewood 8
80 m
1 ha. 1 ha.
Small Stock/Firewood Small Stock/Firewood 80
1 ha. 1 ha.
0.2 ha. 0 0 000 0.2 ha, 0.2 ha.
0. 2 ha 1-1-ml- Sal
Small oo 000 Small Small.
Garden Stock/ C000o 000 Stock/ S stock/ 40 m
Crops Firewood Ck O Firewood Firewood
Crops O O
Garden Small OA t O Small Small
Stock/ 4 Stock /Dr l Stock / Sock 40 m
Crops Firewood 000 OO Firewood Firewood
0.2 ha 0.2 ha. 0O0 .oO 0.2 ha. 0.2 ha.
, 50m 50 m. 50 m 50 M 50 m
Figure 6. Mixed foodcrop/small stock/firewood production
in a:10 ha family unit..,

B-1 1
Table 1. American countries with large swine populations
(SOURCE: World Almanac, 1978).
Number of people per hog
1. Brazil 2.3
2. Ecuador 2.7
3. Haiti 2.8
4. Nicaragua 3.3
5. U.S.A. 3.9

Table 2. Percentage of farms, swine, sheep and chickens by farm size in Ecuador (SOURCE: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia 1978).
Farm size % of farms % of swine % of sheep f of chickens
0 20 ha. 87.7 81,7 84. 9 81.7
20 50 ha. 7.8 10.7 4.8 9.5
+ 50 ha. 4.5 7,6 10.3 8.8

Table 3. 1.'ajor foodorops in Amnazonian Ecuador.
Local name Scientific name Variety
14 a Iz Z.~ aY s INIAP VS-2
P 1 -"1 '-a no Jia aunna.a x Local
L balbic5n AAB
Papa mandi Xnbom itti ol T Native
Papa china ~ ol .ocasida PzrulJenta Local
Papayac r r apappya Nati.

Table 4. Minor foodcro-ps in Ainazonian Ecuador
Local name Scientific name Variety
Mani Ara z b y- n n N a t i v e
Fr jol comun phaseolus arul ;a-ris Local
Frgjol rat'O'n Vi zrrs u-nnI)i rI)I:;t;:I Local
Frejol vainita Y-i-,- -nP Z e s n 1) 1 n rl 21 i Local Habas natives Phas-e-0--us Native
Haba blanca. Canpy2li-a 9nc7i-fn rMiZ; Local
Ashipa Pachyr-rhi 7i)q tuberose,,: Native
P a Anarpg conpsuq Native
Cocoa S-Qlanu m t o t) i -r o Native
Badea P2,: ciflnT-q nu,,3d-rRrrri7IPriq Nati
Granadilla Pa--tzi-fTor;;. et9uli s Native
Matz peque-o 7 P;; Tn P ys Local
Camote batatas Native
Papa de soga Diogno-rP2 _tXjfL-ida Native
Pujin QPI qthpp aj3-DUj-a Native
Achocha Cy(-l Pntgra ;L;>data Native
Tomato criollo Tvnonergir-on e,:;rulf-rtum Local Zapallo Curn-rhi ta ap. Native
Cuchicol A I tPrrPrth;=-rP Native
Cebolla criolla AlTium-rPnz; ,.- Local
Ca'nja- -ae -azu"car SaDha= -sp Local

B 1 S
Table 5. Fruit trees in Anazonian Ecuador
Local name Scientific name Variety
Lim6n nandarina, C itri),7 I i Tnor, a Local Lima Ed-.= Local
Naranja criollo Citrip Local
Mian! de 5rbol Ca.22 ,Todenrlrnn pmir-areylga Native
Guaba ilta, Tn c-; den--ifl- -R Native
Arbol de pan _42:,ac ;-rniis ajfjl_La Local
Cacao blanco Tbeobrorng -hirQl or Native
ZaDote Cal onp-rnim zanD-t-a Native
Abivu Pouteria. cpimi to Native
Anona Annon- snupno,7g Native
Uvilia Poiiroir-m2 rerrom P-ro-t a Native
Guaba comun 7-ni-p- i-dul i Native
Guaba. Trachetona, TnL-p- -znertPbiIiR Native
Aguacate Native
Guanrlbana AnnnnP,-Enuri nP ta Naiive--.-.
Chonta duro G 1) i I i f I Tn El Native
Guayaba-- I-sid-Lun- gua_11a-ra Native

1. BisoD J.P.1978. The development of a susta-ed
yie.ld agro-ecosystem in the upper Amazon. AF r o
Ecosystlems, 4: 45 9-461.
2. Bishop, J. P. 1978. Desarrollo y tkransfLerencia de
t.ecnolog'ia para pequenas fincas en la Region Anazoonica ecuatoriana. En: Seminario sobre
Kanejo de los 'Sistemas Ecol6gicos y
de Producci~n Az-ro-S ilvo -Past oril en !a Rei"n
Ainazoonica Ecuatoriana, Datrocinada Dor el instituto
N\acional de Colonizacil"n de la B.egi~on Amaz~nica
Ecuatoriana, Llmoncocha, Ecuador. 60 Pp.
3. Bishop, J. P. 19,79. ?roduccihn familiar azro-porcinoforestal en el tr~O'ico h'&medo hiSranoamer-icano.
En: Taller so bre sistemas A~ro-Forestales en
America Latina Tropical, patrocinada por CATI7/
LTNU, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 9 pp.
4. Bishop, J. P. 1980. Agro-Forestry Systems for the
Humid Tropics East of the Andes: 1. integrated foodcrop, swine, chicken and fuelwood production.
In: international Conference on Amazonian Agricultural and Land Use Development, sponsored by
ICRAF/CIAT/RF/GTZ/NCSU, Cali, Colombia, April 1618, 1980.
5. Bredero, T. J. 1977. The role of farmyard manures
and green manures in soil fertility restoration
in the humid tropics. Abstr. Trop. Agric. 3:
6. Bredero, T. J. 1973. Green manuring and the IV and
P supply of swamp rice. N~igerian Agric. J.,
10: 248-257.
7. Breitenbach, C. A. .1974- -Farming -systems--for the
tropics and sub tropics. In:-iGuide for Field
Crops in'.the TrDpics-and--he Subtropics. UJSAID,
Washington, D. C., 22-28--pp.8. CIAT, 1971. Sistemas de producci'On de ganado porcino.
En: Informe Anual. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia. 41-52 pp.
9. Crist, R. E and- Nissly,- C Y! 1973. East. from the
Andes. -Univ. Florida-Social.Sciences M~onograph
No-. 50. 'Univ. -Florida-Press, -Gainesville,
Florida. 166-pp.-

10. Dubois, J. 1977. Investigaciones sobre Tr6pico Hamedo
Americano. En: Seminario sobre Ecologia .del Tropico Hmedo Americano, IICA-TROPICOS, i:-rida, Venezuela. IX Al-A10 pp.
11. Eyles, D. E. 1963. Integration of pigs into grassland farming. In: Animal Health, Production
and Pasture. Longmans, London, 359-383 PP.
12. Herklots, G. A. 1972. Vegetables in South-East
Asia. Hafner, New York. 525 pD.
13. Holdrige, L. R. 1959. Ecological indications of
the need for a new approach to tropical land-use.
Economic Botany, 13: 271-280.
14. Janzen, D. H. 1973. Tropical agroecosystems. Science,
182: 1212-1219.
15. Jones, D. W. and Wallace, H. D. 1974. Grain and
forage crops for swine. In: Swine Production in Florida. Florida Department of Agriculture,
Bull. No. 21, 93-99 pp.
16. Kay, D. E. 1973. Queensland Arrowroot. In: TPI
Crop and Product Digest, No. 2 Root Crops, Tropical Products Institute, Overseas Development
Administration, London. 120-126 pp.
17. Kurita, K. 1967. The cultivation of Canna eaulsa,
and its value as a feedcrop. Japan J. Trop.
Agric., 11 (1-2): 5-8.
18. Kirby, J. M. 1976. Agricultural land-use and the
settlement of Amazonia. Pacific Viewpoint, 15:
19. LeDividich, J. 1977. Feeding value of Carna1 n
roots for pigs. J. Agric. Univ. P. R. 61 (3):
20. Masefield, G. B. 1965. A Handbook of Tropical Agri-culture. Oxford, London, 196 pp.
21. Moore, A. W. 1967. Changes in soil moisture and organic matter under different covers at Ibadan,
Nigeria. Plant Soil, 27: 463-467.
22. NTye, P. H. and Greenland, D. J. 1960. The Soil under Shifting Cultivation..-Commonwealth Bur. Soils,
Tech.Commun.- 51, Harpenden, U. K. 156 pp.

23. Ochse, J. J ., et. al. 1961. Tropical and Subtroical
Agriculture, Vol. 1. Kacmillan, New York, 76p pp.
24. Payne, W. J. 1973. Disposici6n y Manejo de finc-as
tropicales. En: Ganaderia en los Tr6picos.
Asociaci6n Venezolana de Criadores de Ganado Cebu.
Caracas, Venezuela. Vol. 1, 563 Pp.
25. Purseglove, J. W. 1972. Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Wiley, New York. 607 pp.
26. SInchez, P. A. 1977. Alternativas al sistema de
agricultura migratoria en Amirica Latina. En: Reunion sobre Manejo, Conservaci6n de Suelos y Agricultura Nigratoria en America Latina, FAO/
SIDA, Lima, Peru. 44 pp.
27. Sanchez, P. A. 1973. Manejo de Suelos bajo sistemas
de roza. En: Un Resumen de las Investigaciones Edafolo'icas en la Amirica Latina Tropical. N.C.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 219: 51-74.
28. Singh, A. 1967. Long-term effects of green manures
in sub-tropics. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 37:
29. Sprague, H. B. 1976. Combined crop/livestock farming
systems for developing countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. Technical Series Bulletin No.
19, Office of Agriculture, Technical Assistance
Bureau, Agency for International Development,
Washington D. C., 30 pp.
30. Thomsen, M. 1978. The Farm on the River of Esmeralds.
Mifflin, Boston. 329 pp.
31. Tosi, J. 1974. Desarrollo forestal del tr6pico americano frente a otras actividades econ~micas. En:
Reunion Internacional sobre Sistemas de Producci6n para el Tr6pico Americano. Informes sobre Cursos,
Conferencias y Reuniones No. 41, IICA. Zona Andina
Lima,I Perr.- 13 pp.
32. Walker, R. H. 1953. Some notes on the edible canna
and its use in feeding pigs on the Lehmann system.
Govt. Kenya: Report of an enquiry into the general
economy of farming in the highlands. pp. 56-57.
33. Watters,-W. F. 1971. Shifting cultivation in Latin
America. FAO Forestry Dev. Paper No. 17. 305 PP.

34. -K-i'Lliam-son, G. and Pyne, I%'. J. 1975. La Ganader'La
n Regions Tropica-Lass. Ed5-11ori-al Blume, arc i e 1 or, az 468 pp. I
35. 1977. The role of s1h eep and Ecats in agricultural develormient. kt-n-rock International LiveI
stock Research and Training Center, Morrilton,
Arkansas. 223 P-D.
36. WINROCK, 1979. Hai-- D.-oduction systems.
Win.rock Internat--onal Livestock. Research and
'Prainin- Center, 7,lo--rilton, A-I-kanzas. -

den.d,.m C
John P. Bishop**
Estaci6n Exp erimental NTapo/Centro Amazinico Limoncocha***
Tnstituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
Apartado 2600 Quito, Ecuador
Tntraincti on
The humid tropics east of the Andes (Figure 1) are presently undergoirnglarge scale deforestation in favor of small farm pasture/cattle development. Forests are substituted with forage grasses following short-term croDDing. Such development has provoked severe criticism as there occurs serious soil deterioration and few pastures persist. Today many of these pastures are found abandoned
(1 ,10,14).
One promising solution is to associate forage grasses
and cattle with forage legumes, hair sheep and timber trees (2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,15,16,17,18,19,20). Hair sheep compact soil less than cattle while forage legumes and timber trees: a) increase soil nitrogen by root associations with bacteria and fungi, b) fertilize soil through leaf-fall, c) improve soil texture and aeration by physical and chemical effects, and d) increase income from small farm pastures by sale of timber.
* Paper presented to International Conference on
Silvo-Pastoral Systems, sponsored by International
Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi,
Kenya, April, 1981. (Manuscript in preparation)
** memberr of INIAP/UFLA/IBRD Technical Assistance Mission.
Author acknowledges assistance given by Summer Institute
of Linguistics.
*** Average annual precipitation 3102 mm, elevation 243
masl, latitude 00 24'S.

In Amazonian Ecuador, studies are being realized to evaluate the forage grass raahiaria h~mi~dca (kikuyo amaz6nico), legume Dsmnfium pali13nlim (trbol tropical) and timber tree Crd ia aInorm (laurel) in a silvo-pastor, system (Figure 2).
At the beginning of the rainy season the TrudI
and D. ova-e 5Foln are established using vegetative material and planting stick. The 3. l o is also transplanted (400/ha) at this time using rootstumps (Figures 3 & 4).
The newly established pastures are not grazed for one year or until timber trees are three meters high. Two years after reforestation, trees are thinned to 200/ha and again after four years leaving 100 high-grade trees per hectare (Figure 5).
One hectare of pasture maintaining two bovines with
25% extraction per year will produce ten bovines in twenty years. Estimating each adult bovine at US $300, cattle income per hectare in twenty years will be US $3000.
One hundred Cordia trees per hectare can produce 100 m3 of timber in twenty years. Estimating each m3 of Cordia at US $30, forest income per hectare in twenty years would be US $3000.
Therefore, integrated cattle/hair sheep/timber production has great -potential to improve- the economic productivity,ecological stability and sociological viability of small farm pastures in the humid tropics east of the Andes.
For technology transfer to the rural masses, small farmer training materials are being prepared for use in local adult education classes, regional radio education
courses and practical classes in rural schools.--

14 1 11 1 years
AAThin ri to 100/ha.
Sell timber
__________ Thin Cor~lia to 200/ha. Rnvt atr
Begin grazing Reforest
Plant: C-oiZdia 2-1 JQJdo a .,
D-enr,=Aiu o v wfnL11 m (tre'bol tropical) Prachiaria midirola (kikuyo amaz6nico
Figure 2. Integrated cattle/hair sheep/timber production.

04 150P4 0 N D J- M A M J J AS 0 months
NMaiz Kikuvo aazqnico(,---Tr(*bol tropical
Figure 3.Average precipitation (15 years) and planting sequence in the
Centre Amazonico TLifnonoocha.

Cordial alli-ods2ra (laurel)
DamnDdlum nyalif.,Qllum (trebol tropical)
Rraobi2ria humidiaola (kikuyo afnaz6nico) Ll
10 meters
Figure Planting diagram.

Integrated cattle/hair 2heep/t-irber Ol production (40 ha)
I Ihho
0I Mixed foodcrop/srnall stock/firewood
- H production (10 ha)
.21 V I
Figure 5-- Small farm production system-for 50 ha-farms.

Foteur Citu
1. Anon. 1978. Forestry for local community development.
FA0 Forestry Paper No. 7, Rome, 114 pp.
2. Bishop, J. P. 1978. The development of a sustained
yield tropical agro-ecosystem in the upper Amazon. Agro-Ecosystem, 4: 459-461.
3. Bishop, J. P. 1978. Desarrollo y transferencia de
tecnologEia para pequeias fincas en la Regi6n Amazinica Ecuatoriana. En: Seminario sobre
Manejo de los Sistemas Eco!6gicos y Alternativas
de Producci'n Agro-Silvo-Pastoril en ia Regi6n
Amaz6nica Ecuatoriana, patrocinada por el Instituto Nacional de Colonizaci6n de la Regi6n Amaz6nica Ecuatoriana, Limoncocha, Ecuador.
4. Bishop, J. P. 1979. Producci6n ganadera-forestal en
el tr6Dico himedo hispanoamericano. En: XIII
Conferencia Anual sobre Ganderia y Avicultura en
A e- L
America atina, patrocinada por la Universidad
de Florida, Gainesville.
5. Bishop, J. P. 1980. Agro-Forestry Systems for the
Humid Tropics East of the Andes: 2. Integrated cattle and timber production. In: International Conference on Amazonian Agricultural and Land Use Development, sponsored by ICRAF/CIAT/RF/GTZ/NCSU,
Cali, Colombia, April 16-18, 1980.
6. Bishop, J. P. and MuZoz, K. 1979. Producci6n ganaderaforestal en la Regi6n Amazinica Ecuatoriana. En:
Reunion de Trabajo sobre Pastos Tropicales, patrocinada por el Centro Internacional de Agricultura
Tropical, Cali, Colombia.
7. Cook, B. G. and Grimes, R. F. 1977. Multiple landuse of open forest in south-eastern Queensland for timber and improved pasture: Establishment
and early growth. Trop. Grasslands, 11: 239-245.
8. Gregory, E. W". 1972. Integration of grazing in tropical>
forestry---An experiment in combining cattle raising
with pine plantation forestry in Fiji. Seventh
World Forest Congress, Buenos Aires.
9. Kernnard, D. E. and Walker, B. H. 1973. Relationships
between tree canopy cover and PanieTm maxi-mun in
the vicinity of Fort Victoria. Rhodesian J.
Agric. Res., 11: 145-153.

10. King, K. F. S. and Chandler, M. T. 1978. The wasted
lands. International Council for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi.
11. Kirby, J. M. 1976. Agricultural land-use and the
settlement of Amazonia. Pacific Viewpoint, 15:
12. Kirby, J. N. 1976. Forest grazing: A technique for
the tropics. World Crops, 28: 248-251.
13. Knowles, R. L., Klomp, B. K. and Gillingham, A. 1977.
Report for the Fiji Pine Commission on forest
grazing research. Rotorua. Iew Zealand Forest
Service, 13 p.
14. Parson, J. J. 1976. Forest to Dasture: Development
or destruction? Rev. Bio. Trop., 24 (Supl. 1):
15. Payne, W. J. 1976. Possibilities for the integration of tree crops and livestock production in the wet tropics. J. Sci. Food Agric., 27:888.
16. Peck, R. B. 1977. Sistemas agro-silvo-pastoriles
como una alternativa para la reforestaci6n en
los tr6picos americanos. Bogot., Colombia, CONIF,
73-84 p.
17. Thomas, D. 1978. Pastures and livestock under tree
crops in the humid tropics. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 55: 39-44.
18. WINROCK, 1977. The role of sheep and goats in
agricultural development. Winrock International
Livestock Research and Training Center, Norrilton,
Arkansas. 223 pp.
19. WINROCK,: 1979. -Hair sheep production systems. Winrock International Livestock Research and Training
Center1 Norrilton, Arkansas, -117 pp.
20. Wyatt-Smith, J. 1979. Agro-forestry in the Tropics:
A new emphasis in rural development. Span 22: