Florida mirror

Material Information

Florida mirror
Uniform Title:
Florida mirror (Fernandina, Fla.)
Place of Publication:
Fernandina Fla
A.B. Campbell, Geo. Burnside
Creation Date:
March 28, 1885
Publication Date:
Weekly[ FORMER 1878-<1886>]
Triweekly[ FORMER <1890-1891>]


Subjects / Keywords:
Newspapers -- Fernandina (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Nassau County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
newspaper ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Nassau -- Fernandina Beach
30.669444 x -81.461667 ( Place of Publication )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 30, 1878)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased in 1901.
General Note:
"Democratic" <1880>.
General Note:
Editor: Geo. R. Fairbanks, <1887>.
General Note:
Publishers: George R. Fairbanks, <1885-1886>; Moore & Manucy, <1887-1891>; The Mirror Pub. Co., <1894-1898>.
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
002057832 ( ALEPH )
33834378 ( OCLC )
AKP5868 ( NOTIS )
sn 95047336 ( LCCN )

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)AY, MARCH 28, 1885.

NO. 18.

ntic shores of South by these mi as of some- tinuity of the coast and that Florida
the West India Is- thing well t. Sailing to formed a part of the main land in-
ion followed expe- the north a: threaded the stead of being an island as had been
nto activity by the tortuous c e Caribbean hitherto supposed. The favorable
s brought back by Sea and pa g the islets report of Alaminos induced DeGa-
ers of the wonders of the Bah Sunday, the ray to apply to be made Adelantado
own lands. 27th day 2, 373 years of the Province, which had already
question much dis- ago, he ca, -an unknown been given to Ponce de Leon. In
past as to who was land, to wh the name it the following year Vasquez de Ayl-
the credit of being has ever s of FLORIDA. Ion having secured the services of
rer of Florida, but The day w in the cal- Miruelo, sailed in two vessels upon
hority and the gen- endar of th Pasqua Flor- upon a Carib-hunting expedition
historians supports ida or Palm Sun aai'ld he was im- along the eastern coast of Florida as
an Ponce de Leon. pressed, doubtless, lso by the appro- far as Port Royal, in South Carolina,
m on behalf of Se- priateness of the to a country where he seduced a large number of
ts upon the doubt- presenting to the m-irinerthe beauti- the natives on board his vessels and
of a few words of ful verdUre of sprin"-. He landed on carried them into slavery in St. Do-
na which it is infer- the coast not far fronl the spot where mingo.
sailing under the we are now assert "led, in latitude Six years had now elapsed since
ing first visited the 30 8',\nd took- possession of the Ponce de Leon had been made Ade-
ed as far south as country in the nami; of their Spanish lantado of Bimini. Other naviga-
ida. The name of Majesties, planting' a cross with th'e tors had made successive voyages to
will ever be associ- usual ceremony e the coast of Florida. Ponce de Leon
scovery of Florida, The India t countryy now determined to undertake its
m the fact that he Cautio, and ."it was an is- conquest and settlement. His repu-
pean to land upon land, which ,,.eg' doubted, station, and probably his fortunes,
the romantic rea- and not beh.i, ith the lo- had been somewhat impaired by
lled him to make cation, sailed (shdad attemp- his failures to destroy the power of
ted to land, t .,bv a large the Caribs, but in 1521 he succeeded
.eon we know but number of ..vigorously in fitting out two good vessels, well
his arrival in Cuba. attacked hii, ...wo of his armed and provided. Landing at a
ipon his first voy- men and ". retire to point he deemed suitable for a set-
e position of Cap- his ships. the coast tlement, in the southern portion of
in the year 1463, until he dot, orida, met the peninsula, he was met by a large
duty in the island the Indians .I obtained body of Indians who attacked him
il the year 1508, be- what information h-i, could, but was with great fury, killed many of his
mand to Nicolas de unable to find the Fountain of Youth men, and wounded Ponce de Leon
fthe ordereofAlcan- and finally returned! to Porto Rico himself severely. Thus frustrated
ider of Lares, who satisfied, it is said, .v-h his good for- in lis purposes and badly wounded,
or ofHispaniola in tunie in having ma-l so great a dis- he retired to the island of Cuba,
olumbus commit cover. where, within a few diys he died
. lovery. ,where','
t.. o .. h n from his wounds, with thfl i -.4-.4@
P9 .*i, .. sl 'eold ,1c].iler a(-ind e ,l ,. -_..-"" ... .-
-a^ ^8 m,,.,teem., s hich onicl^** t oU0
li e b adn d ei j len h, astelne to t Ti me wl l ot, p er mite
id he reduced to Court of Spain to obtain the royal Time will not permit us to
)pled with Spanish sanction for its occupation and the more than glance at the much
There as Governor position of Adelantado. He had al- more important expedition of Narva-
)re his expedition ready acquired a hig)a reputation as ez, which followed in-the year 1527.
said to have been a valiant soldier, and the Court, He had prepared an expedition on
ed out the expedi- while granting his wishes in regard a much larger scale than any which
his own expense. to Florida, required his services in had preceded it, with a view to a
ost men a vein of the first instance to put down the permanent conquest and settlement
rnly lacks opportu- Caribs, a portion of the unsubdued of the country. He came directly
out, and this rug- natives who had successfully resisted from Spain with five vessels and six
ao had successfully the Spanish arms and annoyed the hundred men. Nearly one-fourth
s of Porto Rice and settlers of some of the islands already of the number, however, left him in
anders and defeat- occupied. Landing on the island of Cuba, and with the remainder he
at slaughter, now Guadaloupe, he met with a disas- sailed up the west coast of Florida
weary Iunder the trous repulse, losing a considerable to a point near Tampa Bay, where
or and of his ad- portion of his force, and in other of he disembarked and proceeded by
tened with credu- his subsequent warlike enterprises land through the interior, passed
the Indians of a he failed to accomplish the expecta- into Middle Florida, finally con-
n in the island of tions of the government. Years roll- structing boats near St. Marks, and
sessed the power of ed on, and he made no movement eventually was shipwrecked and
age, made pliant towards occupying his adelantado- perished at some point near Pensa-
bs and smoothed ship of Florida, or to pursue the fur- cola or further on.
tres seamed with their: search for the Fountain of .De Soto's well known expedition
)sure. There came Youth. In the meantime the navi- took place in 1539.'
btless, some sweet gator Diego Miruelo'made an expe- Another expedition not so well
md beauty, some edition from Cuba to the coast of known, was sent out by the Viceroy
)f the fair maidens Florida, and on his return di- of Mexico in 1559, under Don Tris-
ave *haunted his lated on its beauty and riches, arous- tan de Luna, which landed at Pen-

ed the desire, that ing quite a desire to seek so delight- sacola, but made little exploration
ie might return to ful a land. In the same year a ves- of Florida, and soon abandoned the
Sof the young and sel coming from Darien was driven attempt at settlement.
ions of his youth, by stress of weather near the coast In the course of these fifty years
remained imprint- of Florida, landed at the same place which had elapsed since Ponce de'
where Ponce de Leon had been so Leon's first discovery of Florida,
blessed with the warmly received, and while on shore nine separate expeditions had been
but laden with the party which had landed were fitted out for its conquest, but up
Cavalier set forth attacked with great violence by the to 1564 no actual settlement had
f St. Germain, on natives and obliged to retreat in been made. During this period the
of Porto Rico, on haste to their ship. Anton de Alami- Spanish arms had been carried vic-
arch, 1512, with nos, a pilot, was of the party, and toriously along nearly the whole of
ed vessels and a gave to Francis de Garay, Governor the western coast of South America,
Sailors and many of Jamaica, a very glowing account Central America and Mexico, and
, in quest of the of the extent and richness cof the nearly all the islands of the Carib-
. The theory of country, which induced the Gover- bean Sea, but the natives of Florida
less a correct, one, nor to send him with three vessels had successfully resisted the Span-
India Islands had to make further explorations, which iards in nearly every attempt which
igration.from the resulted in his examining the coast had been ina "e to land upon her
orth of them, and around the Gulf of Mexico as far as shores. Some mysterious influence
of the fountain, of the River Panuco, in the vicinity of seemed to guard this beautiful and
_. -* 1 1_ ] i m ... j l -_ _1 j t jl "* "1 i ^ i i 1 O ,1

Pacific, and Atlar
America and all
lands. Expediti
edition, excited i:
marvelous report
the first discover
of new and unkn
It has been a q
cussed in times
really entitled to
the first discover
the weight of aut
eral consent of t
the claim of Jua
The counter clain
bastian Cabot rest
ful interpretation
Peter Martyr, fror
red that Cabot,
English flag, havi
polar seas, coaster
the capes of Flori
Ponce de Leon N
ated with the dis
not so much fro
was the first Euro
her shores, as for
sons which impe
the voyage.
Of Ponce de L
little anterior to.
with Columbus u
age. He held th
tain of Infantry
and remained on
of Hispaniola until
ing second in comic
Obando,Knight of
tara and Conmma-n
was made -Governn
1502. In 1508 C


MARCH 27, 1885.
Fsulow-Citizens, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The events we have met -here to-
day to commemorate are of more
than ordinary interest. We cele-
brate not the anniversary ,of some
important battle, some incident of
historical note, or the natal day of
some distinguished man, but the
discovery of Florida and the found-
ing of the first permanent settlement
of the European races within the
boundaries of the United States;
events relating back not merely an
hundred years but nearly four cen-
turies. Forming, as we do, a por-
tion of one of the leading nations of
the earth, whose domain extends
from the one ocean to the other,
Whose flag is unfurled in every sea,
whose numbers now exceed fifty
millions of souls, in a land pre-emi-
nent for the education and intelli-
gence of its people, the progress of
the arts"and the advance of physical
science, we are to-day called upon to
look back to a period, distant in-
deed, when, compared with modern
,growth and changes, but compara-
tively near when measured by the
centuries of.the world's history.
In view of the greatness, the wide-,
spread, teeming population of our
broadd continent, it is difficult at this"
'ay for us to conceive that less than
. t -fu..undred years ago, when Henrt
the throne of Englanr
,^'^^Ch^1. uled ovr Fira'n'
when Terdminad and Isabella were
engaged in expelling the Moors from,
Spain, the limits of the known world
embraced upon its maps no America.
The existence of this great conti-
nent, extending over three thousand
miles in breadth and ten thousand
miles in length, was utterly unknown
to the people of the Eastern hemi-
sphere. The world's recorded his-
tory had gone on for more than five
thousand years, the great Assyrian,
Greek and Roman empires had
grown- to full power and passed
away, covering centuries of time,
but America had filled no page in
their history. The peoples of the
Old World had looked out over the
western waste of waters on the one
side and. the eastern seas on the
other, unknowing and unconscious
of the great western continent, since
grown so prominent in all that con-
cerns the world's welfare and pro,
It is inconceivable ,to us that it
should have been a question within
four centuries of our time whether
any other lands existed than those

which knew the sway of the Roman
empire or the Eastern Despots; but
so it was, the wars of Europe went
on, and while the banners which
bore the symbols of the cross and
the crescent in the dawn of the
growing light of civilization stood
arrayed against each other, strug-
.gling for supremacy, the aspirations
of man for conquest, for fame, and
still more for gain, impelled the har-
dy mariners of the great inland Eu-
ropean seas to venture out upon the
broad Atlantic in quest of new dis-
coveries and new fields of gain.
Twenty years only had elapsed
from the time when Columbus had
landed at an insignificant island of
the Bahama group when the pro-
gress of discovery had already em-
braced Central America and Mexico,
4-1, ^ ^ .< 1, ,; .- 4-1A _-

stranger, and its virgin solitudes re-
mained inhabited only by those
dusky forms which seemed to spring
up like magic from out the leafy
coverts at the approach of a hostile
foot. Whatever the ,cause, we can-
not but regard it as providential
that this fair land, now one great re-
public of intelligent, free and self-
governed citizens, holding a front
rank among nations, was not occu-
pied by Spain during those fifty-
years of feeble attempts at coloniz-
ation, and did not becodne a part of
the ill-governed Spanish colonial
These Atlanftic shores of America
were reserved for a more enterpris-
ing race, and until a period of time
when the English and French mon-
archies having themselves become
stable and strong governments sent
out colonies of sturdy pioneers suit-
ed to the work of colonizing and
laying the foundations of a future
national life. France, in 1562, was
divided into hostile factions, religious
divisions and political hostilities
combined to create feelings of un-
rest and apprehension. Admiral
Coligny, with great forecast, sought
to plant colonies of his co-religionists
the Huguenots, in the New World,
He had projected sending a colony
to South America, 'and at this time
prepared to send an expedition to
the eastern coast of the United State-"--`-
which Verezano's exploration -had\..
made known. .
'Capt. Jean Ribaut, an officer of
Ai the French navy,
hnand the expe-

Leaving port o'i the 18th of Feb-
ruary they arrived on the coast of
Florida about the middle of May.
The party which accompanied Ri-
baut contained a number of persons
of gentle birth and many old sol-
diers. Ribaut made land on the
coast in latitude 30, not far from
this port, and coasting to the north
came to the entrance of the St.
Johns, which he named the River
May, where he landed, and set up a
stone pillar engraved with the arms
of France. Passing to the north-
ward they finally reached Port.
Royal, S. C., and after a few weeks
sojourn, having built a fort and left
a small garrison, Ribaut himself
sailed for France, intending to return
in a few months with supplies and
reinforcements for the colony.
The little band at Charles Fort
waited long for the promised succor,
quarreled among themselves and
also with the Indians, and the sur-
vior finally /' ...
vivors finally managed to get back
to Europe. Civil war in France had
prevented aid .beinig senilt therm, and
no further attention was paid to the
colonizing' project uiltil two years
had elapsed, wihei Coligny directed
Laudonniere, whom Mendoza calls a
better 'sailor than soldier, and who
had been with Ribaut in the first
expedition, to sail with three vessels, ..
fully provided for the purposes of -
settlement. He arrived out after a'-
voyage of sixty days, and first land- '
ed at this port, which he named the
River of Dolphins on accotint of the
great number of porpoises hesaw at
the entrance of the harbor.
Coasting to the north he entered
the River May, now the St. Johns.
Here the French were hospitaly re-
ceived by the Indians, who showed
them the column which had been
erected by Ribaut in 1562 at'flthe
mouth of that river, which they had

Rico, which island
possession and pe<
settlers, remaining
until shortly befo
to Florida. He is
very rich, and fitt(
tion to Florida at
There is in mc
sentiment which o
nity to be drawn
ged old soldier, wl
fought the Indians
the fierce Carib isl
ed them with gre
grown stiff and
weight of his arm(
vancing years, lis
lity to the tales of
wonderful fountain
Bimini, which pos
restoring youth to
the stiffened lim
the rugged featu
hardship and expo
back to him, dou
vision of youth a
early .recollection o
of Castile may h
memory and excit
thus rejuvenated, I
the companionship
the lovely company
whose fair visages
ed on his memory.
Full of honors,
goods of fortune,
years, the veteran
from the harbor o:
the southern coast
the 1st day of M
three well equipp(
goodly company of
soldiers of fortune
far famed Bimini
thome days, doubt
was that the West ]
been settled by m
main land lying n(
thus the tradition
..... alT 1- 31 l _4 -



Barcia thus gives his titles: "Don
Pedro Menendez d'Aviles, Cavalier
of the Order of St. James, Com-
mander of Santa Cruz de la Corca,
Governor Captain-General Conquis-
tador and Perpetual Adelantado of
the coasts and land of Florida, with
the Pre-eminence of those of Cas-
tile, for himeslf and his heirs, and
General of the Armada of the
Indies, and that which was formed
at Santander."
Menendez was born in the year
1519, and was consequently 46 years
of age when he came to Florida, and
was in the prime of life and in the
zenith of his fame. Ten years after-
wards, at the very culmination of his
honors, he was attacked with a sud-.
den sickness and died at Santander,
where he was superintending the
formation of the Royal armada, of
which he had been appointed Cap-
tain General. He was buried with
great pomp in the parish church of
Aviles, and his titles and coat of
arms were engraved upon a tablet
of brass placed upon the walls of the
church over his grave.
No one at this day will attempt to
vindicate his character from the re-
proach which has been cast upon it
of great cruelty and inhumanity.
The ceremonies we have to-day
seen reproduced have well repre-
sented to us an event which, how-
ever simple in its character, was of
enduring interest. The landing of
Menendez was the beginning of the
permanent occupation, not only of
Florida, but of the whole of the vast
domain now under the flag of the
United States. The little band
which on that day set foot on these
shores was the vanguard of the mil-
lions upon millions of Christian
people who have in these four hun-
dred years crossed these seas and
populated this vast country.
The reasons for the selection of St.
Augustiine as location for settlement
A.riestfad A_ the "4. Jowl's .Eh )-j te
deeper inlet of the St,. Mary's, is not,
explained to us in any coniitenipora-
neous account. Barcia speaks of it
as a good port with a beautiful river,
and it appears to have been the first
port which their vessels were enabled
to enter in coasting northward along
the coast of Florida from the West
We may assume, however, that
Menendez chose the location in the
first instance because the French
were already in possession of the
mouth of the St. John's, and also be-
cause its peninsular location near
the sea afforded ready ingress from
the sea and easy protection by land.
Vessels in those days seldom were
of any considerable size or had very
great draught of water. The Indian
village of Selooe was already at the
site and the Spaniards occupied the

council-house of the tribe. The In-
dians were entirely friendly, and the
place was then, as it is now, pleasant
to the eye and attractive in its sur-
roundings. The first work to which'
they devoted themselves was the
construction of a fort defended with
;palisades and surrounded by a wide
ditch, and which doubtless occupied
the spot where we now stand. It
was at first built'of wood and earth,
but not the present fortress of San
Marco. In 1668 the Indians com-
menced working upon the fortifica-
tions, but in 1685, just two hundred
years ago, when it was attacked by
Capt. John Davis, an Englishman,
it was described as an octagon and
defended by round towers-evident-
ly not the present structure, which
is constructed according to the gen-
eral plan of fortifications introduced
by Vauban, the distinguished French
engineer, who was not born until
1633, and whose plans were not
probably generally adopted until
years later. In 1682 it is stated that
Govr. Cabrera devoted himself to

the work of completing the castle,.
which was in progress for a very
long period, all the material being
obtained from the quarries on Anas-
tasia Island by the probably very
inefficient labor of the Indians.
The settlement of the town is
shown by ancient engraved plans
to have been at the southern part of
the peninsula formed by the Ma-
tanzas River and Maria Sanchez
Creek. The present barracks being
the ancient Monastery of St. Francis,
and the space for a considerable dis-
tance around the fort being kept
free. The subsequent history of the
Ancient City it is unnecessary for
me here to trace, many sources of
information being now accessible. I
have preferred rather to confine my-
self to the earlier period which em-
braced the discovery of Florida and
the founding of the Ancient City,
and to give some account of that
veteran soldier, Juan Ponce de Leon,
and Don Pedro Menendez, whom
you honor this day-the one as the
discoverer of Florida and the other
as the founder of St. Augustine.
For nearly two hundred years
from its settlement the Ancient City
was occupied by an exclusively Spa-
nish population. In 1763 it passed
by treaty to the English crown, un-
der which government it remained
until 1783. During this period the
English government made great ef-
forts to induce the settlement of the
country and colonization schemes
were formed then as now, by land
companies and associations, who re-
ceived grants of land from the crown
conditioned upon their settlement.
At the head of one of these compa-
nies was Dr. Nicol Trumbull, an in-
telligent Scotch gentleman, who had
resided in Smyrna in Asia Minor, and
who conceived the idea of bringing
into Florida settlers from the shores"
of the Mediterranean accustomed to
a similar climate and familiar with
iti.hcultiy.J igAu.of-..e f'u't 'nflj.Y .
ductions of a semi-tropical, clime.
He associated with himself several
English noblemen and' equipped a
number of vessels to bring out colo-
nists. About fifteen hundred per-
sons were induced to come, gathered
from Smyrna, the Greek islands,
Italy, Minorca and Spain. They
were under a contract by which they
were to have their passage and ex-
penses paid and receive their sup-
port for a certain number of years,
during which they were to give their
labor to the company, and at the end
of the period receive an allotment of
land. A settlement was made in
1769 by this company at New Sniyr-
na, sixty miles below St. Augustine,
which continued until 1776, when,
in consequence of a disagreement

with the proprietors, the settlement
was broken ip and the colonists re-
moved to St. Augustine and were
assigned lots in the portion of the
city north of the public square,
where they formed quite a large ad-
dition to the population of the city.
As they were many of tlhelin frini
the Spanish dominion and from the
Latin races, they generally remained
when Florida was restored to Spain,
and they and their descendants im-
properly designated by of
only one of their ancestral homes,
have ever since continued a respect-
'able, valuable and industrious por-
tion of the community. Attached
to the city by a long residence under
the English, Spanish and American
governments, they have ever proved
themselves good and loyal citizens
of the Ancient City. The diversity
of their nationalities is evidenced by
the family names we find among
them, such as Aguiar, Arnau, Bravo,
Benet, Canova, Genovar, Ferrara,
Medicis, Martinez, Manucy, Rodri-
guez, Pellicier, Solana, are names
historically connected with the for-
tunes of Southern Europe and of

ry 6~ setting-sail 1 raince.
At this juncture they discovered in
the offing the vessels of Ribaut so
long expected.
To Laudonniere's mortification he
found himself superseded in his
command by -Ribaut, and under the
latter's orders Fort Caroline was re-
occupied. In the meantime Menen-
dez's fleet had arrived. on the coast
and had fired upon the French ves-
sels. Ribaut thereupon determined
to go in search of the Spanish fleet.
The story of his disastrous voyage
and tragic end, and the capture of
Fort Caroline and the fate of its gar-
rison constitute one of the most in-
teresting chapters connected with
the settlement of Florida, but cannot
here be entered upon.
The proposed colonization of the
Huguenots in Florida was no secret
to the Spanish Court, and naturally
excited both religious and political
hostility. Spain, by virtue of the right
of discovery and her many expedi-
tions into Florida, claimed that the
whple of that coast belonged to the
Spanish crown, and that the pro-
posed settlements of 'the French
would be an invasion of her rights.
While the French expedition un-
der Ribaut was being fitted out in
France, similar preparations were
going on in the ports of Spain for an
expedition under Don Pedro Men-
dez d'Aviles to operate against the
French on the coasts of Florida, and
to found permanent Spanish settle-
ments in this country. Ribaut's ex-
pedition .had probably but little help
or countenance from the French
King and Court, and when it set sail
on the 23d of May consisted of but
seven vessels and about five hun-
dred men; by contrary winds and
unskillful navigation it was some
three months before it arrived at the
mouth of the St. Johns, on the 29th
of August, 1565.


P: MARCH 28, 1885.





character connect d with the found-
ing of St. Augusti e, it may interest
you to know som, thing of his pre-
vious life and car er.
Don Pedro Merendez d'Aviles was
a native of the qity of Aviles, and
was a descendant of the house of
Dona Paya, one of the most ancient
families of th Asturias. His
father was Juanj Alonzo d'Aviles,
who served in tlie war with Gran-
ada on the sidj of the .Catholic
kings, and his mother was Dona
Maria d'Arango. He was one of
nineteen children and was deprived
of his father at an early age. He
inherited the hose of Santa Paya
and its district, 'nd closely related
to him were the houses of
Aviles-Valdez, Mfndez, Arango and
others of the nollity. While still a
youth, learning `that a fleet was
about to sail against French corsairs,
he went on boarl and remained two
years, and acquired such knowledge
of navigation that he was capable of
commanding a ship. Returning
from his voyage, e sold part of his
patrimony in orqer to build a vessel
to go on a fre booting expedition,
from which he *as deterred; after-
ward he engaged in many bold
maritime adventures in which he
exhibited great- skill and cour-
age. The Enjperor Maximilian
commissioned him to command an
expedition agair st John Alonzo of
Portugal, whom 4ie engaged in bat-
tle at Rochelle and badly wounded.
The Emperor Charles V. afterwards
commissioned him to pursue the
piratical fleets, ih which he was so
successful that Philip II. named him
Captain-General of the Indies. He
accompanied Pl ilip when he went
to England to parry Queen Mary,
and was sent 1ck with orders to
undertake the command of the fleet
bound to the W .st Indies. He en-
countered two piratical vessels on
the way and successfully repulsed
^em t~oiy~j~i~aLL o~xshin X <
and conveyed seventy 'merchant
vessels to Havana, and returned to
Cadiz having in charge cargoes to
the value of seven million dollars.
In 1557 %he was promoted to be Gen-
eral of the fleet, and succeeded in
ridding the Spanish coasts of the
pirates which infested them. Again
promoted to be Captain General, he
sailed with four vessels of war and a
fleet of merchantmen ; encountered
eight piratical vessels, which he
drove off and brought his squadron
safely to port. He preserved by his
foresight and skill the whole Span-
ish Armada from destruction in a
great storm. In| 1560 he went out
to South America as Admiral of the
fleet, returning in 1561 with a large
convoy of richly4aden vessels.
Notwitlhstnanding the great and
brilliant services of Menendez, he

was apparently uinpo:)pular with the
courtiers and wp the victim of the
envy of his associates.
plaints had been made against his
brother and himi lf after his return
from South Amr'ica, and after long
and vexatious proceedings a heavy
fine was imposedI upon them. In
the meantime tle loss of his only
son by shipwreck had occurred and
he was cast down by these annoy-
ances as well as by this great afflic-
tion. Wearied with more than two
years of enforced idleness, he gladly
sought the opportunity of going out
at the head of an expedition to
drive out the French Huguenots from
Florida, and maintain the autho-
rity of the Spanish Cr )wn in that
country. He also engaged to make
a permanent settlement upon its
From this brief sketch it will be
seen that Menendez was no ordinary
man. With a long experience of
public life in high positions he had
attained the greatest rank in the
naval forces of Spain.

Laudonniere determined to plant
his colony at the point now known
as St. Johns Bluff, where he built a
fort which he named Fort Caroline
in honor of Charles IX. of France.
An engraved plan of this fort is to
be found in DeBry's volume on
Florida, A. D. 1600, and also in
Arnoldus Montano's work on Amer-
ica, printed in 1671.
The French colony, sustaining for
the most part amicable relations
with the Indians who inhabited the
banks of the St. Johns made explo-
rations for a considerable distance
up that river, rather more intent
upon seeking gold than providing
for their future support, in conse-
quence of which neglect they found
themselves nearly starved out in
the following spring of 1565. Their
expected supplies not having ar-
rived, the w'vant of food induced
them to seize upon the stores of the
Indians, which brought upon them
the hostility of those who would
otherwise have been serviceable al-
lies in the troubles which afterwards
overtook them. The ships which
brought out Laudoriniere's party had
returned to France and were to have
come back with supplies by the 1st
of April, which they failed to do.
Laudonniere's men became muti-
nous, and their stores having failed
they had determined to build a
small vessel and return to France iii
August. On the 3d of August Capt.
John Hawkins, sailing under the
English flag, with four ships, on his
way to England from the Spanish
main came to anchor off the mouth
of the St. Johns in order to procure
fresh water. Learning of the con-
dition of the French, the English com-
mander offered to carry them back,
and on their declining his offer, sup-
plied them with provisions and sold
them a small vessel. The French
had, however, determined to. leave
the country, and dismantling their.
fort went og^ boarijgf t r. ves

The Spanish expedition under
Menendez, as organized, consisted of
thirty-four vessels and 2,600 per-
sons. On the 1st of July he left
Cadiz with about two-thirds of his
fleet, leaving the rest to follow him.
A severe gale he encountered after
leaving the Canaries diminished his
force one-half, so that when he
reached Porto Rico on the 9th of
August he had but one-third his
original force. Aware, however, that
the French had preceded him to
Florida, he pressed on as fast as pos-
sible to accomplish the object of his
expedition. He was the more in-
tent upon reaching Florida as not
long before his only son, a gentle-
man of the Court and commander
of a fleet returning from Mexico had
been shipwrecked in the Bahama
channel, and was supposed to be
held as a captive by the Indians of
By a singular concurrence of
events the fleets of France, England
and Spain were at the mouth of the
River St. Johns within a few days of
each other. Sir John Hawkins had
hardly left the coast when the
ships of Ribaut arrived and almost
simultaneously the fleet of Menen-
dez-the latter arriving off St. Au-
gustine on the 28th of August, a day
dedicated to the memory of Saint
Augustine of Hippo, one of the most
illustrious Fathers of the Church
Catholic, and a day held as a day ot
obligation throughout the dominion
of Spain. 'For this reason, accord-
ing to the general custom of the
times, the spot where Menendez first
landed was named by him "San
The landing of Menendez is thus
described by Barcia:
The Adelantado landed at mid-day and
met a large assemblage of Indians who had
received notice of his coming, and who gave
signs of much rejoicing. He ordered a
solemn mass to be said to Our Lady, and
/4 repeated with much solemnity the act of
king possession of this continent in the
(of his captains and high officers that they
would forever serve his majesty with fidel-
ity and loyalty; whereupon he made a feast
to his followers and the Indians.
The Chaplain Mendoza gives his
account as follows:
The General disembarked with numerous
banners displayed, with the sound of trum-
pets and other warlike music, and with
salvos of artillery. I took a cross and
marched in the van chanting the hymn
Te Deum Laudamus." The General
marched straight towards the cross, follow-
ed by all those who accompanied him,
where they all knelt and kissed the cross.
A great number of Indians looked upon
these ceremonies and imitated all they saw
done. The same day the General took pos-
session of the country in the name of his
majesty, all the captains swearing allegiance
to the King and the Adelantado.
The Spanish Adelantado Don Pe-
dro Menendez d'Aviles was a leader
of no ordinary character. He was a
typical soldier of that era of the

world's history which produced
many heroic characters. A self-
reliant man who, marked out his
course with judgment and adhered
to it with firmness. No disasters
appalled, no ill-fortune discouraged
him. Prompt, energetic and deter-
mined, he made every one succumb
to the force of his indomitable will
and overcame the difficulties which
had proved insurmountable to
others. His portrait, it is said may
be seen in a convent in his native
town. An engraved likeness, now
extant, represents him as a man of
middle age, with a manly, robust
figure, a countenance blending great
intelligence and power of observa-
tion with a marked sternness of vis-
age well calculated to awe his fol-
lowers into submission. The lower
part of his face is heavy and cruel
in its contour, like that of Henry
VIII. of England, and altogether
his picture well indicates the char-
acter of the man as shown in his
tempestuous life.
As he was the most prominent,






BINDERY in connection with our
Printing Office, we are prepared to RULE

--(-- r II I I -It1 4 4 1 1|1t

-1. l i l t If s & I | |


-- |I|I I tI=1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 =1-1

Three harvests more
All greater than you wish.
"' When as the luschious smell
Of that delicious land
Above the sea that flowers,
The clear wind throws
Your hearts to swell
Approaching the dear strand.*
We, too, shall pass away with the
generations who have gone, but these
venerable walls will remain a monu-
ment of the past to resound to the
tread of others who may come after
us, and assemble in future years
as we have done, to celebrate the
discovery of Florida and the found-
ing of the most ancient city in our
May peace, honor and prosperity
ever rest upon old St. Augustine!,

*Michel Drayton, 1609.

The Human Systemn is a Kind
of Machine.--If one part, is seriously
out of order the whole goes wrong. The
blood in circulation is the mainspring.
Keep this all right, and you will not suffer
from Kidney and Liver disorders, Piles and
Constipation.- And, in offering you Dr.
'Kennedy's Favorite Remedy as the best
regulator of the human machine ever dis-
covered, we oblige the sick and suffering
more than we oblige Dr. Kennedy.




28 1885.

Thoimas, Tom Taylor, Wm
Trimmings, Abraham Tomlinson, Lemon
Tucker, John

Greek, Italian, Spanish and Portu-
guese faililies.
The Ancient City has always re-
tained its unique and foreign charac-
ter, not only in its narrow streets,
ancient houses and quaint architec-
ture, but also in the manners and
customs of the people. The current
of modern American life has now
for over three score years run paral-

Amputation of the Leg.
Money is the universal necessity, and
none but a cynic or a fool will affect to de-
spise it. Mr. Abram Ellsworbth, of Port
Ewcn, Ulster county, N. Y., had realized
the truth. His disease involved the whole
of his thigh-bone, and the suffering man
looked forward, not without apparent reas-
on, to death as his only deliverer. The faim-
ily lphVysici1n refused to amputate the limb,
asserting that the operation would kill the
patient on the spot. Dr. David KENNEDY,
of Roundout, N. Y., who was consulted,
held a different opinion, and amputated the
limb. The Doctor then administered freely
his grent Blood Specific FAVORITE REM-
EDY to afford tone and strength to the sys-
temn aud prevent the return of the disease,
and Mr. Ellsworth remains to this day in
the bloom of health. This gentleman's dis-
ease was the offspring of foul blood, and
Kennedy's FAVORITE REMEDY purified
the blood, and restored to him the power
once more to enjoy his life. Areyou suffer-
ing from any'disease traceable to the same
cause? Try Favorite Remedy. Your drug-
gist has it. ONE DOLLAR a bottle. Bear
in mind the proprietor's name and address:
Dr. David KENNEDY, Roundout, N. Y.
To Keep the Blood Pure is the
Principal end of inventions and discoveries
in medicine. To this object probably no one
has contributed more signally than Dr. Da-
vid Kennedy, of Roundout, N. Y., in thle
production of a medicine which has become
famous until the title of the "Favorite Rem-
edy," It removes all impurities of the
Blood, regulates the disordered Liver and
Kidneys, cures Constipation, Dyspepsia and
all diseases and weaknesses peculiar to fe-
males. J. L. HORSEY & Co., AGTS.

Sheriff's Sale.-
issued out of the Circuit Court of the-
k'ourth Circuit of Florida for Nassau County,.
September 5th, 1867, in favor of Adam C.
Dunham against Andrew M. Jones, I have
levied upon as the property of said defend-
ant, and willsell at public auction on the.
first Monday of April, 1885, in front of the
court-house door in Fernandina, in said
county, to satisfy said execution, the follow-
ing property, to-wit: One undivided third
partof the tract of land, containing a-bout
five hundred acres, more or less, known as
the Suarrez tract, situated on Amelia Island,
in said county, at a place called Black
Point, it being the land originally granted
by the Spanish Government and confirmed
to the heirs of Antonio Suarrez and after-
wards owned by Robert Harrison, deceased ;
also, one undivided third part of the one
hundred and fifty acres of land adjoining
said Suarrez tract, which were purchased by
said Robert Harrison, deceased, from Johnb
C. Pelot, being a part of the James Pelot:
grant, the said undivided third part in each,
of said two tracts of land having been con-
veyed by Robert Harrison, Jr., an heir at
law of Robert Harrison, deceased, to said
defendant; also, a parcel of land on said-
Amelia Island, conveyed December 21st,
1865, by Ephraim Harrison to 'said A. M..
Jones, the deed being recorded in Book G,
pages 503 and 504. of thlie records of said
county, which land is there described as a
tract of land known as the Ephraim Harri-
son share of the Samuel Harrison tract of
land, bounded on the north by Anna M..
Clark's land, on the east by the Atlantie-
Ocean, on the south by Robert Harrison's,
land and on the west by Half-Moon Creek,..
containing one hundred and fifty acres, ex-
cept the family cemetery of one acre.
Sheriff of Nassau County, Fla.-
Fernandina, Fla., March 7, 1885-td

Wilson, Thomas
Wilson, R E
Williams, Jacob
Wright, Geo
Washingt on, Wubby
Wright, Ben
Warren, Joe
Watson, Lewis
Young, Henry
Yulee, D L
Fernandina, Fla.,

Williams, Simmons
Wilson, Surry
Walstein, Ed
Wilson, Altred
Ward, E J
Willinms, Henry
Washington, Stephen
A)yilliams, Counsel
Yulee, C W
City Clerk.
February 26, 1885.

lel with the ancient customs, each

modifying the other in some degree,
but the old foreign and time-honored
manner of life, its religious and so-
cial customs and all the peculiarities
of the past remain marked and dis-
tinct, neither merged nor obliterated
by the swelling tide of modern pro-
gress. Long may they endure to
preserve to us the associations of its
past life I
Elsewhere in our country the old
landmarks have been obliterated-
nothing remaining but a name-but
here, as nowhere else, we can enter
into the spirit of the past; no-
where else in our land could such
events as we now commemorate be
so appropriately celebrated as under
the shadows of these gray and time-
stained walls, and in the company
of the descendants of its ancient in-
Three hundred and twenty-one
years have passed by since Menen-
dez and his captains, with banners
and martial music, landed upon
these shores. Eleven generations
have successively followed each other
in the march of time; men have
come and gone; but the old city re-
mains. The banner of Spain raised
here by Menendez floated over this
spot for nearly two centuries without
interruption, until it peacefully gave
way to the red cross of England, to
be restored after a score of years to
its old place until inri the progress of
manifest destiny the stars and stripes
of the American Union have come to
be the symbol, here as elsewhere, of
,progress andf nationality; but under
all flags and all nations it has been
the same pleasant city by the sea; its
shores have been ever washed by
the eternal tides which laved them
when Menendez came, and which
to-day ebb and flow upon its sands;
the same bright sun which flashed
upon the armor of Menendez and
his men now casts its radiant beams
upon us. The beautiful bay, -the
soft verdure, the shelly beach, the
aspect of lovely repose which greeted
the storm-beaten mariners as they
first approached these shores, even
now give pleasant welcome to us.
We, too, in the. language of an en-
thusiastic poet of that day may
speak of
Earth's only Paradise,

.*.... **o...........0. 0..... .... .. 0................. .*** .. .





A Full Line of Elegant Lace and Mull Fichus,


Linen Collars and Kid Gloves,

All of the Latest Styles.


Hoop Shirts and Ladies' Underwear.


nances of the City of Fernandina, the
following names have been stricken from
the registration rolls of the city for the year

Notice is hereby given that I have been,
appointed Admhiistrator of all and singular.
the goods, chattels, rights and credits of
William S. Rawson, deceased; and all cred-
itors of said estate, legatees and persons en-
titled to distribution are notified to present
their claims and demands, duly attested,
within two years from this date, and that
the same will be barred unless exhibited
within,said period aforesaid.
Estate of William S. Rawson, dec'd.
Fernandina, Fla., February 7,1884. 6w

Alberts, Geo
Anderson, G A
Andrews, May
Brown, Tom
Brown, Zechiel
Bliss, Tom
Barker, Harry
Burrough, Jeter
Bram, Lewis
Bascomb, Chas
Baker, Silas
Clark, Richard
Capelia, Louis
Culpepper, James
Cooper, Chas
Cooper, Lewis ,
Clay, J L
Clark, A F
Carthron, Lee
Delaney, Thomas
Dorsey, Columbus
Dorsey, Geo
Dewson, Geo
Edwards, Plummer
Ellis, W R
Ellis, V *
Ellis, M J
Ervin, RObert
Fuller, Ben
Ferreira, John B-
Ferreira, R L
Giblb's, Adam,
Gage, Henry
Gardner, L J
Griffin, Sidney
Hunter, Joseph
Hubbard, Jack
Hippard, James
Hagans, Perry
Harris, Jake
Hercules, Geo
Howard, J G
Hunter, Alonzo
Hamilton, Alfred

Avery, Arnold
Austin, Lewis
Alexander, D
Bates, Henry
Bellows, T B
Bolden, Geo
Bolts, Jos
Brown, John H
Birt, Wm
Braswell, A J

Curry, Riley
Caldwell, Thompson
Clinch, Geo
Courter, Willie
Crump, J W
Cully, J E B
Clay, Wm H

Daniels, Henry
Dorsey, Geo
Dukehart, Edward M

Epps, Wm F
Edwards, Sam, Jr
Eaton, Jno S
Ervin, Sam

Fraulin, Henry
Frank, Franz

'Gambrill, M N
Gunn, John T
Godfrey, D S

Henderson, Geo
Hubbard, Richard
Haley, C A
Harrison, Dan
Hall, Thomas A
Hearst, John
Harris, Z T
Hawkins, Wm





Doing business under the 1 $1,663.00.
name and style of John I
Boynton's Son. J
ton,'doing business as John Boynton's
81on, will hereby take notice of the com-
mlencement of the above entitled suit by
.-ttaichment in the Ci cuit Court, Fourth
Judicial Circuit, in anI'l for the County of
Nassau, Florida; and is notified to appear,
plead or demur to the declaration filed
therein, on or before the first Monday 'in
March next, or judgment by default will be
taken herein on behalf of Dexter Hunter,
the plaintiff above named.
Attorneys for Plaintiff.
Fernandina, Fla., Nov. 28, 1884. 1-3m

1 1




Large GrassR Hammo0ks a=Ss4psess Wagons., ..rE-:Er0"TA -r-'T ,

Cor. Centre and Fourth Sts., Fernandina.



- MAAMD-i--

In the Circuit Court,

HUNTING, doing business


- Attachment

VS. x mliln'
JOHN H. BOYNTONAmount, $1,700.
Jos ov~o,- doing, Bond, $3,400.
business under the name on, ,4.
and style of JOHN BOYN-
of commencement of suit in the above
entitled cause by attachment issued out of
the Circuit Court, Fourlth Judicial Circuit,
in and for the County of Nassau, and are-
notified to appear in said cause on or before-
the first Monday in April next, or judgment
by default'will be entered therein upon fail-
ure on the part of said defendant to plead,
answer or demur to the declaration:,s tiled
in said cause on or before tlie fir-t Mnday.
ii May, 1885. H. J. BAKER,
Attorney for Plaintiffs.

Irons, Marshall

Jones, Joseph
Johnson, Ward
Jenkins, Lewis
Johnson, David
Johnson, Jacob ,
Jones, Richard
Johnson, Erwin
Jones, Jerry
Jones, Charles
Johnson, Albert A
King, Sam
Keith, Hansel
Love, Hillyard
Love, Sam
Lassere, E
Laird, Sam
Lee, Wm
Lucas, Alfred
McFashion, Sawyer
Morris, Edward
Major, Sam
McRae, Chas
McQueen, Conner
Mueller, Henry
Minton, Harry
Massman, John
McDonald, Obid
Martin, Noble
Nichols, Dennis
Nattiel, Manuel

Johnson, John H
Jackson, John
Jones, Francis
Jones, W A
Jones, Wiley
Jones, Harry
Jones, Maxwell
Jones, Wiley J
James, Joseph
Jackson, Richard
Korniga, Henry
Kane, Richard
Lee, Sanm'1
Livingstone, John
Lewis, Benjamin
Lancaster, Frank
Lucas, Alfred

McDonald, J D
McWaters, James
McRae, Edward
Mitchell, Ben
McCall, Jonas
Madden, John E
Meddaugh, Fred W
Manigault, C C
Mannoe, J T
Minkley, Gustave
Nichols, Foster

O'Boyle, John F
Proctor, D G
Redding, Ben
Rawson, W S
Redmond, Mitchell

Smith, Phila
Sutton, D H
Staten, John
Smallwood Jessy
Steele, John
Smith, Joe W
Simmons, Peter
Simmons, Henry H
Steward, W R

Turner, David
Timberlain, Stephen
Tyson, Isaac
Turner, Monday

. Where nature hath in store
Fowle, venison and fish,
And the fruitful soyle
Without your toyle.

Clerk of the Circuit Court, :
In and for the County of Nassau, Fla.
Fernandina, Fla., Dec. 27. 1884-3mo.

In the Circuit Court Fourth Ju-
dicial Circuit, Nassau County,'
Florida, In Chanicery.
by her counsel, Johnl T. & GeorgeA W.
Walker, (it being made to appt..eair to ,y it
isfaction that the Judge,of the Fourth Cir-,
cuit of Florida is disabled by illness to at-
tend to the duties of his office), and, on read-
ing and considering the Bill and the
affidavit thereto attached, it is rlerel that
a hearing be had on the facts in -the
said Bill on the first Monday in May, 1S.5,
at Chalnbers.
January 3d, 1885. 10-3n

Of the Latest and Most Approved Patterns.





Orders for Tin Gutters promptly filled.
nd Mills for pumping water or running
light machinery pro i- .-d on order.
Church, Factory and School Bells for sale
at a bargain.
.:_" Stoves at Wholesale Prices.
All goods delivered at the various trans-
portation stations within the city free of
charge. All sales for cash.
Fernandina, Fla., July 12, 1884.

Silks, Satins and Laces,

O'Donald, John

Pasco, Jacob
Robinson, Bosson
Rickart, John
Ricarts, Allien
Robinson, David E)
Smith, James
SSye, James,
Samms, Joseph
Steward, Henry
Simmons, Paris
Smith, R M
Saxon, Miles
Small, Ned
Steward, Thomas
Savage, Sam
T'!'er, Jerry
S:y,. :, Glascow
Traeye, Alexander
Taylor, D


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Spring and Summer Clothing
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of the House of Representatives
They in their report, supported b)
thirteen out of 15, agreed to a pro
viso in a land grant That the saic
road shall complete the whole o:
said road within five years." Does
this create a technical common law
condition, or does it create a trust
coupled with the grant? In former
times this question would not have
been permitted; but the disfavor tc
forfeitures upon breach of condi-
tions subsequent, in modern times
has given rise to the construction
that the grant is charged with a
trust rather than affected by a con-
dition. It is undeniable that
the condition follows the estate into
whatever hands it comes. The as-
signee takes it cum onere. He is
bound by and may perform the con-
dition in the manner as his assignor.
. After breach of the condition
subsequent, the estate does not de-
termine ipso facto, but only at the
election of the grantor by re-entry,
and therefore if the grantor, after
such breach, accepts performance of
the condition, tendered by the gran-
tee, he waives the forfeiture, the con-
dition is gone forever and the estate
becomes absolute. Ludlow
vs. Railroad Co., 12 Bartram, is a
case where a railroad company failed
to construct road within time pre-
scribed by the plaintiff in a grant of
land to it. It proceeded to do so
afterwards under the eye and with-
out dissent by grantor. It was held
to be a waiver of the forfeiture.
The facts set forth satisfy your
committee that the substantial ful-
filment of the condition has been
met by the assignee company; that
it was done under the eye of and
was accepted by the executive de-
partment under the provisions of
the law of Congress, that all which
Congress contemplated in making
the grant has been realized and that
it was done by the company in the
belief of having secured the grant.
. After all this, the question is
can, and if it can, ought Congress
to forfeit the land grant to the as-
signee company. .Your committee
think both branches of the question
must be answered in the negative.

say advertised :
Brown, Mrs C L
Brams, Robert
Bryan, Rebecca S
Cook, Henry
Cook, Rebecca
Clark, E S
Clements, J C
Cotton, Ashbel D
Cook, P D S
Dorsey, Miss Nilet
Davis, Mary J
Denton, Mrs Joe S
Davis, P
Ellice, Rose
Edward, Norma
Fisher, Mrs John
Fendey, Philip
Friedburg, Miss
Grisham, Maddie M
Grant, Mrs Diana
Gregory, Mrs Mollie

Hardy, Joseph
Hearts, John J
James, Susan
Long, C C
Miller, Tyler
McGreggor, Jas
Museley. Rev B R
Neal, Gabe
Owens, Lottie
O'Neal, Geo H cold')
Olson, Ole
Pierce, F L
Patton, Mrs John
Roberts, Walter
Swift, G B
Sciber, Mrs Maile
Stewart, Thomas
Turner, Solon
Wright, Joe
Williams, Mrs MhB
Young, Miss Leah
3. T. RIDDELL, P. M.

That is what every one wants. A
city government must be carried on
on business principles. From the
Mayor down each man should have
his specified duties to perform and
perform them with fidelity and dili-
Our city government has generally
been carried on by those who had
other work to do, which made their
duty to the city only secondary, and
in consequence not well performed.
We want a mayor who will make
it his business to be the efficient and
responsible head of affairs, and who
will, without fear, favor or affection,
execute -the laws promptly, impar-
tially, and with discretion. The
city marshal and policemen are re-
sponsible for the prevention of dis-
order and the arrest of those who
violate the laws passed for the com-
mon good. The aldermen must be
men who have the good of the city
at heart, and who will be willing to
give time and careful scrutiny to its
A good city government is like a
well ordered family, in which, every-
thing is arranged for the benefit and
comfort of all. A poor city govern-
"v- mient, like a badly ordered family,
is full of confusion, waste and dis-
We all know that our city govern-
ment should be more efficiently ad-
ministered, and that the interests of
every citizen are involved in having
our city affairs carried on in all of
its departments with energy, zeal
and efficiency. The people in every
other town and city are awaking to
the shortcomings of these poorly ad-
ministered city governments.
Fernandina now needs a progres-
sive city government. There is much
to be done to promote health, good
order and the public convenience.
We need better drainage, good streets
and walks, and abundant supply of
good water. These are-not partisan
questions, but affect all. The voting
population of our city will have two
tickets presented for their support-
one almost strictly partisan ticket,
embracing mainly the present offi-
cials, aid the other a citizens' non-
partisan ticket made up of men who,
it is believed, will make efficient city
officers and, give us a better and a
stronger government. All interests
are represented on the ticket, and we
have now the opportunity of taking
city affairs out of politics and mak-
ing the public good the paramount
object. No one has a right to com-
plain of existing evils who will not
exert himself to correct them. The
citizens' ticket consists of well known
men who, if elected, will do their du-
ty: let us do our duty by electing

This report was concurred in by
J. Randolph Tucker, of Virginia,
Culberson, of Io:a, Moulton, of Illi-
nois, Broadhead, of Missouri, Dors-
heimer, of New York, Collins, of
Mississippi, Seney, of Ohio, Demp-
sey, of Michigan, McCord, of Iowa,
Poland, of Vermont, Bisbee, of Flor-
ida, parker, of New York and Val-
entine, of Nebraska.
The Florida Railroad & Naviga-
tion Company, as assignee of the
Florida Railroad Company have,
since the time expired limited in
the original grant, constructed over
135 miles of railway, under the pro-
visions of the grant, and are now
engaged in finishing the last divis-
ion of the work provided for in the
grant. The conclusions of the cornm-
mittee covers their case, which is
much stronger than the one the
committee were considering; but
there are three points established by
the decision of the Supreme Court.
First: That a grant of land with a
condition as to time is a present grant
of the land, subject to re-entry, but
good to the grantee and assignee un-
til so re-entered upon by the grantor,
the title going to the grantee so fast
as he accomplishes the work.
Second: That forfeiture is waived
if the work is carried on after the
time limited, with the assent, ex-
pressed or implied, of the grantor.
Third: That the. government must
by some action of Congress, declare
its intention to re-enter, or else the
party might continue, and when he
had performed the condition the
land was his as much as if he had
built the 'road within the period
fixed in the act.

day, Tuesday and Thursday.
LEAVES SAVANNAH, foot of Lincoln
st., every Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
Passengers North-bound connect at Savan-
nah with Rail and Steamship Lines; and
South-bound Passengers reaching Savannah
by Rail, or the Ocean Steamship Company
from New York and Boston, or Boston &
Savannah Steamship Co., connect via the
Morgan with the Florida Railway & Naviga-
tion Company for ..
For tickets apply to Leve & Alden agen-
cies, or any regular ticket agent:.
F.-W.. SIMMONS, A:'ent, /.
Fernandint!, Fla.
C WILLIAMS,. Gen. Ag't,
Sa\vaii nah, Ga .
Gen. Pass. &.Ticket Agent,
Fernandina, Fla.
General Superintendent,
Fernandina, Fla.


Alachua Street, between Secoind and; Third
Orlderts and estimates from a distance care"
fully attended to.' 25-tf -

Dealer in Ice

In the case of the Florida Rail-
road land grant, Congress has never
passed any act declaring its inten-
tion to re-enter or to forfeit the grant.
Nor is it likely to do so in a case
where the benefits expected to be re-
alized by the grant have accrued
and the railroad company are actu-
ally carrying it out.

R: MARCH 28,






Inland Steamboat Co.

A Delightful Trip Along the Pic-
turesque Sea Islands.




SMoruntain Plateau, near the Univers-ity
of the South, at an elevation of 2,000 feet
above the sea. Combines the advantages of
health and recreation. Vacations in the
winter. Terms minoderate. Send for circular
to SILAS M-c.-BEE,
Mount. Eagle, Tenn.
References-G. R. Fairbanks, Fernandina;
Dr. Hy. Robinson. Jacksonville; Rev. N.
Harris, Jacksonville.

List of Letters
Remaining in the Post-Office at Fernan-
dina, Nassau county, Florida, March 28th,
1885. Persons calling for these letters must


Subscription, 0 per year; aix months I1,

Offce corner Centre and First streets, second floor

Ten cent a line for the first, and five cents for
each subsequent insertion.
Special local notices, 15 cents a line:
Reading notices, 25 cents a line.
Special rate for time advertisements upon appli
cation at the office.

Communications upon all matters of local inte
est solicited from all parts of the county and froi
along the lines of Florida railways&
All communications intended for publication
should be addressed to the Editor; all businea
letters simply to T FLORIDA MIRRnoR.


S Strangers ask: Why do you allow
- such profanity and bad language
Ssky-larking, obstruction of the side
3 walks, etc., by a set of half or wholly
intoxicated people or by half-grown
t boys? Have you no laws against
r these things? Can it be helped?
S Let us answer 'these questions by
our votes.
Why is the city so poorly lighted
Let us find out. Gainesville has a
Police force of two men, and main-
tains excellent order. Fernandina
Shas double the force and maintains
no order. Why is this?
Let us elect good men and sustain
them, and we shall be able to an-
swer this question-.
Let us try a new broom as citizens,
not as partisans; give credit to suc-
cess and require accountability for
failure, and see if we cannot do
People ask why drinking places
are in operation in our city on Sun-
Let us answer this question by
our votes.
People ask why boys and men are
allowed to discharge fire-arms in our
Let us answer by our votes.

The taxation of debts, to secure which
mortgages on real estate are given, is en-
forced in many States. The real estate be-
ing also taxed the taxes are levied on the
same property. The Supreme Court of Mas-
sachusetts has decided that the taxation of
money invested in real eslate mortgages is
The legislature of 1883 struck out
of the revenue laws the provision
which required the assessors to in-
clude in the list of taxable property
mortgages, the intention being to ex-
clude mortgages from taxation, as
the real estate on which they consti-
tuted a lien was already taxed.
Some of our assessors have evaded
the intent of the law by putting
mortgages udacfbe head of "mon-
eys at interest." It will be seen that
the Supreme Court of Massachusetts
have decided that such taxation is
illegal, and we. think very properly
so, as it is clearly a double tax on
the same property.

The convention is a fixed fact. It is to
consist of an equal number with the Legis-
lature. The question now is for the people
to select the first men in their respective
counties to take part in the revision of the
constitution. This is a question which
should rise above partisanship. A consti-
tution is the paramount law for all the peo-
ple of the State. It is indeed to provide the
best possible government for them, and in
it all have an equal interest. It is the bond
and agreement by which the people of a
State agree to be governed, and the interests
of all should be regarded. We shall want
the best material in the convention that can
be obtained. There will be little profit in
it, but every good citizen ought to be willing
to devote his time and talent to so honor-
able purpose if called upon to do so. In
Alachua county it has been suggested that
the best representatives of both parties be
selected and chosen on a people's ticket.
Such a .course would be wise everywhere.
A Constitutional Convention should not be

partisan, because no constitution can be a
partisan constitution.
This, we believe, is the general sentiment
of the press and the people whose views the
press reflects,
The above from our able contemporary,-
the Fernandlina Mirro'r, throws out some
ideas which, if practicable, would be good,
and should be considered. We are of the
opinion, however, that it will be impossible
to keep partisan politics entirely out of the
convention. While it is, and should be, the
desire of all patriotic citizens to have a non-
partisan constitution, one by the people and
for the people, regardless of partisan politics
it will be impossible to get out candidates
for delegates whose intellectual standing is
of an order to qualify then for such a re-
sponsible position 'who is not tainted to
some extent with party views and party
teachings. And while we desire, and think
it would be wise, to select delegates whose
views are conservative and liberal, yet we
could not, nor would not, depreciate the
availability of a go, ,I hearty, strong Demo-
crat. When we say Democrat we mean
Democrat; one whr believess in the funda-
mniental principles of the Democratic party-
a government of the people, for the people
and by the people. No partisan, however
stubborn, with these views can, nor will,
injure the State of Florida by being made a
delegate to the Constitutional Convention.
In fact, these are the, kind of men the peo-
ple want there, if ;we understand things
rightly.-Live Oak Bhallhln.

! Another Handsome Store.
S Our city boasts no boom," but is making
Sa steady and healthy growth, and the char
acter of the improvements made in the las
year bespeaks confidence in the city's future
Tasteful residences have sprung up in al
I directions and others are in process of erec
t tion, and a visit to the architect's office,
shows that several more are in contempla
tion, as also some public buildings of im
portance. Substantial brick structures, in
eluding some works of even elegant design
cover the site of our recent conflagration
and are gradually taking the place of lesq
permanent buildings, and we now note the
completion of another business house of
L superior character, erected upon Centr
street, between Third and Fourth streets, by
Mr. M. A. Williams, whose real estate expe
rience is perhaps second to none in the
SState, and who thus expresses his apprecia-
tion of our city's progress.
The building is of brick, constructed in
a very solid and substantial manner. The
first story is devoted to a store, which is
fitted up with every convenience for busi-
ness and in a very tasteful and even elegant
style. The ceiling is high, the walls fin-
ished in soapstone, and the wood work be-
ing all of choice selected lumber is finished
in shellac, the decorations being made in
New York for the purpose.
The second story is divided into a series of
light and airy offices, convenient of access
and neat in finish ; they are, without doubt,
the most pleasantand desirable offices in the
The front of the building is very unique
and tasteful in design. Iron columns and
lintel in the store front support the upper
walls. The columns are light and graceful
and so designed that they form a continuous
finish with the wood work of the windows.
The windows are of French plate glass, of
extra weight and quality. On the west side
of the store front is placed the entrance. to
the offices, the doorway of which is very
peculiar The front is laid up
with Philadelphia brick, relieved with buff
terra cotta in blocks, lintel, sill course and
trusses, and with buff Amboy brick, com-
bined in an artistic manner in cornice,
labels, caps and the pediment that sur-
mounts the front; altogether presenting a
fa ade at once tasteful and appropriate.
!The building has been erected from de-
signs and under the superintendence of R.
S. Schuyler, architect, whose skill and taste
has, in the few years that he has been
among us, done so much to improve the
character of the buildings in this city, leav-
ing the indellible imprint of his pencil
throughout its limits.
Mr. James McGiffin was the contractor,
and&,he architect certifies that he has exe-
cuted his contract with great thoroughness.
Mr. W. F. V. Scott did the mason work and
it is pronounced good. The store will be
occupied by our new firm of young mer-
chants, Messrs. Whitner & Schuyler, as a
family grocery.
Egmont Hotel Arrivals.
H E Chapman, E P Monroe, Philadelphia;
C'B Niblack, Miss Niblack, J M Baker and
wife, Miss Dana, Chicago; H B Gloree, Miss
Susie Gloree, Miss Nora Lerge, A F Boyn-
ton and wife, Dubuque; Mrs J G Weaver,
Clearfield, Pa.; Mrs A K Weaver, Stephen
E Foster, Brooklyn; N Y; Wm H McKin-
ney, N Y ; Jno Laughlin Jr and wife, Miss
Pattie Laughlin, Miss M I Hays, Miss M
Caldwell, H H Murray, Pittsburgh, Pa; T
M Carnegie, Dungeness ; -Mr and Mrs O M
Bamer, Owen H Bamer, Mich; Mrs Geo G
Packer, Mrs Charles N, Post, Chicago; L
Christian, wife and child, Minneapolis; W
G Brown, Thos C Brown, Philadelphia; C
W Pratt. Boston ; J G Vassar, Vassar College,
N Y ; R F Hamilton, New Haven ; Jas Mc-
Donald, Pittsburgh; Ludger Bolduc, Que-
bec ; Mr and Mrs Duryee, city ; Mr and Mrs
McKinney, New York ; S H Wardell, S II
Wardell Jr, Boston ; Geo C Whitney, New
York; John GAnderson, Brooklyn; S Frank
Coddington, B F Carver, N Y City ; L G Lai-
ter, Chicago; Alex Curtis, St Mary's; C E
Perkins and wife, Wm G Davis and wife,
Miss E Davis, R M Richardson and wife,

Portland, Me; J A. Bigler and wife, L P Ross
and wife, Rochester, N Y; F F McMurry,
Highlands, Fla; A Langham and wf, Spen-
cer. N Y; Miss Peck, Syracuse, N Y; F Win-
ston, NY; J A Drake,G W Drake, J J Tul-
ly, A Houghton, Jr, John Lang, Corninf, N
N; Miss Stephenson, Miss Johnson, Miss
Carpenter, Mr Carpenter, Mr Dale, Tenn; P
Daniels and wife. Iowa; Geo L McAlpine,
F B Robinson, Wm Rowe, N Y; H C Leeds,,
M M Sanders and wife, Boston; S Plimsoll
and daughter, England; J J Taylor and wf,
Baltimore; F B Washburn and wife, Brock-
ton, Mass; F J Slade and wife, Trenton, N
J; S T Bordrett and wife. NY; S S Cun-
ningham and wife, Md WJ Egent,SN Y;
H C Johnson and wife, N Y ; U H Hausberg
and family, Iowa; A B Dunn and wife,
Mass; S C Howe, wife and child, Mich; L J
Sandford, R R Freelove, Mass; Sol Wilkins,
Columbia, Tenn; L L Cohn and wife, Wau-
sau, Wis; E P Arpin, Jos Dessert, Grand
Rapids, Wis; John W Barger, Mrs Jos Me-
Connell, Miss Annie McConnell, Ohio; Mrs
Sidney Shepard, Miss Wells, Edwin Good-
all, C H Audariere, N Y: J J Campbell,
Kingston, Canada; Mrs E S Stewart, Louis-
ville, Ky ; John Kilkenny, Miss Myrtle Kil-
kenny, New Orleans; W F Melton and wife,
Pittsfield, Mass ; W H Gregg and wife, Miss
Gregg, St Louis; C H Hawking and wife,
Milwaukee; John Ritchie and wife, Boston ;
A K Bennett and wife, Conn.
"Those Blinding Headaches-
I know what they mean ; ever since I can
remember I have been a victim to them,"
said Mrs. J. Nichols, of Rochester, N. Y. I
could understand what the author meant
when he said: Life is sometimes not worth
living.' By the merest chance I heard of
Dr. David Kennedy's Favorite Remedy.' I
tested its virtues, and it truly worked a
transformation for me; I am now practi-
cally a new creature."

AGENT, '" -

them. J
The discussion of this question has
brought out the following points,
which are agreed upon as contain-
ing the law relative to land grants:
In 1884 the question of the effect
to be given to the. condition as to
time in a land grant, was ably con-
sidered by the Judiciary Committee






In Fancy Goods and Parasols.
Spring and Summer Clothing
At New York cost.
Bleached Cotton.
J' & T. KYDD are now selling a yard-wide
Bleached Cotton, fine and soft finish, at the
low price of 7 cents a yard. All standard
brands as low as can be bought anywhere.
Silks, Satins and Laces.














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