Citation
Indian history for young folks /

Material Information

Title:
Indian history for young folks /
Creator:
Drake, Francis S ( Francis Samuel ), 1828-1885
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
Harper & Brothers,
Harper & Brothers
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1884
Language:
English
Physical Description:
479, 4 p., [2] leaf of plates : ill. (some col.), col. map, ports ; 23 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Wars -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Generals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Death -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1885 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1885
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
General Note:
Frontispiece printed in colors.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Francis S. Drake ; with numerous illustrations.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
ALG5791 ( NOTIS )
026672825 ( AlephBibNum )
65191155 ( OCLC )

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THE CROWNING OF POWHATAN.
(see page 98)

“



INDIAN HISTORY

y . as 4 ; et
FOR We. y Warbdyeey.

YOUNG FOLKS

BY

FRANCIS 8. DRAKE

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK
WARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
1885



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by
NWARPER & BROTHERS,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

All rights reserved,



PREFACE,

NAVE thought that a plain narrative of some of the more striking

events in our Indian history might not prove uninteresting to my
young countrymen.

It is the story of the heroic, but hopeless, struggle for self-preservation
of a weaker against a stronger race; and as we read it we cannot help
sympathizing in some degree with the Indian in his patriotie effort to pre-
serve his country and to drive off the intruding white man. Though not
inferior to him in bravery, sagacity, and cunning, the Indian was no match
for his cool, steady, well-disciplined white opponent. Indeed, the great
lesson of the struggle is that it shows conclusively the superiority of the
civilized man over the savage, even in those warlike arts in which the
latter most excelled.

One other thing must not be forgotten. The deadly perils to which
the early settlers were daily and hourly exposed from the incursions of a
savage foe—the ambush and the midnight surprise, their sufferings while
undergoing the horrors of captivity or the agonies of torture; when we
think of these things—they were common occurrences in those early days
——we are enabled to realize in some small degree the cost and the value of
the peaceful, happy homes we now enjoy.

With the exception of a few roving bands of Apaches and other wild
tribes of the plains, the Indian pictured in these pages no longer exists.
In ceasing to be a hunter and a warrior, he has lost much of his distinctive
character. Civilization has taken hold of him, and one by one his old

superstitions and savage customs will disappear. His children are being



6 PREFACE.

educated, he is turning his attention to farming, and, slowly it is true, but
surely, he is acquiring the arts and modes of life of his civilized brother.
“learning,” as he expresses it, ‘to tread the white man’s path.”

Indian wars of any magnitude are, happily, no longer possible; and at
no distant day the native race will be absorbed in the great mass of our
population, clothed with all the rights and privileges, as well a as with the

duties, of American citizenship.

Roxsury, August, 1884.



CONTENTS.

I, PAGK
Wat we Know Apocut rum American INDIAN . 2. . wee COB

Il.

EarLty EGROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS . . . . )..hehUeeeCOAY
Ill.
VIRGINIA COLONIZED . . . ww ee ee kk ee ew kee 84

Tot New Enauanp Indians . . . . wk ke ee ee eee ke we 106

Tue lroquois. 2... ek ee ke ee ee ee BF

VI,

Kone Purure’s WarR . . . ee ke ee ee ee gg, 145

VIL

Tuk SourmerRN INDIANS . 2. 1.0... ke nk ke ke ee, 164.

Frencu AND InpIAN Wars... .. . .
IX,

Turn “Ono Prexci War” (1755-1760). 6.02 0 ee 207

Sprony oF A CAPTIVE .o. . soe kee a



CONTENTS.

GO

XI. PAGH

Rocers’s RANGERS . . ew ee ee ee ee ee we ewe RBG
XTT.
263

Ponttac’s WAR . . . we

AIT.

Tus INDIANS JOIN THE MoTHer CoUNTRY AGAINST HER AMERICAN COLONIES. . 289

ATY.

Tort BACKWOODSMEN OF KENTUCKY . . . . ee ee BAG

AY.

Wars with THE Western Inprans (1789-1795). 0. 6 ew BB

XVI.

TECUMSEH AND THE War or 1812 00.0. °.0.0°.°.02200~=, 2... 2. 2. 2.207; , Bd4

ANVIL,

Wak witt THE CREEK NATION . . . .. we ~ oe ew) BUD

AVITIL.

Tne Brack Hawk War... . . . oe 398

ATX,

WAR WITH THE SEMINOLES OF FrLorips tok kk ek el ANS

XX,

Recent Inprian Wars... ...
e * ® a e . * e e * a . . ° 426

INDEX... . .



ILLUSTRATIONS.

CROWNING OF POWHATAN
Map oF INDIAN RESERVATIONS

PAGE
Christopher Columbus . 15
Newark Earthwork. 16
A North American Indian 17
Moccasins 20 |
Auni Dwellings 21
Bowl of Indian Pipe 24
Snow-shoe . Coe 24
Canoe and House of Southern Indians . 25
Picture-writing 26
Grave-post . QT
The Dighton Rock Inscription . 28
Indian Council 29
Indian Cradle. 30)
The Indians at Home Be
A Sealp Dance 33
Scalp oo. . . kk, 36
In Ambush a7
A Class-room . . 40
Sebastian Cabot, by Holbein . . 48
John Verrazzano . 50
Jacques Cartier 51
Jacques Cartier erects a Cross 53

View of Montreal and its Walls in 1760.

Frontispiece
To face page 18

PAGE

_Champlain’s Fortified Residence at Que-

bec . 66
Hendrik Hudson 69
The Hulf-Moon at Y onkers. - oe ee WO
Dutch and Indians Trading 71

| The Massacre of the Indians at Pavonia 72
|The Trading Post. 2. 2... 2...) 48
New York in 1664 . Td
| Peter Stuyvesant 76
Beginning of New York . 17
Sir Francis Drake . 78



(From an old French print) . Dd
Ponce de Leon 56
Fernando de Soto 08
De Soto Discovering the Mississippi 59
Burial of De Soto 62 |
Auni Woman at a Window 6-4
De Monts . 2... . ee BE

William Penn . . . . . . 49
Landing of William Penn at Philadel -

phia 80
Penn and the Indians. 81
Form of Raleigh’s Ships. 84
Sir Walter Raleigh 85
Arrival at Jamestown, 1607 89
Ruins at Jamestown 91

| Powhatan. 93
Pocahontas shields Him from their

Clubs 95
A Medicine-man 96
Captain Smith subduing the Chief 99

| Marriage of Pocahontas . 101
Pocahontas . 102
Captain John Smith, Admiral of New

Finegland 103

Landing of the Pilgrims . 107

First Encounter with the Indians 109



10

‘Welcome, Englishmen!” ,
Plymouth Wilderness
Interview with Massasoit

The Paiace of King Massasoit .
Edward Winslow .

Governor Endicott.

John Eliot

John Eliot preaching to the Indians ;

Governor Winthrop

Long House at Onondaga
Going to Fight the Iroquois
First Battle with the Iroquois .
Samuel de Champlain

Lake Champlain .
Attack on the Iroquois Fort
Fortified Town of the Onondagas
Governor Colden

Mount Hope.

King Philip .
Captain Benjamin Church ;
Fight at Tiverton .

The Great Swamp Fight in Rh 10de Island

Lancaster Attacked

Death of King Philip .

Ninigret re
Defence of the Garrison-housce.
Oglethorpe’s Landing .

General Oglethorpe

Cherokees

Francis Marion .

John Ross . ;
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle.
Indians attacking the Settlers .
Major Waldron’s Terrible Fight .
Schenectady .

Scene of Operations— French and Indian

. 187)
. 188
. 190
. 191
» . 195
Garrison-house at Oyster River success-

. 197

Wars
Peter Schuyler .
Pemaquid.
Old Fort Frederick, at “Pemaquid.
Old Church in St. Regis .

fully Defended .



ILLUSTRATIONS,

Governor Shirley

Washington as a Virginia Colonel
Benjamin Franklin

Horatio Gates

Daniel Morgan .

Braddock’s Defeat .

Sir William Johnson .
Johnson’s House

Hendrick . Lo ,
Indian Raid on a Settlement
Louis Joseph Montcalm .
Oswego in 1755 .

3 | Fort William Henry .

St. John (1776) .

Capture of Fort Duqucsne (1758) ,

An Indian Ambush

Major Robert Rogers .

Ruins of Ticonderoga.
Country around Ticonderoga ,
John Stark Loe,
Stark captured by Indians .

'The Retreat of the Rangers.
) | Rogers’s Rock
Head of Lake George.

Site of Fort Anne .

The French Commander saving Putnam
Major Israel Putnam in British Uni-

. 256
. 207
. 259
. 264
. 266
. 268
. 269

form toe
Putnam saving Fort Edward
Crown Point .
Trading with the Indians
Pontiac, and the Siege of Detroit .
Detroit River and Vicinity ,
Pontiac and Gladwyn
Pontiac’s Attack on the Fort
Old Fort Michilimackinac .

er by a Song of Childhood .
Fort Niagara
Isaac Shelby .
General Burgoyne .

dians

PAGE

. 204
. 209
. 211
/ 212
. 213
. 214
. 216
. 216
. 217
» 220
» 223
. Red,
» 224
. 226
» 229
. 28

. 240
. 24t
» 242
. 248
. 247

250

. 201
. 202

253

270

. 2 277
Restored Captive recognizing its Moth-

. 287
. 290
. 292
. . 294
| Burgoyne making a Speech t to the In-

. 295



ILLUSTRATIONS. 11

PAGE

Fort Stanwix (afterward Fort Schuyler)
and Vicinity. . . . . . . , , 296
Colonel Barry St. Leger. . . ,. , , 296
Joseph Brant . . . . . . . . , 297
Colonel Peter Gansevoort . . . . . 298
General Herkimer directing the Battle . 299
Battle-field at Oriskany . . . . . . 801
Marinus Willett . . . . . . .) . 801
Benedict Arnold . . . . . . . . 802
George Rogers Clarke . . . . . . 3807
John Sullivan . . woe ew ew 6. 810
Newtown Battle- field . - oe ew eh) B11
James Clinton . . . . . . . .) . 812
Andrew Pickens . . . . . . . . 818
Red Jacket . . . . .. . . .) . 814
Daniel Boone .. . . . BLT
Emigrants’ Camp Attacked. . . . . B18
Boone’s Fort. . . . . . . .) .) . 822
Graves of Daniel Boone and his Wife . 823
Boone at the Blue Licks. . . . . 828

Boone fighting over the Dead Body of
hisSon ..... . . . . +. 880
Burning the Prisoners . . . . . . 338
Kenton and his Deliverer . . . . . 334
Simon Kenton . . . . 2 ee. 885

Map of the North-western Territor y. . 887

Fort Washington—Site of Cincinnati . 338
Fort Harmar. . . . . . . . ~ .) . 889
Fort Waynein1812 . . . . . . . 848
James Wilkinson . . . . . . . . 844
Arthur St. Clair 2. 2. . . . . . 844
General Wayne. . . . . .. . . 847
Fort Defiance . . . ... . . . 848
The Maumee Ford—Place of Harmar’ S
Defeat. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2 2... B49
Ruins of Fort Miami. . . . . . . 850
Little Turtles Grave. . . . . .) . B51
Tecumseh. . . . Lee ee BOD
Elkswatawa, the Prophet 2 owe BOD
Fort Harrison . ... . . 807
Tippecanoe Battle-gr ound | in 1860 d09
William Hull . 2... B61





William Fustis . . . . . 862)

PAGE
Duncan MacArthur . . . . . . . 862
Lewis Cass,1860 . . . . . . .) . 868
Colonel James Miller. . . . . . . 8368
Maguaga Battle-ground . . . . . . 364
Fort Mackinac. . .. .. . . . 865
Fort Dearborn, 1812 . . . . . . . 866
Zachary Taylor. . .. . 368
Monroe, from the Battle- field — Site of
Winchester’s Defeat . . . . . . 369
Siege of Fort Meigs . . . . . .) . 871
General Green Clay . . . . . .) , 871
William Henry Harrison . . . . , 8%
Appearance of the Thames Battle-
ground in 1860. . . . 2. . . . 874
Oshawahnah. . 2... 2. . . . BY
Battle of the Thames. . . . . . . 8%6
Colonel Richard M. Johnson . . . . 897
Seat of War in Southern Alabama . . 380
Tecumseh’s Speech . . 2. . .) .) , 888
Fort Mims . . . oe we. B85
Andrew Jackson in i814 » ow. . . 888
Battle of Talladega . 2. . 1. 2... 889
The Canoe Fight . 2. . 2... .) . 891
General John Coffee . . . . . . . 894
The Battle of the Horseshoe . . . . 895
Samuel Houston . . . . . . . . 895
James Monroe... . . . . 899
Black Hawk. . . . . . . 400
General Winfield Scott in 1360 » «© . 408
Scene of the Seminole War. . . . . 405
General D. L. Clinch. . . . .) .) . 407
Osceola... . 1. . ww ee 409
Osceola’s Grave. . . . . . . 410
Edmund Pendleton Gaines wo.) ALI
Old Spanish Fort, St. Augustine... 418
Followinga Trail. . 2... . .) 2 417
Billy Bowlegs . . . 2... 421
St. Augustine . . . . . . . . . 424
Little Crow . . . 2. . 1 1... 426
General Sibley . . 2. . 1... 4R7
Lieutenant-colonel Marshall . . . . 428
Capture of Indian Camp. . . . . . 429
Little Paul... ww www. 429



12 ILLUSTRATIONS.

Sioux Village
Medicine-chicf .

PAGE

. 430
. 482

Sioux Chief forbidding Passage through

his Country .
An Apache Warrior
Fetterman’s Massacre.
Philip Henry Sheridan
Capture of Black Kettle’s Camp .
Little Raven, Chief of the Arapahoes
Major-general George Crook
Sitting Bull . .
Major-gencral George A. Custer
Spotted Tail . Lo
Satanta, Chief of the Kiowas
Captain Jack and his Companions

. 483
. 489
. 437
. 489
. 441
. 444
. 445
. 446
. AAT
. 448
. 449
. 450





On the War-path
Lava Beds Cee ee
Captain Jack’s Cave and Stronghold.
Lake and Camps in the Distance.
General E. R. 8S. Canby
Modoes in their Stronghold.
Massacre of the Commissioners by the
Modocs tee
Joseph, the Nez Percé Warrior
Nez Percé Boy and Papoose
Battle of Cafion Creek
General O. O. Howard
Advance of the Skirmish Line
General Nelson A. Miles.

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INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN.

Re" young people who live east of the Mississippi River have ever

seen an Indian. Nearly all are familiar with pictures of him, or have
read stories about him. Most of these stories are highly colored, and rep-
resent him as more or less than human, and not at all as he really is.
Even those who have made a study of the Indian differ widely in their
estimate of him.

Perhaps you will ask how it happens that the Indians are now aliens
and paupers in a land of which they were once the undisputed possessors 4
It is easy to see how it all came about, but it is a story by no means cred-
itable to the white man. In the first place, the European sovereigns
claimed their lands by right of discovery. Precisely as though you should
claim another boy’s sled because it was the first time you had seen it, and
then should wrest it from him because you were the stronger. This is
just what the white man did to the Indian: in plain language, robbed
him.

It is true that in some cases lands were bought of the natives, but the
Indian had no idea of exclusive ownership in land, and supposed he was
giving the white man only an equal privilege in it with himself. The
price paid was often insignificant enough. Tor the territory now covered
by the great city of New York the Indians received twenty-four pounds
about one hundred and twenty dollars—a sum which would now buy
little more than a square foot of it.

One way to cheat the Indian out of his land was this: a tract of ter-
ritory granted by the Delawares to William Penn fifty years before was
to extend in a given direction as far as a man could walk in a day and a
half, and from this point eastwardly to the Delaware River. The Indians
justly complained that, instead of walking, the men appointed by the pro-





14 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

prietors ran. Not only did they run, bat they had previously cut a path
through the forest and removed whatever could hinder their swift passage.
This was not all. Instead of running the northern line direct to the Dela-
ware, the plain meaning of the deed, the proprietors inclined it so far to
the north as to form an acute angle with the river.

By these fraudulent methods they gained possession of many hundred
thousand acres of valuable land which the Indians had no intention of
surrendering, and from which they were compelled immediately to re-
move. This and other injuries and aggressions ended in a terrible border
war, in which the French joined the Delawares against the English.

When the Indian turned upon his white oppressor, the effort was
inade to crush and exterminate him. By alternate wars and treaties he
was pushed back from his ancient seats, until at length, cooped up in reser-
vations under the eye of the military, he is fed and clothed by the gov-
ernment, having no rights as a citizen.

To this state of things there are some notable exceptions. In the In-
dian Territory the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Semi-
noles, known as the Five Civilized Tribes, ive under a government of
their own; in New York the remaining Iroquois, having become civilized,
are citizens; in New Mexico the Pueblo Indians are semi-civilized; and
in Michigan and North Carolina there are a few Indians not on reserva-
tions. All these are self-supporting.

Is it to be wondered at that the Indian has made no greater progress
in civilization? If white men had been treated as he has been, and placed
beyond the necessity of labor, they would quickly become worthless vaga-
bonds. It will not do to assume the inherent inferiority of the red men.
We must remember that, like them, our British ancestors were savages,
who painted their bodies, clothed themselves in the skins of wild beasts,
and lived in rude huts in a country covered with forests and swamps.

The folly and wickedness of most of our Indian wars is only too ap-
parent when we reflect that the injury the Indian could inflict upon the
innocent settlers on our border was many times greater than we could
possibly inflict upon him, and that simple justice and honesty in our deal-
ings with him would have prevented them altogether.

It was a blunder—the first of a long series in our dealings with them
—to call the natives “Indians.” On discovering America, Columbus sup-
posed he had reached India, the object of his voyage. Indeed, the great
navigator died in ignorance of the fact that he had discovered a new con-
tinent. To this day the lands he first saw are known as the West Indies.

It is supposed that this country was inhabited by an earlier race of



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 1d



CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS,

men called Mound Builders from the earthworks of various forms and
sizes found in the valley of the Mississippi and elsewhere.

In Wisconsin many of these mounds are in the form of gigantic
animals. T’he builders must have been familiar with the mastodon, or
elephant, judging from the “ Big Elephant” mound found a few miles
below the mouth of the Wisconsin River. It is 135 feet long, and well
proportioned. One in Adams County, Ohio, represents a serpent 1000



16 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

feet long, its body gracefully curved, and its open jaws about to swallow
a figure shaped like an egg.

The great mound of Cahokia, opposite St. Louis, is 90 feet in height
and 700 feet in length. Unity of design and mathematical precision of
construction appear in all these works, most of which are of a defensive
character, and in which are represented the square, the circle, the octagon,
and the rhomb. They have gate-ways, parallel lines, and outlooks ; and it
is evident that they are the results of the labors of a vast number of men
directed by a single governing mind having a definite object in view. At
Newark, Ohio, a fortification exists which covers an area of several miles,
and has over two miles of embankment from two to twenty feet high.







NEWARK EARTHWORK,

The present native race has neither knowledge nor tradition respecting
these singular remains. Their builders have left us no other record than
the mounds themselves, and the tools and ornaments, some of them of
copper, and the tastefully moulded pottery found in them.

A probable conjecture about this mysterious people is that they were
village Indians of New Mexico, and that some of these earthworks were
the foundations of their long houses, in which great numbers of them
lived, and that they were finally driven off by fierce savage hordes from
the West and North. Their houses, being of wood, long since disap-
peared.*

Let me now tell you what the Indian is like. Picture to yourselves
a man with straight black hair, a scanty beard, small black eyes, high
cheek-bones, large thick lips, a narrow forehead, and a reddish-brown or



* A valuable paper in vol. i. of the Smithsonian ‘Contributions to Knowledge,”
by Squier and Davis, contains much information relative to the aboriginal monuments
in the Mississippi valley.



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. tt

cinnamon complexion, and you have a tolerably correct idea of how the
North American Indian appears. Though divided into seven or eight
stocks or families, each speaking a different language, the Indians through-
out the United States have a common physical likeness and similar
manners and institutions.

The principal of these great di-
visions or families are:

Algonkins » found throughout
the eastern portion of the country,
from Nova Scotia to North Caro-
lina, and west to the Mississippi.
They covered sixty degrees of lon-
gitude and twenty degrees of lati-
tude, and numbered 90,000—more
than one-third of the entire Indian
population.

Lroquois, or Five Nations; in
western and central New York, and,
farther north, the Zwrons, or Wyan-
dots.

Dakotas, or Sioux; west of the
Algonkins, and extending from the
Saskatchewan River to southern Ar-
kansas, and from the Mississippi to
the Rocky Mountains. :

Muskokis, or Appalachians ; all the south-eastern part of the United
States, extending west to the Mississippi. They embraced the Cherokees,
Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, Uchees, and several other small
tribes.

Shoshonis, or Snakes; this division forms six groups, extending over
parts of Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, Arizona,
Texas, California, and New Mexico.

Besides these are the Athabascas, Yumas, and New Mexican Pueblos.
The first are, perhaps, the most numerous, inhabiting Alaska, Canada, and
a part of Oregon. The Yumas inhabit Arizona and California. The
Pueblos (village Indians) speak six different languages. The wide di-
versity of tongues in these twenty-six towns in New Mexico, of similar
habits and social life, is a most singular circumstance.

All these great families were divided into numerous tribes and clans,
and these again into smaller tribes, bands, and villages. They are now

@

al





A NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN.



18 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

distributed among one hundred reservations, and more than half of them
wear citizen’s dress. Some of these reservations are very extensive; that
of the Sioux, in Dakota, is larger than the State of New York. The In-
dian Territory, with a population of 76,585, of whom more than one-fourth
are yet uncivilized, contains some thirty-five tribes or parts of tribes.

Having shown you how the Indian appears, I will now tell you what
he is.

The characteristic traits of the Indian are such as are common to all
barbarous races. Ambitious, vindictive, cruel, envious, and suspicious,
he is also sagacious, warlike, and courageous, and, at the same time, ex-
cessively cautious. Revenge is with him a sacred duty. Treacherous and
deceitful to his foes, he prefers to slay his enemy by a secret rather than
an open blow.

On the other hand, he loves liberty passionately; will brave famine,
torture, and even death in the pursuit of glory; is strongly affectionate
to his family; hospitable to the extent of sharing his last morsel with a
stranger, though famine stares him in the face; faithful in friendship, he
will lay down his life for his comrade, and never forgets a kindness. THe
is grave, dignified, and patient, and possesses a stoicism that enables him
to control his emotions under the most trying circumstances. His out-
door life and habitual self-control keep him from all effeminate vices.
He uses tobacco for smoking only, and, before the white man came, was
happily ignorant even of the existence of intoxicating drinks.

The superiority of Indian hospitality to that of the white man was, no
doubt, truly stated by Canassatego, a chief of the Six Nations, in a con-
versation with an Enghsh friend:

“Tf,” said he, “a white man enters one of our cabins, we all treat him
as I do you; we dry him if he is wet, we warm him if he is cold, and give
him meat and drink that he may allay his thirst and hunger, and we spread
soft furs for him to rest and sleep on. We demand nothing in return.
But if I go into a white man’s house in Albany and ask for victuals and
drink, they say, ‘Where is your money? and, if I have none, they say,
‘Get out, you Indian dog!”

Out of many instances of Indian humanity I select that of Petalashara,
a distinguished Pawnee brave. The son of a chief, he had, at the age
of twenty-one, earned from his tribe the title accorded to the celebrated
French soldier, Marshal Ney, “the bravest of the brave.”

A female captive was about to suffer torture at the stake in accordance
with Indian custom. horrible scene.



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 19

The brave, unobserved, had stationed two fleet horses near at hand, and
silently waited the moment for action. The flames were about to envelop
the victim, when, to the astonishment of all, Petalashara was seen severing
the cords that bound her, and, with the swiftness of thought, bearmg her
off in his arms; and then, placing her upon one horse, and himself mount-
ing the other, he bore her safely away to her friends and country. Such
an act would have endangered the life of any ordinary warrior; but
such was his sway over the tribe that no one presumed to censure the
daring act.

Though not the equal of the white man in bodily strength, the Indian
was his superior in endurance and fleetness of foot. Some of their best
runners could make seventy or eighty miles in a day through the unbroken
wilderness. A close observer of natural phenomena, in the densest forest
the Indian could travel for miles in a straight line, and could note signs
and sounds the white man could not perceive. His temperament is poetic
and imaginative, and his simple eloquence possesses great dignity and
force.

A little anecdote will give an idea of his native wit and shrewdness.
A half-naked Indian was looking on at some workmen in the employ of
Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts.

“Why don’t you work and get yourself some clothes?’ asked the
governor.

“Why don’t you work ?’ retorted the son of the forest.

“JT work head-work,” said Dudley, pointing to his head.

The Indian said he was willing to work, and agreed to kill a calf for
the governor. Having done so, he came for his pay.

‘“ But,” said the governor, “ you have not dressed the calf.”

“No, no,” said the Indian; “1 was to have a shilling for killing him.
Am he no dead, governor?” Finding himself out-witted, the governor
gave him another shilling for dressing it. It was not long before the
Indian came back demanding a good shilling in place of a bad one which
he claimed that the governor had paid him. The governor gave him
another. Returning a second time with still another brass piece to be
exchanged, the governor, convinced of his knavery, offered him half a
crown if he would deliver a letter for him. The letter was directed to
the keeper of the prison, and ordered him to give the bearer a certain
number of lashes.

The Indian suspected that all was not right, and, meeting a servant of
the governor, induced him to take the letter to its address. The result
of the Indian’s stratagem was that a severe whipping was administered to



20 ; INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

the unfortunate servant. The governor was greatly chagrined at being a
second time out-witted by the Indian. On falling in with him some time
after, he accosted him with some severity, asking him how he had dared
to cheat and deceive him so many times.

‘“‘ Head-work, governor; head-work,”’ was the reply. Pleased at the
fellow’s wit and audacity, the governor freely forgave him.

Perhaps some of my younger readers may wonder how people could
exist in a wilderness where there were no houses to live in, no markets
where they could buy food, and no stores in which clothing and other
necessary articles could be procured. If they look into the matter, they
will find that the Creator had provided whatever was required by their
simple mode of life, and that they had no artificial wants. For these they
were indebted to the white man.

Formerly the Indians were clad in the skins of animals; a robe and
breech cloth for the man, and a short petticoat for the women. On great
occasions, as councils or war-dances, they daubed themselves with paint,
the color being varied for joy or grief, peace or war. They also decorated
themselves with beads, feathers, por-
cupine quills, and parts of birds and
animals. The women wore their
hair long, the men shaved theirs off,
except the scalp-lock, which was left
as a point of honor.

For food the Indian relied upon
the chase, the fisheries, and agricult-
ure. Maize, or Indian corn, was his
principal food. It grew luxuriantly
without cultivation, was gathered by
hand and roasted before the fire ;
a small supply of it parched and
pounded sufficed for a long journey.
=== Ile also raised beans and pumpkins,

MOCCASINS. and a little tobacco. If all other

supplies failed, he had nuts, roots,

berries, and acorns, which grew wild. His cooking was simple and with-

out seasoning, usually by roasting over a. fire. Baking was done in

holes in the ground, and water was boiled by throwing heated stones
into it.

Most of the natives lived in cabins or wigwams. These were made by





























































































































































































oC 4

HAR TO

AS
Roce ate a
TURAN ANT BANAL

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ZUNI DWELLINGS.






WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 28

fixing long poles in the ground, bending them towards each other at the
top, and covering them outside with bark or skins, and inside with mats.
A. bear-skin served for the door; an opening in the roof was the chimney.
There were no windows. It could be quickly set up and easily removed.
Its size was proportioned to the number it was to hold. In these dirty,
smoky habitations men, women, and children huddled together. Some of
the tribes built permanent villages, with streets and rows of houses; these
were generally surrounded with palisades of logs and brushwood. Nearly
all the tribes changed their abode at different seasons in pursuit of the
various kinds of game.

A remarkable exception to the usual form of the Indian dwelling is
found among the Pueblo, or village, Indians of New Mexico.

In the face of a line of cliffs extending over sixty miles on the west-
érn side of the Rio Grande, between Cochiti and Santa Clara, are seen
numerous excavations which had once been human habitations, but which
are now in ruins. At a distance they look like a long line of dark spots.
They were approached by foot-paths and stairways cut in the rock, which
was soft and easily worked, and were in tiers of two, three, four, and
occasionally five, rows, one above the other and not far apart. The only
entrance was by an arch-shaped door-way, widening until there was room
enough within for a single family. Wooden structures in front served
as out-door habitations for the women and children.

So numerous are these caves that one hundred thousand persons might
have lived at once where only a few hundred of their descendants now
dwell. It is wonderful how this region, which is exceedingly desolate,
volcanic, and sterile, and in which there are few watercourses, could have
sustained such a dense population.

The fort-like community houses of the Zui Indians outwardly present
one unbroken wall of hard mud. Their inner faces consist of a series of
terraces or houses, piled one above the other, from two to five stories in
height. ach tier above is less than the one beneath by the width of one
story, and is entered over the roof of the tier below. Formerly the only
house-doors were hatchways in the roof; and to enter their habitation the
family—babies, dogs, and all—went up an outside ladder to the roof, and
down an inside ladder to the floor. Narrow door-ways cut in the rock are
now made use of. |

The Indian’s implements of husbandry were of the rudest kind, yet
he had learned many useful arts. He knew the art of striking fire; of
making the bow with the string of sinew, and the arrow-head both of
flint and bone; of making vessels of pottery; of curing and tanning skins;





24 " INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

of making moccasins, snow-shoes, and wearing apparel, together with va-
rious implements and utensils of stone, wood, and bone; of rope and net
making from fibres of bark; of finger-weaving with warp and woof the
same materials into sashes, burden-
straps, and other useful fabrics; of
weaving rush-mats; of making pipes
of clay or stone, often artistically
carved; of basket-making with osier,
cane, and splints; of canoe-making
—the skin, bireh-bark, and that hol-
lowed from the trunk of a tree; of
constructing timber-framed lodges
and skin tents; of shaping stone
on mauls, hammers, axes, and chisels; of

y making fish spears, nets, and bone

Wit, Aeg@ <
Vr \ \
Ci Mee hooks; implements for athletic

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BOWL OF INDIAN PIPE. the flute and the drum; weapons and
ornaments of shell, bone, and stone.

Ilis most ingenious inventions were the snow-shoe, the birch canoe,
the method of dressing the skins of animals with the brains, and the
Dakota tent, or tepee, the model of the Sibley army tent. With the
snow-shoe he could travel forty miles a day over the surface of the snow,
and easily overtake the deer and the moose, whose hoofs penetrated the
crust and prevented their escape. The bark canoe, sometimes thirty feet
Jong and carrying twelve persons, was very light and easily propelled.







SNOW-SHOE.

The bark of the tree was stripped off whole and stretched over a hight,
white cedar frame. The edges were sewed with thongs, and then covered
with gum. They varied in pattern, drew little water, and were often
graceful in shape. The Iroquois used elm - bark, the Algonkins birch,
The Pacific tribes made baskets, some of which were so skilfully woven
as to hold water,



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 25

In hunting, the bow and arrow, and sometimes the dart or spear, were
used. The smaller animals were trapped. When game was plenty it was
sometimes driven into an enclosure and killed. The southern tribes used
the lasso and stone balls attached to hide ropes. Fish were taken in nets,
and with bone hooks, or speared.

Though the Indian believed his own way of life superior to all others,
and in accordance with the design of the Great Spirit, and detested civil-
ization, he has been unable to resist its progress. The gun has taken the

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CANOE AND HOUSE OF SOUTHERN INDIANS.

place of the bow and arrow, and his rude arts and implements have grad-
ually been replaced by those of greater utility and simplicity. The print-
ing-press is already employed by the Cherokees, who publish a newspaper
in their own language at Tahlequah; another is issued at Caddo, in the
Creek nation, in the Creek or Choctaw tongue. The plough is in very
general use among the tribes.

Taving no alphabet, the aborigines conveyed their ideas to the eye by
means of rude pictures of visible objects engraved upon smooth stones or



26 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

the bark of trees, and sometimes drawn on the skins of animals. Their
records of treaties were kept by strings or belts of wampum made of shells
and beads, which was also in use as money. These beads were commonly
used for ornament. Ten thousand of them have been known to be
wrought into a single war-belt four inches wide.

The accompanying sketch was copied from a tree on the banks of the
Muskingum River, Ohio. The characters were drawn with charcoal and



HEN =

PICTURE-WRITING.

bear’s oil. It deseribes the part borne in Pontiac’s war by the Delawares
of the Muskingum, under the noted chief, Wingemund.

No. 1 represents the oldest and main branch of the Delaware tribe by
its ancient symbol, the tortoise. No. 2 is the totem, or armorial badge,
of Wingemund, denoting him to be the actor. No. 3 is the sun; the
ten horizontal strokes beneath it denote the number of war-parties in
which this chief had participated. No. 4 represents men’s scalps. No. 5,
women’s scalps. No. 6, male prisoners. No.7, female prisoners. No. 8,
a small fort situated on the banks of Lake Erie, which was taken by the
Indians in 1762, by surprise. No. 9 represents the fort at Detroit, under
the command of Major Gladwyn, which, in 1768, resisted a siege of three



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 27

months. No. 10 is Fort Pitt, denoted by its striking position on the ex-
treme point of land at the confluence of the Alleghany and the Monon-
gahela rivers. No. 11 signifies the incipient town near it. The eleven
crosses or figures arranged below the tortoise denote the number of per-
sons who were either killed or taken prisoners by this chief; the prison-
ers are distinguished from the slain by the figure of a ball or circle above
the cross-figure denoting a head. Those devices without the circle are
symbols of the slain; but four out of the eleven appear to have been
women, and of these two were retained as prisoners. It appears that but
two of the six men were led into captivity. The twenty-three nearly
vertical strokes at the foot of the inscription indicate the strength of the
chieftain’s party. The inclination denotes the course of their march to
the scene of conflict. This course, in the actual position of the tribe,
and of the side of the tree chosen to depict it, was northward. As an
evidence of the order and exactitude of these rude memorials in record-
ing facts, it is to be observed that the number of persons captured or
killed in each expedition of the chief is set on the left of the picture,
exactly opposite the symbolical mark of the expedition.

Similar devices upon Indian grave-posts commemorate the family and
the deeds of the deceased. The one here repre-
sented is that of Wabojeeg, a celebrated Chippewa
war-chief. He was of the family of the Addik, or
American Reindeer. This fact is represented by
the figure of a deer. The reversed position de-
notes death. The seven transverse marks on the
left denote that he had led seven war-parties. The
three perpendicular lines below the totem repre-
sent three wounds received in battle. The figure
of a moose’s head denotes a desperate conflict with
an enraged animal of that kind. The symbols of
the arrow and pipe indicate his influence in war
and peace. The Indians mourned their dead sin-
cerely and preserved their remains with affection-
ate veneration.

The famous Dighton Rock inscription, once
ascribed to the Northmen, is now known to be
merely the record of a battle between two Indian
tribes. The amazement of the vanquished at the
sudden assault of the victors is shown by their being deprived of both
hands and arms, or the power of resistance. Nothing in the inscription



GRAVE-POST.



28 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

denotes a foreigner, nor is there any figure or sign for any weapon or
implement brought by white men from beyond the sea. This interesting
object is situated on the border of the Taunton River.





































































































THE DIGHTON ROCK INSCRIPTION,

Each tribe had its sachem or civil chief, and regarded itself as a sover-
eign and independent nation. The form of government was patriarchal.
The sachem had no power except through the influence of his wisdom and
ability. Any one could be a war-chief whose tried bravery and prudence
on the war-path enabled him to raise volunteers. The sachem was Roi
times a woman. The succession of chiefs was through the female line
a brother or nephew succeeding instead of a son. )

As there were no written laws, their government rested on opinion and
custom, and these were all-powerful. Each man was his own protector
and avenger. Murder was retaliated by the next of kin, and family and
tribal strifes thus caused often continued from Senerition to ene
Each village had its independent government, one long building in each



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 29

being devoted to festivals, dances, and public councils. The affairs of the
nation were transacted only in a general council.

In these assemblies, in which the Indian took great delight, strict order
was kept. Seated in a semicircle on the ground, painted and tattooed, the
chiefs adorned with feathers, with the beak of the red-bird or the claws
of the bear, they smoked in silence, and listened attentively to the speaker.
There was no war of words, no discord. They used tobacco in all their
important assemblies, and the pipe was the symbol of peace.

A common emblem, called the totem, consisting of the figure of some
beast, bird, or reptile, formed the distinguishing mark of the tribes or
smaller clans, serving the same purpose with them as the family name
does with us. The tortoise, the bear, the beaver, the turtle, and the wolf
were the totems of the “first families.’ The figure representing the
totem of his tribe was tattooed upon the Indian’s breast. The spirit of the
anlmal was supposed es-
pecially to favor the clan
thus represented.

Marriage could not
be contracted between
kindred of near degree,
or families having the
same totem. Ilusband
and wife in the same
family must be of dif-
ferent clans If the
presents of the lover to
the father of his intend-
ed were accepted, she
became his wife, though
neither may have spo-
ken to the other, and for
a while the husband had ss
a home in her father’s INDIAN COUNCIL.
lodge. The presents
have been known to be returned and the match broken off because there

UZ
VA

j ees
Meer a

ii



\,
A x ,
We MGI





was no powder-horn sent.

A. peculiar method of match-making prevails aunong the Moquis of
New Mexico—a simple, happy, and most hospitable people. There the
fair one selects the youth who pleases her, and her father proposes the
match te the sire of the fortunate swain. Such is the gallantry of the



30 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

sterner sex in this region that the proposition is never refused. The pre-
liminaries being arranged, the young man on his part furnishes two pairs
of moccasins, two fine blankets, two mattresses, and two of the sashes used
at the feast, while the maiden for her share provides an abundance of
. eatables, and the mar-
riage is celebrated by
feasting and dancing.

The love of the In-
dian mother for her off-
spring is strong and con- —
stant, yet her treatment
of her child during in-
fancy seems to us cruel
and unfeeling. To the
cradle made of thin
pieces of light wood,
and ornamented with
poreupine’s quills, beads,

INDIAN CRADLE. and rattles, the infant,

carefully wrapped in

furs, is securely tied. Thus bandaged, it is carried by the mother, its

back to hers, or, while she works in the field, is suspended from the limb

of a tree. In this way the future warrior takes his first lesson in endur-

ance. The patience and quiet of the Indian child in this close confinement

are quite wonderful. Children are left pretty much to themselves; their

assistance in household labor is voluntary, and they are seldom scolded or
beaten.

The strength of the paternal tie among the Indians is seen in the act
of Bianswah, a Chippewa chief, as related by Schooleraft. In his absence
from home his son was captured by a hostile band. On reaching his wig-
wam the old man heard the terrible news, and, knowing what the fate of
his son would be, he followed on the trail of the enemy alone, and reached
their village while they were preparing to roast their captive alive. Step-
ping boldly into the arena, he offered to take his son’s place.

“ My son,” said he, “has seen but a few winters; his feet have never
trod the war-path; but the hairs of my head are white; I have hung
many scalps over the graves of my relatives which I have taken from the
heads of your warriors; kindle the fire about me, and send my son home

to my lodge.” The offer was accepted, and the old chief suffered torture
to save his son.

a
RY)
NaN

aX





WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 3

Vilial devotion is finely illustrated in the story of Nadowaqua, the
daughter of a chief who lived in the vicinity of Michilimackinac. This
chief, known as Le Grand Sable, was able, politic, and brave. He had
been a warm friend of the French, and was one of the prominent actors
in the memorable capture of old Fort Michilimackinac in 1763, related
farther on.

Many years afterwards, when he had become quite aged, he accompa-
nied his relatives, in the month of March, on their annual journey to the
forests which yield the sugar-maple. After this season, which is one of
enjoyment with the Indians, was over, and they had packed their effects
to return, it was found that the old chief was unable to sustain the
journey.

His daughter Nadowaqua determined to carry him on her shoulders
to his wigwam. For this purpose she took her long stout deer-skin ape-
kun, or head-strap, and, fastening it around his body, bent herself strongly
forward under the load, then rose under the pious burden, and took the
path to Lake Michigan. It is usual to put down the burdens at fixed
points or resting-places on the way. In this manner she brought her
father safely to the shore of the lake, a distance of ten miles!

The feat of Atneas in carrying Anchises on his shoulders through the
flames of Troy is rivalled here by that of a simple Algonkin woman.

Most of the hard work is done by the women, in order that the bodies
of the men may be kept supple and active for the purposes of war and the
chase. The Indian had no cow or domestic beast of burden, and regarded
all labor as degrading and fit only for women. His wife was his slave.
With rude implements she cultivated the ground and reaped the harvest,
while he amused himself playing, gambling, singing, eating, or sleeping.
In their journeys the poles of the wigwam are borne upon her shoulders.
Much of her time is occupied in making moccasins and in quill work.

The Indian’s amusements were running, leaping, wrestling, paddling,
shooting at a mark, games of ball and with small stones, dances and
feasts. His chief resource from inactivity was gambling. He would stake
his arms, the furs that covered him, his stock of winter provisions, his
cabin, his wife, even his own freedom, on the chances of play. Among
their field-sports one of the commonest is the casting of stones, in which
they attain astonishing skill and precision. Their dances were numerous,
and formed part of their religious observances and warlike preparations,
as well as merry-makings. ‘The women generally danced apart.

The fleeka, or arrow-dance, practised by the Pueblo Indians in Arizona,
is a picturesque performance. One of the braves is led up in front of his



39 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.













































































































THE INDIANS AT HOME,

friends, who are drawn up in two ranks. Here he is placed upon one
knee, his bow and arrow in his hand, when the Malinchi, a handsomely
attired young girl, commences the dance. From her right wrist hangs the
skin of a silver-gray fox, and bells that Jingle with every motion are fixed
at the end of her embroidered scarf.

At first she dances along the line in front, and by her movements shows
that she is describing the war-path. Slowly and steadily she pursues; sud-
denly her step quickens; she has come in sight of the enemy. The brave
follows. her with his eye, and, by the motion of his head, implies that she
is right. She dances faster and faster; suddenly she seizes an arrow from
him, and now by her frantic gestures it is plain that the fight has begun

in earnest. She points with the arrow, shows how it wings its course,







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ey

il
i

ZT a

tii
Wy


Miih

AM

Z

7,





























a) li

SCALP DANCE,

A






WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 30

how the scalp was taken and her tribe victorious. As she concludes the
dance and returns the arrow to the brave, fire-arms are discharged, and the
whole party wend their way to the publie square to make room for other
parties, who keep up the dance until dark.

Boys were trained from infancy to feats of dexterity and courage, gain-
ing a name and a position only on returning from a warlike expedition.
A “feast was always given for a boy’s first success in the chase. A spirit
of emulation and a thirst for glory was awakened in him by stories of the

exploits of his ancestors. As soon as he was old enough, he travelled the
war-path that he might earn the feather of the war-eagle for his hair, and
boast of his exploits in the great war-dance and feast of his band.

War was the Indian’s chief delight and glory, and between many of
the tribes it was of constant occurrence. When a war was about to break
out, some leading chief would paint himself black all over and retire to
the forest. There he remained, fasting and praying, until he could dream
of a great war-eagle hovering over him. This was the favorable omen;
and, returning to his band, he would call them to battle and certain vic-
tory, assuring them that the Great Spirit was on their side.

Ile would then give a feast to his warriors, at which he would appear
in war-paint of bright and startling colors, setting before his guests wooden
dishes containing dog-flesh, a great luxury. The chief himself sat smok-
ing, his fast not yet ended.

The war-dance foliowed. If at night, the scene was lighted up by the
blaze of fires and burning pine-knots. A painted post would be driven into
the ground, and the warriors, their faces painted in a frightful manner,
formed a cirele around it. The chief would then leap into the open space,
brandishing his hatchet, chanting his exploits, and, striking at the post as if
it were an enemy, he would go through all the motions of actual fight.
Warrior after warrior would follow his example, till at last the whole band
would be dancing, striking and stabbing at the air, and yelling like so
many fiends.

Next morning they would leave the camp in single file, discharging
their guns one after another as they entered the forest. Halting near
the village, they would strip off their ornaments, and hand them over to
the women who had followed them for this purpose. They would then
move silently on. These parties were generally small, as their warfare
was one of patient watchtfulness, stealthy approaches, stratagems, and sur-
prises. Following an cnemy’s trail, they killed him as he slept, or lay in
ambush near a village, watching for an opportunity to pounce upon an
individual and take his scalp. The sealp-lock was an emblem of chivalry,



36 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and was left upon the head of the warrior as a sort of defiance—a way of
saying, “Take it if you can.” This trophy the warrior hung in his cabin
a a e e e e . 7 e
on his return. There was no dishonor in killing an unarmed enemy, or In
private deceit’ and treachery. It was no disgrace to run away when there
| seemed no chance of success. ‘Torture
te and the stake enabled the victim to dis-
ey play what the Indian considered a he-




















mh Boge) roie virtue — power of endurance, the
/ Mc triumph of mind over matter. He
: ye: thought the meaning and intent of war
a ots a . was to inflict all possible pain and injury

SS a) on his foe.
WS The war weapons of the Indian were

the bow and arrow, the spear, and the
club. Until the breech-loading rifle was
SUALP. invented the bow and arrow remained
the most effective, as they were the most
ancient, means of slaughter of animals in droves. The arrow-point is of
chert, hornstone, or flint. Spears were pointed with similar material.
The arrow, two and a half feet long, is feathered for about five inches
beyond the place where it is held in drawing the bow. The feathers are
placed in a form a little winding, thus keeping the tail of the shaft nearly
in the rear of the head, and causing a rotary motion which insures ac-
curacy in its course. The war-club, of heavy wood, is usually elaborately
ornamented with war-eagle feathers and with painted devices. The prai-
rie tribes use a shield made of raw buffalo hide contracted and hardened
by an ingenious application of fire. It is oval or circular in form, is about
two feet in diameter, and is worn on the left arm. It is elaborately
painted, and decorated with eagle’s feathers. It is effectual against ar-
rows, but is not proof against a rifle ball that strikes it squarely.

Their love of freedom and impatience of control made military
discipline impossible, and no large body of Indians could be kept together
for any length of time. J ealousy, discord, and old feuds were likely at
any moment to break out, when the warriors would desert in crowds.
They never provided themselves with supplies for a campaign, and could
therefore carry out no extended operations. They never attacked unless
they could take their enemy at a disadvantage. A campaign against them
Was no easy matter. They had to be sought in the recesses of the forest

with which they were familiar, and which afforded every advantage for
their peculiar mode of fighting.



















AMBUSIL

IN






WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 39

Captives were compelled to run the gauntlet through a double line,
composed of the women, children, and young warriors of the village, who,
armed with sticks and clubs, struck the prisoners as they passed, and some-
times inflicted severe injuries upon them. Generally they were put to
death, sometimes by torture. Occasionally one would be adopted into a
family in the place of a deceased brother, son, or husband. The Iroquois
and the Creeks often incorporated the tribes they had conquered with
their own. In their treatment of female captives, the Indians were more
humane than the victorious soldiery of civilized nations.

The religion of the Indian, like that of other primitive races, had
neither temple nor ritual. It had its songs and dances, and its sacrifices,
at which animals and human beings were offered, the former as substitutes
for the latter. Sun-worship and fire-worship were formerly very prevalent
among the aborigines. Their priests and physicians are called medicine-
men, or powwows. They profess to heal diseases by jugglery and magic
arts, to give good-fortune to the hunter, the warrior, and the lover, or to
‘ause the death of an enemy. In eases of sickness the Indian uses medici-
nal herbs, but the vapor-bath is his most general and effectual remedy for
disease.

Itude and ignorant as he is, and believing in many gods, the Indian
yet worships the Great Spirit after a fashion of his own, and believes
almost universally ina future life. With the dead warrior is buried his
pipe and his manitou, his tomahawk, bow and quiver, his best apparel, and
food for his long journey to the abode of his ancestors. By the side of
her infant the mother lays its cradle, its beads, and its rattles.

The Indian has no idea of future rewards or punishments. He
believes that conflicting powers of good and evil rule over the universe.
A spirit dwells in every object—in the beast, the bird, the river, the lake,
and the mountain. Every Indian has a manitou, or household god, to con-
secrate his house; sometimes it is a bird or a bear, sometimes a buffalo,
a feather, or a skin. To propitiate the deity he employs some kind of
sacrifice or prayer. An Indian lamenting the loss of a child exclaims,
~( manitou! thou art angry with me; turn thine anger from me, and
spare the rest of my children!’ Dreams are regarded by him as divine
revelations, and they exert a powerful influence over him.

Great pains have been taken to convert the Indian to Christianity.
The Spaniard, the Frenchman, and the Englishman have all tried their
hand upon him, but hitherto with small suecess. [fis own religion seemed
to him best adapted to his condition and inauner of life. It was necessary
to lift him out of barbarism before he could either understand or appreci-





AQ) INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

































































































































































































































a

Le







A CLASS-ROOM,

ate the boon they sought to bestow
upon him. ‘One season of hunt-
ing,” said the Apostle Eliot, “ un-
did all my missionary work.” At
present the establishment of schools and the general introduction of the
arts and implements of civilization are helping the missionary in his self-
sacrificing labors, and a more hopeful prospect seems at last to have
dawned upon the race.

But, while in the matter of education something has been done for the
Indian, much yet remains to be done. Carlisle, Hampton, and Forest
Grove only demonstrate, on a limited scale, what our government ought
to do, and what it has bound itself by treaty to do, in behalf of the
60,000 Indian children now growing up in idleness, ignorance, and
superstition.

The schools above named supply their pupils with the training and
discipline which on their return will serve as a leverage for the uplifting
of their people. In aptness, docility, and progress, the red children are
fully equal to the white. In these schools they acquire not only the Eng:
lish language and the elementary branches of knowledge, but they also
learn useful trades, and in most cases have found, on returning home, suit-
able employment at the agencies as interpreters, teachers, or mechanics,
Money could in no way be so well applied as in the education of our
Indian youth, thus lifting them out of barbarism.

Fabulous legdtitls and stories are common among the Indians, and their









































WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 4]

relation over their camp-fires and in the long winter evenings forms one
of their principal sources of amusement. Among them the story of Hia-
watha, of Onondaga origin, is best known, as it forms the basis of Long-
fellow’s beautiful poem. A few specimens of their traditions and stories
are here given.

Owayneo (the creator), says Iroquois tradition, after making them from
handfuls of red seeds, assembled his ehildren together and said: “ Ye are
five nations, for ye sprang each from a different handful of the seed I
sowed ; but ve are all brethren, and I am your father, for I made you all.
Mohawks, I have made you bold and valiant ; and see, I give you corn for
your food. Oneidas, J have made you patient of pain and hunger; the
nuts and fruits of the trees are yours. Senecas, 1 have made you indus-
trious and active; beans do I give you for your nourishment. Cayngas, I
have made you strong, friendly, and generous; ground-nuts and every
generous fruit shall refresh you. Onondagas, I have made you wise, Just,
and eloquent; squashes and grapes have I given you to eat, and tobacco
to smoke in council. The beasts, birds, and fishes I have given to you all
in common. Be just to all men, and kind to strangers that come among
you.”

“The missing link,” connecting man with the lower animals, which
Darwin failed to find, is supplied by the tradition of a California tribe
of Indians, who refer their origin to the coyote, or wolf. This is the
tradition :

“The first Indians that lived were coyotes. After they began to
burn the bodies of those who died, the Indians began to assume the shape
of man, but at first very imperfectly. They walked on all fours, and
were incomplete and imperfect in all their organs, in their limbs and
joints, but progressed from period to period, until they became perfect
men and women.

“Tn the course of their transition from coyotes to human beings,” said
the old chief who related this tradition, “they acquired the habit of sit-
ting upright and lost their tails. This is with many of them a source of
regret to this day, as they consider the tail quite an ornament; and, in
decorating themselves for the dance or other festive occasions, a portion
of them always complete their costume with tails.”

The tradition of the Mandans is that they dwelt together near an
underground lake shut out from the light of heaven. The roots of a
orape-Vvine penetrating this recess first revealed to them the light from
the world above. By means of this vine one-half of the tribe climbed
up to the surface: the other half were left in their dark prison-house



42, INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

owing to the bulk and weight of an old woman, who by her ponder-
osity tore down the vine, and prevented any more of the tribe from
ascending.

The Osages believe that the first man of their nation came out of a
shell, and that this man, when walking on earth, met the Great Spirit,
who gave him a bow and arrows and told him to go a-hunting. Javing
killed a deer, the Great Spirit gave him fire and told him to eook his
meat and to eat. He also told him to take the skin and cover himself
with it, and also the skins of other animals that he should lall.

One day as the Osage was hunting he saw a beaver sitting on a
beaver-hut, who asked him what he was looking for. The Osage answered
that, being thirsty, he came there to drink. The beaver then asked him
who he was and whence he came. The Osage replied that he had no
place of residence. ‘ Well, then,” said the beaver, “as you appear to be
a reasonable man, I wish you to come and live with me. J have many
daughters, and if any of them should be agreeable to you, you may
marry.” The Osage accepted his offer and married one of his daughters,
by whom he had many children. The tribe give this as a reason for not
killing the beaver, their offspring being, as they believe, the Osage nation.

MONDAMIN, OR THE ORIGIN OF INDIAN-CORN.

An Indian youth who had ever been obedient to his parents, on reach-
ing the age of fifteen prepared to undergo the ceremony of fasting
usual at that age. As soon as spring came, he found a retired spot and
began his fast. Ife had often thought on the goodness of the Great
Spirit in providing all kinds of fruits and herbs for the use of man, and
he now earnestly prayed that he might dream of something to benefit
his people, for he had often seen them suffering for want of food.

On the third day he became too weak and faint to walk about, and
kept his bed. Ile fancied, while thus lying in a dreamy state, that he
saw a handsome young man dressed in green robes and with green plumes
on his head advancing towards him. The visitor said, “I am sent to you,
my friend, by the Great Spirit who made all things. He has observed
you. He sees that you desire to procure a benefit for your people. Lis-
ten to my words and follow my instructions.” We then told the young
man to rise and wrestle with him. Weak as he was, he tottered to his
feet and began; but, after a long trial, the handsome stranger said, “* My
friend, it is enough for once; I will come again.” Ile then vanished. "

On the next day the celestial visitor reappeared and renewed the trial.
The young man knew that his strength was even less than the day before,



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 43

but as this declined he felt that his mind became stronger and clearer.
Perceiving this, the plumed stranger again spoke to him. “ To-morrow,”
he said, “ will be your last trial. Be strong and courageous; it is the only
way to obtain the boon you seck.” He again departed.

On the sixth day, as the young faster lay on his pallet weak and ex-
hausted, the pleasing visitor returned, and as he renewed the contest he
looked more beautiful than ever. The young man grasped him and
seemed to feel new strength imparted to his body, while that of his an-
tagonist grew weaker.

At. length the stranger cried out, “It is enough; I am beaten. You
will win your desire from the Great Spirit. To-morrow will be the
seventh day of your fast and the last of your trials. Your father will
bring you food which will recruit you. I shall then visit you for the last
time, and I foresee that you are destined to prevail. As soon as you have
thrown me down, strip off my garments and bury me on the spot. Visit
the place, and keep the earth clean and soft. Let no weeds grow there.
I shall soon come to life, and re-appear with all the wrappings of my gar-
ments and my waving plumes. Once a month cover my roots with fresh
earth, and by following these directions your triumph will be complete.”
He then disappeared.

Next morning the youth’s father came with food, but he asked him to
set it by for a particular reason till the sun went down. When the sky-
visitor came for his final trial, although the young man had not partaken
of food, he engaged in the combat with him with a feeling of supernatural
strength. He threw him down. Stripping off his garments and plumes,
he then buried him in the earth, carefully preparing the ground and
removing every weed, and then returned to his father’s lodge.

Keeping everything to himself, the youth revealed nothing of his
vision or trials. Partaking sparingly of food, he soon regained his strength.
But he never for a moment forgot the burial-place of his friend. He fre-
quently visited it, and would not let even a wild-flower grow there. Soon
he saw the tops of the green plumes coming out of the ground, at first in
spiral points, then expanding into broad leaves and rising in green stalks,
and finally assuming their silken fringes and yellow tassels.

Spring and summer had passed, when one day towards evening he
requested his father to visit the lonely spot where he had fasted. The
old man stood amazed. The lodge was gone, and in its place stood a tall,
graceful, and majestic plant, waving its taper-leaves and displaying its
bright-colored plumes and tassels. But what most excited his admiration
was its cluster of golden ears. “It is the friend of my dreams and



44 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

e e e e e ° oo 20 e $9 e
visions,” said the youth. “It is Mondamin; it is the spirit’s grain,” said
the father. And this was the origin of Indian-corn.

SHINGEBISS: A CHIPPEWA ALLEGORY.

“There was once a poor man called Shingebiss, living alone in a soli-
tary lodge on the shores of a deep bay, in a large lake. Now this man, as
his name implies, was a duck when he chose to be, and a man the next
moment: it was only necessary to will himself the one or the other. It
was cold winter weather, and this duck ought to have been off with the
rest of his species towards the South, where the streams and lakes are
open all winter, and where food is easily got; but the power he had of
changing himself into a man when he wished, made him linger till every
stream was frozen over, and the snow lay deep over all the land.

“The blasts of winter now howled fiercely around his poor wigwam,
and he had only four logs of wood to keep his fire during the whole win-
ter. But he was cheerful, manly, and trustful, relied on himself, and
cared very little for anybody, beyond treating kindly all who ealled on
him; and as he always had something to offer them to eat, he was treated
with much respect and consideration by his people.

“How he managed to live nobody knew. It was a perfect mystery
to every one. The ice was very thick on the streams and the weather was
intensely cold; yet, on the coldest day, when every one thought he must
starve and freeze, he would go out to places where flags and reeds grew
up through the ice, and changing himself to a duck, pluck them up
with his bill, and, diving throngh the orifice, supply himself plentifully
with fish.

“The hardihood, independence, and resources of Shingebiss vexed
Kabibonocea, the god who sends cold and storms, and he determined to
freeze him out and kill him for his obstinacy. ‘Why, said he, ‘he
must be a wonderful man; he does not mind the coldest days, but seems
to be as happy and content as if it were strawberry time. I will give him
cold blasts to his heart’s content.’ So saying, he poured forth tenfold
colder winds and deeper snows, and made the air so sharp that it eut like
a knife. Still the fire of Shingebiss, poorly supplied as it was, did not 20
out. He did not even put on more clothing—for he had but a single strip
of skins about his body—while walking on the ice in the coldest days,
carrying home loads of fish.

“Shall he withstand me? said Kabibonocca one day; ‘I will go and
visit him, and see wherein his great power lies. If my presence does not
freeze him, he must be made of rock.’ Accordingly, that very night, when



WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 45

the wind blew furiously, he came to his lodge door and listened. Shinge-
biss had cooked his meal of fish and finished his supper, and was lying
on his elbow, singing this son

Om §
a

“ «Windy God, I know your plan,
You are but my fellow-man.
Blow you may your coldest breeze,
Shingebiss you cannot freeze.
Sweep the strongest winds you can,
Shingebiss is still your man.
Heigh for life, and ho for bliss,
Who so free as Shingebiss !

‘The hunter knew that Kabibonocea was at his door, but affected utter
indifference, and went on singing. At length Iabibonocca, not to be
defeated in his object, entered the wigwam and took his seat, without
saying a word, opposite to him. But Shingebiss put on an air of the
most profound repose. Not a look or change of muscle indicated that
he heard the storm or was sensible of the cold. Neither did he seem
aware of the presence of his powerful guest. But taking his poker as if
no one were present he stirred the embers to make them burn brighter,
and then reclining as before again sang,

“©¢ Windy God, I know your plan.’

“Very soon the tears ran down Ixabibonocea’s face, and increased so
fast that he presently said to limself, ‘I cannot stand this; the fellow
will melt me if I do not go out’ Ile went, leaving the imperturbable
Shingebiss to the enjoyment of his song, but resolving, at the same time,
that he would put a stop to his music. He then poured forth his very
fiercest blasts, and made the air so cold that it froze up every flag orifice,
and increased the ice to such a thickness that it drove Shingebiss from all
his fishing-grounds. Still, by going a greater distance and to deep water,
he contrived to get the means of subsistence, and managed to live. Tis
four logs of wood gave him plenty of fire, and the few fish he got satistied
him, for he ate them with cheerfulness and contentment. At last NKa-
bibonoeca was compelled to give up the contest, and exclaimed, ‘We must
be sume monedo (spirit). I can neither freeze lim nor starve him. I
will let him alone.”

THE GREAT SNAKE OF CANANDAIGUA LAKE? AN TROQUOIS TRADITION.

+ Nundowaga Tal, which looks down upon the waters of Canandaigua
Lake, was once completely encircled by an enormous snake. The people



46 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

of the hill, alarmed for their safety, resolved one day, in solemn council,
that the snake must die on the following morning.

“Just as the day was breaking, the monstrous reptile was seen at the
base of the hill, closing every avenue of escape, its huge jaws wide open
just before the gate-way. Vigorously did the whole tribe assail it, but
neither arrows, spears, nor knives could be made to penetrate its scaly
sides. Some of the frightened people endeavored to escape by climbing
over it, but were thrown violently back, rolled upon, and crushed. Others,
in their mad efforts, rushing into its very jaws, were devoured. Terrified,
the tribe recoiled, and did not renew the attack till hunger gave them
courage for a last desperate assault, in which all perished and were swal-
lowed, except a woman and her two children, who escaped into the forest,
while the monster, gorged with its horrible feast, was sleeping.

“In her hiding-place the woman, by a vision, was instructed to make
arrows of a peculiar form, and tanght how to use them effectually for the
killing of the destroyer of her tribe. Believing that the Great Spirit was
her teacher, she made the arrows, and carefully following the directions
she had received, she confidently approached the yet sleeping monster,
and successfully planted the arrows in its heart. The snake, in its agony,
lashed the hill-side with its enormous tail, tore deep gullies in the earth,
broke down forests, and rolling down the slope, plunged into the lake.
Here, in the waters near the shore, it disgorged its many human victims,
and then, with one great convulsive throe, sank slowly to the bottom.
Rejoiced at the death of her enemy, the happy woman hastened with her
children to the banks of the Canesedage Lake, and from them sprung the
powerful Seneca nation.”

The Indians affirm that the rounded pebbles, of the size and shape of
the human head, to this day so numerous on the shores of the Canandaigua
Lake, are the petrified skulls of the people of the hill, disgorged by the
great snake in its death agony.



LARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. AT

IL.

EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS.

r tr discovery of an unknown continent and of a new race of men
was the exploit and wonder of the age.

Princes dreamed of vast additions to their domains; priests of the
conversion of heathen nations and the enlargement of their spiritual pos-
sessions; merchants speculated upon the prospect of a profit-
able trade with the natives; while poets sung of the new El
Dorado as of a heaven upon earth, a land of inexhaustible fertility and
riches. But neither seer nor statesman, priest nor poet, was able to fore-
see the future of this continent. No one dreamed that this remote and
savage wilderness was soon to become the seat of flourishing and power-
ful communities, or that it was the chosen arena for the full and un-
checked development of human progress and freedom.

Strange stories were told of this new world. Its northern shores were
said to be infested by griffins, while two islands north of Newfoundland
were known as the Isles of Demons, whose occupants were pictured with
wings, horns, and tail. An early geographer wrote that he had heard
from many who had voyaged that way that “they heard in the air, in the
tops and about the masts, a great clamor of men’s voices, confused and
inarticulate, such as you may hear from the crowd at a fair or market-
place, whereupon they well knew that the Isles of Demons was not far

oft.”

1492.

By the first voyagers the natives were found to be simple, hospitable,
and friendly. Soon, however, they learned to fear and distrust the
strangers, who took every advantage of their ignorance and kindness.
The different tribes were found to be widely scattered, many of them in
a state of hostility to their neighbors.

Columbus and other early voyagers took some of the natives with
them on their return to Europe. Three presented to Henry VII. by
Sebastian Cabot, in 1502, were the first Indians seen in England. Those



48 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

first taken to France were brought thither by Captain Aubert six years
later.

From time to time others were kidnapped and sold into slavery, and
conflicts between them and their European visitors became frequent. The
frauds and injuries of which they were the victims were not forgotten
by the natives, but were eventually returned by them with interest.

One of these acts of barbarity is thus related by Captain John Smith,
with whom my readers will soon become better acquainted.

“One Thomas Hunt, the master of this ship, when I was gone, be-
trayed four-and-twenty of these poor salvages aboard his ship, and most
dishonestly and inhumanty, for
their kind usage of me and all
our men, carried them with him
to Malaga, and there, for a little
private gain, sold these silly
salvages. But this vile act
kept him ever after from any
more employment in those
parts.”

When we learn what the
clergy of that day thought of
the poor Indian, we can better
understand the infamous con-
duct of these ernel man-steal-
ers. “We may guess,” says
that eminent divine of New
England, Rev. Cotton Mather,
: : 7 “that probably the devil de-

SEBASTIAN CABOT, BY HOLBEIN, coyed these miserable salvages

hither, in hopes that the gospel

of the Lord Jesus Christ would never come here to destroy or disturb his
absolute empire over them.” ;

Columbus says of the natives of the West Indies, “We found them
timid, and full of fear, very simple and honest, and exceedingly liberal,
none of them refusing anything he may possess when asked for it. Like
idiots—they bartered cotton and gold for fragments of glasses, bottles, and
jars, which I forbade as being unjust, and myself gave them many bean-
tiful and acceptable articles which I had brought with me, taking nothing
from them in return.”

Upon his first arrival, Columbus took some of the natives by force,





EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 49

in order that they might learn the language of the Spaniards and com-
municate what they knew respecting the country; and they were soon
able, either by gesture or by signs, to understand each other. They en-
tertained the idea that the white men descended from heaven, and on
their arrival at any new place, cried out immediately, with a loud voice,
to the other Indians, “Come! come and look upon beings of a celestial
race ;” upon which both women and men, children and adults, young and
old, when they got rid of their first fear, would come out in throngs,
crowding the roads to see them, some bringing food, others drink, “with
astonishing affection and kindness.”

Gaspar Cortereal, a mariner in the service of the King of Portugal,
ranged the newly-discovered coast for six hundred or seven hundred
miles, as far as the fifteenth parallel, admiring the brilliant
verdure and dense forests wherever he landed. He repaid
the hospitality with which he was everywhere received by the natives, by
taking with him on his return fifty-seven of them, whom he had treach-
erously enticed on board his ship, and selling them for slaves. From a
second voyage he never returned, having been slain in a combat with some
Indians whom he was trying to kidnap.

501.

The earliest description of the Atlantic coast of the United States is
found in the narrative of John Verrazzano, an Italian mariner, who had
been sent on a voyage of discovery by Francis I. of France.
He reached the coast in the latitude of Wilmington, N C., and
is supposed to have visited the harbors of New York and Newport. He
describes the natives as very courteous and gentle, and possessing prompt
wit, but as mild and feeble, of mean stature, with delicate limbs and hand-

1524.

some Visages.

Seeing many fires ashore, and the natives friendly, he sent his boat to
them, but the surf was too violent to permit landing. One of the sailors
offered to swim ashore with some presents; but, when he came near, his
fears prevailed, and throwing out his presents he attempted to return to
the ship, but the waves cast him on the sand half-dead and quite senseless.
The Indians immediately ran to his assistance, carried him ashore, dried
his clothes before a fire, and did everything to restore him. His alarm,
however, was excessive. When they pulled off his clothes to dry them, he
thought they meant to sacrifice him to the sun, which then shone bright-
ly in the heavens. Ile trembled with fear. As soon as he was restored
they gently led him to the shore, and then retired to a distance until the
ship’s boat had been sent for him and they saw him safely on board.

4



50 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

In requital for this kindness, the visitors robbed a mother of her child,
and attempted to kidnap a young woman “ of tall stature and very beauti-
ful.” Her outeries and her vigorous resistance saved her.

At one place, where he remained fifteen days, Verrazzano found the
natives “the gentlest people” he had yet seen. They were hberal and
friendly, yet so ignorant that, though instruments of steel and iron were
often exhibited, they neither understood their use nor coveted their pos-
session. The things they esteemed
most were bells, crystals of azure
color, and other toys to hang at their
ears or about the neck. ‘“ When
they beheld themselves in our mir-
rors they suddenly laughed and gave
them us again.” The women wore
ornaments of wrought copper. Wood
only was used in the construction of
their wigwaims, which were covered
with coarse matting.

The natives of the more north-
erly regions visited, perhaps, those
of the coast of Maine, having al-
ready learned to fear the Euro-

JOHN VERRAZZANO. peans, were hostile and jealous.

They knew the value of iron, and

demanded in trade fish-hooks, knives, and weapons of steel. “When we

went on shore,” says the narrator, “they shot at us with their bows,

making great outcries, and afterwards fled into the woods. When we

departed from them they showed all signs of discourtesy and disdain as
was possible for any creature to invent.”

They were clad in skins or furs, lived by hunting and fishing, and had
no grain nor any kind of tillage. Their canoes were trunks of trees hol-
lowed out by fire and with stone hatchets, and their arms were bows and
arrows.

Pleased with Verrazzano’s report, King Francis said, referring to the
edict of the Pope of Rome, giving all America to the Spaniards, “he did
not think God had created these new countries for the Castilians alone.”
His great rival, Charles V. of Spain, had laid claim to all the new discov-
erles on the ground of priority. “TI should like,” said the French king,
“to see that article of Adam’s will which gives him America!’ The
authenticity of Verrazzano’s narrative ig yet an unsettled question.





EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 51

Ten years after Verrazzano’s voyage, Jacques Cartier, an experienced
navigator of Saint Malo, sailed from France to the region of
the St. Lawrence. Landing in the Bay of Gaspé, a lofty cross
was raised, bearing a shield with the lilies of France and an
appropriate inscription. The country was thus taken possession of for the
French king.

The natives, who were very friendly, gazed at this ceremony in won-
der. They seemed to have guessed its meaning, for, by signs, they made

known to Cartier that the
SSS SSS SS SSSSs= ss =— country was theirs, and
== = === that no cross should be
set up without their leave.
Cartier did not seruple to
deceive the natives, by
telling them that it was
only intended as a bea-
con- light for mariners
entering their port. He
seized two of these In-
dians and took them with
him to Franee.

Cartier describes the
natives as being “of an
indifferent good stature
and bigness, but wild and
unruly. They wore their
hair tied on the top, like
a wreath of hay, and put
a wooden pin within it
instead of a nail, and with
I them they bind certain

wAeOnne “CuteR, birds’ feathers. They

3 | were clothed with beasts’

skins, as well the men as the women, but that the women go somewhat
straighter and closer in their garments than the men do, with their waists
girded. They paint themselves with certain roan colors; their boats are
made of the bark of birch-trees; in them they fish, and take great store of

April 20, 1534.
July 24.























































































ATI pp
|
‘
\\J











i

















i























seals.” ;
At their first interview the narrator tells us that “so soon as they saw
us they began to flee, making signs that they came to traftie with us, show-



52 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

ing us such skins as they clothed themselves withal, which are of small
value. We likewise made signs unto them that we wished them no evil,
and in sign thereof two of our men ventured to go on land to them, and
carry them knives, with other iron wares, and a red hat to give unto their
captain, which, when they saw, they also came on land and brought some
of their skins, and so began to deal with us, seeming to be very glad to
have our iron wares, still dancing, with many other ceremonies, as with
their hands to cast sea-water on their heads. They showed their friend-
ship in this way, as also by rubbing their hands upon the arms of the
European visitors, and lifting them up towards the heavens.” From the
intense heat here, Cartier named the inlet “ Baie de Chaleur,” a name it
still bears.

The Indians about Gaspé Bay differed from the others both in nature
and language, and in being abjectly poor. They were only partly clothed
in old skins, and had no structures to protect them from the weather. “TIT
think,” said the old narrator, “all they had together, besides their boats
and nets, was not worth five sous.” They shaved their heads, with the ex-
ception of a tuft on the crown, sheltered themselves at night under their
canvas, on the bare ground, and ate their food partially cooked. They were
unacquainted with the use of salt, and ate nothing that had any taste of it.

In a second voyage, made in the following year, Cartier named the
gulf, in honor of the day in which he entered it, the St. Lawrence, a name
since extended to the noble river beyond. Sailing up to the
isle since called Orleans, he was hospitably received by the
natives at their village of Stadacona, now Quebec; the two
natives Cartier had carried off, and who had been kindly
treated, acting as interpreters. He next ascended the river to the chief
Indian settlement of Hochelaga, the modern Montreal, which takes its
“name from the neighboring elevation which they christened Mount Royal.

Every artifice had been made use of by the Indians to prevent their
journey to this place. They were jealous lest some of the knives, look-
ing-glasses, and other trinkets should fall into the hands of the rival ehict-
tain and his people. |

Three of them, dressed as devils, wrapped in huge skins, white and
black, their faces besmeared and black as coals, and with horns on their
heads more than a yard long, tried to frighten Cartier, and after holding
a long powwow, declared to him that their god had spoken, and that there
was so much ice and snow at Hochelaga that whoever went thither should
die. The Frenchman only laughed at this trick, and told them that their
god was a fool.

May 19, 1535.
September 8.
October 2,





























































CARTIER ERECTS A CROSS.

JACQUES






Or

FARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 5

The Indian capital they found encompassed by a triple row of high
palisades of heavy timber, and having only a single gate of entrance.
Over this, and elsewhere on the walls, were platforms for its defenders,:
provided with ladders and with stones for its defence. It contained some













































































































































































































































































VIEW OF .MONTREAL AND ITS WALLS IN 1760. (From an old French print.)

fifty houses, each about fifty paces long, and twelve or fifteen broad, built
of wood, and covered with bark, and skilfully joined together. These
houses had many rooms, and in the midst of each was a large court, with a
place in the centre for a fire. In a room at the top of their houses they
stored their corn. Fishing and agriculture furnished them with food.
Their chief, an old man, was borne to Cartier’s presence on the shoul-
ders of his men; around his forehead he wore a band of red-ecolored
hedgehog skins, but in other respects was dressed no better than his
people.

Viewing the white men as heavenly visitors, the Indians crowded
around them to touch them, paying them every mark of reverence and
respect. They brought to Cartier their lame, blind, diseased, and im-
potent, to be heaied ; and he gratified their desires, praying to God to open
the hearts of these poor people that they might be converted. The inter-
view closed with his giving them knives, beads, and toys. Before return-
ing to France, in the following spring, Cartier took possession of the
country for the king in the usual manner. When he was about to sail,
he enticed the chief, Donnaconna, with nine others, on board his ship, seized



56 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and confined and, regardless of the cries and entreaties of their people,
carried them to France. Four years later all these, excepting one little
girl, were dead. |

Although the country is so nained on a Portuguese map of ten years
earlier date than that of his voyage, Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spanish gen-
tleman, claimed to be the discoverer of Florida. He had dis-
tinguished himself at home in the expulsion of the Moors
from Granada, had accompanied Columbus in his second expedition, and
had been governor of Porto Rico, where he had acquired wealth by
oppressing the natives. One of the objects he had in view was the dis-
covery of a fountain whose waters would, according to an ancient fable,
impart perpetual youth to whosoever bathed in them. Landing near the
point now called Fernandina, he claimed the territory for Spain. He
found a delightful climate, charming scenery, and a fragrant atmosphere,
but no gold or youth-restoring fountain. Everywhere the Indians dis-
played determined hostility.

Upon his return, De Leon was
rewarded by the King of Spain
with the government of Florida
for his pretended discovery, but on
the condition that he should col-
onize the country. When he at-
tempted some years later to do

so, his men were at-

tacked with great fury
by the natives. Many Spaniards
were killed, the remainder returned
to their ships, and De Leon him-
self was mortally wounded by an
Indian arrow.

Other Spanish voyagers ex-
plored the North American coast
and encountered the hostility of the PONCE DE LEON,
natives. Lucas Vasquez D’ Ayllon, .
after treacherously kidnapping a large number of natives of South Caro-
lina, in a subsequent voyage attempted a settlement on the
Combahee River. In retaliation for his treachery, his men
were unexpectedly set upon by the Indians and nearly all killed. Vas-
quez, mortally wounded, escaped to his vessel; and thus ended the first
attempt to plant a colony within the area of the United States.

1512.

1521,



1525.



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 57

The expedition of Pamphilio de Narvaez was disastrous in the ex-
treme. It was this officer who had been sent by the governor of Cuba
to take Cortez, the conqueror of Mexico, prisoner, and who was himself
easily defeated, and captured in the attempt. When brought before Cortez
he said to him, with his usual arrogance, “Esteem it great good-fortune
that you have taken me captive.” Cortez replied, “It is the least of the
things I have done in Mexico.”

Landing near Tampa Bay, Florida, Narvaez struck into the interior.
By his cruelty and want of judgment he provoked the hostility of the na-
tives, who, to rid themselves of these unwelcome intruders, told
them of a rich country, only nine days’ march to the south.
These Indians were of fine stature, great activity, and expert and accurate
bowmen, who could hit their mark at the distance of two hundred yards.
Instead of rich and populous towns, such as they had hoped to discover,
the Spaniards found only clusters of wigwams, and were plundered and
cut off whenever opportunity offered.

After a fatiguing and fruitless six months’ tramp, the wretched rem-
nant of the party reached Pensacola Bay in a state of destitution. Nar-
vaez was ill, his men were dispirited, and his horses were reduced to
skeletons. Boats must be built, but how was this to be done without
tools or materials ?

In this exigency a soldier told Narvaez that he could make pipes of
wood, and convert them into bellows by the aid of deerskins. The idea
was Instantly acted upon. A forge was constructed, and immediately
stirrups, spurs, cross-bows, etc., were converted into nails, saws, and axes.
The pines yielded pitch; a kind of oakum was obtained from the pal-
metto. Hair from the manes and tails of horses was twisted into ropes,
and the shirts of the men supplied sails. The horses were killed and
their flesh used for food. Oysters and maize completed their store of
provisions. After sixteen days of hard work they had constructed five
boats, each of which held fifty-six men.

In these frail vessels the remnant of that once gallant army embarked,
and nearly all perished in a storm near the mouth of the Mississippi.
Four survivors reached Mexico by land, after eight years of wandering
and alinost incredible hardships.

April 18, 1528.

The story of these men, that Florida was the richest country in the
world, was credited by many. Among them was Fernando de Soto, who
had been the favorite companion of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru,
where he had acquired both military renown and wealth. He believed



58 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

that another Peru existed at the north, and aspiring to rival Cortez and
Pizarro in fame and wealth, asked and received permission of the king
to conquer Florida at his own cost. It must be remembered that the
term Florida was at that time a vague expression, covering an Immense
territory—no less than the whole North American coast. |

This was by far the most magnificent and well appointed of the nu-
merous expeditions to this continent. Men of noble birth and good estates
sold their lands to join in it. Portuguese soldiers were to be seen in the
glittering array of burnished armor, and the Castilians, brilliant with
hope, were “very gallant with silk upon silk.’ From the meron
aspirants De Soto selected six hundred men—the flower of Spain ;
many persons of good account who
had sold their estates were obliged
to remain behind. Everything
was provided that experience in for-
mer invasions could suggest, includ-
ing chains for captives, and blood-
hounds as auxiliaries against the
wretched natives. As the latter were
to be converted as well as plundered,
twenty-four ecclesiastics accom- ‘
panied the expedition. The fleet
landed at Tampa Bay,
on the western coast,
the adventurers disembarked, and
the memorable march began.

Soon after landing, a party of
Spaniards attacked and put to fight a few Indians who were advancing
towards them, making friendly signals. One of them had been knocked
down, and was about to receive a deadly blow, when he uttered in excel-
lent Spanish these words,

“Sir, [ am a Christian! I am a Christian! Slay me not, nor these
Indians, for they have saved my life.”

The blow was withheld; and this man, whose name was Juan Ortiz,
related his most extraordinary story. He was one of the survivors of
Narvaez’s company, and in a subsequent expedition had fallen into the
hands of the natives, and was doomed to suffer death by torture.

Four stakes were set in the ground, to which four ropes were fastened.
To these poles the captive, with his legs and arms extended, was bound,
at such a distance from the ground that a fire made under him would be

May 30, 1539.



FERNANDO DE SOTO.



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 59

a long time in consuming him. Already had the fire been lighted, and
the victim resigned himself to his terrible fate, when the daughter of
Ucita, the chief, throwing herself at her father’s feet, begged his life in
these words :

“My kind father, why kill this poor stranger? he can do you nor
none of us any injury, seeing he is but one and alone. It is better that

you should keep him confined, for even in that condition he may some
time be of great service to you.”

|



|



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\



















































































































































































































































































































DE SOTO DISCOVERING THE MISSISSIPPI.

The chief was silent a short time, but finally ordered his release. His
wounds were dressed, and he was made tolerably comfortable. Possibly,
this incident suggested to Captain John Smith the story he long after-
wards wrote of his rescue from death by Pocahontas, the daughter of
Powhatan.

At one end of Ucita’s village stood a temple; over the door was the
figure of a bird carved in wood, and with gilded eyes. As soon as the
wounds of Ortiz were healed, he was stationed to guard the entrance of
this temple, more especially from the inroads of wild beasts. As human
victims were sacrificed here, wolves were frequent visitors. Death was
the penalty for allowing a body to be removed.

One night he had a terrible scare. A young Indian had been killed,



60 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and his body was placed in the temple. Spite of all his efforts, a pack
of hungry wolves effected an entrance and seized upon the body. As
soon as he recovered from the fright of their first onset, he seized a heavy
cudgel, drove them out, and pursued them some distance, dealing one of
them a mortal blow.

When morning came, and it was seen that the body was gone, Ortiz
was condemned to die; but before executing him Ucita sent a party in |
pursuit of the wolves, and, if possible, to recover the body. Contrary to
all expectations, it was found, and near it the carcass of a huge wolf.
The order for Ortiz’s execution was revoked, and he was afterwards held
in great esteem by the Indians.

Some time afterwards he was again selected for sacrifice, but was a
second time saved from a terrible death by the chief’s daughter, who aided
him to escape to the country of Mocoso, a rival chief, by whom he was
well treated, and with whom he remained three years. At the expiration
of that time the fleet of De Soto arrived, and Mocoso, out of friendship
for Ortiz, sent him to his countrymen, who, as we have seen, supposing
him to be what he appeared—an Indian—caine near killing him. Ortiz
rendered important services to De Soto, as interpreter among the various
Indian tribes.

For three years the Spaniards wandered through the country in search
of gold, De Soto obstinately refusing to turn back. No gold was discov-
ered ; the only wealth of the natives was in their stores of corn; they were
poor, but independent, hardy and brave. Everywhere he was met by the
most determined hostility on the part of the natives, with whom he had a
bloody battle at Mauvilla, or Mobile. For nine hours the Indians fought

Oct. 18. 1B0 with desperation, and but for the flames, which consumed
~~ their light cabins, they would have repulsed the invaders.
Thousands of them were slain. Though protected by their armor, many
Spaniards were killed or wounded, and all their baggage was burned.
Mauvilla was a strongly- fortified village on the Coosa. It was sur-
rounded by stout palisades, with loop-holes for arrows. Early in the morn-
ing the Indian war-ery was raised. De Soto led his men to storm the fort.
The entrance was narrow and well defended, and some of his best cava-
liers were fatally pierced between the joints of their armor, and numbers
of horses were killed. The Spaniards were obliged to withdraw. The
Indians then sallied from the gates and rushed upon the foe, charging and
retiring over the plain; but the advantage was finally with the Spaniards,
and the Indians withdrew to their fort.
In a second assault the gate was broken down, when the assailants



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 61

rushed in, and a furious conflict ensued. The Indians thronged the
square ; lance, club, and missile were wielded from every quarter. Even
their young women snatched up the swords of the slaughtered Spaniards
and mingled in the fray, being more reckless than the men. The struggle
was so fierce and protracted, particularly from the roofs of the houses, that
the soldiers set fire to their combustible dwellings, which were soon in
flames. At length the Indians gave way and fled, pursued by the cavalry.
They would neither give nor take quarter; not a man surrendered. These
Indians were of the Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes ; among the
slain was their famous chief, Tuscaloosa, the Black Warrior.

During the first winter De Soto encamped at the deserted Indian town
of Chicaza, where for two months his men enjoyed comparative repose.
At length the Chickasaws resolved to burn the encampment, which was
constructed of inflammable materials.

A dark and windy night having been chosen, the camp was fired in
several places, the savages at the same time uttering furious yells and
making a desperate attack. A high wind fanned the flames into irresisti-
ble fury, and for a time the confusion was such as rendered it impossible
to resist the impetuosity of. the assailants. Discipline and courage, how-
ever, regained the ascendancy, and the enemy was repulsed. But the
camp was totally destroyed, together with all the arms, accoutrements, and
provisions of the army. All that had been saved at the conflagration of
Mauvilla was here annihilated. The droves of hogs, which had formed
their main dependence for provisions, were burned in their pens. The
temper of their swords had been impaired by the action of the fire, and
almost every valuable article of equipage consumed.

De Soto more than once displayed great coolness and presence of mind.
Ife had, at one time, pitched his camp near Costa, a town in Alabama, and,
with a few of his followers, was conversing with the chief, when some of
his troopers entered the town and plundered several of the houses. The
justly-ineensed Indians fell upon them with their clubs. Seeing himself
surrounded by the natives, and in great personal danger, the general
seized a cudgel and, with his usual presence of mind, commenced beating
his own men. The savages, observing this, became pacified in a moment.
In the mean time, taking the chief by the hand, he led him, with flattering
words, towards his camp, where he was presently surrounded by a guard
and held as a hostage. The Spaniards remained under arms all night.
Fifteen hundred armed Indians surrounded them, frequently threatening
them with attack, and uttering cries of insult and menace. Restraining
his troops, De Soto, aided by a prominent Indian, who had followed him



62 * INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

for some time, at length succeeded in restoring peace and in averting what
seemed likely to prove a serious affair.

Upon one occasion De Soto tried to overawe the Natchez Indians, who
worshipped the sun, by claiming a supernatural birth and demanding
tribute.

“You say you are the child of the sun,” replied the incredulous chief.
“Dry up the river, and I will believe you. If you wish to see me, come
to the town where I dwell. If you come in peace I will receive you with
special good-will; if in war, I will not shrink one foot back.”

The sole achievement of this costly and memorable expedition was the
discovery of the Mississippi River at the lowest Chickasaw Bluff. Boats
were required to cross, and it took a month to build them.
The Spaniards crossed, and extended their tedious journey as
far as Kansas. They found the Indians an agricultural people, with fixed

May, 1541.





































ee



































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66 6e Ss













































BURIAL OF DE SOTO,

places of abode, and subsisting chiefly on the product of the fields. They
were neither turbulent nor quarrelsome. Their dress was in part mats ;
in cold weather they wore deerskins, and mantles woven of feathers.
Their villages were generally small, but close together. The natives were
treated with the utmost cruelty by the Spaniards, who held their lives as
of no account. They would cut off their hands on the slightest suspicion
and the guide who was unsuccessful, or who purposely misled them ae
thrown to the hounds or condemned to the flames. |

Disappointed and dispirited, De Soto’s health rapidly declined, and he



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 63

was finally carried off by a malignant fever. His body was buried at
night in the great river he had discovered. ‘“ He had crossed a large part
of the continent in search of gold,” says the historian Bancroft,
‘and found nothing so remarkable as his burial-place.”

His followers wandered about for months afterwards, but at length
abandoned their fruitless expedition and returned to the Mississippi.
They then, with extraordinary patience and labor, ingeniously
constructed some vessels out of their scanty materials, in which
the survivors, three hundred and eleven in number, finally reached Mexico.

May 21, 1542.

Sept. 1543.

While De Soto was vainly seeking wealth and fame in the American
wilderness, Mendoza, the Viceroy of Mexico, organized an expedition un-
der Francis Vasquez Coronado, to search for the ‘Seven
Cities of Cibola,” the fame of whose riches was fully credited
by the gullible Spaniards. Three hundred men were enlisted for the ex-
pedition, who were accompanied by eight hundred Indians.

The tale of the famous seven cities originated in the report of a Span-
ish missionary, who pretended that he had discovered, north of Sonora, a
populous and rich kingdom ealled Quivera, or the Seven Cities, abounding
in gold, the capital of which was called Cibola. Tezon, an Indian, also
told the Spanish viceroy, Nufio de Guzman, that his father, who was now
dead, had been a trader in ornamental feathers, such as are used in head-
dresses, to a people in the interior lying north of the Gila River, and that
he brought back in exchange large quantities of precious metals. Ile had
accompanied his father, he said, on one of these journeys, and saw seven
cities as large as Mexico, built on a regular plan, with high houses, and
that there were entire streets of gold and silver smiths. No story seems to
have been too absurd for these credulous Spaniards, and this one was still
further corroborated by the return of Cabeca de Vaca with three compan-
ions from the ill-fated expedition of Narvaez, whose glowing accounts of
the countries through which they had passed, inflamed still further the
avarice of their countrymen.

Crossing the Gila, Coronado led his men over a desert and through the
valley of a small stream, until they arrived before the lofty, natural walls
of Cibola (old Zuni). On the top of these stood the town. The Indians
cultivated corn in the valleys below, as they do at this day, wore coarse
stuffs for clothing, and manufactured a species of pottery, but possessed
neither gold nor mines.

Without waiting to make any inquiries, the Spaniards immediately as-
saulted the town. The natives rolled down stones from above, one of

1541.



64 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

which struck Coronado and knocked him down. The place being taken
after an hour’s struggle, the troops found provisions, but no gold nor sil-
ver. Proceeding onward in his invasion of New Mexico, Coronado was







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everywhere resisted by the natives. The explorations were continued to
the Colorado River on the west, and to the Rio Grande on the east. Real-
izing at last that the country was barren and destitute of resources, the
Spaniards, after two years of fruitless exploration, returned to Mexico,
wiser, but no richer than when they departed.

Nearly seventy years elapsed before F rance, desolated by civil strife
and torn by religious dissensions, could renew her purpose of founding a
French empire in America. In the mean time, however, voyages for traf-
fic with the natives were regularly and successfully made, and there had
been no less than one hundred and fifty French fishing-vessels at New-
foundland in a single year.



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 65

The father of the French settlements in Canada was Samuel de Cham:
plain, a skilful seaman, cool, courageous, and persevering, and a man of
science. Selecting Quebec as the site for a fort, he returned
to France Just before the issue to the Sieur De Monts of the
patent of Acadia, a region claimed by France to extend from the Dela-
ware River to beyond Montreal. Port Royal, called Annapolis after the

1603.



DE MONTS.,

conquest of Acadia, in honor of Queen Anne, was settled in the spring of
1605, preceding by two years the first English settlement at Jamestown.
With a view to future settlements, De Monts explored and claimed for
France the rivers, coasts, and bays of New England as far south
as Cape Cod. Jesuit missions were at once established among
the natives. That at St. Mary’s, the oldest European settlement in Michi-
5

1605.



66 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

gan, was established in 1668. Though many of these heroic men suffered
death by torture at the hands of the natives, others sprang forward to take
their vacant places. Through their influence the Abenakis of Maine, al-
ready hostile to the English, became the allies of France, and made a firm
barrier to English encroachments.

Within the present limits of the United States, a French colony was,
in 1613, planted at Mount Desert. Quebee was founded by Champlain in
1608. Having formed an alliance with the Algonkin tribes around him,
Champlain twice invaded the territory of the Iroquois, their hereditary

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CHAMPLAIN’S FORTIFIED RESIDENCE AT QUEBEC.

enemies. [Having to take sides, unfortunately for France he took that of
the weaker. The story of these Iroquois conflicts will be found in a sub-
sequent chapter.

While residing among the Hurons, Champlain’s influence over them
was put to a severe test. A quarrel, ending in bloodshed, had occurred
between two friendly tribes; the principal Algonkin chief had been mur-
dered, and his band forced to pay a heavy tribute of wampum.

Champlain was made umpire. The great council-house was filled with
Huron and Algonkin chiefs, “smoking,” says the historian Parkman
“with that immobility of feature beneath which their race often ides



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 67

a more than tiger-like ferocity.’ Addressing the assembly, Champlain
enlarged on the folly of fighting among themselves, while the common
enemy stood ready to devour both; showed them the advantages of the
French trade and alliance, and zealously urged them to shake hands and
be friends. His good advice was taken, the peace-pipe was smoked, and
a serious peril for New France averted.

In 1624 Champlain built the castle of St. Louis—so long the place of
council against the Iroquois and the English—and was governor of Quebec
at the time of his death in 1635.

The first attempt to found an English colony in New England was
made by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, who crossed the ocean in a small
bark called the Concord. Te first landed on Cape Cod. Some
of the natives came along-side in their birch canoes, others ran
along the beaches, gazing in wonder at the strangers. It was observed that
the pipes of those who came on board were “steeled with copper,” and that
one of the Indians wore a copper breastplate.

Gosnold afterwards sailed into Buzzard’s Bay, and began a settlement
on Elizabeth Island, now known as Cuttyhunk. This, however, was soon
abandoned, for want of provision for its support, when his vessel had com-
pleted her lading. Here he traded with the Indians, who were frequent
visitors, and who are described as “exceeding courteous, gentle of dispo-
sition, and well conditioned, exceeding all others that we have seen in
shape and looks. They are of stature much higher than we, of complexion
much like a dark olive; their eyebrows and hair black, which they wear
long, tied up behind in knots, whereon they prick feathers of fowls in
fashion of a coronet. They make beards of the hair of beasts, and one of
them offered a beard of their making to one of the sailors for his that grew
on his face, which, because it was of a red color, they judged to be none
of his own. |

“They have great store of copper... none of them but what have
chains, ear-rings, or collars of this metal. They head some of their arrows
with it. Their chains, worn about their necks, contain four hundred hol-
low pieces, very fine and nicely set together. So little did they esteem
these that they offered the finest of them for a knife or some similar
trifle.”

The settlement of Maine was largely owing to the vast fisheries on her
coast. For more than a century before, these had been known and drawn
from by English and French mariners. The territory, as we have seen,
was claimed by the French, but the Abenaki and Micmac tribes were its

May 14, 1602.



68 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

aboriginal inhabitants. These Indians had permanent villages, enclosed
by palisades. They wore many ornaments in their dress, skilfully mace
from shells and stones. They were agriculturists, amiable and social, brave,
faithful to engagements, and especially strong in their family attachments.
They had been gained over by the French missionaries, captivated by the
picturesque and striking ceremonies of the Catholic religion, which ap-
pealed so strongly to the eye and the imagination.

In May, 1605, Captain George Weymouth landed on their coast, and
seized some of the natives, whom he carried to England. There was
great difficulty in getting the Indians into their boat. The narrator of
the voyage tells us that it was as much as five of them could do, for they
were strong and naked, so that “their best hold was by their long hair.”
In England they were objects of great wonder, and crowds of people fol-
lowed them in the streets, as they had done, a century before, when those
brought over by Cabot were exhibited.

Landing with them at Plymouth, the commandant, Sir Ferdinando
Gorges, became greatly interested in them, and ultimately became largely
concerned in the settlement of New England through the information
derived from them. He kept them with him three years, finding in them
“great civility of manners, far from the rudeness of our common people.”
Two of these natives piloted Popham’s colony to the Kennebeck River
in 1607.

This was the first colony that spent a winter in New England; and a
most severe winter it was. Irom the natives they found “civil enter-
tainment and kind respect, far from brutish or savage nations,” but from
adverse circumstances gave up the settlement in the following year and
returned to England. Gorges, who was far-sighted and energetic, con-
tinued to exert himself earnestly and unselfishly to promote a permanent
settlement of his countrymen upon the continent.

An act of singular boldness was performed by an Indian named Pech-
mo. Captain Harlow, while at Monhegan Island, detained him and two
others on board his ship, but he leaped overboard and escaped.
Not long afterwards he with others eut Harlow’s boat from his
ship’s stern, got her on shore, and filling her with sand, with their bows
and arrows prevented the English from recovering her.

Another instance of suecessful daring and duplicity on the part of the
Abenakis is seen in the escape of Epanow, an Indian who had promised
Gorges, in a voyage undertaken in 1614, to point out a gold mine in his
country. Of this Indian it was said that, “being a man of so great a
stature, he was showed up and down London for money as a wonder. He

1611.



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 69

was of no less courage and authority than of wit, strength, and propor-
tion.

‘Every precaution was taken to prevent Epanow’s escape. He was
even obliged to wear long garments, that might easily be laid hold of if
occasion should require. Notwithstanding all this, his friends being all
come at the time appointed with twenty canoes, the captain called to them
to come aboard; but they did not stir. Then Epanow, who was standing
between two gentlemen that had been on guard, started suddenly from
them, called his friends in English to come aboard, and leaps overboard.
And although he was laid hold of by one of the company, yet, being a
strong and heavy man, he could not be stayed, and was no sooner in the
water but the natives in the boats sent such a shower of arrows, and
came withal desperately so near the ship, that they carried him away
in despite of all the musketeers aboard. And thus,” continues Gorges,
“were my hopes of that particular voyage made void and frustrate.”

In September, 1609, Henry Hudson, an English navigator of experi-
ence, in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, sailed in the Half
Afoon up the noble river that now bears his name. “ This day,”
says the narrator, “the people of the country came aboard
of us in canoes made of single, hollowed trees, seeming very glad of our
coming, and brought green tobac-
co, and gave us of it for knives
and beads. They go in deerskins,
loose, well dressed. They have
yellow copper, desire clothes, and
are very civil. . . . Next day
many of the people came aboard
in mantles of feathers. Some
women also came to us with
hemp; they had red copper to-
bacco- pipes, and other things of
copper they did wear about their
necks.” One of Hudson’s men, SS :
named Colman, was killed with an HENDRIK HUDSON.
arrow on the following day in a
conflict with some of the natives belonging to the fierce tribe of Manhattans.

Hudson then sailed up the river as far as Albany, the natives found
above the Highlands being a “very loving people.” They brought to-
bacco, grapes, oysters, beans, pumpkins, and furs to the vessel, for which

5

Sept. 4.





0 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.















































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE ‘‘HALF-MOON’’ AT YONKERS.

he paid them in hatchets, beads, and knives. They invited him to visit
them on shore, where they made him welcome, and a chief “made an
oration and showed him all the country round about.”

One thievish Indian climbed wp by the rudder and stole some articles,
but was shot and killed by the master’s mate. The others fled, some
taking to the water. A boat was sent out and the articles recovered.
“Then,” says the narrator, “one of them that swam got hold of our boat,
thinking to overthrow it, but our cook took a sword and cut off his hands,
and he was drowned.”

It was a sad day for the natives when they were, for the first time,
brought under the influence of strong drink. Some of the chiefs were
invited into Iudson’s cabin, and were plied with wine and brandy till
they were intoxicated. “That was strange to them,” says the old chron-
icler, “ for they could not tell how to take it.” One of them was so tipsy
that his companions thought him bewitched, and brought charms (strips
of beads) to save him from the strangers’ arts. As Hudson and his men
sailed down the river, the natives followed with friendly presents and’
hearty regrets at their departure. Hudson put to sea October 4th, and
arrived at Dartmouth, England, on the 7th of November.

A few years later the Dutch laid the foundation of Manhattan, now
the great city of New York. The first European settlements in America



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 71

were nearly all trading posts, established at points where they could barter
with the Indians for the skins and furs of the animals they had trapped or
shot. These were fitted out by trading conrpanies in England, France,
and Holland. The traders were constantly defrauding the Indians, and
at the same time rendering them formidable by selling them arms. The
attempt of Kieft, the Dutch governor, to exact tribute from them, followed
by an attack on the Raritans for an alleged theft at Staten Island, brought
on, finally, a desolating warfare, lasting for two years.








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DUTCH AND INDIANS TRADING.

In the winter of 1642-43 the dreaded Mohawks came swooping down
upon the Algonkin settlements, driving great numbers of them into Man-
hattan and other Dutch settlements near it. Though these Indians had
committed hostile acts, policy and humanity alike suggested that they
should be well treated. Instead of this their defenceless condition only
suggested to Kieft the policy of exterminating them.

Across the river, at Pavonia, a large number of them had collected, and



72 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

here, at midnight, the Dutch soldiers, joined by some privateersmen, fell
upon them while asleep in their tents, and butchered nearly
one hundred of them, including women and little children.
This eruel and impolitic act was terribly avenged. The Indians every-
where rose upon the whites, killing the men, capturing the women and

Feb. 25, 1643.



THE MASSACRE OF THE INDIANS AT PAVONIA.

children, and destroying and laying waste the settlements. Trading boats
on the Hudson were attacked and plundered and their crews murdered.
The war extended into Connecticut, and at Pelham’s N eck, near New
Rochelle, Anne Hutchinson, a remarkable woman, exiled from Boston
on account of her religious opinions, was murdered, together with her fam-
ily, with the exception of a daughter, who was carried into captivity.

The terror-stricken people crowded into Fort Amsterdam, where, dur-
ing the following winter, they suffered from hunger and cold. Meantime
they organized a force, fifty of whom were English, under Captain J ohn









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 75

Underhill, who had won renown in the Pequot war. Early in 1644 they
undertook an expedition against the principal village of the Connecticut
Indians, situated near Stamford.

A night-march brought them to the Indian town. They had hoped to
surprise the Indians, but it was a bright moonlight night and they found
them prepared. The Dutch numbered one hundred and fifty ;
the Indians, protected by their rude fortifications, were seven
hundred strong. Advancing steadily, the Dutch repelled the sorties of
the Indians, nearly two hundred of whom fell in the attempt to drive
them back. Underhill at last succeeded in setting fire to the village.
There was an end of the fighting; it was only slaughter now. But eight
of the Indians escaped. This victory put a period to the strife.
In the following summer a treaty was concluded with all the
hostile tribes on the beautiful spot in front of Fort Amsterdam, now
known as the Battery, and the pipe of peace was duly smoked in pres-
ence of the entire Dutch population. One week later a day of thanks-
giving was kept by the Dutch for the conclusion of this terrible war,
in the course of which nearly every one of their settlements had been
attacked and destroyed.

Feb., 1644.

Aug. 30.













































































































































































































































































































































NEW YORK IN 1664.

Early one morning in September, 1655, during the absence of Gov-
ernor Stuyvesant, who was besieging the Swedes at Fort Christian, nearly
two thousand Algonkin warriors swarmed through the streets of New
Amsterdam, and after plundering the houses all day, were finally driven
off in the evening after a desperate conflict. They then ravaged the



76 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

adjacent country, killing the men and making prisoners of the women
and children. Stuyvesant hastened back and took prompt measures to
meet the emergency; but, instead of attacking the savages, by a prudent
and conciliatory course he avoided further trouble, and procured a lasting
peace and the return of all the captives.



PETER STUYVESANT,

On the Pacifie coast, Sir Francis Drake, the first Englishman who
sailed round the world, discovered “a fair and good bay,” which may
have been that of San Francisco, and remained there long
enough to refit his vessel and to build a fort upon the shore.
He took possession of the country for Queen Elizabeth with the usual
formalities, erecting a post upon which an engraved plate of brass was
placed, bearing, besides the picture and arms of the Queen, and Drake’s

arms, the statement of the free resignation of the country by the king and
people into her hands,

June 17, 1579.



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. U7

With the Indians Drake maintained the most friendly relations.
Soon after he landed he received a visit from the king of the country,
a man of comely presence and stature, who with his train appeared in
great pomp. In front of him marched a tall man, with the sceptre or
mace of black wood a yard and a half long. Upon it hung two crowns,
with three long chains of bone; these had innumerable links and were
marks of honor. The king was dressed in rabbit-skins. The common
people were almost naked, but their hair was tied with many feathers.
Their faces were painted, and they all brought with them some present.

































































































































































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BEGINNING OF NEW YORK,

The sceptre bearer and another made long speeches, and then there was
a dance and a song. They were then understood to ask Drake “to be-
come their king and governor,” the king singing with all the rest; and
more fully to declare their meaning, set the crown upon Drake’s head
and encireled his neck with their chains. They then saluted him by the
title of /7Zioh, or king, and sang and danced to show their joy not only
at this visit of the gods, but that Drake, the great god, was become their
king and patron.

In the interior the natives were found living in villages. Their houses
were round holes in the ground, surmounted by poles which met in the



78 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

centre, the whole being covered with earth to keep out water. The door,
“made sloping like the scuttle of a ship,” was also the chimney. The
people slept in these houses on rushes, on the ground around a fire in the



SIR FRANCIS DRAKE, |

middle. The country was fruitful. Deer and wild horses were plenty.
The natives were loving and tractable, and expressed great sorrow at

Drake's departure. In his narrative of this voyage, Drake sets forth
fully the abundance of gold in California.

The natives who met the founder of Pennsylvania were Lenni-Le-
nape, who formerly had their seat beyond the Alleghanies, whence they
emigrated to the Hudson and the Delaware. The Raritan, Navesink,
Mingo, and Assanpink creeks and rivers, preserve for us the names of



EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 40

the tribes commonly known as Delawares. They were of a warlike dis-
position, and frequently fought with their Indian neighbors. At the
time of Penn’s visit they had been conquered by and were subjects of
the fierce Iroquois.

Penn has thus described them: “They are tall, straight, tread strong
and clever, and walk with a lofty chin. Their eustom of rubbing the
body with bear’s fat gives them a swarthy color. They have little black
eyes. ‘T’heir heads and countenances have nothing of the negro type, and
I have seen as comely European-like faces among them as on the other
side of the sea. Their language is lofty, yet narrow; like short-hand in
writing, one word serveth in the place of three, and the rest are supplied
by the understanding of the hearers. I have made it my business to learn
it that I might not want an interpreter on any occasion.



WILLIAM PENN,

“Tn liberality they excel; nothing is too good for their friend. Give
them a fine gun, coat, or other thing, it may pass twenty hands before it
sticks; light of heart, strong affections, but soon spent. The justice they



80 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

have is pecuniary. In case they killa woman, they pay double; and the
reason they render is that she breedeth children, which the man cannot
do. It is rare that they fall out, if sober, and if drunk they forgive it,
saying it was the drink and not the man that abased them.”
































































Pe hss
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LANDING OF WILLIAM PENN AT PHILADELPHIA.

At Penn’s first interview with the Delawares, Taminent, the chief
sachem, sat in the middle of a semicircle composed of old men and coun-
cillors. At a little distance back sat the young people. One of the
sachems addressed Penn, during whose “talk” no one whispered or smiled.
Penn and his friends were without arms; he was easily distinguished by
a blue silk net-work sash. The sachem wore a chaplet, with a small horn
projecting from it, as a symbol of sovereignty.

The name of the famous Delaware sachem with whom Penn made his
treaty has been handed down to posterity in a very singular manner. Not-



La
eae

































AND THE INDIANS.

PENN






EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 83

withstanding the discredit into which it has latterly fallen, the name of
Tammany (Taminent) was an honored one, not only during the lifetime of
the warrior and sage who bore it, but long after his decease.

A century ago it was adopted by a society in Philadelphia, who, on
the first day of May in each year, walked in procession through the streets
of that city, their hats decorated with buck’s tails, to a place of meeting
which they called the wigwam, where the day was passed in mirth and
festivity. Since that period the honored name has been associated with a
political faction in New York City, at whose meetings a semblance of
Indian customs is still preserved.

Penn told the Indians that he desired to live in perfect amity with
them, and that he and his friends came unarmed because they never used
weapons. In addition to the price of the land he bought of them, he pre-
sented them with various articles of merchandise.

He tried in every way to conciliate them and gain their confidence.
He walked with them at one of their earliest meetings, sat with them on
the ground, and ate with them of their roasted acorns and hominy. They
expressed their delight at this by hopping and jumping, in which the staid
Quaker himself joined them, and, as the story goes, “ beat them all.” Tis
open, straightforward, simple manner and kind treatment of them was
repaid by friendly offices both to himself and his followers.

Tis famous treaty with them took place at Shakamaxon, on the north-
ern edge of Philadelphia. Every right of the Indians was to be respected,
and every difference adjusted by a tribunal composed of an oct. 1689
equal number of men from each race. Neither oaths, signa- —
tures, nor seals were made use of in this treaty, and no written record of
it exists; but it was sacredly kept for sixty years. Harmony also sub-
sisted with the neighboring Indians, among whom were bands of the war-
like Shawnees.



84 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Il.
VIRGINIA COLONIZED.

T was time for England to assert her rights, and to plant colonies in
the vast and fertile regions Cabot had discovered almost a century
before. So thought Sir Walter Raleigh, one of the most, brill-
iant Englishmen of an exceptionally brilliant period, when he
despatched two vessels, under Captains Amadas and Barlow,
to the New World.
Landing at Cape Hatteras in July, they received a friendly welcome,
and trafficked with the natives, who came off to their ship in boats, and
whom they described as “a handsome and goodly people, most gentle, lov-
ing, and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and
such as lived after the manner of the golden age.”

1497,
April 27, 1584.

Among these visitors was Granganameo, the
king’s brother, who, taking a fancy to a pewter
dish, made a hole through it and hung it about
his neck for a breastplate. From him they learned
that Wingina, the king of that country, was con-
fined at home by a wound received in battle. The
Christians drove excellent bargains with these sim-
ple heathen, the price of the pewter dish being
twenty deerskins, worth five pounds sterling, and fifty deerskins for a
copper kettle. The simple natives “marvelled much” at the whiteness
of the strangers.

The chief’s wife came to see them. She wore a long cloak of leather,
with a piece of leather about her loins, around her forehead a band of
white coral, and from her ears bracelets of large pearls “of the bigness of
good pease” hung down to her middle. The other women wore pendants
of copper, as did the children, five or six in an ear. Their boats were
hollowed trunks of trees.

They kept their white visitors supplied with game and fruits, and did
all they could for their comfort. Captain Barlow, with seven men, vis-



FORM OF RALEIGH’S SHIPS,



' VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 85

ited the chief's residence,
and in his absence were
most hospitably entertain-
ed by his wife. Her house
of five rooms she placed at
their disposal; she and her
women provided bountiful-
ly for their wants, washing
and drying their clothing,
and even bathing their feet
in warm water, and placing
a guard over their boat
while they slept. They
were feasted upon hominy,
boiled venison, and roasted
fish, with a dessert of mel-
ons and other vegetables.
After exploring the coast
and acquiring information,
the expedition, about the
middle of September, re-
turned to England. Two of
the natives, Wanchese and Manteo, accompanied them on the return voyage.

The glowing accounts they gave of the country made it easy to gather
a company of emigrants to colonize Virginia, for so the country had been
named by Queen Elizabeth. Under the lead of Ralph Lane, a soldier of
some reputation, one hundred and eight colonists embarked at



SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

- : . April 9, 1585.
Plymouth in seven vessels, commanded by Sir Richard Green-

ville, a kinsman of Raleigh, and one of the best known of the naval cap-
tains of the age.

Two years later, Greenville, in his single ship off the Azores, fought
fifteen great Spanish galleons for fifteen hours, and when at last mortally
wounded, exclaimed with his latest breath, “IIere die I, Richard Green-
ville, with a joyful and quiet mind, for that I have ended my life as a true
soldier ought to do, fighting for his country, queen, religion, and honor.”
One of the ships that bore Lane’s colony was commanded by Captain
Amadas, another by a young captain named Thomas Cavendish, who a
year afterwards made a famous voyage round the world. Thomas Hariot
was the scientific man of this well-equipped expedition, and John White

the artist.



86 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS. :

Landing in August, Lane established his colony at Wocokon, on Itoan-
oke Island. Here they found tobacco, to the use of which they soon ac-
customed themselves, maize, or Indian corn, which attracted their atten-
tion from its extraordinary productiveness, and the potato, which, when
boiled, they found very palatable. The country was explored as far south
as the Indian village of Secotan, and northwardly to the territory of the
Chesapeakes in the bay of that name.

The inhabitants who were on the boundary of the Algonkin and South-
ern or Appalachian races were a mixture of both. Each clan obeyed its
own chief, but all were associated in a general confederacy which was
ruled by Powhatan, whose council-fire and residence were on the James
River. They were described by one of the colonists as a very strong and
lusty race, and swift warriors. He tells us, “ Their skin is tawny, not so
born, but with dyeing and painting themselves, in which they delight
greatly. The maids shave close the forepart and sides of their heads, and
leave the hair long behind, where it is tied up and hangs down to the hips.
The married women wear their hair all of a length, but tied behind as
that of the maid’s is. The women seratch on their bodies and limbs with
a sharp iron, pictures of birds, fishes, and beasts, and rub into the draw-
ings lively colors, which dry into the flesh and are permanent. The peo-
ple are witty and ingenious, but steal anything they can lay hands on—
yea, are so practised in this art, that looking in our faces they would with
their foot convey between their toes a chisel, knife, or any indifferent
light thing, which, having once conveyed, they hold it an injury to take the
same from them. They are naturally given to treachery, howbeit we
could not find it in our travel up the river, but rather a most kind and
loving people.”

They were exceedingly fond of ornaments, some of which were very
singular, not to say repulsive. An early traveller tells us, “Their ears
they bore with holes, commonly two or three, and in the same they do
hang heavy chains of stained pearl, bracelets of white bone, or shreds of
copper beaten thin and bright, and wound up hollow, and with a great
pride, certain fowles legs, eagles, hawks, turkeys, ete. The claws thrust
through, they let hang upon the cheek to the fuli view, and some there be
who will wear in these holes a small green and yellow live snake, near half
a yard in length, which, crawling and lapping himself about his neck,
oftentimes familiarly he suffereth to kiss his lips. Others wear a ded rat
tyed by the tail, and such like conundrums.”

Their towns were small, the largest containing but thirty dwellings.
Their greatest chief could not muster more than seven hundred or eight



VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 87

hundred warriors. Mathematical instruments, the burning - glass, guns,
clocks, mirrors, and the use of letters, attracted their superstitious regard,
and the English were reverenced as superior beings. Fire-arms were terri-
ble to them, and every sickness was attributed to wounds from invisible
bullets discharged by unseen beings inhabiting the air.

“To make their children hardy,” says an early writer, “they wash them
in the river in the coldest mornings, and by paintings and ointments so tan
their skins that after a year or two no weather will hurt them. To prac-
tise their children in the use of their bows and arrows, the mothers do not
give them their breakfast in a morning before they have hit a mark which
she appoints them to shoot at, and commonly so cunning (skilful) they will
have them as, throwing up in the air a piece of moss or some light thing,
the boy must with his arrow meet it in its fall and hit it, or else he shall
not have his breakfast.”

Gradually the friendly disposition of the Indians towards the colonists
changed, owing to the greed and cruelty of the whites. They believed
that the English were come to kill them and take their places. This
belief led to a feeling of enmity. The English perceived it, and fearing
a wide-spread conspiracy to destroy them, determined to anticipate it.
Obtaining an interview with Wingina, the principal chief, who was wholly
unsuspicious of their design, at a preconcerted signal the English fell upon
him and his followers and put them all to death. It is not strange that
acts of cruelty like these were remembered by the natives, and that savage
retribution followed.

Very soon Lane’s colony became dissatisfied ; provisions were scarce,
the Indians were unfriendly, and the colonists were homesick and anxious
to return to England. The fleet of Sir Francis Drake oppor-
tunely arriving on the coast, he permitted them to embark, and
thus ended the first attempt at English colonization. A few days after
their departure a ship arrived, laden with all the stores needed by the
colony. Greenville, with further supphes, also appeared a little too late.
IIe left fifteen men on Roanoke Island to hold possession for England ;
they were all killed by the Indians.

Constant to his purpose of colonization, Raleigh now determined to
plant a colony of emigrants, with their wives and families, who would make
permanent homes in the New World. Joln White was appointed its
governor. In the month of July, 1587, it arrived on the coast of North
Carolina, and laid the foundations of the city of Raleigh on Roanoke
Island.

Here the first white child of English parents was born to Eleanor Dare,

June, 1586.



8& INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

the daughter of Governor White, and named Virginia from the place ot
its birth.

Captain Stafford, with twenty men, was sent to Croatan, to seek for the
lost colonists. He heard that they had been set upon by the Indians, and
after a sharp skirmish had taken boats and gone to a small island near
Ilaterask, and afterwards had gone none knew whither. A party, under
the guidance of Manteo, an Indian who had accompanied Amadas and
Barlow to England, was sent to avenge their supposed murder. By mis-
take they attacked and killed some members of a friendly tribe. Such
mistakes have been only too common in our intercourse with the Indians.

When the ship which had brought them was about to return, the
emigrants prevailed on Governor White to go back and see to the prompt
despatch of reinforcements and supplies. No seasonable relief, however,
arrived, and the fate of the colony remains to this day a mystery. Owing
to the threatened invasion of England by the Spanish armada, and to other
untoward events, it was not until three years had elapsed that White could
return to seek for his colony. It had disappeared, leaving no trace behind.
He found the island of Roanoke a desert. Raleigh’s efforts and sacrifices
to colonize America were all in vain; but his faith was still unshaken, and
to his friend Cecil he wrote the memorable words, “I shall yet live to see
it an Inglishe nation.” America owes a large debt of gratitude to the
illustrious man who did so much to promote her colonization.

A period of twenty years now elapsed before a permanent English
settlement was made. St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest town in the
United States, had been founded by the Spaniards in 1565, and in 1605
the French had begun the settlement of Nova Scotia. On the 14th of
May, 1607, Captain Christopher Newport’s colony planted itself at James-
town, Virginia. The colonists at once set manfully to work, felling trees
and erecting a fort.

Three weeks before, a party had explored the James River, visiting on
the way several Indian kings, or werowances, as they were called, “the
people in all places kindly entertaining us,” says Captain John Smith,
one of the explorers, “dancing, and feasting us with strawberries, mul-
berries, bread, fish, and other country provisions, whereof we had plenty,
for which Captain Newport kindly requited them with bells, pins, needles,
and glass beads, which so contented them that his liberality made them
follow us from place to place, and ever kindly to respect us.”

A remarkable man has come upon the scene, the first to render illus-
trious the otherwise prosaic name of John Smith. He was now twenty-
eight years of age, and from his earliest youth had led a roving and



VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 89

adventurous life. His military career began in the service of the gallant
Henry of Navarre, under whose banner we find at the same time Captain
Thomas Dudley, afterwards governor of the Massachusetts colony. Smith’s
exploits in the wars with the Turks in Hungary, his capture and sale in
the slave market at Adrianople, his cruel treatment by his master, and his
escape, as told by himself, make a most entertaining and romantic, if not
a strictly veracious, narrative.* ;

While a slave in the Crimea he was clothed in the skin of a wild beast,
an iron collar was fastened about his neck, and he was cuffed and kicked



































ARRIVAL AT JAMESTOWN, 1607.

about like a dog. One day he avenged himself by breaking his master’s
skull with a flail, and then mounting his horse fled in disguise to Poland,
and thence made his way to Morocco. Here he joined an English man-of-
war, and after a fierce sea-ight arrived in England just in tiie to embark
in the colonization of Virginia.

These experiences, taken in connection with his subsequent career in
Virginia, make Captain John Smith by far the most picturesque character
in our annals. Even if we give up the chivalric exploit of the slaying of
the three Turks, one after the other, in single combat before the walls of
Regall, for the pastime of the ladies, and the romantic story of his rescue
from death by Pocahontas, enough remains to immortalize the name of
Captain John Smith in all time to come.

* For the incidents in the career of this remarkable man, read his ‘‘True Travels,
Adventures, and Observations,” and his ‘‘Generall Historie of Virginia, New England,
and the Summer Isles.”



9() INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

As soon as the natives became aware of the purpose of the whites to
dispossess them of their territory, they began to be troublesome. They
would skulk about at night, and hang around the fort by day, bringing
sometimes presents of deer, but given to theft of small articles, and show-
ing jealousy of the invasion of their soil. The day before
the return of a second exploring party, two hundred Indians
attacked the fort. They fought bravely, but were driven off after an
hour’s fight by the guns of the ship. In this affair the colonists had
eleven men wounded and a boy killed. For several days alarms and
attacks continued, and it was unsafe for any to venture beyond the fort.

Newport’s colony consisted mainly of “gentlemen.” No more useless
commodity could have been sent here. Among them were ruined spend-
thrifts, broken tradesmen, fortune-hunters, rakes, and libertines. They
expected to find gold; they found instead danger, disappointment, toil,
and sickness.

“We did not come here to work,” they said.

“Then you shall not eat,” said the redoubtable Captain Smith. “The
labor of a few industrious men shall not be consumed to maintain idle
loiterers.”

In order to stop profanity Smith kept a daily aecount of every man’s
oaths, and at night a can of cold water poured down the offender’s sleeve
was the penalty for each transgression. To the company in England
who had sent out the colony he wrote: “ When you send again, I entreat
you send thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths,
or diggers up of roots, well provided, rather than a thousand of such as
we have.” After Smith’s return to England they had things their own
way; they plundered the Indians, who in turn slew them, and were re-
duced by famine to the greatest straits. When relieved by Sir Thomas
Gates, from four hundred and ninety their number had dwindled to sixty.

With so many drones in the hive there was soon a scarcity of food.
But for the kindness of the natives, who brought them maize and other
provisions, they must have starved. Smith made several excursions up
the Chickahominy River to trade with the Indians for corn. When, as it
sometimes happened, the savages were insolent, and refused to trade, he
brought them to terms by force of arms. But for his energy in procuring
supplies, and his success in dealing with the Indians, it is probable that
the colony would have famished. With all his vanity and impatience of
restraint, Smith possessed extraordinary executive ability.

Not long after the settlement was begun, Smith, while engaged in
exploring the sources of the Chickahominy, was set upon by the natives.

May 26.



VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 91

Seizing the Indian guide who had accompanied him, he used him as a
shield against their arrows, at the same time defending himself with his
pistol. He was soon surrounded by two hundred Indians, led by Opechan-
ganough, chief of the Pamunkeys, the brother of Powhatan. Sure of
making him prisoner they would not shoot, but laid down their bows and
demanded his arms. Let the valiant captain tell the rest of the story in
his own words :

“In retiring,” says Smith, “being in the midst of a low quagmire, and
minding them more than my steps, I stept fast into the quagmire, and
also the Indian in drawing me forth. Thus surprised, I resolved to try
their mercies and cast ny arms from me, till which none durst approach
me.

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































RUINS AT JAMESTOWN.

“TIaving seized on me they drew me out, diligently chafed my be-
numbed limbs, and led me to the king. I presented him with a compass-
dial, describing by my best means the use thereof; whereat he so amazed-
ly admired, as he suffered me to proceed in a discourse of the roundness
of the earth, the course of the sun, moon, stars, and planets. (Much of
this learned discourse must have been thrown away upon an unlettered



92 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

savage.) With kind speeches and bread he requited me. I expected they
would execute me, yet they used me with what kindness they could. I
was taken to their town, six miles off, only made as arbors and covered
with mats, which they remove as occasion requires. For supper [I had
a quarter of venison and some ten pounds of bread; what I left was
reserved for me. Each morning three women presented me three great
platters of fine bread, and more venison than ten men could eat. I had
my gowne, points, and garters; my compass and tablets they gave me
again. Though eight ordinarily guarded me, I wanted not what they
could devise to content me, and still our longer acquaintance increased
our better affection.”

Smith also greatly astonished the Indians by writing a letter to be
sent to his friends, for they could not understand how a message could
be put on paper. And when the articles for which he had sent were
delivered to them, they regarded him as a wonderful powwow or con-
juror.

Some days later he was condueted to the residence of Powhatan, the
principal chief of the country, near the historic field of Yorktown, but
on the other side of the river.

Powhatan was at this time about seventy years of age, and of majestic
appearance. He was tall, well proportioned, and exceedingly vigorous.
By his bravery, energy, and policy he had raised himself to kingly power.
Te swayed many nations upon the great rivers and bays, as far as the Pa-
tuxent, most of whom he had conquered. There were thirty of these,
with a population of twenty-four thousand. He wore an ornamented robe
of raccoon-skins, and his head-dress was composed of many feathers wrought
into a kind of crown. He usually kept a guard of forty or fifty of the
most resolute and well formed of his warriors about him, especially when
he slept; but after the English came into his country he inereased it
to about two hundred. Smith’s interview with this great chief, who re-
ceived him with much ceremony, is best given in his own words:

“ Arriving at Woramocomoco, on the Pamunkey [York] River,” says
Smith, “their emperor was proudly lying upon a bedstead a foot high,
upon ten or twelve mats, richly hung with many chains of great pearls
about his neck, and covered with a great covering of raccoon-skins. At
his head sat a woman ; at his feet another. On each side, sitting on a mat
upon the ground, were ranged his chief men, ten in a rank, and behind
them as many young women, each having a great chain of white beads
over their shoulders, their heads painted red. At my entrance before the
king all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appomattuck was



VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 93

appointed to bring me water to wash my hands, and another brought a
bunch of feathers instead of a towel to dry them.

“With such a grave and majestical countenance as drew me into admi-
ration to see such state in a naked savage, Powhatan kindly welcomed me
with good words and great platters of sundry victuals, assuring me his


































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friendship, and my liberty within four days. He much delighted in
Opechanganough’s relation of what I had described to him, and oft exam-
ined me upon the same. Ie promised to give me corn, venison, or what I
wanted to feed us. Tatchets and copper we should make him, and none
should disturb us. This I promised to perform; and thus having, with
all the kindness he could devise, sought to content me, he sent me home.”



94 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

When Powhatan inquired of Smith the cause of their coming, he was
careful not to let him know that the English had come to settle in the
country. De told him that in a fight with the Spaniards they had been
overpowered and compelled to retreat, and by stress of weather had to
put to that shore. Perhaps Powhatan believed him. Smith had a de-
cided knack for romancing.

This account of his captivity was written by Smith at the time, and
was soon afterwards published in London. In it nothing is said about
Pocahontas saving his life. That romantic story, first published sixteen
years later, and since everywhere repeated, has latterly been questioned.
It is wholly inconsistent with what Smith had previously told of the kind
treatment he received from Powhatan. It is as follows:

“Waving feasted him (Smith) after the best barbarous manner they
could, a long consultation was held; but the conclusion was, two great
stones were brought before Powhatan; then as many as could laid hands
on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready
with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the king’s dearest
daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms and
laid her own upon his to save him from death, whereat the emperor was
contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and
copper, for they thought him as well capable of all occupations as them-
selves.” There can be little doubt that Smith owed his escape from
death to his own native wit and readiness.

Smith thus describes some of the religious and other ceremonies per-
formed by their medicine-men, or powwows:

“Three or four days after my taking,” he says, “seven of them came
rushing in, painted half black, half red, in the house where I lay; round
about him these fiends danced a pretty while; then each, with a rattle, be-
gan, at ten o’clock in the morning, to sing about the fire, which they en-
vironed with a cirele of meal, and afterwards, a foot or two from that,
at the end of each song, laid down two or three grains of wheat, con-
tinuing this order till they have included six hundred or seven hundred
in a half-circle, and, after that, two or three more circles in like manner,
a hand’s-breadth from the others; that done, at each song they put be-
tween every three, two, or five grains a little stick, so continuing, as an
old woman her paternoster.

“One, disguised with a great skin, his head hung round with little
skins of weasels and other vermin, with a coronet of feathers on his head,
painted as ugly as possible, came skipping in with a fearful yell, and a rattle
in his hand. At the end of each song he made many signs and demon-



VIRGINIA COLONIZED.









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96 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

“Each morning, in the coldest frosts, the principal, to the number of
twenty or thirty, assembled themselves in a circle a good distance from the
town, where they told me they consulted where to hunt the next day. So
fat they fed me that I much doubted they intended to have sacrificed me
to the power they worship. To cure the sick, a man with a rattle, and
extreme howling, shouting, singing, and such violent gestures and antic
actions, labors over the patient. In passing over the water in foul weather
they offer tobacco to their god to conciliate his favor. Death they lament
with great sorrow and weeping; their kings they bury betwixt two mats,
within their houses, with all his beads,
jewels, hatchets, and copper; the
others in graves like ours. Tor the
erown their heirs inherit not, but the
first heirs of the sister.”

The colonists were constantly in
fear of the savages, who lurked in
the neighboring forest. One of them
brought in a glittering stone one day,
and said he would show them where
there was a great abundance of it.
Smith went to see this mine, but was
led hither and thither until he lost
patience, and seeing that the Indian
was fooling him, gave him twenty




































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A MEDICINE-MAN. 20.

Smith was always prompt and
with the Indians, keeping his promises to them, and never
hesitating to attack or punish them when necessary. They feared and
respected him. Smith was a great) boaster, but there was no nonsense
about him.

He was a born explorer, and in one of his voyages discovered and sailed
up the Potomac River, collecting from the natives a quantity of furs.
Fish were so abundant that his men attempted, though without success, to
catch them with frying-pans; the’ fishes very properly declined this pre-
mature introduction to the frying-pan, not being dressed for the occasion.
In a subsequent journey he made acquaintance with the Susquehannocks
a tribe of large stature and of honest and simple disposition. “ Their

“square ”



VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 97

voices were proportioned to their size,” says Smith, “sounding, as it were,
a great voice in a vault or cave, as an echo.” |

Karly in the following year Smith, with Newport and about twenty
others, went to Powhatan’s residence to trade. Three hundred savages
conducted Smith to Powhatan, who received him in great
state. Before his house were ranged forty or fifty great plat-
ters of bread. Entering his house, “with loud tunes they made all signs
of great joy.”

The emperor sat upon his bed of mats, his pillow of leather embroid-
ered with pearls and white beads, and his attire “a fair robe of skins, as
Jarge as an Irish mantle.” Ie welcomed Smith with kindness, caused him
to sit beside him, and with pleasant converse renewed their old acquaint-—
ance. Smith presented him with a suit of red cloth, a white greyhound,
and a hat. Powhatan professed a great desire to see Smith’s “father,”
Captain Newport, upon whose greatness Smith had before freely enlarged.
That night the English were feasted liberally, and entertained with sing-
ing, dancing, and orations.

Next day Newport came on shore, and presents were exchanged. New-
port gave Powhatan a white boy, thirteen years old, named Thomas Sav-
age. This boy remained a long time with the Indians, and was useful to
the colonists as an interpreter. In return, Powhatan gave Newport a bag
of beans, and an Indian, named Namontack, for his servant. The party
stayed three or fonr days, feasting, dancing, and trading with the natives.

In the matter of trade, Smith says of Powhatan, “he carried himself
so proudly, yet discreetly Gn his savage manner), as made us all to admire
his natural gifts.

“¢Oaptain Newport,’ said he, ‘it is not agreeable to my greatness in
this peddling manner to trade for trifles ; therefore lay down all your com-

1608.

modities together, what I like I will take, and in recompense give you
what I think fitting their value.”

Smith saw through his craftiness and warned N ewport; but the latter
resented his interference and placed all his goods before Powhatan, who in
return gave him only a few bushels of corn, whereas he expected to have
obtained twenty hogsheads. Smith, who was as wily as the Indian, showed
him, as if by accident, a few blue beads which he pretended he did not
wish to part with, as they were of great price, being of the color of the
skies, and worn only by great kings. He so stimulated Powhatan’s eager-
ness to possess such treasures that for a pound of blue beads he paid him
two or three hundred bushels of corn.

It had been decided by the company in England to crown Powhatan,

7



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THE CROWNING OF POWHATAN.
(see page 98)

“
INDIAN HISTORY

y . as 4 ; et
FOR We. y Warbdyeey.

YOUNG FOLKS

BY

FRANCIS 8. DRAKE

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK
WARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
1885
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by
NWARPER & BROTHERS,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

All rights reserved,
PREFACE,

NAVE thought that a plain narrative of some of the more striking

events in our Indian history might not prove uninteresting to my
young countrymen.

It is the story of the heroic, but hopeless, struggle for self-preservation
of a weaker against a stronger race; and as we read it we cannot help
sympathizing in some degree with the Indian in his patriotie effort to pre-
serve his country and to drive off the intruding white man. Though not
inferior to him in bravery, sagacity, and cunning, the Indian was no match
for his cool, steady, well-disciplined white opponent. Indeed, the great
lesson of the struggle is that it shows conclusively the superiority of the
civilized man over the savage, even in those warlike arts in which the
latter most excelled.

One other thing must not be forgotten. The deadly perils to which
the early settlers were daily and hourly exposed from the incursions of a
savage foe—the ambush and the midnight surprise, their sufferings while
undergoing the horrors of captivity or the agonies of torture; when we
think of these things—they were common occurrences in those early days
——we are enabled to realize in some small degree the cost and the value of
the peaceful, happy homes we now enjoy.

With the exception of a few roving bands of Apaches and other wild
tribes of the plains, the Indian pictured in these pages no longer exists.
In ceasing to be a hunter and a warrior, he has lost much of his distinctive
character. Civilization has taken hold of him, and one by one his old

superstitions and savage customs will disappear. His children are being
6 PREFACE.

educated, he is turning his attention to farming, and, slowly it is true, but
surely, he is acquiring the arts and modes of life of his civilized brother.
“learning,” as he expresses it, ‘to tread the white man’s path.”

Indian wars of any magnitude are, happily, no longer possible; and at
no distant day the native race will be absorbed in the great mass of our
population, clothed with all the rights and privileges, as well a as with the

duties, of American citizenship.

Roxsury, August, 1884.
CONTENTS.

I, PAGK
Wat we Know Apocut rum American INDIAN . 2. . wee COB

Il.

EarLty EGROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS . . . . )..hehUeeeCOAY
Ill.
VIRGINIA COLONIZED . . . ww ee ee kk ee ew kee 84

Tot New Enauanp Indians . . . . wk ke ee ee eee ke we 106

Tue lroquois. 2... ek ee ke ee ee ee BF

VI,

Kone Purure’s WarR . . . ee ke ee ee ee gg, 145

VIL

Tuk SourmerRN INDIANS . 2. 1.0... ke nk ke ke ee, 164.

Frencu AND InpIAN Wars... .. . .
IX,

Turn “Ono Prexci War” (1755-1760). 6.02 0 ee 207

Sprony oF A CAPTIVE .o. . soe kee a
CONTENTS.

GO

XI. PAGH

Rocers’s RANGERS . . ew ee ee ee ee ee we ewe RBG
XTT.
263

Ponttac’s WAR . . . we

AIT.

Tus INDIANS JOIN THE MoTHer CoUNTRY AGAINST HER AMERICAN COLONIES. . 289

ATY.

Tort BACKWOODSMEN OF KENTUCKY . . . . ee ee BAG

AY.

Wars with THE Western Inprans (1789-1795). 0. 6 ew BB

XVI.

TECUMSEH AND THE War or 1812 00.0. °.0.0°.°.02200~=, 2... 2. 2. 2.207; , Bd4

ANVIL,

Wak witt THE CREEK NATION . . . .. we ~ oe ew) BUD

AVITIL.

Tne Brack Hawk War... . . . oe 398

ATX,

WAR WITH THE SEMINOLES OF FrLorips tok kk ek el ANS

XX,

Recent Inprian Wars... ...
e * ® a e . * e e * a . . ° 426

INDEX... . .
ILLUSTRATIONS.

CROWNING OF POWHATAN
Map oF INDIAN RESERVATIONS

PAGE
Christopher Columbus . 15
Newark Earthwork. 16
A North American Indian 17
Moccasins 20 |
Auni Dwellings 21
Bowl of Indian Pipe 24
Snow-shoe . Coe 24
Canoe and House of Southern Indians . 25
Picture-writing 26
Grave-post . QT
The Dighton Rock Inscription . 28
Indian Council 29
Indian Cradle. 30)
The Indians at Home Be
A Sealp Dance 33
Scalp oo. . . kk, 36
In Ambush a7
A Class-room . . 40
Sebastian Cabot, by Holbein . . 48
John Verrazzano . 50
Jacques Cartier 51
Jacques Cartier erects a Cross 53

View of Montreal and its Walls in 1760.

Frontispiece
To face page 18

PAGE

_Champlain’s Fortified Residence at Que-

bec . 66
Hendrik Hudson 69
The Hulf-Moon at Y onkers. - oe ee WO
Dutch and Indians Trading 71

| The Massacre of the Indians at Pavonia 72
|The Trading Post. 2. 2... 2...) 48
New York in 1664 . Td
| Peter Stuyvesant 76
Beginning of New York . 17
Sir Francis Drake . 78



(From an old French print) . Dd
Ponce de Leon 56
Fernando de Soto 08
De Soto Discovering the Mississippi 59
Burial of De Soto 62 |
Auni Woman at a Window 6-4
De Monts . 2... . ee BE

William Penn . . . . . . 49
Landing of William Penn at Philadel -

phia 80
Penn and the Indians. 81
Form of Raleigh’s Ships. 84
Sir Walter Raleigh 85
Arrival at Jamestown, 1607 89
Ruins at Jamestown 91

| Powhatan. 93
Pocahontas shields Him from their

Clubs 95
A Medicine-man 96
Captain Smith subduing the Chief 99

| Marriage of Pocahontas . 101
Pocahontas . 102
Captain John Smith, Admiral of New

Finegland 103

Landing of the Pilgrims . 107

First Encounter with the Indians 109
10

‘Welcome, Englishmen!” ,
Plymouth Wilderness
Interview with Massasoit

The Paiace of King Massasoit .
Edward Winslow .

Governor Endicott.

John Eliot

John Eliot preaching to the Indians ;

Governor Winthrop

Long House at Onondaga
Going to Fight the Iroquois
First Battle with the Iroquois .
Samuel de Champlain

Lake Champlain .
Attack on the Iroquois Fort
Fortified Town of the Onondagas
Governor Colden

Mount Hope.

King Philip .
Captain Benjamin Church ;
Fight at Tiverton .

The Great Swamp Fight in Rh 10de Island

Lancaster Attacked

Death of King Philip .

Ninigret re
Defence of the Garrison-housce.
Oglethorpe’s Landing .

General Oglethorpe

Cherokees

Francis Marion .

John Ross . ;
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle.
Indians attacking the Settlers .
Major Waldron’s Terrible Fight .
Schenectady .

Scene of Operations— French and Indian

. 187)
. 188
. 190
. 191
» . 195
Garrison-house at Oyster River success-

. 197

Wars
Peter Schuyler .
Pemaquid.
Old Fort Frederick, at “Pemaquid.
Old Church in St. Regis .

fully Defended .



ILLUSTRATIONS,

Governor Shirley

Washington as a Virginia Colonel
Benjamin Franklin

Horatio Gates

Daniel Morgan .

Braddock’s Defeat .

Sir William Johnson .
Johnson’s House

Hendrick . Lo ,
Indian Raid on a Settlement
Louis Joseph Montcalm .
Oswego in 1755 .

3 | Fort William Henry .

St. John (1776) .

Capture of Fort Duqucsne (1758) ,

An Indian Ambush

Major Robert Rogers .

Ruins of Ticonderoga.
Country around Ticonderoga ,
John Stark Loe,
Stark captured by Indians .

'The Retreat of the Rangers.
) | Rogers’s Rock
Head of Lake George.

Site of Fort Anne .

The French Commander saving Putnam
Major Israel Putnam in British Uni-

. 256
. 207
. 259
. 264
. 266
. 268
. 269

form toe
Putnam saving Fort Edward
Crown Point .
Trading with the Indians
Pontiac, and the Siege of Detroit .
Detroit River and Vicinity ,
Pontiac and Gladwyn
Pontiac’s Attack on the Fort
Old Fort Michilimackinac .

er by a Song of Childhood .
Fort Niagara
Isaac Shelby .
General Burgoyne .

dians

PAGE

. 204
. 209
. 211
/ 212
. 213
. 214
. 216
. 216
. 217
» 220
» 223
. Red,
» 224
. 226
» 229
. 28

. 240
. 24t
» 242
. 248
. 247

250

. 201
. 202

253

270

. 2 277
Restored Captive recognizing its Moth-

. 287
. 290
. 292
. . 294
| Burgoyne making a Speech t to the In-

. 295
ILLUSTRATIONS. 11

PAGE

Fort Stanwix (afterward Fort Schuyler)
and Vicinity. . . . . . . , , 296
Colonel Barry St. Leger. . . ,. , , 296
Joseph Brant . . . . . . . . , 297
Colonel Peter Gansevoort . . . . . 298
General Herkimer directing the Battle . 299
Battle-field at Oriskany . . . . . . 801
Marinus Willett . . . . . . .) . 801
Benedict Arnold . . . . . . . . 802
George Rogers Clarke . . . . . . 3807
John Sullivan . . woe ew ew 6. 810
Newtown Battle- field . - oe ew eh) B11
James Clinton . . . . . . . .) . 812
Andrew Pickens . . . . . . . . 818
Red Jacket . . . . .. . . .) . 814
Daniel Boone .. . . . BLT
Emigrants’ Camp Attacked. . . . . B18
Boone’s Fort. . . . . . . .) .) . 822
Graves of Daniel Boone and his Wife . 823
Boone at the Blue Licks. . . . . 828

Boone fighting over the Dead Body of
hisSon ..... . . . . +. 880
Burning the Prisoners . . . . . . 338
Kenton and his Deliverer . . . . . 334
Simon Kenton . . . . 2 ee. 885

Map of the North-western Territor y. . 887

Fort Washington—Site of Cincinnati . 338
Fort Harmar. . . . . . . . ~ .) . 889
Fort Waynein1812 . . . . . . . 848
James Wilkinson . . . . . . . . 844
Arthur St. Clair 2. 2. . . . . . 844
General Wayne. . . . . .. . . 847
Fort Defiance . . . ... . . . 848
The Maumee Ford—Place of Harmar’ S
Defeat. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2 2... B49
Ruins of Fort Miami. . . . . . . 850
Little Turtles Grave. . . . . .) . B51
Tecumseh. . . . Lee ee BOD
Elkswatawa, the Prophet 2 owe BOD
Fort Harrison . ... . . 807
Tippecanoe Battle-gr ound | in 1860 d09
William Hull . 2... B61





William Fustis . . . . . 862)

PAGE
Duncan MacArthur . . . . . . . 862
Lewis Cass,1860 . . . . . . .) . 868
Colonel James Miller. . . . . . . 8368
Maguaga Battle-ground . . . . . . 364
Fort Mackinac. . .. .. . . . 865
Fort Dearborn, 1812 . . . . . . . 866
Zachary Taylor. . .. . 368
Monroe, from the Battle- field — Site of
Winchester’s Defeat . . . . . . 369
Siege of Fort Meigs . . . . . .) . 871
General Green Clay . . . . . .) , 871
William Henry Harrison . . . . , 8%
Appearance of the Thames Battle-
ground in 1860. . . . 2. . . . 874
Oshawahnah. . 2... 2. . . . BY
Battle of the Thames. . . . . . . 8%6
Colonel Richard M. Johnson . . . . 897
Seat of War in Southern Alabama . . 380
Tecumseh’s Speech . . 2. . .) .) , 888
Fort Mims . . . oe we. B85
Andrew Jackson in i814 » ow. . . 888
Battle of Talladega . 2. . 1. 2... 889
The Canoe Fight . 2. . 2... .) . 891
General John Coffee . . . . . . . 894
The Battle of the Horseshoe . . . . 895
Samuel Houston . . . . . . . . 895
James Monroe... . . . . 899
Black Hawk. . . . . . . 400
General Winfield Scott in 1360 » «© . 408
Scene of the Seminole War. . . . . 405
General D. L. Clinch. . . . .) .) . 407
Osceola... . 1. . ww ee 409
Osceola’s Grave. . . . . . . 410
Edmund Pendleton Gaines wo.) ALI
Old Spanish Fort, St. Augustine... 418
Followinga Trail. . 2... . .) 2 417
Billy Bowlegs . . . 2... 421
St. Augustine . . . . . . . . . 424
Little Crow . . . 2. . 1 1... 426
General Sibley . . 2. . 1... 4R7
Lieutenant-colonel Marshall . . . . 428
Capture of Indian Camp. . . . . . 429
Little Paul... ww www. 429
12 ILLUSTRATIONS.

Sioux Village
Medicine-chicf .

PAGE

. 430
. 482

Sioux Chief forbidding Passage through

his Country .
An Apache Warrior
Fetterman’s Massacre.
Philip Henry Sheridan
Capture of Black Kettle’s Camp .
Little Raven, Chief of the Arapahoes
Major-general George Crook
Sitting Bull . .
Major-gencral George A. Custer
Spotted Tail . Lo
Satanta, Chief of the Kiowas
Captain Jack and his Companions

. 483
. 489
. 437
. 489
. 441
. 444
. 445
. 446
. AAT
. 448
. 449
. 450





On the War-path
Lava Beds Cee ee
Captain Jack’s Cave and Stronghold.
Lake and Camps in the Distance.
General E. R. 8S. Canby
Modoes in their Stronghold.
Massacre of the Commissioners by the
Modocs tee
Joseph, the Nez Percé Warrior
Nez Percé Boy and Papoose
Battle of Cafion Creek
General O. O. Howard
Advance of the Skirmish Line
General Nelson A. Miles.

Kkit Carson

oe ofa
tot
ee

:

co ,
~~ >
New we ww

PAGH
. 451
. 458

yt

-_

. AT
. 459
. 460
. 461
. 463
. 465
. 468
. 469














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INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN.

Re" young people who live east of the Mississippi River have ever

seen an Indian. Nearly all are familiar with pictures of him, or have
read stories about him. Most of these stories are highly colored, and rep-
resent him as more or less than human, and not at all as he really is.
Even those who have made a study of the Indian differ widely in their
estimate of him.

Perhaps you will ask how it happens that the Indians are now aliens
and paupers in a land of which they were once the undisputed possessors 4
It is easy to see how it all came about, but it is a story by no means cred-
itable to the white man. In the first place, the European sovereigns
claimed their lands by right of discovery. Precisely as though you should
claim another boy’s sled because it was the first time you had seen it, and
then should wrest it from him because you were the stronger. This is
just what the white man did to the Indian: in plain language, robbed
him.

It is true that in some cases lands were bought of the natives, but the
Indian had no idea of exclusive ownership in land, and supposed he was
giving the white man only an equal privilege in it with himself. The
price paid was often insignificant enough. Tor the territory now covered
by the great city of New York the Indians received twenty-four pounds
about one hundred and twenty dollars—a sum which would now buy
little more than a square foot of it.

One way to cheat the Indian out of his land was this: a tract of ter-
ritory granted by the Delawares to William Penn fifty years before was
to extend in a given direction as far as a man could walk in a day and a
half, and from this point eastwardly to the Delaware River. The Indians
justly complained that, instead of walking, the men appointed by the pro-


14 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

prietors ran. Not only did they run, bat they had previously cut a path
through the forest and removed whatever could hinder their swift passage.
This was not all. Instead of running the northern line direct to the Dela-
ware, the plain meaning of the deed, the proprietors inclined it so far to
the north as to form an acute angle with the river.

By these fraudulent methods they gained possession of many hundred
thousand acres of valuable land which the Indians had no intention of
surrendering, and from which they were compelled immediately to re-
move. This and other injuries and aggressions ended in a terrible border
war, in which the French joined the Delawares against the English.

When the Indian turned upon his white oppressor, the effort was
inade to crush and exterminate him. By alternate wars and treaties he
was pushed back from his ancient seats, until at length, cooped up in reser-
vations under the eye of the military, he is fed and clothed by the gov-
ernment, having no rights as a citizen.

To this state of things there are some notable exceptions. In the In-
dian Territory the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Semi-
noles, known as the Five Civilized Tribes, ive under a government of
their own; in New York the remaining Iroquois, having become civilized,
are citizens; in New Mexico the Pueblo Indians are semi-civilized; and
in Michigan and North Carolina there are a few Indians not on reserva-
tions. All these are self-supporting.

Is it to be wondered at that the Indian has made no greater progress
in civilization? If white men had been treated as he has been, and placed
beyond the necessity of labor, they would quickly become worthless vaga-
bonds. It will not do to assume the inherent inferiority of the red men.
We must remember that, like them, our British ancestors were savages,
who painted their bodies, clothed themselves in the skins of wild beasts,
and lived in rude huts in a country covered with forests and swamps.

The folly and wickedness of most of our Indian wars is only too ap-
parent when we reflect that the injury the Indian could inflict upon the
innocent settlers on our border was many times greater than we could
possibly inflict upon him, and that simple justice and honesty in our deal-
ings with him would have prevented them altogether.

It was a blunder—the first of a long series in our dealings with them
—to call the natives “Indians.” On discovering America, Columbus sup-
posed he had reached India, the object of his voyage. Indeed, the great
navigator died in ignorance of the fact that he had discovered a new con-
tinent. To this day the lands he first saw are known as the West Indies.

It is supposed that this country was inhabited by an earlier race of
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 1d



CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS,

men called Mound Builders from the earthworks of various forms and
sizes found in the valley of the Mississippi and elsewhere.

In Wisconsin many of these mounds are in the form of gigantic
animals. T’he builders must have been familiar with the mastodon, or
elephant, judging from the “ Big Elephant” mound found a few miles
below the mouth of the Wisconsin River. It is 135 feet long, and well
proportioned. One in Adams County, Ohio, represents a serpent 1000
16 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

feet long, its body gracefully curved, and its open jaws about to swallow
a figure shaped like an egg.

The great mound of Cahokia, opposite St. Louis, is 90 feet in height
and 700 feet in length. Unity of design and mathematical precision of
construction appear in all these works, most of which are of a defensive
character, and in which are represented the square, the circle, the octagon,
and the rhomb. They have gate-ways, parallel lines, and outlooks ; and it
is evident that they are the results of the labors of a vast number of men
directed by a single governing mind having a definite object in view. At
Newark, Ohio, a fortification exists which covers an area of several miles,
and has over two miles of embankment from two to twenty feet high.







NEWARK EARTHWORK,

The present native race has neither knowledge nor tradition respecting
these singular remains. Their builders have left us no other record than
the mounds themselves, and the tools and ornaments, some of them of
copper, and the tastefully moulded pottery found in them.

A probable conjecture about this mysterious people is that they were
village Indians of New Mexico, and that some of these earthworks were
the foundations of their long houses, in which great numbers of them
lived, and that they were finally driven off by fierce savage hordes from
the West and North. Their houses, being of wood, long since disap-
peared.*

Let me now tell you what the Indian is like. Picture to yourselves
a man with straight black hair, a scanty beard, small black eyes, high
cheek-bones, large thick lips, a narrow forehead, and a reddish-brown or



* A valuable paper in vol. i. of the Smithsonian ‘Contributions to Knowledge,”
by Squier and Davis, contains much information relative to the aboriginal monuments
in the Mississippi valley.
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. tt

cinnamon complexion, and you have a tolerably correct idea of how the
North American Indian appears. Though divided into seven or eight
stocks or families, each speaking a different language, the Indians through-
out the United States have a common physical likeness and similar
manners and institutions.

The principal of these great di-
visions or families are:

Algonkins » found throughout
the eastern portion of the country,
from Nova Scotia to North Caro-
lina, and west to the Mississippi.
They covered sixty degrees of lon-
gitude and twenty degrees of lati-
tude, and numbered 90,000—more
than one-third of the entire Indian
population.

Lroquois, or Five Nations; in
western and central New York, and,
farther north, the Zwrons, or Wyan-
dots.

Dakotas, or Sioux; west of the
Algonkins, and extending from the
Saskatchewan River to southern Ar-
kansas, and from the Mississippi to
the Rocky Mountains. :

Muskokis, or Appalachians ; all the south-eastern part of the United
States, extending west to the Mississippi. They embraced the Cherokees,
Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, Uchees, and several other small
tribes.

Shoshonis, or Snakes; this division forms six groups, extending over
parts of Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, Arizona,
Texas, California, and New Mexico.

Besides these are the Athabascas, Yumas, and New Mexican Pueblos.
The first are, perhaps, the most numerous, inhabiting Alaska, Canada, and
a part of Oregon. The Yumas inhabit Arizona and California. The
Pueblos (village Indians) speak six different languages. The wide di-
versity of tongues in these twenty-six towns in New Mexico, of similar
habits and social life, is a most singular circumstance.

All these great families were divided into numerous tribes and clans,
and these again into smaller tribes, bands, and villages. They are now

@

al





A NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN.
18 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

distributed among one hundred reservations, and more than half of them
wear citizen’s dress. Some of these reservations are very extensive; that
of the Sioux, in Dakota, is larger than the State of New York. The In-
dian Territory, with a population of 76,585, of whom more than one-fourth
are yet uncivilized, contains some thirty-five tribes or parts of tribes.

Having shown you how the Indian appears, I will now tell you what
he is.

The characteristic traits of the Indian are such as are common to all
barbarous races. Ambitious, vindictive, cruel, envious, and suspicious,
he is also sagacious, warlike, and courageous, and, at the same time, ex-
cessively cautious. Revenge is with him a sacred duty. Treacherous and
deceitful to his foes, he prefers to slay his enemy by a secret rather than
an open blow.

On the other hand, he loves liberty passionately; will brave famine,
torture, and even death in the pursuit of glory; is strongly affectionate
to his family; hospitable to the extent of sharing his last morsel with a
stranger, though famine stares him in the face; faithful in friendship, he
will lay down his life for his comrade, and never forgets a kindness. THe
is grave, dignified, and patient, and possesses a stoicism that enables him
to control his emotions under the most trying circumstances. His out-
door life and habitual self-control keep him from all effeminate vices.
He uses tobacco for smoking only, and, before the white man came, was
happily ignorant even of the existence of intoxicating drinks.

The superiority of Indian hospitality to that of the white man was, no
doubt, truly stated by Canassatego, a chief of the Six Nations, in a con-
versation with an Enghsh friend:

“Tf,” said he, “a white man enters one of our cabins, we all treat him
as I do you; we dry him if he is wet, we warm him if he is cold, and give
him meat and drink that he may allay his thirst and hunger, and we spread
soft furs for him to rest and sleep on. We demand nothing in return.
But if I go into a white man’s house in Albany and ask for victuals and
drink, they say, ‘Where is your money? and, if I have none, they say,
‘Get out, you Indian dog!”

Out of many instances of Indian humanity I select that of Petalashara,
a distinguished Pawnee brave. The son of a chief, he had, at the age
of twenty-one, earned from his tribe the title accorded to the celebrated
French soldier, Marshal Ney, “the bravest of the brave.”

A female captive was about to suffer torture at the stake in accordance
with Indian custom. horrible scene.
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 19

The brave, unobserved, had stationed two fleet horses near at hand, and
silently waited the moment for action. The flames were about to envelop
the victim, when, to the astonishment of all, Petalashara was seen severing
the cords that bound her, and, with the swiftness of thought, bearmg her
off in his arms; and then, placing her upon one horse, and himself mount-
ing the other, he bore her safely away to her friends and country. Such
an act would have endangered the life of any ordinary warrior; but
such was his sway over the tribe that no one presumed to censure the
daring act.

Though not the equal of the white man in bodily strength, the Indian
was his superior in endurance and fleetness of foot. Some of their best
runners could make seventy or eighty miles in a day through the unbroken
wilderness. A close observer of natural phenomena, in the densest forest
the Indian could travel for miles in a straight line, and could note signs
and sounds the white man could not perceive. His temperament is poetic
and imaginative, and his simple eloquence possesses great dignity and
force.

A little anecdote will give an idea of his native wit and shrewdness.
A half-naked Indian was looking on at some workmen in the employ of
Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts.

“Why don’t you work and get yourself some clothes?’ asked the
governor.

“Why don’t you work ?’ retorted the son of the forest.

“JT work head-work,” said Dudley, pointing to his head.

The Indian said he was willing to work, and agreed to kill a calf for
the governor. Having done so, he came for his pay.

‘“ But,” said the governor, “ you have not dressed the calf.”

“No, no,” said the Indian; “1 was to have a shilling for killing him.
Am he no dead, governor?” Finding himself out-witted, the governor
gave him another shilling for dressing it. It was not long before the
Indian came back demanding a good shilling in place of a bad one which
he claimed that the governor had paid him. The governor gave him
another. Returning a second time with still another brass piece to be
exchanged, the governor, convinced of his knavery, offered him half a
crown if he would deliver a letter for him. The letter was directed to
the keeper of the prison, and ordered him to give the bearer a certain
number of lashes.

The Indian suspected that all was not right, and, meeting a servant of
the governor, induced him to take the letter to its address. The result
of the Indian’s stratagem was that a severe whipping was administered to
20 ; INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

the unfortunate servant. The governor was greatly chagrined at being a
second time out-witted by the Indian. On falling in with him some time
after, he accosted him with some severity, asking him how he had dared
to cheat and deceive him so many times.

‘“‘ Head-work, governor; head-work,”’ was the reply. Pleased at the
fellow’s wit and audacity, the governor freely forgave him.

Perhaps some of my younger readers may wonder how people could
exist in a wilderness where there were no houses to live in, no markets
where they could buy food, and no stores in which clothing and other
necessary articles could be procured. If they look into the matter, they
will find that the Creator had provided whatever was required by their
simple mode of life, and that they had no artificial wants. For these they
were indebted to the white man.

Formerly the Indians were clad in the skins of animals; a robe and
breech cloth for the man, and a short petticoat for the women. On great
occasions, as councils or war-dances, they daubed themselves with paint,
the color being varied for joy or grief, peace or war. They also decorated
themselves with beads, feathers, por-
cupine quills, and parts of birds and
animals. The women wore their
hair long, the men shaved theirs off,
except the scalp-lock, which was left
as a point of honor.

For food the Indian relied upon
the chase, the fisheries, and agricult-
ure. Maize, or Indian corn, was his
principal food. It grew luxuriantly
without cultivation, was gathered by
hand and roasted before the fire ;
a small supply of it parched and
pounded sufficed for a long journey.
=== Ile also raised beans and pumpkins,

MOCCASINS. and a little tobacco. If all other

supplies failed, he had nuts, roots,

berries, and acorns, which grew wild. His cooking was simple and with-

out seasoning, usually by roasting over a. fire. Baking was done in

holes in the ground, and water was boiled by throwing heated stones
into it.

Most of the natives lived in cabins or wigwams. These were made by


























































































































































































oC 4

HAR TO

AS
Roce ate a
TURAN ANT BANAL

hu





ZUNI DWELLINGS.
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 28

fixing long poles in the ground, bending them towards each other at the
top, and covering them outside with bark or skins, and inside with mats.
A. bear-skin served for the door; an opening in the roof was the chimney.
There were no windows. It could be quickly set up and easily removed.
Its size was proportioned to the number it was to hold. In these dirty,
smoky habitations men, women, and children huddled together. Some of
the tribes built permanent villages, with streets and rows of houses; these
were generally surrounded with palisades of logs and brushwood. Nearly
all the tribes changed their abode at different seasons in pursuit of the
various kinds of game.

A remarkable exception to the usual form of the Indian dwelling is
found among the Pueblo, or village, Indians of New Mexico.

In the face of a line of cliffs extending over sixty miles on the west-
érn side of the Rio Grande, between Cochiti and Santa Clara, are seen
numerous excavations which had once been human habitations, but which
are now in ruins. At a distance they look like a long line of dark spots.
They were approached by foot-paths and stairways cut in the rock, which
was soft and easily worked, and were in tiers of two, three, four, and
occasionally five, rows, one above the other and not far apart. The only
entrance was by an arch-shaped door-way, widening until there was room
enough within for a single family. Wooden structures in front served
as out-door habitations for the women and children.

So numerous are these caves that one hundred thousand persons might
have lived at once where only a few hundred of their descendants now
dwell. It is wonderful how this region, which is exceedingly desolate,
volcanic, and sterile, and in which there are few watercourses, could have
sustained such a dense population.

The fort-like community houses of the Zui Indians outwardly present
one unbroken wall of hard mud. Their inner faces consist of a series of
terraces or houses, piled one above the other, from two to five stories in
height. ach tier above is less than the one beneath by the width of one
story, and is entered over the roof of the tier below. Formerly the only
house-doors were hatchways in the roof; and to enter their habitation the
family—babies, dogs, and all—went up an outside ladder to the roof, and
down an inside ladder to the floor. Narrow door-ways cut in the rock are
now made use of. |

The Indian’s implements of husbandry were of the rudest kind, yet
he had learned many useful arts. He knew the art of striking fire; of
making the bow with the string of sinew, and the arrow-head both of
flint and bone; of making vessels of pottery; of curing and tanning skins;


24 " INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

of making moccasins, snow-shoes, and wearing apparel, together with va-
rious implements and utensils of stone, wood, and bone; of rope and net
making from fibres of bark; of finger-weaving with warp and woof the
same materials into sashes, burden-
straps, and other useful fabrics; of
weaving rush-mats; of making pipes
of clay or stone, often artistically
carved; of basket-making with osier,
cane, and splints; of canoe-making
—the skin, bireh-bark, and that hol-
lowed from the trunk of a tree; of
constructing timber-framed lodges
and skin tents; of shaping stone
on mauls, hammers, axes, and chisels; of

y making fish spears, nets, and bone

Wit, Aeg@ <
Vr \ \
Ci Mee hooks; implements for athletic

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Cac AN

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SaeQOQ WSs games; musical instruments, such as
















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WS

BOWL OF INDIAN PIPE. the flute and the drum; weapons and
ornaments of shell, bone, and stone.

Ilis most ingenious inventions were the snow-shoe, the birch canoe,
the method of dressing the skins of animals with the brains, and the
Dakota tent, or tepee, the model of the Sibley army tent. With the
snow-shoe he could travel forty miles a day over the surface of the snow,
and easily overtake the deer and the moose, whose hoofs penetrated the
crust and prevented their escape. The bark canoe, sometimes thirty feet
Jong and carrying twelve persons, was very light and easily propelled.







SNOW-SHOE.

The bark of the tree was stripped off whole and stretched over a hight,
white cedar frame. The edges were sewed with thongs, and then covered
with gum. They varied in pattern, drew little water, and were often
graceful in shape. The Iroquois used elm - bark, the Algonkins birch,
The Pacific tribes made baskets, some of which were so skilfully woven
as to hold water,
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 25

In hunting, the bow and arrow, and sometimes the dart or spear, were
used. The smaller animals were trapped. When game was plenty it was
sometimes driven into an enclosure and killed. The southern tribes used
the lasso and stone balls attached to hide ropes. Fish were taken in nets,
and with bone hooks, or speared.

Though the Indian believed his own way of life superior to all others,
and in accordance with the design of the Great Spirit, and detested civil-
ization, he has been unable to resist its progress. The gun has taken the

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CANOE AND HOUSE OF SOUTHERN INDIANS.

place of the bow and arrow, and his rude arts and implements have grad-
ually been replaced by those of greater utility and simplicity. The print-
ing-press is already employed by the Cherokees, who publish a newspaper
in their own language at Tahlequah; another is issued at Caddo, in the
Creek nation, in the Creek or Choctaw tongue. The plough is in very
general use among the tribes.

Taving no alphabet, the aborigines conveyed their ideas to the eye by
means of rude pictures of visible objects engraved upon smooth stones or
26 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

the bark of trees, and sometimes drawn on the skins of animals. Their
records of treaties were kept by strings or belts of wampum made of shells
and beads, which was also in use as money. These beads were commonly
used for ornament. Ten thousand of them have been known to be
wrought into a single war-belt four inches wide.

The accompanying sketch was copied from a tree on the banks of the
Muskingum River, Ohio. The characters were drawn with charcoal and



HEN =

PICTURE-WRITING.

bear’s oil. It deseribes the part borne in Pontiac’s war by the Delawares
of the Muskingum, under the noted chief, Wingemund.

No. 1 represents the oldest and main branch of the Delaware tribe by
its ancient symbol, the tortoise. No. 2 is the totem, or armorial badge,
of Wingemund, denoting him to be the actor. No. 3 is the sun; the
ten horizontal strokes beneath it denote the number of war-parties in
which this chief had participated. No. 4 represents men’s scalps. No. 5,
women’s scalps. No. 6, male prisoners. No.7, female prisoners. No. 8,
a small fort situated on the banks of Lake Erie, which was taken by the
Indians in 1762, by surprise. No. 9 represents the fort at Detroit, under
the command of Major Gladwyn, which, in 1768, resisted a siege of three
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 27

months. No. 10 is Fort Pitt, denoted by its striking position on the ex-
treme point of land at the confluence of the Alleghany and the Monon-
gahela rivers. No. 11 signifies the incipient town near it. The eleven
crosses or figures arranged below the tortoise denote the number of per-
sons who were either killed or taken prisoners by this chief; the prison-
ers are distinguished from the slain by the figure of a ball or circle above
the cross-figure denoting a head. Those devices without the circle are
symbols of the slain; but four out of the eleven appear to have been
women, and of these two were retained as prisoners. It appears that but
two of the six men were led into captivity. The twenty-three nearly
vertical strokes at the foot of the inscription indicate the strength of the
chieftain’s party. The inclination denotes the course of their march to
the scene of conflict. This course, in the actual position of the tribe,
and of the side of the tree chosen to depict it, was northward. As an
evidence of the order and exactitude of these rude memorials in record-
ing facts, it is to be observed that the number of persons captured or
killed in each expedition of the chief is set on the left of the picture,
exactly opposite the symbolical mark of the expedition.

Similar devices upon Indian grave-posts commemorate the family and
the deeds of the deceased. The one here repre-
sented is that of Wabojeeg, a celebrated Chippewa
war-chief. He was of the family of the Addik, or
American Reindeer. This fact is represented by
the figure of a deer. The reversed position de-
notes death. The seven transverse marks on the
left denote that he had led seven war-parties. The
three perpendicular lines below the totem repre-
sent three wounds received in battle. The figure
of a moose’s head denotes a desperate conflict with
an enraged animal of that kind. The symbols of
the arrow and pipe indicate his influence in war
and peace. The Indians mourned their dead sin-
cerely and preserved their remains with affection-
ate veneration.

The famous Dighton Rock inscription, once
ascribed to the Northmen, is now known to be
merely the record of a battle between two Indian
tribes. The amazement of the vanquished at the
sudden assault of the victors is shown by their being deprived of both
hands and arms, or the power of resistance. Nothing in the inscription



GRAVE-POST.
28 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

denotes a foreigner, nor is there any figure or sign for any weapon or
implement brought by white men from beyond the sea. This interesting
object is situated on the border of the Taunton River.





































































































THE DIGHTON ROCK INSCRIPTION,

Each tribe had its sachem or civil chief, and regarded itself as a sover-
eign and independent nation. The form of government was patriarchal.
The sachem had no power except through the influence of his wisdom and
ability. Any one could be a war-chief whose tried bravery and prudence
on the war-path enabled him to raise volunteers. The sachem was Roi
times a woman. The succession of chiefs was through the female line
a brother or nephew succeeding instead of a son. )

As there were no written laws, their government rested on opinion and
custom, and these were all-powerful. Each man was his own protector
and avenger. Murder was retaliated by the next of kin, and family and
tribal strifes thus caused often continued from Senerition to ene
Each village had its independent government, one long building in each
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 29

being devoted to festivals, dances, and public councils. The affairs of the
nation were transacted only in a general council.

In these assemblies, in which the Indian took great delight, strict order
was kept. Seated in a semicircle on the ground, painted and tattooed, the
chiefs adorned with feathers, with the beak of the red-bird or the claws
of the bear, they smoked in silence, and listened attentively to the speaker.
There was no war of words, no discord. They used tobacco in all their
important assemblies, and the pipe was the symbol of peace.

A common emblem, called the totem, consisting of the figure of some
beast, bird, or reptile, formed the distinguishing mark of the tribes or
smaller clans, serving the same purpose with them as the family name
does with us. The tortoise, the bear, the beaver, the turtle, and the wolf
were the totems of the “first families.’ The figure representing the
totem of his tribe was tattooed upon the Indian’s breast. The spirit of the
anlmal was supposed es-
pecially to favor the clan
thus represented.

Marriage could not
be contracted between
kindred of near degree,
or families having the
same totem. Ilusband
and wife in the same
family must be of dif-
ferent clans If the
presents of the lover to
the father of his intend-
ed were accepted, she
became his wife, though
neither may have spo-
ken to the other, and for
a while the husband had ss
a home in her father’s INDIAN COUNCIL.
lodge. The presents
have been known to be returned and the match broken off because there

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was no powder-horn sent.

A. peculiar method of match-making prevails aunong the Moquis of
New Mexico—a simple, happy, and most hospitable people. There the
fair one selects the youth who pleases her, and her father proposes the
match te the sire of the fortunate swain. Such is the gallantry of the
30 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

sterner sex in this region that the proposition is never refused. The pre-
liminaries being arranged, the young man on his part furnishes two pairs
of moccasins, two fine blankets, two mattresses, and two of the sashes used
at the feast, while the maiden for her share provides an abundance of
. eatables, and the mar-
riage is celebrated by
feasting and dancing.

The love of the In-
dian mother for her off-
spring is strong and con- —
stant, yet her treatment
of her child during in-
fancy seems to us cruel
and unfeeling. To the
cradle made of thin
pieces of light wood,
and ornamented with
poreupine’s quills, beads,

INDIAN CRADLE. and rattles, the infant,

carefully wrapped in

furs, is securely tied. Thus bandaged, it is carried by the mother, its

back to hers, or, while she works in the field, is suspended from the limb

of a tree. In this way the future warrior takes his first lesson in endur-

ance. The patience and quiet of the Indian child in this close confinement

are quite wonderful. Children are left pretty much to themselves; their

assistance in household labor is voluntary, and they are seldom scolded or
beaten.

The strength of the paternal tie among the Indians is seen in the act
of Bianswah, a Chippewa chief, as related by Schooleraft. In his absence
from home his son was captured by a hostile band. On reaching his wig-
wam the old man heard the terrible news, and, knowing what the fate of
his son would be, he followed on the trail of the enemy alone, and reached
their village while they were preparing to roast their captive alive. Step-
ping boldly into the arena, he offered to take his son’s place.

“ My son,” said he, “has seen but a few winters; his feet have never
trod the war-path; but the hairs of my head are white; I have hung
many scalps over the graves of my relatives which I have taken from the
heads of your warriors; kindle the fire about me, and send my son home

to my lodge.” The offer was accepted, and the old chief suffered torture
to save his son.

a
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NaN

aX


WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 3

Vilial devotion is finely illustrated in the story of Nadowaqua, the
daughter of a chief who lived in the vicinity of Michilimackinac. This
chief, known as Le Grand Sable, was able, politic, and brave. He had
been a warm friend of the French, and was one of the prominent actors
in the memorable capture of old Fort Michilimackinac in 1763, related
farther on.

Many years afterwards, when he had become quite aged, he accompa-
nied his relatives, in the month of March, on their annual journey to the
forests which yield the sugar-maple. After this season, which is one of
enjoyment with the Indians, was over, and they had packed their effects
to return, it was found that the old chief was unable to sustain the
journey.

His daughter Nadowaqua determined to carry him on her shoulders
to his wigwam. For this purpose she took her long stout deer-skin ape-
kun, or head-strap, and, fastening it around his body, bent herself strongly
forward under the load, then rose under the pious burden, and took the
path to Lake Michigan. It is usual to put down the burdens at fixed
points or resting-places on the way. In this manner she brought her
father safely to the shore of the lake, a distance of ten miles!

The feat of Atneas in carrying Anchises on his shoulders through the
flames of Troy is rivalled here by that of a simple Algonkin woman.

Most of the hard work is done by the women, in order that the bodies
of the men may be kept supple and active for the purposes of war and the
chase. The Indian had no cow or domestic beast of burden, and regarded
all labor as degrading and fit only for women. His wife was his slave.
With rude implements she cultivated the ground and reaped the harvest,
while he amused himself playing, gambling, singing, eating, or sleeping.
In their journeys the poles of the wigwam are borne upon her shoulders.
Much of her time is occupied in making moccasins and in quill work.

The Indian’s amusements were running, leaping, wrestling, paddling,
shooting at a mark, games of ball and with small stones, dances and
feasts. His chief resource from inactivity was gambling. He would stake
his arms, the furs that covered him, his stock of winter provisions, his
cabin, his wife, even his own freedom, on the chances of play. Among
their field-sports one of the commonest is the casting of stones, in which
they attain astonishing skill and precision. Their dances were numerous,
and formed part of their religious observances and warlike preparations,
as well as merry-makings. ‘The women generally danced apart.

The fleeka, or arrow-dance, practised by the Pueblo Indians in Arizona,
is a picturesque performance. One of the braves is led up in front of his
39 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.













































































































THE INDIANS AT HOME,

friends, who are drawn up in two ranks. Here he is placed upon one
knee, his bow and arrow in his hand, when the Malinchi, a handsomely
attired young girl, commences the dance. From her right wrist hangs the
skin of a silver-gray fox, and bells that Jingle with every motion are fixed
at the end of her embroidered scarf.

At first she dances along the line in front, and by her movements shows
that she is describing the war-path. Slowly and steadily she pursues; sud-
denly her step quickens; she has come in sight of the enemy. The brave
follows. her with his eye, and, by the motion of his head, implies that she
is right. She dances faster and faster; suddenly she seizes an arrow from
him, and now by her frantic gestures it is plain that the fight has begun

in earnest. She points with the arrow, shows how it wings its course,




































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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Wy


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a) li

SCALP DANCE,

A
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 30

how the scalp was taken and her tribe victorious. As she concludes the
dance and returns the arrow to the brave, fire-arms are discharged, and the
whole party wend their way to the publie square to make room for other
parties, who keep up the dance until dark.

Boys were trained from infancy to feats of dexterity and courage, gain-
ing a name and a position only on returning from a warlike expedition.
A “feast was always given for a boy’s first success in the chase. A spirit
of emulation and a thirst for glory was awakened in him by stories of the

exploits of his ancestors. As soon as he was old enough, he travelled the
war-path that he might earn the feather of the war-eagle for his hair, and
boast of his exploits in the great war-dance and feast of his band.

War was the Indian’s chief delight and glory, and between many of
the tribes it was of constant occurrence. When a war was about to break
out, some leading chief would paint himself black all over and retire to
the forest. There he remained, fasting and praying, until he could dream
of a great war-eagle hovering over him. This was the favorable omen;
and, returning to his band, he would call them to battle and certain vic-
tory, assuring them that the Great Spirit was on their side.

Ile would then give a feast to his warriors, at which he would appear
in war-paint of bright and startling colors, setting before his guests wooden
dishes containing dog-flesh, a great luxury. The chief himself sat smok-
ing, his fast not yet ended.

The war-dance foliowed. If at night, the scene was lighted up by the
blaze of fires and burning pine-knots. A painted post would be driven into
the ground, and the warriors, their faces painted in a frightful manner,
formed a cirele around it. The chief would then leap into the open space,
brandishing his hatchet, chanting his exploits, and, striking at the post as if
it were an enemy, he would go through all the motions of actual fight.
Warrior after warrior would follow his example, till at last the whole band
would be dancing, striking and stabbing at the air, and yelling like so
many fiends.

Next morning they would leave the camp in single file, discharging
their guns one after another as they entered the forest. Halting near
the village, they would strip off their ornaments, and hand them over to
the women who had followed them for this purpose. They would then
move silently on. These parties were generally small, as their warfare
was one of patient watchtfulness, stealthy approaches, stratagems, and sur-
prises. Following an cnemy’s trail, they killed him as he slept, or lay in
ambush near a village, watching for an opportunity to pounce upon an
individual and take his scalp. The sealp-lock was an emblem of chivalry,
36 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and was left upon the head of the warrior as a sort of defiance—a way of
saying, “Take it if you can.” This trophy the warrior hung in his cabin
a a e e e e . 7 e
on his return. There was no dishonor in killing an unarmed enemy, or In
private deceit’ and treachery. It was no disgrace to run away when there
| seemed no chance of success. ‘Torture
te and the stake enabled the victim to dis-
ey play what the Indian considered a he-




















mh Boge) roie virtue — power of endurance, the
/ Mc triumph of mind over matter. He
: ye: thought the meaning and intent of war
a ots a . was to inflict all possible pain and injury

SS a) on his foe.
WS The war weapons of the Indian were

the bow and arrow, the spear, and the
club. Until the breech-loading rifle was
SUALP. invented the bow and arrow remained
the most effective, as they were the most
ancient, means of slaughter of animals in droves. The arrow-point is of
chert, hornstone, or flint. Spears were pointed with similar material.
The arrow, two and a half feet long, is feathered for about five inches
beyond the place where it is held in drawing the bow. The feathers are
placed in a form a little winding, thus keeping the tail of the shaft nearly
in the rear of the head, and causing a rotary motion which insures ac-
curacy in its course. The war-club, of heavy wood, is usually elaborately
ornamented with war-eagle feathers and with painted devices. The prai-
rie tribes use a shield made of raw buffalo hide contracted and hardened
by an ingenious application of fire. It is oval or circular in form, is about
two feet in diameter, and is worn on the left arm. It is elaborately
painted, and decorated with eagle’s feathers. It is effectual against ar-
rows, but is not proof against a rifle ball that strikes it squarely.

Their love of freedom and impatience of control made military
discipline impossible, and no large body of Indians could be kept together
for any length of time. J ealousy, discord, and old feuds were likely at
any moment to break out, when the warriors would desert in crowds.
They never provided themselves with supplies for a campaign, and could
therefore carry out no extended operations. They never attacked unless
they could take their enemy at a disadvantage. A campaign against them
Was no easy matter. They had to be sought in the recesses of the forest

with which they were familiar, and which afforded every advantage for
their peculiar mode of fighting.
















AMBUSIL

IN
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 39

Captives were compelled to run the gauntlet through a double line,
composed of the women, children, and young warriors of the village, who,
armed with sticks and clubs, struck the prisoners as they passed, and some-
times inflicted severe injuries upon them. Generally they were put to
death, sometimes by torture. Occasionally one would be adopted into a
family in the place of a deceased brother, son, or husband. The Iroquois
and the Creeks often incorporated the tribes they had conquered with
their own. In their treatment of female captives, the Indians were more
humane than the victorious soldiery of civilized nations.

The religion of the Indian, like that of other primitive races, had
neither temple nor ritual. It had its songs and dances, and its sacrifices,
at which animals and human beings were offered, the former as substitutes
for the latter. Sun-worship and fire-worship were formerly very prevalent
among the aborigines. Their priests and physicians are called medicine-
men, or powwows. They profess to heal diseases by jugglery and magic
arts, to give good-fortune to the hunter, the warrior, and the lover, or to
‘ause the death of an enemy. In eases of sickness the Indian uses medici-
nal herbs, but the vapor-bath is his most general and effectual remedy for
disease.

Itude and ignorant as he is, and believing in many gods, the Indian
yet worships the Great Spirit after a fashion of his own, and believes
almost universally ina future life. With the dead warrior is buried his
pipe and his manitou, his tomahawk, bow and quiver, his best apparel, and
food for his long journey to the abode of his ancestors. By the side of
her infant the mother lays its cradle, its beads, and its rattles.

The Indian has no idea of future rewards or punishments. He
believes that conflicting powers of good and evil rule over the universe.
A spirit dwells in every object—in the beast, the bird, the river, the lake,
and the mountain. Every Indian has a manitou, or household god, to con-
secrate his house; sometimes it is a bird or a bear, sometimes a buffalo,
a feather, or a skin. To propitiate the deity he employs some kind of
sacrifice or prayer. An Indian lamenting the loss of a child exclaims,
~( manitou! thou art angry with me; turn thine anger from me, and
spare the rest of my children!’ Dreams are regarded by him as divine
revelations, and they exert a powerful influence over him.

Great pains have been taken to convert the Indian to Christianity.
The Spaniard, the Frenchman, and the Englishman have all tried their
hand upon him, but hitherto with small suecess. [fis own religion seemed
to him best adapted to his condition and inauner of life. It was necessary
to lift him out of barbarism before he could either understand or appreci-


AQ) INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

































































































































































































































a

Le







A CLASS-ROOM,

ate the boon they sought to bestow
upon him. ‘One season of hunt-
ing,” said the Apostle Eliot, “ un-
did all my missionary work.” At
present the establishment of schools and the general introduction of the
arts and implements of civilization are helping the missionary in his self-
sacrificing labors, and a more hopeful prospect seems at last to have
dawned upon the race.

But, while in the matter of education something has been done for the
Indian, much yet remains to be done. Carlisle, Hampton, and Forest
Grove only demonstrate, on a limited scale, what our government ought
to do, and what it has bound itself by treaty to do, in behalf of the
60,000 Indian children now growing up in idleness, ignorance, and
superstition.

The schools above named supply their pupils with the training and
discipline which on their return will serve as a leverage for the uplifting
of their people. In aptness, docility, and progress, the red children are
fully equal to the white. In these schools they acquire not only the Eng:
lish language and the elementary branches of knowledge, but they also
learn useful trades, and in most cases have found, on returning home, suit-
able employment at the agencies as interpreters, teachers, or mechanics,
Money could in no way be so well applied as in the education of our
Indian youth, thus lifting them out of barbarism.

Fabulous legdtitls and stories are common among the Indians, and their






































WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 4]

relation over their camp-fires and in the long winter evenings forms one
of their principal sources of amusement. Among them the story of Hia-
watha, of Onondaga origin, is best known, as it forms the basis of Long-
fellow’s beautiful poem. A few specimens of their traditions and stories
are here given.

Owayneo (the creator), says Iroquois tradition, after making them from
handfuls of red seeds, assembled his ehildren together and said: “ Ye are
five nations, for ye sprang each from a different handful of the seed I
sowed ; but ve are all brethren, and I am your father, for I made you all.
Mohawks, I have made you bold and valiant ; and see, I give you corn for
your food. Oneidas, J have made you patient of pain and hunger; the
nuts and fruits of the trees are yours. Senecas, 1 have made you indus-
trious and active; beans do I give you for your nourishment. Cayngas, I
have made you strong, friendly, and generous; ground-nuts and every
generous fruit shall refresh you. Onondagas, I have made you wise, Just,
and eloquent; squashes and grapes have I given you to eat, and tobacco
to smoke in council. The beasts, birds, and fishes I have given to you all
in common. Be just to all men, and kind to strangers that come among
you.”

“The missing link,” connecting man with the lower animals, which
Darwin failed to find, is supplied by the tradition of a California tribe
of Indians, who refer their origin to the coyote, or wolf. This is the
tradition :

“The first Indians that lived were coyotes. After they began to
burn the bodies of those who died, the Indians began to assume the shape
of man, but at first very imperfectly. They walked on all fours, and
were incomplete and imperfect in all their organs, in their limbs and
joints, but progressed from period to period, until they became perfect
men and women.

“Tn the course of their transition from coyotes to human beings,” said
the old chief who related this tradition, “they acquired the habit of sit-
ting upright and lost their tails. This is with many of them a source of
regret to this day, as they consider the tail quite an ornament; and, in
decorating themselves for the dance or other festive occasions, a portion
of them always complete their costume with tails.”

The tradition of the Mandans is that they dwelt together near an
underground lake shut out from the light of heaven. The roots of a
orape-Vvine penetrating this recess first revealed to them the light from
the world above. By means of this vine one-half of the tribe climbed
up to the surface: the other half were left in their dark prison-house
42, INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

owing to the bulk and weight of an old woman, who by her ponder-
osity tore down the vine, and prevented any more of the tribe from
ascending.

The Osages believe that the first man of their nation came out of a
shell, and that this man, when walking on earth, met the Great Spirit,
who gave him a bow and arrows and told him to go a-hunting. Javing
killed a deer, the Great Spirit gave him fire and told him to eook his
meat and to eat. He also told him to take the skin and cover himself
with it, and also the skins of other animals that he should lall.

One day as the Osage was hunting he saw a beaver sitting on a
beaver-hut, who asked him what he was looking for. The Osage answered
that, being thirsty, he came there to drink. The beaver then asked him
who he was and whence he came. The Osage replied that he had no
place of residence. ‘ Well, then,” said the beaver, “as you appear to be
a reasonable man, I wish you to come and live with me. J have many
daughters, and if any of them should be agreeable to you, you may
marry.” The Osage accepted his offer and married one of his daughters,
by whom he had many children. The tribe give this as a reason for not
killing the beaver, their offspring being, as they believe, the Osage nation.

MONDAMIN, OR THE ORIGIN OF INDIAN-CORN.

An Indian youth who had ever been obedient to his parents, on reach-
ing the age of fifteen prepared to undergo the ceremony of fasting
usual at that age. As soon as spring came, he found a retired spot and
began his fast. Ife had often thought on the goodness of the Great
Spirit in providing all kinds of fruits and herbs for the use of man, and
he now earnestly prayed that he might dream of something to benefit
his people, for he had often seen them suffering for want of food.

On the third day he became too weak and faint to walk about, and
kept his bed. Ile fancied, while thus lying in a dreamy state, that he
saw a handsome young man dressed in green robes and with green plumes
on his head advancing towards him. The visitor said, “I am sent to you,
my friend, by the Great Spirit who made all things. He has observed
you. He sees that you desire to procure a benefit for your people. Lis-
ten to my words and follow my instructions.” We then told the young
man to rise and wrestle with him. Weak as he was, he tottered to his
feet and began; but, after a long trial, the handsome stranger said, “* My
friend, it is enough for once; I will come again.” Ile then vanished. "

On the next day the celestial visitor reappeared and renewed the trial.
The young man knew that his strength was even less than the day before,
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 43

but as this declined he felt that his mind became stronger and clearer.
Perceiving this, the plumed stranger again spoke to him. “ To-morrow,”
he said, “ will be your last trial. Be strong and courageous; it is the only
way to obtain the boon you seck.” He again departed.

On the sixth day, as the young faster lay on his pallet weak and ex-
hausted, the pleasing visitor returned, and as he renewed the contest he
looked more beautiful than ever. The young man grasped him and
seemed to feel new strength imparted to his body, while that of his an-
tagonist grew weaker.

At. length the stranger cried out, “It is enough; I am beaten. You
will win your desire from the Great Spirit. To-morrow will be the
seventh day of your fast and the last of your trials. Your father will
bring you food which will recruit you. I shall then visit you for the last
time, and I foresee that you are destined to prevail. As soon as you have
thrown me down, strip off my garments and bury me on the spot. Visit
the place, and keep the earth clean and soft. Let no weeds grow there.
I shall soon come to life, and re-appear with all the wrappings of my gar-
ments and my waving plumes. Once a month cover my roots with fresh
earth, and by following these directions your triumph will be complete.”
He then disappeared.

Next morning the youth’s father came with food, but he asked him to
set it by for a particular reason till the sun went down. When the sky-
visitor came for his final trial, although the young man had not partaken
of food, he engaged in the combat with him with a feeling of supernatural
strength. He threw him down. Stripping off his garments and plumes,
he then buried him in the earth, carefully preparing the ground and
removing every weed, and then returned to his father’s lodge.

Keeping everything to himself, the youth revealed nothing of his
vision or trials. Partaking sparingly of food, he soon regained his strength.
But he never for a moment forgot the burial-place of his friend. He fre-
quently visited it, and would not let even a wild-flower grow there. Soon
he saw the tops of the green plumes coming out of the ground, at first in
spiral points, then expanding into broad leaves and rising in green stalks,
and finally assuming their silken fringes and yellow tassels.

Spring and summer had passed, when one day towards evening he
requested his father to visit the lonely spot where he had fasted. The
old man stood amazed. The lodge was gone, and in its place stood a tall,
graceful, and majestic plant, waving its taper-leaves and displaying its
bright-colored plumes and tassels. But what most excited his admiration
was its cluster of golden ears. “It is the friend of my dreams and
44 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

e e e e e ° oo 20 e $9 e
visions,” said the youth. “It is Mondamin; it is the spirit’s grain,” said
the father. And this was the origin of Indian-corn.

SHINGEBISS: A CHIPPEWA ALLEGORY.

“There was once a poor man called Shingebiss, living alone in a soli-
tary lodge on the shores of a deep bay, in a large lake. Now this man, as
his name implies, was a duck when he chose to be, and a man the next
moment: it was only necessary to will himself the one or the other. It
was cold winter weather, and this duck ought to have been off with the
rest of his species towards the South, where the streams and lakes are
open all winter, and where food is easily got; but the power he had of
changing himself into a man when he wished, made him linger till every
stream was frozen over, and the snow lay deep over all the land.

“The blasts of winter now howled fiercely around his poor wigwam,
and he had only four logs of wood to keep his fire during the whole win-
ter. But he was cheerful, manly, and trustful, relied on himself, and
cared very little for anybody, beyond treating kindly all who ealled on
him; and as he always had something to offer them to eat, he was treated
with much respect and consideration by his people.

“How he managed to live nobody knew. It was a perfect mystery
to every one. The ice was very thick on the streams and the weather was
intensely cold; yet, on the coldest day, when every one thought he must
starve and freeze, he would go out to places where flags and reeds grew
up through the ice, and changing himself to a duck, pluck them up
with his bill, and, diving throngh the orifice, supply himself plentifully
with fish.

“The hardihood, independence, and resources of Shingebiss vexed
Kabibonocea, the god who sends cold and storms, and he determined to
freeze him out and kill him for his obstinacy. ‘Why, said he, ‘he
must be a wonderful man; he does not mind the coldest days, but seems
to be as happy and content as if it were strawberry time. I will give him
cold blasts to his heart’s content.’ So saying, he poured forth tenfold
colder winds and deeper snows, and made the air so sharp that it eut like
a knife. Still the fire of Shingebiss, poorly supplied as it was, did not 20
out. He did not even put on more clothing—for he had but a single strip
of skins about his body—while walking on the ice in the coldest days,
carrying home loads of fish.

“Shall he withstand me? said Kabibonocca one day; ‘I will go and
visit him, and see wherein his great power lies. If my presence does not
freeze him, he must be made of rock.’ Accordingly, that very night, when
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE AMERICAN INDIAN. 45

the wind blew furiously, he came to his lodge door and listened. Shinge-
biss had cooked his meal of fish and finished his supper, and was lying
on his elbow, singing this son

Om §
a

“ «Windy God, I know your plan,
You are but my fellow-man.
Blow you may your coldest breeze,
Shingebiss you cannot freeze.
Sweep the strongest winds you can,
Shingebiss is still your man.
Heigh for life, and ho for bliss,
Who so free as Shingebiss !

‘The hunter knew that Kabibonocea was at his door, but affected utter
indifference, and went on singing. At length Iabibonocca, not to be
defeated in his object, entered the wigwam and took his seat, without
saying a word, opposite to him. But Shingebiss put on an air of the
most profound repose. Not a look or change of muscle indicated that
he heard the storm or was sensible of the cold. Neither did he seem
aware of the presence of his powerful guest. But taking his poker as if
no one were present he stirred the embers to make them burn brighter,
and then reclining as before again sang,

“©¢ Windy God, I know your plan.’

“Very soon the tears ran down Ixabibonocea’s face, and increased so
fast that he presently said to limself, ‘I cannot stand this; the fellow
will melt me if I do not go out’ Ile went, leaving the imperturbable
Shingebiss to the enjoyment of his song, but resolving, at the same time,
that he would put a stop to his music. He then poured forth his very
fiercest blasts, and made the air so cold that it froze up every flag orifice,
and increased the ice to such a thickness that it drove Shingebiss from all
his fishing-grounds. Still, by going a greater distance and to deep water,
he contrived to get the means of subsistence, and managed to live. Tis
four logs of wood gave him plenty of fire, and the few fish he got satistied
him, for he ate them with cheerfulness and contentment. At last NKa-
bibonoeca was compelled to give up the contest, and exclaimed, ‘We must
be sume monedo (spirit). I can neither freeze lim nor starve him. I
will let him alone.”

THE GREAT SNAKE OF CANANDAIGUA LAKE? AN TROQUOIS TRADITION.

+ Nundowaga Tal, which looks down upon the waters of Canandaigua
Lake, was once completely encircled by an enormous snake. The people
46 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

of the hill, alarmed for their safety, resolved one day, in solemn council,
that the snake must die on the following morning.

“Just as the day was breaking, the monstrous reptile was seen at the
base of the hill, closing every avenue of escape, its huge jaws wide open
just before the gate-way. Vigorously did the whole tribe assail it, but
neither arrows, spears, nor knives could be made to penetrate its scaly
sides. Some of the frightened people endeavored to escape by climbing
over it, but were thrown violently back, rolled upon, and crushed. Others,
in their mad efforts, rushing into its very jaws, were devoured. Terrified,
the tribe recoiled, and did not renew the attack till hunger gave them
courage for a last desperate assault, in which all perished and were swal-
lowed, except a woman and her two children, who escaped into the forest,
while the monster, gorged with its horrible feast, was sleeping.

“In her hiding-place the woman, by a vision, was instructed to make
arrows of a peculiar form, and tanght how to use them effectually for the
killing of the destroyer of her tribe. Believing that the Great Spirit was
her teacher, she made the arrows, and carefully following the directions
she had received, she confidently approached the yet sleeping monster,
and successfully planted the arrows in its heart. The snake, in its agony,
lashed the hill-side with its enormous tail, tore deep gullies in the earth,
broke down forests, and rolling down the slope, plunged into the lake.
Here, in the waters near the shore, it disgorged its many human victims,
and then, with one great convulsive throe, sank slowly to the bottom.
Rejoiced at the death of her enemy, the happy woman hastened with her
children to the banks of the Canesedage Lake, and from them sprung the
powerful Seneca nation.”

The Indians affirm that the rounded pebbles, of the size and shape of
the human head, to this day so numerous on the shores of the Canandaigua
Lake, are the petrified skulls of the people of the hill, disgorged by the
great snake in its death agony.
LARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. AT

IL.

EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS.

r tr discovery of an unknown continent and of a new race of men
was the exploit and wonder of the age.

Princes dreamed of vast additions to their domains; priests of the
conversion of heathen nations and the enlargement of their spiritual pos-
sessions; merchants speculated upon the prospect of a profit-
able trade with the natives; while poets sung of the new El
Dorado as of a heaven upon earth, a land of inexhaustible fertility and
riches. But neither seer nor statesman, priest nor poet, was able to fore-
see the future of this continent. No one dreamed that this remote and
savage wilderness was soon to become the seat of flourishing and power-
ful communities, or that it was the chosen arena for the full and un-
checked development of human progress and freedom.

Strange stories were told of this new world. Its northern shores were
said to be infested by griffins, while two islands north of Newfoundland
were known as the Isles of Demons, whose occupants were pictured with
wings, horns, and tail. An early geographer wrote that he had heard
from many who had voyaged that way that “they heard in the air, in the
tops and about the masts, a great clamor of men’s voices, confused and
inarticulate, such as you may hear from the crowd at a fair or market-
place, whereupon they well knew that the Isles of Demons was not far

oft.”

1492.

By the first voyagers the natives were found to be simple, hospitable,
and friendly. Soon, however, they learned to fear and distrust the
strangers, who took every advantage of their ignorance and kindness.
The different tribes were found to be widely scattered, many of them in
a state of hostility to their neighbors.

Columbus and other early voyagers took some of the natives with
them on their return to Europe. Three presented to Henry VII. by
Sebastian Cabot, in 1502, were the first Indians seen in England. Those
48 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

first taken to France were brought thither by Captain Aubert six years
later.

From time to time others were kidnapped and sold into slavery, and
conflicts between them and their European visitors became frequent. The
frauds and injuries of which they were the victims were not forgotten
by the natives, but were eventually returned by them with interest.

One of these acts of barbarity is thus related by Captain John Smith,
with whom my readers will soon become better acquainted.

“One Thomas Hunt, the master of this ship, when I was gone, be-
trayed four-and-twenty of these poor salvages aboard his ship, and most
dishonestly and inhumanty, for
their kind usage of me and all
our men, carried them with him
to Malaga, and there, for a little
private gain, sold these silly
salvages. But this vile act
kept him ever after from any
more employment in those
parts.”

When we learn what the
clergy of that day thought of
the poor Indian, we can better
understand the infamous con-
duct of these ernel man-steal-
ers. “We may guess,” says
that eminent divine of New
England, Rev. Cotton Mather,
: : 7 “that probably the devil de-

SEBASTIAN CABOT, BY HOLBEIN, coyed these miserable salvages

hither, in hopes that the gospel

of the Lord Jesus Christ would never come here to destroy or disturb his
absolute empire over them.” ;

Columbus says of the natives of the West Indies, “We found them
timid, and full of fear, very simple and honest, and exceedingly liberal,
none of them refusing anything he may possess when asked for it. Like
idiots—they bartered cotton and gold for fragments of glasses, bottles, and
jars, which I forbade as being unjust, and myself gave them many bean-
tiful and acceptable articles which I had brought with me, taking nothing
from them in return.”

Upon his first arrival, Columbus took some of the natives by force,


EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 49

in order that they might learn the language of the Spaniards and com-
municate what they knew respecting the country; and they were soon
able, either by gesture or by signs, to understand each other. They en-
tertained the idea that the white men descended from heaven, and on
their arrival at any new place, cried out immediately, with a loud voice,
to the other Indians, “Come! come and look upon beings of a celestial
race ;” upon which both women and men, children and adults, young and
old, when they got rid of their first fear, would come out in throngs,
crowding the roads to see them, some bringing food, others drink, “with
astonishing affection and kindness.”

Gaspar Cortereal, a mariner in the service of the King of Portugal,
ranged the newly-discovered coast for six hundred or seven hundred
miles, as far as the fifteenth parallel, admiring the brilliant
verdure and dense forests wherever he landed. He repaid
the hospitality with which he was everywhere received by the natives, by
taking with him on his return fifty-seven of them, whom he had treach-
erously enticed on board his ship, and selling them for slaves. From a
second voyage he never returned, having been slain in a combat with some
Indians whom he was trying to kidnap.

501.

The earliest description of the Atlantic coast of the United States is
found in the narrative of John Verrazzano, an Italian mariner, who had
been sent on a voyage of discovery by Francis I. of France.
He reached the coast in the latitude of Wilmington, N C., and
is supposed to have visited the harbors of New York and Newport. He
describes the natives as very courteous and gentle, and possessing prompt
wit, but as mild and feeble, of mean stature, with delicate limbs and hand-

1524.

some Visages.

Seeing many fires ashore, and the natives friendly, he sent his boat to
them, but the surf was too violent to permit landing. One of the sailors
offered to swim ashore with some presents; but, when he came near, his
fears prevailed, and throwing out his presents he attempted to return to
the ship, but the waves cast him on the sand half-dead and quite senseless.
The Indians immediately ran to his assistance, carried him ashore, dried
his clothes before a fire, and did everything to restore him. His alarm,
however, was excessive. When they pulled off his clothes to dry them, he
thought they meant to sacrifice him to the sun, which then shone bright-
ly in the heavens. Ile trembled with fear. As soon as he was restored
they gently led him to the shore, and then retired to a distance until the
ship’s boat had been sent for him and they saw him safely on board.

4
50 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

In requital for this kindness, the visitors robbed a mother of her child,
and attempted to kidnap a young woman “ of tall stature and very beauti-
ful.” Her outeries and her vigorous resistance saved her.

At one place, where he remained fifteen days, Verrazzano found the
natives “the gentlest people” he had yet seen. They were hberal and
friendly, yet so ignorant that, though instruments of steel and iron were
often exhibited, they neither understood their use nor coveted their pos-
session. The things they esteemed
most were bells, crystals of azure
color, and other toys to hang at their
ears or about the neck. ‘“ When
they beheld themselves in our mir-
rors they suddenly laughed and gave
them us again.” The women wore
ornaments of wrought copper. Wood
only was used in the construction of
their wigwaims, which were covered
with coarse matting.

The natives of the more north-
erly regions visited, perhaps, those
of the coast of Maine, having al-
ready learned to fear the Euro-

JOHN VERRAZZANO. peans, were hostile and jealous.

They knew the value of iron, and

demanded in trade fish-hooks, knives, and weapons of steel. “When we

went on shore,” says the narrator, “they shot at us with their bows,

making great outcries, and afterwards fled into the woods. When we

departed from them they showed all signs of discourtesy and disdain as
was possible for any creature to invent.”

They were clad in skins or furs, lived by hunting and fishing, and had
no grain nor any kind of tillage. Their canoes were trunks of trees hol-
lowed out by fire and with stone hatchets, and their arms were bows and
arrows.

Pleased with Verrazzano’s report, King Francis said, referring to the
edict of the Pope of Rome, giving all America to the Spaniards, “he did
not think God had created these new countries for the Castilians alone.”
His great rival, Charles V. of Spain, had laid claim to all the new discov-
erles on the ground of priority. “TI should like,” said the French king,
“to see that article of Adam’s will which gives him America!’ The
authenticity of Verrazzano’s narrative ig yet an unsettled question.


EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 51

Ten years after Verrazzano’s voyage, Jacques Cartier, an experienced
navigator of Saint Malo, sailed from France to the region of
the St. Lawrence. Landing in the Bay of Gaspé, a lofty cross
was raised, bearing a shield with the lilies of France and an
appropriate inscription. The country was thus taken possession of for the
French king.

The natives, who were very friendly, gazed at this ceremony in won-
der. They seemed to have guessed its meaning, for, by signs, they made

known to Cartier that the
SSS SSS SS SSSSs= ss =— country was theirs, and
== = === that no cross should be
set up without their leave.
Cartier did not seruple to
deceive the natives, by
telling them that it was
only intended as a bea-
con- light for mariners
entering their port. He
seized two of these In-
dians and took them with
him to Franee.

Cartier describes the
natives as being “of an
indifferent good stature
and bigness, but wild and
unruly. They wore their
hair tied on the top, like
a wreath of hay, and put
a wooden pin within it
instead of a nail, and with
I them they bind certain

wAeOnne “CuteR, birds’ feathers. They

3 | were clothed with beasts’

skins, as well the men as the women, but that the women go somewhat
straighter and closer in their garments than the men do, with their waists
girded. They paint themselves with certain roan colors; their boats are
made of the bark of birch-trees; in them they fish, and take great store of

April 20, 1534.
July 24.























































































ATI pp
|
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i

















i























seals.” ;
At their first interview the narrator tells us that “so soon as they saw
us they began to flee, making signs that they came to traftie with us, show-
52 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

ing us such skins as they clothed themselves withal, which are of small
value. We likewise made signs unto them that we wished them no evil,
and in sign thereof two of our men ventured to go on land to them, and
carry them knives, with other iron wares, and a red hat to give unto their
captain, which, when they saw, they also came on land and brought some
of their skins, and so began to deal with us, seeming to be very glad to
have our iron wares, still dancing, with many other ceremonies, as with
their hands to cast sea-water on their heads. They showed their friend-
ship in this way, as also by rubbing their hands upon the arms of the
European visitors, and lifting them up towards the heavens.” From the
intense heat here, Cartier named the inlet “ Baie de Chaleur,” a name it
still bears.

The Indians about Gaspé Bay differed from the others both in nature
and language, and in being abjectly poor. They were only partly clothed
in old skins, and had no structures to protect them from the weather. “TIT
think,” said the old narrator, “all they had together, besides their boats
and nets, was not worth five sous.” They shaved their heads, with the ex-
ception of a tuft on the crown, sheltered themselves at night under their
canvas, on the bare ground, and ate their food partially cooked. They were
unacquainted with the use of salt, and ate nothing that had any taste of it.

In a second voyage, made in the following year, Cartier named the
gulf, in honor of the day in which he entered it, the St. Lawrence, a name
since extended to the noble river beyond. Sailing up to the
isle since called Orleans, he was hospitably received by the
natives at their village of Stadacona, now Quebec; the two
natives Cartier had carried off, and who had been kindly
treated, acting as interpreters. He next ascended the river to the chief
Indian settlement of Hochelaga, the modern Montreal, which takes its
“name from the neighboring elevation which they christened Mount Royal.

Every artifice had been made use of by the Indians to prevent their
journey to this place. They were jealous lest some of the knives, look-
ing-glasses, and other trinkets should fall into the hands of the rival ehict-
tain and his people. |

Three of them, dressed as devils, wrapped in huge skins, white and
black, their faces besmeared and black as coals, and with horns on their
heads more than a yard long, tried to frighten Cartier, and after holding
a long powwow, declared to him that their god had spoken, and that there
was so much ice and snow at Hochelaga that whoever went thither should
die. The Frenchman only laughed at this trick, and told them that their
god was a fool.

May 19, 1535.
September 8.
October 2,


























































CARTIER ERECTS A CROSS.

JACQUES
Or

FARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 5

The Indian capital they found encompassed by a triple row of high
palisades of heavy timber, and having only a single gate of entrance.
Over this, and elsewhere on the walls, were platforms for its defenders,:
provided with ladders and with stones for its defence. It contained some













































































































































































































































































VIEW OF .MONTREAL AND ITS WALLS IN 1760. (From an old French print.)

fifty houses, each about fifty paces long, and twelve or fifteen broad, built
of wood, and covered with bark, and skilfully joined together. These
houses had many rooms, and in the midst of each was a large court, with a
place in the centre for a fire. In a room at the top of their houses they
stored their corn. Fishing and agriculture furnished them with food.
Their chief, an old man, was borne to Cartier’s presence on the shoul-
ders of his men; around his forehead he wore a band of red-ecolored
hedgehog skins, but in other respects was dressed no better than his
people.

Viewing the white men as heavenly visitors, the Indians crowded
around them to touch them, paying them every mark of reverence and
respect. They brought to Cartier their lame, blind, diseased, and im-
potent, to be heaied ; and he gratified their desires, praying to God to open
the hearts of these poor people that they might be converted. The inter-
view closed with his giving them knives, beads, and toys. Before return-
ing to France, in the following spring, Cartier took possession of the
country for the king in the usual manner. When he was about to sail,
he enticed the chief, Donnaconna, with nine others, on board his ship, seized
56 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and confined and, regardless of the cries and entreaties of their people,
carried them to France. Four years later all these, excepting one little
girl, were dead. |

Although the country is so nained on a Portuguese map of ten years
earlier date than that of his voyage, Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spanish gen-
tleman, claimed to be the discoverer of Florida. He had dis-
tinguished himself at home in the expulsion of the Moors
from Granada, had accompanied Columbus in his second expedition, and
had been governor of Porto Rico, where he had acquired wealth by
oppressing the natives. One of the objects he had in view was the dis-
covery of a fountain whose waters would, according to an ancient fable,
impart perpetual youth to whosoever bathed in them. Landing near the
point now called Fernandina, he claimed the territory for Spain. He
found a delightful climate, charming scenery, and a fragrant atmosphere,
but no gold or youth-restoring fountain. Everywhere the Indians dis-
played determined hostility.

Upon his return, De Leon was
rewarded by the King of Spain
with the government of Florida
for his pretended discovery, but on
the condition that he should col-
onize the country. When he at-
tempted some years later to do

so, his men were at-

tacked with great fury
by the natives. Many Spaniards
were killed, the remainder returned
to their ships, and De Leon him-
self was mortally wounded by an
Indian arrow.

Other Spanish voyagers ex-
plored the North American coast
and encountered the hostility of the PONCE DE LEON,
natives. Lucas Vasquez D’ Ayllon, .
after treacherously kidnapping a large number of natives of South Caro-
lina, in a subsequent voyage attempted a settlement on the
Combahee River. In retaliation for his treachery, his men
were unexpectedly set upon by the Indians and nearly all killed. Vas-
quez, mortally wounded, escaped to his vessel; and thus ended the first
attempt to plant a colony within the area of the United States.

1512.

1521,



1525.
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 57

The expedition of Pamphilio de Narvaez was disastrous in the ex-
treme. It was this officer who had been sent by the governor of Cuba
to take Cortez, the conqueror of Mexico, prisoner, and who was himself
easily defeated, and captured in the attempt. When brought before Cortez
he said to him, with his usual arrogance, “Esteem it great good-fortune
that you have taken me captive.” Cortez replied, “It is the least of the
things I have done in Mexico.”

Landing near Tampa Bay, Florida, Narvaez struck into the interior.
By his cruelty and want of judgment he provoked the hostility of the na-
tives, who, to rid themselves of these unwelcome intruders, told
them of a rich country, only nine days’ march to the south.
These Indians were of fine stature, great activity, and expert and accurate
bowmen, who could hit their mark at the distance of two hundred yards.
Instead of rich and populous towns, such as they had hoped to discover,
the Spaniards found only clusters of wigwams, and were plundered and
cut off whenever opportunity offered.

After a fatiguing and fruitless six months’ tramp, the wretched rem-
nant of the party reached Pensacola Bay in a state of destitution. Nar-
vaez was ill, his men were dispirited, and his horses were reduced to
skeletons. Boats must be built, but how was this to be done without
tools or materials ?

In this exigency a soldier told Narvaez that he could make pipes of
wood, and convert them into bellows by the aid of deerskins. The idea
was Instantly acted upon. A forge was constructed, and immediately
stirrups, spurs, cross-bows, etc., were converted into nails, saws, and axes.
The pines yielded pitch; a kind of oakum was obtained from the pal-
metto. Hair from the manes and tails of horses was twisted into ropes,
and the shirts of the men supplied sails. The horses were killed and
their flesh used for food. Oysters and maize completed their store of
provisions. After sixteen days of hard work they had constructed five
boats, each of which held fifty-six men.

In these frail vessels the remnant of that once gallant army embarked,
and nearly all perished in a storm near the mouth of the Mississippi.
Four survivors reached Mexico by land, after eight years of wandering
and alinost incredible hardships.

April 18, 1528.

The story of these men, that Florida was the richest country in the
world, was credited by many. Among them was Fernando de Soto, who
had been the favorite companion of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru,
where he had acquired both military renown and wealth. He believed
58 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

that another Peru existed at the north, and aspiring to rival Cortez and
Pizarro in fame and wealth, asked and received permission of the king
to conquer Florida at his own cost. It must be remembered that the
term Florida was at that time a vague expression, covering an Immense
territory—no less than the whole North American coast. |

This was by far the most magnificent and well appointed of the nu-
merous expeditions to this continent. Men of noble birth and good estates
sold their lands to join in it. Portuguese soldiers were to be seen in the
glittering array of burnished armor, and the Castilians, brilliant with
hope, were “very gallant with silk upon silk.’ From the meron
aspirants De Soto selected six hundred men—the flower of Spain ;
many persons of good account who
had sold their estates were obliged
to remain behind. Everything
was provided that experience in for-
mer invasions could suggest, includ-
ing chains for captives, and blood-
hounds as auxiliaries against the
wretched natives. As the latter were
to be converted as well as plundered,
twenty-four ecclesiastics accom- ‘
panied the expedition. The fleet
landed at Tampa Bay,
on the western coast,
the adventurers disembarked, and
the memorable march began.

Soon after landing, a party of
Spaniards attacked and put to fight a few Indians who were advancing
towards them, making friendly signals. One of them had been knocked
down, and was about to receive a deadly blow, when he uttered in excel-
lent Spanish these words,

“Sir, [ am a Christian! I am a Christian! Slay me not, nor these
Indians, for they have saved my life.”

The blow was withheld; and this man, whose name was Juan Ortiz,
related his most extraordinary story. He was one of the survivors of
Narvaez’s company, and in a subsequent expedition had fallen into the
hands of the natives, and was doomed to suffer death by torture.

Four stakes were set in the ground, to which four ropes were fastened.
To these poles the captive, with his legs and arms extended, was bound,
at such a distance from the ground that a fire made under him would be

May 30, 1539.



FERNANDO DE SOTO.
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 59

a long time in consuming him. Already had the fire been lighted, and
the victim resigned himself to his terrible fate, when the daughter of
Ucita, the chief, throwing herself at her father’s feet, begged his life in
these words :

“My kind father, why kill this poor stranger? he can do you nor
none of us any injury, seeing he is but one and alone. It is better that

you should keep him confined, for even in that condition he may some
time be of great service to you.”

|



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DE SOTO DISCOVERING THE MISSISSIPPI.

The chief was silent a short time, but finally ordered his release. His
wounds were dressed, and he was made tolerably comfortable. Possibly,
this incident suggested to Captain John Smith the story he long after-
wards wrote of his rescue from death by Pocahontas, the daughter of
Powhatan.

At one end of Ucita’s village stood a temple; over the door was the
figure of a bird carved in wood, and with gilded eyes. As soon as the
wounds of Ortiz were healed, he was stationed to guard the entrance of
this temple, more especially from the inroads of wild beasts. As human
victims were sacrificed here, wolves were frequent visitors. Death was
the penalty for allowing a body to be removed.

One night he had a terrible scare. A young Indian had been killed,
60 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and his body was placed in the temple. Spite of all his efforts, a pack
of hungry wolves effected an entrance and seized upon the body. As
soon as he recovered from the fright of their first onset, he seized a heavy
cudgel, drove them out, and pursued them some distance, dealing one of
them a mortal blow.

When morning came, and it was seen that the body was gone, Ortiz
was condemned to die; but before executing him Ucita sent a party in |
pursuit of the wolves, and, if possible, to recover the body. Contrary to
all expectations, it was found, and near it the carcass of a huge wolf.
The order for Ortiz’s execution was revoked, and he was afterwards held
in great esteem by the Indians.

Some time afterwards he was again selected for sacrifice, but was a
second time saved from a terrible death by the chief’s daughter, who aided
him to escape to the country of Mocoso, a rival chief, by whom he was
well treated, and with whom he remained three years. At the expiration
of that time the fleet of De Soto arrived, and Mocoso, out of friendship
for Ortiz, sent him to his countrymen, who, as we have seen, supposing
him to be what he appeared—an Indian—caine near killing him. Ortiz
rendered important services to De Soto, as interpreter among the various
Indian tribes.

For three years the Spaniards wandered through the country in search
of gold, De Soto obstinately refusing to turn back. No gold was discov-
ered ; the only wealth of the natives was in their stores of corn; they were
poor, but independent, hardy and brave. Everywhere he was met by the
most determined hostility on the part of the natives, with whom he had a
bloody battle at Mauvilla, or Mobile. For nine hours the Indians fought

Oct. 18. 1B0 with desperation, and but for the flames, which consumed
~~ their light cabins, they would have repulsed the invaders.
Thousands of them were slain. Though protected by their armor, many
Spaniards were killed or wounded, and all their baggage was burned.
Mauvilla was a strongly- fortified village on the Coosa. It was sur-
rounded by stout palisades, with loop-holes for arrows. Early in the morn-
ing the Indian war-ery was raised. De Soto led his men to storm the fort.
The entrance was narrow and well defended, and some of his best cava-
liers were fatally pierced between the joints of their armor, and numbers
of horses were killed. The Spaniards were obliged to withdraw. The
Indians then sallied from the gates and rushed upon the foe, charging and
retiring over the plain; but the advantage was finally with the Spaniards,
and the Indians withdrew to their fort.
In a second assault the gate was broken down, when the assailants
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 61

rushed in, and a furious conflict ensued. The Indians thronged the
square ; lance, club, and missile were wielded from every quarter. Even
their young women snatched up the swords of the slaughtered Spaniards
and mingled in the fray, being more reckless than the men. The struggle
was so fierce and protracted, particularly from the roofs of the houses, that
the soldiers set fire to their combustible dwellings, which were soon in
flames. At length the Indians gave way and fled, pursued by the cavalry.
They would neither give nor take quarter; not a man surrendered. These
Indians were of the Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes ; among the
slain was their famous chief, Tuscaloosa, the Black Warrior.

During the first winter De Soto encamped at the deserted Indian town
of Chicaza, where for two months his men enjoyed comparative repose.
At length the Chickasaws resolved to burn the encampment, which was
constructed of inflammable materials.

A dark and windy night having been chosen, the camp was fired in
several places, the savages at the same time uttering furious yells and
making a desperate attack. A high wind fanned the flames into irresisti-
ble fury, and for a time the confusion was such as rendered it impossible
to resist the impetuosity of. the assailants. Discipline and courage, how-
ever, regained the ascendancy, and the enemy was repulsed. But the
camp was totally destroyed, together with all the arms, accoutrements, and
provisions of the army. All that had been saved at the conflagration of
Mauvilla was here annihilated. The droves of hogs, which had formed
their main dependence for provisions, were burned in their pens. The
temper of their swords had been impaired by the action of the fire, and
almost every valuable article of equipage consumed.

De Soto more than once displayed great coolness and presence of mind.
Ife had, at one time, pitched his camp near Costa, a town in Alabama, and,
with a few of his followers, was conversing with the chief, when some of
his troopers entered the town and plundered several of the houses. The
justly-ineensed Indians fell upon them with their clubs. Seeing himself
surrounded by the natives, and in great personal danger, the general
seized a cudgel and, with his usual presence of mind, commenced beating
his own men. The savages, observing this, became pacified in a moment.
In the mean time, taking the chief by the hand, he led him, with flattering
words, towards his camp, where he was presently surrounded by a guard
and held as a hostage. The Spaniards remained under arms all night.
Fifteen hundred armed Indians surrounded them, frequently threatening
them with attack, and uttering cries of insult and menace. Restraining
his troops, De Soto, aided by a prominent Indian, who had followed him
62 * INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

for some time, at length succeeded in restoring peace and in averting what
seemed likely to prove a serious affair.

Upon one occasion De Soto tried to overawe the Natchez Indians, who
worshipped the sun, by claiming a supernatural birth and demanding
tribute.

“You say you are the child of the sun,” replied the incredulous chief.
“Dry up the river, and I will believe you. If you wish to see me, come
to the town where I dwell. If you come in peace I will receive you with
special good-will; if in war, I will not shrink one foot back.”

The sole achievement of this costly and memorable expedition was the
discovery of the Mississippi River at the lowest Chickasaw Bluff. Boats
were required to cross, and it took a month to build them.
The Spaniards crossed, and extended their tedious journey as
far as Kansas. They found the Indians an agricultural people, with fixed

May, 1541.





































ee



































pe
66 6e Ss













































BURIAL OF DE SOTO,

places of abode, and subsisting chiefly on the product of the fields. They
were neither turbulent nor quarrelsome. Their dress was in part mats ;
in cold weather they wore deerskins, and mantles woven of feathers.
Their villages were generally small, but close together. The natives were
treated with the utmost cruelty by the Spaniards, who held their lives as
of no account. They would cut off their hands on the slightest suspicion
and the guide who was unsuccessful, or who purposely misled them ae
thrown to the hounds or condemned to the flames. |

Disappointed and dispirited, De Soto’s health rapidly declined, and he
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 63

was finally carried off by a malignant fever. His body was buried at
night in the great river he had discovered. ‘“ He had crossed a large part
of the continent in search of gold,” says the historian Bancroft,
‘and found nothing so remarkable as his burial-place.”

His followers wandered about for months afterwards, but at length
abandoned their fruitless expedition and returned to the Mississippi.
They then, with extraordinary patience and labor, ingeniously
constructed some vessels out of their scanty materials, in which
the survivors, three hundred and eleven in number, finally reached Mexico.

May 21, 1542.

Sept. 1543.

While De Soto was vainly seeking wealth and fame in the American
wilderness, Mendoza, the Viceroy of Mexico, organized an expedition un-
der Francis Vasquez Coronado, to search for the ‘Seven
Cities of Cibola,” the fame of whose riches was fully credited
by the gullible Spaniards. Three hundred men were enlisted for the ex-
pedition, who were accompanied by eight hundred Indians.

The tale of the famous seven cities originated in the report of a Span-
ish missionary, who pretended that he had discovered, north of Sonora, a
populous and rich kingdom ealled Quivera, or the Seven Cities, abounding
in gold, the capital of which was called Cibola. Tezon, an Indian, also
told the Spanish viceroy, Nufio de Guzman, that his father, who was now
dead, had been a trader in ornamental feathers, such as are used in head-
dresses, to a people in the interior lying north of the Gila River, and that
he brought back in exchange large quantities of precious metals. Ile had
accompanied his father, he said, on one of these journeys, and saw seven
cities as large as Mexico, built on a regular plan, with high houses, and
that there were entire streets of gold and silver smiths. No story seems to
have been too absurd for these credulous Spaniards, and this one was still
further corroborated by the return of Cabeca de Vaca with three compan-
ions from the ill-fated expedition of Narvaez, whose glowing accounts of
the countries through which they had passed, inflamed still further the
avarice of their countrymen.

Crossing the Gila, Coronado led his men over a desert and through the
valley of a small stream, until they arrived before the lofty, natural walls
of Cibola (old Zuni). On the top of these stood the town. The Indians
cultivated corn in the valleys below, as they do at this day, wore coarse
stuffs for clothing, and manufactured a species of pottery, but possessed
neither gold nor mines.

Without waiting to make any inquiries, the Spaniards immediately as-
saulted the town. The natives rolled down stones from above, one of

1541.
64 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

which struck Coronado and knocked him down. The place being taken
after an hour’s struggle, the troops found provisions, but no gold nor sil-
ver. Proceeding onward in his invasion of New Mexico, Coronado was







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ZUNI WOMAN AT A WINDOW.

everywhere resisted by the natives. The explorations were continued to
the Colorado River on the west, and to the Rio Grande on the east. Real-
izing at last that the country was barren and destitute of resources, the
Spaniards, after two years of fruitless exploration, returned to Mexico,
wiser, but no richer than when they departed.

Nearly seventy years elapsed before F rance, desolated by civil strife
and torn by religious dissensions, could renew her purpose of founding a
French empire in America. In the mean time, however, voyages for traf-
fic with the natives were regularly and successfully made, and there had
been no less than one hundred and fifty French fishing-vessels at New-
foundland in a single year.
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 65

The father of the French settlements in Canada was Samuel de Cham:
plain, a skilful seaman, cool, courageous, and persevering, and a man of
science. Selecting Quebec as the site for a fort, he returned
to France Just before the issue to the Sieur De Monts of the
patent of Acadia, a region claimed by France to extend from the Dela-
ware River to beyond Montreal. Port Royal, called Annapolis after the

1603.



DE MONTS.,

conquest of Acadia, in honor of Queen Anne, was settled in the spring of
1605, preceding by two years the first English settlement at Jamestown.
With a view to future settlements, De Monts explored and claimed for
France the rivers, coasts, and bays of New England as far south
as Cape Cod. Jesuit missions were at once established among
the natives. That at St. Mary’s, the oldest European settlement in Michi-
5

1605.
66 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

gan, was established in 1668. Though many of these heroic men suffered
death by torture at the hands of the natives, others sprang forward to take
their vacant places. Through their influence the Abenakis of Maine, al-
ready hostile to the English, became the allies of France, and made a firm
barrier to English encroachments.

Within the present limits of the United States, a French colony was,
in 1613, planted at Mount Desert. Quebee was founded by Champlain in
1608. Having formed an alliance with the Algonkin tribes around him,
Champlain twice invaded the territory of the Iroquois, their hereditary

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CHAMPLAIN’S FORTIFIED RESIDENCE AT QUEBEC.

enemies. [Having to take sides, unfortunately for France he took that of
the weaker. The story of these Iroquois conflicts will be found in a sub-
sequent chapter.

While residing among the Hurons, Champlain’s influence over them
was put to a severe test. A quarrel, ending in bloodshed, had occurred
between two friendly tribes; the principal Algonkin chief had been mur-
dered, and his band forced to pay a heavy tribute of wampum.

Champlain was made umpire. The great council-house was filled with
Huron and Algonkin chiefs, “smoking,” says the historian Parkman
“with that immobility of feature beneath which their race often ides
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 67

a more than tiger-like ferocity.’ Addressing the assembly, Champlain
enlarged on the folly of fighting among themselves, while the common
enemy stood ready to devour both; showed them the advantages of the
French trade and alliance, and zealously urged them to shake hands and
be friends. His good advice was taken, the peace-pipe was smoked, and
a serious peril for New France averted.

In 1624 Champlain built the castle of St. Louis—so long the place of
council against the Iroquois and the English—and was governor of Quebec
at the time of his death in 1635.

The first attempt to found an English colony in New England was
made by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, who crossed the ocean in a small
bark called the Concord. Te first landed on Cape Cod. Some
of the natives came along-side in their birch canoes, others ran
along the beaches, gazing in wonder at the strangers. It was observed that
the pipes of those who came on board were “steeled with copper,” and that
one of the Indians wore a copper breastplate.

Gosnold afterwards sailed into Buzzard’s Bay, and began a settlement
on Elizabeth Island, now known as Cuttyhunk. This, however, was soon
abandoned, for want of provision for its support, when his vessel had com-
pleted her lading. Here he traded with the Indians, who were frequent
visitors, and who are described as “exceeding courteous, gentle of dispo-
sition, and well conditioned, exceeding all others that we have seen in
shape and looks. They are of stature much higher than we, of complexion
much like a dark olive; their eyebrows and hair black, which they wear
long, tied up behind in knots, whereon they prick feathers of fowls in
fashion of a coronet. They make beards of the hair of beasts, and one of
them offered a beard of their making to one of the sailors for his that grew
on his face, which, because it was of a red color, they judged to be none
of his own. |

“They have great store of copper... none of them but what have
chains, ear-rings, or collars of this metal. They head some of their arrows
with it. Their chains, worn about their necks, contain four hundred hol-
low pieces, very fine and nicely set together. So little did they esteem
these that they offered the finest of them for a knife or some similar
trifle.”

The settlement of Maine was largely owing to the vast fisheries on her
coast. For more than a century before, these had been known and drawn
from by English and French mariners. The territory, as we have seen,
was claimed by the French, but the Abenaki and Micmac tribes were its

May 14, 1602.
68 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

aboriginal inhabitants. These Indians had permanent villages, enclosed
by palisades. They wore many ornaments in their dress, skilfully mace
from shells and stones. They were agriculturists, amiable and social, brave,
faithful to engagements, and especially strong in their family attachments.
They had been gained over by the French missionaries, captivated by the
picturesque and striking ceremonies of the Catholic religion, which ap-
pealed so strongly to the eye and the imagination.

In May, 1605, Captain George Weymouth landed on their coast, and
seized some of the natives, whom he carried to England. There was
great difficulty in getting the Indians into their boat. The narrator of
the voyage tells us that it was as much as five of them could do, for they
were strong and naked, so that “their best hold was by their long hair.”
In England they were objects of great wonder, and crowds of people fol-
lowed them in the streets, as they had done, a century before, when those
brought over by Cabot were exhibited.

Landing with them at Plymouth, the commandant, Sir Ferdinando
Gorges, became greatly interested in them, and ultimately became largely
concerned in the settlement of New England through the information
derived from them. He kept them with him three years, finding in them
“great civility of manners, far from the rudeness of our common people.”
Two of these natives piloted Popham’s colony to the Kennebeck River
in 1607.

This was the first colony that spent a winter in New England; and a
most severe winter it was. Irom the natives they found “civil enter-
tainment and kind respect, far from brutish or savage nations,” but from
adverse circumstances gave up the settlement in the following year and
returned to England. Gorges, who was far-sighted and energetic, con-
tinued to exert himself earnestly and unselfishly to promote a permanent
settlement of his countrymen upon the continent.

An act of singular boldness was performed by an Indian named Pech-
mo. Captain Harlow, while at Monhegan Island, detained him and two
others on board his ship, but he leaped overboard and escaped.
Not long afterwards he with others eut Harlow’s boat from his
ship’s stern, got her on shore, and filling her with sand, with their bows
and arrows prevented the English from recovering her.

Another instance of suecessful daring and duplicity on the part of the
Abenakis is seen in the escape of Epanow, an Indian who had promised
Gorges, in a voyage undertaken in 1614, to point out a gold mine in his
country. Of this Indian it was said that, “being a man of so great a
stature, he was showed up and down London for money as a wonder. He

1611.
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 69

was of no less courage and authority than of wit, strength, and propor-
tion.

‘Every precaution was taken to prevent Epanow’s escape. He was
even obliged to wear long garments, that might easily be laid hold of if
occasion should require. Notwithstanding all this, his friends being all
come at the time appointed with twenty canoes, the captain called to them
to come aboard; but they did not stir. Then Epanow, who was standing
between two gentlemen that had been on guard, started suddenly from
them, called his friends in English to come aboard, and leaps overboard.
And although he was laid hold of by one of the company, yet, being a
strong and heavy man, he could not be stayed, and was no sooner in the
water but the natives in the boats sent such a shower of arrows, and
came withal desperately so near the ship, that they carried him away
in despite of all the musketeers aboard. And thus,” continues Gorges,
“were my hopes of that particular voyage made void and frustrate.”

In September, 1609, Henry Hudson, an English navigator of experi-
ence, in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, sailed in the Half
Afoon up the noble river that now bears his name. “ This day,”
says the narrator, “the people of the country came aboard
of us in canoes made of single, hollowed trees, seeming very glad of our
coming, and brought green tobac-
co, and gave us of it for knives
and beads. They go in deerskins,
loose, well dressed. They have
yellow copper, desire clothes, and
are very civil. . . . Next day
many of the people came aboard
in mantles of feathers. Some
women also came to us with
hemp; they had red copper to-
bacco- pipes, and other things of
copper they did wear about their
necks.” One of Hudson’s men, SS :
named Colman, was killed with an HENDRIK HUDSON.
arrow on the following day in a
conflict with some of the natives belonging to the fierce tribe of Manhattans.

Hudson then sailed up the river as far as Albany, the natives found
above the Highlands being a “very loving people.” They brought to-
bacco, grapes, oysters, beans, pumpkins, and furs to the vessel, for which

5

Sept. 4.


0 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.















































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE ‘‘HALF-MOON’’ AT YONKERS.

he paid them in hatchets, beads, and knives. They invited him to visit
them on shore, where they made him welcome, and a chief “made an
oration and showed him all the country round about.”

One thievish Indian climbed wp by the rudder and stole some articles,
but was shot and killed by the master’s mate. The others fled, some
taking to the water. A boat was sent out and the articles recovered.
“Then,” says the narrator, “one of them that swam got hold of our boat,
thinking to overthrow it, but our cook took a sword and cut off his hands,
and he was drowned.”

It was a sad day for the natives when they were, for the first time,
brought under the influence of strong drink. Some of the chiefs were
invited into Iudson’s cabin, and were plied with wine and brandy till
they were intoxicated. “That was strange to them,” says the old chron-
icler, “ for they could not tell how to take it.” One of them was so tipsy
that his companions thought him bewitched, and brought charms (strips
of beads) to save him from the strangers’ arts. As Hudson and his men
sailed down the river, the natives followed with friendly presents and’
hearty regrets at their departure. Hudson put to sea October 4th, and
arrived at Dartmouth, England, on the 7th of November.

A few years later the Dutch laid the foundation of Manhattan, now
the great city of New York. The first European settlements in America
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 71

were nearly all trading posts, established at points where they could barter
with the Indians for the skins and furs of the animals they had trapped or
shot. These were fitted out by trading conrpanies in England, France,
and Holland. The traders were constantly defrauding the Indians, and
at the same time rendering them formidable by selling them arms. The
attempt of Kieft, the Dutch governor, to exact tribute from them, followed
by an attack on the Raritans for an alleged theft at Staten Island, brought
on, finally, a desolating warfare, lasting for two years.








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DUTCH AND INDIANS TRADING.

In the winter of 1642-43 the dreaded Mohawks came swooping down
upon the Algonkin settlements, driving great numbers of them into Man-
hattan and other Dutch settlements near it. Though these Indians had
committed hostile acts, policy and humanity alike suggested that they
should be well treated. Instead of this their defenceless condition only
suggested to Kieft the policy of exterminating them.

Across the river, at Pavonia, a large number of them had collected, and
72 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

here, at midnight, the Dutch soldiers, joined by some privateersmen, fell
upon them while asleep in their tents, and butchered nearly
one hundred of them, including women and little children.
This eruel and impolitic act was terribly avenged. The Indians every-
where rose upon the whites, killing the men, capturing the women and

Feb. 25, 1643.



THE MASSACRE OF THE INDIANS AT PAVONIA.

children, and destroying and laying waste the settlements. Trading boats
on the Hudson were attacked and plundered and their crews murdered.
The war extended into Connecticut, and at Pelham’s N eck, near New
Rochelle, Anne Hutchinson, a remarkable woman, exiled from Boston
on account of her religious opinions, was murdered, together with her fam-
ily, with the exception of a daughter, who was carried into captivity.

The terror-stricken people crowded into Fort Amsterdam, where, dur-
ing the following winter, they suffered from hunger and cold. Meantime
they organized a force, fifty of whom were English, under Captain J ohn






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 75

Underhill, who had won renown in the Pequot war. Early in 1644 they
undertook an expedition against the principal village of the Connecticut
Indians, situated near Stamford.

A night-march brought them to the Indian town. They had hoped to
surprise the Indians, but it was a bright moonlight night and they found
them prepared. The Dutch numbered one hundred and fifty ;
the Indians, protected by their rude fortifications, were seven
hundred strong. Advancing steadily, the Dutch repelled the sorties of
the Indians, nearly two hundred of whom fell in the attempt to drive
them back. Underhill at last succeeded in setting fire to the village.
There was an end of the fighting; it was only slaughter now. But eight
of the Indians escaped. This victory put a period to the strife.
In the following summer a treaty was concluded with all the
hostile tribes on the beautiful spot in front of Fort Amsterdam, now
known as the Battery, and the pipe of peace was duly smoked in pres-
ence of the entire Dutch population. One week later a day of thanks-
giving was kept by the Dutch for the conclusion of this terrible war,
in the course of which nearly every one of their settlements had been
attacked and destroyed.

Feb., 1644.

Aug. 30.













































































































































































































































































































































NEW YORK IN 1664.

Early one morning in September, 1655, during the absence of Gov-
ernor Stuyvesant, who was besieging the Swedes at Fort Christian, nearly
two thousand Algonkin warriors swarmed through the streets of New
Amsterdam, and after plundering the houses all day, were finally driven
off in the evening after a desperate conflict. They then ravaged the
76 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

adjacent country, killing the men and making prisoners of the women
and children. Stuyvesant hastened back and took prompt measures to
meet the emergency; but, instead of attacking the savages, by a prudent
and conciliatory course he avoided further trouble, and procured a lasting
peace and the return of all the captives.



PETER STUYVESANT,

On the Pacifie coast, Sir Francis Drake, the first Englishman who
sailed round the world, discovered “a fair and good bay,” which may
have been that of San Francisco, and remained there long
enough to refit his vessel and to build a fort upon the shore.
He took possession of the country for Queen Elizabeth with the usual
formalities, erecting a post upon which an engraved plate of brass was
placed, bearing, besides the picture and arms of the Queen, and Drake’s

arms, the statement of the free resignation of the country by the king and
people into her hands,

June 17, 1579.
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. U7

With the Indians Drake maintained the most friendly relations.
Soon after he landed he received a visit from the king of the country,
a man of comely presence and stature, who with his train appeared in
great pomp. In front of him marched a tall man, with the sceptre or
mace of black wood a yard and a half long. Upon it hung two crowns,
with three long chains of bone; these had innumerable links and were
marks of honor. The king was dressed in rabbit-skins. The common
people were almost naked, but their hair was tied with many feathers.
Their faces were painted, and they all brought with them some present.

































































































































































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BEGINNING OF NEW YORK,

The sceptre bearer and another made long speeches, and then there was
a dance and a song. They were then understood to ask Drake “to be-
come their king and governor,” the king singing with all the rest; and
more fully to declare their meaning, set the crown upon Drake’s head
and encireled his neck with their chains. They then saluted him by the
title of /7Zioh, or king, and sang and danced to show their joy not only
at this visit of the gods, but that Drake, the great god, was become their
king and patron.

In the interior the natives were found living in villages. Their houses
were round holes in the ground, surmounted by poles which met in the
78 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

centre, the whole being covered with earth to keep out water. The door,
“made sloping like the scuttle of a ship,” was also the chimney. The
people slept in these houses on rushes, on the ground around a fire in the



SIR FRANCIS DRAKE, |

middle. The country was fruitful. Deer and wild horses were plenty.
The natives were loving and tractable, and expressed great sorrow at

Drake's departure. In his narrative of this voyage, Drake sets forth
fully the abundance of gold in California.

The natives who met the founder of Pennsylvania were Lenni-Le-
nape, who formerly had their seat beyond the Alleghanies, whence they
emigrated to the Hudson and the Delaware. The Raritan, Navesink,
Mingo, and Assanpink creeks and rivers, preserve for us the names of
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 40

the tribes commonly known as Delawares. They were of a warlike dis-
position, and frequently fought with their Indian neighbors. At the
time of Penn’s visit they had been conquered by and were subjects of
the fierce Iroquois.

Penn has thus described them: “They are tall, straight, tread strong
and clever, and walk with a lofty chin. Their eustom of rubbing the
body with bear’s fat gives them a swarthy color. They have little black
eyes. ‘T’heir heads and countenances have nothing of the negro type, and
I have seen as comely European-like faces among them as on the other
side of the sea. Their language is lofty, yet narrow; like short-hand in
writing, one word serveth in the place of three, and the rest are supplied
by the understanding of the hearers. I have made it my business to learn
it that I might not want an interpreter on any occasion.



WILLIAM PENN,

“Tn liberality they excel; nothing is too good for their friend. Give
them a fine gun, coat, or other thing, it may pass twenty hands before it
sticks; light of heart, strong affections, but soon spent. The justice they
80 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

have is pecuniary. In case they killa woman, they pay double; and the
reason they render is that she breedeth children, which the man cannot
do. It is rare that they fall out, if sober, and if drunk they forgive it,
saying it was the drink and not the man that abased them.”
































































Pe hss
- ZF -

~ -—" - x ; ‘ :



LANDING OF WILLIAM PENN AT PHILADELPHIA.

At Penn’s first interview with the Delawares, Taminent, the chief
sachem, sat in the middle of a semicircle composed of old men and coun-
cillors. At a little distance back sat the young people. One of the
sachems addressed Penn, during whose “talk” no one whispered or smiled.
Penn and his friends were without arms; he was easily distinguished by
a blue silk net-work sash. The sachem wore a chaplet, with a small horn
projecting from it, as a symbol of sovereignty.

The name of the famous Delaware sachem with whom Penn made his
treaty has been handed down to posterity in a very singular manner. Not-
La
eae

































AND THE INDIANS.

PENN
EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH THE INDIANS. 83

withstanding the discredit into which it has latterly fallen, the name of
Tammany (Taminent) was an honored one, not only during the lifetime of
the warrior and sage who bore it, but long after his decease.

A century ago it was adopted by a society in Philadelphia, who, on
the first day of May in each year, walked in procession through the streets
of that city, their hats decorated with buck’s tails, to a place of meeting
which they called the wigwam, where the day was passed in mirth and
festivity. Since that period the honored name has been associated with a
political faction in New York City, at whose meetings a semblance of
Indian customs is still preserved.

Penn told the Indians that he desired to live in perfect amity with
them, and that he and his friends came unarmed because they never used
weapons. In addition to the price of the land he bought of them, he pre-
sented them with various articles of merchandise.

He tried in every way to conciliate them and gain their confidence.
He walked with them at one of their earliest meetings, sat with them on
the ground, and ate with them of their roasted acorns and hominy. They
expressed their delight at this by hopping and jumping, in which the staid
Quaker himself joined them, and, as the story goes, “ beat them all.” Tis
open, straightforward, simple manner and kind treatment of them was
repaid by friendly offices both to himself and his followers.

Tis famous treaty with them took place at Shakamaxon, on the north-
ern edge of Philadelphia. Every right of the Indians was to be respected,
and every difference adjusted by a tribunal composed of an oct. 1689
equal number of men from each race. Neither oaths, signa- —
tures, nor seals were made use of in this treaty, and no written record of
it exists; but it was sacredly kept for sixty years. Harmony also sub-
sisted with the neighboring Indians, among whom were bands of the war-
like Shawnees.
84 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Il.
VIRGINIA COLONIZED.

T was time for England to assert her rights, and to plant colonies in
the vast and fertile regions Cabot had discovered almost a century
before. So thought Sir Walter Raleigh, one of the most, brill-
iant Englishmen of an exceptionally brilliant period, when he
despatched two vessels, under Captains Amadas and Barlow,
to the New World.
Landing at Cape Hatteras in July, they received a friendly welcome,
and trafficked with the natives, who came off to their ship in boats, and
whom they described as “a handsome and goodly people, most gentle, lov-
ing, and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and
such as lived after the manner of the golden age.”

1497,
April 27, 1584.

Among these visitors was Granganameo, the
king’s brother, who, taking a fancy to a pewter
dish, made a hole through it and hung it about
his neck for a breastplate. From him they learned
that Wingina, the king of that country, was con-
fined at home by a wound received in battle. The
Christians drove excellent bargains with these sim-
ple heathen, the price of the pewter dish being
twenty deerskins, worth five pounds sterling, and fifty deerskins for a
copper kettle. The simple natives “marvelled much” at the whiteness
of the strangers.

The chief’s wife came to see them. She wore a long cloak of leather,
with a piece of leather about her loins, around her forehead a band of
white coral, and from her ears bracelets of large pearls “of the bigness of
good pease” hung down to her middle. The other women wore pendants
of copper, as did the children, five or six in an ear. Their boats were
hollowed trunks of trees.

They kept their white visitors supplied with game and fruits, and did
all they could for their comfort. Captain Barlow, with seven men, vis-



FORM OF RALEIGH’S SHIPS,
' VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 85

ited the chief's residence,
and in his absence were
most hospitably entertain-
ed by his wife. Her house
of five rooms she placed at
their disposal; she and her
women provided bountiful-
ly for their wants, washing
and drying their clothing,
and even bathing their feet
in warm water, and placing
a guard over their boat
while they slept. They
were feasted upon hominy,
boiled venison, and roasted
fish, with a dessert of mel-
ons and other vegetables.
After exploring the coast
and acquiring information,
the expedition, about the
middle of September, re-
turned to England. Two of
the natives, Wanchese and Manteo, accompanied them on the return voyage.

The glowing accounts they gave of the country made it easy to gather
a company of emigrants to colonize Virginia, for so the country had been
named by Queen Elizabeth. Under the lead of Ralph Lane, a soldier of
some reputation, one hundred and eight colonists embarked at



SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

- : . April 9, 1585.
Plymouth in seven vessels, commanded by Sir Richard Green-

ville, a kinsman of Raleigh, and one of the best known of the naval cap-
tains of the age.

Two years later, Greenville, in his single ship off the Azores, fought
fifteen great Spanish galleons for fifteen hours, and when at last mortally
wounded, exclaimed with his latest breath, “IIere die I, Richard Green-
ville, with a joyful and quiet mind, for that I have ended my life as a true
soldier ought to do, fighting for his country, queen, religion, and honor.”
One of the ships that bore Lane’s colony was commanded by Captain
Amadas, another by a young captain named Thomas Cavendish, who a
year afterwards made a famous voyage round the world. Thomas Hariot
was the scientific man of this well-equipped expedition, and John White

the artist.
86 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS. :

Landing in August, Lane established his colony at Wocokon, on Itoan-
oke Island. Here they found tobacco, to the use of which they soon ac-
customed themselves, maize, or Indian corn, which attracted their atten-
tion from its extraordinary productiveness, and the potato, which, when
boiled, they found very palatable. The country was explored as far south
as the Indian village of Secotan, and northwardly to the territory of the
Chesapeakes in the bay of that name.

The inhabitants who were on the boundary of the Algonkin and South-
ern or Appalachian races were a mixture of both. Each clan obeyed its
own chief, but all were associated in a general confederacy which was
ruled by Powhatan, whose council-fire and residence were on the James
River. They were described by one of the colonists as a very strong and
lusty race, and swift warriors. He tells us, “ Their skin is tawny, not so
born, but with dyeing and painting themselves, in which they delight
greatly. The maids shave close the forepart and sides of their heads, and
leave the hair long behind, where it is tied up and hangs down to the hips.
The married women wear their hair all of a length, but tied behind as
that of the maid’s is. The women seratch on their bodies and limbs with
a sharp iron, pictures of birds, fishes, and beasts, and rub into the draw-
ings lively colors, which dry into the flesh and are permanent. The peo-
ple are witty and ingenious, but steal anything they can lay hands on—
yea, are so practised in this art, that looking in our faces they would with
their foot convey between their toes a chisel, knife, or any indifferent
light thing, which, having once conveyed, they hold it an injury to take the
same from them. They are naturally given to treachery, howbeit we
could not find it in our travel up the river, but rather a most kind and
loving people.”

They were exceedingly fond of ornaments, some of which were very
singular, not to say repulsive. An early traveller tells us, “Their ears
they bore with holes, commonly two or three, and in the same they do
hang heavy chains of stained pearl, bracelets of white bone, or shreds of
copper beaten thin and bright, and wound up hollow, and with a great
pride, certain fowles legs, eagles, hawks, turkeys, ete. The claws thrust
through, they let hang upon the cheek to the fuli view, and some there be
who will wear in these holes a small green and yellow live snake, near half
a yard in length, which, crawling and lapping himself about his neck,
oftentimes familiarly he suffereth to kiss his lips. Others wear a ded rat
tyed by the tail, and such like conundrums.”

Their towns were small, the largest containing but thirty dwellings.
Their greatest chief could not muster more than seven hundred or eight
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 87

hundred warriors. Mathematical instruments, the burning - glass, guns,
clocks, mirrors, and the use of letters, attracted their superstitious regard,
and the English were reverenced as superior beings. Fire-arms were terri-
ble to them, and every sickness was attributed to wounds from invisible
bullets discharged by unseen beings inhabiting the air.

“To make their children hardy,” says an early writer, “they wash them
in the river in the coldest mornings, and by paintings and ointments so tan
their skins that after a year or two no weather will hurt them. To prac-
tise their children in the use of their bows and arrows, the mothers do not
give them their breakfast in a morning before they have hit a mark which
she appoints them to shoot at, and commonly so cunning (skilful) they will
have them as, throwing up in the air a piece of moss or some light thing,
the boy must with his arrow meet it in its fall and hit it, or else he shall
not have his breakfast.”

Gradually the friendly disposition of the Indians towards the colonists
changed, owing to the greed and cruelty of the whites. They believed
that the English were come to kill them and take their places. This
belief led to a feeling of enmity. The English perceived it, and fearing
a wide-spread conspiracy to destroy them, determined to anticipate it.
Obtaining an interview with Wingina, the principal chief, who was wholly
unsuspicious of their design, at a preconcerted signal the English fell upon
him and his followers and put them all to death. It is not strange that
acts of cruelty like these were remembered by the natives, and that savage
retribution followed.

Very soon Lane’s colony became dissatisfied ; provisions were scarce,
the Indians were unfriendly, and the colonists were homesick and anxious
to return to England. The fleet of Sir Francis Drake oppor-
tunely arriving on the coast, he permitted them to embark, and
thus ended the first attempt at English colonization. A few days after
their departure a ship arrived, laden with all the stores needed by the
colony. Greenville, with further supphes, also appeared a little too late.
IIe left fifteen men on Roanoke Island to hold possession for England ;
they were all killed by the Indians.

Constant to his purpose of colonization, Raleigh now determined to
plant a colony of emigrants, with their wives and families, who would make
permanent homes in the New World. Joln White was appointed its
governor. In the month of July, 1587, it arrived on the coast of North
Carolina, and laid the foundations of the city of Raleigh on Roanoke
Island.

Here the first white child of English parents was born to Eleanor Dare,

June, 1586.
8& INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

the daughter of Governor White, and named Virginia from the place ot
its birth.

Captain Stafford, with twenty men, was sent to Croatan, to seek for the
lost colonists. He heard that they had been set upon by the Indians, and
after a sharp skirmish had taken boats and gone to a small island near
Ilaterask, and afterwards had gone none knew whither. A party, under
the guidance of Manteo, an Indian who had accompanied Amadas and
Barlow to England, was sent to avenge their supposed murder. By mis-
take they attacked and killed some members of a friendly tribe. Such
mistakes have been only too common in our intercourse with the Indians.

When the ship which had brought them was about to return, the
emigrants prevailed on Governor White to go back and see to the prompt
despatch of reinforcements and supplies. No seasonable relief, however,
arrived, and the fate of the colony remains to this day a mystery. Owing
to the threatened invasion of England by the Spanish armada, and to other
untoward events, it was not until three years had elapsed that White could
return to seek for his colony. It had disappeared, leaving no trace behind.
He found the island of Roanoke a desert. Raleigh’s efforts and sacrifices
to colonize America were all in vain; but his faith was still unshaken, and
to his friend Cecil he wrote the memorable words, “I shall yet live to see
it an Inglishe nation.” America owes a large debt of gratitude to the
illustrious man who did so much to promote her colonization.

A period of twenty years now elapsed before a permanent English
settlement was made. St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest town in the
United States, had been founded by the Spaniards in 1565, and in 1605
the French had begun the settlement of Nova Scotia. On the 14th of
May, 1607, Captain Christopher Newport’s colony planted itself at James-
town, Virginia. The colonists at once set manfully to work, felling trees
and erecting a fort.

Three weeks before, a party had explored the James River, visiting on
the way several Indian kings, or werowances, as they were called, “the
people in all places kindly entertaining us,” says Captain John Smith,
one of the explorers, “dancing, and feasting us with strawberries, mul-
berries, bread, fish, and other country provisions, whereof we had plenty,
for which Captain Newport kindly requited them with bells, pins, needles,
and glass beads, which so contented them that his liberality made them
follow us from place to place, and ever kindly to respect us.”

A remarkable man has come upon the scene, the first to render illus-
trious the otherwise prosaic name of John Smith. He was now twenty-
eight years of age, and from his earliest youth had led a roving and
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 89

adventurous life. His military career began in the service of the gallant
Henry of Navarre, under whose banner we find at the same time Captain
Thomas Dudley, afterwards governor of the Massachusetts colony. Smith’s
exploits in the wars with the Turks in Hungary, his capture and sale in
the slave market at Adrianople, his cruel treatment by his master, and his
escape, as told by himself, make a most entertaining and romantic, if not
a strictly veracious, narrative.* ;

While a slave in the Crimea he was clothed in the skin of a wild beast,
an iron collar was fastened about his neck, and he was cuffed and kicked



































ARRIVAL AT JAMESTOWN, 1607.

about like a dog. One day he avenged himself by breaking his master’s
skull with a flail, and then mounting his horse fled in disguise to Poland,
and thence made his way to Morocco. Here he joined an English man-of-
war, and after a fierce sea-ight arrived in England just in tiie to embark
in the colonization of Virginia.

These experiences, taken in connection with his subsequent career in
Virginia, make Captain John Smith by far the most picturesque character
in our annals. Even if we give up the chivalric exploit of the slaying of
the three Turks, one after the other, in single combat before the walls of
Regall, for the pastime of the ladies, and the romantic story of his rescue
from death by Pocahontas, enough remains to immortalize the name of
Captain John Smith in all time to come.

* For the incidents in the career of this remarkable man, read his ‘‘True Travels,
Adventures, and Observations,” and his ‘‘Generall Historie of Virginia, New England,
and the Summer Isles.”
9() INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

As soon as the natives became aware of the purpose of the whites to
dispossess them of their territory, they began to be troublesome. They
would skulk about at night, and hang around the fort by day, bringing
sometimes presents of deer, but given to theft of small articles, and show-
ing jealousy of the invasion of their soil. The day before
the return of a second exploring party, two hundred Indians
attacked the fort. They fought bravely, but were driven off after an
hour’s fight by the guns of the ship. In this affair the colonists had
eleven men wounded and a boy killed. For several days alarms and
attacks continued, and it was unsafe for any to venture beyond the fort.

Newport’s colony consisted mainly of “gentlemen.” No more useless
commodity could have been sent here. Among them were ruined spend-
thrifts, broken tradesmen, fortune-hunters, rakes, and libertines. They
expected to find gold; they found instead danger, disappointment, toil,
and sickness.

“We did not come here to work,” they said.

“Then you shall not eat,” said the redoubtable Captain Smith. “The
labor of a few industrious men shall not be consumed to maintain idle
loiterers.”

In order to stop profanity Smith kept a daily aecount of every man’s
oaths, and at night a can of cold water poured down the offender’s sleeve
was the penalty for each transgression. To the company in England
who had sent out the colony he wrote: “ When you send again, I entreat
you send thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths,
or diggers up of roots, well provided, rather than a thousand of such as
we have.” After Smith’s return to England they had things their own
way; they plundered the Indians, who in turn slew them, and were re-
duced by famine to the greatest straits. When relieved by Sir Thomas
Gates, from four hundred and ninety their number had dwindled to sixty.

With so many drones in the hive there was soon a scarcity of food.
But for the kindness of the natives, who brought them maize and other
provisions, they must have starved. Smith made several excursions up
the Chickahominy River to trade with the Indians for corn. When, as it
sometimes happened, the savages were insolent, and refused to trade, he
brought them to terms by force of arms. But for his energy in procuring
supplies, and his success in dealing with the Indians, it is probable that
the colony would have famished. With all his vanity and impatience of
restraint, Smith possessed extraordinary executive ability.

Not long after the settlement was begun, Smith, while engaged in
exploring the sources of the Chickahominy, was set upon by the natives.

May 26.
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 91

Seizing the Indian guide who had accompanied him, he used him as a
shield against their arrows, at the same time defending himself with his
pistol. He was soon surrounded by two hundred Indians, led by Opechan-
ganough, chief of the Pamunkeys, the brother of Powhatan. Sure of
making him prisoner they would not shoot, but laid down their bows and
demanded his arms. Let the valiant captain tell the rest of the story in
his own words :

“In retiring,” says Smith, “being in the midst of a low quagmire, and
minding them more than my steps, I stept fast into the quagmire, and
also the Indian in drawing me forth. Thus surprised, I resolved to try
their mercies and cast ny arms from me, till which none durst approach
me.

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































RUINS AT JAMESTOWN.

“TIaving seized on me they drew me out, diligently chafed my be-
numbed limbs, and led me to the king. I presented him with a compass-
dial, describing by my best means the use thereof; whereat he so amazed-
ly admired, as he suffered me to proceed in a discourse of the roundness
of the earth, the course of the sun, moon, stars, and planets. (Much of
this learned discourse must have been thrown away upon an unlettered
92 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

savage.) With kind speeches and bread he requited me. I expected they
would execute me, yet they used me with what kindness they could. I
was taken to their town, six miles off, only made as arbors and covered
with mats, which they remove as occasion requires. For supper [I had
a quarter of venison and some ten pounds of bread; what I left was
reserved for me. Each morning three women presented me three great
platters of fine bread, and more venison than ten men could eat. I had
my gowne, points, and garters; my compass and tablets they gave me
again. Though eight ordinarily guarded me, I wanted not what they
could devise to content me, and still our longer acquaintance increased
our better affection.”

Smith also greatly astonished the Indians by writing a letter to be
sent to his friends, for they could not understand how a message could
be put on paper. And when the articles for which he had sent were
delivered to them, they regarded him as a wonderful powwow or con-
juror.

Some days later he was condueted to the residence of Powhatan, the
principal chief of the country, near the historic field of Yorktown, but
on the other side of the river.

Powhatan was at this time about seventy years of age, and of majestic
appearance. He was tall, well proportioned, and exceedingly vigorous.
By his bravery, energy, and policy he had raised himself to kingly power.
Te swayed many nations upon the great rivers and bays, as far as the Pa-
tuxent, most of whom he had conquered. There were thirty of these,
with a population of twenty-four thousand. He wore an ornamented robe
of raccoon-skins, and his head-dress was composed of many feathers wrought
into a kind of crown. He usually kept a guard of forty or fifty of the
most resolute and well formed of his warriors about him, especially when
he slept; but after the English came into his country he inereased it
to about two hundred. Smith’s interview with this great chief, who re-
ceived him with much ceremony, is best given in his own words:

“ Arriving at Woramocomoco, on the Pamunkey [York] River,” says
Smith, “their emperor was proudly lying upon a bedstead a foot high,
upon ten or twelve mats, richly hung with many chains of great pearls
about his neck, and covered with a great covering of raccoon-skins. At
his head sat a woman ; at his feet another. On each side, sitting on a mat
upon the ground, were ranged his chief men, ten in a rank, and behind
them as many young women, each having a great chain of white beads
over their shoulders, their heads painted red. At my entrance before the
king all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appomattuck was
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 93

appointed to bring me water to wash my hands, and another brought a
bunch of feathers instead of a towel to dry them.

“With such a grave and majestical countenance as drew me into admi-
ration to see such state in a naked savage, Powhatan kindly welcomed me
with good words and great platters of sundry victuals, assuring me his


































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friendship, and my liberty within four days. He much delighted in
Opechanganough’s relation of what I had described to him, and oft exam-
ined me upon the same. Ie promised to give me corn, venison, or what I
wanted to feed us. Tatchets and copper we should make him, and none
should disturb us. This I promised to perform; and thus having, with
all the kindness he could devise, sought to content me, he sent me home.”
94 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

When Powhatan inquired of Smith the cause of their coming, he was
careful not to let him know that the English had come to settle in the
country. De told him that in a fight with the Spaniards they had been
overpowered and compelled to retreat, and by stress of weather had to
put to that shore. Perhaps Powhatan believed him. Smith had a de-
cided knack for romancing.

This account of his captivity was written by Smith at the time, and
was soon afterwards published in London. In it nothing is said about
Pocahontas saving his life. That romantic story, first published sixteen
years later, and since everywhere repeated, has latterly been questioned.
It is wholly inconsistent with what Smith had previously told of the kind
treatment he received from Powhatan. It is as follows:

“Waving feasted him (Smith) after the best barbarous manner they
could, a long consultation was held; but the conclusion was, two great
stones were brought before Powhatan; then as many as could laid hands
on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready
with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the king’s dearest
daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms and
laid her own upon his to save him from death, whereat the emperor was
contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and
copper, for they thought him as well capable of all occupations as them-
selves.” There can be little doubt that Smith owed his escape from
death to his own native wit and readiness.

Smith thus describes some of the religious and other ceremonies per-
formed by their medicine-men, or powwows:

“Three or four days after my taking,” he says, “seven of them came
rushing in, painted half black, half red, in the house where I lay; round
about him these fiends danced a pretty while; then each, with a rattle, be-
gan, at ten o’clock in the morning, to sing about the fire, which they en-
vironed with a cirele of meal, and afterwards, a foot or two from that,
at the end of each song, laid down two or three grains of wheat, con-
tinuing this order till they have included six hundred or seven hundred
in a half-circle, and, after that, two or three more circles in like manner,
a hand’s-breadth from the others; that done, at each song they put be-
tween every three, two, or five grains a little stick, so continuing, as an
old woman her paternoster.

“One, disguised with a great skin, his head hung round with little
skins of weasels and other vermin, with a coronet of feathers on his head,
painted as ugly as possible, came skipping in with a fearful yell, and a rattle
in his hand. At the end of each song he made many signs and demon-
VIRGINIA COLONIZED.









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96 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

“Each morning, in the coldest frosts, the principal, to the number of
twenty or thirty, assembled themselves in a circle a good distance from the
town, where they told me they consulted where to hunt the next day. So
fat they fed me that I much doubted they intended to have sacrificed me
to the power they worship. To cure the sick, a man with a rattle, and
extreme howling, shouting, singing, and such violent gestures and antic
actions, labors over the patient. In passing over the water in foul weather
they offer tobacco to their god to conciliate his favor. Death they lament
with great sorrow and weeping; their kings they bury betwixt two mats,
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A MEDICINE-MAN. 20.

Smith was always prompt and
with the Indians, keeping his promises to them, and never
hesitating to attack or punish them when necessary. They feared and
respected him. Smith was a great) boaster, but there was no nonsense
about him.

He was a born explorer, and in one of his voyages discovered and sailed
up the Potomac River, collecting from the natives a quantity of furs.
Fish were so abundant that his men attempted, though without success, to
catch them with frying-pans; the’ fishes very properly declined this pre-
mature introduction to the frying-pan, not being dressed for the occasion.
In a subsequent journey he made acquaintance with the Susquehannocks
a tribe of large stature and of honest and simple disposition. “ Their

“square ”
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 97

voices were proportioned to their size,” says Smith, “sounding, as it were,
a great voice in a vault or cave, as an echo.” |

Karly in the following year Smith, with Newport and about twenty
others, went to Powhatan’s residence to trade. Three hundred savages
conducted Smith to Powhatan, who received him in great
state. Before his house were ranged forty or fifty great plat-
ters of bread. Entering his house, “with loud tunes they made all signs
of great joy.”

The emperor sat upon his bed of mats, his pillow of leather embroid-
ered with pearls and white beads, and his attire “a fair robe of skins, as
Jarge as an Irish mantle.” Ie welcomed Smith with kindness, caused him
to sit beside him, and with pleasant converse renewed their old acquaint-—
ance. Smith presented him with a suit of red cloth, a white greyhound,
and a hat. Powhatan professed a great desire to see Smith’s “father,”
Captain Newport, upon whose greatness Smith had before freely enlarged.
That night the English were feasted liberally, and entertained with sing-
ing, dancing, and orations.

Next day Newport came on shore, and presents were exchanged. New-
port gave Powhatan a white boy, thirteen years old, named Thomas Sav-
age. This boy remained a long time with the Indians, and was useful to
the colonists as an interpreter. In return, Powhatan gave Newport a bag
of beans, and an Indian, named Namontack, for his servant. The party
stayed three or fonr days, feasting, dancing, and trading with the natives.

In the matter of trade, Smith says of Powhatan, “he carried himself
so proudly, yet discreetly Gn his savage manner), as made us all to admire
his natural gifts.

“¢Oaptain Newport,’ said he, ‘it is not agreeable to my greatness in
this peddling manner to trade for trifles ; therefore lay down all your com-

1608.

modities together, what I like I will take, and in recompense give you
what I think fitting their value.”

Smith saw through his craftiness and warned N ewport; but the latter
resented his interference and placed all his goods before Powhatan, who in
return gave him only a few bushels of corn, whereas he expected to have
obtained twenty hogsheads. Smith, who was as wily as the Indian, showed
him, as if by accident, a few blue beads which he pretended he did not
wish to part with, as they were of great price, being of the color of the
skies, and worn only by great kings. He so stimulated Powhatan’s eager-
ness to possess such treasures that for a pound of blue beads he paid him
two or three hundred bushels of corn.

It had been decided by the company in England to crown Powhatan,

7
98 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and to present him with a basin and ewer, bed, bedding, and clothes. The
ceremony of coronation, which took place at Worawocomoco, is thus hu-
morously described by Smith: |

“The presents were brought him, his bed and furniture set up, his
scarlet cloke and apparel with much adoe put on him. But a foule trouble
there was to make him kneel to receive his crown; he not knowing the
majesty nor meaning of a crown, nor bending of the knee, endured so
many persuasions, exainples, and illustrations as tired them all. At last,
by bearing hard on his shoulders, he a little stooped, and three having the
erown in their hands put it on his head, when, by the warning of a pistol,
the boats were prepared with such a volley of shot that made the king start
up in a horrible fear, till he saw all was well. Then, remembering him-
self to congratulate their kindness, he gave his old shoes and his mantle to
Captain Newport.”

Of this absurd ceremonial Smith observes, “We had his favor and bet-
ter for a plain piece of copper, till this stately kind of solicitation made
him so much overvalue himself that he respected us as much as nothing
at all.”

Nothing could be more plausible or apparently more free from treach-
erous intent than Powhatan’s talk with Smith, when upon one occasion the
latter, to extort food for the famished settlers which the Indians withheld,
threatened to take it by force.

“Why should you,” said the chief, “take by force that from us which
you can have by love? Why should you destroy us who have provided
you with food? What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions
and fly into the woods, and then you must, consequently, perish by wrong-
ing your friends. What is the cause of your jealousy? You see us un-
armed, and willing to supply your wants if you will come in a friendly
manner, end not with guns and swords as to invade an enemy. I am not
so simple as not to know it is better to eat good meat, le well, and sleep
quietly, to langh and be merry with the English, and being their friend, to
have copper, hatchets, and whatever else I want, than to fly from all, to
lie cold in the woods, feed upon acorns, roots, and such trash, and to be so
hunted that I cannot rest, eat, or sleep, unless in this miserable manner to
end my miserable life; and, Captain Smith, this might be your fate too,
through your rashness and unadvisedness. I, therefore, entreat you to
peaceable counsels, and, above all, I insist that the guns and swords, the
cause of all our jealousy and uneasiness, be removed and sent away.”

Smith rightly interpreted this cunning speech exactly contrary to what
it expressed, and it confirmed rather than lessened his former suspicions
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 99

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that the wily chief sought an opportunity to destroy them. finding all artifices vain, Powhatan resolved to fall upon the English in
their cabins in the night. From this peril they were saved by Pocahontas,
who came alone to Jamestown, in a dismal night, through the woods, and
100 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

informed Smith of her father’s design. To show his gratitude, Smith says
he would have given her “such things as she delighted in, but with the
tears rolling down her cheeks she said she durst not be seen to have any.
for if Powhatan should know it she were but dead; and so she ran away
by herself as she came.” |

Another of Smith’s wonderful exploits must now be recorded. With
fifteen of his men he visited Opechanganongh’s residence, where he soon
found himself surrounded by seven hundred armed savages seeking his
life. Boldly charging the king with intent to murder him, he challenged
him to single combat, Smith to be as naked as the king. The latter stall
professed friendship, but Smith seizing him by his long hair, in the midst
of his guard, with his pistol at his breast led him trembling and near dead
with fear among all his people. The king gave up his arms, and the sav-
ages, astonished at the daring of Smith, threw down their bows and loaded
his men with corn and other commodities. A picture of this astonishing
feat in Smith’s “ Generall Historie,” represents the savage king as of gigan-
tic stature, Smith appearing like a boy beside him.

Smith once encountered the king of Paspahegh, “a most strong, stout
savage,” who, seeing that the Englishman had only his sword, attempted
to shoot him. Smith grappled with him, and the savage bore him into
the river to drown him. Finally Smith got him by the throat and nearly
strangled him. Then drawing his sword he was about to cut off his head.
when the king begged his life so earnestly that Smith led him a prisoner
to the fort and put him in chains. The chief afterwards sueceeded in
making his escape.

If the Indian was treacherous, so was the white man. Captain Argall,
an English trader, with the gift of a copper kettle for himself, and a few
toys for his squaw, induced a chief to entice Pocahontas on board his ves-
sel. No wonder she had no suspicion of this base design, for she had
proved her friendship for the English on more than one occasion, at a
great sacrifice to herself.

This Indian maiden, as we are told by Smith, “far excelled all others
for feature, countenance, and proportion,” and for wit and spirit was “the
only nonpareil of this country.” In the early days of the colony, when
but about twelve years of age, she had been sent by her father to James-
town, to procure the release of some Indians detained at the fort. She
was accompanied by Rawhunt, her father’s trusty messenger, who assured
Smith of Powhatan’s love and kindness, in that he had sent his child
whom he most esteemed to see him, and a deer and bread besides for a
present. The prisoners were given to Pocahontas “in regard to her fa-
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 101

ther’s kindness, and Pocahontas also we requited with such trifles as con-
tented her.”

Pocahontas was taken by Argall to Jamestown, and a ransom was de-
manded of her father. Angry and indignant, as he well might be, Pow-
hatan prepared for war.

One of the few romances that enliven the pages of our early history
prevented such a calamity, and was the beginning of a firm and lasting
peace. It happened that this dusky Indian maiden was beloved by John
Rolfe, a worthy young Englishman who was the first to cultivate the to-



























































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MARRIAGE OF POCAHONTAS.

baeco plant in Virginia. Gaining her favor, he asked her in marriage.
Her baptism was soon followed by her nuptials with Rolfe. In April,
1614, with the approbation of her father and friends, Opachisca, her un-
cle, gave the bride away, and the marriage ceremony was performed ac-
cording to the forms of the English Church. Two years later the pair
visited England. She was taken to the court, where she was known as the
Lady Rebecea, and was received with great favor, everywhere attracting
general attention as the daughter of the Virginia emperor, but died just
as she was about to return to her native land, at the age of twenty-one.
Among the distinguished Virginians who claim descent from this Indian
princess was the celebrated John Randolph, of Roanoke.

While Pocahontas was in England, Smith went to see her. She had
believed him dead, and was displeased at his neglect of her. Being a
102 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

king’s daughter, he would not permit her to call him father, at =e
was greatly offended. ‘I will call you father,’ so she told him, “and
you shall call me child. They did tell me always you were dead, for es
countrymen will lie much, and I knew no other till I came to Flymouth.

The Lady Rebecea and her husband had been accompanied to England
by an Indian named Tomocomo, who was commissioned by Powhatan to
inquire into the state of the country, and to note the number of its inhab-
itants. Arriving at Plymouth, he pro-
cured a long stick and began the per-
formance of his task by cutting a notch
for each person he saw. This primitive
manner of taking the census was soon
abandoned. His report of the state of
the country he visited, if he ever made
one, would to-day be very interesting
reading.

An unlucky accident, which nearly
cost Smith his life, put an end to his con-
nection with the colony, and compelled
him to go to England for proper surgical
aid. While lying in his boat an explo-
sion of gunpowder tore the flesh from his {°_7\W
thigh and set fire to his clothing. He POCAHONTAS,
threw himself out of the boat into the
water, and was nearly drowned before he could be rescued. He left Vir-
ginia in the autumn of 1609, and never returned. His efforts to pre-
serve the colony, and to restrain the evil and turbulent spirits with which
it abounded, had made him unpopular, and his life had been many times
endangered by the machinations of his enemies. Tis later years were
employed in explorations of the New England coast, in the composition
of his valuable and interesting memoirs and descriptions of the New
World, and in efforts to interest London capitalists in its colonization.

The only monument to the memory of this extraordinary man is a little
marble shaft on the southerly summit of Star Island, one of the Isles of
Shoals. His epitaph, given in Stow’s “ Survey of London,” begins thus :



“Here lies one conquered that hath conquered kings.”

A tablet, with three Turks’ heads engraved upon it, in St. Sepulchre’s
Church, London, marks the place of his burial.

Powhatan’s successor, the famous Opechanganough, the gigantic chief
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 103


















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who had captured Smith, for twenty-five years acted an important part in
the history of Virginia. During his sway the most terrible of Indian
massacres took place. Idle and vicious white men had stolen the Indians’

corn, driven the game out of the country, and wronged them in many

Their lands had been taken from them, and scattered settlements

had sprung up on the bay and the rivers running into it, In many cases
remote from each other. The haughty Opechanganough had ever been
104 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

intent on the destruction of the English, and by a course of craft and
policy had Inlled them into a fatal security. [laving matured his plans,

a general rising of the Indians took place, and three hundred
Maren ee and forty-seven persons, including six members of the coun-
cil, were cut off.

The secrecy and dissimulation of the Indians were perfect. Treachery
and falsehood are the natural weapons of the weak and timorous. Only
two days before the fatal blow fell they sent one of their youth to live
with the English and learn their language. On the very morning of the
massacre they came unarmed among them and traded as usual, and even
sat down to breakfast with their victims in several instances. No respect
was paid to age, sex, or condition. Their best friends were among their
first victims.

Those attacked were at a distance from Jamestown; there, fortunately,
the people had warning. The night before the massacre a converted In-
dian was told by his brother of the proposed extermination of the English,
and was urged to do his part by murdering his master. This seems to
have been the only instance in which any obligation to the white man for
benefits received was remembered. The Indian revealed the plot to his
master.

Before daylight the planter, who lived opposite to Jamestown, crossed
the river and warned the inhabitants. The people assembled with their
arms, word was sent to all the settlements within reach, and the larger
part of the colonists were by this means saved, the Indians making no
attack where they seemed likely to encounter resistance.

Virginia was well-nigh ruined. The settlements were reduced from
eighty to less than eight. All the smaller settlements and plantations were
abandoned. Industries of all kinds ceased, except in the vicinity of the
large towns, and the colonists at once set about to take “a sharp revenge
upon the bloody miscreants.” They destroyed the towns, the crops, the
fishing weirs of the natives, shot them down as they would wild beasts
wherever found, tracked them with blood-hounds to their hiding-places in
the forest, and trained their mastiffs to tear them in pieces. This state
of things lasted for years, and it was long before the planters returned to
their old occupations.

A second massacre of the settlers, also planned by the now aged Ope-
changanough, who, borne upon a litter, accompanied his warriors, lasted
two days. Three hundred persons were murdered. Its prog-

ress was finally checked by Sir William Berkeley, at the head
of an armed force.

1644.
VIRGINIA COLONIZED. 105

The old chief was taken prisoner not long afterwards, and carried to
Jamestown. The soldier who guarded him barbarously shot him, inflicting
a mortal wound. Just before he died, observing a curious crowd about
him, he roused himself from his lethargy, and in a tone of authority de-
manded that the governor should be summoned. When he came, Ope-
changanough indignantly said to him,

‘“TTad it been my fortune to have taken Sir William Berkeley prisoner,
I would not meanly have exposed him as a show to my people.”

From this period the native population of Virginia gradually disap-
peared, leaving as memorials only the names of their mountains and
streams.
106 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

IV.
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS.

NLY a few years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, the coast

of New England had been visited by a pestilence which had swept

off nearly all the natives. A few Indians were seen hovering

vee 2" About soon after their arrival, but they quickly disappeared
when pursued.

Their first encounter with the natives took place at Wellfleet, while
they were exploring the coast for a suitable place for a settle-
ment. Edward Winslow, afterwards governor of Plymouth
colony, has left this account of it:

“All of a sudden,” says Winslow, “we heard a great and strange cry.
One of the company came running in, and said, ‘They are men! Indians,
Indians? and withal their arrows came flying amongst us. The ery of
our enemies was dreadful, especially when our men ran to recover their
arms, which lay on the shore at a little distance, as by the good provi-
dence of God they did.

“In the mean time Captain Miles Standish made a shot, and after him
another. Other two of us were ready, and there were only four of us
which had their arms ready, and stood before the open side of our barri-
cade, which was first assaulted. We called to them in the shailop to know
how it was with them, and they answered,

“* Well, well? every one; and ‘Be of good courage.’

“There was a lusty man, and no whit less valiant, who was thought
to be their captain, stood behind a tree within half a musket-shot of us,
and there let his arrows fly at us. Te was seen to shoot three arrows,
which were all avoided, for he at whom the first was aimed stooped down
and it flew over him. Ile stood three shots of a musket. At length one
took, as he said, full aim at him, after which he gave an extraordinary cry,
and away they went, all. We followed them about a quarter of a mile.
Then we shouted altogether several times, and shot off a couple of mus-

kets, and so returned. This we did that they might see we were not
atraid of them nor discouraged.

December 8.














































































































































































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THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS. 109

“By the special providence of God none of these arrows hit us,
though many came close by us and on every side of us, and some coats
that hung in our barricade were shot through and through.”

Captain Miles Standish, who was so conspicuous in the military annals
of Plymouth Colony, and who was the leader of all their warlike expe-
ditions, had seen service, having fought the Spaniards in Holland. He
was a fiery, hot-tempered little man, and afraid of nothing. Finding
himself upon one occasion in company with Pecksuot, an Indian of great
strength and courage, and suspected of plotting against the English,
Standish, exasperated by his taunts and boasts of what he would do to

































































































































































































































































































































































































FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH THE INDIANS.

the English, snatched the warriot’s knife from his belt, and after a long
struggle killed him with it. Others of Pecksuot’s party were killed at
the same time by Standish’s companions. It was with reference to this
affair that the Rev. John Robinson, father of the Plymouth church, said,
“Oh! that they had converted some before they had killed any.”

Not long after the landing at Plymouth, Samoset, an Indian of the
110 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Wampanoag tribe, who had picked up a little of their language from the
English fishermen at Pemaquid, boldly entered the town, exclaiming,
“Welcome, Englishmen!” This was the first Indian with whom the
Pilgrims had spoken. In the name of his nation he invited them to
possess the soil, the old occupants of which were no longer living.
Samoset is described as “a tall, straight man, the hair of his head
black, long behind, only short before, none on his face at all. He was



‘“ WELCOME, ENGLISHMEN !””

free of speech and of a seemly carriage.” Being naked, they gave him
a hat, a pair of stockings and shoes, a shirt, and a piece of cloth to tie
about his waist. They learned a great deal from him about the Indians
of the country. He came again to them, bringing five others with him.
They were dressed in skins, most of them having long hose up to their
groins, close made, and above, to their waists, another leather, “ altogether
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS.



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PLYMOUTH WILDERNESS.

like the Irish trousers. They are of complexion like our English gypsies.

Some trussed up their hair before with a feather broadwise, like a fan,
another (had) a fox-tail hanging out.” They professed to be friendly, and
sang and danced after their fashion. Some had their faces painted black,
four or five fingers broad, others in a different manner.

Soon afterwards another Indian named Squanto came to them. He
was one of those who had been carried off by Captain Hunt, but es-


112 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

caped to England, and came back to his native land with Captain Der-
mer. He acted as interpreter to the colonists, taught them how to plant
Indian-corn, where to take fish and procure other commodities, and, says
Governor Bradford, “ was a special instrument sent of God for thei good,
beyond their anticipation.” After a while Squanto began to abuse his
power and influence over the Indians, and received a sharp reprimand
from Governor Winslow, who, however, admits that he was “so necessary
and profitable an instrument as at that time we could not spare him.”
Hobbomuk was another of these natives who rendered invaluable aid to
the pilgrims in the time of their early hardship and privation.

XA bout twenty different tribes of Indians were found in New England.
They were generally independent of each other, but sometimes united for
mutual protection or for the purpose of making war. The chiefs of tribes
or clans had such power only as they were entitled to by mental or physical
superiority. The Pequots, Narragansets, Pokanokets, Massachusetts, and
Pawtuckets were the principal tribes. There were also the Mohegans and
Nipmucks, and the Abenakis of Maine. The Pequots, the most powerful,
numbered abont four thousand. Next came the Narragansets, in Rhode
Island, with about one thousand. The Pokanokets, or Wampanoags, lo-
cated in Plymouth colony, were much inferior to the Narragansets, whose
sachem, Canonicus, was a chief of great ability. :

To test the mettle of the white intruders, Canonicus, soon after they
landed, sent them a bundle of arrows wrapped in a rattlesnake’s skin. To
this challenge the English replied by returning the skin filled
with powder and bail, and with it a message from Governor
Bradford, telling them that he desired peace, but if the Narragansets
wanted war they might begin as soon as they had a mind to, and that he
was prepared. This prompt defiance was enough, and no further hostile
demonstrations were made by the Narragansets for many years.

The Massachusetts Indians, once a numerous people and often at war
with the Narragansets, lived about the bay of that name. They com-
prised the Nausets, on Cape Cod; Pokanokets, or Wampanoags, between
Plymouth and Narraganset Bay; Massachusetts; Pennacooks, on the
northern frontier extending into New Ilampshire; and the N Ipmucks, in
central Massachusetts, extending into Connecticut and Rhode Island. The
Pawtuckets, also nearly destroyed by the great pestilence, were north of
the Massachusetts tribes, and included the Pennacooks and other smaller
clans. The language of all these tribes was substantially the same.

Massasoit, the Wampanoag sachem, paid an early visit to the Pilgrims,
and was received with all the ceremony the condition of the colony

Feb., 1622.
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS. 1138

allowed. He and his men were conducted to a new house, a green rug
was spread upon the floor, and several cushions for Massasoit and his men
to sit down upon. Then came the English governor, followed by a drum-
mer and a trumpeter and a few soldiers, and after kissing one another all
sat down. |

The chief was described at this time as “a very lustie man, in his best
years, an able body, grave of countenance, and spare of speech. His face
was painted of a sad red, and both face and head were well oiled, so that he
looked greasily. A great chain of white bone beads was around his neck,
on which hung a little bag of tobacco; this he used himself and passed
to the English. In his bosom he carried a great, long knife. He marvelled
much at our trumpet, and some of his men would sound it as well as they
could. Some were naked, all were painted, and all were tall, strong men.



INTERVIEW WITH MASSASOIT,

The governor filled the king’s kettle with peas, which pleased them well,
and so they went their way.” Massasoit’s residence was at Mount Hope,
which is now included in the town of Bristol, Rhode Island.

A treaty of friendship was soon made, and it was sacredly kept for

more than forty years. Massasoit gained an important ally, for the power-
8

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114 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.































































































































































































































































































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THE PALACE OF KING MASSASOIT.

ful Narragansets were his enemies, and the English obtained security and
the opportunity of a profitable trade.

Some time afterwards, Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins visited
the sachem at his home. Their account of this visit gives us an amusing
glimpse of Indian domestic life. Ie had no victuals for them, and night
coming on they retired supperless to bed. This article of furniture con-
sisted of planks, laid a foot from the ground, and a thin mat upon them.
“The chief and his wife occupied one end of the bed,” says Winslow, “and
we the other. Two of his men, for want of room, pressed by and upon us,
so that we were worse weary of our lodging than our journey. What with
bad lodging, the savages’ barbarous singing (for they used to sing them-
selves asleep), vermin within doors and mosquitoes without, we could hardly
sleep, and feared if we stayed longer we should lack strength to get home.
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS. 115

When we departed, Massasoit was both grieved and ashamed that he could
no better entertain us.” .
Massasoit, being at one time dangerously sick, sent word to his friends
at Plymouth, who sent Winslow to him with medicines and cordials. These
he administered successfully, and Massasoit, believing that Winslow had



EDWARD WINSLOW.

saved his life, was very grateful. Just as Winslow was about to depart he
informed him of a plot by some of his sub-sachems to cut off
the English, which he had refused to join and had used his
efforts to prevent. Massasoit remained a fast friend to the colonists to the
day of his death.

The tribute of Hobbomuk to the dead chief shows how strong was his
attachment to his master. ‘ My loving sachem, my loving sachem!” he

1661.
116 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

exclaimed with tender accent, “many have I known, but never any like

thee.” Then turning to Winslow, he said, “ While you live you will never

see his like. He was no liar, nor bloody and eruel like other Indians; he

was easily reconciled towards such as had offended him, and he governed
e e a ] e > + 99

his people better with few blows than others did with many.

Captain John Oldham, while on a trading expedition at Block Island,
was murdered by some Narraganset Indians. Oldham had been the first
deputy from Watertown to the General Court, and was a
prominent and highly-respected citizen. What led to the
catastrophe, whether it was occasioned by a thirst for plunder or out of
revenge for some injury from him, is not known.

Immediately after the murder, Captain John Gallup, of Boston, who
with two sons and a servant, “a stout, strong fellow,” was in a larger ves-
sel, also trading with the Indians near Bleck Island, discovered a vessel
making off from the shore. Ie saw that she was awkwardly handled and
appeared full of Indians. Believing her a piratical craft, Gallup deter-
mined upon her capture.

Having the advantage of a good breeze he made all sail towards her,
and struck her on her quarter with such force as almost overset her. This
frightened the Indians so much that six of them jumped into the sea and
were drowned. Gallup repeated this manceuvre successfully, and then
with his fire-arms drove every remaining Indian below. Meanwhile four
or five more of them leaped overboard, and Gallup then boarded and eapt-
ured her. Oldham’s body was found still warm, the head split open and
the feet and hands chopped off. Two boys taken with Oldham were res-
cued uninjured. This is the first American sea-fight on record.

In order to ascertain and punish the instigators of this murder, the
English sent a deputation to Canonicus, the N arraganset sachem, who
was well known to be “a just man and a friend to the English.” They
observed in him “much state, great command over his men, and much
wisdom in his answers, clearing himself and his neighbors of the murder,
and offering assistance for revenge of it, yet upon very safe and wary con-
ditions.”

An expedition under Governor Endicott was sent against the Block
Island Indians and the Pequots, the perpetrators of Oldham’s murder,

sept, 1086. which ravaged their villages and destroyed their crops, and on
its return doing the same along the Narraganset shore. Forty
of the natives were killed and wounded in a skirmish,

At Saybrook, near the mouth of the Connecticut, a fort had been built,

July, 1636.
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS. 117





























































































































































































































GOVERNOR ENDICOTT.

and Captain Lion Gardner placed in command. He condemned this un-
wise action of Endicott in a letter to Governor Winthrop of Massachu-
setts, in which he says, ‘* You came hither to raise these wasps about my
ears, and then you will take wing and flee away.” He and his little gar-
rison of less than one hundred had all they could do, he said, “to fight
Captain Hunger.” He was right; so far from being overawed, the Pe-
quots sought the alliance of their neighbors the Narragansets and the
Mohegans ; a state of constant hostility was produced, and the fort was for
a long time beleaguered. The persevering energy and intrepidity of one
man caused the dissolution of this formidable conspiracy.

When Roger Williams, the famous apostle of civil and religious lib-
»5*
118 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

erty in America, was in midwinter exiled from Massachusetts, he fled to
Rhode Island, where he was kindly received by the Indians. Ife was well
acquainted with their language, and while a resident of Plymouth had
often been the guest of the neighboring sachems. He was welcomed to
the cabin of Massasoit, and “the barbarous heart of Canonicus loved him
as his son to the last gasp.” ‘‘ The ravens,” said Willians, “fed me in the
wilderness.” He requited the hospitality of the red men by being ever
after their friend and counsellor; their “ pacificator when their rude pas-
sions were inflamed, and their advocate and protector” whenever wrong
was offered them.

At the earnest request of the authorities of Massachusetts, who had
just before driven him into exile, Williams endeavored to prevent the
Pequots from obtaining the alliance of the Narragansets. At the hazard
of his life he hastened to the home of the Narraganset sachem. “ Three
days and three nights,” he says, “my business forced me to lodge and mix
with the bloody Pequot ambassadors, whose hands and arms methought
reeked with the blood of my countrymen, and from whom I could not
but nightly look for their bloody knives at my own throat also. God won-
derfully preserved me and helped me to break in pieces the Pequots’ nego-
tiations and designs.”

The Pequots kept on plundering and murdering the settlers until in
May, 1637, a force of seventy-seven men, under Captains Mason and Un-
derhill, accompanied by four hundred Narragansets and Mohegans, was
sent against them. Mason was a veteran soldier who, with Miles Standish
and Underhill, had learned the art of war in Belgium, under that. re-
nowned leader the Prince of Orange.

Of the Indian tribes of New England the Pequots were the most for-
midable. All the other tribes were afraid of them. They were settled
near the Thames River in Connecticut, and could muster seven hundred
warriors. In his prosperous days, Sassacus, their sachem, had no less than
twenty-six sachems under him, and reigned supreme from Narraganset
Bay to the Hudson River, and over Long Island. Seeing the English set-
tlements multiplying around him, and fearing that sooner or later the
English would be in possession of the hunting-grounds of his tribe, he re-
solved to make war upon them.

As the English vessels sailed by the mouth of the Thames, the Peqnots,
who had assembled in large numbers, supposed they had nothing further
to fear. They had no suspicion that the English captain was executing a
flank movement, so as to attack them from an unexpected quarter. But
so it was. When Mason’s Indians got near the hostile fort, though they
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS. 119

had boasted of what they would do, their fears of the terrible Sassacus got
the better of them, and they kept at a safe distance until the affair was
over. When Uneas was asked how many of his men would run away
when the battle begun, he answered, “ Every one but myself.” The result
justified his prediction.

Mason landed his men near the village of Canonicus, whose permission
he obtained to march across his territory and attack the Pequots. The old
chief told Mason that his force was much too small for the big job he had
undertaken. After a tedious march, Mason’s men reached Pawcatuck
Ford (now Stonington), weary, hungry, and footsore. Resting awhile,
they continued their march, with Uneas and Wequa, a recreant Pequot, for
guides, and one hour after midnight encamped on the head-waters of the
Mystic River.

Although Mason had resolved to attack both Pequot forts, which were
four or five miles apart, at the same time, vet the fatigue and privations
of his men, who had been two days on the march without provisions, and
suffering from the extreme heat of the weather, determined him to con-
tine his attack to the nearest fort. Leposing a few hours, his men took
up the line of march and arrived before the fort, which was two miles dis-
tant, about two hours before daybreak. The moon was shining brightly
when they reached the foot of the eminence on which the fort was sit-
tated.

Fort Mystic, the principal Pequot stronghold, was a palisade work that
stood at the top of a hill in the present town of Groton. It covered an
area of twenty acres, and was so crowded with wigwanis that the English
‘wanted foot-room to grapple with their adversaries.” Its two entrances
were at opposite points, and were blocked up with boughs or baskets.
The wigwams were ranged in two rows, and were covered with matting
or thatch.

The Indians had spent the night in dancing, singing, and rejoicing at
their supposed escape from invasion. Asleep in their wig- May 96
wams, the barking of a dog just at daybreak was their first
intimation of danger. The ery, “ Owanux! Owanux!” (Englishmen) was
raised.

Yemoving the obstacles, Mason, with sixteen followers, entered the fort
at one end, while Underlull did the same at the other, and before the
startled sleepers had time to oppose them, the work of destruction had
begun.

Although surprised, the Indians defended themselves as well as they
eould with their bows and arrows, but they were quickly overpowered.
120 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Many of them sought shelter in the wigwams, covering themselves with
the thick mats, from which it was almost impossible to dislodge them.
The sword and bullet doing the work too slowly, Mason seized a firebrand,
exclaiming, “We must burn them!” A warrior drew his bow to send an
arrow through his heart, but a soldier cut the bowstring with his sword.
The combustible cabins were soon in a blaze, and five or six hundred of
the miserable natives perished in the flames. Those who tried to escape
by climbing over the palisades were shot down. Of the English, two only
had fallen and twenty were wounded. Lieutenant Bull had a narrow
escape, an Indian arrow being stopped by a piece of hard cheese in his
pocket.

This victory was regarded by the Puritans as a signal evidence of the
goodness of God. “The Lord was pleased,” says Captain Mason in his
narrative, quoting the Psalmist, “to smite our enemies in the hinder parts,
and to give us their land for an inheritance.”

The rigor displayed by the settlers in this first great blow inflicted on
the Indians struck terror into them and secured a long season of peace.
It was indeed a terrible massacre, involving helpless women and children,
as well as men. The early colonial laws had forbidden the sale of fire-arms
to the Indians, and till they possessed them they were never formidable in
battle.

The remainder of the tribe were soon hunted down. A portion of
them fled for protection to the Mohawks, who treacherously beheaded
Sassacus and five other sachems. ‘“ A nation had disappeared from the
family of men.” Their fate drew these lines from the poet Dwight:

‘Indulge, my native land, indulge the tear
That steals impassioned o’er a nation’s doom;
To me each twig from Adam’s stock is near,
And sorrows fall upon an Indian’s tomb.”

tumors of a general conspiracy of the Indians cansed the colonies of
Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Hampshire
to unite in a confederacy for mutual protection against them.
Its affairs were managed by two commissioners from each colony.

One of the ablest of the New England Indians was Miantonomo, a
nephew of Canonchet and chief of the Narragansets. Had he not been
made the victim of the cruel policy of the English, his name would have
been justly held by them in high estimation. Miantonomo was tall and
well made, “subtle and cunning in his contrivements, as well as haughty
in his designs.” He was requested to come to Boston to clear himself of

16-43.
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS. 121

the charge of conspiracy against the colonists, and he did so. The court
assembled, “and before his admission,’ says Governor Winthrop, “we
consulted how to treat with him, for we knew him to be a very subtle
man, and agreed that none should propound anything but the governor”
—a striking tribute from one of the wisest and ablest of the colonists to
the sagacity and wisdom of an unlettered Indian.

Miantonomo would not proceed with any business but in the presence
of some of his own counsellors, that they on their return might bear wit-
ness to his people of all his words. Tle was very deliberate in his answers,
and showed great ingenuity as well as a clear understanding of the princi-
ples of justice and equity. He very properly called upon the English to
produce his accusers. As they had proceeded wholly on vague rumors,
this demand placed them in an awkward predicament. He told them that
if the charges were proved against him, he came prepared to suffer the
consequences, and now, if he had been accused falsely, he expected the
authors of the accusation to be subjected to the same penalty. Certainly
this was but just. He also told the court that he believed Uneas, the Mo-
hegan sachem, to be at the root of all the mischief, and that he was doing
his best to embroil the Narragansets and the English. And so, in fact, it
was. On taking leave of the governor, a coat was given to him and to
each of his counsellors.

It was the policy of the English to pit one tribe against another for
their own protection, and so Uneas, the Mohegan chief, who was disposed
to conform to their wishes, was used by them to balance the power of
Miantonomo. This chief had suffered numerous indignities from the Eng-
lish, which rankled in his breast, and hated Uneas as the cause of them, and
also as a traitor to his race.

Suddenly, and in disregard of a treaty, he collected one thousand war-
riors and fell upon the Mohegans. lis rashness and impetuosity caused
his defeat, and he himself was made a prisoner. It seems that in this fight
Miantonomo wore a suit of armor or coat of mail loaned him by an Eng-
lish friend, Samuel Gorton, and that, when it became necessary to retreat,
it so impeded his motions as to cause his capture. Lis life was forfeited
by Indian law, but Uneas took him to Hartford and asked the advice, of
the Commissioners of the United Colonies as to what was to be done with
him.

The commissioners replied that they saw no reason for mercy. Five
of “the most judicious” elders of the church were also consulted, and they
agreed that he ought to suffer death, and he was accordingly put to death
by Uneas. Thus was this remarkable man sacrificed to the envy of a rival
122 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

chief and to the supposed political interest of the colonies. Ilis execution
took place at the spot, in the eastern part of the town of Norwich, Con-
necticut, now called Sachem’s Plain, where a monument has been erected
to his memory, upon which is the simple inscription :

MIANTONOMO.
1643.

John Eliot’s missionary labors among the Indians of New England be-
gan at Nonantum, and were continued at various places for more than
thirty years. He acquired the Indian language and with in-
finite labor translated into it the Bible, the catechism, and
other devotional works, distributing them among them. The natives were

1646

































































































































































































































































































































































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JOHN ELIOT PREACHING TO THE INDIANS,
THE NEW ENGLAND INDIANS. 125

taught to read and write, and soon there were fourteen places of Praying
Indians, as they were called. In 1673 six Indian churches had been gath-
ered. A death-blow was given to these pious labors by Philip’s war.
Some of these Indians joined in it with their countrymen, and this so
exasperated the English, that the remainder of those who were faithful
to them were with difficulty rescued from destruction. The treatment
they then received created a breach between them and the English that
was never healed. Their number rapidly diminished, and they finally
disappeared.

Khot introduced among his converts industry, cleanliness, and good
order. Ile drew up for them a simple code, punishing idleness, filthiness,
licentiousness, and cruelty to women. A court was established at Nonan-
tum, over which presided Waban, an Indian justice of the peace. There
was no circumlocution in his office. Justice was speedily and impartially
administered. Here is a specimen warrant: “ You, you big constable,
quick you catch um Jeremiah Offscow, strong you hold um, safe you bring
um afore me, Waban, Justice Peace.” Ilis sagacious and sententious
judgment in a ease between some drunken Indians would do no discredit
to a much higher civilization than that at Nonantum: “Tie um all up,”
said he, “and whip um plaintiff, and whip um ’fendant, and whip um
witness.”

Uneas, the Mohegan sachem, was originally a Pequot, and one of the
twenty-six war captains of that famous but ill-fated nation. Setting up
for himself at the head of the Thames River, near the present city of
Norwich, he was politic enough to court the favor of the English, and in
1637 joined with them in their war upon the Pequots. In the pursuit
that followed the Tort Mystic fight his men captured a Pequot chief of
distinction. Cutting off the captive’s head, Unecas placed it in a con-
spicuous spot near the harbor, where it remained many years. This cir-
cumstance gave to Guilford Harbor the well-known name of “ Sachem’s
ITead.”

Summoned to Boston, upon the charge of shielding some of the con-
quered Pequots, he appeared before Governor Winthrop, and laying his
hand upon his heart said:

“This heart is not mine, but yours. [I have no men; they are all
yours. Command me any difficult thing, I will do it. I will not believe
any Indian’s word against the English. If one of my men should kill an
Englishman I will put him to death, were he ever so dear to me.”

“So the governor gave lim a fine red coat,” says the chronicle, “and
126 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

defrayed his and his men’s diet. and gave them corn to relieve them home-
ward, also a letter of protection, and,” continues the record, “he departed
very Joyful.” Uneas was still living, at a great age, in 1680.



GOVERNOR WINTHROP,
THE IROQUOIS. 127

V.
THE IROQUOIS.

HE Iroquois, or Six Nations, stand first among the native races of this
continent for valor, policy, and eloquence. Their home was in western
and central New York, and their geographical situation, on a broad summit
of fertile table-land, favorable for raising maize and abounding in game,
gave them great advantages. The leading rivers of this region, running
in all directions, and enabling them to descend rapidly into an enemy’s
country, contributed largely to the success of their warlike expeditions.
Their attachment to the English alone saved Western New York from be-
coming a I*rench colony. |

They had attained their highest point about the year 1700. At that
period, besides carrying terror by their war parties to the walls of Quebec,
they had, by virtue of their combination, subdued and held in subjection,
one after another, all the principal Indian nations occupying the territory
now embraced in the States of New York, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey,
and Pennsylvania, and parts of Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Northern Ten-
nessee, Hlinois, Indiana, Michigan, New England, and Upper Canada.

If any of these nations became involved im domestic differences, a
delegation of chiefs went among them and restored tranquillity, preserib-
ing at the same time their future conduct. From the Delawares they took
all civil power, declared them women, and bade them henceforth to confine
themselves to the pursuits of the females.

“TIlow came you,” said Canassatego, an Iroquois chief, addressing the
Delawares upon oceasion of a dispute about a sale of land to the English—
“how came you to take upon you to sell land at all? We conquered you,
we made women of you; you know you are women, and can no more sell
Jand than women. for the land you claim you have been paid with clothes,
meat, drink, and goods, and now you want it again, like children as you are.

3ut what makes you sell land in the dark? Did you ever tell us that you

had sold this Jandé... We charge you to remove instantly. We don’t
give you liberty to think about it. You are women!’ The Delawares

dared not disobey this command, and very soon left the country.
INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Go

12

In New England and Canada the Iroquois were the dread of the native
Algonkin tribes. When, in the early days of the Massachusetts colony,
they made war on the New England Indians, it was said that as soon as a
single one of them was seen in their country, these Indians raised the cry
from hill to hill, “ A Mohawk! a Mohawk!” wpon which they all fled, like
sheep before wolves, without attempting to make the least resistance.

Independence and love of liberty was one of the most marked charac-
teristics of the Iroquois. Their pride was so great that they called them-
selves Ongwe Hongwe, “the men surpassing all others,” and yet in their
most prosperous days they could hardly muster four thousand warriors.
Their losses in battle were made up by their custom of adopting a part of
their captives as members of their tribe.

Their strongholds were surrounded by palisades pierced with loop-holes,
having platforms within, supplied with stones to hurl upon the heads of
the enemy, and with water to extinguish any fire that might be kindled
from the outside. These defences sometimes included a large area, and
dwellings more than one hundred feet in length. They were circular or
oval in form.

Their general assembly was at the Great Council held at the Long
Tlouse in the Onondaga Valley. This was built of bark; on each side
were six seats, each holding six
persons. None but members of
the council were admitted, except
a few who were particularly hon-
ored. If one rose to speak, all
the rest sat silent, smoking their
pipes. The speaker uttered his
words in a singsong tone, always
rising a few notes at the close
of each sentence. Whatever was

LONG HOUSE AT ONONDAGA. the pleasure of. the: council was

confirmed by all with the word

“Nee,” or yes, and at the close of each speech the whole assembly ap-
plauded the speaker by shouting “ Hoho!”

Originally the confederacy consisted of five tribes or nations: Mo-
hawks, Onondagas, Cayngas, Oneidas, and Senecas. The Tuscaroras of
North Carolina, after their defeat by the colonists in 1714, joined them,
and thenceforth they were known as the Six Nations. These again were
divided into three tribes, or families, who distinguished themselves by
three different arms or ensigns, called totems. These were the tortoise,


THE IROQUOIS. 129

the bear, and the wolf, and the sachems, or old men of their families, put
this family mark to every public paper when they signed it. Each of
these six nations was an absolute republic by itself. Each had a eastle of
its own, and was governed in all public affairs by its own sachems, or old
men.

Their league was a defensive measure adopted long before the Euro-
pean discovery. Their general council, composed of sachems equal in
rank, was the supreme authority over all matters considered by it. Its
sessions lasted five days. Discussion was open to all, but the council
alone decided. It made peace and war, and concluded treaties and agree-
ments. When the question of peace or war was decided, the councillors
united in chanting hymns of praise or warlike choruses, which at the same
time gave expression to public feeling and imparted a kind of sanctity to
the act. The Onondagas, being the central tribe, were made “the keep-
ers of the council brand,” and their valley was the seat of government.

A remarkable instance of Iroquois treachery is related by Parkman.*
At their urgent solicitation a French colony and iission had been planted
on the margin of Lake Onondaga.
to one of the Jesuit fathers by a dying Indian convert.

What was to be done? Immediate action was necessary, but the
warriors camped around them watched them so closely that the case
seemed hopeless. A plan of escape was at length suggested which seemed |
to promise success. Two light, large flat-boats were built in a loft over
the mission-house. The grand difficulty was to get them to the lake un-
observed. This is the way it was done:

One of the peculiar customs of the Indians is to hold a feast at which
all must devour everything set before them, as long as the provider of the
feast wishes to have them, or so long as they have the power to eat. One
of the younger colonists who had been adopted by an Iroquois chief, pre-
tending to have dreamed that he would soon die unless the spirits were
appeased, gave one of these feasts. Obedience to the wishes of the spirits
is a sacred obligation with the Indian. The day for the feast was fixed,
and all was prepared for the occasion.

Late in the evening of the appointed day, when the festivity was at
its height, and the French musicians with drum and trumpet were making
all the noise they possibly could, the boats were carried from the house to
the lake. The French silently embarked and made good their escape.

Next morning the amazed savages, on recovering from their stupor—
* «The Old Regime in Canada.”

0
130 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

for they had completely gorged themselves on the previous evening—
found, on peering curiously into the deserted mission, that its sole occu-
pants were a hen and her brood of chickens. The Indians were supersti-
tious enough to believe that the blackbirds—the black-robed priests—and
their flock had actually flown away.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































GOING TO FIGHT THE IROQUOIS.

The Iroquois first came in contact with the Europeans when, in the
summer of 1609, Samuel de Champlain, with two other Frenchmen, joined
a party of Hurons and Algonkins in an expedition against the Troquois,
their hereditary enemies. Ascending the river Sorel they crossed the lake
that now bears his name. At night they felled large trees, as a barricade
to their camp, and sent out a party to reconnoitre, but posted no sentinels.
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FIRST BATTLE WITH THE IROQUOIS.
THE IROQUOIS. 133

When near their foes they would advance stealthily by night and retire
by day into the picket fort, where they kept perfectly quiet, so as to avoid
discovery. Champlain’s account
of the first conflict with the Iro-
quois in which fire-arms were
used, is as follows:

“At nightfall we embarked
in our canoes to continue our
journey, and as we advanced
very softly and noiselessly, we
encountered a war party of Ir-
oquois about ten
o'clock at night, at
the point of a cape which juts
into the lake on the west side
(near Crown Point). They and
we began to shout, each seizing
hisarms. We withdrew towards
the water, and the Iroquois re- SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN,
paired on shore and arranged all
their canoes, the one beside the other, and began to hew down trees with
villanous axes and fortified themselves very securely. Our party likewise

July 29, 1609.



kept their canoes arranged, the one along-side the other, tied to poles so
as not to run adrift, in order to fight altogether should need be. We
were on the water, about an arrow-shot from their barricades.

“The whole night was spent in dancing and singing, as well on one
side as on the other, mingled with an infinitude of insults and taunts.
After the one and the other had sung, danced, and parleyed encugh, day
broke. My companions and I were always concealed, for fear the enemy
should see us preparing our arms. After being equipped with light armor
we took each an arquebuse (a short musket) and went ashore. I saw the
memy leave their barricade. They were about two hundred men, of
strong and robust appearance, who were coming slowly towards us, with a
gravity and assurance which greatly pleased me, led on by three chiefs.
Ours were marching in similar order, and told me that those who bore
three lofty plumes were the chiefs, and that I must do all I could to kill
them.

~The moment we Janded they began to run about two hundred paces
towards their enemics, who stood firm and had not yet perceived my com-
panions, who went into the bush with some savages. Ours commenced
134 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

calling me in a loud voice, and making way for me opened in two and
placed me at their head, marching about twenty paces in advance, until I
was within thirty paces of the enemy. The moment they saw me they
halted, gazing at me, and I at them. When I saw them preparing to
shoot at us I raised my arquebuse, and aiming directly at one of the three
chiefs, two of them fell to the ground by this shot and one of their com-
panions received a wound of which he died afterwards. T had put four
balls in my arquebuse. Ours, on witnessing a shot so favorable for them,
set up such tremendous shouts that thunder could not have been heard.
and yet there was no lack of arrows on one side and the other.

“The [Iroquois were greatly astonished, seeing two men killed so instan-
taneously, notwithstanding they were provided with arrow-proof armor
woven of cotton thread and wool ; this frightened them very inuch. Whilst
T was reloading, one of my companions in the bush fired a shot which so
astonished them anew, seeing their chiefs slain, that they lost courage.
took to flight, and abandoned the field and their fort, hiding themselves
in the depths of the forest, whither pursuing them I killed some others.
Having feasted, danced, and sung, we returned three hours afterwards
with ten or twelve prisoners. I named the place where this battle wes
fought, Lake Champlain.”























































































LAKE CILAMPLAIN,

This was the first time the Troquois had heard the sound of fire-arnis.
by the mysterions power of which they were then easily vanquished.
The French having allied themselves with the Adirondacks and Iurons,
and given them arms and assistance, a spirit of hatred for them was
aroused among the Iroquois that never ceased to bum until Canada Was
wrested from them by the English.

A year later another conflict took place near the mouth of the Riche-
lieu, in which Champlain again participated. One hundred Lroquois were
at bay behind a palisade surrounded by a horde of Algonkin warriors,
THE IROQUOIS. 135

whose attack they had bloodily repulsed. When Champlain, with four of
his men, approached, wild yells arose from the Algonkins in which were
mingled the howl of the wolf, the whoop of the owl, and the scream of
the cougar, to which a fierce response was made by the desperate Iroquois.

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ATTACK ON AN IROQUOIS FORT.

A storm of arrows burst upon the French as they rushed on, wound-
ing Champlain and one of his companions. When, however, the terrible
weapons of their mysterious assailants were thrust through the crevices
of their barricade, dealing death among its defenders, they could not con-
trol their fear, and threw themselves flat on the ground. The allied In-
dians now rushed in and levelled the barricade, while at the same time a
boat-load of French fur-traders who had heard the firing joined in the
fray, and helped to secure a complete victory. “ By the grace of God,”
writes Champlain, “ behold the victory won!”

While journeying to the country of the Hurons at a later period,
Champlain suddenly encountered three hundred Indians, whom, from their
odd method of dressing their hair, he named the Cheveux
Relevez. “Not one of our courtiers,’ he says, “takes so
much pains in dressing his hair as these savages do.” They were wholly

615.
136 INDIAN TUNTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

naked, their bodies were tattooed, and they were armed with bows and
arrows, and shields of bison-luide.

They informed him that the great Lake of the Ifurons was elose at
hand. He explored its shores for more than one hundred iiules, and
visited many Huron villages, all of which were palisaded like that seen
by Cartier at Montreal. Cahiagueé, the Huron capital, the modern town-

ship of Orillia, near the River Severn, contained two hundred

September 8.

lodges, and here gathered the warriors whom, after days and

nights of feasts and war-dances, Champlain led in his last expedition
against the Troquois.

Entering the hostile territory they encountered a fortified town of
the Onondagas. Some of the Hurons rushed to attack it, and were
driven back with loss. Tour rows of palsades, thirty feet

October 10. . ; .
high, set aslant in the earth and meeting at the top, supported

oO
a shot-proof gallery provided with wooden gutters and amply suppled
with water from an adjoining pond. They were also well provided with
stones to hurl wpon the assailants.

Champlain reproved his alles for them rash conduet, and the next
inorning had a wooden tower made higher than the palisades, and large
enough to contain four or five marksmen. Great wooden shields or para-
pets were also constructed. Two hundred warriors dragged the tower
close to the palisades. From it three arquebusiers opened a raking fire
along the galleries upon the throng of its defenders,

The ungovernable [urons threw aside the shields designed for their
protection and scattered over the open field, shouting and shooting off
their arrows, to which the [roquois rephed in like manner. Champlain
and jis men, unable to control these wild and infuriated allies, at last
abandoned the attempt, and occupied themselves with picking off the
Iroquois on the ramparts. The French leader was at length disabled,
being struck by an arrow in the knee and the leg, and after a three-hours’
contest the assailants drew off discomfited. Ile was eager to renew the
attack, but the Hurons, crestfallen and disheartened, would not move with-
out a reinforcement, for which they had sent. After waiting in vain tive
days they retreated, followed by the victorious Troquois. The wounded
leader was packed in a basket and borne upon the shoulders of a warrior.

* Bundled in a heap,” says Champlain, “doubled and = strapped to-
vether in such a fashion that one could move no more than an infant in
swaddling-clothes ... I lost all patience, and as soon as I could bear my
weight I got out of this prison, or, to speak plainly, tout of hell’ Te
was obliged to remain with the Ifurons all that winter.
THE IROQUOIS. 137

In 1660 a daring enterprise was undertaken by a few young Canadians,
led by Daulac, commandant of the garrison at Montreal. It was known
that a large body of Iroquois had planned a descent upon Canada, and
these brave fellows thought that by attacking the Indians in their own
haunts this danger might be averted. Having bound themselves by oath
to accept no quarter, made their wills, confessed, and received the sacra-
ment—for they were all good Catholies—they set out upon their heroic
but desperate adventure.

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FORTIFIED TOWN OF THE ONONDAGAS.,

The Thermopyle of this Spartan band was at the foot of the formida-
ble rapid called the Long Sault, where the Iroquois were sure to pass.
Ilere, in an old enclosure formed of trunks of small trees planted in a cir-
cle, seventeen Frenchmen awaited the savage host. They were soon joined
by some Tfurons and Algonkins.
138 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

In a few days they were attacked by a large war party of [roquois.
Again and again the Indians were driven back with loss. The fifth day
found the defenders of the fort stil at bay, although they had been de-
serted by their Indian allies. Five hundred fresh warriors now joined
their assailants, and the attacks were fiercely renewed. In vain they
rushed upon the feeble barrier between them and their foe, velling and
firing; the French stood firm, and many a warrior fell before the leaden
greeting of the little garrison.

Three days more passed in constant attack and repulse, the French.
meanwhile, suffering from exhaustion, famine, and thirst. At length.
stung to madness at the thought of the disgrace that would attend sueh a
failure, the Iroquois determined to make one more effort to take the fort.

A chosen band of warriors, covering themselves with large heavy
shields, led the advance and sueceeded in reaching the fort. With their
hatchets they endeavored to hew their way through the palisades. At this
eritical moment the premature explosion of a large musketoon, intended to
be thrown over the barrier, and to explode among the throng of warriors
without, killed and wounded several of the Frenchmen. In the confusion
some of the Iroquois thrust their guns through the loop-holes, firing on
those within, and others entered the enclosure through the breach made in
the logs by their hatchets. The French fought desperately. Daulac, the
Leonidas of this Spartan band, was slain, and one after another of his com-
panions was struck down, until all lad fallen. One only seemed likely to
survive, and he was reserved for torture. By thus sacrificing themselves
these heroes had saved the colony.

Amazed and dispirited, the Iroquois gave up their intended enterprise.
and returned to their villages to bewail their discomtiture and to howl
with wrath over their losses.

For many years the warfare between the French and Lroquois was. al-
most constant. expedition after expedition was launched against the In-
dian towns by the French governors with but little result.
One of these, under M. de Courcelle, undertaken in the dead of
winter, was a complete failure. They lost their way, and suffered from
cold and hunger to such a degree that sixty of the French perished dur-
ing their homeward march.

A new expedition was undertaken soon after by De Tracy and Cour
celle. With one thousand three hundred men they left Quebec, crossed
Lakes Champlain and St. Sacrament, now Lake George, in

Jan. 9, 1666.

Oct., 1666 ,
three hundred boats and canoes, and landing on the spot where

Fort William Henry was afterwards built, traversed the hundred miles of
THE IROQUOIS. 139

wilderness that lay between them and the Mohawk towns. Arriving at
the first Mohawk stronghold in the early morning, twenty drums beat the
charge, and the Indians, panic-stricken by the noise, which seemed to them
to be made by evil spirits in the service of the French, fled in terror to
their next town.

This was taken as easily as the first, and so were the third and fourth.
The French pushed on, and at sundown reached Andaraqué, the largest
and strongest of their forts. Again the drums struck terror into the sav-
ages and there was no opposition. Andaraqué was a quadrangle, with a
triple palisade twenty feet high, a bastion at each corner. Some of the
houses in the enclosure were one hundred and twenty feet long, with fires
for eight or nine families. Here the Iroquois had resolved to fight to the
last, but at the sight and sound of the enemy lost courage and fled. Their
dwellings, forts, and possessions were all destroyed.

The blow told, and in the following spring they sent an embassy to
Quebee begging for peace. It was at last granted; hostages
were given by them, and there was a respite from war for
nearly twenty years.

Causes for hostility, however, were frequently arising, and an expedition
against the Senecas was at length undertaken by Governor La Barre. It
failed ignominiously. ever and famine prostrated his men,
and he was glad to make a truce with his enemies and to be
permitted to withdraw without molestation.

The Marquis de Denonville, his successor, “a pious Colonel of Dra-
goons,” resolved to inflict a severe chastisement upon the hostile nation.
As he advanced he invited some peaceful Iroquois, living at a Jesuit Mis-
sion on the north shore of Lake Ontario, to a feast at Fort Frontenac.
They came, but no sooner were they inside the fort than all—men, women,
and children—were captured. There were nearly two hundred of them.
They were baptized, and the men, excepting those who were restored to
their relatives, were sent as slaves to France to work in the galleys. Many
of these captive women and children died from excitement and distress,
and some from a pestilential and fatal disease.

Denonville then summoned the Western Indians from lakes Huron
and Michigan, and from Illinois, to come and be revenged on their ene-
mies. A few weeks later a great fleet of canoes came down
from the lakes, filed with warriors. They landed one July
morning at Irondequoit Bay, Lake Ontario, the boundary of the Seneca
country, north-east of Rochester, New York.

Ilere was to be seen upon this unusual occasion a motley and pictu-

1667.

July, 1684,

1687.
[40 INDIAN JISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

resque assemblage: French soldiers in uniform, Jest priests, and Indians
in war-paint and feathers, wearing skins of the butkalo. the horns orna-
menting their heads, the tails trailing upon the ground, brandishing their
tomahawks and sealping-knives among the canrp-fires at might, boasting of
their exploits, and telling how they would destroy their enemies. — Inelud-
ing Indians, the army numbered fully three thousand men.

~The distance to the chief Seneca town was only fifteen miles. The
day was hot and dusty, and as the army marcned forward, scouts reported
that only squaws were to be seen at the village. Several dangerous de-
tiles had been passed, no enemy had appeared, and it looked as though
the Indians had fled. Suddenly, as the troops entered a narrow pass, a
yell was heard, the air was filled with flying arrows, guns flashed upon
all sides at onee, and the Iroquois were upon them.

Denonville quiekly rallied bis troops, and the Canadians from behind
the trees returned the fire. Soon the Seneeas, whe were a mere handful,
retired, bearing off their dead and wounded. A heap of ashes was all
that remained of the town as the French entered it next morning. The
Seneeas had burned it and vanished. After destroying their corn, Denon-
ville built a fort at Niagara and returned to Montreal. The enraged
Senecas were soon back again, rebuilding thei wigwams. Though in
want of food and with their fields laid waste, their [roquois brethren
would not Iet them starve. Denonville was told when he went out that
if he destroyed a wasp’s nest he must crush the wasps or they would
sting him. Ife left the wasps alive.

Adario, also ealled IKondiaronk, er the Rat, was the leading chief and
councillor of the TTuron Wyandot tribe. [fe was brave, politic, and sa-
gacious, and possessed great energy and decision of character. His nation
had been driven from its ancient seat by the Lroquois, and it was his
policy to keep the latter embroiled with his friends the French.

Learning that Denonville was about to conclude a peace with the Five
Nations, and perceiving that such a step would leave the Iroquois free to
push the war against his people, he waylaid the Lroquois dele-
gates as they were proceeding to Montreal. and killed or eapt-
ured the whole party.

1688

Adario then adroitly shifted the blame of the act upon Governor De-
nonville, telling his prisoners that it was by him that be had been informed
of their intention to pass that way. Surprised at this act of apparent
pertidy, they told Adario that they were truly on an errand of peace.
Affecting great anger, the ehief declared he would be revenged on De-
nonville for making him a tool in such a piece of treachery. Then look-
THE IROQUOIS. 141

ing steadfastly on the prisoners, “ Go,” said he, “my brothers, I untie your
hands and send you home again, although our nations are at war. The
French governor has made me commit so black an action that I shall
never be easy after it until the Five Nations have taken full revenge.”

So completely were the ambassadors deceived that they replied in
the most friendly terms, and said the way was open to their concluding
peace between their respective tribes at any time. Adario then dis-
missed his prisoners with presents. He thus rekindled the embers of
discord between the Irench and their old enemies, at the moment they
were about to expire, and laid the foundation of a peace with his own
nation. Though Denonville sent a message to the Iroquois to disclaim
the act of Adario, they put no faith in it, but burned for revenge.

It was not long before the Iroquois found an opportunity to return
the blow inflicted upon them by Denonyille in 1687 with interest.

Iifteen hundred of their warriors followed the well-known trail to
Canada, paddling their canoes along Lake Champlain by night, and_se-
creting themselves in the forest by day. Early one morning,
during a violent hail-storm, they crawled on their hands and
knees into the village of La Chine, six miles from Montreal, and sounding
their terrible warwhoop, began the most frightful massacre in Canadian
history.

In one hour two hundred—imen, women, and children—were murdered.
After a severe skirmish they captured the fort and the island. For miles

Aug. 5, 1689.

around, all the houses were burned and the country pillaged. Next day
they attacked and defeated a party of eighty French soldiers. After
extending their ravages over the open country for more than twenty
miles, occupying it for weeks, they at last withdrew, taking with them one
hundred and twenty prisoners destined to be tortured for their diversion.

Denonville’s successor was one of the most striking and picturesque
characters of a remarkable age—that of Louis AXIV., of I*rance, the
“(Grande Monarque.”

Louis de Buade, Count de Frontenac, was a courtier of noble family,
“aman of excellent parts,” says St. Simon, a contemporary, “ living much
in society and completely ruined.” Vanity was one of his especial weak-
nesses; and one who knew him well tells us that whenever he had new
clothes “he paraded them like a child. Ile praised everything that be-
longed to himself,” says the same authority, “and acted as if everybody
owed duty to him.” Entering upon a military career, he became a colo-
nel at twenty-three and a brigadier-general at twenty-six, and had seen
service in Italy and in [foland under the Prince of Orange.
142 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

At the age of fifty-two, to retrieve his fortunes, he accepted the post
of Governor of New France, and at once set himself to work to promote
; the prosperity of the country. Ile was a man of strong vi-
“ue tality, * keen, fiery, and headstrong,” and from the very first
he exercised an extraordinary influence over the Indians with whom he
had to deal.

Frontenac knew just how to manage them, flattering them adroitly,
conforming to their usages, and borrowing their modes of expression, while
at the same time assuming towards them an air of hanghtiness which com-
pelled their respect. He would not eall them * brothers *— the usual
inode of addressing them—but * children,” and this indication of superi-
ority even the proud Lroquois accepted from hin They admired the
great * Onontio.”” as the French governors were called, who condescended
to play with their children and gave small presents to their wives; who
smiled upon them when they did well, and who saw through their artitices,
and who did not fear, when they transgressed, to punish them.

Having quarrelled with the priests, who were all-powerful in Canada,
he had been recalled in 1682: but when, a few vears later, the
1689 . | . 7

condition of the colony had become desperate, he was re-ap-
poited as the only man who could revive and strengthen it.

“TP send you back to Canada.” said King Louis, * where I am sure you
will serve me as well as you did before; and I ask nothing more of you.”
Although seventy years of age, Frontenac accepted the arduous task.

On lus arrival at Quebee, Frontenac found Canadian affairs in a truly
deplorable condition. The energetic governor at once sent out numerous
war parties to strike the English settlements, inflicting a series of terrible
blows upon them as will be scen ina subsequent chapter. Against the
Jroquois he sent the skilful partisans De Mantet, Courtemanclie, and La
Noue, with a force of six hundred and twenty-tive men. Sixteen days’
rep. 16. 1608, journey brought them to the Iroquois country. They capt-

ured and destroyed three Mohawk villages, and returmed with

three hundred prisoners—women and children. Under Frontenae’s vigor-

ous rule Canada speedily beeame prosperous, and a source of dread to the
English.

In 1694 an Troquois deputy came to Quebee with overtures of peace.
War and famine had greatly reduced the Confederacy, and they were
almost entirely destitute of arms and ammunition, and even the necessaries
of life.

“Let each of your ive Nations send me two deputies,” says Fron-
tenae, “and I will listen to what they have to say.”
THE IROQUOIS. — 148

They would not go to him, but sent another deputation inviting him to
come and treat with them at Onondaga. The haughty governor kicked
away their wampum belts and told them they were rebels, bribed by the
English; that if they would send a deputation to Quebec, honestly de-
siring to make peace, he would still listen; but if they came to him
with any more such propositions as they had just made they should be
roasted alive.

A final delegation, headed by the renowned orator, Decanisora, then
came. He spoke eloquently and offered peace, but demanded that it
should include the English. Frontenac declined this proposition, and the
envoys departed, pledging themselves to
return and deliver up all their prisoners,
leaving two hostages as security for the
performance of their promise. Dissen-
sions among the Iroquois and the efforts
of the Governor of New York prevented
the consummation of this treaty, and the
war was renewed. |

Frontenac determined to thoroughly Lk



GEE





o BAN WS
subdue this fierce and powerful enemy. / VERN
\

Leaving Montreal, at the head
of twenty-two hundred men,
he reached Fort Frontenac on the 19th, GOVERNOR COLDEN,

and on the Ist of August had arrived at

the border of Lake Onondaga. On the 5th they reached the Onondaga
village, the governor, enfeebled by age, being carried in an arm-chair.
Two bundles of reeds suspended from a tree, which they encountered on
their way, denoted that fourteen hundred and thirty-four warriors (the
number of reeds) defied them. They found the stronghold in ashes, the
Indians having, upon the approach of so large an army, burned their
town and retreated into the forest.

Tor two days the army was employed in destroying the corn and
other stores of the Onondagas. .A messenger for peace from the Onei-
das was told that they could have it on condition that they should all
migrate and settle in Canada. Within three days Vaudreuil, with seven
hundred men, had destroyed their town and seized a number of chiefs as
hostages for the fulfilment of Frontenac’s demands. The expedition then
returned, achieving only a partial success. The Indians had saved them-
selves by flight. The government of New York supplied them with corn
to prevent a famine, and the Iroquois had not yet been subdued. Their

WY

July 4, 1696.
144 INDIAN FUSTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

power, however, was so far broken that they were never again very for-
nudable to the French.

The peace of Utrecht (Pebruary, £698) ended the strugele, and the
death of the heroic old governor took place a few months later (Novem-
ber 28).

In 1750 the Troquois had diminished one-half, from the introduction
of ardent spirits among them and from cmigration to the St. Lawrence
under Jesuit influence. With the exception of the Oneidas, they espoused
the British cause during the Revolution, and were severely punished by
an expedition into their country under General Sullivan in {779.*

* The best account of the Five Nations is that of Governor Colden, published in 1727.
Consult also Parkman's ‘* Frontenac and New France.”
KING PHILIP’S WAR. 145

VI.
KING PHILIP'S WAR.

LITTLE more than two centuries ago, New England was the scene

of one of the bloodiest of Indian wars. It contained at that time
some thirty thousand red men; of these less than eight thousand were in
Massachusetts. The domain of the Pokanoket tribe, which began the war,
extended over nearly all of south-eastern Massachusetts, from Cape Cod
to Narraganset Bay. Under Philip, the son and successor of Massasoit, this
tribe had been gradually crowded into the two small necks of land now
known as Tiverton and Bristol.

Philip’s residence was at Mount Hope; from it he could look on the
south over the beautiful expanse of Narraganset Bay. The charming
view from this eminence now includes also the city of Providence and the
towns of Bristol and Warren. On the west was the country of the power-
ful Narraganset tribe.

One by one the fields and hunting- grounds of the Pokanokets had
been sold to the white man. Though the lands were of little value to
them, and though they were fully satisfied with the small price paid for
them, yet, when the beads and trinkets for which they had been bartered
were gone, the thriving farms of the settlers around them remained, and

were in their eyes only so many evidences that they had been overreached
and defrauded.

Efforts to Christianize them had wholly failed, but the white man’s
laws had been extended over them, and they were frequently obliged to
appear before the magistrates of Boston or Plymouth, to answer ground-
less accusations, and to explain their acts and purposes. To an inde-
pendent nation —for as such they regarded themselves— this was very



humiliating.

Besides this, the white settlers despised the Indians, looking upon them
as inferiors, and were haughty and overbearing in their demeanor towards
them. Collisions and mutual injuries were the inevitable result.

They said that “if twenty of their honest Indians proved that an Eng-

LO
146 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

lishman had wronged them, ‘it was nothing,’ while if one of their worst
Indians testified against any of them, it was suticient ;” that the Engiish
made the Indians drunk and then cheated them; that the English cattle
and horses had so increased that they could not keep their corn from in-
jury, never being used to make fences. Such were some of the grievances
of the Indians, and they were but too well founded.











































MOUNT HOPE,

On the other hand, the Plymouth settlers said that not a foot of land
had been taken from the Indians except by fair purchase. More than
this. In order to protect the natives from covetous white men,’a law was
made “that none should purchase or receive gifts of any lands of the
Indians without the knowledge and allowance of the court,” under heavy
penalty. Besides prohibiting the sale of intoxicating drinks to them, a
law was made in 1673 that no person should take anything in pawn of
an Indian for liquor.

At one of the first courts held in Boston, on complaint of the Sachem
Chickataubut and his men that Mr. Josias Plaistowe had stolen four
baskets of corn from them, he was ordered to return them elght baskets,
pay a fine of £5, and hereafter to be called Josias, and not Mr. J osias, as
formerly, and thus to be degraded from the title of a getitleman. Two of
his servants who were accessary were ordered to be whipped.

After all, it is not strange that trouble arose. No two races, the one
KING PHILIP’S WAR. 147

barbarous and the other civilized, can
live harmoniously side by side for any
length of time. That they did so for
so many years, here and in Pennsyl-
vania, Is a fact highly creditable to
both.

The Pokanoket chief, from his am-
bitious and haughty spirit, was called
King Philip. His Indian name was
Pometacom. His pride was shown in
his dress, which was rich and gaudy.
One who saw him in Boston says that
“his coat and buskins were thickset
with beads in pleasant wild works, and
a broad belt of the same. His ac-
coutrements were valued at twenty
pounds.” His belts and other orna-
ments are correctly shown in the pict- KING PHILIP.
ure here given.

The following letter, preserved among the Dorchester records, shows
that at that date Philip dressed after the English fashion:



‘* Philip, Sachem of Mount [ope,
‘* To Captain Hopestill Foster, of Dorchester,
‘* Sendeth greeting :

‘“Srr,—You may please to remember that when I last saw you, at Wading River,
you promised me six pounds in goods. Now my request is that you would send by
this Indian five yards of white or light-colored serge to make mee a coat, and a good
Holland shirt, ready made, and a pair of good Indian Breeches, all which I have
present need of. Therefore I pray, Sir, fail not to send them, and the several prices
of them, and silk and buttons, and seven yards of galloon for trimming. Not else at
present to trouble you with, only the subscription of

‘“Kine Pururp, his Majesty, P. P.”
‘* Mount Hope, the 15th of May, 1672.”

Only a little while before the war of 1675 began, the Massachusetts
authorities sent to Philip to know why he would make war upon the
English, and at the same time requested him to enter into a treaty. This
was his haughty reply :

“Your governor is but a subject of King Charles of England. I shall
not treat with a subject. J shall treat of peace only with the King, my
brother. When he comes, I am ready.”

General Daniel Gookin, who knew Philip well, spoke of him as “a
148 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

person of good understanding and knowledge in the best things.” TIe
was humane, and was known to exercise his authority on several occasions
to prevent harm being done to English families who had been friendly to
him or to his father.

Ite was nevertheless looked upon with suspicion by the English, and
some warlike demonstrations made by him in 1671 caused him to be sum-
moned by them to a conference to be held on Tannton Green. Owing to
the threats of the Plymouth people, Philip and his men came armed.
Perceiving that the English party was large, and also armed, they paused
on the ridge of a hill outside the town. A parley was held, and it was
agrecd that the conference should take place in the meeting-house, the
English to occupy one side of the house and the Indians the other.

What a singular and impressive spectacle the interior of that plain old
meeting-house must have presented that morning! Upon its rude benches
sat representatives of two races, each distrusting the other; the weaker
smarting under its injuries, sullen and angry ; the stronger looking down
on his dusky neighbor as a heathen, and at the same time feeling the ne-
cessity for pursuing a politie course towards him, and determined to pre-
vent an outbreak. Under such circumstances this was a scene in our early
history not to be forgotten.

Both parties were in fighting trim. The Indians had their faces and
bodies painted as for battle. with their long-bows and quivers of arrows at
their backs. ITere and there a eun was seen among thena, in the hands of
those best skilled in its use. The English were in the dress of that day,
protected by cuirasses, wearing slouched hats with broad brims, and
equipped with bandoleers, long swords, and unwieldy guns.

Philip soon saw that he was in the power of the English, and had to
yield to their terms. Ie was compelled to give up his guns, and to agree
to pay £100 and five wolves’ heads yearly, or as many as he could procure.
This humiliation greatly increased his hatred of the whites,

Tradition says that Philip was averse to the war, and that, on hearing
that blood had been shed, he wept at the news. ILowever this may be,
there can be no doubt of his desire to rid his country of the white in-
truders, and at the close of the year 1674 he began his preparations in
good earnest. Notwithstanding the severity of the laws against the sale
of fire-arms to the Indians, they had generally supplied themselves with
them, and had become skilful in their use.

This is the way the war began. In January, 1675, John Wussaussa-
mon, a Christian Indian, who had informed the English that Philip was
plotting against them, was murdered. This man could read and write.
KING PHILIP’S WAR. 149

He had been a missionary among his countrymen, and at one time was
Philip’s seribe or secretary.

The Indians who committed this act were seized, tried by a jury, half.
of whom were their own countrymen, found guilty, and hanged. In their
justification they said they had a right to execute justice in accordance
with their own customs on a traitor, and that the English had nothing to
do with it.

No sooner were they executed than hostilities began, the Indians hav-
ing killed er wounded several Englishmen at Swansey. The Indian priests
or medicine-men having prophesied defeat to the party that
should shed the first blood, they had for some days previously
confined their hostile acts to burning the houses and killing the cattle of
the white men, one of whom in retaliation shot and wounded an Indian.

At onee Philip and his warriors spread themselves over the country,
devastating, burning, and plundering. For a whoie year they kept New
England in a state of constant alarm and excitement. They roved from
place to place with secrecy and celerity, retiring, when pursued, into
swamps and thickets, never meeting the English in the open field. They
were skilful marksmen, were familiar with the forest, and any small par-
ties of the English were sure to be tracked and waylaid by these crafty
and vigilant foemen. The burning of Swansey was soon followed by that
of portions of Taunton, Middleboro’, Dartmouth, and other neighboring
towns and villages.

Troops from Boston and Piymouth were hurried to the scene of action,
which was at first in Plymouth Colony only, and in less than a month
Philip and his warriors had fled and taken refuge among the Indians in
the interior. But though the scene was shifted, the terrible conflict had

June 24, 1675.

only just begun.

Of the white population of New England about eight thousand were
capable of bearing arms. Massachusetts had ready for service twelve
troops of horse, each composed of sixty men, besides officers. They were
well mounted, and armed with swords, carbines, and pistols, each troop
being distinguished by its coat. The men wore buff coats, and were pro-
tected by back, breast, and head pieces. |

The trainbands, numbering from sixty-four to two hundred men, in-
cluded all the males capable of bearing arms between the ages of sixteen
and sixty, and who were required to provide themselves with arms and
ammunition. Their arms were muskets, pikes, and swords. There were
two musketeers to each pikeman, the latter being selected for their supe-

rior stature. The muskets had matchlocks or firelocks, and to each one
Lu*
150 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

there was a pair of bandoleers or pouches for powder and ball, and a stick
called a rest, for use in taking aim. The pikes were ten feet in length.
besides the spear at the end. Corslets and coats quilted with cotton were
a sufficient protection against arrows. The captain, lieutenant, and ensign
carried swords, partisans, or leading-staves, and sometimes pistols. The
sergeants bore halberds. Their only field-musie was the drum. The train-
ings were always begun and ended with prayer.

Captain Benjamin Church was the most skilful and successful Indian
fighter of that day. He was as sagacious and resolute as he was physically



CAPTAIN BENJAMIN CHURCH.

powerful and active, and he was greatly feared and respected by the In-
dians. Ilis residence was in the vicinity of the Pokanokets. Captain Sam-
uel Moseley was another energetic and successful officer.

On one oceasion Church was at Pocasset, now Tiverton, Rhode Island,
with thirty-six men, when he was unexpectedly attacked by
three hundred Indians. He retreated to the water-side, piled
a quantity of flat stones one upon another as a barricade, and fought until

July, 1675.
KING PHILIP’S WAR. £5.



































































































































































































































































SS SS
SSS SE SS SSS —— —=





SS SSS = mA ——

FIGHT AT TIVERTON.

Captain Goulding came to his relief in a sloop. The water was shallow,
and the eanoe that plied between the vessel and the shore could take but
two persons at a time. Church was the last to go. A bullet grazed his
hair, and another struck a stake in front of him, but he got off without
josing a man.

The courageous act of a young woman is deserving of notice. One
Sunday morning “in sermon time,” an Indian straggler from one of Phil-
ip’s bands came to John Minot’s house, in Dorchester, in
which, at the time, there were only a servant-maid and two
young children. Secreting the children under two brass kettles, and per-
ceiving that the Indian was trying to get in at the window, the door being
fast, the brave girl ran up-stairs and charged a musket with which she
shot the Indian in the shoulder. Before this he had fired at and missed

July, 1675.

her.

Dropping his gun, the Indian was just in the act of coming in at the
window which he had forced open, when the girl seized a shovel, and fill-
ing it with live coals from the fireplace, thrust it in his face and sent him
yelling to the woods, where he was found dead soon afterwards. The Mi-
not house, where this affair happened, is still standing on Chickataubut
Street.

After Philip’s flight the first blood was shed at Mendon. Brookfield
152 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

was next attacked, and a party under Captains Ifutchinson and Wheeler
waylaid, and thirteen men killed or mortally wounded. All
the houses were burned but one—that in which the inhabitants
had taken refuge. This was saved by the timely arrival of a force under
Major Simon Willard, after withstanding for two days and nights inces-
sant and furious attacks. The roof and walls of their place of refuge
were pierced with arrows, around which were wound burning rags filled
with sulphur. Finally, a cart filled with combustibles was fired and
pushed towards it, but the exertions of the garrison, aided by a sudden
shower of rain, speedily extinguished the flames. So snecessful had been
the defence that eighty of the Indians had been killed or wounded.

Philp now made a distribution of wampum, as a present to the princi-
pal chiefs, and congratulated them upon their suecess. Lis emissaries
worked wpon the Indians of Connecticut, and he even sueceeded in bring-
ing the baptized Indians to his aid. On the other hand, Uneas, the Mo-
hegan sachem, sent to the aid of the English his three sons and about
sixty warriors, who were distributed among the different commands and
who rendered efficient service. During the whole war the Mohegans
were the faithful allies of the English.

Laneaster, Northampton, Deertield, and Northfield suffered during the
summer, and near the latter place Captain Beers was surprised
and slain with most of his company. A fortnight later Cap-
tain Lathrop, with about ninety men, “the flower of Essex
was waylaid while marching to Deertield, and he and nearly all
is men were killed. The place where this sad affair occurred is now
known as the village of Bloody Brook.

July 14.

September 5.

September 18,

County,”

Captain Moseley, who with seventy men was scouting in the neighbor-
hood, hearing the guns, hastened to the scene of action. On his approach
the Indians dared him to begin the fight, saving: “ Come, Moseley, come!
you want Indians, here are Indians enough for you.” |

Moseley charged them repeatedly with great resolution, but their supe-
riority of numbers was such that he was obhged to withdraw. Soon, how-
ever, a party under Major Treat arrived, and the Indians were in turn
driven back. When the English reached the battle-ground they were
amazed at seeing an Englishman coming towards them. This man
proved to be Robert Dutch, of Ipswich, who had been shot and sealped
and left for dead. Strange to say, he recovered, and lived many years
after.

At Springfield thirty houses were burned and several people killed.
An attack on Iatfield by a large body of Indians was bravely repulsed
KING PHILIP’S WAR. 153

This success, occurring on the same day that a vote for reformation of
evils and abuses was passed at Boston, was attributed by many
devout persons to that cause. To the Puritan every victory
was a providential interference on his behalf, while every defeat
was an equally direct manifestation of God’s displeasure at his sins and
shortcomings. Of one of the actions of this war Rev. Increase Mather
wrote thus: “This Providence is observable, that the nine men which
were killed at that time belonged to nine several towns; as if the Lord
should say that he hath a controversy with every plantation, and therefore
that all had need to repent and reform their way.”

When Philip’s warriors dispersed, some of them fled to their friends
the Narragansets. The English demanded that they should be given up.
The Narragansets refused, and the English, fearing that they would join
with Philip against them, determined to prevent it.

The Narraganset fort was situated on an island in an extensive swamp
in the present town of South Kingstown, Rhode Island. It was strongly
defended with palisades (sharp-pointed upright stakes), and around it was
a ditch. TF elled trees, their branches pointing outward, made a chevaua-
defrise a rod in thickness—another formidable obstacle to an attacking

October 5.
October 19.

force.

Here Philip and his warriors intended to pass the winter, and here all
their women and children were gathered. Five hundred wigwams con-
tained a population of about three thousand persons, besides their grain
and provision for the winter. Baskets and tubs of corn, piled one upon
another, rendered the wigwams bullet-proof.

The blow must be struck while the warriors were gathered here, and
before the return of spring should enable them to renew their depreda-
tions. The colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Connecticut
sent fifteen hundred men, under General Josiah Winslow, for the reduction
of this stronghold. During the march the troops suffered severely from
the cold. They were without tents, and camped at night in the open air
with no covering but their blankets.

Snow was falling, and a piercing wind assailed them, when, on a cold
December day, they reached their destination. They had the good-fortune
to capture an Indian, who treacherously pointed out to them
the concealed entrance to the fort, which was defended by a
block-house. It could be approached by only one person at a time, over
the felled tree which bridged the ditch.

Along this narrow causeway the English rushed to the attack. They
were swept off by the fire of the Indians, but as fast as they fell their

Dec. 19.
154 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

places were supplied by others equally intrepid, until six captains and
many soldiers had fallen. But in the mean time a handful of men, under
Captains Moseley and Church, forcing their way over the breastwork of
fallen timber, had gained an entrance at another point. Fighting hand to
hand against fearful odds, these men raised the ery, “They run! they
run!” This inspiring shout brought a number of their fellow-soldiers to
their assistance.

The attention of the defenders of the block-house was distracted by
this diversion, which enabled the English to cross the fatal ditch where so
many brave men had fallen, and to enter the fort. Plilip and Canonchet,

iN I ine
F iN INGE \f x y
WW? Pht We SS











THE GREAT SWAMP FIGHT IN RHODE ISLAND.

the Narraganset leader, were everywhere seen encouraging their warriors
by their presence and example, but the superior weapons and fighting
qualities of the English were too much for them. Then began a terrible
slanghter, which included women and children as well as men. No mer-
cy was shown, no quarter asked. The warriors fought with the energy
of despair. Ilere again, as at the destruction of the Pequot fort, fire was
applied to the combustible cabins, and all who could not escape perished
in the flames.

This barbarous and ill-advised act was contrary to the urgent entreaties
of Captain Church. ‘ We can live on their corn and make our wounded
comfortable,” said he; but the fury of the soldiers could not be controlled.
KING PHILIP’S WAR. 155





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LANCASTER ATTACKED.

Terrible were the sufferings of the troops during that night-march home-
ward, and many of their wounded died in consequence of it.

Philip, with many of his followers, escaped from the fort and rejoined
the Nipmucks, as the Indians of the interior were called. The Narragan-
sets were almost exterminated. In this terrible struggle seven hundred
of them had fallen. Of the English, over eighty were killed and a large
number wounded.

Early in the following year (February 10, 1676) Lancaster was laid in
ashes, and fifty persons killed or carried into captivity.

The wife of the village minister, Rev. Joseph Rowlandson, one of
these unfortunate captives, has left a thrilling narrative of this calamity.
She tells us that “about sunrising, hearing the noise of guns, we looked
out; several houses were burning, and the smoke ascending to heaven.

.. The murderous wretches (the Indians) were burning and destroying
all before them. ... At length they came and beset our house, and
quickly it was the dolefullest day that ever mine eyes beheld. The bullets
seemed to fly ike hail, and quickly they wounded three men among us.
The Indians then set fire to the house. Now the dreadful hour came that
IT have often heard of in time of war as the case of others, but now mine
eyes see it. Some in our house were fighting for their lives, others wal-
lowing in blood, the house on fire over our heads, and the bloody heathen
ready to knock us on the head if we stirred out. Now might we hear
156 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

mothers and children erying out for themselves and one another, ‘ Lord!
what shall we do?

“Then I took my children, and one of my sisters hers, to go forth and
leave the house; but as soon as we appeared at the door the Indians shot
so thick that the bullets rattled against the house as if a handful of stones
had been thrown against it, so that we were forced to give back.

“We had six stout dogs belonging to our garrison, but none of them
would stir, though at another time, if an Indian had come to the door, they
were ready to tly upon him and tear him... . But out we must go—the
tire increasing and coming along behind us, roaring, and the Indians gaping
before us with their guns, spears, and hatchets to devour us... . The
bullets flying thick, one went through my side and through the poor
child in my arms. The Indians laid hold of us, pulling us one way and
the children another, and said, ‘Come, go along with us.’ I told them
they would kill me. They answered, if I were willing to go along with
them they would not hurt me.

“Oh, the doleful sight that was now to behold at this house! Of thirty-
seven persons who were in it, none escaped either present death or a bit-
ter captivity, save only one. There were twelve killed, some shot, some
stabbed with their spears, and some knocked down with their hatchets; yet
the Lord, by his almighty power, preserved a number of us from death,
for there were twenty-four of us taken alive and carried captive.”

After a detention of nearly three months, during which her wounded
child died, and she herself experienced all the miseries and privations inci-
dent to a life among a band of savages who were being hunted and pur-
sued from place to place, Mrs. Rowlandson was ransomed, and joined her
husband, who had been absent at the time of the attack. A son and
daughter survived, who were also restored to her. Of her immediate
family, seventeen suffered death or captivity in this war.

Immediately following the destruction of Laneaster, fifty houses were
burned at Medtield, and twenty of its inhabitants slain. Groton, North-
ampton, Springfield, Marlborough, Sudbury, Warwick, Reho-
both, and Providence were, in succession, partially destroyed,
and many persons killed.

At Pawtucket, Captain Michael Peirce, of Scituate, was ambushed, and
with almost all his party of seventy was slain. These repeated
disasters were in part owing to the carelessness of the whites,
and their contempt for the Indians. After this they were nore cautious.

Feb. 21.

March 26.

A single ludicrous incident relieves this dark and tragic story. Cap-
tain Moseley, an active and successful officer, having on one oceasion en-
KING PHILIP’S WAR. 157

countered a large body of Indians, “all being ready on both sides to fight,”
says the old Indian chronicle, “ Captain Moseley plucked off his periwig,
and put it into his breeches, because it should not hinder him in fighting.
As soon as the Indians saw that they fell a howling and yelling most hid-
eous; and wholly ignorant of its meaning, but suspecting sorcery, the aston-
ished natives, unwilling to contend with a magician who, when one head
was taken off, could so easily replace it with another, all fled in terror,
and could not be overtaken nor seen any more afterwards.”

Numerous parties of English were now in the field, but Philip eluded
them, and concentrating some four hundred warriors near Sudbury, way-
laid Captains Wadsworth and Brocklebank, who, with seventy
men, were marching to the relief of Marlborough. A desper-
ate fight ensued. Both captains fell, and above half their men. The
Indians gained this victory by superior strategy. Setting the dry grass
and woods on fire to the windward of the English, they drove them from
an advantageous position, and then overpowered them by their overwhelm-

April 2L

ing numbers.

Flushed with suecess, the Indians now boastingly said, “ We will fight
you twenty years if you will. There are many Indians yet. You must
consider the Indians lose nothing but their lives; you must lose your fine
houses and your cattle.”

But the end was near. The last important conflict of the war was the
“Tall Fight,” so called from its having taken place near the great falls of
the Connecticut at Deerfield, now known as Turner’s Falls. Here the
Indians had collected in large numbers, making the most of the fishing
season. From this place they also sent out their war parties.

Captain Turner, with one hundred and eighty men, by a night ride
across the country, surprised and routed them at this place with great loss,
but was in turn taken at a disadvantage, and he, with thirty of his men,
was slain. This haunt of the enemy was, however, completely broken
up, and all their ammunition and provisions destroyed. This serious re-
verse caused Philip’s allies to fall off from him and to scatter in every
direction, and Philip himself, having lost many of his best warriors, with
his remaining followers returned to Pokanoket.

Here, hunted from place to place like a wild beast, hiding in swamps,
his numbers steadily diminishing, Philip still prolonged the hopeless con-
test. Twice within a few weeks he had barely escaped capture or death.
At length his able and energetic antagonist, Church, surprised his camp,
and made prisoners of his wife and child, Philip, having cut off his hair
to disguise himself, narrowly escaping capture. ‘“ Now I am ready to die!”
158 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.



























































































a

i

































































































DEATH OF KING PHILIP.

exclaimed the heart-broken chief. THis son, a boy of nine—the last of
the race of Massasoit—was sold into slavery.

A few days later his last place of refuge at Mount Hope was sur-
rounded by Churech’s men, and King Philip, the great and
dreaded foe of the white man, was shot by an Indian of
Chureh’s party, whose brother Philip had killed for counselling submission

August 12.
KING PHILIP’S WAR. 159

to the English. In accordance with the barbarous usage of that day, the
dead sachem was beheaded and quartered. Lis head was set upon a gib-
bet at Plymouth, where it was to be seen for twenty years. Such was the
joy caused by the news of his death that it was the occasion of a public
thanksgiving.

Meanwhile Nanuntenoo, known to the English as Canonchet, son and
successor of Miantonomo, the great sachem of the Narragansets, after
leading his men in the bloody raids on Lancaster and Medfield,
and at the defeat of Captain Peirce, had been captured by
the Connecticut troops under Colonel George Denison. While seeking
safety in flight he was recognized and hotly pursued. To expedite his
movements he threw off his laced coat and wampum belt, and would have
escaped had he not made a misstep and fallen into the water, wetting his
gun.
held him until some soldiers came up.

“The said Nanuntenoo’s carriage,’ says the old chronicle, “ was
strangely proud and lofty. He refused the offer of his life if he would
procure a treaty of peace. Being examined why he would foment that
war, he would make no other reply to any question but this—‘that he
was born a prince, and if princes came to speak with him he would an-
swer, but none present being such he thought himself obliged in honor to
hold his tongue, and not hold discourse with persons below his birth and
quality” ” A young man asked the chief some questions.

“Child,” replied he, “you no understand matters of war. Let your
brother or chief come, him I will answer.” He was exeented by Colonel
Denison’s Indian allies near Stonington, Connecticut. When told that he
must dic, and that his last hour had arrived, the proud warrior, with the

April 11.

spirit of an ancient Roman, replied,

“T like it well. I shall die before my heart is soft, or I have said any-
thing unworthy of myself.”

After the death of Nanuntenoo the remnant of his tribe united with
the Niantics under Ninigret, a famous warrior who, at the head of his
tribe, had preserved neutrality with the English during the war. It was
this sachem who, on being asked to allow the preaching of Christianity
among his people, rephed that “it would be better to preach it among
the English till they became good.” Joger Williams calls him “a proud
‘and fierce sachem.” Ilis portrait, painted at Boston in 1647, is owned
by the Winthrop family.

The eost of this Indian war was as great in proportion as was that of
the Revolutionary War a century later. Twelve or thirteen towns were
160 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

destroyed, one in twenty of the able-bodied men had fallen, and one
family in twenty had been burned out. In addition to this the colonies
had incurred a debt of half a million
dollars—an enormous sum for those
days. But the power of the Indians
in southern New England was broken
forever. Many of the Indians fled
westward, and those captured were
sold into slavery.




As soon as the news of the rising
of the Pokanokets reached the Indi-
ans at the eastward, they too began
hostilities, the French on the Penob-
scot supplying them with arms. One

SSE SES








=

RK

of the causes of this outbreak was
said to be the cruel conduct of some
English seamen, who overset a canoe

containing the wife and child of as Gt BOS err
Squando, a chief of the Saco tribe, eee

in order to see if young Indians could

swim naturally, like animals of the brute creation, for so they had heard.
The child was saved from drowning by the mother, who dived down and
brought it up from the bottom; but it died soon afterwards, and Squando
became the fierce foe of the English. Many of the eastern Indians had
been kidnapped and sold into slavery. These wrongs and injuries called
for vengeance.

No general rising took place, but a relentless border warfare, extending
over a space of three hundred miles, was carried on. In the two years of
its duration nearly half the English settlements were destroyed, and their
inhabitants either driven off, killed, or carried into captivity. Peace was
finally established in 1678. :

Saco was burned by the Indians, led by Squando, who besieged the
garrison-house of Major Philips. Early in the following morning a cart,
filled with combustibles and protected by a sort of plank
breastwork in front, was pushed towards the house. Some of
the garrison were dismayed on the sight of this seemingly formidable
engine of destruction, but were encouraged by their officers. Orders were
given not to fire until it came within pistol-shot. When it had about
reached that point one of the wheels stuck fast, which those who were

Sept. 18, 1675.
bil



































































































DEFENCE OF THE GARRISON-HOUSE.
KING PHILIY’S WAR. 163

pushing did not observe. The other wheels moving forward brought
them into a position to be effectually raked by the garrison. This ac-
cident was quickly improved by them—a sudden volley killed six and
wounded fifteen more. The Indians immediately retreated, and aban-
doned the attack.

The escape of Anne Brackett, whose family had been taken captives at
the sack of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine), was remarkable. Loitering
behind her captors, she spied the wreck of a birch canoe. She patched
and repaired it with a needle and thread found in a deserted house. Em-
barking with her husband, a negro servant, and her infant in this frail
vessel, she crossed Casco Bay with infinite peril. Arriving at Black Point,
where she feared to find Indians, and could only expect to find a solitude,
to her great joy she found a vessel from Piscataqua that had just entered
the harbor.

The pioneer women of America were in no respect inferior in heroism
and devotion to their husbands, their fathers, or their brothers. In what
is now the town of Berwick, Maine, the house of a settler was attacked by
Hopehood, a Kennebec chief, notorious for his savage prowess. This same
chief was afterwards engaged in the massacre at Salmon Falls, New Hamp-
shire. He, with a companion, attempted to surprise the family of the
settler, but was discovered by one of the inmates of the house—a young
woman—in season to prevent his effecting his purpose. Quickly fasten-
ing the door, she held it while all the other persons in the house escaped
by a rear window. The Indians finally effected an entrance, and having
wreaked their fury on the brave girl who had frustrated their plan, left
her for dead. Though severely wounded, she recovered, and lived many
years afterwards.
164 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

VI.
THE SOUTHERN INDIANS.

A CENTURY and a half had elapsed since the invasion of De Soto,
44% when the French began to explore the fertile regions watered by the
Mississippi. Joliet, Marquette, and La Salle led the way in this adventu-
rous exploit, the latter taking possession of its mouth for France. He
named the country Louisiana, in compliment to the French monarch,
Louis XIV.

The Spaniards had already planted themselves at St. Augustine and
Pensacola, when Iberville, a French naval officer, one of seven distin-
guished brothers, landed the first French colony at Biloxi. A
fort was erected, Sanvolle, his elder brother, was appointed
Governor, and Bienville, a younger brother, Lieutenant-governor, of Loui-
siana. The site of New Orleans was selected for the principal settlement.
Aiter twenty years’ service in the colony, Bienville became governor, in
1718.

The Southern Indians inhabited the region now embraced in the States
of Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, most of Georgia, and portions of
South Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky. These Indians, sometimes
called Appalachians or Mobilians, were divided into three distinet con-
federacies: the Creeks or Muskokis, including also the Seminoles and the
Yamassees ; the Choctaws, whose country, bordering wpon the Gulf of
Mexico, was west of the Creeks and extended to the Mississippi; and the
Cherokees, the mountaineers of the South, whose land extended from the
Cherokee Broad liver, on the east, to the Alabama, on the west, one of the
most delightful regions in the United States. The Chickasaws, who were
united with the Choctaws, were seated upon the western branches of the
Mobile, in Mississippi, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

Jan, 31, 1699.

On the banks of the Mississippi, chiefly on the bluffs where stands the
beautiful city that bears their name, the Natchez Indians once dwelt. It
was a region of great fertility, and lay between the territories of the Choc:
THE SOUTHERN INDIANS. 165

taws and Chickasaws. They had originally inhabited the south-western
portion of Mexico, and had brought thence many of their religious rites
and customs. Their form of government was more despotic than that of
the other Southern tribes.

The great chief of the Natchez bore the name of the Sun, and pre-
tended to claim his origin from that luminary. Every morning as it rose
above the horizon he stood at the door of his cabin, turned his face to-
wards the east, and howled thrice, at the same time prostrating himself on
the ground. A pipe, used only upon these occasions, was then handed him,
from which he puffed smoke, first towards the east, then towards the other
cardinal points.

“The Sun has eaten,” proclaimed an officer of his household, before
the rulmg chief of the Sun, after each morning’s repast, “and the rest of
the earth may now eat.” The death of the Great Sun was sometimes fol-
lowed by that of one hundred persons, who considered it a great honor to
be sacrificed at the same time.

The Temple of the Natchez was oblong in form. In it were kept the
bones of deceased chiefs, and in the middle of the floor a fire was kept
constantly burning. One of their traditions is, that the keeper of this
sacred flame having on one occasion fallen asleep, the fire went out, and in
consequence a horrible malady raged for years, during which many of the
Suns and an infinite number of people died. When Iberville first visited
them, in the spring of 1700, their population did not exceed one thousand
two hundred.

Bienville, in April, 1716, led a small party into the territory of the
Natchez, to revenge the murder of some Frenchmen. He intended, after
making an example of some of their chiefs and intimidating the tribe, to
proceed to their towns, and build a fort in obedience to the orders of his
king. Ife halted on an island in the river, at some distance from Natchez.
Ifere three of the tribe came to see him with the pipe of peace, but Bien-
ville sent them back, telling them he would smoke with the Great Sun
chiefs only, for he was the great chief of the French, and that their
chiefs had shown a want of friendship and respect in not coming them-
selves to greet him. The Frenchmen thoroughly understood the Indian
character.

One morning not long afterwards, Bienville saw four magnificent
canoes descending the river and approaching his island camp. Eight war-
riors stood erect and sung the pipe-song, while two chiefs in each canoe
sat under an immense umbrella. They were the Natchez chiefs, drawn

thither by the snare of the wily Frenchman. Concealing one-half of his
11*
166 INDIAN IUSTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

soldiers, and advancing in a friendly way, he led them into his camp.
They entered, singing the song of peace and holding the pipe over his
head.

Bienville refused the pipe offered him by the chiefs with contempt,
and inquired the cause of their visit. Then the high-priest, after address-
ing the sun, and invoking its aid to soften the stern Bienville, also offered
him the peace-pipe, which was again scornfully rejected. At the same
moment the chiefs were seized, ironed, and put in prison.

At night Bienville informed the Grand Sun that nothing would satisfy
him but the heads of those who had advised or executed the murder of
his countrymen. They were sent for, and the heads of two of them were
brought him. DBienville then made a treaty with them, sparing their lives
on certain conditions, and no longer refusing to smoke with them the pipe
of peace.

A fort was then built on an eminence advantageously situated near
the Mississippi; when it was finished, six hundred Natchez warriors ap-
peared unarmed before the gate, and joined three hundred women in a
dance in honor of Bienville. Afterwards the chiefs crossed the threshold,
and again smoked the peace-pipe with him.

Some years later Fort Rosalie, as it was called, and the post of Natchez
was under the command of M. de Chopart, a man wholly unfit for the
position. This officer, for purposes of his own, selected the village of one
of the Suns, or great chiefs, and ordered him to go elsewhere. Justly in-
dignant at this outrage, preparations were quictly made by the tribe to
cut off the French by a sudden attack here and at other settlements lower
down the river. The neighboring tribes were also enlisted in the plot.
Chopart was warned of the danger, but instead of taking precautions
against it, had those who gave him the information put in irons.

The massacre began about nine o’clock in the morning. The arrival
of a number of richly-laden boats for the garrison and the colonists deter-
mined the Indians to strike their blow sooner than they had
intended. Dividing themselves into parties, they gave out
that they were going on a grand hunt, and began to traffie with the
French, giving them poultry and corn, and in return obtaining arms
and ammunition.

Being now intermingled with the French, and provided with arms,
they attacked at the same time each his man, and in less than two hours
they had massacred more than two hundred of them, among them Cho-
part, the commander of the fort—the cause of this terrible slaughter. To
show their contempt for this man, the Indians would not permit a warrior

Oct. 28, 1729.
THE SOUTHERN INDIANS. 167

to kill him, but for that purpose sent a “mean” person, who pursued the
wretch from his house into his garden, and there despatched him with a
wooden tomahawk. Two men only were spared—a tailor and a carpenter,
whose services the Indians required. Some of the women were killed,
others were made slaves, and treated with great indignity. The post at
Yazoo was soon afterwards surprised and its garrison massacred.

When this terrible massacre became known the consternation was great
throughout the colony. Governor Perier, at New Orleans, immediately
sent the Chevalier De Loubois against the Natchez. At the
same time seven hundred Choctaws, under M. Le Sueur,
marched to their village, surprised them at break of day, and set free a
large number of prisoners, besides taking sixty scalps and a number of the
Natchez. The victory would have been more complete if they had been
less intent on freeing the slaves, or if they had waited for the arrival
of De Loubois with his troops. The great body of the Natchez escaped by
flight. Shutting themselves up in two of their forts, the Natchez proposed
to surrender more than two hundred prisoners if the French commander
would remove his artillery and withdraw his forces, or else all the pris-
oners should be burned. De Loubois consented ; but the Indians, suspect-
ing treachery, withdrew in the night and gained the opposite shore of the
Mississippi, with all their women and children. The prisoners, however,
were found in the fort and released.

A large part of the tribe, conducted by the Great Sun, then established
themselves upon the Washita [tiver, others sought an asylum among the
Chickasaws, and some settled In Alabama. But the French had not done
with them yet. In November, 1731, Governor Perier organized an expe-
dition, which in January following he led to the mouth of Black River,
the site of the last stronghold of the devoted tribe.

Investing the fort, the French encountered a spirited resistance. Mor-
tars were used by them in this siege, and a bomb, falling in the centre
of the court, caused great havoe, and still greater consternation among the
Indians. At length they agreed to surrender the Great Sun and one war-
chief, which Perier refused.. They then consented to surrender sixty-five
men and two hundred women and children, upon condition that their lives
should be spared.

That night, in the midst of a tempest of wind and rain, the miserable,
hunted-down remnant of this unfortunate tribe abandoned their fort and
endeavored to escape up the river. Perier’s Indian allies pursued, and
brought in one hundred of them. Next day the governor demolished the
fort, and returned to New Orleans with four hundred and twenty-seven

Jan. 27, 1730.
‘165 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

prisoners. At their head was the Great Sun and several principal chiefs.
They were all sent to St. Domingo and sold for slaves.

Such of the Indians as escaped the terrors of that tempestuous night
attacked the French post and settlements on Red River. They were re-
pulsed by St. Denys, the commandant, with the loss of ninety-two war-
riors, including all their chiefs. A remnant escaped by flight, but, as a
nation, the Natchez no longer existed.

The Chickasaws were the fiercest, most insolent, haughty, and eruel of
the Southern Indians. They were constantly at war, and though, in com-
parison with the nations around them, a mere handful, they had seldom
been defeated. It was natural, therefore, that they should despise the
cultivation of the soil, as they could live on the proceeds of the chase and
the plunder of their neighbors.

The Chickasaws were the most expert of the American Indians in fol-
lowing the trail, and were also exceedingly skilful in the chase. Although
their country abounded in beaver, they did not disturb them, saying,
“anybody can kill a beaver.” Their ambition was to capture the swift-
footed deer or elk. They were all excellent swimmers, an art early taught
to their children. They were very overbearing towards their females, and
extremely jealous of their wives. They were athletic, well formed, and
graceful.

Chickasaw tradition says they came from the west, and on starting
eastward were provided with a large dog, as a guard, and a pole,as a guide.
The dog would give them notice of the approach of an enemy, and the
pole, which they planted in the ground every night, would lean next morn-
ing in the direction they were to go. In this way they kept on until they
crossed the great Mississippi River.

Arriving at the Alabama River, near what is now Huntsville, the pole was
for some days undecided which way to lean, but finally made up its mind
and pointed to the south-west. They then resumed their journey, fighting
their way through enemies on all sides, until, at a place now known as
Chickasaw Old Fields, the pole stood perfectly erect. All then came to
the conclusion that this was the Promised Land, and here they accordingly
remained until, in 1837, the tribe emigrated to the Indian Territory,

A small portion of the Natchez Indians had united with the Chick
asaws, who were friends of the English, and of course enemies of the
French. In order to establish French supremacy in that region, and to
keep the communication open between New Orleans in the south and
Kaskaskia in the north, Bienville prepared to invade the Chickasaw ter-
THE SOUTHERN INDIANS. 169

ritory and subdue them. By a free distribution of presents he gained
over the Choctaws, who consented to assist him in his enterprise.

He embarked at Mobile, in a fleet comprising more than sixty large
pirogues and batteaux. Never before had so large and imposing a fleet
disturbed the deep, smooth waters of Mobile. He disembarked
his forces at what is now Cotton Gin Port, twenty-seven miles
east of the Chickasaw towns. Taking with him provisions for twelve
days, he began his march, and encamped near the enemy. On the after-
noon of May 26th the Chevalier Noyau advanced to the attack at the
head of three hundred French troops.

With the help of some Englishmen the Chickasaws had fortified them-
selves with much skill, and the French were not a little astonished on
beholding the English flag waving over their adversaries. Their houses
had been fortified by large stakes driven into the ground around them,
and were loop-holed for musketry. Within the palisades were breast-
works, from which, through the loop-holes, the Indians fired. Their
houses stood in such positions as to admit of cross-firing.

The attacking column was protected by movable breastworks, called
mantelets, carried by negroes, and which served as shields. No sooner
had these come within gunshot than one of the negroes was killed
and another wounded; the rest fled precipitately. The French then
rapidly advanced under a severe fire, and carried three fortified cabins,
setting fire to and destroying others. Many of them had by this time
fallen; but the officers, placing themselves at the head of a few brave
men, attempted to storm the principal fort, but were nearly all shot down
before they could reach it.

At a safe distance from this scene of slaughter Bienville’s six hundred
Choctaw allies, painted and plumed and dressed in the most fantastic and
horrible manner, yelled and shouted, but, beyond occasionally firing in
the air, rendered no assistance. After the conflict had lasted three hours,
De Noyau and the brave remnant of his men were compelled to retreat.

Bienville’s plan of operations had included a junction with D’ Artagn-
ette, a brave and experienced officer, who was to have assembled the
tribes of the Illinois and, together with one hundred and thirty French-
men, united his force with that of Bienville at the Chickasaw towns. The
unavoidable delays experienced by the latter caused the failure of the plan
and disaster to both.

D’Artagnette was the first to arrive. Ie sought in vain for intelligence
of Bienville. The impatience of his red allies, who, after eleven days of
inaction, could no longer be controlled, led him to attack the Chickasaws

April 4, 1736.
170 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

without further delay. His force consisted of one hundred and thirty
French and three hundred and sixty Indians. At the first onset five hun-
dred of the enemy, who had been concealed, rose from their
ambush and fell upon the invaders, with such impetuosity
that nearly all D’Artagnette’s Indians took to their heels, leaving the un-
fortunate Frenchmen surrounded by their foes.

After maintaining for some time a heroie but unavailing strugele, in
which a large number of brave men had fallen, D’Artagnette, Vincennes,
and a few others surrendered; a small number escaped. The fruits of
this important victory were all the provisions and baggage of the French,
eleven horses, four hundred and fifty pounds of powder, and one thousand
two hundred bullets. The powder and ball were used to shoot down the
troops of Bienville, as we have already seen. The prisoners were at first
kindly treated, but after the defeat of Bienville all were burned at the
stake excepting one, who was sent to Bienville with the intelligence of
the defeat and fate of D’Artagnette. The Chickasaws remained masters
of the situation.

May 20, 1736.

Little was known of the Cherokees who inhabited northern Georgia and
north-western Carolina, one of the most beautiful and healthful regions on
this continent, until the period of English settlement. In their appearance,
their habits, and their customs, they bore a great resemblance to the Creeks.
Owing to their delightful climate, with its mountain air and delicious
springs of pure water, they attained a greater age than the other tribes,

These Indians were of middle stature and of an olive color, but were
generally painted. Their skins were stained with indelible ink, repre-
senting a variety of subjects. The women were tall, and symmetrically
formed ; their feet and hands were small and exquisitely shaped, and they
moved with grace and dignity. The ears of the males were slit, and
stretched to an enormous size—an exceedingly painful operation. They
were very fond of dancing, spending almost every night in this amuse-
ment, and were skilled in getting up and preparing pantomimes, being ex-
cellent mimics.

In January, 1733, General James Oglethorpe led a colony to Georgia,
pitching his tent where the city of Savannah now stands. T hough he had
a royal title to the land, he took care to pay the Indians for it, and they
were always friendly to him. The purchase was made of Tomo Chichi,
one of their principal chiefs, who afterwards accompanied Oglethorpe to
England. The Cherokees gave Oglethorpe a buffalo-skin, with the head
and feathers of an eagle painted on the inner side. They said: * The feath-


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OGLETHORPE’S LANDING.
THE SOUTHERN INDIANS. 173

ers of the eagle are soft, signifying love; the skin is warm, and is the em-
blem of protection, therefore love and protect our little families.” He was
ever their true friend and they reciprocated his kindness. When, in 1740,
_he attacked the Spaniards at St. Augustine,
he was accompanied on his expedition by
one thousand Cherokee warriors.

Mutual injuries had, at the beginning of
the year 1760, brought about a state of hos-
tility between the settlers on the frontier of
South Carolina and their Cherokee neigh-
bors. Governor Littleton, in violation of
good faith and sound policy, had seized thir-
ty-two of their chiefs, who had visited him «
for the purpose of preventing a war, and
imprisoned them in Fort Prince George. Cmte Emin GREE:

His intention was to hold them until twen-

ty-four Indians implicated in the murder of white men should be deliv-
ered up to him. This it was impossible for them to do, as the Cherokee
chiefs had no power to coerce their countrymen, and the governor was so
informed by Atakullakulla, their venerable head chief, the staunch friend
of the white man. One of the imprisoned chiefs was Otacite, a renowned
warrior.

Their reseue was soon attempted. Oconostata, one of their leading
chiefs and warriors, approached Fort Prince George with a band of his
countrymen, and requested Lieutenant Coytmore, the com-
mander, to come out and have a talk with him. That officer
assented, and while they were conversing the chief swung a bridle which
he held three times around his head. This was the preconcerted signal,
and a volley from the concealed Indians mortally wounded Coytmore, and
severely wounded two others who were with him.

The garrison seeing the fate of their officer, at once proceeded to put
irons upon the Indians in their custody, but meeting with a furious resist-
anee, the exasperated soldiers put them all to death. Those without at-
tacked the fort, shouting to their countrymen within, ignorant of their
fate, “ Fight strong, and you shall be aided.” But the fort was too strong
for them, and they finally withdrew. The vengeance of the tribe fell
heavily on the defenceless frontier, which became a scene of blood and
rapine, and the war-belt was sent to the Catawbas and other tribes, asking
their aid in exterminating the English.

Meantime General Amherst, the English Commander-in-chief in Amer-



aN de
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Feb. 18, 1760.
174 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

ica, had despatched one thousand two hundred men, under Colonel Mont-
gomery, from New York to the scene of action. This officer arrived in
Charleston late in April, and moved rapidly towards the Cherokee vil-
lages. Coming after a night-march upon the town of Little Keowa, he
surrounded it, and ordered his troops to bayonet every man. This was
done, and the women and children were captured. In Estatoe, a town of
two hundred houses, he found but ten or twelve men, all of whom were
killed. Determining to make the Indians feel the power of the English,
he visited, and in succession destroyed, all the villages in the lower nation.





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Montgomery then returned to Fort Prince George, where he awaited
proposals for peace. None came, and he again advanced, this time on the
middle settlements. In three days he reached the town of
Etchowee. Here the Cherokees had determined to make a
stand. A smart fire was opened upon the advancing troops from a thicket.
Montgomery immediately pushed forward threugh an ambuscade of five
hundred Indians, rousing them from their coverts. As soon as they
reached clearer and more elevated ground, the troops drove the enemy be-

June 24,
THE SOUTHERN INDIANS. 175

fore them at the point of the bayonet, and a severe chastisement was in-
flicted upon the Indians. Etchowee was found to be abandoned, but the
warriors had generally escaped to the mountains, and the only result. of
the expedition was to increase the wrath of the tribe. Unable to effect
anything further, Montgomery returned to New York.

A band of Creek Indians, under Chlucco, better known as the Long
Warrior, Micco, or King of the Seminoles, accompanied Montgomery in
his expedition and rendered essential service. By their aid the army es-
caped ambush after ambush, discovered the Cherokee villages, and finally
covered his retreat out of one of the most dangerous countries through
which an army could pass.

Fort Loudoun was garrisoned by two hundred men. Oconostata in-
vested it with a large number of warriors, cutting it off from all communi-
cation. When the garrison was nearly famished, seeing no hope of escape
the fort was surrendered, on condition that the men should retain their
arms and march home unmolested. Their first night-encamp-
ment was fifteen miles from the fort. Next morning they
were attacked, and nearly all slain or
captured. This was done in retalia-
tion for the massacre of the Cherokee
hostages.

In the following year Carolina
raised twelve hundred men, under
Colonel Henry Middleton. Among
his officers were Henry Laurens,

afterwards President of
Congress, Francis Ma-
rion, William Moultrie, Andrew
Pickens, and Isaac Huger, all of
whom became distinguished as sol-
diers and patriots in the Revolution-
ary War. Lieutenant-colonel James
Grant joined them with two British pia aoe
regiments, and some Chickasaw and
Catawba Indians as allies, making a total force of two thousand six hun-
dred men.

They reached Fort Prince George May 29, 1761. On the 10th of
June, at Etchowee, the scene of Montgomery’s battle the year before, the
Cherokees were gathered, well equipped and prepared for action. They
had an advantageous position, and for three hours the contest was severe

August 7.

1761.





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176 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

and bloody. They were finally driven at the point of the bayonet, falling
back inch by inch until at length, completely overpowered, they fled, hotly
pursued by the victors; many were slain.

Following up his victory, Grant laid Etchowee and fourteen other towns,
together with their corn-fields and granaries, in ashes, and the people, in a
state of complete destitution, were driven to the barren mountains. The
spirit of the nation was broken, and through the venerable Atakullakulla,
the chiefs humbly sued for peace. A treaty kept the nation peaceful un-
til the breaking out of the American Revolution.

During that struggle the Cherokees fought against the colonists, and
were severely punished and greatly reduced in numbers. Their first
treaty with the United States dates from 1785. Its guaranties were disre-
garded by the Federal Government, and contrary to their wishes, and in
spite of their resistance, they were forced from their country at the point
of the bayonet in 1888.

John Ross, their principal chief, strennously opposed the removal of
his people. He was a half-breed, and at an early age had acquired a good
English education, becoming head chief in
1828. A portion of the Cherokees, under
the lead of Major Ridge, Boudinot, and
other influential chiefs, in December, 1835,
concluded a treaty with the United States
Government for the removal of the tribe
to the Indian Territory, which was repu-
diated by Ross and the larger part of the
nation. Under this treaty the Ridge party
—one-third of the tribe—emigrated in
1837. [toss and the remainder of his peo-
ple held out against removal as long as

JOHN ROSS. possible, but, notwithstanding a decision

of the United States Supreme Court in

their favor, were finally compelled to go. The removal of the tribe was

disastrous to them in many ways, but they are at present in a prosperous
condition in their new home in the Indian Territory.

The Cherokees had a singular method of relieving the poor. Their
head men issued orders for a war-dance, at which all the fighting men of
the town assembled. Contrary to the usual custom, only one man danced
at a time, who, with a tomahawk in his hand, hopped and capered for a
moment, and then gave a whoop. The music then stopped while he re-
lated the manner of his taking his first scalp. He then cast a string of


THE SOUTHERN INDIANS. 177

Wampum, wire, paint, lead, or anything he could spare, upon a large bear-
skin spread for the purpose. Then the music again begun, and he con-
tinued in the same manner through all his warlike actions. Another sue-
ceeded him, and the ceremony lasted until all the warriors had related
their exploits and thrown presents upon the skin. The stock thus raised,
after paying the musicians, was divided among the poor. The same cere-
inony was used to recompense any extraordinary merit.

The Choctaws and the Chickasaws had a common origin, and are to-day
substantially one people. Their traditions, like those of the Nateliez,
point to a Mexican origin. The Creeks were their great enemies. In
[765 a war began between them which raged fiercely for six years. Skil-
ful in deceiving their enemies, they attached the paws of various animals
to their own feet and hands, and roamed the woods, imitating their move-
ments, Sometimes a large bush was carried by the warrior in front, con-
cealing himself and those behind him, while the one in the extreme rear
obliterated all the tracks with grass. Excellent themselves in following
the trail, they could also deceive an enemy by their astonishing skill in
initating every fowl and quadruped.

They were inveterate gamblers. Besides ball play, they had an excit-
ing game called Chunke, the players and lookers-on staking their orna-
ments, wearing apparel, pipes, and arms upon the result. Sometimes
after losing all, the ruined gambler borrowed a gun and shot himself. In-
dians are very like white men, after all. The women have a game with
sticks and balls, something like our game of battledoor.

Some of their funeral customs were peculiar. The assembled relatives
wept and howled, and asked strange questions of the deceased, such as,
“Why did you leave us? Did your wife not serve you well? Were you
not contented with your children? Did you not have corn enough? Were
you atraid of your enemies?’ To increase the solemnity and importance
of the occasion mourners were hired to ery.

Among other odd customs of the Southern Indians was this—being
sun-worshippers, whenever the head chief sneezed, his subjects bowed their
heads, opened and closed their arms, and saluted him with these words:
May the Sun guard you,” “ May the Sun be with you,” “ May the Sun
shine upon you,” or “ May the Sun prosper and defend you.”

If their knowledge of geography had been equal to their enterprise, a
serious catastrophe that befell one of the Carolina tribes would have been
prevented. The Sewees, a tribe living on the bay of that name, under

12
178 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

the mistaken idea that England was not far from their coast, fitted out a
large fleet of canoes, laden with skins and furs, for the purpose of traffic.
All their able-bodied men embarked, leaving only the women and children
and the aged and infirm at home. A storm destroyed a part of their fleet.
and the remainder falling into the hands of the English, the Indians were
sold as slaves in the West India Isiands. Small-pox and intemperance
still further reduced this once populous tribe.
The Creeks and the Seminoles are the subjects of future chapters.

NotTe.—For the best account of the Southern tribes, see Pickett’s ‘‘ History of Ala-
bama.”
FRENCH AND INDIAN

VITI.

WARS. 179

FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS.

\ ITIL the reign of King William ITI. began a series of wars between

the English and French on this continent which, with
only one long interval, lasted seventy years.

1689-1759.
Ei e im
They grew out

of the rivalry of the two nations for territorial power and the advan-

long

ages of the Indian trade.

The genius and heroism of Champlain, Cartier, Marquette, Joliet, and
La Salle, and the zeal and devotion of her missionaries, had given to the



ROBERT CAVELIER, SIEUR DE LA SALLE,



French not only Canada,
then known as New Franee,
Acadia, Iudson’s Bay, and
Newfoundland, but had also
furnished her with a claim
to the whole valley of the
Mississippi, and to Texas as
far as the Rio Bravo del
Norte.

A line drawn from Fal-
mouth, now Portland, on
Casco Bay, by the towns of
Scarborough, Saco, Wells,
York, Amesbury, Haver-
hill, Andover, Dunstable.
Chelmsford, Groton, Lan-
caster, and Worcester consti-
tuted the frontier of Mas-
sachusetts, which then in-
cluded Maine. Upon these
settlements the stress of
those cruel wars fell. The

English colonists largely outnumbered the I'rench, but the latter had sue.
180 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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INDIANS ATTACKING THE SETTLERS,

ceeded in arraying the numerous tribes of the Algonkins against the Eng-
lish, and these savage allies made the warfare terrible to the settlers who
were exposed to their incursions all along the extensive frontier. The
only allies of the English were the Iroquois.

By the French the war was carried on in a most barbarous manner.
They fitted out parties of savages to attack the English settlers, shooting
them down while tilling their fields, seizing their wives and children, load-
ing them with heavy packs of plunder from their own houses, and driving
them before them into the wilderness. These, when faint with hunger
and unable to stagger under their burdens, were murdered, and their sealps
torn off and exhibited by the savages to their civilized masters on their
arrival at the French head-quarters. Only those who have read the story
of these barbarities can realize the perils and sacrifices, the heroism and
sufferings of the early English settlers.

The greater part of the early settlers were engaged in agriculture.
Those on the sea-coast pursued the fisheries with success. Their every-day
dress was plain, strong, and comfortable, and was the product of their own
looms and knitting-needles. A cocked-up hat, a short frock of strongest


FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 181

warp, a pair of old leather breeches, and leggings confined above the knee
and tied over the shoe with a strmg round the middle of the foot, was the
costume of the man.

The farm work obliged them to be up before daylight. The early
breakfast consisted of pea or bean porridge, boiled with salted beef or
pork, served in wooden bowls, together with bread and beer. The bread
was generally some preparation of Indian-corn mixed with rye. Dinner
at noon began with Indian pudding and ended with boiled salt pork, fried
eggs, brown bread, cabbage, and cider. Sometimes they had suecotash, a
native dish of corn and beans boiled together in the milk. Hasty pudding,
consisting of the boiled meal of maize or rye, and eaten with molasses or
milk, was a common dish. The spoons were pewter, the plates “ wooden
trenchers.” ‘Their sofa was the settle, their carpets clean white sand, their
ceilings rough boards and rafters, and their parlor was at once kitchen,
bedroom, and hall. Besides other househeld labor, the women did all the
sewing, knitting, mending, spinning, cooking, and washing. Their toil
was unremitting. Iteligious exercises, morning and evening, were never
omitted. By eight o’clock the entire family were in bed.

What a contrast does this simple, healthful, and laborious life of our
ancestors present to that of most of their descendants!

To the Indians every part of the New England border was familiar
ground. Many of them, before withdrawing to Canada, had lived in its
vicinity, and had frequently visited the settlements to trade, and were thus
well qualified to guide the I'rench in their expeditions. Their motive was
plunder, but it is doubtless true that some were governed by the remem-
branee of injuries, and it is proverbial that “an Indian never forgets an
injury.”

The first blow was struck by the Indians at Cocheeo, now Dover, New
ITampshire, which, from its exposed situation at the lowest ford of the
Pisecataqua, had been in constant dread of attack. The inhabitants had
become alarmed at the attitude of the Indians, but were quieted by Major
Waldron, the officer in command, who langhed at their fears. There were
here five garrison-houses strongly built, to which the people retired at
night, but the watch had become careless. These were strongly fortified
dwellings calculated to repel Indian attacks.

At midnight the doors of four of these houses, including that of Major
Waldron, were opened by some squaws, who had been permitted to lodge
within them, and a large number of Indians rushed in, slaugh-
tering all who resisted. Thirteen years before, Waldron had,
by a stratagem, made prisoners of some four hundred Indians, more than

June 27, 1689.
182 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

half of whom were sold into slavery or exeeuted at Boston. It was pro-
posed to these Indians to join the English in a training and have a sham
fight. The evolutions were so arranged by the English that the Indians
were surrounded and secured. This piece of treachery was not forgotten
by the Indians.

Waidron, now eighty years old, shouting, “What now? what now?”
seized his sword and defended himself with great resolution, but was at
length struck down by a blow from a hatchet. He was then dragged into
his hall and placed in an arm-chair upon a table. He was a magistrate,
and they mockingly cried out to him, * Judge Indians now! judge Indi-
ans now !”

He had the reputation of having taken advantage of the natives in
trade, and in buying beaver of them, his fist, placed in the opposite seale,
was accounted as weighing only a pound, After eating supper they began
to torture him. Some who were in debt to him gashed him with their
knives, saying, “I cross out my account,” while others ent off the joints
of his fingers, and said to him, * Now will your fist weigh a pound?”
linally, to end his misery, as he was sinking from loss of blood, they placed
his sword so that he fell upon it. After burning the house, with the oth-
ers near it, and having killed twenty-three persons, the Indians withdrew,
taking with them to Canada twenty-nine captives. Some of these prison-
ers were sold to the French—the first instance, it is believed, of English
captives being thus disposed of. Two months later another part of Dover,
culled Oyster Bay, now Durham, was attacked, and eighteen men killed
while at work in the fields.

Count Frontenac, then in his seventieth year, had been recalled to the
government of Canada. One of his first acts was to fit out and send three
expeditions against the English settlements. One, from Mont-
real, was to strike Albany; another, from Three Rivers, was
to assail the New Hampshire border; and the third, from Quebec, was
directed to the frontier of Maine. |

The expedition designed for Albany consisted of two hundred French
and Indians, under De Mantet and De St. Héléne. They began their
march in midwinter upon snow- shoes, carrying their packs upon their
shoulders, and dragging their blankets and provisions over the snow on
Indian sledges. Tearing that Albany was too strong for them, the Indi-
ans could not be persuaded to attack it, and Schenectady, a fortified town
twenty miles from Albany, was selected instead. The weather was severe
and the snow was deep, and the invaders suffered severely during the
march, which took twenty-two days. So exhausted were they with cold,

October, 1689.


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MAJOR WALDRON’S TERRIBLE FIGHT,
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 185

fatigue, and hunger before reaching the place, that some of them after-
wards declared that they would have surrendered had they encountered
serious opposition.

A scout having ascertained that the town was in a profound slumber
and without a guard, the spirits of the party were greatly raised. The
town was left thus unguarded because the severity of the weather was
supposed to be a sufficient security. As if in derision of possible danger,
two snow images, It is said, stood as mock sentinels at the gate.
At midnight the assailants entered the open and undefended
gate, divided into parties of six or seven, waylaid the doors of each house,
and then raised the terrible warwhoop.

Feb. 8, 1690.











































































































































































SCHENECTADY,

Massacre and pillage now held high carnival. Barbarities too shocking
to relate were perpetrated. In two hours upward of eighty well-built
and well-furnished houses were burned, two only escaping the flames, and
sixty persons were put to death. Forty of the inhabitants were carried
into captivity. About sixty women, children, and old men were spared,
out of regard for Glen, the chief magistrate, whose former kindness to
L8G INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

French prisoners was now reciprocated. On their return to Montreal the
party was pursued, and a number killed or captured.

Intelligence of this shocking event was borne to Albany by some of
the poor fugitives who, with no other covering than their night-clothes,
and during a fall of snow, made their way to that place, some of them
badly frost-bitten.

The second party, under Ilertel de Rouville, an experienced officer, at-
tacked at daylight the village of Salmon Falls, on the Piseataqua. Here
was a fortified house, with two stockade forts, for the protection
of the inhabitants. The three parties into which Hertel had
divided his command made a sudden and sinmultaneous attack. No watch

March 27, 1690.

had been kept, and the surprise was complete and the resistance brief.
Soon the scattered dwellings and barns were in ashes. Thirty persons, of
all ages and sexes, were tomahawked or shot, and tifty-four, mostly women
and children, were carried into captivity. Hertel was pursued and over-
taken by a large party of English at Wooster River, but succeeded in hold-
ing the narrow bridge that crossed it until dark, when he continued his
retreat.

On the way, Hertel met the third party under Portneuf, who had also
been joined by the Baron de St. Castin and some Kennebec Indians, swell-
ing his forees to the number of four or five hundred. Together they at-
tacked the fort and settlement at Casco Bay. Fort Loyal, a palisade work
having eight cannon, stood at what is now the foot of India Street, Port-
land. The fort having been undermined, it was surrendered
on the fourth day upon the promise of protection. No sooner,
however, had the garrison laid down their arms, than the women and ehil-
dren and wounded were all murdered in cold blood. The commander and
four others only were spared. Scarcely had they surrendered when four
vessels, sent to their relief from Boston, appeared in the offing just too
late. This successful raid greatly elated the French, who had not yet re-
covered from the effects of the blow struck at Montreal by the Lroquois in
the previous year. |

When Davis, the commander at Fort Loyal, reached Quebee, he told
Frontenac of the pledge given by his captor, and of the violation of it.
* We were promised good quarter,” said he, “and a guard to conduct us
to our English. I thought I had to do with Christians who would lave
been careful of their engagements, and not to violate and break their
oaths. Whereupon,” continues Davis, “the Governor shaked his head,
and, as I was told, was very angry with Burniffe ” (Portneuf).

After these exploits a grand council was held at Quebec by the West-

May 28.
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 137

ern Indians who came to trade. Frontenac himself took part in this, and
brandishing a hatchet, sung the war-song and led the.dance, whooping and
velling with the rest. The other Frenchmen present followed his exam-
ple. This excited the enthusiasm of the Indians, who snatched the prof-
tered hatchet and promised to make war on the English and Iroquois
to the death.



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SCENE OF QPERATIONS—-FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS.

Major Peter Schuyler, with a force of two hundred and sixty-seven
men, of whom the larger part were Iroquois, marching from Albany, had
surprised a French camp at La Prairie, opposite Montreal,
driving them into their fort with considerable loss. Informed
of Schuyler’s approach, Valrenne, a Canadian officer, was sent to intercept
him on his retreat. Placing himself upon the path by which Schuyler
was retreating, the advanced parties of each met, and their warwhoops
sounded the alarm.

Valrenne had posted his men to great advantage behind some fallen
trees and thickets, on a ridge, barring the way of the English. The Eng-
lish made repeated charges, and the combatants on either side became in-

Aug. 10, 1691.
188 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

termingled. The fight was long and stubborn, but the English at length
broke through their foes, and forming again, attacked and finally drove
them back. After the French had retreated, Schuyler and his men con-
tinued their march, carrying away
their wounded, but losing their
knapsacks.

York, one of the most important
towns In the eastern country, was























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PETER SCHUYLER,

signal, and the savages burst into
the houses and slaughtered or captured all their inmates. Rev. Samuel
Dummer, the minister, was shot as he was mounting his horse at his own
door. His wife died in captivity. The few who eseaped made for the
fortified houses, which were not attacked by the Indians. The women
and children were allowed to go free, in return, it is said, for the release
some time before of some captive Indian children. One of the Indians
arrayed himself in the gown of the slain minister, and preached a mock
sermon to his captured parishioners. Two fortitied houses of this period
are yet standing at York. The Indian leader on this occasion was Madok-
awanda, chief of the Penobseots.

This same chief soon afterwards attacked the garrison at Wells, Maine.
With him were some I'renchmen, under Portneuf, St. Castin, and La
3rognerie. So confident were the leaders of success, that before the at-
tack they arranged the details of the division of the provisions and proper-
ty of the garrison. Convers, the English commander, occupying the
Jarger of the five fortified houses in the place, had but fifteen men with
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 189

whom to defend it. Fortunately, two sloops, with supplies and a few men,
arrived on the day before the attack. J*orewarned of the enemy’s ap-
proach, the inhabitants had fled to the forts.

The attack began fiercely, before daylight. The enemy, five hundred
strong, fired from behind breastworks of timber filled with hay. Convers,
however, had two or three twelve-pound cannon, which were
well served, the men loading and pointing them, and the
women, who brought ammunition, lighting the fuse. Many stratagems
were tried, and the sloops were several times set on fire by burning arrows ;
but by the coolness and bravery of the crews the flames were easily sub-
dued. seemed inevitable. Providentially, when close upon them, the wind drove
it on shore.

Next the besiegers made a huge shield of planks, which they fastened
to the back of a cart. La Brognerie, with twenty-six men, got behind it,
and shoved the cart towards the stranded sloops. It was within fifty feet
of them when a wheel sunk in the mud and it stuck fast. La Brognerie
tried to extricate it and was shot dead. The rest ran, and some of them
dropped under the fire of the sailors.

Becoming discouraged, the assailants then tried persuasion upon the
English commander. Instead of boldly attacking and overwhelming the
small force opposed to them, the Indians leaped, velled, and fired, and
called on the English to yield. Failing to convince Convers of the neces-

June 22, 1692.

sity for surrender, a flag was sent as a last resource, with a summons for
him to capitulate. To this Convers replied, “I want nothing but men to
come and fight me.”

“As you are so stout,” said the bearer of the flag, “why dont you
come and fight in the open field like a man, and not in a garrison like a
squaw ?” The taunt was followed by a threat: “ We will cut you as
small as tobacco before to-morrow morning.” ‘Come on,” said Convers,
not at all frightened, “I want work.”

After a two days’ siege, and the expenditure of their ammunition, the
enemy withdrew. A handful of determined men had rendered abortive
one of the most formidable expeditions that had yet been undertaken.

A war party of Abenakis, headed by Villieu, a I*rench officer, and the
priest Thury, struck the settlement at Oyster River, now Durham, about
twelve miles from Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The people July, 1004
had been assured that the war was over, and no watch was a
kept. Approaching by moonlight in numerous small bands, the slaughter
was frightful. One hundred and four persons, principally women and
190 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

children, were victims. Some escaped to the fortified houses or to the
woods. The devastation extended six or seven miles. The chureh,
strangely enough, was spared, while the other houses were destroyed. One
of the evil results of this shocking affair was that it helped the French
by puttmg an end to the negotiations for peace with their Indian allies,
which the English had nearly concluded.

Seven of the twelve fortified houses at Oyster River were successfully
defended. One of these was saved by an ingenious stratagem of its owner,
Thomas Bickford. Sending his wife and children down the river in a
boat, he went back alone to defend his dwelling. When the Indians ap-
proached, he fired on them, sometimes from one loop-hole and sometimes
from another, shonting the word of command to an imaginary garrison,
and showing himself at different places, each time with a different hat, cap,
or coat. Thus he saved both his family and home.























































































































































































































































































PEMAQUID.

The new fort at Pemaquid was attacked by a strong force of French
and Indians, under Iberville and the Baron de St. Castin. The fort, though
well manned and supplied, had no casemates to protect its de-
fenders from the explosion of bombs. Chubb, its commander,
when summoned to surrender, replied that he would not give up the fort
“if the sea were covered with French ships and the land with Indians.”
A few bomb-shells, and a notification that if the fort had to be carried by
assault the garrison would get no quarter from the Indians, caused Chubb
to sound a parley, and he surrendered on condition that he and his men
should be protected from the Indians, and sent to Boston to be exchanged.
Meanwhile, Iberville sent them to an island in the bay, out of reach of the
Indians. Chubb was arrested for cowardice, and kept awhile in Boston
jal. ;

This officer had been guilty of a foul piece of treachery towards the

Aug. 14, 1696.
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. | TOI



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































OLD FORT FREDERICK, AT FEMAQUID.

Indians. While holding a conference with some of the Penobscots respect-
ing an exchange of prisoners, he plied them with strong drink, and while
they were intoxicated ordered his soldiers to fall upon them. Several
were slain, including two chiefs. After lis release from prison he returned
to his home in Andover, but Indian vengeance followed him, and the next
year he was killed by a party of savages.

A personage of considerable importance among the Abenakis at this
time was the Baron Jean Vincent de St. Castin, a French nobleman who
had resided twenty years among them, and who had married a daughter
of the chief Madokawando. Ile had been an officer of the regiment of
Carignan, in Canada, and when disbanded remained in the country. He
established a trading-house and residence on the Penobscot, at a place
now bearing his name. Living among the Indians, acquiring their lan-
guage, and adopting their customs, he was highly regarded by them, and
was made their great chief. His influence over them made him an object
of dread to the people of New England.

Castin led two hundred Indians at the capture of Pemaquid, and was
wounded at Port Royal in 1707. Waving acquired a fortune by trade
with the natives, he finally returned to France, and there ended his days.

An ineident of this war, exhibiting the wonderful heroism of a woman,
is too remarkable to be passed over in silence.

Early in the morning of March 15, 1697, when the war which had
lasted ten years was nearly over, a party of Indians swooped suddenly
down upon Haverhill, a little village on the Merrimac, about thirty-two
miles from Boston. As the number of the band was small, its attack was
swift, and its disappearance was equally rapid.

Upon the outskirts of the town stood the house of Thomas Duston,
one of eight that were singled out for attack. Mr. Duston was at work
192 INDLAN LISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

at the time at some distanee from his house, but on discovering the ap-
proach of the Indians at once regained it, having only time to direct the
flight of his children, seven in number, the youngest being two years old,
when the Indians were upon them.

“Run for your lives!” shouted the father; and the little flock hastily
left their home and ran towards the nearest fortified house.

Mrs. Duston was ill in bed, and the husband was compelled to leave
her to her fate. Mounting his horse, he soon overtook the children about
forty rods from the house, and urged them forward.

His first thought had been to take up one of them and escape with it.
Feeling it impossible to choose one from among them, he put himself
between them and the pursuing Indians, faced about, and aiming his gun
at the savages, succeeded in keeping them at bay until the fugitives
reached a place of safety, when the Indians gave up the chase.

Meantime, some of the band had entered the house and driven the
sick woman from her bed. They then pillaged the dwelling and set it
on tire. Ill as she was, Mrs. Duston was compelled to march. Mrs. Neff,
her nurse, attempted to escape with the infant child of Mrs. Duston, but
was taken, and the infant’s brains dashed out against an apple-tree. In
this raid twenty-seven persons were killed and thirteen carried into cap-
tivity.

After travelling one hundred and fifty miles the band separated, di-
viding the captives. Mrs. Duston, Mrs. Neff, and Samuel Leonardson,
a boy, fell to the lot of an Indian family consisting of twelve persons.
The prisoners were kindly treated, but were told that on arriving at their
village they would, according to Indian custom, be stripped and com-
pelled to run the gauntlet. This news inspired Mrs. Duston with a des-
perate resolution. She determined, if possible, to escape, end consulted
with her companions as to how it could be done.

They were now on an island at the mouth of the Contoocook Itiver,
about six miles above Concord, New Ilampshire.

“Show me how you scalp an enemy,” said the boy, who in a former
captivity had gained some knowledge of their language, to one of his
captors. Without mistrnusting the motive of the inquiry, the Indian ex-
plained to him the manner in which it was done.

That night, when the Indians were sound asleep, the three captives
noiselessly arose, grasped the tomahawks of the warriors, assigned to one
another the work each was to do, and so effectively did they deal their
blows that but one of those they designed to kill eseaped, and that one
was a woman. A boy whom they did not wish to harm was also allowed
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 193

his liberty. Mrs. Duston killed her captor, and the boy slew the Indian
who had taught him how to scalp and where to deal the deadly blow.

Filling a boat with provisions and arms, they proceeded down the
Merrimac to their home, where the ten scalps and the arms they had
secured afforded ample evidence of the truth of their wonderful story.
The country was filled with amazement at the exploit of these women.
Lhe General Court gave them a reward of £50, and other gratuities were
showered upon them. A monument at the mouth of the Contoocook
Itiver perpetuates the fame of this achievement, one.of the most remark-
able in Indian history.

Exeter, New Hampshire, owed its preservation from destruction to an
accident. A party of concealed Indians were intending to fall upon it at
daybreak on the following morning. Some women and chil-
dren, in the afternoon, went into the adjacent fields to gather
strawberries. They had been warned of the danger from Indians, but
could not be prevented. Some one in the town fired alarm-guns to scare
them back. This caused a muster of the men, and the Indians, supposing

June 10, 1697.

themselves discoverec, hastily decamped.

Although a treaty of peace had been made at Ryswick between France
and England, there was no cessation of murder and devastation in New
England. At Lancaster twenty or thirty of the inhabitants,

: . oe x Sept. 20, 1697.
with their minister, were massacred. Several houses were

. January, 1699.
burned, and a number of persons were put to death in An-

dover. A treaty was at length concluded with the Indians at Pejepscot,
on the Kennebec, and the war of ten years was closed for a brief period.
During its continuance the north-eastern tribes had taken and destrcyed
all the settlements in Maine, with three exceptions, killed more than seven
hundred persons, and carried off two hundred and fifty captives, many of
whom never returned.
Very soon another war broke out between England and Irance—Queen
Anne’s War, as it was commonly called. In America it involved South
Jarolina, bordering on Spanish Florida, and New England,
which had Canada on its northern frontier. It was closed by
the peace of Utrecht in 1718. At the south it resulted in the extension
of the English boundary ; at the north its history is a chapter of horrors,
with no other result than to add largely to the sum of human misery.
Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts, held a conference at Casco with
the Abenakis, who made strong professions of friendliness.
One of the chiefs said: “The clouds fly and darken, but we
still sing with love the songs of peace. Believe my words: so far as the

May 4, 1702.

June, 1703.

13
194 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

sun is above the earth are our thoughts from war or the least rupture
between us.”

Notwithstanding all their assurances, within six weeks the whole coun-
try from Casco to Wells was in a flame, and another terrible ten years’
war begun. Parties of French and Indians spread havoc through the
feeble settlements, sparing neither old nor young. Wells, Winter Harbor,
and Spurwink were among the towns destroyed. The whole of the ex-
posed northern border of Massachusetts, from Casco Bay to the Connecti-
cut River, was watched from hiding-places offering every facility for sud-
den invasion and safe retreat. IJ*or this reason little Impression could be
made upon the Indians, as they could rarely be found. De Vaudreuil,
Governor of Canada, sueceeded in keeping the Iroquois neutral. Between
the Abenakis and the French a close friendslup already existed.

Deerfield, a palisaded village on the Connecticut, enclosing twenty
acres, had a garrison of twenty soldiers quartered in different houses. The
town was still suffering from the ravages of the previous war. A party
of two hundred French and one hundred and forty-two Indians, on snow-
shoes, under the lead of Hertel de Rouville, made their way from Canada,
reaching its vicinity on the last night of February, 1704. The drifted
snow enabled them to enter the town over the pickets early next morning,
and the sentinels having deserted their posts, the terrible warwhoop was
the first notice the doomed villagers received of their approach. The torch
was applied, and only the church and one dwelling-house escaped. Death or
captivity was the lot of the inhabitants, one hundred and twelve of whom,
including Rev. John Williams, the minister, and his family, were carried
to Canada.

Mr. Williams, who, after his return home, published a narrative of this
tragedy, tells us that he was roused from sleep by the sound of axes and
hatchets plied against his doors and windows. Leaping from his bed, he
seized his arms, and put a pistol to the breast of the first Indian who came
up; but it missed fire, and he was seized and bound. He and his family
were allowed to put on some clothing, and, “the sun about an hour high,”
they began their march, the snow being knee-deep. His wife, having re-
cently become a mother, was feeble, and on the second day she fell from
weariness, and was tomahawked.

During the march his life was often threatened. Nineteen of his fel-
low-prisoners were murdered and two starved to death by the way. ‘ And
yet,” says the narrator, “God made the Indians so to pity our children
that, though they had several of their own wounded to carry upon their
shoulders for thirty miles before they came to the river, yet they carried
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 195

our children, incapable of travelling, in their arms and upon their shoul-
ders.”

Williams’s feet were “so full of pain” he could scarce stand upon
them, but was forced to travel in snow-shoes twenty-five miles a day and
sometimes more. The party were eight weeks reaching Montreal, where
the governor took him from the Indians and treated him kindly. After a
captivity of two years and a half he was exchanged, and with fifty-seven
other prisoners, two of whom were his children, he returned home.

Eunice, his youngest daughter, was adopted by the Indians, who re-
fused to ransom her, and she became the wife of a Caughnawaga chief.
Long afterwards she visited her friends in Deerfield in her Indian dress,
and, notwithstanding a day of fasting and prayer by the whole village for
her deliverance, she returned to her Indian home and her Mohawk chil-
dren.





































































































































OLD CHURCH IN ST. REGIS.

On Lake St. Louis, near Montreal, the Indian village of Caughnawaga
(St. Regis), with its wretched log-houses, clusters round a fine stone church
with a glittering tin roof. The early Jesuits induced the Indians to collect
furs, which they sent to France in exchange for a churech-bell. The return
ship was captured by the English, and the bell was sent to Deerfield, Mas-
sachusetts.

When the Canghnawagas heard where their bell had gone, they deter-
196 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

mined to obtain possession of it. They took part in Hertel’s expedition,
on condition that Deerfield should be the first place attacked. When in
the midst of the massacre the tones of the bell sounded, they knelt in
superstitious awe. Then, with shouts of victory, they bore it on poles
through the forests, while it tolled with doleful sound. Exhausted with
the terrible mareh in midwinter, they buried it at Burlington, Vermont.
Next summer they dug it up, and it was borne into their village in tri-
umph between two white oxen.

One house in Deerfield escaped destruction and stood until within
a few years, the marks of the Indian bullets being still visible. It was
courageously defended by seven men, who fired from the windows upon
the enemy, the women with them running bullets and loading their guns.
Several times the enemy tried to set fire to the house, but failed. Cap-
tain Stoddard, watching his opportunity, sprang from a window and made
his way to Hatfield, giving the alarm. Soon the settlers were in pursuit,
and gave De Rouville battle, but were forced to retreat.

Massachusetts and New Hampshire now offered a reward of £20 for
every Indian captured, and £40 for each scalp. Evidently they thought
one dead Indian worth two living ones. The old Indian
fighter Church, prominent thirty years before in Philip’s war,
at the head of five hundred and fifty men, carried destruction through
all the French settlements east of the Penobscot, but effected nothing of
consequence.

1704,

An attack on a garrison-house at Oyster River was repelled in a sin-
Ane 9f, 1106. gular manner. It happened at the moment to be oecupied
° only by women. “They put on hats, letting their hair hang
down, and fired so briskly that they struck a terror into the enemy, and
they withdrew.”

A formidable inroad upon the English settlements was planned by the
French at Montreal in 1708, who fixed upon Lake Winnipiseogee as the
place of rendezvous for their Indian allies. A few only came at the
appointed time. The expedition was led by Des Chaillons,
who attacked Haverhill, Massachusetts, in the night, burned
the fort and many dwellings, and killed or captured about one hundred
persons, including Rev. Benjamin Rolfe, the minister, his wite and child.
A few brave men, led by Samuel Ayer, rallied a short distance from the
town, formed an ambush, and by a vigorous attack succeeded in rescuing
a number of the prisoners and inflicted some loss on the enemy. Ayer
lost his life in this daring attempt.

Haverhill was at this time a cluster of thirty cottages and log cabins

Aug, 29, 1708.
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GARRISON-HOUSE AT OYSTER RIVER
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 199

near the Merrimac. In its centre stood the new meeting-honse. On the
north ‘the unbroken wilderness stretched far away to the White Moun-
tains.

The Indian leader on this oceasion was Assacambuit. Ie had visited
TFranee in 1706, and having been knighted by Louis ALTY., on his return
wore the insignia of lus rank upon lis breast. JTe was also presented
with a sword for his services. iA famous club which he always carried
had on it at this tine ninety-eight notches, denoting the number of Eng-
lish he had slain.

It was estimated that one-third of the English population of Maine
had fallen in this disastrous war. Some families had become extinet,
others mourned the loss or eaptivity of parents, clildren, or husbands.
The country was reduced to poverty, trade was ruined, houses burned,
and fields devastated. A hundred miles of sea-coast, lately the scene of
prosperity, was now a complete desert. There was one year of this war
when one-fifth part of all capable of bearing arms were in active service.
No wonder if the cruelties of the savage enemy inspired our fathers with
a deep hatred of the French missionaries who instigated them, and even
made them desire the extermination of the natives.

The treaty of Utrecht surrendered to England Acadia (New Bruns-
wick and Nova Scotia). New England fishermen and traders at once
pushed their enterprises over the ceded territory, revived the
villages that had been desolated by the war, and laid on the
east bank of the Kennebee the foundations of new settlements, and pro-
tected them by forts.

But the tribe of Abenakis inhabiting this region had prior claims
of ownership, which they resolved not to abandon. ‘I have my land,”
said their chief, “where the Great Spirit placed me, and while one of
my tribe remains I shall fight to preserve it.’ Several chiefs had been
treacherously seized by the New England government and kept as host-
ages. Though their ransom had been paid, they had not been set free.
The Abenakis demanded that their territory should be evacuated and their
chiefs liberated, or war would follow. This tribe formed the barrier of
Canada against New England, as did the Iroquois that of New York
against Canada.

The answer to this demand was the seizure of the young Baron St.
Castin, who, besides holding a French commission, was an Indian chief,
and an expedition against Norridgewock, a village of the Abenakis, on
the banks of the MKennebee, and the head-quarters of hostile Indians.

April 11, 17138.
200 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Here dwelt Sebastian Rasle, a French priest, who was thought by the
English to be the instigator of the depredations of these Indians whose
war parties prowled ceaselessly aiong the frontier, murdering and captur-
ing the defenceless settlers and destroying their homes.

Rasle had erected a church in Norridgewock, and had adorned its
walls with paintings from his own hand. Forty young savages had been
trained by him, who, in ecassock and surplice, assisted in the service and
chanted the hymns of the church, and their public processions attracted
great numbers of the red men. He was kind to them, and they revered
him.

A reward was offered for the head of Iasle by the Massachusetts
government, and two unsuccessful expeditions were sent to capture him.
No peace could be had until “this incendiary of mischief,” for so he was
regarded by the New England people, was “ wiped out.”

This was at length accomplished by a party led by Colonel Moulton,
who succeeded in reaching Norridgewock without being discovered. Di-
_,.,, Yiding his force, one party proceeded directly to the village,
ans tee” while the other intercepted such as attempted flight. Ilis men
were already among the wigwams, when an Indian came out of one of
them and gave the alarm. The old men, women, and children fled. The
warriors, sixty in number, tried to make a stand. The English held their
fire until the Indians had discharged their guns in a hurried and ineffective
volley, and then fired with fatal effect. After their second cischarge the
Indians fled to the river, which was about sixty fect wide. Some were
shot while endeavoring to swim across.

Rasle tried to shield his flock, and sueceeded in drawing the fury of the
assailants upon himself. Pierced with bullets, he fell dead near the cross
in the centre of the village where he had labored thirty-seven years. His
church was plundered and burned to the ground, and a violent end was thus
put to Jesuit missions and French influence in New England. Among the
dead were Mogg and Bomazeen, two prominent chiefs of the Abenakis.

“Of worthy Captain Lovewell I now propose to sing,
How valiantly he served his country and his king.”
Old Song.

At this time the bounty for Indian scalps was £100. One of the most
successful scalp-hunters of the day was John Lovewell, of Dunstabie.
His father, who was one of Cromwell’s soldiers, emigrated to
that place, and died there, it is said, at the great age of one
hundred and twenty years. In March, 1725, Lovewell brought in ten

1725
FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS. 201

scalps to the treasurer in Boston, received his money, and was highly ap-
plauded for his success.

The business was profitable, and Lovewell easily enlisted a party for
an expedition against the tribe of Pequawkets. Their Village lay at the
southern base of the White Mountains, on the Saco River, near what is
now Fryeburg, Maine. Their chief, Paugus, was well known in the white
settlements, but the tribe had joined with the hostile Abenakis, and was
supplied with powder and ball by the French at Montreal.

It was a lovely morning in spring when Lovewell found himself in
close proximity to the Indian village. Leaving their packs, his men moved
cautiously forward. Suddenly they came upon an Indian, who
fired, mortally wounding Lovewell, and was himself shot by
Ensign Wyman. Had the English been prudent, they would now have
made a hasty retreat, since their attempted surprise had failed, and they
themselves had been discovered by a much more numerous enemy, but
they were brave men, and no doubt hoped to win the large reward prom-
ised them, so they kept on.

On seeking for their packs, they found that the Indians had secured
them. This was an important advantage to the red men, as it told them
just how many, or rather how few, white men there were, and inspired
them with confidence. Lovewell had passed their village, and they had
followed, intercepting his retreat, and lad placed themselves in ambush.
When discovered, they had nearly surrounded his small party. All at
once eighty Indians, yelling and whooping like demons, confronted them.

The Indians advanced without firing, as if unwilling to begin the fight,
and hoping, by their great superiority of numbers, that the English would
yield without a battle. They thus threw away their chance for the first
fire. They then held up ropes, which they had provided for securing

May 8.

captives.

“You shall have quarter,” said the Indians.

“ At the muzzles of our guns,” was the reply of the English, as they
rushed upon the enemy, firing as they advanced, and, killing several, drove
them some reds. But the warriors soon rallied, and obliged the English
in their turn to give ground, leaving nine dead and three wounded when
the fight began —twelve men out of the thirty-four with which they
started.

“ Retreat to the pond !” shouted Wyman, who had succeeded Lovewell
in command, to his men. They did so, and thus were protected on that
side. Sheltering themselves as well as they could behind trees, the little
band resolved to fight to the last. The contest was long and obstinate.
202 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

The Indians kept up all kinds of hideous noises, sometimes howling like
wolves, at others barking like dogs—the English frequently shouting and
huzzaing.

Lhe medicineman of the tribe held a powwow, calling on the spirits
for aid, but Wyman pnt an end to his mummery somewhat abruptly by
sending a bullet through him. Finally, Paugus, their chief, fell; they lost
heart, and when night came they stole away. The English had lost their
captain, Lieutenant Robbins, and Chaplain Frye, and four were so badly
wounded that they could not be remeved. The survivors, sixteen in num-
ber, only nine of whom were unwounded, faint and weary, marched twenty
miles that night to Ossipee, only to find the place abandoned by the men
lett there in charge of the supplies they so greatly needed. They were
three days reaching homie, which they at length succeeded in doing after
severe toil and privation.

Fradition says that one of the rangers, while at the pond, cleaning his
gun, which had become foul, discovered Paugus at a little distance sim-
larly engaged. Both loaded their pieces, and dropped their ramrods upon
the ground at the same moment, Paugus exclaiming,

“Me kill you quick !”

“Maybe not,” was the ranger’s cool reply. Those were the days of
flintlocks, and while the Indian was priming his gun from his powder-
horn, a precious moment was gained by the ranger, who primed his by a
smart blow of the butt on the ground. Just as the chief raised his gun to
take aim, he received his adversary’s bullet, and fell dead.

One of the old ballads on “ Lovewell’s Hight,” familiar to the past gen-
eration, refers to Wyman as the slayer of Paugus. Another, from whieh
i quote, awards the honor to a different man. ITere is a stanza—

“Twas Paugus led the Pequawket tribe ;
As runs the fox, would Paugus run ;
As howls the wild wolf would he howl
A huge bear-skin had Paugus on,
But Chamberlain of Dunstable,
One whom a savage ne’er shall slay,
Met Paugus by the water-side
And shot him dead upon that day.”

Of the slain chaplain, Jonathan Prye of Andover, the old song says—

‘“A man was he of comely form,
Polished and brave, well learned and kind;
Old Harvard’s classic halls he left,
Far in the wild a grave to find.”
TFRENCIT AND INDIAN WARS. 203°

f

The escape of one of the men wounded in this fight was almost miracu-
lous. Solomon Ixeyes, having been three times wounded, hid himself so
that he might die where the Indians could not tind him. As he crawled
along the shore of the pond, some distance from the scene of action, he
found a canoe into which he rolled himself, and was drifted away by the
wind. To lis great astonishment he was cast ashore at no great distance
from the fort at Ossipee, which he succeeded in reaching. There he
found several of his companions, and, gaining strength, returned home
with them. The little lake which was the scene of the action is now
‘“ulled Lovewell’s Pond.

We turn onee more to the old ballad—

“With footsteps slow shall travellers go
Where Lovewell’s Pond shines clear and bright,
And mark the place where those were laid
Who fell in Lovewell’s bloody fight.”

In November following this occurrence four Abenaki chiefs made a
treaty at Boston, promising to maintain peace and to deliver up their
prisoners. The treaty was faithfully kept, and the eastern colonies had a
season of rest from the horrors of Indian warfare. The remainder of the
Pequawkets, together with the Androscoggins, soon afterwards withdrew
to the sources of the Connecticut Iiver, and finally settled in Canada.

The war of the Austrian Suecession not only set all Europe aflame,
but it also again put in motion the Indian tomahawk and sealping-knife to
do their terrible work upon the outlying settlements of New
Ingland. The news reached Canada much sooner than New
England, where the arrival at Boston of prisoners captured by the I’rench
at Casco was the first intimation that war had begun. Lostilities in the

1744-48,

East, the commencement of a long catalogue of horrors, began
in the summer near Fort George, now Thomaston, Maine. In
America the principal event of the war was the capture by New England

June 17, 1745.

troops of the strong fortress of Louisburg.

Number Four, now Charlestown, New Hampshire, was the most promi-
nent and the most exposed of the posts in northern New England, as
it stood directly in the way of Indian inroads to the settle-
ments below. It had been several times attacked, but always
without success. On one occasion Captain Stevens, its commander, with
fifty men armed as usual, was in the field at work. Ile sent his dogs into
the woods as scouts. They soon came back growling, and with their hair

June 19, 1746.
204 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

onend. The woods were full of Indians. One of his men catching sight
of one fired on him, and the battle begun. Stevens’s men took to the
trees. They drove the Indians into a swamp, after killing twelve of them,
and put the others to flight. Hatchets and blankets were let behind in
their haste. Stevens had seven men wounded.

Another and more determined effort was made for its capture in the
following year by a force of more than four hundred French and Indians.
Every effort that Indian subtlety and French skill could de-
vise proved fruitless against its brave defenders, and after a
three days’ siege they withdrew discomfited. In the following letter to
Governor Shirley, Stevens in his own way describes the affair. He Says:

“Our dogs being very much dis-
turbed, which gave us reason to think
the enemy was about, we did not open
the gate at the usual time; but one of

April 4, 1747.

our men ventured out privately to set
on the dogs about nine o’clock in the
morning, and when about twenty rods
from the fort fired off his gun, where-
upon the enemy, being within a few
rods, rose from their cover and fired;
but throngh the goodness of God the
man got into the fort with only a slight
wound.

“They then attacked us on all sides.
The wind being high, and everything exceedingly dry, they set fire to the
fences, and also to a log-house about forty rods distant, so that within a
few minutes we were entirely surrounded with fire—all which was per-
formed with the most hideous shouting and firing from all quarters,
which they continued in a very terrible manner until the next. day, at
ten o'clock at night, without intermission, during which time we had no
opportunity either to eat or sleep. I had trenches dug from under the
fort, about a yard outward in several places, at so near a distance to each
other as by throwing water we might put out the fire.

“ But notwithstanding all their shoutings and threatenings our men
seemed not in the least daunted, but fought with great resolution, which
doubtless gave the enemy reason to think we had determined to stand it
out to the last. The enemy had provided themselves with a sort of forti-
fication which they had determined to push before them, and bring fuel
to the side of the fort in order to burn it; but instead of performing what



GOVERNOR SHIRLEY.


FRENCIL AND INDIAN WARS. 205

they had threatened, they called to us, and asked a cessation of arms until
sunrise next morning, at which time they would come to a parley. Ac-
cordingly, the French general, Debeline, came, with about sixty of his
men, with a flag of truce, and stuck it down within about twenty rods
of the fort.

“Upon our men going to meet the monsieur, he proposed that in ease
we would immediately resign up the fort we should have all our lives, and
liberty to put on all the clothes we had; and also a sufficient quantity of
provisions to carry us to Montreal; and we might bind up our provisions
and blankets, lay down our arms, and march out of the fort. He desired
that the captain of the fort would meet him half-way, and give an answer
to the above proposal, which I did; but without waiting to hear it, he
went on to say that what had been vromised he was ready to perform,
but upon refusal he would immediately set the fort on fire, and run over
the top, for he had seven hundred men with him; and if we made any
further resistance, or should happen to kill one Indian, we might all ex-
pect to be put to the sword.

“+The fort, said Debeline, ‘I am resolved to have or die; now do
what you please, for I am as ready to have you fight as give it up.’

“TI told the general that in case of extremity his proposal would do,
but, inasmuch as [ was sent here by the captain-general to defend this
fort, it would not be consistent with my orders to give it up unless I was
better satisfied that he was able to perform what he had threatened; and,
furthermore, I told him that it was poor encouragement to resign into the
hands of an enemy, that upon one of their number being killed they
would put all to the sword, when it was probable that we had killed some
of them already.

“*Well, said he, ‘go into the fort and see whether vour men dare
fight any more or not, and give me an answer quick, for my men want
to be fighting.’

“Whereupon I came into the fort and called the men together, and
informed them what the French officer said, and then put it to vote which
they chose, either to fight or resign, and they voted to a man to stand it
out as long as they had life. I returned this answer, upon which the
cnemy gave a shout, and then fired, and so continued firing and shouting
until daylight next morning.

“ About noon they ealled to us and said, ‘ Good-morning,’ and desired
another parley. Two Indians came within about two rods of the fort
and stuek down their flag, proposing that if I would send them prove
sions they would leave and not fight any more. I answered that if they
206 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

would send in a captive for every five bushels of corn I would supply
them. After this they withdrew, and we heard no more of them. In
all this time we had scarce opportunity to eat or sleep. There were but
thirty men in the fort, but two of whom were wounded, and those
slightly.” _— |

This letter exhibits the modesty of Stevens, which is in striking con-
trast with the braggadocio of the French commander.

Phineas Stevens, the hero of Number F our, was a native of Sudbury,
Massachusetts. At the age of sixteen he, with three younger brothers, was
taken by the Indians, who slew two of them, and were about to kill the
youngest, then but four years of age. Phineas succeeded, however, in
inaking the savages understand that if they would spare the life of his
little brother he would carry him on his back. He conveyed him in this
manner all the way to Canada, whence they were eventually returned.
In 1746, when Number Four was abandoned by its inhabitants, he was
ordered to occupy the fort, a small structure of timber with a garrison of
thirty men. For his gallant defence of the fort he was presented with an
elegant silver-hilted sword by Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, for whom
Number Four was afterwards named Charlestown,

In January, 1747, Colonel Arthur N oble, with seven hundred men,
undertook to drive the French and Indians out of Nova Scotia. While
on the way. he was surprised in his camp by a superior foree, and him-
self, four of his principal officers, and seventy men were killed, and the
remainder made prisoners.

A severe conflict oceurred in the following year, near Number F our,
between a party of forty men, under Captain Hobbs, and a much larger
body of Indians who had waylaid them. N otwithstanding the
sinallness of his force, Ilobbs stood his ground, giving the en-
cmy @ warm reception. For four hours the conflict continued, when, fort-
unately, the English captain got a shot at their leader, whom he either
killed or badly wounded, as the Tndijans immediately afterwards drew off.
In this well-fought contest the Indian loss exceeded that of the whites.

Although the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed in October, 1748,
it was not formally proclaimed in Boston until six months after, so slow

Oct. td tray, W88 the means of communication between distant points at

that time. War parties from Canada continued to hover on

the border as before, committing depredations, but early in 1749 the In-

dians met in council and agreed to make peaceful overtures, and a tr
was finally concluded at Falmouth.

June 26, 1748,

eaty
THE “OLD FRENCIL WAR” (1755-1760). 207

IX.
THE “OLD FRENCIL WAR” (1755-1760).

‘i treaties of Utrecht and of Aix-la-Chapelle had left the boundaries

of the English and French possessions in North America wholly un-
defined. Vast regions were claimed by both countries, but I-rance, both
by exploration and occupation, had been beforehand with her rival. The
trench claimed the immense territory west of the Alleghanies by the right
of discovery; the English also claimed it by virtue of a treaty with the
Iroquois. As the latter never owned it, and as all the consideration paid
was a little bad whiskey, their claim was of even less consequence than
that of the French.

Between these rival claimants for lis Jands, the Indian, their real
owner, was entirely overlooked. ‘ You and the French,” said one of them
to an Englishman, ‘fare like the two edges of a pair of shears, and we are
the cloth which is eut to pieces between them.” Another of the puzzled
natives, secing that the I‘rench claimed all on one side of the Olio, and
the English all on the other side, in his amazement inquired, “ Where
then are the lands of the Indian?’ Between their “ fathers,” the French,

ges were ub ceremoniou sly

and their “brothers,” the English, the poor sava
“shared” out of the whole country.

As yet there was not a single English settlement in all this region.
Delawares, Shawnees, Mingoes, and a few Iroquois were found about the
Ohio and its branches. With these a Incrative traffic was carried on by
Pennsylvania traders, who exchanged blankets, gaudy-colored cloth, trin-
kets, powder, shot, and rum for valuable furs and peltry. To participate in
this trade, and to gain a foothold in this desirable region, the Ohio Com:
pany was formed in 1749, and surveys and settlements begun.

A skilfully distributed series of posts upon the lakes and streams be-
tween her settlements in the valley of the St. Lawrence and the mouth of
the Mississippi, secured the ascendency of France in the inte-
rior of the country, and barred the way to English settlement.
Missions and trading-houses were scattered at points favorable to trade and

qe

1750.
208 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

navigation, and Fort Frontenac, at the head of the St. Lawrence, Fort
Irederick, at Crown Point, and a fort at Niagara covered the Canadian
and menaced the English frontier.

At Detroit the passage from Lake Erie to the north was guarded, and
at St. Mary’s hostile access to Lake Superior was barred. Michilimackinae
secured the mouth of Lake Michigan, forts at Green Bay and St. Joseph
protected the two routes to the Mississippi by the rivers Wisconsin and
Illinois, while those on the Wabash and the Maumee gave France the con-
trol of trade from Lake Erie to Ohio. French settlements were found at
Kaskaskia and Cahokia, in Illinois, and a few small stockades were seen on
the Mississippi.

France had labored long and diligently to conciliate the Indians. Tfer
agents had lived among them, studying their language, adopting their cus-
toms, flattering their prejudices, and warning them against the English.
When a party of chiefs visited a French fort, they were received with the
firing of cannon and rolling of drums, were entertained at the tables of the
officers, and presented with decorations, medals, and uniforms. Many of
the French took to themselves Indian wives. From these unions sprung
a race of half-breeds, who were of great service to the French.

Perceiving that their Indian trade was about to be wrested from
them, and their communication between Canada and Louisiana broken,
the French, in the spring of 1753, crossed Lake Erie and fortified Presque
Isle (now Erie, Pennsylvania). Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, at once
sent a message to the intruders, requiring them to remove from British
territory.

Dinwiddie’s messenger was George Washington, then only twenty-one
years of age, but already adjutant-general of the Virginia militia, As a
surveyor he had learned something of frontier life and of the y rays of the
Indians.

Among the many difficulties that the young envoy had to contend
with while in the performance of his mission, there was one, he tells us,
that caused him more anxiety than all the rest. Tanacharison, ot the half-
king, chief sachem of the Mingo-Iroquois, was friendly to the English, and
with two other chiefs voluntarily accompanied Washington to the French
commandant’s quarters at Fort Le Beuf, on French Creck (now Waterford,
Pennsylvania).

ITere every blandishment and every artifice was practised upon these
chiefs by the French ofticers to gain them over. Rum was not the least of
these, and, the business of the mission accomplished, delay after delay took
place in spite of Washington’s frequent remonstrances, Gifts were also
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 209

made to the chiefs, and at the last moment a present of guns was offered
as an inducement for them to remain. Another precious day was lost, but
next morning, when they had received their guns and were being plied
with liquor, Washington reminded the half-king that his royal word was
pledged to depart, and pressed him so closely that, exerting unwonted reso-

lution and self-control, the chief turned his back upon the seductive fluid
and embarked.



WASHINGTON AS A VIRGINIA COLONEL.

While returning from this delicate and difficult mission, Washington
had several narrow escapes. Once his treacherous Indian guide suddenly
turned round, when about fifteen paces ahead, levelled his gun, and fired
at, but missed him. Pursuing and overtaking the savage, Gist, his com-
panion, would have put him to death, but Washington humanely prevented
him. They then let him go, taking the precaution, however, to travel all

that night to remove from so dangerous a locality.
14
210 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

When they reached the Alleghany River, they constructed a raft, and
endeavored t6 cross the stream by propelling it with setting-poles. Soon
the raft became jammed between cakes of floating ice, and they were in
imminent peril. Washington, bearing his whole force against the pole,
endeavored to stay the raft, but the rapid current jerked him into deep
water, and he only saved himself from being swept away and drowned by
catching hold of the raft. This they were cbliged to abandon, and passed
the night on an island, exposed to extreme cold. The hands and fect
of Mr. Gist were frozen, but next morning they succeeded in passing
over the ice, and before night were in comfortable quarters.

Before reaching Williamsburg, where he delivered to Governor Din-
widdie the reply of the French commandant declining to evacuate his
post, Washington found an opportunity for the exercise of his talent for
diplomacy.

At the mouth of the Youghiogheny River dwelt a female sachem,
Queen Aliquippa, whose sovereign dignity had been agerieved because
the party, while on their way to the Ohio, had neglected to pay their re-
spects to her. Aware of the importance of concilating the Indians at
this critical period, Washington resolved to pay a ceremonious visit to this
native princess. er anger was readily appeased by the present of his old

ratch-coat, and her good graces were completely secured by a bottle of
rum, which, he intimates, “appeared to be peculiarly acceptable to her
majesty.”

Karly in the following year Fort Duquesne was erected by the French,
at the confluence of the Monongahela and the Alleghany, where Pitts-
burg now stands. After a brief campaign for its recovery,
the Virginia troops under Washington were obliged to with-
draw from the disputed territory, and leave the French in full possession.
At the close of the year, in the whole Mississippi valley no other standard
floated but that of France.

At the Coneress held at Albany during this year, memorable for the
plan of Benjamin Franklin for the union of the colonies, deputies from
the Six Nations were present. There was much dissatisfaction among them,
and the Indians boldly reproached the English with their inaction and the
slowness of their preparations. “Look at the French,” said a Mohawk
chief. “They are men, they are fortifying everywhere ; it is but one step
from Canada hither, and they may easily come and turn you out-of-doors.”

War having been determined upon, the French were to be attacked on
all sides at once. Three armies raised in the provinces were to advance
upon Acadia, Crown Point, and N lagara, while General Braddock, com-

1754,
211

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“OLD FRENCH WAR” (1

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This event is the subject of Longfellow’s beautiful poem,

es Evangeline.”
212 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Braddock, who was to lead the expedition against Fort Duquesne, was
not a fortunate selection. Though brave, he was arrogant, obstinate, and
a bigot to military rules, and knew nothing of Indian warfare. He de-
spised the colonial troops, because they had to some extent adopted the
Indian mode of fighting. Worse than all, he could learn nothing.

At Fredericktown, where he halted for carriages, Benjamin Franklin,
who was a daily guest at the general’s table, mentioned that the Indians
were dexterous in planning and executing ambuscades, and that during his
march his long, slender line would be exposed to flank attacks and be cut
like a thread, the pieces of which would be too far apart to support each
other. “Te smiled at my ignorance,” says Franklin, “and replied,
‘The savages may be formidable to your raw American militia; upon the
king’s regular and disciplined troops it is impossible they should make
any impression. After taking Fort Duquesne I am to proceed to N lagara,
and, having taken that, to Frontenac. Duquesne can hardly detain me
above three or four days, and then I see nothing that can obstruct my
march to Niagara.’” With such blind confidence and fatal prejudice did
Braddock delude himself throughout this eventful expedition.

Braddock’s forces numbered about two thousand, one-half of whom
were provincials. Two companies of these from New York were under
Captain Horatio Gates, after-
wards the conqueror of Bur-
goyne at Saratoga. Here also
was the gallant IIugh Mercer,
who afterwards fell gloriously
at Princeton, and one of the
wagons was owned and driven
by Daniel Morgan, the famous
leader of the rifle regiment dur-
ing the Revolutionary War, and
the victor at the Cowpens.

Hewing their way through
\ the wilderness with great difh-
culty, the advanced division of
i one thousand two hundred men
iy ae = were within seven
* miles of Fort Du-
quesne at noon on the 9th of
July. Washington, who was serving as an aide-de-camp to Braddock,
often afterwards said, that “the finest spectacle he had ever beheld was







PE,



1755.

HORATIO GATES,
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 213

the display of the British troops on
this eventful morning.” They were
in full uniform and marched with
bayonets fixed, colors. flying, and
drums and fifes beating and playing,
in the most perfect order, not dreain-
ing of any obstacle to an easy con-
quest.









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A detachment of three hundred
and fifty men, under Lieutenant-col-
onel Thomas Gage, afterwards con-
spicuous as the British commander-
in-chief at Boston, at the beginning
of the Revolution, attended by a (hy
working party of two hundred and. DANIEL MORGAN.
fifty, advanced cautiously towards
the fort. There were no scouts or rangers in the advance, or on the
flanks, to beat up the woods and ravines, but the army marched “as if
in review in St. James’s Park.”

Contreeeur, the I'rench commandant, informed of the approach of
Braddock with an overwhelming force, was about to abandon the fort,
when Captain de Beaujen proposed to head a party of French and Indi-
ans, and waylay the English while on the march. The plan was adopted,
and Beaujeu’s party posted themselves in the woods and ravines in Brad-
dock’s line of march towards the fort.

It was one o’clock when Gage, with his advance guard, reached this
locality. Stddenly a heavy volley was poured into his ranks from the
dense woods in his front. No enemy was to be seen, but the soldiers
were more dismayed by the yells than by the rifles of the concealed sav-
ages. They fired in return, but at random, while the enemy, from behind
trees and rocks and thickets, kept up their rapid and destructive volleys.
Beaujeu, the French leader, was killed at the first return fire.

Braddock hastened to'the relief of Gage, but his panic-stricken soldiers
fell back in confusion upon the artillery, huddling together in the road,
like a flock of sheep, and communicated their fright to the whole army.
They fled in terror across the river, throwing away their arms, and did not
stop till they reached Philadelphia. The general tried in vain to rally his
troops. Ilimself and officers were in the thickest of the fight, and exhibited
indomitable courage. Washington ventured to suggest the Indian mode
of warfare, each man firing for himself without orders, but Braddock would
214 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

not listen to him. For three hours he tried to form lis men in reoular

columns and platoons, while his concealed enemy, with sure aim, was slay-
ing his brave soldiers by scores.

At length he received a wound which
disabled him, and terminated his life three days afterwards.



































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BRADDOCK’S DEFEAT.

“Who would have thonght it?” was the dyine
that night. Just before le expired he again brol
kept, with the remark, |
another time.”

general's ejaculation
oke the silence he had
66 .
We shall better know how to deal with them
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 215

The slaughter of officers was terrible. Out of eighty-six, sixty-three
were killed and wounded. Secretary Shirley and Sir Peter Halket were
killed—Colonels Burton, St. Clair, and Orne, Lieutenant-colonel Gage,
Major Sparks, and Brigade-major Halket wounded. Of the privates,
seven hundred and fourteen were killed and wounded. The loss of the
enemy was trifling.

Every mounted officer except Washington was slain before Braddock
fell, and the whole duty of distributing orders devolved upon the youth-
ful colonel. Contrary to orders, his Virginians fought in their own way,
and thus saved the remnant of the army.

This is a memorable event in our history. It has been characterized
“as the most extraordinary victory ever gained, and the farthest flight ever
made.” “It gave the Americans,” says Franklin, “the first suspicion
that their exalted ideas of the prowess of British regular troops had not
been well founded.” That opinion, once received as gospel throughout
the provinces, had received a fatal blow.

This defeat was the signal for the Western Indians to assail the exposed
settlements; and the frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia was soon a
scene of bloody devastation. Most of the Indians engaged im these ravages
were Delawares and Shawnees, whom the Irench had at last gained over.
The old half-king refused to listen to them; “the defeat,” said he, ‘* was
due to the pride and ignorance of that great general that came froin Eng-
land. Ife is now dead, but he was a bad man when he was alive. Le
looked upon us as dogs, and would never hear anything that we said to
him. We often tried to advise him, and tell him of the danger he was in
with his soldiers, but he never appeared pleased with us, and that was the
reason a great many of our warriors left him.”

Braddock’s defeat alarmed the whole country and paralyzed the ex-
pedition against Niagara. General Johnson, however, was sent against
Crown Point with three thousand four hundred men, mostly New Eng-
landers.

William Johnson was a young Irishman, who came to America in
1734, to take charge of a large tract of land in the Mohawk Valley, be-
longing to his uncle, Sir Peter Warren. Embarking in the fur trade, he
learned the Indian language, and acquired so much influence over them
by his native talent that, in 1754, the British Government made him its
Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the colonies. Appreciating the In-
dian character, he paid the utmost deference to them, received their del-
egations with great ceremony, listened to them patiently, answered them
carefully, and made them liberal and judicious presents. ls influence

’
216

over the Iroquois enabled him to hold
them to the English interest in spite
of the efforts of the French and the
other Indian nations. The Mohawks
even adopted him into their tribe and
made him a sachem. Johnson Iall,
his residence, a well-constructed build-
ing of wood and stone, is still stand-
ing at Johnstown, New York.

Soon after Johnson entered upon
his duties as superintendent, he re-
ceived from England some richly-em-
broidered suits of clothes. The Mo-
hawk chief, Hendrick, was present
when they were received, and took
such a faney to them that he told
Johnson, not long afterwards, that he
had dreamed that Johnson liad given
him one of his new suits.

INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.






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SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON.

Johnson could not refuse, and Hendrick took

the embroidered scarlet uniform to show to his countrymen.
Johnson’s turn came next. Ie was too shrewd to neglect a good
opportunity, and meeting the sachem one day he told him that he, too, had

dreamed a dream.

Hendrick desired to know what it was.

The English-





































































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THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 217

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man then told him that he had dreamed that Hendrick presented him
with a certain tract of land, which he described—a tract containing five
hundred acres of the most valuable land in the Mohawk valley. “It is
yours,” said the chief, shaking his head, “ but I will never dream with you
again.”

After building Fort Edward, and opening a road from the Hudson to
Lake George, Johnson remained a long time inactive on its southern shore,
fancying himself in perfect security, and neglecting to fortify his camp.
From this state of torpor he was suddenly and rudely aroused by the
tidings that a French army had landed
at South Bay, and, rapidly advancing in
his rear, threatened Fort Edward. The
French were commanded by Baron Dies-
kau, an old veteran, a pupil of the cele-
brated soldier, Marshal Saxe. He had
with him two hundred French regulars,
six hundred Canadians, and six hundred
Indians.

‘* Boldness wins” was Dieskau’s mot-
to. Iiis plan was to capture Fort Ed-
ward and then to fall upon Albany.
There was only one obstacle to the suc-
cess of this excellent plan, but that was
sufficient for its defeat. The Indians |
were afraid of cannon, and did not like Heo
to attack forts, so they urged the French
leader to march against Johnson instead, and he was reluctantly per-
suaded to change his plan.

Johnson saw that something must be done without delay. One thou-
sand men were immediately sent, under Colonel Ephraim Willams, to
relieve Fort Edward. Two hundred warriors of the Six Nations
went also, led by the gray-haired sachem Hendrick. Before
leaving Albany, Williams made a will, by which he left the bequest to
found the free-school that is now Williams College. |

It was at first proposed to send a smaller force, but Hendrick’s opinion
being asked, he shrewdly replied, “If they are to fight, they are too few,
if they are to be killed, they are too many.” To the plan of separating
them into three parties his reply was equally convincing. Taking three
sticks, he said, “ Put them together and you cannot break them; take
them one by one and you ean break them easily.”



Sept. 8, 1755.
218 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Hendrick was then sixty-five years old; his hair was white, and he was
regarded by his warriors with the deepest veneration. Before marching,
he mounted a gun-carriage and harangued his warriors in a strain of pow-
erful and effective eloquence. One who heard it said, that althongh he
did not understand a word of the language, such was the animation of the
speaker, the fire of his eye, the force of his gestures, the strength of his
expressions, the apparent propriety of the inflections of his voice, and
the naturalness of his whole manner, that he himself was more deeply
affected by this speech than with any other he had ever heard.

Advised by his scouts of the march of this detachment, Dieskau placed
his men in ambush at Rocky Brook, four miles from Johnson’s camp.
There was a swamp on one side of the road, and a low ridge on the other ;
in addition to these advantages, tall trees and thick underbrush made it an
excellent place for an ambnsh.

Straight into the trap between the lines of the concealed enemy marched
the Mohawks, their chief, Hendrick, on horseback at their head. An Indian
suddenly sprang in front of him. “Whence come you?” he asked. “From
the Mohawks,” answered Hendrick ; “whence come you?” “ From Mont-
real,” was the reply, and instantly a shot was fired, contrary to the orders
of Dieskau, who told his men to keep quiet until the English were com-
pletely within the French lines. A heavy fire in front and on both flanks
was then poured upon the advancing troops with fatal effect. Hendrick
and Colonel Williams fell, and the Mohawks fled. Under the skilful
leadership of Lieutenant-colonel Whiting, the New England militia fought
bravely and retreated in good order.

Meantime the noise of the battle was heard at Johnson’s camp, and the
skilful woodsmen of New England rapidly felled trees which, with the
wagons and heavy baggage, formed a hasty breastwork. (A few cannon
were hauled from the shore of the lake and quickly put in position. A
reinforcement of three hundred men was sent to help the retreating troops,
and a stand was made at a little sheet of water since called Bloody Brook.
Among the French who fell here was the Chevalier Legardeur de St. Pierre,
who commanded the Indians. He was the officer to whom Washington
delivered his letters from Governor Dinwiddie, at Fort Le Boeut.

Dieskau pursued the retreating English vigorously, hoping to enter
their camp at the same time with them. When within one hundred rods
of it he halted, and placed the Indians and Canadians upon his flanks,
advancing to the attack of the English centre with his regular troops.
Te kept up a fire by platoons, but at too great a distance to do much
mischief, the Canadians and Indians who had scattered to cover at the
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760), 219

sight of Johnson’s cannon firing from their shelter. Johnson’s artillery
played on them in return, and the musketry from the camp cut up the
French, who stood their ground manfully.

After maintaining the attack bravely for four hours, the baron, who
had been three times wounded, attempted to retreat. The French fled
in all directions, and were hotly pursued. The fugitives were met by

Japtam MeGinnis, with two hundred New Hampshire men from Fort
Edward, who had heard the firing and hastened to the scene of action.
The Itrench were severely handled, but the brave McGinnis was killed.

Dieskau, wounded and helpless, was found leaning against the stump
of a tree. As the svuldier who discovered him approached, he put his
hand in his pocket to draw out his watch, as a bribe to the soldier to
allow him to escape. Supposing that he was drawing a pistol, the latter
gave him a severe wound in the hip with a inusket-ball. The baron was
afterwards exchanged and returned to France.

Johnson was slightly wounded in the early part of the fight, which
was successfully conducted by General Lyman, his second in command.
Johnson, however, reaped all the rewards. He was made a baronet, re-
celved the thanks of Parliament, and a gratuity of £5000. THis military
incapacity was evident from his not following up his victory.

Walpole, New Uampshire, on the banks of the Connecticut, was set-
tled in 1749. Colonel Benjamin Bellows and John Kilburn were among
its earliest inhabitants. Though far beyond any other white settlement
in that region, it escaped Indian attack until the beginning of the Old
Ireneh War, in 1755.

Captain Philp, a Pequawket sachem, pretending to trade, had lately
visited as aspy all the principal settlements on the river. The inhabi-
tants hearing rumors of coming war prepared to meet it. They carried
their arms with them into the fields where they toiled, and took with
them also their faithful dogs, whose growling gave them early notice of
the presence of Indians.

About noon one day in August, Colonel Bellows, with thirty men,
while returning from the mill, each man with a bag of meal upon his
back, was made aware by his dogs that there were Indians about. He
ordered his men to throw down their sacks, and move cautiously forward
to a slight eminence in front over which their path lay, and there to con-
ecal themselves by crouching among the tall ferns, of which there was at
that place a thick growth.

Crawling to the top of this eminence, Bellows discovered a large num-
ber of Indians lying on the ground or hiding behind trees, waiting for
220 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

him to enter the trap. Returning to his men he gave them his orders
in a whisper, and then, still concealed by the ferns, they all moved noise-
lessly forward. When close to the enemy, at a given signal each man
sprang to his feet, and giving a tremendous yell, dropped again as sud-
denly into his place. In an instant every Indian started up, yelling and
1 1 1 a 200A 2 a
firing, but hitting nobody. The stratagem had succeeded. Bellows and



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































INDIAN RAID ON A SETTLEMENT,

his men had a fair shot, and such was its effect that Philip and his war-
riors fled with precipitation. The victors regained their garrison, not a
man having been hit.

Hoping this time for better success, Philip next appeared with two
hundred warriors before John Kilburn’s house. Kilburn and his son,
a Mr. Peck and his son, who were in the field reaping, had just time to
reach and enter the house as they approached. In the house were the
four men and Kilburn’s wife and daughter. Philip was an old acquaint-
ance here, and, coming as near the house as he could find a tree for shelter,
called out to the Kilburns,

“Old John! young John! come out here! we give you good quarter!”

Philip is said to have been large in stature, and was a redoubtable war-
rior, but Kilburn, who well understood Indian warfare, was not in the least
frightened. In a voice of thunder he shouted back the defiance,
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 221

‘‘ Begone, you black rascals! begone, or we'll quarter you!”

Philip then returned to his warriors, who, with fierce yells and whoops,
began a furious onset, and in a few minutes the roof of the house was per-
forated with bullet-holes. There were Joop-holes, as in all garrison-houses,
through which the inmates could fire, and they had a number of extra guns
in the house. These Kilburn’s wife and daughter helped to load, and also
busied themselves in casting bullets. When one gun became too much
heated it was replaced by another, so that there was no cessation in the
firing. When their lead grew scarce blankets were suspended from the
root to catch the balls of the enemy, and these were soon returned to their
owners. Thus some of the Indians fell by their own bullets.

So incessant was the fire kept up by these few stout defenders of the
garrison, that the Indians supposed they had been deceived as to their
number. After keeping up the attack until night, and losing many of
their warriors, they finally drew off, greatly crestfallen at their disecom-
fiture. One of the garrison—Mr. Peck—was wounded by a bullet that
came into one of the loop-holes and struck him in the hip. The Indian
loss was never known. Before retiring they wreaked their vengeance on
the settlement by killing all the cattle and destroying all the grain and
hay belonging to it.

A. signal act of retaliation on the perfidious tribes of the Ohio took
place in the following year. Shingis and Captain Jacobs were the lead-
ers of the hostile bands of Delawares that had desolated the
Pennsylvania border. With their booty and their prisoners
they had returned to their village at Kittanning, an Indian town forty miles
from Fort Duquesne. Jacobs was a daring fellow, and scoffed at palisaded
forts. “I can take any fort,” said he, “that will eatch fire.”

A party of two hundred and eighty Pennsylvanians, under Colonel
John Armstrong, undertook to destroy this savage nest. The brave Dr.
Hugh Mercer, who at twenty-three had shared in the defeat of the Pre-
tender at Culloden, and who had been a witness of savage atrocity at the
defeat of Braddock, and who afterwards fell gloriously at Princeton, com-
manded one of the companies.

After a long march, conducted with great rapidity and secrecy, over
mountains and through forests, they reached the Alleghany, arriving at
Kittanning one moonlight night. Whoops and yells and the
noise of a drum guided them to the Indian village. The
warriors were celebrating their exploits with the triumphant scalp-dance.
Armstrong and his men lay quiet until the din ceased and the moon
went down. When all was still he roused his men. One party attacked

October 8.
222 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

oat aed

some Indians who slept in a corn-field, while another advaneed upon the
houses. a

Though taken by surprise, the Indians fought bravely, inspired by the
warwhoop of their leader, Jacobs. The women and children fled to the
woods. Several of the assailants were killed and wounded. Mercer re-
ceived a wound in the arm, and was taken to the rear. From his house,
which had loop-holes, Jacobs and his warriors made havoe among the
whites. At length the wigwams were set on fire. J acobs, who eould
speak English, was called upon to surrender.

“J and my warriors are men,” he answered, “and we will all fight
while life remains.”

When told that he should be well used if he would surrender, but if
not he would be burned, he replied, :

‘IT can eat fire. I will kill four or five before I die.”

As the smoke and flames approached, some of the warriors sung their
death-song. Finally they were driven out by the flames. Some escaped,
and some were shot. Among the latter was Captain Jacobs, the fire-eater,
and his gigantic son, who is said to have been seven feet in height. Thirty
or forty warriors were slain, and their stronghold was a smoking ruin.
Eleven white prisoners were recaptured. Mercer, severely wounded and
separated from his companions, tracked his Jong, painful, and solitary way
through the wilderness to Fort Cumberland by the stars, arriving there
sick, weary, and half-famished. Ile lived for fourteen days on two dried
clams and a rattlesnake, with a few berries. For this Important service
Armstrong was rewarded by the corporation of Philadelphia with a vote
of thanks, a medal, and a piece of plate.

One of the ablest of the soldiers of France—Louis Joseph, Marquis de
Montcalm—now took the direction of Canadian affairs. IIe was quick to
Auenst u, Dereelve the situation and prompt to act. The works at Ti-

° conderoga and Niagara were lmediately strengthened. Fort
Oswego was captured, with its garrison of one thousand six hundred men,
and an immense quantity of stores and war material was taken or destroyed.
France had now entire control of Lake Ontario,

Montealm made every effort to induce the Indians to join him in an
attack on the English at Lake George. A grand council was held at Ni-
agara, at which the Iroquois gave belts to the ITurons, Ottawas, and other
allies of the French, as a token of their intention to join the enemies of
the English, and a belt was given in return, which was covered with ver-
inilion—an invitation to war. |
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 223

At another congress held
at Montreal, thirty-three na-
tions were represented, in-
cluding ‘chiefs from Acadia
to Lake Superior. “ We
will try our father’s hateh-
et on the English, to see if
it cuts well,” said a Seneca
chief. Montcalm sang the
war-song with them every
day of the council, and as
a successful leader was high-
ly popular with them. The
tribes assembled at Fort
St. Jolin, on the River Sor-
el. Their missionaries came
with them, and the masses
and hymns of the church
alternated with the fantas-
tie dances and the unearth- LOUIS JOSEPH MONTCALM,
ly yells of the savage horde.

During the following summer Montcalm advanced upon Fort Will-
jam Ienry, a work erected by Sir William Johnson after
the battle of Lake George, upon its southern shore. It eom-
mnanded the lake, and was an important protection to the British frontier.

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1757.











































































































































































































































































OSWEGO IN 1755.

In it was Colonel Monro, a brave old soldier, with a garrison of five
hundred men. Two thousand provincial militia were encamped
outside. At the head of eight thousand French, Canadians,
and Indians, Montcalm crossed Lake George in a fleet of bateaux, preceded

ugust 1.
224 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

by swarms of Indian canoes. The lake covered with boats, the banners
and the music, the brilliant uniforms of the French and the picturesque |
costume of the Indians, moving over
its placid surface under a brilliant J uly
TAKE . sun, altogether made a striking and
eS ea brilliant, as well as unusual, spectacle
; in this solitary haunt of nature.

It was not altogether a pleasant
sight to the defenders of the fort, who
were taken completely by surprise.
Those encamped outside hastily burned
their tents and hurried within the
walls. A summons to sur-
render was answered by a
brave defiance. Montcalm then invest-
ed the fort, and battered it with his
artillery. The Indians were highly delighted with the cannon firing, and
were nearly beside themselves at the noise made by the big guns.

For five days the veteran Monro maintained a stout defence, expect-
ing reinforcements from General Webb, who was at Fort Edward, only

August 4.



FORT WILLIAM HENRY,



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ST. JOHN (1776).
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 225

fifteen milés distant, with five thousand men. Instead of marching to his
assistance, the cowardly Webb sent him a letter advising him to yield.
Unluckily, this letter was intercepted by Montealm, who at once for-
warded it to Monro. That obstinate old soldier, however, persisted in
the defence until most of his cannon had burst and his am-
munition was spent. Ile then surrendered upon honorable
terms. Montcalm demolished the fort, carried off the artillery and muni-
tions of war, and returned to Canada in triumph.

In spite of the exertions of the French officers, some of the prisoners
were killed, and many of them were stripped and plundered by the sav-
ages. The latter could never understand the humanity shown to pris-
oners by civilized nations, and as they were drawn to the fight by the
hope of plunder, their rage and cupidity were excited on seeing the pris-
oners taking away their arms and baggage under the escort of French
soldiers.

August 9.

While the expedition under General I‘orbes was on its way to capture
Fort Duquesne, Major Grant, with eight hundred picked men, some of
them Highlanders, others Virginians in Indian garb, under Major Lewis,
were sent forward without the knowledge of [forbes by Colonel Bouquet,
who was in the advance. Thus officer attempted a most brilliant achieve-
ment—no less than the capture of the fort with his own men before the
arrival of the main force.

This ambitious but poorly-managed affair came to grief. Grant’s
object seems to have been to provoke an action by bravado. He was
closely watched by the enemy, who permitted him to advance unmolested.
On the morning after his arrival he marshalled his regulars in battle-
uray, and sent an engineer with a covering party to take a plan of the
works, in full view of the garrison.

Not a gun was fired from the fort; and the British commander mis-
taking this for fear neglected all precaution. Suddenly the garrison
sallied forth, and at the same moment Grant’s flanks were at-
tacked by Indians hidden in ambush. After delivermg a
destructive fire, they rushed upon the confused Iighlanders with toma-
hawk and scalping-knife, increasing their panic by frightful yells. The
contest was kept up for a while, but the panic was irretrievable. It was
almost a Braddock affair over again.

At the first sound of the conflict, Major Lewis, who with his Virginians
was in the rear guarding the baggage, hastened with most of his men to
the secne of action. He fought hand to hand with an Indian brave, whom

15

September 14.
226 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

he laid dead at his feet, but was surrounded by others, and saved his life
only by surrendering to a Trench officer. Grant also was captured, and
the entire detachment was routed with dreadful carnage.

Captain Bullitt, with fifty Virgmians, had been left to guard the bag-
gage. Rallying a few of the fugitives, he made a stand behind a barricade
of baggage-wagons. It was the work of a moment, for the pursuing say-
ages having plundered the fallen were close upon them. Bullitt opened
a destructive fire upon them, which checked them for a time. They were
again pressing forward in still greater force, when Bullitt deceived the
Indians by a clever stratagem. Advancing towards them with his men, he















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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CAPIURE OF FORT DUQUESNE (1758).

held out a signal of surrender. When within eight yards of the foe, they
suddenly levelled their guns, poured in a most effective volley, and then
charged with the bayonet. The Indians fled in dismay, and Bullitt’ took
advantage of their flight to retreat with all speed, collecting the wounded
and the fugitives as he proceeded. Three hundred of Grant's party were
killed or taken in this bloody battle. For his skill and bravery in sav-
ing the remnant of the detachment, Bullitt was rewarded with a major’s
commission.

An ingenious stratagem was hit upon by Allan Maepherson, one of
the Highlanders captured in this battle. He had witnessed the horrible
THE “OLD FRENCH WAR” (1755-1760). 227

tortures inflicted upon some of his comrades by the savages, and thought
of a plan by which to escape so terrible a fate. Ile told the Indians
through an interpreter that he could make a medicine that would render
the skin proof against all kinds of weapons, and offered to prove its efficacy
upon himself.

The Indians eagerly consented, and gathering a quantity of herbs he
made a mixture which he applied to his neck; then laying his head on a
block he challenged them to strike. One of the strongest warriors came
forward and dealt him a tremendous blow. Not until they saw the Iligh-
lander’s head roll from the block did the savages suspect the trick he had
played them; and it is said that they were so pleased at his cunning that
they gave up their design of torturing the rest of his companions.

The recent suecesses of the English forces in Canada, particularly the
capture and destruction of Fort Frontenac by Colonel Bradstreet, left the
garrison of Fort Duquesne without hope of succor, and on sow 96. 1788
the near approach of Forbes’s army the place was set on fire SO
and abandoned. It was rebuilt by the English, who changed its name to
Fort Pitt. The name of Pittsburg, which it now bears, designates one of
the busiest and most populous cities of the interior.

The reduction ef this fortress ended the troubles and dangers of the
western frontier, and terminated the French control of the Ohio. The
Indians, as usual, yielded to the strongest, and treaties of peace were con-
eluded with all the tribes between the Ohio and the lakes.

The THurons, the Abenakis, and other Canada Indians who had fought
for the French, were, at the close of the war, regarded as a conquered peo-
ple. The hostility of the remote western tribes who had also been allies
of the French ceased, but for a short time only.

For four years (1755-58) the English had met with almost constant
defeat. Their generals had displayed neither vigor nor ability. The
campaign of 1759 was glorious and dceisive. Pitt, afterwards Karl of
Chatham, succeeded in infusing some of his own heroic spirit and efficiency
into the military and naval service of Great Britain. Prideaux was sent
against Niagara; Amherst at the same time advanced upon Ticonderoga and
Crown Point; and Wolfe attacked Quebee, the vital point. All
these important objects were successfully accomplished, and
with the fall of Montreal, Canada, with all its dependencies, was surrendered

to the British Crown.

Sept. 8, 1760.
ev

INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

ie
Ke
OL

X.
STORY OF A CAPTIVE.

NDIAN domestic life and manners are well described in the interesting
narrative of Colonel James Smith, a native of Pennsylvania, who in
his youth was for nearly five years a captive among the Caughnawagas.
Late in life he settled near Paris, Kentucky, and was a member of the con-
vention that framed the Constitution of the State, and afterwards had a
seat in its legislature.*

At the age of eighteen, young Smith, while engaged with a party in
opening a wagon road for the army of General Braddock, then on its
march to Fort Duquesne, was captured by the Indians and taken to that
place. The circumstances attending his capture and his experiences among
them he thus relates:

“About four or five miles above Bedford, three Indians had made a
blind of bushes stuck in the ground, as though they grew naturally. Here
they concealed themselves, about fifteen yards from the road. I had been
sent back, in company with one Arnold Vigores, to hurry up some pro-
vision wagons. When we came opposite the ambush they fired, and killed
my companion. My horse started instantly and threw me, and the Indians
immediately ran up and took me prisoner.

“On approaching the fort, through large numbers of naked, painted
savages who were formed into two long ranks, I was obliged to run the
gauntlet. I was told that if I ran quick it would be so much the better,
as they would quit when I got to the end of the ranks. I started in the
race with all the vigor and resolution I was capable of exerting. When I
had got near the end of the lines I was struck to the ground with a stick
or the handle of a tomahawk.

“On recovering my senses I endeavored to renew the race, but as I
Tose some one tlirew sand in my eyes, which blinded me so that I could



* The story of Smith’s captivity, and of his services in the Revolutionary War, in which
he held the rank of colonel, is told in his « Remarkable Occurrences in the Life of Colonel
James Smith,” Lexington, Kentucky, 1799. Smith died in Kentucky about the year 1812.
STORY OF A CAPTIVE. 229































AN INDIAN AMBUSH.

not see where to run. They continued beating me until I was insensible ;
but before I lost consciousness I remember wishing they would strike the
final blow, for I thought they intended killing me, and that they were too
long about it. I was sent to the hospital, and carefully tended by a French
doctor, and recovered quicker than I expected.

“T asked a Delaware Indian who could speak some English, if I had
done anything to offend them which caused them to beat me so unmerci-
fully? ‘No,’ he replied, ‘it was enly an old custom the Indians had, and
was like “how do you do?’ After this, said he, ‘you will be well used.”
Smith must have thought this “a pretty how do you do” to greet strangers
with. The humor of it was certainly very striking. “This Indian also
told me,” continues Smith, “that as soon as I recovered, | must go with
the party and be made an Indian myself. This is their mode of adoption :

“The day after my arrival at Tullihas, an Indian town on the Mus-
kingum, a number of Indians collected about me, and one of therm began
to pull the hair out of my head. Ee went on as if he had been plucking
a turkey, until he had all the hair out except a small tuft three or four
inches square on my crown; this they cut off with a pair of scissors, ex-
cepting three locks which they dressed in their own mode.

“ After this they bored my nose and ears, and fixed me off with ear-
rings and nose jewels. Then they ordered me to strip off my clothes and

put on a breech-clout, which I did. They then painted me in various col-
15*
230 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

ors. They put a large belt of wampum on my neck, silver bands on my
hands and right arm, and so an old chief led me into the street and gave
the alarm halloo, which was several times quickly repeated. On this, all
came running out and stood around us.

“ Holding me by the hand, the old chief then made a long speech, and
when he had done he handed me over to three young squaws, who led me
by the hand down the bank into the river, until the water was up to my
middle. The squaws then made signs to me to plunge myself into the
water, but I did not understand them; I thought I was to be drowned, and
that these young women were to be my executioners.

“ All three then laid violent hands on me, but I for some time opposed
them with all my might, which occasioned loud laughter by the multitude
on the bank of the river. At length one of the squaws made out to speak
a little English, and said, ‘No hurt you; on this I gave myself up to their
ladyships, who were as good as their word, for though they plunged me
under the water, and washed and rubbed me severely, yet I could not say
that they hurt me much.

“These young women then led me up to the council-house, where I
was new clothed. They gave me a new ruffled shirt, which I put on, also
a pair of leggings ornamented with ribbons and beads, a pair of moccasins
and garters dressed with beads, porcupine quills, and hair. They again
painted my head and face with various colors, and tied a bunch of red
feathers to one of the locks they had left on the crown of my head, which
stood up five or six inches,

“Seating me on a buekskin they gave me a pipe, a tomahawk, and a
pouch containing tobacco, also spunk, flint, and steel. The Indians then
came in dressed and painted, seated themselves, and for a long time
smoked in profound silence. At length one of the chiefs spoke as follows:

«My son, you are now flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bone. By
the ceremony just performed every drop of white blood was washed out
of your veins; you are taken into the Caughnawaga nation and initiated
into a warlike tribe. You are adopted into a great family, and now re-
ceived with great seriousness and solemnity in the room and place’ of a
great man. My son, you have now nothing to fear; we are now under the
same obligation to love, support, and defend you, that we are to love and
defend one another, therefore you are to consider yourself as one of our
people.” From that day I never knew them to make any distinction be-
tween me and themselves, in any respect whatever, until I left them.

“That evening, after being introduced to my new kin, I was bid to a
feast. As their custom was, they gave me a bowl and a wooden spoon.
STORY OF A CAPTIVE. 231

Each one advanced to the place where stood a number of large brass ket-
tles, full of boiled venison and green corn, and had his share. given him.
One of the chiefs made a short speech, and then we began to eat.

“Next day a war party started for Virginia, and they had their usual
war-danee and songs. At the former they had both voeal and instrumental
music. They had a short, hollow gum, closed at one end, with water in it,
and parchment stretched over the open end, which they beat with a stick,
making a sound nearly like a muftled drt ui, to collect those who were go-
ing on the expedition.

“An old Indian then began to sing, and timed the music by beating on
this drum. On this the warriors began to advance, or move forward in
concert, as well-disciplined troops would march to the fife and drum. Each
warrior had a tomahawk, spear, or war-elub in his hand, and they all moved
regularly towards the east, the way they intended going to war. At length
they all stretched their tomahawks towards the Potomac, and giving a
hideous shout or yell, wheeled quick about, and in the same manuer
danced back.

“In performing the war-song only one stung at a time, in a moving
posture, with a tomahawk in his hand, while all the other warriors were
calling aloud, ‘/le-uh! he-uh!? which they constantly repeated. When
lis song was ended the warrior struck a war-post with his tomahawk, and
with a loud voice told what warlike exploits he had performed and in-
tended to perform, and was answered by the others with loud shouts of
applause.

“Some who had not intended to join were so excited by this perform-
ance that they, too, took up the tomahawk and sung the war-song, calling
forth shouts of joy as they were received into the war party. Next morn-
ing they all assembled, with their heads and faces painted with various col-
ors, and packs on their backs, marching off silently, excepting the leader,
who in front sung the travelling song. Just as the rear passed the end of
the town they began to fire slowly from front to rear, shouting and yelling
at the same time.

“At another dance which I attended, the young men stood in one rank
and the young women in another, about a rod apart, facing each other.
The one that started the tune held a small gourd or dry shell of a squash,
which contained beads or small stones which rattled. He timed his song
to this rattle; the men and women danced and sung together, advancing
towards each other, stooping until their heads would ‘touch each other, and
then stopping, with loud shouts retreated and formed again, repeating this
over and over four or tive times without intermission.
232, INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

“In this song, which I at first thought insipid, I found they could in-
termix sentences with their notes, and say what they pleased to each other,
carrying on their tune in concert. It was a kind of wooing or courting
dance, and as they approached, stooping their’ heads towards each other
until they met, they could talk together without disturbing the rude music,
and yet so that those near could not hear what they said.

“Some time afterwards a gun was given me, and I went to hunt with
a Mohawk named Solomon. As we were following some fresh buffalo
tracks, Solomon, who had told me that there had been war between the
Delawares and the southern nations, went forward very cautiously, fre-
quently pausing to listen. ‘Surely, said I, ‘these are buffalo tracks,’

“*TTush,’ said he, ‘you know nothing. Maybe buffalo, maybe Ca-
tawba.’ Ie then related some striking instances of the subtlety of this
tribe. He told me that formerly the Catawbas placed an ambush near one
of our camps, and, in order to decoy us out, two or three of them in the
night passed by with buffalo hoofs fixed on their feet, so as to make arti-
ficial tracks. In the morning our people followed these tracks, thinking
they were buffalo, until they were fired on by the Catawbas and several of
them killed. The others fled, collected a party, and pursued the Catawbas.

“The latter, however, had with them some rattlesnake poison, also
sharp canes or reeds about the size of a rye-straw, which they sharpened at
the end, dipped them in the poison, and stuek them in the ground in the
grass along their track. By this means a number of the pursuers were so
lamed that they turned back, and being pursued in turn by the Catawbas
were all killed. Solomon ended by saying, ‘You don’t know Catawba:
velly bad Indian ; Catawba all one devil.’

“The next winter I went bear-hunting with Tontileango, my adopted
brother. » Starting early one morning, we found a tree which seemed to be
the winter-quarters of one of these animals. A small sapling was usually
felled against or near the bear’s hole, so as to climb up and drive the bear
out. This was my business. In this instance there was no tree suitable to
lodge against the hole, which was forty feet from the ground.

“Tontileango got a long pole and some dry, rotten wood, climbed a
neighboring tree, and with the pole thrust some of the dry wood, which he
had lighted, into the hole. Soon he heard the bear snuff. He then de-
scended, and waited for the bear to come out. Ife had to wait some time.
When bruin did appear, as it was too dark to take a sight with his rifle,
he shot an arrow into him just behind the shoulder, bringing him to the
ground,

“In February we began to make maple-sugar. The squaws cut down
STORY OF A CAPTIVE. 233

f

a dry tree, and with a crooked stick, broad and sharp at the end, took off
the bark, and made of it, in a skilful manner, more than a hundred vessels
that would hold about two gallons each.

“In the sugar-tree they cut a notch sloping down, and at the end of
the notch, into which they made an aperture, they drove a long chip to
earry the sap from the tree, and under this they set their vessel to receive
it. They made vessels of bark for carrying the water that held about four
gallons each. They had two brass kettles that held about fifteen gallons
each, and other smaller ones in which the sap was boiled.

“The way we commonly used our sugar while in camp was by putting
it in bear’s fat until the fat was nearly as sweet as the sugar itself, and in
this we dipped our roasted venison. About this time some of the Indian
lads and myself were employed in making and tending traps for raccoons,
foxes, wild-eats, ete.

“ As the raccoon is a kind of water animal, we made our traps on the
runs or small watercourses, by laying one small sapling on another, and
driving in posts to keep them from rolling. The under-sapling we raised
about eighteen inches, and set so that on a raccoon’s touching a string, or
a small piece of bark, the sapling would fall and kill it, and lest he should
pass by we laid brush on both sides of the run, leaving only the channel
open.

“The fox-traps we made in nearly the same manner. At the end of a
hollow log, or opposite a hole at the root of a hollow tree, we put venison
ona stick for bait, so set that when the fox took hold of the meat the trap
fell. While the squaws were occupied in making sugar, the boys and men
were cngaged in hunting and trapping.

“While we were encamped at the mouth of a small creek, in the ab-
sence of Tontileango, a Wyandot came to the camp. I gave hin a shoulder
of venison which I had by the fire well roasted, which he received gladly,
telling me he was hungry, and thanked me for my kindness. When Ton-
tileango came home I told him of the visit, and what I had done. He said
that was very well.

“<«T suppose,’ said he, ‘you also gave him sugar and bear’s fat to eat
with his venison ?

“No, said I, ‘I did not; as the sugar and fat were down in the canoe,
I did not go for it.’

“¢You have behaved just like a Dutchman,’ was his reply. ‘Do you
not know that when strangers come to our camp we ought always to give
them the best that we have”

“T acknowledged that I was wrong. THe said he could excuse this,
2B4 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

as I was young, but I must learn to behave like a warrior, and do great
things, and never be found in any such little actions.

“Our furs and skins we disposed of to some Trench traders at Sunyou-
deaud, a Wyandot town, and here we supplied ourselves with new clothes,
paint, tobacco, ete.

“ After [ had got my new clothes on, and my head done off like a red-
headed woodpecker, I, in company with a number of young Indians, went
down to the corn-fields to see the squaws at work. The squaws asked me
to take a hoe, which I did, and hoed for some time. They applauded ime,
but when I returned to the town, the old men, hearing what I had done,
chid me, telling me that I was adopted in the place of a great man, and
must not hoe corn like a squaw. They never again had occasion to reprove
me on this score, as I was not over-fond of work.

“All the hunters and warriors remained in the town some weeks,
spending their time in eating and drinking, visiting, painting, smoking,
and playing a game resembling dice. This game is played with plum-
stones, painted white on one side and black on the other. Placing these
in a small bowl they shake it, calling the color they desire to have turn u p-
The bowl is then turned, and the count of the color determines the result.

“Some were beating their kind of drum and singing, others played on
a kind of flute made of a hollow cane, and others on the jews-harp. Part
of the time was spent in attending at the council-house, where the chiefs,
and as many others as chose, were present, and at night there was singing
and dancing. At the end of this sojourn (June, 1756) they were all pre-
paring to go to war against the frontiers of Virginia. When they finally
marched, none were left in the town but squaws and children, except my-
self and the very old men, one of whom was lame.

“The Indians had great hopes that they would drive all the Virginians
over the lake, as they called the ocean. The two old Indians asked me if
I did not think that the Indians and French would subdue all America
except New England, which they had tried in old times. I told them I
thought not, for, said I, though unsuccessful at present, they will soon
learn your mode of war, and overcome you by the superiority of their
arms and numbers. I found that they themselves did not believe they
could conquer America, yet they were willing to propagate the idea in
order to encourage the young men to go to war.

“At the close of that winter’s hunt the party visited the Wyandot
town, opposite Detroit. Tere they found a trader with some Trench
brandy, and kept up a drunken carouse until the trader, having got all
their beaver, moved off to another town.
STORY OF A CAPTIVE. 235

“A council was held, which determined who were to get drunk and
who were to remain sober. As I refused to drink, I had to assist in taking
care of the others. Our duty was to conceal the arms and other weapons,
and prevent their killing each other



avery ditheult matter. Several times
our own lives were in danger, and we received some severe injuries in the
performance of our task. When the liquor was gone, and the drunkards
sobered, they were greatly dejected; some were crippled, others badly
wounded, and their clothes were torn or burned. In the Ottawa village,
close by, the carouse ended much worse—tive were killed and many in-
jured.

“ As cold weather was approaching, we began to feel the baleful effects
of our folly and extravagance in dissipating the proceeds of the large
quantity of beaver we had taken. Nearly all were in the same destitute
condition. Searcely one had a shirt to his back, but each had an old
blanket, which we belted around us during the day and slept in at night,
with a deerskin or bearskin under us for a bed.

‘Though slovenly in their habits, the Indians have the essentials of
good manners, and are polite in their way. They have few compliments,
and use few titles of honor, their usual mode of address being, ‘my
friend, ‘brother,’ ‘cousin,’ ‘mother,’ ‘sister, ete. They pay great respect
to age. All who come to their house or camp are invited to eat while
there is any food left, and it is bad manners to refuse such an invitation.

“Tnstead of ‘Ilow do you do? the common Indian salutation is, ‘ You
are my friend.’ The reply is, ‘Truly, my friend, | am your friend;’ or,
‘Cousin, you yet exist? ‘Certainly I doy is the reply. As their chil
dren are disciplined by ducking them in cold water, it necessarily follows
that they are much more obedient in winter than in summer.

“Tn the spring of 1759 I went with my adopted brother to an Indian
town near Montreal. Tearing in that town of a ship in which were some
English prisoners who were to be exchanged, I left the Indians and went
on board, but on the approach of General Wolfe we were all put in
prison. I was exchanged in the following November, and early in the
year 1760 returned home, much to the surprise of my people, who did
not know whether I was living or dead. They were also astonished to see
me looking so much like an Indian, and resembling them both in my gait
and gestures.

“ Joyful as was this reunion,” says Smith, in closing his interesting
narrative, “its happiness was marred by one disagreeable circumstance—
L found that my sweetheart had been married only a few days before I

arrived.”
236 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

AT,
ROGERS'S RANGERS.

“Frosts were falling
When the ranger’s horn was calling,
Through the woods to Canada.

‘Strageling rangers, worn with dangers,

Tomeward faring, weary strangers,

Pass the farm-gate on their Way.
Tidings of the dead and living,
Forest march and ambush giving,
Till the maidens leave their weaving,

And the lads forget their play.”

WHITTIER.

HE Indian’s style of fighting was suited to the forests in which he

roamed. The thicket provided him with an ambush, the tree or

rock served him as a shield. Each warrior fought “on his own hook,”

singling out some individual opponent, and using every stratagem to
outwit and overpower him.

Upon one occasion an Oneida Indian, who had placed a rock between
himself and two of his Indian pursuers, putting his hat on the end of his
gun-barrel, raised it slowly, as if to obtain a sight of his enemies. The
ruse succeeded ; both Indians fired, the hat dropped, and rushing forward
with exulting yells, expecting to secure a scalp, one was instantly shot
down, and the other took to his heels for satety. :

This kind of warfare made it necessary for the white man to adopt
similar methods, and in this way a hardy, active, and self-reliant body of
frontiersmen were trained up, who were of the greatest service
in the wars waged by the two races. An organized body of
these men was employed in the “Old French War.” They were known
as “ Rogers’s Rangers,” from their conmnander, Major Robert Ltogers.
This celebrated partisan, a native of Dunbarton, New Hampshire, was at
this time under thirty years of age. Rough in feature, he was tall and
well-proportioned, and was one of the most athletic men of his time, being

1755-62.
ROGERS’S RANGERS. 237

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UCAS Fon





MAJOR ROBERT ROGERS.

prominent in all the trials of strength or activity in his neighborhood for
miles around.

Rogers possessed great presence of mind, intrepidity, and perseverance,
and a plausible address, and had in early life acquired great decision and
boldness of character. He was versed in all the arts of woodcraft, was
sagacious, prompt, and resolute, yet so cautious as to incur at times the
unjust charge of cowardice.
238 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

These qualities he displayed on many oceasions. Onee, when in Eng-
land, a mail-coach in which he was a passenger was stopped by a high-
wayman on Hounslow Ileath. The robber, thrusting a pistol through the
coach window, demanded the purses and watches of the occupants. While
the others were delivering up theirs, the bold ranger suddenly seized the
robber by the collar, drew him by main strength through the carriage
window, and bade the coachman drive on. The highwayman proved to
be an old offender, for whose apprehension a reward had been offered by
the government.

At a social party of British officers at which he was present, it was
agreed by the company that whoever of them should tell the most un prob-
able story should have his bill paid by the others. When his turn came.
Rogers stated that his father was shot in the woods by a hunter, who mis-
took him for a bear; that his mother was followed by a hunter, who mis-
took her tracks in the snow on a stormy day for those of a wolf ; and that
he, when a boy, had carried bireh-brooms on his back to Rumford, ten
miles distant from his father’s house, to be sold, following a path through
the woods only marked by spotted trees. The company paid for his din-
ner, admitting that he had told the “ toughest” story. Rogers had only
stated the exact truth.

The Rangers were a body of hardy and resolute young men, principally
from the vicinity of Amoskeag Falls, New ITampshire, where Rogers had
been accustomed to meet them at the annual fishing season, and on whose
skill, courage, and fidelity he could implicitly rely. Especially renowned
as marksmen, every one of these rugged foresters could hit an object. of
the size of a silver dollar at a hundred yards. Te could follow the trail
of man or beast, and endure the extremes of fatigue, hunger, and cold.

They were constantly employed in watching the motions of the enemy,
in pursuing their Inarauding parties, or in cutting off their convoys of sup-
phes, frequently making prisoners of their sentinels at Ticonderoga and
Crown Point. Limited in their expeditions to no season, they made, in
winter, long and fatiguing journeys on snow-shoes into the enemy’s coun-
try, often encamping in the forest without a fire, to avoid discovery, when
the ground was covered with snow, and with no other food than the game
they could kill during their march. They were the most formidable body
of men ever employed in Indian warfare, and in regular engagements
proved themselves not inferior to British troops. From frequent contact
with the natives, they were familiar with their langnage and customs, and
their French and Indian foes dreaded them with good reason.

Theirs was a hard life, but the excitement and danger attendant upon
ROGERS’S RANGERS. 239

it gave it a zest that reconciled these hardy foresters to its toils and priva-
tions. There was something singularly attractive to the young frontiers-
man in the free forest life of the Ranger. To him it was a source of no
ordinary enjoyment to scour the forest in search of the Indian foe, but to
be able to steal upon him unawares, and to return victorious from an ex-
pedition against him, was in the highest degree exhilarating and inspiring.

No hero of romance ever displayed more daring. Danger and death
were his constant companions. He defied wounds, capture, torture, muti-
lation, and never counted the number of his foes until after he had routed
them. Where to strike first and most effectively was his only study. Se-
curing his retreat was no part of his strategy ; he never measured the dis-
tance from his base of operations, for he was his own commissary and quar-
termaster, carrying his rations on his back, having for his bed the bosom
of mother earth, and for his tent the canopy of heaven. His tactics were
the maxims of Indian warfare, and he knew his duty so well, and was so
self-reliant, that obedience and subordination seemed to hini wholly un-
necessary. The corps of Rangers always marched silently and with great
rapidity, and by the shortest line. Neither forest nor stream presented
any obstacle to their progress.

It was in this school that Putnam, Rogers, Stark, Brewer, and others
were trained for future usefulness in the struggle for American indepen-
dence, Several British ofhcers, attracted by this exciting and hazardous, as
well as novel, method of campaigning, joined as volunteers in some of their
expeditions, «Among them was the young Lord Howe, who, during this
tour of duty, formed a strong friendship for Putnam and Stark, both of
whom were with him when he fell at Ticonderoga shortly afterwards.

So useful was the corps of Rangers found to be in its very first cam-
pugn, that from a single company of sixty men it was at once increased to
four, and afterwards to nine companies of one hundred men each, Rogers
being promoted to the rank of major. The men were subject to army dis-
cipline and the articles of war. Their dress was that of the frontiersman
of that day, and uniform in cach company. One of these was composed
wholly of Indians in their native costume. The weapons of the Ranger
were a firelock or fusee, a hatchet, and a long knife. A powder-horn was
slung under the right arm. The pack, to which was strapped a blanket,
held his provisions, and flint and steel with which to strike fire. Hach
officer carried a pocket-compass.

The arena of their exploits was the vicinity of Fort Ticonderoga, at
the northern extremity of Lake George, forty miles from Fort William
Henry, a British work at the south end of the lake. The waters of Lake
240 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Mtr























RUINS OF TICONDEROGA.

George and Lake Champlain formed the
main avenue of communication between
Canada and the English colonies. Crown
re Point, on Lake Champlain, and Ticonde-

roga, both in the hands of the French, were the keys to this
important thoroughfare, over which, at all seasons of the year, the hostile
parties of French and Indians passed. Snow-shoes rendered their prog-
ress easy in winter; at all other times they glided over its placid waters
with ease and celerity in their light birch canoes. Fort Edward, on the
Hudson, and Fort William Ilenry, fifteen miles farther inland, were the
two most northerly of the British frontier posts.

This picturesque region, with its mountains, lakes, and forests, vet re-
tains much of its original character, and it is not easy for the tourist who
to-day rambles amid its peaceful solitudes to realize that this lovely and
romantic region could ever have been the scene of such fierce strife as was
waged here little more than a century ago.

- Rogers’s lieutenant was John Stark, afterwards the hero of Bennington.
When in his twenty-fourth year, while out with a hunting party, he, with
a companion named Amos Eastman, was captured by some St. Francis In-
dians and taken to their village. The others of the party, David Stinson



ROGERS’S RANGERS. - 241

and William Stark, his brother, were in a boat at the time of the capture,
and Joln was ordered by the Indians to decoy them to the shore. Instead
of doing so, he shouted to them to save themselves by pulling to the op-
posite shore. They did so, and the Indians fired upon them, but John
knocked up the muzzles of their guns, and by this piece of audacity saved
the life of his brother, who escaped. John was severely beaten by his
captors for this performance, but was afterwards kindly treated by them.
At the Indian village the prisoners had to run the gauntlet. For this
cruel sport the young warriors of the tribe were ranged in two lines, each
armed with a rod or club to strike the captive as he passed them, singing
some provoking words taught him for the occasion, and intended to stim-
wate their wrath against the unfortunate victim. The latter carried a pole
six or eight feet long, with the skin of some bird or animal attached to it.

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COUNTRY AROUND TICONDEROGA.

Eastman, who was the first to undergo the ordeal, was terribly mauled.
Stark, whose pole was ornamented with a loon’s skin, making a sudden
rush, knocked down the nearest Indian, and wresting his club from him,
struck out right and left, dealing such vigorous blows at each turn that he

16
242, INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

made it lively for the Indians without much injury to himself. This feat
greatly pleased the old Indians, who enjoyed the discomfiture of their
young men. When the Indians directed him to hoe corn, Stark cut up
the young corn, and flung his hoe into the river, declaring that it was the

———————— SSS if
———— 4
— Se ty







JOHN STARK,

business of squaws, and not of warriors, to hoe corn. Pleased with his
boldness, the Indians released him from his task. Ie was adopted into
the tribe by the sachem, and treated with genuine kindness as long as he
remained with them. He was subsequently ransomed on payment of £100,
and returned home.

During the Revolutionary War, Stark’s services were rendered at the
most critical moments, and were of the highest value to his country. Aha
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STARK CAPTURED BY INDIANS.
ROGERS'S RANGERS. 245

Bunker Hill he commanded at the rail fence on the left of the redoubt,
holding the post long enough to insure the safety of his overpowered and
retreating countrymen. At Trenton, where the capture of the Hessian
garrison revived the sinking spirits of the Americans, he led the van of
Sullivan’s division; and at Bennington he struck the decisive blow that
paralyzed Burgoyne and made his surrender inevitable.

“When on that field his band the Hessians fought,
Briefly he spoke before the fight began ;
‘Soldiers ! these German gentlemen were bought
For four pounds eight and seven pence per man,
By England’s king; a bargain it is thought.
Are we worth more? Let’s prove it while we can,
For we must beat them, boys, ere set of sun,
Or my wife sleeps a widow ’—it was done.”
HALLECK.

While stationed at Fort William Ienry, in March, 1757, Stark’s vigil-
ance saved the fort from surprise and capture. It was then garrisoned by
an Irish regiment and one hundred and fifty Rangers, many of whom
were of the Scotch-Irish race. Overhearing his men planning a celebra-
tion in honor of St. Patrick, he ordered that no grog should be served to
them on the evening of the 17th without his written order. Feigning a
lame wrist, he refused all entreaties for such an order. Meantime the
[rish soldiers, having received an extra supply of rum, held a carouse last-
ing through that night and the following day. Being totally unfit for
duty, the Rangers, who were sober, seppled their places as sentinels. At
two o'clock on the morning of the L&8th a French army of two thousand
tive hundred men, under De Vaudrenil, with a large Indian following,
knowing the Irish custom, and expecting to find the garrison intoxicated,
approached within thirty reds of the fort. I*ive hundred picked men
then advanced with sealing ladders to the attack. The Rangers were on
the alert, and poured a destructive volley into their ranks, while the guns
of the fort opened with grape and canister wpon the column in the rear.
Confused and mortified, the French fell back greatly demoralized. On
the following day a general attack was made, which was gallantly repulsed,
and after a five days’ siege the enemy withdrew. The fort was soon af-
terwards captured by Montcalm, by whom it was entirely destroyed. The
Rangers were engaged for the first time in the action at Lake George, be-
tween General Johnson, and the French and Indians, under Baron Dieskan.
Rogers and a part of his conumand were absent at the time on a scouting

expedition up the Hudson.
16*
246 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

In January, 1757, a detachment of Rangers marched from Fort Will-
iam Henry to intercept supplies passing between Crown Point and Tieon-
deroga. Half-way between these posts they captured several sleds and de-
stroyed their loading. One sled escaped, and was driven swiftly back to
Ticonderoga. Knowing that the garrison would be immediately notified
of their presence, the Rangers at once began their retreat. As it was rain.
ing, they paused at their last night’s camping-ground, where their fires
were still burning, long enough to dry their guns and put in fresh priming.
They marched in single file, Rogers in front, Stark in the rear, and Cap-
tain Spekeman in the centre. At two in the afternoon, when only three
miles from Ticonderoga, they were suddenly attacked by a force of French
and Indians of three times their own number, concealed in their front.
A desperate and sanguinary encounter now took place. The enemy, who
were drawn up in the form of a crescent upon the summit of a hill, sa-
luted the Rangers with a volley that proved fatal to several, and wounded
Rogers in the head. He ordered his men to retire to an opposite emi-
nence, where Stark and Brewer had made a stand with forty men to cover
the retreat. Stark repulsed the enemy by a brisk fire from his position,
thus affording the retreating Rangers an opportunity to post themselves to
advantage. He himself took post in the centre, and placed reserves to
protect the flanks and watch the movements of the enemy.

Attempts to outflank them were repeatedly made, and were gallantly
repulsed. The Rangers were also hard pressed in front, but having the
advantage of the ground, and being sheltered by large trees, they main-
tained a constant and effective fire until darkness put an end to the con-
flict, when the enemy retired. Rogers having been wounded, and Speke-
man killed, the command devolved upon Stark.

While the fight was fiercest, a ball. pierced Rogers’s wrist. A stream
of blood gushed out. It had to be stopped or he would bleed to death.
Rogers’s hair was braided in a queue behind. One of the Rangers cut it
off with his hunting-knife, and Rogers thrusting it into the wound stopped
the flow of blood. |

After receiving this second wound, Rogers advised a retreat, but Stark
declared that he had a good position and would fight until dark, and then
retreat; that in such a course lay their only safety, and that he would
shoot the first man who fled. While he Was speaking, a bullet struck the
lock of his gun, rendering it useless. Seeing a Frenchman fall at the same
moment he sprang forward, seized his gun, and returning to his tree con-
tinued the action.

While the Rangers were defending their position on the erest of the




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hill, Stark observed that several balls struck near him from a particular
direction. A moment afterwards he discovered an Indian stretched at full
length upon a rock, behind a large tree. Getting his gun in readiness, as
the Indian rose for another shot at him, it was instantly levelled and dis-
charged, and the savage rolled from the rock into the snow, piereed
through the head by the bullet.

At nightfall Stark drew off his men in good order, and by marching
all night reached Lake George early next morning. As the wounded were
unable to proceed farther, Stark volunteered to procure assistance from
Fort William Ienry. Ile reached it that evening, performing the journey
of forty miles upon snow-shoes, the snow being four feet deep upon a
level. Sleds were immediately despatched, and the wounded safely trans-
ported to the fort.

Stark’s decision, prudence, and courage saved the Rangers from de-
feat in this instance, and contributed greatly to the subsequent suecess and
celebrity of the corps. Ile was promoted to the captaincy made vacant
by the loss of Captain Spekeman.

This was a costly victory for the Rangers, who lost, in killed, wounded,
and prisoners, more than one-third of their number. The number of the
enemy was two hundred and fifty, of whom one hundred and sixteen were
killed and wounded.

Skailful and brave as were the Rangers, they were not always success-
ful. The French partisans, under good leaders, with their wily and for-
midable Indian allies well versed in forest warfare, on one occasion in-
flicted dire disaster upon them.

Near Fort Ticonderoga, Rogers, with one hundred and eighty men.
attacked and put to flight a party of Indians, inflicting upon them a
severe blow. This, however, proved to be only a small part Marek 18. 1258
of a foree which, under Durantaye and De Langry, French —
officers of reputation, was fully prepared to meet the Rangers, of whose
movements they had been thoroughly informed beforehand.

The Rangers had thrown down their packs, and were scattered in pur-
suit of the flying savages, when they were suddenly confronted by the
main body of the enemy, of whose presence they were wholly unsuspi-
cious. Nearly fifty of the Rangers fell at the first onslaught, the remain-
der retreating to a position in which they could make a stand. Here they
fought with their accustomed valor, and more than once drove back their
more numerous foes. Repeated attacks were made upon them both in
front and on either flank, the enemy rallying after each repulse, and
manifesting a tenacity and determination equal to that of the Rangers.
250 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

The fight had lasted some time, when a body of two hundred Indians
was discovered ascending a hill on the right, in order to gain the rear of
the Rangers. Lieutenant Phillips, with eighteen men, reached it before
them and drove them back. Lieutenant Crufton, with fifteen men, was
ordered to anticipate a similar movement in another quarter. The enemy
now pressed so closely on their front that the opposing parties were often
intermingled, and in general not more than twenty yards asunder.

This unequal contest had continued an hour and a half, and the
Rangers had lost more than half their number. After doing all that
brave men could do, the remainder retreated in the best manner possible
—each for himself. A singular circumstance connected with this battle
was, that it was fought by both sides upon snow-shoes.

In the pursuit that followed, Rogers made his escape by outwitting
the Indians who pressed closely upon him—such, at least, is the tradition.

The precipitous cliff near the
ee, northerly end of Lake George,
a since called Rogers’s Rock, has on
Sse ge ee 2 one side a sharp and steep descent
eee hundreds of feet to the lake.
Gaining this point, Rogers threw
his rifle and other ineumbrances
down the rocks. Then unbuck-
ling the straps of his snow-shoes,
and, turning round, he refastened

ROGERS'S ROCK. them, the toes still pointing to-
wards the lake. This was the
work of a moment. Ife then walked back from the edge of the cliff into
the woods, and disappeared just as the Indians, sure of their prey, reached
the spot. To their amazement, they saw two tracks towards the cliff, none
from it, and supposed that two Englishmen had thrown themselves down
the precipice, preferring to be dashed to pieces rather than be captured.
Soon a rapidly receding form on the ice below attracted their notice, and
the batiled savages, seeing that the redoubtable Ranger had safely effected
the perilous descent, gave up the chase, fully persuaded that Rogers was
under the protection of the Great Spirit.

The retreating Rangers reached Lake George that evening, and an
express was despatched to the fort for assistance. The men, having lost
their knapsacks, passed an extremely cold night, without fire or blankets.
Proceeding up the lake in the morning, they were met by Stark, who was
not in the engagement, bringing to their relief provisions, blankets, and


























. ROGERS’S RANGERS. 251























































































SSS






































sleds. This timely assist-
ance enabled them to reach
Fort Edward in safety.

One fine morning in
the following August, Rog-
ers and Israel Putnam,
HEAD OF LAKE GEORGE, a provincial officer from

| Connecticut, with five hun-
7| dred men, were in the vicinity of Fort Anne—a post
voy ion,.| about midway between Ticonderoga and Fort Edward—
( eee "1 watching the motions of the enemy. The French, under
= the celebrated partisan Marin, were also on the lookout
for them, and only a mile and a half distant.

In a spirit of false emulation, and in disregard of that prime virtue of
the Ranger—caution in the presence of an enemy—Rogers, before march-
ing, practised firing at a mark with a British ofticer. The sound reached
the ears of the vigilant Marin, who hastily formed an ambuseade at the
point where the Rangers soon afterwards emerged from a dense thicket
into the open woods. Putnam was in front, Captain Dalzell, with some
British regulars, was in the centre, while Rogers brought up the rear.

Just as Putnam entered the forest the enemy rose, and with discordant
yells and whoops began the attack. He halted and returned the fire, his
men scattering, sometimes fighting aggressively in open view, and some-
times individually under cover, taking aim from behind each tree. Dalzell
came promptly to his support, Rogers contenting himself with protecting
the flanks and rear. After a hard struggle the enemy were driven from
the field, leaving about ninety dead.

Early in the fight a rush was made upon the Rangers, and Putnam’s
fusee unfortunately missed fire, Just as he was confronted by a large and
powerful savage. With uplifted hatchet and exultant yell the warrior
sprang forward, compelled him to surrender, and then disarming him and
binding him to a tree returned to the conflict.

A turn in the tide of battle soon brought this tree directly between the




Do INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

two parties, and it was pierced by many of the balls which flew incessantly
from either side. Putnam’s clothes were riddled with shot-holes, but not
a bullet touched his person. In this uncomfortable situation, unable to
stir hand or foot, or even to incline his head, he remained more than an
hour, when, on the retreat of the enemy, he was unbound and earried off
by his captor.

At one time, when the Indians had gained ground, a young brave
amused himself by throwing his tomahawk as near Putnam’s head as pos-
sible without hitting it. While engaged in this pleasant oceupation, the
weapon several times struck the tree within a hair’s-breadth of the mark.































































































































































































































































































SITE OF FORT ANNE.

Ile tired at length of this cruel sport, and a more savage Pyenchman ap-
proached and levelled his musket within a foot of Putnam’s breast. Fortu-
nately it missed fire. In vain Putnam claimed the consideration due to a
prisoner of war; the dastardly wretch gave him a cruel blow on the jaw
with the butt end of his piece, and then left him to his fate. |
At some distance from the scene of action he was stripped of his coat,
vest, stockings, and shoes, loaded with as many of the packs of the wounded
as could be piled upon him, strongly pinioned, and his wrists tied as
tightly together as they could be pulled with a cord. When, after a
long and toilsome march, the party halted, his naked feet were torn and
Ge
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THE FRENCH COMMANDER SAVING PUTNAM,
ROGERS’S RANGERS. 255

bleeding, and his hands were immoderately swollen from the tightness of
the ligature.

Exhausted with bearing a burden beyond his strength, and frantic with
pain, he entreated the savages either to kill him at once or loose his
hands. A French officer interposed; his hands were unbound, and his
load lightened. Just then his captor, who had been absent, returned, gave
him a pair of moccasins, and expressed great indignation at the cruel treat-
ment of the prisoner. Ile also gave him some hard biseuit, which, as he
could not chew, on account of the blow inflicted by the Frenchman, the
more humane savage soaked in water. This and some bear’s meat he
managed to suck through his teeth, and allay his extreme hunger.

On encamping for the night, the savages, besides other outrages, had
the barbarity to inflict upon him a deep wound with a tomahawk in his
left cheek. They had determined to roast him alive, in accordance with
their savage custom with captives taken in battle.

Leading him into the forest, he was stripped, bound fast with green
withes to a sapling, and dry brush, with other fuel, was piled at a short
distance in a circle around him. [fierce yells and savage screains accom-
panied this labor and added to the horror of the scene. The flames were
kindled, but were almost extinguished by a sudden shower. Soon the
blaze inereased, and Putnam began to feel the scorching heat. IIe could
just move his body, and often shifted sides as the fire approached—a sight
which afforded the greatest diversion to his inhuman tormentors, as he
could perceive by their yelling, gesticulating, and dancing.

Only a short time before he had been nearly roasted in a suecessful
and heroic effort to save the powder-nagazine at Fort Edward, after its
outer planking had been burned through; and it had taken him a month
to recover from the effects of that fierce battle with the flames. This
time he had given up all hope of escape from the fiery fate that enveloped
him, when a French officer, rushing through the savage throng, seattered
the burning brands and unbound the victim. It was Marin himself, to
whom a humane Indian had hastened with the tidings, just in time to save
him, and who remained with him and protected him until the return of his
captor, who it seems had not been present at his attempted torture.

This savage, while treating his captive with humanity, took every
precaution to prevent his escape. His mode of securing him at night
was most ingenious. Lying on his back upon the ground, Putnain’s
arms and legs were stretched apart, and each fastened to a sapling. Then
a number of tall but slender poles were cut, which with some long bushes
wore laid across his body from head to foot. On these, at each side, lay
256 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

as many Indians as could conveniently bestow themselves. In this dis-
agreeable and painful posture Putnam passed the long and dreary night ;
but, as he afterwards related, he could not, in spite of his discomfort and
suffering, help smiling at the thought of what a ludicrous group for a
painter this scene presented. At Ticonderoga he was placed under a
I'rench guard and properly treated. Transferred to Montreal, he was
finally exchanged through the
exertions of Colonel Peter

Schuyler, a fellow-prisoner.
Israel Putnam, who rose
to be the senior major-general
in the Revolutionary army,
and next in rank to Washing-
ton, was born at Salem, Mas-
sachusetts, in 1718. He had
the slight education of a farm-
er’s son at that day, but pos-
sessed a vigorous frame, great
bodily strength, hardiness, and
activity, together with no or-
dinary share of courage, enter-
prise, and perseverance. Ile
was a hero, not only by consti-
tution and temperament, but
nf | ie by the nobler impulses of love
AWA of country, and an invincible

Se \\\ :
Taree devotion to duty. As a cap-
MAJOR ISRAEL PUTNAM IN BRITISH UNIFORM. tain in Lyman’s provincial
regiment, in 1755, he became
connected with Captain Rogers, of the Rangers, and having himself a
similar command, they were frequently associated together in scouting and
other service. m

On the first oceasion of the kind it was Putnam's good-fortune to save
the life of Rogers, who, with himself—their men being concealed at a
little distance—was engaged in the hazardous operation of reconnoitring
the works at Crown Point, in the midst of a forest filled with hostile
Indians. While thus engaged, in the early morning, Rogers accidentally
encountered a stout Frenchman, who instantly seized his fusee with one
hand and with the other attempted to stab him, while he called to the
guard for assistance. Putnam, perceiving the imminent danger of his






































































































































































































































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PUTNAM SAVING FORT EDWARD.
ROGERS’S RANGERS. 259

friend, hastened to the spot, and with the butt end of his piece laid the
Frenchman dead at his feet. Speedily rejoining their party, they made
good their retreat. |

Putnam was present at the siege of Montreal, in 1760, at the capture
of Havana, in 1762, and in 1764 was a colonel in Bradstreet’s expedition
against the western Indians. His military reputation was of great service
to the patriot cause at the outset of the Revolution, inspiring his country-
men with the confidence they so much needed to enable them to confront
the great military power they were then defying.























































































































CROWN POINT.

IIe was a conspicuous figure at the siege of Boston, and at Bunker
Till seems to have exercised, at the redoubt, the breastwork, the rail-fence,
and in the retreat, all the functions of a commanding officer. While com-
manding at the Highlands of New York he made the judicious selection
of West Point as the site of a fortress. While posted at Reading, Con-
necticut, in 1778, with only a picket-guard, he was suddenly attacked by
the British troops, and escaped by plunging down a precipice where the
dragoons in pursuit of him dared not follow. One of their bullets having
pierced his hat, Tryon, their commander, by way of compensation, sent
him soon afterwards a complete suit of clothes. Me had an attack of
paralysis in the fall of 1779, and died at Brooklyn, Connecticut, May 29,
1790. Putnam was a good executive officer, but was more brave than
260 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

prudent. Though wanting in dignity, he possessed a large share of those
nobler attributes, humanity and generosity.

Few men ever encountered such a variety of dangers, or faced death
in so many different forms. From the fierce she-wolf in her den—a story
with which all boys are familiar; the burning powder-magazine at Fort
Edward; the fiery torture at the stake; the tomahawk and the bullet of
the concealed savage whose forest haunts he invaded; close and bloody
contests with Indians and Frenchmen in the Old French War; at the
Havana, fighting at the same time the Spaniard and the pestilence, which
proved fatal to so many of his companions; and lastly at Bunker Hill and
on other Revolutionary fields—a conspicuous target for British bullets.
With the exception of the singeing he got at Fort Edward, and the eruel-
ties inflicted upon him while a prisoner, he escaped, as by a miracle, from
all these manifold perils without a wound.

We come now to the last exploit of this famous corps of Rangers.
The village of the St. Francis Indians was situated in the heart of Canada,
midway between Montreal and Quebec. This tribe was wholly in the in-
terest of the French, and had for a century past harassed the New England
frontier even in times of peace. During the past six years they had killed
and carried away more than six hundred persons, and it was determined
by Amherst, the British commander -in-chief, that a signal chastisement
should be inflicted upon them. To this arduous service the Rangers were
assigned.

The march through two hundred miles of unbroken wilderness was
one of great difficulty and no slight peril. The boats of the Rangers, in
which were the provisions for their home journey, had been left at Missis-
qui Bay, and they soon learned that these had fallen into the hands of the
enemy, who were following in their track. This was a serious blow, and
threatened the ruin of their enterprise, but they determined to push on,
and accomplish their object by outmarching their pursuers.

For nine days their route lay through a spruce-bog, a portion of which
was covered with water a foot deep. When they encamped at night,
boughs were cut from the trees, and a kind of rude hammock constructed
to keep them from the water. Their daily march began a little before
daybreak, and continued until after dark at night. The tenth day after
leaving the bay found them at a river fifteen miles north of St. Francis,
which they were compelled to ford against a swift current. To accom-
plish this the tallest men were put up stream, and holding by each other
the party crossed in safety.

Twenty-two days after leaving Crown Point, Rogers’s_ party, number-
ROGERS’S RANGERS. 261

ing one hundred and fifty-two, men and officers, came in sight of the In-
dian town. Upon climbing a tree it was revealed to them at a distance
of three miles. On reconnoitring the village, the Indians were
seen to be engaged in a “* high frolic’’—a wedding celebration,
as it proved

Oct. 5, 1759.



and were dancing and enjoying themselves as was customary
upon such occasions.

Ifalf an hour before sunrise the Rangers rushed upon the sleeping vil-
lage. The surprise was complete. The Indians had no time to arm them-
selves, and in a few minutes the work was done. Two hundred of them
were killed, some women and children were captured, five English prison-
ers released, and the village was wholly consumed. Six hundred human
scalps were found hanging upon poles over the doors of the wigwams.

For their subsistence on the march home, the Rangers loaded them-
selves with corn, the only provision to be found. From the prisoners they
learned that three hundred French and Indians were close at hand, im addi-
tion to the party already known to be in pursuit. It was at once deter-
mined to return by a different route from that by which they came, and
that by the Connecticut River to Number Four (Charlestown, N. IL) was
selected. The annals of the wilderness contain no more thrilling chapter
than that which records their sufferings during this terrible journey.
Ilunger and privation of every kind—these they were familiar with; a
vengeful foe following upon their track—even this inspired no especial
dread; but starvation! that was an enemy before whom the stoutest and
bravest quailed. Some of the details of their sufferings are too shocking
for repetition.

After repulsing repeated attacks, Rogers at length turned upon Ins
pursuers, and dealt them a punishment so severe as to stop further assaults,
though the Indians continued to follow him with the tenacity of blood-
hounds.

For eight days the Rangers kept together, but at Lake Memphrema-
gog the scarcity of food compelled them to separate into companies, with
guides to each. The place where they were to meet was at the mouth of
the Aimmonoosueck River, to which point supplies had been directed to be
sent. On arriving at the Coos Tntervales, worn down with hunger and
fatigue, they found, to their dismay, that the officer who had been de-
spatched with provisions to their rescue had returned, after waiting but
two days, carrying the supplies with hin, and that he had been gone
hardly two hours!

This was a terrible disappointment. Says Rogers: “We found a fresh
fire burping in his camp, and tired guns te bring him back, which he
262 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

heard, but would not return, supposing we were an enemy. In this emer.
gency I resolved to make the best of my way to Number Four, leaving
the remainder of the party—now unable to proceed farther—to obtain such
wretched subsistence as the wilderness afforded until I could relieve them,
which I promised to do in ten days.” :

With great difficulty Rogers reached his destination, and on the tenth
day after his departure relief reached his men at Coos, as he had pronused.
Upon the arrival of the survivors at Crown Point, it was ascertained that
the Rangers had lost in this retreat three officers and forty-six men. Two
of the parties had been overtaken, and most of the men composing them
killed or captured by the enemy.

Great as were the sufferings of the other parties, they were as nothing
compared with those of Licutenant George Campbell and his companions,
lor four days they were without subsistence of any kind whatever. Their
ynisery was so aggravated, by their not knowing whither the route they
were following would lead them, that some lost their reason. What
leather they had in their cartridge-boxes they had reduced to a cinder and
greedily devoured, when relief finally reached them.

The Rangers took part in the final ‘unpaign of 1760, which ended in
the conquest of Canada, and, in a skirmish with the rear-guard of the re-
treating Trench, fired the last hostile guns of the war. By order of Gen-
eral Amherst they were sent to take possession of Detroit, and the other
western posts ceded by the French.

Rogers’s subsequent career was not particularly creditable to him.
While Governor of Michilimackinac, in 1766, he was arrested for plotting
to give it up to the Spaniards, and’ sent in irons to Montreal for trial. Tle
managed to be acquitted of the charge, and on visiting England, in 1769,
was presented to the King. Returning to America on the breaking out
of the Revolution, in 1775, he was suspected by Washington of being a
spy, and prohibited from entering the American camp. Arrested in June,
1776, he was soon released by order of Congress, and at once openly joined
the British in violation of his parole of honor. Obtaining a commission
as colonel in the British service, he raised a corps known as the Queen’s
Rangers, afterwards commanded by Colonel Simcoe, and famous for its
exploits. Rogers, however, gained no laurels while at its head, and came
near being captured in an attack upon an American outpost near Ma-
maroneck, in New York. He soon afterwards returned to England, where
he died near the close of the century.


PONTIAC’S WAR. " 263

AIL.
PONTIAC’S WAR.

Te seven years’ war was over. The long contest for supremacy in

- America between England and France had ended in the surrender by
the latter of Canada and all her western posts. The undefined
territory of Louisiana, in the South, alone remained to her of all
her former extensive possessions in North America. The first act of the
great drama of American Independence had been played—a fact of which

1763.

the chief actors themselves were profoundly ignorant.

3ut while the conquest of Canada paved the way for the independence
of the British colonies, it boded no good to the Indian. Tle saw his dan-
ger, and sought to avert it. The firm hold the French had taken on the
alfections of the western Indians had not been shaken by defeat. They
still clung to them, and refused to believe that the hated English had con-
quered and that their old friends had taken final leave.

This feeling was strengthened by the contrast between the courteous
and attentive behavior of the French, and the msolent and brutal treat-
ment received from the English soldiers who replaced them at the frontier
posts. The former had supplied them regularly with guns, ammunition,
and clothing; the withholding of these by the latter had brought upon
them, as a consequence, want, suffering, and death. These evils had been
largely inereased by their introduction of the hitherto prohibited trate in
rmu—* fire-water,” as the Indians expressively called it.

Glancing at the condition of the country beyond the settlements at
this time, we find it—with the exception of an occasional Indian village
—one vast forest. In it a human being, white or red, was rarely to
be seen.

Contact with the whites had changed, without improving the eondition
of the red man. The warlike Iroquois had declined in importance. Some
of the Delawares and other smaller tribes dwelt upon the head-waters of
the Susquehanna and the Alleghany, but the larger part of them lived
upon the Beaver creeks and the Muskingum. The Shawnees were found
- 264 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

along the Scioto; the Miamis, on the Wabash and the Maumee. The IIli-
nois, once numerous and powerful, had, through imtemperance, become
scattered and degraded. Along the Detroit and near Sandusky were the
Wyandots, whose industry and good husbandry had placed them foremost
among the western tribes in civilization and progress. .

Albany, New York, was the largest town on the frontier. Traders
and others, journeying to the region of the lakes, made this their starting.
point. Ascending the Mohawk to Fort Stanwix, they would pass overland
to Wood Creek, follow the windings of this stream to Oneida Lake, and
crossing its western extremity, descend the river Oswego to the town of
that name 6n the banks of Lake Ontario.

































Pil
ni
; rT}







TRADING WITH THE INDIANS.

From Philadelphia the route to the Indian country was over the
Alleghanies, then descending their western slope to the valley of the Ohio.
At the close of the war adventurous traders, transporting their goods on
the backs of horses, regardless of the perils that beset them, pushed on
over the mountains. They were a bold, rough set, and went well armed.
Their wares consisted of blankets and red cloth, guns and hatchets, liquor,
tobacco, paint, beads, hawksbills, ete.

In Southern Illinois were to be seen the old French outposts, Kaskaskia,
Cahokia, and Vincennes. Farther up the Wabash was Fort Ouantenon,
PONTIAC’S WAR. 205

whence a trail through the forest led to Fort Miami on the Maumce. De-
scending the Maumee to Lake Erie, one would have Sandusky on the
right, or, farther north, through the Strait of Detroit, would pass Fort
Detroit to the northern Jakes. Farther east, beyond the Alleghanies, were
lorts Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, and Venango.

The conquered French inhabitants did all they could to influence the
resentment of the Indians, and as they were being constantly pushed from
their lands by an increased tide of English immigration, little was wanting
to bring on another bloody Indian war. That little was soon supplied.

karly in 1768 the red men were told that the King of France had
given all their country to the King of England. Furious at this outrage,
a plot of vast proportions was at once matured. The destruction of. all
the Inghsh forts and garrisons was to take place on a given day; the
defenceless frontier settlements were to be swept away, and finally, as they
hoped and believed, the English would all be driven into the sea. This
has been, by a misuse of words, called a conspiracy; in reality it was a
patriotic, though hopeless, effort on the part of the natives to free their
country from a hated invader, and to avert the impending doom of
the race.

The leader in this great uprising was Pontiac, head chief of the Ot-
tawas, then in his fiftieth year. With the Ottawas were confederated the
kindred tribes of Ojibwas and Potawatomies. Pontiac possessed great
courage, eloquence, and energy, more than ordinary mental powers, and
was unmatched for craft and subtlety. Ile was of middle height, with a
figure of remarkable symmetry. [is coniplexion was unusually dark, and
his features, though void of regularity, were expressive of boldness and
vigor, Which, united with an habitually imperious and peremptory manner,
were sufficiently indicative of unusual strength of will. To these qualities.
combined with the passions, the fierceness, and treachery of his race, was
added a powerful ambition, and he had acquired great influence over the
western tribes. Ie had fought on the French side during the war, and
was said to have led the Ottawas at Braddock’s defeat.

In 1760 Major Rogers, with his Rangers, was sent to Detroit to replace
the French with an English garrison. On nearing that post
he was met by an embassy from Pontiae—*“ lord and ruler of
all that country ”—and directed to proceed no farther until the arrival of
the chief himself. Poutiae soon appeared.

«What is your business In my country, and how dare vou enter it
without my permission was the haughty demand with which he greeted

rad

November 4.

a, wry ta
the Ranger,
266 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.















me Ty
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Rogers told him his errand.
Pontiac listened with attention,
and with savage dignity ex-
claimed,

“IT stand in the path!”

On the following day, how-
ever, the chief re-appeared, and
made a conciliatory speech; the
pipe of peace was smoked, and
harmony was apparently estab-
lished. “T had several confer-
ences with him,” says Rogers,
“in which he discovered. great

PONTIAC, AND THE SIEGE OF DETROIT. streneth of judgment and a

thirst after knowledge. He puts

on an air of majesty and princely grandeur, and is greatly honored and
revered by his subjects.” |

Pontiac was too sagacious to believe that the English could be driven
into the sea. His plan was to bring back the French, as a check to British
encroachments. This idea had been held up to him by the Canadians,
who told him that the armies of the French king, destined for the recovery
of Canada, were already on the way. Acting upon this idea, he sent am-
bassadors, bearing the war-belt of waimyoum and the reddened tomahawk,


PONTIAC’S WAR. 267

in token of war, to the different tribes. Those of the west accepted his
message and pledged themselves to take part in the war. With the ex-
ception of the Senecas, the Iroquois confederacy was kept neutral by the
strenuous exertions of Sir William Johnson. Up to the very moment of
the outbreak the Indians sueceeded in concealing their design. They con-
tinued, meanwhile, to hang around the posts, “ begging, as usual, for tobacco,
gunpowder, and whiskey.” *

Detroit, near which were the villages of the Wyandots, Potawatomies,
and Ottawas, was founded by the French as an Indian trading- post in
1701, and had at this time two thousand five hundred French inhabitants,
dwelling on productive farms on both sides of the river. The fort was in
the centre of the settlement, on the western margin of the river, and con-
tained about one hundred houses, surrounded by a palisade twenty - five
feet high and about one thousand two hundred yards in cireumference 3 a
wooden bastion stood at each corner, and each gate-way was protected by
a block-house. It was garrisoned by about one hundred and twenty soldiers,
and about forty fur-traders and employés. Some small pieces of cannon
were mounted on the bastions, and two small armed schooners lay anchored
opposite the town. |

On the night of May 6, 1763, Major Gladwyn, the commander of the
fort, received secret intelligence that an attempt would be made the next
day to capture the fort by treachery. The guard was weak, the defences
feeble and extensive. Tearing an immediate attack, Gladwyn doubled his
sentinels, and kept an anxious wateh all that might.

Next morning Pontiae, with sixty chosen warriors, each of whom was
armed with a gun eut short so that it was hidden under his blanket, enter-
ed the fort. Ilis plan was to demand a council, and, after delivering his
speceh, to offer a peace-belt of wanipum. This belt was worked on one
side with white and on the other with green beads. The reversal of the
belt from the white to the green side was to be the signal of attack. Ev-
ery Englishman was to be killed, but not a Frenchman was to be touched.
The plan was well laid, and might have sueceeded had it not been revealed
to Gladwyn.

The savage throng, plumed and feathered, and besmeared with paint,
had no sooner entered the fort than they saw that their plot had failed.
Soldiers and employés were armed and ready for action. Pontiac and his
warriors, however, moved on, betraying no sign of surprise, and entered the
council-room, where Gladwyn and his officers, all well armed, awaited them.

* Parkman, ‘‘ Conspiracy of Pontiac,” i. 188.
268 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.




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standing in the street with
their guns ?”

“To keep the young
men from idleness,” was
the reply of the sagacious
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brave, but this decisive proof that his plot was discovered com pletely dis-






PONTIAC’S WAR. 269

concerted him. IIe delivered the belt in the usual manner, and the
council then broke up. The gates were again opened, and the baftled
savages withdrew.

Failing to capture the fort by stratagem, Pontiac next tried an open
attack. A large war party of Ojibwas had joined him from Saginaw. Ot-
tawas, Ojibwas, Potawatomies, and Wyandots, all had united,
and came like an avalanche, yelling the warwhoop, naked, and
painted for the fight. Sheltering themselves behind adjacent buildings,
the Indians kept up an incessant fire for several hours. Some buildings

May 9.

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PONTIAC AND GLADWYN.
270 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.























































































































































































































































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PONTIAC’S ATTACK ON THE FORT.

within the fort were set on fire by their blazing arrows, but the flames
were soon extinguished. Day after day they continued their attacks. No
man of the beleaguered garrison lay down to sleep except in his clothes
and with his weapons by his side. The two vessels in the river helped
the defence, protecting by their fire the northern and southern faces of
the works. The smaller one was despatched to Niagara for aid. Pontiac
was determined to capture the fort, and omitted no means in his power to
accomplish his purpose.

Under the pretence of pacific negotiations he decoyed Captain Camp-
bell into his camp. This officer, who had formerly commanded the fort,
was favorably known to the Indians. Unfortunately for him, in-a sortie
from the fort, an Ottawa of distinction had been killed. The nephew of
PONTIAC’S WAR. 271

this Indian avenged his death by killing Campbell—an act disavowed and
regretted by Pontiac.

In order to compensate the French inhabitants of Detroit for the pro-
visions he was forced to exact from them, Pontiac had recourse to a strange
and novel, but successful expedient —one which reveals the native e ability
of the man. He issued promissory notes drawn on bireh-bark, on which
was a figure representing the article wanted, and signed with the hgure of
an otter, the totem or offer-graph of his family. These he is said to have
faithfully redeemed. He kept two seeretaries—one to write for him, the
other to read the letters he received, and he managed to keep each in igno-
rance of what was done by the other.



A supply of provisions and ammunition despatched from Fort Niagara
for the relief of the garrison of Detroit was waylaid and captured near the
mouth of the Detroit River. .As the long line of bateaux came
in sight, it was welcomed by a gun from the fort. It was soon
painfully evident, however, that the convoy was in the hands of the enemy.
The boats were rowed by English prisoners. The foremost had arrived
opposite the larger of the two vessels anchored in the stream, when the

May 30.

soldier who steered her conceived a daring plan of escape. Ue knew that
death, perhaps by torture, was to be his fate, and he saw one chance
for life.

Seizing the principal Indian, he endeavored to throw him overboard.
A. desperate struggle ensued; both were precipitated into the water, and
went down together; the remaining Indians leaped out of the boat. The
prisoners pulled for the vessel, shouting for aid, and were at onee fired
upon and hotly pursued. The light birch canoes of the savages gained
rapidly upon them. One of the soldiers was hit by a bullet. Escape
seemed hopeless, when a cannon-shot from the schooner skimmed along
the surface of the water, narrowly missing the leading cance. A second
followed. This stopped the chase, and the fugitives reached the vessel in
safety. The tortured and mangled corpses that floated past Detroit on the
following day revealed the horrible fate which had befallen their fellow-
soldiers. This surprise and capture was effected by the Wyandots.

A month later the vessel which had been despatched to Niagara reached
Detroit after a perilous passage, bringing a reinforcement of sixty men,
and the supplies, of which they were greatly in need. While
lying becalned in the narrowest part of the river, a few miles
above the fort, the Indians had attempted her capture. The captain, ex-
vecting an attack, haa kept all but twelve of his men concealed below,
keeping a strict watch from the time the sun went down

Jane 30.
272 INDIAN HISTORY FOR YOUNG FOLKS.

Hours passed, and the sentinels at length perceived dark objects mov-
ing upon the water. The men were quietly summoned from below, and
noiselessly took their posts. The stroke of a hammer upon the mast was
to be their signal to fire. When the Indians had approached sufficiently
near, they were greeted with a sudden discharge of cannon and musketry,
scattering death and destruction among them. Some of the canoes were
sunk, and a number of the Indians were killed and wounded; the re-
mainder fled in consternation to the shore. Some days later, with a favor-
ing breeze, the vessel left her exposed position, sending a volley of grape
into the Wyandot village as she passed, and finally anchored along-side of
her companion at the fort.

Pontiac made a determined effort to destroy these vessels by means of
burning rafts filled with combustibles. Three times it was tried, without
success, and the attempt was then abandoned. Some of the Indians, weary
of the siege, now came to the fort and begged for peace. Treaties were
made with the Wyandots and the Potawatomies, the latter restoring all
their captives. The Ottawas and Ojibwas obstinately continued the siege.

At the end of July, Captain Dalzell arrived, with a reinforcement of
two hundred and eighty men, and having obtained the reluctant assent of
Gladwyn, marched that night with a strong party to surprise Pontiac’s
camp. The plan was revealed by some Canadians, and the Indians pre-
pared to receive him. A mile and a half from the fort, a creek, ever since
called Bloody Run, descended through a wild and rough hollow, and was<