Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Map of the Indian reservations...
 What we know about the American...
 Early European intercourse with...
 Virginia colonized
 The New England Indians
 The Iroquois
 King Philip's war
 The Southern Indians
 French and Indian wars
 The "old French war" (1755-176...
 Story of a captive
 Rogers's rangers
 Pontiac's war
 The Indians take part with the...
 The backwoodsmen of Kentucky
 Wars with the Western Indians...
 Tecumseh, and the War of 1812
 War with the Creek Nation
 The Black Hawk War
 War with the Seminoles of...
 Recent Indian wars
 Back Cover

Group Title: Indian history for young folks
Title: Indian history for young folks /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054263/00001
 Material Information
Title: Indian history for young folks /
Physical Description: 479, 4 p., 2 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.), col. map, ports ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Drake, Francis S ( Francis Samuel ), 1828-1885
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers,
Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1885, c1884
Copyright Date: 1884
Subject: Indians of North America -- Wars -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Generals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Death -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1885   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1885
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Francis S. Drake ; with numerous illustrations.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Frontispiece printed in colors.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054263
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ALG5791
alephbibnum - 002225516
oclc - 65191155

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Map of the Indian reservations within the United States
        Page 12a
    What we know about the American Indian
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Early European intercourse with the Indians
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Virginia colonized
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    The New England Indians
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    The Iroquois
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    King Philip's war
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    The Southern Indians
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    French and Indian wars
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    The "old French war" (1755-1760)
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    Story of a captive
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    Rogers's rangers
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Pontiac's war
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
    The Indians take part with the mother country against her American colonies
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
    The backwoodsmen of Kentucky
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
    Wars with the Western Indians (1789-95)
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
    Tecumseh, and the War of 1812
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
    War with the Creek Nation
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
    The Black Hawk War
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
    War with the Seminoles of Florida
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
    Recent Indian wars
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
    Back Cover
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
Full Text



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------------ ------ --







V+ w ,









.1f A R IP E R








Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

All rights reserved.


H hAVE thought that a plain narrative of some of the more striking
events in our Indian history might not prove uninteresting to my
young countrymen.
It is the story of the heroic, but hopeless, struggle for self-preservation
of a weaker against a stronger race; and as we read it we cannot help
sympathizing in some degree with the Indian in his patriotic effort to pre-
serve his country and to drive off tlie intruding white man. Though not
inferior to him in bravery, sagacity, and cunning, the Indian was no match
for his cool, steady, well-disciplined white opponent. Indeed, the great
lesson of the struggle is that it shows conclusively the superiority of the
civilized man over the savage, even in those warlike arts in which the
latter most excelled.
One other thing must not be forgotten. The deadly perils to which
the early settlers were daily and hourly exposed from the incursions of a
savage foe-the ambush and the midnight surprise, their sufferings while
undergoing the horrors of captivity or the agonies of torture; when we
think of these things-they were common occurrences in those early days
-we are enabled to realize in some small degree the cost and the value of
the peaceful, happy homes we now enjoy.
With the exception of a few roving bands of Apaches and other wild
tribes of the plains, the Indian pictured in these pages no longer exists.
In ceasing to be a hunter and a warrior, he has lost much of his distinctive
character. Civilization has taken hold of him, and one by one his old
isuperstitions and savage customs will( disappear. His children are being


educated, lie is turning his attention to farming, and, slowly it is true, but
surely, he is acquiring the arts and modes of life of his civilized brother,
" learning," as he expresses it, "to tread the white man's path."
Indian wars of any magnitude are, happily, no longer possible; and at
no distant day the native race will be absorbed in the great mass of our
population, clothed with all the rights and privileges, as well as with the
duties, of American citizenship.

RoXBuRY, August, 1884.













THE i" Oi FRENCh WAR (1755-1760), .

STORY OF A C 'TiVE . . . .



a . 228

. a a a 13

. 47

. . . . . 106

. 127

. .145

* .

* ,,





PONTIAC'S WAR . . . . 2.6











. 98

* 5 5 4





. S 5 S

. 426


0 q 0 0. 471


S. 236



S.. *

. . . .

* *



Christopher Columbus . . .
Newark Earthwork. . . . .
A North American Indian . . .
M occasions . . . . .
ZuMii Dwellings . . .
Bowl of Indian Pipe . . . .
Snow-shoe. . . . .
Canoe and House of Southern Indians
Picture-writing . . .
Grave-post . . . . .
The Dighton Rock Inscription
Indian Council . . . .
Indian Cradle. . . . . .
The Indians at Home . . . .
A Scalp Dance . . . . .
Scalp . . . . . .
In Ambush . . . .
A Class-room . . . . .
Sebastian Cabot, by Holbein. .
John Verrazzano. . . . .
Jacques Cartier . . .
Jacques Cartier erects a Cross .
View of Montreal and its Walls in 1760.
(From an old French print) . .
Ponce de Leon . . .
Fernando de Soto . . . .
I)e Soto Discovering the Mississippi .
Burial of De Soto . . . .
Zufli Woman at a Window .
)oe -M onts . . . . .



Champlain's Fortified Residence at Que-
bec . . .
Hendrik Hudson .
The IIalf-Moon at Yonkers . . .
Dutch and Indians Trading .
The Massacre of the Indians at Pavonia
The Trading Post . . . .
New York in 1664 . . .
Peter Stuyvesant . . . .
Beginning of New York . . .
Sir Francis Drake . . . .
William Penn . . . .
Landing of William Penn at Philadel-
phia . . . . .
Penn and the Indians.
Form of Raleigh's Ships . . .
Sir Walter Raleigh . . . .
Arrival at Jamestown, 1607 . .
Ruins at Jamestown . . . .
Powxhatan . . . . .
Pocahontas shields Him from their
Clubs . . . . .
A Medicine-man . . . .
Captain Smith subduing the Chief
Marriage of Pocahontas . . .
Pocahontas . . . .
Captain John Smith, Admiral of New
England . . . .
Landing of the Pilgrims . . .
First Encounter with the Indians

. Frontispiece
To face page 13








"Welcome, Englishmen !" .
Plymouth Wilderness
Interview with Massasoit
The Palace of King Massasoit.
Edward Winslow . . .
Governor Endicott.
John Eliot . .
John Eliot preaching to the Indians
Governor Winthrop. ....
Long House at Onondaga
Going to Fight the Iroquois
First Battle with the Iroquois
Samuel de Champlain . .
Lake Champlain . . .
Attack on the Iroquois Fort
Fortified Town of the Onondagas

Governor Colden . . . .
Mount Hope . . . . .
King Philip . . . . .
Captain Benjamin Church.....
Fight at Tiverton . . . .
The Great Swamp Fight in Rhode Island
Lancaster Attacked . . . .
Death of King Philip . . . .
Ninigret . . . . .
Defence of the Garrison-house.
Oglethorpe's Landing. . . .
General Oglethorpe . . .
Cherokees . . . . .
Francis Marion . . . . .
John Ross . . . . .
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle.
Indians attacking the Settlers
Major Waldron's Terrible Figlht
Schenectady ....... .
Scene of Operations-French and Indian
W ars . . . . .
Peter Schuyler . . . . .
Pemaquid . . . . .
Old Fort Frederick, at Pemaquid. .
Old Church in St. Regis . . .
Garrison-house at Oyster River success-
fully Defended . . . .

S 110
. 111
. 122
. 123
S 130
S 131
S 134




Governor Shirley . . . .
Washington as a Virginia Colonel
Benjamin Franklin . . .
Horatio Gates . . . . .
Daniel Morgan . .
Braddock's Defeat . . . .
Sir William Johnson.......
Johnson's House . . . .
Hendrick . . . .
Indian Raid on a Settlement . .
Louis Joseph Montcalm . . .
Oswego in 1755 . . . . .
Fort William Henry . . . .
St. John (1776) . . . . .
Capture of Fort Duquesne (1758) . .
An Indian Ambush . . . .
Major Robert Rogers . . . .
Ruins of Ticonderoga. . . .
Country around Ticonderoga . .
John Stark . . . .
Stark captured by Indians.....
The Retreat of the Rangers. . .
Rogers's Rock . . . . .
Head of Lake George. . . .
Site of Fort Anne . . . .
The French Commander saving Putnam
Major Israel Putnam in British Uni-
form . . . . .
Putnam saving Fort Edward . .
Crown Point. . . . . .
Trading with the Indians . . .
Pontiac, and the Siege of Detroit .
Detroit River and Vicinity .....
Pontiac and Gladwyn . . .
iPontiac's Attack on the Fort . .
Old Fort Michilimackinac . . .
SRestored Captive recognizing its Moth-
er by a Song of Childhood . .
Fort Niagara . . . . .
Isaac Shelby.. . . . . .
SGeneral Burgoyne .. . . .
Burgoyne making a Speech to the In-
7 dians -





. . l



Fort Stanwix (afterward Fort Schuyler)
and Vicinity. . . . .
Colonel Barry St. Leger. ....
Joseph Brant . . . . .
Colonel Peter Gansevoort . . .
General Herkimer directing the Battle.
Battle-field at Oriskany . . .
Marinus Willett . . . .
Benedict Arnold . . . .
George Rogers Clarke . . .
John Sullivan . . . . .
Newtown Battle-field . . . .
James Clinton . . . . .
Andrew Pickens . . . .
Red Jacket . . . . .
Daniel Boone . . . . .
Emigrants' Camp Attacked.....
Boone's Fort. . . . .
Graves of Daniel Boone and his Wife .
Boone at the Blue Licks . . .
Boone fighting over the Dead Body of

his Son . . .
Burning the Prisoners
Kenton and his Deliverer
Simon Kenton . . .
Map of the North-western Territc
Fort Washington-Site of Cincin
Fort Harmar.. . ...
Fort Wayne in 1812 .
James Wilkinson . . .
Arthur St. Clair . . .
General Wayne . .
Fort Defiance . . .
The Maumee Ford-Place of Ha
Defeat . . . .
Ruins of Fort Miami . .
Little Turtle's Grave
Tecumseh. . . . .
Elkswatawa, the Prophet
Fort Harrison . . . .
Tippecanoe Battle-ground in 1860
William ull . . . .
William Euistis . . . .


. . 330
ry .337
nati 338
. 343
S. 344
S 344
. . 347
. . 348
. 349
S. .351
S . 355
3. 61

Duncan MacArthur . . .
Lewis Cass, 1860 . . . .
Colonel James Miller . . .
Maguaga Battle-ground . . .
Fort Mackinac . . . .
Fort Dearborn, 1812 . . .
Zachary Taylor. . . . .
Monroe, from the Battle-field--Site
Winchester's Defeat . . .
Siege of Fort Meigs . . .
General Green Clay . . .
William Henry Harrison . .

Appearance of the Thames Bat
ground in 1860 . . .
Oshawahnah . . . ..
Battle of the Thames . . .
Colonel Richard M. Johnson . .
Seat of War in Southern Alabama.
Tecumseh's Speech . . .
Fort Mims . . . .
Andrew Jackson in 1814 . .
Battle of Talladega . . .
The Canoe Fight . . . .
General John Coffee
The Battle of the Horseshoe . .
Samuel Houston . . . .
James Monroe . . . .
Black Hawk . . ...
General Winfield Scott in 1860 .
Scene of the Seminole War.
General D. L. Clinch . .
Osceola . . . . .
Osceola's Grave. . . .
Edmund Pendleton Gaines . .
Old Spanish Fort, St. Augustine
Following a Trail ......
Billy Bowlegs . . . .
St. Augustine . . . .
Little Crow . . .
General Sibley . . . .
Lieutenant-colonel Marshall . .
Capture of Indian Camp . . .

. 362 Little Paul

. 369
. 371
* 371


3 76
. 403
. 409


Sioux Village . . . . .
Medicine-chief . . . . .
Sioux Chief forbidding Passage through
his Country . . . . .
An Apache Warrior . . . .
Fetterman's Massacre . . .
Philip Ienry Sheridan . . .
Capture of Black Kettle's Camp...
Little Raven, Chief of the Arapahoes
Major-general George Crook .
Sitting Bull . . . . .
Major-general George A. Custer . .
Spotted Tail . . . . .
Satanta, Chief of the Kiowas . .
Captain Jack and his Companions .



On the War-path
Lava Beds . . . . .
Captain Jack's Cave and Stronghold.
Lake and Camps in the Distance.
General E. R. S. Cany . . .
Modocs in their Stronghold. . .
Ma-sacre of the Commissioners by the
odocs . . . . .
Joseph, the Nez Perc6 Warrior
Nez Perc6 Boy and Papoose .
Battle of Canon Creek . . .
General 0. O. Howard . . .
Advance of the Skirmish Line . .
General Nelson A. Miles .
Kit Carson .






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tFEW young people who live east of the Mississippi River have ever
seen an Indian. Nearly all are familiar with pictures of him, or have
read stories about him. Most of these stories are highly colored, and rep-
resent him as more or less than human, and not at all as he really is.
Even those who have made a study of the Indian differ widely in their
estimate of him.
Perhaps you will ask how it happens that the Indians are now aliens
and paupers in a land of which they were once the undisputed possessors ?
It is easy to see how it all came about, but it is a story by no means cred-
itable to the white man. In the first place, the European sovereigns
claimed their lands by right of discovery. Precisely as though you should
claim another boy's sled because it was the first time you had seen it, and
then should wrest it from him because you were the stronger. This is
just what the white man did to the Indian: in plain language, robbed
It is true that in some cases lands were bought of the natives, but the
Indian had no idea of exclusive ownership in land, and supposed he was
giving the white man only an equal privilege in it with himself. The
price paid was often insignificant enough. For the territory now covered
by the great city of New York the Indians received twenty-four pounds
-about one hundred and twenty dollars-a sum which would now buy
little more than a square foot of it.
One way to cheat the Indian out of his land was this : a tract of ter-
ritory granted by the Delawares to William Penn fifty years before was
to extend in a given direction as far as a man could walk in a day and a
half, and from this point castwardly to the Delaware River. The Indians
justly complained that, instead of walking, the men appointed by the pro-


prietors ran. Not only did they run, but they liad previously cut a path
through the forest and removed whatever could hinder their swift passage.
This was not all. Instead of running the northern line direct to the Dela-
ware, the plain meaning of the deed, the proprietors inclined it so far to
the north as to form an acute angle with the river.
By these fraudulent methods they gained possession of many hundred
thousand acres of valuable land which the Indians had no intention of
surrendering, and from which they were compelled immediately to re-
move. This and other injuries and aggressions ended in a terrible border
war, in which the French joined the Delawares against the English.
When the Indian turned upon his white oppressor, the effort was
made to crush and exterminate him. By alternate wars and treaties he
was pushed back from his ancient seats, until at length, cooped up in reser-
vations under the eye of the military, lie is fed and clothed by the gov-
ernment, having no rights as a citizen.
To this state of things there are some notable exceptions. In the In-
dian Territory the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Semi-
noles, known as the Five Civilized Tribes, live under a government of
their own; in New York the remaining Iroquois, having become civilized,
are citizens; in New Mexico the Pueblo Indians are semi-civilized; and
in Michigan and North Carolina there are a few Indians not on reserva-
tions. All these are self-supporting.
Is it to be wondered at that the Indian has made no greater progress
in civilization ? If white men had been treated as he has been, and placed
beyond the necessity of labor, they would quickly become worthless vaga-
bonds. It will not do to assume the inherent inferiority of the red men.
We must remember that, like them, our British ancestors were savages,
who painted their bodies, clothed themselves in the skins of wild beasts,
and lived in rude huts in a country covered with forests and swamps.
The folly and wickedness of most of our Indian wars is only too ap-
parent when we reflect that the injury the Indian could inflict upon the
innocent settlers on our border was many times greater than we could
possibly inflict upon him, and that simple justice and honesty in our deal-
ings with him would have prevented them altogether.
It was a blunder-the first of a long series in our dealings with them
-to call the natives "Indians." On discovering America, Columbus sup-
posed he had reached India, the object of his voyage. Indeed, the great
navigator died in ignorance of the fact that he had discovered a new con-
tinent. To this day the lands he first saw are known as the West Indies.
It is supposed that this country was inhabited by an earlier race of



men called Mound Builders from the earthworks of various forms and
sizes found in the valley of the Mississippi and elsewhere.
In Wisconsin many of these mounds are in the form of gigantic
animals. The builders must have been familiar with the mastodon, or
elephant, judging from the Big Elephant" mound found a few miles
below the mouth of the Wisconsin River. It is 135 feet long, and well
proportioned. One in Adams County, Ohio, represents a serpent 1000


feet long, its body gracefully curved, and its open jaws about to swallow
a figure shaped like an egg.
The great mound of Cahokia, opposite St. Louis, is 90 feet in height
and 700 feet in length. Unity of design and mathematical precision of
construction appear in all these works, most of which are of a defensive
character, and in which are represented the square, the circle, the octagon,
and the rhomb. They have gate-ways, parallel lines, and outlooks; and it
is evident that they are the results of the labors of a vast number of men
directed by a single governing mind having a definite object in view. At
Newark, Ohio, a fortification exists which covers an area of several miles,
and has over two miles of embankment from two to twenty feet high.

M M. n ,- *


The present native race has neither knowledge nor tradition respecting
these singular remains. Their builders have left us no other record than
the mounds themselves, and the tools and ornaments, some of them of
copper, and the tastefully moulded pottery found in them.
A probable conjecture about this mysterious people is that they were
village Indians of New Mexico, and that some of these earthworks were
the foundations of their long houses, in which great numbers of them
lived, and that they were finally driven off by fierce savage hordes from
the West and North. Their houses, being of wood, long since disap-
Let me now tell you what the Indian is like. Picture to yourselves
a man with straight black hair, a scanty beard, small black eyes, high
cheek-bones, large thick lips, a narrow forehead, and a reddish-brown or

A valuable paper in vol. i. of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,"
by Squier and Davis, contains much information relative to the aboriginal monuments
in the Mississippi valley.
A rbbl ojctr butti yseiuspol i htthywr
vilae ndan o NwMeic, ndtht om f hee arhwrk wr
the ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ k~ fonain hh oghoss nwic ra ub rs fte
liean ht hyweefn llydie f yfec aaehre fromt?


cinnamon complexion, and you have a tolerably correct idea of how the
North American Indian appears. Though divided into seven or eight
stocks or families, each speaking a different language, the Indians through-
out the United States have a common physical likeness and similar
manners and institutions.
The principal of these great di- --- ---
visions or families are:
Alyonkins; found throughout
the eastern portion of the country,
from Nova Scotia to North Caro-
lina, and west to the Mississippi.
They covered sixty degrees of lon-
gitude and twenty degrees of lati-
tude, and numbered 90,000-more
than one-third of the entire Indian
Iroquois, or Five NAations; in i
western and central New York, and,
farther north, the IlHrons, or Wyan-
(lots. I
iDakotas, or Sioux; west of the .
Algonkins, and extending from the
Saskatchewan River to southern Ar-
kansas, and from the Mississippi to A NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN.
the Rocky Mountains.
JMuskokis, or Appalach;ian.s; all the south-eastern part of the United
States, extending west to the Mississippi. They embraced the Cherokees,
Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, Uchees, and several other small
Shioshonis, or Snakes; this division forms six groups, extending over
parts of Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Oregon, Nevada, Montana, Arizona,
Texas, California, and New Mexico.
Besides these are the Athbabascas, iYmas, and New Mefxican Pueblos.
The first are, perhaps, the most numerous, inhabiting Alaska, Canada, and
a part of Oregon. The Yumas inhabit Arizona and California. The
Pueblos (village Indians) speak six different languages. The wide di-
versity of tongues in these twenty-six towns in New Mexico, of similar
habits and social life, is a most singular circumstance.
All these great families were divided into numerous tribes and clans,
and these again into smaller tribes, bands, and villages. They are now


distributed among one hundred reservations, and more than half of them
wear citizen's dress. Some of these reservations are very extensive; that
of the Sioux, in Dakota, is larger than the State of New York. The In-
dian Territory, with a population of 76,585, of whom more than one-fourth
are yet uncivilized, contains some thirty-five tribes or parts of tribes.
Having shown you how the Indian appears, I will now tell you what
he is.
The characteristic traits of the Indian are such as are common to all
barbarous races. Ambitious, vindictive, cruel, envious, and suspicious,
lie is also sagacious, warlike, and courageous, and, at the same time, ex-
cessively cautious. Revenge is with him a sacred duty. Treacherous and
deceitful to his foes, he prefers to slay his enemy by a secret rather than
an open blow.
On the other hand, he loves liberty passionately; will brave famine,
torture, and even death in the pursuit of glory; is strongly affectionate
to his family; hospitable to the extent of sharing his last morsel with a
stranger, though famine stares him in the face; faithful in friendship, he
will lay down his life for his comrade, and never forgets a kindness. ie
is grave, dignified, and patient, and possesses a stoicism that enables him
to control his emotions under the most trying circumstances. His out-
door life and habitual self-control keep him from all effeminate vices.
He uses tobacco for smoking only, and, before the white man came, was
happily ignorant even of the existence of intoxicating drinks.
The superiority of Indian hospitality to that of the white man was, no
doubt, truly stated by Canassatego, a chief of the Six Nations, in a con-
versation with an English friend:
If," said he, a white man enters one of our cabins, we all treat him
as I do you; we dry him if he is wet, we warm him if he is cold, and give
him meat and drink that he may allay his thirst and hunger, and we spread
soft furs for him to rest and sleep on. We demand nothing in return.
But if I go into a white man's house in Albany and ask for victuals and
drink, they say, 'Where is your money?' and, if I have none, they say,
'Get out, you Indian dog!' "
Out of many instances of Indian humanity I select that of Petalashara,
a distinguished Pawnee brave. The son of a chief, he had, at the age
of twenty-one, earned from his tribe the title accorded to the celebrated
French soldier, Marshal Ney, the bravest of the brave."
A female captive was about to suffer torture at the stake in accordance
with Indian custom. A large crowd had, as usual, gathered to witness the
horrible scene.


The brave, unobserved, had stationed two fleet horses near at hand, and
silently waited the moment for action. The flames were about to envelop
the victim, when, to the astonishment of all, Petalashara was seen severing
the cords that bound her, and, with the swiftness of thought, bearing her
off in his arms; and then, placing her upon one horse, and himself mount-
ing the other, he bore her safely away to her friends and country. Such
an act would have endangered the life of any ordinary warrior; but
such was his sway over the tribe that no one presumed to censure the
daring act.
Though not the equal of the white man in bodily strength, the Indian
was his superior in endurance and fleetness of foot. Some of their best
runners could make seventy or eighty miles in a day through the unbroken
wilderness. A close observer of natural phenomena, in the densest forest
the Indian could travel for miles in a straight line, and could note signs
and sounds the white man could not perceive. His temperament is poetic
and imaginative, and his simple eloquence possesses great dignity and
A little anecdote will give an idea of his native wit and shrewdness.
A half-naked. Indian was looking on at some workmen in the employ of
Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts.
"Why don't you work and get yourself some clothes?" asked the
"Why don't you work ?" retorted the son of the forest.
"I work head-work," said Dudley, pointing to his head.
The Indian said he was willing to work, and agreed to kill a calf for
the governor. Having done so, he came for his pay.
But," said the governor, you have not dressed the calf."
"No, no," said the Indian; "I was to have a shilling for killing him.
Am he no dead, governor?" Finding himself out-witted, the governor
gave him another shilling for dressing it. It was not long before the
Indian came back demanding a good shilling in place of a bad one which
lie claimed that the governor had paid him. The governor gave him
another. Returning a second time with still another brass piece to be
exchanged, the governor, convinced of his knavery, offered him half a
crown if he would deliver a letter for him. The letter was directed to
the keeper of the prison, and ordered him to give the bearer a certain
number of lashes.
The Indian suspected that all was not right, and, meeting a servant of
the governor, induced him to take the letter to its address. The result
of the Indian's stratagem was that a severe whipping was administered to


the unfortunate servant. The governor was greatly chagrined at being a
second time out-witted by the Indian. On falling in with him some time
after, he accosted him with some severity, asking him how he had dared
to cheat and deceive him so many times.
Head-work, governor; head-work," was the reply. Pleased at the
fellow's wit and audacity, the governor freely forgave him.

Perhaps some of my younger readers may wonder how people could
exist in a wilderness where there were no houses to live in, no markets
where they could buy food, and no stores in which clothing and other
necessary articles could be procured. If they look into the matter, they
will find that the Creator had provided whatever was required by their
simple mode of life, and that they had no artificial wants. For these they
were indebted to the white man.
Formerly the Indians were clad in the skins of animals; a robe and
breech cloth for the man, and a short petticoat for the women. On great
occasions, as councils or war-dances, they daubed themselves with paint,
the color being varied for joy or grief, peace or war. They also decorated
themselves with beads, feathers, por-
cupine quills, and parts of birds and
animals. The women wore their
hair long, the men shaved theirs off,
except the scalp-lock, which was left
o as a point of honor.
SFor food the Indian relied upon
I the chase, the fisheries, and agricult-
ure. Maize, or Indian corn, was his
principal food. It grew luxuriantly
without cultivation, was gathered by
hand and roasted before the fire;
a small supply of it parched and
pounded sufficed for a long journey.
I Ile also raised beans and pumpkins,
MOCCASINS. and a little tobacco. If all other
supplies failed, he had nuts, roots,
berries, and acorns, which grew wild. His cooking was simple and with-
out seasoning, usually by roasting over a fire. Baking was done in
holes in the ground, and water was boiled by throwing heated stones
into it.
Most of the natives lived in cabins or wigwams. These were made by


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fixing long poles in the ground, bending them towards each other at the
top, and covering them outside with bark or skins, and inside with mats.
A bear-skin served for the door; an opening in the roof was the chimney.
There were no windows. It could be quickly set up and easily removed.
Its size was proportioned to the number it was to hold. In these dirty,
smoky habitations men, women, and children huddled together. Some of
the tribes built permanent villages, with streets and rows of houses; these
were generally surrounded with palisades of logs and brushwood. Nearly
all the tribes changed their abode at different seasons in pursuit of the
various kinds of game.
A remarkable exception to the usual form of the Indian dwelling is
found among the Pueblo, or village, Indians of New Mexico.
In the face of a line of cliffs extending over sixty miles on the west-
ern side of the Rio Grande, between Cochiti and Santa Clara, are seen
numerous excavations which had once been human habitations, but which
are now in ruins. At a distance they look like a long line of dark spots.
They were approached by foot-paths and stairways cut in the rock, which
was soft and easily worked, and were in tiers of two, three, four, and
occasionally five, rows, one above the other and not far apart. The only
entrance was by an arch-shaped door-way, widening until there was room
enough within for a single family. Wooden structures in front served
as out-door habitations for the women and children.
So numerous are these caves that one hundred thousand persons might
have lived at once where only a few hundred of their descendants now
dwell. It is wonderful how this region, which is exceedingly desolate,
volcanic, and sterile, and in which there are few watercourses, could have
sustained such a dense population.
The fort-like community houses of the Zuni Indians outwardly present
one unbroken wall of hard mud. Their inner faces consist of a series of
terraces or houses, piled one above the other, from two to five stories in
height. Each tier above is less than the one beneath by the width of one
story, and is entered over the roof of the tier below. Formerly the only
house-doors were hatchways in the roof; and to enter their habitation the
family-babies, dogs, and all-went up an outside ladder to the roof, and
down an inside ladder to the floor. Narrow door-ways cut in the rock are
now made use of.
The Indian's implements of husbandry were of the rudest kind, yet
he had learned many useful arts. He knew the art of striking fire; of
making the bow with the string of sinew, and the arrow-head both of
flint and bone; of making vessels of pottery; of curing and tanning skins;



of making moccasins, snow-shoes, and wearing apparel, together with va-
rious implements and utensils of stone, wood, and bone; of rope and net
making from fibres of bark; of finger-weaving with warp and woof the
same materials into sashes, burden-
straps, and other useful fabrics; of
weaving rush-mats; of making pipes
of clay or stone, often artistically
G carved; of basket-making with osier,
cane, and splints; of canoe-making
S--the skin, birch-bark, and that hol-
___ lowed from the trunk of a tree; of
constructing timber -framed lodges
Sd and skin tents; of shaping stone
mauls, hammers, axes, and chisels; of
Making fish spears, nets, and bone
hooks; implements for athletic
games; musical instruments, such as
BOWL OF INDIAN PIPE. the flute and the drum; weapons and
ornaments of shell, bone, and stone.
His most ingenious inventions were the snow-shoe, the birch canoe,
the method of dressing the skins of animals with the brains, and the
Dakota tent, or tepee, the model of the Sibley army tent. With the
snow-shoe he could travel forty miles a day over the surface of the snow,
and easily overtake the deer and the moose, whose hoofs penetrated the
crust and prevented their escape. The bark canoe, sometimes thirty feet
long and carrying twelve persons, was very light and easily propelled.


The bark of the tree was stripped off whole and stretched over a light,
white cedar frame. The edges were sewed with thongs, and then covered
with gum. They varied in pattern, drew little water, and were often
graceful in shape. The Iroquois used elm bark, the Algonkins birch.
The Pacific tribes made baskets, some of which were so skilfully woven
as to hold water.



In hunting, the bow and arrow, and sometimes the dart or spear, were
used. The smaller animals were trapped. When game was plenty it was
sometimes driven into an enclosure and killed. The southern tribes used
the lasso and stone balls attached to hide ropes. Fish were taken in nets,
and with bone hooks, or speared.
Though the Indian believed his own way of life superior to all others,
and in accordance with the design of the Great Spirit, and detested civil-
ization, he has been unable to resist its progress. The gun has taken the

itio language at" e.quah; an.rs- at Cad.do_ int,
-e n -n. h C e. 'or -,a *T l u
-.'".- ,," .**" 4 .i . ,' ..... '
^- .,. -, . ....I.. ....;..'. ,' ..." ,.. ,

Hace n o no.. ad abe, ab Iines con veyead thirmpleas toave eg
& use M R
I ,, : :. ., ,


... .: I ,,,. ._ _.'. ,

in no-p... aleadbet, t.e .borgie coneed the is t teweye by
ee k it re nge po h
1-- -~- -____--

place of the bow and arrow, vand his ude arts and implements have gra-

Creek nation, in the Cureek or Choctaw tongue. The plough is in very

Ilavino' no alphabet, te aborigins conveyed their ideas to the eye by


the bark of trees, and sometimes drawn on the skins of animals. Their
records of treaties were kept by strings or belts of wampum made of shells
and beads, which was also in use as money. These beads were commonly
used for ornament. Ten thousand of them have been known to be
wrought into a single war-belt four inches wide.
The accompanying sketch was copied from a tree on the banks of the
Muskingum River, Ohio. The characters were drawn with charcoal and

/ 7

A 7



bear's oil. It describes the part borne in Pontiac's war by the Delawares
of the Muskingum, under the noted chief, Wingemund.
No. 1 represents the oldest and main branch of the Delaware tribe by
its ancient symbol, the tortoise. No. 2 is the totem, or armorial badge,
of Wingemund, denoting him to be the actor. No. 3 is the sun; the
ten horizontal strokes beneath it denote the number of war-parties in
which this chief had participated. No. 4 represents men's scalps. No. 5,
women's scalps. No. 6, male prisoners. No. 7, female prisoners. No. 8,
a small fort situated on the banks of Lake Erie, which was taken by the
Indians in 1762, by surprise. No. 9 represents the fort at Detroit, under
the command of Major Gladwyn, which, in 1763, resisted a siege of three



months. No. 10 is Fort Pitt, denoted by its striking position on the ex-
treme point of land at the confluence of the Alleghany and the Monon-
gahela rivers. No. 11 signifies the incipient town near it. The eleven
crosses or figures arranged below the tortoise denote the number of per-
sons who were either killed or taken prisoners by this chief; the prison-
ers are distinguished from the slain by the figure of a ball or circle above
the cross-figure denoting a head. Those devices without the circle are
symbols of the slain; but four out of the eleven appear to have been
women, and of these two were retained as prisoners. It appears that but
two of the six men were led into captivity. The twenty-three nearly
vertical strokes at the foot of the inscription indicate the strength of the
chieftain's party. The inclination denotes the course of their march to
the scene of conflict. This course, in the actual position of the tribe,
and of the side of the tree chosen to depict it, was northward. As an
evidence of the order and exactitude of these rude memorials in record-
ing facts, it is to be observed that the number of persons captured or
killed in each expedition of the chief is set on the left of the picture,
exactly opposite the symbolical mark of the expedition.
Similar devices upon Indian grave-posts commemorate the family and
the deeds of the deceased. The one here repre-
sented is that of Wabojeeg, a celebrated Chippewa
war-chief. He was of the family of the Addik, or
American Reindeer. This fact is represented by
the figure of a deer. The reversed position de-
notes death. The seven transverse marks on the --
left denote that he had led seven war-parties. The
three perpendicular lines below the totem repre-
sent three wounds received in battle. The figure
of a moose's head denotes a desperate conflict with
an enraged animal of that kind. The symbols of
the arrow and pipe indicate his influence in war
and peace. The Indians mourned their dead sin- .
cerely and preserved their remains with affection-
ate veneration.
The famous Dighton Rock inscription, once / ,
ascribed to the Northmen, is now known to be --
merely the record of a battle between two Indian GRAVE-POST.
tribes. The amazement of the vanquished at the
sudden assault of the victors is shown by their being deprived of both
hands and arms, or the power of resistance. Nothing in the inscription



denotes a foreigner, nor is there any figure or sign for any weapon or
implement brought by white men from beyond the sea. This interesting
object is situated on the border of the Taunton River.


Each tribe had its sachem or civil chief, and regarded itself as a sover-
eign and independent nation. The form of government was patriarchal.
The sachem had no power except through the influence of his wisdom and
ability. Any one could be a war-chief whose tried bravery and prudence
on the war-path enabled him to raise volunteers. The sachem was some-
times a woman. The succession of chiefs was through the female line,
a brother or nephew succeeding instead of a son.
As there were no written laws, their government rested on opinion and
custom, and these were all-powerful. Each man was his own protector
and avenger. Murder was retaliated by the next of kin, and family and
tribal strifes thus caused often continued from generation to generation.
Each village had its independent government, one long building in each



being devoted to festivals, dances, and public councils. The affairs of the
nation were transacted only in a general council.
In these assemblies, in which the Indian took great delight, strict order
was kept. Seated in a semicircle on the ground, painted and tattooed, the
chiefs adorned with feathers, with the beak of the red-bird or the claws
of the bear, they smoked in silence, and listened attentively to the speaker.
There was no war of words, no discord. They used tobacco in all their
important assemblies, and the pipe was the symbol of peace.
A common emblem, called the totem, consisting of the figure of some
beast, bird, or reptile, formed the distinguishing mark of the tribes or
smaller clans, serving the same purpose with them as the family name
does with us. The tortoise, the bear, the beaver, the turtle, and the wolf
were the totems of the "first families." The figure representing the
totem of his tribe was tattooed upon the Indian's breast. The spirit of the
animal was supposed es-
pecially to favor the clan --.
thus represented. M : .
Marriage could not /.
be contracted between" *"
kindred of near degree, .
or families having the
same totem. Husband

the father of his intend- i.*

became his wife, though
neither may have spo-

a hiome in her father's INDIAN COUNCIL.
lodge. The presents
have been known to be returned and the match broken off because there
as no powider-horn sent.
A peculiar method of match-making prevails among the Moquis of
oNew Mexico-a sille, happy, and most hospitable people. There the
fair one selects the youth who pleases her, and her father proposes the
match to the sire of the fortunate swain. Such is the -allantrv of the
': . -i ,


sterner sex in this region that the proposition is never refused. The pre-
liminaries being arranged, the young man on his part furnishes two pairs
of moccasins, two fine blankets, two mattresses, and two of the sashes used
at the feast, while the maiden for her share provides an abundance of
eatables, and the mar-
-riage is celebrated by
feasting and dancing.
/ba The love of the In-
/. dian mother for her off-
t spring is strong and con-
S"stant, yet her treatment
of her child during in-
fancy seems to us cruel
-- and ufifeeling. To the
pig: bd cradle made of thin
pieces of light wood,
Sa nd ornamented with
porcupine's quills, beads,
INDIAN CRADLE. and rattles, the infant,
carefully wrapped in
furs, is securely tied. Thus bandaged, it is carried by the mother, its
back to hers, or, while she works in the field, is suspended from the limb
of a tree. In this way the future warrior takes his first lesson in endur-
ance. The patience and quiet of the Indian child in this close confinement
are quite wonderful. Children are left pretty much to themselves; their
assistance in household labor is voluntary, and they are seldom scolded or
The strength of the paternal tie among the Indians is seen in the act
of Bianswah, a Chippewa chief, as related by Schoolcraft. In his absence
from home his son was captured by a hostile band. On reaching his wig-
wam the old man heard the terrible news, and, knowing what the fate of
his son would be, he followed on the trail of the enemy alone, and reached
their village while they were preparing to roast their captive alive. Step-
ping boldly into the arena, he offered to take his son's place.
"My son," said he, has seen but a few winters; his feet have never
trod the war path; but the hairs of my head are white; I have hung
many scalps over the graves of my relatives which I have taken from the
heads of your warriors; kindle the fire about me, and send my son home
to my lodge." The offer was accepted, and the old chief suffered torture
to save his son.



Filial devotion is finely illustrated in the story of Nadowaqua, the
daughter of a chief who lived in the vicinity of Michilimackinac. This
chief, known as Le Grand Sable, was able, politic, and brave. He had
been a warm friend of the French, and was one of the prominent actors
in the memorable capture of old Fort Michilimackinac in 1763, related
farther on.
Many years afterwards, when he had become quite aged, he accompa-
nied his relatives, in the month of March, on their annual journey to the
forests which yield the sugar-maple. After this season, which is one of
enjoyment with the Indians, was over, and they had packed their effects
to return, it was found that the old chief was unable to sustain the
His daughter Nadowaqua determined to carry him on her shoulders
to his wigwam. For this purpose she took her long stout deer-skin ape-
kun, or head-strap, and, fastening it around his body, bent herself strongly
forward under the load, then rose under the pious burden, and took the
path to Lake Michigan. It is usual to put down the burdens at fixed
points or resting-places on the way. In this manner she brought her
father safely to the shore of the lake, a distance of ten miles!
The feat of iEneas in carrying Anchises on his shoulders through the
flames of Troy is rivalled here by that of a simple Algonkin woman.
Most of the hard work is done by the women, in order that the bodies
of the men may be kept supple and active for the purposes of war and the
chase. The Indian had no cow or domestic beast of burden, and regarded
all labor as degrading and fit only for women. His wife was his slave.
With rude implements she cultivated the ground and reaped the harvest,
while he amused himself playing, gambling, singing, eating, or sleeping.
In their journeys the poles of the wigwam are borne upon her shoulders.
Much of her time is occupied in making moccasins and in quill work.
The Indian's amusements were running, leaping, wrestling, paddling,
shooting at a mark, games of ball and with small stones, dances and
feasts. His chief resource from inactivity was gambling. He would stake
his arms, the furs that covered him, his stock of winter provisions, his
cabin, his wife, even his own freedom, on the chances of play. Among
their field-sports one of the commonest is the casting of stones, in which
they attain astonishing skill and precision. Their dances were numerous,
and formed part of their religious observances and warlike preparations,
as well as merry-makings. The women generally danced apart.
The fleeka, or arrow-dance, practised by the Pueblo Indians in Arizona,
is a picturesque performance. One of the braves is led up in front of his


knee, his bow and arrow in his hand, when the Malinchi, a handsomely
ME :____._M-

,- --_ -


_"' -_ - .: -I ' /1 i/


_- ---


friends, who are drawn up in two ranks. Here lie is placed upon one
knee, his bow and arrow in his hand, when the Malinchi, a handsomely
attired young girl, commences the dance. From her right wrist hangs the
skin of a silver-gray fox, and bells that jingle with every motion are fixed
at the end of her embroidered scarf.
At first she dances along the line in front, and by her movements shows
that she is describing the war-path. Slowly and steadily she pursues; sud-
denly her step quickens; she has come in sight of the enemy. The brave
follows her with his eye, and, by the motion of his head, implies that she
is right. She dances faster and faster; suddenly she seizes an arrow from
him, and now by her frantic gestures it is plain that the fight has begun
in earnest. She points with the arrow shows how it wings its course,

~. --~YPSU. I 'r ' /3"

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1- ~i-




how the scalp was taken and her tribe victorious. As she concludes the
dance and returns the arrow to the brave, fire-arms are discharged, and the
whole party wend their way to the public square to make room for other
parties, who keep up the dance until dark.
Boys were trained from infancy to feats of dexterity and courage, gain-
ing a name and a position only on returning from a warlike expedition.
A feast was always given for a boy's first success in the chase. A spirit
of emulation and a thirst for glory was awakened in him by stories of the
exploits of his ancestors. As soon as he was old enough, he travelled the
war-path that he might earn the feather of the war-eagle for his hair, and
boast of his exploits in the great war-dance and feast of his band.
War was the Indian's chief delight and glory, and between many of
the tribes it was of constant occurrence. When a war was about to break
out, some leading chief would paint himself black all over and retire to
the forest. There he remained, fasting and praying, until he could dream
of a great war-eagle hovering over him. This was the favorable omen;
and, returning to his band, he would call them to battle and certain vic-
tory, assuring them that the Great Spirit was on their side.
He would then give a feast to his warriors, at which he would appear
in war-paint of bright and startling colors, setting before his guests wooden
dishes containing dog-flesh, a great luxury. The chief himself sat smok-
ing, his fast not yet ended.
The war-dance followed. If at night, the scene was lighted up by the
blaze of fires and burning pine-knots. A painted post would be driven into
the ground, and the warriors, their faces painted in a frightful manner,
formed a circle around it. The chief would then leap into the open space,
brandishing his hatchet, chanting his exploits, and, striking at the post as if
it were an enemy, lie would go through all the motions of actual fight.
Warrior after warrior would follow his example, till at last the whole band
would be dancing, striking and stabbing at the air, and yelling like so
many fiends.
Next morning they would leave the camp in single file, discharging
their guns one after another as they entered the forest. Halting near
the village, they would strip off their ornaments, and hand them over to
the women who had followed them for this purpose. They would then
move silently on. These parties were generally small, as their warfare
was one of patient watchfulness, stealthy approaches, stratagems, and sur-
prises. Following an enemy's trail, they killed him as he slept, or lay in
ambushll near a village, watching for an opportunity to pounce upon an
individual and take his sc(alp. Tie scalp-lock was an emblem of chivalry,


and was left upon the head of the warrior as a sort of defiance-a way of
saying, Take it if you can." This trophy the warrior hung in his cabin
on his return. There was no dishonor in killing an unarmed enemy, or in
private deceit'and treachery. It was no disgrace to run away when there
seemed no chance of success. Torture
and the stake enabled the victim to dis-
play what the Indian considered a he-
^ r 'r roic virtue -power of endurance, the
'triumph of mind over matter. Ile
,,:,, . ,' thought the meaning and intent of war
was to inflict all possible pain and injury
on his foe.
The war weapons of the Indian were
the bow and arrow, the spear, and the
\ club. Until the breech-loading rifle was
SCALP. invented the bow and arrow remained
the most effective, as they were the most
ancient, means of slaughter of animals in droves. The arrow-point is of
chert, hornstone, or flint. Spears were pointed with similar material.
The arrow, two and a half feet long, is feathered for about five inches
beyond the place where it is held in drawing the bow. The feathers are
placed in a form a little winding, thus keeping the tail of the shaft nearly
in the rear of the head, and causing a rotary motion which insures ac-
curacy in its course. The war-club, of heavy wood, is usually elaborately
ornamented with war-eagle feathers and with painted devices. The prai-
rie tribes use a shield made of raw buffalo hide contracted and hardened
by an ingenious application of fire. It is oval or circular in form, is about
two feet in diameter, and is worn on the left arm. It is elaborately
painted, and decorated with eagle's feathers. It is effectual against ar-
rows, but is not proof against a rifle ball that strikes it squarely.
Their love of freedom and impatience of control made military
discipline impossible, and no large body of Indians could be kept together
for any length of time. Jealousy, discord, and old feuds were likely at
any moment to break out, when the warriors would desert in crowds.
They never provided themselves with supplies for a campaign, and could
therefore carry out no extended operations. They never attacked unless
they could take their enemy at a disadvantage. A campaign against them
was no easy matter. They had to be sought in the recesses of the forest
with which they were familiar, and which afforded every advantage for
their peculiar mode of fighting.




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Captives were compelled to run the gauntlet through a double line,
composed of the women, children, and young warriors of the village, who,
armed with sticks and clubs, struck the prisoners as they passed, and some-
times inflicted severe injuries upon them. Generally they were put to
death, sometimes by torture. Occasionally one would be adopted into a
family in the place of a deceased brother, son, or husband. The Iroquois
and the Creeks often incorporated the tribes they had conquered with
their own. In their treatment of female captives, the Indians were more
humane than the victorious soldiery of civilized nations.
The religion of the Indian, like that of other primitive races, had
neither temple nor ritual. It had its songs and dances, and its sacrifices,
at which animals and human beings were offered, the former as substitutes
for the latter. Sun-worship and fire-worship were formerly very prevalent
among the aborigines. Their priests and physicians are called medicine-
men, or powwows. They profess to heal diseases by jugglery and magic
arts, to give good-fortune to the hunter, the warrior, and the lover, or to
cause the death of an enemy. In cases of sickness the Indian uses medici-
nal herbs, but the vapor-bath is his most general and effectual remedy for
Rude and ignorant as he is, and believing in many gods, the Indian
yet worships the Great Spirit after a fashion of his own, and believes
almost universally in a future life. With the dead warrior is buried his
pipe and his manitou, his tomahawk, bow and quiver, his best apparel, and
food for his long journey to the abode of his ancestors. By the side of
her infant the mother lays its cradle, its beads, and its rattles.
The Indian has no idea of future rewards or punishments. IHe
believes that conflicting powers of good and evil rule over the universe.
A spirit dwells in every object-in the beast, the bird, the river, the lake,
and the mountain. Every Indian has a manitou, or household god, to con-
secrate his house; sometimes it is a bird or a bear, sometimes a buffalo,
a feather, or a skin. To propitiate thle deity lie employs some kind of
sacrifice or prayer. An Indian lamenting the loss of a child exclaims,
"() lmanitou! thou art angry with me; turn thine anger from me, and
spare tle rest of my children !" Dreams are regarded by him as divine
revelattions, and they exert a powerful influence over him.
Great pains have been taken to convert the Indian to Christianity.
Tlie Slianiard, the Frenchmlan, and the Englishmlan have all tried their
hand u)pon( hlim but hitherto with small success. Ilis own religion seemed
to li6 1st ad'apted4 to hlis conlditionl and manner of life. It was necessary
t lift r1 1 i ot l of arbarisilm efore lie could leith er understand or appreci-



ate the boon they sonilght ti "' l,,,.t. I '-
upon him. One season ilf liiiiut-
'i di t"r ' ,,,
ing," said the Apostle Eliot, -un- L_!i
did all my missionary work." At
present the establishment of schools and the general introduction of the
arts and implements of civilization are helping the missionary in his self-
sacrificing labors, and a more hopeful prospect seems at last to have
dawned upon the race.
But, while in the matter of education something has been done for the
Indian, much yet remains to be done. Carlisle, Hampton, and Forest
Grove only demonstrate, on a limited scale, what our government ought
to do, and what it has bound itself by treaty to do, in behalf of the
60,000 Indian children now growing up in idleness, ignorance, and
The schools above named supply their pupils with the training and
discipline which on their return will serve as a leverage for the uplifting
of their people. In aptness, docility, and progress, the red children are
fully equal to the white. In these schools they acquire not only the Eng-
lish language and the elementary branches of knowledge, but they also
learn useful trades, and in most cases have found, on returning home, suit-
able employment at the agencies as interpreters, teachers, or mechanics.
Money could in no way be so well applied as in the education of our
Indian youth, thus lifting them out of barbarism.
Fabulous leg^Bs and stories are common among the Indians, and their



relation over their camp-fires and in the long winter evenings forms one
of their principal sources of amusement. Among them the story of Hia-
watha, of Onondaga origin, is best known, as it forms the basis of Long-
fellow's beautiful poem. A few specimens of their traditions and stories
are here given.
Owaynco (the creator), says Iroquois tradition, after making them from
handfuls of red seeds, assembled his children together and said : "Ye are
five nations, for ye sprang each from a different handful of the seed I
sowed; but ye are all brethren, and I am your father, for I made you all.
Mohawks, I have made you bold and valiant; and see, I give you corn for
your food. Oneidas, I have made you patient of pain and hunger; the
nuts and fruits of the trees are yours. Senecas, I have made you indus-
trious and active; beans do I give you for your nourishment. Cayugas, I
have made you strong, friendly, and generous; ground-nuts and every
generous fruit shall refresh you. Onondagas, I have made you wise, just,
and eloquent; squashes and grapes have I given you to eat, and tobacco
to smoke in council. Tile beasts, birds, and fishes I have given to you all
in common. Be just to all men, and kind to strangers that come among
"The missing link," connecting man with the lower animals, which
Darwin failed to find, is supplied by the tradition of a California tribe
of Indians, who refer their origin to the coyote, or wolf. This is the
The first Indians that lived were coyotes. After they began to
burn the bodies of those who died, the Indians began to assume the shape
of man, but at first very imperfectly. They walked on all fours, and
were incomplete and imperfect in all their organs, in their limbs and
joints, but progressed from period to period, until they became perfect
men and women.
In the course of their transition from coyotes to human beings," said
the old chief who related this tradition, they acquired the habit of sit-
ting upright and lost their tails. This is with many of them a source of
regret to this day, as they consider the tail quite an ornament; and, in
decorating themselves for the dance or other festive occasions, a portion
of them always complete their costume with tails."
The tradition of the Mandans is that they dwelt together near an
underground lake shut out from the light of heaven. The roots of a
grape-vine penetrating this recess first revealed to them the light from
the world above. By means of this vine one-half of the tribe climbed
up to the surface; the other half were left in their dark prison-house


owing to the bulk and weight of an old woman, who by her ponder-
osity tore down the vine, and prevented any more of the tribe from
The Osages believe that the first man of their nation came out of a
shell, and that this man, when walking on earth, met thle Great Spirit,
who gave him a bow and arrows and told him to go a-hunting. Having
killed a deer, the Great Spirit gave him fire and told him to cook his
meat and to eat. He also told him to take the skin and cover himself
with it, and also the skins of other animals that he should kill.
One day as the Osage was hunting he saw a beaver sitting on a
beaver-hut, who asked him what he was looking for. The Osage answered
that, being thirsty, he came there to drink. The beaver then asked him
who lie was and whence he came. The Osage replied that he had no
place of residence. "Well, then," said the beaver, "as you appear to be
a reasonable man, I wish you to come and live with me. I have many
daughters, and if any of them should be agreeable to you, you may
marry." The Osage accepted his offer and married one of his daughters,
by whom he had many children. The tribe give this as a reason for not
killing the beaver, their offspring being, as they believe, the Osage nation.

An Indian youth who had ever been obedient to his parents, on reach-
ing the age of fifteen prepared to undergo the ceremony of fasting
usual at that age. As soon as spring came, he found a retired spot and
began his fast. IIe had often thought on the goodness of the Great
Spirit in providing all kinds of fruits and herbs for the use of man, and
he now earnestly prayed that he might dream of something to benefit
his people, for lie had often seen them suffering for want of food.
On the third day lie became too weak and faint to walk about, and
kept his bed. IHe fancied, while thus lying in a dreamy state, that he
saw a handsome young nman dressed in green robes and with green plumes
on his head advancing towards him. The visitor said, "I am sent to you,
my friend, by the Great Spirit who made all things. lie has observed
you. lie sees that you desire to procure a benefit for your people. Lis-
ten to my words and follow my instructions." Hle then told the young
man to rise and wrestle with him. Weak as le was, lie tottered to his
feet and began; but, after a long trial, the handsome stranger said, My
friend, it is enough for once; I will come again." Hie then vanished.
On the next day the celestial visitor re-appeared and renewed the trial.
The young man knew that his strength was even less than the day before,


but as this declined he felt that his mind became stronger and clearer.
Perceiving this, the plumed stranger again spoke to him. To-morrow,"
he said, will be your last trial. Be strong and courageous; it is the only
way to obtain the boon you seek." iHe again departed.
On the sixth day, as the young faster lay on his pallet weak and ex-
hausted, the pleasing visitor returned, and as lie renewed the contest he
looked more beautiful than ever. The young man grasped him and
seemed to feel new strength imparted to his body, while that of his an-
tagonist grew weaker.
At. length the stranger cried out, "It is enough; I am beaten. You
will win your desire from the Great Spirit. To-morrow will be the
seventh day of your fast and the last of your trials. Your father will
bring you food which will recruit you. I shall then visit you for the last
time, and I foresee that you are destined to prevail. As soon as you have
thrown me down, strip off my garments and bury me on the spot. Visit
the place, and keep the earth clean and soft. Let no weeds grow there.
I shall soon come to life, and re-appear with all the wrappings of my gar-
ments and my waving plumes. Once a month cover my roots with fresh
earth, and by following these directions your triumph will be complete."
He then disappeared.
Next morning the youth's father came with food, but he asked him to
set it by for a particular reason till the sun went down. When the sky-
visitor came for his final trial, although the young man had not partaken
of food, lie engaged in the combat with him with a feeling of supernatural
strength. He threw him down. Stripping off his garments and plumes,
he then buried him in the earth, carefully preparing the ground and
removing every weed, and then returned to his father's lodge.
Keeping everything to himself, the youth revealed nothing of his
vision or trials. Partaking sparingly of food, he soon regained his strength.
But lie never for a moment forgot the burial-place of his friend. He fre-
quently visited it, and would not let even a wild-flower grow there. Soon
lie saw the tops of the green plumes coming out of the ground, at first in
spiral points, then expanding into broad leaves and rising in green stalks,
and finally assuming their silken fringes and yellow tassels.
Spring and summer had passed, when one day towards evening lie
requested his father to visit the lonely spot where he had fasted. The
old man stood amazed. The lodge was gone, and in its place stood a tall,
graceful, and majestic plant, waving its taper-leaves and displaying its
bright-colored plumes and tassels. But what most excited his admiration
was its cluster of golden ears. It is the friend of my dreams and


visions," said the youth. It is Mondamin ; it is the spirit's grain," said
the father. And this was the origin of Indian-corn.

There was once a poor man called Shingebiss, living alone in a soli-
tary lodge on the shores of a deep bay, in a large lake. Now this man, as
his name implies, was a duck when lie chose to be, and a man the next
moment: it was only necessary to will himself the one or the other. It
was cold winter weather, and this duck ought to have been off with the
rest of his species towards the South, where the streams and lakes are
open all winter, and where food is easily got; but the power he had of
changing himself into a man when le wislied, made him linger till every
stream was frozen over, and the snow lay deep over all the land.
"The blasts of winter now howled fiercely around his poor wigwam,
and he had only four logs of wood to keep his fire during the whole win-
ter. But hie was cheerful, manly, and trustful, relied on himself, and
cared very little for anybody, beyond treating kindly all who called on
him; and as he always had something to offer them to eat, lie was treated
with much respect and consideration by his people.
"How lie managed to live nobody knew. It was a perfect mystery
to every one. The ice was very thick on tihe streams and the weather was
intensely cold; yet, on the coldest day, when every one thought lie must
starve and freeze, he would go out to places where flags and reeds grew
up through the ice, and changing himself to a duck, pluck them up
with his bill, and, diving through the orifice, supply himself plentifully
with fish.
"The hardihood, independence, and resources of Shingebiss vexed
Kabibonocca, the god who sends cold and storms, and he determined to
freeze him out and kill him for his obstinacy. 'Why,' said lie, 'lie
must be a wonderful man; he does not mind the coldest days, but seems
to be as happy and content as if it were strawberry time. I will give him
cold blasts to his heart's content.' So saying, ie poured forth tenfold
colder winds and deeper snows, and made the air so sharp that it cut like
a knife. Still the fire of Shingebiss, poorly supplied as it was, did not go
out. He did not even put on more clothing--for lie had but a single strip
of skins about his body-while walking on the ice in the coldest days,
carrying home loads of fish.
"'Shall he withstand me ?' said Kabibonocca one day; 'I will go and
visit him, and see wherein his great power lies. If my presence does not
freeze him, lie must be made of rock.' Accordingly, that very night, when



the wind blew furiously, lie came to his lodge door and listened. Shinge-
hiss had cooked his meal of fish and finished his supper, and was lying
on his elbow, singing this song:

Windy God, I know your plan,
You are but my fellow-man.
Blow you may your coldest breeze,
Shingebiss you cannot freeze.
Sweep the strongest winds you can,
Shingehiss is still your man.
Heigh for life, and ho for bliss,
Who so free as Shingebiss !'

"The hunter knew that Kabibonocca was at his door, but affected utter
indifference, and went on singing. At length Kabibonocca, not to be
defeated in his object, entered the wigwam and took his seat, without
saying a word, opposite to him. But Shingebiss put on an air of the
most profound repose. Not a look or change of muscle indicated that
he heard the storm or was sensible of the cold. Neither did he seem
aware of the presence of his powerful guest. .But taking his poker as if
no one were present he stirred the embers to make them burn brighter,
and then reclining as before again sang,

Windy God, I know your plan.'

"Very soon the tears ran down Kabibonocca's face, and increased so
fast that he presently said to himself, I cannot stand tllis; the fellow
will melt me if I do not go out.' lie went, leaving the imperturbable
Shingebiss to the enjoyment of his song, but resolving, at the same time,
that he would put a stop to his music. lie then poured forth his very
fiercest blasts, and made the air so cold that it froze up every flag orifice,
and increased the ice to such a thickness that it drove Shingebiss from all
his fishing-grounds. Still, by going a greater distance and to deep water,
lie contrived to get the means of subsistence, and managed to live. His
four logs of wood gave him plenty of fire, and the few fish lie got satisfied
himi, for lie ate them with cheerfulness and contentment. At last Ka-
biboniocca was compelled to give up the contest, and exclaimed, He must
bIe some monedo (spirit). I can neither freeze him nor starve him. I
will let him alone.' "


N" NundolwagaI( IIll, which looks dowtn uptont tlie waters of Cananadaigua
Lake. \vs one .completely en circled by an enormous snake. The people



of the hill, alarmed for their safety, resolved one day, in solemn council,
that the snake must die on the following morning.
"Just as the day was breaking, the monstrous reptile was seen at the
base of the hill, closing every avenue of escape, its huge jaws wide open
just before the gate-way. Vigorously did the whole tribe assail it, but
neither arrows, spears, nor knives could be made to penetrate its scaly
sides. Some of the frightened people endeavored to escape by climbing
over it, but were thrown violently back, rolled upon, and crushed. Others,
in their mad efforts, rushing into its very jaws, were devoured. Terrified,
the tribe recoiled, and did not renew the attack till hunger gave them
courage for a last desperate assault, in which all perished and were swal-
lowed, except a woman and her two children, who escaped into the forest,
while the monster, gorged with its horrible feast, was sleeping.
In her hiding-place the woman, by a vision, was instructed to make
arrows of a peculiar form, and taught how to use them effectually for the
killing of the destroyer of her tribe. Believing that the Great Spirit was
her teacher, she made the arrows, and carefully following the directions
she had received, she confidently approached the yet sleeping monster,
and successfully planted the arrows in its heart. The snake, in its agony,
lashed the hill-side with its enormous tail, tore deep gullies in the earth,
broke down forests, and rolling down the slope, plunged into the lake.
Here, in the waters near the shore, it disgorged its many human victims,
and then, with one great convulsive throe, sank slowly to the bottom.
Rejoiced at the death of her enemy, the happy woman hastened with her
children to the banks of the Canesedage Lake, and from them sprung the
powerful Seneca nation."
The Indians affirm that the rounded pebbles, of the size and shape of
the human head, to this day so numerous on t.he shores of the Canandaigna
Lake, are the petrified skulls of the people of the hill, disgorged by the
great snake in its death agony.



rTIIE discovery of an unknown continent and of a new race of men
was the exploit and wonder of the age.
Princes dreamed of vast additions to their domains; priests of the
conversion of heathen nations and the enlargement of their spiritual pos-
sessions ; merchants speculated upon the prospect of a profit- 192.
able trade with the natives; while poets sung of the new El
Dorado as of a heaven upon earth, a land of inexhaustible fertility and
riches. But neither seer nor statesman, priest nor poet, was able to fore-
see the future of this continent. No one dreamed that this remote and
savage wilderness was soon to become the seat of flourishing and power-
ful communities, or that it was the chosen arena for the full and un-
checked development of human progress and freedom.
Strange stories were told of this new world. Its northern shores were
said to be infested by griffins, while two islands north of Newfoundland
were known as the Isles of Demons, whose occupants were pictured with
wings, horns, and tail. An early geographer wrote that he had heard
from many who had voyaged that way that they heard in the air, in the
tops and about the masts, a great clamor of men's voices, confused and
inarticulate, such as you may hear from the crowd at a fair or market-
place, whereupon they well knew that the Isles of Demons was not far

By the first voyagers the natives were found to be simple, hospitable,
and friendly. Soon, however, they learned to fear and distrust the
strangers, who took every advantage of their ignorance and kindness.
The different tribes were found to be widely scattered, many of them in
a state of hostility to their neighbors.
Columbus and other early voyagers took some of the natives with
them on their return to Europe. Three presented to Henry VII. by
Sebastian Cabot, in 1502, were the first Indians seen in Eingland. Those


first taken to France were brought thither by Captain Aubert six years
From time to time others were kidnapped and sold into slavery, and
conflicts between them and their European visitors became frequent. The
frauds and injuries of which they were the victims were not forgotten
by the natives, but were eventually returned by them with interest.
One of these acts of barbarity is thus related by Captain John Smith,
with whom my readers will soon become better acquainted.
"One Thomas Hunt, tlie master of this ship, when I was gone, be-
trayed four-and-twenty of these poor salvages aboard his ship, and most
dishonestly and inhumanly, for
their kind usage of me and all
our men, carried them with him
to Malaga, and there, for a little
private gain, sold these silly
salvages. But this vile act
kept him ever after from any
Smoore employment in those
p arts."
When we learn what the
clergy of that day thought of
the poor Indian, we can better
understand the infamous con-
duct of these cruel man-steal-
ers. "We may guess," says
that eminent divine of New
England, iRev. Cotton Mather,
"that probably the devil de-
SEBASTIAN CA1BOT, BY HOLBEIN. coyed these miserable salvages
hither, in hopes that the gospel
of the Lord Jesus Christ would never come here to destroy or disturb his
absolute empire over them."
Columbus says of the natives of thme West Indies, We found them
timid, and full of fear, very simple and honest, and exceedingly liberal,
none of them refusing anything he may possess when asked for it. Like
idiots-they bartered cotton and gold for fragments of glasses, bottles, and
jars, which I forbade as being unjust, and myself gave them many beau-
tiful and acceptable articles which I had brought with me, taking nothing
from them in return."
Upon his first arrival, Columbus took some of the natives by force,




in order that they might learn the language of the Spaniards and com-
municate what they knew respecting the country; and they were soon
able, either by gesture or by signs, to understand each other. They en-
tertained the idea that the white men descended from heaven, and on
their arrival at any new place, cried out immediately, with a loud voice,
to the other Indians, : Come come and look upon beings of a celestial
race ;" upon which both women and men, children and adults, young and
old, when they got rid of their first fear, would come out in throngs,
crowding the roads to see them, some bringing food, others drink, with
astonishing affection and kindness."
Gaspar Cortereal, a mariner in the service of the King of Portugal,
ranged the newly- discovered coast for six hundred or seven hundred
miles, as far as the fifteenth parallel, admiring the brilliant
verdure and dense forests wherever he landed. He repaid
the hospitality with which he was everywhere received by the natives, by
taking with him on his return fifty-seven of them, whom he had treach-
erously enticed on board his ship, and selling them for slaves. From a
second voyage he never returned, having been slain in a combat with some
Indians whom he was trying to kidnap.

The earliest description of the Atlantic coast of the United States is
found in the narrative of John Verrazzano, an Italian mariner, who had
been sent on a voyage of discovery by Francis I. of France.
He reached the coast in the latitude of Wilnington, N C., and 1
is supposed to have visited the harbors of New York and Newport. lie
describes the natives as very courteous and gentle, and possessing prompt
wit, but as mild and feeble, of mean stature, with delicate limbs and hand-
some visages.
Seeing many fires ashore, and the natives friendly, lie sent his boat to
them, but the surf was too violent to permit landing. One of the sailors
offered to swim ashore with some presents ; but, when he came near, his
fears prevailed, and throwing out his presents lie attempted to return to
the ship, but the waves cast him on the sand half-dead and quite senseless.
The Indians immediately ran to his assistance, carried him ashore, dried
his clothes before a fire, and did everything to restore him. His alarm,
however, was excessive. When they pulled off his clothes to dry them, he
thought they meant to sacrifice him to the sun, which then shone bright-
ly in thee heavens. Hle trembled with fear. As soon as lie was restored
they gently led him. to the shore, and then retired to a distance until the
ship's boat had 1 Cbeen sent for him and they saw him safely on board.


In requital for this kindness, the visitors robbed a mother of her child,
and attempted to kidnap a young woman of tall stature and very beauti-
ful." Her outcries and her vigorous resistance saved her.
At one place, where he remained fifteen days, Verrazzano found the
natives the gentlest people" he had yet seen. They were liberal and
friendly, yet so ignorant that, though instruments of steel and iron were
often exhibited, they neither understood their use nor coveted their pos-
session. The things they esteemed
Most were bells, crystals of azure
color, and other toys to hang at their
ears or about the neck. "When
T They beheld themselves in our mir-
rors they suddenly laughed and gave
them us again." The women wore
/ ornaments of wrought copper. Wood
only was used in the construction of
their wigwams, which were covered
S\ i with coarse matting.
I,- The natives of the more north-
Serly regions visited, perhaps, those
,X / of the coast of Maine, having al-
-/ ,7 I ready learned to fear the Euro-
JOHN VERRAZZANO. peans, were hostile and jealous.
They knew the value of iron, and
demanded in trade fish-hooks, knives, and weapons of steel. "When we
went on shore," says the narrator, "they shot at us with their bows,
making great outcries, and afterwards fled into the woods. When we
departed from them they showed all signs of discourtesy and disdain as
was possible for any creature to invent."
They were clad in skins or furs, lived by hunting and fishing, and had
no grain nor any kind of tillage. Their canoes were trunks of trees hol-
lowed out by fire and with stone hatchets, and their arms were bows and
Pleased with Verrazzano's report, King Francis said, referring to the
edict of the Pope of Rome, giving all America to the Spaniards, "he did
not think God had created these new countries for the Castilians alone."
His great rival, Charles V. of Spain, had laid claim to all the new discov-
eries on the ground of priority. "I should like," said the French king,
" to see that article of Adam's will which gives him America!" The
authenticity of Verrazzano's narrative is yet an unsettled question.


Ten years after Verrazzano's voyage, Jacques Cartier, an experienced
navigator of Saint Malo, sailed from France to the region of
the St. Lawrence. Landing in the Bay of Gaspe, a lofty cross Apil 20, 1534.
was raised, bearing a shield with the lilies of France and an July
appropriate inscription. The country was thus taken possession of for the
French king.
The natives, who were very friendly, gazed at this ceremony in won-
der. They seemed to have guessed its meaning, for, by signs, they made
known to Cartier that the
E_-_ ____ country was theirs, and
_-- ____ that no cross should be
_- set up without their leave.
-_ _w Cartier did not scruple to
skns as____ deceive the natives, by
a telling them that it was
oonly intended as a bea-
con- light for mariners
S entering their port. He
seized two of these In-
u --_ togdians and took them with
W X_ Jhim to France.
Cartier describes the
natives as being "of an
indifferent good stature
and bigness, but wild and
unruly. They wore their
hair tied on the top, like
a wreath of hay, and put
a wooden pin within it
instead of a nail, and with
them they bind certain
JACQUES CARTIER. birds' feathers. They
were clothed with beasts'
skins, as well the men as the women, but that the women go somewhat
straighter and closer in their garments than the men do, with their waists
girded. They paint themselves with certain roan colors; their boats are
made of the bark of birch-trees; in them they fish, and take great store of
At their first interview the narrator tells us that so soon as they saw
us they began to flee, making signs that they came to traffic with us, show-


ing us such skins as they clothed themselves withal, which are of small
value. We likewise made signs unto them that we wished them no evil,
and in sign thereof two of our men ventured to go on land to them, and
carry them knives, with other iron wares, and a red hat to give unto their
captain, which, when they saw, they also came on land and brought some
of their skins, and so began to deal with us, seeming to be very glad to
have our iron wares, still dancing, with many other ceremonies, as with
their hands to cast sea-water on their heads. They showed their friend-
ship in this way, as also by rubbing their hands upon the arms of the
European visitors, and lifting them up towards the heavens." From the
intense heat here, Cartier named the inlet Baie de Chaleur," a name it
still bears.
The Indians about Gaspe Bay differed from the others both in nature
and language, and in being abjectly poor. They were only partly clothed
in old skins, and had no structures to protect them from the weather. I
think," said the old narrator, "all they had together, besides their boats
and nets, was not worth five sons." They shaved their heads, with the ex-
ception of a tuft on the crown, sheltered themselves at night under their
canvas, on the bare ground, and ate their food partially cooked. They were
unacquainted with the use of salt, and ate nothing that had any taste of it.
In a second voyage, made in the following year, Cartier named the
gulf, in honor of the day in which he entered it, the St. Lawrence, a name
since extended to the noble river beyond. Sailing up to the
ay 19, 1535. isle since called Orleans, lie was hospitably received by the
September 8. .
nStberS.atives at their village of Stadacona, now Quebec; the two
October 2.
natives Cartier had carried off, and who had been kindly
treated, acting as interpreters. He next ascended the river to the chief
Indian settlement of Ilochelaga, the modern Montreal, which takes its
name from the neighboring elevation which they christened Mount Royal.
Every artifice had been made use of by the Indians to prevent their
journey to this place. They were jealous lest some of the knives, look-
ing-glasses, and other trinkets should fall into the hands of the rival chief-
tain and his people.
Three of them, dressed as devils, wrapped in huge skins, white and
black, their faces besmeared and black as coals, and with horns on their
heads more than a yard long, tried to frighten Cartier, and after holding
a long powwow, declared to him that their god had spoken, and that there
was so much ice and snow at Hochelaga that whoever went tlither should
die. The Frenchman only laughed at this trick, and told them that their
god was a fool.

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The Indian capital they found encompassed by a triple row of high
palisades of heavy timber, and having only a single gate of entrance.
Over this, and elsewhere on the walls, were platforms for its defenders,
provided with ladders and with stones for its defence. It contained some

I -l -X IN i

piac iin i h e ther 1 7j
- -- --

VIEW OF .MONTREAL AND ITS WALLS IN 1760. (From an old French print.)

fifty houses, each about fifty paces long, and twelve or fifteen broad, built
of wood, and covered with bark, and skilfully joined together. These
houses had many rooms, and in the midst of each was a large court, with a
place in the centre for a fire. In a room at the top of their houses they
stored their corn. Fishing and agriculture furnished them with food.
Their chief, an old man, was borne to Cartier's presence on the shoul-
ders of his men; around his forehead he wore a band of red colored
hedgehog skins, but in other respects was dressed no better than his
Viewing the white men as heavenly visitors, the Indians crowded
around them to touch them, paying them every mark of reverence and
respect. They brought to Cartier their lame, blind, diseased, and im-
potent, to be healed ; and lie gratified their desires, praying to God to open
the hearts of these poor people that they might be converted. The inter-
view closed with his giving them knives, beads, and toys. Before return-
ing to France, in the following spring, Cartier took possession of the
country for the king in the usual manner. When he was about to sail,
he enticed the chief, Donnaconna, with nine others, on board his ship, seized


and confined and, regardless of the cries and entreaties of their people,
carried them to France. Four years later all these, excepting one little
girl, were dead.
Although the country is so named on a Portuguese map of ten years
earlier date than that of his voyage, Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spanish gen-
tleman, claimed to be the discoverer of Florida. He had dis-
2. tinguished himself at home in the expulsion of the Moors
from Granada, had accompanied Columbus in his second expedition, and
had been governor of Porto Rico, where he had acquired wealth by
oppressing the natives. One of the objects he had in view was the dis-
covery of a fountain whose waters would, according to an ancient fable,
impart perpetual youth to whosoever bathed in them. Landing near the
point now called Fernandina, he claimed the territory for Spain. He
found a delightful climate, charming scenery, and a fragrant atmosphere,
but no gold or youth-restoring fountain. Everywhere the Indians dis-
played determined hostility.
Upon his return, De Leon was
rewarded by the King of Spain
with the government of Florida
for his pretended discovery, but on
the condition that he should col-
onize the country. When he at-
tempted some years later to do
so, his men were at- 9
tacked with great fury
by the natives. Many Spaniards
were killed, the remainder returned
to their ships, and De Leon him- (, / :
self was mortally wounded by an
Indian arrow.
Other Spanish voyagers ex- ..
plored the North American coast ..
and encountered the hostility of the PONCE DE LEON.
natives. Lucas Vasquez D'Ayllon,
after treacherously kidnapping a large number of natives of South Caro-
152s. lina, in a subsequent voyage attempted a settlement on the
Combahee River. In retaliation for his treachery, his men
were unexpectedly set upon by the Indians and nearly all killed. Vas-
quez, mortally wounded, escaped to his vessel; and thus ended the first
attempt to plant a colony within the area of the United States.



The expedition of Pamphilio de Narvaez was disastrous in the ex-
treme. It was this officer who had been sent by the governor of Cuba
to take Cortez, the conqueror of Mexico, prisoner, and who was himself
easily defeated, and captured in the attempt. When brought before Cortez
he said to him, with his usual arrogance, Esteem it great good-fortune
that you have taken me captive." Cortez replied, "It is the least of the
things I have done in Mexico."
Landing near Tampa Bay, Florida, Narvaez struck into the interior.
By his cruelty and want of judgment he provoked the hostility of the na-
tives, who, to rid themselves of these unwelcome intruders, told
them of a rich country, only nine days' march to the south. pri13, 152.
These Indians were of fine stature, great activity, and expert and accurate
bowmen, who could hit their mark at the distance of two hundred yards.
Instead of rich and populous towns, such as they had hoped to discover,
the Spaniards found only clusters of wigwams, and were plundered and
cut off whenever opportunity offered.
After a fatiguing and fruitless six months' tramp, the wretched rem-
nant of the party reached Pensacola Bay in a state of destitution. Nar-
vaez was ill, his men were dispirited, and his horses were reduced to
skeletons. Boats must be built, but how was this to be done without
tools or materials ?
In this exigency a soldier told Narvaez that he could make pipes of
wood, and convert them into bellows by the aid of deerskins. The idea
was instantly acted upon. A forge was constructed, and immediately
stirrups, spurs, cross-bows, etc., were converted into nails, saws, and axes.
The pines yielded pitch; a kind of oakum was obtained from the pal-
metto. Hair from the manes and tails of horses was twisted into ropes,
and the shirts of the men supplied sails. The horses were killed and
their flesh used for food. Oysters and maize completed their store of
provisions. After sixteen days of hard work they had constructed five
boats, each of which held fifty-six men.
In these frail vessels the remnant of that once gallant army embarked,
and nearly all perished in a storm near the mouth of the Mississippi.
Four survivors reached Mexico by land, after eight years of wandering
and almost incredible hardships.

The story of these men, that Florida was the richest country in the
world, was credited by many. Among them was Fernando de Soto, who
had been the favorite companion of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru,
where lie had acquired both military renown and wealth. He believed


that another Peru existed at the north, and aspiring to rival Cortez and
Pizarro in fame and wealth, asked and received permission of the king
to conquer Florida at his own cost. It must be remembered that the
term Florida was at that time a vague expression, covering an immense
territory-no less than the whole North American coast.
This was by far the most magnificent and well appointed of the nu-
merous expeditions to this continent. Men of noble birth and good estates
sold their lands to join in it. Portuguese soldiers were to be seen in the
glittering array of burnished armor, and the Castilians, brilliant with
hope, were "very gallant with silk upon silk." From the numerous
aspirants De Soto selected six hundred men the flower of Spain;
many persons of good account who
had sold their estates were obliged
to remain behind. Everything
was provided that experience in for-
mer invasions could suggest, includ-
ing chains for captives, and blood-
hounds as auxiliaries against the
wretched natives. As the latter were
to be converted as well as plundered,
twenty- four ecclesiastics accom-
panied the expedition. The fleet
landed at Tampa Bay, X
May 30, 1539.
on the western coast, 1Y
the adventurers disembarked, and
the memorable march began.
Soon after landing, a party of
Spaniards attacked and put to flight a few Indians who were advancing
towards them, making friendly signals. One of them had been knocked
down, and was about to receive a deadly blow, when he uttered in excel-
lent Spanish these words,
Sir, I am a Christian! I am a Christian! Slay me not, nor these
Indians, for they have saved my life."
The blow was withheld; and this man, whose name was Juan Ortiz,
related his most extraordinary story. He was one of the survivors of
Narvaez's company, and in a subsequent expedition had fallen into the
hands of the natives, and was doomed to suffer death by torture.
Four stakes were set in the ground, to which four ropes were fastened.
To these poles the captive, with his legs and arms extended, was bound,
at such a distance from the ground that a fire made under him would be



a long time in consuming him. Already had the fire been lighted, and
the victim resigned himself to his terrible fate, when the daughter of
Ucita, the chief, throwing herself at her father's feet, begged his life in
these words:
My kind father, why kill this poor stranger?l he can do you nor
none of us any injury, seeing he is but one and alone. It is better that
you should keep him confined, for even in that condition he may some
time be of great service to you."


The chief was silent a short time, but finally ordered his release. His
wounds were dressed, and he was made tolerably comfortable. Possibly,
this incident suggested to Captain John Smith the story he long after-
wards wrote of his rescue from death by Pocahontas, the daughter of
At one end of Ucita's village stood a temple; over the door was the
figure of a bird carved in wood, and with gilded eyes. As soon as the
wounds of Ortiz were healed, he was stationed to guard the entrance of
this temple, more especially from the inroads of wild beasts. As human
victims were sacrificed here, wolves were frequent visitors. Death was
the penalty for allowing a body to be removed.
On)e I igt lie had a terrible scare. A young Indian had been killed,
7r t/




and his body was placed in the temple. Spite of all his efforts, a pack
of hungry wolves effected an entrance and seized upon the body. As
soon as he recovered from the fright of their first onset, he seized a heavy
cudgel, drove them out, and pursued them some distance, dealing one of
them a mortal blow.
When morning came, and it was seen that the body was gone, Ortiz
was condemned to die; but before executing him Ucita sent a party in
pursuit of the wolves, and, if possible, to recover the body. Contrary to
all expectations, it was found, and near it the carcass of a huge wolf.
The order for Ortiz's execution was revoked, and he was afterwards held
in great esteem by the Indians.
Some time afterwards he was again selected for sacrifice, but was a
second time saved from a terrible death by the chief's daughter, who aided
him to escape to the country of Mocoso, a rival chief, by whom he was
well treated, and with whom lie remained three years. At the expiration
of that time the fleet of De Soto arrived, and Mocoso, out of friendship
for Ortiz, sent him to his countrymen, who, as we have seen, supposing
him to be what he appeared-an Indian-came near killing him. Ortiz
rendered important services to De Soto, as interpreter among the various
Indian tribes.
For three years the Spaniards wandered through the country in search
of gold, De Soto obstinately refusing to turn back. No gold was discov-
ered ; the only wealth of the natives was in their stores of corn; they were
poor, but independent, hardy and brave. Everywhere he was met by the
most determined hostility on the part of the natives, with whom lie had a
bloody battle at Mauvilla, or Mobile. For nine hours the Indians fought
with desperation, and but for the flames, which consumed
Oct. 1S, 1540.
their light cabins, they would have repulsed the invaders.
Thousands of them were slain. Though protected by their armor, many
Spaniards were killed or wounded, and all their baggage was burned.
Mauvilla was a strongly -fortified village on the Coosa. It was sur-
rounded by stout palisades, with loop-holes for arrows. Early in the morn-
ing the Indian war-cry was raised. De Soto led his men to storm the fort.
The entrance was narrow and well defended, and some of his best cava-
liers were fatally pierced between the joints of their armor, and numbers
of horses were killed. The Spaniards were obliged to withdraw. The
Indians then sallied from the gates and rushed upon the foe, charging and
retiring over the plain; but the advantage was finally with the Spaniards,
and the Indians withdrew to their fort.
In a second assault the gate was broken down, when the assailants




rushed in, and a furious conflict ensued. The Indians thronged the
square; lance, club, and missile were wielded from every quarter. Even
their young women snatched up the swords of the slaughtered Spaniards
and mingled in the fray, being more reckless than the men. The struggle
was so fierce and protracted, particularly from the roofs of the houses, that
the soldiers set fire to their combustible dwellings, which were soon in
flames. At length the Indians gave way and fled, pursued by the cavalry.
They would neither give nor take quarter; not a man surrendered. These
Indians were of the Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes; among the
slain was their famous chief, Tuscaloosa, the Black Warrior.
During the first winter Dc Soto encamped at the deserted Indian town
of Chicaza, where for two months his men enjoyed comparative repose.
At length the Chickasaws resolved to burn the encampment, which was
constructed of inflammable materials.
A dark and windy night having been chosen, the camp was fired in
several places, the savages at the same time uttering furious yells and
making a desperate attack. A -high wind fanned the flames into irresisti-
ble fury, and for a time the confusion was such as rendered it impossible
to resist the impetuosity of the assailants. Discipline and courage, how-
ever, regained the ascendancy, and the enemy was repulsed. But the
camp was totally destroyed, together with all the arms, accoutrements, and
provisions of the army. All that had been saved at the conflagration of
Mauvilla was here annihilated. The droves of hogs, which had formed
their main dependence for provisions, were burned in their pens. The
temper of their swords had been impaired by the action of the fire, and
almost every valuable article of equipage consumed.
De Soto more than once displayed great coolness and presence of mind.
lie had, at one time, pitched his camp near Costa, a town in Alabama, and,
with a few of his followers, was conversing with the chief, when some of
his troopers entered the town and plundered several of the houses. The
justly-incensed Indians fell upon tlhei with their clubs. Seeing himself
surrounded by the natives, and in great personal danger, the general
seized a cudgel and, with his usual presence of mind, commenced beating
his own men. The savages, observing this, became pacified in a moment.
In the mean time, taking the chief by the hand, he led him, with flattering
words, towards his camp, where he was presently surrounded by a guard
and held as a hostage. The Spaniards remained under arms all night.
Fifteen hundred armed Indians surrounded them, frequently threatening
them with attack, and uttering cries of insult and menace. Restraining
his troops, De Soto, aided by a prominent Indianl, who had followed hiim


for some time, at length succeeded in restoring peace and in averting what
seemed likely to prove a serious affair.
Upon one occasion De Soto tried to overawe the Natchez Indians, who
worshipped the sun, by claiming a supernatural birth and demanding
"You say you are the child of the sun," replied the incredulous chief.
"Dry up the river, and I will believe you. If you wish to see me, come
to the town where I dwell. If you come in peace I will receive you with
special good-will; if in war, I will not shrink one foot back."
The sole achievement of this costly and memorable expedition was the
discovery of the Mississippi River at the lowest Chickasaw Bluff. Boats
were required to cross, and it took a month to build them.
ay, The Spaniards crossed, and extended their tedious journey as
far as Kansas. They found the Indians an agricultural people, with fixed


places of abode, and subsisting chiefly on the product of the fields. They
were neither turbulent nor quarrelsome. Their dress was in part mats;
in cold weather they wore deerskins, and mantles woven of feathers.
Their villages were generally small, but close together. The natives were
treated with the utmost cruelty by the Spaniards, who held their lives as
of no account. They would cut off their hands on the slightest suspicion,
and the guide who was unsuccessful, or who purposely misled them, was
thrown to the hounds or condemned to the flames.
Disappointed and dispirited, De Soto's health rapidly declined, and he


was finally carried off by a malignant fever. His body was buried at
night in the great river lie had discovered. "He had crossed a large part
of the continent in search of gold," says the historian Bancroft,
" and found nothing so remarkable as his burial-place." may 2.
His followers wandered about for months afterwards, but at length
abandoned their fruitless expedition and returned to the Mississippi.
They then, with extraordinary patience and labor, ingeniously
constructed some vessels out of their scanty materials, in which ept. 543.
the survivors, three hundred and eleven in number, finally reached Mexico.

While De Soto was vainly seeking wealth and fame in the American
wilderness, Mendoza, the Viceroy of Mexico, organized an expedition un-
der Francis Vasquez Coronado, to search for the Seven
Cities of Cibola," the fame of whose riches was fully credited
by the gullible Spaniards. Three hundred men were enlisted for the ex-
pedition, who were accompanied by eight hundred Indians.
The tale of the famous seven cities originated in the report of a Span-
ish missionary, who pretended that he had discovered, north of Sonora, a
populous and rich kingdom called Quivera, or the Seven Cities, abounding
in gold, the capital of which was called Cibola. Tezon, an Indian, also
told the Spanish viceroy, Nufio de Guzman, that his father, who was now
dead, had been a trader in ornamental feathers, such as are used in head-
dresses, to a people in the interior lying north of the Gila IRiver, and that
he brought back in exchange large quantities of precious metals. le hlad
accompanied his father, he said, on one of these journeys, and saw seven
cities as large as Mexico, built on a regular plan, with high houses, and
that there were entire streets of gold and silver smiths. No story seems to
have been too absurd for these credulous Spaniards, and this one was still
further corroborated by the return of Cabeca de Vaca with three compan-
ions from the ill-fated expedition of Narvaez, whose glowing accounts of
the countries through which they had passed, inflamed still further the
avarice of their countrymen.
Crossing the Gila, Coronado led his men over a desert and through the
valley of a small stream, until they arrived before the lofty, natural walls
of Cibola (old Zuni). On the top of these stood the town. The Indians
cultivated corn in the valleys below, as they do at this day, wore coarse
stuffs for clothing, and manufactured a species of pottery, but possessed
neither gold nor mines.
Without waiting to make any inquiries, the Spaniards immediately as-
saulted the towi. The natives rolled down stones from above, one of


which struck Coronado and knocked him down. The place being taken
after an hour's struggle, the troops found provisions, but no gold nor sil-
ver. Proceeding onward in his invasion of New Mexico, Coronado was


everywhere resisted by the natives. The explorations were continued to
the Colorado River on the west, and to the Rio Grande on the east. Real-
izing at last that the country was barren and destitute of resources, the
Spaniards, after two years of fruitless exploration, returned to Mexico,
wiser, but no richer than when they departed.

Nearly seventy years elapsed before France, desolated by civil strife
and torn by religions dissensions, could renew her purpose of founding a
French empire in America. In the mean time, however, voyages for traf-
fic with the natives were regularly and successfully made, and there had
been no less than one hundred and fifty French fishing-vessels at New-
foundland in a single year.



The father of the French settlements in Canada was Samuel de Cham-
plain, a skilful seaman, cool, courageous, and persevering, and a man of
science. Selecting Quebec as the site for a fort, he returned
to France just before the issue to the Sieur De Monts of the 1603.
patent of Acadia, a region claimed by France to extend from the Dela-
ware River to beyond Montreal. Port Royal, called Annapolis after the


conquest of Acadia, in honor of Queen Anne, was settled in the spring of
1605, preceding by two years the first English settlement at Jamestown.
With a view to future settlements, De Monts explored and claimed for
France the rivers, coasts, and bays of New England as far south
as Cape Cod. Jesuit missions were at once established among
the natives. That at St. Mary's, the oldest European settlement in Michi-
,, ,:- ,4 ',


gan, was established in 1668. Though many of these heroic men suffered
death by torture at the hands of the natives, others sprang forward to take
their vacant places. Through their influence the Abenakis of Maine, al-
ready hostile to the English, became the allies of France, and made a firm
barrier to English encroachments.
Within the present limits of the United States, a French colony was,
in 1613, planted at Mount Desert. Quebec was founded by Champlain in
1608. Having formed an alliance with the Algonkin tribes around him,
Champlain twice invaded the territory of the Iroquois, their hereditary

Ii--- III =l


enemies. Having to take sides, unfortunately for France he took that of
the weaker. The story of these Iroquois conflicts will be found in a sub-
sequent chapter.
While residing among the Hurons, Champlain's influence over them
was put to a severe test. A quarrel, ending in bloodshed, had occurred
between two friendly tribes; the principal Algonkin chief had been mur-
dered, and his band forced to pay a heavy tribute of wampum.
Champlain was made umpire. The great council-house was filled with
Huron and Algonkin chiefs, "smoking," says the historian Parkman,
" with that immobility of feature beneath which their race often hides




a more than tiger-like ferocity." Addressing the assembly, Champlain
enlarged on the folly of fighting among themselves, while the common
enemy stood ready to devour both; showed them the advantages of the
French trade and alliance, and zealously urged them to shake hands and
be friends. His good advice was taken, the peace-pipe was smoked, and
a serious peril for New France averted.
In 1624 Champlain built the castle of St. Louis-so long the place of
council against the Iroquois and the English-and was governor of Quebec
at the time of his death in 1635.

The first attempt to found an English colony in New England was
made by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, who crossed the ocean in a small
bark called the Concord. He first landed on Cape Cod. Some
of the natives came along-side in their birch canoes, others ran ay 14 1602.
along the beaches, gazing in wonder at the strangers. It was observed that
the pipes of those who came on board were steeled with copper," and that
one of the Indians wore a copper breastplate.
Gosnold afterwards sailed into Buzzard's Bay, and began a settlement
on Elizabeth Island, now known as Cuttyhunk. This, however, was soon
abandoned, for want of provision for its support, when his vessel had com-
pleted her lading. Here he traded with the Indians, who were frequent
visitors, and who are described as exceeding courteous, gentle of dispo-
sition, and well conditioned, exceeding all others that we have seen in
shape and looks. They are of stature much higher than we, of complexion
much like a dark olive; their eyebrows and hair black, which they wear
long, tied up behind in knots, whereon they prick feathers of fowls in
fashion of a coronet. They make beards of the hair of beasts, and one of
them offered a beard of their making to one of the sailors for his that grew
on his face, which, because it was of a red color, they judged to be none
of his own.
They have great store of copper . none of them but what have
chains, ear-rings, or collars of this metal. They head some of their arrows
with it. Their chains, worn about their necks, contain four hundred hol-
low pieces, very fine and nicely set together. So little did they esteem
these that they offered the finest of them for a knife or some similar
The settlement of Maine was largely owing to the vast fisheries on her
coast. For more than a century before, these had been known and drawn
from by English and French mariners. The territory, as we have seen,
was claimed by the French, but the Abenaki and Alicmnac tribes were its


aboriginal inhabitants. These Indians had permanent villages, enclosed
by palisades. They wore many ornaments in their dress, skilfully made
from shells and stones. They were agriculturists, amiable and social, brave,
faithful to engagements, and especially strong in their family attachments.
They had been gained over by the French missionaries, captivated by the
picturesque and striking ceremonies of the Catholic religion, which ap-
pealed so strongly to the eye and the imagination.
In May, 1605, Captain George Weymouth landed on their coast, and
seized some of the natives, whom he carried to England. There was
great difficulty in getting the Indians into their boat. The narrator of
the voyage tells us that it was as much as five of them could do, for they
were strong and naked, so that their best hold was by their long hair."
In England they were objects of great wonder, and crowds of people fol-
lowed them in the streets, as they had done, a century before, when those
brought over by Cabot were exhibited.
Landing with them at Plymouth, the commandant, Sir Ferdinando
Gorges, became greatly interested in them, and ultimately became largely
concerned in the settlement of New England through the information
derived from them. He kept them with him three years, finding in them
"great civility of manners, far from the rudeness of our common people."
Two of these natives piloted Popham's colony to the Kennebeck River
in 1607.
This was the first colony that spent a winter in New England; and a
most severe winter it was. From the natives they found "civil enter-
tainment and kind respect, far from brutish or savage nations," but from
adverse circumstances gave up the settlement in the following year and
returned to England. Gorges, who was far-sighted and energetic, con-
tinued to exert himself earnestly and unselfishly to promote a permanent
settlement of his countrymen upon the continent.
An act of singular boldness was performed by an Indian named Pech-
mo. Captain Harlow, while at Monhegan Island, detained him and two
1611. others on board his ship, but he leaped overboard and escaped.
Not long afterwards he with others cut Harlow's boat from his
ship's stern, got her on shore, and filling her with sand, with their bows
and arrows prevented the English from recovering her.
Another instance of successful daring and duplicity on the part of the
Abenakis is seen in the escape of Epanow, an Indian who had promised
Gorges, in a voyage undertaken in 1614, to point out a gold mine in his
country. Of this Indian it was said that, "being a man of so great a
stature, he was showed up and down London for money as a wonder. He



was of no less courage and authority than of wit, strength, and propor-
"Every precaution was taken to prevent Epanow's escape. He was
even obliged to wear long garments, that might easily be laid hold of if
occasion should require. Notwithstanding all this, his friends being all
come at the time appointed with twenty canoes, the captain called to them
to come aboard; but they did not stir. Then Epanow, who was standing
between two gentlemen that had been on guard, started suddenly from
them, called his friends in English to come aboard, and leaps overboard.
And although he was laid hold of by one of the company, yet, being a
strong and heavy man, he could not be stayed, and was no sooner in the
water but the natives in the boats sent such a shower of arrows, and
came withal desperately so near the ship, that they carried him away
in despite of all the musketeers aboard. And thus," continues Gorges,
"were my hopes of that particular voyage made void and frustrate."

In September, 1609, Henry Hudson, an English navigator of experi-
ence, in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, sailed in the Half
Moon up the noble river that now bears his name. This day,"
says the narrator, the people of the country came aboard Sept. 4.
of us in canoes made of single, hollowed trees, seeming very glad of our
coming, and brought green tobac-
co, and gave us of it for knives
and beads. They go in deerskins,
loose, well dressed. They have
yellow copper, desire clothes, and
are very civil. . Next day --
many of the people came aboard
in mantles of feathers. Some
women also came to us with
hemp; they had red copper to-
bacco -pipes, and other things of n
copper they did wear about their
necks." One of Hudson's men,
named Colman, was killed with an HENDRIK HUDSON.
arrow on the following day in a
conflict with some of the natives belonging to the fierce tribe of Manhattans.
Hudson then sailed up the river as far as Albany, the natives found
above the Highlands being a "very loving people." They brought to-
bacco, grapes, oysters, beans, pumpkins, and furs to the vessel, for which




he paid them, in hatchets, beads, and knives. They invited him to visit
them on shore, where they made him welcome, and a chief "made an
oration and showed him all the country round about."
One thievish Indian climbed up by the rudder and stole some articles,
but was shot and killed by the master's mate. The others fled, some
taking to the water. A boat was sent out and the articles recovered.
"Then," says the narrator, one of them that swam got hold of our boat,
thinking to overthrow it, but our cook took a sword and cut off his hands,
and he was drowned."
It was a sad day for the natives when they were, for the first time,
brought under the influence of strong drink. Some of the chiefs were
invited into Hudson's cabin, and were plied with wine and brandy till
they were intoxicated. "That was strange to them," says the old chron-
icler, for they could not tell how to take it." One of them was so tipsy
that his companions thought him bewitched, and brought charms (strips
of beads) to save him from the strangers' arts. As Hudson and his men
sailed down the river, the natives followed with friendly presents and'
hearty regrets at their departure. Hudson put to sea October 4th, and
arrived at Dartmouth, England, on the 7th of November.
A few years later the Dutch laid the foundation of Manhattan, now
the great city of New York. The first European settlements in America


II -- ~-
I=_-- ~_ __
- ---- --i ~-Se

--~- --~ ~-~-- - ~ ~


were nearly all trading posts, established at points where they could barter
with the Indians for the skins and furs of the animals they had trapped or
shot. These were fitted out by trading companies in England, France,
and Holland. The traders were constantly defrauding the Indians, and
at the same time rendering them formidable by selling them arms. The
attempt of Kieft, the Dutch governor, to exact tribute from them, followed
by an attack on the Raritans for an alleged theft at Staten Island, brought
on, finally, a desolating warfare, lasting for two years.


In the winter of 1642-43 the dreaded Mohawks came swooping down
upon the Algonkin settlements, driving great numbers of them into Man-
hattan and other Dutch settlements near it. Though these Indians had
committed hostile acts, policy and humanity alike suggested that they
should be well treated. Instead of this their defenceless condition only
suggested to Kieft the policy of exterminating them.
Across the river, at Pavonia, a large number of them had collected, and



here, at midnight, the Dutch soldiers, joined by some privateersmen, fell
upon them while asleep in their tents, and butchered nearly
Feb. 25, 1643.
one hundred of them, including women and little children.
This cruel and impolitic act was terribly avenged. The Indians every-
where rose upon the whites, killing the men, capturing the women and


children, and destroying and laying waste the settlements. Trading boats
on the Hudson were attacked and plundered and their crews murdered.
The war extended into Connecticut, and at Pelham's Neck, near New
Rochelle, Anne Hutchinson, a remarkable woman, exiled from Boston
on account of her religious opinions, was murdered, together with her fam-
ily, with the exception of a daughter, who was carried into captivity.
The terror-stricken people crowded into Fort Amsterdam, where, dur-
ing the following winter, they suffered from hunger and cold. Meantime
they organized a force, fifty of whom were English, under Captain John

-- ---------------

Jill---=- c_




Underhill, who had won renown in the Pequot war. Early in 1644 they
undertook an expedition against the principal village of the Connecticut
Indians, situated near Stamford.
A night-march brought them to the Indian town. They had hoped to
surprise the Indians, but it was a bright moonlight night and they found
them prepared. The Dutch numbered one hundred and fifty;
the Indians, protected by their rude fortifications, were seven
hundred strong. Advancing steadily, the Dutch repelled the sorties of
the Indians, nearly two hundred of whom fell in the attempt to drive
them back. Underhill at last succeeded in setting fire to the village.
There was an end of the fighting; it was only slaughter now. But eight
of the Indians escaped. This victory put a period to the strife.
Aug. 30.
In the following summer a treaty was concluded with all the
hostile tribes on the beautiful spot in front of Fort Amsterdam, now
known as the Battery, and the pipe of peace was duly smoked in pres-
ence of the entire Dutch population. One week later a day of thanks-
giving was kept by the Dutch for the conclusion of this terrible war,
in the course of which nearly every one of their settlements had been
attacked and destroyed.

,/ i" -"" r---'- ----=-- -- -- -- -Y


Early one morning in September, 1655, during the absence of Gov-
ernor Stuyvesant, who was besieging the Swedes at Fort Christian, nearly
two thousand Algonkin warriors swarmed through the streets of New
Amsterdam, and after plundering the houses all day, were finally driven
off in the evening after a desperate conflict. They then ravaged the


adjacent country, killing the men and making prisoners of the women
and children. Stuyvesant hastened back and took prompt measures to
meet the emergency; but, instead of attacking the savages, by a prudent
and conciliatory course he avoided further trouble, and procured a lasting
peace and the return of all the captives.


On the Pacific coast, Sir Francis Drake, the first Englishman who
sailed round the world, discovered "a fair and good bay," which may
anne 11,ls79. have been that of San Francisco, and remained there long
enough to refit his vessel and to build a fort upon the shore.
lie took possession of the country for Queen Elizabeth with the usual
formalities, erecting a post upon which an engraved plate of brass was
placed, bearing, besides the picture and arms of the Queen, and Drake's
arms, the statement of the free resignation of the country by the king and
people into her hands.



With the Indians Drake maintained the most friendly relations.
Soon after he landed he received a visit from the king of the country,
a man of comely presence and stature, who with his train appeared in
great pomp. In front of him marched a tall man, with the sceptre or
mace of black wood a yard and a half long. Upon it hung two crowns,
with three long chains of bone; these had innumerable links and were
marks of honor. The king was dressed in rabbit-skins. The common
people were almost naked, but their hair was tied with many feathers.
Their faces were painted, and they all brought with them some present.

(~ 01 A ~
"S ____
4- --- ---
-l- --
t'4 ~9 _~


The sceptre bearer and another made long speeches, and then there was
a dance and a song. They were then understood to ask Drake "to be-
come their king and governor," the king singing with all the rest; and
more fully to declare their meaning, set the crown upon Drake's head
and encircled his neck with their chains. They then saluted him by the
title of Hlio/, or king, and sang and danced to show their joy not only
at this visit of the gods, but that Drake, the great god, was become their
king and patron.
In the interior the natives were found living in villages. Their houses
were round holes in the ground, surmounted by poles which met in tlhe


centre, the whole being covered with earth to keep out water. The door,
" made sloping like the scuttle of a ship," was also the chimney. The
people slept in these houses on rushes, on the ground around a fire in the


middle. The country was fruitful. Deer and wild horses were plenty.
The natives were loving and tractable, and expressed great sorrow at
Drake's departure. In his narrative of this voyage, Drake sets forth
fully the abundance of gold in California.

The natives who met the founder of Pennsylvania were Lenni-Le-
nape, who formerly had their seat beyond the Alleghanies, whence they
emigrated to the Hudson and the Delaware. The Raritan, Navesink,
Mingo, and Assanpink creeks and rivers, preserve for us the names of




the tribes commonly known as Delawares. They were of a warlike dis-
position, and frequently fought with their Indian neighbors. At the
time of Penn's visit they had been conquered by and were subjects of
the fierce Iroquois.
Penn has thus described them: "They are tall, straight, tread strong
and clever, and walk with a lofty chin. Their custom of rubbing the
body with bear's fat gives them a swarthy color. They have little black
eyes. Their heads and countenances have nothing of the negro type, and
I have seen as comely European-like faces among them as on the other
side of the sea. Their language is lofty, yet narrow; like short-hand in
writing, one word serveth in the place of three, and the rest are supplied
by the understanding of the hearers. I have made it my business to learn
it that I might not want an interpreter on any occasion.

:o z""


"In liberality they excel; nothing is too good for their friend. Give
them a fine gun, coat, or other thing, it may pass twenty hands before it
sticks; light of heart, strong affections, but soon spent. The justice they


have is pecuniary. In case they kill a woman, they pay double; and the
reason they render is that she breedeth children, which the man cannot
do. It is rare that they fall out, if sober, and if drunk they forgive it,
saying it was the drink and not the man that abased them."

S'i-! iij

77 -


At Penn's first interview with the Delawares, Taminent, the chief
sachem, sat in the middle of a semicircle composed of old men and coun-
cillors. At a little distance back sat the young people. One of the
sachems addressed Penn, during whose talk no one whispered or smiled.
Penn and his friends were without arms; he was easily distinguished by
a blue silk net-work sash. The sachem wore a chaplet, with a small horn
projecting from it, as a symbol of sovereignty.
The name of the famous Delaware sachem with whom Penn made his
treaty has been handed down to posterity in a very singular manner. Not-

~_ __


p^ .





4( I


L' /"


- (19-A __-


* w,'^



x `Y
\ ~


.,__ -i-;


withstanding the discredit into which it has latterly fallen, the name of
Tammany (Taminent) was an honored one, not only during the lifetime of
the warrior and sage who bore it, but long after his decease.
A century ago it was adopted by a society in Philadelphia, who, on
the first day of May in each year, walked in procession through the streets
of that city, their hats decorated with buck's tails, to a place of meeting
which they called the wigwam, where the day was passed in mirth and
festivity. Since that period the honored name has been associated with a
political faction in New York City, at whose meetings a semblance of
Indian customs is still preserved.
Penn told the Indians that he desired to live in perfect amity with
them, and that he and his friends came unarmed because they never used
weapons. In addition to the price of the land he bought of them, he pre-
sented them with various articles of merchandise.
lie tried in every way to conciliate them and gain their confidence.
He walked with them at one of their earliest meetings, sat with them on
the ground, and ate with them of their roasted acorns and hominy. They
expressed their delight at this by hopping and jumping, in which the staid
Quaker himself joined them, and, as the story goes, 1 beat them all." His
open, straightforward, simple manner and kind treatment of them was
repaid by friendly offices both to himself and his followers.
His famous treaty with them took place at Shakamaxon, on the north-
ern edge of Philadelphia. Every right of the Indians was to be respected,
and every difference adjusted by a tribunal composed of an
Oct. 4, 16S2.
equal number of men from each race. Neither oaths, signa-
tures, nor seals were made use of in this treaty, and no written record of
it exists; but it was sacredly kept for sixty years. Harmony also sub-
sisted with the neighboring Indians, among whom were bands of the war-
like Shawnees.




IT was time for England to assert her rights, and to plant colonies in
the vast and fertile regions Cabot had discovered almost a century
before. So thought Sir Walter Raleigh, one of the most brill-
Aprl iant Englishmen of an exceptionally brilliant period, when he
despatched two vessels, under Captains Amadas and Barlow,
to the New World.
Landing at Cape Hatteras in July, they received a friendly welcome,
and trafficked with the natives, who came off to their ship in boats, and
whom they described as "a handsome and goodly people, most gentle, lov-
ing, and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and
such as lived after the manner, of the golden age."
Among these visitors was Granganameo, the
king's brother, who, taking a fancy to a pewter
dish, made a hole through it and hung it about
his neck for a breastplate. From him they learned
that Wingina, the king of that country, was con-
fined at home by a wound received in battle. The
FORM OF RALEIG' S Christians drove excellent bargains with these sim-
ple heathen, the price of the pewter dish being
twenty deerskins, worth five pounds sterling, and fifty deerskins for a
copper kettle. The simple natives marvelled much at the whiteness
of the strangers.
The chief's wife came to see them. She wore a long cloak of leather,
with a piece of leather about her loins, around her forehead a band of
white coral, and from her ears bracelets of large pearls of the bigness of
good pease" hung down to her middle. The other women wore pendants
of copper, as did the children, five or six in an ear. Their boats were
hollowed trunks of trees.
They kept their white visitors supplied with game and fruits, and did
all they could for their comfort. Captain Barlow, with seven men, vis-


ited the chief's residence,
and in his absence were
most hospitably entertain-
ed by his wife. Her house
of five rooms she placed at
their disposal; she and her
women provided bountiful-
ly for their wants, washing
and drying their clothing,
and even bathing their feet
in warm water, and placing
a guard over their boat
while they slept. They
were feasted upon hominy,
boiled venison, and roasted
fish, with a dessert of mel-
ons and other vegetables.
After exploring the coast
and acquiring information,
the expedition, about the
middle of September, re- SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
turned to England. Two of
the natives, Wanchese and MTanteo, accompanied them on the return voyage.
The glowing accounts they gave of the country made it easy to gather
a company of emigrants to colonize Virginia, for so the country had been
named by Queen Elizabeth. Under the lead of Ralph Lane, a soldier of
some reputation, one hundred and eight colonists embarked at
April 9, 1585.
Plymouth in seven vessels, commanded by Sir Richard Green-
ville, a kinsman of Raleigh, and one of the best known of the naval cap-
tains of the age.
Two years later, Greenville, in his single ship off the Azores, fought
fifteen great Spanish galleons for fifteen hours, and when at last mortally
wounded, exclaimed with his latest breath, Here die I, Richard Green-
ville, with a joyful and quiet mind, for that I have ended my life as a true
soldier ought to do, fighting for his country, queen, religion, and honor."
One of the ships that bore Lane's colony was commanded by Captain
Amadas, another by a young captain named Thomas Cavendish, who a
year afterwards made a famous voyage round the world. Thomas Hariot
was the scientific man of this well-equipped expedition, and John White
the artist.



Landing in August, Lane established his colony at Wocokon, on Roan-
oke Island. Here they found tobacco, to the use of which they soon ac-
customed themselves, maize, or Indian corn, which attracted their atten-
tion from its extraordinary productiveness, and the potato, which, when
boiled, they found very palatable. The country was explored as far south
as the Indian village of Secotan, and northwardly to the territory of the
Chesapeakes in the bay of that name.
The inhabitants who were on the boundary of the Algonkin and South-
ern or Appalachian races were a mixture of both. Each clan obeyed its
own chief, but all were associated in a general confederacy which was
ruled by Powhatan, whose council-fire and residence were on the James
River. They were described by one of the colonists as a very strong and
lusty race, and swift warriors. He tells us, Their skin is tawny, not so
born, but with dyeing and painting themselves, in which they delight
greatly. The maids shave close the forepart and sides of their heads, and
leave the hair long behind, where it is tied up and hangs down to the hips.
The married women wear their hair all of a length, but tied behind as
that of the maid's is. The women scratch on their bodies and limbs with
a sharp iron, pictures of birds, fishes, and beasts, and rub into the draw-
ings lively colors, which dry into the flesh and are permanent. The peo-
ple are witty and ingenious, but steal anything they can lay hands on-
yea, are so practised in this art, that looking in our faces they would with
their foot convey between their toes a chisel, knife, or any indifferent
light thing, which, having once conveyed, they hold it an injury to take the
same from them. They are naturally given to treachery, howbeit we
could not find it in our travel up the river, but rather a most kind and
loving people."
They were exceedingly fond of ornaments, some of which were very
singular, not to say repulsive. An early traveller tells us, Their ears
they bore with holes, commonly two or three, and in the same they do
hang heavy chains of stained pearl, bracelets of white bone, or shreds of
copper beaten thin and bright, and wound up hollow, and with a great
pride, certain fowles legs, eagles, hawks, turkeys, etc. The claws thrust
through, they let hang upon the cheek to the full view, and some there be
who will wear in these holes a small green and yellow live snake, near half
a yard in length, which, crawling and lapping himself about his neck,
oftentimes familiarly he suffereth to kiss his lips. Others wear a ded rat
tyed by the tail, and such like conundrums."
Their towns were small, the largest containing but thirty dwellings.
Their greatest chief could not muster more than seven hundred or eight


hundred warriors. Mathematical instruments, the burning-glass, guns,
clocks, mirrors, and the use of letters, attracted their superstitious regard,
and the English were reverenced as superior beings. Fire-arms were terri-
ble to them, and every sickness was attributed to wounds from invisible
bullets discharged by unseen beings inhabiting the air.
To make their children hardy," says an early writer, "they wash them
in the river in the coldest mornings, and by paintings and ointments so tan
their skins that after a year or two no weather will hurt them. To prac-
tise their children in the use of their bows and arrows, the mothers do not
give them their breakfast in a morning before they have hit a mark which
she appoints them to shoot at, and commonly so cunning (skilful) they will
have them as, throwing up in the air a piece of moss or some light thing,
the boy must with his arrow meet it in its fall and hit it, or else he shall
not have his breakfast."
Gradually the friendly disposition of the Indians towards the colonists
changed, owing to the greed and cruelty of the whites. They believed
that the English were come to kill them and take their places. This
belief led to a feeling of enmity. The English perceived it, and fearing
a wide-spread conspiracy to destroy them, determined to anticipate it.
Obtaining an interview with Wingina, the principal chief, who was wholly
unsuspicious of their design, at a preconcerted signal the English fell upon
him and his followers and put them all to death. It is not strange that
acts of cruelty like these were remembered by the natives, and that savage
retribution followed.
Very soon Lane's colony became dissatisfied; provisions were scarce,
the Indians were unfriendly, and the colonists were homesick and anxious
to return to England. The fleet of Sir Francis Drake oppor-
tunely arriving on the coast, he permitted them to embark, and
thus ended the first attempt at English colonization. A few days after
their departure a ship arrived, laden with all the stores needed by the
colony. Greenville, with further supplies, also appeared a little too late.
IHe left fifteen men on Roanoke Island to hold possession for England;
they were all killed by the Indians.
Constant to his purpose of colonization, Raleigh now determined to
plant a colony of emigrants, with their wives and families, who would make
permanent homes in the New World. John White was appointed its
governor. In the month of July, 1587, it arrived on the coast of North
Carolina, and laid the foundations of the city of Raleigh on Roanoke
Here the first white child of English parents was born to Eleanor Dare,


the daughter of Governor White, and named Virginia from the place of
its birth.
Captain Stafford, with twenty men, was sent to Croatan, to seek for the
lost colonists. He heard that they had been set upon by the Indians, and
after a sharp skirmish had taken boats and gone to a small island near
IIaterask, and afterwards had gone none knew whither. A party, under
the guidance of Manteo, an Indian who had accompanied Amadas and
Barlow to England, was sent to avenge their supposed murder. By mis-
take they attacked and killed some members of a friendly tribe. Such
mistakes have been only too common in our intercourse with the Indians.
When the ship which had brought them was about to return, the
emigrants prevailed on Governor White to go back and see to the prompt
despatch of reinforcements and supplies. No seasonable relief, however,
arrived, and the fate of the colony remains to this day a mystery. Owing
to the threatened invasion of England by the Spanish armada, and to other
untoward events, it was not until three years had elapsed that White could
return to seek for his colony. It had disappeared, leaving no trace behind.
IIe found the island of Roanoke a desert. Raleigh's efforts and sacrifices
to colonize America were all in vain ; but his faith was still unshaken, and
to his friend Cecil he wrote the memorable words, I shall yet live to see
it an Inglishe nation." America owes a large debt of gratitude to the
illustrious man who did so much to promote her colonization.
A period of twenty years now elapsed before a permanent English
settlement was made. St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest town in the
United States, had been founded by the Spaniards in 1565, and in 1605
the French had begun the settlement of Nova Scotia. On the 14th of
May, 1607, Captain Christopher Newport's colony planted itself at James-
town, Virginia. The colonists at once set manfully to work, felling trees
and erecting a fort.
Three weeks before, a party had explored the James River, visiting on
the way several Indian kings, or werowances, as they were called, "the
people in all places kindly entertaining us," says Captain John Smith,
one of the explorers, dancing, and feasting us with strawberries, mul-
berries, bread, fish, and other country provisions, whereof we had plenty,
for which Captain Newport kindly requited them with bells, pins, needles,
and glass beads, which so contented them that his liberality made them
follow us from place to place, and ever kindly to respect us."
A remarkable man has come upon the scene, the first to render illus-
trious the otherwise prosaic name of John Smith. HIe was now twenty-
eight years of age, and from his earliest youth had led a roving and



adventurous life. His military career began in the service of the gallant
Henry of Navarre, under whose banner we find at the same time Captain
Thomas Dudley, afterwards governor of the Massachusetts colony. Smith's
exploits in the wars with the Turks in Hungary, his capture and sale in
the slave market at Adrianople, his cruel treatment by his master, and his
escape, as told by himself, make a most entertaining and romantic, if not
a strictly veracious, narrative.*
While a slave in the Crimea lie was clothed in the skin of a wild beast,
an iron collar was fastened about his neck, and he was cuffed and kicked


about like a dog. One day lie avenged himself by breaking his master's
skull with a flail, and then mounting his horse fled in disguise to Poland,
and thence made his way to Morocco. Here he joined an English man-of-
war, and after a fierce sea-fight arrived in England just in time to embark
in the colonization of Virginia.
These experiences, taken in connection with his subsequent career in
Virginia, make Captain John Smith by far the most picturesque character
in our annals. Even if we give up the chivalric exploit of the slaying of
the three Turks, one after the other, in single combat before the walls of
Regall, for the pastime of the ladies, and the romantic story of his rescue
from death by Pocahontas, enough remains to immortalize the name of
Captain John Smith in all time to come.

For the incidents in the career of this remarkable man, read his "True Travels,
Adventures, and Observations," and his Generall Historic of Virginia, New England,
and the Summer Isles."


As soon as the natives became aware of the purpose of the whites to
dispossess them of their territory, they began to be troublesome. They
would skulk about at night, and hang around the fort by day, bringing
sometimes presents of deer, but given to theft of small articles, and show-
ing jealousy of the invasion of their soil. The day before
May 26. the return of a second exploring party, two hundred Indians

attacked the fort. They fought bravely, but were driven off after an
hour's fight by the guns of the ship. In this affair the colonists had
eleven men wounded and a boy killed. For several days alarms and
attacks continued, and it was unsafe for any to venture beyond the fort.
Newport's colony consisted mainly of "gentlemen." No more useless
commodity could have been sent here. Among them were ruined spend-
thrifts, broken tradesmen, fortune-hunters, rakes, and libertines. They
expected to find gold; they found instead danger, disappointment, toil,
and sickness.
We did not come here to work," they said.
Then you shall not eat," said the redoubtable Captain Smith. The
labor of a few industrious men shall not be consumed to maintain idle
In order to stop profanity Smith kept a daily account of every man's
oaths, and at night a can of cold water poured down the offender's sleeve
was the penalty for each transgression. To the company in England
who had sent out the colony he wrote: When you send again, I entreat
you send thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths,
or diggers up of roots, well provided, rather than a thousand of such as
we have." After Smith's return to England they had things their own
way; they plundered the Indians, who in turn slew them, and were re-
duced by famine to the greatest straits. When relieved by Sir Thomas
Gates, from four hundred and ninety their number had dwindled to sixty.
With so many drones in the hive there was soon a scarcity of food.
But for the kindness of the natives, who brought them maize and other
provisions, they must have starved. Smith made several excursions up
the Chickahominy River to trade with the Indians for corn. When, as it
sometimes happened, the savages were insolent, and refused to trade, he
brought them to terms by force of arms. But for his energy in procuring
supplies, and his success in dealing with the Indians, it is probable that
the colony would have famished. With all his vanity and impatience of
restraint, Smith possessed extraordinary executive ability.
Not long after the settlement was begun, Smith, while engaged in
exploring the sources of the Chickahominy, was set upon by the natives.



Seizing the Indian guide who had accompanied him, he used him as a
shield against their arrows, at the same time defending himself with his
pistol. He was soon surrounded by two hundred Indians, led by Opechan-
ganough, chief of the Pamunkeys, the brother of Powhatan. Sure of
making him prisoner they would not shoot, but laid down their bows and
demanded his arms. Let the valiant captain tell the rest of the story in
his own words :
In retiring," says Smith, "' being in the midst of a low quagmire, and
minding them more than my steps, I stept fast into the quagmire, and
also the Indian in drawing me forth. Thus surprised, I resolved to try
their mercies and cast my arms from me, till which none durst approach

:-3 "" '"_"_ _.. ..._

-- ,,- -. -,-." ,


"Having seized on me they drew me out, diligently chafed my be-
numbed limbs, and led me to the king. I presented him with a compass-
dial, describing by my best means the use thereof; whereat he so amazed-
ly admired, as he suffered me to proceed in a discourse of the roundness
of the earth, the course of the sun, moon, stars, and planets. (Much of
this learned discourse must have been thrown away upon an unlettered


savage.) With kind speeches and bread he requited me. I expected they
would execute me, yet they used me with what kindness they could. I
was taken to their town, six miles off, only made as arbors and covered
with mats, which they remove as occasion requires. For supper I had
a quarter of venison and some ten pounds of bread; what I left was
reserved for me. Each morning three women presented me three great
platters of fine bread, and more venison than ten men could eat. I had
my gone, points, and garters; my compass and tablets they gave me
again. Though eight ordinarily guarded me, I wanted not what they
could devise to content me, and still our longer acquaintance increased
our better affection."
Smith also greatly astonished the Indians by writing a letter to be
sent to his friends, for they could not understand how a message could
be put on paper. And when the articles for which he had sent were
delivered to them, they regarded him as a wonderful powwow or con-
Some days later he was conducted to the residence of Powhatan, the
principal chief of the country, near the historic field of Yorktown, but
on the other side of the river.
Powhatan was at this time about seventy years of age, and of majestic
appearance. He was tall, well proportioned, and exceedingly vigorous.
By his bravery, energy, and policy he had raised himself to kingly power.
He swayed many nations upon the great rivers and bays, as far as thie Pa-
tuxent, most of whom he had conquered. There were thirty of these,
with a population of twenty-four thousand. He wore an ornamented robe
of raccoon-skins, and his head-dress was composed of many feathers wrought
into a kind of crown. IIe usually kept a guard of forty or fifty of the
most resolute and well formed of his warriors about him, especially when
he slept; but after the English came into his country he increased it
to about two hundred. Smith's interview with this great chief, who re-
ceived him with much ceremony, is best given in his own words:
"Arriving at Woramocomoco, on the Pamnunkey [York] River," says
Smith, "their emperor was proudly lying upon a bedstead a foot high,
upon ten or twelve mats, richly hung with many chains of great pearls
about his neck, and covered with a great covering of raccoon-skins. At
his head sat a woman ; at his feet another. On each side, sitting on a mat
upon the ground, were ranged his chief men, ten in a rank, and behind
them as many young women, each having a great chain of white beads
over their shoulders, their heads painted red. At my entrance before the
king all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appomattuck was




appointed to bring me water to wash my hands, and another brought a
bunch of feathers instead of a towel to dry them.
With such a grave and majestical countenance as drew me into admi-
ration to see such state in a naked savage, Powhatan kindly welcomed me
with good words and great platters of sundry victuals, assuring me his

/ ---,

misJ/te _/, C 7- V-, SmithlC~
,-was add-zizena' t h." ;prj7 V
1C) ("' 7

friendship, and my liberty within four days. He much delighted in
Opechanganough's relation of what I had described to him, and oft exam-
ined me upon the same. lie promised to give me corn, venison, or what I
wanted to feed us. Hatchets and copper we should make him, and none
should disturb us. This I promised to perform; and thus having, with
all the kindness he could devise, sought to content me, he sent me home."


When Powhatan inquired of Smith the cause of their coming, lie was
careful not to let him know that the English had come to settle in the
country. He told him that in a fight with the Spaniards they had been
overpowered and compelled to retreat, and by stress of weather had to
put to that shore. Perhaps Powhatan believed him. Smith had a de-
cided knack for romancing.
This account of his captivity was written by Smith at the time, and
was soon afterwards published in London. In it nothing is said about
Pocahontas saving his life. That romantic story, first published sixteen
years later, and since everywhere repeated, has latterly been questioned.
It is wholly inconsistent with what Smith had previously told of the kind
treatment lie received from Powhatan. It is as follows :
I Having feasted him (Smith) after the best barbarous manner they
could, a long consultation was held; but the conclusion was, two great
stones were brought before Powhatan; then as many as could laid hands
on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready
with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the king's dearest
daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms and
laid her own upon his to save him from death, whereat the emperor was
contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and
copper, for they thought him as well capable of all occupations as them-
selves." There can be little doubt that Smith owed his escape from
death to his own native wit and readiness.
Smith thus describes some of the religious and other ceremonies per-
formed by their medicine-men, or powwows:
Three or four days after my taking," lie says, seven of them came
rushing in, painted half black, half red, in the house where I lay; round
about him these fiends danced a pretty while; then each, with a rattle, be-
gan, at ten o'clock in the morning, to sing about the fire, which they en-
vironed with a circle of meal, and afterwards, a foot or two from that,
at the end of each song, laid down two or three grains of wheat, con-
tinuing this order till they have included six hundred or seven hundred
in a half-circle, and, after that, two or three more circles in like manner,
a hand's-breadth from the others; that done, at each song they put be-
tween every three, two, or five grains a little stick, so continuing, as an
old woman her paternoster.
One, disguised with a great skin, his head hung round with little
skins of weasels and other vermin, with a coronet of feathers on his head,
painted as ugly as possible, came skipping in with a fearful yell, and a rattle
in his hand. At the end of each song he made many signs and demon-








stations, with strange and vehement actions; great cakes of deer suet,
deer, and tobacco he cast in the fire. Their howling would continue till
six o'clock in the evening ere they would depart. Three days they used this
ceremony, the meaning whereof was to show if I intended them well or no.








"Each morning, in the coldest frosts, the principal, to the number of
twenty or thirty, assembled themselves in a circle a good distance from the
town, where they told me they consulted where to hunt the next day. So
fat they fed me that I much doubted they intended to have sacrificed me
to the power they worship. To cure the sick, a man with a rattle, and
extreme howling, shouting, singing, and such violent gestures and antic
actions, labors over the patient. In passing over the water in foul weather
they offer tobacco to their god to conciliate his favor. Death they lament
with great sorrow and weeping; their kings they bury betwixt two mats,
within their houses, with all his beads,
jewels, hatchets, and copper; the
others in graves like ours. For the
Crown their heirs inherit not but the
_-_ __ i first heirs of the sister."
The colonists were constantly in
S- t t fear of the savages, who lurked in
c te the neighboring forest. One of them
__ o brought in a glittering stone one day,
... and said he would show them where
t there was a great abundance of it.
w s- Smith went to see this mine, but was
led hither and thither until he lost
So t patience, and seeing that the Indian
was fooling him, gave him twenty
lashes with a rope. Ile then handed
him his bow and arrows, told him
: to shoot if lie dared, and let him
Smith was always prompt and
"square with the Indians, keeping his promises to them, and never
hesitating to attack or punish them when necessary. They feared and
respected him. Smith was a great boaster, but there was no nonsense
about him.
He was a born explorer, and in one of his voyages discovered and sailed
up the Potomac River, collecting from the natives a quantity of furs.
Fish were so abundant that his men attempted, though without success, to
catch them with frying-pans; the fishes very properly declined this pre-
mature introduction to the frying-pan, not being dressed for the occasion.
In a subsequent journey he made acquaintance with the Susquehannocks,
a tribe of large stature and of honest and simple disposition. "Their



voices were proportioned to their size," says Smith, "sounding, as it were,
a great voice in a vault or cave, as an echo."
Early in the following year Smith, with Newport and about twenty
others, went to Powhatan's residence to trade. Three hundred savages
conducted Smith to Powhatan, who received him in great
state. Before his house were ranged forty or fifty great plat- .
ters of bread. Entering his house, with loud tunes they made all signs
of great joy."
The emperor sat upon his bed of mats, his pillow of leather embroid-
ered with pearls and white beads, and his attire "a fair robe of skins, as
large as an Irish mantle." lie welcomed Smith with kindness, caused him
to sit beside him, and with pleasant converse renewed their old acquaint-
ance. Smith presented him with a suit of red cloth, a white greyhound,
and a hat. Powhatan professed a great desire to see Smith's "father,"
Captain Newport, upon whose greatness Smith had before freely enlarged.
That night the English were feasted liberally, and entertained with sing-
ing, dancing, and orations.
Next day Newport came on shore, and presents were exchanged. New-
port gave Powhatan a white boy, thirteen years old, named Thomas Sav-
age. This boy remained a long time with the Indians, and was useful to
the colonists as an interpreter. In return, Powliatan gave Newport a bag
of beans, and an Indian, named Namontack, for his servant. The party
stayed three or four days, feasting, dancing, and trading with the natives.
In the matter of trade, Smith says of Powhatan, he carried himself
so proudly, yet discreetly (in his savage manner), as made us all to admire
his natural gifts.
'Captain Newport,' said lie, 'it is not agreeable to my greatness in
this peddling manner to trade for trifles ; therefore lay down all your com-
modities together, what I like I will take, and in recompense give you
what I think fitting their value.' "
Smith saw through his craftiness and warned Newport; but the latter
resented his interference and placed all his goods before Powhatan, who in
return gave him only a few bushels of corn, whereas he expected to have
obtained twenty hogsheads. Smith, who was as wily as the Indian, showed
him, as if by accident, a few blue beads which lie pretended he did not
wish to part with, as they were of great price, being of the color of the
skies, and worn only by great kings. lie so stimulated Powhatan's eager-
ness to possess such treasures that for a pound of blue beads lie paid him
two or three hundred bushels of corn.
It had been decided by the company in England to crown Powhatan,

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