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Insects affecting or otherwise associated with triticale (triticum x secale) in the Everglades

Material Information

Title:
Insects affecting or otherwise associated with triticale (triticum x secale) in the Everglades
Series Title:
Belle Glade AREC Research Report - EV-1977-2
Creator:
Genung, William G.
Allen, Robert J. Jr.
Affiliation:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Research and Education Center -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication:
Belle Glade, Fla.
Publisher:
Agricultural Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
11 p. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Agriculture -- Florida ( LCSH )
Farm life -- Florida ( LCSH )
Triticale -- Florida ( LCSH )
Forage plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Everglades ( LCSH )
Infestation ( jstor )
Triticale ( jstor )
Sugar cane ( jstor )
Spatial Coverage:
Belle Glade
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

Notes

Funding:
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
63211759 ( OCLC )

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Belle Glade AREC Research Report EV-1977-2 January 1977

INSECTS AFFECTING OR OTHERWISE ASSOCIATED WITH TRITICALE (TRITICUM
X SCALE) IN THE EVERGLADES

William G. Genung
and
Robert J. Allen, Jr. /
Triticale (a Triticum x Secale cross through treatment with colchicine to
break the sterility of the intergeneric hybirds by doubling the chromosome number)
was tested agronomically at AREC, Belle Glade during the 1970-71 and 1973-74
Seasons on sawgrass muck soil. Triticale holds promise as a feed grain and green
forage plant. Customarily, all plantings of new crops-eat-this AREC are kept under
at least a reasonable degree of entomological surveil, innr;to-,heter
anticipate potential insect problems in the event ol future co ility.
This report deals only with the entomological aspects of r icle research and
covers three principle phases as follows: 1) a Tri-icale faunal sul v, 2)
evaluation of various effects of a seedhead sucking E. t complex on this grain
when used as seed, and 3) a report on the sugarcanceMrboe ieVp st of
Triticale. Because the 1973-74 crop headed sparsely and irregul:~rt'qua titative
data could not be recorded for that season, although, species occurrences were
noted.
METHODS
Faunal survey: Approximately weekly examinations were made on ten (10'x 10')
Triticale plots. These were sampled by making 10 sweeps per plot with an insect
sweeping net and collecting and recording the species and numbers of insects taken.
Cursory observations were also made on the remaining plots, but these were not
sampled. An additional plot had a relatively poor stand and was used for sampling
subterranean insects. This was done by taking six-inch squares of soil from
around the root zone to a depth of six inches and examining for soil insects.
The sugarcane borer counts were calculated on percent stand loss based on a stand
of 30 seedling stems per square foot. Other insects were simply recorded on a basis
of observed occurrence.
Effect of stinkbugs and aphids on seedheads: Rice stinkbug Olaebus pugnax (F.),
Mormidea pictiventris (Stal.), southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula (L.)
(all Pentatomidae), leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus phvllopus (L.) (Coreidae) and
oat bird-cherry aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Aphididae) damage was partially

1/ Professor (Entomologist), and Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist),
respectively, University of Florida IFAS, AREC, Belle Glade, Florida
33430.





-2-
evaluated by planting seed produced on these plots in laboratory experiments for
close observations. One hundred seed from each of six sucking insect damage
categories were planted in plastic flats in soil from the experimental area. The
damage categories on this seed were: 1) no visible damage, 2) lightly damaged,
3) moderately damaged, 4) heavily damaged, 5) very heavily damaged and 6) virtually
chaff. The various categories were observed for percentage of germination, days
required for first germination, vigor grade (based on average height of one plant
measured in each of ten rows for a total of 10 for each damage category), and
degree of damp-off susceptibility (number and percent of plants killed by damp-off
organisms).
Sugarcane borer attack: Since Triticale is being widely tested in the south-
east and since this borer occurs in all areas where sugarcane is grown, the
occurrence of these larvae in considerable numbers in early experimental Triticale
plantings seemed noteworthy. Counts were made on the total number of seed stems
in each of ten plots. Stand counts made on the total number of seed stems showed
that an average figure of 30 stems per square foot would be quite accurate in
computing the percent of infested seed stems.
RESULTS
Faunal survey: No insect damage of consequence was observed prior to heading.
Cutworms, lesser cornstalk borer, leafhoppers, yellow sugarcane aphid, greenbug,
and spotted and banded cucumber beetles occurred at a non-economic level during this
vegetative growth period. Among subterranean species, tenebrionids, elaterids, a
cydnid bug, and native fire ants, were found with regularity but always in low
numbers. Table 1 gives all injurious insect species found attacking Triticale and
pertinent information concerning them. During these two seasons, a stinkbug-aphid
complex seemed to be the most prevalent insects on the crop. These bugs occurred
with regularity and built up their populations as the season progressed, until
seedheads were in the dough stage of development in the case of rice stinkbug Olaebus
pugnax Mormidea pictiventris and oat bird-cherry aphid, after which these species
declined in numbers rather sharply in the plot area. The southern green stinkbug,
however, continued to increase until maturity when harvest terminated the observat.
ions. The green stinkbugs were actually noted with their mouth-parts inserted in this
dry grain. Although the leaf-footed bug generally declined after late April, a
slight upturn was evident by harvest. These bugs were also observed feeding on
this dry grain. Table 2 shows the seasonal trends of this complex during the 1970-
71 season.
Effect of stinkbug and aphids: Barnett et al (1971) pointed out that yield
in pounds per bushel as well as in yield of heads per plot was lower for





-3-
Triticale than for wheat. They, also, noted that Triticale seed were generally
more shrivelled than wheat. Despite these facts, the writers feel that the low
yield in the Everglades tests in 1971 was mainly due to the effects of the
sustained sucking-insect infestation throughout the heading period, Tables 2 and
3.
Table 4 shows that percent germination of all damage categories was dramat-
ically reduced in comparison with undamaged seed. The number of days to first
germination, vigor grade, and damp-off susceptibility were equally striking.
Sugarcane borer attack: Next to the stinkbug-aphid complex, the sugarcane
borer was the most important insect affecting Triticale with a maximum of about
2.1% seed stems bored, Table 5. The stems, thus bored, are blasted and flare
out in the field as a pale-straw color. Since no sugarcane borer larvae of last
instar, or pupae, could be found in stems, and since no moths could be reared
from collected material, it is believed that Triticale is a lethal host for the
sugarcane borer. The hollow, straw-like stems of this plant would appear to be
so inferior to sugarcane, nutritionally, that it's failure to produce adults is
not surprising.
DISCUSSION
Since the early vegetative stages of Triticale develop during the cooler
months, attacks by most chewing larvae and other gross feeding species would
normally be slight. Observations during two seasons substantiate this view.
However, past experience has shown that these growth stages could be seriously
damaged during the winter months by yellow sugarcane aphid and greenbug.
During some years, small grains, for winter grazing in the Everglades (as well
as experimental plots of oats, rye, and wheat) have been severely damaged or
destroyed by these aphids, unless controlled with chemicals.
The data presented in Tables 3,4, and 5, show that sustained infestation
by even moderate populations of a plant bug complex in conjuction with moderate
infestation by the oat-bird-cherry aphid can have serious effects on Triticale
where used for seed. We believe that the continual sucking of this complex,
also. greatly reduced yield. While a 41 bushel yield, obtained in the 1971
experiment was somewhat under the 48-49 bushel yields at Quincy, it was higher
than those obtained at Marianna and Jay (Barnett et al. 1971). However, we
believe that yield in the 1971 Everglades test would have been 20 to 25% (con-
servative estimate) higher, had the crop not been subject to this sustained
feeding through the milk and dough stages, and with one species, even to harvest
The serious effects of rice stinkbug on rice are documented (Douglas and Ingram
1942; Douglas and Tullis 1950; Fenton. 1956; Peairs and Davidson 1956;
Bowling 1962; Pathak,1968). Stinkbugs are, also, known to greatly reduce yield





-h-
and grade of soybeans and are undoubtedly the most important insect pests of
that crop (Blickenstaff and Huggans 1962; Daugherty et al. 196h; Miner 1961,
1962; Genung and Green 1962; Genung ot al. 1964). It is unlikely that in case
of attacks by these bugs, that damage would be less severe on Triticale than
on rice and soybeans.
While we doubt that sugarcane borer could survive or complete it's life
cycle in Triticale, initial infestation (if heavy) could have a serious effect
on production as the entire seed stem is blasted by attack. In areas of high
borer population, this borer could conceivably become an economic pest if the
crop attained commercial status.
SUMMARY
Among over 40 insect species attacking Triticale in the Everglades, sever-
al species would probably be important pests in the event of commercial pro-
duction. The most important of these, during the tests, in recent seasons,
were a stinkbug complex and the oat bird-cherry aphid During some years, the
greenbug and yellow sugarcane aphid would doubtless also be injurious during
the early vegetative stages. The stinkbug complex, leaf-footed bug and oat
bird-cherry aphid suck on the developing grain, resulting in increased shrivel-
ing of the individual grains. Seed damaged by stinkbugs, and aphids gave a
much poorer percent germination than normal seed, germinated more slowly, was
of lower vigor, and was strikingly more susceptible to damp-off organisms than
normal grain. The injurious effects of stinkbugs on rice and soybeans are well
known and an equally serious damage to Triticale should not be surprising.
While the sugarcane borer finds a lethal host in Triticale, the larvae
live long enough to blast the entire seed stem, and damage is great enough to
indicate an economic potential in this crop.










Table 1.

Common Name



Oat bird-cherry
aphid

English grain ap


Greenbug


Yellow sugarcane
aphid








Black-faced leafl





Sharpshooter


-5-
Insects attacking Triticale during tests i

Scientific Family
Name

Rhopalosiphum padi Aphididae
(L.)
hid Macrosiphum aven- "
ae (Kirby)

Schizaphis graminum n1
(Rond.)
Sipha flava (Forbes) "


Homaladisca insol- Cicadellidae
ita (F.)
Draeculacephala sp. "
Hortensia similis "
Walker

hopper Graminella nigri- I
frons (Forbes)
Exitianus exitiosus
(Uhler)
Oncometopia undata
(F.)

1/ Symbols used for Economic Density are:


.n 1970-71 and 1973-74, AREC, Belle Glade.

Test Economic Remarks
1/Occurrence density
Occurrence density -


Both tests

1973-74


Both tests


Both tests


1973-74


Both tests
Both tests


1973-74


1973-74


1973-74


Sometimes.injurious to pastures
in the area.
Eratic in it's occurrences.


Sometimes very injurious b pastures
and small grains.

Often very injurious to pastures.


Appears to be increasing on
grasses.


Frequently abundant in pastures.


E = Infestation sufficiently severe to economic.
NE = Population density not of economic severity.
U = Unknown.










Common name


Tarnished plantbug


Leaf-footed bug

Big-thighed bug

Rice stinkbug


Southern green stinkbug


Scientific name


Deltocephalus
flavicosta
(Stal)
Lygus lineolaris
(P. de B.)

Collaria oleosa
Dist.
Leptoglossus phyllopi
(L.).
Acanthocephala sp.


Family


Cicadell-
idae


Miridae





is Corei-
dae
it


Test
occurrence


Economic I
density -


1973-7h NE


1970-71


1973-7L


Both tests

1970-71


Olaebus pugnax (F.) Pentatomidae Both tests


Mormidea pictiven-
tris Stal

Nezara viridula
(L.)

Euschistus ictericus
(L.)
Euschistus bifibulus
(P. de B.)
Thyanta perditor
(F.)


Thyanta sp.


Both tests


Both tests


1970-71


1970-71


Remarks


Frequently abundant in
pastures.


Occasionally injurious to
beans and other vege-
tables.
Has become frequent on
grasses in recent years.

Sometimes a pest of a wide
range of vegetable crops.
Occasionally a minor pest
of vegetables.
Has been a serious pest of
rice.

Believed to be injurious
to heading grasses.
A general pest of veget-
ables & field crops in
the area.
Often abundant on grasses
aid legumes.


Both tests


i" 1970-71 NE


__










Table 1. continued- )
Common name





Burrower bug


a seedbug
Sugarcane borer


Saltmarsh caterpillar


an armyworm


Lesser cornstalk borer


Granulate cutworm


Banded-cucumber beetle


Spotted-cucumber beetle






Bumble flower beetle
---


Scientific name

Proxys punctula-
(P. de B.)

Pangaeus bilineatus
(Say)
'Orthacea sp.
Ditraea sacchar--
ralis (F.)
Estigmene acraea
(Drury)
Leucania latiu-
scula (S. H..)
Elasmopalpus lig-
nosellus (Zeller)
Feltia subterranea
(F.)
Diabrotica balteata
(Lec.)

Diabrotica 11-punc-

tata howardi
Barber

Diosonchya sp.
Euphoria.'sp .
Blapstinus sp.


-7-


Family

Pentatomidae


Cydnidae


Lygaeidae
Pyralidae


e-t-iidae


Noctuidae


Pyralidae


Noctuidae


Chrysome-
lidae
If


1970-71
Scarbaeidae Both tests
Tenebrionidae 1970-71


Frequent in root zone, status
unknown.


c


Test
occurrence

Both tests


1970-71


1970-71
1970-71


1973-74


1973-7I


1970-71


1970-71


Both tests


Both tests


Economic
density

NE


U


NE
NE


NE


NE


Remarks

Often abundant on grasses
and legumes.





This species might have an
economic potential on this
crop.









Common name


Scientific name


Family


-8-


Test
occurrence


Economic
density /


Native fire ant


Corn wireworm
Southern green-
striped grasshopper
Short-winged green
grasshopper
American grasshopper


Larger obscure grass-
hopper


Solenopsis gemina-
ta (F.)


Formici-
dae


Melanotus communis -Elateridae
Chort phagav.Fas. Acrididae
austraiior (R. & H.)
Dichromorpha vir-
idis Scudder
Schistocerca americana "
(Drury)
Schistocerca obscura
(F.)
Paroxya sp. "
Stenacris vitre-
pennis
(Marschall)
Orchellimum agile Tettigoni-
(DeGeer) dae


Both tests


1970-71
Both tests


Both tests


1973-74


1973-74


1973-74
1973-7h



Both tests


Remarks







Table 2. Mean number of pentatomids and other
AREC, Belle Glade, Spring 1971. /


.Common name


1/1 4/6 ...11


Hemiptera taken at weekly intervals,


Date
4/21 4/27 5/3


5/13


5/18


Olaebus
pugnax (F.)


Rice stink-
bug


1.2 4.0 6.2 8.1 4.2 1.3 0.6


Mormidea
pictivent-
ris Stal

Nezara viridula Sou.
(L.) green
stinkbug
Euschistus ic-
tericus (L.-

Eushistus bi-
fibulus (P.de B.)

Thyanta perditor
(F.)
Thyanta sp.

Proxys punct-
ulatus (P.
d B.)
Acanthocephala Big-thighed
sp. bug

Leptoglossus ph- Leaf-
yllopus (L.) footed


Lygus lineo- Tarnished
Tarnished
laris (P. de plantbug
B.)


0.4 0.9 1.6 2.3 2.8 0.2 0.1


0.1


0.0 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.6 2.4 3.7 4.0


0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0


0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0


0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3


0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1


0.0


0.0


0.1


0.7


0.0


0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0,0 0.0


0.2 1.0 1.5 1.7 1.8 0.2 0.4


0.0


0.8



0.0


0.0 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 0,1 0.0


TOTAL 1.8 6.1 10.1 12.5 10.2


Species.


0.3


1/ Mean no. per 10 sweeps/plot in 10 Triticale plots.


4.6 5.0 5.2 7.1


__





-10-
Table 3. Aphid infestation (R. padi) in Triticale on successive
Glade AREC, Spring 1971 1/


Date
Percent heads infested
Maximum no./head


4/6
Trace
2


4/14
30%
32


4/21
75%
115


/2 7
80%
150


dates, Belle


5/8
2%
30


1/ Infestation concurrent with Hemiptera Complex, Table 2.







Table 4. Effects of a stinkbug (several species)-aphid (R. padi) complex
on germination of Triticale seed.


Seed Damage
Category 2


1
2
3
4
5
6


Germination


84
59
36
25
32
29


Days to 1st
Germination


h
5
6
6
6
7


Vigor
grade
(Ave.height)
A (9.25 9")
B (8.00 ")
C (7.25 ")
D (6.00 ")
D (5.50 ")
E (3.25 ")


Damp-off sus-
ceptibility
No. %
1 1.19
3 6.12
3 8.33
6 24.00
8 25.00
9 31.00


= No evident effect.
= Lightly affected.
= Moderately affected.
= Severely affected.
= Very severely affected.
= Virtually chaff.


3/ Based on height in inches
(10 plants) after germination
completion.

A = Very Good
B = Good
C = Fair
D = Poor
E = Very Poor


--





-10-
Table 3. Aphid infestation (R. padi) in Triticale on successive
Glade AREC, Spring 1971 1/


Date
Percent heads infested
Maximum no./head


4/6
Trace
2


4/14
30%
32


4/21
75%
115


/2 7
80%
150


dates, Belle


5/8
2%
30


1/ Infestation concurrent with Hemiptera Complex, Table 2.







Table 4. Effects of a stinkbug (several species)-aphid (R. padi) complex
on germination of Triticale seed.


Seed Damage
Category 2


1
2
3
4
5
6


Germination


84
59
36
25
32
29


Days to 1st
Germination


h
5
6
6
6
7


Vigor
grade
(Ave.height)
A (9.25 9")
B (8.00 ")
C (7.25 ")
D (6.00 ")
D (5.50 ")
E (3.25 ")


Damp-off sus-
ceptibility
No. %
1 1.19
3 6.12
3 8.33
6 24.00
8 25.00
9 31.00


= No evident effect.
= Lightly affected.
= Moderately affected.
= Severely affected.
= Very severely affected.
= Virtually chaff.


3/ Based on height in inches
(10 plants) after germination
completion.

A = Very Good
B = Good
C = Fair
D = Poor
E = Very Poor


--






-11-

Table 5. Sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharralis (F.) infestation in
Triticale, AREC, Belle Glade, Spring 1971.



Plot No. stems % of stems Larval situation
bored /


0.60


0.60

0.73

0.83

1.10

1.20

1.33

1.63

2.07

1.63


Early and median instars only -
None matured.
It 1 I



I! 1! I1



It II
"


1/ Based on 3000 stem per plot average, derived from four

one foot 2 samples per plot
one foot samples per plot.


I ----







LITERATURE CITED

Barnett, R. D., R. L. Stanley, W. H. Chapman and R. L. Smith. 1971. Triticale:
New feed grain and forage crops for Florida. Sunshine State Research Report
16 (4-15):12-14.

Blickenstaff, C. C. and J. L. Huggans. 1962. Soybean insects and related arthro-
pods in Missouri. Mo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 803.

Bowling, C. C. 1962. Effect of insecticides on rice stinkbug populations. Jour.
Econ. Entomol. 55:648-651.

Daugherty, D. M., M. H. Neustadt, C. W. Gehrke, L. E. Cavanah, L. J. Williams,
and D. E. Green. 1964. An evaluation of damage tosoybeans by brown and
green stinkbugs. Jour. Econ. Entomol. 57 (5):719-722.

Douglas, W. A. and J. W. Ingram. 1942. Rice field insects. U. S. Dept. of Agr.
Circ. 632.

Douglas, W. A. and E. C. Tullis. 1950. Insects and fungi as causes of pecky rice.
U. S. Dept. of Agr. Tech. Bull. 101.5

Fenton, F. A. 1952. Field crop insects. The Macmillian Co., New York. Pp. 206-7.

Genung, W. G. and V. E. Green, Jr., 1962. Insects attacking soybeans with empha-
sis on varietal susceptibility. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 22:
138-142.
Genung, W. G., V. E. Green, Jr., and C. Wehlburg. 1964. Inter-relationships of
stinkbugs and diseases to Everglades soybean production. Proc. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 24:131-137.

Pathak, M. D. 1968. Ecology of common insect pests of rice. Ann. Review of
Entomol. 13:257-294.

Peairs, L. A. and R. H. Davidson. 1956. Insect pests of farm, garden, and
orchard. Fifth Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York and London,
Pp. 180-181.