Citation
Field crop, forage sugarcane and weed control experiments and suggestions for 1961

Material Information

Title:
Field crop, forage sugarcane and weed control experiments and suggestions for 1961
Series Title:
Everglades Station Mimeo Report ; no. 61-18
Creator:
Green, Victor E.
Orsenigo, J. R.
Le Grand, Ferdinand
Affiliation:
Everglades Experiment Station
Place of Publication:
Belle Glade, Fla.
Publisher:
Everglades Experiment Station, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
14 leaves. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Forage plants -- Florida ( LCSH )
Sugarcane as feed -- Experiments -- Florida ( LCSH )
Weeds -- Control -- Florida ( LCSH )
Agriculture -- Florida ( LCSH )
Farm life -- Florida ( LCSH )
Corn ( jstor )
Canes ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )
Spatial Coverage:
Belle Glade
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

Notes

Funding:
Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life

Record Information

Source Institution:
Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
62882312 ( OCLC )

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Everglades Station Mimeo 61-18 May 26, 1961

Field Crop, Forage Sugarcane and Weed Control
Experiments and Suggestions for 1961

by

Victor E. Green, Jr., Joseph R. Orsenigo and F. le Grand


This mimeo report was prepared as a handout to persons attending the
annual forage and grain crop field day, held at this station on May 26, 1961.
The program and list of participants are attached.


Agronomic Experiments.

Three variety tests were planted to field corn and popcorn in 1961:
1) a 15- variety yellow and white subtropical and tropecale-orn test for
grain feed, 2) an 8- variety white tropical corn test for grain feed and
for milling, and 3) a 20- variety popcorn test. Soil tests revealed that
the soil had a pH value of 5.50, with a P content of 5 and a K content of
63 pounds per acre. Five hundred pounds per acre of an 0-12-16 fertilizer
containing 1.0% MnO, and 0.4% each of B20 and ZnO equivalent and 100 pounds
per ton of 25% heptachlor were applied per acre. The popcorn test and the
yellow and white corn test were planted on February 13 and the white corn
test on February 15, 1961. The first three tables show the data collected
on plant characteristics. Of especial note are the new Varieties Funk G-745,
Embro 256 and 257 and Poey T-46, 62 and 66. Poey T-66 had a leaf blight
rating of only 0.5 for an average of 40 readings. This is the best rating
ever recorded for a field corn hybrid at this station. The stalk and ear
heights of Funk G-745 offer real promise as a variety for grain feed produc-
tion. All the varieties in the two tests would be excellent for silage.

The popcorn varieties are much shorter, lower eared, susceptible to
leaf blight and earlier than the field corn varieties.

On February 16, an observational test of 50 corn belt hybrids along
with 3 strains of Crow's Combine corn was planted. These were of intermediate
maturity between the tropical field corns and the popcorns. The short stalks
and low ear placement along with the early maturity of large ears was offset
by the susceptibility of the corn belt hybrids to northern leaf blight and
damage by blackbirds, the latter of which permits entry of water and insects
which lower quality.

A 15- treatment skip row test was planted on February -2'3.
For brevity, the tables on this experiment suffice in lieu ration. e
fallow alleys were kept free of grass and weeds through th of chemic
herbicides. // \










FORAGE AND GRAIN CROPS FIELD DAY

Everglades Experiment Station

Belle Glade, Florida

Friday, May 26, 1961


SEARCH STAFF PATI***CI*ATING
RESEARCH STAFF PARTICIPATING


Victor E.
Joseph R.
Emmett D.
Ferdinand
Theron W.


Green, Jr., Associate Agronomist
Orsenigo, Assistant Horticulturist
Harris, Jr., Assistant Entomologist
le Grand, Assistant Sugarcane Agronomist
Casselman, Assistant Agricultural Engineer


* *& s * &* ** * *

PROGRAM

Mr. R. Kent Price, Palm Beach County
Assistant Agricultural Agent, Presiding.


A.M.


9:45 Assembly and Registration

10:00 Presentation of research reports on subjects including:


1. Field corn variety tests.
2. White corn variety tests.
3. Popcorn variety tests.
4. Skip-row field corn planting.
5. Solid (drilled) corn for forage.
6. Weed control in field corn.
7. Corn insect control.
8. Sugarcane for forage.


The discussions will be short reports with periods allowed for
questions and answers. You are invited to participate.

11:00 Tour of experimental and demonstration plots.


Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Mr.
Mr.











In Field 4NW on March 1 was planted a test to check the effect of row
direction on the characteristics of Poey T-23 white flint corn. The soil
had a pH value of 5.5, a P content of 6 and K content of 77 pounds per acre.
Three hundred pounds per acre of the aforementioned fertilizer were applied.
Rows were laid out N and S, E and W, BE and SW and NW and SE. Randox and
Vegadex at 2.7 pounds each in 41 gallons of water per acre controlled weeds
so that cultivation was not necessary. However, soil was thrown to the rows
at lay-by time to reduce lodging.

Five plantings of drilled (solid) corn have been made at plant popula-
tions of from 33,000 to 303,000 on rows separated by 8 to 32 inches. Large
tonnages of corn forage have been harvested commercially from these plantings
and have been fed fresh to lactating dairy cows. A separate mimeo report is
forthcoming on this work. At present, the following observations are offered:

1. This is a fairly easy, rapid way to grow forage.
2. Large yields are permitted. Actual yields of 21 tons, 31 tons
per acre were removed by Kirchman Dairy at Shawano from the
3j acres in F4NW and F5NW.
3. Drilled corn planted in January and February may require nitrogen
fertilizer, especially at high populations.
4. The whole plants before tasselling contain over 90% moisture.
Crude protein contents of such forage have been recorded above
20%, on the dry basis.
5. Good yields can be obtained from second generation seed as long
as ears are not desired.
6. Rows 8-inches apart are undesirable from both the lodging and
harvesting standpoints.
7. Pre-emergent herbicide application is sufficient for an entire
crop, which after closing over, precludes the growth of other
vegetation.
8. Minimum tillage is necessary to grow a crop. A good plowing
followed immediately by a heavy disking forms a sufficient seedbed.
9. Insect and bird control has not been necessary at the high
populations used.


(V. E. Green, Jr.)






1961 Popcorn Variety Test


"ow

1

2

3
4

5*

6

7
8

9
10

11

12

13
14

15
16

17
18

19
20


Tasselling
mid-point
Date Days


Cross or
variety

Iopop 10

lopop 8

Purdue 213

Nebraska 104

A-105 S

A-221

A-KP-3888

A-281

A-282

A-318

A-345

A-54-3884

A-104 S

A-354

A88-KP28

A-440

A88-3896
A-441

A-225

Cu x 88


4-18

4-17

4-16

4-15

4-15

4-16

4-17

4-15

4-17

4-15

4-15
4-16

4-17

4-15

4-15

4-16

4-16

4-16

4-16

4-15


Height, inches
Stalk Ear


54

53

52

51

51

52

53
51

53
51

51
52

53

51

51

52

52
52

52

51


H. tur.
Indext*

3.1

2.3

2.4

3.2

2.3

2.8

2.7

3.2
4.1

3.1

2.1

3.2

2.3

2.0

2.0

2.6

1.9

3.3
2.0

1.5


Planted February 23,
per acre.


1961.


Range 1 F 2NIW.


Scratched 2/27, 3/3. Hilled slightly 3/7.
(2#/gal.) heptachlor.
Layed by 3/21. 6 reps.


1 plant every foot. 14,520

Sprayed budworms 1 pint


* Entries 5-20 are experimental hybrids from Ames Seed Farms.
** Readings by Miss Alice L. Robert, CRD-ARS-USDA, May 18, 1961. Avg. of 40.


Number
leaves
per
plant


Remarks


76

76

73
72

72

71

73

71

75

72

72

77

73
68

70

71

75

74
68

80


44

44

44

44

44

43
41

39
44

41

45
46

44

41

41

39
44

45
41

49


__


13

13
11

12

11

10

12

11

11

10

11

12

11

10

13
10

11

11


12








1961 Yellow and White Field Corn Variety Test


Row

I*

2

3*

4

5
6

7
8

9*

10*

11*

12

13

14

15


Lineage

T3lxT3,zT
Unknown

T2xT3 T6xT7
WITYTxCFxM

1x 2 3a x 6

1x2 7x8

Imp. K-257
**


""


Variety

Rocamex H-501

Keystone 257

Rocamex H-503

Big Joe

Funk G-740

Funk G-745

Embro 256 cP

Embro 257 CT2

Poey T-18

Poey T-23

Poey T-46

Poey T-62

Poey T-66

Corneli 54

Corneli 54-2


Nx

G x

J x

P x

P x

Dx

Dx


L

F

K

T

0

B

B


Tasselling
mid-point
Date Days


5-5
4-29

5-5

4-24

4-26

4-27

4-27

4-28

4-26

4-30

4-28

4-30

4-28

4-28

4-28


81

75
81

70

72

73

73

74

72

76

74

76

74

74

74


Height,inches
Stalk Ear


H. tur.
Index***

1.8

2.4

1.8

1.5

1.9

1.9

2.0

2.3

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.0

0.5

1.5

1.2


116

111
ill

118

96

96

98

lo9

104

104

117

111

106

108

108

112


White varieties occurring also in the white corn test.

Planted February 13, 1961. Range 1 F2NW. 1 plant every foot. 14,520
per acre. Scratched 2/27, 3/3. Hilled slightly 3/7. Sprayed bud-
worms 1 pint (2#/gal) Heptachlor. Laid by 3/21 6 reps.

** EBbro is the trade name of Mangelsdory & Sons, successor to Field Crop
Seed Division of Corneli Seed Co. Embro 257 CT2 was made from the
female parent of Keystone 257 x the male parent of Corneli 54.

*** Readings by Miss Alice L. Robert, CRD-ARS-USDA, May 18, Avg. of 40.

Poey T-18, 23 and 46 emerged earliest and had greatest seedling vigor.
Looked best after frost of 3/11.


Jx

Ix

Hx

Ax

Ax

Ax

Ax


Number
leaves
per
plant


71

55

74

56

52

56

57

59

59

66

62

60

61

62

61


... .. t ..e


16

13

16

13

12

13

14

13

14

15

14

14

15

14

14


M

J

G

R

S

C

C












1961 White Field Corn Variety Test


Variety

Poey T-18

Poey T-23

Poey T-46

Rocamex H-501

Rocamex H-502

Rocamex H-503

San Juan

Barretal


Lineage

J x M
JxM

Ix J

H x G
HxG

TIxT2

1XT3
T2XT3
OP

OP


Nx L

3x F

J x K

T3xT

2x-T5

T6xT7


Tasselling
mid-point
Date Days

4-26 70

4-30 74

5-1 75

5-5 79

5-5 79

5-5 79
4-25 69

4-23 67


H. tur.
Index*

0.7

0.9

0.4

1.6

1.7

1.3

1.7

1.3


Height,in.
Stalk Ear

109 65

115 65

118 68

129 78

124 78

127 76

100 56

94 49


Planted February 15, 1961. Range 19 F2NW. 1 plant per foot. 14,520 per
acre. Scratched 2/27, 3/3. Hilled slightly 3/7. Sprayed budworms 1
pint (2#/gal.) Heptachlor. Played by 3/21. 6 reps.

* Readings by Miss Alice L. Robert, CRD-ARS-USDA, May 18. Avg. of 40.
The Rust Puccinia Polysora found on Barretal and Poey T-18.


Row

18

23

46

1

2

3
S

B


Number
leaves
per
plant

15

16

15
16

16

16

13
12


I


I












Drill
Treatment Spacing

1 1-6

2 1-9

3 1-12

4 1-9

5 1-9
6 1-6

7 1-9

8 1-9

9 1-6

10 1-9

11 1-9

12 1-6

13 1-6

14 1-6

15 1-9


Skip Row Field Corn 1961


I I


Scheme


Plants per
Full acre

29040

19360

14520

19360

19360

29040

19360

19360

29040

19360

19360

29040

29040

29040

19360


Planted February 15, 1961 using
feet apart, running east and


Poey T-23 Hybrid field corn.
west. Border rows planted to


All rows three
Corneli 54.


Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida. V. E. Green, Jr.


4 Planted


Plant every row

Plant every row

Plant every row

Plant 2; skip 1

Plant 2; skip 2

Plant 2; skip 2

Plant 3; skip 1

Plant 3; skip 2

Plant 3; skip 3

Plant 3; skip 3

Plant 4; skip 2

Plant 4; skip 2

Plant 4; Skip 3

Plant 4; skip 4

Plant 4; skip 4


Plants
Per acre


100

100

100

66.6

50

50

75

60

50

50

66.6

66.6

57.1

50

50


,e ,. --,a ed..., .


29040

19360

14520

12894

9680

14520

14520

11616

14520

9680

12894

19340

16588

14520

9680










Skip Row Field Corn 1961


Drill Spacings


1, 2, 3
4, 7
5, 6, 8, 11, 12
9, 10, 13
14, 15


6"
9"
12"


1, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14
2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 15
3


Plants


9680 plants


5.
10.
15.


Plant 2;
Plant 3;
Plant 4;


skip
skip
skip


2
3
4


9"
9"
9"


11,616 plants


8. Plant 3; skip 2 @ 9"


16,588 plants

13. Plant 4; skip 3 @ 6"


19,360 plants

2. Plant every 3' row @ 9"
12. Plant 4; skip 2 @ 6"


29,040 plants

1. Plant every 3' row @ 6"


12, 894 plants

4. Plant 2; skip 1 @ 9"
11. Plant 4; skip 2 @ 9"


14, 520 plants


Percent of Land Planted


every 3' row @ 12"
2; skip 2 @ 6"
3; skip 1@ 9"
3; skip 3 @ 6"
4; skip 4 @ 6"


50
57.1
60
66.6
75


5,
13
8,
4,
7


6, 9, l0, 14, 15


11, 12,


100 1, 2, 3


Skip


Skip
Skip
Skip
Skip
Skip


0
1
2
3
4


3.
6.
7.
9.
14.


Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant
Plant








Florida Test Corn Belt Sybrids 1961


Cross or
variety
Crow's 4
Crow's 4(
Crow's 4(
Crow's 4
Crow's 6(
Crow's 6:
Crow's 6J
Crow's 7T
Crow's 8


Tasselling
mid-point
Date Days


02
o7
37
95
37
38
49
22
21


4-18
4-18
4-17
4-18
4-20
4-20
4-19
4-20
4-20


10 Crow's Lot 478-1-3 x
Semi-dwart 4-17
11 Crow's Lot 9038


Multi-ear
Funks G G71
Funks G72
Funks G75A
Funks 076
Funks G91
Funks G93
Punks G95A
P.A.G. Sx9
P.A.G. Sx14
P.A.G. Sxl9
P.A.G. 415
P.A.G. 418
P.A.G. 444


61
61
60
61
63
63
62
63
63
02394
60


4-18 61
4-17 60
4-16 59
4-18 61
4-18 61
4-18 61
4-16 59
4-16 59
4-14 57
4-21 64
4-22 65
4-20 63
4-16 59
4-22 65


25 L.Pfister LP1871
Single Cross 4-17
26 L.Pfister
LP1875 4-19
27 L.Pfister
SP3601 4-19
28 Cargill 256 4-20
29 Cargill 310 4-22


6o

62

62
63
65


Row
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


Height,inches
Stalk Ear


H. tur.
Index
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5

2.5

2.0
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5

3.0

3.0

3.5
3.0
3.5


Number
leaves
per
plant


9
9
9
9
10
10
io
10
10
11


63 27 10


70
67
66
70
70
76
73
75
69
83
86
76
73
77


34
28
28
31
31
36
36
35
31
39
43
37
32
38


11
10
9
10
lo
9
10
10
9
9
10
11
10
10
10


73 28 10

83 39 11


75
68
74


39
28
32


11
10
10


55
63
63
66
73
68
69
79
79


Remarks


12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24


__


22
24
26
26
32
32
32
42
38







Row variety
so Moevs 500A
31 Moews 524
32 Steckleys 10
33 Steckleys 12
34 Producers 363
35 Producers 953
36 Northrup King
KT6
37 Northrup King
KT632
38 Northrup King
1T645
39 Pioneer 317A
40 Pioneer 329
41 Pioneer 349
42 Pioneer 352
43 Pioneer 354
44 Pioneer 371
45 DeKalb 3x2
46 DeKalb 411
47 DeKalb 414
48 DeKalb 423
49 DeKalb 444
59 DeKalb 630
51-56 Combine Corn
9022
57-61 Combine Corn
9023
62-67 Combine Corn
9029


Date Days


4-17
4-19
4-17
4-17
4-19
4-16

4-19


4-16
4-17
4-17
4-16
4-17
4-17
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-16
4-17
4-17
Lot
4-20
Lot
4-20
Lot
4-20


60
62
60
60
62
59

62

62

59
60
60
59
60
60
59
59
59
59
59
60
60

63

63

63


Index Stalk Ear plant


2.5
2.0
2.0
3.0
2.5
3.5

3.0

2.5

3.0
2.5
3.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
4.0
3.5
4.5
4.0
4.5
4.0
3.5

2.5


3.0


75
75
74
72
82
66


31
41
40
37
42
29


10
11
12
11
12
10


69 33 11

79 38 11


68
76
76
66
63
71
69
74
67
68
68
75
76


33
38
35
32
26
34
31
37
32
32
29
37
35


10
11
11
10
9
10
10
11
10
10
10
11
11


80 36 10

68 35 10

70 40 11


Planted 2-16-61 F2NW


Range 23.


Seed treated with Arasan.
* Readings on May 16, 1961 by Miss
tant to 5 = susceptible.


Rows E and W1


Numbered from S to N 1-50.


Alice L. Robert, CRD-ARS-USDA. 1 = Resis-


Remarks


I_ I_ I_ .... ..I I I I I J II I I I


-







Chemical Weed Control Suggestions


These suggestions for field and forage crop production on organic soils
are intended for limited-scale grower familiarization trial use. Chemicals are
tot substitutes for good agronomic practice but offer timely, effective and
economical weed control when used properly: APPLY: THE RIGHT CHEMICAL FOR THE
CROP AND WEEDS; IN THE RIGHT AMOUNT; IN THE RIGHT WAY; AT THE RIGHT TIME; and
IN THE RIGHT PLACE. Each grower must estimate the potential of herbicides in
his situation. It is suggested that only a limited acreage be treated initially
and that the precautions and indications of the manufacturer's label be followed
carefully. Herbicides listed below have label clearances for the specific
crops listed.

1. Field corn: Pre-emergence (after planting and before come-up of weeds and
corn)
A. "Atrazine 80W" @ 4 5 Ib/A. Requires high soil moisture or rainfall
for best weed control. Cost: approx. $21.00 /A broadcast, $7.00
/A banded
B. "Randox" @ 1 11 gpa. Best all-around performance; excellent grass
control and good broadleaf weed control. Cost: approx. $8.00
to 12.00 /A broadcast, $2.70 to 4.00 /A banded.
C. "Vegadex" @ 1 11 gpa. Weak on grass control (fair to good) but
excellent broadleaf weed control. Cost: approx. $8.00 to 12.00
/A broadcast, $2.70 to 4.00 banded.
D. "Randox" @ 2 3 qts/A PLUS "Vegadex" @ 2 3 qts/A mixed in spray tank.
Excellent control of grass and broadleaf weeds. Cost: approx.
$8.00 to 12.00 /A broadcast, $2.70 to 4.00 banded.
E. "Simazine 80W" @ 4 5 Ib/A. Requires high soil moisture or rainfall
for best weed control. Cost: approx. $21.00 /A broadcast $7.00
/A banded
F. 2,4-D amine salt formulation @ 2 Ib /A acid equivalent. Fair grass
control and good broadleaf weed control for brief periods. Cost:
approx. $2.00 /A broadcast $0.75/A banded.

2. Field corn: Post-emergence (after come-up of corn and weeds) as spray
directed toward base of corn plants at about 3 weeks after emer-
gence. Avoid wetting corn foliage.
G. "Atrazine 80W" @ 3 Ib/A. Will kill grass and broadleaf weeds several
inches tall; corn tolerance is usually good. Cost: approx.
$4.00 per acre of corn for a band 12 inches wide centered on
crop drill.
H. Dow "Premerge" or Standard Ag. "Sinox PE" @ 1 gpa. Kills grass and
broadleaf weeds several inches tall; must be kept off corn leaves.
Cost: approx. $2.00 per acre of corn for a band 12 inches wide
centered on crop drill.
I. 2,4-D amine salt formulation @ 1 Ib/A acid equivalent. Good control
of susceptible broadleaf weeds. Cost: approx. $0.75 per acre
of corn for a band 12 inches wide centered on crop drill.

3. Sorghum: Pre-emergence (after planting and before come-up of crop and weeds)
J. "Randox" @ 1 gpa. Sorghum tolerance good; good grass and broadleaf
weed control. Cost: approx. $8.00 /A broadcast.









K. "Propazine 80W" @ 4 lb/A. Sorghum tolerance good; grass and broadleaf
weed control good if soil moisture is high. Cost: approx. $16.00
/A broadcast.

4. Sorghum: Post-emergence (after come-up of crop and weeds) as broadcast
overall spray,
L. 2,4-D amine salt formulation @ 1 lb/A acid equivalent. Good
control of small susceptible broadleaf weed seedlings. Cost:
approx. $0.50 to 1.00 /A broadcast.

5. Sugarcane: Suggestions and recommendations will be published in late
summer, 1961, prior to customary fall planting to take advantage of
expected clearance of several new chemicals for this crop.

6. Methods of application:
Pre-emergence: Herbicide sprays may be applied broadcast over the entire
field area. Chemical costs can be reduced greatly by applying
the herbicides in narrow bands centered on the crop row. Then,
the middles may be cultivated. But, crops planted with a grain
drill in close rows will require broadcast spraying. Granular
formulations may be used at equivalent active ingredient rates.
Post-emergence: Spray nozzles should be directed toward the base of
the corn plants to wet the weeds but also avoid wetting the corn
leaves if possible.

7. Equipment for application:
Planter-mounted, tractor-mounted or trailed sprayers can be used but
the following conditions should be observed for best results: flat-fan
weed spray nozzles; 20 to 40 psi spraying pressure; and 20 to 40 gpa
spraying volume. Good ground coverage is important.
Suggestions for calibration are given in Everglades Station Mimeo Report
61-2.


(J. R. Orsenigo)








Sugarcane for Forage.


Sugarcane produces a high yield of total digestible nutrients (T.D.N.) per
acre and is well suited for feeding to cattle when the major pasture grasses are
at low level of productivity or damaged by frost.

To test the usefulness of cane as a pasture supplement, feeding trials with
sugarcane were carried out during the winters of 1959-1960 and 1960-3S61 with
the results shown in Table 1.

The gains due to sugarcane supplement were significantly better during the
winter of 1959-1960. No significant difference in weight of yearlings were
obtained during the 1960-1961 winter period. The differences found from sugar-
cane feeding in different years might be explained by the fact that the winter
of 1960-1961 was much milder, resulting in practically no frost damage to the
pastures. However pastures with paragrass were still severely damaged by cold
during this winter and have given a response to supplementary feeding with
sugarcane.

During the winter of 1959-1960 St. Augustinegrass, Paragrass and Pangola
grass were all severely damaged by frost. Supplementary feeding with sugar-
cane to cattle on all three types of grasses showed a significant gain of
yearlings during this winter. Therefore it seems to be true that the degree
of response in weight gain to a sugarcane supplementary feeding during winter
time is dependent on the quality of the pasture grasses during this period.

Experience in recent years has shown that cane can be fed as whole or
chopped stalks to cattle but there appears to be no advantage to chopping the
stalks.

Sugarcane is readily available during winter and if the standing sugar-
cane is frozen it can still be cut and fed from 30-60 days under normal
weather conditions. The present cane varieties used for sugar production
cannot be harvested by regular forage harvesters but must be cut by hand
labor making it an expensive crop to be used for cattle feed. A new re-
search project was therefore started two years ago to select sugarcane
varieties especially for forage use. The varieties so selected for forage
should have the following characteristics:

1. Must be liked by the cattle and the leafblades should not be harmful to
the animals.
2. The sugar content and T.D.N. should be high.
3. The variety should grow as straight as possible. To obtain this erectness
the variety should likely have a higher fiber content than varieties used
for sugar production.
4. The stalk diameter should be small for harvesting with standard forage
harvesters.
5. The variety must be able to stand grazing by cattle.

Seven varieties, selected in previous years with characteristics similar
to those already mentioned were planted in August 1960 in two trials with four
replications. The trials were grazed during January 1961. The cane stalks
were only about 3 feet high due to the short growing season. Every replica-
tion was grazed separately until the cane was 4-6 inches high whereafter the
cane was closed to the cattle.








The acceptance by cattle was best for C.P. 54-475 in every replication
and the canes of this variety was eaten to the ground level while other varie-
ties were left untouched by the cattle. Second choice was CL..41223 while
C.P. 50-9, C.P. 38-34, C.P. 34-79 and C.P. 48-126 had a medium acceptance
by cattle. A poor acceptance was noticed for C.P. 53-44. A combination
of this study will be carried out in the first ratoon during winter 1961-
1962 with recording the weights of yearlings.

The method for growing and feeding a forage cane variety could be the
following: the cane should be planted in small areas inside the pastures.
The areas should be fenced in and the cane could be grazed at maturity to
six inches high. After a frost kills the cane crop the remainder of the
standing cane could be harvested and turned into silage within 30 days if
desirable.

Table 1. Average Gains in Pounds of Yearlings During 10 Weeks in 1959-1960
and During 12 Weeks in 1960-1961, With and Without Sugarcane Supplement.
Kind of Winter 1959---00 Wth Winter l960-b6
Wtthh o With No
grass cane cane Difference cane cane Difference
St. Aug- 42 8 34 76 83 -7
ustine
Pangola 14 -2 16 -- --
Para -10 -56 46 19 -21 40
Bahia 34 -9 43 3 45 44 1
AVERAGE 27 -20 47 47 35 12


* Adapted from the publication:
As a Pasture Supplement During
Journal 23 (4): 13-15, 1960.
** Unpublished data.


Haines, C. E. and F. le Grand. Sugarcane
the Winter for Yearling Cattle. Sugar


Table 2. The Average Number of Shoots per 10 Foot Row Length in the First
Ratoon After Grazing by Cattle in the Plant Crop.


Variety Number of shoots per 10 foot row length
on May 16, 1961
CP. 48-126 72
CP. 57-475 70
CP. 53-44 76
CP. 38-34 68
CL. 41223 57
CP. 34-79 51
CP. 50-9 48


(F. le Grand)


EES 61-18
350 copies