Annual report

Material Information

Annual report
University of Nebraska (Lincoln campus) -- Mission in Colombia
Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario
Mid-America State Universities Association
Place of Publication:
The Mission
Creation Date:
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
3 v. ill. : ; 27 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural assistance -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- International cooperation -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Jan. 1, 1968-Dec. 31, 1968-1970.
Issuing Body:
In cooperation with: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Universidad Nacional de Colombia and The Mid America State Universities Association.
General Note:
Contracting agencies: United States Agency for International Development, The Ford Foundation and the Kellogg Foundation.
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
The University of Nebraska Mission in Colombia.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
03592262 ( OCLC )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Semi-annual report
Succeeded by:
Final report

Full Text
FOR 1969
jjj ,
USAID in cooperation with:
...... ...I... ....

The Mid-America State Universities Association Cooperating
For the Period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1969
Contracting Agencies: United States Agency for International Development The Ford Foundation The W. K. Kellogg Foundation

AREA CODE 402-472-2604
The first year of operating under "loan financing" has
just been concluded. on the basis of a contract between the
Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska and ICA, and
approved by USAID/Bogota, effective January 1, 1969, the program was financed on funds provided through the Agricultural
Sector Loan made to the Government of Colombia by the Government of the United States. The one million dollars involved were used to pay dollar costs of the project. By following
the same AID and University of Nebraska policy guidelines
that prevailed on grant funds of the previous contract between Nebraska and USAID, there was no significant change in day to
day operations.
Perhaps the most important milestone reached in 1969 was
the return of the first Nebraska Mission degree participants
12 in total. In addition, 89 graduate students were studying
for advanced degrees at 24 US universities at the close of 1969.
Sponsoring institutions in Colombia were ICA with 53, National
University with 44, and other official entities with 5. Slightly
over half of the participants are enrolled in the MASUA universities, the remainder being distributed among 18 other in-stitutions. The statistic points up the important role of the MASUA
universities, and again the University of Nebraska joins ICA
and the National University in expressing grateful appreciation
to those campuses for the important contributions they are
making to Colombia.
We are about to witness the completion of the first five
year program projected for 1966-70. Generally, the goals have
been exceeded. In those disciplines where there have been inputs
from the outset, the enlarged Colombian staff is able to assume greater responsibility with graduate and undergraduate teaching.
This means that Nebraska support can and should be reduced on
the basis of a systematic plan of withdrawal consistent with
Colombian needs and manpower resources. The policy of this
University is to plan with the Colombians, AID, and other cooperators, the matter of withdrawal as deliberately and conscientiously as it did the inauguration of the program in 1965 and 1966. In this way it will be possible constantly to maximize
the resources of Colombia as well as those of Nebraska.
1869-969 WE. Colwell

ir~ NI~ -AM 1 1FTT- S10 ;ASSOCIMI1011,C1PERAU~a
- ii'
April 2, 1970
Dr. Jorge Ortfz M6ndez
Gerente General
Dr. Kenneth McDermott
Rural Development Officer
American Embassy
As is indicated in Dr. Colwell's "Message from the University of Nebraska", this is the first time that the Nebraska Mission has submitted
an Annual Report to ICA (as our Contracting Officer) as well as to the
Agency for International Development. The "donor-donee" relationship of previous years is past history, and these entities are now full partners in
an effort to develop Colombian agriculture. Without doubt, ICA and the National University have a much more direct and vested interest in the
performance of the Nebraska Mission than ever before, and this is as it
should be.
As ICA and the National University grow and expand, the administrative and professional challenges of this program inevitably become greater.
Nevertheless, we have so much confidence in our staff and in the quality of
Colombian personnel with whom they work that we look forward to these
challenges with anticipation. Our goals as a Mission are identical to those of our Colombian colleagues, and we expect to carry our share of the loan in achieving those goals. This we wish to do as rapidly and effectively as
The accomplishments of 1969 are delineated in the following pages. We are proud of those accomplishments, but realistic enough to recognize
that we can do even better. To this* will we will dedicate ourselves in 1970.
Finally, may I express my personal appreciation to both of you, and to the many others in ICA, the National University, and AID, who have contributed to our success in 1969 by providing a dynamic# progressive
environment in which to work.
,- ; :~ ~ 'la ton Y eutte '"
CY. cre DIr'ector
FORD FOUNDATION M ill IT 11, ImiI I"h'V"tI1)I "

A D M I N I S T R A T I 0 N
THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA Lincoln, Nebraska 68503
Merk Hobson, Acting Chancellor, University of Nebraska Joseph Soshnik, President, University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Board of Regents
Richard E. Adkins, Osmond January, 1971
B. N. Greenberg, M.D., York January, 1971
Richard L. Herman, Omaha January, 1973
Edward Schwartzkopf, Lincoln January, 1973
J.G. Elliott, Scottsbluff January, 1975
Robert L. Raun, Minden January, 1975

The signing of the ICA- Nebraska contract for 1970. Seated Richard Adkins, President of the University of Nebraska Board of Regents and Dr. Jorge Ortlz M~ndez, Director General of ICA; standing Robert Raun, Vice President of the University of Nebraska Board of Regents, and Dr. Joseph Soshnik, President of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

MVESSAGE FROM NEBRASKA.................... .. ....... .. .. ..
1970 CONTRACT SIGNING....................................
I HONORARY PROFESSORSHIPS..........................1
11 ADDRESS BY DR. JORGE MENDEZ MUNEVAR . ....................5
III STAFFING.........................7
A. Professional Staff as of December 31. ........7 B. Staff*Departures During 1969...........8
C. Program Continuity. ................9
D. 1970 Staffing Plan .. ........ .........10
E. Non-professional Staff as of December 31 .. . 12
IV FINANCING. .....................................15
VII MAJOR OBJECTIVES.......................... 25
ViIl FELLOWSHIPS................. ..........................27
A. Degree Fellowships.... .....................27
B. Short Term Fellowships .. ............34
Ix HIGHLIGHTS OF 1969......................37
X PROJECT REPORTS.o......................43
Agricultural Economics. .................43
Agricultural Engineering .. .............55

Agricultural Extension ...... ............... ...67
Agronomy ......... ...................... .87
Animal Science ........ ..................... 95
Veterinary Medicine ...... ................ .107
XI SHORT TERM CONSULTANT REPORTS. .... ............. .115
Agricultural Economics
!:Drs Glen. J."' Vollmar &.V.; James Rhodes o....... .115
Poultry Science
Dr. J. H. Quisenberry .............. 121
Dairy Manufacturing
Dr. L. K. Crowe ..................... 125
Animal Science
Dr. Frank H. Baker ....... ............... .127
Agricultural Engineering
Dr. W. E. Splinter ...... ................ .133
Veterinary Medicine
Dr. B. W. Kingery ........ ................. 139
Agricultural Extension
Dr. John L. Adams . . . . ........ 141
Dr. J. O. Young ............................. .145
Home Economics
Drs. Virginia Trotter, Doretta Hoffman & Anita Dickson ..................... 155
Agricultural Engineering Extension
Mr. R. 0. Gilden. o.. ................... ..167
Agirucltural Engineering
Dr. W. E. Splinter. ................... ...173
Mr. Paul E. Fischbach .................... ...177
Bean & Vegetable Crop Research
Dr. Dermot Coyne. ..... ................. ...181
APPENDIX A TABLE OF ORGANIZATION, ICA ................... ...183

The Nebraska Mission was highly honored in 1969 when two of its members were named Honorary Professors by the National University Bogota.
Dr. Frank Davis, center, receives his sheepskin as an Honorary Professor at the National University. On the left, Dr. Santiago Fonseca, Dean of Agronomy at the Bogotd campus and a member of the Consejo Superior of the National University, and on the right, Rector Jorge M ndez Munevar.
The first was Dr. Frank Davis who in August completed two years as a member of the ICA-Nebraska Mission staff in Crop Physiology. At the termination of his tour, Dr. Davis was Nebraska Mission Project Leader in this field. He was the first man ever to be named an Honorary Professor by the Faculty of Agronomy at the National University.

Principal speaker at the July 23, 1969 ceremony was Dr. Jorge Mi6ndez Munevar, who was then Rector of the National University. The words of Dr. Mendez are so meaningful, not only to Dr. Davis, but to anyone involved in international programs, that they are included in this report in the following section.
Dr, Davis received his B.S. degree from the University of Missouri in 1955, his M.S. from the same university in 1960, and his Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska .in 1964. He is a member of three scholastic honorary societies A:lpha Zeta, Sigma Xi, and Gamma Sigma Delta. Prior to joining the program in Colombia he held research positions, primarily in the area of weed control, with the Universities of Missouri, Nebraska, and Texas A & M.
The accompishments of Dr. Davis in Colombia were many. He concentrated heavily on developing the NU-ICA graduate program in crop physiology at TibaitatA and the undergraduate program at the National University-Bogotd. His magnificent personality and love of people gained him tremendous popularity with students and faculty alike. But he found
time to Vinitiate .aresearch program too, and his willingness to work far more hours than any man should endeared him to everyone with whom he was associated.
His most important legacy is trained people? But he also provided the leadership in development of a crop physiology text which is now being used both in undergraduate and graduate teaching throughout Colombia.
Dr. and Mrs. Davis arrived in Colombia with four children of their own, but they left with another a vivacious little Colombian girl whom they adopted shortly before their departure. In September, Dr. Davis joined the faculty of the Department of Range Science at Texas A & M University.
The second Honorary Professorship went to Dr. Harry Mussman who in September completed three years as a member of the ICA-Nebraska Mission staff in Veterinary Medicine. Like Dr. Davis, at the termination of his tour Dr. Mussman was also Nebraska Mission Project Leader in his field.
Dr. Mussman is only the second man to be so honored by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the National University-Bogota. In the award ceremony, Dr. Luis Guillermo Forero Nougues, acting rector of the National University, praised the performance of Dr. Mussman and the Nebraska Mission. "Very few times," he said, "has a person merited the title of Honorary Professor of the National University . (Dr. Mussman) is already an old colleague of this University, where he has given an admirable account of himself, not only in the academic field, but also in the administrative one."
In a career which chronologically almost parallels that of Dr.
Davis, Dr. Mussman received his B.S. degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1955, his M.S. from Kansas State University in 1957, his Ph.D. from the same institution in 1959, and a D.V.M. (Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine) from Kansas State in 1965. Like Dr. Davis, Dr. Mussman is also a member of AIpha Zeta and Sigma Xi, both of which are leading

Dr. Harry Mussman, second from right, as he is named an Honorary Professor at the National University. On the left, Dr. Luis uuillermo Forero Nougues, Acting Rector; next to Dr. Forero is Dr. Santiago Fonseca representing the Consejo Superior (the governing body of the university), and on the right Dr. Ricardo Sandino, Dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.
scholastic honoraries, and he received his D.V.M. cum laude.
Dr. Mussman was a member of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University prior to accepting an appointment with the ICANebraska Mission in 1966. One of the first staff members to arrive in Colombia, he spent three highly successful years with the Veterinary Medicine program at ICA and the National University. Dr. Mussman's primary specialty is clinical pathology, and he provided tremendous leadership in this area, particularly in teaching and in working with students. For example, in 1969 he supervised 10 undergraduate theses, eight of which received "meritorious" ratings.
Though Dr. Mussman knew no Spanish upon his arrival in Colombia,
he mastered the language perhaps more fully than any other Nebraska Mission staff member. This, of course, greatly added to his effectiveness in the classroom. He is now completing a Spanish text on Veterinary Clinical Pathology which will be available for use in both graduate and

undergraduate courses here in Colombia (and perhaps elsewhere in Latin America as well).
In a nutshell, Dr. Mussman was and is an outstanding professional. During his tenure in Colombia, he commanded the personal and professional respect of all those with whom he worked. This is why he is an "Hotnorary Professor" at the National University and now a valued member of the Veterinary Medicine faculty At the University of Nebraska.

Address by
Dr. Jorge Mendez Munevar l/
Rector, National University
The title that is given today to Dr. Frank Davis is merely a natural manifestation from the National University to one who for years has offered us all his talent, all his energy, and one who has produced so many favorable results for the National University, ICA, and Colombian agricultural development in general.
We are assembled here tonight to honor him and to show him our sincere affection and respect. Frank Davis has become a person respected by the professionals of agricultural science in Colombia. He has gained the affection of Colombian administrators, professors, and students alike. I have repeatedly received favorable reports of his activities in the University, and I have come to consider him, from my rectoral retreat and from my fondness for agricultural sciences, a famous North American in Colombia. He probably should be identified as the most famous American in this University in recent years. I know of his achievements and his success. Because of this, it is a great satisfaction for me as a Colombian to be present in this ceremony. And for the same reason, the presence of all of us in this manifestation of affection is justified here tonight.
But I wish to point out another motive that makes this ceremony important. A motive, perhaps, even more important than that of honoring a great friend of Colombia and our University. It is that this ceremony symbolizes the success that international technical cooperation can have in universities of developing countries such as ours. And the impact that the union of international technology with a genuine national effort can have on the development of our countries. The success of Frank Davis, in effect, is demonstrating several things. First: that an international scientist can adapt himself to foreign conditions, become adjusted to new surroundings, and apply the sophisticated techniques of industrialized countries to the creation of an indigenous science in the country he serves, in this case, Colombia. It is no longer a matter of the transfer and forced imposition, artificial and in general ineffective and useless, of foreign science or knowledge, but of the patient search for new concepts and new knowledge that can be specifically applied to a country such as ours. Second: that said international science can be applied without being conditioned or accompanied by ideologies or political influence,
l/ On bestowing the title of "Honorary Professor" upon Dr. Frank Davis,
July 23, 1969.

and without selfish applications on behalf of foreign interests. Third: that there is much that a country such as ours can achieve through international scientific collaboration, if the national entity being served
has a clear and defined program. Most of the problems that continue to surround foreign assistance, both financial.and scientific, are due to lack of well established programs in the national entity in which the international scientist may carry out a concrete and pre-determined task. Fourth: that the cooperation between international science, the University, and operating public entities (ICA in our case), can have an enormous impact on the national welfare. To us, as a University, the aspect of international cooperation represented in the homage paid to Frank Davis in this ceremony, is particularly decisive. It is often said that the University does not participate in national life; we, nevertheless, are dedicating our efforts toward a closer relationship and more effective participation. This does not mean, however, that we have not had many successful examples of university participation in national life. The
*case of agricultural sciences is one of those. With the base that we have
in academic resources, and in the educational accomplishments of our four agricultural faculties, supported by ICA's research program, we are participating decisively in the plans of the Ministry of Agriculture, and with the Ministry we are preparing a decisive transformation in the production systems of the Colombian campesino.
In twenty years, the impact of our agronomists, veterinarians, animal scientists, agricultural engineers, agricultural economists, and, in general, the impact of our agricultural research, will foster the adoption of new techniques, the utilization of new varieties of seeds, the eradication of livestock diseases, etc., in a manner so intense that it will easily mean the difference between being a starving country, and a country well fed, whose agriculture serves as a solid base for industry, and can export an additional 200 to 300 million dollars in agricultural products per year. That difference can represent the decisive difference through which we can continue being a country viable and strong, instead of entering the category of a country in physical and moral bankruptcy.
it is that effort of ICA and the National University, represented by Frank Davis this afternoon, which international science is helping. Dr. Davis has become the symbol of that success in international cooperation.
I thank Dr. Davis for the spirit that he has demonstrated for my country and my University. And I hope that upon his return to his country, he will remember us with the same affection he has had for us during his
tenure in Colombia.

A. The ICA-Nebraska Mission professional staff as of December 31, 1969
was as follows:
In Nebraska
William E. Colwell Lincoln Dean of International
Clyde Noyes Lincoln Administrative Assistant
In Colombia
Clayton K. Yeutter Bogota :Director
Gary L. Whiteley Bogota Administrative Assistant
Agricultural Economics
Peter E. Hildebrand Bogota, Production Economics
Project Leader
Christopher 0. Andrew Bogota Agricultural Policy
James L. Driscoll* Bogota Marketing
Gerald Feaster* Bogota Development
Michael P. Steiner Medellin Marketing
Roger F. Burdette Palmira Marketing
Agricultural Engineering
W. Wesley Hobbs Bogota Power and Machinery
Project Leader
Norman C. Teter Bogota Processing
Deane M. Manbeck Medellin Power and Machinery
William M. Collins Medellin Structures
George H. Dunkelberg Palmira Soil and Water
Agricultural Extension
Thomas F. Trail Bogota Extension Education
Project Leader and Administration
* Financed by the Ford Foundation

Richard W. Tenney ** Bogota Communications
Robert Whittenbarger Bogota Rural Sociology
Animal Science
Howard H. Stonaker Bogota Animal Breeding
Project Leader
Don H. Bushman Bogotg Animal Nutrition
Ivan G. Rush Bogot6 Extension (beef cattle)
Gary 0. Conley Medellin Animal Breeding
Richard R. Day Medellin Dairy Manufacturing
Alex G. Warren Palmira Poultry Science
Kenneth D. Frank BogotA Soils
Project Leader
George Beinhart Bogota Crop Physiology (general)
Thomas M. Fullerton Bogota Crop Physiology (weed
Gary 0. jolliff Medellin Crop Physiology (general)
Home Economics
Jean Audrey Wight Bogota National Leadership
Veterinary MedidinieTheodore Vera Bogota Veterinary Microbiology
Project Leader
Jay H. Sautter Bogota Veterinary Pathology
William A. Wolff Bogota Ambulatory Clinic
Kenneth S. Preston Bogota Ambulatory Clinic and
TOTAL 31 (in Colombia)
B. Staff members who served the Mission during only a portion of the year
In Nebraska
Doug Genereaux Lincoln Administrative Departed in
Assistant June
** Financed by the Kellogg Foundation. Allother positions,financed by

In Colombia
Agricultural Economics
Dan Badger Bogota Production Eco- Departed in
nomics July
Max Bowser Bogota Instructor Pro- Departed in
gram July
Agricultural Extension
A. Dale Flowerday Bogota Director, Social Departed in
Science Depart- August ment & Project Leader
J.J. Feight Bogota Communications Departed in
Marlyn Low Medellfn Extension and Departed in
Communications July
Ronald E. Stoller Palmira Extension and Departed in
Communications August
Animal Science
Daniel D. Bullis Palmira Nutrition Departed in
C.V. Ross BogotA Production and Departed in
Management June
Frank Davis Bogota Crop Physiology Departed in
Project Leader 2 August Carl Jorgensen Palmira Crop Physiology Departed in
Veterinary Medicine
Harry Mussman BogotA Clinical Pathology Departed in
Project Leader September
Louis Tritschler Bogota Ambulatory Clinic Departed in
C. Program Continuity
Leadership of the program was quite stable during 1969. Drs. William Colwell and Clayton Yeutter served in their respectie capacities as Dean of International Programs and Director of the Colombia Program for the entire year. In addition, Drs. Peter Hildebrand, Wesley Hobbs, and H.H. Stonaker served full years as Project Leaders in Economics, Engineering, and Animal Science respectively.

The only transition occurred in Agricultural Extension, Agronomy, and Veterinary Medicine, due to the departure of the Project Leaders in these particular programs. Dr. Thomas Trail succeeded Dr. A. Dale Flowerday as Project Leader in Ag Extension (in September); Dr. Ken Frank succeeded Dr. Frank Davis as Project Leader in Agronomy (in August); and Dr. Ted Vera succeeded Dr. Harry Mussman as Project Leader in Veterinary Medicine (in September). Both Dr. Frank and Dr. Vera had had considerable experience in Colombia prior to assuming their new and enlarged responsibilities, so the transition was not difficult. Dr. Trail arrived subsequent to Dr. Flowerday's departure, but they did have an opportunity to confer briefly at the University of Nebraska in Lincolnp In addition, Dr. Trail's long experience in Latin American programs has made it possible for him to adapt readily to his new surroundings in Colombia.
Much of the credit for the success of this program in 1969 must go to the aforementioned project leaders, whose-performance during the entire year was simply superlative.
D. The "in Colombia" staffing plan for 1970 is as follows: (AID only) l/
Primary Assignment
Field and Position Location Working with
1. Administration 24 man months
a. Director Bogot& Various agencies
b. Administrative Ass't Bogotfi Various agencies
2. Animal Science 75 man months
a. Animal Breeding Bogota ICA & Nat. Univ.
b. Animal Nutrition Bogot& ICA & Nat. Univ.
c. Extension (beef cattle) Bogota ICA
d. Animal Science (general) Medellin Nat. Univ.
e. Dairy Manufacturing Medellin Nat. Univ.
f. Poultry Science Palmira ICA & Nat. Univ.
g. Animal Breeding (1/4 time) Nebraska ICA & Nat. Univ.
3. Veterinary Medicine 48 man months
a. Veterinary Microbiology Bogot6 ICA & Nat. Univ.
b. Veterinary Pathology BogotA ICA & Nat. Univ.
c. Ambulatory Clinic Bogot6 Nat. Univ.
d. Ambulatory Clinic & Extension Bogot& ICA & Nat. Univ.
4. Agronomy 60 man months
a. Soils Bogota ICA & Nat. Univ.
b. Crop Physiology (general) Bogotg ICA & Nat. Univ.
c. Crop Physiology (weed control) Bogotg ICA & Nat. Univ.
do Crop Physiology (general) Medellin ICA
e. Crop Physiology (vegetables) Undetermined
1/ The Ford Foundation will support approximately 24 man-months in ag
economics, and the Kellog Foundation 12 man-months in ag extension,
along with considerable short term consultant support.

5. Agricultural Engineering 72 man months
a. Power and Machinery Bogotd ICA
b. Processing BogotA ICA
c. Soil and Water Bogota !CA
d. Power and Machinery Medellin Nat. Univ.
e. Structures Medellin Nat. Univ.
f. Soil and Water Palmira ICA
6. Agricultural Extension 24 man months
a. Extension Administration Bogota ICA
b. Rural Sociology BogotA ICA
7. Agricultural Economics 36 man months
a. Agricultural Policy Bogotfi ICA
b. Ag Economics (general) Medellin ICA & Nat. Univ.
c. Farm Management Palmira ICA & Nat. Univ.
8. Home Economics 21 man months
a. National Leadership BogotA Various agencies
b. Leadership-teaching program Manizales Univ. of Caldas
The proposed "in U.S." staffing plan (60man months) is as follows:
Position Location
Campus Coordinator Lincoln, Nebraska
Administrative Assistant Lincoln, Nebraska
Three secretaries Lincoln, Nebraska
in addition to the staffing described above, 24 man-months of short term consultants have been authorized.
The major changes, as compared to Calendar Year 1969, are as follows:
1. The inclusion of a one-fourth time assignment in Animal Science to
be carried out by Dr. Robert Koch of the Department of Animal
Science at the University of Nebraska. Dr. Koch held a similar
assignment in 1967 and 1968, but was unable to participate in the
program in 1969.
2. The addition of a soil and water position within the program of
Agricultural Engineering. This reflects a demand created by the
rapid development of irrigation in Colombia.
3. The initiation of a program in Home Economics through the use of
one position which had formerly been dedicated to Agricultural
Extension, and the addition of a new position which will thus
provide a beginning base of two people. (Only 21 man-months are
programmed by contract for this particular field because one of the

positions will not be filled until sometime in 1970.) This is a
response to the great need for assistance in Home Economics in
4. The addition of a position in Bogota to the Agricultural Economics
program. This represents an effort to off-set the decrease in
staffing support from the Ford Foundation.
5. An increase of six man-months in short term consultants (24 man
months in total).
E. The non-professional ICA-Nebraska Mission staff as of December 31,1969
was as followsIn Nebraska
Maria Victoria Rodriguez Lincoln Executive Secretary
Maria Magdalena Komarek Lincoln Secretarial &
Accounting Resp.
In Colombia
Concepci6n Bretos Bogota Executive Secretary
Maria Cristina Rico Bogota Fellowship Processing
Nini Serrano Bogota Bilingual Secretary
Ligia Garcia Bogota Accounting
Ana Emilia Mejia Bogota Accounting
Maria Antonieta P6rez Bogota Spanish Secretary
Javier Rinc6n Bogota Administrative
Alfonso Rodriguez Bogota Chauffeur
Hernando Urrego Bogota Chauffeur
Elvira Junco Bogota Custodial Resp.
Ag Economics
Maria Cristina Arciniegas Bogota Bilingual Secretary
Elizabeth Child Bogota Bilingual Secretary
Clara In6s Arce Bogot6 Bilingual Secretary
Carlos Aponte Bogota Chauffeur
Stella Ochoa Medellin Bilingual Secretary
Ana Duque Palmira Bilingual Secretary
Ag Extension
Lucy de Torres Bogota Bilingual Secretary
Eduardo Corredor Bogota Chauffeur
Jaime Sanchez Bogota Chauffeur

Amparo Forero Bogoth Bilingual Secretary
Jos6 M. Rodriguez Bogoth Chauffeur
Veterinary Medicine
Irma Fandifto Bogoth Bilingual Secretary
Consuelo de Jaime Bogoth Bilingual Secretary
Ligia de Le6n BogotA Bacteriologist
Hernando Vanegas BogotA Chauffeur (Amb. Cl.)
Antonio Rios Bogota Chauffeur (Amb. Cl.)
Efrain Ramos BogotA Chauffeur
Animal Science
Irma Guerrero BogotA Bilingual Secretary
Elizabeth Garcia Bogota Bilingual Secretary
Pedro Rodriguez BogotA Chauffeur
Amparo G6mez Medellin Bilingual Secretary
Ag Engineering
In6s Ortega BogotA Bilingual Secretary
Marta Duque Medellin Bilingual Secretary
Mary Ramos Palmira Bilingual Secretary
Luis Alfonso Daza Palmira Chauffeur

Until 1969, the ICA-Nebraska Mission program was supported almost entirely by grant funds from AID, the Ford Foundation, and the Kellogg Foundation. However, because of world-wide reductions in U.S foreign aid, it was necessary to change the AID support to loan financing, effective January 1, 1969. The alternative would have been to continue with grant funding, but with a major redu 'ction in staffing. ICA and the University of Nebraska agreed that this was not a desireable alternative since it would have emascula.ted the program. Therefore, both entities acceded to the proposal that 1969 AID funding be provided by means of a loan to the Colombian government, and thence to ICA.
It is too early to appraise all the ramifications of this change, but it is obvious that the program had a bevy 6f accomplishments in 1969 that would not have been possible had financial support been drastically restricted.
The 1969 AID dollar budget totaled one million dollars. A report of the expenditures thereunder is included in Appendix C. The entire sum was obligated, though not expended, prior to December 31, 1969. Carryover obligations ate almost entirely in the areas of equipment purchases and participant costs, particularly the latter. Expenditures for personal
services were considerably less than anticipated, thereby making possible the award of several additional fellowships. Total fellowship obligations for the year will total approximately $250,000, in contrast to the $119,000 originally budgeted. This has provided a tremendous impetus to the fellowship program.
Ani additional $261,487 dollars were expended in the form of pesos for
housing and educational allowances, a portion of staff salaries, transportation of household goods, international airline tickets for staff and participants, shipping costs for equipment, etc. And one million pesos were expended for equipment and supplies purchased in Colombia, domestic air travel, vehicle repairs, contractual services, and many other miscellaneous items essential to the operation of the program. Peso funds
were also made available through the ICA-Nebraska Mission budget for payment of the salaries of ICA-Nebraska Mission Colombian employees. "Counterpart funds" are used for mott of the expenditures enumerated in this paragraph.
Th~e Ford Foundation continued to support the program in agricultural
economics during 1969. The original $800,000 dollar Ford Foundation grant was for a three year period terminating June 30, 1969. However, the grant period has been extended and negotiations are now underway for a new two year grant. These negotiations should be finalized in the near future.

1969 was the first year of a second grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation in the areas of agricultural extension and communications. This new grant is scheduled to terminate on March 31, 1971, but ICA and the University of Nebraska plan soon to submit a proposal for continued support in the development of these most essential subject matter areas.
Budgetary and expenditure data relative to the Ford and Kellogg Foundation grants can be found in the annual reports which have been submitted to these entities.

The first member of President Nixon's cabinet to visit Colombia was
Secretary of Agriculture Clifford M. Hardin, who was here for several days in February. We were deeply honored by this visit for Dr. Hardin (as Chancellor of the University of Nebraska) was perhaps more instrumental than anyone in developing the ICA-Nebraska Mission program.
In December, we hosted another University of Nebraska administrator who was heavily involved in the original contract negotiations of 1966. This was Dr. Joseph Soshnik, who is now President of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and who has direct responsibility for the administration of the present program. President Soshnik was accompanied by Mr. Richard Adkins, President of the University of Nebraska Board of Regents, and Mr. Robert Raun, Vice-President of the Board of Regents.
Several representatives of institutions participating in the Mid-America State Universities Association visited Colotnbia during 1969. These included:PDr. Elmer Kiehl, Dean of the College of Agriculture at the University of Missouri; Dr. James Whatley, Dean of the College of Agriculture at Oklahoma State University; and Dr. Vernon Larson, Coordinator of International Programs at Kansas State University. We were especially pleased to welcome these men since the cooperation of the MASUA institutions is unquestionably essentialto the success of this program.
Dr. Russell Mawby of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, and Dr. Lowell Hardin of the Ford Foundation were with us on two separate occasions during the year. Dr. Hardin was accompanied on one of these occasions by Mr. Harry Wilhelm of the Ford Foundation. With the large input that these two foundations have in the ICA-Nebraska Mission program, their continuing counsel is most welcome.
Dr. Arthur Coutu, Dean of International Programs at North Carolina
State University, spent two days with us in March, at which time we were also visited by Dr. Jacob Tejada of New Mexico State University. Dr. Tejada was here to evaluate the possibilities for developing a short term training program (in New Mexico, in Spanish) for ICA's extension staff.
A unique visitor was Dr. Harold Breimyer, a member of the agricultural economics faculty at the University of Missouri, Dr. Breimyer was here in November to participate in an AID evaluation of the ICA-Nebraska Mission.
Short term consultants for 1969 included:

Name Institution Month Period
Dr. Larry Jeffery Department of Agronomy January 1 week
University of Nebraska
Dr. Russell Brannon Department of Agricultural January 1 week
University of Kentucky
Dr. James Rhodes Chairman, Department of January 2 weeks
Agricultural Economics university aVfMissouri
Dr. Glen vollmar Chairman, Department of January 2 weeks
Agricultural Economics University of Nebraska
Dr. John Quisenberry Chairman, Department of January 2 weeks
Poultry Science Texas A & M university
Dr. L. K. Crowe Department of Animal Science February 4 weeks
university of Nebraska
Dr. Frank Baker Chairman, Department of February 1 week
Animal Science University of Nebraska
Dr. William Splinter Chairman, Department of February 1 week
Agricultural Engineering university of Nebraska
Dr. B. W. Kingery Dean of Veterinary Medicine February 2 weeks
University of Missouri
Dr. John Adams Director of Agricultural February 1 week
Extens ion
University of Nebraska
Dr. max Clegg Department of Agronomy April 2 weeks
University of Nebraska
Dr. William E. Colwell Dean of International Programs April 1 week
University of Nebraska
Dr. J. 0. Young Chairman, Department of May 1 month
Horticulture & Forestry University of Nebraska
Dr. Anita Dickson Associate Dean, Home Economics June 2 weeks
Purdue University

Name Institution Month Period
Dr. Doretta Hoffman Dean, College of Home June 2 weeks
Kansas State University
Dr. Virginia Trotter Dean, College of Home June 2 weeks
University of Nebraska
Mr. Ewing Canaday Stillwater, -Oklahoma June 4 weeks
Mr. Robert Ruyle Nebraska Educational Televi- July 1 week
sion Commission
Mr. Robert Gilden Federal Extension Service, August 3 weeks
Dr. William E. Colwell Dean of International Programs September 1 week University of Nebraska
Mr. Clyde Noyes AdministratiVe Assistant to October 1 week
Dean of International Programs
University of Nebraska
Mr. Carl Mueller University of Nebraska October 1 week
Business Office
Dr. William Splinter Chairman, Department of November 1 week
Agricultural Engineering University of Nebraska
Mr. Paul Fischbach Extension Irrigation Spe- November 10 days
University of Nebraska
Dr. Dermot Coyne Department of Horticulture & December 2 weeks
University of Nebraska

It is not unusual for a Mission such as this to function in a dynamic environment, but the environment of Colombian agriculture was especially dynamic in 1969. This was particularly true in ICA, which underwent a major reorganization in late 1968. In the reorganization, ICA absorbed a gamut of agencies and a host of reponsibilities which resulted in nearly doubling its size (in personnel).
Dr. Jorge Ortiz M6ndez served as Director General of ICA throughout 1969, and provided superlative leadership in what was a most trying year for the organization (from an administrative standpoint). In the restructuration, ICA established a new "Gerencia" of Planning, and Dr. Canuto Cardona was named Director. As an additional duty, Dr. Cardona was given responsibility for coordination with all international agencies, including the Nebraska Mission.
Dr. Alvaro Gartner became director of the Technical Gerencia, which encompasses the research, teaching, and extension functions that had been ICA's sole responsibility prior to the reorganization. Within this Gerencia, Dr. Hern~n Chaverra was named Director of Research and Acting Director of Extension.. Dr. Manuel Alvarez serves as Director of Education, and Dr. Carlos Garc6s as Dean of the NU-ICA Graduate School.
In the next echelon, but within the Technical Gerencia, Dr. Manuel Torregroza continues to serve as Director of the Department of Agronomy, and Dr. Jorge Quintero as Director of the Department of Ag Engineering. The only Nebraska Mission department head is Dr. Thomas Trail, who succeeded Dr. Dale Flowerday in this position. During the year, Dr. Rafael Samper replaced Dr. Alberto Franco as Director of the Department of Ag Economics, and Dr. Jaime Estupif5gn succeeded Dr. Ned S. Raun (a former Nebraskan and employee of the Rockefeller Foundation) as Director of the Department of Animal Sciences.
A new "Development" Gerencia was created to administer all of ICA's new responsibilities, which include basically all the functions of a State Department of Agriculture in the U.S. Dr. Rodrigo Duarte was given responsibility for this major new activity, which encompasses technical assistance, the extension service, seed certification, control of the quality of agricultural inputs, and a whole host of additional programs. Of most interest to the Nebraska Mission is the presence of the extension service in this gerencia. From the standpoint of coordination, it may well have been preferable to place the extension service with the Technical Gerencia, as is usually the case. Nevertheless, it is advantageous simply to have it within ICA, and this fact alone has greatly stimulated an interchange between the Technical and Development Gerencias.

A new Administrative Gerencia was also created within ICA, under the direction of Dr. German Paris. The Nebraska Mission expects to work closely with this Gerencia during 1970 the first time that the Mission has had an input in the administrative development of this gigantic agency.
At the highest echelon of Colombian agriculture, Dr. Enrique Pefialosa resigned as Minister of Agriculture in late 1969, and was replaced by Dr. Armando Samper. This transition has not in any way impeded the development of Colombia's agricultural programs; nor has it affected the direction or scope of the Nebraska Mission technical assistance effort. Both Ministers have been completely cooperative in all aspects of the Mission program, thereby creating a positive environment in which to work. This is of immense importance to the success of an activity such as this.
The National University has also experienced a number of significant changes in leadership. Dr. Jorge M~ndez Mun~var resigned as Rector during 1969, and was succeeded by Dr. Enrique Carvajal, former Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the BogotA campus. And Dr. Miguel Hernfndez, former Dean of Agronomy at Medellin, was named to a new position as Director of Agricultural Programs for the entire National University system. We view this as a most important development, which has great potential for more efficient use of both human and physical resources within the National University.
There were no changes among the National University Deans with whom the Mission works Dr. Adel Gonzalez, Dean of Agricultural Sciences at Palmira; Dr. Ricardo Sandino, Dean of Veterinary Medicine at Bogota; Dr. Oscar Ospina, Dean of Agricultural Sciences at Medellin; and Dr. Santiago Fonseca, Dean of Agronomy at Bogota.
The most heartwarming aspect of the entire Mission program is the cooperation that has been received from personnel of the host country. This has not only been true of the Colombian leadership enumerated above, but also Of the counterparts who work side by side with our staff. This is the key to success of any technical assistance program, and it has been a major factor in the productivity of this Mission during 1969. We are most appreciative of the patience, tolerance, and generally magnificent attitude of our Colombian colleagues.
The North American portions of the institutional environment have
been no less impressive. As vice-President of the Kellogg Foundation in charge of agricultural programs, Dr. Russell Mawby has given us superlative support in the area of agricultural extension. On the Ford Foundation side, Dr. James Plaxico returned at mid-year to his former post as Chairman of the Department of Ag Economics at Oklahoma State University. His "in Colombia" agricultural responsibilities have since been assumed by Dr. Reed Hertford. In the interim, they were carried out by Mr. Bill Cotter, Director of the Ford Foundation's Colombia programs. Both Dr. Plaxico and Mr. Cotter spent many hours working with us on the ag economics program, and on proposals for a second Ford Foundation grant.. The Ford Foundation established a most desirable precedent of fellowship support for the NU-ICA graduate program, including some support for

students in fields other than ag economics.
Special recognition must also be given the members of the Mid-America
State Universities Association the University of Missouri, Colorado State University, Iowa State University, Kansas State University, arnd Oklahoma State University, along with the University of Nebraska.
We have had a number of most welcome visitors from the MASUA
institutions during 1969, and hope that this will continue in future years. These universities have been especially helpful in the recruitment of a quality staff for the Colombia program, and in giving individual, special attention to a host of Colombian graduate students. We trust that the relationship has been mutually beneficial; without doubt, the students have been contributing in many ways to the Uj.S. universities which they attend.
At the University of Nebraska, the support of the entire administrative staff has been excellent, but particular mention should be made of the
department heads who have given countless hours of valuable time to the enhancement of the Mission in Colombia: Dr.William Splinter, Ag Engineering; Dr. Frank Baker, Animal science: Dr. Glen Vollmar, Ag Economics; Dr. Marvin Twiehaus, Veterinary Medicine; Dr. J. 0. Young, Horticulture; Dr. Don Hanway, Agronomy; Dr. Ralston Graham, Ag Information; and Dr. John Adams, Director of the Agricultural Extension Service.

Detailed objectives of the Nebraska mission, as delineated in the ICA-University of Nebraska contract, have been included in previous annual reports. The principal goals might be paraphrased as follows:
a. At ICA
1. Development of a Graduate Program in Agriculture determination of curricula, development of course outlines, training
of staff, and some teaching of courses while ICA and National University faculty are obtaining graduate degrees in the U.S.
2. Development of Research Competence by improving research
techniques and methodology.
3. Upgrading and Development of Extension through in-service
training of the extension field staff and the "specialist"
staff; development of graduate programs in extension, com-munications, and rural sociology; development of a strong
publications program; and improvement of mass media communications radio, television, and others.
b. At the National University (Bogotg, Medellin, and Palmira)
1. Development of undergraduate curricula in animal science,
veterinary medicine, ag economics, ag extension including
communications and rural sociology, ag engineering, and
2. Improvement of teaching methods, techniques, equipment,
textual materials, etc.
3. Encouragement of research involvement, particularly as related to research programs of ICA.
c. At both Institutions
Establishment of a fellowship program for training of staff
at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels, said staff to provide future leadership in research, teaching and extension programs and ultimately replace the entire Nebraska Mission staff.
Subsequent sections of this report are devoted to: (1) a discussion of the fellowship program, (2) a summary of the highlights of 1969, and
(3) reports of the activities within each subject matter area. We leave to

the reader the determination of whether and to what degree progress is being made toward reaching the above mentioned goals.

A. Degree Fellowships
The ICA-Nebraska Mission fellowship program continues to be a resounding success. Whereas many U.S. foreign aid programs have difficulty finding enough qualified candidates to meet their projected training needs, just the opposite hasoccurred in Colombia. The number of candidates at ICA and the National University has been increasing rapidly, and now far exceeds the budget available for fellowships. (It appears that there will be three or more candidates for every fellowship that can be awarded in 1970.) This is, of course, an ideal situation since it permits selection of only the most outstanding candidates for study in the United States.
Fifteen participants began U.S. graduate studies in 1967 1/, and 39 in 1968. The number rose to an amazing 50 in 1969. Twenty-nine of the latter were financed by the Agency for International Development, 12 on grant funds and the remainder through the ICA-Nebras"a loan contract. They are as follows:
Sponsoring Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Degree Inst. Departure
Miguel Restrepo** U.Nal. Medellin M.S. Colorados. Jan.
Gerardo Martinez ICA M.S.* Illinois Jan.
Arturo L6pez* ICA M.S. Oregon S. Aug.
Enrique Alarc6n* ICA M.S. Cornell Aug.
Rodrigo Torres* ICA Palmira M.S. California Aug.
Fernando G6mez ICA M.S. Mississippi Aug.
Jeslis Arias ICA Ph.D. Iowa State Aug.
Camilk Arriaga* U.Nal.Bog. Ph.D. Illinois Sep.
Jaime Daza U.Nal.Bog. Ph.D. Iowa State Dec.
Agricultural Engineering
Carlos Rodriguez* ICA M.S. Illinois Feb.
Jos6 Chaparro U.Nal. Medellin M.S. Iowa State Aug.
Reynaldo Bernal U.Nal.Bog. M.S. N.C. State Aug.
1/ Including Gustavo Jimnez of the National University-BogotA, who began
a graduate program in Agronomy, but after a few months decided to change
to a non-agricultural degree program which necessitated reinquishment of his Nebraska Mission fellowship.

Sponsoring Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Degree Inst. Departure
Rural Administration
Uriel Ariza ICA M.S. Minnesota Sep.
Computer Science
Angelina Guerrero* U.Nal. Bog. M.S. Purdue Jan.
Guillermo Gonz~lez* ICA M.S. Wisconsin Aug.
Fernando Villafae ICA M.S. Colorado Aug.
Pedro Villegas ICA M.S. Texas A&M Aug.
Omar Hincapi6 ICA M.S. Cornell Sep.
Graciela Barrios ICA M.S. Texas A&M Sep.
Mario Ruiz* U.Nal.Bog. Ph.D. Calif. (Davis) Sep.
Animal Science
Francisco Villegas* U.Nal.Medellin M.S. Missouri Jan.
Daniel Abadia U.Nal.Bog. M.S. Colorado S. June
Humberto Arango U.Nal.Palmira M.S. Nebraska June
Eutimio Rubio ICA M.S. Missouri Aug.
H4ctor Benitez* ICA M.S. Nebraska Aug.
Rodrigo Pastrana* ICA M.S. Wyoming Aug.
Jestis M. Ram6n ICA Palmira M.S. Colorado S. Aug.
Sa-l E. Quintero U.Nal.Medellin Ph.D. Nebraska Aug.
Luis Arutro Gil U.Nal.Bog. Ph.D. Florida Sep.
* Financed by 1969 AID grant.
** Financed by 1968 AID grant.
All others financed by 1969 AID loan.
Another 11 students were awarded fellowships by the Ford Foundation for graduate study in agricultural economics. This is truly an amazing accomplishment when one considers that the profession of agricultural economics in Colombia is only about two years old. These students are as follows:
Sponsoring Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Degree Inst. Departure
Jorge Torres U.Nal.Bogoth M.S. Kansas S. Jan.
Fabian Ramirez U.Nal.Medellin M.S. Oklahoma S. Jan.
Jaime Baby U.Nal.Medellin M.S. Nebraska Feb.
Gonzalo Aristizfbal U.Nal.Medellin M.S. Iowa State Mar.
Edierth A. Restrepo ICA M.S. Missouri June
Rodrigo Tasc6n ICA M.S. Missouri June
Carlos A. Forero ICA M.S. Kansas S. Aug.

Sponsoring Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Degree Inst. Departure
Jorge Vargas ICA M.S. Oklahoma S. Aug.
Roberto L6pez** Fedecaf6 Oklahoma s,. Aug.
Jes is M. Sierra ICA M.S. Colorado S. Aug.
Jorge Lopera ICA Ph.D. Iowa State Aug.
** One Semester only; will complete degree at ICA graduate school.
Primary fellowship support in the area of agricultural extension, communications, and rural sociology comes from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Eleven fellowships were awarded in 1969 in these respective
fields, as follows:
Sponsoring Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Degree Inst. Departure
Enrique Andrade U.Nal.Bog. Ph.D. N.C. State Aug.
Luis E. Chives ICA M.S. Cornell Aug.
David Cu6llar U.Nal.Bog. M.S. Wisconsin Aug.
Jafeth Garcia Fedecaf6 M.S. Cornell Aug.
Luis J. Jaramillo U.Nal.Bog. M.S. Michigan S. Aug.
Orlando Lugo ICA M.S. Iowa State Aug.
Gabriel Ojeda ICA M.S. Missouri Aug.
.Joaquin E. Quir6z ICA M.S. Michigan S. Aug.
Ernesto Rinc6n ICA M.S. Colorado S. Aug.
Luis Hern~n Rinc6n ICA M.S. Iowa State Aug.
Fabio Zapata U.Nal.Medellin Ph.D. Louisiana-. Aug.
The academic performance of the Colombian graduate students has simply been phenomenal. To date 105 have been sent to the U.S. as participants, yet there are only a few C's on the graduate transcripts of the entire group. Nearly all grades are A's and B's, and a large number of major professors have requested fellowship extensions for their advisees to permit continuation for a Ph.D. program. Ordinarily, the requests are declined because of the desire to have these students become reacquainted with their country and gain additional experience and maturity before embarking upon Ph.D. studies. Other factors, such as the need for their services at the sponsoring institution (ICA or the National University), number of Ph. D's already trained in the particular field, age of the candidate, academic requirements of the position to which they will return, etc. are also relevant. .These requests are considered by case basis, and a few students have been authorized to continue for the Ph.D. degree.

Language is almost always a problem during the first semester. To at
least partially ameliorate this difficulty, the university of Nebraska sponsors an orientation session during the month of August, at which time the participants are given an opportunity to live with a Nebraska family, stud; and observe U.S. agriculture, learn (through lectures) about graduate
school requirements and procedures, and polish their language competence by means of these varied experiences. This has been a most successful program, much appreciated by all the participants.
4 lk
1969 participants attending the orientation session at the University of Nebraska. On the far right Dr. William Colwell, Dean of International Programs. On the far left- Mr. Clyde Noyes, Administrative Assistant in the Office of International Programs.
The first ICA-Nebraska Mission participant to return to Colombia with a degree was Michel Hermelin, (1967 departure) who rejoined the faculty of agronomy at the National University-Medellin in December 1968, after completing an M.S. degree in Soils at Colorado State University. Hermelin had a magnificent academic record, and will soon be a candidate for a Ph.D. fellowship.
An additional 14 students completed their ICA-Nebraska Mission graduate studies during 1969. One, a Ford Foundation fellow (Eduardo Chac6n of ICA1968 departure), was unable to complete his degree program because of deficiencies in academic background and concomitant problems in meeting the mathematical requirements for a Ph.D. in economics. Of the more than 100 participants, he is the first to return without a degree.
William P~rez, another Ford Foundation fellow (1968 departure), com-

pleted a special one year graduate program at the University of Paris, but chose to continue his studies in Paris at his own expense. Mr. P6rez plans to return to the National University-Bogoth in 1970.
Participants who returned to Colombia in 1969 with M.S. degrees are as follows:
Kind of
Sponsoring Fellow- Study Date of
Name Inttitution ship Field Inst. Return*
Vargas, Wenceslao U.Nal,-Bog. AID Food Sci. N.C.S. Jan.
Murcia, Hector U.Nal.-Bog. Ford Ag. Econ. Okla.S.Feb.
Restrepo, Ligia ICA AID Food Tec..& Nut. Nebr. April
Valderrama, Mario ICA Ford Ag. Econ. Nebr. July
Grillo, Manuel U.Nal.-Pal. AID Soil & Water Calif. August
Martinez, Ricardo U.Nal.-Bog. AID Plant Bre.&Sta. IowaS. $August
P6rez, Hernin ICA Kellogg Communications IowaS.August
Velez, Dario laiRep. Ford Ag. Econ. Okla.S.Augu~t
Cancelado, Rafael UNal.-Bog. AID Entomology Miss.S.August
Rey, Humberto U.Nal.-Bog. AID Ag. Engineering Col.S. Oct.
Villamizar, Fernando ICA AID Soils Col.S. Oct.
Bernhardt, Jaime* U.Nal.-Med. Ford Ag. Econ. IowaS. Nov.
* Originally sponsored by ICA, but contract assumed by National University-Medellin upon his return.
** All were awarded fellowships in 1967, except Velez and Bernhardt who
received their fellowships in 1968.
Obviously, a large number of the degree participants are still in the U.S-. Those who began graduate studies in 1967, and who have not yet returned to Colombia are as follows:
Sponsoring Kind of Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Fellow. Degree Institution Depart.
Agronomy (1967)
Jos6 E. G6mez* U.Nal.-Bog. AID Ph.D. Iowa State August
Cesar Escobar U.Nal.-Med. AID Ph.D. Michigan August
Enrique Rodriguez ICA AID Ph.D. Washington S.Sept.
Total 3
* Originally an M.S. program. Has now been extended for a Ph.D.
Participants who began graduate studies in 1968, and who have not yet returned to Colombia include:
Sponsoring- Kind of Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Fellow. Degree Institution Depart.
Ag. Economics (1968)
German Bernal U.Nal.-Pal. Ford M.S. Nebraska Jan.
Juan Acosta ICA Ford M.S. Missouri June

Sponsoring Kind of Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Fellow. Degree Institution Depart.
Ag. Economics
Luis Avalos ICA Ford M.S. Missouri June
Diego Londofo U.Nal.-PaI. Ford Ph.D. Oklahoma S. June
Ramiro Orozco ICA Ford M.S. Oklahoma S. August
Alfredo Carrasco ICA Ford Ph.D. Nebraska August
Mario Alberto Garcia Min. Ag. Ford M.S. Arizona Sept.
Ag. Engineering
Fabio Tob6n U.Nal.-Bog- AID M.S. Minnesota August
Le6n Reyes UWNal.-Pal. AID M.S. Nebraska August
Ag. Extension
Jaime Guti6rrez ICA Kellogg Ph.D. Missouri Jan.
Mois6s Alvarez ICA Kellogg M.S. Missouri July
Oscar Bricefio ICA Kellogg M.S. Cornell July
Alvaro Castilla URNal.-IBog. Kellogg M.S. Iowa St. July
Susana Amaya INCORA Kellogg Ph.D. Wisconsin August
Jos6 Ricaurte Gardia ICA Kellogg Ph.D. N.Carolina S. August
Animal Science
German Diaz U.Nal.-Bog. AID M.S. Missouri Feb.
Gonzalo villa U.Nal.-Med. AID M.S. Nebraska August
Leonel Vargas U.Nal.-Med. AID M.S. Nebraska August
Mario GonzAlez U.Nal.-Pal. AID M.S.. Oklahoma S. Sept.
Edgar Ceballos ICA AID Ph.D. Washington S.Sept.
Jos6 A. Beltran Fedearroz AID Ph.D.* Nebraska Jan.
Orlando S&nchez ICA AID Ph.D. Hawaii Jan.
Pedro Oforo ICA AID Ph.D. N.Carolina S.August
Javier Bernal ICA AID M.S. Cornell August
Cesar Cardona ICA AID M.S. California August
Omar Marin ICA AID M.S. California August
Emiro Rojas ICA AID M.S. Nebraska August
Jorge Mesa ICA AID M.S. Nebraska August
Samuel R. Ochoa U.Nal.-Med. AID M.S. California August
Abd6n Cortes U.P.-Tunja AID Ph.D. Purdue August
Francisco Herron U.Nal.- Med. AID M.S. California Dec.
Veterinary Medicine
Jose Jim~nez ICA AID M.S. Minnesota August
Ricardo Ochoa ICA AID Ph.D.* Cornell August
Alfonso Ruiz ICA AID Ph.D.* Iowa St. August
German Arbel~ez U.Nal.-Bog. AID M.S. Purdue August
* Original fellowship was for M.S. program, but have now been approved
for the Ph.D.

Following is a summary of the degree fellowship program:
No. of Degree Fellowships Awarded in 1967 15
No. Returning in 1968 with Degrees 1
Fellowship Relinquished Because of Progan Change 1968 1
No. Returning in 1969 with Degrees 10
No. Remaining in U.S. Dec. 31, 1969 3
No. of Degree Fellowships Awarded in 1968 39
No. Returning in 1969 with Degrees 2
No. Returning in 1969 without Degrees 1
No. Terminating Study Programs in 1969, but not yet
Returning to Colombia 1
No. Remaining in U.S. Dec. 31, 1969 35
No. of Degree Fellowships Awarded in 1969 51
No. Remaining in U.S. Dec. 31, 1969 51
Total Number of Degree Fellowships Awarded 105
No. Who have Returned with Degrees 13
No. who have Terminated Study Programs, but have not
yet Returned 1
No. Who have Returned without Degrees 1
Fellows ips Relinquished because of Program Change 1
No. Remaining in U.S. -Dec. 31, 1969 89
The following is a distribution of the degree fellowships by sponsoring institution::
Departure in
Institution 1967 1968 1969 Total
No. Returning with Degrees 4 0 0 4
No. Returning without Degrees 0 1 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 1 18 28 47
Total 5 19 28 52
National University- Bogotd
No. Returning with Degrees 5 0 0 5
No. Relinquishing Fellowship 1 0 0 1
No. Terminating Programs but
Remaining 6utside Colombia 0 1 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 1 5 12 18
Total 7 6 12 25

Departure in
Institution 1967 1968 1969 Total
National Univers ity-Medellin
No. Returning with Degrees 1 1 0 :2
No. Remaining in U.S. 1 4 8 13
Total 2 51 8 15
National University-Palmira
No. Returning with Degrees 1 0 0 1
No. Remining in U.S. 0 4 1 5
Total 1 4 1 6
Other Entities l/
No. Returning with Degrees 0 1 0 1
No. Remaining in U.S. 0 4 2 6
Total 0 5 2 7
For All Entities
No. Returning with Degrees 11 2 0 13
No. Returfiing without Degrees 0 1 0 1
No. Relinquishing Fellowship 1 0 0 1
No. Terminating Programs but
Remaining outside Colombia 0 1 0 1
No. Rem&ining in U.S. 3 35 51 89
Toal 15 39 51 105
1/ Banco de la Repi6blica, Ministry of Agriculture, INCORA, U.P. Tunja,
Fedearroz, and Fedecaf6.
B. Short Term Fellowships
Short term fellowships were greatly expanded during 1969. We consider this to be an extremely important Mission activity, as such fellowships permit concentrated study on a particular topic or problem, and simultaneously give the participant invaluable exposure to another culture.
Ten of these fellowships were awarded for special studies in extension at New Mexico State University. This is a new and innovative program which thus far shows promise of paying enormous dividends. The fellowships are for a period of six weeks of intensive study of all aspects of the New Mexico extension program. All training is provided in Spanish in order to eliminate the language problem. (New Mexico, of course, has a large Spanish speaking population, both in agricultural areas and at its universities.) Five participants are sent in a group, so that they may readily travel with their New Mexico State University sponsor throughout

New Mexico in one automobile. The first group of participants under this program included only subject matter specialists in animal science; the second group included four subject matter specialists in agronomy and one in agricultural engineering. We hope to send at least three additional groups in 1970 including not only subject matter specialists, but also Colombian county agents and extension supervisors.
The 1969 short term participants were as follows:
Sponsoring Study Time
Name Institution Field Institution Period
Guillermo Riveros ICA Crop Physiology Nebraska 1 1/2 weeks
Jos6 Tob6n ICA Soils N. Carolina St.7 Weeks
Jorge Quintero ICA Ag. Engineering various 4 weeks
Jaime Barrera ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Joel Calle ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Guillermo Cedefo ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Nestor Morales ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks;
Fabio Rodriguez ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Lucio Rodriguez U-Nal.-Med. Animal Science Florida 2 weeks
Jairo Quintero ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Ramiro Hern&ndez ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Jos6 Londofo ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Hernando Lemos ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Jorge Llanos ICA Ag. Extension New Mexico St. 6 weeks
Manuel Alvarez ICA Ag. Education Various 4 weeks
Ricardo Sandino U.Nal.-Bog. Veterinary Med. Various 4 weeks
Hern&n Chaverra ICA Ag. Research & Ext.Various 9 weeks

The fellowship program is perhaps the Nebraska Miss ion's most glamorous activity. But one must recognize that a lot of "people
building" and "institution building" occurs in Colombia too. This happens on a day to day basis, and is frequently less noticeable than the impact of a fellowship but no less important.
ICA and the National University have made tremendous progress in the past few years, and this is progress to which the fellowship students have not contributed. Because of these "in country" developments, the organizational base to which the students are returning is much stronger than would otherwise have been the case. This makes them more productive, and further accelerates the progress of their employer organizations.
ICA and the National University would have progressed since 1966, with or without the help of the Nebraska Mission. This is obvious, for both entities are making progress in areas in which the Mission is not participating. Nevertheless, we hope and believe that the rate of progress has been considerably increased by the presence of our professional staff.
So far as 1969 is concerned, the following were some of our highlights:
a. Agricultural Economics
1. Outstanding departmental leadership in the graduate school
publication of a Departmental Bulletin enumerating course requirements, credits, etc.; publication of a pamphlet advertising the program; an active recruitment effort for top
quality students; etc.
2. Publication of the study by Max Bowser on the potential of
beef exportation from Colombia in the coming decade, and the
study by Chris Andrew on potato marketing. Both studies will
produce a number of spin-off publications, as well as additional spin-off research projects.
3. Preparation of an undergraduate marketing text in Spanish by
Dr. Roger Burdette. This text is now in use throughout the
National University system, and may find a much broader Latin
merican market.
4. Excellent advancements in the undergraduate program at the
National University"MedelJin, through the leadership of Dr.

5. The development of the Colombian Agricultural Economics Association. The Nebraska Mission has contributed heavily in time
and effort to the birth of this association, but it has now
reached maturity, and leadership has passed into the hands of
Colombian agricultural economists. This is, of course, the
mark of a successful technical assistance activity.
b. Agricultural Engineering
1. A highly successful field day in Tibaitat&, at which more than
600 people were in attendance.
2. Development of an outstanding working relationship between the
machinery and processing programs (headed by Drs. Hobbs and
Teter respectively) and Colombian industry.
3. Rapid advancement in all areas of the graduate program. Major
successes in machinery design.
4. Fulfillment of an important goal with the completion, by 12
students, of all courses in the undergraduate curriculum at
the National University-Medellin. In early 1970 these students
will become the first ag engineering graduates in Colombia.
5. Nationwide acceptance of the National Plans Service, which provides to Coloinbian farmers scale drawings of livestock and
materials handling equipment and many other agricultural items.
c. Agricultural Extension
1. The maturing of the ICA Social Science Department, which was
directed during the year by Dr. Dale Flowerday and Dr. Thomas Trail. (In addition, its three national programs Extension
Education, Mass Communications, and Rural Sociology have all
had major leadership inputs from Nebraska Mission staff members.) The activities of the department, particularly in research, have increased immeasurably during 1969, and it has begun to command the confidence and respect of other ICA departments, the National University staff, and outside agencies.
2. Performance of the publications center, which has had major assistance from Drs. J.J. Feight and Richard Tenney. Though it
still cannot meet the demand for agricultural publications, the
center has already passed its 1971 goals, with total of more
than one million impressions during 1969.
3. Development of radio as a mass communications technique. More
than 350 radio programs were aired in 1969, aldo more than the
1971 goal. This total will probably be doubled in 1970. The Nebraska Mission plans to increase its input in this area in
1970, :hot only through the help of Dr. Tenney, but also through
the use of a specialized short term consultant.

4. Utilization, for the first time in Colombia, of portable television equipment in extension, teaching, and other programs.
2'-s this equipment is. used almost continually at ICA, additional units have been ordered for all three campuses of the National.
University. This should permit and foster a whole series of
innovations in 1970.
5. Execution of an agreement with New Mexico State University for
the provision of short term training to Colombian extension personnel. A unique program, it has met with great success thus far. The training is conducted in New Mexico, but in Spanish, so that language does not become a barrier in the
selection of, participants. The six weeks training period is
highly concentrated, and the participants are not only exposed to, but become involved in, all aspects of the New Mexico
extens ion program.
d. Agronomy
1. The impetus thatihas been given to undergraduate programs at
the National University6-Bogotd, as evidenced by the Honorary Professorship given to Dr. Frank Davis. Included is the development of a textbook which is now being utilized throughout the National University system. Both Dr. Davis and Dr.
Carl Jorgensen had important roles in the preparation of this
2.. Dr. Jorgensen's research in pineapple floration. Alteration
of the time of floration could permit Colombia to time its
entry (seasonally) into the highly competitive international
3. The ambitious soil fertility research program of Dr. Kenneth
e. Animal Science
1. The Beef Cattle Short Course in Ibagiie, organized principally
by Dr. Ivan Rush. Some observers have called this the finest short course ever held in Colombia. Attending were more than 300 cattlemen, representatives of livestock organizations, extension personnel, and others. This course has served as a springboard for dozens of subsequent courses,, many organized
and conducted without any Nebraska Mission assistance.
2The appointment of Dr. Warren as Director of ICA's National
Poultry program. In this position, Dr. Warren has been able to develop a research and extension program that may well be
more closely related to the needs of his clientele (Colombia's poultry producers) than any other agricultural program in the

3. The development of a strong undergraduate program at the National University-Medellin. Dr. Conley has had a large input
in this regard, including the publication of an animal breeding
textbook in which he collaborated with Prof. R.L. Wilham of
Iowa State University.
f. Veterinary Medicine
1. The heavy teaching load and fine performances of Drs. Harry
Mussman and Ted Vera. Both have eqtablishdd excellent reputations, not only in the classroom, but also in the supervision
of undergraduate theses. In addition, both have authored undergraduate texts Dr. Mussman in clinical pathology, and Dr. Vera
in infectious diseases which will be used long after their
departure from Colombia.
2. Development of a new graduate program in microbiology. Dr. Vera
has provided important leadership in the initiation of this curriculum, and now serves as coordinator::of the program.
3. Initiation of a veterinary extension program, beginning with
publication of a monthly newsletter to veterinarians throughout
Colombia. This new extension activity has been made possible
by a reduction in the Nebraska Mission input to the ambulatory
clinic program.
g. The NU-ICA Graddate School
Development of this program is a high priority goal of the
Nebraska Mission. No country can ever realize its agricultural potential without trained people, and no country can afford to
continually send itsostudents abroad for training. Thus, though
the Nebraska Mission has a most ambitious fellowship program,
that program is only a means to an end. The ultimate goal is to
achieve staff competence such that Colombia can train its own
The NU-ICA graduate school will soon have the capability of
providing M.S. level training in all major agricultural fields.
Within a few years, it will have the capability of providing
Ph.D. level training in at least some of these fields. In our
judgment, it will soon have the finest agricultural graduate program in Latin America.
The strides that have been taken in this institution since its
birth in 1967 are truly amazing. Thirteen students entered the
school less than three years ago; in January 1970, there were approximately 80 full time and another 15 part time students. This
nearly doubles the goal that was established in the five year plan
prepared in 1966.
The Nebraska Mission staff has had a.major input into the NUICA graduate school, and we are most pleased *ith the results.

h. General 41
We are proud of the achievements enumerated above, and the
many additional accomplishments that are discussed in the project
reports to follow. But we do not expect to rest on our laurels.
1970 is a new year with as many or more challenges than 1969.
We will simply try to join our Colombian colleagues in meeting those challenges. Thus far this joint effort has been notably
successful, and we are confident that it will continue to be so.

1. General Objectives Accomplished in 1969
This report covers the third complete year of the agricultural economics contribution to ICA and National University through the University of Nebraska Mission in Colombia. Major accomplishments were
achieved in Agricultural Economics during 1969. The Department at ICA
has progressed to one with thirteen Colombian professionals, a full
time Director, an active graduate program,-and three National Programs
for research. The participant training program has been active and
the first four professionals with the M.S. degree have returned to Colombia; (two will be employed by National University, one by ICA,
and one by the Banco de la Repdblica). The most active undergraudate program, that in Medellin, ended the year with 84 students. A joint undergraduate program is also underway in Palmira with the Universidad del Valle and has 60 students currently enrolled.
The progress during the year has, in fact, been so remarkable that
when one reads the projections made for 1969 given in the last Annual Report, it almost seems as if they were for a different program. The
changes which have come about have been the result of many factors.
Undoubtedly, the most important has been the appointment of Rafael
Samperxas full time Department Chairman at ICA. Though young and inexperienced, he has been the key to the development of a department
with a real purpose. The progress made by the Department is particularly evident in the graduate program in which the Department of Agricultural Economics is a leader at ICA. During 1969 the Department met
its goals for graduate students twice over- as projected in the 1968 Annual Report, and will also double its goals for the 1970 academic year. Although the Department is one of the newest at ICA, it will
have one of the first (if not the first) graduate students to receive
an M.S. degree, and it was the first to have students finish course
requirements and take the comprehensive examination.
The research program-is also advancing very rapidly, and the first
few publications have been produced. Regional aspects of the research program were enhanced materially with the appointment of the first Regional Economist who is located at Medellin.
Also of significant importance to the general welfare of the Department was the acquisition of adequate space in the new building at
Tibaitatg. All factors being considered, it can probably be said
that during 1969 agricultural economics was firmly established as a
discipline in Colombia at the National University and at ICA.

1.1 Undergraduate Teaching
1.1.2 Medellin and Palmira
The programs at Medellin and Palmira-Cali continued to expand during the year. The Universidad del Valle has taken
the primary leadership in the joint program at Palmira-Cali.
Here, National University and Nebraska Mission personnel
have been involved primarily in the teaching of service
courses for students in the Agronomy Faculty.
In Medellin, the ICA Nebraska Mission Economist taught two courses the first semester and one during the second. The
courses were: Agricultural Marketing, Production Economics,
and Market Analyses. He also assisted in Price Analysis
during the second semester.
The program in Medellin recrived some additional assistance during the year when ICA appointed its first RegionaliEconomist. An agreement was reached between ICA and the National
University that ICA personnel (including the ICA Nebraska
Mission Economist) could teach one course per semester and
devote up to half time in work involving undergraduate teaching. This represents a reduction in the proportion of time
spent by the ICA Nebraska Mission Economist on undergraduate work, but is necessary if ICA is to develop a sound regional
research program. The decrease will be at least partially
offset by the presence of the Regional Economist.
As the National University is faced with severe budget problems, recommendations were made at a meeting of the Deans (attended by various other people) relative to the best use of
limited funds by the University. The suggestion was that the BogotA Eaculty should delay the opening of its course in AgriCultural Economics until the Medellin Faculty (with a current
enrollment of 84) could be adequately supported financially and with staff. In order to help the staffing problem, ICA transferred one of its returning M.S. staff to the Medellin
Faculty where he will complete his contractual obligations (fellowship commitment) as a National University employee.
Efforst are also underway to combine the basic economics
courses taught at the Mines Faculty and the Agronomy Faculty in Medellin to increase the efficiency of staff time. Similar attempts are being made to reduce duplication in basic
agricultural economics courses taught for the various careers
in the Agronomy Faculty: itself.
Undergraduate enrollment in December, 1969:
Medellin 84 in 3 semester (5 year Program)
Palmira-Cali 60 :ii 2 semesters (4 1/4 year Program) Total 144

1.2 Graduate Teaching
Perhaps the greatest progress was made during the year in the area of graduate teaching. In February, the Department of Agricultural
Economics published the first Departmental Graduate Bulletin at ICA which compiled the current thinking of the Department and of the Graduate School. Later, after the Graduate School published
its Regulations, the Departmental Bulletin was revised. In the
revision, a two year calendar of courses is presented in which required courses are offered each year and elective courses every other year. This calendar permits students entering in January
with all prerequisites to terminate coursework in one year and have
six months to complete the thesis. Normal time for graduation
should be 18 months, which is the minimum under the Graduate School
The Department also published a flyer to advertise its graduate program. Delays in publication prevented its effective 14pe for
January, 1970, but it is now ready for use in the future. NeverRafael Samper, left, Direct or of the ICA Department of Agricultural Economics, and Peter Hildebrand, right, ICA-Nebraska mission Project Leader in Agricultural Economics, advise a student on thesis research.

theless, the Department had 19 applications for admittance for
1970. Of these, 17 were approved (6 with fellowships, 3 pending
fellowships, 2 on commission from ICA, and 6 with no financial
support). It is expected that the majority of those not receiving financial support will not enroll. With the 11 full time graduate
students currently enrolled, Agricultural Economics should have
at least 20 full time students in January, 1970, of which 7 will
be working primarily on thesis research.
Although the Department still is lunderstaffed and lacks stability
in staffing, two of our students were the first to finish all
course requirements and take the comprehensive examination. A thiid student will qualify for the comprehensive examination in
January after completing a semester of work at ORUAhoma State University. These three students, plus four more who will qualify for
the comprehensive examination in July, should finish their theses
and receive M.S. degrees in 1970.
The Department has received excellent fellowship support during the year. In 1969, there were 5 students on fellowships (3 fie fianced by the Ford Foundation and 2 by ICA). For 1970 in addition to these 5, ICA will provide 4 new fellowships and Ford 3
This will provide a total of 12, 6 from ICA and 6 6n a matching basis from the Ford Foundation. On a continuing basis (ICA will
absorb the Rofd Becas on their termination) this should provide
adequate support for the program at least for a few years.
The following graduate courses were taught in whole or in part
by the Nebraska Mission staff:
Resource Economics Badger
Marketing Driscoll and Samper
Mathematics for Economists Hildebrand
Econometrics Driscoll
Microeconomics Driscoll
Policy Andrew and Valderrama
Methodology- Steiner, Andrew, Driscoll, Hildebrand
1.3 Research
1.3.1 Specific Projects
The research program progressed staisfactorily during the
year. Of primary importance was the initiation of three departmental publication series: 1) Boletines Departamentales, 2) Informes, and 3) Circulares. The bulletin series will be
used for limited but rapid distribution of major research results, most of which will eventually be published by ICA
or other entities. All will be approved by the ICA editorial
staff as ICA publications. The Informes are shorter reports
or progress reports. The Circulares will generally be one to three page publications primarily of extension interest.
Published in each series to date are:

Bowser, Max F., "Prerrequisitos y Potencial para la Exportaci6n de Carne en Colombia en la Decada de 1970", (Prerequisites and Potential for tihe Exportation of Meat from
Colombia in the 1970's), Boletin Departamental No. 1, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitat&, Septiembre,
Andrew, Chris 0., et. al., "Problemas de Producci6n y Mercadeo del Campesino Colombiano", (Production and Marketing
Problems of the Colombian Campesino), Boletin Departamental
No. 2, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitath,
Septiembre, 1969.
Lopera Palacios, Jorge y Peter E. Hildebrand, "La Brecha en la Productivictad Agricola en Colombia", ( The Agricultural Productivity Gap in Colombia), Boletin Departamental No. 3, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitat6, Octubre,
Interviewing a potato retailer for a marketing research project. Chris Andrew observes the retailer responding to the student interviewer.

Andrew, Chris O., "Improving Performance of the ProductionDistribution System for Potatoes in Colombia", Boletin Departamental No. 4, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA,
Tibaitat&, Octubre, 1969.
Dliaz Granados, Freddy, "Analisis Econ6mico de Algunos Sistemas de Alimentacion de Vacas Lecheras en la Sabana de Bogot&", (Economic Analysis of Feeding Systems For Dairy Cows in the Sabana of Bogota), Informe AR-1, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitath, Noviembre 18, 1969.
Rinc6n S., Manuel, "Limitaciones de los Costos de Producci6n",
(Limitations of Production Costs), Informe AR-2, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitati, Noviembre 27, 1969.
"Costos de la Producci6n por Hectarea Trigo", ( Production
Costs per Hectare wheat),:Circular AR-1, Departamento de
Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitata, Noviembre 12, 1969.
"Costos de Establecimiento por Hect~rea Alfalfa", (Establishment Costs per Hectare Alfalfa), Circular AR-2, Departamento de Economia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitati, Noviembre 14,
"Costos de Producci6n por Hect5rea, Espinal, Tolima Algod6n", (Production Costs per Hectare, Espinal Tolima Cotton), Circular No. AR-3, Departamento de Economia Agricola,
ICA, Tibaitata, Diciembre 10, 1969.
Several other major publications are in the final stages of
preparation. Most will be bulletins.
1. Production and Marketing of Wool, Lamb and Mutton in Colombia.
2. Economic Analysis of the Production of Potatoes in Colombia.
3. Analysis of 18 Ranching Operations in the Department of
4. Present Status of Colonization in Caquet9.
5. Alternative Methods of Coffee Renovation and Diversification.
6. Economic Evaluation of the Potato Chipping Industry in
Bogota' and Cali.
7. Economic Analysis of the Distribution System of Beef from
the Farm to the Wholesaler in Bogota.
8. Design of a Central Wholesale Market for Cali.
9. The Relationship of Infrastructure to Agricultural Development.

Research oriented towards assisting IDEMA in improving their
agricultural price and market information services resulted in an invitation by FAO to attend a two weeks technical conference on price and market information services in Latin America. Rosa Elvira Galeano, who is working on this project, attended the meeting and (jointly with an IDEMA representative also invited to the meetings) presented a paper on "An Analysis and Evaluation of Price Information
Services in Colombia" which considered both IDEMA's wholesaler Price Information Services and Banco Ganadero's Beef
Cattle Price Information Service.
1.4 Extension
1.4.1 Specific Projects
During the year the Department participated in three extension short courses. For use in these short courses, four
lectures were prepared and published:
"La Administraci6n en la Empresa de Ganado de Carne", (Administration in the Beef Cattle Industry), by Jaime Delgado
U., Manuel Rinc6n, and Rafael Samper A.
"El Mercadeo de Ganado de Carne en la Feria de Medellin",
( The Beef Cattle Market in Medellin), by James L. Driscoll
and Rafael Samper A.
"El Mercadeo de Ganado de Carne Huilense en la Feria de Cali",
( The Marketing of Beef Cattle from Huile in Cali), by James
L. Driscoll and Rafael Samper A.
"El Mercadeo de Ganado de Carne del Caquetd en la Feria de Cali", (The Marketing of Beef Cattle from Caqueta in Cali),
by James L. Driscoll and Rafael Samper A.
The new departmental publication series will also be useful
in extension work. However, little else has been accomplished
in this area partly due to lack of personnel and partly due to
lack of clear extension objectives within ICA.
1.5 Staff Development
1.5.1 Degree Fellowships
During the year a total of 12 participants departed for graduate study in the U.S. Of these, one is sponsored by National University Bogota, 3 by the National University Medellin and 6 by ICA. one of the others travelled at his
own expense and is studying English. If he qualifies in
English he will be awarded a fellowship (sponsoring agency

is Banco de la Repdblica). I/ The twelfth is a student in
the ICA Graduate Brogram who is studying one semester at
Oklahoma State University.
Sponsoring Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Date Institution Departure
Jorge Torres U.Nal. Bogoth M.S. Kansas State January
Fabian Ramirez U.Nal. Medellin M.S. Oklahoma State January
Jaime Baby U.Nal. Medellin M.S. Nebraska Fe ruary
Gonzalo Aristizabal U.Nal. Medellin M.S. Iowa State March
Edierth Restrepo ICA-Bogoth M.S. Missouri June
Rodrigo Tasc6n ICA-Bogot& M.S. Missouri June
Carlos Forero ICA-Bogot& M.S. Kansas State August
Jorge Vargas ICA-Bogot& M.S. Oklahoma State August
Jesis Sierra ICA-Bogot& M.S. Colorado State August
Jorge Lopera ICA-Bogot& Ph.D. Iowa State August
Roberto L6pez Fedecaf6 Oklahoma State August
Ricardo Buenaventura Banco de la M.S. Texas A&M July
Five M.S. candidates from among those originally selected can still choose to go to the U.S. for graduate study, but emphasis will now be given to support of the UN-ICA Graduate School. These five candidates have been unable to leave
earlier because of work commitments. Of thecfivet,:3 are.from
ICA and one each from the National University in Palmira
and Medellin. One candidate from ICA, Edulfo Castellanos,
has elected to enroll in the UN-ICA Graduate School in January, 1970. The others will probably leave in the summer
of 1970 either for the Economics Institute in Boulder, Colorado 6r for the orientation course in Lincoln.
One participant from ICA working on a Ph.D. degree at the
University of Nebraska returned to the staff here after one year's advanced study. As he does not have an M.S. degree he has applied for the UN-ICA Graduate School. He, along with 3 other present members of the staff, will be allowed to take one course per trimester during 1970. If they do
well, they can qualify to enter the school full time in
1970 to complete degree requirements while on commission
from ICA.
Other new M.S. staff for ICA and the UN faculties can be
chosen from among the graduates of the UN-ICA Graduate
1/ This was Ricardo Buenaventura. He qualified for a fellowship in
January 1970.

James Driscoll, right, explains and answers questions concerning electronic computers for an ICA staff member.
The Instructor Program began phasing out during 1969. Two of the three Instuctors finished their projects and the results were published as Departmental Bulletins (see Bowser and Andrew, above). Bowser's report will be published in
the November, 1969 issue of Agricultura Tropical and several thousand reprints will be ordered in the form of an ICA
Bulletin. Andrew's thesis was published in English but several Bulletins in Spanish will be published from it during 1970. Feaster's counterpart, Edulfo Castellanos, ccmpleted a report on Caquet& as a direct result of the joint program.
This work will be published as a Bulletin early in 1970.
Feaster will finish his thesis work in February, 1970, and will prepare a manual which INCORA can use in project planning. He will publish the thesis in English and write several bulletins in Spanish which will also be published in
As a substitute for the Instructor program, formerly financed by the Ford Foundation, the Farm Management Program has acquired a post prelim Ph.D. candidate from the University
of Florida who will conduct research in capital productivity
and the effect of risk on investment in agriculture. His salary (assistantship) is being paid by the University of
Florida (Center for Tropical Agriculture) and the research
expenses will be paid by ICA.

During the year, four candidates returned from the U.S.
with the M.S. degree. In February, Hector Murcia returned from Oklahoma State and is working &t UN in Bogota. Mario Valderrama (University of Nebraska) and Dario Velez (Oklahoma State) returned during the summer and are working with ICA and the Banco de la RepCiblica (Medellin), respectively.
In December, Jaime Bernhardt returned from Iowa State and
will work with UN in Medellin.
Additional staff with advanced degrees include Rafael Samper,
Manuel Rinc6n and Jorge Suescun with ICA and Arturo Tob6n
with UN. Following is a summary of staff with advanced degrees as of the end of 1969.
Rafael Samper* M.S. Purdue Director ICA-Bogot&
Ag.Econ. Dept.
Manuel Rinc6n* M.S. La Molina, Peri Director ICA-BogotA
Farm Mgt. Prog.
Mario Valderrama M.S. Nebraska Director ICA-BogotA
Policy Program
Jorge SuescGn* M.S. Vicosa, Brazil Regional ICA-Medellit
Hector Murcia M.S..OklahomaState Ag. Economist UN-Bogoth
Arturo Tob6n* M.S. Vicosa, Brazil Ag. Economist UN-Medellif
Jaime Bernhardt M.S. Iowa State Ag. Economist UN-Medellin
* Fellowships received from programs predating that of Nebraska.
1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities
1.6.1 Inputs to ICA
Two important and critical changes occurred during the year
with respect to the organization and administration of the
First, early in the year during one of the extended absences of the part time Director of the Department, the Program Directors and their Nebraska advisors organized a "Comite Interno" to function in an advisory and operational capacity
and to try to provide an orientation to the Department which
to that time had been lacking. Second, and sometime later,
Dr. Rafael Samper was appointed full time Director of the Department.
The new leadership has made a tremendous difference in the
functioning of the Department. The "Comite Interno" continues to operate and is working smoothly. Most of the important departmental decisions are discussed in detail by
this committee. This provides training for new departmental personnel as well as a sound means of making decisions by examining various points of view.

Also important to the Department was the initiation of the
Regional Economist program, with the placement of the first
economist in Medellin. Additional economists will be appointed as soon as personnel are available. (Many will come
from our own graduate-program.)
1.6.2 Coordination with Short Term Consultants
Dr. Glen Vollmar, Chairman of the Department of Ag Economics
at the Univerzity of Nebraska, and Dr. James Rhodes, Chairman of the same department at the University of Missouri,
visited Colombia in January to make an internal evaluation
of the Nebraska Mission program in this field. Drs. Vollmar
and Rhodes had an opportunity to visit all of the ag economics
staff at Bogota, Medellin and Palmira. Their recommendations have been most valuable, and most have already been implemented.
Dr. Russell Brannon, a member of the Ag Economics faculty at
the University of Kentucky, spent one week with us in January.
Dr.Brannon is Chairman of the Ph.D. committee for Mr. Gerald
Feaster, one of our Instructors. During his Visit, he had
an opportunity to review progress in the Feaster study, and
to visit the actual site from which the research data is being

1. General objectives Accomplished in 1969
1.1 Undergraduate Teaching
1.1.1 BogotA
In accordance with the 1969 Plan of Work only very limited
assistance was provided in the acquisition of equipment, all
of which has been delivered. At the request of Dr. Miguel
Herndndez, Director of Agricultural Programs, limited assistance was provided in program planning with the objective of minimizing duplication of effort in the three faculties of
Bogotd, Medellin, and Palmira.
1.1.2 Medellin
A specific goal in the agricultural engineering program was
attained in 1969. Twelve students have completed all course work for the professional degree in agricultural engineering.
When these students complete their individual research
projects, probably early in January 1970, they will graduate asthe first agricultural engineers produced by a Colombian
institution. This is the successful culmination of three
years of cooperative planning and teaching of Colombian and
Nebra ska Mission engineers. Among other inputs these students have had the benefit of a major revision in curriculum which resulted in a much broader base of engineering theory and experiences. This broader base will significantly enhance their future ability to meet a broad range
of engineering problems.
During 1969 the two Nebraska mission engineers were fully
responsible for the teaching of seven professional level courses, including one in which they were assisted by a
Nebraska mission engineer from Bogot&. They were also
responsible for supervising the research projects of 8 of
the 12 graduating students in agricultural engineering,
and were coadvisors for two agronomy majors. This is
evidence of the respect held by the graduating students
for the efforts of these engineers. Assistance was also
provided counterparts in the teaching of four other courses,
and one of the Nebraska engineers was responsible for the
teaching of one of the courses in the graduate program.

Late in the year a time-table f or the systematic upgrading
of the Colombian staff, through graduate training, was
finally obtained from the administration of UN-Medellin.
This was long overdue and its delay endangers the fulf illment of Contract objectives in the time span originally
projected. At the present time only two staff members are
engaged in graduate training, one in the NU-ICA Graduate Program who will complete his M.S. degree in August 1970,
and the second at Iowa State University who will not
complete his M.S. degree before the end of 1971. However,
one additional staff member will begin graduate training
in the U.S. in January 1970, and three more will enter
the UN-ICA Graduate Program in 1970.
A very important attainment during the year was in the
occupation of laboratory space assigned solely for the use
of agricultural engineering, and in the obtaining of a
mechanical technician to assist in the laboratory, and a onehalf time structural technician. Since that time the
development of the laboratory facilities has proceeded
quite well, especially in the areas of machinery and
process ing.
Dr. Deane Manbeck manipulates the controls as students observe the water flow in a conservation structure model.

Acquisition of laboratory and teaching equipment and references, mainly through the Nebraska Mission Contract, has
proceeded satisfactorily. The laboratories, with the receipt
of equipment now on order, will be quite well equipped for
undergraduate teaching, and limited research.
Present enrollment in the five levels of agricultural engineering is approximately 150.
1.1.3 Palmira
There were no Mission engineers assigned to work directly
with UN-Palmira. However, assistance was provided, through
the Mission engineer stationed at ICA-Palmira, in certain
activities. Among these were:
a. The provision of field experiences to UN staff in the
techniques of identification and solution of soil and water engineering problems and machinery use problems.
b. The provision of assistance in the planning of future
facilities for agricultural engineering at UN-Palmira.
This was in the form of a formal report to "Planeaci6n
Facultad de Agronomia".
c. The provision of assistance in the development of plans
and procedures for use by the joint Universidad del ValleUN agricultural engineering program.
1.2 Graduate Teaching
1.2.1 General Objectives Accomplished
The development of the Master of Science Degree Program in
Agricultural Engineering became a reality during 1969 and also made tremendous progress. As the newest of the ICA departments and graduate programs, with an enrollment of only four students in Semester II of 1968, it has grown until for Semester II of 1969 it had 14 students, which
made it the second largest in the UN-ICA Graduate Program.
Pre-enrollment figures for 1970 show a minimum of 18
As directors of the programs of "Processing", and "Machinery", the two full-time Mission engineers stationed at Tibaitata have played a highly significant role in the
rapid development of the department.
The graduate program now has six full-time senior staff members and six part-time staff members on the teachingresearch-extension staff. It also has 13 junior staff
members of which seven are enrolled part-time in the
Graduate Program. Three of these will receive their M.S.
degrees in 1970 and the other four in 1971.

1.2.2 Curriculum and Courses
As the Graduate Program in agricultural engineering was initiated at the beginning of Semester II of 1968, and
only three courses were offered at that time, 11 new courses were taught during 1969. (The three courses
taught during 1968 were also taught for a second time).
Nebraska engineers, including one part-time Nebraska
engineer from Medellfn, taught six of these courses. Two
were taught in both Semesters I and II. An M.S. thesis
research project was also directed. In addition, oneoof the Nebraska engineers from the graduate program had the
major responsibility for teaching a machinery design class
in the undergraduate program at Medellfn.
Dr. Wesley Hobbs uses the blackboard to explain forces of energy.
Courses taught by Nebraska Engineers
Engineering of Conservation of Natural Resources
Design and Evaluation of Agricultural Machinery (Semesters
I and II)

Selection and Utilization of Motor Power
Nomograph Design Special Problems
1.2.3 Teaching Improvement, materials, etc.
Three Spanish language texts were authored or co-authored by
Nebraska engineers, one in"Bio-Engineering", one in "Machinery", and one in "Electrical Power". These are used' as major reference texts for the common core courses in the
graduate program. These texts are oriented toward tropical
and semi-tropical conditions..
Considerable use was made of the laboratory teaching technique, and the use of actual problems faced by Colombian agriculture. The teaching was closely tied to research activities underway whenever such ties would enhance the
learning experience. Student laboratory design activities frequently led to the actual fabrication of the
design. This technique has resulted in greater student
interest, expanded learning experiences, and, as an extra
bonus, the development of such badly needed items of machinery and processing equipment as cotton driers, land
levelers, livestock scales, implements for a two-wheel
tractor, self-propelled crop sprayer, and several others.
A number of laboratory exercises by students have resulted
in "technical aids" and "Plans" to be published as part
of the departmental extension activities.
A small and efficient teaching-research laboratory has been
developed and partially equipped. This laboratory is in
operation eight hours per day by the students, staff, and
seven excellent "tecnicos". It is used for teaching,
research, and for the fabrication of prototypes of all the mechanical designs developed by the staff and/or students.
A field laboratory of approximately one hectare is also
being developed.
A considerable number of reference books and materials
have been obtained from the States. A fair amount, but still inadequate, of teaching and research equipment has
been obtained. However, due to the high costs of equipping
a graduate level teaching and research department, a dire
need still exists for expenditure of another sixty to
seventy thousand dollars for laboratory equipment at the
TibaitatdJ station alone.
1.2.4 Attainment of Thesis Goals
Emphasis in thesis research has been upon current, high
priority Colombian problems, and the development of efficient
techniques in applied research. The three thesis research

projects currently supervised by the Nebraska engineers meet these requirements. One is on grain storage, a second on the design and development of a grain drier for manufacturing in
Colombia, and the third on the design and development of a
mechanical yucca harvester These are all high priority
needs in Colombian agriculture.
1.3 Research
1.3.1 General Objectives
a. Emphasis upon current, high priority problems in agricultural production and processing.
b. The development of approved and efficient techniques in
applied research and in the reporting of results.
c. Publication of results, when feasible, in the most appropriate form i.e. extension or scientific.
d. The fabrication of prototypes of machinery designs and
the promotion of their commercial manufacture by Colombian industry.
That the above stated objectives are being attained is shown by the following specific projects completed or
underway during 1969. The names in parenthesis are those of the commercial companies manufacturing our successful
1.3.2 Specific Projects (with assistance of counterparts)
a. Projects Completed in 1969:
1. Processing Research
a. Portable pipe-line milking systems (Riegos Ticnicos)
b. Portable livestock scales* c. Egg processing design for Turipana station d. Feed processing plant design (PINA) e. Potato storage designs for ICA stations f. Livestock working equipment* g. Fique processing Medellin
2. Machinery
a. Two Wheel Tractor, 12 hp (Ricambro)

Drs. Wesley Hobbs, Jorge Quintero, and Norman Teter discuss features of the two wheeled tractor designed and tested by the Agricultural Engineering Department of ICA.
b. Four Wheel tractor*, 8 and 12 hp (Casa Inglesa) c. Land levelers*, 2.40 and 4.00 meter widths (Casa Inglesa and Apolo) d. Small tractor machinery development (Ricambro
and Casa Inglesa)
1. Moldboard plows*, 10" and 12"
2. Row-crop cultivator fertilizer*
3. Spike-tooth harrow*
4. Row-crop planter fertilizer*
5. Mounted disc harrow*
6. Tractor mower, sickle type,
7. Rotary tractor mower*

e. Potato harvester*
f. Bed planter to facilitate furrow irrigation
* Prototypes constructed in ICA-- Agricultural Engineering laboratories. b. Projects underway in 1969 and continuing in 1970
1. Processing Research
a. Fique processing, UN-Medellin
b. Grain aeration and storage
c. Grain drier design**, portable types (2) d. Bean thresher** e. Cotton drier**
2. Machinery Research a. Potato planter** b. Automatic feed grinder-mixer** c. Corn planter improvement, (Apolo) d. Crop sprayer, self propelled 10-row** e. Tillage studies f. Bedder type corn planter** g. Yucca harvester** h. Transaxle design for 12 hp tractors in cooperation with Casa Inglesa and Peldar i. Transaxle design for 18-24 hp tractors in tooperation with Casa Inglesa and Peldar, and with the Mechanical Engineering Department of the National University
3. Soil and Water Research
(Nebraska input is one-half man year at the ICA-Palmira Station)
a. Furrow irrigation studies b. Infiltration studies

4. Structures Research
a. Fence quality and fencing methods
b. Construction of semi rigid frames with native lumber**
c. Buildings for dairy farms**
d. Poultry housing studies
e. Water supply**
** Prototypes being constructed in the ICA Agricultural
Engineering laboratories.
1.4 Extension
1.4.1 General Objective
The general objective in extension is to develop a-viable engineering extension service as rapidly as manpower and
time will permit. With the present lack of experienced
senior staff the major emphasis has had to be in the areas
of graduate teaching and research. However, significant
progress has been made in the extension area. This is due
to the smooth working organization that we have developed in
the department, and to the excellent cooperation of the
entire staff and technicians.
Specific attainments are as follows:
1. "Servicio Nacional de Planos" Under the excellent
coordination of one of the senior Colombian staff, this
service has become highly popular with Colombian farmers.
During 1969 a total of 16 structures and items of
livestock equipment have been designed by the senior
Colombian and Nebraskan staff members, detailed working drawings have been prepared by the "tdcnicos", and have
been released to farmers. The major means of dissemination has been at short courses, by extension agents,
and through the newspaper "El Campesino".
2. "Servicio Nacional de Ayudas Tdcnicas" Through this service, which this department initiated, approximately 24 technical aids have been prepared by both Colombian and
Nebraskan engineers, and have been made available to
farmers, extension agents, students, and other interested
people. This popular method of dissemination of short
technical aids has now been adopted by all other departments in ICA.

3. Short Courses This method of distribution of information was initiated by one of the Nebraska engineers
through the invitation of the Nebraska extension animal scientists to participate in a series of livestock short courses. Later the Colombian staff began to participate in a very effective manner. We participated in a total
of six short courses of various types.
4. Technical Conferences Colombian and Nebraska staff
participated in several technical conferences sponsored
by ICA, SENA, INCORA, Arroceros, and Caja Agraria.
5. Field Days The department held a very successful "Dla
del Campo" in February at which more than 600 people
were in attendance.
6. Fairs Departmental exhibits in structures, machinery,
and processing equipment were made at four state (departmental) fairs. A first prize in agricultural machinery
exhibits was obtained at the Girardot Fair.
7. Newspapers, TV, Video-Tape, etc. Newspapers have been
used an average of once-a-week for the publication of
information. Television has been used twice, and special
Video-Tape shows have been used six times with such
audiences &s INCORA administrators, industrial managers,
and other special groups.
8. Industrial Extension Activities of a combination
extension development nature have been conducted with
such agricultural machinery companies as Ricambro, Apolo, Casa Inglesa, Riegos Tecnicos, Peldar, Ingersol, Talleres
Occidente, and others. These activities have been to
promote the commercial manufacturing of needed agricultural machinery, most of which was designed and prototypes constructed by the agricultural engineering department.
9. Special Consulting Several special consulting activities have been engaged in with such entities as PINA, INCORA, IDEMA, CAJA AGRARIA, Cresemillas, Planeaci6n Nacional, Ministerio de Agricultura, SENA, Planeaci6n
Fisica del ICA, Peace Corps, and CIAT.
10. Work with'innovators In the dairy and poultry industries, and to a lesser extent in beef and swine, systems
of management with the necessary equipment were discussed with private farmers. These discussions are designed to
spread good management practice through example, to
arouse interest, to promote requests for group meetings,
and to establish a reputation of competency. As a
result we are beginning to receive requests for
extension type meetings.

11. Mission engineers at Medellin have authored or coauthored
six extension publications, and have made several contributions to the plan service. Four other publications are
also being prepared.
1.5 Staff Development
1.5.1 Degree Fellowships
A. Fellowships abroad
Only three fellowships to the U.S. were granted during
1969. They are as follows:
Sponsoring Expected Study
Name Institution Degree Institution Specialty
Carlos Rodriguez ICA-Bog. M.S. Illinois Irr.&Drainage
Jose Chaparro U.Nal.-Med. M.S. Iowa State Machinery
Reynaldo Bernal U.Nal.-Bog. M.S. N.Carolina S. Irr.&Drainage
As agricultural engineering is a new career in Colombia,
there is a shortage of candidates with sufficient
aptitude in English. In addition, one of our objectives
is to maintain a balance of staff trained (at the M.S.
level) abroad and in the UN-ICA Program.
B. Fellowships to UN-ICA Graduate Program
A total of 12 fellowships and assistantships in agricultural engineering were granted (from sources outside the
Nebraska Mission).
1.5.2 Short Term Fellowships
Jorge Quintero, Director of the ICA Agricultural Engineering
Department was granted a 30 day fellowship to visit several
agricultural engineering departments in the States.
One of the ICA Agricultural Engineering Extension personnel
at Medellfn, Hernando Lemos, was granted a six-week extension fellowship to the New Mexico State University Extension Short
1.6 Administrative and Organizational Activities
1.6.1 Inputs to ICA and the National University
a. Inputs to ICA
As the agricultural engineering teaching-research-extension program in ICA is a new Program, and as the Colombian

staff had no experience in teaching or organizing agricultural engineering programs, the Nebraska engineers have played a significant role in organizational and
administrative activities. Two of the Nebraska
engineers serve as Directors of the Progranrsof Machinery
and Processing respectively. The smooth working relationship of Colombians and Nebraskans in this department has been the subject of considerable acclaim on the part
of both Colombian and North American administrators.
b. Inputs to UN
. Medellin The two Nebraska engineers serve as leaders of the teaching sections in structures and machinery. Both have participated in curriculum development activities.
2. UN Universidad del Valle program All of the
Nebraska engineers have served as advisors, along with other ICA and UN engineers, in the development of the curriculum for this joint effort.
1.6.2 Coordination with short-term consultants
Nebraska personnel coordinated the activities of three
short term consultants during the year. They were:
1. Dr. William Splinter, Chairman of the Department of
Agricultural Engineering at the University of Nebraska,
who spent approximately one week with uas in February and a second week in November. Dr.Splinter is to be
commended for the excellent leadership and support that
he has given the program.
2. Mr. Paul Fischbach, Extension Irrigation Specialist in
the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the
University of Nebraska. Mr. Fischbach was in colombia
for three-:weeks during November, serving as a consultant
on various aspects of water use.
3. Mr. Robert Gilden of the Federal Extension Service,
United States Department of Agriculture, who spent three
weeks here in August. Mr. Gilden's primary concern was
with the development of our plans service, and its
coordination with the plans service of the U.S.D.A. A
position of leadership in extension agricultural engi..
neering is envisioned for Colombia through a cooperative effort of: the Federal Extension Service, U.S.D.A.; plans
services of other countries, especially those in Latin America; R.T.A.C. in Mexico City; and the staff of the
Department of Agricultural Engineering at ICA.

1General objectives
The following are the objectives for 1969. These were originally
agreed upon by ICA and the Nebraska Mission and supported by the Kellogg Foundation.
a. To up-grade the competence of the personnel of various organizations now conducting extension type activities through short
courses and off-campus training programs.
b. To encourage maximum use of available scholarships by qualified Colombians 'for advancing their education and experience under the
best qualified graduate programs available in MASUA and other
universities in the United States.
c. To assist in the initiation or support of certain extension programs and projects as appear to be most urgently needed.
d. To establish an under-graduate curriculum designed to incorporate elements of rural sociology, communications, and extension education skills into the general Agricultural Program.
e. To participate in curriculum building through teaching and the development of teaching materials which can be useful under
Colombian conditions for Colombian students. To develop those
graduate programs at the Master of Science level which seem
f.- To provide crnntinuous in-service training and field experience in both Extension and Agricultural Information Center activities.
g. To conduct research in Communications and Extension methods in collaboration with other subject matter departments.
1.1 Undergraduate Teaching General objective
To assist in the establishment and coordination of a program
involving agricultural extension, teaching and research at the
three units of National University.
1.1.1 Bogota'
A course outline in agricultural communications was prepared.
Assistance was given in the development of teaching syllabi
and course outlines.for extension and extension related subjects.

1.1.2 Medellin
Dr. Marlyn Low assisted the staff at National University in Medellin in the planning, orgaiiizing, and teaching of
three courses: Introduction to Extension, Extension
Education, and Agricultural Communications. In addition,
assistance was given in coordinating activities with
students studying General and Rural Sociology.
The Extension Department also had as its responsibility the training of Faculty personnel in communications. In
this regard, the Extension Department was responsible for
the preparation of audio-visual material for faculty members,
and preparation of publications for agricultural extension.
The Social Science Depprtment has been in touch with the
Extension staff since the departure 6f Dr. Low. Our
present role is to continue assisting the staff in upgrading course content and coordinating research projects
in extension between the University and ICA. It should be
noted that Dr. Low made a significant contribution in organizing the Extension Department, in training of Departmental
staff, in orgainization and teaching of course material,uand
in the preparation of audio-visual materials.
1.1.3 Palmira
National University at Palmira currently offers courses in
Extens ion Education and Rural Sociology. Dr. Morales was
assigned to work as Dr. Stoller's counterpart in developing
extension courses; however, very little was accomplished
because Dr. Morales did not become directly involved in any teaching activities. Apparently it was also the feeling of
the university staff that U.S. extension philosophy and
methods had little application to the Colombian situation.
This, no doubt, acted as a barrier in limiting the participation and involvement of the Nebraska staff member. Dr.
Stoldler prepared and published four bulletins which are
being used in the Extension Education class taught by Dr.
1.1.4 united Nations Medium Level Educational Project
The Social Science Department assisted ICA and the United
Nations in the development of an extension education
curriculum for four technical schools. The graduates of
these schools receive the title of Practico Agricola. The Extension Education program of the Department assisted in
training staff of the institutes in extension and communication skills.

1.2 Graduate Teaching
1.2.1 General Objectives
To institute, with Colombian participation, a Master's Degree
program in the Social Science area at the UN-ICA Graduate
a. To help provide the flow of extension workers, specialists,
teachers, and administrators required by ICA and other
b. Through research carried out by graduate students to
help identify and establish the most effective methods
of extension education and communication leading toward
the adoption of new technology and means by which to
solve pressing social problems in rural areas.
Such objectives, if achieved, would by association with ICA
do much to enhance extension work as a career and as a major
specialization for Ingenieros Agronomos.
1.2.2 Curriculum and Courses Initiated
During 1969 no courses were offered at the graduate level.
However, basic course outlines were developed for three courses all of which will be taught in 1970. These are:
agricultural communications, extension education (special
course for several animal science students), and rural
sociology. The general curriculum for the Master's program
in the Social Science area is currently under study by a
joint group of ICA and Nebraska personne. The-final
proposal and program leading to the M. S. degree will be
presented to ICA in early 1970.
1.2.3 Thesis goals
No thesis goals have yet been set for graduate students.
However, research projects will relate directly to the
needs of the Colombian Extension Service.
1.3 Research
Until mid-1969 no research was in process due to the lack of
personnel, both Colombian and ICA-Nebraska mission. However,
under the leadership of Dr. Flowerday a five-year plan of proposed
research projects for the areas of Extension Education, Rural Sociology, and Mass Communications was developed by the Social
Science Department.
1.3.1 General objectives
1. Extension Education Research projects carried out in
Extension Education are to begin with a modest research

program, testing hypotheses, and relating all research
to Colombian extension needs.
2. Mass Communications To evaluate the past work of ICA
in the area of communications in an effort to provide
guidance for more effective use and efficiency in
communications for the future.
3. Rural Sociology To carry out coordinated research in
the field of Rural Sociology as related to Colombian
extension needs.
1.3.2 Specific Projects
a. Completed during the year
1. Extension Education
a. Evaluation of a field day conducted for poultry producers.
b. Evaluation of a short course held for professors of four technical institutes. c. Evaluation of short courses held for beef producers in Ibagu6 and Monteria. d. Evaluation of field days held in Medellin and Suesca.
-e. Evaluation of a short course concerning supervised credit for INCORA.
2. Mass Communications
a. Analysis of the content of all ICA publications in connection with the plans of the Ministry of Agriculture.
b. Comprehension analysis of educational movies presented by ICA at the farmer level.
3. Rural Sociology
a. Socio-Economic study of the farm clientele of ICA in regions 4 and 5. b. To be continued in 1970
1. Extension Education
a. Survey of Extension Education Curriculum in Colombian Universities.

Dr. Whittenbarger advises Miriam Herndndez on the Socio-Economics Study.
b. Survey of Extension Education courses offered by Colombian agricultural agencies
2. Mass Communications
a. Text comprehension of ICA publications for extension agents and farmers. b. Analysis of comprehension of the illustrations of ICA publications for extension agents and farmers. c. Communications channels used by ICA consultants to obtain agricultural information.
3. Rural Sociology
a. Evaluation of ICA field days. b. Study of Colombian rural groups. c. The diffusion of innovations among Colombian farmers.
d. Attitudes of farmers toward changing crops or other economic activities.

C. To be initiated in 1970
1. Extension Education
a. Evaluation of ICA Field Days and Short Courses. b. Survey of opinions and attitudes of ICA extension agents concerning relationships with other agricultural agencies.
c. Evaluation of the competency of field extension staff.
2. Mass Communications
a. Communications channels used by ICA clientele to obtain agricultural information. b. Communications channels used by rural leaders to obtain agricultural information. c. Problems which extension agents encounter in the transmission of agricultural information to ICA clientele.
d. Special language used by farmers and battle producers to communicate social and agricultural events. e. Effectiveness of communications media in influencing the adoption of agricultural practices.
3. Rural Sociology
a. The role of extension workers as change agents. b. The various types and functions of rural leadership' and the role it plays in rural development. c. Client participation methods in Extension. d. An exploratory study of potential ICA clientele.
1.4 Extension
1.4.1 General objectives
1. Extension Education The overall objective is to assist
the various field and research programs of ICA in organizing effective and viable extension program directed
toward agricultural professionals and their clientele.
Through in-service training programs and direct contact, with ICA field staff, to develop extension programs more
effectively related to the needs of Colombian farmers.

Dr. Tom Trail, Director of the Social Science Department, is working in the area of Extension Education until a permanent staff member can be secured for this position.
2. Mass Communications
a. To assist the Agricultural Information office in organizing and carrying out basic programs in communications.
b. To assist the Agricultural Information office in the establishment of regional communications centers in each of the ICA regions in order to more effectively coordinate all aspects of communication and to better serve the needs of the ICA field staff.
3. Rural Sociology
To disseminate sociological knowledge and to encourage
(and aid in) its application (a) to the everyday problems

encountered by ICA extension workers as promotors of
agricultural modernization; and, (b) in whatever aspects
or elements of ICA's extension programs for which such
knowledge is applicable.
1.4.2 Specific Projects, including Methods of Diffusion
a. Completed during the year
1. Extension Education
a. In-service training and short courses A total of 18 short courses were conducted during the year. Two-hundred and fifty extension agents and other agricultural professionals from ICA, INCORA and other agricultural agencies participated in these training courses. These short courses covered subject material in the Extension Education and Communications field.
b. Evaluation of Beef Production short courses The program assisted Ivan Rush in making an evaluation of four beef cattle short courses.
c. Organization of a Veterinary Medicine Extension Committee of ICA and National University staff. The first project of this committee is the publication of a professional newsletter directed toward 1,000 veterinarians in Colombia.
d. Field Days The extension education program organized seven field days. Dr. Stoller assisted in the organization and execution of a field day on Opaque-2 corn in Palmira. Dr. Low provided guidance in the organization of the annual Agricultural Engineering Field Day in Medellin.
2. Communications
a. Publications In spite of the many problems encountered during the year some 600,000 copies of technical publications came off the ICA press. Much of the increase can be credited to Dr. J. J. Feight in his work in the training of personnel and the reorganization of the print shop. Hernan P6rez assumed duties as Director of the Agricultural Information Office in September, and has given it much needed leadership.
The print shop is still not able to keep pace with the needs of ICA. Much of the problem is due to poor efficiency cause. by inadequate space and inexperienced personnel, but is also due to a heavy work load and equipment deficiencies.

Dr. Low assisted in the reorganization of the ICA print shop in Medellin. A total of 16,000 copies
of various publications came off the press. Dr.
Tenney is making monthly visits to Medellin as a
follow-up to the work of Dr. Low.
b. Photography A new photographer was hired and
trained. New equipment and facilities have been purchased and built. The situation has improved;
however, there is still much to be done in establis-hing work priorities, production schedules, and
closer coordination with press and production
c. Radio A total of some 350 radio programs were
broadcast over Radio Nacional and Radio Sutatenza. A shift in emphasis toward the greater use of
local radio stations was begun in late 1969. Dr.
Tenney, Hernan Perez, and Gabriel Robayo are
currently designing a new radio studio. Dr. Low was successful in Medellin in initiating a series
of three 5-minute radio programs a week over local
d. Press Although no exact figures are available, it
is evident that major improvements have been made
in distributing press releases through national and
local papers. Improvement in the quality of the releases is also apparent. In Medellin at least
one newspaper article a week appeared in local
e. visual Aids There is an ever increasing demand
for visual aid equipment and the preparation of
audio-visual aids for teaching purposes. An effort
should be made to organize educational programs to
train ICA researchers and specialists in the care
and use of equipment.
f. Communications Training Courses Dr. Stoller organized and taught, to extension agents in Palmira, a short course on the use of the 35 mm. camera. He also organized a short course in communications for
a group of agricultural teachers.
'g. Organization of the Communication Center A weeklong conference, involving personnel from Mass
Cormmunicat ions, the Agricultural Information office, and printing services was held regarding the future
of ICA's communications program. The conference
was specifically concerned with analyzing and
defining: (1) a communications policy for ICA, (2)
the programming of personnel, and (3) the 1970 budget.

Plans were made for the regional communications centers and some equipment was transferred to them.
h. Inventory of Equipment A complete physical inventory was made of all equipment listed on previous inventories. It is now quite obvious that previous inventories had been done on paper. Much of the information was proven inaccurate when the equipment was physically checked.
Procedures were begun to turnover to ICA nearly all of the communications equipment with the exception of the TV equipment and that audiovisual equipment which is used on a short term sign-out and sign-in basis.
Ignacio Martinez was placed in charge of audiovisual equipment at Tibaitata with the responsibility of loaning, maintairiingand repairing the equipment. At the same time this equipment was moved from the print shop to a special temporary office in the main administration building. Specific plans have been approved to include a special equipment storage area and an audio-vistal office in conjunction with the planned radio studio construction.
3. Rural Sociology
a. The results of the first stage of the Socio-Economic study of ICA's eight regions are to be formulated in terms of, and related to, the problems of the regions in which they were done. The results of the study in Region 4 have now been completed and made available for extension field staff use.
b. To be continued in 1970
1. Extension Education
a. In-service training programs for all extension professionals. Material will cover training in the areas of communications, extension and rural sociology.
b. Organization and evaluation of subject matter or technical short courses.
c. The Extension Education program will continue to assist the Veterinary Medicine Extension Committee in developing new ideas and opportunities for extending priority information in this field to ICAclientele.

d. The organization of field days was an important
project in 1969 and will expand in 1970.
e. Training of extension agents in New Mexico This
is one of the most important training programs available for improving the skills of selected
Colombian extension agents. We hope to send three
groups of from 5-6 agents to New Mexico during
2. Communications
a. Publications Efforts will be made to improve the
efficiency of the print shop. Dr. Tenney is making
strenuous efforts to assist in the integration of
the communications program and to assure that the
goal of over 1,000,000 technical publications will
be printed and distributed in 1970. Efforts are being made to secure missing parts for some new equipment such as the photo-direct plate making camera. Also some equipment is being ordered to
improve the bindery operation.
b. Photography Attempts will be made to establish
work priorities, production schedules, and closer coordination with press and production schedules.
c. Radio Plans for 1970 call for the utilization of
a short term consultant to train personnel at Tibaitat& and in the regional communications centers
in up-grading their skills in this area. A goal
of 700 radio programs has been set for 1970.
d. Press Increased emphasis will be placed in getting
out press releases to both national and local papers.
e. Inventory of Equipment The majority of this
equipment will be officially turned over to ICA so
that they may begin to accept the responsibility
for its operation, care, and repair.
3. Rural Sociology
a. The Program will be in charge of evaluating various
short courses and .training programs conducted by the Social Science Department and in cooperation
with other departments.
b. The results of the Soc io-Economic study of the eight
ICA regions will be finished, and this should serve
as a base to identify certain means by which to
more effectively work with ICA clientele.

C. Representatives of the Program will continue contacts with the Agricultural Engineering Department, the Beef Cattle Program, and the Peace Corps, to determine how and when cooperative ef forts might contribute to more efficient and effective ICA extension programs.
c. To be initiated in 1970
1. Extension Education
a. Establishment of an in-service training policy for ICA field staff. One of the basic problems confronting ICA is that there is no policy concerning inservice training for extension agents. Dr. Herngn
Chaverra as well as other ICA personnel are concerned about this problem and they have asked the Social Science Department to assist in defining policy and in setting up a series of training courses for all ICA field personnel in 1970. The plan of the Department is to develop an in-Service Training manual which will be used as a basis for training of all staff.
b. In-Service training for subject matter specialistsThe goal of the Extension Education program is to provide in-service training in the areas of mass communications, extension methodology and rural sociology as required by the corps of extension specialists of ICA.
c. Publication of a monthly extension education newsletter to all extension agents..
d. Extension Education Specialist for the Department of Social Sciences. In an effort to improve contacts with local field agents we hope to obtain the services of a full-time Nebraska Mission professional in the area of Extension Education. This is one of the Kellogg positions. This man must be able to communidate in Spanish and preferably have had experience in Latin Amnerica. He would probably be assigned to work with Dr. Luis Valbuena and several of the National Extension Service Supervisors. His primary duties would be training of local agents in the areas of program development, execution, and evaluation. A detailed job description has been written. For maximum impact he should concentrate his work with five to
ten carefully selected agencies. He would also provide the Social Science Department with valuable feed-back information upon which training needs of ICA extens ion agents could be more realistically assessed.

e. Organize short-term training field trip for three
ICA extension administrators to visit Extension Services in Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The Extension Services in these three Latin American
countries have developed excellent integration of research and extension functions. They have good specialist staffs. Such a trip would be valuable in showing key ICA leaders how several Latin American countries have successfully developed the integrated research extension function with the specialist playing a key role in the process.
2. Communications
a. Installation of new video tape equipment in Bogot&, Palmira, and Medell{n.
jt! !
Dr. Richard 'Tenney discusses with Ignacio Martlnez the care and maintenance of the video tape equipment.
b. Organization of training courses in use, care, and
maintenance of video tape equipment for both ICA and Nebraska personnel.

c. Exchange of video tapes treating specific subject matter material in the U.S. for use in classroom, laboratory, and extension use.
d. Major emphasis will also be placed on securing filming equipment and a vehicle so that it will be possible to produce four 15-minute educational films in black and white.
e. The mass communications program, in cooperation with the Agricultural Information Office, will begin to investigate the possibilities of TV programming in order to meet the needs of ICA in transmitting agricultural information via this media.
f. Publications, including bulletins, ,pamphlets., and single page noticies, will be produced on the following levels: (1) graphic messages of photos and/or drawings with a brief text at an elementary level; (2) extensive text complementing graphics for a more advanced level. The publications will be designed to complement the personal contact of the change agents.
9The final organization of a National Center of Communications and finalizing the establishment of centers in each of the ICA regions will more efficiently coordinate all aspects of communications to service the needs of the extension agent.
h. Organization and execution of training courses for
ICA researchers and specialists in the care and use of audio-visual equipment.
i. Formation of a Departmental Editorial CommitteeDr. Tenney is organizing an editorial committee for the department. Preparation was begun for the pub-lidati~n., of departmental reports and research results. This will include an editorial procedure, format, cover, and numbering system. At the same time similar preparations will be started for a series of regular information circulars of from one to four pages in cooperation with the Agricultural Information office. These circulars will be prepared for use by change agents for short courses and for formal classes.
j. Preparation will be started on instructional sheets for the major audio-visual items. These sheets will be used for short courses, and will accompany each audio-visual item when it is signed out.

3. Rural Sociology
a. Already planned are such activities as aiding in the organization and evaluation of the 1970 Agricultural Engineering "Field Day",, continued ef f orts to improve the short course evaluation form used
by the Beef Cattle Program, and the use of a part of these evaluation forms as a very short questionnaire to gather information on the extent and kind of extension contact provided among those who attend the Beef Cattle short courses.
1.5 Staff Development
The true measure of success of any technical assistance program is the number of trained people who will continue the operation,
improvement and advancement of the programs initiated. The W. K.
Kellogg Foundation has provided a total of 30 man years of fellowship study to be utilized during the period of the second grant.
Eleven students received Kellogg Foundation fellowships in 1969
and are presently studying in the U.S. Their names, the area of
specialization, the anticipated degree and the university are
shown in this report in part 1.5.1.
There are approximately 25 candidates for the Kellogg Fellowships
to be awarded in 1970. All of these candidates are currently studying English or have already shown an acceptable degree of
Upon the completion of advanced degrees projected, ICA will have four staff members with advanced degrees in communications, four
in extension education, but only one in Sociology. Future
programming of fellowship a-wards should consider giving priority
to candidates in rural sociology in order to achieve balance in
the three programs. With the establishment of eight regional
communications centers increased emphasis must also be placed on
training more professionals in the communications area.
The majority of the current and projected fellowships for students
of other agencies is in the area of agricultural extension. National University is developing its capacity to offer courses in
extension education and communications. Courses in rural sociology
will be offered upon the return of the two professionals now
working toward their advanced degrees in rural sociology in the
The projections for fellowships beyond 1969 have been designed
with the goal of developing the capacity of the ICA graduate
school to a level M.S. degree in the Social Science field
can be offered. A minimum of three Doctorates would be necessary in each of the three fields to provide a broad base for a Master's
level graduate program.

The emphasis given to the development of ICA's own training
programs is not intended to imply that additional assistance for
some years in the future is not needed. Nor is it intended to
diminish the importance of research, undergraduate teaching, and extension activities in these areas. It is intended to show that
a forward looking, integrated program of graduate fellowship
awards has been developed to provide the final goal of graduate
competence within ICA to award Master's degrees in the three fields
of communications, extension and rural sociology.
1.5.1 Fellowship Departures and Returns
The only Kellogg fellowship grantee to return during 1969 was Hernin Perez, who is now Director of the Agricultural
Information Office.
The following Kellogg grantees departed during 1969:
Sponsoring Expected Study Date of
Name Institution Degree Field Institution Departure
Enrique Andrade U.Nal.Bog. Ph.D. Sociology N.Caroling S. Aug.
Luis E.Chaves ICA Palmira M.S. Ext.Educa- Cornell Aug.
David Cuellar U.Nal.Bog. M.S. Communica- wisconsin Aug.
Jafeth Garcia Fedecaf6 M.S. Ext.Educa- Cornell Aug.
Luis J. Jaramillo U.Nal.Bog. M.S. Communica- Michigan Aug.
tions State
Orlando Lugo ICA Bog. M.S. Communica- Iowa State Aug.
Gabriel Ojeda ICA Bog. M.S. Communica- Missouri Aug.
Joaquin E.Quir6z ICA Bog. M.S. Ext.& Comrn- Michigan Aug.
munications State
Ernesto Rinc6n ICA Bog. M.S. Agricultural Colorado Aug.
Extension State
Luis Hern~n Rinc6n ICA Bog. M.S. Communica- Iowa State Aug.
Fabio Zapata U.Nal. Ph.D. Ext. Adminis- Louisiana Aug.
Medellin tration State
Total: 11

1.5.2 Short Term Fellowships
1. New Mexico Program one of the basic problems of ICA
extension specialists and supervisors is lack of extension experience and training. Training for both supervisors and specialists needs to include the specific areas of program planning, execution and evaluation.
more specifically, training needs to be given in the
techniques and methods used in the selection. of projects,
development of action programs or campaigns, and the
planning necessary for the successful execution of such
In recognition of this need, two groups of Colombian extension workers were sent to New Mexico in 1969 to
participate in an intensive six-weeks training course.
The groups included subject matter specialists in animal science (5), agronomy (4)0, and agricultural engineering (1). Dr. Jacob Tejada of the New Mexico Extension Service was in charge of the training program.
A preliminary evaluation of the training course by
members of the Social Science Department revealed great
* enthusiasm among the participants in regard to the
training. The reaction among the ICA leadership has also been positive. The value of such training permits the participant to apply his training to the job
situation immediately after he returns to Colombia. we
hope to send three more groups to New.Mexico in 1970.
1.6 Admini.strative and organizational Activities
1.6.1 Inputs to ICA or the National University
1. Extension Service A series of meetings with ICA administrative personnel regarding Extension culminated
in a redefinition of Nebraska personnel inputs. It was *agreed that the following Kellogg Foundation supported personnel could best serve ICA's present Extension and
extension related needs:
a. A Training Specialist in Extension.
b. A Radio and Television specialist.
c. A specialist in printing and photoengraving.
After discussions with Dr. Russell Mawby, vice-President of the Kellogg Foundation, and Dr. John Adams, Director of Agricultural Extension at the University of Nebraska,
it was decided that positions (2) and (3) should be combined. This new position was to be filled by a
communications specialist who could assist in all areas

of information dissemination. Dr. Richard Tenney was
named to this post in July 1969.
The AID supported positions were redefined to provide
the following assistance:
a. Director of the Department of Social Science Dr.
Tom Trail assumed this position in September.
b. Subject Matter Specialist in Animal Science Dr.
Ivan Rush occupies this position.
c. Rural Sociologist Dr. Robert Whittenbarger assumed
this position in September.
d. Home Economics Extension Specialist Dr. Jean Audrey
Wight started working in this area in December.
This reallocation of manpower terminates the two extension positions at Palmira and Medellin. In both locations, considerable progress has been madeinthe
development of auxiliary communications centers And in
assisting National University in the organization of
course outlines in Extension courses. It has been
difficult for thepersonnel in these positions to offer
concrete assistance in the areas of extension supervision,
program planning and evaluation.
2. Social Science Department The Department of Social
Science was restructured from the Department of Information and Development in early 1969. It consists of
three specific programs: mass communications, rural
sociology and extension education.
Program leaders have been named for each area: Dr. Vicente Alba, Communications; Dr. Manuel Narvaez, Extension
Education; and, Dr. Gilberto Vejarano, Rural Sociology.
Nebraska Mission staff providing leadership and direction
are: Rural Sociology, Dr. Robert Whittenbarger; Mass
Communications, Dr. Richard Tenney; and Extension
Education, Dr. Tom Trail.
3. Coordinating Committee for Extension This committee was
formed to coordinate research projects and training
programs between the Social Science Department and ICA's
field extension service. The committee is composed of the Director of the Extension Service, Dr. Luis Valbuena; the Director of the Department of Social Science,
Dr. Tom Trail; and the two*National Extension Supervisors,
David Remolina and Ricardo Ojeda. The Director of the
Division of Extension, Dr. Hernan Chaverra, and the
Director of the Division of Technical Orientation, Dr.
Esteban Rico, are also members of the Committee. Dr.
Valbuena is Chairman.

4. Extension Trends and Policies There are a number of
trends within the Extension Service which are of interest
to the Nebraska Mission. These are:
a. The executive or action level of the activities of the
Extension Service is the regional level. The personnel of the'Extension Service at the national level,
and their respective staffs are all advisors and
helpers for the Regional Managers and the regional
extension staff in the execution and conduct of field
b. All extension programs will have a definite time and
budget limitation for the organization, conduct and
evaluation of the specific program.
c. Extension programs of an agricultural nature will be
directed primarily to the medium-level farmer or the
person who has the potential capacity to support a
family above the submarginal level. Programs of
rural youth, home economics, organizations of campesinos, and family planning will be made available to
all levels of Colombian society.
d. Extension agencies will be (physically) rotated every
three to five years.
5. Center of Communications The restructuration of ICA has
divided the former Center of Communications into three
separate units under three different administrators. This restructuring concept has led to a great deal of trouble
in coordinating work schedules and getting publications out on time. Hern~n Perez, as head of the Agricultural
Information Office, is trying to pull together the
various professionals and parts of the communications
operation into a cohesive and more efficient team. Dr.
Tenney is assisting in this effort to build an esprit
de corps among the staff and a national center of
communications with regional centers taking shape according to regional needs and the resources available.
1.6.2 Coordination with short term consultants
1. Dr. Flowerday assisted Dr. Virginia Trotter, Dean of the
University of Nebraska College of Home Economics in
evaluating the possibilities of adding Home Economics to the list of Nebraska Mission programs. Dr. Trotter, Dr.
Doretta Hoffman, Dean of the College of Home Economics,
Kansas State University, and Dr. Anita Dickson, Director of Home Economics Extension, Purdue University, composed
a study group which spent two weeks in Colombia during
June. The group studied the present status of the
profession of Home Economics in Colombia, potential job

opportunities for graduates in Home Economics, and the
scope and nature of extension programs in Home Economics.
The first step toward implementation of the study
committee's recommendations took place with the assignment of Dr. Jean Audrey Wight in December 1969.
2. The Nebraska Mission staff assisted Mr. Robert Ruyle in
conducting a one-week short course in the use and maintenance of video tape equipment.
3'. Dr. Flowerday spent five days with Dr. Jacob Tejada,
Extension Training Specialist, from New Mexico State University. The purpose of the visit was to discuss with ICA and Nebraska staff the proposed short term training program for ICA extension personnel in New
4. Dr. Russell Mawby of the Kellogg Foundation was assisted
by the staff in the selection of candidates for graduate
study in the U. S.
5. Dr. John Adams, Director of Agricultural Extension at the
University of Nebraska, spent one week with us in February.
Dr. Adams' trip was deliberately scheduled to coincide
with the visit by Dr. Mawby, so that concentrated attention could be given to the entire extension program. The
Adams report, prepared as a result of this visit, provided
guidance for the program throughtout the entire year.

1. General State of the Program at the Endr.of 1969
The Agronomy program suffered considerable dislocation during 1969
because of personnel changes. Both Dr. Frank Davis and Dr. Carl
Jorgensen departed in August after two year tours of duty. Dr. Tom Fullerton arrived in August to assume the duties of the weed control
position formerly filled by Dr. Jeffery, who had departed in 1968.
Dr. Gary Jolliff arrived in September as the first crop physiologist to be assigned to Medellin. In October, Dr. George Beinhart arrived
to assume duties formerly assigned to Dr. Davis. The position in
Palmira (formerly occupied by Dr. Jorgensen) remains vacant at the end
of 1969; hopefully, it will be filled sometime in 1970 by a vegetable
crop specialist.
1.1 Undergraduate Teaching
It is seldom possible to measure the success of a teacher. By its nature, classroom teaching defies quantitative ratings but instead can best be evaluated by the responses of students and colleagues.
If outstanding teachers are few, their rewards are fewer. For this
reason it is particularly noteworthy that Dr. Frank Davis was recognized in 1969.for his performances a teacher:by those with
whom he had worked at the National University. In August Dr. Davis
was awared the title of Honorary Professor by the Faculty of Agronomy, the first man ever to be so honored. This high honor is eloquent testimony to Dr. Davis' personal qualities of hard work and
dedication and to his effective work with students in the classroom.
The entire Nebraska Mission has gained stature as a result of Dr.
Davis' outstanding contributions to the National University.
1.1.1 Bogota
a. Plant Physiology
Dr. Frank Davis coordinated and taught most of the beginning plant physiology course during the first semester
(February June 1969).
The other plant physiology and weed control courses were
taught by Colombian personnel. Dr. Davis continued to
provide technical assistance in subject matter content and organization, and gave lectures in special areas. He also
advised undergraduate students on thesis problems related
to plant physiology.

Dr. Fullerton provided guidance on subject matter and organization of the weed control course during the second
semester (August December 1969). He also collaborated
with Mr. Ramniro de la Cruz (who returned to Colombia in
August with an M.S. in Agronomy from Iowa State) in planning an advanced weed control course for 1971.
Dr. Beinhart's October arrival did not provide him time
to participate in the teaching program.
b. Soils
Dr. Frank advised the teaching staff in subject matter
content, course organization, and procurement of visual aids, and lectured on selected subjects. He also collaborated with Victor Romero in the establishment of an
elective soil fertility course for 1970. Field experiments were established in late 1969 as part of the practical aspect of the course. Dr. Frank consulted with
undergraduates on thesis problems in soil fertility.
The ICA-Nebraska Mission staff continued to emphasize the
need for increased efficiency in teaching, e.g. by use of more objective exams, team teaching, and smaller classes.
1.1.2 Palmira
In the first semester, Dr. Jorgensen provided technical assistance to the Colombian personnel who taught the crop physiology courses. He also directed the undergraduate thesis
research of several students.
Dr. Jorgensen collaborated with several Colombian colleagues
in the writing and publication of a Spanish-language textbook of plant physiology. This book, published in 1969, is
now the basic text for undergraduate courses in the National University system. A revision of this text was begun in 1969
with a target date of 1971 for publication. Since the new
material is already beifig used by the teaching staff, the effects of the revision will be evident even before publication
of the revised text.
1.2 Graduate Teaching
Dr.Davis taught two courses, Advanced Physiology and Plant Nutrition,
in the Graduate School at ICA. In addition, he developed slide
sets for use in graduate as well as undergraduate plant physiology
During 1969, only a few graduate students were majoring in the
several areas of agronomy. We feel that this reflects a serious
deficiency in the recruiting* efforts of the ICA-Nebraska mission
staff as well as our ICA colleagues. we have, therefore, set as a

Agronomy students inspect wheat fertilization plots as a part of the thesis work f or their Ingeniero Agr6nomo degree.
goal for 1970 improved recruitment to enlarge and strengthen the
graduate program in soils, plant physiology, and weed control.
1.3 Research
1.3.1 General objectives
our general objective is to assist in the development of a
sound programs of research centered in ICA but which will
directly benefit National University by involving both f aculty and students in certain aspects of ICA research.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives Progress in 1969
a. Dr. Davis continued to work with Dr. Riveros, Director
of the ICA National Program in Plant Physiology, toward the consolidation and more efficient organization of research. Because he returned to the U.S. in August, Dr.
Davis was concerned with the termination and publication of previous experiments. The following list of publications were completed or are nearing completion:

Title Author
1. Progress in Agronomic Education Fonseca Davis
in Colombia
2. Growth Inhibitors in Kikuyo Grass Sanchez, Jeffery,
3. Light Effect on Paraquat Transport Uribe, Cardenas, Davis
4. Growth Inhibitors in Coquito Lotero, Cardenas,
5. Physiology of Herbicidal Action Davis, Cirdenas
6. Herbicide Selectikity Cardenas, Davis
7. Pesticide Interactions Davis, 4omez,
b. Dr. Jprgensen, with assistance from Dean Gonzalez of the
Faculty of Agronomy, National University Palmira, was instrumental in setting up a plant physiology research laboratory for staff use. He also developed laboratory
experiments and procured equipment for undergraduates interested in the effects of photoperiodism, red, and farred light on plant responses. Dr. Jorgensen also continued to train ICA personnel in applied physiology.
Dr. Jorgensen has supplied the following list of experimental projects terminated during 1969:
1. Root promoting hormones on pineapple colinas;
2. Tolerance of pineapple colinas to selected herbicides;
3. Induction of pineapple floration by ethrel and other hormonal sprays;
4. Degreening of Washington orange by ethrel;
5. Pasture legumes and seed production for high altitude areas in Colombia.
Dr. Jorgensen either initiated or had underway in 1969 the
following projects:
1. Cacao
2. Grape varieties
3. Vegetable varieties
4. Transportation of blackberries
5. Carnation mother stock'
c. Dr. Fullerton made excellentprogress with his research p
program. In cooperation with INCORA, a program involving the control of aquatic weeds was originated. In coopera-

tion with ICA agronomists, he has begun projects in weed control in pastures on the North Coast and in the LLanos.
d. Dr. Beinhart arrived in October and did not have an opportunity to initiate experiments in 1969. However, joint
experiments are being planned in which the ICA plant physiology laboratory will collaborate with staff of other
e. Dr. Jolliff has been undergoing a thorough orientation
of plant physiology problems in the Medellin and North Coast areas and has some experiments planned for 1970.
f. Dr. Frank, in cooperation with area agronomists and the
ICA Agricultural Economics Department continued experiments, begun in 1968, on the response of major crops to
application of N,P, and K and the economic analysis of
production. Included in these experiments were the following:
Dr. Kenneth Frank, right, points out differences in growth characteristics in experiments using different minerals.

1. Banana experiment at Marconia.
2. 14 to 16 cotton experiments intthe Barranquilla and
Valledupar areas.
3. Corn and sorghum experiments, Nataima.
4. Corn and potato experiments, Pasto.
5. Pasture experiments, Sabana de Bogota.
Field experiments testing fertilization responses of different corn and sorghum varieties were initiated in the
Experiments to study the relationships between fertility: level and herbicide damage to corn and sorghum were initiated at La Libertad in cooperation with Drs. Davis and
Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of sulfur-coated
urea Xa product developed by TVA) were begun at La Libertad and Nataima.
In cooperation with Rodrigo Lora, experiments on the minor
element status of several sorts were started in the green
house &t Tibaitat&.
1.4 Extension
Dr. Davis assisted Dr. Cardenas of t~e Oregon State Mission with a
short course in weed science. This course was given in Colombia
and Ecuador.
Dr. Jorgensen spent a considerable amount of time consulting and advising vegetable, fruit, and flower growers and also consulted
with commercial companies on processing problems.
1.5 Staff Development
1.5.1 Degree Fellowships
During 1969 eight participants departed for the U.S. to study
for advanced degrees:
Sponsoring Expected Study Name Institution Degree Institution Specialty
Gerardo.4arinez ICA-Bogot6 M.S. Illinois Plant Pathology
Arturo L6pez .. ICA-Bogota M.S. Orgeon St. Seed Production
Enrique Alarc6n ICA-BogotA M.S. Cornell Pastures & Forages
Rodrigo Torres ICA-Palmira M.S. California Physiology (Fruit)
Fernando G6mez ICA-Bogot& M.S. Miss. St. Seed Technology
Jes-s Arias ICA-Bogot& Ph.D. Iowa State Plant Breeding
Camila Arriaga U.Nal.-Bog. Ph.D. Illinois Plant Biochemistry
Jaime Daza U.Nal.-Bog. Ph.D. Iowa State Soils