Citation
A Proposal for the creation of a National Center of Agricultural Technology

Material Information

Title:
A Proposal for the creation of a National Center of Agricultural Technology
Creator:
El Salvador -- Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a
CENTA Commission
Place of Publication:
San Salvador
Publisher:
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 155 p. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- El Salvador ( lcsh )
Agriculture ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Agricultural development ( jstor )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
At head of title: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a.
General Note:
Cover title.
Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the [CENTA] Commission appointed by the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderi�a.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
10596598 ( OCLC )

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Full Text
MINISTER D
FOR I
MAIr




LETTER OF. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TO THE MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK
The Commission named by you on June 26, 1969, to study the means for coordi nating and increasing the technical and economic resources for the efficient development of agricultural research, education and extension in our country, has the pleasure of presenting to you this report of its work with conclusions and recommendations that it considers necessary to achieve the goals implied in your charge to the Commission.
It has been the aim of the Commission to develop a plan and a program for an institution which will embody a complete system, not piecemeal units. The institutionwill have many facets which can stand alone, but together they will constitute a coordinated and integrated system for the development and promulgation of advanced agricultural technology in El Salvador.
The Commission members appointed by you were the following: Ing. Francisco Lino Osegueda J., former Director of the National School of Agriculture and present Sub-secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; Ing. Jose Roberto Castillo Paredes, dairy farmer and agricultural leader; Ing. Armando Alas L6pez, Subdirector of agricultural research; Agr. Josd Perez Guerra, Subdirector of agricultural extension; Mr. Claud L. Horn, technical advisor on agricultural research to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; and Dr. George W. Westcott, technical advisor on agricultural planning and development to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. Later named .to the Commission were Dr. Carlos F. Burgos, Subdirector of the National School of Agriculture and Ing. Ren6 Portillo Velasco, Head of the Department of Agricultural Extension.
Many meetings were held by the Commission, at times including all of the members, on other occasions as subcommissions, to discuss all of the different aspects of this report. Special advisors were called to meet with the Commission. These included representatives of private foundations; University personnel to discuss mutual problems pertaining to technical agricultural education; administrative and personnel experts; technical advisors representing particular phases of agricultural technology especially for livestock research and education; experts on methodology for agricultural research, extension, and agricultural education; and Mr. Carlos E. Molestina, Communication Specialist from IICA.
The Commission wishes to thank the Minister for his confidence and support. The Commission also wishes to express its gratitude to Mr. Claud L. Horn, now retired, not only for his technical counsel but for his vision, enthusiasm and confidence in the future for Salvadoran Agriculture. Special acknowledgement is given to Dr. George W. Westcott for his foresight and work, and for all his effort and experience that made possible the elaboration and conclusion of this report.




The Commission thanks all of the persons who in one way or another contributed to the preparation of this report.
We hope that our proposals and rec6rnmendations will strike the imaginations of Salvadoran leaders and result in the unleashing of their greatest energies to create the National Center for Agricultural Technology. We believe that this is the key which will unlock the great potentials for agricultural growth and the further overall development of El Salvador.
CENTA Commission.
June, 1970.




- iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
Title Page i
Letter of Acknowlgdgement to the Minister of Agriculture
and Livestock ii
Table of Contents iv
Purpose of the Commission ix
Preamble Objectives x
I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1
II. THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN EL SALVADOR 13
A. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN
OVERALL DEVELOPMENT 13
B. AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT FALTERS EFFECT ON OVERALL ECONOMY 14
C. CAUSE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SLOW-DOWN 16
III. PRESENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN
EL SALVADOR PROBLEMS 19
A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 19
1. Public Support for A~ricultural Research 19
2. Problems 21
3. Present Research Shortcomings 23
B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 26
1. Problems 27
C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 29
1. National School of A riculture "Roberto uifI6nez" 29
2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science at the University of
El Salvador. 32
IV. NEEDS FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN
EL SALVADOR 34
A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH NEEDS 35
1. Areas for Additional Research 38




PAGE
2. Research and Diversification 47
3. Personnel Needs for an Expanded Research Program 51
B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION NEEDS 60
C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR TRAINING
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGISTS 60
1. The National School of Agriculture "Roberto Quift6nez" 61
2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science, The University of
El Salvador 64
3. Graduate Training Program 65
V. A NATIONAL CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR 66 VI. THE ORGANIZATION OF "CENTA" 70
A. LOCATION 70
B. MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL 71
1. Training Agricultural Technologists for the Growing
Agricultural Sector 71
2. Staffing the Center 76
3. Personnel Management 79
C. PHYSICAL FACILITIES "ONE TIME" CAPITAL INVESTMENTS 80
D, ADMINISTRATION 107
1. Nature of the Institution ObjQectives 107
2. Subject Matter Departments 108
3. The Board of Trustees 109
VII. COST, FINANCING AND JUSTIFICATION 113
A. COST OF THE CENTER 113
B. FINANCING THE CENTER 114
C. FEASIBILITY AND JUSTIFICATION 115




- vi
PAGE
VIII. CONCLUSIONS 123
APPENDIX I
Brief History of Agricultural Research in El Salvador 126
APPENDIX II
Organization and Summary of Achievements of Agricultural
Research in El Salvador 132
APPENDIX III
Brief History of Aricultural Extension in El Salvador 135
APPENDIX IV
Personnel Buildug Schedules
TABLE 14 CENTA Staff 137
TABLE 15 Research Staff 139
TABLE 16 Extension Staff 142
TABLE 17 ENA Staff 148
TABLE 18 Recapitulation 151




- vii
INDUX OF TABLES PAGE
TABLE 1
ENA Student Enrollemnt Projections 62
TABLE 2
ENA Faculty Projections 63
TABLE 3
Schedule for Programming Perito Agricola Level Personnel 73
TABLE 4
Schedule for Programming Home Economics Perito Level Personnel 74 TABLE 5
Schedule for Programming Bachelor Level Personnel 75
TABLE 6
Schedule for Programming Masters and Doctorate Level Personnel 77 TABLE 7
Schedule for Programming Graduate Scholarships 78
TABLE 8
Scheduled Salary Rates within Grades 81
TABLE 9
Classification and Compensation Plans 82
TABLE 10
Comparable Classifications and Compensations 86
TABLE 11
Proposed Build-up for Personnel and Salary Costs 119
TABLE 12
Recapitulation of Annual Totals for Personnel and other Costs 120 TABLE 13
Recapitulation of Costs, Fund Sources, Agricultural Income and
Income Cost Ratios 121




-viiiPAGE
TABLE 14
Personnel Build-up Schedule for CENTA Staff 137
TABLE 15
Personnel Build-up Schedule for Research Staff 139
TABLE 16
Personnel Build-up Schedule for Extension Staff 142
TABLE 17
Personnel Build-up Schedule for ENA Staff 148
TABLE 18
Personnel Build-up Schedule -A Recapitulation 151




- ix
PURPOSE--OF-TE CO~MISiSION
In the words of Minister Alvarez, the purpose of this Commission is "aunar e incrementar esfuerzos tdcnicos y recursos econ6micos para el eficiente desarrollo de las labores de Investigaci6n, Educaci6n y Extensi6n Agricola".
It may be said that the ultimate purpose of the Commission is to recommend the means needed to provide the technical agricultural knowledge necessary to facilitate the full development of El Salvador's optimum potential for agricultural productivity,--in the interest. of agricultural output, human welfare, and National Glory.
Immediate Purposes
To serve as a Policy Commission to:
1. Review and update the two proposals entitled "Anteproyecto de Creaci6n del
Centro Nacional de Tecnificaci6n Agricola", October 1968, and "La Educaci6n,
Investigaci6n y Extensi6n Agricola y el Desarrollo Agricola Salvadorefo",
,May 1969.
Among other things this may include a systematic review discussion of such
obvious and immediate problems as personnel and salaries, transportation,
financial support, et cetera.
2. Consider and recommend the means for implementing these reports. For example,
should the GOES invite institutions such as the World Bank, BID, AID, the
United Nations (FAO), OECD, Foundations, or a consortium of these to sponsor
a panel of experienced top-level agricultural scientists, educators and
administrators to consider (1) the adequacy and feasibility of the program as outlined in these reports and (2) if advisable assist the Salvadorans in
preparing a 20-year overall integrated National Program for Agricultural
Education, Research and Education for El Salvador and (3) the means for financing the establishment of such an expanded program of agricultural
technology in El Salvador.




PREAMBLE AND OBJECTIVES
El Salvador must move ahead. Its lands are capable of producing at least seven times more than they produce today. Thirty years hence El Salvador's lands, with increasing technology, will be capable of producing 15 times more than they produce today. It's 3,000,000 people are intelligent and ambitious. They will increase three times to 9,000,000 in the next 30 years. It is possible for 9,000,000 Salvadorans to be efficient and enjoy levels of living many times higher than today with El Salvador's present natural resources if they improve their efficiency enough to increase agricultural output five times in the next 30 years.
To make this possible, the Immediate objective of this proposal is to create a National Center for Agricultural Technology in El Salvador of sufficient magnitude to provide trained personnel and furnish new research facts to support an annual agricultural growth rate of at least 5 to 6 per cent which will quintuple agricultural output during the next 30 years.
.This Center will integrate and coordinate all of the activities of agricultur al education, research, and extension to be carried on by the Government of El Salvador under a single administrative organization in the interest of optimum efficiency in the use of human and financial resources,--to the end that the nutrition, income and level of rural living will be improved to the utmost,-and that this will, in turn, improve the general welfare of all Salvadoran people.




I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
The Situation Today.
Agriculture has played the primary role in the development of most of the
world's tore economically advanced countries. It has provided manpower, capital, and raw materials for overall development.
Today, agriculture is, by far, the predominant factor in the growth and de velopment of El Salvador. Agricultural production directly accounts for the activities of 60% of the Salvadoran people, the use of 75% of the nation's-land and 45% of its reproducible manmade capital. Seventy-five percent of El Salvador's exports and 30% of its income (lirV) is derived directly from agricultural output.
Agribusiness activities support agricultural production by providing inputs, the services for transporting, storing, processing and distributing the outputs, and include the institutional means for providing technological education-and research and farm credit. These, when added to the income derived directly from agricultural production, double the income attributable .to and dependent on agricultural output. Thus, about 60% of El Salvador's PTB goes up or down with the volume of farm production not only because of the change in "value added" due to the change in volume of production and distribution of farm products but because of the multiplier or dimunition effects that these changes have on the entire economy.
But impressive as agriculture is today, it is only producing 15% as much as could be produced on its land and with its people if by some miracle all present known agricultural technology could be adapted and applied to El Salvador's agricultural resources.
Each year agricultural output at today's prices could be worth seven times the value of today's production or 4,340 million colones inste~d-,ofLtody-s620




-2
million colones (1969). The ingredient needed to make this transformation is more investment in the agricultural sector and the basic investment need is for education, research and extension.
Technical knowledge is the miracle ingredient that is now lacking. We may have all the ingredients for agricultural development, namely: Ialthy land literate rural people, good land and water, enough capital facilities, sufficient agricultural production factors such as improved seed, fertilizers, pesticides and equipment, the credit necessary to purchase these factors, ample marketing facilities, and sufficient economic incentives, but if we don't have the necessary technical knowledge (know-how) then all of the other above-mentioned ingredients are lost.
To develop the technical kno'wledgeto provide this miracle, ingredient, countries which have achieved a higher level of economic development such as, for example, Germany, England, Japan and the United States,--areinvestiug around 7.0% of their gross agricultural income in agricultural education, research and extension. El Salvador is investing only six tenths of one per cent (0.6%) of its gross agricultural incc-e in the development of its agricultural technology. This is about 1/12th as much as in the more developed countries and is wholly inadequate to maintain even present levels of agricultural production largely because of the encroachments of sub-tropical insects and diseases which are not understood because of the lack of research.
Agricultural output in El Salvador reached its peak in 1964. .During the next four years it stagnated at levels 6 to 12% below 1964. Preliminary estimates for 1969 indicate that production was the same as the 1964 high. This slowdown has been caused by an accumulation of crop and livestock production problems (mostly insects and diseases) that come with intensification of agricultural production and for which there are, at present, few or. no answers due to inadequate technical education, research and extension.




-3
Salvado ran population is expanding at 3.6 to 3.9% per year and will triple during the next 30 years in spite of general adoption of family planning*. Per capita income hopefully should increase 2.5% per year. With these growth rates the domestic demand for food products will increase fivefold during the'next 30 years. Unless agricultural output can be quintupled during this critical period there will be huge increases in food imports that will drain the country's foreign exchange earnings and its ability to buy goods needed for economic development and there will be a drastic increase in unemployment and underemployment.
The Commission Propos~al
Fortunately, with an adequate high-grade technological education and research program as proposed herein, agriculture could soon achieve a growth rate of 5 to 6% per year. This would enable El Salvador to triple its agricultural output in twenty years and quintuple it in 30 years. It would stimulate rather than hamper economic growth. It would triple the employment needed to satisfy the increased needs for agriculture and agribusiness**.
*Even if family planning is generally adopted during the next 10 years, this will,,not reduce the Salvadorean population growth rate below the present
3.6 to 3.9% rate during the next 20 to 30 years because half of the present population is under 15 years of age and there will be more females of child
bearing age per 1,000 people during the next 20 to 30 years. Even though
they may bear fewer children per 1,000 females of child bearing age than at present, the higher number of child bearing females will offset the former.
General adoption of family planning will help the present 3.6 to 3.9% growth rate from going even higher during the next 20 to 30 years and it will definitely slow down the growth rate in the second and third future generations
from what it otherwise would be.
AThese are conservative projections because they are based on present techni acknowledge which is now doubling every 15 years. El Salvador's potential
for agricultural production 30 years hence will be twice what it is today,
if it has the technical institutions to adapt this rapidly increasing technology to El Salvador's environment.




-4
Under this proposal El Salvador's annual investment in agricultural technological research and education will be increased approximately 8.5 times present levels as rapidly as possible over the next 10 ycars. This minimum program will be sufficient to stimulate resumption of El Salvador's agricultural growth rate from its present state of stagnation to 5.7% per year.
Actually, with Salvadoran agricultural output expanding at 5.7% per year, this proposed program will constitute an annual investment in agricultural tech nology over the next five to fifteen years, which will be only approximately
2.5% per year of El Salvador's expanding gross agricultural output. Thus, the cost of agricultural education, research and extension in El Salvador as a percent of gross agricultural income w~ill still be only about one third of that now being invested in the more developed countries of Western Europe and in Japan and the United States. But it is believed that this will be adequate since much of *the scientific information and research methodology developed in the temperate zones of the World can be transferred to El Salvador for application through applied research which must be done under local Salvadoran conditions. Such a program has successfully demonstrated in several developing countries, that agricultural growth can be speeded up to 5 or 6% per year, or even more. But 2.5% of the gross agricultural income is the minimum that will achieve this miracle.
The total accumulated cost of this program over the next 20 years will be less than 3% of the total accumulated increase in gross agricultural income over this 20-year period. In other words, the benefit-cost ratio resulting from this miracle will be more than 30 to 1 during the first 20 years of the Center's operation.
Administrative Organizatio
The Commission recommends that the present administration and programs of the Direcci6n General de Investigacionec y --xtensi6n Agricola, the Instituto




- 5
Salvidorefo de Investigaciones del Cafd, and the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura "Roberto Quifl6nez" (ENA) be integrated into a National Center for Agricultural Technology to be located on ind in the vicinity of the present site of the National Agricultural School in San Andres. The Commission recommends that this Center be created as an Official Autonomous Institution to be governed by an appointed Board of Trustees who in turn will appoint a. Director General to administer the affairs of the Center.
The Commission suggests that the Faculty of Agronomic Science of El Salvador University be broadened in its disciplines and related to the National Center for Agricultural Technology through a Cooperative Agreement such as is used between the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Land-Grant Universities.
Under the Director General of the Center will be the Director of the
National School of Agriculture, the Director of the Coffee Research Institute, the Director of Agricultural Research, and the Director of Agricultural Extension.
On the Director General's Staff will be (1) two Administrators, (a) the
Administrative Officer and (b) the Manpower and Personnel Officer, and (2) five chiefs of service functions, which include (a) the Chief of the Library, (b) the Chief of Information, (3) the Chief of Evaluati6n and Training, (4) the Chief of Rural Community Development, and (5) the Chief of Foreign Liaison.
In the interest of efficiency and conservation of manpower and money it is proposed that there will be cooperation, coordination, and integration in so far as practical by grouping into six subject matter departments the personnel of the three functions,--training and teaching of agricultural technicians, research, and the extension of agricultural knowledge to the agricultural public Administration will be integrated in a feasible manner. The Library and the Department of Information will serve all three functions. Research
El Salvador now has one research technician for every 5,000 farmers.
* See page 108




-6
Because of lack of support as reflected in the form of low salaries and few scholarships only about 1/3 of the present research technicians have had or completed undergraduate training and only two have had graduate training. Thus, not only is the amount of money allocated to research in El Salvador woefully inadequate but it is being used inefficiently for the personnel whose work is spread too thinly over too many projects.
El Salvador has never allocated any resources to do research in such areas as livestock, cotton, forestry, pisciculture, the use of irrigation water, the utilization and processing of farm production and the prevention of storage losses.
The standard recommended by El Comitd Interamericano de Desarrollo Agricola (CIDA) is one research worker for every 800 farmers or over six times the p resent staff.
The Commission recommends 115 research units which will cover the research needs in practically all areas of agricultural technology. Each research unit will consist of (1) a unit head, a research scientist with doctoral level training and experience, (2) an associate with masters level training and experience and (3) an assistant with bachelor level training. This will provide approximately one research-technician for every 800 farmers as recommended by CIDA. in addition many research units will have one research apprentice, who will be a University student spending his fifth year doing a research problem in fulfillment of his Bachelor of Science degree requirements. If satisfactory he will then be eligible to be employed in the Center as a research scientist assistant. Each research unit will also include a research helper and a bilingual secretary.
Extension
The present Agricultural Extension Service~organized in 1949, consists of 51 field offices, 100 agricultural extension field agents and 40 home agents.




-7
The Extension Service is beset with the same problems as research-inadequate budgetary support which spells low salarieq, little or no funds for professional improvement, lack of transportation facilities and teaching and demonstration materials.
At present only 15 field offices have transportation facilities. With transportation, an agricultural extension field agent can contact 100 to 125 farmers per year intensively enough to affect improvement in production efficiency. Without transportation the number of contacts are considerably less. If the optimistic figure of 100 contacts per year per field agent is used, then it can be assumed that the 100 field agents are contacting 10,000 farmers per year. This is 4% of all farmers in El Salvador (estimated at 250,000 as of 1970). This means that it would take 25 years for all of El Salvador's farmers to be effectively assisted by an Extension Agent.
The Extension Service now has one agricultural extension field agent for each 2,500 farmers. In order to have an Extension Service that will be available to all farmers in El Salvador and have sufficient impact to induce a 5.7% agricultural output growth rate, the Commission recommends that the Extension Service be expanded to 125 field offices,each with a director and three auxiliary agricultural agents (one trained in animal husbandry), a 4-C agent and a home agent and that all personnel be provided with suitable and adequate transpor station. This will be one agricultural extension field agent for each 400 farmers, or 6 times the present staff. This will meet the standard set by FAO and by CIDA.
Agricultural Education
Training Agricultural Technoloists
In order to provide the trained manpower for the expansion of agricultural research and extension,as outlined in this report the Commission has determined that these needs can be fulfilled over a 10-year period by expanding the teaching programs of the National School of Agriculture and the Faculty of




Agriculture and the Department of Biological Sciences of the University of El Salvador according to the following recommendations:
The National School of Agriculture will increase its admission of men from 80 to 220 per year. This will increase the number of 3-year perito agricola agronomos from 61 to 178 each year. A fourth year program for 35 men from the third year graduates will be established. This will require increased physical facilities for 630 men students as compared with the present 250 and an expanded faculty sufficient to maintain the 15 to 1 ratio. A department of home economics will be established which will accept 75 woman each year and graduate 62 annually under a 3-year training program.
The University will expand its enrollment in the Faculty of Agriculture
and the Department of Biological Sciences sufficiently to graduate 100 bachelors by the 6th year of the Center Program. This will taper back to 60 bachelors after the 10th year which will be enough to maintain the Center program and the expanding needs of the private sector of agriculture and agri-business.
The Center will support a comprehensive program for graduate study scholarships in foreign universities. This plan will support two-year masters scholarships for 35 students beginning the second year of the Center Program and expanding to 95 students by the seventh year. It will taper back to 30 to 35 students by the ninth year. It will support three year doctoral programs for 14 students beginning the fourth year of the Center Program and building up to 55 student beginning the ninth year and tapering back to 15 by the 11th year. These projections for completions allow for a 20% dropout in each program (masters and doctorates).
S taffn hCenter
The Commission believes that El Salvador is fortunate to have good building blocks that will serve as a strong foundation for the Center. All of the Institutions which are to be amalgamated into the Center and those which will. be associated more or less formally through agreements have gained valuable




-9
experience in administration during the past 8 to 25 years. The Center will be able to start with a group of 275 people now engaged in teaching, research and extension. With competitive salary scales the Center will be able to attract its share of well-trained, experienced, and competent leaders from other public agencies, agribusiness and finance to administer the expanding Center,
The National School of Agriculture and the University of El Salvador assure the Commission that with a firm demand for agricultural technologists such as offered by the Center, they can expand their faculties and facilities so that they can, without sacrificing scholarships,be graduating 100 bachelors within five years and 175 peritos agricolas within four years. This will support the graduate training program as outlined above.
With this training program and assuming a 10% turnover in Center personnel it will be possible to complete the staffing of the Research Service according to the following schedule: research helpers, four years; assistant research scientists (bachelors), four years; associate research scientists (Masters), nine years; research scientist unit heads (doctorates), 12 years; and department heads, 5 years.
The staffing for the Extension Service will be completed as follows:
extension home agents, eight years; extension 4-C Agents, six years; extension agricultural agents, nine years; extension field office directors, seven years; and extension administrators and specialists, three years. The Extension Service expansion to 125 field offices will be completed in seven years.
The Commission has prepared a personnPI ochedulc providing for 16 grades of employment with 10 step raises in each grade. They have established a schedule of approximately 60 positions -.ithin the Center and have prepared job descriptions for all positions.
The Commission's.scheduled program for the Center buildup includes plans for top-level foreign technical advisors, which will increase to approximately




-10
65 during the second year and then taper off to zero by the end of the twelfth year. These will be provided on a grant basis by various foreign governments, multilateral agencies such as FAO of the United Nations, regional agencies and private foundations. Three will be assigned to the Center during its beginning years for administration, training and evaluation, and library management, Others will be assigned to ENA and the Extension Service, but the largest number will advise and assist the research units in getting much -ieeded research under way quickly. Each advisor will necessarily have to provide leadership for two research units. They will be replaced as rapidly as competent, doctorate level scientists can be trained or otherwise obtained to fill the research unit headships.
Physical Facilities.
The Commission has planned a program for the expansion of the necessary
physical facilities. This includes the acquisition of'almost'1200 hectares of land at San Andres, Santa Cruz Porrillo, Izalco and Chalatenango for crops and livestock research at a cost of approximately 072,640,000. They have carefully reviewed the needs for physical facilities which include an administration Center for all administrators, enlarged facilities for ENA, a library for 30,000 books, an information building to house the various needs such as printing, visual aids, graphic arts, photography and archives, six buildings for research which will house offices and laboratory facilities for coffee, plant science, chemistry and soils, animal science, social science, and agricultural engineering, and laboratory and teaching facilities such as greenriouse, animal buildings,- and food processing laboratories. It is estimated that these physical facilities will cost approximately 07,000,000. It is expected that the acquisition of the land and the construction of the physical facilities will be spread over the first five years of the Center's life. In other words, the physical plant will be complete in 5 years and the staff in 10 years.




Financing the Center
At the end of the initial 10-year period it is estimated that the annual
budget for salaries will be approximately C18,000,000. One third of the cost of salaries (q6,000,000) will be added for the various expenses that will be incurr ed to support the work of the Center personnel. Scholarships to support the program of the Center will cost annually up to q2,500,000 by the seventh year. They will taper off to 0-1,140,000 annually after the tenth year.
The number of schemes that can be devised for funding the Center are infinite'. The Commission has presented a proposal in this report to illustrate one possible plan for the financial support of the Center. Assuming that the total budget for the GOES increases 6% per year and that the annual appropriation for investment in agricultural technological development (the Center) is increased from the present 1.48% of the GOES budget to 5.00% (three tenths of one percent (0,37) per year), by the end of the 16th year, the GOES support will have increased from 13,700,000 to approximately t32,000,000 annually. At that point the annual budget for the Center will be approximately e32,000,000. Thus, the Center will then be currently self sustaining by the GOES.
Meanwhile, it will be necessary to borrow approximately lOO,000,000 which will be paid off over the following 30 years at 3% interest. This will add 0'5,000,000 to the Center's annual budget and is included in the W32,000,000 budget quoted in the above paragraph.
In Conclusion
The GOES has increased its annual appropriations in recent years for public school education from M18,000,000 to over 0780,000,000. This is very conimendable, but El Salvador's educated youth 10 or 20 years hence must have an opportunity to put its increased potential for productive work to good use. The only possibility for absorbing all of El Salvador's increasing population into useful employment during the next 10 to 30 years is through a vigorous,




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growing agricultural industry.
It is not a question of whether the country can afford this proposed
program of education, research and extension. El Salvador cannot afford no t to do it. If a vein of gold worth 3,720 million colones were discovered in the Salvadoran country-side, there would be a stampede to make the necessary invest ment to mine it. The potential for Salvadoran agriculture is aa great as a 3,720 million colones gold mine not only to be mined once but every year. The gold mine would provide increased employment and income and improved welfare for only a few thousand people for a few years. A highly developed agriculture will permanently provide increased employment and income and improved welfare for millions of Salvadorans.
El Salvador's agricultural resources are now a sleeping giant. The program proposed herein is the miracle key to unlock the door so that this giant can be awakened, emerge, and make possible the transformation of El Salvador into a fully developed economy and a productive nation of healthy and prosperous people.




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II. THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR III EL SALVADOR
A. THE ThPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN OVERALL DEVELOPMENT.
At this stage of Salvadoran development, the agricultural sector is the dominant factor contributing to overall economic growth. It accounts for the activities and welfare of 60% of the country's people, the utilization of 75% of the Nation's land area, 40 to 45% of the country's reproducible capital, 75% of its exports (foreign exchange earnings), and 30% of El Salvador's income as measured by its PTB*. In other words, El Salvador is dependent upon agriculture for the use of 75% of its land and water resources (which otherwise would go unused) and agriculture provides, at present, the only opportunity for gainful employment, and thus economic and social betterment, for 60% of El Salvador's people.
Agribusiness activities support the agricultural sector by providing
(1) supplies (inputs) for farm production, (2) services for transporting, storing, processing, and UAstributing farm outputs (marketing), and (3) institutional activities such as credit, research and education. These, when added to the "value added" income directly derived from agricultural production, double the income attributable to agricultural output. Thus, about 60% of El Salvador's PTB goes up or down with the volume of farm production not only because of the change in "value added' due to the change in volume of production and distribution of farm products but because of the multiplier or dimunition effects that these changes have on the entire economy.
Obviously, the future growth and development of agribusiness activities will depend directly upon the growth of agricultural output c,.- the country's
*PTB is equivalent to United States GDP.




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farms. Thus, the rate of growth of agricultural output at this stage determines, more than any other factor, the rate of overall country-wide development. If agricultural output increases rapidly it increases income accordingly, thus stimulating overall growth. If output increases slowly the agricultural sector becomes a drag on country-wide development.
The importance of agricultural development to the economic growth of
many countries in Latin America has been underrated and investment has been inadequate. It has not been fully understood that agriculture is not only the principal source of food for a rapidly expanding and urbanizing population, but that, in addition, it is-a critical source of raw materials for industry itself, an important source for the earning of additional foreign exchange, and a potential mass market for the products of industry.
Salvadoran agriculture has provided some raw materials for industry and exports to earn much needed foreign exchange for industrial development. These invaluable contributions of agriculture have helped industrial growth tremendously. Indeed, agriculture has been the very foundation on which the entire Salvadoran economy has been built.
Finally, mature industrialization requires much wider markets than the small higher-income minority can provide, which 1 only -nough to sustain the first phase of import substitution of agrct'iltural production goods and consumer goods. A developed productive agriculture is needed by urban industry not merely to supply food and raw materials and foreign exchange earnings -- it is also needed as a mass market for industrial products, if industrial momentum is to be sustained and move on from its import substitution phase to maturity.
B. AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT FALTERS -- EFFECT 61 GVERALL :CONOY
Agricultural output (physical) in El Salvador from 1955 through 1964 increased at an average rate of 5.0% per year, but for 1965 and 1966 it




faltered and, in fact, dropped 11.2% and 9.1% respectively, below the 1964 high. Preliminary estimates for 1969 indicate that total agricultural production was the same as the 1964 high.
In terms of PTB, agriculture's contribution in 1969 is estimated to be only 0620,000,000 instead of the 0791,000,000* that it might have been had the 5% growth rate continued through 1969. This decline in the agricultural growth rate equally affected the agri-business sector and thus directly denied the PTB of 0348,000,000 not to mention the multiplier effects this would 'have had on the total economy.
This slowdown in agricultural output is (1) increasing food imports and reducing agricultural exports, thus, aggravating balance-of-payments problems,
(2) rdducing sources of income for governmental activities and (3) complicating the country's ability to support investment programs necessary for continued growth and development.
Thus, if the 5% growth rate for agriculture and agribusiness had
continued the PTB for 1969 might have been 02,724,000,000 or almost 15% higher than the 02.382,000,000 now estimated. Furthermore, this slow-up caused a reduction in exports in 1968 of approximately 80 million colones under what they would have been had the 5% increase in agricultural production been maintained. Meanwhile, also, food imports have increased by 25 million colones over what they might have been if agricultural output had continued to increase.
Using a crude approximation, the foreign exchange lost through a drop in exports and spent for increased imports could support a 15 to 20% increase in total investment in the economy over what it otherwise is at present. This condition of stagnation is alarming. If it continues El
*Assuming 1969 prices = 100




-16
Salvador's economic situation will progressively worsen and a crisis will be unavoidable.
C. CAUSE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS SLOW-DOWN This leads to the grave question, Can agricultural growth be revived?. To answer this we must ask, "What has caused the decline"? and make a diagnosis of the ills which have led to the present condition.
The drop and stagnation in-total agricultural production during the past
five years was due largely to a drastic decline in cotton production. A large reduction in bean production preceded the cotton drop. Other crops such as bananas suffered declines. For each of these, insects, disease and variety problems arose for which there were no answers due to inadequate Salvadoran resea rch. Reduced production of crops causing this slowdown has been largely offset by an increased area of rice production and increased corn yields due to the introduction of hybrid varieties. Had it not been for the fortunate development of one or two promising corn hybrids by research during the previous 10-year period, total agricultural production during the past 5 years would have suffered a dropoff rather than just stagnation.
Unfortunately El Salvador was not prepared through research to meet the
problems which have impeded the production of cotton, beans, melons and various kinds of vegetable and fruits.
Nor is El Salvador adequately preparing for future insect and diseases
problems that can overtake rice production, if it becomes more concentrated,
--or other crops such as sugar, corn, or coffee. Now is the time to be developing varieties that are immune to insects and diseases threatening these crops in other areas of the world, in order to be prepared for continued production, if they should reach El Salvador. To not be prepared would mean food or balance-o-f-payments problems too terrible to even contemplate for El Salvador.




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El Salvador's efforts in creating and enlarging institutions to hasten
agricultural development have been note worthy. Land settlement programs (ICR) have been enhanced; a credit agency (ABC) was set up; agencies for promoting livestock (MEGA and MEPO) and conservation and irrigation (META) through technical assistance and credit were created; an active agency to promote new business enterprise with emphasis on agribusiness (INSAFI) was organized; and extension education and research have been modestly expanded, but the total investment effort of these institutions has been grossly inadequate when compared with the investment needs of the agricultural sector.
The present stagnation in agricultural output is primarily due to inadequate technical assistance for research, extension, and higher technical agricultural education. It was lack of research knowhow that has caused the dramatic decline in the production of the above-mentioned crops. Sufficient technical assistance would provide the fundamental underpinning for increasing agriculture al productivity which is basic to agricultural development.
To single out one of the many essentials for agricultural development can be dangerously fallacious. But we may have all of the ingredients for agricultural development, namely: healthy and literate rural people, good land and water, sufficient agricultural production factors such as seed, fertilizers, pesti-' cidespetc., the credit necessary to purchase these factors, ample markets and marketing facilities, and adequate economic incentives, (for example, prices)-we may have all of these, but if we do not have the necessary technical knowledge (knowhow) when and where it is needed, then all of the other essential ingredients are lost.




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This statement considers (1) the present education-research-extension complex in El Salvador, (2) why it is critically important, (3) the future needs for education, research, and extension in the light of the objectives of agricultural development in El Salvador and (4) a proposal for the creation of a National Center for Agricultural Technology to meet these needs.




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III. PRESENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR-PROBLEMS A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Agricultural research in El Salvador was begun on farm crops in the early 1940"sI. While it has paid off handsomely in several cases (for example coffee
2
and corn breeding and sugar cane variety selection ) and the present small staff is to be commended, support from the beginning has been grossly inadequate. As a result research has had to be spread thinly and scattered over a multitude of unrelated but pressing agricultural problems. Research in El Salvador has been typified by uncoordinated and unstable administration, inadequate funding and by projects inadequate in scope, undermanned, and often discontinued before they produce lasting results. In other words, research programs have lacked continuity, organization and long-range planning.
1. Public support for Agricultural Research
At present, El Salvador is investing annually approximately 1,400,000 colones in agricultural research. This is 0.2% of the gross income of the agricultural sector (V620,000,000 in 1969). Practically all of this research, with negligible exceptions, is done by the Direcci6n General de Investigaciones Agron6micas and the Instituto Salvadorefto de Investigaciones del Cafd. Coffee accounts for approximately 30% of the gross income of the agricultural sector and research expenditures by the Coffee Institute (which was started in 1955) accounts for 30% of the above stated total research budget. Thus, coffee research expenditures represent also approximately only 0.2% of the gross income to Salvadoran coffee growers. But coffee research has been concerned with only
1. For a more detailed but brief history of Agricultural Research in El Salvador
see Appendix I
2. For a more adequate statement on the organization and achievements of
Agricultural Research in El Salvador see Appendix II.




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one crop while the agronomic research has had to be spread over 30 or more crops as well as maintaining research vigilance for new crops which may have possibilities for being introduced into El Salvador.
While coffee research has been more adequate and effective then research with other crops inasmuch as plant breeding, soil management, insect control, disease control, and cultural and management practices research could be concentrated on one crop, there are unfilled research needs even within the coffee crop enterprise.
Total research expenditures in the United States (public and private) are now over 25 billion dollars per year or about 3.4% of gross national product. (Of this over 16 billion dollars is contributed through the Federal Government.) This is quite in line with research investment in the more developed countries. Research is closely related to innovation and development. it has been paying off in such countries as West Germany and Japan.
Research expenditures vary from one industrial sector to another in the United States depending on the nature of the product. For example, the paper industry, one of the lowest, allocates 1% of its gross sales to research; the drug industry, one of the higher, allocates 5%. The total annual cost of agricultural research in the United States in 1965 was 1.219 billion dollars or 3.1% of the agricultural sector's gross income. This is typical of the more developed countries of the world.
The total annual agricultural research investment of 1.4 million colones in El Salvador amounts to approximately C0.93 per hectare of land in farms while the United States invests the equivalent of 077.50 or more than eight times the Salvadoran investment per hectare. On the basis of research expendi tures as a percent of gross agricultural income (3.0 to 3.5 in the more developed countries and 0.2% for El Salvador) the more developed countries are spending 15 times more per unit of gross income than El Salvador.




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2. Problems
The necessity for speeding up agricultural research in El Salvador is selfevident but this need (see next chapter) is not reflected by adequate budgetary support. In fact quite the opposite situation prevails. Budgets for research are grossly inadequate and inflexible to meet, even the short run needs. Budgetary inadequacies create'the following problems:
(1) Inadequate (low) salaries
(2) Lack of adequate scholarship programs
(3) Lack of other incentives to retain personnel (for example, health programs, retirement programs, etc.).
These shortcomings lead to:
(a) Recruitment of less qualified personnel
(b) High turnover of personnel
(4) Lack of transportation
(5) Difficulties in obtaining sufficient equipment and materials when and
where needed.
Inadequate Salaries. There has been no increase in salaries during the past 10 years. Meanwhile, however, salaries have been raised in other governmental agencies and by private enterprise for personnel of-comparable training and skills.
Inadequate Scholarship Programs. There is no definite program for training personnel. Post-graduate scholarships are rarely granted. Grants for in-service training are sporadic and usually limited to short courses of six months or less. Furthermore there is no provision for recognizing graduate training with higher salaries, hence those who have received training will leave for better positions with higher salaries commnensurate with their higher training. Thus, scholarship programs are inadequate and there is no built-in recognition for those who do achieve more training. Support and incentives are both lacking, Lack of Transportation. The lack of vehicles creates an alarming situation.




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It causes delay in the conduct of field work and sometimes discontinuation of some research projects. This results in inefficiency that is expressed in losses of human time and public funds already expanded. Difficulties in Obtaining Sufficient Equipment and Materials. This causes delay in the conduct of field experiments which must be conducted on a rigid time schedule dictated by seasonal behavior. Experiments often fail to get started or have to be abandoned because of lack of equipment and materials at the right time and the right place. This means loss of human time and public funds already expanded.
Lack of Other Incentives. There is a lack of fringe benefits such as retirement and health programs. There is no provision for progressive annual
*step increases in salary to recognize, workers for 'meritorious service and their dedication to agricultural research.
Because *of low salaries and lack of incentives such as inadequate scholar*ship programs, lack of fringe benefits and salary increases in recognition of meritorious service, it is difficult if not impossible to hire properly qualified personnel and if personnel does acquire additional training and experience and does meritorious work they are soon attracted to other public agencies or private enterprise.
Too Many Projects per Research Worker. Not only is the amount of money allocated to research in El Salvador woefully inadequate, but it is being used inefficiently. Personnel must spread their efforts so thinly over so many projects that they are unable to concentrate sufficiently on any single problem. Some section heads and senior staff members have to work on as many as 20 to 30 projects concurrently.
The personnel are ill prepared with regard to training and experience.
At present, only 12 out of a total payroll of 35 research technicians in Investi. gaciones Agron6micas (34.3%) have education near the equivalent of a Bachelor




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degree. Only 6 out of a total payroll of 15 in the Instituto Salvadorefto de Investigaciones del CafM (40.0%) have education near the equivalent of a Bachelor degree. Only one has had graduate school training leading to graduate degrees. Worldwide, it is assumed that it is necessary that scientific researchers obtain their training in the scientific disciplines, research methodologies, research experience, and the stimulation of their imaginations to lead them into the realms of the unknown, at the graduate school level.
This is not a criticism of the staff of the Direcci6n General de Investigaci6n y Extensi6n Agricola. That few have had or completed undergraduate training and only one has had graduate school training indicates the lack of support given to research. The provision for scholarships for graduate school training is almost nil. As stated above, salaries are low hence the turnover of personnel is very high. Reasonable incentives are lacking and morale is low. During the last 10 years all of those with advanced training have been attracted away from publicly supported agricultural research. Thus, given this situation, the number of personnel and the amount of money spent on agricultural research does not give the quantity and quality of results that should be expected even though only 0.2% of agriculture's gross income is being plowed back into agricultural research in El Salvador today.
3. Present Research-Shortcomings.
El Salvador now has one research technician for every 5,000 farmers. The standard recommended by El Comitd Interamericano de Desarrollo Agricola (CIDA) is one research technician for every 800 farmers or over six times the present staff.
Not only is research insufficiently and thinly spread among crops, but
many crops which offer possibilities for diversification are totally unresearched. Cotton, an important "life-blood" crop for El Salvador has never until recently been supported with public research. Livestock (beef and milk cattle)




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offer a tremendous opportunity to utilize at high productivity levels, almost a third of El Salvador's land area through forages. This resource is now largely unutilized at productivity levels approaching zero. Animal research in El Salvador (such as breeding, feeding, and disease control) has never been supported publicly or otherwise. Research on forages has been minimal. Forage utilization research has been nil.
About one third of El Salvador's lands the highest and roughest--are
suitable only for forestry and its related functions such as recreation, beauty fication, flood control and conservation of soil and water. At present these lands are adding very little to the economy of the country. In fact, they are contributing negatively through soil erosion and the sedimentation of its rivers and reservoirs. Had the scientific development of these 665,000 hectares been started 50 years ago they could be adding q250,000,000.to El Salvador's present gross national product or an increase of more than 10%. They could be providing productive employment for 50,000 or more workers than are employed today. This would improve El Salvador's balance of payments problem by a similar amount, say q250,000,000 colones by increasing exports and reducing imports of wood products. But this development must be preceded by forestry research and little or none has been done to date.
El Salvador has the water resources and farm units to support several
times its present 1,400 farm ponds whose output of fresh water fish is very low. With a progressive farm pond research and promulgation program, the nation could benefit from improved incomes and diets.
The utilization and propagation of salt water fish and other marine products are only fractionally realized, but in this instance, again, development must be preceded by research which, at present, is almost totally non-existent
Twenty percent of El Salvador's land in farms (over 300,000 hectares) is
potentially irrigable and plans are under-wy-to rea-lize-this potentialjesource,




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but up to now no research has been done on the utilization and application of irrigation water to crops Iunder El Salvador conditions. Irrigation with lack of knowhow leads to failure and loss of tremendous capital investment as demonstrated time and again throughout the world.
Almost no research has been done in the areas of the utilization and processing of agricultural products. Very little has been done on the marketing of farm products. Very little if any research has been done in recent years on farm management and farm policy problems. In the agricultural sector important decisions have to be made daily with very little analytical and background data on which to base these decisions.
At present, losses from insects in the production and storage-of such food crops as corn, rice, beans and sorghum reduce the amount available for consumption by 40 to 60%. In other words, if insect damage could be controlled the amount of these crops available for ultimate consumption could be twice what it is today. Research on insect control is grossly inadequate. Present
losses due to vieed,- rediace Yields from 10 to 30%. El Salvador has had practically no research on weed control technology.
Research on the control of potential insects and diseases, that could wipe out the production of important Salvadoran crops, is virtually non-existent.' For instance, coffee rust,hemileia vastatrix, has wiped out the Arabia coffees in Ceylon and East Africa. It is now found in Brazil. Rust resistant varieties should be developed and propagated as insurance, should coffee rust reach El Salvador. The same can be said for sugar cane. Research should prepare this industry against being eliminated should smut come to El Salvador. Even El Salvador's basic food crop, corn, is vulnerable to stunt disease. Four stunt viruses are known to be in El Salvador now. one farmer last year lost 300 manzanas of corn dui'&to stunt disease. At present there is no research in El Salvador working to develop resistant hybrids to control this disease which




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threatens and could virtually eliminate cornproduction in El Salvador.
Without casting unfavorable aspersions on the agricultural research work of the past and present (in fact quite the opposite is intended), and in the light of the total perspective of future research needs in El Salvador, it should be said that what has been done in the past has been grossly deficient in other words, less than minimal.
B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.
Agricultural Extension was organized in 1949 in response to the need for extending the knowledge being uncovered by agricultural research which was
1
begun in 1943 The Service grew slowly to 38 technicians during its first seven years. Then it maintained a plateau of approximately 50 technicians from 1957 through 1963. Between 1964 and the present the organization has expanded to 140 technicians (100 Agricultural Extension field Agents and 40 Home Economic field Agents) and 61 field offices.. Most (90%) of the agricultural extension field agents are graduates of the National Agricultural School in vocational agriculture.
The accomplishments of the El Salvador Extension Service have been very commendable considering the small staff and their limitations. For instance, during the 3 years 1965-1968, over 14,000 demonstrations were conducted under the massive demonstration program demonstrating the use of improved varieties, fertilizers, pesticides and improved cultural techniques. Over three fifths of these were corn demonstrations. Also included in the program were bean, rice, grain sorghum and banana demonstrations. In 1968, the Agricultural Extension Service organized and worked through over 320 boys and girls clubs with over 8,000 members conducting over 10,000 projects.
These are impressive figures and speak well for the work of limited 1. For a mdre detailed but brief history of Agricultural Exteasion in El
Salvador see Appendix III.




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Extension personnel working under various handicaps as discussed below. But when viewed in terms of the whole task which must be done if Salvadoran agricultural growth is to be realized, then present efforts and accomplishments become minuscule.
Salaries Salaries are relatively low- only 400 colones per month- -the lowest within the dependencies of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. Consequently turnover is very high,-more than 50% per year. Only 30% stay in the Service more than two years and only 3% have been in the Service 5 years or more. As soon as Extension employees are trained they are hired by private industry and by other public organizations or dependencies. In this turnover of personnel, the Ministry is losing a large investment in time, money, and the disruption of existing Extension programs. This is critical. Extension administrators contend that if salaries were raised to 600 colones per month, the problem would be solved. Instead of losing personnel, the service would attract personnel. Turnover would be reduced to less than 20%.. Higher salary scales are used in estimating costs for suggested expanded programs outlined in Chapters IV, V and VI.
Specialists Presently, there is a lack of specialists to advise the
corps of field agents. In reality, experts are needed that can communicate the results of research to the field agents so that they, in simpler language, can transmit this knowledge to farmers. At the same time the specialists need to detect the problems in the field and transmit them back to the investigators. The specialists provide the link between the investigators and the field.
Scholarships There is no definite program for the training of Extension personnel. Thus, this is another reason why the Extension Service is unable to attract and hold well qualified personnel.




- 28
Transportation Another problem faced by present Extension personnel is the lack of transportation. At present there are only 16 vehicles for 100 extension field agents. Without mobility, a field worker's efficiency, in terms of number of farmers reached, is reduced by more than 50%.
Equipment and Materials The Extension agents in the field offices do not have sufficient and proper equipment and materials for carrying out their programs through individual contacts, meetings and demonstrations.
Cometition between Agencies within MAG Other Agencies within MAG have programs of an extension nature to promote their various projects. Because these other agencies have better salaries, more adequate transportation and other amenities, the morale of Extension personnel is thereby weakened and because of duplication, resources are squandered. All programs relating to agricultural technology will be integrated in the interest of efficiency within CENTA.
Even with more adequate salaries and a more stable staff and with sufficient transportation,the present Extension organization would be totally inadequate to bring about massive transformation of technology within the agricultural sector. With transportation, an agricultural field Extension Agent can contact 100 to 125 farmers per year intensively enough to affect improvement in production efficiency. Without transportation the number of contacts are considerably less. If we use the optimistic figure of 100 contacts per year per field agent, then we can assume that 100 field agents are contacting 10,000 farmers per year. This is 4% of all of the farmers in El Salvador (estimated at 250,000 as of 1970). This means that it would take more than 25 years for all of El Salvador's farmers to be effectively assisted by an Extension agent.
The Extension Service now has one agricultural extension field agent for each 2,500 farmers. The standard set by CIDA is one Extension field agent




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for each 400 farmers, or more than 6 times the present staff. C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.
1. National School of Agriculture, "Roberto Quif6nez"
The National School of Agriculture was founded August 28, 1956 under the Minister of Agriculture and Livestock. The Director of the School is appointed by the Minister of Agriculture. It is located in the Valley of San Andres, at 475 mts. above the sea level, in a land area of 115 has. on the west side of the Panamerican Highway, 33 kilometers from San Salvador and 32 from Santa Ana, the two largest and most important cities of El Salvador.
The School confers the degree of Perito Agricola (Agricultural Expert) after three years of satisfactory theoretical and practical training. Admittance requi=ements have been raised since the School was founded and now students must be high-school graduates in order to be admitted. Thus, the three-year course of study is at present of junior college level.
The School now admits approximately 110 students annually. Allowing for a 10% attrition each year this will provide for the graduating of about 90 Peritos Agricolas each year. With this program the School's enrollment is around 250 students.
Students are required to spend their mornings doing field and laboratory work from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Classes are held in the afternoons from 1:91" p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
The three-year program of studies is divided into nine academic trimesters of 15-1/2 weeks each. This leaves one month for vacation. Forty-seven subjects are required and these are grouped into six departments: basic science, agricultural mathematics, agricultural economics, horticulture, agronomy, and zootechnia. The Faculty now consists of six department heads, 15 assistant professors and 9 instructors.




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The School has graduated 558 since its founding. These are mostly
Salvadoreans. The school admits 10 students from other Central American countries for each class. About 80% of these graduates now work for the government in such institutions as the Extension Service, Administraci6n de Bienestar Campesino, the Instituto de Colonizaci6n Rural, and others. The others are employed by farmers and private agri-businesses or are self-employed.
Arrangements have been made whereby graduates from the upper 25% of their respective classes may be accepted at the University of Florida and other U. S. Universities where in two years they can obtain a B.S. Degree. The National School of Agriculture of Mexico (Chapingo) also gives the equivalent of one to two years of credit.
The School's present buildings while inadequate, are modern and form a good nucleus for future expansion. Present facilities are:
a. Four-student dormitories (for approximately 235 students)
b. One classroom building with six classrooms, two laboratory rooms and
small library
c. One administration building
d. One clinic-hospital for medical and dental care
e. An Auditorium-dining'hall for 550 persons
f. Kitchen and laundry building
g. One small farm shop for student instruction
i. One small food processing plant
J. One building for 6. single staff members
k. Eight professor's houses
1. Three instructor's houses
m. Several farm buildings and a-waxehouse.




_ 31
a. Problems.
Since its establishment, the School has had a succession of problems which have limited its growth and programs. These problems include:
1. Low Salaries for Faculty. Instructors receive C300 per month. Professor salaries vary from g,500 to q700 per month and department heads receive C800 per month. The School does not have enough housing facilities for all faculty members. In fact, the majority of the Faculty must commute to the School daily. This involves heavy transportation expenses. Faculty members receive food products'in kind amounting to approximately C70 per month.
Faculty members work from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. to
5:00 p.m. on Mondays through Fridays and 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on Saturday. They alternate on Sundays. Thus remuneration is relatively low especially when the long week is considered.
2. Inadequate Library Facilities. There are at present less than 1,000 books in the library. For the 250 students and 40 staff members this is less than 4 books per person.
3. Inadequate farm laboratory facilities. This includes machinery and agricultural implements of all kinds, and basic service equipment, especially for transportation.
4. Lack of barns and sheds for protecting harvested crops, animals, and farm equipment.
5. Lack of adecuate Laboratories for student class use.
6. Insufficient land at the school and in other zones of the country.
More land is needed to provide food for the student body and to give adequate training to the students Under differing conditions in the various zones of the country.:
7. The annual. budge t 3nly provide- on dequate support for Faculty




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salaries, but inadequate funds for the farm operations, teaching supplies, and general maintenance of the buildings and grounds.
8. There are almost no facilities for recreation for the students and staff at the School. Being a boarding school it is indispensable that the institution be provided with adequate-social faculties, a cafeteria, swimming pool, and gymnasium.to ease the tensior of confinement and studies.
9. There is a general lack of incentives for the Sttrff'of the School.
Low salaries have already been mentioned. But there is also only limited oppor tunity for self improvement such as scholarships for graduate work, attendance at seminars, and vacation programs. Fringe benefits such as health insurance e'dprovision for retirement annuities are non-existant.
10. The bureaucratic systems for purchasing and issuing documents is sloyl and cumbersome. The need for the quick action in obtaining supplies and repairs is obvious. Slowness causes serious delays in the school's program. Smooth operation of the school's farm laboratories and the class rooms requires rapid action in the obtaining of repairs and supplies.
2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science at The University of El Salvador.
In 1948, the School of Agronomic Engineering was established in the
University of El Salvador. It was attached to the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture until the Faculty of Agronomic Science was established in August 1964. The program of instruction has been enlarged gradually and at present there are 28 professors in six departments of which twenty-one are full time. In 1968, nine students were graduated. Presently 27 students are majoring in the Faculty of Agronomic Science. The Faculty is located in San Salvador on the campus of the University of El Salvador in its own building, which was completed in 1969. This Faculty does not have an organized experimental field.
The authorities of the Agronomic Science Faculty consider that, for the




- 33
Faculty to fulfill adequately the functions for which it was created, they need a field station nearby with their own equipment and educational facilities where they can conduct research and demonstrate educational practices. They are desirous of better coordination with the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock as well as the other agricultural institutions of the country.
Due to the lack of facilities for education and research, many of the
egresados of the Faculty have difficulty in completing their theses and as a consequence they are delayed in receiving their Ingeniero Agr6nomo degrees. This results in a very high ratio between teachers and graduates and the educational cost per graduate is very high.
Su;3arizing, -these two institutions have a total of 65 professionals dedicated to teaching and training students in preparation for careers as future agricultural technicians and leaders. This is one teacher for every 3,850 farmers in the country. The standard recommended by El Comitd InterAmericano de Desarrollo Agricola (CIDA) is one teacher for every 2,000 farmers or almost twice the number engaged in teaching at present.




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IV. NEEDS FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EL SALVADOR
Sa lvadoran population, now over 3,000,000, is expanding at 3.6-to 3.9%
per yearand will double in 20 years and triple to over 9,000,000 during the
next 30 years. Per capita incomes will increase 2.5% per year and thus the total demand for food will increase between 5 and 6% per year or three times
in the next 20 years and 5 times in the next 30 years.
All land in El Salvador is used, more or less. Thus, there are no "new lands" on which to expand agricultural production. But the presently used lands are producing only about 15% of what could be produced if all known agi cultural technology could be adapted and applied to El Salvador's agricultural resources through adaptive research and education. Hence, scientific knowledge, developed by research, offers the solution for better utilization of El Salvador's presently used land resources..This includes a body of scientific knowledge about the behavior of the various soil types and their associated climates, water, plant life, insects and diseases, and the economic environment which affects the organization and management of the individual farmunits and the related marketing procedures and facilities. Such knowledge will give increased yields, that is, increased output per unit of land.
To meet the demands of its increasing population with increasing incomes El Salvador's agricultural output must expand 5 to 6% per year. To achieve this rate of growth the country's investment in agricultural technological knowhow--research, extension and education--must be increased 7 or 8 fold as rapidly as possible in order to resolve the multiple problems that presently hold back agricultural growth in El Salvador.
This commission herein outlines the needs for a 7 to 8 fold expansion of investment in agricultural technology which will, in turn, have sufficient impact to support an agricultural growth rate of 5 to 6%. This, in turn, will




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stimulate the overall development of El Salvador. The benefits from this investment in terms of monetary returns will be more-than 25 times the additional cost.
A. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH NEEDS
Agricultural research is needed in El Salvador to develop improved varieties and strains of plants and animals which will (1) be resistant to insects and diseases, and (2) respond more efficiently to fertilizers and feeds. This will result in more outputs per unit of land or per animal.
Because of the lack of entomological and pathological research there have been few solutions discovered for the control of insects and diseases which are allowed to exist unhampered. Thus, potential output is limited. To solve these problems it is necessary through research to discover the biological cycles of insects and the mechanisms by which they transmit pathogenic organisms from plant to plant or animal to animal. It is necessary to understand,- through research, those physiological mechanisms used by plants in order that new resistant varieties and strains can be-.developed.
Insects, including many species unknown in the temperate zones of the world, are more prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics. They can be controlled but it is first necessary to develop an understanding of the insect complex as it exists in El Salvador. Then Salvadoran scientists can begin to develop low-cost controls.
The same is true for plant diseases, many of which do not even exist in other parts of the world. In fact, according to Frederick L. Wellman of North Carolina State University (U.S.) there are three to four times more known plant diseases in the tropic and sub-tropic zones than in the temperate zones. For example: known diseases for citruses are 248 to 50 iJn favor of the temperate zones; tomatoes, 278 to 32; rice, 500 to 54;,beans, 253 to 52; potatoes, 175




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to 91; and maize, 125 to 85. But plant diseases can be controlled in the subtropics if sufficient well-designed research is applied locally. This research cannot be done in other parts of the world.
Tropical and sub-tropical soils behave very differently than temperate zone soils and require a more intricate kind of management, which is possible if it is based on adequate locally applied research. Most of the research done on soils, insects and plant and animal diseases in the temperate regions cannot be transferred directly to El Salvador. In fact,.-soils, insects, and diseases in the San Miguel area may be quite different than those in the Chalatenango area; hence applied research on soils management, insects and plant diseases must be done locally at different locations even in a country as small as El Salvador.
It is necessary to integrate the work of the various disciplines as they apply to the production efficiency of any single agricultural product such as, for example, cotton, coffee, maiz, beans, or dairy products. And it is-necespary to coordinate the work of each discipline as it applies to and among various plants and animals, since problems are often interrelated as between various kinds of crops.
Research teams must be organized representing the various disciplines
pertinent to the problem. For example, if the problem is low bean yields, then varieties must be developed that have inherent tendencies to higher yields, are resistant to diseases, are not susceptible to insect pests, and have high response to fertilizer. Thus, this problem requires the integrated attention of plant geneticists, fertilizer and soils specialists, entomologists and plant pathologists. If the bean yield problem is broadened-to Lndbide eptimizing-total output and the use of capital and labor, then other cultural practises are involved and agronomists, and management and marketing specialists must be included on the team.




- 37
The above emphasis on increasing yields, that is, output per unit of land, is necessary because of the limited amount of available agricultural land in El Salvador and a growing partially under-employed population which will double in the next 20 years and triple in the next 30 years. Since there is no more land'--to farm, the only alternative is to produce more of present crops per unit of land or shift to more productive crops. This calls for more research,-research on climatic behavior, soils and soils management, soils and water management. the development of new higher yielding disease resistant varieties of crops now grown in El Salvador, the development of new crops not commonly grown in El Salvador, the development of more efficient fertilizers for plants and feeds for animals, cultural practices, management, and marketing, including storage, processing and distribution. And it calls for more research on ways of reducing losses during the different stages of production and marketing.,
The research program must be planned to be consistent with overall
country-wide policies as well as with the overall agricultural policies of the country. The research program must be tuned to the problems of the individual farmer as well as the farming industry as a whole. The research pr6gram must be directed to solve these problems. It must be planned to allow reasonable time to secure firm results that can be used with confidence. And finally the results must be promulgated promptly to the farming public and the knowledge put to work without loss of time. (See next Section on Extension Needs..)
El Salvador must develop a coordinated expanded National Agricultural
Education and Research Program on a crash basis but of course, realistic from the standpoint of available trained manpower. And furthermore, this must be planned on a long time endlessly continuing basis because in this fast-changing world new techniques are developed rapidly and competitively. For instance, El Salvador has.developed some promising hybrid corn varieties but unfortunately




- 38
the research program has necessarily now been relaxed and new diseases have shown up recently on the varieties that have been developed. This situation should not be permitted, otherwise El Salvador will again soon be out of the competitive race in corn production.
In summary, it may be said that increased research will provide technical knowhow for increasing crop yields, for improving the efficiency of transforming feeds to livestock products, for reducing losses during the different stages of production, storing, processing and distribution of farm products. This all adds up to greater efficiency throughout the entire agricultural sector of the economy.
1. Areas for Additional Research.
More specifically, agricultural research support must be increased to meet the following dire needs:
a. Broaden present agronomic research to make it more effective in increasing efficiency in the production of present crops with emphasis on the traditional food crops. Develop an understanding of the insect-plant disease complex now threatening the entire cropping program, especially on the Coastal Plains. This should be a crash program.
Broaden agronomic research to include crops which may have potential
possibilities as future enterprises for diversification. The technical basg for productivity must be tested for each potential crop. Scientists must demonstrate through yield trials whether they can achieve high yields according to world standards.
Several..fruit and vegetable crops such as citruses, melons and okra
offer possibilities for diversification butmust first be researched to provide disease resistant.strains adapted to El Salvador. Oil crops such as soybeans and peanuts should be researched vigorously. It is almost certain that new




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crops, even though they may seem to be problem-free in the beginning will develop insect-plant disease problems as production becomes more concentrated. This has been true of practically every new crop introduced into El Salvador.
b. Strengthen coffeeproduction research and add coffee utilization research in order to increase efficiency of the coffee enterprise. Coffee yields could be increased fivefold. The national-goal should be to increase the national research. Increased coffee-production efficiency is consistent with the world coffee situation and operation under the World Coffee Agreement. If the-Agreement is to be successful in the long run, quotas must be sufficiently flexible to encourage the world's coffee needs to be produced where efficiency is highest.
El Salvador's goal must be to maintain or increase present production, working within current world marketing needs, on less land. Higher yields will "liberate" part of the present coffee land to other uses such as fruit or forage production, thus gaining higher utilization of El Salvador's scarce and expensive land resources.
El Salvador's ability to retain present quotas or obtain larger quotas in the future will depend on its ability to increase efficiency and compete with the world in coffee production. This rationale points up the need for emphasis on coffee management research.
c. Establish a strong unit on cotton research to work on (l) the development of new varieties that are more adaptable to El Salvador with respect to yield, quality of fiber, disease and insect resistance, plant structure that facilitates weed control, pesticide application, and harvesting, and (2) the development of an understanding of the insect-plant disease-weed complex and their interrelationships in order to control costs, minimize losses and maximize profits.




-40
This should be a crash program. Once this complex including natural predators is understood, it may be possible that some rather simple controls can be introduced to change the entire picture of cotton production with respect to costs and competition. Such a program should begin to have significantly favorable effects on the industry within 3 to 5 years.
d. Establish a responsible first class research unit for livestock production. Approximately one third of El Salvador's land area is suitable only for pasture and forage production. With present known technology applied, through research, to El Salvador's vast pasture and forage lands this could be a major income producing resource for the country by converting the pasture and forage from these lands to meat and milk products by ruminants such as cattle and goats.
At present, under traditional practices, these lands are being utilized at approximately 3% of their potential. With the use of modern technology,. developed through research, the production from these lands could contribute 01,850,000,000 to the country's PTB. This is more than three times the value of all agricultural production today in El Salvador and more than 30 times the value of the present annual production of meat and milk from cattle and goats.
With modern technology, pasture -forage- livestock products
. production becomes an intensive high-value type of enterprise which makes this use for land competitive with other high-value uses such as for coffee and fruits. It would also absorb much labor which is a vital consideration in El Salvador.
El Salvador has not supported livestock research in the past, hence, livestock production*(excluding poultry) has progressed very little. Traditional husbandry and marketing still prevails.




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These considerations can only lead to the conclusion that an intensive pasture-forage-livestock industry can and must be developed, based on scientific knowledge obtained from a broad well-conceived research program.
Through genetic research, cattle strains must be developed that are
adapted to El Salvador, to achieve high yields of meat and milk. This requires research on animal health in order to control long-time existing diseases that presently limit output. Research is needed on the physiology of reproduction in order that the number of calves per cow can be raised to a satisfactory level under the El Salvador environment. The future program must include feeding and nutrition and general management.
This work should be closely integrated with a strong forage crop unit in agronomic research to investigate the forage crop-cattle complex for optimum production per unit of suitable land. This research program must include an evaluation of pasture species, cultural methods such as sowing densities, height and frequency of cutting, grazing frequency, response to fertilizer, response to supplementary irrigation, rotation patterns, and nutritional values for conversion to livestock products.
Intensification of forage crop production and feeding in El Salvador must occur simultaneously with improved methods of management and health protection for the ruminant animals which harvest the forage and convert it to food for humans.
Ruminants can be a particularly valuable asset for El Salvador because they can efficiently convert the potentially abundant forage feedstuffs into human foods. These feedstuffs can be produced on the lands that cannot be utilized for the production of other crops.
.The future demand for animal products for domestic and foreign needs will increase from 6 to 10% annually during the next 20 years.




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Special attention must be given to research in the growing of other animal species such as goats and rabbits that are efficient converters of forages to animal products.
Even though the poultry industry has achieved a high degree of
technification, thanks to the efforts of private enterprise, there is need for research, especially in management and marketing. New kinds of feeds are continually being developed and price relationships between feeds are always changing. Hence, rations must be continually recalculated to achieve high outputs per hen at low costs. Marketing conditions in the various alternative outlets are always changing, hence continuing research is essential if efficient marketing is to be realized.
Physical and biological research should also be conducted on other
related enterprises such as swine and bees to provide a basis for determining the economics of their role as supplementary or complementary enterprisescontributing to diversification.
Bee culture in El Salvador has a promising potential if it is thoroughly and scientifically researched. Bee culture is adaptable to the small campesino as well as the large sized farmers. It provides a basic food that can be used by the campesino family as well as a source of cash income from well-established markets.
e. Inaugurate a forestry research program. This must include research on reforestation needs and practices as related to soil and water conservation, flood control, wildlife propagation, recreation, the future demands for forest products and the overall social and economic effects of forests on the growth and development of the country. This calls for integrated research programs that requires the team approach. Forest research teams must include forest tree culturists, soils specialists, entomologists, pathologists, wood




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technologists, wildlife specialists, and specialists in management and marketing.
An enlightened forestry program for El Salvador is a matter of first order. A well conceived forestry program conserves soil and water, preserves the natural beauty of the landscape, prevents floods and the loss of soil, provides an economic livelihood (employment and income) for many people and helps the overall economy of the country by reducing the need for imports and providing
more exports. (See page 24 for a statement on the economic and social pot~ tentials for forest development in El Salvador.)
f. Establish a strong unit to research the application of irrigation water to specific crops with respect to timing, amounts, and methods in order (1) to minimize insects and diseases and optimize yields, and (2) to determine chemical effects on soils.
The land resources of El Salvador are limited and the rainy season is
confined to a six months period. Hence irrigation not only offers an opportunity for raising crops during the dry season but also reducing drought risks during the rainy season by making supplemental water available for use at critical moments during the life cycle of the plants.
Irrigation is not simply a matter of conducting water to the field.
Successful irrigation requires a knowledge of relationships between soil, plants, and water. Thus research is required to determine such things as the water requirements for the different crops, the frequency and time of application, soil characteristics and their capacity to retain water, 1ogse-s by
evaporation and transpiration, and production functions showing the relation
ships between varying amounts of water and fertilizer and yields.
Little or no research in this field has been done in Central America.
Research is necessary if reasonable returns from the large investments in,




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irrigation facilities are to be realized and damage to our soils is to be
avoided. It is crucial that Salvadoran agriculturists understand that properly managed application of water is not only a problem of optimization, but that poorly managed water use can actually ruin good farm land.
g. Establish research in pisciculture. It is an established fact that
fish provides a complete human food, including proteins which are lacking in the typical Salvadoran diet. The potentials for producing fresh water fish in ponds and lakes in El Salvador are almost without limit. However, research is necessary to realize these possibilities for both sea and fresh water products.
Fishing research must include (1) the study of sea fish culture and the commercial utilization of sea fish and (2) the development of knowhow for the establishment of farm ponds which will provide another farm product that will contribute to the objective of diversification.
h. Maintain an expanded high grade research unit for the marketing and distribution of agricultural products. A Department of Marketing has been established recently in the Direcci6n General de Economia Agricola y'Planificaci6n of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. An expanded marketing research program should be built, using the present Department as the foundation for an enlarged and adequate marketing research program.
If agricultural output is to be increased from 3 to 5 times, then marketing facilities will necessarily undergo an increase of 6 to 10 times. Today, marketing is very inefficient with more than 50% of many perishables and 10 to. 20% of the basic non-pariL.hable grain- and cereals being lost during the process of marketing. Research essential for present and future decision making must include studies of storage, transportation, market price behavior and margins, market reporting and dissemination of price and volume information, and market facilities including processing facilities with emphasis on meats




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and fresh fruits and vegetables for domestic consumption and for export when economically justified.
The work of the marketing research technicians may, in some instances,
involve the team approach based on commodities or functions. For example, a research team on corn,or, say, cereal grains might conceivably include agricultural production scientists, a farm management specialist, a utilization specialist, and marketing researchers representing expertise on domestic markets, regional markets (CACM), and world markets. Other teams of appropri ate research experts might conceivably be created to study functional marketing problems such as, for example, storage facilities for cereals or terminal market facilities and management.
i. Organize a strong unit for farm management and price policy research.
This should include studies which (1) develop physical production functions of input-output relationships at varying levels of technology and efficiency and
(2) costs and returns analyses for various farm enterprises and for various types of farm operating units. Such basic information will enable decision
-makers to determine price incentives for inputs and outputs to assure a reasonable rate of development of the agricultural sector. This unit would necessarily have to cooperate and integrate its work closely with the work of the physical and biological scientists.
J..A utilization and processing research section should be established to
work closely with the researchers in the production field and with those interested who may become potential processors of farm products. Much of this section's work would involve compiling research information from other parts of the world and keeping abreast of the latest techniques which may possibly be applied in El Salvador.
k. Establish a research unit in human nutrition, housing and consumption




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management (consumer economics). This entire proposal for the development of El Salvador's agricultural sector through the application of technology stands on improved human efficiency,-physical and mental. Good health, physical and mental, depends on improved nutrition and housing. Improved human productivity depends on improved health and the desire for higher living standards. And the entire area of human and home improvement must be based on a foundation of continuing research and education.
Concluding this Section on additional research needs, it is necessary to bear in mind that for the agricultural development of the country, research projects must give results that have practical meaning. They must be planned to solve specific production problems. The proposed research must be "applied" or "oriented" bearing in mind (1) the present and future importance of the problem and (2) the possibilities for its solution.
When the problem to be resolved has been determined, the research project must provide for an integrated approach representing all related disciplines. It must continue for a sufficient time to assure reliable results and the researchers should plan to remain with the project as long as useful results are forthcoming.
Once the research needs and guidelines are established, it is essential to analyze exhaustively the priorities that must be given to the different programs according to a well defined policy of agricultural development for the entire country.
It is the farmer who must benefit immediately from the results of research. He must receive the information ap441v -1av 4n -" asy way to understand. It is the Agricultural Extension Service that must provide the link between the researcher and the farmer,-quickly and simply. (See page60 for a discussion of Extension Needs).




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Finally, the agricultural development that will result from agricultural research will improve the general welfare of all Salvadoran people. If the country wants to increase its food output and raise its levels of living accordingly, the public must understand the nature of agricultural technology and how it finally contributes to the general welfare. It must understand the numbers and kinds of teachers, researchers, extension specialists and other experts in the various scientific fields that will be needed to bring about this technification of the agricultural sector. It is fundamental and necessary that political leaders and government officials understand the need for agricultural research as a pre-requisite for agricultural growth and how it contributes to agricultural development and the general welfare.
Being aware that agriculturalresearch must be enlarged and better oriented, programs must be established that are indispensable for the integrated development of the country with priorities that this'development itself will demand.
2. Research and Diversification.
Diversification of agriculture means different things to different people. Generally speaking, in El Salvador, the diversification concept cannot be confined to coffee land alone. It embodies the modernization and development of the entire agricultural sector.
Overall country-wide diversification is one of the manifestations that comes with economic growth and development. It is an integral part and a result of the development process. This is also true when considering only the agricultural sector. Obviously, it is the agricultural along with all the dther sectors that adds up to increasing country-wide diversification in the production of goods and services.
In El Salvador commercial agricultural production, as in most tropical and subtropical countries, has tended to be concentrated on one or only a




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few crops and these were exported for foreign exchange. For many decades El Salvador had a basically one-crop economy--coffee. Then it diversified by adding cotton-and sugar cane to its commercial agricultural production pattern. The pattern of commercial crops came to be what it is today through the forces of comparative advantage as determined by world markets and based on available technical knowledge and customs. On the other hand, the pattern of domestically consumed food crops produced largely under a subsistence rather than a market economy environmen has been largely determined by the food needs of the subsistence farm families producing according to their tra ditional needs and customs rather than by modern technical knowledge.
Through the acquisition and application of new exogenous knowledge and
indigenous research and experience, other crops, particularly food crops for domestic consumption, can be increased and commercialized and new crops will be introduced into the cropping pattern. The adoption of improved cultural practices and techniques, under a system where the shifting or reallocation of agricultural resources is reasonably free and flexible, will result in a pattern of agricultural output that is more diversified than past patterns which were more or less limited by an environment we now refer to as "traditional".
Furthermore, El Salvador's future agriculture will be more diversified
because its natural resources are highly diversified with various combinations of soil types, topography, elevation, temperatures, moisture conditions, and underground water availability. If these natural resources are fully utilized through the employment of the various modern means of production, then the output will not only be-larger, it will inevitably be more diversified. Hence more and different products will'be available (1) for domestic consumption,
(2) for export, and (3) for industrial processing. Consequently exports will




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be augmented and the need for imports lessened. Also, this means-that automatically rural labor will be more fully and diversely employed.
Assuming that the latest knowledge is available to all the owners of agricultural resources and that the legal structure encourages rather than impedes flexibility in the use and ownership of agricultural resources, then resources will be shifted from the less advantageous to the more advantageous uses to the point where there is equal advantage from each use. Within agriculture there will be a continual striving toward equilibrium (never ultimately achieved) in the allocation of agricultural resources to the point where there is equal advantage for all crops produced in the country. As agriculture become more sophisticated, as agricultural techniques are improved through research, as comunication becomes more efficient, and as the investment necessary to expedite the adoption of the most efficient techniques is made availa ble, agricultural production will inevitably increase and the output pattern resulting from near equilibrium will be more diversified.
As a larger number of different agricultural products are produced
(diversified) present major crops such as coffee and cotton will become less important relatively, but not necessarily absolutely. In fact, it is quite probable that the production of coffee in absolute amounts may increase, if not subjected to institutional production limitations. Production will increase on the land more naturally suitable to higher yields and quality while the more marginal lands, due to natural limitations, will be shifted to other crops depending on,-how rapidly new techniques are developed and adopted among the various alternatives.
In the foregoing remarks it will be noted that research is mentioned
several times. It should be stressed here and now that future diversification (development) of agriculture in El Salvador primarily depends on a gr eatly




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expanded research 12rogram to study alternative agricultural enterprises. These
alternatives include a broad spectrum of 50 or more agricultural products
including grains, livestock and livestock products, edible oils, fruits, nuts,
vegetables, and fiber crops. The research needed for each product includes:
the development of varieties or breeds adapted to El Salvador soils,- climate,
and insect and disease complexes; methods and practices of planting and
cultivating; fertilizers and insecticide requirements; labor requirements and
utilization efficiency, organization and management for production and
harvesting; conservation, storage and processing needs; packaging systems
and methods; means and costs of transportation; distribution channels; fixed
and working capital requirements; licensing, regulations,inspection, and grade
standards; specifications for potential export markets, et cetera.
If this researched information is currently and systematically available,
then farmers and agribusiness entrepreneurs will be encouraged to invest in
new agricultural enterprises. Lack of such information is the principal
reason why prospective entrepreneurs are at present discouraged from.' .nvesting
new capital in new agricultural enterprises. On the other hand a strong
expanded research program will encourage investment in new enterprises not only because of already existing researched information upon which to build new enterprises, but because there exists a strong ongoing research program that is available and ready to research problems as they are sure to emerge* In other words, a strong ongoing research program is the best insurance that
can be devised for investment capital in El Salvador for new-diversified agricultural products.
*The order and priorities of research projects must be established to
* encourage and promote a more diversified output of agricultural products.
Research will bring forth new crops which will result in more intensive use




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of the land and require more labor. Agricultural research will provide a wider field of raw materials for agro-industry which will, in turn, produce a wider range of products and by-products for domestic manufacture and export. Agricultural research will result in greater diversification from the farm level to the national level. It will increase individual incomes and .
strengthen the nation's trade balance and thus the entire economy of El Salvador.
3. Personnel Needs for an Expanded Research Program.
To fulfill the needs for a broadened national agricultural research program which will have enough impact to sustain a 5 to $% growth rate and triple El Salvador's agricultural output in 20 years, it is recommended that the present research program be expanded as rapidly as is feasibly possible.
The Commission recommends that the research work be organized on the
basis of chairs or units. Each unit will consist of (1) a chairman or unit head--a research scientist with doctoral level training and/or its equivalent in experience, (2) an associate research scientist with master's degree level training or its equivalent in experience, (3) an assistant research scientist with a bachelor's degree training, (4) a research apprentice who has completed four years toward his bachelors degree and will complete the 5th year requirements for his degree during a one-year apprenticeship, (5) a research helper with a perito-agricola level training, and (6) a bilingual secretary.
All of the professional positions, especially the top three must be filled with aggressive imaginative personnel who are desirous and capable of going to the top of the professional ladder. The unit head must be capable of exerting leadership in his field and have a curiosity and imagination which will lead him into the scientific unknowns that will solve the problems and increase the efficiency of Salvadoran agriculture and thus give it a position of competitive leadership in world trade.




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Science is universal. It is especially essential that the Salvadoran Center for Agricultural Technology have instantaneous and continuous access to and communication with the rest of the world since research methodology and much already-discovered scientific knowledge is available and must be transferred to El Salvador on a continuing basis as a foundation for the applied research that can only be done here.
The Commission's proposal includes a staff of professional translators and interpreters for the Center, but it is also necessary that each research unit have a bilingual secretary who can communicate in a foreign language.
The organiz ation needed for a unified and integrated National Agricultural Research Program for El Salvador is outlined as follows:
The Commission recommends that 115 research units be established and staffed as quickly as possible. These 115 units will cover the research needs in practically all areas of agricultural technology as it applies to El Salvador. This will provide approximately one research technician for every 800 farmers
as recommended by CIDA.
It is recommended that the Research work be administered by a Director
and Sub-Director aided by a biometrician technical advisor who would have the rank of a Department Head.




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The following six Departments are recommended, each to be administered by a Department Head*:
1. Plant Science Fiber crops, sugar cane, cereals, beans, oil crops,
vegetables, fruits and nuts, and silviculture. This Department will
include sections for plant pathology and entomology.
2. Animal Science Ruminants (cattle for meat and milk), pigs, poultry,
and small animals(goats and rabbits).
3. Farm Management and Marketing
4. Chemistry and Soils
5. Agricultural Engineering (including irrigation engineering).
6. Home Economics
Research Units Required for the Recommended Expanded National Agricultural Research Program NON-FOOD CROPS Research Units
Coffee
Continue present program and add four units in
Management and Utilization 11
Cotton
2 Agronomist Units Variety Development and Cultural Technology
I Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
3 Entomologist Units (one on mechanics of control)
1 Plant Pathologist Unit 7
Kenaf, Henequen and Ramie
1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Utilization Unit-Processing and Marketing
1/2 Entomologist Unit ) To be combined with
1/2 Plant Pathology Unit) Forages and Pastures 3
* It may be that followup studies by the Commission of this report will sBggest
a larger breakdown of subject matter departments to be integrated with the existing Departments of the National School of Agriculture. (See page 29).




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CEREALS Research Units
Corn and Grain Sorghum
3 Agronomist Units-Variety Development and Cultural
Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit
1 Chemist Unit (To back up agronomists and soils specialists) 7
Rice
I Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural
Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit
1 Utilization Unit 5
ROOT CROPS
Yuca, Potatoes and Sweet Potatoes
1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development, Cultural Technology,
Soils Fertility and Water Use
1 Utilization Unit 2
BEANS and other leguminous crops, used primarily for foods
1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
I Entomologist Tnit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit 4
OIL CROPS Soybeans, Peanuts, Sesame, Sunflower, Castor Beans and others
2 Agronomist Units-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
I Plant Pathologist Unit
1 Chemistry and Utilization Unit 6
SUGAR CANE
1 Agronomist Unit
1 Processing and Uili7ation UnIt-For panela, syrups and other
sugar products. 2




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HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS Research Units
Vegetables
3 Vegetable Specialist Units-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
1 Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Entomologist Unit
1 Plant Pathologist Unit
I Marketing Specialist Unit 7
Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits and Nuts
I Citrus Specialist Unit-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
1 Mango Specialist Unit-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
1 Banana Specialist Unit-Variety Development and
Cultural Technology
2 Specialist Units for other crops such as nuts, avocados,
pineapple,"papaya, guayaba, etc.
2 Entomologist Units
I Soils Fertility and Water Use Unit
1 Processing, Utilization and Marketing Unit 10
Flowers and Ornamentals
1 Agronomist Unit-Variety Development and Cultural Technology
1 Marketing Specialist Unit 2
FOREPTRI
1 Forestry Specialist Unit
1 Forest Products Utilization Unit 2
WEED CONTROL




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ANIMAL SCIENCE Rdfteerch Units
Forages and Pastures -Ruminant Animal Production
(Cattle and Goat)
3 Breeding Improvement Units & Genetic Improvement and
Selection for Meat and Milk; Performance Recording;
Sire and Cow Identification and Evaluation; Genealogy
Records.
2 Reproduction and Lactation Physiology Units -Cow
Reproduction Efficiency; Artificial Insemination
Research; Causes of Delayed Breeding; Sire Breeding
Efficiency; Breeding Management; Lactation and Repro-'
duction Endocrinology; and Environmental Factors
affecting Reproduction and Lactation.
4 Forage and Feed Production and Utilization Units-Forage
Breeding; Cultural Practices; Irrigation; Species
Evaluation; Nutrient Management; Animal Management on
Pastures and Ranges; Forage Conservation; Hay and Silage, Making; and Forage Feeding Management. (These include 1/2 of Entomologist Unit and 1/2 of a Plant Pathologist Unit
to be combined with Kenaf and Henequen).
2 Ruminant Nutrition and Feed Evaluation Units Composition
and Nutritional Evaluation of Forages and Feed-stuffs;
Nutritional Requirements for Growth, Milk and Meat Production; Mineral Requirements, Deficiencies and Excesses; Vitamin Requirements; and Effect of Production Factors on
Composition of Animal Products.
2 Livestock Firm and Herd Management Units -Farm Organization
in Relation to Herds; Herd and Cow Management; Milling Manage
ment; Calf Raising Management; Sanitation; Water Supplies; Herd Health; On-farm Production of Cheese and Butter; and
Structure and Handling of Equipment. 13
Swine Production
1 Breeding Improvement and Physiology Unit Genetic Improvement;
Performance Recording; Breeding Efficiency; Artificial insemination;
1 Nutrition and Management Unit Nutritive Requirements and
Deficiencies; Baby Pig Nutrition and Management; Feed
Mobilization, Rationing, and Evaluation; and Housing and
Management. 2




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Poultry, Rabbits, and Other Small Animals Research Units
1 Breeding Improvement and Physiology Unit- Genetic
Improvement and Selection for Improved Egg, Meat
or Fur Production; Performance Recording; and
Physiology of Growth, Production and Reproduction
1 Nutrition and Management Unit.- Nutritional requirements and Defici&ncies; Feed Mobilization,
Rationing, and Evaldation; Housing and Management;
and tare of Products on Farm. 2
Animal Diseases and Parasites
1 Animal Disease Research Unit
1 Animal Parasite Research Unit 2
Apicultural Production
1 Unit on Production, Maintenance and Management of Bees 1
Fish Culture
1 Unit on Fresh Water Fish, Environment, Development and
Management
1 Unit on Marine Products 2
Wildlife
1 Wildlife Management Unit 1




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IRRIGATION Research Units
1 Irrigation Systems Unit-Underground, surface and overhead
1 Salinity Problems Unit 2
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
1 Land Stabilization Unit -Erosion Control
1 Farm Structures Unit
1 Farm Machinery and Equipment Unit
1 Farm Labor Efficiency Unit Labor Simplification, Low cost equipment, Hand Tools
1 Farm Storage Unit Crop Drying, Refrigeration 5
SOCIAL SCIENCE
Farm Management and Rural Sociology
1 Management Unit
1 Irrigation Economics Unit:
1 Farm Credit Unit
1 Rural Sociology Unit .4
Marketing
3 Domestic Marketing Units
1 Regional Marketing Unit
1 7*World Marketing Unit 5
Cooperatives
1 Cooperative Organization and Management Unit
HOME ECONOMICS
1 Foods and Nutrition Unit
1 Management and Equipment Unit
1 Textile and Clothing Unit
1 Housing and Sanitation Unit4
ECOLOGY
El Salvador's population will triple during the next 30 years and agricultural production can and must be quintupled during this period. But to preserve and improve El Salvador's environment, we must study all agricultural techniques in the light of their effect on our surroundings. They must not only contribute to increased productivity but maintain and improve the natural biological balances which will benefit rather than destroy El Salvador's natural environment with which it is richly endowed.
1 Ecology Unit
114




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Research Personnel Needs by Disciplines
Doctorate Master's Bachelor Perito
Disciplines Level Level Level Level
Agronomists 15 15 15 15
Oleiculturists 3 3 3 3
Pomologists (for fruits & Nuts) 6 6 6 6
Soils & Water 9 9 9 9
Chemists 1 1 i 1
Plant Pathologists 9 9 9 9
Entomologists 11 11 11 11
Utilization, Processing & Marketing 10 10 10 10
Coffee Specialists 3 3 3 3
Forestry I I 1 1
Forest Products 1 1 1 1
Weed Control 1 1 1 1
Animal Breeding & Improvement 5 5 5 5
Animal Reproduction Physiology 2 2 2 2
Forage and Feed Production & Use 3 3 3 3
Animal Nutrition & Feed Use 4 4 4 4
Dairy Records and Management 1 1 1 1
Beef Farm Management 1 1 1 1
Animal Diseases 1 1 1 1
Animal Parasites 1 1 1 1
Poultry and Small Animafs 1 1 1 1
Apiculture 1 1 1 1
Fishi Culture 1 1 1 1
Wildlife 1 1 1 1
Irrigation 2 2 2 2
Agricultural Engineering 5 5 5 5
Farm Management 5 5 5 5
Marketing 5 5 5 5
Cooperatives 1 .1 1 1
Home Economics
Food & Nutrition I 1 1 1
Management & Equipment 1 1 1 1
Textile and Equipment I 1 I 1
Housing and Sanitation 1 1 1 1
Totals 113 113 113 113




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B. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION NEEDS
At present there are approximately 4,000 farmers on the average for each of the 63 Extension field offices. The Commission recommends that the number of Extension field offices be increased to 125. Then practically every farmer in the country will be within reasonable reach of an Extension field office and an agent.
The Commission recommends that each field office be staffed with a director and three auxiliary agricultural agents (one trained in animal science), a 4-C agent and a home agent. Thus, there will be one agricultural field agent for each 400 farmers or six times the present staff. This will meet the standards set by FAQ ind by CIDA*.
With proven modern extension techniques which employ the use of local
leaders, meetings and mass media and with adequate transportation, this proposed organization will provide effective Extension contacts with every farmer every year. Modern extension teaching methods will make it possible for every farmer to have continuous information on the latest developments in agricultural technology.
C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR TRAINING TECHNOLOGISTS
In order to provide the trained manpower for the required expansion of
agricultural research and extension as outlined above, the Commission has deter mined that these needs can be fulfilled over a 10-year period by expanding the
*The United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) has set the maximum number of farms at 500 per agricultural extension field agent as a
minimum standard if agricultural efficiency and development is to be increased at the necessary growth rate of 5 to 6% per year. The United States
has a ratio of approximately 500 farms to one extension field agent. Some countries, notably Japan have even lower ratios. CIDA has set the maximum
number of farms at 400 per agricultural agent in Central America.
This "minimum standard" takes into consideration the availability of techni
cal assistance which is given by credit agencies and by private services
which sell farm supplies (improved seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, et .cetera).




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teaching programs of the National School of Agriculture and the University of El Salvador. The Commission believes that these programs are realistic in terms of available faculty and in terms of qualified students. Furthermore, it believes that the timing of the expansion of physical facilities and manpower, as vell as the involved costs, are soundly feasible.
1. The National School of Agriculture, "Roberto Quift6nez"
The Commission recommends that the National School of Agriculture increase its admission of men students from 110 to 220 per year. This can be done without reducing the quality of students. At present the School is only able to accept one qualified applicant in four. With increasing high school graduates in El Salvador the number of qualified applicants will continue to grow.
This increase in admissions will augment the yearly number of graduating Peritos Agricolas from the present 50 to 90 to approximately 180. In order to meet the future demands of farmers, agribusiness and the Extension Service for students having additional preparation in specialized fields, the Commission recommends that the School establish a fourth year program for 35 men from each year's class of 180 Peritos Agricolas.
In order to meet the demands of the purveyors of food, clothing, and.
housing and especially the institutions conducting research and extension in these fields, the Commission recommends that the School establish a Departmentof Home Economics which will accept 75 women each year and graduate 60 annually under a three-year training program.
This proposed program of expansion will require an enlarged faculty
sufficient to maintain a 15 to 1 ratio between students and professors including department heads. This will necessitate an expansion of the faculty from the present 38 to approximately 100. The accompanying tables 1 and 2 show




TABLE 1
ENA Student Enrollment Projections based on the Needs of El Salvador Assuming the Creation and Development of a NATIONAL CENTER.for AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY (CENTA)
Present Year 1 Year 2 year?3 Year 4 Year 5
-- Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home
Student Ecs. Ecs Ecs. Ecs. Ecs. Ecs.
JIst. year 81 122 220 220 75. 220 75 220 75
2td. year 75 75 110 198 198 68 198 68
3rd. year 53 53 68 99 178 178 62
4th. year 23 35 35 35
Totls 250 250 421 552 75 631 143 631 205




TABLE 2
ENA Faculty Projections based on Student Enrollment Projections Assuming the Creation and Development of a NATIONAL CENTER for AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY (CENTA)
Present Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home Agric. Home Ecs. Ecs. Ecs. Ecs. Ecs. Ecs.
Students 250 250 421 552 75 631 143 631 205
Dept. Heads 6 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 -1 6 1
Professors 19 19 22 31 5 36 10 36 15
I.Lstruct'rs 13 13 21 28 4 32 7 32 10




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projected needs for students and faculty as outlined above. The projected needs for facilities will be considered in Chapter VI.
2. The Faculty of Agronomic Science -The University of ElSalvador In discussions between the CENTA Commission and representatives of the
Faculty of Agriculture and the Institute of Biological Science of the University it has been agreed that the Faculty and the Institute can increase its Bachelor graduates from 30 during the second year of CENTA to approximately 100 by the sixth year. This would satisfy the demands for Bachelor degree trained personnel by the Center and by other public institutions and private agribusiness enterprises.
This projected program would then taper down after the tenth year to
whatever number of bachelors would be sufficient to. maintain the Center program and the expanding needs of the private sector of agriculture and agribusiness. It has been estimated that 60 graduates may be enough to satisfy the demand at that time. This, however, is probably a conservative figure since by then growth of agricultural output should have sufficient momentum to demand related services in geometrically increasing numbers.
The University Bachelor Degree candidates must spend a fifth year on a special problem in order to fulfill their requirements for a degree. It is recommended that those Bachelor candidates who may be interested in and suited for a career with CENTA, be employed by CENTA during their fifth year as research apprentices during which time they will complete a research study in fulfillment of their Bachelor of Science degree requirements. If satisfactory they will then be eligible to be employed in the Center as research scientist assistants. If these relationships continue to be satisfactory they will be eligible for scholarships for graduate training, which eventually,as they gain




65
further training and experience, could lead to the top in the Center organization.
The future needs of the University to meet this projection for'more graduates has been taken into consideration in the projected budget as proposed in-Chapter VII.
3. Graduate Training Program
The Center will support a comprehensive program for graduate study
scholarships in foreign universities.-This plan will support two-year Masters scholarships for 35 graduate students beginning the second year of the Center Program and expand to 95 students by the seventh year. It will taper back to 30 to 35 students by the ninth year.
The Center will support three-year Doctoral scholarships for 14 students beginning the third and fourth years of the Center Program building up to 55
students by the eighth year and tapering back to 15 by the tenth year. These projections for completions allow for a 20% dropout in each program (masters and doctorates). A table of graduate scholarship projections will be found in Chapter VI.




66
V. A NATIONAL CENTER FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN EL SALVADOR
The Commission has reviewed and studied the agricultural sector and its role and importance in the overall economic development of El Salvador and concluded that it is the most important consideration at this juncture in El Salvador's development. It has noted the recent slowdown in agricultural growth and its present state of stagnation and its dragging effect on the entire economy. It has concluded that unless an annual growth rate of 5% or more can be restored, the future development of El Salvador is indeed dark.
It has studied the causes of this condition of stagnation and concluded that it is basically the result of inadequate technical know-how to cope with the diseases and insects of crops and livestock, the problems of adaptation of plant and animal life to the Salvadoran environment, and the behavior and actions of the tropical soils peculiar to El Salvador.
The Commission has noted that in those countries which have experienced a break-through in agricultural technology, approximately 7 percent of their annual gross income from agriculture was reinvested in agricultural research and education. It has been determined that El Salvador is investing less than .6 of one percent of its agricultural income in agricultural research and education.
It has asked itself: "If it takes an annual reinvestment of 7 percent of their gross agriculture income in those countries which have experienced agricultural technological breakthroughswhy should we expect tropical countries such as El Salvador to do it with only 1/12th as much expenditure for agricultural research and education?".
It has concluded, that if our agriculture is to regain a healthy growth rate and stimulate the country's economy, El Salvador must increase its annual investment in research and education several times over present levels, not




- 67
12 times but 8 to 10 times, since some research knowledge from other parts of
the world can be adapted to El Salvador.
The Commission has studied El Salvador's needs for technically trained
i manpower and finances to carry on the necessary expanded program of agricultur
aleducation. It has studied the availability of technically trained manpower
and finances. It has concluded that, while both are critically scarce, both
can be mobilized and in the case of the latter, El Salvador cannot afford not to
make the investment. It will pay off handsomely as it has elsewhere in the
world.
The Commission has studied the problems which presently beset agriculture
al research and education in El Salvador. It has concluded that the public does not realize the importance and the critical need for this work in our
country; hence its support, manifested in budgetary inadequacies, is totally insufficient to meet El Salvador's needs. This dire situation has expressed
itself. in low salaries, lack of incentives such as scholarship programs, health benefits and retirement programs. This, in turn, has led to less
qualified personnel with high rates of turnover. It has led to grossly inadequate transportation facilities and difficulties in obtaining sufficient
equipment and materials when and where needed.
The Commission has noted that there are several public agencies within
and without the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock that have programs of
an extension nature to promote their various projects. Because some agencies have better salaries, more adequate transportation and other amenities than others, morale is'weakened and because of duplication, resources are squandered. There is lack of communication and coordination between agencies responsible for developing and spreading agricultural technology.
These observations have led the Commission to what it considers an




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obvious and logical conclusion. The Commission recommends that the adminise tration of all programs pertaining to the creation'of agricultural techological knowhow (research) and the promulgation and divulgation of agricultural technical knowledge (extension) and the training of agricultural scientists at the college or above college level, be integrated into a National Center for Agricultural Technology.
More specifically, the Commission recommends that the present administration and programs of the Direcci6n General de Investigaciones y Extension Agricola,-the Instituto Salvadorefo de Investigaciones del Caf4, and the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, 'Roberto Quifi6nez"(ENA) be integrated into the National Center for Agricultural Technology. The Commission recommends that the Center be located on And in the vicinity of the present site of ENA in San Andres, and furthermore, that this Center be created as an Official Autonomous Institution to be governed by an appointed Board of Trustees who in turn will appoint an Executive Director to administer the affairs of the Center.
The Commission suggests that the Faculty of Agronomic Science of El
Salvador University be broadened in its disciplines and related to the National Center for Agricultural Technology through a Cooperative Agreement such as is used between the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Land Grant Universities.
Under the Director General of the Center will be the Director of the
National School of Agriculture, the Director of the Coffee Research Institute, the Director of Agricultural Research and the Director of Agricultural Extension.
On the Director General's staff will be (1) two administrators, (a) the Administrative Officer and (b) the Manpower and Personnel Officer, and (2) five heads of service functions, which include (a) the Librarian, (b) the




- 69
Chief of the Information Service, (c) the Chief of Evaluation and Training,
(d) the Chief of Rural Community Development, and (e) the Chief of Foreign Liaison.
Thus, cooperation and coordination will be achieved between the National School, the Coffee Research Institute, the Research Division and the Extension
Divisionwith the Director General serving as the chairman of the Joint Board of Directors. All research and extension activities within the country will be integrated into the Center, thus coordination and the elimination of costly duplication will be accomplished.
There will be greater efficiency and conservation in the use of manpower and money since all functions will be serviced by one administrative unit, by one Information Service, and by one Library. There will be cooperation, coordination, and integration in so far as practical among the personnel of the three functions.-training and teaching of agricultural technicians, research, and the extension of knowledge to the agricultural public. All teaching, research and extension programs will be closely coordinated. Where practical, individuals may combine, say, teaching and research, research and extension or teaching and extension. All of the functions will be coordinated and their activities combined as much as is feasibly possible when working with the agricultural and the general public.
The following Chapters will describe in more detail the organization, operation, financing, and justification for the proposed Center.




-70
VI. THE ORGANIZATION OF "CENTA"
A. LOCATION
Because of the natural characteristics and existing man-made facilities of the area the Commission recommends that the National Center for Technology be located in San Andres on and in the vicinity of the present site of the National School of Agriculture.
The natural characteristics are favorable for a Center. The site is
surrounded by 15,000 hectares of land which is largely adaptable to agricultural use. The soils are of sandy loam texture, fertile and slightly acid. Most of the area is irrigable with available water from local rivers and underground sources. The Valley has an elevation average of 470 meters above sea level with higher elevations in the surrounding hills and volcanos. The temperature averages, annually, 23C. degrees and the precipitation averages approximately 1,800 mm. per year.
The area is well provided with infrastructure for power, communication and transportation. It is located on the Pan American 4-lane super highway 30 kilometers from San Salvador, 21 from Santa Tecla and 32 kilometers from Santa Ana.
The Center will be adjacent to the San Andres Experimental Field Station. The National Normal School, "Alberto Masferrer" which provides facilities for teacher training, is located in the vicinity of San Andres.
Nearby the Center will be found the Ruins of San Andres or Tecp6n. Thus, the area will be an archeological center of increasingly important cultural, value to El Salvador. Plans are underway for developing in the area a Zoo by the Ministry of Education and a Botanical Garden by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock.
Presently, the Experimental Field Station embraces 271 hectares of land




- 71
and offices and storage facilities. The National School of Agriculture includes 115 hectares of land and school administrative offices, student dormitories, living quarters for personnel, class room facilities, dining room and auditorium, and field installations. Including land, buildings, and equipment the present investment in these two institutions exceeds 05,000,000.
Presently, the Government of El Salvador, through the Ministry of
Agriculture and Livestock is pursuing a program for the technological development of the adjacent Zapotitan Valley. This includes construction of drainage, irrigation and road facilities. The Rural Colonization Institute is working on the division and distribution of lands and the development of rural communities. The community of Sitio del Nifto has been serving as a pilot community for several years. Thus, the area has many projects and programs involving socio-economic-rural reforms and technical assistance which is providing experience for the development of the entire country.
To add diversity to this area there are industrial developments along the Pan American Highway, Sitio del Niflo, Apopa and La Cuchilla.
It is because of all of these factors, in a spacious developing area with diversified interests including research, education, and cultural activities, that the Commission recommends the San Andres area as the location for El Salvador's future National Center for Agricultural Technology. B. MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL
1. Training Agricultural Technologists for the Growing Agricultural Sector
The Commission believes that El Salvador is fortunate to have good building blocks that will serve as a strong foundation for the Center. All of the Institutions which are to be amalgamated into the Center and those which will be associated more or less formally through agreements have gained valuable experience in administration during the past 8 to 25 years. The Center will be




- 72
able to start with a group of 275 people now engaged in teaching, research and extension. With competitive salary scales the Center will be able to attract its share of well-trained, experienced, and competent leaders from other public agencies, agribusiness, and banking to administer the expanding Center.
In order to provide the trained manpower for the expansion of agricultural research and extension as outlined in this report the Commission has determined that these needs can be fulfilled over a 10-year period by expanding the teaching programs of the National School of Agriculture and the University of El Salvador. These institutions have assured the Commission that, with a firm demand for agricultural technologists such as will be offered by the Center, they will expand their faculties and facilities so that they can, without sacrificing scholarship, be graduating 180 peritos agricolas within four years and 100 bachelors within five years.
The National School of Agriculture will increase its admission of men from 110 to 220 per year. This will increase the number of 3-year peritos agricolas from the present 50 to 90 to 178 each year. (See Table 3). This will require an expanded faculty sufficient to maintain the 15 to I ratio. A department of home economics is to be established which will accept 75 women each year and graduate 62 annually under a 3-year training program. (See Table 4).
The University will expand its enrollment in the Faculty of Agriculture
and the Institute of Biological Sciences sufficiently to graduate 100 bachelors by the 6thjyear of the Center program. This will taper back to 60 bachelors after the 10th year which will be adequate to maintain the Center program and the expanding needs of the private sector of agriculture and agri-business. (See Table 5).
The Commission recommends that the National School of Agriculture




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TABLE 3
SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING PERITO AC~GROA LEVEL PERSONNEL
SUPPLY DEMAND
Other Ext. Ext ResYEAR ENA Foreign Domestic Total Becas Agric. 4-C earch Others Total
Present- 18 57
-2
1 53 4 4 61 33 t-28 61
,_ 44
-4 -6
2 68 7 7 82 45 +13 +24 82
53 75
-5 -0 -7
3 99 4 3 106 45 -5 *22 +33 106
53 22 101
-6 -2 -10
4 178 178 55 +37 +40 -+24 22 178
S 74 60 115
-7 -12
5 178 178 55 58 445 +12 8 178
125 99 115
-12 -10 -12
6 178 178 55 +69 +24 +12 18 178
182 115 115
-18 -12 -12
7 178 178 55 + 586 +22 +12 3 178
--L 250 125 115
-25 -12 -12
8 178 178 55 + 95 +12 +12 4 178
320 125 115
-32 -13 -12
9 178 178 55 +87 +13 +12 11 178
375 125 115
- _3 -12 12 10 178 178 55 4-38 -f 12 +12 61 178
375 125 115
-38 -12 -12 11 178 178 55 +38 +12 +12 61 178
375 125 115




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TA\BLE 4
SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING HOME ECONOMICS PERITO LEVEL PERSONNEL
SUPPLY~___ ___ DEMAND____ __'Escuela For -Ext. Ext. ForYEAR ENA Matestras eign Other Total. gts. Suprv. eign Other Becasi Total
Present _______ ___30 4 ___ _____-6 -l1
1 18 18 416 1.2 18
___ __ __ __ __ ___ __ __ __ __40 5 _
t8 -0
2 24 24 123 41 24
_____ __ __ ___ ____55 6 _ _ _
3 27 27 4126 !1 2
___ __ __ ___ __ __70 .6 27__ __ _
-14 -0
4 62 62 429 42 3 18 10 62
___ __ __ ___ __ __ __ __ __85 8 _ _
-17 -1
5 62 62 427 123 2 10 62
________ _______95 9 _ _ _
6 62. 62 T'29 44 3 16 10 62
____ ___ ____ ____ __ ____105 12 _ _
-21 -2
7 62 62 431 42 3 16 10 62
____ ___ ____ ____ __ ____115 12 _ ___
-23 -1
8 62 62 133 413 15 10 62
_____ __ ____ ____ __ ____125 12 _ _ __
- 25 -2
9 62 62 425 4 2 3 22 10 62
________ __ __________125 12 _ _
-25 -1
10 62 62 425 41 3 3 10 6
_____ __ ____ ____ ____ __ ___ ____ 125 1 _ _ _ _ _ _




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TABLE 5
SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING BACHELOR LEVEL PERSONNEL.
YEAR SUPPLY DEMAND
Univ. Univ. ENA For- Res- Ext. Ext.
Agric. Nat. eign Others Total erch Heads Super Special- Becas thers Total
Sci. -al r visors lists
PRE
SENT 50 50 4 2
,_ -5 -1 -0
1 23 419 2 42
, 64 5 4
-5 -0 -1
2 30 22 30 82 130 12 4 1. 44 35 82
75 70 6 7
-7 -7 -1 -1
3 35 20 35 17 107 133 417 43 44 50 107
101 80 8 10
-10 -8 -0 -1
4 40 30 35 22 124 423 48 I41 60 11 127
115 95 16 10
-11 -10 -2 -1
5 50 40 35 125 ll 420 410 41 75 8 1235
__,, 115 105 24 10
-11 -10 -4 -1
6 50 50 35 135 i11 410 412 41 85 6 135
, ,,115 115 32 10
-11 -12 -3 -1
7 50 50 35 417 422 43 I41 95 3 135
115 125 32 10
-11 -12 -3 -1
8 50 50 35 135 ill 412 43 41 38 13 135
,_ _,_115 125 32 10
-11 -13 -3 -1
9 40 40 35 115 ill .113 3 33 1 115
J.,_ 115 125 32 10 3
-11 -12 -3 -1
10 35 35 35 105 411 412 43 41 33 45 105
_ ,115 125 32 10
-11 -13 -3 -1
11 30 30 35 95 411 413 43 41 33 34 95




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establish a fourth year program to train 35 students from each year's class of Peritos Agricolas to study in specialized fields in order to meet the demands of farmers, agribusiness, and the Extension Service for graduates with additional training. It is emphasized that these graduates are not to be confused with Bachelor degree graduates of the University. They will be trained particularly to serve eventually as heads of the extension field offices.
The Center will support a comprehensive program for graduate study scholarships in foreign universities. This program will support two-year master scholarships for 35 students beginning the second year of the Center program and expanding to 95 students by the seventh year. It will taper back to 30 to 35 students by the ninth year. It will support three-year doctoral programs for 14 students beginning the fourth year of the Center program and build up to 55 students by the 9th year and taper back to 15 by the eleventh year. These projections for completions allow for a 20% dropout in each program t (masters and doctorates). See tables 6 and 7 for schedules for programming graduate scholars and their absorption into the Research Service of the Center. As will.be noted in Table 6 a 10% turnover is programmed for research associates and unit heads. It is assumed that those who leave the research service will move into other Center positions or into other public agencies or agribusiness where graduate trained personnel are needed. This 10% movement will satisfy the non-Center needs for trained master's and doctorates in El Salvador for the foreseeable future.
2. Staffing the Center.
With the training program as outlined above and assuming a 10% turnover in Center personnel it will be possible to complete the staffing of the Research Service according to the following schedulp- rezcarcL helpers, four years; assistant research scientists (bachelors), four years; associate research




- 77
TABLE 6
SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING MASTERS AND DOCTORATE LEVEL PERSONNEL
(Based on 10% annual turnover)
MASTER'S LEVEL DOCTORATE LEVEL
SResearch I Research Department
TEAR Available Associates Available Tnit Heads Heads
PRESENT 5
1
2
3 14 414
[ .... 19
-2
4 20 120
37 .
-4
5 24 424 12 44 48
57 4 _9"
-6 -0 -1
6 30 430 16 415 41
81 19 9
-8 -2 -1
7 30 ;30 20 419 41
103 36 9
-10 -4 -1
8 22 422 24 423 41
115 55 9
-11 -5 -1
9 11 411 30 429 1
115 79 9
-11 -8 -1
10 11 Ill 43 142 1
115 113 9
-11 -11 -1
11 11 411 14 414 41
115 115 9
-11 -11 -1
12 11 "11 12 411 41
115 115 9




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TABLE 7
SCHEDULE FOR PROGRAMMING GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS
(Based on 20% Dropout for each Program -- Masters and Doctorates)
Bachelor to Masters available Masters to Doctorates availa YEAR Master for CENTA Doctorate ble for CENTA
2 35
3 50________ _________
4 60 28 14 14\
5 \20 2.20
6 85\48 24 24 12 12
7 5 60 30 \30\ 16 16
8 \8,830 \38 20 20
9\3\622 54 24 24
10 \33\30 11 _19 30 30
11\3\611 15 \43 ______43_1 33\ 611 15 14________13 26 11 \15\ 12 12______14 \___________ 15 \ 12_____12 _15 ____________12 12




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scientists (masters) eight years; research scientist unit heads (doctorates), 10 to 12 years; and department heads, 5 years (See Appendix Tables 14, 15, 16 and 17). Appendix Table 18 shiowq the schedule for the buildup and the recapitulation for the entire Center Staff.
The staffing for the Extension Service will be completed as follows:
extension home agents, eight years; extension 4-C Agents, six years; extension agricultural agents, nine years; extension field office directors, seven years; and extension administrators and specialists, three years. The Extension Service expansion to 125 field offices will be completed in seven years.
The Con-mission's scheduled program for the Center buildup includes plans for top-level foreign technical advisors which will increase to approximately 55 during the second year and then taper off to zero by the end of the tenth year. These will be provided on a grant basis by various foreign governments, multilateral agencies such as FAO of the United Nations, regional agencies and private foundations. Three will be assigned to the Center during its beginning year for administration, training and evaluation, and library management. Others will be assigned to ENA and the Extension Service, but the largest number will advise and assist the research units in getting much needed research under way quickly. Each advisor will necessarily have to provide leadership for two research units. They will be replaced as rapidly as competent, doctorate level scientists can be trained or otherwise obtained to fill the research unit headships.
3. Personnel Management.
The Commission has prepared a systematic-salary schedule which embodies 16 grades and 10 steps in each grade. (s~e Table 8. Schedule of Grades, and Salary Steps.). It has classified all Center personnel into 67 positions




80
(CENTA administration, 23 (which includes clerical); research, 11' extension, 24; and ENA, 9). See Table 9 for Classifications and Compensation Plans and Table 10 for Comparable Classifications and Compensation. Each position is assigned to one of the 16 grades. It will be noted that the positions assigned to each grade are comparable with regard to required training and experience and the responsibilities that are associated with each position.
The Commission has prepared job descriptions for each of the 67 positions included in their personnel schedule. These descriptions specify minimum qualifications and an outline of duties to be performed. They will provide the basis for annual performance ratings for each member of the Center staff.
The Commission's salary schedule is cc-n-patitive and comparable to the
schedule recently adopted by the University of El Salvador. It is competitive and comparable with present salaries paid by private enterprise, including banking and agribusiness. It is flexible and provides incentives for annual salary increases which will be based on performance and meritorious service.
This proposal does not provide for fringe benefits such as health or retirement, but it does provide for the in-service training necessary for a meritorious employee of CENTA to move by promotions from the lower-grades to top positions in CENTA. The Commission believes that this proposal with its competitive salary schedule, and the opportunity for in-service training and promotions will provide the basis for a stable staff with high morale:. It believes however that this proposal presents the minimum that is necessary to build and maintain a staff of sufficient caliber to research the agricultural technological unknowns and promulgate this information constantly and instantaneously to all farmers in El Salvador intensively enough to support a 5 to 6% growth rate for Salvadoran'agricuituiai output. C. PHYSICAL FACILITIES --"ONE TIME" CAPITAL INVESTMENTS.
The Commission recommends (1) that the Experiment Station Sub-station at




TABLE 8
GFADE SCHEDULED SALARY RATES WITHIN GRADES (en colones)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
.( Monthly 200 205 210 215 220 225 231 237 243 249
Annual '9400 2460 2520 2580 2640 2700 2772 2844 2916 2988
2 Monthly 300 314 322 330 339 348 357 366 375 385
Itnnual 3672 3768 3864 3960 4068 4176 4284 4392 4500 4620
3 Monthly 395 405 415 425 435 446 457 468 479 491
Annual 4740 4860 4980 5100 5220 5352 5484 5616 5748 5892
4 Monthly 503 515 527 539 551 564 577 590 603 616
Annual 6036 6180 6324 6468 6612 6768 6924 7080 7236 7392
5 Monthly 603 616 630 644 658 672 686 701 716 731
Annual 7236 7392 7560 7728 7896 8064 8232 8412 8592 8772
6 Monthly 701 716 731 746 759 775 791 807 823 839
__ Annual 8412 8592 8772 8952 9108 9300 9492 9684 9876 10068
monthly 807 823 839 856 873 890 907 924 942 960
Annual 9684 9876 10068 10272 10476 10680 10884 17083 11304 11520
8 Monthly 907 924 942 960 978 996 1014 1037 1056 1074 CO
Annual 10884 17088 11304 11520 11736 11952 12168 12444 12672 12888
Monthly 1014 1037 1056 1074 I00 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199
Arual 12168 12444 12672 12888 13200 13500 13728 13944 14172 14388
10 M-nthly 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 1225 1250 1268 1287 1306
Annual 13500 13728 13444 14172 14388 14700 15000 15216 15444 15672
11 Monthly 1250 1268 1287 1306 1324 1349 1374 1393 1412 1430
Annual 15000 15216 15444 15672 15888 16188 16488 16716 16944 17160
12 Monthly 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 '1754
Annual 18000 18360 18708 19080 19488 19788 20076 20364 20664 21048
13 Monthly 1811 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 2120
Annual 21732 22044 22320 22596 23388 23868 24360 24720 25080 25440
14 Monthly 2030 2060 2090 2120 2160 2200 2230 2260 2290 2320
Annual 24360 24720 25080 25440 25920 26400 26760 27120 27480 27840
15 Monthly 2200 2230 2260 2290 2320 2360 2400 2452 2520 2560
Annual 26400 26760 27120 27480 27840 28320 28800 29424 30240 30720
Monthly 72520 :L560 2600 "2640 2680 2720
annual 30240 30720 31200 31680 32160 32640 !




TABLE 9
CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION PLAN3 (UTA CentraI Staf)+
Cate- Olassification Salary Ranges 'Minimum Qualifications
norv Related
,,,_,,,__ 1 2 3 4 57 8 9 10,. ___kills Education Exporierfco(Yrs)
1 Secretary 1 200 205 210 215 220 225 231 237 243 249 Type 0
2 Secretary 2 306 314 322 330 339 348 357 366 375 385 Type 2
3 Secretary 3 395 405 415 425 435 446 457 468 479 491 Type and Dictation 3
4 Secretary 4 503 515 527 539 551 564 577 590 603 616 Type and Dictation 3
5 Secretary 5 603 616 630 644 658 672 686 701 716 731 Bilingual, Type and Dictation 3
5 Administrative Assistant 603 616 630 644 658 672 686 701 716 731 Clerical M 3
12 Administrative Officer 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 Accounting M 5
12 Manpower & Prrsonnel Officer 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754
3 Information Tecnnician 395 405 415 425 435 446 457 468 479 481 2
NJ
5 Information Section Head (03 616 630 644 658 672 686 701 716 731 Supervision 4
11 Editorial Writer 1250 1268 1287 1306 1324 1349 1374 1393 1412 1430 BS 3
12 Chief Editor 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 M 4
12 Information Sub-Chidf 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 M 4
13 Information Chief 1811 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 2120 D
9 Professional Translator 1014 1037 1056 1074 1100 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 Tech. Translator B 1
12 Assistant Librarian 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 Data Process. M 5
13 Librarian 1811 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 2120 Data Process D
13 Training & Evaluation Thief 1811 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 2120- Training Tech. M 4
13 Foreign Liaison Chief 1811 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 2120 M 4
13 Biometrician 1811 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 2120 D 4
13 Rural Community evlopment Chief 1811 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 2120 M 4
15 CENTA Sub-Director Gineral 2200 2230 2260 2290 2320 2360 2400 2452 2520 2560
16 CENTA DIRECTOh CEIIEKAL 2520 2560 2600 2640 2680 2720
. .... .. __i,,, ..__ _ _... ..
+ See Research, Extension and ENA for Program Staff.
++ 2 years related expericnca is equal to 1 year of education provided
a minimum of 3 years of college level education has been obtained. Continued on Next Page




9
TABLE 9
CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION PLANS (Research)+ (Continued
Cate- Classification Salary Ranges. Minimum Qualificaticns" i
gcry 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 Skills Education Related Experience
3 Research Hel]er 1 395t 40[ 415 425 435 446 457 468 479 491 P cr PA 0
4 Research He]oer 2 503 515 527 539 551 564 577 590 603 616 P 1
5 Research He.Ler 3 603 616 630 644 658 672 686 701 716 731 P 2
6 Research Helper 4 701 716 731 746 759 775 791 807 823 839 BSE 0
7 Research Scientist msst. 1 107 823 839 856 873 890 907 924 942 960 BS 0
9 Research Scle'ntist isst. 2 1114 1037 1056 1074 1100 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 BS 1
11 Research Scienizst.Assceiate: 1250 1268 1287 1306 1324 1349 1374 1393 1412 1430 MS 2
C
12 Research Scientist, Unit Heau 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 D 4
13 Research Scientist, Dept. Head 1111 1837 1860 1883 1949 1989 2030 2060 2090 212C 0 4
14 Research Sub-Director 2030 2060 2090 2120 2160 2200 2230 2260 2290 2320 D 5
15 Research Director 2200 2230 2260 2290 2320 2360 2400 2452 2520 2560 0 5
+ See "CET for secretaries, information, library, and administrative staff.
++ 2 years related experience is equal to 1 year oF education providedea minimum
of 3 years of college level education has been obtained.
Continued on Next Page




TABLE 9
CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION PLANS (Extensicn)Y Continued
Cate- Classification Salary Ranges Minimum Qualifications"
cry 1 2 3 4 5Related Experience
r4 5 6 7 8 S 10 Skills Education (Years)
3 Extension Home Agent 1 .395 4C5 415 425 435 446 457 468 479 491 P or Professor 0
4 Extension Ho.le Agent 2 503 515 527 539 551 564 577 590 603 616 P or Professor 1
5 Extension Home Ageht 3 603 616 630 644 658 672 686 701 716 731 Professor cr BS 2 or 1
7 Ext. Home Agent Zone Supervisor 807 823 839 856 873 890 907 924 942 960 BS 3
9 Ext. Home Agont Regional Supervisor 1014 1037 1056 1074 1100 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 BS 5
10 Ext. Home Economics Nail. Supervisor 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 1225 1250 1268 1287 1306 MS 5
3 Extensien 4C Agent 1 395 4 ,5 415 425 435 446 457 468 479 491 P 8
4 Extension 4C Agent 2 503 515 527 539 551 564 577 593 603 616 P 1
5 Extension 4C Ajent 3 603 616 630 644 658 672 686 7NI 716 731 P 2 ,
10 Ext. 4C Agent Zond Supervisor 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 1225 1253 1268 1287 1306 BS 4 .O
11 Ext. 4C Agent Regial Supervisor 1250 1268 1287 1306 1324 1349 1374 1393 1412 1430 BS or MS 5 or 2
12 Extension 4C Nationel Supervisor 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 MS 4
3 Extension Agrl. gent 1 395 405 425 14425 435 446 457 468 479 491 P 0
4 Extension Agrl. Agent 2 503 515 527 239 551 564 577 590 603 616 P 1
5 Extension Agr1. Aqent 3 603 616 630 644 653 672 632 701 716 731 P 2
6 Extension Agrl. Agent 4 701 716 731 746 759 775 791 807 823 839 P4 &r BS 0
7 Extension Agent, 1,ead 1 807 823 839 856 873 890 907 924 942 960 P4 or BS 1
9 Extension Agent, Head 2 1014 1037 1056 1074 1100 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 P4 or BS 4 or 2
10 Ext. Agri. ,5out, Zone Supervisor 112D 1114 1162 IiF 1199 1225 1250 1268 1287 1306 BS 4 .
11 Ext. Agri, Agent, Pegional Superv. 1250 1268 1287 1306 1324 1349 1374 1393 1412 1430 Bs or MS 5 or 2
12 Extension Agr!., NatioRal Supervisor 150C: 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 MS 4
11 Extension Sp~ciali3t 1250 1268 1287 1306 1324 1349 1374 1393 1412 1430
14 Extension Sub-Director 2030 2060 2090 2120 2160 2200 2230 2260 2290 2329 MS 5
15 Extension uiroctor 2200 2230 2260 2290 2320 2360 2400 2452 2520 2560 MS 5
+ See "CENTA" for secretaries, information, library, and administrative staff.
++ f years related experience is equal to I year of education provided a minimum ef 3 years c4 college lvel education has been obtained. Continued on next Page




TABLE 9
CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION PLANS (ENA)Y Concluded
Cate- Classification Salary Ranges Minimum Qualifications++
gory I Rel3ted Experiene
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 U 9 10 Skills !Education (Years) _..3 Instructor 1 195 405 415 425 435 446 457 468, 479 491 P or PE 0
4 Instructor 2 503 515 527 539 551 564 577 590 603 616 P 1
5 Instructor 3 603 616 630 644 658 672 686 701 716 731 P or 2
P4 0
7 Professor 1 807 b23 839 856 873 890 907 924 942 960 BS 0
9 Professcr 2 Ad14 1037 1056 1074 1100 1125 1144 1162 1181 1199 BS 2
11 Professor 3 1250 1268 1287 1306 1324 1349 1374 1393 1412 1430 MS 2
12 Department Head 1500 1530 1559 1590 1624 1649 1673 1697 1722 1754 MS 4
14 Sub-Director 2030 2060 2090 2120 2160 2200 2230 2260 2290 2320 MS 5
15 Director 2900 2230 2260 2290 2320 2360 2400 2452 2520 2560 MS 5
+ See "CENTAI" for secretaries, information, library, and administrative staff. ++ 2 years related experience is equsl to 1 yqar of education provided a
minimum of 3 years of cc'lesa level education ha, been obtained.




- 86
TABLE 10
COMPARABLE CLASSIFICATIONS AND COMPENSATIONS 1
Minimum Qualifications
Cat. Salary Classifications Rel.
Range Skills Education Exp.
Yrs.
1 200-249 Secretary 1 Typing 0
-2 Typing 2
306-385 Secretary -2Dictation Typing
3 395-491 Secretary 3 Dictation 3
Secretarial
Information Technician Technical 0
Research Helper 1 P or PA 0
Extension Agric. Agent 1 P 0
Extension 4-C Agent 1 P 0
Extension Home Agent 1 P or Prof. 0
ENA Instructor 1 P or PE 0
Typing
4 503-616 Secretary 4 Dictation 3
Bilingual
Research Helper 2 P 1
Extension Agric. Agent 2 P 1
Extension 4-C Agent 2 P 1
Extension Home Agent 2 P or Prof. I
ENA Instructor 2 P I
Dictation
5 603-731 Secretary 5 Typing
Secretarial
Bilingual 3
CENTA Administrative Administration,
Assistant Clerical 3
Information Section Head Technical Supe. 4
Research Helper -3 P 2
Extension Agric. Agent 3 P 2
Extension 4-C Agent 3 P 2
Extension Home Agent 3 Prof. or 2
B.S. I
ENA Instructor 3 P or P4 2
Continued on next page




- 87
TABLE 10
COMPARABLE CLASSIFICATIONS AND CO M4PENSATION 2 (Continued)
I "
..................... m... um ....Qua l..Lfi..ca.ti.on.s ...........
Cat. Salary ...Skills' Educatio-n irel. Range Classifications Skills Education c.
I (Yrs)
.. ... ......... ..... ..... . . .. . . .
6 701-839 Research Helper 4 BSE 0
Extension Agricultural P4 or 0
Agent- 4 BS
7 807-960 Research Scientist
Assistant 1 BS 0
Extension Agent, Head 1 P or
BS 1
Extension Home Agent Zone Supervisor BS 3
ENA Professor 1 BS 0
8 907-1074
9 1014-1199 Professional Translator B 1
Research Scientist
Assistant 2 .S 1
Extension Agent, Head 2 P4 or 4
BS 2
Extension Home Agent
Regional Supervisor BS 5
ENA Professor -2 B S 2
10 1125-1306 Extension Agricultural AgentZone Suervisor BS
Extension 4-C Agent- Zone Supervisor BS 4
Extension Home Economics
Division Head lS 5
Continued on next nage




- 88
TABLE 10
COMPARABLE CLASSIFICATIONS AND COMPENSATIONS- 3 (continued)
Minimum Qualifications
........ ........................... ......... ................... . ....... .......................... ....................... ....... ......... ........... ........
Cat. Salary Classification Skills Education Pel.
Range I Exp.
(Yrs)
11 1250-1430 Editorial 11riter BS 3
Research Scientist Associate MS 2
Extension Agricultural-Agent RS or 5
Regional SuperVisor M S 2
Extension 4-C Agent-Regional PS or 5
Supervisor MS 2
Extension Specialist
ENA Professor 3 BS or i
MS 2
12 1500-1754 CENTA Administrative
Officer Accounting 1 5
Centa Man'ower and Personnel
officer M
Chief Editor M 4
Assistant Librarian Library Sci.
....Data Process i 5
Information, Subchief M 4
Research Scientist,
Unit Head 4
Extension Aariculture
Division Head S 4
Extension 4-C Division
Head MS h
ENA Deartment Head MS 4
13 1811-2120 Librarian D
Information Chief D
Training & Evaluation
Chief M 4
Foreign Liaison Chief MS 4
Biometrician D 4
Rural Community Development Chi f P 4
Research Scientist,
De artment Head D 4
Continued on next page




-89
TABLE 10
COMPARABLE CLASSIFICATIONS AD COMPENSATIONS b (Concluded)
. inimum Ou..alifications
Cat. Salary Classifications Skills Education Pel
Fxr~.
(Yrs)
......................................................................................................................... ................................ .... . ... .. . . . ..... ... ... . . ...
14 2030-2320 Research Subdirector f
Extension Subdirector MS
ENA Subdirector MS .
15 2200-2560 CENTA Subdirector
Research Director 5
Extension Director MS
ENA Director MS C
16 2520-2720 CENTA Director general
Legends
Cat. Category
Rel.Exp. Relevant Experience PA Practical Agriculturalist
Prof. Professor
P. Perito Agrfcola or Perito Economin Domistica
Pi Agronomo (P plus a fourth year)
BS Equivalent to a Bachelor of Science Oegree.(or Ingeniero or
Licenciado Degree)
BSE Same as above but lacking completion of the Thesis egresado
UE University Egresado
M Equivalent to a Master's Degree
MS Equivalent to a Master's Degree in Science
0 Equivalent to a Doctoral Degree




- 90
Santa Cruz.Porrillo-be-continued and enlarged, (2) that the livestock farm at Izalco now owned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock be managed as a Sub-station of the Center for livestock research and promulgation, and (3) that a third Sub-station be created in the Chalatenango area for crops and livestock research and promulgation.
TheTCommission recommends the acquisition of almost 1200 hectares of land at San Andres, Santa Cruz Porrillo, Izalco and Chalatenango for crops and livestock research at a cost of 02,640,000.
The Commission has reviewed the needs and planned a program for the
expansion and construction of the necessary physical facilities. These include an administration building for all administrators, enlarged facilities for ENA, a library for 30,000 books, an information building to house the various needs such as printing, visual aids, graphic arts, photography and archives; six buildings for research which will house offices and laboratory facilities for the Coffee Research Institute, plant science, chemistry and soils, animal science, social science, and agricultural engineering; and laboratory and teaching facilities such as green houses, animal buildings, and food processing laboratories. It is estimated that these physical facilities will cost approximately V17,000,000. It is expected that the acquisition of the land and the construction of the physical facilities will be spread over the first five years of the Center's life. In other words, the physical plant will be complete' in 5 years and the staff in 10 years.
The tables on the following pages provide information on the proposed
physical facilities in sufficient detail to meet the purposes of this report.




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METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID A ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 1 Title Page
PAGE1 i
METS:fptr FILEID
PDIV2 Letter acknowledgement to minister agriculture and livestock Chapter
PAGE2 ii
PAGE3 iii
PDIV3 3 Table Contents
PAGE4 iv
PAGE5 v
PAGE6 vi
PAGE7 vii 4
PAGE8 viii 5
PDIV4 Purpose commission
PAGE9 ix
PDIV5 Preamble Objectives
PAGE10 x
PDIV6 I. Introduction summary 6
PAGE11
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PAGE13
PAGE14
PAGE15
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PAGE17 7
PAGE18 8
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PAGE21 11
PAGE22 12
PDIV7 II. The agricultural sector El Salvador
PAGE23 13
PAGE24 14
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PAGE26 16
PAGE27 17
PAGE28 18
PDIV8 III. Present status technology Problems
PAGE29 19
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PAGE39
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PDIV9 IV. Needs technological development
PAGE44 34
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PDIV10 V. national center
PAGE76 66
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PAGE79 69
PDIV11 VI. organization "CENTA"
PAGE80 70
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PDIV12 VII. Cost, financing justification
PAGE123 113
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PAGE132 122
PDIV13 VIII. Conclusions
PAGE133 123
PAGE134 124
PAGE135 125
PDIV14 Appendix I
PAGE136 126
PAGE137 127
PAGE138 128
PAGE139 129
PAGE140 130
PAGE141 131
PDIV15 II
PAGE142 132
PAGE143 133
PAGE144 134
PDIV16 III
PAGE145 135
PAGE146 136
PDIV17 IV
PAGE147 137
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STRUCT2 other
ODIV1 Main
FILES1
FILES2