Bibliography of readings in farming systems

Material Information

Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4 v. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural systems -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note:
Title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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13012743 ( OCLC )
AJP6828 ( NOTIS )

Full Text
1987 Volume IV
Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523

The 1987 edition of the Bibliography of Readings in Farming Systems is the fourth and final volume in a series. This effort has been supported through the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), a cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the University of Florida.
Through a subcontract agreement, Kansas State University was designated as the lead institution for this and other documentation efforts of the FSSP. Management of the review and selection process has been outstanding and is gratefully acknowledged. Kansas State University committed resources to the bibliography series through its Office of International Agricultural Programs; its FSR Documentation Center: Resources on Developing Countries (a part of Farrell Library); Its Department of Sociology; and its USAID Strengthening Grant Program.
Review of hundreds of articles, reports, and monographs has been part of the selection process for documents to be included in the bibliographies. Members of the FSSP Technical Committee are to be congratulated for their commitment to a thorough but time-consuming review process.
Annotation, translation, publication, and distribution of this series has been capably handled through the Document and Information Handling Facility, sponsored by A.l.D.'s Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/ Center for Development Information and Evaluation/ Development Information Division. Documentation and duplicating services provided by the DIHF will continue beyond the life of the FSSP, which terminates at the end of this year (1987). This will ensure that documents contained in each volume of the Bibliography of Readings in Farming Systems will remain available into the future.
Representing various institutions and disciplines, and serving in various support capacities, the following individuals were primarily responsible for publishing the bibliography series:
John Caldwell Steve Kearl
Cornelia Butler Flora James Oxley
Daniel Gait Susan Poats
Martha Gaudreau Donald Shockey
Peter Hildebrand David Thurston
Samuel Johnson Martha Tomecek
Availability: Documents contained in the Bibliography of Readings in Farming Systems remain free to AID employees, AID contractors overseas, and AID-sponsored organizations overseas, either in microfiche or in paper copy. Universities, research centers, government offices, and other institutions located in developing countries are eligible to receive free microfiche copies of up to five titles per bibliography (paper copies may be purchased at the stated price). All other institutions and individuals may purchase microfiche and/or paper copies of the documents at the stated price. Please consult the "Ordering Instructions" at the back of each volume for further information.
Libraries and Documentation Centers: Complete sets of the bibliographies (Volumes 1, 2, 3, and 4 in English or Volumes 1, 2, and 3 in either French or Spanish are available in microfiche. For more information (cost, shipping, and handling) contact:
7222 47th Street
Chevy Chase, MD 20815

Item number E 100 PN-AAW-986 ]- Document number
MF $1.08/PC $5.72 Title Microfiche/
Draught animal power in Africa : priorities Paper Copy prices
Authors) for development, research and liaison
Starkey, Paul H.
Institution(s) University of Florida
,,,Serial title
Meeting (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- and number, date,
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) pagination, and
Supplementary Mar 1986, v, 64p. : ill., En language
notes) Spanish ed.: PN-AAV-301
Project number 9311006
Contract/Grant C AID/DSAN-C-0054
Availability r" Also available from: International Council for
noteL Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi
Using experience from Latin America and Asian researchers, this paper discusses the design and testing of alternatives for producing livestock especially large ruminants In mixed farm enterprises. Stress is laid on Abstract sedentary mixed farms in which livestock are kept for all or most of the year within farm boundaries, although the approaches discussed are meant to apply to, or to be readily modified to suit, other types of animal production systems.

001 PN-AAV-540 significantly modified station research priorities and
MF $1 .08/PC $6.37 changed recommendations to extension workers. For example, the farm trials revealed that local varieties
Study of the role of extension in farming were preferred by farmers because they matured faster
systems research in Tanzania and were more stable under stress than stationAcker, D.G.; Sungusia, D. developed varieties; as a result, the best of the local
Consortium for International Development strains are now being introduced Into station breeding
Oregon State University populations, and varieties which mature quickly are
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for being developed. The trials also helped to establish
Africa. Tanzania guidelines for planting density and fertilizer use. In addiNov 1985, 46p. : charts, map, En tion, the trials quickly showed that soil and climatic conPublication no. 112 ditions at the research station did not represent those
6210156 of the Bulandshahr area, so another research program
AFR-01 56-0-00-3033-00 was established there to help develop better-adapted
A September 1985 study of the role of extension in
farming systems research (FSR) in Tanzania is summarized. Based primarily on semi-structured interviews
with 10 extension professionals, the study found that 003 PN-~AAW-31 9
the involvement of extensionists allows FSR to: (1) MF $1.08/P3C $2.21
reach a wider area by utilizing trained village and district level extension personnel; (2) ensure consideration From recommendation domains to intraof the socioeconomic perspective in farm-level diag- household dynamics and back :attempts nosis and an adherence to real farmer conditions in at bridging the gender gap review of technology design; and (3) increase the num- Alberti, Amalia M. ber of replications of on-farm trials under close super- University of Florida vision and management, while incorporating extension U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for workers in the process of developing technology. This Science and Technology. Office of Research and paper also includes background information on the Tan- University Relations (Sponsor) zania Farming Systems Research project, which spon- (Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems sored the study, a literature review on the role and struc- Research and Extension, Gainesville, FIL, US, ture of extension services relative to agricultural re- 26 Feb 1 Mar 1986) search, recommendations for institutionalizing the FSR Feb 1986, 16p., En approach in Tanzania (as mandated in a 1983 National 9311282 Agricultural Policy directive), and suggestions for further
research. Appendices provide the study questionnaire Recommendation domains (RD's), which group and graphically Illustrate functional relationships within together individual farmers with similar circumstances, FSR. were developed in farming systems research (FSR) as a
methodology for facilitating technology extension. This
paper argues that RD's sensitive to gender Issues are
difficult to develop, due to insufficient information on
002 PN-AAW-1 58 women's role in agriculture, and If developed, difficult to
MF $1.08/PC $.26 implement. The paper: (1) discusses specific obstacles to Identifying gender-sensitive RD's via the
On farm research into maize :the con- usual methodologies (reviews of secondary data, inforcept and its Implications mal Interviews, exploratory surveys, etc.); (2) proposes
Agrawal, B.D.; Sazena, S.C. a series of questions to assist researchers in quickly
Appropriate technology, v.11(4), 1985, p.24-25 : ill., identifying gender issues relevant to a particular FSR
chart, En site (for example: what are the cultural norms regarding women's participation in agriculture?; does participaAn on-farm research program was set up in tion vary by social class?; do women specialize in food Bulandshahr and Moradabad, two important maize production?); and (3) enumerates various deterrents to growing districts in western Uttar Pradesh, India, to find utilizing the gender information thus gathered in FSR out why the Improved varieties and techniques projects FSR's tendency to be biased against marginal developed through on-station research were not being farmers (many of whom are women), to be oriented adopted by farmers. The same group of researchers toward commodity (hence commercial) crops, and to controlled both on-farm and and on-station research, adapt existing capital-intensive technologies rather than and as expected, the results of the on-farm trials have develop new ones that are affordable to the poor. To
Vol. IV, 1987 1

truly incorporate gender issues into FSR, it is con- Farmers in developing countries have traditionally cluded, the basic unit of analysis must be changed from used diverse cropping systems, which control pests betthe household to the male and female heads within the ter than do the monocropping systems typical of U.S. household. agriculture today. This paper explores the linkages between agricultural diversity, arthropod community ecology, and the complex factors involved in designing sustainable agroecosystems. Specifically, the paper discus004 PN-AAV-924 ses: (1) the contribution of edges of natural vegetation
MF $1.08/PC $.52 to the dynamics of arthropod communities adjacent to cultivated areas; (2) the comparative ecology of insect
Developing pest management strategies populations in orchards under various successional
for small farmers based on traditional stages and management intensities; and (3) the effects
knowledge of within-field plant diversity (.e, polycures,
Altieri, Miguel A. groundcover, and weed-diverse crop systems) on
University of California, San Diego. Dept. of Biology arthropod abundance. The paper concludes that the U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for greatest challenge facing agricultural scientists is to
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- identify diverse vegetation mixes that provide natural sor) pest control and are also agronomically acceptable and
(Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops Society, economically viable a challenge which may be impos20th, St. Croix, VI, 1985) sible to meet within the present capital-intensive strucProceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society : an- ture of agriculture. (Author abstract, modified)
nual meeting, v.20, 1985, p.47-50, En
For centuries traditional farmers have kept pest 006 PN-AAW-964
damage within acceptable levels by employing a wide MF $1.08/PC $2.47
variety of cultural practices based on local lore and
resources. One such practice is the use of polycul- Insect, weed, and plant disease managetures. Factors involved in pest regulation in polycul- ment in multiple cropping systems tures include: increased parasitoid/predator popula- Altieri, Miguel A.; Liebman, Matt tions, available alternative prey/hosts for natural Multiple cropping systems, ch.9, 1986, p.183-218: statsenemies, decreased colonization and reproduction of tical tables, En pests, feeding inhibition or repellency from non-host Francis, Charles A. plants, and prevention of movement and emigration.
These elements of natural pest control built into small Much evidence suggests that the vegetational diverfarming systems should be examined, so that the valu- sity involved in multiple cropping (MC) often results in a able ones are retained in the course of agricultural mod- significant reduction in insect pest problems as a result ernization. Thus, traditional knowledge must be con- of either crop mixture or ecological mechanisms. This sidered to guide changes and attain optimum yields in report reviews the literature on the dynamics of pest, regions with low-input agriculture. All development ap- pathogen, and weed communities in MC systems, with proaches should be village-based, with emphasis on an emphasis on recent findings. Citing studies from self-sufficiency, use of local resources, and indigenous developing countries, where MC is a way of life for subagricultural regimes. (Author abstract) sistence-level farmers, and studies on monocropping
systems in the United States, the report discusses
hypotheses and related tests concerning the natural
controls that MC provides against insects, as well as
005 PN-AAW-159 management considerations for MC insect control. FolMF $1.08/PC $1.30 lowing brief discussions of the effects of MC systems on plant diseases and nematodes, a section on the efDiversification of agricultural landscapes fects of intercropping on weed growth devotes para vital element for pest control in sus- ticular attention to biological factors affecting the intertainable agriculture crop/weed balance. A concluding section suggests that
Altieri, Miguel A. long-term economic and ecological concerns may force
Sustainable agriculture and integrated farming systems, agricultural scientists and U.S. farmers to consider MC
1985, p.166-184 : charts, statistical tables, En as an alternative to chemical-based agricultural producEdens, Thomas C.; Fridgen, Cynthia; Battenfield, tion and crop protection. Six pages of references (1929Susan L. 84) are included.
2 VOl. IV, 1987

007 PN-AAV-541 ment. The paper concludes that a socloecological
MF $1.08/PC $1.43 perspective focuses analysis on institutional factors that cause soil erosion. (Author abstract, modified)
Assessing the impact of farming systems research : framework and problems
Anderson, Jock R. 009 PN-AAW-161
Agricultural administration, v.20, 1985, p.225-235, En MF $1.08/PC $1.95
Farming systems research (FSR) is a feature of the Economic diversification and risk managemandates and programs of several international agricul- ment : constraints to the adoption of tural research centers and is an accelerating activity modern rice technologies in the Besut among national research programs. Few attempts have agricultural development project area been made however, to assess its impact, perhaps be- Bailey, Conner cause of several difficulties, illustrated herein, inherent Kajian eckonomi Malaysia, v.19(1), 1982, p.1-15 : statistiin developing a utility or preference function by which cal tables, En to assess that impact. The difficulties include the multiple attributes by which agricultural households judge The fact that small rice farmers in Malaysia have often their achievements and the multiple constraints and failed to adopt fertilizer-responsive varieties must be technological relationships under which they operate, viewed in the light of farmers' broad economic conas well as the several challenging tasks of aggregation cerns. This study, based on field research in Gong Gun(over research projects, target farms, and time) and of cil, Malaysia, shows that farm families engage in a accounting (over individuals and markets). There are, range of economic activities, i.e., contrary to the ashowever, clearly demonstrated advantages in FSR's sumptions inherent in most agricultural research role of providing feedback and guidance to research projects, they are not full-time rice farmers and not workers. (Author abstract, modified) primarily concerned with maximizing yields from a
single crop. For most, limited farm size necessitates involvement in other agricultural and nonagricultural oc008 PN-AAW-160 cupations. The report reviews the characteristics of
MF $1.08/PC $1.43 family farms in Gong Guncil, noting the eclectic mix of traditional and modern rice varieties and techniques Social ecology of soil erosion in a Colom- used; the average rice farm size and reasons for it; the
bian farming system income potential of rice production; alternative income
Ashby, Jacqueline A. opportunities, including rubber tapping (the most imporInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture tant alternative economic activity); livestock, tobacco, U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for and fruit production; and non-agricultural sources of inScience and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- come such as marketing, trading, and day labor. Undersor) standing the economic diversity and the production conRural sociology, v.50(3), 1985, p.377-396 : chart, statisti- straints of Gong Guncil farmers, it is concluded, may encal tables, En courage redirection of research and development ef936411104; 9310054 forts away from concentration on single crops and
towards multiple cropping systems and alternative New interest in environmental factors in the sociology strategies for increasing rural income. of agriculture has stimulated the development of a "social ecology" perspective. This paper applies a socioecological perspective to soil resource degradation and the implementation of soil conservation policy in a Colombian farming system. The analysis illustrates two important themes in social ecology: how interaction between biophysical and social parameters in agriculture structures farmers' use of natural resources; and the interpretation of natural resources in terms of how farmers perceive them. Analysis of the political economy of the farming system shows how biophysical and institutional factors create incentives for farmers to use destructive soil management practices, which are reflected in norms and values associated with land use in the farm community and in the farm types which reflect adaptive strategies for coping with this environVol. IV, 1987 3

010 PN-AAW-320 01l PN-AAV-925
MF $1.08/PC $2.73 MF $1.08/PC $1.82
Farming systems research and extension Improved sorghum production technology
in harsh environments :development of a in northern Nigeria: an assessment
farmer cooperator approach in Botswana Banta, Thomas A.; Bbuyemusoke, Samm
Baker, D.C.; Norman, D.W. Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of InKansas State University. Office of International Agricul- ternational Programs in Agriculture
ture Programs U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor)
Science and Technology. Office of Research and (Appropriate Technologies for Farmers in Semi-AM University Relations (Sponsor) West Africa Workshop, Ouagadougou, HV, 2-5 Apr
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- 1985)
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid West Farming systems research paper series, paper no. 11 Africa, 1985, p.204-217: statistical tables, En Farming systems research and extension : management Ohm, Herbert, W.; Nagy, Joseph G.
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.535-555 : statistical 6980393
tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha The profitability of an improved sorghum production
9311282 technology developed in Nigeria and disseminated in
DAN-OOO-G-SS-0092-O0 the northern sorghum-growing areas, its effect on farm
income, the level of adoption by farmers, and the
The use of farming systems research (FSR) reasons for adoption or non-adoption are examined. methodologies in harsh environments is examined in The technology package included improved seed (SK this case study of the Agricultural Technology Project in 5912) and recommendations for seed dressing, land Botswana, with stress on the project's use of farmer preparation, time of planting, seed rate, interstand spaccooperators a limited number of representative ing, thinning, weeding, and fertilizer. A study confarmers on whose farms research is conducted and ducted 3 years after the end of the extension project who themselves participate in various research ac- showed that the technology had not been widely tivities. After a general discussion of FSR goals in adopted 41 % of farmers were using the improved sorharsh environments, the report chronicles the develop- ghum variety (although always alongside traditional ment of on-farm research in the Botswana project; this varieties), but of the recommended practices, only that entailed selecting and approving target villages, con- regarding seed dressing was in wide use. Gross marducting an exploratory survey, creating a village sample gin analysis showed that the practice was profitable per frame, selecting farmer cooperators, and, after on-farm se, but linear programming revealed that farmers, given research was begun, conducting two surveys to verify their low resource base, were rational in following inthat the villages and farmers chosen were repre- digenous methods of sorghum production, which apsentative of the region. A third section outlines the sub- peared to be relatively more profitable. (1he improved sequent diagnostic and technology generation activities package and indigenous sorghum technology for the carried out under the project and discusses seven study area are each outlined and compared.) It is concharacteristics of the farmer cooperator approach rela- cluded that farmers' socioeconomic conditions and tive to these activities. The replicability of the Botswana resource base must be considered during technology experience is briefly discussed in conclusion, development, and that farmers should be incorporated into the technology development process early on.
4 Vol. IV, 1987

012 PN-AAV-926 To date, on-farm cropping systems trials have mostly
MF $1.08/PC $2.86 used experimental designs practically identical to those used on research stations (the main difference being
Farm experiments on trial fewer treatments and replications) and have lagged (in
Barker, Randolph; Lightfoot, Clive comparison to socioeconomic farming systems re(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- search) in developing methods for directly involving
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) farmers. This paper begins by identifying experimental Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11 design criteria needed for on-farm crop research and Farming systems research & extension :management by summarizing the utility of four frequently used
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.300-321 : statistical designs (i.e., randomized complete block, split plot, lattables, En tice, and fractional factorial designs). Next, It discusses
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha the applicability of two relatively uncommon and "off-theKansas State University. Office of International Agricul- shelf' designs augmented and central composite
ture Programs designs each of which provides at least one unique
9311282 benefit. For treatment comparison trials, the augDAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 mented design permits flexibility in involving farmers
directly in the definition of treatments. For response esResponses to a survey of the staffs of 120 farming timation experiments, the central composite design ofsystems research (FSR) projects worldwide are used to fers a large reduction in the number of plots required, analyze the methodologies used in on-farm field trials, and therefore a savings in research and land resources. especially those involving farmer cooperation. An open- Further methodological needs are discussed in coning section describes the trials themselves in terms of clusion. basic structure and mandate, trial management, research focus, trial design, and level of farmer interaction. Next, key problems and successes that respon- 014 PN-AAV-928
dents experienced In their farm trials, particularly in rela- MF $1.08/PC $1.95
tion to FSR principles, are highlighted. Problems included: overambitious designs, lack of physical and Adaptive strategies in peasant agricultural human resources, various problems relating to the sub- production sidization of farmer cooperators, problems with data col- Barlett, Peggy F. lection and analysis, a lack of appropriate technology, Emory University, Dept. of Anthropology and communication difficulties. Factors identified as U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for contributing to the success of the trials included close Science and Technology. Office of Research and interaction with all actors, flexible designs, clearly University Relations (Sponsor) defined responsibilities, and the recognition that good Annual review of anthropology, v,9, 1980, p,545-573, En trials require knowledge of farm-, community-, and na- 9311192 tional-level conditions. A concluding section presents DAN-1 192-G-SS-0084-00 eight propositions to help researchers manage on-farm
trials in a way that accords farmers a major role. A fol- The use of anthropological methods in studying low-up survey is being conducted to test the relevance peasant farmer production strategies (PFPS's) is of these propositions. A list of responding projects and reviewed. After presenting farmer adaptation as a rea copy of the survey instrument are appended. search framework which integrates the concerns of substantivist and formalist approaches to research on
PFPS's, the paper delineates two types of environments
013 PN-AAV-927 that affect PFPS's the natural and the socio-politicoMF $1.08/PC $1.04 economic and describes five factors affecting decisionmaking at the level of the farm household, widely used
Resource efficient experimental designs as a unit of analysis: the relationship between populafor on farm research tion density and agricultural intensification, stratification
Barker, T.C.; Francis, C.A.; Krause, G.F. in farm household access to resources, the influence of
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- household labor resources, cycles in household resourposium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) ces and needs, and personality variables. A final secFarming systems research paper series, paper no.11 tion reviews two methods used In studying PFPS's Farming systems research & extension : management measuring variables and using cognition-based decision
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.403-410, En models and indicates researchers' need to link
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha relevant production variables to patterns of household
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul- choice. The report concludes that while the holistic apture Programs proach of anthropological research has been invaluable
Vol. IV, 1987 5

to understanding PFPS's, more comprehensive re- Successful farming systems research (FSR) programs search methods are needed to account for the are the result of a partnership between agricultural reresponse of peasant households to an increasingly com- searchers, extension workers, and farmers, but often plex external environment. A 197-item list of literature one or more of these voices is simply not heard. This (1945-80) cited in the text is appended. paper argues that FSR activities often center around the
agendas of donor agencies and FSR staff, rather than
the needs of farmers, and that the emphasis these interests place on extension and increased yields often
015 PN-AAV-542 results in the neglect of agricultural research and farmer
MF $1.08/PC $3.90 experience. Using the example of the Senegal Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA), the paper reviews the
Sistemas de produccion de cultivos history of agricultural research and extension in
metodologia de evaluacion dinamica Senegal in terms of institutional development, and disdurante un ano agricola(Systems of cultiva- cusses two case studies: first, the contracted research
tion : methodology of dynamic evaluation ISRA has done for SAED (an agency created to develop
during one agricultural year) the Senegal river valley), which resulted in the suborBejarano, Washington; Cuellar, Miguel dination of research interests to extension issues; and a
Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center second case in which ISRA's relationship with Institute of Agricultural Research of Panama SOMIVAC, the development agency for the lower
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Casamance region, resulted in more productive
Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Office for dialogue between extension interests and research Central American Programs (Sponsor) priorities. Given the need for foreign funding of reMay 1981, 26p. : charts, Es search, the challenge for future FSR design in Senegal
5960083 remains to keep the needs of the farmer not the donor
- at the heart of the project.
A system of cultivation may be defined as the whole
range of production-oriented activities, inputs, and techniques which the farmer employs during the agricultural 017 PN-AAW-6
year. It is this system, along with the physical and MF $1.08/PC $7.02
biological characteristics of the area, which determines
the possibilities and limits of local agriculture. The daily Study of farmers intercropping practices gathering of information on items such as fertilizer ap- and objectives, and the performance of plication, plowing techniques, seeding dates, weeds, in- maize / cereal patterns, in the upper river sects, soil fertility, and rainfall allows for an unbiased in- division, 1985 vestigation and the production of analyses useful in solv- Boughton, Duncan; Senghore, Tom; Langan, Glenn ing production problems. The authors present a Mar 1986, [53]p. : charts, statistical tables, En methodology for this data collection process and
reproduce the forms utilized in Panama for this sys- Findings of a study of farmers' intercropping practematic inventory and diary. tices in The Gambia's Upper River Division, where intercropping is prevalent, are presented. Introductory sections identify the study's data collection methods (Le.,
farm-level surveys, on-farm experimentation, and litera016 PN-AAV-929 ture review) and detail their implementation. InformaMF $1.08/PC $2.99 tion obtained from seven farm units through the formal survey is then used to outline existing cropping patterns
Agricultural research and extension in and the extent of intercropping in the area. Four interFrancophone West Africa : the Senegal ex- cropping systems were identified, based on the main
perience crop: maize (maize/late millet and maize/sorghum patBingen, R. James; Faye, Jacques terns are diagrammed), groundnut, sorghum, and rice.
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- While no cases of intercropping with cotton were found, posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) the possibility of such cases is noted. The report emFarming systems research paper series, paper no.11 phasizes the special consideration given by farmers to Farming systems research & extension : management maize-based cropping systems, due to, inter alia, its and methodology, Aug 1986, p.70-92: ill., maps, En yield stability. To supplement the review of the objecFlora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha tives and rationale for intercropping with an evaluation
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul- of farmer performance, the second half of the paper ture Programs presents an agro-economic analysis of two farmer9311282 managed intercropping trials (maize/mIlet and
6 Vol. IV, 1987

maize/sorghum); the study's survey instrument and 26 training agricultural personnel in farming systems retables and figures are included. Findings are sum- search and extension (FSRIE) methodology, this book marized in a 4-point conclusion, focuses on the effective design and analysis of on-farm
FSR trials. Six units are included, covering the selection of appropriate testing methods and treatments, trial
018 PN-AAW-966 design and implementation strategies, the analysis of
MF $1.08/PC $1.30 trial data, and field level management of FSR trials. Appended are three supporting documents covering difSociocultural factors in multiple cropping ferent aspects of trial design, management, and data
Bradfield, Stillman analysis: the International Maize and Wheat ImproveMultiple cropping systems, ch.12, 1986, p.267-284, En ment Center's "Introduction to Economic Analysis of OnFrancis, Charles A. Farm Experiments Draft Workbook", the Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute's "On
Since 1974, with impetus from legislation requiring Farm Experimentation: A Manual of Suggested ExA.I.D. to examine the effects of its programs on the lives perimental Procedures," and Hildebrand and Poey's "On of the people in target areas, and from funding in that Farm Agronomic Trials in Farming Systems Research year for social science research in agriculture, social and Extension," which examines the role of trials in techscientists have been incorporated more fully into multi- nology development methodology. References, ple cropping research programs. Difficulties in interdis- trainers' notes, and activity handouts are provided as ciplinary communication between social and agricultural well. scientists have, admittedly, constrained their successful
collaboration; these difficulties affect the definition of
project objectives (should results be measured quantita- 020 PN-AAW-162
tively or qualitatively?), of appropriate target groups, MF $1.08/PC $2.60
and of research methodologies. Nevertheless, this article makes a case for the role of the social scientist in Crop livestock systems research in Asia research oriented toward the small farmer, arguing that design and testing 0171 the introduction of superior technologies alone is not Calub, Arsenio D.; Roxas, Domingo B.; Carangal, Virenough to ensure project success; a number of cultural gilio R. factors psychological, institutional, and environmental Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculshould be considered so that agricultural development ture Programs can be seen in terms of its social as well as technologi- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for cal impact. Specific areas in which social science re- Science and Technology. Office of Research and search is needed are identified to support the argu- University Relations (Sponsor) ment. A list of references (1911-84) is included. (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Farming systems research paper series paper no. 13
019 PN-AAV-197 Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986
MF $8.64/PC $90.22 farming systems research symposium; farming systems research and extension : food and feed,
Techniques for design and analysis of on 1986, p.578-597 : chart, statistical tables, En
farm experimentation Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Caldwell, John; Walecka, Lisette 9311282
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for The approach used by the Asian Rice Farming SysScience and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- tems Network in the design and testing of on-farm resor) search in crop-livestock systems is reported. In recent
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for years, the Network's methodology has moved incremenScience and Technology. Office of Multisectoral tally from a cropping systems to a farming systems Development (Sponsor) focus. After describing the Network's progress in reMar 1986, v.p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En search design, and noting the importance of livestock FSR/E training units, v.2 and increasing land constraints to smallholder produc9364099 tion, the report analyzes three current, on-farm trials of
DAN-4099-A-O0-2083-00 crop-livestock systems in the Philippines, Indonesia,
and Thailand taking both crop and animal production
The second volume of a collection of resources as- needs and objectives into consideration, describing resembled by the Farming Systems Support Project for search sites (e.g., rainfall patterns), and discussing
Vol. IV, 19877

methodology. A planning strategy for crop-livestock 022 PN-AAW-165
systems research is presented in outline form, identify- MF $1.08/PC $1.30
ing the system's objectives, socioeconomic research
studies, and biological research components (food Maitrise du travail du sol en Marais crops, perennial crops, livestock, and mixed crop/live- Poitevin : nouveau point cle de la conduite stock). des exploitations(Soil treatment in Marais
Poitevin: a new key to farm management)
Capillon, A.; Pellerin, S.
021 PN-AAW-007 Approche des problemes agronomiques en Marais
021 PN-AAW-007 Poitevin de Vendee : apports d'une typologie
MF $1.08/PC $2.60 regionale des exploitations agricoles, 1984, p.219Rationale and methodology for including Ma228:i., charts, statistical tables, Fr
nutritional and dietary assessment in farming systems research / extension The results of a survey of soil management practices
Campbell, Carolyn E. in the increasingly cultivated Marais Poitevin area of
Cornell University. Dept. of International Nutrition France are presented to illustrate the use of a diagnosU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for tic technique which matches survey methods to the
Science and Technology. Office of Research and techniques practiced. The paper first describes the University Relations (Sponsor) local climate and the physical characteristics of the
May 1985, 38p. : charts, En marais soils. Based on differences in cropping
CRSP working paper, no.85.3E schedules identified in the survey and reflecting great
9311282 variability in the interventions practiced, three types of
AID/DSAN/XII-G-0261; DAN-1155-G-SS-0108-00 soil management techniques are distinguished with
regard to, e.g., in timing of tillage; importance and naA rationale and a three-stage methodology for includ- ture of surface preparation before spring planting; and ing nutritional and dietary assessments in farming sys- weeding, furrowing, and regrowth in the fall. The perfortems research and extension (FSR/E) is presented. mance of these practices in achieving increased maize Reasons for making such assessments include, inter yield is then analyzed. The conclusion emphasizes the alia, the importance of nutrition for infant/child health importance of both adequate soil management techniand education, the unacceptability of income as a ques and of rational organization of the tillage schedule proxy for nutritional status, and the disparity between for maintenance and performance of farming systems, the macro- and micro-level impacts of development as well as the need for agronomists to furnish technolprojects. The paper also describes the three types of ogy which responds to constraints specific to a given nutritional tests (biochemical, clinical, and type of farming system. anthropometric) and the difference between cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in measuring a population's nutritional status; outlines methods for assessing
dietary status (the 24-hour recall and food frequency 023 PN-AAW-163
methods, the study of food habits); and indicates the im- MF $1.08/PC $1.82
portance of seasonality for nutrition, especially in arid
lands. The methodology for including these assess- Evolution recente et diversite des exploitaments in FSR/E consists of collecting (1) secondary tions agricoles du Marais Poitevin de Vendata, (2) information from community leaders and other dee (Recent development and diversity expert contacts, and (3) data from study households. A of farming systems in Marais Poitevin de discussion of the types of questionnaires to be used in Vendee) the household surveys is presented along with
guidelines for writing and conducting the surveys. Spe- Capillon, A.; Tagaux, Marie-Josephe cial attention is given to timing the interview so as not Aproche des problemes agronomiques en Marais to interrupt household activities and yet obtain repre- Poitevin de Vendee : apports d'une typologie sentative information. Suggestions are also made for regionale des exploitations agricoles, 1984, p.205choosing a research team. A 40-item bibliography 217: charts, Fr (1857-1984) is appended. Manichon, Hubert
Application of inappropriate agricultural technologies
can be ineffective or even harmful to an existing farming
system. To avoid this situation, which may be caused
by extrapolation from insufficient sampling, this study
examines the farming systems in the Marais Poitevin de
8 Vol. IV, 1987

Vendee region of France according to their 'functional but existing low production discourages the building of types". As defined herein, functional types take into ac- large herds). Other farmers in the region (i.e., those count not just the farmers' technical or economic who have benefited from the drainage and use the resources, but also such factors as crop combinations natural meadows only when fodder is abundant) are and intensities, level of mechanization, physical charac- able to store or buy feed for times of shortage, and teristics of the soil or land type (e.g., lowlands, drained have little motivation to invest in the natural prairie. or not), and the water management system employed. Awareness of this situation, the study contends, can be Wide-ranging questionnaires given in 1980-81, when of great use in designing production systems, especially compared with studies through 1960, allow several clas- for farmers who are constrained to use only natural sifications and subclassifications of functional types ex- prairies. Listing then, called archetypes, and those existing now,
as well as the depiction of trajectories or patterns of
evolution In farming over time. Factors observed in this
analysis include farmer age, years of farm ownership, 025 PN-AAW-967
capital accumulation, mechanization, and investment in MF $1.08/PC $2.86
soil Improvement, along with the complementary or
competitive raising of beans and feed crops and of Marketing perspective in farming systems several types of animals not solely for dairy purposes. research : attempts of the Caribbean Granting that even all these factors cannot fully explain Agricultural Research and Development Inthe growth or decline of some farms, findings from the statute analysis are presented as an aid to organizations in- Chase, Vasantha; George, Calixte volved In regional agricultural development. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon024 PN-AAW-164 sor)
MF $1.08/PC $1.17 (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Ges on des prairies naturelles en Marais Oct 1986, 22p. : chart, En
Poitevin de Vendee : les difficulties d'une 9311282
intensification(Management of natural DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
meadows In Marais Poltevin de Vendee :
the difficulties of one intensification) CARDI's involvement and experiences in integrating
Capillon, A.; Taguax, Marie-Josephe agricultural marketing concerns into farming systems reApproche des problemes agronomiques en Marais search (FSR) are described. The introductory section
Poitevin de Vendee : apports d'une typologie argues that FSR practitioners should attempt to underregionale de exploitations agricoles, 1984, p.229- stand how recommended technologies will perform in 237 : ill., charts, statistical tables, Fr the existing marketing system and how the marketing Manchion, Hubert system will affect present production systems particularly in island economies like those in the Eastern
France's Marais de Poitevin de Vendee region has Caribbean. Traditional FSR's inadequate treatment of posed a difficult agricultural problem for years: despite the farm as a production/consumption unit and its tenthe introduction of large-scale collective drainage works dency largely to ignore market variables in the choice about 10 years ago, farmers continue to abandon the and design of production alternatives is then exposed. region because of poor development of the grasslands. Part three describes CARDI's objective in addressing An important step in solving this problem is under- production and marketing concerns simultaneously, standing the ways in which farmers utilize the natural and the importance of market studies in creating a subprairie (i.e., those areas not served by the drainage stantial marketing data base which can be used to works). All farmers allow grazing on the natural prairie focus and guide on-farm trials toward a marketable during the best times of year, but certain farmers rely product. A case study from St. Lucia demonstrates the on it all year round for feeding their herd. If these implementation of the FSR marketing perspective. In farmers could improve the productivity of the prairie, conclusion, the importance of on-going, rather than they would be able to store feed for the more difficult quick, market studies is stressed to create an iterative times of year, and could thereby increase their herd production-marketing linkage. size. They face, however, two constraints: (1) the high
cost of the technology needed to intensify grassland
productivity; and (2) lack of compelling impetus (i.e.,
only larger herds require increased fodder production,
Vol. IV, 1987 9

026 PN-AAW-321 by increasing yields) are identified, and it is noted that
MF $1.08/PC $1.04 each approach has its own implications for labor data requirements. Next, suggestions are given for resolving
Farming systems research (FSR) applied three characteristic problems in labor data collection
to fish production : capture and culture and use carefully describing the farm operation (e.g.,
Chong, Kee-Chai; Ilyas, Sofyan; et al. planting a bean intercrop) being investigated/mod"id;
Indonesian agricultural research and development comparing and aggregating data across households of journal, v.7(3&4), 1985, p.35-42 : ill., En different age/sex compositions; and dealing with variations (especially seasonal) in labor coefficients. Lastly,
Economic and ecological factors are forcing many of specific suggestions are made for utilizing five traditionthe world's small-scale fishermen to consider moving al farming systems research methods secondary data from a capture to a culture orientation, a task which few sources, informal farmer surveys, formal surveys (both are in a position to accomplish easily. Due to the situa- frequent- and single-visit), and work study on large trial tional similarities between small-scale agricultural plots to obtain labor coefficient information. production systems and fisheries, this paper suggests
that a farming systems research (FSR) approach would
be useful in fish culture development. Two aspects of
the FSR methodology make it particularly beneficial for 028 PN-AAV-543
helping the myriad of fishermen and fishery methods MF $1.08/PC $2.08
which exist: FSR is locale-specific and multi-dimensional. FSR can be used to develop improved (but not Recommendation domains reconsidered necessarily new) technologies which are consistent with Cornick, Tully R.; Alberti, Amalia M. the desires and circumstances of the target group; intro- (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symduce new technology as a supplemental or alternative posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) activity to existing activities; or effect bold changes or Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11 develop new systems. These options are important as Farming systems research and extension : management the nature of fisheries changes and better economic and methodology, [1986], p.236-253 : chart, En analysis and management methods become requisite. Flora, Cornelia; Tomecek, Martha The development of a competent, multidisciplnary FSR Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculteam, it is concluded, is one of the first steps in guiding ture Programs the evolution of the world's fisheries industry. U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Guidelines for adapting FSR to the analysis of tropical Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review fisheries are included. and Information (Sponsor)
027 PN-AAW-166 Recommendation domains (RD's), the focal point of
MF $1.08/PC $1.30 farming systems research, are traditionally defined rapidly on the basis of only one or two criteria. It is argued
Collecting information on rates of work to herein that where a farming system's natural or
evaluate the labour productivity of pos- socioeconomic conditions (or both) are highly variable,
sible innovations in OFR / FSP such a cursory assumption of homogeneity is unwarCollinson, M.P. ranted and may foreclose research opportunities springFarming systems newsletter, no.24, Jan-Mar 1986, p.4- ing from physical or social differences. Pursuing this
13 : charts, statistical tables, En reasoning, the paper suggests a refined RD definition,
characterized by explicit examination of the variablity of
Eastern and Southern African farmers operating labor factors characterizing the target areas and groups and limited systems will use returns to labor at seasonal by a relaxation of the time frame in which RD's are finalpeaks as a dominant criterion for evaluating recom- ized. This approach would permit the early conduct of mended innovations. Researchers need to use the on-farm field experiments concurrent with an exaninasame criterion in planning and evaluating on-farm ex- tion of the factors potentially relevant to RD specificaperiments. This paper points out some of the problems tion. Calling for explicit consideration of subsystem ininvolved in using labor data and gives guidance on teractions outside the immediate research problem in sources and methods for collecting rate of work coeffi- order to uncover the complexity of the farming system, cients for labor on small farms. First, three approaches the paper discusses two major factors that should be to improving productivity during seasonal labor peaks considered in developing relevant RD's: (1) the fact (i.e., reducing labor requirements, changing the timing that many small farm systems are distributed across of operations, or increasing labor productivity indirectly, multiple agroecological zones; and (2) the dynamic nature of farm household composition and relationships
10 Vol. IV, 1987

(e.g., labor allocation). The effects of these factors on 030 PN-AAV-930
farmers' cropping patterns, varietal selection, etc., are il- MF $1.08/PC $1.30
lustrated with examples from highland Ecuador and
central Philippines. Lugar de la investigacion en sistemas de
cultivo en el tratamiento de asuntos del
sorgo como alimento humano(Place of investigation on cultivation systems in the
029 PN-AAW-972 subject treatment of sorghum and human
MF $1.08/PC $6.50 nutrition)
Maize on farm research in the District of DeWalt, Kathleen M.
Malang University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Institute of Agriculture
Dahian, Marsum; Heriyanto; Sunarsedyono; et al. and Natural Resources Malang ResarcInstmiyat od unarsno eU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Malang Research Institute for Food Crops Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (SponU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Sog)
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- sor)
sor) (Sorgo en Sistemas de Produccion en America Latina,
1987, vii, 41p. : charts, map, statistical tables, En Batan, MX, 16-22 Sep 1984) MARIF monograph, no.3 Sorgo en sistemas de produccion en America Latina,
1985, p.168-177, Es
9364099 Paul, Compton L.; DeWalt, Billie R.
Appling CIMMYT's approach of on-farm research with 9311254
a farming systems perspective, the Malang Research In- AID/DSAN/XXI-G-0149 stitute for Food Crops, located in East Java, Indonesia, Issues relevant to promoting sorghum for human conhas conducted five cycles of research, herein docu- sumption are considered based on an examination of mented, on the production of non-rice food crops, espe- the use of sorghum in the diet in southern Honduras. A cially maize, in the Malang District. Part one sum- review of the uses of sorghum in general identifies eight marizes relevant information on crop production sys- categories of sorghum-based products, suggesting the tems, physical and economic circumstances, crop-live- kinds of needs which must be satisfied by varietal restock interactions, and maize production practices in search. A survey implemented in southern Honduras the District. Part two presents a diagnosis of the main on the consumption of sorghum is described, and the problems associated with maize production (i.e., insect findings are discussed specifically in terms of sordamage, plant population management, fertilizer ghum's acceptability and its effects on ascorbic acid management, and seed quality) and their causes. and protein in the diet. The survey showed that: (1) a Using evidence from the on-farm trials, part three dis- great variety of products are derived from sorghum, cusses possible solutions in the areas of plant protec- many of them equivalent to food prepared with maize tion, plant population, fertilizer management, and variety (e.g., tortillas), but in general maize is preferred; (2) lack trials. Also noted are verification trials conducted on of protein is not the limiting factor in the diet in the consistency of yield responses and net benefits for southern Honduras; and (3) the ascorbic acid provided the suggested practices. Brief, concluding sections dis- by local fruits is adequate. Overall, the paper highlights cuss current research priorities, research methodology, the importance of including information on the diet and and foci of upcoming research. nutrition of the rural family in developing and evaluating
agricultural technology.
Vol. IV, 1987 11

031 PN-AAX-024 032 PN-AAV-931
MF $1.08/PC $3.64 MF $1.08/PC $2.21
Quantitative model of the livestock system Farming systems in areas of farmer hercomponent of a Bangladesh farm der interaction in semiarid Africa : towards
Dickey, James R.; Jalil, Mirxa A.; Huque, Quazi M. an appropriate model for investigation
Emdadul Diop, Mamadou; Livingston, Geoffrey 0.; Campbell,
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul- David J.
ture Programs (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension SymU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Science and Technology. Office of Research and Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
University Relations (Sponsor) Farming systems research & extension : management
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- and methodology, Aug 1986, p.411-427: i., En
posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986) Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.13 Kansas State University. Office of International AgriclSelected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986 ture Programs
farming systems symposium; farming systems re- 9311282
search and extension : food and feed, Oct 1986, DAN-O000-G-SS-0092-00
p.550-577 : statistical tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha The bias in farming systems research (FSR) toward
9311282 cropping systems to the relative neglect of livestock sysDAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 tems is of critical importance in areas such as semiarid
Africa where there is considerable interaction between
To date, little effort has been made in farming sys- farmers and herders. This paper proposes an FSR teams research (FSR) to describe quantitative relation- model which incorporates the characteristics of both ships among and between the components of a farming cropping and livestock systems and reflects the cornsystem. In this study, interrelationships within the live- plexity of the interactions between them. The paper stock component on a traditional, totally integrated first briefly describes the similarities and differences of Bangladeshi farm are defined by quantifying direct the two systems as found in semiarid Africa. Three key linkages between animal nutrient sources (on-farm types of interaction are identified: ecological (livestock cropland and off-farm browsing areas) and animal benefit nutritionally from grazing in farming areas, while products (draft power, meat, manure, etc.). On this farmers have their fields fertilized); trade; and competifarm, the cultivated area provides 87% of animal tion over land use. The suggested model, unlike tradinutrients as crop residue and weeds and is almost total- tional FSR, focuses on land use systems rather than ly dependent on livestock for draft power. Nutrient production units (e.g., the farm or the herd) and source-animal product linkages are quantified in terms analyzes interactions (social, political, economic, and of dry matter, metabolizable energy, and digestable environmental) over a multi-year period rather than over protein, and these linkages are combined on each side the annual cropping cycle. The implications of the to define a seasonal supply and demand balance. The model for research and extension are explored in constudy also: (1) shows what data are required for quan- clusion. One important benefit of the model is that it tifying livestock system interrelationships; (2) describes would prevent the introduction of interventions which, alternative data collection methods; and (3) suggests by promoting short-term successes in one production ways of using the results to measure the effects of new system only, could negatively affect the interactive syslivestock technologies, as well as the effects of crop tem as a whole over the long-term. A 6-page bibliogtechnologies on forage supply. Twelve tables and five raphy (1957-85) is included. figures are included. (Author abstract, modified)
12 Vol. IV, 1987

033 PN-AAW-008 Boukere, a small village in Burkina Faso's western
MF $1.08/PC $.52 Yatenga Province, is the focus of this farming systems study, the first in a series of papers examining
Farmers' adaptations to production con- Burkinabe farming. The study opens by noting that
straints and its implications for agricultural Boukere differs in one key regard from other study sites research : the case of rice production sys- in Burkina Faso: due to a relatively sparse population,
tems in the Dominican Republic its land resources have not yet been exploited to
Doorman, Frans; Perez, Frederico Cuevas capacity. Subsequent sections of the paper: (1)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for describe Boukere's environment (climate, soil, land
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- forms) and social structure (especially migration patsor) terns); (2) define farming operations in the region (the
(Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops Society, primary objective being wet-season production of
20th, St. Croix, VI, 1985) cereals for home consumption, followed by that of inProceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society : an- creasing the animal stock) and delineate the relationnual meeting, v.20, 1985, p.96-99 : charts, statistical ships among and between specific farming activities tables, En (e.g., wet-season, dry-season, and winter cropping,
animal husbandry), off-farm production (artisanry, comFour rice production systems practiced on small merce), agrarian space, and migratory patterns; (3) farms in the Dominican Republic are analyzed, and im- detail the cultural practices utilized for cereal; (4) plications are drawn for agricultural research in that develop a typology of Boukere's farming systems, country. These systems are: double cropping, which is based on production objectives and subdivided by farmheavily favored by the Dominican government as a ing strategy; (5) trace the evolution of farming systems means of achieving self-sufficiency in rice production; in the area from about 1950 to the present, with parratooning (a method of producing a crop from tillers ticular weight given to the influence of changing environregenerated from the rice stubble after harvesting), the mental factors (especially soil degradation and midpractice of which the government discourages; and two season dry periods) and migratory patterns; and finally, marginal systems riso (a kind of second generation (6) address the capacity of Boukere farming systems to ratoon) and mateo (obtained by allowing seed of the absorb innovation. The text is supplemented by local tall variety Ingles to germinate in an already estab- numerous tables and graphs. Annexes provide further lished crop) which are used only under unfavorable data. conditions, when a ratoon or a second crop are not possible. The paper argues that ratooning is a rational
response to the many infrastructural constraints (e.g.,
water shortages, lack of machinery) faced by small 035 PN-AAV-932
farmers, and under certain conditions may be more MF $1.08/PC $1.56
cost-effective, at both micro and macro levels, than Programas de investigation en producdouble cropping. It is recommended that ratooning be ProgramIP d unestaia en P r incorporated into national rice research activities. cion (PIP) una estrategia del INIAP para Ilegar a los agricultores de menores recursos (Production investigation programs :
an INIAP strategy to reach farmers with
034 PN-AAW-167 few resources)
MF $1.08/PC $11.44 Espinosa, Patricio; Moscardi, Edgardo; Palomino, Julio Ecuador. National Institute of Agricultural Research
Fonctionnement des systems de produc- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
tion et utilisation de I'espace dans un vil- Latin America and the Caribbean. Ecuador (Sponsor)
lage du Yatenga : Boukere (Burkina Oct 1983, 11p. : charts, Es
Faso) (Functioning of the systems of Publicacion miscelanea no.45
production and utilization of space within 5180032
the Yatenga village Boukere (Burkina Since 1977 Ecuador's National Institute of Agricultural
Faso)) Research has utilized a strategy of applied, mulitidiscipliDugue, Marie-Josephe nary research into farm/livestock production called Los
Burkina Institute for Research in Agronomy and Zoology Programas de Investigacion en Produccion (PIP). International Center for Cooperation in Agronomy Aimed at developing technologies appropriate to small,
Research for Development. Dept. of Agricultural Sys- low-resource farmers, PIP essentially complements the tems Institute's innovative, on-station research with research
1986, 55p. + 10 annexes : charts, maps, statistical in farmers' fields and with farmer participation; serving
tables, Fr
Vol. IV, 1987 13

also as the Ministry of Agriculture's extension munications expert be included on an FSR interdisciplimechanism, the PIP process involves extensionsists in nary team. the final stages of technology generation. As of 1983,
PIP was being used at 11 locations in Ecuador, including areas supporting Ecuador's programs in integrated
rural development. This paper states PIP's objectives 037 PN-AAV-934
and outlines its methodology in terms of: (1) research MF $1.08/PC $3.25
focus and strategies; (2) stages in the technology
development process (descriptive, diagnostic, ex- Gender relations and technological perimental, and extension); and (3) specific research change : the need for an integrative procedures (from definition of recommendation framework of analysis domains to economic evaluation of technologies). A Evans, Alison final section reviews the accomplishments of PIP to Jan 1986, 24p., En date.
Farming systems research and extension (FSR/E),
despite its claims to a broad understanding of small
farmers' needs and of the systemic effects of technologi036 PN-AAV-933 cal change on the small farm household, has in practice
MF $1.08/PC $2.34 failed to adequately consider the impacts of technological change on women producers and household memCommunications in FSR team building bers. This paper, focusing on the small farm situation
the interdisciplinary research team in sub-Saharan Africa, suggests that an alternative
Esslinger, Donald L.; McCorkle, Constance M. analytic framework is needed to give gender issues ex(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- plicit attention within FSR/E. Such a framework should
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) treat the small farming unit as an interlocking, gendered Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11 system of market production and subsistence economic Farming systems research & extension : management and reproductive activities. Key methodological needs
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.158-175: ill., En within this framework are to: (1) take into account Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha household/family forms and composition; (2) explore,
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul- both qualitatively and quantitatively, the degree of
ture Programs flexibility and substitutability between women's labor
9311282 and capital and that of other household members; and
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 (3) examine, during on-farm FSR/E, the economic role
of household service activities, the strategies used by
A key issue facing farming systems research (FSR) women to meet basic household needs, the distribution communication among members of the interdisciplinary of male and female labor over the total production FSR team is discussed. The paper begins by noting cycle, and the particular technological and economic several communications problems inherent to the re- needs of women. Constraints on implementation of search team, e.g., the professional jargon of diverse dis- such an FSR/E approach are outlined in a concluding ciplines, the tendency of each discipline to define FSR section. tasks according to its own methods and models, the
failure of the academic world to reward interdisciplinary
work, and even cultural and socioeconomic differences
among team members. The main section of the paper 038 PN-AAW-984
suggests means of overcoming these problems. Dis- MF $1.08/PC $.65
cussed in turn are methods for improving communication in terms of quality (listening skills), frequency In the Basse Casamance (Senegal): from (regular, frequent meetings and semi-formal colloquia), situation agricole to recommendation intensity (retreats, workshops, conferences, and other domain (the Djibelor experience) forms of informal interaction), and a variety of written Fall, Alioune and oral channels, (regular reporting, joint authorship of International Livestock Centre for Africa articles and joint hands-on activities in the field, informa- U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for tion sharing, use of translators, and use of visual aids Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponand of body language). The report concludes that FSR sor) teams would benefit from exploiting the full range of [1986], [5]p. : maps, En communications options available and suggests that, 936411109 due to the complex nature of communications, a com14 Vol. IV, 1987

In order to determine recommendation domains for in conclusion that improved design of agricultural rethe Djibelor area of Senegal's Basse Casamance search projects will depend on further detailed investigaregion, a farming systems research (FSR) team first tion of women's economic roles and, specifically, of the delineated the area into five situations agricoles- a connection between Income-generating and household broad term defined in terms of cropping patterns and management activities. other agricultural factors. Three main criteria were used
to identify the situations agricoles: (1) whether labor is
organized by type of field work or by type of crops; (2)
the use of animal traction; and (3) the lowland 040 PN-AAW-968
rice/upland crops ratio. A table illustrates the distribu- MF $1.08/PC $1.43
tion of these criteria among the situations agricoles; the
potential for developing land preparation technology in Future perspectives of multiple cropping the two situations agricoles in which animal traction is Francis, Charles A. used is briefly addressed. The conclusion stresses the Multiple cropping systems, ch.15, 1986, p.351-370 :ill., importance of sociocultural heterogeneity and physical En environment in conducting FSR in West Africa. Francis, Charles A.
The agricultural research community is becoming increasingly interested in the potentials offered by multi039 PN-AAV-935 pie cropping, a technology on which most subsistence
MF $1.08/PC $11.31 farmers in the tropics depend. In light of evidence that intensive cropping systems are increasing in imporEconomic role of women in a Honduran tance in much of the world, this article examines: (1)
peasant community the biological potentials of a multiple cropping system,
Fordham, Miriam A.; DeWalt, Billie R.; et al. e.g., those achieved through the interactions among University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Institute of Agriculture system components (weeds, crops, etc.); (2) the
and Natural Resources ecological and environmental consequences of multiple
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for cropping, such as energy and nutrient cycling; and (3)
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- the economic and social impact of multiple cropping, sor) showing, inter alia, that multiple cropping systems
Jun 1985, viii, 80p. : chart, map, statistical tables, En provide income stability and satisfy a range of Socioeconomic constraints to the production, distribu- climatological, social, and biological variables for lowtion and consumption of sorghum in southern Hon- resource farmers. Based on the foregoing, an overview duras, a farming systems approach report, no.3 is presented of areas for future research into multiple 9311254 cropping. While acknowledging the difficulty of predictAID/DSAN-G-01 49 ing the future global importance of multiple cropping,
especially given the tendency of high technology to
Results are presented of research conducted on promote monocropping, the article projects ways in labor, time allocation, and economic roles of women in which multiple cropping may be improved (especially in three sorghum-producing areas in Honduras in order to high-technology applications) to provide a significant help assess the potential impact on women of changes part of the future food supply. in agricultural production. Background information is
presented on anthropological and Marxist theories on
the sexual differentiation of labor; the difficulties in
measuring women's economic contributions, especially 041 PN-.AAW..969
non-market oriented tasks; and family life and labor in MF $1.08/PC $3.12
Honduras. Site-specific ethnographic and economic
data are presented and the various strategies by which Land tenure systems and agricultural inwomen complete household, agricultural, and income- novations :the case of alley farming in generating tasks are analyzed based on case studies of Nigeria seven women from different household types and Francis, Paul socioeconomic levels. Results show that while most of International Livestock Centre for Africa the women's time is spent in food preparation and U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for other household maintenance activities, women also Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponengage in several income-generating activities, the most sor) common of which is petty trade of home-produced Jun 1986, 22p., En foods. The study's results are compared with those of 936411109 similar studies in Peru and Burkina Faso, and it is noted
Vol. IV, 1987 15

Alley farming, the planting of arable crops between 043 PN-AAS-248
rows of fast-growing, leguminous trees which can MF $2.16/PC $25.35
provide fodder or mulch, is a promising alternative to
shifting cultivation, a practice which is being threatened Farming systems research in three counin Africa by population growth. However, alley farming ties in Liberia : a reconnaissance survey in requires access to land and the rights to plant, own, Grand Gedeh, Nimba, and Bong counties and utilize trees. This paper considers the implications Frankenberger, Timothy R.; Uchte, John A.; et al. of land tenure systems in southwest and southeast University of Florida Nigeria for the acceptibility and viability of alley farming. U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Considerable variation in the rules governing the use Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponand control of land is seen to exist within and between sor) the two regions, and any one tenure system may in- Apr 1985, xv, 178p. : statistical tables, En clude a number of categories of land to which different 9364099 patterns of use and tenure apply. Broadly speaking,
tenants in the southwest may be disadvantaged as their A research team comprising an anthropologist 2 rights over hired land do not necessarily include the agroeconomists, a soil scientist, and a tree crop reright to plant trees. In the southeast, the existence of searcher conducted a farming system reconna"ssance communal systems of land ownership and management survey of 19 villages in 3 counties of Liberia. The team on some categories of land undermines the ability to interviewed both husband and wife in 114 farm families, plant trees and the incentive to invest labor in the main- using a detailed outline. This report presents the major tenance of soil fertility. (Author abstract, modified) findings from the survey. The first section of the report describes the general farming systems characteristics
of the three counties, addressing such topics as access
042 PN-AAV-535 to land, spatial arrangements of farmers' fields, labor
MF $1.08/PC $3.12 patterns, cropping patterns (for upland rice, swamp rice, cassava, sugar cane, groundnut, and tree crops),
Methodology for conducting reconnais- animal husbandry, marketing, non-farm income, access
sance surveys in Africa to credit, consumption patterns, community farms, and
Frankenberger, Timothy R.; Lichte, John L. government interventions. In the second section, the
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural same topics are covered, but with respect to each inSciences dividual county. The third section identifies cropU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for specific and general farming constraints, discusses the
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- means farmers currently use to cope with these consor) straints, and then presents the survey team's recommenOct 1985, 21p., En dations. (Author abstract, modified)
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
9364099 044 PN-AAV-196
Due to the increased emphasis placed on time-effec- MF $4.32/PC $49.14
tive diagnostic research techniques in recent farming Diagnosis in farming systems research systems projects, reconnaissance surveys have come and extension to play a more critical role in such projects. This paper Franzel, Steve; Odell, Malcolm; et al. identifies the major attributes of reconnaissance surveys University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural and outlines a stepwise procedure for conducting them. Sciences This procedure is based on the methodology used by U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for the authors in a recent study in Liberia. Viewed as a Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sportcomplementary alternative to other informal survey pro- sor) cedures previously described in the literature, this U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for presentation will, it is hoped, further the development Science and Technology. Office of Multisectorai and refinement of such techniques. Such fine-tuning Development (Sponsor) should continue as experience with these techniques ac- Mar 1986, v.p. : charts, En cumulates. Appendices include an 8-page list of the 9364099 topics of inquiry in a farming systems reconnaissance DAN-4099-A-00-2083-00 survey for Grand Gedeh, Nimba, and Bong counties in
Liberia. (Author abstract, modified) Presented herein is the first volume of a collection of
resources assembled by the A.I.D. Farming Systems
Support Project (FSSP) for use in training agricultural
16 Vol. IV, 1987

personnel In the farming systems research and exten- 046 PN-AAV-936
sion (FSR/E) methodology. This volume provides con- MF $1.08/PC $1.56
cepts and tools useful in the diagnostic phase of FSR/E.
Nine units are Included, covering: (1) the Interdiscipli- New model for technology transference nary Interaction of the FSR team; (2) structural and within FSR/E process models of farming systems; (3) the interaction Fumagalli, Astolfo; Ortiz, Ramiro; Castillo, Manlio of the FSR team with the local farming community; (4) (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symthe development of recommendation domains; (5) data posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) collection methods; (6) the uses of secondary data and Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
(7) informal surveys; (8) the advantages and disad- Farming systems research & extension : management vantages of formal surveys; and (9) the link between and methodology, Aug 1986, p. 111-122: ill., En diagnosis and design in on-farm trials. Although the Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha units are arranged to provide a coherent training Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculprogram, each can also be used independently of the ture Programs others. References, trainers' notes, and activity hand- 9311282 outs are provided. Appendices include a case study of DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 on-farm trials in Paraguay, which provides a four-part
practicum for hands-on use by trainees, and Volumes I Guatemala's Institute of Agricultural Science and and II of FSSP's "Bibliography of Readings in Farming Technology (ICTA) has undertaken a new project, in Systems" (PN-AAR-839, PN-AAU-145). cooperation with the national crop and livestock extension services, to generate and transfer appropriate technology to small family farms. The project is based on a
045 PN-AAW-970 model known as the Modular System for Technology
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 Transference, which originated in ICTA experience in Guatemala's highlands. The opening sections of this
Farming systems research and extension paper describe Guatemala's research and extension sysan approach to solving food problems in tem, ICTA's development, and its commitment to
Africa promoting both appropriate technology among farmers
Fresco, Louise 0.; Poats, Susan V. and research-extension linkages. The remainder of the
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for paper is devoted to ICTA's new project, which will effect
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- a wider diffusion of new technologies by replacing the sor) farmer education approach of agricultural extension
Food in Sub-Saharan Africa, ch.20, 1986, p.305-331 : with the joint participation of farmers, extensionists, and
charts, En researchers in technology innovation. Basic features of
Hansen, Art; McMillan, Della the transference effort are outlined, the model for tech9364099 nology transference described and illustrated, and the
project's implementation strategy detailed with a focus
The suitability of farming systems research and exten- on the role of rural technology promoters. Essential consion's (FSR/E) for generating the technology needed to ditions for the success of interinstitutional projects such relieve the stagnation of agricultural development in as this are noted in conclusion. Africa is explored. Basic FSR/E concepts and methods
are explained, and the historical development of FSR/E
in Africa Is outlined in a discussion which traces the 047 PN-AAW-988
roots of two, sometimes conflicting, sometimes com- MF $1.08/PC $3.90
plementary FSR/E perspectives: Francophone (French
and Belgian initiatives) and Anglophone (contributions Process of on farm trial design : the Honof the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improve- duran experience of 1978 meant and other international agricultural research Gait, Daniel L. centers). National initiatives in FSR/E and their sources University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural of donor funding, if applicable, are also described. The Sciences major obstacles facing FSR/E in Africa are then iden- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for tified: an insufficiency of shelf technologies, trained per- Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsonnel, and infrastructural support; institutional separa- sor) tion between research and extension; and a tendency U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for in existing FSR/E programs and projects to neglect Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral women farmers. A final section explores the possible fu- Development (Sponsor) ture of FSR/E in Africa. 27 Sep 1985, iv, 26p. : maps, statistical tables, En
Vol. IV, 1987 17

A farming system research (FSR) team's design of a does farmer participation affect the roles of formal reseries of on-farm trials in the Comayagua Valley of Hon- searchers and extensionists? The paper concludes with duras in 1978 is documented. Discussion of the design a case study of the development of farmer participation process covers, inter alia: "pre-analysis" surveys of the in FSR in Nepal's Integrated Cereals Project. Referenregion; the design and administration of formal and in- ces (1978-86) are included. formal farmer surveys; technical design issues, such as
problems in defining the "real" cropping systems being
used in farmer's fields; and political (or institutional) 049 PN-AAV-544
design issues, centering around relationships between MF $1.08/PC $4.29
the FSR team and national commodity researchers.
Detailed discussions of specific design problems en- Appropriate technology for smallholders countered in each of three recommendation domains some implications of social stratification are provided, together with a series of recommenda- for farming systems research tions on farm sample size, trial replication, plot size, Garrett, Patricia and the logistics of dividing the FSR team into sub- Cornell University. Dept. of Rural Sociology teams by domain. Factors cited as key to a successful U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for design effort include, inter alia, compromise among Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponmembers of the FSR team and proper prioritization of sor) the problems to be solved. Feb 1984, 29p., En
CRSP working paper, no.84.1 E Spanish version: PNAAV-578
048 PN-AAW-987 9311310
MF $1.08/PC $2.99 AID/DSAN/XII-G-0261
Farmer participation in farming systems re- Agricultural technologies have salient socioeconomic
search characteristics which make them appropriate or inapGaIt, Daniel L.; Mathema, S.B. propriate. This becomes clear when, instead of viewing
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural smallholders as a homogeneous group, as is usually
Sciences done in farming systems research (FSR) literature, we
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for delineate three strata of smallholders: peasants, petty
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- commodity producers, and semiproletarians. Concepsor) tualizing this stratification on the basis of family labor
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for power and how its deployment affects the reproduction
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral (or replacement) of household resources, we find that Development (Sponsor) technologies aimed at peasant systems, in which
1986, 20p., En returns to (mostly family) labor are used for subsisNetworking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, tence, are not appropriate for petty commodity
no.15 producers who use hired labor and who produce for
9364099 cash income, or for semiproletarians, who depend mostly on income from off-farm labor. The policy implicaFarming systems research (FSR) needs to develop tions of this social stratification for FSR programs are quicker, more cost-effective methods for including studied in general and then for each type of farmers as co-participants in the research and exten- smallholder. A summary of viable FSR objectives for sion processes, according to this discussion paper, the three strata, presented in tabular form and which examines issues pertinent to farmer participation separated into production, marketing, and storage acby addressing a series of oft-raised questions about the tivities, concludes the report. A 48-item bibliography role of the farmer in FSR. These questions include: (1) (1956-84) is appended. why has interest in including the farmer in research
decisionmaking increased?; (2) can farmers be viewed
as equal partners in FSR?; (3) do farmers really perform
research?; (4) what can researchers learn from
farmers?; (5) can extensionists work effectively if they
take time to learn from farmers?; (6) is it enough to involve farmers in the design of field trials?; (7) should
farmer participation and agreement be sought at the individual, the group, the village, or at some higher political sub-group level?; (8) do all levels of household
decisionmaking need to be monitored?; and (9) how
18 Vol. IV, 1987

050 PN-AAV-545 051 PN-AAX-025
MF $1.08/PC $3.12 MF $1.08/PC $4.42
Some methodological issues in preinter- Market interactions of select Baggara tranvention farming systems research : select- shumants during drought and ost
ing appropriate techniques for data collec- drought periods : the case of south Fortion dofan, Sudan in 1985
Garrett, Patricia; Goldstein, Donna Gillard-Byers, Thomas E.; Azrag, Bakheit A.; Speece,
Cornell University. Dept. of Rural Sociology Mark
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Kansas State University. Office of International AgriculScience and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- ture Programs
sor) U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
1984, 44p. + attachment: statistical table, En Science and Technology. Office of Research and CRSP working paper, no.84.4E University Relations (Sponsor)
9311310 (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Farming systems research currently employs one of Farming systems research paper series, paper no.13
two methodologies at the pre-intervention stage: (1) Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986 rapid diagnostic research, which is practical but unprin- farming systems research symposium; farming syscipled; and (2) sample surveys, which are principled but tems research and extension : food and feed, Oct unrealistic. This paper, based on fieldwork in Ecuador, 1986, p.652-685 : charts, map, statistical tables, En suggests an alternative approach: different Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha methodologies should be used for different units of 9311282 analysis. Specifically, regional variation can be tapped DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 by analyzing secondary data, followed by judicious use
of informant interviewing, while socioeconomic variation The Baggara transhumants (migratory cattle herders) can be measured by random surveys with an ap- of southern Kordofan Province have been the major propriate questionnaire design. The paper first con- source of livestock production in Sudan for many years. siders methods of identifying regional variation, discuss- The relative value of livestock and animal products ing the preparation for and conduct of structured inter- produced by the Baggara transhumants, however, viewing in subzones which have been identified through varies greatly over time and space as they travel from prior analysis of secondary data. Survey research tech- one part of the province to the next. This paper studies niques are discussed in the second section, which the complex relationship of the Baggara transhumants begins by considering the universe from which one to the marketplace, using household- and market-level might sample and proceeds to the design of question- data collected during 1985, a year of severe drought naires for specific social strata; this section argues that i.e., an extreme case of the seasonal changes in prices survey research allows one to identify with precision which are the norm for the Baggara. Specifically, the which social strata exist in a subregion. General paper: (1) documents trends in prices at the submethodological issues are analyzed in a concluding sec- regional and regional marketing levels to measure price tion which summarizes the strengths and weaknesses differentials for both livestock and non-livestock staple of informant interviewing and survey research, and iden- food commodities; (2) uses this information to describe tifies some implications for staffing and multidisciplinary the effects of reductions in purchasing power on the collaboration. A 26-item bibliography (1922-84) is in- nutritional levels of the typical Baggara household; and cluded. (3) identifies a method and timetable for intervention in
the market to ensure stable prices without increasing
market risk. The study concludes that a 3-year
program providing education in market trends and encouraging Baggara transhumants to sell cattle and buy
non-livestock food commodities during the mid dry
season will help protect prices and increase nutritional
levels. Included are a list of references (1963-86), 8
tables, and 10 figures.
Vol. IV, 1987 19

052 PN-AAW-971 bicide used in any quantity is paraquat which, while inMF $1.08/PC $.91 effective against many weeds, is economically attractive. While herbicides can ease the labor of land
Plant interactions in multiple cropping sys- preparation and extend the critical period of weed corntems petition, many are susceptible to rain and their species
Gliessman, Stephen R. spectrum is often limited. Under its Farming Systems
Multiple cropping systems, ch.5, 1986, p.82-95 : ill., Research and Development Project, CARDI is testing inchart, statistical tables, En tegrated weed control systems for small farmers, focusFrancis, Charles A. ing on economically and ecologically sound production
environments, into which integrated weed control can
Understanding Interactions among plants in natural be incorporated with minimal disruption and cost, and ecosystems can be helpful in designing and managing where soil and weather factors present a low risk of multiple cropping systems which conserve resources failure. The CARDI program includes component testand are ecologically balanced. As a guide for research ing and system evaluation both at experimental stations in this area, this paper proposes the concept of plant in- and on-farm. Basic to the program is a weed control terference interactions and adopts a mechanistic ap- survey currently underway in several countries. Four proach to understanding how these interactions func- recommendation domains have been identified, based tion. Three types of interactions are delineated. (1) A on the amount of rainfall during both the dry and wet removal interaction is characterized by one plant's seasons. ability to remove (and utilize) some factor from the environment, e.g., sunlight, nitrogen, or water, more efficiently than do surrounding plants. (2) An addition reac- 054 PN-AAR-620
tion occurs when a plants adds something to the en- MF $1.08/PC $12.09
vironment, e.g., through the release of allelopathic
chemicals. (3) In contrast to purely additive or removal On farm experimentation : a manual of interactions, mutualisms (often called symbiosis) can suggested experimental procedures combine several components of interference. Informa- Hammerton, John L; Lauckner, F.B. tion derived from studies in Tabasco, Mexico, is used to University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean illustrate plant interactions in the traditional Agricultural Research and Development Institute corn/bean/squash polyculture used throughout U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for mesoamerica. Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Development Office (Sponsor)
Apr 1984, iii, 87p. : ill., charts, En
053 PN-AAW-009 5380099
MF $1.08/PC $.52 Based on experience in the Eastern Caribbean, this
Weed control in small farm systems manual provides guidelines in the use of experimental
Hammerton, John L. designs and techniques capable of solving the
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Caribbean problems endemic to on-farm, as distinct from field staAgricultural Research and Development Institute tion, research. After briefly defining the terminology U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for used in on-farm experimentation, the manual discusses
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- the experimental designs that are particularly useful in sor) on-farm research. Based on the arrangement of plots
(Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops Society, and the allocation of treatments, these designs include
20th, St. Croix, VI, 1985) the randomized complete block (the simplest design),
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society : an- the incomplete block, and the factorial. The designs'
nual meeting, v.20, 1985, p.133-136 : statistical table, pros and cons and related topics such as replication En and variability are discussed; examples Illustrate the use
5380099 of each design. The final sections summarize the unique problems encountered in on-farm research (includEast Caribbean small farmers spend about 30% of ing those due to physical, biological, and technical factotal crop labor on land preparation and 30% on post- tors; farmer participation; missing plots or blocks; and planting weed control, depending mostly on hand labor, planning, design, management, and data collection reusing cutlasses, hoes, forks, and pulling of weeds. Con- quirements) and suggest methods for their resolution. straints to adopting improved weed control tech- Appended are an explanation of variance analysis and a nologies such as herbicides include limited cash 5-item reference list (1957-83). availability, the practice of mixed- or inter-cropping, and
the complexity of many farm systems. The only her20 Vol. IV, 1987

055 PN-AAV-938 vironment for which the FSR program is supposedly
MF $1.08/PC $2.73 designed. An alternative FSR planning approach is proposed, one which is based on a dialogue between
Management system design and im- FSR planners and researchers and which takes explicit
plementation In the CARDI farming sys- account of the needs, capabilities, and characteristics
tems research and development project of the client research institution. In this way, administraHart, Robert D.; Ingle, Marcus D. tive and institutional issues of implementation are given
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- consideration from the outset. Such an approach imposium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) plies that there is no one way to implement FSR Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11 programs. It also implies the need for donors to place Farming systems research & extension : management the contribution of FSR into perspective; only with the
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.17-37: ill., En active and constructive support of local institutional staff Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha and farmers can there be self-sustaining, problemsolvKansas State University. Office of International Agricul- ing research systems. (Author abstract, modified)
ture Programs
DAN-OOOO-G-SS-0092-O0 057 *PN-AAU-997
MF $1.08/PC $7.93
The design and installation of a management system
capable of meeting the multidisciplinary and complex Technology and research considerations needs of farming systems research (FSR) projects are in ICRAF's "diagnosis and design" procediscussed. Section one systematically assesses the dures need in FSR to manage: (1) inputs (human and physi- Huxley, P.A.; Wood, P.J. cal resources, project methodology, financial resources, International Council for Research in Agroforestry technology inputs); (2) the research program (the [1984], 49p. : charts, En analysis-design-evaluation research cycle, the related Working paper / International Council for Research in yearly review-plan-budget-monitor cycles, and life-of- Agroforestry, no.26 project model-building); (3) outputs (alternative technologies and improved methodologies); and (4) overall Also available from: International Council for project coordination (the need for a central system is ar- Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi, gued). Section two describes a general FSR project Kenya management system that meets the needs identified in
section one, while section three describes the manage- Step-by-step guidelines are presented for the design, ment system of the Caribbean Research and Develop- planning, and implementation stages of ICRAF's apment Institute's (CARDI) FSR project in order to il- proach to developing appropriate agroforestry intervenlustrate the characteristics described in section two. A tions. Picking up after the pre-diagnosis/diagnosis final section describes an approach to the development stages, which analyze key constraints in a land use sysof appropriate management systems and the identifica- tem and outline the kinds of changes which may be tion of principles that can guide their installation, needed (see "Resources for Agroforestry: Diagnosis and Design" [PN-AAU-998] and its companion volume
"Guidelines for Agroforestry Diagnosis and Design"),
056 PN-AAV-939 this paper briefly explains and provides examples for
each of the following 9 steps. The design stage (steps
MF $1.08/PC $.52 7-11) identifies possible technologies which could help
Farming systems research : an evolution- to overcome land use constraints ("leverage" points)
ary approach to implementation and produces a prioritized list of specific technical
Helnemann, Edward; Biggs, Stephen D. proposals for species to be used and management pracnea o a tra eigsv.36(), 1985, tices to be tried. The planning stage (steps 12-13) sumJournal of agricultural economics, marizes what can immediately be put into practice while
p.59-65": chart, En providing, at the same time, an annotated list of reEvidence suggests that many farming systems re- search needs; plans for parallel research and extension search (FSR) programs have "Institutional problems", activities are also formulated. Implementation (steps 14that is, difficulties in working effectively with local re- 15) involves preparing specific plans for each of the search institutions. The authors of this paper argue that proposed technologies regarding objectives, experimenthese problems are largely the result of the way in tal designs, resource allocation, and methods of data which FSR programs are planned. Too much emphasis evaluation. The full procedure concludes with evaluahas been attached to developing an FSR methodology tion (step 16). The paper supplements the narrative and too little given to understanding the research en- with extracts from related writings and with detailed
Vol. IV, 1987 21

charts to guide the practitioner in the application of the 059 *PN-AAU-998
methodology. MF $4.32/P1C $47.84
Resources for agroforestry : diagnosis
058 PN-AAV-536 and design
MF $1.08/PC $1.43 International Council for Research in Agroforestry Draft ed.
Recognizing structural constraints on im- Nov 1983, x, 383p. : ill., charts, statistical tables, En
plementation of a farming systems ap- Working paper / International Counci for Research in
proach within a national agricultural Agroforestry, no.7 Also in: Diagnostic and design
program: some views from Thailand methodology manual series no.2
Infanger, Craig L. Also available from: International Council for
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Resaaci from: InOraBoxa 7 C oif Sciences Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi,
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Kenya Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- Intended as a resource book to be used in corjuncsor)
[1985], 10p., En tion with the more skeletal "Guidelines for Agroforestry
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, Diagnosis and Design", this handbook presents detaled no.9 methodological guidelines, suggested procedures,
9364099 analytical tools, and resource materials for use by
agroforestry workers in the field. The book is organized
The economic and environmental problems constrain- in three sections which provide: (1) detailed step-bying farming systems research (FSR) in the Northeast step guidelines for each stage in the application of Rainfed Agricultural Development Project (NERAD) in ICRAF's diagnosis and design (D&D) methodology Thailand are analyzed. Major environmental problems prediagnosis, diagnosis, design, and follow-up planning; are infertile soils (a fertility classification for Asian soils (2) twelve worksheets to facilitate the acquisition and is provided) and sparse, erratic rainfall stemming from a processing of D&D information (the worksheets provide dry monsoon climate. The major economic problems a defined set of output targets which give concrete form are a highly risky agricultural situation resulting from and direction to the sequence of interdisciplinary D&D price fluctuations and market volatilty, the negative ef- team activities); and (3) the "heart' of the handbook a fect on farmgate prices of Thailand's trade policies, and lengthy appendix containing a variety of tools and the high cost of credit. Farmer strategy in this situation materials corresponding to each of the four stages in is to minimize risk by implementing a low-input, low-out- agroforestry-oriented D&D, with further step-by-step input production scheme that focuses first on subsistence structions which are either optional or too lengthy for infood production and secondly on cropping or off-farm clusion in part one. It is expected that the methodology employment for cash income. Unfortunately, this ration- will need to be adapted somewhat to fit particular apal strategy is not endorsed by many agricultural scien- plications and the needs of the user. tists, FSR advocates, or Thai ministry officials. FSR
projects can only succeed, it is concluded, if they work
within the limits of their situation by concentrating on 060 PN-AAW-322
changes that are biologically feasible, economically vi- MF $1.08/PC $1.95
able, and socially acceptable. Problems of understanding and communication at the interface of knowledge
Jiggins, Janice
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb
- 1 Mar 1986)
Jan 1986, 13p. + appendix: chart, En
Using examples from Lesotho and northern Zambia,
this paper explores the dichotomy which often exists be22 Vol. IV, 1987

tween the rationality of a farmer and that of a farming 062 PN-AAV-546
systems researcher or extensionist. Because corn- MF $1.08/PC $1.17
munication failures are greatest between male researchers and female farmers who are also respon- Temporal land resource concerns and sible for household management the paper confines farming systems research: Chiang Mai Valits analysis to the strategies used by female farmers to ley, northern Thailand manage seasonal stress. The example from Lesotho il- JonnSmHII
lustate resarcers'prolem in easringwomn's Land economics, v.60(2), May 1984, p.202-210 :charts, activities to maintain an adequate fuel supply (a key to statistical tables, En both cropping choices and household food availability),
while that from Zambia underlines the need for re- Farming systems research (FSR), particularly as it is searchers to recognize the importance of traditional currently practiced at international agricultural research local vegetables, which in this case provide certain centers, concentrates on short-term issues and usually dietary benefits not available from modern varieties of does not address questions concerning the Iong-term major crops, no matter how abundant. In conclusion, sustainability of production increases. The traditional the paper stresses the importance of methodologies FSR approach has been depicted as a mathematical for: (1) determining key field-household interactions equation in which increased agricultural production early on in the diagnostic process; and (2) mutual com- over the short term, the goal of FSR, is dependent on munication of key concepts across the boundaries of re- two variables: farm management and the environment. searchers' and female producers' distinct knowledge This equation, however, ignores the interactions besystems. Two useful diagnostic instruments are tween the two variables and thus does not include a described: situation analysis based on the critical inci- mechanism to determine if production increases resultdent technique; and peer group workshops. ing from new management practices are, in fact, sustainable. This point is illustrated with data from an FSR
project to introduce high-yielding varieties (HYV's) of
061 PN-AAW.1 69 rice in the Chiang Mai Valley in Northern Thailand. AlMF $1.08/PC $2.08 though the HYV's were successful in the short term, over the long term they effected marked increases in
Extension's role in adapting and evaluat- soil acidity. This environmental change required
ing new technology for farmers farmers to alter their management techniques (e.g.,
Johnson S.H. Ill; Kellogg, E.D. crop rotation, use of fertilizer, labor inputs) and, in turn,
U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization negatively affected farmers' income. It is concluded
Agricultural extension : a reference manual, 2nd ed. that more attention must be paid to the agroecological
1984, p.40-55 : charts, map, statistical tables, En dynamics of farming systems, including the long-term efSwanson, B.E. fects of technologies.
The role of extensionists in new approaches to the
development, adaptation, and evaluation of agricultural 063 PN-AAW-973
technologies are identified in this paper. Problems MF $1.08/PC $1.56
which inhibit successful technology adaptation and
evaluation are discussed, and a four-stage approach Use of action variables in determining designed to alleviate many of these problems is out- recommendation domains lined: (1) diagnosis of farmers' circumstances and ac- Jol,.M tions in the target area; (2) planning and design of tech- JolyU .. c o nentoa eeomn.Brao nological adaptation; (3) on-farm testing and verifica- Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spontion; and (4) multi-locational field trials and dissemina- sor) tion. Specific extension activities in implementing each (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symof the four stages are identified. A brief concluding sec- posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986) tion on organizational arrangements suggests that na- 1986, li p. : statistical tables, En tional research and extension departments share staff- 9311282 ing, budgetary, and operational responsibilities for on- DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 farm trials.
The use of recommendation domains (RD's) has not
facilitated the transfer of technology in farming systems
research (FSR) as well as originally hoped. This report
explains why and offers an alternative methodology for
identifying RD's. In explaining RD's rather disappointing
results, the report notes that methods previously used
Vol. IV, 1987 23

to determine RD's have been subjective and descrip- rather invest in their children's education than in their tive; farmers have been categorized on the basis of farms. their use of inputs and other sociological factors rather than, as is suggested here, on objective, mathematical analysis of three factors, i.e., output (production level), 065 PN-AAW-170
measurable inputs, and farming practices. Of these, the MF $1.08/PC $.78
latter two are considered "action variables" because they can be manipulated to alter the farmers' level of Comparaison d'itneraires techniques : une self-sufficiency. The methodology is illustrated by apply- methode d'experimentation agronomique ing cluster and discriminant analysis to data from en milieu reel(Comparison of technical seSenegal's Ziguinchor region on area planted, yield, use quences: an approach to agronomic roof inputs, cultural practices, food consumption and search in the field) marketing, and revenue from off-farm activities. The d
marktin, an reenuefro of-far acivites.The Jouve, Philippe [6]p. : statistical table, Fir, Summaries results, presented in two tables, show farmers grouped in Fr, En, Es into four distinct clusters, based on factors including herbicide use, level of fertilizer use, and labor per area Field experience in Morocco provides the basis for cultivated. This method, it is concluded, not only allows this analysis of key problems encountered in research researchers to objectively group farmers into RD's, but aimed at improving cultivation techniques. These permits greater Insights into relationships between input problems include: (1) the selection of research use, cultural practices, and outputs. priorities and the formulation of prior assumptions in
order to select research themes; (2) the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing research at an ex064 PN-AAW-974 perimental station and via agricultural surveys aimed at
MF $1.08/PC $1.56 revealing actual field conditions; (3) the design of experiments comparing technical sequences; and (4) the cornEvaluation of technological alternatives for plementary nature of statistical and agronomic analyses
small farmers in Central America of the results. The three phases of an experimental
Jones, Jeffrey R. program are summarized. In conclusion, the paper
Social sciences and farming systems research, ch.9, stresses the importance of developing cultivation techni1986, p.171-193 : map, statistical tables, En ques that are appropriate to target farmers' resource Jones, Jeffrey R.; Wallace, Ben J. levels and of involving extension units early on in the
5960089 process of adapting the techniques to local conditions.
In certain farming systems research (FSR) contexts, it (Author abstract, modified) is necessary to conduct on-farm trials of an alternative technology that is not completely ready for validation. This occurs in complex, slowly reproducing systems where the technology being considered will not have time to mature within the timeframe of the FSR project. In such cases, the technology must be "evaluated" rather than 'validated," using indirect measures such as comments by farmers or observations of farm resources. This paper describes the technology evaluation process used in a mixed animal-crop project implemented by CATIE in Cariari, Costa Rica, and in Comayagua, Honduras. The technologies developed by the project (e.g., new forage crops) required increased capital and labor, and it was hypothesized that there could be conflicting demands on these resources arising from farmer's alternative goals for their farms and families. Farmers' goals were determined by using a "paired comparison" methodology to analyze the changes in resource use that would be necessary were the technologies adopted. The report concludes that: (1) somewhat surprisingly, poorer farmers were more receptive than wealthier ones to changes requiring financial risk and sacrifice; and (2) Honduran farmers would much
24 VoL IV, 1987

066 *PN-AAV-682 067 PN-AAW-010
MF $3.24/PC $28.86 MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Livestock in mixed farming systems : re- Methodologies for conducting on farm
search methodologies and priorities livestock research within mixed farming
Kearl, Steve systems
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Kujawa, Mark A.; Oxley, James W.
Sciences Kansas State University. Office of International AgriculInternational Livestock Centre for Africa ture Programs
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- Science and Technology. Office of Research and
sor) University Relations (Sponsor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension SymScience and Technology. Office of Multisectoral posium, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Development (Sponsor) Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1986
(Workshop on Livestock in Mixed Farming Systems farming systems research symposium; farming sysResearch Methodologies and Priorities, Addis tems research and extension : food and feed,
Ababa, ET, 24-27 Jun 1985) paper, no.13, Oct 1986, p.532-549, En
Jul 1986, vi, 220p. : charts, statistical tables, En Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha FSSP network report, no.2 9311282
9364099 DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00
Methodologies considered important by researchers
Also available from: International Livestock Center for in conducting on-farm livestock research (OFLR) are Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia presented. The areas discussed include: the selection of the research site and farms; farmer participation and
Papers given at a workshop to explore the use of compensation and incentives; experimental
methodologies and priorities in studying the livestock design (e.g., selection of the livestock sample, control component of small farms are presented. Participants of environmental effects, replication, and data collection were expected to identify the major constraints in mixed methods and procedures); and the analysis of research farming systems, rank them according to their potential results (biological, economic, and the use of empirical economic importance and amenability to research, and data and estimates of acceptability). While these topics develop methodological recommendations. Ten papers do not represent all the components of OFLR using the are presented, dealing with farming systems research farming systems research approach, they reflect areas techniques for, inter alia: alley farming; station work from past experiences which have been emphasized with draft animals; evaluating on-farm experiments with and well documented. Since OFLR is relatively new, its livestock in the Ethiopian highlands; dairy systems in methodologies are still developing, and several areas smallholdings in Sudan's Gezira area; mineral require- (e.g., sampling techniques, farmer survey methods, and ments in animal feeding; socioeconomic methodologies site selection) need further development. It is recomin studying goat husbandry; and the use of and issues mended that researchers: modify experimental procein on-farm research to improve fodder for agropas- dures to fit the particular research environment; limit toralists' livestock in the Nigerian subhumid zone. Also OFLR to farmer-managed trials and use measures of acpresented is a paper on correlating the constraints of ceptability as test parameters; and provide explicit the farming and research systems as a prelude to farm- descriptions of all methodologies in their published acing systems research. Summary statements of small counts of OFLR. Thirty-two references (1979-86) are group discussions on on-station and on-farm research provided. are also included.
Vol. IV, 1987 25

068 PN-AAV-940 ment. The paper first demonstrates the meaning of
MF $1.08/PC $1.69 descriptive statistics, constructing a scatter diagram to display yield patterns and deriving several measures of
Inclusion of time factors in the design of the data: (1) statistical mean, or a measure of the midon station and on farm trials : a case die value, which best characterizes data which are not
study from Kilosa District, Tanzania highly variable; (2) range, the simplest measure of variaLev, Larry S. tion in the data (spread from the lowest to highest
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- value); and (3) variance, or how closely observations posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) are grouped around the mean. For interpretation (for Farming systems research paper series, paper no. 11 which variance is not always as helpful as it is for statisFarming systems research & extension : management tical tests), use is made of standard deviation (the
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.577-589: ill., map, En square root of the variance), which can be plotted with Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha the mean for a more complete statistical picture. StatisKansas State University. Office of International Agricul- tical analysis is then demonstrated in (1) calculating liketure Programs ly yield outcomes for a given practice at the farmers'
9311282 desired level of confidence, and (2) isolating the real efDAN-000-G-SS-0092-00 fects of treatments from random chance in the data.
Several assumptions upon which the analyses are
On-farm trials conducted in 12 villages in Tanzania's based are noted. Kilosa District are cited as evidence of the importance
of including time factors in farming systems analyses.
An initial section identifies relevant time elements and 070 PN-AAV-941
criteria for screening proposed innovations, and lists a MF $1.08/PC $1.30
variety of short- and long-term time considerations
(noting those commodity researchers are likely to ig- Farmer participation in on farm trials nore). Described next are the study area's environmen- Lightfoot, Clive tal features, the local agricultural calendar, traditional (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Syrnfarming practices, and the design and implementation posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) of the on-farm trials, which introduced two new maize Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11 varieties Kito and Staha. Results showed that par- Farming systems research & extension : management ticipating farmers unanimously preferred the quick- and methodology, Aug 1986, p.525-534 : ill., statistimaturing Kito over the higher-yielding Staha for various cal tables, En time-related reasons. (1) Most farmers chose not to Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha plant maize during the long rains (when Staha produces Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculbest) because they concentrate on cotton and rice at ture Programs that time. (2) Planting with Kito during the short rains 9311282 permitted farmers to better achieve their main produc- DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 tion goals hastening their maize harvest to a period
when family supplies are low and market prices are Few would deny that farmer participation is manhigh, and freeing family labor from February onward datory in quality farming systems research (FSR), but when the rice and cotton crops require much attention. where on-farm testing is concerned researchers have
(3) Farmers felt that Kito's short maturity would allow it often simply transplanted conventional on-station reto provide a more stable yield in years when the short search designs onto farms, hindering meaningful farmer rains are poor. participation. This paper argues that combining conventional and indigenous research methods exploits farmer
participation in adapting technologies to specific farm
069 PN-AAW-976 conditions and providing feedback on basic research
needs. Two cases are cited in which farmers have parMF $1.08/PC $2.34 ticipated in on-farm research. In the first, small farmers Statistical analysis for on farm agronomic in Bangladesh successfully adapted an upland variety data of rice (which had performed poorly in experimental
Lightfoot, C. plots) to lowland flooded conditions; in the second,
Jul 1985, 18p. : statistical tables, En Brazilian farmers tested 16 varieties of sweet potatoes,
and their preferences revealed that conventional breedTo counter the popular belief that statistical analysis ing objectives (e.g., high yield, taste) were inapis neither easily understood nor especially useful, this propriate, and that different objectives (vigorous vining, lecture demonstrates, in a step-by-step manner, its use extended underground storage, and sequential harvestin interpreting yield data from an on-farm corn experi- ing) and a greater range of types for different strategies
26 Vol. IV, 1987

were demanded. Both examples highlight the difficul- 072 PN-AAW-977
ties and the potential values of increasing farmer par- MF $1.08/PC $1.69
ticipation in on-farm research. Data from the two experiments are appended. Indigenous technology and farming systems research : agroforestry in the Indian
071 PN-AAU-332 Mitchie, Barry H.
MF $1.08/PC $1.43 U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (SponConducting on farm research in FSR sor)
making a good idea work Social sciences and farming systems research, ch.11,
Lightfoot, Clive; Barker, Randolph 1986, p.221-244 : maps, chart, statistical tables, En
(Farming Systems Research Symposium on Farming Jones, Jeffrey R.; Wallace Ben J.
Systems Research and Extension: Implementation 9311254
and Monitoring, Manhattan, KS, US, 7-10 Oct 1984) DSAN/XII-G-0149 Farming systems research paper series, paper no.9
Selected proceedings of Kansas State University's 1984 An appreciation of locally developed agricultural pracfarming systems research symposium; farming sys- tices is an underlying tenet of farming systems research teams research and extension : implementation and (FSR). This case study describes an FSR project conmonitoring, Feb 1986, p.445-455, En ducted in an arid-to-semiarid area in Rajasthan State,
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha India, whose most significant findings arose not from its
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul- stated focus (pearl millet, pulse, and pest control trials),
ture Programs but from an anthropological inquiry into indigenous
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for farming systems. What was discovered was a rainfed
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review agroforestry system which combined trees, crops, and Information (Sponsor) animal husbandry, and links to fuel and timber con9311282 cerns. Numerous previous studies (focusing on crops,
crop combinations, and infrastructural development)
To increase the adoption of agricultural technologies had explored the problems of arid land production in developed through farming systems research (FSR), Rajasthan without realizing the potential value of the this report suggests a 3-part methodology incorporating agroforestry technology. Such a technology (i.e., one on-farm research and farmer participation. The first developed by relatively poor farmers working marginal step is to diagnose the existing farming system and its lands and utilizing low-cost, locally available inputs) production constraints by combining a quick interdis- helps farmers overcome a major problem accompanyciplinary team survey (the sondeo) with detailed ing agricultural development unequal access to agriculmonitoring and measurement in specific problem areas tural inputs. The case discussed here shows that the inthat offer potential for research. The second phase is clusion of anthropological methods can help FSR disto select and design innovations for on-farm investiga- cover existing systems which may then become targets tion using a five-step process in which farmers and re- of further research aimed at their improvement or searchers prioritize technical options in terms of their propagation. political impact, potential for adoption, and research
costs. The final step is to have farmers conduct onfarm trials of the innovations (each field trial should in- 073 PN-AAV-942
clude 20-30 farmers) while researchers focus on collec- MF $1.08/PC $2.73
tion and analysis of data; development of site team research capabilities is a related task. In conclusion, Gender roles in Caribbean small scale farmer participation in FSR, especially in the early agriculture phases, is critical to the adoption of new technologies. Momsen, Janet Henshall University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(International Conference on Women and Development:
Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
Jan 1986, 12p. + 6 attachments : chart, statistical
tables, En
Vol. IV, 1987 27

Ester Boserup, in her analysis (1970) of Jamaican 075 PN-AAV-276
agriculture, posited that the high proportion of women MF $1.08/PC $5.07
farmers in Jamaica stemmed from the preservation of
African farming traditions by a population mainly de- Technology evaluation, policy change and scended from African slaves. This paper analyzes farmer adoption in Burkina-Faso Boserup's hypothesis using both historical sources and Nagy, Joseph; Ames, Linda L; Ohm, Herbert contemporary field data. Examined from a historical Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of Inperspective are women's roles in the 'formal" and "infor- ternational Programs in Agriculture mal" plantation economy and the post-emancipation Purdue University. International Education and Research division of labor. Current issues which are discussed in- Purdue University. Farming Systems Unit of the Semiclude women's economic roles (i.e., as peasant Arid Food Grain Research and Development Program farmers, and in the agricultural labor force) and the U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for gender divisions of labor. The paper highlights a grow- Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor) ing conflict in the lives of rural West Indian women (i.e., (Farming Systems Symposium, Manhattan, KS, US, 13they remain tied to home-based tasks, despite in- 16 Oct 1985) creased educational and non-farm employment oppor- Oct 1985, 26p. + attachments : map, statistical tables, tunities) and concludes that the efficiency of West In- En dian peasant agriculture, which relies so heavily upon French ed.: PN-AAV-277 women, requires the resolution of this conflict. 6980393 AID/AFR-C-1472
074 PN-AAV-537 Two major constraints to increased agricultural
MF $1.08/PC $3.90 production in Burkina Faso are poor sol fertlity and inadequate water retention. This paper presents the
Decade of on-farm research in lowland results of field trials and socioeconomic analyses of the
rice based farming systems : some les- benefits of tied ridges and fertilizer for sorghum cropsons ping. After a researcher-managed trial using commerMorris, Richard A. cial fertilizer and tied ridges constructed 30-35 days
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural after planting resulted in a 195% yield increase over
Sciences traditional practices, a series of farmer-managed trials
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for was conducted in five different villages to compare tradiScience and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- tional practices, tied ridges, low levels of fertilizer, and sor) combinations of all three, both with and without animal
(Annual Conference on Farming Systems Research, 4th, traction. Linear programming was used to analyze the
Manhattan, KS, US, Oct 1984) technology interventions in a whole farm contexL Tied
Oct 1984, 27p. : charts, statistical tables, En ridges and fertilizer, when used alone, showed good Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, results (although fertilizer alone carried high risk), but
no.6 the combination of the two produced superior yields.
9364099 Both technologies showed poor adoption rates,
however, due on the one hand to lack of cash resourWhile rice is and must remain the dominant food crop ces to buy fertilizer and on the other to lack of sufficent in tropical Asia, efforts to increase cropping frequency labor to construct and maintain tied ridges. The introby growing other species in sequence with rice is a duction of mechanical ridge tiers reduced labor, but repromising means of increasing both food production quired animal traction and still more cash. In short, the and rural employment. The four sections of this paper: improved technologies are likely to be adopted only by
(1) provide the raison d'etre for on-farm, rice-based families with sufficient access to credit and animal traccropping systems research (CSR) in tropical Asia, as tion. practiced by the International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI); (2) describe the on-farm CSR methods used by
IRRI; (3) summarize agronomic research findings from
three lowland rice environments; and (4) discuss organizational issues important to on-farm CSR which appear to require a few years of experience before they
are recognized. The lessons discussed in Section 4
primarily relate to project relationships with farmers, extensionists, community leaders, and with research station-oriented scientists who are responsible for generating appropriate technology. (Author abstract, modified)
28 Vol. IV, 1987

076 PN-AAW-171 extensionists with a needed interaction based on the inMF $ 1.08/PC $1.43 terests of the farmer. The Adaptive Research Planning Team in Western Province, Zambia, has sponsored
Farming systems research model in Zim- three farmer field-days; based on this experience, the
babwe paper discusses issues important to the conduct of a
Ndimande, B.N.; Avila, M. successful field-day: planning the field-day, within the
International Rice Research Institute larger research program and for a single session;
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture presenting unfamiliar and complex technical and statistiU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for cal information to farmers; and leading discussions with
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- farmers that permit them to share their experience and sor) articulate specific problems. The paper concludes that,
Proceedings of the second monitoring tour : crop live- in addition to being an effective communication tool,
stock systems research, Nepal and Indonesia, farmer field-days can help refocus program formulation [1985], p.126-136 : chart, statistical table, En for greater integration of research and extension efforts 936411102 to address specific farmer problems. Appended is a
detailed description of a February 1983 field-day.
The Farming Systems Research Unit (FSRU) established in 1980 within Zimbabwe's Department of
Research and Specialist Services is delineated. An ini- 08PN-AAW-01 1 tial section reviews the Unit's evolution, organizational MF $1.08/PC $3.12
structure, objectives, and major programmatic thrusts
and activties. Attention is then turned to crop/livestock Soil tillag e and water conservation in semisystems research, an FSRU subprogram as of 1984. arid west Africa Key aspects of such research In general and in the Zim- Nicou, R.; Charreau, C. babwe model are discussed the design of crop/live- Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of Instock systems research, the structure and function of ternationall Programs in Agriculture the farming system, research team composition and in- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for teraction, objectives, and on-farm experimentation with Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor) animals. This model, It is remarked in conclusion, was Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid west developed In accordance with circumstances prevailing Africa, 1985, p.9-32 : charts, statistical tables, En In Zimbabwe, and was left unchanged after a first year Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G. assessment. 6980393
Root development of annual crops in semiarid West
077 PN-AAW-978 Africa often suffers due to poor soil conditions and to
MF $1.08/PC $2.73 erosion and runoff caused by irregular, intense rainfall.
This study surveys the physical properties of West
Potential role of farmer field days In the African soils (which are generally characterized by
Integration of research and extension sandy-clayey upper horizons) and examines the adprograms :the experience of adaptive re- vantages of tillage for improving soil properties
search planning team in Western (porosity, water retention, and microbial activity) and for
Province, Zambia increasing root growth and crop yields. The difficulties
Ndiyoi, Mukelabal in extending tillage to farmers in semiarid West Africa
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for are also considered, after which specific tillage and
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- other water conservation techniques are discussed at sor) some length. These include tillage with tines, dry deep
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- plowing, ridging and mounding, the use of tied ridges,
possum, 6th, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986) and mulching. It is concluded that no one technique is 1986, [21 ]p. : charts, En universally effective; rather, results depend on a number
9311282 of variables, such as climate, soil chemistry, vegetation
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 and farming practices. Also, socioeconomic factors
(e.g., the expense of motorization needed for deep
Close and continuous interaction between research plowing, or the amount of hand labor required by tied and extension workers is now seen as a key activity in ridges) limit the number of workable options. Four the generation and dissemination of appropriate agricul- figures and nine tables are included. tural technologies. This paper argues that farmer fielddays can effectively demonstrate research and extension activities to farmers, and provide researchers and
Vol. IV, 1987 29

079 PN-AAV-943 080 PN-AAR-868
MF $1.08/PC $4.94 MF $1.08/PC $1.56
Integrating intra-household dynamics into Some problems in the implementation of
farming systems projects agricultural research projects with a farmNorem, Rosalie Huisinga ing systems perspective
University of Florida Norman, David W.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Science and Technology. Office of Research and Sciences
University Relations (Sponsor) U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
(International Conference on Women and Development: Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (SportGender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Ex- sor)
tension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb 1 Mar 1986) U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for 1986, 23p. + appendix : statistical tables, En Science and Technology. Office of Mutisectoral
9311282 Development (Sponsor)
DAN-1282-G-SS-0101 -00 [1984], 11 p., En
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project,
As a first step in developing guidelines for the sys- no.3 tematic use of household data in farming systems 9364099 projects, a survey was conducted of 17 projects which
had collected household-level data. This preliminary Design, start-up, and implementation problems in analysis of survey results identifies: (1) the extent to farming systems research (FSR) projects are discussed which the projects collected and used data on in this report, based on the author's experience in household members' demographic characteristics, par- Botswana. To avoid problems at the design stage, naticipation in activities and decisionmaking, and access tional, donor, and contract personnel must understand to production resources, as well as on household in- the nature of FSR and their respective roles in the FSR come, expenditures, benefits from farm production, and project. At the start-up stage, it is essential to set up food consumption and nutrition; and (2) the data collec- suitable administrative procedures and support systion methods used by the projects (e.g., pre-existing or tems, ensure interagency linkages within national project-conducted formal surveys, community inform- programs, and bring together FSR teams and initiate a ants, team members' personal knowledge, observation, relevant and effective work program. During impiemetaand sondeos). The analysis indicates that there is a tion, the key needs are to produce useful results and to wide variation in the kinds of data being collected. institutionalize the FSR process within a national setting. Data are most often collected from heads of The former depends mostly on the dissemination of irhouseholds, a fact which may make it difficult to use proved and farmer-acceptable technologies, the use of the household as a unit of analysis in some cases. The proper data collection and analysis techniques, and the need for standardized data collection sensitive enough FSR team's adaptability to unexpected events. The to capture information from a variety of respondents is likelihood of institutionalizing FSR depends on the noted. Appended are a copy of the survey question- project's credibility, the availability of trained and naire and tables identifying the projects surveyed and motivated nationals to continue the work, and the ability presenting findings in statistical form. to produce results with a minimum of research resources. Also required is a conscious effort eauly on to integrate the project with other groups and projects
within the country setting.
30 Vol. IV, 1987

081 PN-AAW-012 al lowland growing season in April, farmers generally asMF $1.08/PC $2.73 sessed the performance of the UPL-Ri5 as comparable with standard lowland varieties. Although the upland
Limits of farming systems research and variety produced on the average fewer tillers, all farmers
development : should development ad- commented favorably on its panicle exertion and good
ministrators be interested? head fill, and its maturity period of between three to five
Oasa, Edmund K.; Swanson, Louis E. months was comparable with the lowland varieties.
Agricultural administration, v.23, 1986, p.1-21, En Overall grain yields were comparable as well. These 9311254 favorable assessments were supported by continued
AID/DSAN-G-0149 use of UPL-Ri5 in lowland bunded conditions, especially
in the driest parts of the parcel due to the variety's
The assumptions of farming systems research (FSR) lesser tolerance of waterlogging. A total of 15 charts are similar to those of the alternative (or appropriate) and figures are provided. technology movement (ATM), and much of the criticism
of ATM is applicable to FSR as well. ATM and FSR
have tended to ignore macroeconomic and social struc- 083 PN-AAW-013
tures that limit "bottom-up" development efforts, and MF $1.08/PC $1.69
both have therefore accepted, at least implicitly, the principle of technological determinism. However, the Complementary effects of tied ridging and simple introduction of alternative technologies is not suf- fertilization with cultivation by hand and ficient to achieve FSR's goal of providing sustained donkey and ox traction socioeconomic benefits to small farmers. Technological Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G.; Sawadogo, Sibiri advances tend in practice to be uneven in their benefits Purdue University. School of Agriculture. Division of Into farmers and relatively short-lived in their ability to ternational Programs in Agriculture provide a comparative advantage to early adopters. As U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for the experience of the Green Revolution and of agricul- Africa. Office of Regional Affairs (Sponsor) tural technology development in the United States indi- Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid West cates, commercial commodity and capital markets in- Africa, 1985, p.61-73 : statistical tables, En evitably expropriate much if not all of the value created Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G. by new technologies. In sum, FSR can be a useful re- 6980393 search method, but it has serious shortcomings as a
development strategy. Unless FSR can develop market Three farmer-managed trials were conducted on structures that distribute technological benefits equally, fields of subsistence farmers in one to five agronomicalit, like the Green Revolution, will fail. A 35-item bibliog- ly diverse villages in Burkina Faso, using combinations raphy (1971 -85) is included, of tied ridges (TR), fertilization, and human and animal
traction to increase production of maize, sorghum, and
millet. Results, which were evaluated in terms of crop
082 PN-AAW-979 yields and cash and labor needed to produce the crop
in order to determine economic returns from investment
MF $1.08/PC $2.47 in TR and fertilizers, were as follows. (1) Construction
Study of farmer's adaptation of upland rice of TR's can significantly increase cereal crop yields
to ralnfed bunded conditions throughout the Central Plateau. Since the large amount
Ocado, Francisco D.; Jumaday, Antonio D.; et al. of labor involved constrains TR construction, the U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for mechanical tied ridger offers a promising but still unAsia and Near East. Philippines (Sponsor) tested alternative. (2) Fertilization with minimal Jan 1986, 19p. : charts, statistical tables, En amounts of cotton fertilizer (100 hg/ha) plus 50 kg/a Working paper / Farming Systems Development urea can significantly increase yield. However, sorghum
Project, Eastern Visayas, no.3 response to fertilization without TR is variable and risky.
4920356 The inconsistent responses to fertilization with VP1,
UV5, and urea compared to the more consistent responFlash flooding during November of 1983 destroyed ses from cotton fertilizer suggests that more research is much of the lowland rice crop of farmers in needed to characterize soils for concentrations of a
Bangladesh, leaving them short of standard lowland broad range of nutrient elements essential for crop variety seed supplies (typically IR36 and IR42). To solve growth. Farmers with larger than average land holdings this problem, farmers decided to try the upland rice and more capital are best able and more likely to variety UPL-Ri5 in their lowland bunded plots. This adopt the new technologies. study analyzes the results of this experiment in terms of
crop yield and quality. At the conclusion of the traditionVol. IV, 1987 31

084 PN-AAV-944 085 PN-AAV-945
MF $1.08/PC $2.08 MF $1.08/PC $2.73
Small ruminant production in mixed farm- Role of women farmers in the choosing of
ing systems : case studies in research species for agroforestry farming systems
design in rural areas of Ghana
Okali, C.; Knipscheer, H.C. Owusu-Bempah, Kofi
(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- University of Florida
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11 Science and Technology. Office of Research and Farming systems research & extension : management University Relations (Sponsor)
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.428-443: ill., En (International Conference on Women and Development Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha : Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul- Extension, Gainesville, FL, US, 26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
ture Programs 1986, 19p. : charts, map, statistical tables, En
9311282 9311282
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 DAN-1282-G-SS-0101-00
Methodological problems encountered when design- Choosing species that satisfy food, nutrition, fueling on-farm mixed farming experiments are examined wood, and health problems of farm famlies is an imporherein. First, the paper describes two small ruminant tant factor in promoting acceptability of an agroforestry production systems, one in Java, Indonesia, the other in package. Ghanaian farmers have a rich tradition of conthe humid zone of West Africa, to highlight key features serving certain trees on their traditional agroforestry of small farm systems that should determine the way in farms in order to provide for basic forest products. This which on-farm research is designed. Second, the ex- paper reviews a case study survey conducted to kienperiences of small ruminant research teams working in tify useful local species for an ongoing research and these areas, and of other research programs working in development program on agroforestry farming systems similar farming system contexts, are used to in the forest-savannah transitional zone of Ghana. demonstrate problems in conventional trial designs and Analysis of the data showed that women farmers are the value of a broader view. Specifically, discussion is better conservators and more resourceful than their given to four methodological problems which derive male counterparts. It is recommended that researchers primarily from viewing on-farm research as the trial of consider directly involving women, especially during fortechnologies by individual producing units. These mal and informal surveys for collecting data on problems concern: (1) identifying the units of produc- agroforestry species. Traditional subsistence tion which will be the focus of research; (2) collecting agroforestry farmers, mostly women, capable of selling data sufficient for conventional statistical analysis where between 45-50% of their surplus products, acknowsmall ruminants are a secondary or minor enterprise; ledged the benefits of agroforestry and suggested the
(3) classifying producers for the purposes of sampling most useful trees for new agroforestry systems. Briefly and trials given the variability in producers' livestock, described is a proposal for an on-farm research effort inmanagement, and type and use of labor; and (4) design- volving some selected species to be conducted jointly ing on-farm trials to ensure that results can be repli- by women and barefootr' agroforesters i.e., agriculcated by farmers. A 38-item list of mainly post-1980 turist-foresters with basic training who have settled references is appended. within a rural farming community as full-time farmers, as
on-farm researchers, and as extension agents who use
local farms to demonstrate agroforestry technology.
(Author abstract, modified)
32 Vol. IV, 1987

086 PN-AAW-980 ing its interdisciplinary nature, and describes its 5-stage
MF $1.08/PC $2.21 process of: problem diagnosis; identification of possible, solutions; on-farm testing, both researcherResearch methods for multiple cropping managed and farmer-managed; evaluation of the acParkhurst, Anne M.; Francis, Charles A. ceptability of the technology within the entire farm
Multiple cropping systems, ch.12, 1986, p.285-316 : ill., household; and transfer of the technology through excharts, statistical tables, En tension. Practical guidelines are offered for the selecFrancis, Charles A. tion of test sites and participating farmers, the design of
the data collection instrument and supervision of data
The development of adequate research methodologies collection, and data analysis. A final section presents for multiple cropping systems has been hampered by re- four ideas which together reinforce the paper's theme searchers' tendency to experiment within monocrop sys- that the multi-faceted aspects of a farmer's situation teams. In farming systems research (FSR), this tendency (i.e., social, economic, and environmental) require a is further complicated by the need to integrate cultural comprehensive agricultural research methodology. A and socioeconomic factors related to the farm environ- 21-item (1976-85) bibliography of French and English ment Into agricultural research. This paper discusses at titles is appended. length the problems involved in designing multicrop experiments by: (1) describing the complexity of multicropping research questions (which involve genetic, cul- 088 PN-AAW-323
tural, and climatic factors); (2) discussing different MF $1.08/PC $3.51
strategies for identifying factors that most constrain
production; (3) establishing research priorities (use of a Farming systems research at Khon Kaen matrix to organize information and quantify priorities is University, Thailand proposed and exemplified); (4) explaining various ex- Patanothai, Aran periment design options for component research and International Rice Research Institute evaluation; and (5) treating the role of interdisciplinary Indonesia. Ministry of Public Works. Directorate General FSR in validating technologies. Examples are used of Water Resources Development. Directorate of from both monocrop and multicrop experiment designs. Rivers References (1967-85), seven tables, and seven figures U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for are included. Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
Proceedings of the second monitoring tour : crop live087 PN-AAV-538 stock systems research, Nepal and Indonesia,
MF $1.08/PC $2.60 [1985], p.88-114 : chart, En
Introduction a 'approche recherche /
developpement des systems de produc- Agriculture in the undulating lands of northeast
tion et a la methode de recherche en Thailand typically consists of monocropping dryland
milieu paysan (Introduction of the re- rice as a subsistence crop in depression areas and field
search and development approach to crops (cassava, kenaf, and corn) as a cash crop in
production systems and a method of re- upland areas; livestock raising is also an important feasearch in a rural setting) ture. The three-stage evolution of a farming systems research (FSR) project begun in 1975 in northeast
Pascal, Fotzo Tagne Thailand by Khon Kaen University is described in this
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural paper. (1) In its early stage (1975-80), Khon Kaen Sciences focused on the mini-watershed agroecosystem of the
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Korat Triangle to develop discrete cropping patterns for Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- upland, upper paddy, and lowland paddy areas. A sor) large number of patterns were tested, initially on the
[1985], 18p. : chart, Fr university farm and/or rented farmers' fields and later by
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, farmer cooperators. (2) With the limited adoption of no.11 promising cropping patterns, Khon Kaen began in 1981
9364099 to expand its FSR approach by studying farmers' actual
recent turn to on-farm research in developing practices and to employ the methods and concepts of
The rcntuntonfrreerhideeoig human ecology, agroecosystem analysis, and rapid
countries stems from the inability of traditional western huan ecol (3) With te analysis, and rapid research models to effect improved agricultural produc- rural appraisal. (3) With the 1984 inclusion under the resarc moel toeffct mpove agicutual rodc- AID-supported Rainfed Farming Systems Research tivity or well-being among poor farmers. This report Project of the animal subsystem, Khon Kaen research describes the objectives of on-farm research, emphasizVol. IV, 1987 33

now integrates crop, animal, and social science into full- trol animals). Moreover, 4 of the 58 sample animals scheme FSR. died from urea poisoning during the trial, despite the
low levels of urea in the supplements and the careful instructions provided to farmers. This article, after essay089 PN-AAV-632 ing several possible explanations for the lack of growth
MF $1.08/PC $.65 response and for the large difference in growth rates between villages, identifies problems not resolved in the
Livestock component farming systems re- design of the trial itself, including baseline variations
search in Java : the case for work with among farmers in the ordinary diet fed, the danger of
women urea poisoning among less capable farmers, and difficulPetheram, R.J.; Basuno, Edi ties in: controlling the quality of the materials in the supAgricultural administration, v.21, 1986, p.119-127, En plement (even when mixed, as in this case, at a central location); controlling the frequency of feeding; and enThe potential for improving the productivity of suring that cattle in the control group are not fed suppleJavanese livestock has been demonstrated under re- ments. While some of these problems can be search station conditions, yet little improvement in vil- remedied, the problems concerned with achieving lage production has been achieved. Slow progress to proper control raise serious questions about the validity date may be partly associated with practical difficulties of farm trials of this nature. In any case, particular attenin achieving the degree of farmer contact needed in live- tion should be given to the selection of participating stock research while working mainly with male stock- farmers. rearers; most male rearers spend daylight hours working away from home and from their stock, and feel too
busy to become involved in trials of new livestock tech- 091 PN-AAW-981
nology. One approach to increasing progress in live- MF $1.08/PC $1.82
stock development would be to promote research
which involves women rearers or the wives of rearers. Land classification for livestock farming The advantages of involving women in village livestock systems research and development in Java research include ease of communication during daylight Petheram, R.J.; Thahar, Ashari working hours; interest (and some training) among Indonesian agricultural research and development jourwomen in nutrition, health, and reproductive physiol- nal, v.7(1&2), 1985, p.11-23 : maps, statistical tables, ogy; and the ability of women to manage animals in En farm trials requiring constant supervision. In some villages women are already involved in group activities, A means of classifying land use for livestock research which can form a ready basis for communicating ideas and development is presented. The proposed system on livestock improvement. A livestock program based is a hierarchical classification in which land area is on contact with women rearers may require special ef- categorized through a step-by-step process based on forts to encourage women scientists to work in villages, three criteria known to influence livestock distribution, (Author abstract, modified) farming systems, or productivity. The criteria altitude,
rainfall, and land use were selected after a literature
review and an analysis of national livestock and land
090 PN-AAV-946 use data in Java, and were tested in the field in West
MF $1.08/PC $1.69 Java. The first half of the article justifies the use of these criteria, and not others, for land classification. The
Farm trials with madura cattle : supple- second half outlines the practical application of the land
ments for village diets classification as a basis for: (1) sampling designs for
Petheram, R.J.; Prawirodigdo, Susanto; Prasetyo, Hardi livestock-related surveys; (2) selection of sites which Research Institute for Animal Production are representative of important land units or systems;
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for (3) dissemination of research results or development opScience and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- portunities; and (4) planning of regional livestock resor) search and development priorities. A list of 37 referen[1985], 13p. : chart, statistical tables, En ces (1944-84) is provided; among the six appendices 9311328 are altitude and rainfall keys and a definitions of major
land use types.
Trials of dietary supplements for cattle in two contrasting villages in Madura, Indonesia proved unsuccessful.
Results showed no significant growth response, regardless of treatment regime, although a higher growth rate
was seen in Peltong than in Sopaah village (even in con34 Vol. IV, 1987

092 PN-AAV-681 093 PN-AAW-172
MF $2.16/PC $22.75 MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Animal traction in a farming systems Role of women in household production
perspective : a farming systems support systems and rice farming in Nepal
project networkshop Pradhan, Bina
Poats, Susan V.; Lichte, John; et al. International Rice Research Institute
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Sciences Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (SponU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for sor)
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- (Conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems,
sor) Manila, PH, 20-30 Sep 1983)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Women in rice farming : proceedings of a conference
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral on women in rice farming systems, 1985, p.257-286
Development (Sponsor) charts, statistical tables, En
(Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective Net- 9364111
workshop, 1st, Kara, TG, 4-8 Mar 1985)
Mar 1985, 187p. : charts, maps, statistical tables, En The economic importance of women as primary FSSP network report, no.1 agricultural producers in family farm and household
9364099 production systems in rice growing areas of Nepal is
DAN-4099-A-00-2083-00 discussed. An initial section analyzes the relative participation of women and men, and the variables affectThe proceedings from a March 1985 "networkshop" ing women's participation, in the three sectors of the on Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective rural economy: family farm enterprises, the local held in Lama Kara, Togo, are presented. Section one market economy, and migration for employment. Secprovides an overview, background, and summary of the tion two presents an analysis, supported by several networkshop and outlines its five major themes--animal statistical charts, of women's role in family rice farming feeding, technology management, technology adoption, in terms of the use of fertilizer, labor systems and the on-farm research methodologies, and monitoring and division of labor in agriculture, the cycle of male/female evaluation. Section two contains background presenta- agricultural work patterns, and the decisionmaking role tions, including a summary of the systems experience of women in agriculture. Sections three and four disto date related to livestock, an overview of animal trac- cuss, respectively, the impact of new technology on tion research and extension in Africa, and a presenta- women and women's access to institutional credit. tion of highlights from a previous animal traction net- Recommendations for improving women's ability to workshop in Swaziland. Section three reports on the compete in the market by increasing their access to networkshop's field trip to animal traction projects in technology, credit, and extension conclude the report. the Lama Kara region and presents the country reports
of non-Togolese participants. Section four summarizes
small group discussions on the five major themes, while 094 PN-AAV-947
section five provides concluding statements, a summary MF $1.08/PC $2.08
of the participant evaluation, and an outline of the
year's networking plans, to culminate in a second Farm labor by age and sex in workshop in 1986. Appendices include a 30-page bibli- northwestern Syria : implications for two ography, an inventory of animal traction projects, and a proposed technologies paper on livestock technologies for mixed farms. Rassam, Andree (Author abstract, modified) (Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985)
Farming systems research paper series, paper no.11
Farming systems research & extension : management
and methodology, Aug 1986, p.272-287 : statistical
tables, En
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture Programs
Vol. IV, 1987 35

An assessment was made of the potential effects on area of Western Sudan. The paper concludes that an household labor of two legume cultivars being con- anthropologist's concern with understanding farmer sidered for introduction in northwest Syria: (1) lentil cul- marketing strategies can tie together the micro-level, tivars suitable for mechanical harvesting and (2) chick- technical concerns of agriculturalists and the macropea cultivars resistant to ascochyta blight, and thus level, institutional concerns of agricultural economists. suitable for early sowing. Data were gathered from 47
households from two agroclimatic zones in the Azaz district, north of Aleppo; the zones differed mainly in that 096 *PN-AAU-9M9
one zone had virtually no chickpea production. Informa- MF $1.08/PC $5.20
tion was collected from both the husband and wife of
each household regarding the composition of the Women, trees and tenure : implications for household, cropping systems and practices (including agroforestry research and development division of labor), livestock activities, harvesting opera- Rocheleau, Dianne E. tions, household Income, and attitudes towards the International Council for Research in Agroforestry proposed technologies. It was concluded that women (International Workshop on Tenure Issues in would be most affected by the new cultivars. The Agroforestry, Nairobi, KE, 26-30 May 1985) mechanized harvesting of lentils would displace female 1985, 28p. + attachment, En laborers who have little opportunity for non-agricultural
employment. Chickpeas, if added to the cropping sys- Also available from: International Council for tem, would require more weeding, which is generally a Research in Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi, woman's task. Six tables are appended. Kenya
Lack of political will and of information on the con095 PN-AAW-982 traints to women's access to productive resources irnMF $1.08/PC $1.56 pedes women's potentially large contribution to agroforestry and social forestry. Focusing on land
Getting marketing into farming systems re- tenure as a key information and action point, this report
search : a case study from western Sudan first identifies differences in men's and women's status
Reeves, Edward B. especially in terms of access to land according to
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for statutory, civil, and customary law and in land reform
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- and resetlement programs. The disparity between sor) women's de jure and de facto rights is also examined.
Social sciences and farming systems research, ch.6, Next, the male-female dMsion of space (land), time al1986, p.99-121 : statistical tables, En location, labor, expertise, and decisionmaking is
Jones, Jeffery R.; Wallace, Ben J. evaluated for its impact on agroforestry and social
9311254 forestry projects. Specific courses of action are recommended in regard to agroforestry and social forestry
The role of the economic anthropologist in integrating policy, technology research and development, and marketing concerns into farming systems research women's participation in rural development. A condud(FSR) is discussed. The anthropologist's contribution ing note cites larger development programs as a struclies in an emphasis on direct observation and be- ture capable of integrating these recommended aphavioral analysis of farmer strategies for adapting to proaches and urges that women be allowed to determacro-level market conditions. How such observation mine or create the organizations best able to represent may contribute to FSR is illustrated using the partial their interests and mediate their participation in budget analysis procedure advocated by CIMMYT. Par- agroforesty and social research efforts. tial budget analysis is a type of marginal economic
analysis which analyzes not the profit or loss to the
farm as a whole, but the net increase or decrease in
farm income resulting from the adoption of a new technology. The analysis, described herein, consists of: (1)
calculating average net benefits for each agronomic
treatment, estimating variable costs and subtracting
them from gross field benefit to obtain the net benefit;
(2) selecting a recommended treatment using marginal
analysis; and (3) checking the suitability of the recommendation with respect to yield and price variability.
The procedure is critiqued with reference to a case
study of farmer marketing strategies in the el-Obeid
36 Vol. IV, 1987

097 PN-AAV-949 term, its meaning and the types of research objectives,
MF $2.16/PC $15.60 approaches, activities, and methods to which t applies remain ambiguous. The lack of precision in concepts
Evaluation des essays en milieu reel sur and terms will discredit FSR and jeopardize donor suples Cultures Assoclees Mil-Niebe : resul- port. This paper seeks to clarify and define the major
tats de la campagne de 1985 (Evaluation types of research approaches and activities encomof on farm trials of millet cowpea crop- passed by the general term FSR. Six subspecies of FSR ping systems : results from the 1985 are distinguished: farming systems analysis; farming
season) systems adaptive research; farming system component
Samba, Ly; Deuson, Robert; et al. research; farming systems baseline data analysis; new
Samba, Ly;te DUnersit; Of etl farming systems development; and farming systems reKansas State University. Office of International Agricul- search and agricultural development. Examples of
ture Programs each are provided. It is proposed that a new term reU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for search with a Farming Systems Perspective (FSP)
Science and Technology. Office of Research and reace FiR a theignrctem frrsech which University Relations (Sponsor) replace FSR as the generic term for research which
Univesity Re lationserch sr deuses the farming system as the framework for analysis. (Symposium de la Recherche sur Systemes de Produc- (Author abstract, modified)
cion Agricole, Manhattan, KS, US, 5-8 Oct 1986)
Oct 1986, 108p. : ill., charts, map, statistical tables, Fr
9311282 099 PN-AAV-548
MF $1.08/PC $1.69
On-farm trials were conducted on 75 Nigerien farms Food consumption analysis and related in three distinct recommendation domains to test the parameters for Ouagadougou, Burkina performance of Improved and traditional varieties of mil- Farrk let under variable conditions. Using a randomized bloc [Faso] design, the millet varieties were intercropped with cow- Sawadogo, Kimseyinga peas at two density levels with and without fertilizer. Appropriate technologies for farmers in semi-arid West The results show that recommended densities with im- Africa, [1985], p.338-350 : statistical tables, En proved varieties and fertilizer performed best in terms of Ohm, Herbert W.; Nagy, Joseph G. yield. When fertilizer was not used, improved millet Purdue University varieties planted at the farmers' traditional density level
performed better than with the recommended density. Wealthier urban populations in Burkina Faso show an For cowpeas, there was no pod yield due to a late increasing preference for imported rice and wheat over season drought, but hay yields at all sites were sig- the locally produced cereals (e.g., millet and sorghum) nificantly higher with the recommended densities, with that form the basis of the traditional rural diet. Through and without fertilizer, than the traditional low density. a series of economic analyses, this paper estimates the Economic analyses were conducted and the following implications of this change in urban food preferences results were noted: partial budget and dominance for domestic grain production. To facilitate analysis, the analysis showed the high density, fertilized treatment to report aggregates data gathered weekly from 73 urban be superior in two of the sites. In the third, where rain- households between 9/82 and 8/83 into monthly statisfall was poor, the treatment with low density, no fer- tics and combines the 63 products studied into 5 food tilizer, and improved millet variety was most profitable. and 1 non-food groups. A Linear Expenditure System Also, partial budget results were shown to be very sensi- is used to estimate income and price effects on the martive to the price of cowpea hay. (Author abstract, ginal budget shares of each item studied. Results show modified) that both traditional and newer, imported cereals are
very responsive to changes in income and their own
prices, although newer cereals take up a greater mar098 PN-AAV-547 ginal budget share. This suggests that: (1) urban
demand for sorghum is far from decreasing with increasMF $1.08/PC $2.3 ing income (a similar conclusion is expected to prevail
Farming systems research : clarification of at the rural household level); and (2) urban demand for
terms and concepts sorghum and millet can be increased even further by
Sands, Deborah Merrill lowering cereal prices and transferring income to lowerExperimental agriculture, v.22, 1986, p.87-104, En income households.
Farming systems research (FSR) has emerged as a
major theme in international agricultural research in the
past decade. However, despite widespread use of the
Vol. IV, 1987 37

100 PN-AAW-986 101 PN-AAW-985
MF $1.08/PC $5.72 MF $1.08/P $8.97
Draught animal power in Africa : priorities Integrated livestock systems in Nepal and for development, research and liaison Indonesia : implications for animal traction
Starkey, Paul H. programs in West Africa
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Starkey, Paul H.; Apetofia, KossM
Sciences University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Sciences
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for sor) Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (SponU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for sor)
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Development (Sponsor) Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral
Feb 1986, 40p., En Development (Sponsor)
Networking paper I Farming Systems Support Project, Mar 1986, v, 64p. : ill., En
no.14 Network report / Farming Systems Support Project, no.3
9364099 9364099
Factors important to the successful and appropriate While there are great social, economic, cultural, and promotion of animal traction for small farms in Africa historical differences between Asia and West Africa, are discussed. Following an overview of the history of there are many similarities in the farming systems of the draught animal power in Africa, the paper identifies two regions. This paper, prepared by members of the preconditions for its success: suitable land and climate; West African Animal Traction Networkshop Committee adequate population density and labor deployment; the on the basis of their participation in the Second Cropavailability of adapted animals and cultivation systems; Livestock Systems Research and Monitoring Tour of a market for produce; sociocultural acceptance; farmer Nepal and Indonesia, reports the lessons African knowledge; credit; and support services. Discussion of farmers can learn from their Asian counterparts. These the implications of these preconditions for policies at include, inter alia, that: (1) animal traction can be both the national and project levels stresses the need profitably used in highly intensive farms of small area, for a farming systems approach that will identify the even when population pressures are high; (2) expensive overall profitability of animal traction as well as key limit- metal plows are not required for successful animal tracing factors. The implications for research methodology tion; (3) work oxen and milking animals can be effectiveare briefly discussed, after which research priorities are ly zero grazed where free grazing may result in crop suggested in the areas of: animal breeding, nutrition, damage; and (4) forage trees can provide a valuable and health; farm equipment; harnessing techniques; contribution to the feeding of draft animals and other diversification of operations; and social and economic ruminants while helping to control erosion and contriO factors. Finally, the potential roles of national programs, ing to fuelwood production. Detailed discussions of study tours and workshops, aid agencies, international animal traction procedures in Nepal and Indonesia are research organizations, newsletters, and a draught included. A 57-item bibliography (1978-86) and 19 1animal power network are appraised. lustrations are appended.
102 PN-AAW-173
MF $1.08/PC $3.90
Gender factor and technology options for
Zambia's subsistence farming systems
Sutherland, Alistair J.
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Research and
University Relations (Sponsor)
(Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, Gainesville, FL, US,
26 Feb 1 Mar 1986)
1986, 30p., En
38 Vol. IV, 1987

The increasing concern in farming systems research technologies for upland rice which WARDA has (FSR) with integrating women's interests into the larger developed in collaboration with Savannah Research Incontext of rural development warrants focused, empiri- stitute (IDESSA) and is currently subjecting to verificacal, socioeconomic studies on women's roles In agricul- tion trials under TAT. Results of research in four major ture and an emphasis on the treatment of gender as a rice ecologies (mangrove swamp, deep water/flooded, social variable, according to this report. Using FSR as upland, and irrigated rice) and issues raised by this the framework for in-country comparative studies of farming systems approach to technology generation in women's contribution to the farming system, the report upland rice-based cropping systems are briefly disexamines subsistence agriculture in three of Zambia's cussed. eight provinces to analyze the relationship of gender to
the development of recommendation domains and research priorities. The case studies examine the farming 104 PN-AAW-983
practices of female-headed households in Luapula, MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Lusaka, and, less directly, Western Provinces in comparison with male-headed households; the studies high- Training tropical plant pathologists and light, in particular, the variability of women's roles in the farming systems approach Zambia's subsistence farming. The conclusion sum- Thurston, H. David marizes the range of factors that influence gender roles (Meeting of the Sociedad Mexicana de Fitipatologia and and outlines four tentative recommendations regarding the Caribbean Division of the American the treatment of gender issues in identifying recommen- Phytopathological Society, Guanjato, MX, 11-14 dation domains and setting priorities for FSR in Zambia. Sep 1985) 1985, 8p. + 2 attachments, En, Es
103 PN-AAV-539 Using examples from his personal experience, the
MF $1 .08/PC $2.08 author of this report illustrates how plant pathologists trained in temperate zones are often ill-prepared to conAdaptive research and pre-extension test- duct research in tropical climes. In addition to a lack of
ing :the case of upland rice in West Africa technical knowledge of tropical ecosystems, many
Tagne P., Fotzo; Spencer, D.S.C.; Sandhu, A.S. Western researchers are limited by an inadequate underUniversity of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural standing of the nature of small farmers and their farmSciences ing systems in the tropics. To overcome these difficulU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for ties, plant pathologists (and other agricultural scientists)
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- need to become familiar with the farming systems resor) search (FSR) approach and to consider incorporating
(International Upland Rice Conference, 2nd, Jakarta, ID, some of its methodology and philosophy into the
Mar 1985) design of disease management strategies. The author
Mar 1985, 1 5p. :statistical table, En argues that researchers must receive special training for
Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, a career in the tropics, covering not only technical subno.7 jects, but also the language and cultural and
9364099 socioeconomic characteristics of the area in which they
will be working. The positive side of the author's exDifficulties with the direct importing of high-yielding periences, and the one most beneficial to FSR, is his rice varieties taught researchers from the West African belief that gaps in researchers' knowledge can be filled Rice Development Association (WARDA) an important with the understanding that participating farmers have lesson: programs to introduce improved rice varieties of their own situation. must take into account farmers' socioeconomic situation and must pre-test promising technologies on
farmers' fields. In response, WARDA developed a technology assessment and transfer (TAT) model which was
implemented at special project sites in Sierra Leone,
Mal, Senegal, and the, Ivory Coast. This report: (1)
describes the objectives and methodology of the TAT
program; (2) lists the major constraints to increasing
upland rice production in West Africa, both the general
problems affecting the land (soil erosion and lack of sufficient water and, in some countries, inputs) and the
specific problems affecting paddy yield (poor extension,
mechanization, and credit facilities); and (3) lists the
Vol. IV, 1987 39

105 PN-AAW-174 106 PN-AAV-948
MF $1.08/PC $1.43 MF $1.08/PC $3.90
Intra-household resource allocation con- Aspectos metodologicos sobre la tecstraints in the implementation of the nologia local de produccion y los proyecbanana coffee development program in tos d e ajuste tecnologico en el programa
the Kagera region, Tanzania DRI en Colombia (Methodological
Tibaijuka, Anna Kajumulo aspects of local technology production
Kansas State University. Office of International Agricul- and technological contract projects in the
ture Programs DRI program in Colombia)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Torres, Fabio Rodriguez
Science and Technology. Office of Research and Colombian Agrarian Reform Institute
University Relations (Sponsor) (Seminario Taller sobre Sistemas de Produccion, San(Annual Farming Systems Research and Extension Sym- tiago, CL, 30 Jul 3 Aug 1984)
posium, 5th, Manhattan, KS, US, 13-16 Oct 1985) 1984, 24p. + 3 annexes : statistical tables, Es Farming systems research and extension : management
and methodology, paper no.11, Aug 1986, p.288- Technology packages recommended to farmers by 298: statistical tables, En the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), the agency
Flora, Cornelia Butler; Tomecek, Martha responsible for research and extension within the
9311282 government's Integrated Rural Development Program
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 (DRI), are based not only on research center results,
but also on data concerning farmers' production sysThe consequences of having excluded Intra- tems and the local technology of production. Data on household variables in designing banana-coffee develop- the latter two factors, gathered through observation and ment programs for smallholder farms In Tanzania's representative sample questionnaires, are expressed as Kagera region are examined. The paper argues that a mathematical formula which takes into account physithe programs' socioeconomic benefits have been sig- cal factors such as topography, weather and sol type, nificantly limited by the insecurity of land tenure rights other conditions such as diseases and pests, and cutfor women, who, though performing most of work to tivation practices such as family labor and multiple cropmaintain the plantations, are denied direct access or ping. The technology packages developed by ICA incontrol over these farms by the prevailing patrilineal clude recommendations for such factors as seed land inheritance system derived from customary law. variety, planting date, and fertilizer, pesticide, and herTenure insecurity prevents women from fully benefiting bicide use. The packages are subject to continual onfrom their labor and from taking an active role in the site testing and adjustment through plot projects and development of the plantations; granting land tenure studies of the results achieved by individual farmers. Acrights to women is seen as a prerequisite for maximiz- tual adoption of a package depends not only on test ing socioeconomic benefits from future research and ex- results, however, but also on the cost and availability of tension interventions. Linear programming is used to credit. The process of generating appropriate livestock analyze the economic costs of the division of labor. It technology is similar, but testing is constrained by the is established that under a traditional sex-based division prohibitive cost to individual farmers of raising statisticalof labor, household incomes are lower than under a ly significant numbers of livestock. Appended are statisgeneralized division of labor regime; labor and capital tical tables for one region and district. productivity could improve by 15% and 44%, respectively, if the traditional division of labor were replaced by
the generalized regime. It is strongly recommended 107 PN-AAP-529
that educational campaigns to promote liberalization of UF $1.08/PC $663
the division of labor supplement the ongoing, purely
technical interventions. (Author abstract, modified) Task force report on livestock in mixed farming systems
University of Florida
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponsor)
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Muitisectoral
Development (Sponsor)
Feb 1984, 36p. + appendices, En
40 Vol. IV, 1987

Results are presented of a task force study of the live- 109 PN-AAR-839
stock component of A.I.D.'s Farming Systems Support MF $1.08/PC $4.81
Project. The report discusses: the role and Importance
of livestock in Integrated farming systems; the training, Bibliography of readings in farming sysorientation, and roles of disciplinary specialists in farm- tems : 1984, volume 1 ing systems research (FSR) and extension; University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural methodologies relating to approaches to FSR, project Sciences management, extension, Instfitutionalization, policy, U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for models, and case studies; and training and communica- Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spontions needs. Sixteen recommendations are presented sor) concerning training requirements for U.S. and host U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for country personnel, appropriate! strategies, research Science and Technology. Office of Rural and Institumethodologies, and communication network develop- tional Development (Sponsor) ment. A 98-item bibliography (1974-83) is attached. 1984, 34p., En French ed.: PN-AAS-690; Spanish ed.: PN-AAS-691
108 PN-AAV-534
MF $2.16/PC $18.33 Presented herein is the first in a series of bibliographies of selected readings in farming systems reProject handbook : research and exten- search (FSR). The bibliography, a product of A.I.D.'s
sion (emphasizing farming systems re- Farming Systems Support Project, includes complete search and extension) bibliographic information for each of its 100 entries,
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural together with an abstract of the reading and notes on
Sciences its availability. Over 24 countries and 50 separate inU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for stitutions are represented in this compendium of FSR
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- thinking garnered from around the globe. Major subsor) jects include agricultural extension, production, and
Feb 1985, v.p. : charts, statistical tables, En technology; data collection; mixed farming; multiple Working draft no.3 cropping; farm management; tropical agriculture; and
9364099 livestock. Emphasis is placed on the role of the small
farmer in FSR activities in semiarid and tropical Africa
The fruit of over a quarter century of field experience, and Central America. Subject, geographic, institution, this handbook presents guidelines for donor personnel author, and document number indexes are provided, and contractors involved in agricultural research and ex- together with complete ordering information and an tension (AR/E) projects, with particular emphasis on the order blank. need to give farming systems research and extension
(FSR/E) a rightful but not exclusive place within the
general AR/E process. The handbook is organized 110 PN-AAU-145
around the typical project process, beginning with a MF $1.08/PC $4.68
chapter describing the operational principles of FSR/E
and following with four chapters corresponding to the Bibliography of readings in farming sysfour phases of a project's lifecycle development, teams : 1985, volume 2 design, implementation, and evaluation. While each of University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural these four chapters is oriented 1:o a specific situation Sciences and is relevant to a specific team or group, each chap- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for ter builds on those that precede it; material common to Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponmore than one phase is contained in appendices. sor) Great emphasis is placed on models, such as the Tech- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for nology Innovation Process model, and the need for Science and Technology. Office of Rural and Instituhost country institutional development is a continuing tional Development (Sponsor) theme. A final section provides annotated citations of 1985, 33p., En four key references. French ed.: PN-AAU-987; Spanish ed.: PN-AAV-301
A bibliography of select readings in farming systems
research (FSR) is presented. The bibliography, the
second In a series produced by A.I.D.'s Farming Systems Support Project, contains standard bibliographic
Vol. IV, 1987 41

information plus an abstract for 100 citations, together 112 PN-AAW-175
with a note on the latter's availability. Among the areas MF $1.08/PC $.78
of FSR covered in the bibliography are agricultural surveys, agricultural technology, crop production, cropping Courants de pensee en matiere de theorfe systems, data collection, dryland farming, economic de la diffusion des innovations(Trends of analysis, family farms, interdisciplinary research, live- thought regarding the theory of innovation stock, multiple cropping, and research design. Read- diffusion) ings are presented on FSR projects on mountains, Van Den Ban, A.W. savannas, and small farms and in the semiarid and tropi- Economie rurale, no.159, 1984, p.31-36, Fr cal zones of countries in Africa, Asia, Central America, and the Eastern Caribbean. Indexes by subject, An abundant scientific literature shows that technolgeographic area, author, and sponsoring institution are ogy transfer is a complex activity, requiring coordinated included, as are document ordering instructions and an action. In agriculture, the adoption of technological inorder form. novations often requires not only the dissemination of information, but also changes in attitudes. This report discusses some of the conditions which must be satisfied PN-AAV-904 if rapid agricultural technology transfer is to be successMF $1.08/PC $4.68 ful. Discussed in turn are: the full use of research in technology transfer; the consequences of technology Bibliography of readings in farming sys- adoption; whether individuals or the system itself is at
tems, 1986 volume III fault if the process fails; and communication strategies
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural It is argued that while the adoption of innovations may
Sciences increase inequalities in agricultural income and/or
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for reduce the active farm population, neither is inevitable.
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- An example from the Netherlands illustrates that good sor) agricultural extension can increase competitiveness and
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for market shares and thus slow the decline in farm populaScience and Technology. Office of Rural and Institu- tion.
tional Development (Sponsor)
1986, 33p., En
9364099 113 PN-AAR-867
A selective, annotated bibliography of readings in MF $1.08/PC $1.82
farming systems research and extension (FSR/E), the Synopsis : the MARIF maize on farm rethird in a series produced by A.I.D.'s Farming Systems search programme 1984; development of Support Project, is presented to help practitioners lo- an on farm research programme with a cate and access relevant literature in their efforts to es- farming systems perspective tablish and develop national FSR/E programs. In addi- an s ste ms prei tion to an abstract and bibliographical data, each of the Van Santen, C.E. 100 entries features information on microfilm/paper University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural copy availability and price. A total of 106 authors, 37 in- Sciences stitutions, and 22 countries are represented. Subjects U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for covered in the bibliography include, inter alia, animal Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponhusbandry and crop-animal systems, cropping patterns sor) and systems, data collection, interdisciplinary and on- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for farm research, research management and methodol- Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral ogy, small farms, socioeconomic aspects, and technol- Development (Sponsor) ogy adoption. Ordering instructions, an order form, Oct 1984, (14p.), En and subject/geographic and author/institution indexes Networking paper / Farming Systems Support Project, are provided. no.2
A synopsis of the 1984 maize on-farm research
program at the Malang Research Institute for Food Crops (MARIF) in eastern Java is presented, sumnarizing interim results of the informal survey, a round of onfarm trials implemented in the first dry season, and proposals for further research (currently being undertaken). Diagnostic observations on the maize crop
42 Vol. IV, 1987

revealed spindly development with discolored leaves, 115 PN-AAW-325
despite intensive management; some interplant competi- MF $1 .08/PC $1.43
tion; less than optimal application of high quantities of nitrogen fertilizer; and some use of impure seed. Women's role in the improvement of rice During the farm trials, farmer seed was compared to cer- farming systems in coastal swamplands tified MARIF seed, and crops were raised under varying Watson, Greta A. plant density and timing and quantity of fertilizer applica- International Rice Research Institute tions. The average trial yield of 3900 kg dry grain per U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for hectare was at least 25% below the yield potential that Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Sponshould be obtainable from the varieties selected and the sor) level of management applied; data suggest that low (Conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems, yields are caused by fertility problems in the young, dry Manila, PH, 20-30 Sep 1983) volcanic soils. Attached is a reprint of a colleague's let- Women in rice farming :proceedings of a conference ter which comments on the synopsis, thereby on women in rice farming systems, 1985, p. 187-207:
demonstrating the dialogue that can be initiated by net- map, statistical tables, En working papers.
Rice farming systems (RFS) in tidal and coastal swamplands demand specific methods of labor-inten114 PN-AAW-324 sive cultivation in which women's participation is of
MF $1.08/PC $1.30 paramount importance. This paper examines RES in tidal swamp areas of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and How small farm households adapt to risk women's role in their improvement. The tidal and inWalker, Thomas S.; Jodha, N.S. land coastal swamp environments and their agricultural
Crop insurance for agricultural development, 1986, p. 17- potential, settlement patterns, general methods of rice
34 : chart, statistical tables, En cultivation, and other aspects of the RFS are described
Hazell, Peter; Pomareda, Carlos; )/aides, Alberto first. Next, an analysis of data from 60 households on women's labor participation in RFS and in auxiliary acTo help determine whether a public policy such as tivities reveals that women provide at least 50% of the crop insurance would improve farmers' adjustment to work force in all major aspects of rice cultivation except risk and contribute to social welfare, this paper ex- land preparation, have primary responsibility for cultivatamines: (1) how well small farmers manage yield risk ing vegetables and other secondary crops and for without crop insurance and (2) the possible social and household management tasks, and participate in marketeconomic costs of farmers' risk management (RM) ing, fishing, and livestock raising as well. The possible measures. First, the paper cites experience from India, effects of changes in labor and technology on women's El Salvador, and Tanzania to illustrate two types of tradi- roles are then considered. It is concluded that to imtional RM routine risk prevention or minimization prove women's role in coastal swamp systems, exten(usually adjustments to production and resource use sion training in rice cultivation, secondary crop producbefore and during a production season) and loss tion, and marketing is essential; women's credit and management (e.g., farmer's later responses to lower- labor cooperatives are advisable. than-expected crop income). Next, a review is made of the effectiveness of three traditional RM techniques in stabilizing income: spatial diversification of farm plots, intercropping, and tenancy arrangements. Lastly, the possible benefits of crop insurance in reducing the efficiency costs and adverse-equity impacts of traditional RM are considered, including greater use of modern inputs and greater adoption of modern technology, stabilizing the income of the landless laborers to whom farmers frequently shift the burden of RM, and reducing asset depletion and land fragmentation. The paper concludes that while it may appear that crop insurance could alleviate some of the adverse effects of traditional RM methods, available data are insufficient even to determine If it would be a step in the right direction.
Vol. IV, 1987 4

116 PN-AAP-446 tifles the presumptions underlying the FSR/D approach,
MF $1.08/PC $2.08 and provides a basis for viewing FSR/D as a form of technology with its own cultural attributes (iLe., values,
Institutional assessment for implementing beliefs, expectations, and rules of behavior). Key areas
a systems approach to agricultural re- where FSR/D differs from more traditional agrctralul research and extension search and development work are identified. The paper
Waugh, Robert K.; Meiman, J.; McDermott, James K. then explores ways in which FSR/D's inherent cultural University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural attributes may be in conflict with those of a host Sciences country, using as a framework Hofstede's four dimenU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for sons of "national culture" power distance, uncertainty Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral avoidance, individualism versus collectivity, and masDevelopment (Sponsor) culinity versus femininity. In conclusion, suggestions
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for are made as to what a team might do to make FSRID Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- methodologies compatible with the host culture.
sor) (Author abstract, modified)
1983, 14p., En
Farming systems and support project working paper,
no.101 118 PN-AAV-951
MF $1.08/PC $2.34
Characterization and analysis of existing national
programs and institutions are useful in determining the Evaluacion agronomica de ensayos a nivel potential for implementing a systems approach to de finca(Agronomic evaluation of experiagricultural research and extension. In this paper, ments on the ranch level) guidelines are presented for inventorying a given Woolley, Jonathan program or institution in such a way as to identify University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Institute of Agriculture changes and modifications that might make research and Natural Resources and extension more effective while making maximum U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for use of existing structures, resources, and other or- Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture ganizational characteristics. Criteria for assessment (Sorgo en Sistemas de Produccion en America Latina, are provided in Part I, which consists of three sets of Batan, MX, 16-22 Sep 1984) questions directed toward determining (a) the general Sorgo en sistemas de produccion en America Latina, conditions of an Institution and its environment, (b) 1985, p.232-249 : charts, statistical tables, Es management and operational aspects, and (c) the na- Paul, Compton L; DeWalt, Billie R. ture of the technological functions and methodologies 9311254 of research and extension. Part II provides ideas as to AID/DSAN/XXI-G-0149 which institutional elements should be continued and
which should be changed. This section focuses on the Based on the experience of the International Center functions of specific types of organizational units in im- for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), guidelines are presented plementing farmer-oriented research and extension. for the design of experiments to be conducted at the farm level rather than in the laboratory or at research
stations. Topics include the selection of sites repre117 PN-AAW-176 sentative of the region, data collection and analysis,
MF $1.08/PC $3.64 and the presentation of research results in concise form. Difficulties which may be encountered during
Socio-cultural effects on the farming sys- analysis are exemplified; emphasis is placed on assesstems research and development approach ing the relative importance of site-specific differences.
Wilson, Kathleen K.; Philipp, Perry F.; Shaner, W.W. Special cases the presence of an array of variable facU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for tors, the inclusion of sites whose results would bias the
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- analysis, and the problem of variation between years besor) cause of climatic changes are discussed and resolved.
Agricultural systems, v.19, 1986, p.83-110 : chart, En Six tables and two figures are included. 9311006
Lessons learned over the past decade about the
sociocultural aspects of farming systems research and
development (FSR/D) are reviewed. This paper first
describes FSR/D as a concept and as a process, iden44 VOl. IV, 1987

119 PN-AAV-952 Using experience from Latin America and Asian reMF $1.08/PC $2.08 searchers, this paper discusses the design and testing of alternatives for producing livestock especially large
Design and testing of Improved livestock ruminants In mixed farm enterprises. Stress is laid on
technology for mixed farms sedentary mixed farms in which livestock are kept for all
Zandstra, Hubert G. or most of the year within farm boundaries, although
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural the approaches discussed are meant to apply to, or to
Sciences be readily modified to suit, other types of animal producU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for tion systems. The paper first reviews the interventions
Science and Technology. Office of Agriculture (Spon- typically used in livestock systems (including cropping sor) Interventions to support livestock production) and then
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for presents a nine-step procedure for designing alternative
Science and Technology. Office of Multisectoral production systems and guidelines for on-farm testing Development (Sponsor) of the systems. It Is concluded that testing of crop-live(Animal Traction In a Farming Systems Perspective Net- stock systems presents the greatest methodological
workshop, 1 st, Lama, Kara, TG, 4-8 Mar 1985) challenges to farming systems research, due to the sysFSSP networking report, no.1 tems' variability and farmers' concern for their animals.
Animal traction In a farming systems perspective, 1986 Ex ante analyses at the design phase may have to
p.165-179, En replace part of the research process which in cropping
Poats, s-V. systems research is realized by cropping pattern trials.
Vol. IV, 1987 4

Abstracts 109, 110 Communication skills 036, 060 Experimentation 054
Africa 032, 042, 045, 066, 100 Comparative studies 102 Family farms 009, 014, 037. 079,
Africa south of Sahara 037 Computer technology 063 093, 105
Agricultural areas 038 Constraints 029 Farm management 009. 014, 015,
Agricultural development 058, 073, Contractors 108 062, 064, 114
081 Costa Rica 064 Farmer participation 010. 012, 013,
Agricultural economics 058 Cowpeas 097 048, 070, 077, 082, 084
Agricultural education 104 Crop disease control 006 Farmers 071
Agricultural extension 001, 003, Crop diseases 104 Farming systems 085, 105, 115, 116
016, 023, 032, 035, 045, 046, Crop insurance 114 Feed supplements 090
048, 061 077, 092, 106, 108, Crop pests 006 Female labor 039, 093, 115
116 Crop production 014, 078, 082 Fertilizers 075, 083
Agricultural extension agents 001 Crop protection 006 Fish culture 026
Agricultural policy 033, 096, 100, Crop yield 002, 068, 103 Fisheries 026
114 Crop-animal systems 020, 032, Fishermen 026
Agricultural prices 051 076, 107, 119 Fishery development 026
Agricultural product marketing 025, Cropping patterns 017, 043, 052, Fishing equipment 026
051, 081, 095 088 Fishing methods 026
Agricultural production 009, 023, Cropping systems 005, 013, 023, Fishing vessels 026
034, 062, 068, 093 032, 033, 040, 041, 043, 065, Food consumption patterns 099
Agricultural production manage- 072, 074, 088, 119 Food crops 029
ment 017 Crops 043 Food economics 099
Agricultural research 016, 035, 045, Cultivars; 011, 094, 113 Food production 060
065, 076, 106,108 Cultivated land 022 Forage crops 024
Agricultural surveys 015, 042, 043, Cultural environment 117 Forage grasses 023
047, 050 Cultural identity 117 Forestry 096
Agricultural technology 011, 049, Dairy cattle 023 France 022, 024
061, 071, 081, 103, 106,117 Data analysis 118 Gambia 017
Agricultural training 019, 044 Data collection 003, 015, 059, 079, Ghana 085 Agroforestry 057, 059, 072, 085, 118 Goats 031
096 Deserts 072 Grasslands 024
Animal feeding 090 Development organizations 016 Guatemala 046
Animal husbandry 066, 067, 119 Development project design 055, Herbicides 053 Animal nutrition 090 080, 108 Herders 032, 051
Animal products 031 Development project evaluation 108 Honduras 030, 039, 047, 064
Animal traction 075, 092, 100, 101 Development project implementa- Household management 037, 060, Anthropologists 095 tion 055, 056, 058, 080, 108 079
Anthropology research 014 Development project management Household surveys 079
Appropriate technology 011, 049, 080 Households 037, 094, 105
081, 083, 101, 106 Development strategies 023, 058, Human diets 021
Arid zone 072 100 Human nutrition 030, 051
Arthropods 005 Division of labor 039, 073, 093, Impact assessment 007
Asia 020 094, 096,105 I ncome 099
Attitude change 112 Dominican Republic 033 India 002, 072
Bananas 105 Draft animals 031 lodigenization 056
Bangladesh 082 Dry farming 072 Indonesia 029, 089, 090, 091, 101,
Biological pest control 004, 005, Dry forage 031 113, 115
006 Eastern Caribbean 025, 053, 073 Insects 006
Botswana 0 10, 080 Ecological balance 052 Institutional aspects 016, 056
Burkina Faso 034, 075, 083, 099 Ecology 008 Integrated pest control 053
Cassava 043 Economic analysis 0 19, 095, 099 lntercropping 006, 017, 052, 074,
Cattle 031, 090 Economic risk 114 097
Cereals 099 Ecosystems 005 Interdisciplinary research 018, 036,
Chickpeas 094 Ecuador 035 059, 086
Classification 063, 091 Environmental aspects 010, 028, Interpersonal communication 060
Coasts 115 062 Interviews 050
Coffee 105 Environmental crop threats 058 Jamaica 073
Colombia 008, 106 Erosion 078 Labor intensive farming 053
Communication processes 036 Evaluation methodology 007 Labor product 027
46 Vol. IV, 1967

Land ownership 041 Procedural development 059 Soil surveys 022
Land reclamation 023 Reference materials 111 Soil types 022
Land resources 034 Regenerative farming systems 005 Sorghum 011, 030, 075
Land tenure 041, 096 Research collaboration 018, 077 Statistical analysis 019, 044, 069,
Land use 032, 041, 059, 091 Research design 001 013, 016, 118
Legal aspects 096 019, 028, 038, 044, 047, 054, Statistical data 0 15, 069
Lentils 094 059, 065, 084 086, 098, 118, Subsistence farming 009, 075, 102
Lesotho 060 119 Sudan 051
Liberia 043 Research management 007, 035, Survey design 047
Livestock 023, 031, 032, 051, 066, 055,056,067,076,116 Survey methodology 022, 042, 050,
067, 089, 091, 092, 106, 107, Research methodology 003, 010, 118
119 012, 013, 015, 018, 019, 020, Swamps 024,115
Lowland cropping 074 021, 025, 027 028, 038, 048, Symbiosis 052
Maize 002, 023, 029, 113 050, 054, 060, 063, 065, 066, Syria 094
Malaysia 009 067, 070, 071, 074, 079, 086 Systems analysis 031
Management methods 055 087, 088, 090, 095, 098, 102, Tanzania 001 068, 105
Market economy 081 108,117, 118,119 Technical assistance 108
Marketing research 025, 095 Research organizations 076, 116 Technological change 081
Mathematical analysis 063 Research planning 032, 054, 056, Technology adoption 009, 011,
Mathematical models 007,106 059 046, 061, 064, 068, 071, 075,
Methodology development 067 Research priorities 016, 019, 033, 094,106,112
Migration 051 059,065,100,102 Technology transfer 046, 101, 103,
Millet 097 Research utilization 007 112
Mixed cropping 004, 005, 074, 097 Rice 009, 033, 043, 074, 082, 088, Thailand 058, 088 Mixed farming 064, 066, 072, 084, 093,103,115 Tilling 078, 083
119 Risk aversion 114, 117 Time 068
Multiple cropping 004, 006, 018, Rural areas 099 Togo 092
040,052,074,086 Sampling 050, 118 Traditional farming 004, 034, 072
Nepal 093, 101 Scientists 036 Traditional technology 004
Niger 097 Seasonal variations 027, 068 Tropical zone 074, 104
Nigeria 011, 041 Semiarid zone 032, 072, 078, 083 Upland cropping 103
Nomadic populations 051 SenegaIO16,038 Urban areas 099
Nutrients 031 Sex roles 039, 073, 093, 094, 096, Variability 069
Nutrition research 021 102,105 Varietal research 002, 082
On farm research 002, 010, 012, Site selection 028,118 Villages 034
013, 019, 020, 027, 029, 044, Small farms 009, 018, 027, 033, Water catchment 075, 083
047, 054, 061 067, 068, 070, 035, 037, 049, 053, 066, 071, Water conservation 078
071, 074, 084, 086, 087, 090, 073, 100, 101 114 Weeds 006, 053
097,103, 106,113,118 Small ruminants 084 West Africa 078, 101, 103
On farm water management 078 Social science occupations 018 West Indies 073 Organizations 116 Social stratification 049 Women 003, 037, 073, 089, 102,
Pest control 053 Social structure 117 105
Planning 057 Social values 117 Women in development 039, 060,
Plant physiology 052 Socioeconomic aspects 028, 075, 085, 093, 096,115
Plant science education 104 083,086 Women's rights 096
Plantations 105 Sociology 008 Workshops 092
Policy analysis 114 Sociology research 018 Zambia 060, 077,102
Poultry 031 Soil conservation 008 Zimbabwe 076
Problem identification 044, 059 Soil erosion 008 Problem solving 036 Soil management 008, 022
Vol. IV, 1987 47

Acker, D.G. 001 Faye, Jacques 016 Lev, Larry S. 068
Agrawal, B.D. 002 Fordham, Miriam A. 039 Lichte, John 092
Alberti, Amalia M. 003, 028 Francis, C.A. 013 Uchte, John A. 043
Altieri, Miguel A. 004, 005, 006 Francis, Charles A. 040, 086 Uchte, John L 042 Ames, Linda L. 075 Francis, Paul 041 Liebman, Matt 006
Anderson, Jock R. 007 Frankenberger, Timothy R. 042, 043 ULightfoot, C. 069
Apetofia, Kossivi 101 Franzel, Steve 044 ULightfoot, Clive 012, 070, 071
Ashby, Jacqueline A. 008 Fresco, Louise O. 045 Livingston, Geoffrey O. 032
Avila, M. 076 Fumagalli, Astolfo 046 Malang Research Institute for Food
Azrag, Bakheit A. 051 Galt, Daniel L. 047, 048 Crops 029
Bailey, Conner 009 Garrett, Patricia 049, 050 Mathema, S.B. 048
Baker, D.C. 010 George, Calixte 025 McCorkle, Constance M. 036
Banta, Thomas A. 011 Gillard-Byers, Thomas E. 051 Meiman, J. 116
Barker, Randolph 012, 071 Gliessman, Stephen R. 052 Mitchie, Barry H. 072
Barker, T.C. 013 Goldstein, Donna 050 Momsen, Janet Henshall 073
Barlett, Peggy F. 014 Hammerton, John L. 053, 054 Morris, Richard A. 074
Basuno, Edi 089 Hart, Robert D. 055 Moscardi, Edgardo 035
Bbuyemusoke, Samm 011 Heinemann, Edward 056 Nagy, Joseph 075
Bejarano, Washington 015 Heriyanto 029 Nagy, Joseph G. 083
Biggs, Stephen D. 056 Huxley, P.A. 057 Ndimande, B.N. 076
Bingen, R. James 016 Ilyas, Sofyan 026 Ndiyoi, Mukelabai 077
Boughton, Duncan 017 Indonesia. Ministry of Public Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture 076
Bradfield, Stillman 018 Works. Directorate General of Nicou, R. 078
Burkina Institute for Research in Water Resources Development. Norem, Rosalie Huisinga 079
Agronomy and Zoology 034 Directorate of Rivers 088 Norman, D.W. 010
Caldwell, John 019 Infanger, Craig L. 058 Norman, David W. 080
Calub, Arsenio D. 020 Ingle, Marcus D. 055 Oasa, Edmund K 081
Campbell, Carolyn E. 021 Institute of Agricultural Research of Ocado, Francisco D. 082
Capillon, A. 022, 023, 024 Panama 015 Odell, Malcolm 044
Charreau, C. 078 International Center for Coopera- Ohm, Herbert W. 083
Chase, Vasantha 025 tion in Agronomy Research for Okali, C. 084
Chong, Kee-Chai 026 Development. Dept. of Agricul- Oregon State University 001
Collinson, M.P. 027 tural Systems 034 Ortiz, Ramiro 046
Colombian Agrarian Reform In- International Center for Tropical Owusu-Bempah, Kofi 085
stitute 106 Agriculture 008 Oxley, James W. 067
Consortium for International International Council for Research Parkhurst, Anne M. 086
Development 001 in Agroforestry 057, 059, 096 Pascal, Fotzo Tagne 087
Cornell University. Dept. of Interna- International Livestock Centre for Patanothai, Aran 088
tional Nutrition 021 Africa 038, 041, 066 Pellerin, S. 022
Cornell University. Dept. of Rural International Rice Research In- Perez, Frederico Cuevas 033 Sociology 049, 050 stitute 076, 088, 093, 115 Petheram, R.J. 089, 090, 091
Cornick, Tully R. 028 Jalil, Mirxa A. 031 Philipp, Perry F. 117
Cuellar, Miguel 015 Jiggins, Janice 060 Poats, Susan V. 045, 092
Dahlan, Marsum 029 Jodha, N.S. 114 Pradhan, Bina 093
Deuson, Robert 097 Johnson, S.H. III 061 Prawirodigdo, Susanto 090
DeWalt, Billie R. 039 Johnson, Sam H. III 062 Purdue University. Farming SysDeWalt, Kathleen M. 030 Jolly, C.M. 063 tems Unit of the Semi-Arid
Dickey, James R. 031 Jones, Jeffrey R. 064 Food Grain Research and
Diop, Mamadou 032 Jouve, Philippe 065 Development Program 075
Doorman, Frans 033 Jumaday, Antonio D. 082 Purdue University. International
Dugue, Marie-Josephe 034 Kansas State University. Office of Education and Research 075
Ecuador. National Institute of International Agriculture Purdue University. School of
Agricultural Research 035 Programs 010 ,020, 031, 051, Agriculture. Division of IntemaEmory University, Dept. of 067, 097, 105 tional Programs in Agriculture
Anthropology 014 Kearl, Steve 066 011,075, 078, 083
Espinosa, Patricio 035 Kellogg, E.D. 061 Rassam, Andree 094
Esslinger, Donald L. 036 Knipscheer, H.C. 084 Reeves, Edward B. 095
Evans, Alison 037 Kujawa, Mark A. 067 Research Institute for Animal
Fall, Alioune 038 Lauckner, F.B. 054 Production 090
48 Vol. IV, 1987

Rocheleau, Dianne E. 096 the Caribbean. Ecuador 035 Institutional Development 109,
Roxas, Domingo B. 020 Bureau for Latin America and 110, 111
Samba, Ly 097 the Caribbean. Regional University of California, San Diego.
Sands, Deborah Merrill 098 Development Office 054 Dept. of Biology 004
Sawadogo, Kimseyinga 099 Bureau for Latin America and University of Florida 003, 043, 060,
Sazena, S.C. 002 the Caribbean. Regional Office 073, 079, 085, 102, 107
Senghore, Tom 017 for Central American Programs University of Florida. Institute of
Spencer, D.S.C. 103 015 Food and Agricultural Sciences
Starkey, Paul H. 100, 101 Bureau for Science and Tech- 019, 042 ,044, 047, 048, 058,
Sungusla, D. 001 nology. Office of Agriculture 066, 074, 080, 087, 092, 100,
Sutherland, AlistairJ. 102 004, 008, 019, 025, 029, 030, 101, 103, 108, 109, 110, 111,
Swanson, Louis E. 081 033, 038, 039, 041, 042 ,043, 113, 116, 119
Tagaux, Marie-Josephe 023 044, 045, 047, 048, 049, 050, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. InTagne P., Fotzo 103 053, 058, 063, 066, 072, 074, stitute of Agriculture and
Taguax, Marie-Josephe 024 076, 077, 080 ,087, 088, 090, Natural Resources 030, 039, 118
Thahar, Ashari 091 092, 093, 095, 100, 101, 103, University of the West Indies, St.
Thurston, H. David 104 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, Augustine. Caribbean AgriculTibaijuka, Anna Kajumulo 105 115,116, 117, 118, 119 tural Research and DevelopTorres, Fabio Rodriguez 106 Bureau for Science and Tech- ment Institute 025, 053, 054
Tropical Agriculture Research and nology. Office of Multisectoral Van Den Ban, A.W. 112
Training Center 015 Development 019, 044, 047, Van Santen, C.E. 113
U.N. Food and Agriculture Or- 048, 066, 080, 092, 100 ,101, Walecka, Lisette 019
ganization 061 107, 113, 116,119 Walker, Thomas S. 114
U.S. Agency for International Bureau for Science and Tech- Watson, Greta A. 115
Development. Bureau for Africa. nology. Office of Research and Waugh, Robert K. 116
Office of Regional Affairs 011, University Relations 003, 010, Wilson, Kathleen K. 117
075, 078, 083 014, 020, 021, 031, 051 ,060, Wood, P.J. 057
Bureau for Africa. Tanzania 001 067, 073, 079, 085, 097, 102, Woolley, Jonathan 118
Bureau for Asia and Near East. 105 Zandstra, Hubert G. 119
Philippines 082 Bureau for Science and TechBureau for Latin America and nology. Office of Rural and
Vol. IV, 1987 49

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Farming Systems Support Project International Programs Institute of Food & Agriculture Sciences University of Florida 3028 McCarty Hall Gainsville, Florida 32611