Bibliography of readings in farming systems

Material Information

Bibliography of readings in farming systems
Farming Systems Support Project
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. -- International Programs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Agriculture
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Rural and Institutional Development
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Washington D.C
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4 v. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural systems -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Farm management -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (1984)-v. 4 (1987).
General Note:
Title from cover.
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP)

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
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13012743 ( OCLC )
AJP6828 ( NOTIS )

Full Text
0 0/ 7
1985 Volume II
- Farming Systems 4\ Support Project (FSSP)
International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Office of Agriculture and Office of Rural and Institutional Development, Bureau for Science
and Technology, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523

One of the problems facing most Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) practitioners is the difficulty in locating and accessing relevant FSR literature. The expansion of FSR projects and programs has greatly increased the number of articles, reports and monographs dealing with particular aspects of FSR. However, few of these documents reach a larger FSR audience. FSR literature is difficult to catalogue in traditional research libraries. The interdisciplinary nature of FSR work makes it difficult, if not impossible, to publish the results in refereed professional research journals. Additionally, much of the FSR literature can be described as "ephemeral" or "fugitive" and consists of trip reports, sections of the annual reports from national programs, and unpublished manuscripts from the many seminars and workshops held on FSR topics. Due to these characteristics, the FSR literature remains largely unavailable, especially to field-level practitioners, who by the nature of theirwork are stationed in relatively isolated areas. The unavailability of these materials can only slow progress in establishing and developing national FSR programs.
As part of its mandate to support the growth and development of FSR, the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) is working to increase the availability of FSR literature. The FSSP is a cooperative agreement between the Science and Technology Bureau of the United StatesAgency for International Development (A.I.D.) and the University of Florida. Through a subcontract agreement, the Kansas State University (KSU) has been designated the lead institution for the documentation efforts of the FSSP. KSU has developed, with support from its A.I.D. Strengthening Grant, a comprehensive FSR Documentation Center which is housed within its central library facility. Using this as a resource base, KSU manages the annual selection of one hundred key FSR documents for their annotation and publication in a current-awareness, non-cumulative, selective bibliography. Annotation, publication, translation into French and Spanish, and distribution of the bibliography is handled by the Document and Information Handling Facility sponsored by A.I.D.'s Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination/Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE)/Development Information Division.
This is the second volume of the bibliography. A third volume is currently in production. CDIE will catalogue and store all items included in the bibliography series and will be able to provide copies of all uncopyrighted works and, with permission from the publisher, of copyrighted articles. CDIE documentation center and duplicating services will continue after the life of FSSP, thus ensuring that the documents contained in the FSR bibliographies will remain available.
The FSSP is continuing to collect "fugitive" items for future FSR annotated bibliographies. Suggestions for additional documents to be added to the collection can be forwarded to:
FSR/E Bibliography
Department of Sociology
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506
Comments and suggestions on ways to improve the bibliography or documentation effort are
also welcome.

Item number 046 PN-AAB-723 ]- Document number
MF $3.24/PC $28.99
Title $ Microfiche/
Field data collection in the social sciences, Paper Copy prices
Authors) experiences in Africa and the Middle East
Kearl, B.E.
Institution(s) Agricultural Development Council, Inc.
Serial title
Meeting (Conference on Field Data Collection in the Social Sciences, and number, date,
L Beirut, LB) pagination, and
Supplementary 1976, 221p. : En language
nFrench edition: PN-AAC-817
Project number E 9310887
Contract/Grant AID/CSD-2813
Availability Agricultural Development Council, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the
noteL Americas, New York, NY 10019 USA A discussion of research methods practical field procedures is presented, based on papers submitted by 20 social scientists from a variety of academic disciplines. Areas covered include: (1) research approaches; (2) familiarization and reconnaissance or baseline studies; (3) considerations in sampling; Abstract
(4) local support and cooperation; (5) developing and using data collection instruments; (6) problems with specific variables; (7) recruitment and qualifications of interviewers/enumerators; (8) training interviewers and directing their work; (9) interviewing techniques and problems; (10) winning cooperation of respondents; and (11) precoding, and preliminary steps in analysis. Despite its rather formidable format, this publication is intended to be a progress report or a partial contribution rather than a comprehensive reference or text.

001 PN-AAS-409 003 PN-AAS-317
MF $1.08/PC $5.20 Planning and conducting applied agricultural
Farming systems research programme: research
research guidelines and procedures Andrew, Chris 0.; Hildebrand, Peter E.
Ahmadu Bello University. Institute for Agricultural Research Westview special study, 1982, xii, 94p. : En [1984], 38p. : En Available only from: Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave.,
Boulder, CO 80301 USA
The background, procedures, and subprograms of the farming systems research program at northern Nigeria's Institute for Applied agricultural research usually focuses on a client's Agricultural Research (IAR) are examined in this report. specific problem and operates under time and resource conAfter tracing the evolution of IAR's farming systems re- straints. Stressing the importance of problem identification and search program from the multidisciplinary agricultural research hypothesis formulation, this book proposes a research methodof the 1 920's to the current crop-based, interdisciplinary strate- ology that efficiently utilizes limited resources while maximizing gy, the report examines the program's objectives, procedural the likelihood of achieving meaningful results for the client. guidelines, and structure. The bulk of the paper discusses A section on research planning first examines the relationtechnology development efforts conducted within the four IAR ship between the scope of a research project, the quantity and research subprograms: (1) diagnostic studies to identify quality of available resources (information, human, physical, agricultural production constraints (the various crop classifica- financial), and time constraints. Next, the orientation and focus tion systems used in northern Nigeria are described); (2) on- of research projects is discussed, including how to specify station research to test possible technologies for overcoming researchable problems, formulate hypotheses, and delineate cropping constraints (the advantages of various crop mixtures objectives. A final section, on conducting applied research, are noted); (3) researcher-or farmer-managed farm trials to covers experimental and non-experimental data collection, apply study results to the farmer's environment; and (4) village- verification and interpretation of data, and data utilization. level studies to identify and correct institutional and social An 89-item bibliography (1934-73) is provided. constraints. On-going projects within each subprogram are
004 PN-AAS-151
MF $1.08/PC $2.86
002 PN-AAS-398 Pour une approche integree du probleme de la
MF $1.08/PC $2.21 stabilisation de la petite exploitation en region
Review of insect prevalence in maize (Zea tropicale humide (Towards an integrated
mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) approach to the problem of stabilization of
polycultural systems small farms in the humid tropics)
Altieri, Miguel Angel; Francis, Charles A.; et al. Bailly, C.; Kilian, J.; Simon, B. Field crops research, v. 1, 1978, p.33-49 : statistical tables, (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
En Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA serie ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
Tropical agro-ecosystems often include two or more crops eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.9-31 : Fr arranged in diverse polycultural patterns. Experimental evalua- Caribbean seminar on farming systems research tion of the pest situation in polycultural systems was carried out methodology in several field experiments at the International Center for Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for Tropical Agriculture with maize and beans in monoculture and Cooperation on Agriculture polyculture. France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
Beans grown as maize/bean polycultures had 26% fewer
Empoasca kraemeri Ross and Moore adults than monoculture An integrated system of interdisciplinary research and exbeans. Similarly, the populations of Diabrotica balteata Le tension is proposed for strengthening small farm production Compte were 45% less in polycultures. Spodoptera frugiperda systems in the humid tropics. Research, it is urged, should first (Smith) incidence as cutworm in maize was reduced 14% in be directed toward organizing a permanent system for collectpolycultures. Also, these systems had 23% less infestation of ing agricultural information in a useful form in order to identify fall armyworm as a whorl feeder. successful production systems for extension to small farmers.
Date of planting affects pest interactions in these systems. The process of developing these production systems includes For example, planting maize 30 and 20 days earlier than beans mapping the physical resources of the region, studying socioreduced leafhoppers on beans by 66% as compared to simul- economic factors, and establishing experimental units (les taneous planting, and fall armyworm damage on maize was unites experimentales) compatible with ecological and socioecreduced 88% when beans were planted 20 to 40 days earlier onomic realities, especially with known constraints. It is noted than the maize. that production systems must be practicable and acceptable to
Diversification of monocultural systems with other crops, the farmers. The final research phase consists of identifying especially non-host plants, seems to be one effective strategy technical processes for extension, planning and developing in tropical pest management. Further research will provide a technological packages, recommending demonstration methbasis for incorporating practical pest control schemes into the ods, identifying logistical support requirements, and anticipatmost important intercropping systems in the tropics. (Author ing farmers' needs. A discussion of the socioeconomic analysis abstract) of farm production systems is appended.
Vol. II, 1985 1

005 PN-AAS-080 First, farm families in Botswana are dispersed physically and
MF $1.08/PC $3.77 economically in order to take advantage of diverse income earning opportunities; FSR, however, by focusing on farm
Measuring the benefits of subsistence versus income alone, underestimates the importance of wage employcommercial livestock production in Africa ment in the overall farm household economy. Secondly, the
Behnke, Roy, Jr. concept of the individual farm as a discrete entity exaggerates
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the the farming system's economic isolation and self-sufficiency.
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983) Lastly, typologies which group farmers into theoretically hoFarming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May mogenous target groups ignore the interdependence among
1984, p.564-592 : charts, En farmers within a community. Traditional farm-centered FSR,
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming thus, while otherwise useful, obscures farmers' economic
systems research symposium : animals in the farming motivations. The authors conclude with several practical steps system for incorporating anthropological field techniques into FSR to
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture address these shortcomings.
Programs A bibliography of 14 references (1973-82) is provided.
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor) PN-AAS-275
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS- 126 007
9311282 MF $2.16/PC $13.00
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 Exploitation agricole familiale en Afrique
In seeking ways to improve farmer welfare, farming systems Soudano Sahelienne (Development of family research projects usually encourage commercialization of farms in the Sahel region of Africa) farming activities. This paper addresses the need for a quanti- Benoit-Cattin, Michel; Faye, Jacques tative technique with which to assess the relative benefits of Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation; International commercial and subsistence livestock husbandry in Africa, Council of French Language where the shift from subsistence production to commercial
farming entails a shift from multipurpose animal use to Techniques vivantes, 1982, 94p. :charts, map, Fr monohusbandry. A multidisciplinary research program sought to develop a
Three methods of measuring the benefits of commercial methodology to analyze agricultural production by farm families and subsistence production are examined: biological and eco- in Africa's Sudano-Sahelian zone, a region of alternating dry nomic measures of herd productivity, and measures of the and rainy seasons. This report details the research chronologinutritional status of the population engaged in livestock produc- cally, describing the elements and relationships of family farms. tion. Quantitative studies of pastoral vs. commercial production Following a literature review, the research team selected are used to illustrate the first and second measures; the two villages in Senegal for detailed study. The villages, which measurement of the human nutritional impacts of livestock were chosen for their ecosystems as well as their economic development is discussed more hypothetically due to the lack and social structure, were studied with regard to their history, of relevant quantitative studies. The respective strengths and land use, collective equipment, cooperatives, relations with weaknesses of each method are noted, as is the fact that the neighboring villages, and social structure. Farm activities were three methods do not necessarily produce comparable results. detailed for two rainy seasons and an intervening dry season; The author concludes that the problems inherent in measuring heads of households were interviewed in depth to trace familial farmer/herder benefits, such as the difficulty of determining the structure and division of labor. value of subsistence production, also reveal that such meas- A final chapter defines the family farm, the basic unit of urement whether in terms of productivity, profit, or welfare farming in Africa, thus setting the context for efforts to remove cannot exclude an assessment of farmers' goals and motiva- constraints on technological progress in Sudano-Sahelian agritions. culture. Two bibliographies, totaling 37 items (1964-80), are
A 46-item bibliography (1969-83) as well as 5 tables and 2 appended. figures are included.
006 PN-AAS-208
MF $1.08/PC $1.04
FSR and the attempt to understand the goals
and motivations of farmers
Behnke, Roy; Kerven, Carol
Culture and agriculture, v.19, 1983, p.9-16 : En
Farming systems research (FSR) was designed explicitly to
focus on the farming unit in order to identify the values,
rationales, and objectives underlying farmers' behavior. This
paper argues that the analytical units employed in FSR the
farming system, the individual farm, and the recommendation
domain in fact impede the attempt to understand farmers'
economic goals and objectives. Examples from Botswana are
used to illustrate these methodological shortcomings.
2 VoL II, 1985

008 PN-AAS-153 descriptive tables of the overall farming situation. In addition,
MF $1.08/PC $2.34 experimental data were collected during initial field trials of a new technology and their economic significance was deterMethodologie d'etude des systemes de mined. Finally, new cropping patterns were designed, tested,
production pour une agriculture paysanne and introduced on a large scale. One year after implementaprodction (tion, an evaluation survey was conducted to measure their tropical (Method of studying agricultural impact. The importance of carefully planning each stage of
production systems on small tropical farms) research as regards objectives, activities, and data required is
Benoit-Cattin, M.; Tourte, R. stressed.
(Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
IICA serie ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de
eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.35-52 : charts, map, Fr 010 PN-AAS-299
Caribbean seminar on farming systems research MF $3.24/PC $39.65
Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for Manual of instructions for economic
Cooperation on Agriculture investigators in ICRISAT's village level studies
France. National Institute of Agronomic Research Binswanger, Hans P.; Jodha, N.S.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Based on experience in tropical farming systems in Africa Tropics
(Senegal) and South America (Brazil), a method is presented Village level studies series : economics program, v.2, Nov for coordinating research and development (R&D) with the 1978, viii, 134p. + 5 appendices : charts, En farmers' needs to achieve optimum agricultural production on 936411106 small farms.
Of primary importance is effective dialogue among re- Instructions for economic in ,estigators conducting villagesearchers, extensionists, and farmers. Development of produc- level studies in India for the International Crops Research tion systems for extension especially requires communication Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics are presented in this manual. with and participation by the farmer who is to benefit; research An introductory section provides information on manual use, must be adapted to his geographical and conceptual con- village and household selection, interviewing techniques, and straints. The R&D process takes place in three areas: the report submission as well as on coding procedures to be learning world (basic research and design of on-farm experi- followed in preparing schedules. Subsequent chapters provide ments); the controlled world (model farm tests of innovations); detailed instructions on completing the following types of and the where agricultural innovations are tested under existing schedules: household census; household member; plot and agrosocioeconomic conditions. It is concluded that, of all the crop rotation; animal, farm implement, and farm building invenparticipants in the R&D process, the farmer is the most tory; cultivation; labor, draft animal, and major machinery indispensable, utilization; household transaction; stock inventory; and credit
and debt. These are followed by a coding list to be used in filling
out the schedules.
Appendices include examples of completed worksheets
009 *_PN-AAS-620 and schedules and further coding aids.
MF $1.08/PC $.91
Survey research in support of cropping
system improvement 011 PN-AAS-179
Bernsten, R.H.; Nataatmadja, Hidayat MF $1.08/PC $1.17
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979)
1980, p.104-110 : En Village level studies as a locus for research
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of and technology adaptation
cropping systems Binswanger, Hans P.; Ryan, James G.
International Rice Research Institute (International Symposium on Development and Transfer of
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture Technology for Rainfed Agriculture and the SAT Farmer,
936411102 Patancheru, IN, 28 Aug 1 Sep 1979)
IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines 1980, p.121-129 : En
Proceedings of the international symposium on development
Baseline data collected prior to testing new cropping sys- and transfer technology for rainfed agriculture and the teams technologies are often too voluminous, too general, or SAT farmer inadequate in regard to labor and income factors. This report International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid describes a problem-focused survey used in West Java, In- Tropics donesia to obviate these problems. Prior to the survey, existing Complete proceedings: PN-AAQ-782 secondary and experimental data were collected to guide 936411106 research site selection and help identify major parameters *ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502 324 India affecting the choice of crop pattern. Next, the survey itself was
conducted; it consisted of consulting with agronomists and Proceedings are presented of an 8/28-9/1/79 international farmers to identify current agroclimatic and socioeconomic symposium conducted in Patancheru, India, by the Internationconstraints to crop production, developing a set of hypotheses al Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics to evaluate the importance and cause of the constraints, (ICRISAT) on developing and transferring technology for preparing and administering a questionnaire to elicit informa- rainfed agriculture in the semiarid tropics. The bulk of the tion on farmers' resources and technology, and preparing document consists of 33 papers presented at symposium
Vol. II, 1985 3

sessions dealing with the following major areas: ICRISAT Data collection methods for farming systems research research aimed at developing technology for the semiarid (FSR) need to be flexible, rigorous, and adaptable to resource tropics (5 papers); the transfer of agricultural technology (7 constraints and to correspond to the needs of small-scale farm papers) and ICRISAT cooperative programs to facilitate this families, local extension and research station staff, organizatransfer (4 papers); research and development issues and tional decisionmakers, and national leaders. This paper disinstitutions (6 papers); research and development experience cusses the data collection requirements of a FSR approach. at 9 semiarid locations (India, Maharashtra, Nigeria, Burkina The five phases in the FSR problemsolving process, each Faso, Senegal, Sahel, Brazil, Thailand, and the Philippines); requiring the collection of different data, are first described: and linkages (2 papers). Discussions held after each of the legitimization of the FSR approach; research site selection; aforementioned sessions are summarized. Appended are problem analysis; solution identification; and extension integraFrench abstracts of English papers and the original texts of tion. Next, data collection is discussed as a tool to facilitate a French-language papers. systems framework, participation and communication, a learning laboratory, reliable information, and data for Following an
outline of guidelines to be used in designing appropriate data
012 PN-AAS-278 collection strategies, the bulk of the paper discusses the
strengths and weaknesses of various methods as they are
MF $1.08/PC $1.17 applied in the five phases of FSR. A combination of methods is
Research at benchmark locations : report of recommended as the most effective approach.
working group 3
Burford, J.R.; Bansal, R.K.; et al.
Jul 1983, p.30-38 : En 014 PN-AAN-941
ICRISAT farming systems research : a special report MF $1.08/PC $1.17
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics Farming systems research : issues in research
936411106 strategy and technology design
ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502 324 India Byerlee, Derek; Harrington, Larry; Winkelmann, Donald L.
Relatively little attention has been given in ICRISAT's American journal of agricultural economics, v.64(5), Dec Farming Systems Research (FSR) program to the criteria to be 1982, p.897-904 : En used in selecting benchmark (representative) research sites. While farming systems research (FSR) holds much promise This article discusses the use and concepts of benchmarks in for increasing agricultural production in developing countries, general and then defines criteria for ICRISAT site selection, the confusing array of current FSR activities may lead donors namely, similarity of soils and climate, toposequence (arrange- and researchers to become disenchanted with the approach. ment of soil types), biological parameters (crop pests and This paper presents a strategy to optimize FSR's effectiveness diseases), and sociological aspects; FSR sites should also by narrowing its focus. serve regions which have been identified by ICRISAT crop First discussed is the need to incorporate a holistic view of improvement programs. ICRISAT's three primary benchmark complex farming systems and cost-effective, results-oriented, FSR locations (two at Patancheru, India, and one at Sadore in on-farm research methods into FSR programs. A strategy West Africa) are well chosen; a site in Brazil is also needed. An emphasizing only a few research objectives and focusing on experienced consultant may be hired eventually to identify 15 the capabilities of homogenous farmer groups is outlined. Next, other sites of concern to ICRISAT, and greater intercommuni- the cost-effectiveness of different types of data collection is cation among the existing sites is recommended. discussed, data collection techniques are reviewed, and a
methodology for selecting farming technologies to be investigated is outlined. Differences between the proposed FSR
013 PN-AAS-085 strategy and current farm research are highlighted, and a need
MF $1.08/PC $4.03 to orient the training of FSR economists toward direct interaction with planners and technical scientists is indicated. A final
Putting farming systems research data section considers the potential accomplishments of a focused
collection in perspective : practicalities and FSR program while urging realistic expectations on the part of
realities donors and researchers.
Butler, Lorna Michael
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983) 015 PN-AAM-859
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May MF $1.08/PC $12.09
1984, p.525-555 : charts, En
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming Why farmers plant what they do : a study of
systems research symposium : animals in the farming vegetable production technology in Taiwan
system Calkins, Peter H.
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center U.S.
Programs Agency for International Development. Bureau for
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Development Support. Office of Agriculture
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and AVRDC technical bulletin, no.8(78-74), Aug 1978, v, 86p. : En
Information (Sponsor) 936411105
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS- 126
9311282 To develop a methodology for assessing agricultural develDAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 opment plans, a study was conducted in southern Taiwan on
4 VoL II, 1985

the role of vegetable cropping in overall production patterns 017 PN-AAS-622
and on how farmers decide what to grow. This report presents MF $1.08/PC $2.47
the results.
The primary goal of all farmers surveyed is increasing Rice based cropping systems research in profits, followed by having a stable income, increasing produc- Thailand tion per hectare, and reducing labor requirements. The major Chandrapanya, Damkheong; Banta, G.R. constraints on achieving these goals are economic (labor (Cropping Sytems Working Group Meeting, 8th, Kathmandu, shortage, high wages) and agronomic (pests, diseases, water). NP, 28-31 May 1979) Cropping system selection is based in the uplands mainly on 1979, p.264-282 : statistical tables, En water availability (diseases and inadequate roads are major Eighth report of the cropping systems working group problems) and in the lowlands on economics (drainage is the International Rice Research Institute main problem). Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
Both farm size and location are factors in determining a 936411102
cropping pattern. A study of 18 representative farms showed IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines that: the higher priced vegetable crops have generally replaced root crops; fall processing tomato is most suitable for upland Experimental methods to be used by Thai institutions in farms and fall fresh market tomato for lowlands; and inter- conducting rice-based cropping systems research at four prioricropping cauliflower with lima beans is mutually beneficial ty and representative sites are discussed. At Pimai, interagronomically, balances price trends, and stabilizes labor use. cropping of rice with mungbean, peanut, sesame, and corn is The major motivation of medium and large farmers is to proposed, each of the latter to be grown before rice for more increase income per hectare; their successful cropping sys- efficient use of land and rain. Except for sesame, a like tems use labor evenly through the year and minimize risk combination of crops will be grown at Ubon and a double rice through diversified cropping. Small farmers strive to maximize crop and a mix of rice and (ratoon) rice will be added. Expected income per hour worked; labor use variability over the year is of yields are calculated for each crop combination. If yields are less concern. Non-vegetable farmers have the least successful less than these figures, the farmer need pay nothing; if yields cropping pattern, low income, high and uneven use of labor, equal or exceed expectations, the farmer will pay for fertilizer, and crops that fail. The methodology described here is low-cost seed, and pesticides. Intercropping of rice with glutinous corn, and may be used to pinpoint cropping system weaknesses and yard long bean, peanut, RD 7, and RD 9 is planned for another possible improvements in other countries. Ubon location. Combinations proposed for Kampangphet are
The report includes 4 appendices, 32 figures, and a 21-item preplanting of glutinous corn, mungbean, and soybean before bibliography (1961-78). rice and of rice before mungbean, peanut, sweet potato.
Proposals for Bangpae include intercropping of mungbean,
soybean, sweet corn, glutinous corn, and sugarcane before rice and a wide variety of research-managed and superimposed
016 PN-AAS-621 trials.
MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Croppings systems research in four research 018 PN-AAS-081
sites in Thailand, 1977 MF $1.08/PC $4.42
Chandrapanya, Damkheong
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 6th, Kandy, LK, Design and evaluation of new technologies for
13-17 Dec 1977) adoption by small farmers: an example from
1978, p.204-231 : charts, En the Philippines
Sixth report of the croppings systems working group Chapman, James A. International Rice Research Institute (Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Sri Lanka. Department of Agriculture Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
936411102 Farming systems research paper series: paper, no.6, May
/RR/, Box 933, Manila, Philippines 1984, p.604-637 : charts, map, En
Completed and ongoing cropping systems research trials at Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming four sites in Thailand Pimai, Ubon, Inburi, and Bangpae are systems research symposium : animals in the farming described. For the first three sites, the report describes soil and system climatic conditions, crop patterns and crop management meth- Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture ods used by researchers, and the economic information Programs sought. Included are trial results regarding yield, income, total U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for sougt. ncldedaretril rsuls reardng iel, icom, ttal Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and variable cost, and net income for Pimai and Inburi and descrip- Information (Sponsor) tions of fertilizer trials at Pimai; trials in relay planting of corn Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 into rice at Ubon; and agronomic superimposed trials and crop 9311282 treatments at Inburi. The crops tested at the three sites were DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 mungbean, peanut, corn, rice, cowpea, yard long bean, and
cucumber. The final section of the report describes and, where A set of criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of new available, provides the results of a total of 12 trials regarding farming systems technologies are proposed in this report, aspects such as crop patterns, fertilizers, and herbicides which also illustrates their use in assessing seven technologies conducted at Bangpae both on rice and on crops planted being developed for small farms in a rice-growing, rainfed area before rice. Four figures and a data chart are appended. of Iloilo Province, Philippines.
Vol. II, 1985 5

The evaluation criteria, derived from a review of farming 020 PN-AAS-154
systems research literature and experience with cropping sys- MF $1.08/PC $3.90
tems research in the Philippines, are first briefly described. They are: (1) resource utilization; (2) contribution to household Etude integree de la culture du coton objectives; (3) institutional requirements; (4) managerial re- (Integrated study of cotton cultivation) quirements; (5) agroclimatic requirements; and (6) acceptability C to farmers. Following a description of Iloilo's traditional Conessa, A.P.; Cozic, P.; metal. cropping systems, the paper uses the proposed criteria to (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
evaluate the suitability of three existing (developed) and four IICA serie ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de notional (undeveloped or poorly developed) rice technologies eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.115-144 : charts, Fr for use in blilo. Finally, the seven technologies are rated in Caribbean seminar on farming systems research terms of their potential effects on existing Iloilo farming sys- methodology tems and ranked in order of desirability; results are provided in O ntonofSrn table form. Organization of American States. Inter-Amedcan Institue for
Two tables, 12 figures and a 6-item bibliography (1978-83) Cooperation on Agriculture
are appended. France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
After several years in which cotton harvests in Algeria were below those expected from results on experimental farms, an 019 PN-AAS-235 interdisciplinary study was conducted to determine why improved cultivation techniques failed to increase cotton producMF $1.08/PC $2.21 tion. The analysis was conducted at two levels: at the station Exploratory survey : content, methods and level, where the effect of environmental and technical factors
on cotton production were studied; and at the farm production detailed guidelines for discussions with level, where socioeconomic factors were examined. A simple
farmers regression formula was devised to analyze soil type, climate,
Collinson, M.P. specific cultivation methods, parasitic damage, and soil acidity
Farming systems newsletter, no.5, Apr-Jun 1981, p.13-28: and sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content. SocioecoEn nomic factors included the relationship among inputs (e.g.,
labor, equipment), parasite damage, intercropping, dates of The exploratory survey can provide farming systems re- seeding and harvest, pesticide use (and misuse), and irrigation. searchers with an understanding of the farmer's production Results show that while the farmers are well acquainted with perspective and of major farm management constraints. This cotton cultivation techniques, if the inputs are not available they paper explains the content and methods of the exploratory first plant dry vegetable crops for home consumption and then survey and provides detailed interviewing guidelines. plant cotton crops, but with less than optimum timing. Another
Stressing the need for interaction between the economist constraint is the low price for cotton paid by the cooperatives. and the agronomist on the research team, the paper first briefly Higher prices and greater freedom for farmers to choose their describes the information that the survey seeks to discover, cotton acreage are recommended. including: the farmer's priorities (as reflected in his/her choice of farming enterprise, growing period, and use of product); resource allocation and use; and, based on an appraisal of system limitations and management problems, the leverage 021 PN-AAS-100
points at which new techniques can be introduced for system MF $1.081/PC $6.63
The remainder of the paper discusses the survey methodol- Agroecosystem analysis ogy, which utilizes unstructured interviews with target group Conway, Gordon R. farmers, and provides six sets of interview questions. The first University of London. Imperial College of Science and four sets constitute the initial investigation from which re- Technology. Centre for Environmental Technology searchers can identify the system's labor allocation profile, ICCET series E: dynamics of environmental systems, no. 1, resource constraints, farmers' priorities and decision criteria, 1983, 51p. : charts, En management strategies, leverage points, and levels of return on cash outlays. The last two sets examine crop and livestock In response to growing demand for a more multidisciplinary production methods and their effects on the potential efficiency and holistic approach to agricultural research, a procedure for of a technology. agroecosystem analysis is described which combines a rigorous framework with sufficient flexibility to foster interdisciplinary action. This procedure has been tested in several workshops in Thailand over the past 5 years.
Participants in the analysis begin by defining its objectives and identifying relevant systems, their boundaries, and hierarchic arrangement. Pattern analysis follows: a systems analysis by all the participating disciplines in terms of space, time, flows, and decisions. These patterns are crucial in determining the important properties of the agroecosystem being analyzed, i.e., its productivity, stability, sustainability, and equitability. The outcome of pattern analysis is a set of agreed-upon key questions for future research or a set of tentative guidelines for development. The procedure can be applied at any stage of a project, but is particularly useful at the beginning when data
6 VoL II, 1985

are scarce, and ideally should be repeated regularly. Appended 023 PN-AAS-155
is a 37-item bibliography (1962-83). (Author abstract, modified) MF $1.08/PC $1.82
Essai d'elaboration d'un system maraicher
022 PN-AAS-088 intensif en zone tropicale de basse altitude
MF $1.08/PC $3.64 (Towards an intensive system of truck farming in low altitude tropical zones)
Application of farming systems research and Daly, P.
development to an extensive, sedentary (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
livestock production system in Southern Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
/CA serie ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de Kordofan, Sudan eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.147-160 : Fr
Cook, R.H.; Bunderson, W.T.; et al. Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the methodology
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983) Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May Cooperation on Agriculture
1984, p.285-312 : charts, En France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
systems research symposium : animals in the farming Decreases in the traditional cultivation of sugar cane and system bananas in the low-altitude, tropical zone of Martinique has led
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture in recent years to the cultivation of new crops, especially of
Programs vegetables. This study identifies technical and agrochemical
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for constraints to this development and assesses the feasibility of
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and an intensive system of cultivating vegetables for local markets
Information (Sponsor) (truck farming).
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 Current fruit/vegetable production systems include inter9311282 cropping bananas and market vegetables (tomato, lettuce,
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 cucumber, and cabbage); occasional tomato cultivation; and
intercropping sorghum and melon, tomato, watermelon, or Since livestock are a part of the agricultural production eggplant. Permanent constraints on vegetable production are systems in most developing countries, they should be included soil texture and chemical content, climate, and an environment in farming systems research and development (FSR&D) activi- favorable to plant disease organisms. Constraints induced by ties. This report examines the application of FSR&D to an intensified vegetable cultivation include the development of extensive, sedentary, livestock production system in the Nuba plant parasites, reduced soil fertility, breakdown in soil strucMountain Region of Southern Kordofan, Sudan. After discuss- ture, and the increasing difficulty of maintaining the soil. On the ing the basic differences between extensive livestock produc- economic side, vegetable production is high in cost relative to tion systems and the agronomic systems on which FSR&D marketable yield. A discussion of these and related social traditionally focuses (farmers have greater control over land factors leads to the conclusion that truck farming currently use and agronomic systems lend themselves to short-term operates under significant constraints that are far from being interventions), the report describes researchers' use of an solved. Appended are agroclimatic data for the north Caribbeoperational FSR&D framework in order to stabilize and improve an coast. livestock production in the Nuba Mountain Region. Activities consisted of augmenting secondary data with reconnaisance surveys to establish recommendation domains, identify key crop and livestock production constraints, and design techno- 024 PN-AAR-865
logical interventions. Constraints identified in the region were MF $1.08/PC $2.34
rangeland deterioration, inefficient use of resources, and limited water availability. Some possible interventions include intro- Towards a framework for pastoral systems ducing forage legumes, conserving native forage, and gather- research ing sorghum crop residues through the use of animal traction. de Haan, Cees Four figures are appended. International Livestock Centre for Africa
(Workshop on Pastoral Systems Research in Sub-Saharan Africa, Addis Ababa, ET, 21-24 Mar 1983)
Aug 1983, p.25-42 : chart, statistical tables, En
Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa
ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The complexity of livestock production systems in SubSaharan Africa and the multiple objectives of livestock producers require the study of whole systems rather than of components; the livestock systems research practiced by the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) represents such an approach. This report overviews ILCA's methodology and highlights some of its results.
Using examples from Mali, Kenya, and Ethiopia, the report focuses on pastoral systems in arid and semiarid zones, while
Vol. II, 1985 7

including linkages with agropastoral cropping systems. The diets contain a wide variety of foods, including those rich in stages in ILCA's livestock systems research strategy are ascorbic acid as well as those (e.g., beans and cowpeas) that outlined and discussed, including description, diagnosis, de- contain the complementary amino acids necessary to make sign, testing, and extension. Emphasis is placed on the impor- sorghum a complete protein. tance of: sample selection as a tool for improving the costeffectiveness of the diagnostic and testing phases; identification of improvements during the descriptive and diagnostic 026 PN-AAS-222
phases using a multidisciplinary team effort; comparison with a MF $1.08/PC $3.25
control group under producer's conditions during the crucial
testing phase; and evaluation during the extension phase. Fermes de references ovines en Languedoc ILCA's future research will focus on developing a systems Roussillon (Sheep farms in Languedoc methodology for each of the major ecological zones and Roussillon) improvements for identified constraints and on helping national Rousslon research and development agencies to establish their own Dolle, V. livestock research capabilities. Journey recherche development en milieu rural, no.12,
A 16-item bibliography (1973-83) is appended. 1982, 21p. : charts, Fr
In order to achieve increased sheep production in the
Languedoc Roussillon region of France through the improved
use of forage resources, existing production systems on 54
025 PN-AAS-089 "reference" farms were analyzed as the first of a
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 two-stage project. This report describes the research methodNutritional strategies and farming systems ology (criteria for selecting reference farms, the type of data
collected, and methods of analyzing data) and the use of
research in southern Honduras : the research data to characterize three aspects of the sheep
international sorghum and millet project production systems: zootechnical (data on animal numbers,
(INTSORMIL) growth, and food needs), technical (mode of utilization of the
DeWalt, Kathleen M. various forages over seasons), and economic (the degree to
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the which a production system is self-sufficient). Particular attenFarming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983) tion was given to analyzing livestock food requirements and Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May how to best make available resources (forage, cereals, straw)
1984, p.675-688 : En corresponding to livestock needs, including when such needs
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming must be met using inputs not produced on the farm. Numerous
systems research symposium : animals in the farming diagrams are included to illustrate production system relationsystem ships.
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for 027 PN-AAS-156
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and MF $1.08/PC $3.51
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 Systemes d'exploitation et encadrement
9311282 communitaire : I'exemple des villages de la
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 vallee du Chancay Perou (Farming systems
Nutrition research conducted in 1981 in southern Honduras and surrounding communities : the example of as part of a farming systems research program under the villages in the Chancay Valley, Peru) International Sorghum and Millet (INTSORMIL) Project is de- Dollfus, 0. scribed. The research consisted of administering question- (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research naires to determine the role of sorghum and other foods in Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980) household food strategies and of collecting anthropometric IICA serie ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de data on children under 6 years of age to determine nutritional eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.181-207 : charts, Fr status. Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
Results showed that sorghum, which was eaten at some methodology
time during the year by at least half of the people interviewed, is Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for an important foodstuff especially among land renters, even Cooperation on Agriculture though it is viewed as an insurance food and even though corn France. National Institute of Agronomic Research is preferred for color and taste and perhaps for cultural
reasons for giving a feeling of satisfaction. Other important The impact of local and global change agents on the dietary staples identified by the study were dairy products, traditional, stable relationship between farm production sysparticularly eggs, and chicken. Feeding trials of sorghum con- tems and community institutions are explored in this case study ducted during the research indicated poor nutritional value for of dry mountain farming in Peru's Chancay Valley. children, although the results may have been due to inap- The paper first discusses the Andean environment, describpropriate preparation (raw sorghum mixed with water). Prepara- ing production systems at different altitudes. The state of tion techniques used elsewhere (e.g., fermentation, in Africa) farming technology and community governance and structure suggest that sorghum may be more nutritive with proper at about the year 1950 is presented to exemplify a holistic, preparation. In response to a suggestion from earlier INTSOR- apparently stable system; a flashback to the colonial period MIL research that sorghum-based diets may increase the need highlights the evolution of the system, particularly in relation to for ascorbic acid, the present research showed that Honduran government policy. Discussion of the changes in the Peruvian
8 Vol. II, 1985

agricultural sector during the 1970's reveals increased diversifi- er use. Also, economic studies have been conducted to monication; these changes are reflected in the heterogeneity of tor resource use, evaluate the cropping patterns, and assess production in Chancay Valley in the period 1975-80, notably an the overall economics of production, and a study of social increase in cattle head and the trend toward individual, market- aspects has recently been undertaken. Research at the other oriented production of fruit trees with a concomitant decrease sites Paranthan, Bandarawela, Angunukolapelessa, and in subsistence and feed crop production and the consequent Manar is progressing well. A large porton of the article disintegration of the traditional bond between production sys- presents data collected on cropping problems in the fully tems and community structure. The conclusion questions irrigated areas covered by the Mahaweli Diversion Scheme as whether community systems can survive in light of this contem- the basis for a full-fledged cropping program in the future. The porary development. Several tables and graphs illustrate the article includes 21 tables and 6 graphs. analysis schematically.
030 PN-AAS-139
028 PN-AAT-01 1 MF $1.08/PC $1.69
MF $2.16/PC $14.56 Analysis of adaptation in a plant breeding
Pequenos agricultores III : manual para colets programme
de dados em sistema de producao em Finlay, K.W.; Wilkinson, G.N.
propriedades agricolas (Small Farmers IlI Australian journal of agricultural research, v. 14, 1963, p.742manual for data collection at the farm level in 754: charts, En
farming systems research) To measure the adaptation of barley varieties, grain yields
Doraswamy, Gorantla; Vallee, Gilbert Jean A.; Porto, from 277 randomly selected varieties grown in repeated trials at
Everaldo Rocho three sites in South Australia were subjected to linear regresBrazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for Agricultural sion analysis using a logarithmic scale. The mean yield of all
Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics varieties for each site and season provided a quantitative
EMPRAPA CPATSA documentos, no.28, 1984, 123p. : grading of the environments, and the analysis identified variestatistical tables, Pt ties specifically adapted to good and poor seasons, as well as
those showing general adaptability.
A set of precodified questionnaires for collecting socioeco- A two-dimensional plot (scatter diagram) was used, with nomic data from farmers in the course of farming systems mean yield and regression coefficient as coordinates for each research (FSR) is presented. The data from the completed variety. Although wide variation was evident in both mean yield questionnaires can be fed directly into a computer, thus per- and sensitivity to environment, the variation in sensitivity was mitting homogeneity and reducing the time required for data proportionately less among varieties with higher mean yield, processing and analysis. The data provide the understanding of and the varieties with highest mean yield exhibited, within very the farm situation necessary for developing economically viable narrow limits (regression coefficients close to 0.8), a similar alternatives for improving the living conditions of small and degree of adaptation to all environments typical of the South medium farmers in the semiarid tropics. The document also Australian cereal belt. Varieties from particular geographic describes the socioeconomic data necessary for FSR, outlines regions of the world showed similar types of adaptation. data gathering methods, and provides instructions for filling in The phenotypic stability and physiological and morphologithe questionnaires. (Author abstract, modified) cal characteristics of groups of varieties with specific or general adaptability are discussed in relation to plant introduction and
breeding. (Author abstract, modified)
029 PN-AAS-625
MF $1.08/PC $5.72 031 PN-AAS-626
Sri Lanka cropping systems program MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Fernando, G.W.E.
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 8th, Kathmandu, Opportunities for economic analysis of
NP, 23-31 May 1979) component technology at field sites
1979, p.156-199 : charts, statistical tables, En Flinn, J.C. Eighth report of the cropping systems working group (Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979) International Rice Research Institute 1980, p.69-96 : charts, statistical tables, En
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
936411102 cropping systems
IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines International Rice Research Institute
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
Cropping systems research is being conducted in Sri Lanka 936411102
at a network of physically and biologically distinct sites, for *IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines each of which specific objectives and methodologies have
been developed within overall research objectives. This article The productivity of new agricultural technologies is usually reviews the progress of research at the individual locations, measured by averaging yields across locations within a reResearch in tank-fed dry-zone cultivation at Walagambahuwa search site. However, more detailed analysis is necessary to and in rainfed lowland paddy tracts at Katupotha has solved the gain insight into the stability of a practice or the environment in first order problems and begun to concentrate on component which it is relevant. This paper discusses some techniques for technology aspects such as cropping pattern, labor, and fertiliz- the indepth economic analysis of agronomic trials; while these
Vol. II, 1985 9

analyses do not examine the system as a whole, they can be ministering the questionnaire are next discussed. The paper applied using a pocket calculator and are usually sufficient for concludes with a brief examination of data tabulation, analysis, identifying those cropping patterns and treatments which have and interpretation and of report writing. a real chance of being adopted.
The article first discusses the use of a pocket calculator in
conducting cumulative distributions analysis of a treatment's 03PN AS21
net benefits dealing with variability and with extreme values, 94P-A-3 inferring relationships from the distribution data, verifying nor- MF $1.08/PC $1.30
mal distribution (and reading probabilities of interest when Frigsseseoois:ftigrsac distribution is not normal), and working with sparse data and in Frigsseseooisftigrsac testing paired comparisons. The article then addresses the to farmers conditions significance of environment to the performance of a technolo- Gathee, J.W. gy, introducing an index for ranking site productivity when no Farming systems newsletter, no.4, Jan-Mar 1981, p.1-10 :En site information is available and discussing the use of regres- To bridge the gap between agricultural research recommension techniques to relate observed yields to managed and non- dations and the needs of the small farmer, a knowledge of the managed site-related factors. farmer's production environment is necessary. This paper
Nineteen tables and graphs and 19 references (1963-79) shows how the use of farming systems economics has contribare provided. uted to research on maize and bean intercropping in Kenya.
Following a series of pre-surveys, on-farm trials were conducted in three bean-growing areas of Kenya to study various 032 PN-AAS-183 mixed and single cropping systems of maize and beans.
MF $1.08/PC $1.43 Reported herein are the trial results for the semiarid region of
Machakos (Katumani). Using completely randomized blocks Evaluating technical innovations under low and taking into account inputs and outputs, and physical,
resource farmer conditions economic, and social factors, five cropping systems were
Flinn, JOC.; Lagemann, J. tested: a recommended intercrop of maize and beans; two
Experimental agriculture, v. 16, 1980, p.91 -101 : En variations on the traditional system; and monocrops of beans and maize. The recommended intercropping system was found On-farm evaluation is necessary to test the superiority of to require too much planting labor for the small farmer in this technical innovations developed for low-resource farmers. This semiarid area, where timely planting is crucial due to the short paper presents a procedure for such an evaluation and exem- growing period. Since the sole constraint on the adoption of plifies its use with a proposed maize production package for this promising new technology is labor, the paper recommends southeastern Nigeria. The evaluation used biologic and eco- the introduction of a simple, cheap planting device. nomic analyses of the technology to help quantify the Four tables, one figure, and a 9-itemn reference list (1965-78)
biotechnical and management factors that largely determine are included. crop yields and thus the probability that the technology will benefit farmers. The evaluation also maintained a close link with farmers by soliciting their reactions to the technology. P-A-5
Besides establishing important linkages with farmers and 035 P-A-5
strengthening dialogue among all concerned parties, this ap- MF $1.08/PC $2.60
proach to technology design, it is concluded, also provides a Roefacgntvath plgitnafrm g
farmer-managed empirical test of a proposed technology be- Roefacgntvath plgitnafrm g
fore it becomes an extension recommendation. systems program that has everything
Gladwin, Christina H.
(Exploratory Workshop on the Role of Anthropologists and
Other Social Scientists in Interdisciplinary Teams
033 PN-AAS-230 Developing Improved Food Production Technology, Los
MF $1.08/P3C $1.69 Banos, PH, 23-26 Mar 1981)
1982, p.73-92 : charts, En
Identifying farmer target groups in an area: Report on the exploratory workshop on the role of
methodology and procedures anthropologists and other social scientists in
Franzel, Steven interdisciplinary teams developing improved food
Farming systems newsletter, no.4, Jan-Mar 1981, p. 13-25: production technology
En International Rice Research Institute
Due to the considerable variation within farming systems, 93410
adaptive research to improve small farm production must be The role of an anthropologist in a farming systems research targeted for specific areas and target groups. Using Kenya's (FSR) program is discussed in this paper, which is based on the administrative structure in its examples, this paper describes author's experience as a member of a socioeconomic team methods and procedures useful in identifying farmer target with the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Science and groups in an area. The procedures detailed should be applica- Technology (ICTA). ble to farming systems research in other countries. The author affirms the need to focus on farmer decisionProcedures for collecting background information, prepar- making in FSR and the importance of the decision-tree methoding maps, and designing a simple questionnaire focusing on ology introduced by anthrolopogist/agricultural economists for differences in district farming systems are first outlined. Key achieving this purpose. A 2-stage decision model for farmers' issues to be discussed with the District Agricultural Officer and cropping decisions is developed: at the first stage, the farmer appropriate techniques for interviewing field staff and ad- narrows the range of possible crops to a feasible subset that
10 VoL 11, 1965

satisfies the minimum conditions; at the second he/she al- sion of factors related to multiple cropping research, several locates the farm land to a crop or crops. Results obtained from chapters describe methodologies for technology generation testing this model against actual cropping-choice data gather- and verification, the use of the farm survey (for verification of ed in six subregions of the Altiplano are provided, and implica- field experiments), techniques for varietal improvement, and tions of these results are discussed in regard to ICTA's specific the development of a research strategy. The final chapters, commodity programs and its technical design of field trials. The based on experiences with multiple cropping in the Philippines, author's reservations concerning ICTA's survey methods and discuss the establishment of a national research network for its use of anthropologists conclude the text. technology verification and the design and implementation of
A list of 45 references (1971-81) in English and Spanish is pilot and national crop production projects.
appended. Appended is a 295-item bibliography (11938-81).
036 PN-AAS-146 038 PN-AAS-152
MF $1.08/PC $1.82 MF $1.08/PC $1.56
Using ethnoscientific tools to understand Sistemas de produccion actuales y
farmers' plans, goals, decisions potenciales para las sabanas de Venezuela
Gladwin, Christina H.; Zabawa, Robert; Zimet, David (Actual and potential production systems for (Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983) the savannahs of Venezuela)
1984, p.27-40 : charts, En IDRC-189e Gonzalez J., E.; Escobar B., A.
Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research
of technology Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980)
International Development Research Centre IICA serie ponencias resultados y recomendaciones de
IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario KIG 3H9 Canada eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.433-444 : charts, map, Es
The ethnoscientific approach to increasing farmer participa- Caribbean seminar on farming systems research tion in farming systems research seeks to understand the methodology system as an insider would. This paper illustrates the use of Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for ethnoscientific tools with an example of a cropping decision Cooperation on Agriculture faced by family farmers in Gadsden County, Florida. France. National Institute of Agronomic Research
The paper first describes taxonomic analysis, which is the
primary ethnoscientific tool, and presents a taxonomy of shade Results obtained from forestry and commercial crop plantatobacco, the major crop grown in Gadsden; the taxonomy tions and from experimental animal production ventures bely represents the knowledge structure developed by farmers the accepted wisdom that Venezuela's savannahs are marginal while growing shade and can be used to determine possible areas with low soil fertility, poor drainage, scarce rainfall, and substitute money crops. Next discussed is the cropping plan or hence low production potential. This paper argues that exscript a set of mental rules developed over many years and panded agricultural use of the savannahs, which constitute a passed on as the traditional way to do a task and its use, for fourth of the national territory, could help to arrest environmenfarming systems researchers, in revealing insiders' methods. tal deterioration elsewhere in Venezuela. Gadsden farmers' plans for staked tomatoes and shade tobac- Mismanagement of Venezuela's ecosystem in general has co are presented. The final tool described is the hierarchical resulted in pasturage of low nutritive value, low secondary decision model which can be used in the design and evaluation productivity (meat production per ha), and destruction of forof new technologies to represent farmers' decision criteria, ests to provide more pasture land. The present land use perceived alternatives and constraints, and outcomes; exam- system has been perpetuated by large landholders who raise pies of decision trees are included, herds of beef cattle and by a lack of diagnostic research on
integrated production systems. Such research could lead to more intensive use of the savannahs; more rational and optimal
exploitation of their climate and space; use of alternative 037 PN-AAS-250 technologies (e.g., drainage systems); diversification of vegetaMF $3.24/PC $31.59 ble and animal species and products; integrated systems of vegetable production (rice, peanuts, sorghum, cotton); reduced Multiple cropping in the humid tropics of Asia fluctuation in labor demand; and a land tenancy different from
Gomez, A.A.; Gomez, K.A. the present system. Moreover, further deforestation could be
International Development Research Centre prevented by using savannahs, where modern cultivation tech1983, 248p. : statistical tables, En, Es, Fr IDRC-176e niques could produce more crops at lower cost than on recently Abstracts in French and Spanish deforested lands.
IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Multiple cropping holds great promise for increasing farm
productivity in the humid tropics of Asia. This booklet, written
primarily for agricultural researchers and rural development workers and translated from French, summarizes the results of current research and development efforts in multiple cropping.
The first chapter discusses the use of the multiple cropping
technology in lowland rice and annual and perennial upland crop production and on hilly land. Following a general discusVol. II, 1985 11

039 *PN-AAR-949 importance of household-level data for designing pastoral
MF $1.08/PC $2.21 system interventions is stressed. Methods for collecting household data are reviewed, including the use of informal and formal Rice insect pest management technology and surveys; the effects on research of enumerators and questionits transfer to small scale farmers in the naires, data types, the frequency of visits, single-and multi-visit
Philipinesformal surveys, and respondent cooperation and bias are Goodell, G.E.; Kenmore, P.E.; et al. d isssed. eecs 1668)isicldd
(Exploratory Workshop on the Role of Anthropologists and Als f1 eeecs(968)i nldd
Other Social Scientists in Interdisciplinary Teams
Developing Improved Food Production Technology, Los
Banos, PH, 23-26 Mar 1981) 041 PN-AAS-082
1982, p.25-41 :Tables, En MF $1.08/PC $1.56
Report on the exploratory workshop on the role of
anthropologists and other social scientists in On-farm animal traction research :experience
interdisciplinary teams developing improved food in Ethiopia with the introduction of the use of
production technology snl xnfrco utvto
International Rice Research Institute Gseges Goxnfrcocutvin
936411102 rseGud
IRFRl, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines (Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in tihe
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
In 1978, an interdisciplinary team from the International Rice Farming systems research paper series : paper, no. 6, May Research Institute began a 2 1/2-year project to test and 1984, p.419-430 : ill., En improve integrated pest management (IPM) for small farmers in Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming the Philippines. The project required persuading farmers that systems research symposium : animals in the farming IPM would offer significant benefits and devising ways to help system farmers organize themselves. This paper describes how, by Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture adopting a participatory, bottom-up approach, the team devel- Programs oped the technology from an initial Western orientation to its U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for much changed final form. Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
The paper discusses the technical requirements of IPM and Information (Sponsor)
the constraints encountered in organizing farmers; the Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 anthropologist's role as mediator between scientists and far- 93112824 mers; modifications in the original IPM technology to which the DAN -0000-G -SS-0092-00 interaction among the anthropologist, the farmers, and entomologists led in regard to problem identification, the com- Inadequate draft power is a major problem in the Ethiopian plexity of the technology, group crop management, and highlands, partly because local Zebu oxen are relatively light in packaging the technology; and the problems of integrating weight and farmers assume that two oxen are always needed social science with quantitative disciplines. Two tables outline, for plowing. This paper reports initial results from farm trials, respectively, changes made during the project in IPM technical conducted by the International Livestock Center for Africa assumptions and in measures of rice-insect pest economic (ILCA), to evaluate the technical and economic efficiency of thresholds from quantitative units to those more familiar to working draft oxen singly, rather than in the traditional pair. farmers. I LCA developed a suitable yoke and harness for single draft
and a modified version of the local wooden plow, conducted preliminary on-station trials (which indicated that a single ox's work output was satisfactory if the ox was adequately fed), and 040 *PN-AAR-870 held field days to demonstrate single-ox plowing. Farmers who
MVF $1.08/PC $1.30 volunteered to cooperate in the research were helped to retrain their oxen to work singly.
Household studies in pastoral systems Thus far, the farm trials have been inconclusive because al
research test farmers, their cultivation time reduced by a government
Grandin, Barbara E.; Bekure, Solomon requirement that they work 1-2 days per week on cooperative
International Livestock Centre for Africa farms and by a religious prohibition of field work for almost 160
(Workshop on Pastoral Systems Research in Sub-Saharan days per year, used a mix of single and paired oxen. One
Africa, Addis Ababa, ET, 21-24 Mar 1983) indicative result, however, was that seven farmers in one area
Aug 1983, p.263-272 : En sold their excess oxen to buy crossbred milk cows, increasing
Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa milk production by 400%. The trials did show the need for a
936411109 stronger metal skid to work stony soil and that some farmers
IL CA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia had difficulty in supplying adequate nutrition for oxen worked as
The high mobility of target populations and inaccessibility of snls many regions in Sub-Saharan Africa present unique problems for pastoral systems research, especially in terms of sample selection and long-term survey work. This paper, based on workshop proceedings, discusses techniques for household data collection.4
Crop and pastoral production systems are first contrasted
with regard to their effect on the research techniques used; the
12 Vol. 11, 1985

042 PN-AAQ-511 044 PN-AAP-196
MF $1.08/PC $4.29 MF $1.08/PC $1.69
Recommendation domains: a framework for Integrative agricultural systems research
on farm research Hart, Robert D.; Pinchinat, Antonio M.
Harrington, LW.; Tripp, Robert Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research CIMMYT economics program working paper, no.02/84, Feb Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 5-9 May 1980)
1984, 27p. : En 9 May 1980, p.555-565: En
936411101 Caribbean seminar on farming systems research
CIMMYT, Londres 40, Mexico 6, D.F., Mexico methodology
Agricultural development requires an understanding of
To provide a framework for on-farm research and to help whole agricultural regions and processes. This report presents identify appropriate target clientele for specific agricultural a new integrative agricultural systems research strategy which improvements, the concept of the recommendation domain a analyzes hierarchically-related agricultural systems and generrelatively homogenous group of farmers who are eligible for the ates models for alternative agroecosystems. same recommendation has been developed. This paper In traditional agricultural research, agricultural units are describes the concept and its use in agricultural research. studied in isolation and lower-level systems (agroecosystem
First discussed are the need for domains and their role in components such as crops and animals) receive more attenthe diagnosis of farm problems; in the design, implementation, tion than higher ones (agroecosystems, farms, and regions). and analysis of on-farm experiments; and in the pooling of on- The integrative approach requires examination of at least three farm trial data. Domains and the associated concepts of hierarchical levels over a 3-or 4-year period. Basic steps research area, farmers' circumstances, and recommendation include to: preliminarily characterize the regional system and are more clearly defined, followed by a discussion of guidelines important farm systems and agroecosystems and produce for the formation of domains. Domains are formed around qualitative models; conduct regional studies and farm register groups of farmers with similar agricultural practices and for studies using the qualitative models; conduct exploratory and whom researchers see similar improvement opportunities; far- analytical agroecosystem experiments; carry out component mers can be grouped according to natural (e.g., climate, soils, research (similar to traditional agricultural research); design pest incidence) and/or socioeconomic (e.g., farm size, land and evaluate quantitative models of alternative tenure) variables. Practical issues and complications that may agroecosystems; and finally, transfer the new technology. arise in the use of domains are discussed, including the size of Systemic agricultural research requires interdisciplinary indomains, their permanence, and their correspondence to on- tegration as well. farm experiments. The report includes two figures and a 7-item bibliography
A 12-item bibliography (1976-82) is appended. (1942-76).
043 PN-AAP-197 045 PN-AAR-422
MF $1.08/PC $3.77 MF $1.08/PC $.52
Guideline for the design of farming systems Modified stability analysis of farmer managed,
projects: a case study from the Eastern on farm trials
prjets: Hildebrand, Peter E.
Caribbean University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural
Hart, Robert D.; Calixte, George Sciences
Kansas State University; U.S. Agency for International Agronomy journal, v.76(2), Mar-Apr 1984, p.271-274 : En
Development. Bureau for Latin America and the
Caribbean. Regional Development Office Traditional on-farm research procedures try to minimize
(Annual Farming Systems Symposium, 3rd, Manhattan, KS, cultural, social, and economic differences in order to focus on
US, 31 Oct 2 Nov 1983) the effects of technological variables. Described herein is a
2 Nov 1983, 28p. : En form of research design and analysis which explicitly incorporates variations in farmer management of research trials as
Despite the increasing shift in emphasis in agricultural well as in soils and climate, to help agronomists evaluate research from commodity-oriented research and extension to responses to treatments and partition farmers into recommenfarming systems research and development (FSR&D), many of dation domains. the general design and implementation procedures needed to Data from unreplicated trials on 14 farms in two southeastpursue a multidisciplinary FSR&D methodology have not been ern Malawi villages were analyzed to assess the effect of developed. This paper presents guidelines for FSR&D project different materials and technologies under both good and poor design drawn from experience in the Eastern Caribbean. Eight farm management. Mean treatment yields at each location steps in the general design sequence are presented: develop- were used as an index of the total farm environment, and ing a design plan; forming a design team; defining a common individual treatment results were regressed on this index. The conceptual framework, the project objectives, the general design was a 2x2 factorial with two maize (Zea mays L.) project strategy, and institutional structures; identifying re- cultivars and two fertilizer treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha). source requirements; and documenting the project design Results show that, in poorer maize environments, local flint results. A case study of an FSR&D project implemented by the cultivars were superior to an improved semi-flint composite, Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute in with or without fertilizer. The composite yielded more than local the Eastern Caribbean illustrates the steps. material with or without fertilizer in better environments. In all
VoL II, 1985 13

cases there was a marked and significant response to fertilizer, value of informal surveys and simple on-farm trials, the contri(Author abstract, modified) butions of social scientists, and extrapolation of research
Project accomplishments are several: the CIP now embraces on-farm research as an integral part of its research and 046 PN-AAS-220 technology transfer system; a number of developing-country
MF $1.08/PC $2.34 professionals have been trained; project-developed on-farm
Sondeo: una metodologia multidisciplinaria de survey and experimental techniques are now routinely used in
CIP programs; and a rapidly increasing number of national and caracterizacion de sistemas de cultivo international research training programs are adopting the projdesarrollada por el ICTA (Sondeo : a ect's philosophy and interdisciplinary, farm-level research promultidisciplinary methodology developed by cedures.
ICTA for the characterization of cultivation Appended are a 91-item bibliography (1971-84) with titles in
English, French, and Spanish and a list of project-related systems) sources. (Author abstract, modified)
Hildebrand, Peter E.; Ruano, Sergio
Foletto tecnico, no.21, Nov 1982, 15p. : Es
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology 048* PN-AAS-623 MF $1.08/PC $1.82
The sondeo is a multidisciplinary rapid survey technique
developed by the Guatemalan Institute of Agricultural Science Comparison of the economic performance of and Technology (ICTA) to provide the information needed to cropping pattern trials and farmers' patterns orient the work of farming systems researchers. A reconnais- (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos, sance survey team, generally comprised of pairs of Laguna, PH, 2-5 Oct 1978) socioeconomists and technicians, assesses farmers' con- 1978, p.77-90 : statistical tables, En straints and technological needs as a basis for agricultural Seventh report of the cropping systems working group research. The sondeo team outlines the geographical area of a International Rice Research Institute homogeneous cultivation system, discovers the common agri- 936411102 cultural and socioeconomic conditions among the farmers, and IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines determines which of these conditions are most significant for technology generation. Production figures from the first year of The economic performance of a cropping pattern at the IOTA field research supplement the sondeo team reports with trials stage determines whether the pattern will be recommore quantitative information. Typical activities of a 6-day mended to farmers or will be redesigned. As a general rule, a sondeo operation are described in detail and the content of the pattern will be recommended if it increases profitability by 30%; team members' reports is outlined. The critical role of the this figure covers the maximum reduced profitability which can sondeo coordinator is noted. occur when a pattern is transferred to the farmer plus a margin
to induce adoption. A pattern may also be recommended if its net profitability covers the cost of materials plus the previous year's interest (to account for crop risk) or if returns to 047 *_PN-AAS-249 resources used on the farm are higher than returns from those
MF $1.08/PC $8.84 same resources used in the market or for other applications.
Redesigning patterns in order to improve their profitability often Social scientists in agricultural research consists of adjusting inputs; comparisons of a pattern's perlessons from the Mantaro Valley project, Peru formance across land classes and analyses of its labor requireHorton, Douglas E. ments are useful in determining the appropriate adjustments.
International Development Research Centre Still requiring further investigation, however, is the tendency of
1984, 67p. : ill., charts, En, Es, Fr IDRC-219e farmers to apply fewer inputs to and obtain lower yields from
Abstracts in French and Spanish newly adopted cropping patterns a problem for which the 30%
IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada rule compensates but does not explain. Examples from rice cropping research in the Philippines support the argument; From 1977-1980, the International Potato Center (CIP) eight tables provide data from those experiments. conducted an interdisciplinary on-farm research program in the Mantaro Valley of highland Peru to identify existing potato technologies and farming systems that could serve as a basis for technological innovations. Focusing on the on-farm re- 049 PN-AAS-624
search methodology used and the primary role played by MF $1.08/PC $2.86
anthropologists and sociologists, this paper summarizes project results. Economic data collection and analysis for field
Following a description of the CIP's goals and setting, the trials in cropping systems research
project's design, implementation, and research methodology (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 6th, Kandy, LK, (including literature review, producer surveys, an ecologic and 13-17 Dec 1977) agricultural baseline survey, and on-farm potato experiments) 1978, p.29-50 : statistical tables, En are reviewed. Major empirical results are discussed in relation Sixth report of the croppings systems working group to the concepts of the small-scale farmer, the technological International Rice Research Institute package, improved seed, and technology transfer. A section on Sri Lanka. Department of Agriculture methodological lessons learned describes the difficulties with 936411102 on-farm research, the benefits of interdisciplinary research, the IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines
14 VoL II, 1985

Guidelines for the collection and early analysis of economic 051 PN-AAS-619
data on cropping systems trials in farmers' fields are presented MF $1.08/PC $1.69
and exemplified in this report. An initial section presents recommendations regarding: (1) the initial baseline survey it Cropping systems research and development should be completed in 3 weeks rather than the usual 6 in Indonesia months, it should gather data on a site's physical and socioeco- Ismail, lnu G.; Effendi, Suryatna nomic characteristics and major cropping patterns from local (Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 10th, KR, 15-19 people, and it should employ a single coding system for Sep 1980) numbering farmers and fields in case integrated trials are held 19,p.86:mastiiclabeE in the future; (2) later, specific studies they should be based 1981, rp48-of th mapaistia sytbems Eongru on interviews with the original group of farmers and the study International Rice Research Institute questionnaire should be carefully coded; (3) the cropping Korea. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Office of Rural pattern trials themselves a daily log should record quantitative Development data on all operations, materials used, power source, and 936411102 amount produced; and (4) economic analysis of trial data *IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines various techniques should be used in view of the variety and variability of the factors involved. The second section of the The results of on-farm rice-based cropping systems rereport exemplifies the guidelines with data drawn from a search conducted by Indonesia's Central Research Institute for cropping pattern trial of rice and sorghum in Iliolo. Specifically Agriculture (CRIA) in four different agroclimatic environments included are a review of the daily log and analysis of data on are herein summarized. Major findings are, inter alia: (1) in cropping pattern costs and returns and on labor requirements. partially irrigated areas, the growing of directly seeded rice Appended are sheets of trial data. followed by zero tillage transplanted rice leaves enough soil
moisture to grow a crop of cowpeas; (2) in rainfed lowland areas, direct seeded rice produced higher yields than did
* PN-AS-631 transplanted rice in both traditional and introduced cropping 050 PNAS61 patterns; (3) in upland rainfed areas with red-yellow podzolic
MF $1.08/P1C $2.73 soils, five crops can be grown a year by using a continuous relay cropping and relay intercropping arrangement of upland Techniques for on farm cropping systems rice, corn, cassava, peanut, and ricebean (or cowpea); and (4)
research in tidal swamp areas, intercropping corn, upland rice, and
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos, cassava on raised beds and double cropping rice in furrow
Laguna, PH, 2-5 Oct 1978) beds has proven promising.
198 .17-37 : charts, statistical tables, En Included are five tables summarizing research results.
Seventh report of the cropping systems working group
International Rice Research Institute
IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines 052 PN-AAS-233
The design of cropping pattern field trials, including the M 1.813 42
superimposed trials used to evaluate the component (or man- Adjustment to climatic variability in self agement) technology used in prior trials, is examined. Initial provisioning societies :some evidence from sections stress the need to gather and analyze data on the India and Tanzania research site's climate, existing cropping systems and Jda .. acrnaAC technologies, research history, and input needs and enumerate Jodan Nsysem Ma sehas, A..,JnMa 94 p14 the steps to be taken in designing the research program F artsysem Enelterno6,J-Mr18,p143 deciding on and describing the landtypes to be studied, identify- catE ing production constraints, selecting cropping patterns for each Using farm-level data from Tanzania and India, this paper landtype, assigning each cropping pattern a single component discusses the strategies used by subsistence farmers to countechnology to be tested, and identifying areas in which further ter weather-induced agricultural instability. information is needed. The three types of research trials on- The study first describes the characteristics of subsistence farm research-managed trials, cropping pattern trials, and societies and discusses farmers' perceptions of climatic variasuperimposed trials are described and guidelines for their bility. Traditional farming systems have evolved two broad design presented. Due to the commonality of the cropping types of mechanisms to handle drought, adaptations (to longpattern treatment used in these three kinds of trials, it is term agroclimatic features) and adjustments (to short-term suggested that the research design tie all of them together. In weather conditions). Adaptations detailed include operational particular, it is recommended that the design for superimposed diversification, flexible resource use, environmental adaptation trials allow an upward approximation of the best management (e.g., irrigation), and traditional forms of cooperation to minipackage for the pattern while discouraging the inclusion of mize risk during bad years. Once poor weather is evident, input levels that have not proven beneficial. Nine tables and adjustments are undertaken to minimize (e.g., salvage operagraphs are included. tions, mid-season operational changes, resource use reductions) and manage (commitment reduction, resource augmentation, asset/inventory depletion) agricultural risk and loss. Finally, new technological and institutional options for improving risk-reducing strategies are discussed, including resource, crop, and management practice measures. The traditional crisis-oriented strategies are becoming less effective; the new technologies, which approach climate not only as a source of
VOL 11, 1985 15

distress but as a productive resource as well, hold promise for including techniques and emphasis of production, division of improving agricultural stability in drought-prone regions. labor, the opportunity cost of farm labor, capital and manageNine tables and a 52-item reference list (1967-82) are ment, farmers' willingness and ability to adopt innovations, and included, the relative attractiveness of crop versus livestock enterprises.
FSR's neglect of migration, it is conjectured, may result from an
assumption that Africa's rural economies are self-supporting
and from a disregard for sociocultural factors. A 69-item
053 PN-AAS-221 bibliography (1959-83) is appended.
MIF $1.08/P0 $1.56
Institutionalising farming systems research in
Zambia 055 PN-AAS-274
Kean, S.A.; Chibasa, W.M. MF $1.08/PC $1.17
[1982], 12p. : En Evaluation of preliminary farming systems
The process by which a farming systems research (FSR) technologies : zero tillage systems in West methodology was recently institutionalized into the Research
Branch of Zambia's Department of Agriculture is reviewed. Africa Problem areas in agricultural research in Zambia prior to Knipscheer, H.C.; Menz, K.M.; Verinumbe, I. 1981/82 ineffective program formulation, use of a single-crop Agricultural systems, v. 11, 1983, p.95-103 : statistical tables, approach, neglect of economic and social factors, and insuffi- En cient on-farm trials are described, as are the options that were Proposing linear programming as a cost-effective tool for considered for incorporating FSR into the Research Branch designing and evaluating preliminary farming systems and the decision to establish an Adaptive Research Planning technologies, this paper illustrates its use in screening zeroTeam (ARPT). The functions of the ARPT are outlined: to tillage systems for West Africa. identify problems relevant to farmers' needs; to test possible The paper first briefly reviews four zero-tillage systems technical solutions by applied and adaptive research at re- (maize-stylo, maize-maize/stylo, maize-maize, and maize/leusearch centers and by on-farm adaptive research; to analyze ceana-maize/leuceana) currently under development for use in farmer response; and to release recommendations for solu- tropical Africa. Next, linear programming is described as partictions. The organization of the ARPT and its role in the structure ularly valuable in technology evaluation in that it takes into of the Research Branch are described. Linkages between the account farmers' circumstances (e.g., prices, resources) withARPT and other organizations are reviewed, and the need for a out incurring the expense of on-farm testing, quantifies the flexible approach is emphasized. impact of limiting factors by using shadow prices, and can be
used for simulation. Finally, the results of a linear programming
test of the four zero-tillage systems are presented, showing the
054 PN-AAS-086 combined no-till, alley-cropping, maize/leuceana system to be
superior and providing strong support for the incorporation of
MF $1.08/PC $4.03 legumes into no-till systems.
Impact of wage labor and migration on A 17-item bibliography is appended.
livestock and crop production in African
farming systems
Kerven, Carol 056 PN-AAS-147
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the MF $1.08/PC $1.04
Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May Accenting the farmer's role : Purdue farming
1984, p.695-725 : En systems unit
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming Lang, Mahlon G.; Cantrell, Ronald P.
systems research symposium : animals in the farming (Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
system Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture 1984, p.63-70 : En IDRC-189e
Programs Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for of technology
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and International Development Research Centre
Information (Sponsor) *DRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS- 126
9311282 Farming systems research in countries lacking extensive
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 data collection and analysis capabilities requires a simplified
and readily-adaptable methodology that optimally allocates
The implications of wage outmigration from farming commu- scarce research resources. This article reports on the efforts of nities in Africa are often neglected in farming systems research the Purdue Farming Systems Unit (PFSU) to design such a (FSR). This paper, after reviewing the extent and role of methodology in Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta). outmigration in rural Africa and the neglect of outmigration in During the 1982 cropping season the PFSU team collected FSR literature, presents case studies from Northern Kenya, four types of socioeconomic data (on village characteristics, Southern Tunisia, Lesotho, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), labor, decision making, and field size/yield) and conducted two and Botswana to illustrate the variety of interactions among types of on-farm trials; the principal findings and research crop production, livestock systems, and outmigration. These implications of these studies are summarized. Although the studies show that outmigration affects many FSR variables, collection of labor data (used primarily for modeling represent16 VoL It, 1985

ative farms) consumed the bulk of the 1982 research re- researcher must farms for observation (i.e., select sites, place sources, indepth farmer interviews proved to be most helpful in instruments, and demarcate plots) and prepare the farmers and generating hypotheses that could be tested empirically in future enumerators. To understand the conditions for plant growth, farmer-managed trials. As a result, the PFSU team reallocated tillage and planting operations are observed tillage depth; soil its resources for the 1983 program, reducing labor data collec- tilth, compaction, moisture, and fertility; and seed type, amount, tion and increasing the use of farmer interviews; empirical data and placement. Yield potential and constraint factors are will continue to be gathered for testing hypotheses. This determined by analyzing the number of plants, plant size, reallocation has increased research flexibility, farmer participa- heads per plant, drought and pest effects, etc. Finally, posthartion, and the speed and ease of data processing and analysis. vest operations are investigated in an attempt to determine where losses will occur and how large they will be. The second section uses examples of work in Botswana to illustrate techniques for measuring soil moisture at planting, tillage depth, 057 PN-AAT-007 plant number, yield-limiting factors, and grain yield.
MF $3.24/P0 $30.94
Modele 3 C : Cameroun Centre Sud
cacaoculture, ou, Simulation du comportement 059 PN-AAS-182
agro-economique des petits paysans de la MF $1.08/PC $.91
zone forestiere camerounaise quand !Is Desarrollo de sub-sistemas de alimentacion de
choisissent leur system de cultures (Model 3 bovinos a base de rastrojo de frijol (Phaseolus
C : South Central Cameroon cocoa cultivation, vulgaris, L.) : produccion de care
or, Simulation of agro-economical behavior of (Development of sub-systems for feeding beef
small farmers in the Cameroon forests when cattle a base of bean crop residues : meat
they choose their cropping systems) production)
Leplaideur, A.; Longuepierre, G.; Waguela, A. Lozano, E.; Ruiz, M.E.; Ruiz, A.
Institute for Tropical Agronomical Research; Cameroon. Turrialba, v.30(2), Apr-Jun 1980, p.153-159 : charts, Es, En
SODECAO Abstract in English
Dec 1981, 236p. : charts, statistical tables, Fr
* Available only from: Universite Paul Valery, Place de la Results of an experiment to evaluate the use of common Voie, Domitienne, B.P. 5043, 34032 Montpellier, France bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crop residue as a feed for beef
Agricultural production units in the forested area of south cattle in Costa Rica are herein reported.
central Cameroon are characterized by familial labor, the use of The experiment, conducted on 52 young bulls averaging manual tools, low production of cocoa by men as a cash crop, 286 kg live weight and 28 months in age, used a completely and subsistence farming by women. This report presents a randomized design with two independent variables, crude model (environment and organizes farm data in a form suitable protein supplementation and blackstrap molasses supplemenfor linear programming. Individual chapters analyze: the struc- tation, each offered at five levels (a combination of 13 treatture of these production units in terms of constraints and ments). The bean residue was given ad libitum and without any objectives, cultivation systems, and inputs (particularly labor); previous chemical or physical processing. Although the averthe construction of the matrix for Model 3C from research data; age dry matter intake of bean residue was negatively related to and the model's format, data analysis system, and range both variables, crude protein and molasses intake more than (including limits) of simulations. A concluding section notes that compensated for the decrease in bean residue intake. Conthe model's main usefulness lies in its ability to assess techno- sequently, total dry matter intake was linearly and positively logical innovations in terms of actual farming conditions and related to the independent variables. Weight gain was significantly influenced by crude protein intake (but not by molasses farmers' acceptance before the innovations are transferred to cnty inluen ed t ntke (btntbols extensionists for general distribution. Extensive data tables are intake), and was intimately tied to nitrogen retention. appended. However, despite the bean residue's favorable nutritional
features, its conversion to beef was poor. The authors conclude that, based on current (1980) beef prices in Costa Rica, bean residue cannot be recommended for use in commercial 058 PN-AAS-234 beef fattening operations, but may be useful to small farmers in
MF $1.08/PC $.65 preventing large weight loss in cattle during the dry months.
Since bean residue has a low protein content, protein suppleResearch and methodology notes : agronomic mentation is crucial. (Author abstract, modified)
techniques for the diagnosis of farmers'
Lightfoot, Clive
Farming systems newsletter, no. 16, Jan-Mar 1984, p.3-7 : En
Use of agronomic diagnostic techniques in the first year of
farming systems research enables the researcher to describe existing farming systems, design generate many more technical options for experimentation. This paper discusses these diagnostic procedures and provides examples of their use.
The first section generally outlines the techniques used in
diagnosis. Before the ground is prepared for cropping, the
Vol. II, 1985 17

060 PN-AAS-236 the fuller use of local crop byproducts, for realizing that
MF $1.08/PC $1.04 potential. A description of the small-scale integrated family farm model, recently field-tested by the Bangladesh AgriculturDesarrollo de sub-sistemas de alimentacion de al Research Council, and of the role of livestock in that model
bovinos con rastrojo de frijol (Phaseolus yields to a discussion of farmers' need for rational resource
vulgaris, L.) :balance metabolic a various management, and in particular for a mechanism linking them to
both production support and marketing systems. A concluding niveles de energia y proteina suplementaria discussion of integrated farming as a business focuses on the
(Development of sub-systems for feeding beef advantage of group cooperation by farmers.
cattle a base of bean crop residues :
metabolic balance at various levels of energy
and protein supplements) 062 PN-AAS-087
Lozano, E.; Ruiz, A.; Ruiz, M.E. MF $1.08/PC $3.64
Turrialba, v.30, 1980, p.63-70 : charts, Es
Abstract in English Farming systems research networks in
To aid in the development of cattle feeding systems based selected countries of Latin America on common black bean crop residues, a nitrogen (N) balance Mateo, N.; Li-pun, H.H. and digestibility study was conducted using 15 yearling bull (Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the calves which were fed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) straw Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983) residue ad libitum and varying amounts of blackstrap molasses Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May and of a supplement containing 92% crude protein (CP). Bean 1984, p.110-137 : statistical tables, En straw consumption without either protein or molasses supple- Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming mentation averaged 1.82 kg per 100 kg of live animal weight systems research symposium : animals in the farming
(LW) per day; consumption increased with CP supplementation system and decreased slightly with molasses supplementation. At an Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture intake of 365 g CP/100 kg LW/day, efficiency of N retention, Programs based on measurements of intake and excreta, was 33%. At U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for higher CP levels, efficiency increased when molasses was Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and absent or fed at low levels, and decreased when high levels of Information (Sponsor) molasses were fed, possibly due to a laxative effect. Since Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 60% of the supplementary CP was non-protein in nature (urea), 9311282 digestibility increases were attributed to an increased N solubili- DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 ty in the rumen. It is concluded that evaluation of N sources An agricultural research network is a group of research should be based on N retention parameters, and that common organizations which voluntarily join forces to pursue common bean crop residues are an appropriate roughage feed for research goals. The experience of two such networks the ruminants. (Author abstract, modified) Andean Crops Network (ACN) and the Animal Production
Systems Network (APSN) in promoting the use of farming systems research (FSR) methodology in Latin America and the 061 PN-AAS-090 lessons taught by this experience are examined in this report
After a brief review of the rise of the FSR approach in the MF $1.08/PC $1.95 region, the report describes activities of the two networks, both Linking animals to household and cropping those they have in common (exchanging information, providing
systems training and consultancies, and establishing coordinating and
Madamba, Joseph C. advisory committees) and those which are network-specific
MFadmba, J sseph m A(exchanging germplasm in the case of ACN, developing approFarming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1 priate methodologies in the case of APSN). Achievements of Farming system, Meseanchaan, Ksrie US, 3 cnov 1) MACN in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia and of APSN in Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May Costa Rica, Peru, and Panama are described. Institutional,
1984,edis p 7 s Se E' educational, and methodological constraints to implementing Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming FSR in the region are assessed. It is concluded that the
system network approach is an effective means of spreading FSR in
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture Latin America, one that avoids the problems associated with
Programs large-scale, expatriate-based technical assistance apU.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for proaches. Appended are 10 tables and a 31-item bibliography
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and (1969-83).
Information (Sponsor)
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS- 126
The small, multi-commodity farming systems characteristic
of Asia and ways to increase the productive role of the livestock traditionally found in these systems, are discussed. The paper first examines the potential contribution of livestock in the multicommodity farming system and identifies strategies, such as
18 Vol. II, 1985

063 PN-AAS-627 tion of cropping patterns trials. Future case studies and socioMF $1.08/PC $.78 economic research work plans are described.
First survey in cropping system research sites
Mathema, S.B.; Van Der Veen, M.G.
(Cropping Systems Working Group Meeting, 7th, Los Banos, 065 PN-AAS-229
Laguna, PH, 2-5 Oct 1978) MF $1.08/PC $1.43
1978, p.257-262 : En
Seventh report of the cropping systems working group Breakdown points in the data gathering International Rice Research Institute process
936411102 Matlon, P.J.
IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines Farming systems newsletter, no. 12, Jan-Mar 1983, p.8-1 8:
The large baseline studies used in cropping systems research to collect preliminary data on the research site can be Twelve circumstances responsible for breakdown in the expensive, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. A faster, less data gathering process are listed in this document; suggestions costly alternative is to collect only the data needed to launch are made as to the possible reasons for each type of breakthe research and to identify problems needing further study. down and appropriate corrective actions are outlined. BreakPresented herein is a methodology used at five cropping down can occur when a respondee: (1) lacks knowledge of the systems research sites in Nepal to carry out this first survey, information in question; (2) incorrectly claims no knowledge or
Three main sources were consulted in gathering information deliberately provides misleading information; (3) forgets an for the site survey: (1) documentation of previous research event or cannot recall details with accuracy; or (4) misinterprets conducted nearby or in the general area; (2) secondary data on a question. Problems may also occur when the enumerator: (5) climate, prices, etc., from government agencies; and (3) specif- asks a question improperly, missing the intent of the question; ic data on local social, economic, physical, or climatological (6) does not ask all the questions; (7) misunderstands a factors from interviews with key knowledgeable individuals, response; or (8) misrecords information on the interview schedGenerally, for each site one week or less was required to ule. Additionally, breakdown may result when (9) questions and interview an average of 12 farmers (2 from each locality to responses identify unintended information, due to language cross-check responses) and the local leader. A partial listing confusion; (10) completed schedules are damaged or lost; (11) detailing 10 of the areas in which data were collected and the errors are introduced in converting local units of measure into sources of these data is provided, units required for analysis; or (12) errors are introduced in
transferring data or in initial processing.
064 PN-AAS-628
MF $1.08/PC $1.56 066 PN-AAS-149
Socio-economic research on cropping MF $1.08/PC $3.12
systems program in Nepal Technology evaluation : five case studies from
Mathema, S.B.; Van Der Veen, M.G.
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979) West Africa 1980, p.139-150 : En Matlon, Peter J.
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of (Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of cropping systems Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
International Rice Research Institute 1984, p.95-118 : ill., En IDRC-189e
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development
936411102 of technology
IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines International Development Research Centre
* IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada
Results of an initial socioeconomic survey conducted for
Nepal's Integrated Cereals Project's cropping systems pro- Using case studies from on-farm research conducted by the gram are summarized and topics indicated thereby for future International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropsocioeconomic research are identified. The survey, which was ics (ICRISAT) in West Africa, this report examines various based on interviews with key informants (two knowledgeable levels of testing, the methodologies used, and the problems farmers in each village, the village leader, merchants, and involved in on-farm agricultural technology evaluation. employees of key agricultural institutions), suggests that al- First identified are six levels of on-farm tests, ranging from though more efficient allocation of resources by farmers may researcher-managed trials to farmer-managed tests; the levels lead to some increase in yields, the most significant gains will reflect variations in input provision to farmers, degree of farmer come from the adoption of crops and crop varieties developed management and risk, and the types of analyses to be perfor high yield and intensive cropping, from improved livestock formed and conclusions to be drawn. Then, following a brief management, and from the use of chemical pesticides and overview of ICRISAT's West African on-farm testing program fertilizers. Future socioeconomic research will focus on the and methodologies, the use of the six test levels is illustrated economics of crop and livestock production, organization of with five case studies from Burkina Faso and Niger on cerelabor and power supply, labor and bullock requirements for al/legume intercropping, fertilizer response, sorghum and millet crop production, cropping systems, soil fertility, farmers' adjust- varietal improvement, sorghum/cowpea intercropping, and vament to risk, socio-psychological characteristics of rural fami- rietal adoption follow-up. A concluding section considers aplies, farmer variety preference, availability of agricultural credit preaches to reducing the impact of high variance, bias, and and inputs, product marketing and barter practices, and evalua- insufficient staffing and supervision in on-farm research.
VoL II, 1985 19

067 PN-AAS-148 069 PN-AAS-091
MF $1.08/PC $1.56 MF $1.08/PC $2.60
Survey costs and rural economics research Aquaculture as a farming system : potentials
McIntire, John and limitations of the FSR approach
(Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of Molnar, Joseph J.; Hatch, L. Upton; et al.
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983) (Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
1984, p.71-82 : statistical tables, En IDRC-189e Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May
of technology 1984, p.372-391 : chart, En
International Development Research Centre Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming
IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9 Canada systems research symposium : animals in the farming system
Intensive farming systems research methods emphasize Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture quantitative data collection and analysis to identify farmers' Programs constraints and guide research, while extensive methods use U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for rapid description and educated estimates of farming system Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and resources to develop a qualitative understanding of the farm- Information (Sponsor) er's environment and decisionmaking. The differences be- Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 tween the methods are smaller than the similarities, and there 9311282 is scope for combining them to exploit the advantages of both. DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 This paper analyzes the comparative costs of the two methods
and draws conclusions for the optimal use of research re- The limitations and potentials of the farming systems resources. search (FSR) approach to aquaculture are explored by examinCapital and operating costs are calculated for each of the ing aquacultural technology in terms of indigenous knowledge methods, and a model is used to simulate cost-benefit relation- systems and the unique institutional and infrastructural requireships. Factors compared by the model include the size of target ments of fish farming. After introductory sections on aquaculpopulations necessary to repay research costs and the rapidity ture (fish as a source of food, fish production systems, and the of benefits. The relative returns from investing in research in role of aquaculture in development) and on FSR (its origins and high and low potential areas and the effects of farmers' advantages over merely experimental station research), the participation on survey costs are also discussed. The findings article discusses aquaculture as a farming system in terms of suggest that the high costs of internationally recruited staff are the four stages of FSR application diagnosing the present better spread over large target populations and that standard system, designing and testing improved systems, and extendquestionnaires should be available to researchers in order to ing the improvements. The need in cooperative fish farming to promote data comparability across zones and years. A third add social organization to technology transfer concerns is noted. It is concluded that, although FSR is a useful framework
implication that expensive research should be concentrated in for technology transfer, its application to aquaculture is limited favorable areas is unacceptable because fundamental re- by the unique water-based nature of aquaculture (although search is needed in unfavorable areas as well. FSR has been successfully applied at the International Center
for Aquaculture in the Philippines and in other locales) and by
its traditionalist character as opposed to the novelty of aquacul068 PN-AAS-263 ture as a technology. A 43-item bibliography (1972-83) is
MF $1.08/PC $1.17 appended.
Location specificity problem in farming
systems research 070 PN-AAS-300
Menz, K.M.; Knipscheer, H.C. MF $2.16/PC $15.86
Agricultural systems, v.7, 1981, p.95-103 : En Guide de l'agent du development rural:1,
Farming systems are usually location specific in that they milieux physique, humain, et agricole (Guide cannot be implemented satisfactorily over large geographical for agents of rural development : 1, physical, areas without modification to local needs. Two cost-effective
strategies for minimizing the location specificity problem in human and agricultural environment) farming systems research are presented in this essay. The first, Morize, J.; Dutilleul, J.P.; Beaulier, A. classification schemes, emphasizes the identification of a limit- Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation; International ed number of attributes relevant to a potential system (such as Council of French Language; France. Bureau for soil type, rainfall, and farmers' goals); the number and type of Development of Agricultural Production parameters chosen will guide the research toward priority Techniques vivantes, 1983, viii, 11 2p. : ill., Fr systems. The second approach treats technology design as a Separating the rural farming environment into three domulti-stage process and advocates releasing a technology for mains of observation and analysis physical surroundings, the testing in its unfinished stage, allowing farmers and extension village population, and farming resources and practices this agents to adapt the system to local conditions. These two guide presents a practical approach to assist the agricultural methods are interrelated, for the number and type of parame- extensionist in understanding the farming system. The guide ters used in a classification scheme will be in part determined observe and (recognizing the importance of appropriate quesby the stage of development of the applied technology. tions to the research investigation) poses pertinent questions
A list of 23 references (1956-79) is appended. about these domains. For instance, consideration of physical
20 VoL It, 1985

surroundings includes roads, water sources, topography, and evaluating the series of judgments made by the farmer conclimate; understanding village life requires observation of such cerning the technology. aspects as migrations, village layout, religion, property, recrea- The paper describes three classes of increasingly complex tion, and participation; and research on local farming covers, technology: (1) elementary technologies, which cannot be inter alia, soil characteristics and conservation, cropping sys- broken down into separate elements and can be applied tems, the role of animals, crop pests, and harvesting. At the without additional changes in the farming system; (2) composend of each of the three sections additional questions are ite technologies, made up of interdependent variables which provided to enable the investigator to check his or her under- cannot be considered in isolation; and (3) package technolostanding of the farming environment. gies, a combination of several technologies designed to optimize the synergistic effect of the components. The paper
concludes by discussing design requirements for on-farm trials
071 PN-AAS-408 related to each of these three classes.
MF $1.08/PC $.65
On farm experiments : some experiences 073 PN-AAS-232
Muriithi, C.N. MF $1.08/PC $1.56
(Symposium on Intercropping in the Semi-Arid Areas, 2nd,
Morogoro, TZ, 4--7 Aug 1980) 1982 sorghum research and extension village
1980, p.141-145 : En approach programme in western Kenya
Intercropping : proceedings of the second symposium on Njeru, E.S.; Enserink, H.J.
intercropping in semi-arid areas Farming systems newsletter, no.lO, Jul-Sep 1982, p.16-27:
International Development Research Centre En
IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario KIG 3H9 Canada
semiarid Machakos District has two rainy Research by the Sorghum and Millets Project in Kenya has Kenya's largely seniai acoDc sort identified early maturing varieties and improved management
periods March-May (long rains) and October-December (short methods for sorghum production. This article briefly reviews the
rains). Although it is recommended that farmers plant the long results of a comparative test undertaken during the 1981 long rains crop by March 1, at that time the short rains crop remains rasns o dete r i e et anprtaen tring th ong unharvested and the field unplowed. As part of an effort to rains to determine whether a pre-extension trials method or a solve this problem, five small farmers were selected to test a village approach was most suitable for extending sorghum research station finding that long rains maize crop or maize and improvements to farmers. beans intercrop should be relay planted with the short rains The pre-extension trials method tested eight sorghum variecrop of pigeon peas, which mature during the long dry period, ties and one maize hybrid on 210 farm plots distributed Due to several problems, however, the most important of which throughout Western and Nyanza provinces; over 200 extension was lack of farmer cooperation, the suggested package was agents were trained to supervise the trials and train farmers. not verified. The experience taught the need to: survey farmer The village approach on the other hand tested only one cooperators before conducting on-farm trials or, better still, sorghum variety within a small area (Angoromo in the Busia before developing the technology package; choose as district); to ensure proper plot management farmers received cooperators farmers who represent the majority of farmers and training and regular follow-up assistance. The pre-extension operations fameos whonsnt witthe technology to be trials were found to result in high transportation costs and poor who employ methods consonant with th ehooyt e communication among extension agents and to be labortested; allow for dropouts in choosing the number of coopera- intensive for agents and less effective in generating farmer tors and explain to cooperators exactly what is expected of discussion about improvements. As a result, the village apthem; supervise both planting and harvesting very strictly; and pr o n as ch oe s a e t he pro g a precruit assistants to record labor and other inputs and to proach was chosen for a 1982 extension program to be maitain farmetntest rwhen researchers themselves are not delivered to two villages (each with 80-100 farmers) in each of maintain farmer interest four districts; in addition, about 300 farmers from Angoromo will
participate for a second year.
072 PN-AAS-399 074 PN-AAS-629
MF $1.08/PC $2.60 MF $1.08/PC $.78
On farm trials; an overview
Mutsaers, H.J.W. Multidisciplinary approach to development
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture research the Malaysian experience
(On-Farm Experimentation Training Workshop, Nyankpala, Noor, Hashim
GH, 3-14 Jul 1984) (Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979)
1984, 20p. : En 1980, p.132-137 : En
936411103 Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
//TA, P.M.B. 5320, /badan, Nigeria cropping systems
International Rice Research Institute
To develop new technologies that are relevant to farmers, Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture research must be conducted not only at experimental stations, 936411102 but on-farm. On-farm research, according to this overview of *IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines the subject, differs from conventional research by using exploratory surveys to ensure that new technologies are appropriate Although the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Developto a given area and farm type, by observing the interaction of ment Institute (MARDI) no longer has a cropping systems the new technology with the rest of the system, and by research program per se, MARDI's multidisciplinary approach
Vol. II, 1985 21

to commodity-specific research could be fruitfully applied to 076 PN-AAS-157
cropping systems research in other countries. MF $1.08/PC $1.95
To facilitate multidisciplinary research, MARDI is organized
into commodity branches, each having research staff from Analyse diachronique des systems various disiplines; discipline-oriented branches also exist, but maraichers en Guadeloupe (Diachronic only to support research undertaken by commodity branches. analysis of truck farming in Guadeloupe) Site-specific research is conducted at outreach stations, where Picard, D. multidiscipinary teams conduct studies in, e.g., breeding, soil (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research fertility, agronomy, pest control, and water management; new Methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980) technologies are then tested on farmers' land and adapted to IICA serie ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de suit the particular farming environments of each locality. eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.287-301 :charts, Fr Outreach station researchers receive guidance from staff at Caribbean seminar on farming systems research MARDI's central research stations and are supported, espe- methodology cially in research planning, by the work of agricultural econo- Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for mists and engineers. Cooperation on Agriculture
The differences between MARDI's research and cropping France. National Institute of Agronomic Research systems research lie more in content (types of crops involved) than in style or approach. In either situation, the multidisciplina- A diachronic method for determining whether truck farming ry approach must overcome certain inherent problems, particu- (vegetable farming for the local market) is sustainable in larly those of recruiting a full research team and coordinating Guadeloupe's Cote sous-le-Vent region is presented. A brief the team effectively, explanation of the rise of truck farming in this impoverished
area precedes presentation of the method, which consists of charting crop systems at regular intervals during the growing season to permit identification of crop changes and determina075 *_PN-AAT-009 tion of the investment in input factors. To this end, maps were
MF $1.08/PC $3.64 produced monthly in the Campry region for a 40-ha lot and for 10 small peripheral lots at the time of important modifications; Sheep and goats, men and women: household charts on the latter were supplemented with observations
relations and small ruminant development in made every 2-3 weeks. The study showed that the sustainabilliSouthwest Nigeria ty of truck farming in Cote sous-le-Vent depends on a favorable
Okali, C.; Sumberg, J.E. market price and on the availability of land for crop rotation.
International Livestock Centre for Africa; U.S. Agency for The study also showed that use of the diachronic method is 4
International Development. Bureau for Science and particularly suited to but not limited to the study of small Technology. Office of Agriculture systems in rapid evolution. Seven diagrams illustrate the argu(Conference on Intra-household Processes and Farming ment.
Systems Analysis, Bellagio, IT, 5-9 Mar 1984)
1984, 22p. + attachments : chart, statistical tables, En
936411109 077 PN-AAS-158
ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia MF $1.08/PC $2.08
Small ruminants, by virtue of their widespread distribution, Analyse preliminaire des systems their market and biological potential, and their being owned by men and women independently, constitute a unique develop- d'occupation des sols dans 'est de [a Grand ment source for West African farmers, but are currently not Terre de Guadeloupe (Preliminary analysis of integrated with cropping. This paper outlines the rationale for land use systems in eastern Grand Terre, and describes two contrasting models being developed and Guadeloupe) tested in southern Nigeria for improving sheep and goat feed Picard, D.; Servant, J.; Monestier, P. production alley farming, which is stressed in the southwest (Caribbean Seminar on Farming Systems Research where animals roam freely, and which links crop and livestock methodology, Pointe-a-Pitre, GP, 4-8 May 1980) production, and a more specialized system called an intensive IICA serie ponencias, resultados y recomendaciones de feed garden, which is stressed in the southeast where land is eventos tecnicos, no.228, 1982, p.307-322: charts, map, scarce and animals are confined. The fast-growing leguminous Fr trees Leucaena leucocephela and Gliricidia sepium are central Caribbean seminar on farming systems research to both models. Each model is evaluated in light of the methodology resources available to either men or women. Household rela- Organization of American States. Inter-American Institute for tions, especially decisionmaking processes related to the use Cooperation on Agriculture of browse as fertilizer or feed, are highlighted, as is the France. National Institute of Agronomic Research importance of controlling PPR, a rinderpest-related viral disease which is a principal cause of small ruminant mortality. Five Although a variety of reasons, including sugar prices and tables illustrate the analysis. labor costs, new strains of crop diseases, and a beef shortage
in the Antilles, have led to a relative shift from sugar cane cultivation to beef cattle breeding in the eastern part of Guadeloupe's Grande-Terre region over the last 20 years, recent irrigation projects have begun to alter this situation by leading to increased sugar cane yields and the introduction of truck farming. This study of changing land use in the region presents the results of a questionnaire covering: land use on
22 VoL II, 1965

individual farms; crop and livestock practices; and family struc- them to small farmers using a farmer-to-farmer approach is ture, other sources of family revenue, and the use of wage traced in this paper. labor. The study revealed that, although cane and livestock The PPP's strategy to identify potato production conremain the region's basic activities, truck farming (melon in straints, develop and test alternative practices by on-farm trials, rainy season and vegetables all year) is on the increase. Those and evaluate the tests agronomically, socially, and economicalmost likely to abandon cane are farmers over 60 years of age ly before disseminating the technology through extension is and farmers with significant acreage devoted to truck farming, briefly described. Meetings held by concerned personnel to while small landowners have, proportionately, the greatest area evaluate and improve initial implementation of these efforts are in cane and livestock. Although the shift in relative emphasis detailed in relation to program philosophy, administration, data from sugar cane culture to animal breeding has required few collection, field practice, training, and extension. The paper's capital resources, progression to a truck farming economy will final sections summarize agronomic and economic evaluations require greater investment; however, experience elsewhere of the trials and efforts to disseminate trial results. It is stressed suggests that produce prices are adequate to support this that successful on-farm research requires a logical, step-bydevelopment, step approach as well as a thorough understanding of current
farming systems by all participants.
078 .PN-AAS-178 vuP-A-8
MIF $2.16/PC $18.46 00P-A-8
Farmng ystes i Acsta Puisca, CstaMF $1.08/PC $3.25 Fiamn ytm nAot uicl ot Integrating crops and livestock and livestock
Platen, H. von; Rodriguez P., G.; Lagemann, J. research at IRRI
Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center. Price, Edwin; Acebedo, Venancio
Department of Crop Production (Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the
Jun 1982, 146p. : charts, statistical tables, En Farming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983)
Farming systems research paper series :paper, no.6, May
Small farmers in Acosta-Puriscal live in the tropical dry- 1984, p.138-i62 : charts, En
humid zone of Costa Rica, a hilly region which limits agricultural Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming production. This study describes the third phase of a research systems research symposium : animals in the farming and development project which included an analysis of farming system systems in Acosta-Puriscal and preliminary tests of technologi- Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture cal packages designed to increase agricultural production. Programs
The study first details the research objectives and method- U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for
ology. Seeking to identify principal agronomic practices, labor Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and use and its limitations, production-influencing factors, and the Information (Sponsor) fluctuation of cash availability, the farming systems analysis Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 utilized a multi-visit survey of 69 farmers, direct observations, 9311282 and field measurements. Evaluation of the technological pack- DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 ages was carried out on farmers' test plots. The bulk of the
study is devoted to research results, including discussions of Recent crop/livestock research conducted by the Internathe region's physico-biological and socioeconomic environ- tional Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Solana in the Philipment, historical development, farming systems, land use, crop pines' Cagayan Province is described in detail, followed by an and animal husbandry practices and problems, labor use, analysis of implications for other IRRI livestock-related reproduction and productivity, storage and marketing, and annual search. cash flow. Farmer response to the technological innovations is At Solana, which has a large population of carabao, or water outlined. A review of the most serious problems affecting the buffalo, used for draft power, IRRI conducted studies of existfarm and state is followed by recommendations for 'their ing cropping systems and livestock management practices and resolution and for future research and extension efforts. the interrelationships between the two, and came to the The text includes 24 figures and 49 tables; appended are a conclusion that the existing draft capacity was insufficient to 50-item bibliography (1 939-82; including titles in English and increase cropping intensity. This situation left IRRI researchers Spanish) and tables on maize, bean, tobacco, sugar cane, and with several alternatives, e.g., continuing to test only cropping coffee production. technology, or testing livestock technologies that are technically related (or technically unrelated) to cropping. After outlining criteria for choosing among these alternatives, the author
concludes that any expansion of IRRI's research to non-crop
079 PN-AAS-181 enterprises must bear a strong technical relationship to rice.
MF 1.8/P $.0 For example, the breeding of high-yielding rice that small
MIF 1.08PC $.08 farmers could use as animal feed could be an appropriate IRRI
Transfer of technology to small farmers :on- research goal. The author suggests, however, that farmers' and
farm research in the Philippines researchers' resources would probably be better spent
Potts, Michael J.; Santos, Amado B. de los; Solimen, Julia A. developing crop and livestock enterprises independently. Agricultural administration, v. 12, 1983, p.27-42 : En
The evolution of a program of the Philippine Potato Program
(PPP) to employ an International Potato Center model to
develop improved production technologies and to transfer
Vol. 11, 1985 23

081 PN-AAS-630 5, sole sorghum 1 year in 8, but intercropping only 1 year in 36.
MF $1.08/PC $5.20 Intercropping gave yield advantages in a wide range of environmental conditions; there was no significant evidence that
Report on preliminary results of cross site advantages were greater under stress. Possible mechanisms
comparisons contributing to this greater yield stability are discussed.
Price, Edwin C.; Paris, Thelma R. The text includes two tables, seven figures, a 15-item
(Workshop on the Economics of Cropping Systems, 1979) bibliography (1949-79), and a list of data sources. (Author 1980, 37p. : charts, statistical tables, En abstract, modified)
Proceedings of the 1979 workshop on the economics of
cropping systems
International Rice Research Institute 083 PN-AAS-209
Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture
936411102 Decouvrir une agriculture vivriere : guide
IRRI, Box 933, Manila, Philippines d'observation sur le terrain (Guide to
Preliminary results are presented of a farm survey conduct- subsistence farming)
ed in four agroclimatically diverse Philippine provinces. In each Ravignan, Francois de; Barbedette, Loic province, researchers chose communities where substantial Pan-African Institute for Development areas of rainfed lowland rice were grown and villages with 1977, 116p. :ill., charts, Fr diverse soil texture, topography, and access to markets. A Available only from: G.P. Maisonneuve & Larose, 15, rue questionnaire administered to 15 farmers per village gathered Victor-Cousin, 75005 Paris, France information on whole farm characteristics and input/output
data for the locally dominant cropping pattern (identified by an Aimed at development agents who are not agronomic interview with the village captain), including the influence specialists, this French-language handbook presents practical thereon of the physical environment. A simple resource flow guidelines for observing the subsistence agriculture of small model was used to analyze the relationships between cropping farmers in rural Africa. patterns and economic resources (land, cash, family and hired The first part of the handbook provides guidelines, including labor, exchange labor), and a simple production function was sample questions, to assist the agent in meeting the farm family used to estimate the relation between the value of output per and conducting field observations on farming systems techha and the cost of labor and materials per ha. The analysis niques, cropping patterns, etc. Methods for measuring family revealed that: (1) the degree of subsistence orientation varies food consumption and use of food preservation techniques and among farm sites; (2) farming and cropping systems are highly for calculating yields, land area utilized, and fallow are exdiversified even in regions of similar rainfall; (3) farmer income plained. The second section discusses data interpretation. Two 4 is strongly related to the use of inputs, labor, and materials; (4) hypothetical case studies are provided one in which the rice double-cropping is practical only when irrigation is possi- farmers in a village do not produce enough to eat and one in ble; (5) intensity of resource use in rice production depends on which too much food is produced. The text includes numerous other crop and livestock components of the farming system; examples of data collection forms, as well as figures illustrating and (6) rice production is mainly governed by subsistence the measurement and calculation techniques described. requirements.
084 PN-AAQ-582
082 PN-AAS-180 MF $1.08/PC $1.82
MF $1.08/PC $1.56 Farmer back to farmer: a model for Evaluation of yield stability in intercropping: generating acceptable agricultural technology studies on sorghum / pigeonpea Rhoades, Robert E.; Booth, Robert H.
Rao, M.R.; Willey, R.W. International Potato Center; U.S. Agency for Intemational
Experimental agriculture, v. 16, 1980, p.105-116 : charts, En Development. Bureau for Science and Technology. Office
ortant of Agriculture
The results of a study to examine the stability of important Agricultural administration, v. 11, 1982, p.127-137 : En
sorghum/pigeon pea intercropping combinations and to as- Also in: IPC social science department working paper no. sess the value of some of the quantitative methods used to 1982-1 estimate stability in intercropping studies are contained in this 9310973;936411107 report. Centro Internacional de la Papa, Apartado 5969, Lima, Peru
Data from 94 experiments on sorghum/pigeon pea intercropping were examined for evidence that yield stability is Based on the experiences of a postharvest research team greater with intercropping than with sole cropping. Stability of at the International Potato Center (CIP) in Peru, a model of sorghum, the major crop, was examined by calculating the successful interdisciplinary research involving both biological distribution of yields; stability of the overall cropping system and social researchers and beginning and ending with the was examined by calculating coefficients of variation, comput- farmer is outlined as an approach to solving farm-level technoing regressions of yield against an environmental index, and logical problems. The model, which is presented in schematic estimating the probability of monetary returns falling below to form, consists of four activities: (1) diagnosis, in which rehave some merit in estimating stability. Estimating the probabili- searchers work with farmers to define the problem; (2) interdisty of crop failures was particularly useful as it more closely ciplinary research, both on-station and on-farm, to identify and reflected the farmer's attitude to stability and gave the clearest develop a potential solution; (3) testing the proposed solution, indication that intercropping can be more stable than sole first on-station and then on-farm in order to adapt it to farmers' cropping. For example, it was found that for a particular year in needs; and (4) evaluation and use of the proposed technology
24 VoL II, 1985

by the farmers themselves under their own conditions, re- the interviewee at ease, are presented. General methods of sources, and management. The value of the model as an interviewing are outlined, including common mistakes to avoid, alternative to multidisciplinary approaches (in which several such as use of technical language and too specific questions. scientists play specialized but separate roles) is stressed. Finally, the sequence of an interview on cropping systems is outlined; it is suggested that the questions follow the sequence
of the farmer's activities.
085 PN-AAP-037
MF $1.08/PC $4.16 087 PN-AAS-237
Evaluation of environmental parameters in the MF $1.08/PC $.91
humid tropics for crop scheduling purposes
Riley, James J. Desarrollo de sub sistemas de alimentacion de
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center bovinos con rastrojo de frijol (Phasoelus AVRDC technical bulletin, no. 12(78-104), Mar 1979, 29p. : En vulgaris, L.): I. disponibilidad, composicion y 936411105 consumo del rastrojo de frijol (Development
Agricultural planners need to know the probabilities of given of subsystems for feeding beef cattle a base weather phenomena occurring during cropping periods to op- of bean crop residues : 1. availability, timize crop scheduling. This report presents a methodology composition and consumption of bean crop based on data normally recorded at small weather stations to
analyze local environmental variations for crop planning. residues)
The methodology emphasizes environmental parameters Ruiz, M.E.; Olivo, R.; et al.
importantito the humid lowland tropics where crop production is Turrialba, v.30, 1980, p.49-55 : Es mQre severely affected by excessive than by insufficient rain- Abstract in English fall; analysis has been limited to determining production periods In an experiment to determine the production of common for tomatoes, sweet and white potatoes, soybeans, mung- black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) residue under different beans, and rice. Required climatic data are station latitude, cropping systems on Central American small farms, the resimonthly precipitation, mean monthly temperature, sunshine, due's chemical composition and in vitro digestibility were average daily solar radiation, and severe storm frequency. determined by laboratory analysis and voluntary intake of the Additional variables can be included such as population or residue by six yearling steers was measured. intensity of plant pests or diseases, market price fluctuations, It was found that as a single crop, the residue produced 700or labor availability. Steps in the evaluation process include 1,151 kg per ha of dry matter (DM); in multiple cropping (usually tabulation of cropping periods and growth constraints, prepara- with corn or cassava) the DM output was 527-1,225 kg per ha. tion of environmental data tables, summation of crop environ- The residue had a low protein (4.1%) and high lignin (17.0%) ment by crop lengths, analysis of boundary conditions for best content, associated with a 46.0% in vitro digestibility. It was planting options, and estimate of optimal cropping periods. well dried and could be stored for long periods.
Twenty tables illustrate the methodological steps. An 8-item The steers were fed three rations of constant nitrogen bibliography is included (1974-78). content and varying levels of blackstrap molasses, plus the
bean crop residue. Although the bean residue consisted of
55.2% stems and 44.8% empty pods, the animals preferred the
086 PN-AAS-223 pods to such an extent that the remaining feed in the trough
consisted of about 8% empty pods and 92% stems, regardless
MF $1.08/PC $3.64 of the level of supplementary molasses. It is concluded that
Tecnicas basicas de entrevista al realizar black bean residue is well accepted by bovines and could be
used for animal feed in the dry season, at least to maintain body
investigation sore sistemas de cultivos weight, with small additions of an inexpensive nitrogen source.
(Basic interview techniques for use in the (Author abstract, modified)
study of cultivation systems)
Ruano, Sergio A.; Calderon, Sandra Patricia
Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Sector.
Agricultural Institute of Science and Technology 088 PN-AAT-008
Folleto tecnico, no.18, Mar 1982, 23p. : Es MF $1.08/PC $10.53
The only effective way for an agricultural researcher to learn Recherche sur les systems de production en the conditions under which the farmer works is by two-way Basse Casamance (Research on production communication in an interview. This paper describes certain systems in Lower Casamance) interview techniques, providing theoretical guidelines and prac- Sail, Samba; Mulumba, Kamuanga; Posner, Joshua tical examples. Senegal. Institute for Agricultural Research. Center for
It is noted that interview techniques include not only formu- Agricultural Research of Djibelor
lation of the questions but interpretation of the answers. 1983, 61p. + 7 annexes : charts, map, statistical tables, Fr Preparation for an interview includes acquiring general knowledge of the area and the farmer and his cultivation systems, Results of farming systems research conducted in 1982-83 and determining the appropriate place, time, and persons to by the Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research in Seneinterview. The method of introducing oneself to the farmer and gal's Lower Casamance region are described. Five agriculturalhis family is crucial; a direct but friendly and courteous manner ly distinct zones within the.region are described in terms of is essential. Four basic rules of interviewing, designed to put sexual division of labor, the relative importance of different
Vol. II, 1985 25

crops, the use of farm equipment and animal traction, and the ing), the paper compares the experiences of the Caqueza traditional practices used to farm the plateau crops (which project (implemented by the International Development Repredominate) and dry and wet rice. Results are presented of search Centre and the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario), preliminary trials of four technologies for alleviating production which concentrated on maize and potato technology, with constraints (especially labor) intensified cropping, crop diver- those of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture's sification, recuperation of abandoned land, and cultivation of a (CIAT) project to improve field bean technology. The Caqueza second crop (after rice) with residual soil moisture. A final project focused on intensive regional tests of new technolochapter discusses the aspects on which research will focus gies, farm promotion, and evaluation of adoption; it failed to during the 1983-84 season the use of land and of equipment conduct detailed on-farm trials, instead shifting in its later (especially animal traction), labor inputs, the ratio of production stages to economic policy concerns. CIAT's project, which to home food consumption, and agricultural income. Recom- utilized on-farm testing to identify regional yield constraints, mendations for regional-and area-specific research conclude was more successful in developing new varieties and transferthe report. Provided are 20 references (1958-82) and 32 tables ring them from the experiment station to the farm. and figures. A 29-item reference list (1965-81) in Spanish and English is
089 PN-AAS-238
MF $1.08/PC $2.21 091 PN-AAR-386
Evaluation of new technology on farms : MF $2.16/PC S19.89
methodology and some results from two crop Profiles of men and women smallholder
programmes at CIAT farmers in the Lilongwe rural development
Sanders, J.H.; Lynam, J.K. project, Malawi
Agricultural systems, v.9, 1982, p.97-112: En Spring, Anita
The yield gap between experiment station and farm yields in University of Florida; U.S. Agency for International
the production of food crops in developing countries has been Development. Bureau for Africa. Malawi; U.S. Agency for frequently noted. A principal hypothesis of the authors for the International Development. Bureau for Program and Policy continuation of this yield gap in bean and cassava crops in Coordination. Office of Women in Development Latin America is that many technologies successful at the Mar 1984, ii, 144p. En experiment station do not pass a set of reasonable farm-level 9300300 criteria. Farm testing is the logical extension of the research OTR-0300-C-2081 evaluation process once a technology has been identified at The results of efforts by A.I.D.'s Women in Agricultural the experiment station and regionally tested for adaptation, and Development Project to analyze the role of Malawian women in is especially important in developing countries, where farmers agriculture and to disaggregate socioeconomic and agronomic often lack the information and management experience to data by sex are presented in this report. adapt observations to their own farming systems. That re- The report first briefly describes the Women in Agricultural search problems at the farm are different from those at the Development Project (1981-83) and its relation to Malawi's experiment station or in regional trials, however, is reflected in National Rural Development Program. A second chapter disdistinct design and analysis requirements for farm trials. Using cusses the National Sample Survey of Agriculture conducted in the evaluation criteria proposed here for farm trials, the authors 1980-81, describing the survey instruments, sample, and data were able to identify successful technologies later adopted by collection and analysis methods and presenting all data disagfarmers; farm trials and screening criteria for the unsuccessful gregated by sex of household head. The third chapter detechnologies provided information on further farm-level re- scribes the design and methods of the Lilongwe Rural Developsearch design requirements. ment Project survey a large, multifaceted, 15-instrument
A list of 31 references (1965-1981) and an appendix de- survey conducted in 1982 by the Women in Agricultural Develscribing the methodology of farm testing are included. (Author opment Project on a subsample from the National Sample abstract, modified) Survey of Agriculture. Data from the Lilongwe survey are
disaggregated by sex of the total sample. Intrahousehold
differences in production, labor with improved methods, and
090 PN-AAS-217 extension services are discussed. The fourth chapter comMF $1.08/PC $1.30 pares the data from the two surveys, evaluates the concept of female household heads, and profiles female and male small
Selecting and evaluating new technology for farmers in Lilongwe. The report concludes with recommendasmall farmers in the Colombian Andes tions for improving aid to smallholders (particularly those who
Sanders, John H.; Johnson, Dennis V. are women) and for utilizing the data collection and analysis
Mountain research and development, v.2(3), 1982, p.307-316 methods related herein to enhance future integrated developchart, En ment projects.
Two maps, one hundred tables, and a figure are included in
The efforts of two projects to select and evaluate improved the text. Appended is a 53-item bibliography (11968-83)food crop technologies oriented toward small farmers in the
Colombian Andes are reviewed in this paper.
Following a brief discussion of regional agricultural characteristics and the two stages in technology development (borrowing-adaptation and plant breeding based on the identification of region-specific yield constraints through on-farm test26 Vol. II, 1985

092 PN-AAT-010 that introducing forage crops would reduce the yield of the
MF $1.08/PC $6.11 subsequent barley crops; and do not yet want to grow medic.
The experience taught that: (1) increasing the plot size led to
Dominios de recomendacion para trigo, farming conditions that are more realistic and acceptable to
cebada y avena en Cochabamba farmers; (2) a recommendations; and (3) plots need to be
(Recommendation domains for wheat, barley properly fenced unless the forage crop is surrounded by a
border of barley. A list of research proposals for the 1983/84
and oats in Cochabamba) season concludes the report.
Stillwell, Thomas Carroll
Bolivia. Ministry of Rural Affairs and Agriculture. Institute of
Agricultural Technology
[1981], 47p. + attachment : charts, map, Es 094 PN-AAN-812
A recommendation domain is a group of farms in an MF $1.08/PC $5.46
agroclimatic zone which can be covered by identical recom- Including dietary concerns in on farm mendations due to the similarity of their soils and the agricultur- research : an example from Imbabura, Ecuador al practices employed on them. This bulletin delineates recom- Tripp, Robert mendation domains which were developed for cereals in gener- International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center al and for wheat, barley, and oats in particular in six principal CIMMYT economics working paper, no.82/2, 1982, 38p. : En zones of Cochabamba, Bolivia and are capable of being 9310840; 936411101 transferred to other areas in the region. Economic and institu- CIMMYT, Londres 40, Mexico 6, D.F Mexico tional factors are included, as well as natural and technological
factors. Important considerations are the relationships of al- The inclusion of dietary and nutritional concerns in an ontitude to both rainfall and frost. An initial section uses examples farm research program in Ecuador's Imbabura Province is from the research area to illustrate the use of the recommenda- examined in this report. tion domain concept and indicates factors to be considered in After providing background information on the program, transferring recommendations regarding weed, insect, and which focuses primarily on maize (the major staple), the report plant disease control and plant varieties from one zone to describes traditional maize varieties and their dietary uses and another. shows how this information twice proved helpful in deciding
whether or not to introduce new varieties. Next, data provided
by farmers are analyzed as to the role played by maize, barley
093 PN-AAS-084 and wheat, potatoes, beans, peas, broad beans, lupine, and
quinoa in farmer diets, and the value of these foods as sources
MF $1.08/PC $2.21 of energy and protein is assessed. Recommendations are
First experiences with joint managed forage made for expanding maize production through such means as
crop rotation and intercropping with early-maturing maize. A
and grazing trials final section assesses the relative value of the various methods
Thomson, Euan F. used to collect dietary data formal on-farm surveys, qualitative
(Farming Systems Research Symposium: Animals in the 24-hour recall (for measuring consumption frequency of difFarming System, Manhattan, KS, US, 31 Oct-2 Nov 1983) ferent foods), and informal questioning and casual observation Farming systems research paper series : paper, no.6, May (for studying complicated, sensitive, and long-term matters)
1984, p.234-250 : statistical tables, En and summarizes the need taught by the program of integrating
Proceedings of Kansas State University's 1983 farming dietary and production concerns.
systems research symposium : animals in the farming
Kansas State University. Office of International Agriculture
Programs 095 PN-AAS-150
U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for MF $1.08/PC $1.30
Science and Technology. Office of Technical Review and
Information (Sponsor) Accommodation or participation?
Complete proceedings: PN-AAS-126 Communication problems
9311282 Vierich, Helga
DAN-0000-G-SS-0092-00 (Workshop on Farmers' Participation in the Development of
Technology, Ouagadougou, HV, 20-25 Sep 1983)
The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry 1984, p.17-26 : En IDRC-189e
Areas (ICARDA) undertook jointly-managed (farmer-scientist), Coming full circle : farmers' participation in the development on-farm forage and grazing trials in northwest Syria (1982/83) of technology to compare the dry matter yield potential of vetch, peas, and International Development Research Centre annual Medicago species; measure the weight gains of lambs */DRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario KIG 3H9 Canada fed on these forages; and assess farmer acceptance of these
crops. This report outlines the program's experimental meth- Effective communication between farmers and researchers ods, technical results, and the reactions of farmer collabora- and between scientists of different disciplines is critical if tors. Follow-up interviews indicated that the latter: were satis- farming systems research is to successfully develop improved fied with the collaboration with ICARDA; prefer to grow vetch technologies. This paper discusses communication problems over peas, perhaps because of its greater familiarity or the low and their implications for research. price of peas; desire to use forage crops for grain production Several sources of communication confusion are identified, (because of a shortage of cash to buy seed) and for straw (an including the failure to distinguish between: (1) stereotypical or important part of sheep diets during the winter); are convinced group behavior and spontaneous or individual behavior
Vol. II, 1985 27

(stereotypical and group responses can be most pronounced A methodology used by Brazil's Agricultural and Livestock when two or more ethnic groups are interacting); (2) ideal and Research Center for the Semi-Arid Tropics for the economic real behavior (farmers' descriptions of their practices may and financial evaluation of small farming systems is presented. reflect cultural rules and tradition more than actual behavior); The methodology includes analyses of: the existing farming and (3) folk and scientific explanations (inadequate folk ex- system (resources, external and internal factors, products), the planations on the part of farmers may lead scientists to ignore food needed by families to survive; the balance between valid traditional practices or to apply scientific explanations goods, rights, and obligations in calculating the patrimony of without adequate investigation). Finally, the paper stresses the the farmstead; finances (costs, family needs, income); agriculimportance of understanding the farmers' conceptual frame- tural production (vegetable crops, animal husbandry, crafts, work when designing and conducting farming systems re- and other production); farm economic efficiency; and investsearch surveys and briefly describes methods for avoiding ments (non-farm income). This report is designed to reinforce communication problems, researchers' and officials' understanding of farming systems
economics, and to develop a dialogue with small farmers. A 28item bibliography (1949-82) is appended. (Author abstract.
096 PN-AAR-934 modified)
MF $1.08/PC $1.17
Climatic approach to transfer of farming 098 PN-AAT-013
systems technology in the semi-arid tropics MF $2.16/PC $24.96
Virmani, S.M. Pequenos agricultores I : metodos de
(International Symposium on Development and Transfer of pesquisa em sistemas socio-economicos
Technology for Rainfed Agriculture and the SAT Farmer, (Small farming I methods of socio-economic
Patancheru, IN, 28 Aug 1 Sep 1979)
Sep 1979, p.93-101 : charts, map, statistical tables, En research) Proceedings of the international symposium on development Vivallo Pinare, Angel Gabriel; Fuentes, Cesar Osvaldo
and transfer technology for rainfed agriculture and the Williams
SAT farmer Brazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for Agricultural
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Tropics EMPRAPA CPATSA documentos, no.24, 1984, 213p.: ill.,
936411106 charts, Pt
ICRISAT, Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502 324 India A methodology used by Brazil's Agricultural and Livestock I
Crop yields in the dry semiarid tropics are low due to wide Research Center for the Semi-Arid Tropics for conducting temporal and spatial variations in rainfall. These areas are also socioeconomic systems research at the regional and small characterized by high climatic water demand, and rainfall farm levels is described. The methodology includes studying exceeds evapotranspiration only 2 to 4.5 months a year. Due to system components, structure, and function, as well as the geographical diversity in rainfall, soils, and climates, there is a precarious ecological equilibrium which allows small farmers to strong element of location specificity in terms of moisture survive in the semi-arid tropics. Methods are proposed for environment during the crop growing season. studying actual farm conditions in order to develop proposals to
After a brief description of a climatological approach to promote agricultural and regional development. The approach farming systems technology transfer and of techniques em- is based on a global perception of farming systems and ployed for quantification of rainfall distribution and soil-moisture considers the interaction between the farms and regional/naavailability in relation to crop water needs, this paper uses case tional systems, as well as that between socioeconomic and studies from Hyderabad and Sholapur, India sites that would ecological aspects. This report is designed to facilitate comseem to be climatologically and ecologically similar but differ prehension, dialogue, and exchange of information among markedly in rainfall distribution, soil types, and crop water researchers, farmers, and rural development officials. A 197demand to illustrate the importance of quantifying the mois- item bibliography (1941-83) is appended. (Author abstract., ture environment before attempting to transfer farming systems modified) technology. (Author abstract, modified)
099 PN-AAR-866
097 PN-AAT-012 MF $1.08/PC $2.47
MF $1.08/PC $11.57 Design and testing procedures in livestock systems research : an agro-pastoral example
Pequenos agricultores II : metodos de von Kaufmann, R.
avaliacao economica e financeira (Small International Livestock Centre for Africa
farming II : methods of financial and economic (Workshop on Pastoral Systems Research in Sub-Saharan
appraisal) Africa, Addis Ababa, ET, 21-24 Mar 1983)
Vivallo Pinare, Angel Gabriel; Fuentes, Cesar Osvaldo Aug 1983, p.407-425: En
Williams Pastoral systems research in Sub-Saharan Africa
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for Agricultural 936411109
Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
EMPRAPA CPATSA documentos, no.25, Jul 1984, 97p. Case studies drawn from the International Livestock Centre
charts, statistical tables, Pt for Africa's subhumid livestock systems research (LSR) pro28 VoL II, 1985

gram for sedentary producers in northern Nigeria are used to 100 PN-AAS-177
illustrate procedures for designing and testing LSR programs. MF $1.08/PC $5.98
Issues relevant to designing improved LSR technology
which are discussed and illustrated include complementarity On-farm research methodologies at work with the work of other research organizations, policy orienta- prgeseotfomLsCy ,Hai
tion, social responsibility, the identification of priority problems proess rihepoMrtinfromJLes Carlosat and opportunities, evaluation of present techniques, and set- Ytesaical; MaiandezJan CaroseetCne ting assumptions about near-term conditions. The problems [1984], 43p. :statistical tables, En inherent in testing improved LSR technology are outlined in 936411101 sequence from researcher-managed and executed trials, *CIMMYT, Londres 40, Mexico 6, D.F., Mexico through researcher-managed, farmer-executed trials, to farmer-managed and executed trials. Among these problems are I n 1981 the Government of Haiti's Department of Agriculture sample size and the frequency and duration of data collection, and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center A final section considers the applicability of LSR to national instituted an on-farm research program at Les Cayes to generagencies, its cost-effectiveness, and, briefly, the link between ate improved and appropriate maize technologies for Haitian LSR and development projects. farmers and to develop procedures that could be used in a
national on-farm research program. This paper describes the implementation of the Les Cayes program.
The initial steps in the on-farm research process are first described assessment of the farmers' circumstances (e.g., climate, farming practices, markets), definition of the recommendation domains, and identification of research opportunities. Next, the paper reviews the implementation of the first, second, third, and fourth cycles of experiments; for each cycle the experimental strategies, trial management, integration of experimental and survey results, and implications for further research are discussed. The program resulted in two recommendations nitrogen fertilization and an appropriate maize variety for extension to Les Cayes farmers. Furthermore, based on a 1983 evaluation of the program, the on-farm research methodologies used at Les Cayes will be extended to other regions and target crops in Haiti beginning in early 1985.
VOL 11, 1985 29

Africa 005,083 Economic studies 010,029 Panama 062
Africa south of Sahara 040 Economic surveys 046 Peru 027,047,062
Agricultural development 014 Ecosystems 021,044 Philippines 018,037,048,079,081
Agricultural districts 042 Ecuador 062,094 Pigeon peas 082
Agricultural economics 006,023,035 Electronic calculating machines 031 Plant breeding 030
Agricultural extension 004,008,073 Entomology 039 Plant genetics 030
Agricultural extension agents 070,083 Ethiopia 041 Plant morphology 030
Agricultural planning 015 Family farms 007,054,057,083,088,097 Plant physiology 030
Agricultural product marketing 023 Farm income 054,097 Plowing 041
Agricultural production 004,088,094,097 Farm management 007,01 9,045 Post harvest food losses 084
Agricultural production management 0o15 Farmers 009,019,033,035,045,084 Potatoes 047,079.084
Agricultural productivity 005,031,077 Farming systems 014,032,052,078,096 Questionnaires 010,028,040,065
Agricultural surveys 009,019,046,064,077,081,091 Feed supplements 059,060 Rainfall distribution 096
Agricultural technology Feeds 059 Rainfall intensity 096
001,004,009,018,032,068,072,078 Fertilizers 045 Research centers 001
079,084,089,090 Fish culture 069 Research collaboration 062
Agrometeorology 085,098 Food consumption patterns 088,097 Research design 033,043,045,050,056,068,072
Agronomy 058 Food crops 090 Research economics 067
Algeria 020 Food preparation 025 Research organizations 011,012,074
Andean region 027,090 Food storage 084 Research planning 067
Animal diets 059 Forage crops 022,026 Research productivity 067
Animal feeding 059,060,075,087 Forage legumes 093 Research utilization 089
Animal husbandry 005,022,024,026,040,099 France 026 Rice 017,018,039,051.074,081.088
Animal nutrition 022,026 Government departments 053 Rural development 098
Animal traction 041,088 Grazing 026 Sahel 007
Anthropologists 035,039 Grazing land 022,093 Savannas 038
Anthropology research 006 Guadeloupe 076,077 Seasonal cropping 017
Applied research 003,033 Guatemala 035,046 Semiarid zone 011,012.024,028.034.071,096,0)97,
Appropriate technology 084 Haiti 100 098
Aquaculture 069 Herders 040 Senegal 007
Arid zone 024 Hills 078 Sheep 026,093
Asia 037,061 Honduras 025 Simulations 057
Assimilation (nutrient) 025,060 Household surveys 040 Site selection 012
Barley 030,092 Households 075 Small farms 004,008,020.025,
Beans 002,059,060,087 Human nutrition 005 061,078,081,083,087,090,091,098
Beef cattle 059,060,077 Humid zone 004,037,078,085,099 Small ruminants 075
Biological pest control 002 India 010,052 Social change 027
Bolivia 062,092 Indonesia 009,051 Socioeconomic aspects 004.020,
Botswana 006 Insects 039 Sociological surveys 046
Brazil 097,098 Institution building 053 Sociology research 064
Burkina Faso 056,066 Integrated agricultural production 038,061 Soil moisture 096
Cameroon 057 Integrated pest control 039 Soil resources 023
Case studies 011 Integrated rural development 091 Sorghum 025,073,082
Cattle 087 Intercropping 002,017,034,071,082 Sri Lanka 029
Central America 087 Interdisciplinary research Stable communities 027
Change agents 027 001,021,039,044,046,047,074,084,098 Statistical analysis 031
Climate 030,081 Interpersonal communication 086,095 Subsistence farming 005,052.057.083
Climatic soils 096 Interviews 010,065,086 Sudan 022
Colombia 062,090 Investment 097 Sugar cane 077
Commercial farming 005 Irrigated farming 029 Survey methodology 040,065
Communication skills 086 Kenya 024,033,034,054,071,073 Surveys 063
Community participation 039 Labor migration 054 Syria 093
Computer technology 028 Land use 038,077,088 Systems analysis 021,024.044
Constraints 088 Lesotho 054 Systems approach 024,044.099
Costa Rica 059,062,078 Linear programming 055 Taiwan 015
Cotton 020 Livestock 005,022,024,054,061,064,080,099 Tanzania 052
Crop pests 002,039 Maize 002,045,094,100 Technological development 084
Crop production 020,023,040,051,054,078,080 Malawi 045,091 Technology adoption 048.069,072.089
Crop wastes 059,060,087 Malaysia 074 Technology assessment 018
Crop weather protection 052 Mali 024 Technology transfer 011,079.092
Crop yield 030,045,082 Martinique 023 Thailand 016,017.021
Crop-animal systems 026,040,061,075,080 Mathematical models 044 Tilling 041
Cropping patterns 015,016,048,050,051,081,085 Mechanized farming 088 Traditional farming 027,036.052
Cropping systems Men 075 Traditional technology 069
001,009,016,017,020,023,029,044, Mixed cropping 002 Tropical fruits 023
049,051,055,063,064,071,074 076,081,088 Mixed farming 061,075 Tropical zone 002,004,008,012.023.037,055.078,
Cultivars 030 Monoculture 002,034 085,090
Data analysis 009,028,049 Mountains 090 Tunisia 054
Data collection 004,009,010o,013,028,049,056,063, Multiple cropping 002,016,037,051 Upland cropping 078,090
065,086 Natural resource management 022 Varietal research 030
Decision making 035,036 Nepal 063,064 Vegetable crops 015,076.077
Development project design 043 Networks 011 Vegetables 023
Development strategies 005 Niger 066 Venezuela 038
Diet 060,094 Nigeria 001,032,075,099 Villages 007,010
Dietary protein 060 Nitrogen 060 Weather forecasting 085
Double cropping 017 Nutrition 094 West Africa 055.066
Dry farming 011,018,029,052,071,093,096 Nutrition research 025 Wheat 092
Dry forage 087 Oats 092 Women 075
Eastern Caribbean 023,043 Off farm employment 054 Women in development 091
Economic analysis 006,031,048,049,081,097 Oxen 041 Zambia 053
30 Vol. II, 1985

Acebedo, Venancio 080 Gathee, J.W. 034 Noor, Hashim 074
Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation Gladwin, Christina H. 035,036 Okali, C. 075
007,070 Gomez, A.A. 037 Olivo, R. 087
Ahmadu Bello University. Institute for Agricultural Gomez, K.A. 037 Pan-African Institute for Development 083
Research 001 Gonzalez J., E. 038 Paris, Thelma R. 081
Altieri, Miguel Angel 002 Goodell, G.E. 039 Picard, D. 076,077
Andrew, Chris O. 003 Grandin, Barbara E. 040 Pinchinat, Antonio M. 044
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center Gryseels, Guido 041 Platen, H. von 078
015,085 Guatemala. Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Public Potts, Michael J. 079
Bailly, C. 004 Sector. Agricultural Institute of Science and Price, Edwin 080
Bansal, R.K. 012 Technology 086 Price, Edwin C. 081
Banta, G.R. 017 Harrington, L.W. 042 Rao, M.R. 082
Barbedette, Loic 083 Harrington, Larry 014 Ravignan, Francois de 083
Behnke, Roy 006 Hart, Robert D. 043,044 Rhoades, Robert E. 084
Behnke, Roy, Jr. 005 Hatch, L. Upton 069 Riley, James J. 085
Bekure, Solomon 040 Hildebrand, Peter E. 003,045,046 Rodriguez P., G. 078
Benoit-Cattin, M. 008 Horton, Douglas E. 047 Ruano, Sergio 046
Benoit-Cattin, Michel 007 Institute for Tropical Agronomical Research 057 Ruano, Sergio A. 086
Bernsten, R.H. 009 International Council of French Language 007,070 Ruiz, A. 060
Binswanger, Hans P. 010,011 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Ruiz, M.E. 059,087
Bolivia. Ministry of Rural Affairs and Agriculture. Arid Tropics 010 Ryan, James G. 011
Institute of Agricultural Technology 092 International Development Research Centre Sall, Samba 088 Booth, Robert H. 084 037,047 Sanders, J.H. 089
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corp. Center for International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 072 Sanders, John H. 090
Agricultural Research in the Semi-Arid Tropics International Livestock Centre for Africa Santos, Amado B. de los 079
028,097,098 024,040,075,099 Senegal. Institute for Agricultural Research. Center
Bunderson, W.T. 022 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center for Agricultural Research of Djibelor 088
Burford, J.R. 012 042,094,100 Servant, J. 077
Butler, Lorna Michael 013 International Potato Center 084 Spring, Anita 091
Byerlee, Derek 014 Ismail, Inu G. 051 Stillwell, Thomas Carroll 092
Calderon, Sandra Patricia 086 Jodha, N.S. 010,052 Sumberg, J.E. 075
Calixte, George 043 Johnson, Dennis V. 090 Thomson, Euan F. 093
Calkins, Peter H. 015 Kansas State University 043 Tourte, R. 008
Cameroon. SODECAO 057 Kean, S.A. 053 Tripp, Robert 042,094
Cantrell, Ronald P. 056 Kenmore, P.E. 039 Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Center.
Chandrapanya, Damkheong 016,017 Kerven, Carol 006,054 Department of Crop Production 078
Chapman, James A. 018 Kilian, J. 004 Tropical Agriculture Research and Training Center
Chibasa, W.M. 053 Knipscheer, H.C. 055,068 044
Collinson, M.P. 019 Lagemann, J. 032 U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau
Conessa, A.P. 020 Lang, Mahlon G. 056 for Africa. Malawi 091
Conway, Gordon R. 021 Leplaideur, A. 057 Bureau for Development Support. Office of
Cook, R.H. 022 Li-pun, H.H. 062 Agriculture 015
Cozic, P. 020 Lightfoot, Clive 058 Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Daly, P. 023 Longuepierre, G. 057 Regional Development Office 043
de Haan, Cees 024 Lozano, E. 059,060 Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination. Office
DeWalt, Kathleen M. 025 Lynam, J.K. 089 of Women in Development 091
Dolle, V. 026 Madamba, Joseph C. 061 Bureau for Science and Technology. Office of
Dollfus, O. 027 Martinez, Juan Carlos 100 Agriculture 075,084
Doraswamy, Gorantla 028 Mascarenhas, A.C. 052 University of Florida 091
Dutilleul, J.P. 070 Mateo, N. 062 University of Florida. Institute of Food and
Effendi, Suryatna 051 Mathema, S.B. 063,064 Agricultural Sciences 045
Enserink, H.J. 073 Matlon, P.J. 065 University of London. Imperial College of Science and
Escobar B., A. 038 Matlon, Peter J. 066 Technology. Centre for Environmental Technology
Faye, Jacques 007 Mclntire, John 067 021
Fernando, G.W.E. 029 Menz, K.M. 055,068 Vallee, Gilbert Jean A. 028
Finlay, K.W. 030 Molnar, Joseph J. 069 Van Der Veen, M.G. 063,064
Flinn, J.C. 031,032 Morize, J. 070 Vierich, Helga 095
France. Bureau for Development of Agricultural Mulumba, Kamuanga 088 Virmani, S.M. 096
Production 070 Muriithi, C.N. 071 Vivallo Pinare, Angel Gabriel 097,098
Francis, Charles A. 002 Mutsaers, H.J.W. 072 von Kaufmann, R. 099
Franzel, Steven 033 Nataatmadja, Hidayat 009 Wilkinson, G.N. 030
Fuentes, Cesar Osvaldo Williams 097,098 Njeru, E.S. 073 Willey, R.W. 082
Vol. II, 1985 31

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