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Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.

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Proceedings of the ... annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
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PROCEEDINGS



OF THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING



OF THE






Florida 5tate Horticultural 5odietD



HELD AT


JACKSONVILLE, FLA., MAY i, 2, 3 and 4, 1900.



Compiled by the Secretary.



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY.







PRESS OF
E. 0. PAINTER & CO., PRINTERS AND BINDERS,
DeLand, Fla.
1900.












CONTENTS.


O fficers . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
List of Members-Honorary, Life and Annual . 6
Minutes (Giving all the events and transctions of the meeting in the order of
their occurrence, but omitting papers, reports, discussions, etc., which
appear on subsequent pages under topical heads.) . 13 A ddresses of W elcom e . . . . . i6 Response to Addresses of W elcome . . is President's Annual Address . 20 Report of Committee on Local Arrangements . 25 Practical Protection of Orange Trees-All known devices tested by a scientific but practical grower-Vith artificial heat and without-Dormancy, hybridizing, whitewashing, spraying, banking-Open fires fail utterly or only partially protect-Shields, She-Is and tents do the work-Sheds
best of all-Orange culture placed on a business basis . 26 We Do Not Give Up the Orange-Words of hope and encouragementProphetic utterances . . . . . . . 39 Fascination of Orange Culture-It will never die-Dormancy the one great
requisite . 40 Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Prevention-Shed covers with coke
burning salamanders- A success . . . 41 Sheds of Split Cypress Lath-Rationale of protection-A plea for better
weather forecasts . . . . . . . . 42 Personal Experience of a Practical Man-Tenting and Shedding-Rapid
covering-A lamp that can be depended on . 44 Irrigation U nder Sheds . . . . . . . . 51 Insects U nder Sheds . . . . 53 Protection with Boxes-Detailed descri )tion-Protection perfect-Cost will
be about $4.00 per tree in five years . . 55 Maintaining Permanent Orchard Fertility-Deep plowing-Good ventilation-Use of lime-Cropping with field crops to use tip nitrogen-Application of mineral-Wide planting recommended . 57 The Production of a Hardy Orange . 6o Diseases and Insects of the Citrus-The white fly-Common long scaleThe brown fungus as a friend of the tree . . 63 Practical Peach Culture-Requisites of success stated by an experienced
grower-Rich land for peaches. poor land for pears-Never prune without good reason-Errors as to pear blight . 68 Oral Report-Profit in peach culture-Avoid pruning-The Oviedo variety 72


.' .







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Notes on Current Entomology-Joint report of the committee-A hopeful
and encouraging statement-Cottony cushion scale not to be fearedCrude petroleum as an insecticide . . . 75 Pineapples and Other Tropical Fruits-Beginnings on Indian river-Historical statements-Some discussions of varieties-Irrigation not necessary on the East Coast-Few diseases encountered . 83 Tropical Fruit Growing in Southwest Florida-Not available for commercial
purposes- Plant only for home use . 90 Protection of Pineapples from Frost-At Orlando, the interior pineapple center-Minute, practical description of some devices used . 9i The Strawberry-Considered historically and commercially-Best varieties
up to date- Excellent advice as to packing . . . 94 Report on Ornamentals-The hardy shade and ornamental trees of FloridaNative or adopted shrubs and vines . . . . 96 Discussion on Vegetable Blights . . . . . 97 Election of Officers . 98 Selection of Next Place of M eeting . . . . 98 Report of Secretary . . ioo Report of Treasurer . IOI Report of Executive Committee . . . . . IOI Grapes, Figs and Kaki-High praise of the scuppernong--Caprifigs introduced from Smyrna into California-A hopeful event-Japanese methods
needed with the kaki . 102 Streaks of Sand Called Roads-Linked sandiness long drawn out-Death
to ambition and farm profits-Road funds wasted and diverted-"Abnormally developed acquisitiveness"of road officials-Wretched patchwork system-Here a little work, there a little and nothing (lone-Good
roads could easily be built-What they would do for the State . 109 The Rationale of Marketing-High rates and hard treatment-Gluts and
dearths the shipper's great enemy-The general shipper makes the market, hence the merchant is powerless-The shipper also is powerlessStrong and wide organization the only hope-An able and philosophical paper . . 116 A Year's Experience in Practical Protection-The McFarland tent-Every
defect cured-Proof against water, insects and mildew-Can be closed
in a few seconds-With artificial heat inside it affords perfect protection. 120 Florida vs. Porto Rico-For the fruit grower contemplating migration . . . 124 Cassava Culture-Fall planting not recommended-Bank the seed canes in
an upright position-Cutting and planting . 128 Destruction of Florida's Forests-For lumber and turpentine-Comparison
with Indiana forests-Useful products that might be obtained-Paperm aking from pine . . . . . . . . . . 133 The Pecan as a Grove Tree for North Florida-Carefully studied and excellent directions for planting, culture, pruning, etc . . 135 Report on Fertilizers and Irrigation-Recent rise in fertilizer explainedLasting nature of fertilizers-Importance of irrigation-A very ingenious system at Sanford . . . . . . . 140







iv. FLORI)A STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY

Use of the Word Pomelo. . . . . 146 Final Resolutions .**.146 Co-operation with the Agricultural College . . . . .'47 A Society Library . . . . .'47 Necrology . . . . . . .148 Catalogue of Fruits . . . . . . LXXII
















FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


OFFICERS-ELECT FOR i9oo.

PRESIDENT.
GEORGE L. TABER, Glen St. Mary.

VICE-PRESIDENTS. DR. GEORGE KERR, Pierson: 0. W. WILSON, Jacksonville; W. A. COOPER, Orlando.

SECRETARY.
STEPHEN POWERS, Jacksonville.

TREASURER.
W. S. HART, Hawks Park.


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. LYMAN PHELPS, Chairman, Sanford; E. S. HUBBARD, Federal Point: E. 0. PAIN rER, DeLand.

STANDING COMMITTEES.
CITRUS FRUITS.-E. S Hubbard, Federal Point; W. A. Cooper, Orlando; B M. Hampton, Lake mont.
DISEASES AND INSECTS OF CITRUS.-Prof. H A. Gossard, Lake City; M. E. Gillett, Tampa; Walter Cooper, Sorrento.
PEACHES, PLUMS AND PEARS.-J. P Mace, Lake Helen; F. W. Inman, Winter Haven; C. C. Shooter, Waldo.
GRAPES, Fins AND KAKL.-H. Von Luttichau, Earleton; W. D. Griffling, Jacksonville; G. A. Danley, Chipley.
PINEAPPLES AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS.-Cyrus W. Butler, St. Petersburg; E. P. Porcher, Cocoa; C B. Thornton, Orlando.
ORNA.Mt[NTALS.-Rev. Lyman Phelps, Sanford; Mrs. Florence P. Hayden, Cocoanut Grove; Mrs. F. D. Waite, Palmetto.
DAMAGE FROM COLD AND BEST METHODS OF PREVENTION.-E. W. Johnson, East Palatka; Geo W. Adams, Thonotosassa; F. G. Sampson, Boardman
FERTILIZERS AND IRRIGATION.-Prof H. E. Stockbridge, Lake City; E. D. Putney, Avon Park; Geo. H. Wright, Orlando
NUT CULTURE.-Dr. John B. Curtis, Orange Heights; C. H. Ashmead, Jacksonville; Victor Schmelz, Zellwood.
TRANSPORTATION.-G P. Healy, Jaffrev; E. 0. Painter, Jacksonville; Dr. George Kerr, Pierson.








FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


STRAWBERRIES AND MISCELLANEOUS. -H. Price Williams, Miami; Henry A. Schmelz, Tarpon Springs; P. L. Gould, Eustis.
ENTOMOLOGY.-Prof. H. Harold Hume, Lake City; Dr. L. Montgomery, Micanopy; F. W. Lyman, Georgiana.
VEGETABLES.-E. V. Blackman, Miami; W. B. Healy, Jaffery; C. G. White, Hastings.
MARKETING AND GOOD ROADS.-J. A. Crosby, San Mateo; John S. Wyckoff, Citra; Chas. Henry Baker, Grasmere.
FORESTRY.-Geo. R. Fairbanks, Fernandina; Dr. J. F. Corrigan, St. Leo; Dr. E. E. Pratt,
Limona.



SPECIAL COMMITTEES.
LIBEARY.-G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary; S. Powers, Jacksonville; W. S. Hart, Hawks Park.
COMMITTEE OF THREE to co-operate with Committee of Two from State Agricultural Society in conferring with Board of Trustees of State Agricultural College.-S. H. Gaitskill, NlcIntosh; E. (. Painter, Jacksonville; Benj. N. Bradt, Huntington.














LIST OF MEMBERS.


Berckmans, P. J., Augusta, Ga.


Allen, Win., 90 White St., New York
City.
Andrews, Clement W., John Crerar Library, Chicago, Ill.
Armstrong, L. H., St. Nicholas. Francisco, Beltran, Monterey, N. L.
Mexico.
Conner, W. E., 532 Madison Ave., New
York City.
Cunliff, L. H., Garden City, N. Y. Ellsworth, W. J., Jessamine, Fla. Francis, Jr., Chas., Interlachen, Fla. Frink, A., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Gaitskill, S. H., McIntosh. Haden, Capt. John J., Cocoanut Grove.
-aldeman, V. N., Naples, Fla., and
Louisville, Ky.
Harris, E. K., East Palatka. Hart, W. S., Hawks Park. Hastings, H. G., Atlanta, Ga. Harvey, S. S., Quintette. Healy, G. P., Jaffery. Hempel, H. A., Gotha. Herf, B. von, 93-99 Nassau St., New York City.
Kerr, Dr. Geo., Pierson, Fla. Leonard, Geo. W., Hastings.


Adams, Geo. W., Thonotosassa, Fla. Adams, Mrs. Geo. W., Thonotosassa, Fla. Albaugh, Dr. A. P., Tarpon Springs,
Fla.


HONORARY.
Redmond, D., St. Nicholas.
LIFE.


Lewis, Dr. Fred. D., 188 Franklin St.,
Buffalo, N. Y.
Merritt, Dr. Jos. C., Orlando. Milligan, Jno. NV., Apopka, Fla., and
Sw issdale, Pa.
Painter, E. 0., DeLand. Painter, Mrs. E. 0., DeLand. Phelps, Rev. Lyman, Sanford. Price, F. N., Orlando. Richards, Thos. E., Eden. Robinson, Ml. F., Sanford. Rolfs, Prof. P. H., Clemson College, S.
C.
Sneden, \V. C. Waveland, Fla. Smith, Chas. E., Bog Walk, Jamaica, W.
I.
Stuart, Leon N., Montemorelos, N. L.,
Mexico.
Taber, Geo. L., Glen St. Mary. Temple, Win. C., IO9O Shady Ave. Pittsburg, Pa.
Wilson, Lorenzo A., Jacksonville. Woodroffe, Alfred, Auckland, New Zealand.
Worcester, C. H., Pomona, Fla. XWyeth. J. H., Winter Park.


ANNUAL.


Alden, B. H., Stetson, Fla. Alden, Mrs. B. H., Stetson, Fla. Alderman, A. D., Bartow, Fla. Allen. Hugh C., Lake Maitland, Fla.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Alsop, R. G., Prospect, Fla. Ames, Mrs. Mary Ellen, Pomona, Fla. Amsden, E. W., Ormond, Fla. Andrews, J. D., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Ashmead, C. H., Jacksonville, Fla. Bacon, C. A., Ormond, Fla. Baker, Chas. Henry, Grasmere, Fla. Baker, Mrs. F. E., Earleton, Fla. Baker, R. D., Buffalo Bluff, Fla. Baker, W. E., Melrose, Fla. Balcom, Mrs. Luke, Paola, Fla. Baldwin, F. C., Winter Park, Fla. Bass, M. M., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Battey, Capt. W. C., Myers, Fla. Beed, H. 0., Bulow, Fla. Beed, John, Bulow, Fla. Beers, John J., Emporia, Fla. Beers, Mrs. J. J., Emporia, Fla. Bell, Mrs. Mary A., St. Petersburg, Fla. Benedict, A., Daytona, Fla. Bennett, W. M., Okahumpka, Fla. Bernd, Peter, Bowling Green, Fla. Bernd, Mrs. Peter, Bowling Green, Fla. Bessey, Willis A., Stuart, Fla. Bigelow, Hayes, Tarpon Springs, Fla. Bigelow, Mrs. Mary A., Tarpon Springs,
Fla.
Bigelow, Jr., W. H., Tarpon Springs,
Fla.
Blackman, E. V., Miami, Fla. Blakely, Win. P., Ocoee, Fla. Blanchard, E. B., Lake Maitland, Fla. Bradt, Benj. N., Huntington, Fla. Bradt, Mrs. B. N., Huntington, Fla. Brecht, M. D., J. E., Myers, Fla. Brewer, E. H., Winter Park, Fla. Brewer, C. H., Altamonte Springs, Fia. Brown, C. S., 53 Main St., Utica, N. Y. Bunce, Chas. H., Belleair, Fla. Burr, Lafayette, Box 2235, Boston,
Mass.
Butler, C. W., St. Petersburg, Fla. Caldwell, D. J., Higley, Fla. Calver, Dr. J. V., Orlando, Fla. Calver, N. R., Orlando, Fla. Cameron, L., Jacksonville. Fia.


Campbell, W. B., Crescent City, Fla. Carter, A. T., Cocoanut Grove, Fla. Carter, Mrs. A. T., Cocoanut Grove, Fla. Carter, J. C., Dade City, Fla. Cary-Elwes, D. G., Conway, Fla. Chamberlain, E. W., Tangerine, Fla. Chapman, J. T., Plymouth, Fla. Chilton, B. F., New Smyrna, Fla. Cliff, Walter, Crescent City, Fla. Cochran, F. C., Palatka, Fla. Coe, Burton E., Tampa, Fla. Condry, P. W., Citra, Fla. Coon, G. E., Jensen, Fla. Cooper, Walter, Sorrento, Fla. Cooper, W. A., Orlando, Fla. Corbett, C. C., Macclenny, Fla. Corrigan, Dr. J. F., St. Leo, Fla. Corry, W. M., Quincy, Fla. Cox, L. C., Orlando, Fla. Crane, A. H., Nashua, Fla. Crosby, J. A., San Mateo, Fla. Curtis, Dr. John B., Orange Heights,
Fla.
Dewey, Fred. S., West Palm Beach, Fla. Dickerson, J., Waveland, Fla. Dickinson, Melissa, Orange City, Fla. Dommerich, L. F., Lake Maitland, Fla. Danley, G. A., Chipley, Fla. Drake, T. P., Yalaha, Fla. Duncan, A. N., Belleair, Fla. Dunton, A. M., Tangerine, Fla. Dyer, Harry, Stuart, Fla. Dyer, AV. J., Stuart, Fla. Earle, Win. H., Tangerine, Fla. Eldridge, Mrs. J. J., Belleair, Fla. English, Wln. H., Medina, Fla. Ewerton, Chas., Avon Park, Fla. Fairbanks, Geo. R., Fernandina, Fla. Fairchild, H. C., 319 W. Duval St., Jacksonville, Fla.
Farley, J. F., Malabar, Fla. Farmer, Chas. E., Lake Mary, Fla. Felt, J. P., Emporia, Fla. Fisher, George A., Florahome, Fla. Fleming, H., Kissimmee, Fla. Fletcher, H. G., Gainesville, Fla.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Fletcher, Mrs. H. G., Gainesville, Fla. Friedlander, H., Interlachen, Fla. Fries, Albert, St. Nicholas, Fla. Furen, J. W., Sylvan Lake, Fla. Galloway, B. A., Lake Maitland, Fla. Garrett, B., Lake Maitland, Fla. Gillett, E. B., Narcoossee, Fla. Gillett, Geo. E., Interlachen, Fla. Gillett, M. E., Tampa, Fla. Gilmore, NV. G., Jensen, Fla. Glessner, XV. L., Macon, Ga. Gooding, George, Malabar, Fla. Gore, Mahlon, Orlando, Fla. Gossard, Prof. 1-. A., Lake City, Fla. Gould, P. L., Eustis, Fla. Grant, A. J., Dunedin, Fla. Graves, H. C., Alachua, Fla. Graves, H. S., Gainesville, Fla. Griffing, A. M. Macclenny, Fla. Griffing, C. M., Jacksonville, Fla. Griffing, W. D., Jacksonville, Fla. Haden, Mrs. Florence P., Cocoanut
Grove, Fla.
Hampton, B. M., Lakemont, Fla. Hampton. Henry J., El Dorado, Fla. Harrington, A. B., Winter Haven, Fla.Harrington, Mrs. A. B., XVinter Ilaven,
Fla.
Hayward, E. H., DeLand, Fla. Healy, W. B., Jaffery, Fla. Heller, Max, 70 E. 92d St., New York
City.
Henry, James, St. Petersburg, Fla. Hepburn, H. S. Davenport, Iowa. Hilbourne, P. 0., Norwalk, Fla. Hill, 0. J., DeLand, Fla. Hills, M. D., T. Morton, Willimantic,
Conn.
Hine, D. N., Nashua, Fla. Hodges, F. S., Federal Point, Fla. Howard, Frank, Ludlow, Vt. Hubbard, E. S., Federal Point, Fla. Hulne, Prof. H. Harold, Lake City, Fla. Hunter, H., Pierson, Fla. Huntington. Mrs. K. B. Huntington,
Fla.


Inman, F. W., Winter Haven, Fla. Irwin, Allen, Riverview, Fla. Ives, H. L., Cocoa, Fla., and Potsdam,
N.Y.
Jackson, V. T., Gainesville, Fla. Jefferies, John H., Lake City, Fla. Jennings, Mrs. Harvey, Ankona, Fla. Johnson, E. W., East Palatka, Fla. Johnson, M. A., Palatka, Fla. Johnson, T. H., Apopka, Fla. Jones, Cyrus, Bowling Green, Fla. Jones, Rev. C. J. K., Los Angeles, Cal. Jones, David, Pierson, Fla. Jones, E. Lee, \Vaveland, Fla. Jones, NV. H., Orange Bend, Fla. jouett, Rear Admiral James E., Orlando,
Fla.
Kerr, Mrs. Carrie Lincoln, Pierson, Fla. Kitching, NN:alter, Stuart, Fla. Klemm, Richard, Winter Haven, Fla. Knox, L. B., Bulow, Fla. Kraemer, John F., Station A, Niagara
Falls, N. Y.
Lees, J. V., Leesburg, Fla. Leovy. Henry J. Box 1294, New Orleans, La.
Lewis, W. J., Limona, Fla. Lindsey, J. E., Davenport, Iowa. Lockwood, Stephen, Zelienople, Pa. Lowery, J. M., Bartow, Fla. Lubrecht, Hermann. Island Grove, Fla. Luthge, H. D. G., New Smyrna, Fla. Luttichau, H. von. Earleton, Fla. Luttichau, Miss Pauline von, Earleton,
Fla.
Lyle, Win. Bartow, Fla. Lyman, A. E., Melbourne, Fla. Lyman, F. W., Georgiana, Fla. McCarty, C. T., Ankona, Fla. McCarty, Mrs. C. T., Ankona, Fla. McClung, Moffett, Dunedin, Fla. Mace, J. P., Lake Helen, Fla. McFarland, W. H., Titusville, Fla. McKinney, J. Y., Candler, Fla. McNary, Norman, Ormond, Fla.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Maann, W. H., Mannville, Fla. Markley, H. C., Clearwater, Fla. Marrs, Kingsmill, Lake Maitland, Fla. Matheny, Geo. H., Sarasota, Fla. Mead, Miss Mary E., Pierson, Fla. Mead, Ray, Pierson, Fla. Meares, Mrs. W. F., Tarpon Springs, Fla.
Meislahn, H., Clarcona, Fla. Merritt, M. G., Pierson, Fla. Merritt, Mrs. M. G., Pierson, Fla. Miller, R. E., Winter Garden, Fla. Mitchell, Prof. A. J., Jacksonville, Fla. Montgomery, M. D., L., Micanopy, Fla. Montgomery, Mrs. L., Micanopy, Fla. Moremen, M. S., Switzerland, Fla. Morrison, J. R., Pomona, Fla. Mote, E. H., Leesburg, Fla. Mullen, Mrs. John, Micanopy, Fla. Newton, A. B., Winter Garden, Fla. Newton. C. M., Orlando, Fla. Nordmann, Ferd., New Smyrna, Fla. Paine, E. T., Tocoi, Fla. Palen, Peter E., Haines City, Fla. Perkins, Mrs. E. M., Limona, Fla. Perry, D. W., Pomona, Fla. Pettigrew, A. J., Manatee, Fla. Phelps, Mrs. Mary L., Sanford, Fla. Phillips, J. H., Melbourne, Fla. Phillips, Mrs. J. H., Melbourne, Fla. Pierce, H. W., Tangerine, Fla. Pierson, N. L., Pierson, Fla. Pierpont, W. J., Crescent City, Fla. Pierpont, Mrs. W. J., Crescent City; Fla. Pinkerton, Dr. L. L., Ormond, Fla. Porcher, E. P., Cocoa, Fla. Powers, Stephen, Jacksonville, Fla. Pratt, C. E., Miami, Fla. Pratt, Dr. E. E. Limona, Fla. Pugsley, Chas., Mannville, Fla. Putney, E. D., Avon Park, Fla. Reasoner, E. N., Oneco, Fla. Reynolds, M. L., Narcoossee, Fla. Rice, M. A., Citra, Fla. Rice, R. F. Miami, Fla. Rich. Mrs. M. E., Limona, Fla.


Richards, Harry W., Eden, Fla. Richards, J. T., Bartow, Fla. Richards, Mrs. M. S. W., Eden, Fla. Richardson, M. D., Wi. C., 411 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo.
Sampson, F. G., Boardman, Fla. Sartorius, H. G., Seminole, Fla. Saylor, Mrs. E. M., Ankona, Fla. Schmelz, Victor, Sylvan Lake, Fla. Selimer, Chas., Zellwood, Fla. Seymour, Ed. J., Titusville, Fla. Shimer, Mrs. F. A. W., DeLand, Fla. Shooter, C. C., Earleton, Fla. Shooter, H., Earleton, Fla. Simmons, W. E., Lake Maitland, Fla. Simpson, J. F., Weirsdale, Fla. Sistrunk, Sr., \V. P., Roodhouse, Ill. Sjostrom, L. H. 0., Hallandale, Fla. Srncltz, Henry A., Tarpon Springs, Fla. Smith, E. M., Winter Garden, Fla. Smith, Julius, Eustis, Fla. Sneden, Mrs. W. C., Waveland, Fla. Sperry, E. F., Orlando, Fla. Stark L. D., Evinston, Fla. Strauss, Joseph E., Lealman, Fla. Steinman, John B., Villa City, Fla. Stevens, H. B., Stetson, Fla. Stivender, P. M., Orange Bend, Fla. Stockbridge, Prof. H. E., Lake City, Fla. Strickler, D., York, Pa. Taber, Mrs. G. L., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Talton, E. H., DeLand, Fla. Taylor, John, Stuart, Fla. Taylor, W. D., Ocala, Fla. Thomson, John, Clearwater Harbor, Fla. Thornton, C. B., Orlando, Fla. Tischler, P., Jacksonville, Fla. Tysen, C. R., Jacksonville, Fla. Tysen, J. R., Jacksonville, Fla. Van Houten, C. S., Orlando, Fla. Vinson, L. D., Tarpon Springs, Fla. Waite, F. D., Palmetto, Fla. Waite, Mrs. F. D., Palmetto, Fla. Wakelin. Amos, Bullitt Building. Philadelphia, Pa.
Walker, Dr. Geo. E., Huntington, Fla. Walker, Mrs. G. E., Huntington, Fla.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Walter, E. W., 9 E. Intendencia St., Pensacola, "Fla.
Warner, S. C., Palatka, Fla. Wartmann, E. L., Citra, Fla. Weiland, Chas., 2319 Indiana Ave., St.
Louis, Mo.
Welch, R. S., Ocala, Fla. White, C. G., Hastings, Fla. White, J. M., Orange City, Fla. White, K. M., Crescent City, Fla. Whitman, Rev. H. S., Deering, Me. Whitten, W. M., Punta Gorda, Fla. Whittle, J. C., Largo, Fla. Willes, F. W., Jensen, Fla. Williams, H. Price, Miami, Fla.


Williams, R. L., Miami, Fla. Wilson, Geo. W., Jacksonville, Fla. Wilson, Win., Ocoee, Fla. \Vinter, Frank, New Smyrna, Fla. XXVitham, H. S., Stuart, Fla. WX ithan, Katie M., Stuart, Fla. Wood, Geo. H., Tangerine, Fla. Woodward, F. W., Eau Claire, Wis. Worcester, Mrs. C. H., Pomona, Fla. Wright, Geo. H., Orlando, Fla. Wyckoff, John S., Citra, Fla. Wylie, J. H., Interlachen, Fla. Yancy, T. A., Orlando, Fla. Yocum, Miss G. L., Lake City, Fla. Yocum, Dr. W. F., Lake City, Fla.














PROCEEDINGS


OF THE



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING

OF THE




Florida 5tate Horticllltulral Bucletin


The thirteenth annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society was held at Jacksonville upon the Invitation of the Board of Trade of that city. The Society convened in the rooms of the


Board of Trade on Tuesday, May ist, at 7 :3o o'clock p. mn., in accordance with the programme, as p)ublish~ed, and adjourned sine dlie on Friday following at 12 o'clock Mt.


MINUTES.


In the minutes, which follow, all the events and transactions of the meeting are given, in condensed form, in the order of their occurrence; the addresses, papers, discussions, reports and other matters of general interest or special importance, are simply noted and appear in full under appropriate heads in the body of the volume, and may be readily referred to by turning to the page given in connection with each below.


FIRST DAY.

Evening-Opening Session,
Tuesday, 7 :3o o'clock p. mn.
i. Call to order by President Taber.
2. Prayer, Rev. R. V. Atkisson, of the McTyeire Methodist church.
3. Address of W~elcomne, Hon. J. E. T. Bowden, Mayor of Jacksonville; also by Capt. C. E. Garner, President of the Board of Trade. (See page 16.)






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


4. Response to Address of Welcome, Dr. Geo. Kerr. (See page i7.)
5. On motion, E. 0. Painter and C. M. Griffing were authorized to act as assistants to the Secretary.
6. President Taber's Annual Address. (See page 20.)
7. Report of Special Committee on Local Arrangements was made by Hon. Geo. V. Wilson, chairman. (See page 25.)
8. Paper on Protection of Orange Groves, by Prof. J. Y. McKinney. (See page 26.)

SECOND DAY.

Morning Session.
9. Standing Committee on Citrus Fruits made a verbal report through Rev. Lyman Phelps, chairman.
io. Standing Committee on Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Prevention presented reports from H. B. Stevens, chairman, E. S. Hubbard and E. 0. Painter, each one separate. (See page 26.)
i I. Discussion of above reports.
12. A Committee on Final Resolutions was appointed, consisting of XV. M. Bennett, G. P. Healy and S. C. Warner.
13. Paper, Maintaining Permanent Orchard Fertility, by C. K. McQuarrie, was read by the Secretary. (See page 57.)
14. Contribution on Protection, by J. C. Icenhour, was read by the President. (See page 55.)

Afternoon Session.
15. A committee, consisting of Dr. Geo. Kerr, Rev. Lyman Phelps and E. 0. Painter, was appointed to consider that part of the President's address relating to a Society Library.


I6. Paper on Hardy Oranges, by Prof. H. J. Webber, read by the President. (See page 6o.)
17. Standing Committee on Diseases and Insects. A. J. Pettigrew, of the Committee. read his individual report. (See page 63.)
iS. Discussion of above.
19. Standing Committee on Pears, Peaches and Plums reported through W. E. Baker. (See page 68.)
2o. Discussion of same.
21. Standing Committee on Entomology made a report through the chairman, Prof. H. A. Gossard. (See page 75.)
22. Discussion of the above.


Evening Session.
23. The President called attention to the beautiful bouquet presented the Society by Mills & Wachter: also to the fine Red Spanish pineapple grown under cover 1y George McPherson, of Stuart.
24. Standing Committee on Pineapples and Other Tropical Fruits made a verbal report through the chairman, C. T. McCarty. (See page 83.)
25. Discussion of same.
26. Paper on Protection of Pineries, by Dr. J. V. Calver. (See page 9i.)
27. Discussion of same.
28. Standing Committee on Strawberries and Miscellaneous Fruits. Individual report by L. Cameron, of the Committee. (See page 94.)
29. Standing Committee on Ornamentals. Secretary read a paper by W. J. Ellsworth, of the Committee. (See page 96.)
30. Standing Committee on Vegetables. No report.
31. Discussion on various vegetable blights. (See page 97.)







FLORID)A STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


THIRD DAY.

Morning Session.
32. Nominating Committee, consisting of S. H. Gaitskill, B. N. Bradt and F. D. Waite, presented a ticket which was elected, each officer being voted for separately. (See page 98.)
33. Secretary presented a commumcation from the United Fruit Company, of Jamaica, touching some diseased lpineappie leaves which were displayed.
34. A Standing Committee on Transportation was appointed, consisting of Maj. G. P. Healy, E. 0. Painter and Dr. Geo. Kerr.
35. Jacksonville wxas selected as the next place of meeting by a vote of 58 for Jacksonville against 41 for St. Petersburg. Tellers were WV. M. Bennett, Prof. J. Y. McKinney and B. N. Bradt. (See page 98.)

Afternoon Session.
36. Society did not convene, but took ain excursion on the river at the invitation of the Boardl of Trade. Others acceptedi the invitation of the East Coast Railroad Company andl went on an excursion to Pahlo Beach. The remainder of the afternoon the hall wvas turned over to the State Agricultural Society.

Evening Session.
37. Secretary's report read. (See page ioo.)
38. Treasurer's report read. (See page

39. Report of Executive Committee read by the Secretary and accepted. (See page ioi.)
40. Standing Committee on Grapes, Figs and Kaki. A report was made hy W. S. Hart, chairman of the Committee, and A. B. Harrington. ( See page 102.)
41. Prof. H. E. Stockbridge and oth-


ers discussed these topics orally. (See page io6.)
42. Report of Special Committee on a Society Library read by Dr. Geo. Kerr, chairman.
43. On motion the President, Secretary and Treasurer were appointed a committee to take steps to create a Library.
44. Standing Comnmittee on Marketing- and Good Roads made a report through the chairman, W. M. Bennett. (See page 107.)
45. Standing Committee on Nomenclature. A report from Prof. H. J. Webher was read by the President. (See page 146.)
46. Paper real by E. J. Seymour on One Year's Experience in Practical Protection. (See page 120.)
47. Address by W. H. McFarland on this subject.
48. The President read a com-munication from Hon. Geo. WV. Wilson, chairman of the Board of Trustees of the State Agricultural College and Experiment Station inviting the co-operation of the Society.
49. On motion S. H. Gaitskill and E. 0. Painter were appointed as a committee on co-operation with the State College and Experiment Station, in unison with a like committee from the State Agricultural Society.
50. Paper, Florida vs. Porto Rico, read by C. M. Griffing. (See page 124.)

FOURTH DAY.

florning Session.
51. The-Secretary read a communication from Samuel B. Woods, President of the Virginia State Horticultural Society, urging the Florida Society to take official action favoring the Brositis Pure Food Bill.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


52. A resolution to this effect was offered, seconded and passed.
53. Paper on Cassava Culture, by Mr. Chas. E. Farmer, in his absence, was read by the Secretary. (See page 128.)
54. Discussion on same.
55. Standing Committee on Forestry, through the chairman, Dr. Kerr, stated that their report was not completed, but would be handed to the Secretary to be' published in the annual. (See page 133.)
56. Paper on Pecan Culture, by Prof. H. Harold Hume. (See page 135.)
57. Discussion of the above.
58. On motion, it was voted to add a Committee on Nut Trees to the other Standing Committees.
59. Standing Committee on Fertilizers and Irrigation, through the chairman, M. F. Robinson, presented a report. (See page 140.)
6o. Discussion on Irrigation.
61. Frederick Pfeifer, of Ocala. State Commissioner of the Pan-American Exposition, to be held in Buffalo, I9o,


asked and obtained permission to address the Society. He urged the members to contribute something in the line of productions to advertise Florida.
62. J. C. Colvin, Vice-President of the Southern States Exposition, at Chattanooga, to open May 15. addressed the Society, urging a participation in its exhibits in the interest of Florida.
63. The Committee on Final Resolutions, through W. M. Bennett, chairman, reported a series of resolutions which were adopted. (See page 146.)
64. The Special Committee appointed to meet with American Pomological Society, Messrs. L. Phelps and G. L. Taber, reported through Mr. Taber. They also reported the result of the conference as to the orthography of tie word pomelo. This form of the word was recommended by Prof. H. J. \Vebber, of the Department of Agriculture. (See page 146.)
65. Adjourned sine (lie.














ADDRESSES OF WELCOME.


Mayor J. E. T. Bowden.


Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen of the State Horticultural Society-I throw open to you the gates of the city of Jacksonville.
It is to your organization that the State must look largely for the intelligent cultiv-.tion of our fruits and our vegetables. Scientific cultivation must take the place of the simple methods of the man with the hoe, if we are to compete successfully with other States. By the investigations made by your body; by its intelligent research, study and experience


explained and put in useful form by the interchange of thought and views on occasions like this, all the people of the State are benefited, and the world is made better and richer.
Appreciating this, I do now, upon the part of all of the people of the city of Jacksonville, bid you welcome, thrice welcome, and express the hope that every moment of your time spent here will be enjoyed, and that when you leave you will take with you only happy recollections and a desire to come back.


Capt. C. E. Garner.


Mr. President and Members of the State
Horticultural Society:
In behalf of the Board of Trade, I desire to extend to you, one and all, a most hearty welcome.
This organization, during its existence, has entertained many distinguished visitors from all parts of our country. I can assure you, however, that no individual, however distinguished. or o--ganized body however important, has ever received, or is likely to receive, a more cordial welcome than that which we tender to your society. We feel that you are our nearest and best friends; that your interest is our interest, your prosperity is our prosperity, and the benefits growing out of your annual deliberations are for


our advantage fully as much as for yours. We feel that there is a co-partnership existing between this Board and the Horticultural Society, inasmuch as we are both engaged in promoting the welfare and the upbuilding of the State.
0 A great many of our fellow-citizens seem to think that all prosperity comes from legislation; that proper legislation would bring universal wealth. As a matter of fact, however, legal enactments do not produce wealth. Legislation may stimulate or depress industry, may cause an unfair distribution of wealth, but after all the real wealth of the country comes from the soil, from the mines, from the forest, from the field. If legislation or the enactment of laws could create wealth, in







FLORIDA STATE IIRTLCULTURAL SOCIETY.


order to have universal prosperity all that would be required would be for us to multiply our politicians, our law-makers have continual sessions of Congress and of our State Legislature; and in the event this should transpire we need have no fear of there not being a sufficient number of patriotic citizens who would be willing to sacrifice themselves for the good of their State or their country.
It does seem to me that the advance in legislation is not so much by the enactment of new laws as by the repeal of the useless old ones, and all that the real workers and )roducers of this country demand of law is protection to life and that every man shall enjoy the fruits of his own industry.
The past year, dating from your last annual meeting, has been one of unexampled prosperity to this country. Our exports have exceeded those of any previous year, wages have advanced, factories are busy and overrun with orders. vessel tonnage is in greater demand than ever before in the history of our cotutry. Our State has received large benefits from this industrial revival. The price of staples has advanced, cotton is worth almost doublee what it was one year ago; the same is true of naval stores, our dhosphate mines are busy an(l prices good. citrus fruits brought a good price, oranges selling for $2.25 to $2.50 per box on the trees, and grapefruit as high as $9 per box.
Our city has certainly kept pace with the Nation and the State. You will observe as you go through the streets an air of cheerfulness and prosperity. Our merchants are busy, our mills are running full time, every wheel of industry is running to its fullest capacity. You will find our harbor filled with ships. The work of deepening our river and improv1L. I.1.-2


ing our bar is progressing satisfactorily. Two new railroads have been opened, giving us now practically nine railroads centering in this city. Whether this prosperity is permanent or transient, we do not know, but it must be self-evident to anyone that there can l)e no permanent prosperity in this country, in this State or in this city, if the great mass of our people represented by the agricultural and horticultural communities are not prosperous.
The agricultural workers in our State comprise a very large majority of the entire population. They are the great consuming class of the products of factories. It must necessarily follow if they are unable to buy furniture, clothing, shoes or other necessaries or luxuries of life, that there will be a depression in those lines of business. The factories must close down, the merchants go into bankruptcy, the bank must close its doors, and a cloud of depression settles over all the industries of the Nation. In other words, the high-water mark of agricultural prosperitv must ultimately be the high-water mark of prosperity in every other line of business, and the low-water mark of agricultural depression must ultimately be the low-water mark of depression with us all.
It is for these reasons that we extend to you the hand of fellowship, and I am sure, on the other hand, you will rejoice at the prosperity of this city. We feel that the upbuilding of this city is a part of your work; that you should rejoice with us at its prosperous condition; that it should be a matter of pride to every citizen of this State; and we desire and hope that the members of this society will come here at least once every year and note what is being done in this, your metropolis.











RESPONSE TO ADDRESSES OF WELCOME.

Dr. George Kerr.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Our esteemed president has conferred upon me the honor of making the response to the addresses of welcome.
I, therefore, in his name and in the name of each and every member of this society, tender our heartfelt thanks for this gracious manifestation of your welcome, made known to us so kindly by his honor, the mayor, and the president of the Board of Trade.
These expressions of greeting and sympathy are elevating and ennobling, stimulating us to a higher plane of duty in our several spheres, giving courage to the strong, strength to the weak, energy to the indolent and hope to the cast down.
Never before have we known the full value of ourselves or been able to take our measure.
WV are here again at your request, at your solicitation. We come gladly, presenting our salutations and our congratulations. We are proud of this, your beautiful city, the chief city of our great commonwealth, alike creditable to your enterprise and your artistic perception. Beautiful! Yes, art everywhere, wrestling with nature for the supremacy, you no doubt, ever remembering that your future greatness rests upon the foundation stone of justice to all.
I wish to explain a few of the seeming incongruities of country life. We country people imagine that our city cousins laugh at us, saying we have frowzy heads, freckled faces, and when we come


to the city we stare at the stores. We ofttimes hear words of derision and see the finger of scorn pointed at the lowly tiller of the soil. Don't do it again; if there were bears about, you would be in danger.
We have prepared a picture or group of these lowly tillers of the soil; with your permission, Mr. President, I will now exhibit it. Behold them! I see a few among them who are not lowly tillers. Our president good naturedly permits them to remain merely as a contrast. We may be somewhat uncouth, not having the time to practice two hours a day to get the correct pose, the fashionable step. the swing of the coat-tails, to appear in public. We may have a few hayseeds in our hair and a few of the festive sandspurs clinging to our coat-tails. We may not be able to dance the highland fling or the sailors' hornpipe at a fancy dress ball, but, as poor Bobbie Burns said, "A man's a man for a' that and a' that." He is also the man to stand in the breach in the day of dire distress. Volumes have been written in his praise and glory.
It is of his toil and his life I would speak. He toils in the bright sunshine, breathes in the pure air of heaven, drinks of the limpid waters from the fountain head, mingling with nature in her many forms, tempest and sunshine, flower and fruit, seed time and harvest, communing with nature's (God. Night brings to him home, loved ones and sweet repose: day follows day with conscious thought that his labors are rewarded with life, liberty







FLORlDA STATE IoIt'I LCULTUILA L SOCIETY.


and happiness, if not with adequate compensation.
There is also a sad side to this picture. We, too, have our trials and our sorrows. Our daughters are sometimes beguiled into marrying some young man from the city with perfumed mustache and his hair plastered down on his forehead with pomade. After a while our grandchildren come to see us, the dear little sweet nuisances; they are so timid and frail, they mnst be kept away from the dogs and the cats, the chickens and the goslings. Consequently grandpa must carry them about upon his back, hence grandl)as are usually round-shouldered. After a few years these little ones come out to see us as young ladies; that is the timle that grandpa and grandmla have their.hands full. On Saturday afternoons. the young gentlemen come out to see us, I inean to see the girls. They have a good tile for a day or two. The young nlan becoming tired because it is too tame for him, says to the ladies, "I think you would be awfully wetched if you were compelled to stay out here a couple of months. -Iow (o you amuse yourselves?" "Oh, well," they reply, "we have a splendid time: grandpa takes us around in the ox-cart with lots of straw in it, and sometimes he puts the halter and saddle upon the cow and we ride around the lawn, grandpa leading the cow. Oh! we've Iots of ftin!' '.Oh he says, "Not any in mine. But what do you do about these howible bugs, these ugly toads, these tewible calves with long horns and these fwightful wazorbacks?" He is gone in a day or so.
It is for our l)ovs we are mostly concerned. They leave the hone of their childhood, often a humble one, followed by the tears and prayers of lflvili,- Chris


tian parents. Ol! those hallowed memories never fade. Away, they go, swallowedI up in the many trades,in the great marts of business, in the colleges, universities and other institutions of learning all over our broad land. Soon we hear of them becoming a President of the United States, generals, 2rdmirals and officers of the army and navy, United States Senators and Representatives and other officials of the government, of which there is no end, governors of States and their officials, presidents and secretaries of Horticultural and Agricultural societies, mayors, presidents of boards of trade, preachers, doctors, lawyers, merchants, business men of all kinds and all the make-up of a great city, even to the lowest stratum. There are a few chudes.
In some parts of our country horticulture and collateral branches are languishing. I have discovered the cause, and hope the society will vote me a medal in tuken of their appreciation. Our sons and many of our daughters have been called to fill the responsible places in the State and Nation. Statistics prove that over 90 per cent. of all the learned -professions, including the business men of prominence were formerly farmers' sons.
The old gentleman, when the shadows of the evening of life begin to gather about him, finds that he is alone, his sons all gone, decides to put an "ad." in a prominent city paper for help. In a few (lays comes a decayed city dude dressed with shabby gentility, his working clothes (lone tip in a handkerchief. He does not know which end of the horse the collar is to be pulled over, and if it is to be buckled or snapped; he fastens it tinder the throat.
Here is the whole matter in a nutshell.







FLORID)A STATE~ HORTICULTURAL SO CIETY.


In sufficient or inefficient help. That is the trouble with Florida today. It is as bad as a frost.
As a remedy it has been suggested to make our homes more happy and attractive to our boys, with pleasant surroundings, good books (not dime novels), assist them in ge~ting as 'good an education as possible, teach them to be self-reliant. I believe in the expressive, though very inelegant phrase "root hiog or (lie." Do not use force. Force is usually backed by anger. Give the boy a few acres of land to cultivate on shares, but be sure


and give him his just share. If you have plenty of land it would bie better to give him a number of acres in fee simple; it would be an anchor to him in after years. Don't lie, swear, drink rumn, chew or sm-oke tobacco or anything' else immoral unless you wish him to follow in your footsteps. The old adage is applicable here, "As the old ones crow, the young ones learn." Impress upon then that farmi life is the ideal life and the peer of any calling. Our example and life are inde~lib~ly stamped upon our children. Let it be a blessing and not a curse.


PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS.


Geor~ge L Taber.


Members of the Florida State Horti.--ultural Society, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Twelve years ago a small band of Florida fruit growers met at Ocala and organized a State Horticultural Society. Of the eighteen who assisted in the organization one-half have since crossed the "Great Divide," and of the remaining half some have scattered or become engaged in other pursuits, until the fingers of one hand more than suffice for the counting of t 'hose who are left of our charter members.
But the principles and purposes for which we organized stood and still stand good, and notwithstanding the severe losses that we have sustained by death of men illustrious in horticulture, and notwithstanding that we have, during recent years, encountered such severe climatic conditions as to call forth from calamitists the ghoulish proclani ion that


"horticulture in Florida is a thing of the past," wve have yret, by united effort on the part of both officers and members, been able to maintain our membership to such a high numerical average and our work to such a degree of excellence that we stand today in the recognized front rank of the State Horticultural Societies of America.
This is no idle statement, for I speak advisedly when I say that there are few Horticultural Societies in America that can show as large a membership in comparison to State population, and, I feel free to say, none that are working harder to solve current horticultural prob)lems, delving deeper into scientific research, or achieving more lasting and beneficial results.
It is a matter of congratulation that not only are we in a flourishing condition as regards numbers, but also entirely free







FLORID1A STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


from dissensions or factional discord. If we hold diverse views as to best modes and methods these are but the natural differences of opinion that indicate a healthy condition of the Society as a society. For, if we were all of the same mind, in relation to every phase of every topic under consideration, it would signify nothing so much as the arrival of the comatose condition that precedes death.
There is one great basic principle upon which we have built and are building, which is, that all of us, from gray-haired veterans down to the youngest acquisition to our ranks, are but scholars. We recognize fully that no matter how much of value we may have learned there yet remains much more of value to be acquired; and it is this very quality of receptivity and power to healthily assimilate new ideas that gives us strength. Dudley WV. Adams never uttered a greater truism than that the roan who 'knows it all" is of no use to either himself or anybody else; that such an one could be of no benefit to this Society and that we could be of no benefit to him. I am happy to say we have no such members.
Standing then tipri that broad plank of "advancement in horticulture," which our constitution recognizes as the fundamental principle of our existence; having outgrown our swvaddling clothes and demonstrated our ability to stand adversity as well as prosperity ; recognizing the dignity of our calling and the responsibilities that attach to us as representatives of that calling; let us look ahead for a moment and see what the future has in store for us.
And here let me remark that whatever is in store for us lies, to a great extent at least, within our own power to predetermine. Unlooked-for vicissitudes may,


and do, arise, that may, and often do, alter the outcome of our plans, but that does not affect the validity of the statenient that either as individuals or as a Society, we should plan ahead-a long way ahead if need be-for what we wish to happen, and then do our utmost to see that it does happen. Blind luck counts for little in these days of strenuous endleavor, and lie who, Micawber-like, sits idly waiting for something to "turn up" would better, to say the least, engage in any other business than that of horticult ure.
''Nw what I would like to see and what 1 have no doubt many of us would like to see, is the Florida State Horticultural Society with a membership of several times its present numbers, owning a library that would be of service and accessible to each one of us, and possessed of a horticultural buiilding that would suitably house the Society and its library and he a credit to 1)oth the Society and the city in which it were located.
Some of you may say this all sounds very well, hut it will never be accomnplished. Perhaps not, in its entirety, in our day. But my belief in the future of Florida, her horticulture, and this society as the representative of that horticulture, is so great that I think wve may reasonably expect the Society to live to see it, even if we as individuals do not. Other State Horticultural Societies have lived to accomplish as much. Why not this one ?
But, coming right (down to the practical point: The bu ilding is, I admit, for the immediate present, beyond our reach. But the library, which I consider of even more importance than the building, is clearly within our reach. Not that we can hope to come into immediate posses-







FLORIDA STATE' HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Sian of such an extensive and costly library as older and richer Societies have been years in collecting, but that we can make a beginning without which nothing of value is ever accomplished.
Freed from its political significance, 1 am a great believer in the principle enunciated in Greeley's phrase that "the best way to resume specie payment is to resume," and, paraphrased, this would read, if we want a library the best way for uis to get it is to start it.
I am aware that the present state of the Society's finances does not warrant putting any of the Society funds into I and I would not recommend doing soat least not for the present. Anyone who wished to subscribe could (10 so, lbut such subscriptions would be purely voluntary. The secretary has already on hand some available matter which has, from time to time, and from various sources, come into the possession~ of the Society, and there are undoubtedly amongst our members those who have duplicates of books on horticulture, or single volumes, with which they have become so familiar that the contribution of them to this Society's library would lbe accompanied by a sense of gratification that such volumes could be placed where they would be a source of continuous usefulness. Money contributions, in greater or lesser amounts, would undoubtedly be mnade by others in the same spirit. Later and perhaps larger accretions might follow from those, either in or out of the Society, who have the welfare of Florida at heart, and thus, from one source and another, we might in time become possessors of a library that would add greatly to the SocietxT's usefulness.
As to the housing of the library, I


would say that the Society has already received generous, although informal, offers. If the action to be taken by you is favorable to the library these offers will doubtless be rene wed in a more formal way. I would Ialso say that, if this reconimendlatioil is favorably acted upon, there will be considerable detail to be worked out, which can probably best be done, for the first year at least, through a committee. And if this committee were composed of the Society's secretary and treasurer, and perhaps one other member, this would make a desirable personnel. Thie treasurer of the Society could become treasurer of the fund to be known as "library fund," and the scre' tary could arrange and list all available matter on hand, and that may accrue, previous to our next annual meeting, at which time the comm-ittee could make a full report, with such suggestions as to future action as a thorough investigation of the subject would lead them to recoinmiend. If sufficient material has been accuimulated by the timie we meet again, and the report of the committee should be favorable to such action, a librarian could then be appointed.
If you agree that it is a good idea to start the library it is for you to say what the miode of procedure shall be, and perhaps some of the suggestions I have mnade can be im-proved upon. I am not so much concerned as to the exact method to be followed, as I am interested in seeing the library started. I believe that there is not a single member of this Society who would not be benefited by it, either directly or indirectly. I believe that we would each of us feel that the Society had added breadth and scope and dignity and power for good, and that the







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


bond of fellowship which exists between its individual members would be still further strengthened.
Many of us are more or less isolated in our home life; the very nature of our calling makes this necessary. Left to ourselves we are apt to become too absorbed in scanning a horizon compassed by the boundary lines of our own little individual possessions. In a collective capacity-as a Society-we obtain through the medium of our annual conventions, a more extended view, in which our boundary fences disappear and the methods, practices and results of the best thought of an entire State lie spread out before us. In1 laying the foundation for a carefully selected horticultural library we vould be still further broadening our horizon, and making available the best thought and practices of other States and other countries on the manifold questions that have a direct bearing on our individual horticultural interests.
I have already spoken of the faith that I have in this Society and, with your permission, I will relate a little personal experience that will illustrate more fully than I could do ill any other way, how deep this faith is:
Just previous to the unprecedented freeze of February. 1899, I had been planning to plant five acres of additional orange grove. The ground, however, had not been cleared or any preparation made, other than that stakes had been driven in the places that the trees were to occupy. N\hen that blizzard came along, and leveled to the banks the twenty acres of orange groves that I already had, the question very naturally arose, if that were not enough ? \Vouldn't it be a good idea to pull up the stakes that had been driven and save the expense of


clearing ground and planting additional orange trees away up here in North Florida? Wouldn't it be better to turn the orange industry over to parties located nearer Cape Sable-or south of it. These were questions w which were very proper to consider, and were similar to those which had to be considered by many of you who, unlike myself, are located in the counties generally included in what used to be called the "orange belt"-and wx hich, please God, will still remain a part of the "orange belt."
But, whatever may have been the proper answer to the question, I reasoned this way: I have raised oranges in North Florida without protection. Oranges, if they require protection, can be protected in North Florida. Banking with earth will protect the trees as high up as the mound extends. Burning wood in sufficient quantities will protect the tops above the mounds. I have a large amount of earth and a good supply of wood. i will plant the trees and depend upon this combined method of protection until I am satisfied which one of the several methods, advocated by this Society, seems best to adopt in its place.
And so, simultaneously with the cutting off the frozen tops of the twenty acres, I went to work and planted out five acres additional, including standard varieties of both oranges and pomelos. The trees were set out in wild land and the ground cleared after the trees were planted; the logs and stumps being placed in piles in every other middle in every other row, on much the same plan as that suggested in my address of two years ago. I have since that time had considerable experience with open-air firing and, as already indicated, shall depend upon that, combined with high banking, until I decide which one of the







FLORIIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


several methods that are being advocated, or already in use by differentt miembers of this Society, seems to offer the best solution to the protection question.
And the point that I wish to make is not that North Florida is the best location for an orange grove, not by any means that the horticulture of North Florida is dependent upon the growing of oranges, not that the temporary method of protection that I adopted is necessarily the best; but simply and solely that 1 had faith enough in this Society to believe that it would solve the protection problem in a way that would make orange growing, even in North Florida, a safe investment.
And I still believe so. The progress we have already made in this direction is very gratifying. We shall, at this meeting, hear much of value in connection with the question from a purely practical standpoint. Many of us have been studying it by day andl dreaming of it by night
-except on such particular nights as have afforded us opportunities to put our theories to practical test.
But, ladies and gentlemen, even if the orange was our first love and if her charms still continue to entice us, wc must not forget that the "Golden Queen,"~ as Adams felicitously styled her,
is not all there is to Florida horticulture. A perusal of the programme will show you that we not only have under consideration, at this meeting, all the principal fruits of Florida, as well as topics that have a direct bearing upon Florida horticulture, but also special papers on some subjects that perhaps might be more strictly classified as bearing on the welfare of the horticulturist rather than that of the horticulture that he represents. Bnt this, after all, might be analyzed into


a distinction without difference, from the standllo int that anything which contributes toward maintaining life in the horticulturist, while his horticulture is being brought to a profitable basis, is, to a very marked extent, conducive toward advanceinent in horticulture.
There are existing in Florida today two distinct State Societies which have to do with the tilling of the soil ; one of them agricultural, the other (this one) horticultural. Although working in perfect harmony with each other neither of these Societies believes that the two should be amalgamated. Their lines are more or less dlistinct, and it is very proper that the two Societies should continue to exist. There is much in agriculture that the horticulturist does not care for, and much in horticulture that the agriculturist does not care for; but there is also a common ground, occupied by us both, in which I believe we should both be more deeply interested. It is that ground covered by the horticulturist when hie is trying to provide for present necessities, by the raisig of farm crops, until his orchards come into bearingandl which I believe can often be profitably continued long after his orchards come into bearing. It is that ground of the agriculturist that holds out horticultural inducements, and leads him to plant fruit trees as a valuable adjunct to his fields of corn and cotton.
And so, to the newly formed State A-ricuiltural Society, which holds its annual meeting in this city (lurtig the present week, our older State Horticultural Society extends kindly greeting. We hope that they may derive benefit from attendance at our meeting, and, taifwe should be asked to attend theirs, we shall b~e equtally benefited.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


The brief space of time that our conventions consume may, perhaps. well be likened to an interrogation point on the, as yet, unwritten page of the history of the horticultural and agricultural progress of our State. WVe know what the past has been; what the present is; but


what of the future? M\ay we help to decide this wisely and well, and may hope "that springs eternal in the human breast" be ever with us. and be ably seconded by our efforts; for, without effort, hope is but a fallacy.


REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS.

Hon. Geo. W. Wilson, Chairman.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Your Committee on Local Arrangements has the honor to report the following:
Tfhe East Coast Railway extends the courtesy of an excursion to Pablo Beach. It was at first thought possible by your committee to arrange a trip to Mayport andl to see the immense improvements being made by Mr. Flagler; but it was found that the road would not be comnpleted in time, therefore all that can be offered now is a trip to Pablo, which offer the East Coast officials have liberally extended.
It was thought at first your committee would be able to secure a special train. so that the Society would need to consumne only a portion of the (lay, knowing


that their time would be limited, but this was found to be impracticable.
We herewith submit the letter of invitation.
The Board of Trade of the city of Jacksonville desires to tender to the Society a river trip) at such time as the Society may designate.
It is the purpose of the board to leave the city at 1o:3o of the morning selected, returning at 2 or 2':3o. Lnhwill be served on board of the boat. We herewith append the letter of the board.
The Times-Union and Citizen will furnish the official stenographer to make and keep the record of Your proceedings.
All of which is respectfully submitted. George NN. WVilson, C. M. Griffin, L. Cameron.














PRACTICAL PROTECTION OF ORANGE TREES.


All Known Devices Tested by a Scientific but Practical Grower-With Artificial Heat and Without- Dormancy, Hybridizing, Whitewashing, Spraying, Banking, Open Fires Fail Utterly or Only
Partially Protect-Shields, Tents and Sheds Do the Work-Sheds Best of All-Orange Culture Placed on a Business Basis.


By Prof. J. Y. McKinney, of Candler.


Can there he mentioned a single instance where a thoroughly established profitable industry, an industry in the sphere of either horticulture or agriculture, has been abandoned in any country because of adverse natural conditions?
True, in a few instances we may find that because of artificial conditions such as too great a supply for the dcmrand, some industry has gradually giv-en place to other more profitable investment, but with a supply constantly less than an ever increasing demand, no natural difficulty has ever yet barred the progress of human achievement.
Can it be, then, that the culture of the citrus fruits in Central and Northern Florida is to stand out as anl isolated exception, a marked contradiction to an established law of events?
That orange culture in Florida is today and has been for some time face to face with the adverse condition of low temperatures, all will adi-it. That it has already passed from the plane of an established high prosperity and is today onl the low plane of absolute necessity, none will deny. That (luring the past winter


the most earnest and intelligent efforts have been made in various parts of the, State; that the crisis with low temiperature has been miet successfully and that therefore we are now entering a period of renaissance destined to raise the industry to a higher plane of more expensive, more intensive and more profitable culture, are statements that we believe can be truthfully asserted before this body tonight.
To combat successfully low temperatures so many plans have suggested themselves and so many expedients have been tried that to deal with the subject in any way approaching a scientific procedure, it becomes necessary to classify.
The whole subject naturally arranges itself under the following classifications:
1. Protection Without Artificial Heat.
i. By controlling the condition of
the tree.
a by cultivation.
b) by coating trunk and branches.
c lby budding or grafting on to
hardier stock.
d by hybridizationl.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


c by withholding heat, moisture
or light.
2. By banking with sand.
a to save the bud.
b to save the entire tree.
3. By airtight covers.
4. By water spraying.
5. By water and forest protection.
6. By latitude.
II. Protection with Artificial Hleat.
i. Open fires.
2. Tents artificially heated.
3. Wind breaks with open fires.
4. Sheds artificially heated.
The subject is too broad for comprehensive discussion in one paper; we shall consider in detail therefore oniy those methods of protection that have thus far proved successful, giving but passing notice to many expedients here outlined.
As to the value of the -various methods here presented this thought shall be the criterion upon which judgment is made, viz: "Orange culture on a Sound Business Basis." Any method which in our j udgment fails to bring the industry up to that standard we must discard as insufficient.
Can the orange tree then be protected in present climatic conditions without art ificial heat by controlling the condition of the tree ? That with well matured wood the various species of the citrus family will withstand great extremes of temperature, there can be no questionthere is no question.
Compelling Dormancy.
But to compel the tree to remain dorinant during the clanger periods is the vital question.
It has been suggested that this may be (lone by methods of cultivation ;that if we fertilize early in the year, permit


no late cultivation in the fall and grow winter crops of grain among the trees to withdraw the nitrogenous matter from the sod, the trees in consequence will remain dormant until late in the spring.
As to the extent of merit in these suggestions we will not take space here to enquire. That any or all of them are entirely insufficient has been thoroughly demonstrated. We erase therefore this expedient from the list of successful meth odls.
Coating With Lime.
Coating the trunk and branches with preparations of lime aunl with other patenited material has been strongly urged in more northern latitudes for keeping trees dormant. This treatment may be somewhat effective on the plum, peach and pear tree whose deciduous habit causes them w hen defoliated to depend on the lenticels or breathing spots on trunk and branches for the necessary supply of oxygen. To close these with such preparations might sufficiently devitalize trees of deciduous habits to require considerable renewal of spring-time energy to awaken them to a growing condition.
With members of the citrus family, however, the millions of stomata or mouths on the underside of their countless evergreen leaves render futile any attempt to render them dormant by this treatm-ent.
Budding on Hardy Stocks.
Can we control the condition of trees by budding or grafting our choice fruits on more hardy and (decidluous stocks? When this method was first suggested much hope wvas entertainedl that it might sov the problem. The hardy and deciduous trifoliata seemed especially adapted to this end.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


just what effect the root stock has on the hardiness of the bud or graft cannot be stated with precision. From the evidence at hand we are inclined to believe that the ability of a bud or graft to withstand cold depends on two conditions; first, the inherent nature of the bud itself. For instance, a seedling Satsumia is one of our hardiest trees, while the Tangerine is less hardy. If buds or grafts from both of these are placed on common third stock equally suited to both the Satsumna bud or graft will be proportionately more hardy than the Tangerine bud or graft, just as the original Satsuma seedling was more hardy than the original seedling Tangerine.
The second condition is not quite so fully established; the evidence, however, justifies the opinion that in addition to the inherent nature of the bud the ability to withstand cold depends also on the Vigor of the root stock to being a good feeder rather than upon its inherent ability to withstand cold. Hence a bud or graft on a rough lemon stock, if the bud union be protected, may withstand more cold than when placed on the hardy trifoliata stock, the former being a strong vigorous feeder, while the latter is a much less vigorous feeder.
On this point we have personally observed that several hundred Satsuma buds on rough lemon stock in a nursery remained uninjured, while the unbudded rough lemon stocks in the same nursery were all killed.
We have noted also another similar instance with the same results where the tcees were set in grove form. In these instances the hardiness of the Satsuma bud did not seem to he affected by the tender nature of the root. In other instances where Satsunua buds were placed on trifoliata stocks they were killed to the


ground in common with the other oranges of the neighborhood.
But granting that some little difference in the hardiness of the bud may be secured from grafting or budding judiciously it is at most so slight that it cannot be relied upon as sufficient under present conditions.
Hybridization.
Much confidence is expressed by some expecrimenters that the solution of the problem may lie in obtaining a new and distinct species by hybridization. To do this, as it appears to us, two intricate processes must first be successfully accomplished, both of which, especially if marked change in the nature of the tree is desired, require long periods of years and even then the chances of success and1 failure seem to be about equally balanced.
The first process is to obtain a distinct species, sufficiently hardy and one that will propagate true to its kind. The second process would then be to evolve or develop a guood quality of fruit from the deteriorated hybrid.
When we consider the wide difference between our choice high-bred Florida oranges and the inedible trifoliata, we should consider the process rapid and successful indeed if an orange approaching in quality our common orange should be thus developed from the proposed hybrid within the next three-quarters of a century. Whatever the future of this theory may be, for the present generation at least we shall be on the safe side by erasing this expedient from the list also.
As to the effect of shade on the condition of the tree there are some interesting data, hut as this of itself is insufficient it will be more to the point to speak of it under another form of protection.







FLORIDIA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


The three conditions of plant growth are heat, light and moisture; since these conditions are present in their full significance during many (lays in January andl February, the orange tree is certain to resp~ondl with new growth andl bloom, hence the problem of forcing the tree to remain dormant is of very doubtful solution.
Protection With Sand.
The efficiency of Sand banking as a means of protecting the bud is too well known to admit of discussion; but since we cannot hope to raise a good crop of oranges under the ground, unless per chance the orange may be hybridized into some member of the peanut famiily ( ?), we must draw a line around this form of protection as too limited.
Sand banking to save the entire tree will perhaps admit of some discussion. To test this form of protection we had about thirty young trees covered entirely over with Sand. Ten of these were coyered on Decemnbr 15 and opened uip March 21. These died back to within three inches of the bud union. The other twenty were opened at different times with the following results. Those coyered four weeks were but little damaged. Those covered six weeks lost all their leaves and were otherwise devitalized so that they were slow in recovering. Some of my neighbors, however, banked as hi gh as six and seven feet and left the banks for from five to seven weeks. Aside from losing their leaves the trees aire but little damaged.
From other sources on this point I get varying results, so that in forming judgment on this form of protection it must be saidl there is great risk attending it, so much so indeed that if we place any


financial value on our young trees we munst exclude this expedient from a plan of orange culture onl a sound business basis.
The next device, an original one, we shall term the ventilated Sand case. We had 150 fine young buds from four to six feet high placed under this treatment. The trees were first tied up into as small a space as practical by means of No. ig galvanized wvire; a case was then placed close around the tree. Most of these inner cases were of thin boards; somi-e few even of paper. A second case was then made about three inches from the first: this outer case was made of small boar ds p~lacedl laterally between troughlike corner pieces. The space between the two cases was packed with Sand. At the bottom a ventilating box extended from the outside into the tree. This vent and the top were closed and covered with Sandl during the cold wave period only. The labor of putting uip this device and attending it (luring the winter and clearing it away in the spring Cost US 20 cents per tree. The lumber used was odds and ends from our mill and did not figure in the expense.
The trees were placed in these cases during the week of December 15 and so remrained until the week of March 21, with the following result: A number came out wXithoult loss of leaves and in excellent condition. Others were defoliatedl on the lower branches, the top branches retaining their leaves. Some were entirely defoliated. but the wood was ii1 goodl condition and quickly put on leaves when the cases were removed. On the whole this plan may be regarded as a safe one, and if the vents are large enough there will be no serious risk attending it from either suffocation or the







FLOWIM STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


cold. Its practical use, however, is limnited to small trees.
Air Tight Covers, Spraying, Etc.
As to the next point on the outline we can assert with confidence that no form of cover, whether of air-tight cloth. paper, wood, pine straw or other collected vegetable materials placed around a tree will save it without artificial heat. The resident heat from the ground positiv~ely cannot he relied upon.
As to water spraying as an effective means of saving from the freeze, wye have observed one failure and are strongly of the opinion that any effort to save on an extended scale hy this means will meet with disappointment if not disaster. Theoretically the plan has merit. When w~ater freezes a great quantity of latent heat is given out that must raise the temperature of the surrounding air; also whien masses of ice are frozen around any vegetable organism the consequent slow thawing will greatly lessen and sometimes entirely prevent damage. Doubtless if means could he devised so that water could be kept constantly freezing in the atmosphere immediately surrounding the tree effective work ight he done. But an attempt to do this in the blizzard of '99 proved to our satisfaction that to accomplish this successfully the tree must, first be sheltered from the high wind, and if that expedient had to be resortedl to other means of heating would be more satisfactory. Water spraying is therefore erased from the list.
Well selected locations with respect to large bodies of water and forests will be of service as a means of protection, but that these alone are entirely insufficient, dead stumps in many such localities today are in full evidence.
With reference to latitude in the State of Florida we will simply make this state-


mrent, that during the past two winters the official record is that no portion of the mainland of the State was entirely without freezing conditions. An examination of the records, as far as there are authentic data, reveals no tendency towards general climatic change, nor are the cold waves more frequent or of longer duration than formerly ; but the facts do warrant the fear at least that these cold waves are gradually dilppingfurther and further southward, thus intensifying the extremes. It is a matter of known fact that within the memory of men now living oranges were raised in South Carolina. The north boundary of Florida has produced large crops. A quarter of a century ago the extremes of cold in the central portion of the State very closely resembled the extremes much further south today. Whatever the causes that have led to this southward clipping of the cold waves, the question arises, may not these causes continue to he operative? There being no mountain harriers to arrest the southward progress of these waves a slight increase in the cause may drive then southward hundreds of miles.
Should we go to the southern limit of the State and plant new groves, may not the cold waves, like a bad conscience, follow us? May there not be danger that the sad experience that has befallen the industry in the central belt will be repeated in the southern portion of the

We dismiss this part of the subject with the assertion that we believe there is no permanent practical security that will place the industry on a sound business basis without preparation for artificial heat.
Artificial Heat Required.
During the past winter we have wit-







FLORIDA STATE HIORTICULTIURAL SOCIETY.


nessed some very effective work done by means of open fires. From our own experiments, as well as trials by others, we believe that this form of protection can be trusted in still freezes when not more than eight degrees of freezing temperatilrc are to b~e Comibated. N~ Wfidv freezes the limit is from two to four degrees Fahrenheit.
In the past winter during the cold wave in January the temperature fell to seventeen degrees Fahrenheit. The night was clear and without wind. The trees were in a dormant condition. They could have withstood twenty-four and perhaps twenty-two without mu ch clam-aage to leaves, and perhaps eighteen de(Trees without serious injury to wood. In! this instance groves protected by open fires lost but few leaves. This would indicate that a temperature of at least five degrees above the outside temperature wxas maintained.
During the moderately windy freeze in February when the sap was rising in the trees the temperature fell t-) twenty degrees Fahrenheit. Open fires in this instance were only partially successful: much new growth and bloomn were killed and even wood.
In a blizzard such as we had in February, '99. to save a grove by open flies would be next to impossible. The wind accompanied by sleet and rain was so intense that we witnessed sticks of wood hurled from the fires as if they were bunches of straw. Fires at one end of the row would he blown down and extinguished before the one in attendance could replace those at the other endl. Trees not more than six feet through were scorched on one side while the thermnometer reo'istredl fourteen degrees Fahrenheit on the opposite side. In such conditions, and even in conditions much


less severe we must conquer the wind before xx e can hope to combat the cold successfully; therefore we conclude that open fires will not place the orange indlustry on a sound business basis as long as such conditions are among, the probabilities.
Protection by Tents.
Can wve protect trees successfully by tents or other individual enclosures heated hy lanips, or stoves? To test this proposition wxe had tents placed over o trees. The tent used was a small paper t ent, a model of which is here produced in order that the data given may he better understood.
The tent was 3x3 6 feet high. The trees xx eie tiedl in the same manner as those placed in sand cases. By raising the tent on legs and banking beneath we were enabled to protect trees eight feet high and seven feet through, before tying uip.
By a number of tests as to proper ventilation Nve found the best results were reached when the door was raised about ten inches from the bottom and at least one-half the top opened.
When thus opened it was found that the temperature inside dtiring warm
-weather would be several degrees cooler than the outside temperature.
( ie experimental tree tied tip andI enclosed November 10, 1899, and opened uip March 21, 1900, showed no bad effects either from being tied uip or from tent enclosure. Of the 150 trees under tent enclosure we had three damaged from failure of lamip to operate. The others came otit in excellent condition; many had bloom and some few had oranges set when the tents were removed. The lampl used wvas simply a Mason fruit jar, in the lid of which a hole was cut by







FLoIIA STATE HORTICULTURE \L SOCIETY.


an ordinary washer cutter of such a size that a NO. 3 burner would snugly screw into the opening.
During the last winter this tent was tried by heavy rains, high winds and one hail storm. On storing away we found that not more than ten per cenit. wviil need repairs before being again used.
For small trees it forms a very practical and thoroughly efficient device. With it properly handled trees can be protected in any conditions that have visited the orange belt.
While this tent can be enlarged to only a moderate size, yet the general principle of tent protection observed in this tent will hold good in tents of larger design and equally well adapted for the needs of the case. Hence we believe the plan of tenting trees with properly designed tents can be relied upon as a safe and satisfactory plan.
Having saved the tree the question of tent protection is only partially answered. We must enquire whether it can be done at sufficiently low cost to justify the investment. It will give an idea of the probable cost of operating tent p~rotection if we p~resenlt briefly the cost of protecting i~o trees during the past winter.
The lamps were lit seven nights.
Three barrels oil at $9 per barrel. $27 00 Lighting lamps seven nights at
$1 .50 per night . . .io 50 Filling and trimming seven times
at $1.50 . .10 50 Putting uip tents, taking sarne
dowvn and storing in barn .15 00

Total . . . $63 00
Cost per tree, 42 cents.
As the trees grow larger more fuel will be required, so that for bearing trees sixty cents per tree will probably cover the expense of protections, exclusive of


the first cost of tent, during the average winter.
per box
Hence if i box per tree is p~rodutced
protection costs . .6oc
2 boxes per tree is produced p~rotection costs . .30C
3 boxes pcr tree is produced protection costs . . .207
4 boxes per tree is produced protection costs . . .15c
5 boxes per tree is produced protection costs . .12C
6 boxes per tree is produced protection costs . .ioc The first cost of tents or of protection in any permanent form is to be regarded as part of the investment and not as part of the running expense. While all forms of protection are more or less perishable and therefore each year are becoming less valuable, on the other hand the trees are increasing in producing capacity, which much more than compensates for the slight yearly deterioration in the protecting device.
Aside from saving the trees the security of the fruit under thorough protection enables the grower to select his market. From the record of fruit sales in the past this one itemn would many times pay for all cost of protection.
In this form of protection there are cautions that must be observed if success is to crown our efforts. Great care must he taken to adjust the blaze of the lamp properly. If turned too high the lamp will smoke, suffocate and go out. If left too low, sufficient heat will not be generated and damage will result. Another difficulty to be met when ordinary wicks are used is the thick incrustation that forms on the wicks after several hours burning. The lamp then ceases to give out its normal heat. By a number of tests with self-registering thermome-






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


ters I found when first lit that a lamp in a tent of this design would make a difference of from twenty to thirty-one degrees increase in temperature. But invariably the difference would fall off before morning to from six to eight degrees.
During the past winter this did not endanger the trees, but should we have a repetition of the '99 blizzard this would prove disastrous. The remedy to be suggested is, either to have a second lamp ready to light or retrim the one already lit when the outside temperature falls below eighteen degrees Fahrenheit.
In taking the temperature in all these experiments the thermometer was placed one foot from the ground and remote from the lamp.
The most serious objection to the tent plan of protection is the need of changing the size of the tent to suit the rapidlv growing tree.
Considered in all its phases. however. the plan of tent protection with well-designed tents and under proper management will, in our judgment, place the growing of oranges in Florida on a good business basis.
Windbreaks With Open Fires.
The next point in the outline is protection by means of windbreaks with open fires.
Since it has been repeatedly demonstrated that low temperatures can be suc.cessfullv overcome in still freezes, it naturally follows that if we control the wind the problem is solved. In pursuance of this idea one year ago we constructed about 3,ooo running feet of wall in what we deemed the proper locations in our grove. This wall was of solid plank twenty feet high. When these titanic barricades were tip they looked as if they ought to have kept out even his Satanic F.H.S.--3


Majesty. But when the blizzard of '99 appeared on the scene we had the encouraging experience of seeing the trees killed to the banks in spite of fires and protecting barricades, excepting those in the rows next the north and south walls. In these rows with fires at interva's of fifty feet water was kept from freezing during the coldest part of that mernorable blizzard.
Trees in these rows were unquestionably saved until after daylight. The supply of wood then failing there was no alternative but to order the trees banked and give up the fight. After removing the banks all the trees in the first row from the north and south walls were alive to the top of the banks, as were also a few in the second row. The others in this division were killed to the ground.
Out of this expensive wreck we recovered as salvage one idea, namely, that a windbreak with fires is good protection in the immediate vicinity of the wall only.
During the past winter we had parts of the walls again constructed, formingo enclosures approximately 15o feet each way. During the still freezes in January to control the temperature within these enclosures was comparatively easy. In the windy freeze in February all the trees next the west wall were saved perfectly and easily, new growth, bloom and all. Two or three rows from the walls, however, the trees were saved only by heavy firing, and then even we lost considerable new growth.
The fact that trees were saved easily near the walls pointed toward smaller individual windbreaks as a more effectual device. Several devices were constructed with a view of studying carefully the behavior of wind currents in presence of windbreaks.
The most important device from a Fci-





FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


entific standpoint was a large semi-circular wall sixteen feet in diameter by fourteen feet high, presumably large enough to encircle a full-bearing tree.
This semi-circular wall, constructed of light material, wvas supported to a central pivot and balanced by a swinging stove located dliametrically opposite the center of curvature. The whole device thus freely movable was operate(] automatically by a weather vane; by this means the stove wAas always opposite the wind and the semi-circular shield between the wind and the tr ee.


With this device I could obtain a constant effect even In the frequently shifting winds.
By filling the device with smoke and. by other means, such as small inaper weather vanes, during the presence of a heavy wind the various currents could be traced with surprising precision.
The accompanying diagram will show clearly the movements of the air within the device when a heavy wind is blowing.


A main reflex current is generated whose center passes backward over the main axis B C. On reaching the wall this main current diverts, part forming an ascending current and part turning to the sidles. These lateral currents meet the inwaird end currents, forming vortices of whirling, ascending currents at A and Al. It will readily be seen that by placing a fire at B the greater part of the interior of the device will be filled with heated air and smoke. The two vortices at A and Ai form effectual barriers against the cold end currents.






















The high temperature that can be mailntainedl within this windbreak is evidently due to three causes. First, and most important is the reflex current Just mentioned: second, the reflection of heat from the walls, and third, the absorption of heat by the walls and consequent reradiation.
A strictly scientific device that would produce the maximum effect from all these causes perhaps would be a shield





FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


in the form of a parabolic curve with the fire and tile wall so relatively situated that all rays of reflected heat would pass back in parallel lines, thus distributing the heat equally to all parts of the tree. Since curves and circles are difficult and expensive in construction the nearest form that will produce almost equal results and at the same time is thoroughly practical in construction, is the triangle.
As a more practical test a triangle was constructed of boards. The tree selected was five feet high. The two sides of the triangle were made six feet high, of boards eight feet long laid on edge. The open side of the triangle faced the southeast, our cold winds invariably coming from the northwest.
During the January freeze a thermometer placed just outside the wing of the triangle showed a temperature of eighteen degrees Fahrenheit. Another thermometer placed on the innermost limb of the tree and hence farthest from the fire show ed forty-two degrees Fahrenheit, a difference of twenty-four degrees. The fire was not a large one. simply three small sticks of wood blazing a foot and a half high.
So satisfactory were the results that we at once directed that a portion of the high wall be torn down and constructed into triangles. Thirty of the largest grapefruit and some other varieties of orange trees were selected.
At the time of the February blizzard these trees in the triangles were in the tenderest condition; they had made the largest new growth of all the trees in the grove. They were simply bristling all over with new growth from five to ten inches long with some bloom.
The triangles were placed in charge of a regular hand as part of his regular work for the night.


The result was completely satisfactory; the new growth and bloom were as bright the next morning and continued to grow as if no blizzard had occurred. These trees matured the leaves and wood of the first growth fully two weeks earlier than those protected by any other device.
All our experiments with this form of protection would indicate that, if properlv handled, it can be relied upon as absolute protection against any temperature that has ever reached the orange belt; and I am of the opinion that even much lower temperatures can be successfully overcome with them.
Owing to the fact that the triangle was introduced hurriedly just before the February blizzard and the wood gathered from other parts of the grove, we cannot give exact figures as to the cost of firing. The fuel burned we believe need not exceed one-third the amount necessary for or(linarv open fires.
We dismiss this part of the subject by saving that we have great confidence in the triangle as a means of thorough protection, and predict for it an important place in the future of the orange culture.
Perhaps the cheapest form of protection if a new grove is to be planted would be to plant dlwarf trees in rows running northeast by southwest, planting them as close as practicable. say eight feet apart. The rows should be fifty feet, better seventy-fiv~e feet apart, construct a portable fence that can be placed close up against the trees on the northwest side and fire on the southeast. In tlis arrangement a tree ten feet high could be protected with a twelve foot fence, or ninety-six scluare feet of fence for each tree.
Protection With Sheds.
The last device on the list is the orange shed. Under this form of protection we






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


had in all 500 trees; 167 were from stumps of old bearing trees, 333 were newly set intermediate trees.
The space covered is 400 feet long by 230 feet wide. The shed was designed with reference to three essential points: first, permanency; second, sufficient light, and third, quick operation.
As to the first point, the very best heart pine lumber was selected for all the perman~ent parts. The posts are placed on tarred blocks that can easily be removed if signs of decay appear. The whole frame work is self-supporting in all its parts and rigidly nailed into one complete structure. The walls are portable, being ptittup without nails, the design being to take themr down each season and store in a suitable building.
The roof consists of two parts, a permianent part laid in two feet widths and a portable part made of hinged doors. The doors are made of light sap lumber and are to he removed and stored during the summer.
The shed is fifteen feet in the clear and since the doors operate entirely above the stringers the trees may occupy the


entire space beneath without interfering with the working parts.
The amount of light and method of operation can be seen from the accomnpanying cross-sectional view. This cut represents one bent in the frame work; all the rest are exact duplicates.
When the doors are raised in to the positions shown by a a a a and b b b 1) in drawing they are held in that position by draw wires B B, one such wire passing along one end of every one of the doors. All the doors inclined in the same direction in two rows are fastened to one of the draw wires, that extends entirely across the shed. To drop the doors the wire is unfastened at B and putlled in the direction of Bi. It is only necessary to pull the doors a short distance and gravity quickly does the rest. When the doors are uip a two-thirds light is admitted.
The operation -of closing the entire shed is quickly and easily performed.
One man passes down each side of the roof of the shed; each unfastens the wire to be pulled b~y the other, each united pull of the two men closes 128 doors.


I I







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


In larger sheds this could be greatly increased and still be within practical limits. About twenty minutes is required for two men to close this shed over 5oo trees, occupying an area of a little over two acres. This places this form of protection entirely out of danger from being caught by surprise.
Results Obtained.
The results obtained under the shed thus far place this far in advance of any other protective device used.
I)urilg the first night in the January freeze of the past winter the temperature outside fell to twenty degrees Fahrenheit. Twenty-eight degrees Fahrenheit was the lowest recorded under the shed, and hence no artificial heat was needed; no fires were lit.
On the second night of the freeze at about three thirty o'clock a. m. the temperature inside approached the danger point-twenty-six degrees Fahrenheit. In fifteen mintes, with the assistance of one hand, w e had sixty small open fire, lit and the temperature raised to thirtysix degrees Fahrenheit.
During the third night of the freeze we had the fires kindled only two hours, merely lighting the fires and letting them take their course.
In the February blizzard we found the results equally satisfactory, having tc file but four hours during the duration of ilie wave.
The total number of hours firing in the shed (luring the entire winter was ten, as against seventy or more in all the other forms of protection.
The total amount of wood consumed in the shed during the entire winter was a little less than four cords. Fifty cords were consumed in saving one-third the number of trees in an equal area within the high wall enclosure. F.H.S.-4


The total cost of operating the shed is as follows:
Fuel, four cords Wood at $1.1o. .$ 4 40 Labor in firing ten hours at 25C
per hour . . . . 2 50 Arranging kindling . 00 Manipulating doors and other ]abor connected with protection. 2 50

Total . . . . . $1o 40 Five hundred trees. or a trifle over 2 cents per tree.
The cost of taking down doors and walls, storing them in lumber shied and putting sane i place again when needed is estimated at $40.00 per year, makiiig the total cost of shed protection of this design $50.40, or a little over ten cents per tree.
Who will challenge the assertion that under intensive culture, with thorough protection, trees planted twelve and onehalf feet apart will produce two boxes per tree or 5oo boxes per acre? while e we confidently hope in time to do much better than that, yet with this yield protection would cost only five cents per box.
Auxiliary Benefits.
Shed protection not only affords the most thorough control of the temperature, but is attended with the least care in its operation and in the end we are confident it will be found the cheapest and most satisfactory protection that has been devised. Not only this, but the effect on the condition of the tree will of itself place the shed paramount. If the results in the future shall continue as they vere during the past winter, and we see no reason to doubt it-tinder a well designed shed the condition of the tree is largely under the control of the owner. It can be kept dormant during the warm







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


weather in January or February, or be pushed forward into growth at will.
During the past winter portions of the shed that were given one-third light only remained dormant until well along in March, while trees given two-thirds light started to grow almost as soon as those in the open. At the time some fear was entertained that we had not given the trees in the shed sufficient light, and consequently they were remaining dormant too long. On taking down the walls and opening up the roof to admit two-thirds light, towards the last of March, the results were simply marvelous. I can compare it to nothing but the sudden outburst of springtime verdure in the m-ore rigid latitude of my native State; and even that does not do it jnstice. In less than six weeks the trees, far surpassing in growth all those protected by other devices, had more than doubled their entire volume, some of the new growth measuring over thirty-six inches, hardy, sound and perfect in color.
Men of long experience in the orange industry inform me that they have never witnessed such a spring growth and seldom one equal to it in mid-summer.
It has been urged against shed protection that it deprives the tree of dew and otherwise places it in unnatural conditions. Our observation thus far has been very much to the contrary. As we walk


among these trees in the early morning the dew drops sparkle from every leaf, and vanish only at the instance of the early rays of the morning sun.
A closer study of the nature of the orange in its natural wild state shows that it invariably seeks the shelter of the palmietto, the live oak or the stately magnolia. Have not the brightest fancy fruits in the past been gathered from the densely shaded hammock groves? The shed reproduces these conditions.
With a motive single to the expression of natural truths as we have witinessedl them in our various experiments, we are of thf- firm conviction that after duly cnsidering all thle facts pertaining to protection yet in evidence, the shed so far surpasses all other protecting devices that we have reached the conclusion that thorough shedding, if noat the only business method, is the most business-like method of dealing with the problcmn.
In conclusion we will say that we believe the orange industry is here to stay. Under methods of thorough protection with complete control of sunlight and shadow, of heat and moisture, the culture of the orange can he carried to the high plane comm-ensurate with the fondest dreams of the most passionate horticulturist, the satisfaction of the ambitious investor andl thle world-wide fame of ouir adopted and beloved State.














WE DO NOT GIVE UP THE ORANGE.


Words of Hope and Encouragement-Prophetic Utterances.


By Rev. Lyman Phelps, Chairman of the Standing Committee,


Mr. President and Members of the State
Horticultural Society:
It was aptly said on this floor five years ago, "The subject of citrus culture is a very broad one." The words are true today in a way we did not know then. The subject has been "thrashed" over and over and again and again. Still it will not down, more than Banquo's ghost. Our practical, wvise President has given it the place of honor in the thirteenth annual proceedings. In all our meetings we have counted on attentive ears as well as willing minds when discussing the citrus and the matters thereto appertaining. Was it not true of last night's proceedings ? Citrus has been the one thing above all others in the State Horticultural Society. Today it still is the one thing which brings this goodly Society together, and will cement and unify it while the red blood, made by Florida's sunlight, courses through artery and vein, and we hold faith with God and our neighbor. And, my brothers, "God willing," we shall yet grow oranges on the old orange lands and better ones than in the good times before we were parted from so much of our very selves, which now to us is " a dead past," and one we can "let bury itself," while we work for future success. Florida is still


much alive, not yet "kicking at nothing."
There is still work appertaining to citrus for us, never was there more, none of us doubt it. The Society set work for itself thirteen years ago. It has never faltered in that work, and is as busy devising ways and means in which and by wx which to have more attractive, brighter, more refined and perforce better fruit.
It has been cynically said the love of bright colors is a survival of savagery. Is it true? No. Ask the women who have come to this meeting, and adorn this room and gladden the hearts of the Horticulturists. Their hats emphatically say no. In the olden time God said, "Behold the lilies of the field, hox they grow, and yet Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these," that is, so georgeously colored.
You who will yet ship your queen of fruits know your most highly colored ones will most delight the cultured and most refined women, even in king's palaces, as well as in humble cottages. A professor's wife once wrote me, "Those oranges so highly colored were the most refined things I ever saw." The Queen of Belgitim once wrote on receipt of a box of Florida's "golden spheres," "King and I have been up to our ears in the divine juice all day."







FLORIIDA STATE Ioi0tTI TL'UIIA1, SOCIETY.


From our most highly colored fruits caine the fancy prices which enabled us to improve quality as well as quantity. Today there is a hopeful feeling about citrus culture in Florida. Even the pineapple and the celery do not deter the orange grower. The question of questions asked, ten to one, is, "low are the trees ?" There is more activity in orange lands in the old orange belt than at any time since 1895; more sales of land for the cultivation of citrus, more attention is being given, more trees being set.
Not since the cold of I886 has there been such a normal growth on the citrus trees. This question of late has been asked me a score of times, "Did you ever see such a growth oii the orange trees?" There is money coming to Florida for investment. There is much inquiry for citrus lands.
There is a growing belief that we have passed the crisis of disaster, that the higher level of success is appearing, not in the uncertain dini distance afar off but now nigh at hand, I have a good hope, a vell grounded belief, that after two years we shall see forty years of normal Florida weather, and probably even better than we have seen, and I have seen pineapple leaves standing in open air five feet, enclosing pines weighing fourteen pounds, lemon trees fruiting 14,000 lemlons and an orange tree holding twenty and more boxes of oranges.
The coming of the normal rainy season of '99 made us very hopeful of a norral winter to follow. In a measure we were not disappointed.
This spring has developed a leaf growth on forest tree and bush and flower we have not had since '86.
The Pinus inops at Christmas had the old-time fragrant bloom, only more of it. A little later the PTinis seroti i:! sent ( mt


double the bloom I ever saw before. Then followed the .Cubensis, with its great wealth of beauty and fragrant pollen, and last of all the Plinis palustris, the grandest of our southern pines, never more healthy and attractive in leaf and bloom than in the spring of 1900.

Fascinations of Orange Culture It Will Never
Die-Dormancy the One Oreat Requisite.
.By M. S. Moremen, of the Conittee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen
The growing of citrus fruits in Florida has passed through such an ordeal of disaster in recent years that it becomes a difficult matter to decide from what standpoint to treat the subject assigned to your committee. Treat it as we may. we must bear in mind that the paramount object is to discover some method whereby the production of citrus fruits in Florida shall become reasonably safe and profitable.
It is said that the wayward child has the warnest and most enduring affection of its parents. In like manner it seems that the more disaster that befalls the citrus industry, the more energy, thought and industry are given to it, in order to overcome and counteract the seemingly ever pending calamity. And this is true, because we still have faith in the suitablcness of Florida's climate and soil, to pro(dice the best oranges of Ihc world. despite the often advanced theory of a radical change of climate.
Had we who ventured into citrus culture tw enty years or more ago met with even a small portion of the reverses that have recently overtaken our belov ed industry, we should have at once abandoned it. with but little if any regret. Maybe with congratulation that we had escaped so early from a line of misdirect-







FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTUIAL OCIETY


ed effort. But no disaster warned us, the times were propitious. \Ve planted and nourished. We lived with the trees until they became a part of us. We saw the tree grow and (evelop into a thing of beauty, but alas not a joy forever. \\lien destruction camie on the wings of the blizzard and swept our groves awav, it was not as though a flood had destroyed Ihe corn or the caterpillars had devoured the cotton; for it touched our lives ; it stung our affections; it wrecked our hopes. Yea, it made us feel as though a beloved member of the family, who had filled our lives with hope, confidence and consolation, had been torn from us, and left bleeding at our feet, piteously pleading for succor.
Likewise the appeal moved us. \-c stretched forth our hands and applied restorative measures. \\Vhen hope woulh spring again to life a cruel blow would fell it again to the earth. Many, disheartened, have turned mournfully away from the once fascinating citrus culture. A few here and there, it may be a G(ideon's band, are still isistently striving to rebuild their groves. To prophesy that an abundant harvest will ultimately crown their efforts is not hazardin- a great deal, since what has been can be. It may be added with equal safety to one's reputation as a prophet that the many appliances and methods resorted to for protection will fall into disuse and pass into the history of citrus culture.
However, it is well while the present habits of February weather continue to take refuge behind that which promises most protection, be it sheds, tents or fires. In the meantime, the skilled horticulturi st must discover some certain way of keeping the trees dormant until March, for when dormant the matured citrus trees will live through the colde-st


weather that visits Florida. At least the orange will. This has been denmonstrated time and again.
Would it not he well for the Iorticultural Society to appoint a standing committee whose purpose shall be to gather all known facts relative to methods of keeping trees dormant and reporting same to the Society at the next meeting, or, having same published through our agricultural papers next autumn. It will behoove ever orange grower in Florida to experiment with a view to discovering some method of keeping the tree dormant. A thoroughly dormant tree is better protected than it can be by any method yet proposed.
Should this Society through its laborand wisdom discover a method practicable and within the grasp of the Florida orange grower, of rendering the tree dormant until after blizzard dangers are over, it will have builded for itself a mon7 urn ent endti ring as time and will confer a blessing- immeasurable.

Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Prevention Shed Covers With Coke-Burning
Salamanders-A Success.
By ti. B. -tevens. Chairman of the Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Of the many best methods that will be presented to this Society I will confine myself to that of sheds, as the method that has proved the most successful with us. W\e found that with an outside temperature of twenty-one degrees a fiveacre shed could be kept warm enough to f)r2Veilt (l8dm' H fl cohl with 32 salamander s, burning from one hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds of coke per salamander, and that one man could fire them for the night. We have one Five acre shed so fired that caine through







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


in perfect condition. A fifteen-acre shed, not fired in the January cold, shed most of its leaves, but the young wood was not injured, and with six fires to the acre it went through all the later colds without the new growth being injured, even though the outside temperature was down to twenty-two.
As for the cost of the sheds, that will depend on the price of lumber and labor, but where the trees are planted as we plant ours-four acres of trees to one acre of shed-it will cost not far from S2.00 per tree, and should last many years, or until the trees are large enough to crowd so much as to need moving; and as they would then be old, well-hardcied trees they could stand the outside temperature much better than our trees do now. We find that trees groxv well under the sheds, that they do not suffer so much in dry weather, that the fertilizer goes farther, and that they require less labor than those outside.


Sheds of Split Cypress Lath-Rationale of Pro=
tection-A Plea for Better Weather
Forecasts.
By E. S. Hubbard, of the Committee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen
Having been requested by Mr. Stevens, Chairman of this Committee, to present a separate report, I am somewhat in the (lark in doing so, as my own experience is small and I am not aware what points will be more particularly covered by the other members of the committee.
The conditions affecting orange culture are continually changing. For the past three years we have had water and to spare in my section of the State in the spring months, but it is not so many years ago that drouth, red spider and irrigation were the live topics.


These were followed by limb blight and foot rot, with the fungicide and fertilizing questions.
In 1893 and '94 half the leaves and most of the fruit on my orange trees nearest the St. Johns river were blown off by hurricane storms and the remainder of the fruit in my grove was more or less damaged by the threshing it received and by the excess of water.
From 1895 on freezes have received our undivided attention, but judging the future from the past, it is reasonable to suppose that the belated northern winters with their abnormal and extreme blizzards will soon return to more equable conditions such as prevailed before 1895; and that favorable locations in the central and northeastern sections of the peninsula will again produce oranges with comparative immunity. The bulk of the oranges propagated since the freezes have been early varieties to be shipped before Christmas.
An orange tree carrying a crop of fruit must circulate considerable sap to keep the fruit alive and is practically in a growing condition; twenty-eight degrees or lower will soon damage fruit and the trees that carry it, while a dormant tree without fruit will stand much more cold without injury.
Personally, therefore, I shall protect by shelter only late varieties, and it would have paid me to do it under the old conditions.
Protection is a question of more fire or more shelter ranging from thickly placed fires in open groves, as practiced in South Florida, to close, dark shelters without fire which will retard growth for several weeks, but with questionable effect on health and fruitiulness of the trees. For myself I am following a coinbinaton of fire and shelter to achieve allround results as economically as possible







FLORIDA STATE HORTICUL'IURAL SOCIETY.


1y using tight sides around and a slatted roof over the whole enclosure.
The orange in its native clime is an tndergrowth bush and will thrive as well and produce finer fruit under half shade than in the open, while the diffused sunlight of a slat roof is far superior for this purpose to the natural shade of forest trees. As the diameter of the sun is to its distance from the earth approximately as I to 107 a slat roof of lath I 3-8 inches wide, no matter what width spaced apart, 147 inches or 12 feet 3 inches above the ground, would cast no solid shade, as the spread of the rays from opposite edges of the sun's (isk would meet un(ler the shadows at that distance: and probably such lath set three-fourths of an inch apart fifteen feet above the grotiml would give ample diffused sunlight in summer to produce healthy foliage and fully matlired fruit. Mv own shelter of about one and one-fourth acres is covered with riven cypress pickets five feet long averaging about five inches wide an(l set about four inches apart, the ends being fastened to IXI2 boards laid flat on Ix6 string ers on edge, nail ed on posts set Ioxio feet, standing fifteen feet hig-h. This gives over three-fourths shelter, and about two-thirds sunlight on the ground. One-half of my cover is in ten-feet panels, to be taken down in summer if necessary; but with only one-fourth taken down I have ample sunlight, and I am using part with all in position. Twothirds to three-fourths protection in still frosty weather will raise the temperature about five degrees above the outside air for several hours, but if the outside temperattire drops below twenty-six degrees or twenty-seven degrees and the surface of the soil is moist inside the shelter fires must be built and the inside temperature kept at or above the freezing point. Otherwise, if the temperature inside the


shelter falls to twenty-eight degrees or below the ground w ill freeze in an hour or two, radiation of heat from the earth will be shut off. and it will take twice as much artificial heat to prevent damage.
My shelter was not completed this winter at the time of the February I7th freeze; and having burned some wood previously, I did not have enough on hand to keep ip sufficient heat against the eddies and undertow of cold air that surged through the one-fourth openings. Still I saved part of my young growth, with a minimum temperature outside of twenty-one degrees one foot from the ground, but lost some foliage and tips of fall growth on part of my trees, chiefly from the fact that killing of undeveloped young shoots three to six inches long killed also the auxiliary buds at their bases, which prevented further sprouting from these young branches.
At present this shelter is filled with small sour orange nursery stock between the regular orange tree rows, but I pronose later to plant in thickly with small growing-, heavy-blooming and bearing late varieties of oranges at the rate of IOOO trees to the acre, to be given intensive culture.
This will make protection cost about fifty cents per tree good for ten years, with but small repairs. and but little manipulation, and a total durability of about twenty years, with forty cords of twofoot wood per acre placed for small fires in fireplaces 20x20 feet apart I shall feel secure against any emergency we have yet had to meet.
It is arduous work fighting cold artificially even with the closest and most expensive plans of shelter, and the pluck, judgment and endurance of the individnal will prove the chief factors in obtaining success.
A Plea for Petter Weather Forecasts.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Before closing I would put in a plea for better service from the Weather Bureau in the daily press.
The temperatures given in the morning papers are those of the preceding evening, while the morning temperatures which are the ones that really convey information as to the fluctuations and intensity of changes, are too late even for mailing by the bureau to the needy portions of the State. The Times-Union and Citizen also fails to give regularly the mem=oranda as to direction, movements and force of storms that are customary with the Northern papers.
It would greatly help intelligent horticulturists and agriculturists if both the morning and evening temperatures, with data tables and evening memoranda of the day previous were published, for with these as guides they mi-ight guess as closely as the bureau ob!'erver who predicted twenty-five degrees for February 17th and registered nineteen degrees mninus. Any intrested person can easily prepare a blackboard, say three by four feet, with outline of the country and location of the stations as in the bureau charts, and with different colored crayons draw isotherms and isobars of the morning and evening temperatures and barometer readings with wind directions, thereby being able to watch the progress and velocity oi storms and cold waves.
If a cold wave is moving from the northwest towards us, a comparison of morning and evening temperatures will show probable range or drop of temperature, modified by time of day and velocity of wind when it reaches us, and height of barometer will be a guide to loss of earth heat by radiation.
Otir nearness to the Gulf streami and ocean often causes us to give undue prominence to local weather indications.


I trust the Society, the Press and the Weather Bureau will work together to give the best possible service to all sufferers from cold waves in Florida.

Personal Experience of a Practical Man-Tenting and Shedding-Rapid Covering-A
Lamp That Can Be Depended On.
ByEI. 0. Painter, of tihe Committee.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
My observations and practical experience during the past winter with tents proved conclusively that the orange tree can be protected in this way to a certainty, providing the grove-tender or owner is not found napping when the critical moment arrives.
The principal item of interest that I have learned from experience is, that the transparent tent of any kind that is permanently placed over a tree will be fotind to work to disadvantage from the fact that the temperature inside of the tent is from five to ten degrees warmer in the daytime than outside, which forces the tree forward earlier, making it more tender, so that in case of a blizzard, it is more susceptible to the cold and liable to be frozen out, when trees in a normal condition would not be injured. Again, in case of cold the temperature inside the tent will go from four to six degrees lower than the outside, if no artificial heat is used. I gleaned this from experience of a year ago when I had five acres covered with tents.
The past winter I perfected a tent made from specially prepared mildewproof cloth which has the advantage of giving the tree the benefit of air, stilishine and temperature, with tile addition. al advantage that it can be quickly close(l on tile approach of cold weather. Last fall I cxp~ectedl to cover my five acres with this form of tent, hut










FIG. i OPEN.


FIG. 2 CLOSED.


E. 0. PAINTER'S ORANGE TREE TENT.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


unfortunately my materials were destroved 1by fire last November, so that all I had left was my sample tents. which hax e done -o(od secrv\ice. Th trees that were protected with their iio\\ stand out like an oasis in the desert, for on all sides the trees that were not tented were frozen back to the jaiiks. 1 folnd it very little trouble to care for them, as on nights when damaging cold was expected I had the lamps lighted, the curtains dropped, and after making the rounds to see that the lamps were burning all right I went to bed. I was not troubled with my lamps creeping up or down, owing to the fact that I foresaw this possible trouble and purchased the best brass burners. These I had soldered to tin cans made for that purpose, which would hold enough oil to last twentyfour hours, so that in case the cold continued throu-h the day the trees would not suffer before they could be re-filled. I used a tin chimney. The whole outfit of lamp cost about twenty cents apiece.
I have visited nearly all of the shedded groves in the State, and have seen many different devices. The merits of the different ones have been placed before you. fcrent ones hae been placed before you in my illustrated edition of the Agriculturist of November 22, 1899, a copy of which any one can secure by addressing me at DeLand.
The principal thing to figure on in the shed covering is to get something that can be worked rapidly. The quickest operating cover that I have seen is that built by Mr. M. H. Lubrecht, Island Grove. With his method, which is something like a window blind, lie can cover his four acres in two hours. The next is that built by Mr. Stevens over his Citra grove and also one at Stetson. both of which are illustrated in the Agriculturist.


I have been asked my candid opinion as to the best method of protection, and my conclusions are these: If any one has money with which to build sheds they are the cheapest in the long run, as the cost can be reduced to about $2 per tree. But if your condition is similar to that of the orange grower who said lie had "many trees but few cash," the individual tent system will enable you later to secure sheds.
In cutting out my cloth for tents, I make them so that the sheets are 6xi6, intending to increase the size another year by doubling them. In this way the cloth can be used as long as it will last, without having to be cut Lip or made over.
I have not had much experience with firing, but during the past spring have noticed its effects in several groves in the southern part of the State. The groves that xw ere fired are now covered with fruit on the outside limbs as well as on the inside, but the groves that were not fired have no visible fruit on the first six inches or a foot of the limbs, showing that the fires were sufficient protection to keep the chilling blasts from killing the buds on the outside limbs. WVhether the fruit saved is enough to pay for the expense of wood, etc., remains to be seen, but there is one thing evident, that if the cold had gone a few degrees lower, the man With the fire protection would have been in far better shape to escape than the one who depended on Providence.
I am thoroughly convinced that the problem of protection vill be solved so that those who still cling to the orange industry will be able, in a measure, to reconstruct their fortunes in a manner which their perseverance and hard labor deserve.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


DISCUSSION.
Mr. itcCarty-I would like to ask Mr. Hubbard what variety we must plant to get trees about seven feet apart, which would be the distance of i,ooo trees to the acre.
Mr. Hubbard-I recommend using Valencia Late, which resembles the Mtalta )val, and the King. I have seen a box of fruit apiece on trees which were only about six feet high. I have no doubt they will do just as well under shelter. The King is not the old longlegged King, but a compact, improved variety.
11r. Hart-One interesting point raised here is the question as to the comparative economy as between tents and sheds for young trees. I would like to say in regard to this, that a tent is merely a protection against cold. That is what it is used for, that is the whole aim and end of a tent. A shed, according to ri.y experience and from what I can learn from others, has other advantages thani that of merely being a protection from cold. If damaging cold was eliminated entirely from our consideration sheds would still pay well for their building. One of the main benefits of shedding, where there is half shade and that cover is left on in the summer, is increasing the growth of the trees throughout the whole season of growth. Another benefit is in doubling" the moisture in the top foot of soil which it does (luring a drotLght. There is dotihle the quantityy of available water under a shed that there is in the open ground in a dry spell. In California the Everest Company have shedded some of their groves, about 17 acres, and they claim that the one matter of increased moisture alone pays for the shedding-. They have to buy water for irrigation and lie shed reduces thi s expen.;e


one-half. Sometimes they cannot get water 'it any price and their open groves go back, but with the shed they have water in the soil to bridge over without irrigation, so the mere matter of increased moisture alone will pay for the shed and might even save the grove ;n a dry year. This matter of moisture has a wider bearing than one would think at the first consideration, and that brings up another point, the economy of fertilizer. That water in the soil with ample heat keeps plant food soluble and available to the trees to such a degree that the trees continue to grow straight along through severe drouths. The nitrifying and other ferments are given the best condition for rapid development and other activities increase as well in proportion to the amount of water in the soil up to a certain limit. The shed keeps the ground porous so air can penetrate it. Fhis aeration also has a beneficial effect on the soil ferments. I will read in this connection extracts from an article published in 1893 in The Experiment Station Record on this subject.
I was greatly at a loss to understand how my trees under shed could get such and abundance of nitrogen, none having been applied in the past two years. This quotation satisfactorily and scientifically exIlains this.
I w would like you to see how dark and rich these leaves are and how large. During last season's extreme drouth they had the appearance as though the oil was dripping from them, as Maj. Healy said of Col. Harvey's trees at Pensacola, while outside the leaves were turning yel low and the trees becoming barkbound. You could turn the earth over with your foot and find moist earth just under the surface. Last season I planted about 12 acres to beggar weed. I got a good growth under my shed, while on the out-







FLORIDA STATE IORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


side I got nothing. My experience about applying organic nitrogen to orange trees under shed indicates that it is best that wve go slowly until we know more about it, or we may over do the thing and cause dieback. Nitrogen is the most expensive element of plant food we apply to our trees. \ith potash and phosphoric acid at 4 to 6 cents nitrogen will cost about 17, therefore that one fact of developing it in abundance and making it available to the trees should have proper attention as a matter of great economy.
If you want protection from cold alone on very small trees. I do not see but that tents are economical and would serve the purpose, but when trees get larger you will ha ve to get another set, and when they get from twelve to fifteen feet high. no horticultural industry that I know of can stand the expense. It seems to me that the cost of tents for fifteen or twenty foot trees is prohibitive. \Why not CoXer the grove over with canvas when you want protection alone? That is very much cheaper than covering each tree separately, if above baikiil size, and when trees get large they interlock their limbs, but I wvant something more than protection from the cold, and I get it through the shed and very cheaply, almost as cheaply as you can buy \-our small size tents, and I have protection that I believe will last fifteen to twenty years. But I will put it at eight, and stiil you get benefits that will pay for the expense outside of the protection from cold. The greatest benefits are received from the sheds wXhen the trees are small and the cover shades tle g-round. My shed is small, it is only an acre and a half, but it is sufficiently laree to allow of considerable in the way of experimentation. Mv shed is about i5 1-2 feet high; that will


with small fires (all effective plans require artificial heat) furnish absolute protection until the trees get up to the top. \\ hen the trees reach such a size that the branches interiap aid the tops wvant to push through, I can take that cover off, leave my valls up and still protect them just as well. In protecting with tents if your trees are large it is too expensive, even if there is room to get the canvass beto, ec the trees, when you can protect them with open fires, if you have shelter or a high wall about them. By all means, with my experience, I would choose the shed. My shed only cost $450 an acre a(l even with the increased price of wire and lumber I think they can be built for $55� an acre, and they are there for a long time, as they are mostly galvanized wire and thin cypress, both of which are very lasting.
Mr. Pierpot-I would like to have Mr. hiart's experience about the fruit of the trees under his shed.
Mr. Hart-Most of my trees under the shed 6re small trees because they have been cut back y ear after year by freezes 'til I put the shed on a year ago. I then had about .six trees that were large enough to bear oranges, and they were protected simply by the palmetto trees. \\'hen I started shedding every tree was killed below the height of my knees except six, so you can see they are not in the condition yet to put growth into fruit buds as much as in the leaf. I can say, however, that considering the growth the trees are making they are fruiting fairly well. On our coast we have thousands and thousands of wild orange trees growing under heavy live oak, bay, hickory and palmetto. In some of these we find thin tops because the trees grow hi-h for light and are crowded above and belm, ground, hut what







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


tops there are on them put on fair crops of fruit. My shaded trees are widespreading and of dense foliage. I know of quite a large acreage of hammock trees where they bear ample crops, and where they get very much more shade than my shed gives. Of course this shedding is a matter of experiment to a great extent yet. We will have to have more experience before we will learn all the advantages and disadvantages, but I feel very sure that we will have ample bloom, because I see it in the hammocks, and I feel sure that a larger proportion oi the bloom will set and give more perfect fruit than trees on the outside.
Mr. F. D. Waite-From my past experience in growing oranges under forest protection, I believe that orange trees grown under sheds will give finer quality and thinner peel than those grown oi the outside.
Mr. Jones-When I was on my way here, a great many asked me if this Society, which was a recognized organization of the State and had great influence, could not petition the. Government to have a Commission appointed to see whether the destruction of the forestt had any influence on the climate of Florida, and whether any steps could be taken to remedy this matter if such was the case. If so, we would know what we are going to do, if not we will go on in the same old way. It seems that in many places turpentine men cutting down the forest seem to have a tendency to create a vacuum or opening. They asked me to bring this before this meeting to see if we could petition to have a Commission appointed to enquire into this matter.
Dr. Geo. Kerr-It is not my intention to answer Mr. Jones at this point. It has been proven that the destruction of our fore-Is has little or nothing to do with


the climatic conditions that we have had recently in Florida. I would say that I believe if the citrus trees had simply been shaded or protected from the cold during this past winter, they would have come out uninjured, that is, shaded until the middle of the day. I have a King orange tree standing on the west side of my house, two of them. There are gentlenien here who have seen them. The house is sixty feet long north and south; these trees stand within ten feet of the house, probably nine, and they received no sun until mid-day; they did not shed their le-ves. I believe that simply shading in the morning would have prevented much injury to orange trees during the past winter, but when it comes down to shedding, it does little or no good.
Maj. G. P. Healy-I do not believe any of these isolated cases prove anything. I have orange trees, or (lid have
-have none now-that stood on the west side of the house and they were all killed to the ground this winter. We have a neighbor a thousand feet from me with a small Tangerine grove out in the open with no protection of any kind; his trees never lost a leaf; he was in the wide open and my trees were protected. If a man could tell me how it was possible that my neighbor carried his grove through the winter without shedding their leaves and I not 200 feet from him had mine killed to the ground, then I would take some stock in these isolated cases of what happened in the sun, water and mud.
Mr. Butler-Frequently I have seen orange trees on the north side of the house killed; it was because they were not protected. To shed a tree will make a great difference. The Tangerine tree is Ihe hardiest tree we have. I believe if a good healthy tree it will stand almost







FLORII)A STATE 11O[1TICULTURA L S()CIETY.


as much cold as any, btt sheds will protect and have protected in hundreds and hundreds of cases. I put up seven sheds and what is said in regard to moisture under those sheds is true. I think it a mistake not to get that additional moisture.
Mr. Hart-In regard to the question of moisture and cultivation under the sheds, I \xill sav that my trees hav e the same cultivation when inside the sheds as on the outside; it is not a matter of my opinion or experience but an actual experience at West Palm Beach and in California.
In regard to nitrification in the shed that i s another point. Under a shed there is need of application of nitrogen much less than in the sunshine.
Mr. Phelps-There is one question I would like to ask Mr. Hart. He spoke of the time when he would remove the sheds, the trees being so large that the branches would be interlaced; also the necessity of heating them when they are interlaced. Wherc, then, is he going to put his fires?
Mr. Hart-I will say that I have thought of that considerable. I see the diticulty of burning open fires under trees that are closely grown all through like that. The question is, whether I will have stoves with long pipes carrying the heat a long distance to let it ott, or spreading it so that it will not be intense at any point; or whether I will take out a tree here and there. It will be only necessary to have a very few fires on an acre when the trees are large and there is a rcs ahalklN good wall around the outside. That matter can be easily overcome in some wvay; I am satisfied I will be able to work it out by the time it is required.
Mr. Jones-I will ask Dr. Kerr what


authority he has for saying the destruction of the forest trees has no climatic influence in Florida.
Dr. Kerr-The Government has already had a Commission appointed to investigate that matter and that is their decision.
Mr. Bradt-As to the statement that the destruction of forests has nothing to do with the climate, I will say that the gentleman is not in touch with the Weather Bureau. It has been proved that the forest does protect the immediate vicinity. There is no evidence that the nean temperature of Florida has changed, but there is evidence of local changes. It has been proven beyond question that the destruction of forests does affect climate, and the turpentine business is jeopardizing the climate also.
Mr. V. H. Mann-There is one question connected with protection that I do not think we give due consideration to, that is the condition of the trees. We find one tree is killed and another is not. In 1886 I had a young grove of about one hundred trees: that winter the thermometer went down to i6, still we went on and budded those trees that were small. What we want to know is how to get the trees in a proper condition so that we can overcome these difficulties and so they will be enabled to stand the cold.
Dormancy.
Mr. Gillett-I have been interested in this discussion of protection and I think what Mr. Alann has just said is the point we must begin upon. My experience has been with larger and older trees during the past year. This matter of retarding the growth or keeping the trees dormant until after cold has passed, is the one we should determine upon, and it would, in my opinion, fix the whole mat-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


ter. As far as my experience has been, however, I can see no way by which we can accomplish it. Last fall I stopped working my grove about the ioth of October; there was no more work done; it seems the opinion of others was to stop the cultivation in the fall as soon as possible that the trees might harden up. I did this and was confident I had struck the right plan. Some of my neighbors continued to plow until February and as I can see their groves went through the freeze just as well as mine did, and they fertilized heavily, too. It seems the citrus tree can stand almost any kind of treatment and there is no fixed rule to go by.
In regard to building fires in groves. During the freeze of February I was told of a grove where fires had been built and was told that they had lost no leaves; had all bloomed heavily. The groves I have charge of now are near Tampa, the trees are twenty-five years old and many of them bear many oranges; we had fires twenty-five to thirty feet apart just under each tree. In December we fired for the first time with the thermometer at twenty-four, but thinking that the thermometer would continue to fall as it usually does, we started other fires. When we began firing the thernmoleter stood at twenty -four; within thirty minutes, although the ground was frozen hard, the temperature had risen ten degrees, making it thirty-four, and the ground immediately thawed out soft. I was satisfied with the experiment, although we did not need the fires. By 6 o'clock the thermometer was thirty-six, with a stiff x ind. I had had no experience in firing under those conditions, but we beMin lig hting the fires and went from one


grove to the other watching the thermometer, which registered twenty-six. The thermometer on the inside registered thirty-two to thirty-three. We had the wood piled up and got chips and brush matted together with resin, from the turpentine stills, cut it up into chunks and put pieces of it under the end of the wood pile. I had tongs and would take hold of a piece, put it into the fire and get it thoroughly lighted and a man would run through the grove and ignite those piles. This turpentine or rosin will ignite under almost any conditions. I put some in a bucket of water two hours and then lit it with a match. We kept those fires going until 6 o'clock in the morning. During this last freeze there were buds a foot long, but I did not see any damage. I 'vent into the groves of those who had no fires and while there was some damage, they have about as good a crop as we have. Last year under the same conditions everything was killed on the trees all about Tampa; I am at a loss to explain this and have not found anybody yet who can explain this. If we could find some wav to keep our trees dormant, we could keei) them from freezing.
Mr. Mote-Mr. President, I am interested in the growing of oranges. I have been at it for sonietinie and would like to ask the question whether or not ihe orange industry is being driven from north to south in Florida. Is it true that they used to raise them in Savannah, Brunswick, Valdosta and other places as high as that? It looks to me as 0-c ugh the winters are getting colder and driving the orange business south. I would like to have any data on that point that these gentlemen cali give.
I will ask Mr. Hart about the shedding in California. I spent a year in Califor-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


nia and failed to find any place in that State where they could raise oranges without irrigation. WVhere is that grove of seventeen acres where they did not irrigate ?

Irrigation Under Sheds.

Mr. Hart-It is i~o acres, near Riverside.
E. H. Mote-I do not believe that particular grove is any criterion to go by. If the gentleman knewv the condition of that grove, lie would say it was no criterion. The trees were far from being that dark rich color that some of the gentlemen speak of. If I remember correctly they irrigated there right along. Every grove that I saw in California had to be irrigated. I would like to ask the question :Does the shedding of groves as advocated by some of the gentlemen, produce more insects? I would like an answer to that question. Are the trees that are covered uip during the summer liable to be more infested wvith insects than those on the outside? I would say yes.
As to one grove freezing down iooo feet from- another, and one grove freezing, on one side of a wire fence where one on the other side escaped, I am unable to explain. It may be the kind of stock the buds are put in ; it may be the way they are put in, or it may be that they are grafted or budded, I will answer Maj. Healy's question by asking another. Why is it that of two adjacent tomato fields, one will be killed and the other not ? The condition of the tree has a great deal to do with it, how the stock is budded and how it has been worked for years past. Mr. Gillett advocates the


idlea of keeping the trees dormant. \Vhy is it the trees in California will stand several degrees more cold than they will in Florida? It is a fact; it is because they aire dormant. If our trees in Florida wouldl stay dormant, as they do in Californa. we should not have the trouble of having them freeze downvi every winiter. The winters in California are much colder than they are in Florida. In the middle of the dlay, during the summer season, it is very w-,arm; about 3 or 4 o'clock it begins to get cooler; I saw the same conditions exist in the middle of winter w ith two or three weeks of warm weather in the winter. If the nights had been as wvarmn in proportion the sap in the trees would have continued to move. The sap being down, the trees being dorm-'ant, this is what saved them. If we could find some way to keep the trees dormant, we would solve the whole question. If there can be no way devised to keep the trees from being destroyed by insects or frozen down every winter, then the orange business will have to be stopped.
Mr. Gillett-When I first came to Florida, as an Irishman would say, I went to Georgia. I landed in St. Mary's, Ga., and the collector of the port there tried to convince mie that it was useless to g-o further south to grow oranges. He showed me his grove, a very handsome one, looking very healthy and vigorous, but we had a frost, a heavy one too, every morning; so I came on further south and got to Jacksonville, where they told me was the best place to raise an orange grove. But I proceeded to Palatka and from there went to Lake Weir, and I have seen the orange industry move on, and in my opinion there is absolutely no safety in what is known as the "or-







FL()RII)A STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


ange )elt," unless the trees are grown as hot-house plants.
I spent six or eight winters in Californa, but the conditions there are different from Florida. I have a brother there who has charge of 25o acres of orange trees, and he says there is hardly a winter when they are not frozen, but as long as we fellows in Florida do not have any oranges here, they can manage to sell what they raise. The first winter he was there the thermometer went to eighteen; he expected to see the grove ruined. but to his surprise he did not lose it. They have no rain for eight or nine months in the year, and by taking vater away from the trees they absolutely stop all growth and there is no sap moving during the winter. Their soil is stiff and heavy and it takes a long time for the sun to penetrate it. When the soil becomes soft so a horse can work it, they begin to cultivate it. If they have four or five days of work and a little rain the sunshine penetrates it and the growth takes place. It takes four or five weeks of warm sunshiny weather for the trees to begin to grow. It takes so long for the ground to warm tip that the conditions of growth are slow. If we could govern and control our soil as they do, we would never have cold enough here to hurt us at all.
Mr. Mote-The rains commence there in October, so there is no very great period between the time they stop irrigating and the time when the rain comIniences.
Prof. Home-When the freeze of February came I was at Florence with Dr. Inman, and went through his grove and many others in that section. I noticed on the north and northwest sides of all the trees the growth had started. The


new growth was out three or four inches, while on the south and southeast sides the trees had not started.
Dr. Ininan-This question is of more importance to the orange grower than any other. If we can keep our trees dormant until late in the spring, we are pretty sure to save them, as well as the crop. I have quite a number of groves of my own and those I am caring for, so I have to begin in September and October to put them away for the winter. I observe the groves that I continue cultivating until the middle of December pass through the winter as w ell as those laid by earlier. The orange tree, I find, has a certain period of rest, running from fifty to seventy days. If we can keep them growing tp until the middle of December, I think that the chances of keeping them dormant are much enhanced. There is no danger in keeping trees growing too late in the fall; there is no danger but that they will become dormant before the cold becomes too great. I think from my experience, which has been nuite a little, about fourteen years, that cultivating until the mid(le of December is best to be recoimended, much preferred to putting them to sleep early in the fall.
Mr. Crane-If we succeed in keeping our trees dormant, will it solve the problems ? Before 18, we were in trouble about this question. \Ve raised five million boxes of oranges. What was the result? Because the fruit will not stand as mtich cold as the tree, we were obliged to ship our fruit early to avoid all danger, then the price dropped. We were obliged to ship at once; we put our fruit in the market all at the same time. If we succeed in retarding the growth will we not be in the same fix? We






FLORII)A STATE iIIOWICULTURAL SOCIETY.


must market it ll at the same time and get the same results. As Mr. McKinney said, we must bring this thing down to a business basis. If we shed our trees we have six months in which to market our fruit and we can hold the fruit or sell it, and market it when it is needed.
Maj. Healy-The whole subject of shedding a grove is a rich man's privilege. A rich man can shed and the poor man cannot. It is simply impractically. the whole thing, as far as the average orange grower is concerned. With )lenty of money you can put up sleds, but the man who can't raise 13 cents cannot shed his grove. If you want to protect the poor orange grower at the same time, you have got to do it some other way, do it with something that don't cost anything, and you will never do it any other way.
Mr. Gaitskill-A great many of our people are growing truck among their orange trees. Those groves are cultivated, possibly beginning in September and all through the winter. They fertilize at different times, use ammoniated fertilizers, and I do not see much difference between those groves and the one belonging to the man who does not cultivate his. One gets killed and the other does not. As to Mr." Jones' question about the past record of cold, I believe that our \Veather Bureau has published statements that they have found that over two thousand years ago there were periods of extreme cold, but I do not know whether all the timber was cut down or not. I do not know if there was very much turpentining done then. I do not know if taking the forest trees out will make any difference.
Mr. Hart-I want to protect against .II.S.-5


this question of shedding being only the rich man's privilege. I am poor, yet if I put forth all my energies I could shed several acres and I could do it in a year or two if I had not one cent. This southern country is made up of energetic, enterprising., progressive people and there is hardly one here of that class but what, if they are not deeplyy in debt at present, can shed half an acre or more, and then they would have a nest egg, and very soon they would be in better condition. It seems to me a man is weak in the knees, if lie is out of debt. who cannot get to work and shed half an acre; he can do it if he tries. If he really wants anything and is willing to work for it, lie can get it. If he will go at it with a vim he will do it. In reply to the question of insects under the sheds, it is too early for me. at least, to answer that question fully.
A Member-It has been demonstrated that the wild orange tree is free from insects, but when cultivated and the soil is stirred up the insects come. The sweet orange tree when wild is almost as free from insects as the sour. It is when the soil is cultivated that you have insects.
Insects Under Sheds.
Mr. F-art-The purple mite has appeared in my grove this year. It. is a relative of there spider, but turns the leaves gray or whitish, instead of yellow, as does the latter. It also works on the top as well as under part of the leaves. This is my first experience with it. Early in the season I saw it on a few trees in one of my groves; now it is on every tree in that grove. Soon after I found it on two trees in my shed. I am now unable to find them on any trees except







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


those two; instead of spreading in the shedded grove, as they did in the open grrove, they have confined themselves to these two trees. There are few birds and little wind to help spiders bridge from tree to tree to carry them, so the conditions seem- to be strongly against crawling insects spreading from one tree to another under a shed. That one item is in the line of evidence that the insects will not be as numerous under a shed. The scale insects may possibly be m-ore plentiful under sheds to start with, but if wve can get the white headed and San Jose fungi started, which wve can, with the help of their other enemies, we need not worry over them.
Mr. Mote-in California certain insects are very bad. There is a State law that requires each man who has an orange grove to fumigate his trees. If there are insects in his grove, within a certain period hie is expected to do away with them; they throw over the tree some spray and use certain means to kill them. If that man failis to get rid of those insects in a certain time, the State takes charge of the grove, and charges the expense of ridding it of insects to the grove. The white fly is the worst eienmy that the orange has to deal with in Florida. One man takes care of his grove. but his neighbor is allowed to go along without taking care of his. If the State would take this matter tip, they could remedy this evil to a great extent.
Rev. Lyman Phelps-This question of insects has come tip. If there is one thing in the past that this Society has discussed, besides citrus fruits, it is insects. T began shedding' for a protection as an argument for growing oranges as early as 1878; 1 abandoned it as I went


along to give my attention to the insects.
Dr. Inmani-J have come to my conclusions by practical experience. I could show youi on the first day of March young groves that were budded the first day of March of the previous year that did not have their buds injured, and my Tardiff trees would have stood twentyeight (degrees without injury. Speaking of fertilizers, I have come to the concluision that in fertilizers a stimulating one containing a good percentage of ammonia is very good. I use that for the first application inl the spring.
Mr. Btitler-In regard to keeping orange trees growing until they want to rest, that is a practical matter. By working the tree tintil late in the fall, applying only p~hosphoric acid and potash, it makes some (difference in the matter of its dormancy. Trees that are so treated blossom four weeks later than those not so treated. One year ago this spring mny trees b~lossomned four weeks later than they usually do on account of this treatment. This is well illustrated in case of a late spring drought.
Mr. Gillett-I wish to quote Maj. Healy; lie said, "All this proves rot." As I stated before, we had trees all around Tampa, some of which had been worked every month in the year, others which were not worked after the first of October, and all had a growth five or six inches long and all endured a temperatuire of tw~enity-six without any injtiry. It proves nothing.
Maj. Healy-Prior to 1895 we talked this old question over and over; this is the same old thrashing machine, Mr. President. Going back to personal recollections and personal experience, I think that there are some here who will






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


remember that on Thanksgiving Day, 1878, they saw on their young trees icicles hanging. I think there are some here who can remember that, and yet these trees came through without harm; that cold did very little harm. That was at a time when the trees could not have been dormant. I cannot see how you are going to make a perennial tree dormiant. How is it possible for a tree to be perennial and dormant? If there is no circulation of sap, how can the leaves remain upon the trees? What makes deciduous trees ? It is nothing but the descent or reflow of the sap. That is not true of any evergreen tree I ever saw. It must flowv at all times during the year to a greater or less extent. It is the nature of the tree to do so and how are you going to check it without a cold storage plant over each tree?


Dr. Inman-There may be some ridiculous points in this subject, but it is of vast importance. It is more important to keel) our trees dormant than anything else, lbut when it comes to orange growing, wve have got to grow them in the open fields of Florida. Nine-tenths of us have to do that. WVe cannot shed our large trees in groves of one hundred or two hundred acres. The winds will tear down all the shedding or tents we can construct. Does fertilizing and the cultivation of trees change their condition ? If it does, then we can overcome these difficulties by changing our methods of cultivation. I do not depreciate tenting and shedding for those who can afford it. I only wvant to learn if there is not some mode of protection feasible for the rest of us.


PROTECTION WITH BOXES.


Detailed Description-Protection Perfect-Cost will be About $4.00 per Tree in Five Years.

By J. C. Icenhour.


Feeling that protection to citrus trees in the northern portion of the orange belt will be a topic of interest at this meeting, I thought a word about the method I used in protecting 1,500 trees. the cost and their condition would be of interest.
We have nothing patented, nor have we anything to sell. We at all times are ready to give any information we have in regard to the scheme.
We boxed in each tree. Our box sections were four feet wide and six feet


high, made out of matched three-quarter-inch cypress, the material being nailed to two battens, each 3-4 in by 3 in. by 4 feet. The section facing east at bottom had an entrance io in. by 12? in. closed by box head, through which a lamnp was placed. A cover was made of unbleached sheeting and for this, the first season, they were made six feet square, leaving a margin of a foot to drop over sides of box.
When the box was set up this cover was nailed to top of west side, aiid






FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


caught up and lightly tacked, to so remain till the weather man gave the warning to draw over and make fast. This we did January Ist, but did not light our lamps till January 12th.
We use a conmon glass lamp, such as fits the ordinary bracket, a No. 2 sun turner , inch wick and a tin chiney, with hood to shield the overhanging limbs from direct heat of lamp, and to shield wick from rains, etc.
The founts cost, delivered, 70 cents a dozen; burners, 57 cents a dozen; chimneys, $4.5o a hundred ; wicks, 70 cents a gross.
This lamp in our boxes kept the temperature up to 42 degrees or 44 degrees when it was I8 and 2o degrees on the outside.
This lamp will burn from fourteen to sixteen hours. We used 13o degree oil, but found it unsatisfactory, as the wicks would crust and would have to be scraped after each burning to insure best results. Would advise the use of the best oil and a really good burner. Do not try to save in these two itens, for if you do, some cold day you will wish you had lot.
Our sheeting cost tIs 4 3-4 cents in New York; our lumber, cut to lengths, cost us on lighter, at our dock $io.5o per 1,000 feet. It was a No. 4 grade, good enough for the purpose. \Ve paid $i per day for our labor. Our sections were nailed together on forms. Material was forced together and held in place by ordinary bench screws. Tops of horses were strapped with iron, so as to clinch the nails when driven through.


Counting every item and all labor used in making and setting up boxes, lamps, oil (I3 barrels), labor of tending (paying 20 cents an hour for night and Sunday work), we found on March I5th our protection had cost us $1.85 a tree.
Our box sections are on skids, covered with a few sections, and as battens give a 3-4 inch air space, I claim they will be good for ten years. I estimate the cost to protect our trees for five years will not exceed $4 per tree, and for ten years not over $7 per tree. When the tree gets so large that two sections must make a side (eight sections to a tree) I have a simple way (not to be patented) to fasten two sections into one, and to facilitate handling and piling, disengaged by drawing two wire nails, cost per tree about 15 cents at present price of malleable iron.
We expect to keep the trees headed low. Aspiring shoots will be severely dealt with. But as the tree grows, our modern walls will expand, and the cover will be cut ample to meet them.
Our trees came out of the boxes looking as if they had wintered on the keys. The expense of such protection does not annihilate prospective profits. It gives employment to home labor, and rnakes a demand for a class of lumber that can not be shipped to distant markets. Ilaying your lamps lighted von can go to bed as I do. though the cold is driven by a thirty mile gale.
The box scheme is not ornamental, but the McCormick & Hul)bs trees
prove its efficiency, and the figures I have given count the cost.














MAINTAINING PERMANENT ORCHARD FERTILITY.


Deep Plowing-Good Ventilation-Use of Lime-Cropping with Field Crops to use Up Nitrogen-Application of Minerals-Wide Planting Recommended.


By C. K. McQuarrie.


In choosing a location for an orchard one is often apt to overlook some very important points in the matter. The quality of the soil, the exposure to sun, its level character or sloping nature, its subsoil and drainage facilities, its proximity to a thick belt of timber on either side, preferably to the north, and yet to be so located that there is always a certainty of a good air current all through it during hot weather.
I may say that my remarks on this occasion will be confined entirely to peach, pear and plum orchards.
My preference for a location is a high level piece of pine land with a southeastern exposure, and, if possible, a belt of pine timber on the northern side. I do not want any hammock lands near my orchard in any case whatever, because the hammock cuts off air circulation owing to its density, and the ravages of tihe San Jose scale antI the pear blight are intensified by lack of this air circulaton. From practical experience and close ob.servation I find that during our hot moist days of July and August, the scale and pear bllight are more destructive than at any other period of the year, because all the conditions are then favorable for it,


rapid production, and if the orchard is surrounded by belts of dense timber or hammock its ravages are doubly destructive.
After choosing the location the next step is to put the land in proper condition to receive the trees. If newly cleared land is used it should be thoroughly broken up as deep as possible without interfering with the subsoil, and all trash and rubbish burned up. If possible the stumps should be also removed, but as it sometimes happens that this is impossible at the time, at least any of them that interfere with the proper cultivation of the future orchard should be removed.
We are sometimes rushed for time at planting and think that a little later we can get more leisure to attend to details; but that period, when we have more time than the present, very seldom ever comes around, so we had better do things properly while we are at it.
The aim of one who plants an orchard should be to get the most returns for outlay of time and capital, therefore he should make a proper beginning, his chief aim being to always improve the quality of his soil every year: and this







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


brings up the point of the best methods to be employed for this purpose.
Avoid Too Much Nitrogen.
The first year of the tree's existence in the orchard is the most critical period of its whole career.
If on planting, too much nitrogenous fertilizer is used the wood made will be sappy and unreliable to build a good tree upon. On the other hand, if enough of this wood and foliage-making material is not used the tree will be unthrifty and lack vitality. The peach particularly is very much of a problem in this respect, for if the spring growth is rank and the wood made of a soft nature it is apt to continue the operation in the fall and make two growths in one season; in that case the buds on the second or fall growth are sure to be destroyed during the following winter's frosts.
We see this going on all over this State every year, that is, stretches of limbs on peach trees on which there is not a single live bud, all having been destroyed by the previous winter's frost.
After considerable experimenting with fertilizers for first year's growth of the trees my preference is for cotton seed ineal and acid phosphate, half of each by measure. A handful of this inixture put in the hole at planting time but not to touch the roots, and a couple of handfuls more a few weeks later scattered around the tree and worked into the soil will keep it growing and in a thrifty condition, for we must remember that what is wanted is a thrifty tree, not a prodigy in size or extra growth of wood. The future care of the orchard should be toward improving its fertility so that our trees shall give good account of themselves at fruiting time; but we must not overlook the fact that NN7e cannot get this


permanent fertility by simply dumping so much fertilizer in it year after year. No, the proper way is to grow crops in the orchard that will improve the soil and at the same time improve the trees. Now, this is a point that opens tip a long lane of debatable ground and I have no doubt a good many of my audience will dispute some of the assertions that I am about to make; but all that follows is founded on personal experience and close observation of conditions as I found them in growing pears, plums and peaches.
Cropping.
At first a crop of cowpeas, beans, or such can be grown with profit and advantage, though these crops are nitrogenous in their nature and should not be plowed under, but cut for hay and the roots used for fertilizing purposes. After the orchard gets into bearing the only crop of this nature that I would grow would be buckwheat. Neither rye nor oats should ever be grown in a bearing orchard. A crop of buckwheat sown in August, plowed tinder when it is in full blossom, a ton of lime per acre applied at the same time, and hairy vetch sown for a winter cover, will do more to add to the fertility of the orchard than anything I know of. Here let me say a word abo"t lime and the mode of application.
Apply Lime.

In applying lime if we air-slake it first we lose more than half of its value. It should be scattered just a little at a time and plowed in at once; in that way we get the benefit of the effect the gases generated in the slaking process have on the soil, and that effect is more potent







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


toward improving the fertility of the soil than wve are willing to give it credit for. In the case of plowing under any green material, unless lime is applied and plowed in with it, the effect will be more hurtful than beneficial. The treatment that I have thus indicated will leave orchard soil, in the spring, full of nitrogenous matter and to counteract any bad effect it might have on our trees by causing them to make too much wood we must plant a crop that will absorb a good deal of this matter and add phosphoric acid and potash as required . The three fruits under consideration are great consumers of potash, and must have it to give good results; therefore, in preparing for any crop we must apply enough of these elements to supply the wants of the tree over and above what is wanted for the crop. The objection can here be made, Why grow a crop at all? But in growing a crop we are providing cultivation and using the undesirable portion of the soil fertility, our aim being to encourage less wood and more fruit.
Then, again, Why grow a winter crop that will give you so much nitrogen that you must grow another crop to use it tip? Because we want the soil covered all winter to prevent the leaching of fertility that would take place if left bare. In orchards where hay has been cut the hay stubble will prevent washing or leaching, but in that case also those very hay roots and stubble will give more of this undesirable fertility than yoti want. Again, the more cultivation and working the soil gets and the more it is covered from the hot sun the better the supply of moisture will be for the roots of the trees, for it is a well known fact that a healthy peach tree will require a supply


of water equal to six gallons every twelve hours (luring our hot summer weather.
Best Crops to Plant.
Nowv comes the point, What crops would be the most desirable to grow? As already said, I would avoid all small grain crops because they are very exhiausting on the soil and they do not want any cultivation in their growth. Potatoes are good, either Irish or sweet, or bo0th, but should be followed next year with a vine crop.
Cabbage is also a very desirable crop, but will require anl extra amount of potashi to serve both cabbag e andl fruit trees. Tomatoes and celery are also recommended. The main thing to be kept in view is the proper rotation of crops and making sure that you add to, every year, more than you take away from the soil.
In years when there is no fruit, with crops tin the orchard, the trees will he apt to make extra wood in spite of efforts to prevent it. Ini that case fertilizers for the crops should be appllied(l di rectly in the (drill, because the cultivation of the soil is enough to keep the trees thrifty and in condition for next year's fruit crop.
Plant Wide.
There is one other *point in this connection that I \vant to make, and that is that we plant our trees too close together. WVhen I go through our country andl see plum trees set sixteen feet apart, pears twenty-five feet and peaches twenty feet, I feel sorry for the owners of these orchards, because they neve can properly take care of them so closely planted ; and when the trees attain their full size the whole orchard will be







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


one huge propagating bed of disease of some kind or other. The density of foliage in that orchard will help the breeding of all known enemies to both trees and fruit.
It Prevents Disease.
Every practical fruit grower knows that he gets the best fruit and the best trees when they are set wide apart to Ilow free air currents and sunshine to pass all through and arotind them. I planted my Elberta peach trees, when I first set out my orchard, twenty-five feet apart each way; experts said I was wasting land taking up too much room, but the results prove the contrary. I set some LeConte pears fifty feet apart and have grown crops on the land ever since. That was nine years ago, and there never has been a blighted leaf among them. I planted other LeContes twentyfive feet apart, simply plowed the land and applied fertilizer in the orthodox fashion. These are all dead from blight and burned up long ago. I planted Alexander and other early peach trees sixteen feet apart, treated them in the orthodox fashion; the San Jose scale came along, ate them all up; they have also gone the w av of all scale-infested trees-to the fire pile. My trees set wide apart. I have been growing crops among for the past five years, and there is not a scale on them today, and they are as full of fruit as they can carry, and I defy Florida to produce thriftier or healthier looking trees.
Therefore, in conclusion, the remedy in combating and keeping away pear blight and San Jose scale from our orchards lies in setting trees wide. say not less than fifty feet fof plum and peaches and sixty feet for pears. Thus we can


keep the soil in the condition nature planned for good fruit crops and have plenty of air circulation to keep the trees free from all diseases and insect enemies. Therein lies the whole secret of profitable fruit growing and at the same time permanently increasing the fertility of our orchards.
The Production of a Hardy Orange.
By Herbert J Webber, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
At the meeting of the Horticultural Society, last year, the writer had the pleasure of outlining the work of the Department of Agriculture in the production of a hardy orange, and at that time showed photographs of some of the hybrid trees illustrating the intermediate characters exhibited by some of them. In the present paper the only attempt will be to give an idea of the progress of the work, the experiments not yet having reached a conclusion. None of the trees will fruit within two or three years yet and the success of the experiments. of course, cannot be determined until that time. The members of the Society will remember that Mr. Single has been associated with the writer in this work and must be given equal credit.
All of the hybrids which were made with an idea of securing increased hardiness were transplanted from Washington to the South last spring, the tops which were cut off in transplanting them being used as bud wood to secure stocks for extending the experiments. Something over 8oo Trifoliata stocks were budded with these in the nursery of President G. L. Taber, of this Society, at Glen St. Mary, Fla. During the summer the buds made a growth averaging about three feet or 3 1-2 feet in height and were in excellent condition during- the







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


past winter to exhibit their qualities of hardiness. Tile following notes are conpiled from a report on their condition kindly furnished by Mr. Taber.
On the nights of January 2d and 3d the thermometer at Glen St. Mary went down to twenty-two degrees when hung on porches under cover and when hung in the open air entirely unprotected registered seventeen degrees above.
An examination of the trees January 19, i9oo, gave the following results:
I. One hybrid of Ruby crossed with pollen of Trifoliata--AIl of the numerous buds of this hybrid were frozen back severely.
2. Three hybrids of Sanford Mediterranean crossed with pollen of Trifoliata.
-Numerous buds of two of these hybrids which resembled the mother plant only (Sanford Mediterranean). pro ed to be quite tender, being frozen back severely. Mr. Taher estimated the injury at about twenty-five per cent. Buds from the third iybrid of this combination, however, proved more satisfactory. It had trifoliate leaves like the male parent but with the central leaflets enlarged. It differed from the Trifoliata furthermore in being evergreen like the common orange. All the buds of this hybrid had the foliage still green and perfect, being entirely uninjured.
3. Thirty-six hybrids of the Trifoliata crossed with pollen of the Sweet Orange.
-Of these thirty-six hybrids, twenty-six resembled the mother parent so far as could be observed, having deciduous trifoliate leaves. The buds of these showed no injury from the frost, but can not be considered promising, as they seem to be typical Trifoliata. The other ten of the hybrids of this combination, however, were distinctly intermediate


between the two parents., being evergreen and having the central leaflet larger than in the true Trifoliata. These ten w erQ also uninjured, their foliage remaining green and perfect.
4. Eleven hybrids of Tangerine crossed with the pollen of Trifoliata.Ten of these hybrids had foliage like the mother parent, the Tangerine, and were quite seriously injured, though a few of the larger buds proved somewhat resistant. One of the eleven, however, had trifoliate leaves similar to the Trifoliata but was evergreen, and buds of this seedling were wholly uninjured, their foliage remaining green and perfect.
It will be seen by comparing the above statement that twelve of the hybrids which showed plain intermediate characters between. the orange and Trifoliata were uninjured by the freeze and retained their foliage green and perfect. In regard to the comparative hardiness of these Mr. Taber wrote as follows: "I have already mentioned that Citrus trifoliata has lost all of its foliage and hence a comparison of these varieties that are marked 'foliage green and perfect' shows that said varieties are not only extremeIN, resistant to cold, but are also entirely evergreen. Some of them are in fact very handsome. For further comparative purposes I would mention that oneyear-old Satsumas side by side with these Government varieties will lose about one-third of their foliage and perhaps live per cent. of the tender growth of the tops."
The importance of this comparison in hardiness of the twelve evergreen hybrid orange with buds of Satsuma on Trifoliata stock will be apparent to all orange growers, as Satsuma on this stock is, I think. unquestionably the hardiest ever-







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


green orange known to us up to the present time. These twelve hybrids which seem plainly to be hardier than the Satsuma thus become now the hardiest known evergreen oranges.
After the freeze of February 17 and i8, i900, Mr. Taber again examined the trees for us and found that these twelve hardy evergreen hybrids still retained a large portion of their foliage uninjured.
It will be seen from this that so far as hardiness is concerned the hybrids are proving to be all that could be asked. Should they further favor us by producing good fruit the battle will be won. We, however, cannot expect to succeed so easily, and as a brace to your continued patience, I must reiterate what I said last year, that it is probable that these first generation hybrids wvill not give us fruit of the quality we desire. We must be prepared to go on with the work when these hybrids fruit, and obtain numerous blends between them and our best sorts, and by this means it would seem that we must ultimately obtain what we desire.
I should further state that budded trees of these hybrids have been placed with the various Southern Experiment Stations for thorough testing as to hardiness and other qualities. If in the course of the experiments we are fortunate enough to secure good fruits, buds will be distributed to growers and the members of this Society will largely reap~ the benefit of the work. Until that time we trust that von will be patient with


our failures and give us your sympathy and aid.
Washington, D. C., April 30, 1900.
By Prof. Webber's request, President Taber added:
Of the fifty-one varieties referred to there are a dozen that certainly went through the winter very handsomely. While the leaves of these particular twelve varieties retain the trifoliate character they are considerably modified in formi- from- the type of foliage of the true C. Trifoliata and these twelve sorts also remained evergreen all winter, while the true C. Trifoliata is pronounced deciduous andl sheds its foliage early in the winter. ly observation of the whole fiftyone varieties in nursery would lead me to make the general statement that tho 'se of which the foliage resembles the sweet orange most closely are the most tender, while those whose foliage resembles C. Trifoliata most are the most hardy. Some of these fifty-one varieties aire so nearly like true C. Trifoliata that it wVould be impossible to distinguish between them by their growth and foliage, while others show their sweet parerwtage much more than they do the C. Trifoliata.
It is worthy of emphasis that the twelve varieties particularly referred to stood the numerous freezes of the past winter without losing their foliage notwithstanding. that they were wiLhout protection and that the thermometer went down to twenty degrees on the 17th of February. after growth had commenced.













DISEASES AND INSECTS OF THE CITRUS.


The White Fly -Common Long Scale-The Brown Fungus as a Friend of the Tree.


By A. J. Pettigrew, of the Committee.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The Committee appointed to report on Diseases and Insects of Citrus Fruits have several large and intricate subjects before them, and they wish most earlestly that they could tell you how to exterminate all the injurious insects and how to prevent or cure all the diseases. \We surely would if we only knew. Honesty to you and to ourselves compels us to say that what your committee do not know would make a large and valuable book. We hope that you do not expect much of us and we think that the best we can do will be to give some of our experience.
The White Fly or Mealy Wing.
Aleyrodes citri appeared near mny place south of Manatee as early as at anyl place in the State, and Col. C. H. Foster, owner of Fair Oaks groves, was one of the first, probably the first, to send specimens to W\ashington and to receive letters and advice from the Department. The first advice was to use kerosene emulsion, which he did and killed millions. Then other mixtures were tried. nearly all of which destroyed all it touched. The final summing up was that with the resin wash or some other good and cheap sprays the flies could be controlled in isolated groves or in whole


neighborhoods if all would spray. But the flies could not be exterminated because they breed on many native growths in the hammocks. My nursery and young grove was on Col. Foster's road from his place to Manatee, and after the freeze of February '95, he and I agreed to have every remaining leaf removed from all our citrus trees before hatching time. We did so, but the next October some of the pupae could be found on the outside trees next the uncleared hammocks and the next year they had so increased as to blacken some trees.
Before this freeze a red fungus had appeared and was destroying some of the pupae and the year after or the next year Professor \Vebber found a fungus which he called the brown fungus which propagates both by spores and mycelia, and under favorable circumstances it increases many hundred times faster than the flies can, and it will ultimately exterminate them. After the most careful inquiry and investigation as to their origin I am convinced that they are native and also their fungus enemies, and I believe the spores of their fungus enemies could be dormant a thousand years and then arise and destroy them if they should again become numerous. Orange trees usually have one fair crop of








FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


fruit after the flies commence on them, but after that no more as long as the flies remain nuiinnr)s; and when they are very plentiful tnere are from 400 to i,6oo pupae on medium to large leaves. When the fungus gets a good start in an infested grove as early in the season as July that grove will likely hear a half crop the next year and full crops after that, if fairly treated. From some unknown cause the brown fungus seemed to he dormant from September or October, 1898, to July, 1899, and during that time the flies increased rapidly and blackened some groves that had been freed several years. But in July, 1899, the fungus spread very rapidly and overtook the flies again.
Since 1898 the Common Long Scale
Has caused much damage and rather more where the white flies had been than where there had been few or none. The purple fungus and one or two other sorts prey onl the scale, also one or more of the varieties of ladybug, but all of them were not sufficient to control the worst cases. Spraying with good lime whitewash, as thick as it can be used, or the resin wash or kerosene emulsion will destroy them; also whale oil soap if applied at the right time. No sure (late can be given for the young brood of scale insect, as it depends on the temperature. I had to spray some small trees three times two weeks apart with a strong solution of kerosene emulsion before I completely exterminated the scale iusccts.
The way the scale acts in some groves indicates that a tree afflicted with the foot rot suits the insect much better than a sound,. healthy tree (does. Sulphate of potash has helped some foot rot trees in


the Manatee section, and marching with healthy young sour orange or rough lemon seedlings has renewed and cured nearly every tree tried, unless, the tree was too far gone before e the inai ching was (lone.
A very large part of the loss from (diseases andl insects on citrus fruits is due to neglect and carelessness, and to the comminon fault of not doing promptly as well as we know.
It is the case with myself and possibly with others ; and right here by impressing this point I hope this paper will be of some benefit and help to some one. After cleaning around the roots andl inarching a foot rot tree I have realized that it could andl ought to have been attended to sooner. After spraying trees three times to free them from scale I could see that it would have been much better for me to have (lone it sooner, and the same principle applies in (lrali lugr andl other thing-s. It is not foresighit, it is Simply using reason and judgment after obtaining sight. Good, sound citrus trees planted on good, well dlrainedl land not fertilized too much are but little troubled with insects and diseases, but trees not so well situated should he watched, and at the first appearance of insects or disease should be attended to promptly, and with the knowledge already attained and the well known appliances, insects and diseases can be so controlled as to (10 but little damage. Valuable Notes on the Fungus Enemies of
Scale Insects.
The Chairman of the Committee, Professor P. H-. Rolfs, having removed to Clem-son Colleg e, S. C. could not prepare report, hut wrote the following letter:







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Clemson College, S. C., April 26, 'OO. My Dear Mr. Pettigrew:
I simply want to add one word to your interesting paper on Orange Insects and Diseases. WVhile studying some plant diseases at Manatee last year I had occasion to pass through some groves. This called to mind the fact that our Treasurer, Mr. AV. S. Hart, had lost his culture or start of the white-headed fungus which is so destructive to the long scale. After making inquiries and examining several groves Messrs. Wyman & Rogers took me to some trees that had been infested by long scale. After some searching I found the white-headed fungus in abundance. This was a delightful find from the fact that it gives us a permanent source of supply.
Soon after returning to the college I mailed some specimens to Mr. Hart, who acknowledged the receipt of them gratefully. He will doubtless have a good start of this fungus now, but not enough to be able to distribute any for a year or two.
By putting a grove in proper sanitary condition and making a judicious use of the white-headed fungus, there should be no preceptible loss from the long scale.
I find that the long scale, the purple scale and the chaff scale are all attacked by the San Jose scale fungus (sphaerostilbe coccophila, Tul.) (See Bulletin 41 of Fla. Exp. Sta., Lake City. Fla.)
This fungus is distributed throughout all portions of Florida, and is a very formidable enemy of many scale insects, but as a rule it is quite inconspicuous, and often needs a good microscope to prove its presence and identity.
To clear trees and vegetation of "nsects and to protect them against fungi


promptly it is usually necessary to speay; but this is at best only a temporary expedient and one not capable of eradicating the evil-doer. -"e fungus remedy is nature's own method of striking a balance, though, like nature, it may be somewhat slow. Respectfully.
P. H. ROLFS.
DISCUSSION.
Prof. Hume-Ladies and Gentlemen: Since Prof. Rolfs left the Station the Department of Entomology has been separated from that of Botany and Horticulture, and I took charge of the sections of Botany and Horticulture, while Prof. Gossard is in charge of Entomology. Since I came to the State in October last, I have given the question of fungus diseases of citrus trees considerable study. I realized in coming here that the citrus industry was one of the most important. We naturally associate Florida and oranges together. I find that the most prevalent diseases were foot-rot, the white fly and its accompanying trouble, the sooty mold and the die-back. These were causing the most trouble of the whole lot, I think, and as the gentleman who has spoken said, we have perhaps more to fear from the white fly than from anything else. The condition of many groves of Florida is rather deplorable: they look as though they were coated over with shoe black. This sooty mold is not a parasitic fungus; it does not live upon the tissues of any plant. The white fly is common throughout certain sections of the country, and I found plenty of it. It appears to me that the white fly has to be dealt with in a serious manner. I am willing to grant both the red fungus and the brown fungus their places of honor, but never will the white







[FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


fly be in any degree held in check until the people take the matter in hand. The fungi are subject to the same natural laws as the insects themselves, but when the white fly is able to develop the fungus is not always able to (o so, consequently the orange trees get the worst of it. In regard to the treatment of the white fly, I think Prof. Gossard will have something to say.
Blight.
Mr. Hart-I will take my chances wx ith cold any time if they will give me a remedy for blight. Not even the cause is known. It is a very serious matter, something we want to study closely.
Prof. Hume-It is a matter which I overlooked. I find that the blight is still here. I noticed it at least in three different localities, but only a few trees in each place were affected, and my observations on it bear me out in saying that it is of a contagious nature, and the only advisable thing to do is to do awav with the trees.
Mr. Waite-The blight is in nearly every grove in Manatee county; in every old bearing grove. It is a very serious thing. At present the only remedy I know of is to dig the trees up and burn them, but this year I am making a few experiments myself, and it does look hard to burn those trees up. After diging them tip xvith a sufficient root and cutting back the top, I set them out about half a mile from where they stood and put them in a different soil and I am watching the result. So far the trees are making a very fine growth, but I renember several years ago Mr. Adams made some experiments in the way of cutting back the tops, and for two or three years the trees made good growth, but Mr.


Adams said they eventually went back to the original condition. But possibly removing the trees from their present position and placing them in a different soil may change the conditions.
Mr. Hart-I will say it is not best to base your hopes too strongly on moving trees. As much as fifteen or eighteen years ago, when the blight appeared. I cut some trees back according to the advice of Dr. Moore, who thought it was a sort of fungus which killed the smaller limbs by suffocation or strangulation. I cut back to where the limbs were about two inches in diameter. Those trees put on a very fair growth in a year or two, but they only put on the new growth for a short time, then went back. In another experiment the trees were doctored, treated and sprinkled with the different washes and insecticides, then transported to another grove some distance off, and we watched that
experiment, hut they have all gone but one tree. That tree has a small top on it, and right now has a very few small oranges on it, but it shows the disease is hopeless, as the tree will never become a good one. I believe the only thing we can do is, as soon as the blight shows on a tree, to dig it up and destroy it. It is hopeless to ever expect it to produce a profitable crop, even a small one.
Mr. Pettigrew-Nine or ten years ago I lost nearly every lenon on some of my trees which were affected with blight; the leaves looked like fire-blight. Those lemons were cut out, but they have never been strong. I knew of some cases of blight where they could not do one thing to stay its progress. I know of one instance where a grove on high pine land had the blight, but it spread very little-took a long time to kill a tree,







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


and in some instances it takes one or two years to get to the next tree. I know of another grove where it spread fifty to one hundrd feet in three or four months and it killed trees in less than a year. All our knowledge cannot help save the tree when it is once attacked with blight; the only way we can (1o is to dig it up and burn it.
Mr. Waite-I would like to ask if the members ever saw] blight onl trees with sour roots.
Maj. Healy-I bave seen it on the bitter-sweet, sour andI every kind.
Mr. Hart-In mY grove for the last year or two the blight seems to prevail to some extent. I took the affected trees up. Among other experiments I made was to cut off a large handsome tree-by the way, it takes your handsomest trees, it may destroy the whole tree immediately or it may go on for years-I cut off a large tree that only had blight on one side. I showed the tree to a friend who questioned its being diseased at all. I took him around to the other side when he recognized it at once. I had it cut off at the ground, and w e set it near a good sound, healthy' tree with the limbs interlapped, to prove whether the disease is contagious or not. In that case the limbs interlapped were sound until the freeze cut it back and it is sound today, what there is left of it ; so for that reason I have not always burned the stock, but I dig it np.
Mr. Phelps-Have you noticed whether it was inoculated from the top or from the roots?
Mr. Hart-I have tried many experiments to test that matter. Some years ago we had some trees budded from the diseased trees into healthy ones and vice versa. Time and time again every experinent that I could think of and some


that I did not think of were tried, .but the orange tree is a slow-growing one, and it hardly ever shows a disease until it is six or seven years old, so it takes a long time to prove an experiment; and in the meantime freezes come on and destroy the trees in which the experiment is being made, so we lose our work and I do not know nor does any one whether it comes from the roots or the top.
Dieback.
Mr. Lyle-I would like to hear a statement by the Professor on the dieback.
Prof. I tume-Mr. Lyle, I am not a member of the Committee and I came without a report. I have looked into the matter of dieback and I have reached the conclusion that others have, that it will be produced by the use of too much rank fertilizer. It seems to be due to a case of over-feeding or indigestion. There has been a good deal of discussion for the past year in horticultural papers regarding the use of Bordeaux mixture for dieback, and it seems to produce a good effect. I saw one experiment that had been carried out by Mr. Harrington ; andl he had by applying Bordeaux mixture suceeded in getting a new growth where he had had none. This mixture seems to exert a good effect, a stimulating one, on the plant. I think the best treatment is to remedy our fertilizers and drainage, which pertain intimately to the health of the orange tree.
Mr. Farley-In regard to drainage: \\'here I live is on a high ridge, a heavy hilly hammock. I (1o not think there is a grove in that locality but what has the dieback. The condition of a grove that I have in mind is that it has not been fertilized for some years; the weeds grew around it and there had been nothing done to it for two years. On about an







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


acre which is east of an artesian well, Mr. Farley-They were frozen in 1899, there is not a tree but what is affected but were not killed out. more or less with this dieback and it is Mr. Pettigrew--\ere the stocks large on the side of a hill with about ten feet with heavy tops? fall to the banks of a river, so it does not seem to me it could be relmedied by Mr. Farley-They were and they
drainage, looked black; later on all that growth
Mr. Pettigrew-Have the trees ever showed the red rust or dieback.
been frozen?


PRACTICAL PEACH CULTURE.


Requisites of Success Stated by an Experienced Grower-Rich Land for Peaches, Poor Land for PearsNever Prune Without Good Reason-Errors as to Pear Blight.


By W. E. Baker, of the Committee.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
I fail to understand why I was chosen as one of this Committee, unless it was that President Taber, seeing that I wanted to be a fruit grower so very much, in the goodness of his heart thought that he would give me a little boost by placing me on an important committee. If such was his reason, I can say it seems to have had the desired effect, as I have been asked to take charge of various peach orchards in East Florida, aggregating some three hundred and. fifty acres, and now am sure you will agree with me before I am through reading this paper, when I say I have a fictitious reputation on peach culture.
I came to this State a little more than eighteen years ago an invalid with the hope that the healthful climate would restore me sufficiently to engage in the seductive orange culture. I was only an inexperienced lad then, of course, and on arriving at Lake City, Columbia


county, I was told that there was no better place in the State to grow oranges, as some large seedling trees around that town would seem to testify. We proceeded forthwith to purchase land and set a small grove, setting more peach trees, however, than we did oranges, as )each trees were much cheaper than oranges, and we knew something about growing peaches and nothing about growing oranges.
The peach industry was not on at that time, of course, but it was a very noticeable and remarkable fact that every bushel of decent peaches brought to Lake City, sold from $i to $1.5o per bushel, while hundreds of bushels were allowed to drop off and spoil over the farms throughout the county, which could have been made marketable by a little care and attention to the trees at the proper time. But at tlat time cotton was bringing from twenty-five to thirty cents per pound, which paid for the ex-








FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


l)Cfl5 of raising it, and that was good enough for the average farmer.
I was interested in fruit growing, however, and after learning that I had stopped in the wrong section to follow the same, I drifted to the high lake regions of Putnam and Clay counties, and entered the employment of a wealthy Connecticut gentleman who had a variety orchard, oranges, figs, pears, plumrs an~d peaches. I took such interest in the business that I was subsequently promoted to foreman of a fifty thousand dollar property, and later bought the property for less than five per cent. of the original cost. You can all guess about thle time this was done.
Well, I soon realized that I had a veritable white elephant to pay taxes on and nothing to pay taxes with, as the orange trees were killed, the peach, plum and pear were neglected, having given no returns to the former owner. So I began to trim uip, work out and fertilize the 01(1 peach trees, of which there were about five hundred of the Peento and Honey varieties, believing as I did that thle proper way to get returns from peaches wvas to give them the same close attention that I would anything else. The restult was I made money sufficient from less than half of these old peach trees (the Peentos proving unprofitable thus far north), to pay the taxes on the property, besides buying the necessaries of life for my family, as long as I owned the property, which was over two years; and I proved so conclusively to the gentleman to whom I sold that there was money in the peach that he now has over a hundred acres in peaches.
Well, now-for mny methods of planting and cultivating.
l".S.H.S. (i


Soil.
The soil for a peach orchard should be, if possible, naturally wvell drained, and of the best quality of land you have. Some people seem to think that if they have an old field, that will not produce profitable farm crops any longer, there is the place to plant the orchard. No greater mistake call possibly be made. If you are not willing to devote good land to the orchard, my advice would be to let the business alone. In the section of country for which I am writing, we have no red lands and but little clay subsoil, but the gray sandy loam is good enough for me.
For anl ideal peach orchard p~lat, I would select some good lake front sloping to the north, or northwest if possible, virgin soil only, as nine times out of tenl the -old-land peach orchard has proven unsatisfactory in the end, though I (d0 not say peaches can not be grown on 01(1 land. I would also try to get a plot as free from the little bush commonly known as the gopher apple, as possible, for I consider this a very prolific breeder of root knot; and my theory is, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."~
Setting Out.
I need not attempt to give any ideas as to this very essential part of the subject, after we have just had such an excellent article from President Taber.
Fertilizing.
A pound of good bone meal at the time of setting, I find gives the tree a wonderful impetus, and for the second application a pound or so to the tree of any well ground and blended high grade







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


commercial fertilizer. I find Mapes to be most excellent, especially if early fruiting is dlesiredl.
But I find after a visit to the fruitgrowing sections of Georgia, that their methods for fertilizing for fruit are different from ours, or from my experience onl the light sandy soil of my section. They seem to think, and no doubt justly, that their great success in peach growing is due largely to the knowledge which the growers have of the needs of their soil. The manure treatment I find especially to (liffer from my experience here in the following particulars: Where I would cultivate my orchard tip to October at least they cease to cultivate after June, when the land is sown inl cowpeas or some humus or nitrogeni-gathering crops. Nitrogen being the most expensive ingredient, they claim great economy in supplying it thus, which has p~rov~en to me, while beneficial to the landl, very detrimental to the peachtree, having a tendency as it does to breed root-knot.
Pruning.
It would no doubt be interesting to know the different ideas that actuiate the minds of some of the great army of those whIo wield the shears, the saw and the pruning knife. It may be the case that many of them are victims of mistaken notions, like the apprentice whom I once heard of who was set to grind the tools inl his master's absence one (lay, and when asked at night whether hie had ground all the tools replied in the affirmative except that lie had not been able to grind down the teeth of the big saw. If we had to guess at the intentions of some of the pruners of deciduous trees, whom I have seen at work one would imagine


they had been sent to give the trees a good hacking, and if so they carried out orders to the letter. We have seen those who were supposed to be experienced hands set to prunie peach trees and noticed that not only the breast wood was ctit back, but all spurs were cut back too, irrespective of w hether there were fruit buds below the cut or not. There are those whose conceptions of pruning are to share all sides alike so as to make a tree as uniform as possible; and there are other kinds of uniformity that are very offensive to the eye and entirely objectionable. This is the practice in pruning large trees all to one uniform shape, not merely that bracing branches may be headed back to make the trees more compact but to fashion them according to one preconceived ideal; and when such trees are leafless they are suggestive of scarecrows. There should. always be some object in pruning, though no doubt every wielder of the knife stands ready to affirm that he had that aim, but whatever the object may be, let me insist that the hand shall be guided by judgment and reason.
Varieties.

The selection of varieties for the commercial orchard is a vital point to its success, and in making this selection there are many considerations that need our attention. While I (10 not condlemn new varieties, yet it is wisdom on the part of the commercial grower to go very slow until hie has tested them himself or they have been tested by others than the nursery men, and that in soil antl location similar to his own. The matter of hardiness is another vital one, for while a variety may be beautiful in appearance and fine in flavor, it may on account of its








FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


non-productiveness be altogether unworthy a place in the commercial orchard. The grower should also study the production of other peach-growing centers, with which hie may he brought into competition, and should confine his list to a few varieties such as are not grown in other favored large peach-growing sections. The WValdo, Angel and Honey varieties are good enough for me, and (10 not come in contact with the large Albertas, etc., of Georgia, unless we have a very dry season and they have a very favorable one. WVill treat on best methods of packing perhaps when we get more fruit to ship.
Diseases.
I claim to try to be an up-to-date peach grower in all respects save the biological aspects of diseases and the biographical history of insects such as infest the peach trees, for all my experience has been confined to high pine lands which I think freest from all insects. I claim to have never been botheredl with any to any considerable extent except the borer.
Borer.
This fellow has no respect for location, health or climate and will attack a sick tree the same as a well one, a well fed tree or a poorly fed one, and, as we all know is a stub~born fellow to combat. I find but one sure practical remedy for him, and that is the quack's potato-bug remedy. catch him and kill him. This would seem to some a very tedious and loathsome task, but being my occupation in boring season, I can say it is not as bad as you might suppose, and there is something expectant about it which seems to interest one' like the faithful (larkey Nimrod who had fished all day


without getting a bite, b~ut was expecting one every minute.
Plums.

I have not much to say for the plum, my experience with this fruit being confined to the Kelsey only. I had ten acres or about four hundred very large flourishing Kelsey trees which were budded on sweet native stock; I have juist had the major part of then cut down and relegated to the orange tree cemetery on the lake shore, after patiently but vainly waiting nearly ten years for the fruits of my labor, a veritable snowbank of white bloom each spring being the only compensation for many hard licks and dollars spent.
Pears.
Of the pears grown in this section of the State, I find the LeConte to be the most profitable, and in fact the only kinil worth growing, and that only for home use, as, if depended upon for a moneymaker, like the Kelsey plum, it wiW only prove in the end a delusion and a snare. The blight or dieback being the only serious enemy to the pear, T will just say a few words in regard to my) observations on the same. I quote here from a lengthy article on the subject seen in the Farmer and Fruit-Grower department of the Timnes-Union of last summer, which was very misleading, though from the pen of a man whom I know to be practical and successful in most things, viz: "WVe have in our pear orchards what is by some of our growers called blight or dieback, and for all I know there may be other names. I have taken some pains to ascertain the cause of this malady in my travels through a large portion of Clay and Putnam counties this summer, and I have concluded that in the major-








FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


ity of cases it is starvation, or what mig-ht be termed indigestion which is simply starvation by another name." Nowv any old settler in the pear growing section of Florida (the writer of the above being an amateur of only three years' residence in the State), has long since learned that it would not do to plant a pear tree in a very rich place, as there is
-,,here the blight was always known to first attack them. Being a resident of one of the richest farming sections of Columbia county and noticing this result of good care on good land in a large pear orchard owned by Mr. Legrone, I decided to plant my orchard in the poorest plat of land I owned in Clay county, which is as poor as can be found in the State, if not in the world. The result is I have eighty trees, all I have, eight years old with not a sign of blight nor have they ever had the slightest sign, nor have they ever had but one small application of fertilizer and but little cultivation ; and w ,hile they have made a comparatively slow growth, of course, they are today the picture of health, as the old lady living in the Okefenokee swamp would like you to say of her children.


Oral Report-Profit in Peach Culture-Avoid
Pruning-The Oviedo Variety.
By Mal. G. P. Hlealy.
I made an attempt to grow peaches ten years ago, and I find myself today a good deal in the same position that I did when my orange grove was frozen. I knewv more about raising oranges when I first went into the business than I did when it was frozen in 1895. The longer I was in it the less I knew about it. Growing peaches will never be as popular as growing orange trees. Now, it is


a fact that you must have something besides tents and sheds to grow bread and butter out of. You may grow bread and butter tinder tents and sheds, but I have very little faith in it so far, and having little faith in it, I concluded that it must be a wise thing to put part of my eggs into another basket, and I went into the peach, pear and plum business. I was led astray in the plum business by the President of this Society. I do not blame him now, as he wvas a poor man then and wanted some of my money and he advised me to buy Kelsey plums. I never hadl a plunm after wrestling with them fifteen years. I said to him, "My Kelsey plums won't hear." Hie advised me to just let then grow up and they would bear, Of course I took his advice-I always do, I take anybody's advice. They grew uip in the "rough" for seven or eight years and this year the fire got into the "rough," and what is left ol the trees are loaded with plums.
I think we have a plum now that is going to be a co nmercial commodity. There is no d-oubt but that there is something in it. If there is anybody here who wants to go into something and make a dollar out of it from my experience, I would say undoubtedly it was a valuable thing to know about this.
So far as the peach industry is concerned, Florida will be unquestionably in the next ten or fifteen years the largest peach State in the country; she is planting faster than any other State in the Union. Peach trees are being put out in large quantities. Of course there will be mistakes made, and if I can lead you in a line that wvill enable you to produce this crop I will be glad to do so. One of the points is, that when the orange ripens, it hangs upon the tree for six months, but with a peach crop you will have to







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


begin picking when the peach is ripe ane' you must send it to market or it is lost when a peach is ready to go, it must go at once. If you have a large crop you will have to have a force there and you must handle it when it is ready to go whether you have any market for it o not. If the market is overflowed there i, but one thing you can do and that is to let your peaches rot on the ground.
I heard Mr. Pettigrew say today, whatever you do, do not cut a peach tree I say with Mr. Pettigrew, don't put a knife on a peach tree, do not trim or cul a limb of it. It should be headed as low as you can possibly head it, but nevei cut it. Do not cut back the limbs, as the peach has a fancy to bear at the ends of limbs; in any Florida peach orchard you will find that it bears right along down the limbs. You should make it a rule to pick off at least four-fifths of the peaches, and if you do not the peaches. will load down the limbs until they are broken. When a tree is so loaded the fruit is absolutely worthless. I begin to take them off as soon as the peaches begin to form and in about three weeks I take off another picking, so as to get rid of three-fourths of the peaches.
There is a certain limit of danger in peach trees being frozen; our early peaches are liable to be frozen. If the early peaches put out I calculate in about two out of five years we lose them. We lost one year ago all the early peach trees. Mr. Mace, who is possibly the oldest peach grower for market in the State, said to me some time ago that he found the Oviedo was so shy that he was going to cut it down. His Oviedos do not bear; my Oviedos bear so heavily that I prune them almost as closely for fruit as any on my place. My trees bear a great deal more than I care to leave on them.


We have enemies in every direction, but the worst is the borer, and is so considered by the peach growers. The borer is the one thing that we have no way of managing, except as Mr. Baker has stated: get down on your knees with a kiife and pick them out. But there is another remedy that is very simple aL1d that is hilling up around the tree about one foot high. In this way about 5o per cent. will be kept off, but you have to fight them.
As I say again that it is aot a subject that you are interested in, but I believe today it is the most profitable fruit indus-try in the State, but you have got to learn it in order to be successful growers.
DISCUSSION.
Mr. Phelps-I am very glad to hear the practical talks Major Healy gives us. But I see no reason why the culture of oranges should prohibit a man from knowing something about other things. I believe that there are a great many orange growers who believe just as much in peaches. For some years past the one enemy above all others has been the borer, but I would like to know what I am to do about it. The worms are all hatched out by the first of March. Maj. Healy and I differ in many things. I do not believe the hilling amounts to much.' Nature is a great deal wiser than I am. If I furnish sufficient food, instead of spending my time in getting the borers out, the trees will do well. I sold several hundred bushels in Sanford last year. I threw away perhaps a fifth of the peaches I had. I sent a great many peaches to market that would weigh three peaches to the pound. They had to be picked night and morning and put in a cool place and started to market at once. Those picked in the morning I picked








F~LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL S3OOIE 1W.


and put in my cellar and they stayed there until sent to market. I sold peaches in Sanford when my peaches brought double the price that my neighbors' did for the same variety. 1 have taken more money from- peaches than I have ever taken from oranges. I believe in peaches and I believe in them today. They need care, and what does not need care? The child brought up in the Episcopal church learns, and the directions to the sponsors of the child are: "I must take care."
Prof. Hume-In Mr. Baker's paper there are two things I would like to call attention to. I think I can perhaps explain or at least come near explaining the reason why the Kelsey plum does not bear. It is a well known fact in the cultivation of apples, pears and plums that many varieties are self-sterile. It is not safe, for many varieties, to plant a solid block of the same variety. Now, perhaps if you had had some other varieties of plumis scattered through there, you would have had fruit. In Maj. Healy's case hie had some old shoots, he says. I ask him if the shoots grew up.
Maj. Healy-They were worthless, but we had a great deal of that wild plumn fruit.
Prof. Hlume-The pollen of the wild plum is a fertilizer of the Kelsey. Regarding the blight of the pear, I would make the statement that it is due to a species of bacteria, a vegetable para,.,ite of a low order. I give the scientific name for- it (imicrococcus amylovorus). It belongs to the same class that breeds consumption, etc., and about the only remedy for this is to (10 as Mr. Baker did. Let the tree take its chances for living and give it very little care and attention. Thien there is less sappy, vigorous


growth produced, and there is very little chance for the bacteria to take hold.
In regard to the fruits of Florida being self-sterilizing, I believe in Florida the question of self-sterility is an important one. It exists in certain varieties of citrus fruits, in the plumn and I think that is perhaps the explanation of Mr. Baker's case. I would like to ask a question regarding certain diseases. Has any one noticed any cases of the peach rosette in Florida?
Mr. Phelps-There is a question that is not understood; I do not know anything about it. There are isolated cases of Kelsey plums that bear a large crop; in my neighborhood there are some that bear well, and others have never grown a crop. Some bear every year, others do not bear at all. As far as sterility is concerned, I have experimented on a few Kelseys, but the bloom comes earlier than any other plums that come out. This year I succeeded in getting some near them to bloom at the same tim-e, and this year I have a fair crop. We have some pear trees that do not bear; I do not know why, for they bloom until they are white every year. Some of the pears that bloom late bear, some bear in abundance. This year I concluded to try spraying and out of the first blooms I have a splendid crop of Satsuma plums coming on. In order to test the matter I dlidl 1ot spray some and they all fell off andl I have not a single plum from the second bloom. I sprayed with an insecticide, the receipt of which I will give to any one who desires it.
Mr. Hart-The remarks of the gentleman who has just spoken call to my mind a matter that I would like to bring before the Society, it is in regard to the honey bee and others of the bee family







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


which gather honey and pollen from these trees and fertilize their bloom. In the North it is the only insect on hand in numbers to accomplish this fertilization of the fruit trees, and even in Florida if you spray with poisonous spray at the time the trees are in bloom you will not accomplish anything that can not better be done just before the bloom opens or after it has fallen, except on the other hand, you destroy many dollars worth of bees and thousands of their lives which is wrong to all neighboring apiarists that any just man will gladly avoid. A great many of the States have made laws prohil)iting citizens from spraying fruit trees while in bloom. Most of the Experiment Stations have instructed against this spraying of trees while in bloom, so as to prevent destroying the lives of the bees. As to the fertilizing blossoms of the Kelsey plum: There must be some other reason for the


non-bearing of our Kelseys than the lack of pollination of the bloom. I have not examined the blossom of the Kelsey plum nor do I know if it has a perfect bloom or not. Pears are mostly light bearers in South Florida. The lack of more than one variety in bloom at a time may have something to do with this. The pear is best cross fertilized, although scientists tell us they are more self-fertile down here than further North. This explains why the LeConte pear will produce fairly when there is no other variety near; it would not do so North, but as in the case of many other varieties, produce imperfect fruit and an abortive seed when not cross fertilized. The fruit on my LeConte trees have the appearance of being self-fertilized. I think probably it would improve the chances for our crop in Southern Florida if we had more light on this subject.


NOTES ON CURRENT ENTOMOLOGY.


Joint Report of the Committee-A Hopeful and Encouraging Statement-Cottony Cushion Scale Not to be Feared-Crude Petroleum as an Insecticide. Report Read by Prof. H. A. Gossard, Chairman.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
During the past year the usual batch of inquiries regarding such insects as the aphis, the pickle worm, grasshoppers, leaf hoppers, weevils, curculio, etc., has been received by one or another of the menl)ers of your committee, but the number of entomolgical problems to


which attention has been chiefly direced has been confined to a much smaller field. Perhaps no new outbreaks of particularly dangerous insects have happened since our last meeting, though some species possessing ample capabilities for mischief have extended their range of distribution somewhat and have appeared in new localities.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


The New Peach Scale.
In West Florida, at Molino and Quintette, the new peach scale, Diaspis amnygdali, has obtained a strong foot-hold and is devastating some of the orchards in that vicinity. The insect is supposed to be of West Indian origin, and is, therefore, commonly spoken of as the West India or Jamaica scale. Like many of our insects imported from abroad, it must he regarded as an insect with somewhat threatening possibilities, though it can doubtless be controlled beyond the power of greatly checking the vitality of the trees it infests, by application of kerosene, whale oil soap or petroleumr and water.
The White Fly.
The white fly reached about its normal degree of destructiveness the past year, a few groves in the Manatee section, perhaps, suffering a little more than usual. The observations of careful growers seem to indicate that closely planted groves are far more badly infested by this insect than those in which the trees are well spaced, and in which sufficient pruning is done to allow free circulation of air through the tops of the trees. In a few instances where inquiries have been received at the Experiment Station regarding the insect, we have recomnmended Prof. Webber's resin wash, and some very favorable results have been i-sported from the use of this application. We have reached a pretty definite conclusion that California methods of tent fumigation can be followed in this State with great profit in those districts where the orange is a reasonably certain crop, and we further believe that the process can be profitably itsed with deciduous trees under some circumstances. Exper-


imental work in grove and orchard fumigation is contemplated by the Florida Station in co-operation with practical growers and orchardists, and is already in progress in the Manatee district. In the early part of February we had the pleasure of working for a few days with Mr. C. P. Fuller, of Ellenton, Florida, who had ;procured an outfit of tents and was anxious to give the process a trial. A number of leaves taken from the fumigated trees and brought to Lake City were examined some ten days afterwards and a large percentage of the pupae were beginning to decompose, showing that they were unmistakably dead. No insects ever issued from any of the pupae cases, but we did not expect that they would retain their vitality upon the drying leaves for more than two or three weeks at the longest, and, therefore, cannot regardl the conclusion as certain that everything was killed by the gas treatinent. Some specimens of red spider and other imported insects were also killed, but we are unable to pass a decisive judgment as to'\vlether the gas may be relied upon to kill the eggs of any of these insects, although wve think it very probable. One of the fumigated trees was dripping with dew when it was tented, and we, therefore, increased the strength of the chemicals used by the California people about one-third, and still expected that the work would be unsatisfactory. However, an examination of infected leaves taken from this tree, made after an interval of some two weeks, indicated that a large percentage of the pupae were in process of decomposition, fromt which we infer that the treatment was much more thorough than we expected it would be. We suspect that the heavy dlews of Florida will be found to







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


constitute the most disturbing factor since it is well-nigh necessary when fumigating trees in leaf to do this work at night away from sunlight, and of course the dew cannot be avoided at this time. Since the gas is effective against all forms of insect life, the common grove scales as well as the insects that we have just been discussing, we hope that one or at most two fumigation treatments per year will practically hold in check all of the insects with which the orange grower has to deal.
A correspondent at Tarpon Springs sent in a communication a few days ago saying that white fly had suddenly appeared there in great numbers. We also had specimens come in from Marion county last summer.
Crude Petroleum as an Insecticide.
During the past year Dr. J. B. Smith, Entomologist of the New Jersey Experiment Station, has put forth a bulletin upon crude petroleum as an insecticide, in which lie makes the following statements:
"Since January, 1898, nearly four thousand trees in ordinary orchard fruits other than cherry, have been treated with crude petroleum either undiluted or mixed with from 6o per cent. to 75 per cent. of water. The trees varied from stock just out of the nursery row to old trees in full bearing. Not a single case of injury to any tree treated in winter has been observed; on the contrary, in a number of cases the oil seems to have acted as a stimulant, and the sprayed trees have shown greater vigor and better foliage than those untreated. It is fully as effective against scale insects as kerosene, and is harmless to the most tender varieties and on the youngest trees. As the oil remains on the surface


for a long time it makes no diff erence whether it is put on undiluted or mixed with water. It remains as
an oily or greasy surface coating for many weeks, and no scales can set on this coating within a month of the application and live. * * A minor
advantage is the fact that it gives a greasy brown color to the bark, making it easy to see exactly how thorough the application has been."
In view of the fac ' t that pure kerosene was at one time considered by some entomological authorities to be a safe winter application to fruit trees, and it was afterwards discovered that it is exceedingly variable and capricious in its behavior under what are apparently precisely similar conditions, and when we renieniber that extensive orchards have been killed by its use, it seems safe to be somewhat cautious in accepting Dr. Smith's statements as being applicable to the entire country.
On the 25th day of January some applications of ioo per cent. crude petroleum were given to pear, plum and peach trees. The variety of pear is unknown, but three trees of which we will speak as Nos. 1, 2 and 3 were badly infested with San Jose scale. Tree No. i was apparently nearly dead, the trunk blistered and crusted with scales, the leaves and branches having been thickly infested the preceding season clear to the tips. To all appearances the tree could not be expected to live, whether the scales upon it were killed or not. The bark upon both trunk and branches was very much hidebound, and had to be slit open with a knife. in order to give the new wood a chance to form beneath. This tree was slow in putting out its leaves in the spring, but eventually leaved out and is







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


living today with a fighting chance for life. All scales upon it seem (lead, and while it looks almost impossible for it to recover any degree of healthful vigor, yet we are uncertain regarding the outcome. Tree No. 2 was a larger pear of the same variety, and not so badly infested, although many of the branches were completely crusted and coated with scales, and the bark of the trunk and larger branches had to be split with a knife as in the first case, to give anl opportunity for new wood to grow. This tree leaved out at the usual time, and today it is vigorous and thrifty in appearance, and apparently has suffered no injury from the application given it. A smaller pear tree No. 3 wvas also given a treatment of 100 per cent. petroleum and seems to be in perfect condition at present. Upon the same day a number of plumis of eight different varieties were sprayed with 100 per cent. petroleum. Beside each of these trees, in an adjoining row, another tree of the same variety was left untreated as a check for comparison. Unfortuniately both the treated row and the check row seem to be in an unhealthy condition, andl it has been impossible to weigh accurately the effects of the petroleum spray. The sprayed trees are apparently hut little, if any, worse than the check row, though they are certainly worse than some adjoining rows that were sprayed with a thirty per cent. mechanical mixture of water and petroleum. It is my belief that these larger trees were injured in some degree, but some smaller plumn trees that have been in the ground only one year seem to have stirVivedl the application without the least noticeable injury.
One hundred per cent, was also applied to nine bearing Florida Gemn


peaches on the 26th of January. Of these trees hut two or three have any signs of life today, and they are practically ruined. In other words, the Florida Gemn variety of peach will not stand a heavy dose of crude petroleum in Florida, unless the conditions governing its app1lication are different from those that suirrounded these particular trees. No special care was taken in making these applications, as our object was to find out what would he the effect of crude petroleun if puit on liberally in quantity sufficient to just reach the dripping point, and without regard to sunshine or the precautions that are generally observed in making applications of kerosene. Some hundreds of plum and peach of variouis varieties were sprayed with from fifteen per cent, to thirty per cent. mechanical mixture of petroleum and water, and wve have been unable to detect the least injury of any kind following any of these diluted applications. The trees in all cases were sprayed until they just reached the dripping point, and in no case wecre they banked, nor was any attention paidl to cloudy weather or to the hours of the evening near to dusk. Some appllications were made upon ]bright (lays, but most of the time the weather was (decidedly hazy, the sun being scarcely if at all visible.
We believe that Dr. Smith has contributed a very important material to our list of insecticides, hut it is quite possible that it will be found to require catntious handling, as kerosene has p~rovedl to needle in the past. We are as yet tunable to say that it would be safe to apply undhilutedl petroleum to fruit trees of whatever (desciription in Florida, even in the most 'cautious manner, and for the present would advise that the same pe







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


cautions be taken with petroleum that are observed in the use of kerosene.
The Cottony Cushion Scale.
The cottony cushion scale has extended its range of distribution about Clear \Water Harbor to a considerable degree, being now in a number of groves in that vicinity. One season's observations upon the insect have largely dispelled our fears as to its ultimate importance, even under the worst possible conditions. We naturally assumed when its presence first became known that it would likely repeat in Florida about the same story that it had in California and other countries into which it had been introduced unless it was quickly taken in hand. here as there. However, a number Qf factors seem to be at work in Florida that make the conditions quite different from those that exist in most of the countries where the cottony cushion scale has become famous, and has at times been dreaded; and while we are not yet prepared to minimize the danger that might follow the work of this insect if entirely let alone we still believe that, at the worst possible outcome, it will prove to be a very insignificant economic insect in Florida as compared with what it has been in some other countries.
We commenced a field study of the cottony cushion scale about the first of July last year. and continued on the ground for several weeks. At this time the insect was very abundant in some groves, although we noticed it had practically disappeared from the myrtle thickets where it had been abundant in the preceding May. Within two or three (lays we were able to find some trees thickly infested with scales, which were being rapidly consumed by a small cater-


pillar which we were soon able to identify as loetilia coccidivora, an insect hitherto recorded as feeding upon the lecanim scales, pulvinaria, mealy bugs, the wvax scales, the cochineal insect, and at times upon the armored scales. Mr. 11. G. Hubbard, in speaking of this insect, writes as follows:
"Underneath the covering of web, the caterpillars of loetilia move back and forth actively engaged in removing the bark lice from the back and suspending them in the investing web. Nothing could be more thorough than their work. Branches incrusted with lecanium scales are very quickly cleared of the lice, and the loetilia larvae do not cease to extend their operations until every individual coccid in the colony has been lifted from its place and securely fastened in the web above. * * * It devours not only the eggs and the young and the softer parts of the bark lice, but even to some extent the harder skin or scale. The result of its operations upon lecanium and ceroplastes scales is to utterly annihilate the colonies of these insects which they attack."
An Insect Foe.
What Mr. Hubbard observes of this insect in connection with the lecaniums and ceroplastes we also affirm of it in regard to the cottony cushion scale. A recent inspection made by the writer of these trees which had attracted our special interest disclosed a scale here and there, but they were practically free, and it would seem to us that there can be no doubt that hundreds of moths will appear in a short time to complete the work of total annihilation so nearly accomplished last season. The trees are practically uninjured, and although white







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


with iceryas last summer, it is apparent to the most casual observer, who knows anything of their recent history, that they have been and are today in far greater danger of injury from the common long scale, mytilaspis gloverii, than from icerya purchasi. We found the same caterpillar scattered everywhere over the infested district and multiplying rapidly. Among the myrtles and even in places where would be found an isolated infested tree, half a mile or more away from other infested ones, we found this little caterpillar at work and often in numbers.
We found a, number of other predaceouis insects feeding upon this scale, some of them possessing a considerable degree of efficiency. The work of none of these insects can be considered equal to that reported of the Australian lady-bug, for the reason that they are more or less restricted in their movements, and will not go out upon the leaves hunting for their dinners. However, it may be boldly questioned if the cottony cushion sca 'le can stand before them for more than one or two seasons, and there is some warrant for the belief that a grove is in little danger of destruction when they are present, although it may suffer serious injury. It must be further said in their favor that they are natives of Florida, that they feed upon other insects than the cottony cushion scale, and they will never be absent nor become lost, nor need artificial propagation in order to insure their perp~etuity, and if our climatic conditions, as may be entirely possible, should prove unsuited to the health of the lady-hug we may rest secure in the knowledge that we have at hand somie native bugs whose efficiency exceeds that of any other insects hitherto recorded as feeding upon lcerya, with the exception of noviuis cardl-


inalis and novius koebelei from Australia and possibly of rodolia iceryae in South Africa.
A Fungus Friend of the Trees.
During the last season a fungus disease which as yet has received no biological study and is only known to belong in the family phymataspo~ae, destroyed more scales than any other agency. The first specimens were found on the 27th of July upon certain hadly infested orange trees, and a few days later we noticed that the weeds and undergrowth of this, the worst infested grove in Florida, especially in damp situations, were coyered with the remains of slaughtered scales. We, therefore, impatiently awaited a shower of rain and from the 23d to the 26th of July were favored with a continuous downpour, accompanied with heat, as much as fourteen or sixteen inches of water at the very least coming down in seventy-two hours. We examined the trees upon which the fungus was discovered at the conclusion of the storm while it was still raining, and found them enveloped in a white winding sheet of (lead scales from the trunks to the tips of the leaves. We estimated that not less than ninety-five per cent. of the scales in all stages had perished. About one month later we estimated that not more than one scale in a thousand was living upon what had been the worst infested trees in the grove, and the few living ones that could be found were newly hatched larvae, a few of the eggs in the egg-sacs apparenti ly not having been completely destroyed by the fungus.
Our correspondent, writing under date of September 22, reported that the bugs in the grove before mentioned were flecrea sing, that the fungus was affecting







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


them very badly; he could scarcely find one that wvas not affected, and that while some trees in the grove still harbored somec young scales, the fungus was to be found upon all. He further reported that about ninety-five per cent. of the insects in some other groves that were just beginning to show the presence of the fullgus at the time of our departure were (lead and the owners stated that where ten scales existed three weeks earlier not more than one could be found at the date of writing.
The fungus was found present in a number of groves a few days ago, and wve entertain no doubt that it will he anl important factor in reducing the crop of scales this coming season. That this disease and the insects before mentioned will prove of immense value in subduing the insect during somec, and perhaps we may say all, seasons we canl not doubt, but it should still be remembered that the scale multiplies vigorously during certain periods of the year and that it is capable of inflicting damage during this time. It seems probable that the California lady-bug will prove more efficient than any of these native checks if it is able to stand Florida conditions and climate.
Australian Lady-Bug Not a Success.
We made an attempt to colonize the
Australian lady-bug last summer, but so far as we can judge, the introduction was unsuccessful. A number of adult bugs, somewhere between two dozen and thirty, were hatched from California shipmients, kept under close observation until they were observed to have copulated, after which they were confined for a short time in a large sack upon thickly infested limbs, so as to insure the deposition of


their eggs before they, flew to other trees W\e hoped that somec of the bugs had gTone to other trees than the ones upon which they were turned loose, since they were confined in the sack not more than twelve to fifteen hours, or over night, and flhat many lady-bugs would appear in the grove later, but uip to this time nothing has been known to develop, although the trees upon which the hugs were liberated are almost wholly free from scales at present. \Ve attribute the disappearance of the scales, however, to the fungus disease and native predaceous insects and not to a p~rob~ability that anly lady-bugs had anything to do with it. We instructed our correspondents to keep a careful watch on the field and report to us later in the season if circumstances seemed to favor a new introduction. Under date of September i9 one of our correspondents wrote:
"The weather that we have been ',aving this month has been favorable, it seems, for the spread of the fungus, as quantities of the deadly hugs in their various stages show and it is very questionable just now, I think, if the situation would justify the undertaking of getting a sufficient supply of lady-bugs from California to stock uip with."
In December a letter from our correspondents indicated that the bugs were sufficiently numerous in sonie groves to warrant the belief that tfie introduction of the lady bug would probably prove successful. We therefore wrote to the California Board on the 2d of January, informiing them of the situation and our desires, hut had to wait two months for a reply, and then were informed that their colonies were low, and they could not supply us with bugs until the latter part of May. However, Mr. Kimrball. a







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


gentleman stopping in Clear Water, has succeeded through the influence of the "Fruit World," in getting a consignment from one of the County Boards of Horticulture, at San Diego, California, and the bugs were recently put upon a tree that would seem to promise good results. If the bugs really get a foot-hold they will have time to multiply enough so that they they will possibly stand the severe conditions of existence that we certainly look for them to bc obliged to face again in July and August. It will require a longer period of observation to gauge with a reasonable degree of certainty the exact status of the scale or of its insect enemies, native and imported. There are some groves near Clear Water that are going to look very scary in the course of a couple of months, but we certainly hope and are inclined to believe that these groves will stiffer less from the icerya than from some other insects that have long been in Florida. We very much doubt if the cottony cushion scale at its worst will (10 the damage that white fly inflicts upon the orange groves every 1pear. It will probably become numerous andl threatening every time it reaches a new locality, but it is not likely to remain on the same spot in numbers for more than one or two seasons.
Cut Worms and White Crickets.
The following observations regarding methods of fighting cut wormi-s and white crickets are submitted by those wvho have used the remedies given with marked success, and we, therefore, take pleasure in submitting their remedies to people who miay not have enjoyed exemption from the attacks of these insects.
For cut wvorms, take dry bran and mix enough Paris green with it to give it a


greenish tinge all through, then stir in enough syrup to make all a little sticky and scatter among the infested plants. Great success with the remedy is reported among strawberries and[ in seedl bedls.
For white crickets there is said to be nothing like a little hot water. If the insects are very abundant over much of an area the best way is to have a large kettle or other vessel set so as to keep sufficient water hot without having to go too far to get it. A few spoon~fuls poured into their nests kills them. No dligging is necessary since under the mound they make on the surface there are always two holes leading down to the nest, and when water is poured on the moundl it quickly soaks (down to the insects. By carefully going over the ground two or three times they are gotten rid of.

DISCUSSION.
Mr. \Vaite-About three years ago I had the purple mite and I wrote to the Experiment Station and they gave me a formula for a sulphur spray and I co-mencecl using it, and when I had used about half the preparation the showers began and in a few (lays the mites were gone. Aftetwards I was told that as soon as the rains came there would be no further trouble with them. A short time ago I was in Manatee with M\r. Brown, a member of this Society, and lie called my attention to some trees that were dlropping their leaves; hie said hie thought it was fromt the effect of too much water. As soon as I saw the trees I saw what the trouble was. I pulled off a few leaves, examined them- and found the trouble. They had had some, although there had been some rains in that section. I gave him the formula. The leaves looked







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


brown and ol the back the wood looked bad, almost exactly like the work of the red spider.
Mr. Hart-Did you spray any bearing trees ? The purple mite seems to be thick on our trees, although we have had


some very hard rains. This purple mite is a new enemy with me, and the rain does not seem to affect them seriously at all. I am afraid to use that spray on these trees, as they are mostly bearing.


PINEAPPLES AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS.


Beginnings on Indian River-Historical Statements-Some Discussion of Varieties-Irrigation Not Necessary on the East Coast-Few Diseases Encountered. Oral Report by C. T. McCarty, of the Committee.


Our Committee is a new one and is still disorganized" we hope to get in better shape later on. If there are any questions when I am done speaking, I wx would be pleased to have them asked. Please bear in mind that what I say ol this subject will be confined very largely to our experience and observations on the East Coast of Florida, in the territory between Melbourne and M\iami. Of the conditions prevailing in the interior where they have Smooth Cayennes (fancy pines) under cover I am not familiar. It was hoped that Mr. Price would give us a report on that subject. There are also peculiar conditions prevailing ol the Florida kevs which I will not attempt to describe ; the methods of cultivation are different. I hope to 1)e able to give you a few facts which, as they go into the record, you will be able to consider more when you get the Annual Report. Some other things are more a matter of individual observation and experience, but the facts I can readily give you.
The industry on our coast is compara-


tivelv new, that is, on the main land of the United States. It has been carried on perhaps two generations on the Florida keys between Miami and Key West, being introduced there from Cuba and other places. With us the pineapple was planted along in the 8o's; our shipments commenced about in '84. The first varietv introduced there is now known as the Egyptian Queen. That is not the true name. It was introduced by Capt. Burnham. Its true name is Cleopatra, who was an Egyptian queen, consequently the names were confused. The industry grew very rapidly during the early 9o's, at which time it had reached a considerable magnitude. Later ol we shipped about 225,000 crates containing between six and seven million pineapples. A few years ago I was asked to make a canvass of the East Coast to get the status as to the crop and increase of that year that we might know what preparations to make for the transportation of the crop. That year I found that the East Coast had in cultivation 1,4oo acres of pineapples;







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


that we shipped something over six million fruits; that the number of new plants set out that year was 3,850,000, while the increase in acreage during the single year was twenty per cent. of that which existed before. This was considered at that time a fair estimate of the annual increase of the pineapple business.
It has not kept up that pace because of climatic conditions. There is a rumbling sound of protection in my head; it is a very familiar topic.
Present Outlook.
But this year we are very glad to report a very nice crop of pineapples on the East Coast. In the next six or seven weeks we will move from that territory 125,000 crates of pineapples which will very nearly amount to four million fruits. The fancy varieties including the Smooth Cayenne, Abakka, Egyptian Queen and Porto Rico, will yield perhaps ten thousand crates. Of tLese fancy varieties we shipped in 1887 25,000 crates. The restilt that year was not satisfactory considering the intrinsic value of the fruit. Our methods of marketing are not suitable for high-grade fruit. The commission system of the country does not undersVnd how to push the Smooth Cayenne, the Abakka and the Porto Rico, and many individual growers are marketing these fruits direct. A crate of Smooth Cayenne containing sixteen or eighteen fruits should not sell for less than 25 or 30 cents apiece. That year the price went down below that. This was not tis it should be, nor do I tlTnk it will ever occur again. Like the old orange growers of ten or twenty years ago, we had to learn everything by experience. We had the dishonest commission men, the fertilizer men and all these things which


you have already learned and which we are rapidly mastering.
Diseases.
As regards diseases, etc., among pineapples, I will not discuss that to any e.xtent. We have a few little troubles in that way. They are not extensive and not very serious. Personally I feel that many of them are due more to the trotibles that the plants have had in the way of climate during the last five years than anything else. In the matter of insects, of which we have a few, all of which we treat promptly by medication, we have concluded that with good suitable land, good healthy plants, intelligent cultivation and fertilization we have nothing to fear from the results so far as diseases and insects are concerned. When plants become diseased and pest-ridden the best remedy is to take them up and throw them away, for they are not like orange trees which need several years to bring them to maturity. The ordinary plant costs a half-cent and it is easy to get a good stand of plants. If you will give them the proper treatment and not do anything that will over-stimulate then-i you can look for a good steady growth.
Irrigation.
We have not found that irrigation is yet necessary; our rainfall on the East Coast is heavy. Last year we had seventy-two and a fraction inches and it was well distributed, which enables us to mature the fruit well. Moisture is necessary for swelling out the eyes of pineapples. This is a Red Spanish (picking up a sainple sent to the Society) raised by Geo. McPherson; I know his place well. I started out to say that there is a foreordination in the size of the pineapple. When







FLORIIA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


the bloom comes out, the size of the apple is determined. The same number of eves in embryo is seen there and as soon as the grower sees one-quarter the growth of the apple he practically knows with certainty the, size it will be, if it has the proper amount of moisture. Some of us have tried irrigation and many of us believe that it has no special advantage. This apple is much above the average size, and it would take about eighteen of this size to the crate; that is a large size of the Red Spanish. The Porto Rico weighs fifteen pounds, and is nearly as large as a peck measure, packing eight to the crate, while this packs eighteen. There is a vast variety of pineapples; we have about twenty-two varieties on our place. I do not believe there is any special advantage in having so many varieties and we have sifted it down to about six. The Red Spanish is sturdy and a good shipper; the Smooth Cayenne is worth about ten cents apiece in our territory, and if you plant ten thousand on an acre it would cost you $i,ooo; Red Spanish would cost net for the plants $75.00. In saying this I do not detract from the Smooth Cayenne or the Abakka, but consider the old Red Spanish financially good enough for most of us.
The topic contemplates that I say something about
Other Tropical Fruits.
The mango, sapadillo and a great many others. In our own territory we consider the avocado pear a failure, and the mango is too tender for our locality. It fruits well and is desirable, but we have long since thought it was best not to crowd the tropics too far north. We were growing the avocado pear, mango, etc., and found it was better to go to the F.S.H.S.-7


territory provided for them. In the vicinity of the Florida keys and on the rock lands around Miami the avocado pear seems to be at home. The mango does well there and so indeed do the guava and other tropical products. I said I would not keep you long, and I will be glad to respond to any questions asked.
Mr. Crane-I would like to ask what effect an excess of moisture has on the pineapple.
Mr. Mccarty-It is bad; it renders the fruit soft and perishable. As to fertilizer, I would use a fertilizer of at least twelve per cent. lktash, which makes the fruit vigorous. The Red Spanish is hardy and others are also. I would not advise too much moisture at any time.
Shedding Pineapples.
Mr. McCarty-A word or two in reference to shedding l)ineapples. I had intended in my report to mention that. There is a little shedding being done in the pineapple territory. It is not determined whether it will be a permanent success or not. It is too soon yet to know. There is no use of being hasty in our conclusions about these matters; it is better to be sure of it before we go into it. The shed has an advantage and it has several disadvantages; the principal one is that it makes the plant grow too tall. Like everything else under a shed, the leaves grow very long, and, if of the Red Spanish variety, after a few years they get too high and they fall over. Shedding is otherwise objectionable. If Smooth Cayenne, there is not the same objection because it is not allowed to carry on its succession uninterruptedly. There are many sheds in our territory that are very decided failures. Entirely aside from their cost there are







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


some up to this day that are not a success, and I believe they will not be in the future, that is, from now on; the cost is too much. Whenever you invest from $300 to $400 in an acre of pineapples and $400 or $500 more in the price of a shed you will reap but small profits. There is a better way of protecting pineapples and it may be called a local method of carryin- plants through the winter when you begin to feel nervous. I call it ins.urance; some use a switch grass which grows with us and which can be laid on top of the plants. We covered i5o.ooo plants, principally with the A palmetto leaves. We keep the entire clump together, so that we can lay them over the plants without their being blown away by the wind. It is a good protection, warm and cosy; it is cheap and not injurious to anything. The cabbage palmetto fan is the same. Put on the first of January and taken off the first of March, it only costs you $io or $15 an acre, as against an investment Of $300 to $500 in a shed. The shed is too expensive and too uncertain; it is an experiment yet. I was asked to report on that subject, and I will say that until we have had four or five years' experience, I could not say whether th shed is a good idea or not. I do not think it a necessity, and as to the advantages on that score I think it out of the question. It is a conservative statement; I am not carried away with any such theories. If you have not the money, cover with something else. It is wise, safe and conservative.
DISCUSSION.
Mr. Sperry-I would like to ask if there are any diseases prevalent among the pineapples grown on the East Coast, and if so, what is their character?


Mr. McCarty-If you mean different diseases on different kinds, I broadly say not. I am inclined to believe that there are some varieties that are more susceptible than others. I do not want to be too dogmatic in my statements, because there is such a thing as being too hasty, but I will say that the Egyptian Queen pineapple has shown itself to be susceptible to the red spider, more so probably than any other. There has been the last few years a little of what is called wilt on the Smooth Cayenne; it is so little we do not consider it much. Among our Red Spanish we have a certain amount of spike or long Teaf; that is not a disease but a condition. I would say broadly that one kind is not more susceptible to disease than others, but some few are more liable. There are some insects that are harmless; the mealy bug is entirely harmless; the redspider is not harmless, and there are other things that are not harmless. We do not know what causes the spike or long leaf. Prof. Webber was right in his conclusion that it was caused by the condition of the plant, caused by propagating pines from the same plants for ten years, causing low vitality. I am satisfied of that now.
A Member-Is it a fact that the presence of lime in the soil is injurious to the plant ?
Mr. McCarty-That is one of our oldtime fads. The original feeling that went around the State with reference to that, resulted from a misapprehension of the individual who first put it out. The first few plants that were planted in our territory were planted on low land. There was a good deal of sheff in that land, and from the fact that they did not do well, he came to the conclu sion that the shell 2id the damage. On our high, well-








FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


drained, spruce-pine land which is very poor, hie did succeed with fertilizer, and it was concluded that was better than the other. Wet land is injurious. As far as lime is concerned, it is far from being a had thing; I have used it as a fertilizer in the proper way.
A Merrher-Have you had any trouble with scale of any kind on your plants?
Mr. McCarty-No, sir, none whatever; we have none.
Mr. Harrington-Do you meet with any perceptible loss in your uncovered pineapples by the effects of the sun's rays ?
Mr. McCai tv-We meet with a very small loss in that respect. The seasons differ. WVhen it is very rainy and bright. sunshine may wilt the plants ; two per cent. will cover all the loss from sunburn and in the present conditions we have none whatever. The only way is to plant them close together. If you plant your pineapples twenty inches apart in squares the first year they will be sunburnt ; after that they are so near together there will he no sunburn. As to fertilizing, if you give a ton to the acre for twelve thousand plants and after they are fruited and vou have twenty or twenty-five thousand suckers, fertilize for the number of plants, then you have no trouble.
A mnember-Did von broadcast your fertilizer or put it on the plants?
Mr. McCarty-When the plants are large we broadcast; when they are young we put it on the ground. WVhen very young we put a mixture of about a teaspoonful of cottonseed meal, and the same of tobacco dust to each plant; after that we put our fertilizer entirely on the ground. When they are high we broadcast it, taking care not to have anything


exceedingly caustic so as not to burn the plant.
Prof. Gossard-I understand, Mr. McCarty, that you use tobacco dust when you first put the plants out.
Mr McCarty-Yes, a mixture of half and half as a preventive. We think there is a reason for everything we do.
Prof. Gossard-Do you base your statements on your personal experience or as general statements, as to the existence of the mealy bug?
Mr. McCarty- We have no knowledge of the bug existing on the small plants.
Prof. Gossard-T have seen a few pineapples raised; the bugs had been thick enough. but they were not there when I saw the plants. The owner said the bugs had been there in large quantities and he had been using a powder upon them and killed them. I have had plants sent in with enough mealy bugs on them to be convinced that they would do harm. There is sometimes a scale that gets upon pineapples, but it has never been reported that it (lid any harm.
Dr. Kerr-I would like to ask Mr. McCarty how the wilt affects the pineapple, and what is the remedy?
Mr. McCarty-Thie wilt affects them by drying up the extreme outer ends of the leaves and they drop, and the remedy is to take the plants uip and throw them away. We do not know the cause even.
Mr. Phelps-Have you seen mealy hugs (luring rainfalls?
Mr. McCarty-The seasons when we have had heavy rainfall and no rainfall are out of my mind, but I think there would be a difference in that, although I do not want to be put on record as to that.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY


Mr. Phelps-Fifteen or eighteen years ago, it was very dry and mealy bugs were in evidence. A full spray washed them away, b~ut when there was a heavy rain, there were no mealy bugs.
Mr. Sperry-I have had pines planted both on high and low lands. The low land is known as a bay-head, the water standing continuously a foot from the surface. There I have had no trouble, but on high pine land I have had trouble, but nothing serious. I would like to ask Mr. McCarty whether the disease they have designated as wilt is not sometimes called blight.
Mr. McCarty-Yes, the same thing. Mr. Beach, of West Palm Beach, first called it the wilt in The Farmer and Fruit Grower, but it is the same thing.
A Member-I understand this is more or less prevalent among all varieties.
Mr. McCarty-I think it is mostly confined to Smooth Cayennes; not enough among the Red Spanish to be considered serious; I know we have had it among Egyptian Queens.
A Member-In reference to accumulation of sand after setting young plants. Do you resort to washing it out or removing it in any way?
Mr. McCarty-We have three ways of doing that. The best way is by the use of cottonseed meal sprinkled in the heart of the plant; this crusts the sand and the growing plant pushes it out. If it is too bad we blow it out with a pair of ,bellows. If the sand is in a had condition the use of the bellows is the better way. If the weather is wet we can wash it out with a little water. We are not much troubled that way.
Dr. Kerr-How long do you discontinue fertilizing before fruiting?


Mr. McCarty-Dr. Kerr, there has been a considerable dlivergence of miethods along that line during the past five years. When I came to the State the custom was to put the last fertilizer cii about the last of January or February. That season became earlier until six years ago they were fertilizing about the middle of December: now they put it on in November, not later than December. This is based upon the theory that before the bloom is formed the apple can be increased by swelling the eyes. If the fertilizer is put onl earlier the plant produces a larger fruit and a larger plant. The better practice is to apply in November; seventy-five or eighty per cent, of the growers are doing that at the present time.
Prof. Hume-Mr. McCarty has mentioned the drying uip or wilting of the tops or leaves; I am convinced that the trouble is back of that, which is only a manifestation of the (fisor-ler. If you take uip one of these plaints and cut a section of it down under where the roots originate, you will find from one-half to two inches of the bottom is lacking the root. I have made some careful examinations of those portions to (determine whether there are any traces of fungus in them, but I have not discovered any, but it occurs to me that the trouble mutst be either bacterial or a fungus. The whole root system is cut off and the wilt at the top is a manifestation of its approaching death. With regard to the Egyptian Queen being subject to the red spider; there is a difference in the susceptibility of the different varieties to this disease. I have a list giving the different varieties, eight or ten of them, in the way of instances. My recollection is that the







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


Egyptian Queen is one of the most subject to the disease and the Red Spanish is almost entirely proof against it, but that I am not certain. The disease appears to be contagious and I have seen other fancy varieties taken up and in their stead the Red Spanish was planted without showing any sign of the disease.
Mr. Sperry-Have you any knowledge how this disease is communicated to one plant from another, whether by root contact, leaf contact or otherwise? My observation has been that it grows in groups. But some of those plants that I have observed are perfectly healthy.
Prof. Hume-I have no certain knowledge as to how this disease spreads. I have some experiments under way now to determine whether it is contagious or not.
Mr. Butler-Before this subject is dropped, I want to protest against the remark that pineapple sheds are built with "grandmother's money," at least so far as the West Coast is concerned, for upon the Pinellas Peninsula there must be thirty or forty Smooth Cayenne pineries, every one of which is tinder a shed and nearly all paying well. Among the larger ones, I do not know of a single failure, and many have netted over four thousand dollars per acre for the first crop of fruit and suckers.
Mr. McCarty-I confined my remarks to the fruit grown on the East Coast. I am glad to know they are making $4.ooo an acre on the West Coast, and if I could make as much as that, I should be a bloated bond-holder.
Mr. Blackman-The topic has reference to other fruits besides the pineapple. There are fruits in our Southern country


that grow without disease and other troubles. One of the best fruits that we grow in Dade county is the alligator pear, one of �he greatest bearers. There are trees with apparently no soil near or on the surface, with comparatively light trunks, that every year bear a thousand of this fruit, which finds a ready market. Last year in the grove of Capt. Tyler a branch of an alligator pear broke off and he found there were 360 well-developed fruits on that branch. That fruit was worth forty cents a dozen, and that was only one branch of many on that tree. Also with the mango, which grows with ease, has no insect enemies, no diseases and comes into bearing the third or fourth year, and the fruit brings a good price in the local markets. As to the guava, that used to be grown all over the State but is now confined to the lower East and West Coasts. Last year the priced dropped to $1.25 and $i.5o per bushel delivered at the depot. It grows there not as a bush or shrub but to the size of the trees of the forest, and every branch is loaded. Hardly anybody living in this northern part, where these tropical fruits do not grow, is aware of these facts, but I want you to know that there is a country where you can grow these tropical fruits with ease, as much ease as in Cuba or any other tropical country, and that they grow and they bear. I have seen orange trees growing and thriving, three and a half years old, hearing three to three and a half boxes per tree. (?) We must not overlook these tropical fruits. No one has ever said much from our section, so I make these few remarks about the tropical fruits that grow on our own continent and in our own State.






















Of course we know of no other section of the State where tropical fruits have been grown except in South Florida. If there is truly more happiness in pursuit than in possession we can heartily recommend tropical fruit-growing in any "favored locality" south of the twentyeighth parallel of latitude. Our experience in this industry is confined to the little sub-peninsula of Pinellas on the west side of Tampa Bay. Our observation embraces about all of Southwest Florida.
The lower sub-peninsula high pine lands seemed to be especially adapted to the mango and avocado pear. It would be tedious to mention all the tropical fruits that we have demonstrated to be unsuited to our pine lands, and we have no hammocks. The tamarind, the sugar apple, the Jamaica apple and the sapadillo, are notable' failures with us, though these fruits seem to flourish on the islands further south, while the mango is almost a failure, except at or about Fort Myers. On the island of Marco the avocado pears were quite prolific, but not near so fine


as with us, while the mango was not in evidence, or at least not in countenance.
The writer does advise the setting of a few trees of a tropical nature and of a kind demonstrated to be "at home," but he does not advise any one to attempt to grow tropical fruits for market. After we had ruri the gauntlet of the colds of average winters and produced thousands of boxes or crates of mangoes and avocado pears there was no extensive market for them. A few cities in the South paid fairly well for our product, but strangers did not like them, and our marketing was a flat failure, to use a terse term.
If history is to repeat itself and climates never change-in the history of man-we may expect our tropical fruit trees to be destroyed in the future as in the past.
Pineapples are grown successfully tinder sheds, and a great many are being set continually. The writer is an advocate of the high lands for pines, and favors the lower sub-peninsula as the best locality he knows.


TROPICAL FRUIT GROWING IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA.


Not Available for Commercial Purposes-Plant Only for Home Use.


By W. P. Nec1d, of the Committee.















PROTECTION OF PINEAPPLES FROM FROST.


At Orlando, the Interior Pineapple Center-Minute, Practical Description of Some Devices Used.


Paper by Dr. J. V. Calver


The freeze of February, 1899, emphasized the necessity for some means of perfectly protecting the pineapple from frost.I
The few pineries that at that time were partially protected by covers demonstrated their utility so that in the following autumn the larger part of the growers in and about Orlando took hold of the matter in earnest. Fortunately many plans were tried, and although sufficient time has not elapsed to demonstrate in full which is the best method, yet a comparison of sonme points will serve to throw considerable light on this important subject and open the way for additional thought and more perfect mi-ethods.
Among the plans tried we mention the following:
1. Covering the plants with piniestraw.
2. Covering the pineries with stationary slats.
3. Covering the pineries with movable slats in sections.
4. Covering the pineries with cloth.
I. Covering with pinestraw or other similar material to a depth of a few inches affords a very economical andevery good protection for young plants, where it is not desired to push then forward during


the winter. The cost is about $25 per acre.
2. Covering with stationary slats three-eighths of an inch thick, four inches wide, sixteen feet long, each one tacked to its place over the three inch opening, gives protection to larger plants if fire is also used during very cold weather; but it makes the pinery dark and excludes the warmth, consequently the development of the plants is retarded. This plan requires about 30,000 feet of lumber and costs from $200 to $250 per acre.
3. Covering with movable slats in sections of 8x8 or 8x16 feet, which are dropped into the open spaces on the approach of a cold wave, has some advantages and some disadvantages. Two men can cover or uncover an acre in about two hours, and in warm weather the plants get the benefit of the sun; but in firing much of the heat escapes through the cracks. The cost for fuel and labor will approximate $5 per night per acreThe primary cost of this cover is about the same as that of the stationary slats.
4. Covering with cloth, while expensive, promises the best results. It makes a tight cover and retains the heat, while sudden falls of temperature are not so







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


quickly felt. Very much less fuel and labor are required. The cost of firing under cloth in a large pinery should not exceed $2 per acre each night.
Several kinds of cloth have been tried, varying from an eight ounce duck to a four ounce muslin-, and various ways of preserving the cloth have been tested to a limited extent. Which is the most economical will take several years to determine.
An extensive experiment was tried with the cloth prepared by the Varn process. This being very heavy it was found impracticable to use as a movable cover, but spread on the top of the slats and securely fastened answered very well. Its first cost is great, but it promises to be durable. Its disadvantages seem to be its great weight in handling, and being nearly water proof it requires irrigating facilities to afford the necessary moisture for the plants.
What appears to be a good method of treating the cloth is to prepare a bath by dissolving one pound of sulphate of zinc in forty gallons of water and afterwards adding one pound of sal soda and two ounces of tartaric acid, each previously dissolved by itself. The cloth is soaked in this solution for twenty-four hours and then dried without wringing. Five ounce muslin treated by this process is in good condition after two seasons' use.
We personally used a four ounce muslin, passing it through a hot bath of paraffine and oil (heated for safety by a steam pipe) and immediately after through a wringer, using four to six pounds of paraffin to each gallon of oil. Twelve thousand yards were treated in about eighteen hours with the labor of one man and two boys. The muslin had been already sewed into strips three


yards wide. The object in this treati-nent was to use as much paraffin as possible without making the muslin water proof after the oil evaporated. The muslin came off in good condition at the end of one season.
There are two methods of using the muslin, one putting it above the slats, the other below.
When the cloth is placed on top of the slats it is necessary to fasten it very securely. For this purpose wires over the cloth secured by staples were generally adopted.
We used the muslin under the slats, resting on wires three and one-half feet apart. The edge of the muslin was secured by drawing it under and around the corner of the stringer and tacking it once in eighteen inches or two feet, the other edge being lapped over a pole one inch square, which in turn was nailed to the stringer. This proved perfectly secure. The only disadvantage in this method seems to be that as the strips of cloth cross the* beds, the cover is more difficult to put on and take off when the plants are very large. To obviate this we would suggest making the strips of cloth fifteen feet wide, and running them lengthwise of the beds. A strip of wood Ix3 inches called from post to post would afford means to support the wires and the edges of the cloth. The wires could pass through the centre of the strip or be secured by staples to the under side. Tack the edge of the cloth around the corner on the upper side and the next piece of cloth around the corner on the under side. Fastening it with four ounce tacks in this way once in eighteen inches will make it perfectly secure, and it can be easily put on and taken off.
Other methods are being tried, arnong







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


which is a wooden cover to open and shut like a window lind; a similar cover is used for protecting brick in the brickyards along the Hudson river.
The amount of heat required under a tight cloth cover is comparatively small. We used with great satisfaction a very simple coke stove, consisting of a cylinder of No. 2o sheet-iron twelve inches in diameter and thirty inches in length, made slightly tapering. A piece three inches by four inches was cut out of the lower edge, and the whole slipped over the flange of a cast-iron grate, the grate being without legs and when in use supported on three bricks. The fires were started with a very small quantity of wood or charcoal and the coke broken into egg-size. To prevent any possible danger to the cloth, two wires were bent into the form of a letter NV and slipped over the upper edge of the stove and these supported a piece of tin about eighteen inches square three or four inches above the stove. Six of thc~e stoves to the acre were found sufficient to keep the temperature at 4o degrees when it was 23 degrees outside, so that ten or twelve to the acre will be sufficient for any cold likely to occur where the pineapple is raised. The cost of these stoves is about $i each.
The cost of coke with us being not less than $8 per ton, some preferred to use wood. The best plan adopted for burning wood was to use it in a stove of sheet iron of oval form resting on the ground; it had a large door with a vertical movement and a pipe passing through a piece of sheet-iron three feet square to protect the cloth. These stoves, we understand, gave very good satisfaction. They cost, with the necessary pipe, about $3.5o apiece.


WVe contemplate trying some experiments with oil-burners.
It has been estimated that the additional growth of plants under the cloth cover during a single winter will nearly or quite pay for such a cover.
It may afford the means, when properlv understood, oi bringing the crop forward so as to perfect the fruit at the season when it is most desired.
The many advantages of a cloth cover seem to justify us in pronouncing it a decided success.
DISCUSSION.
Mr. McFarland-I ask the gentleman in speaking of treating cloth with paraffine. etc. to make it water proof and mildew proof, does he treat it for mildew before he gives it the water proof? My reason is I believe that by the experimenting we have done since 1895 we hope to spread around our successes and failures as much as we possibly can. I believe that it is for the benefit of the State of Florida to find out what is right and what is not right to do, and I say what I do without antagonizing any one. In speaking- about water proofing a piece of cloth: After twenty-two years' experience by one that knows what canvas is, he ought to have more knowledge about the treatment of canvas for mildew or water proofing than any one who has treated canvas in the United States. Unless you treat a cloth for mildew, do not put on the paraffine: it will mildew quicker than if you do not do anything to it. You must take the starch all out of that cloth ; that is what causes mildew ; take that out, then put it in a solution of alum-that does not allow it to take mildew. After that water proof it, then you have mildew proof and water proof and you have not got it until you do. Those are facts and I know it.















THE STRAWBERRY.


Considered Historically and Comm ercially Best Varieties Up to Date-Excellent Advice as to Packing.


By L Cameron, of the Committee.


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
The strawberry has been termed the Queen of Fruits, but in Florida we can not yield it that place, as the orange is Queen here, but the strawberry comes next. It has given renewed life and prosperity in a great many localities when the frost killed the hope of orange-raising.
Duval county has the honor of having raised the first strawberry for shipment to Northern markets.
The W'ilson's Albany was the first planted here, and w~as the leading variety uip to 1886. The Charleston Seedling and the Newnan followed.
In those days the~ fruit began to come in in the latter part of January, and February was always reckoned as the strawberry month. Conditions have changed and March and April are now the strawberry months.I
Fruit shipped from here from i886 to 1890 brought from 50 cents to $i.oo per quart, and it (lid not pay to ship when prices went below 30 cents. It then cost about 15 cents per quart to put the fruit in the Boston or New York markets.
There have been numerous varieties planted (luring the past few years with more or less success. The Ho~fman.


Cloud and Michel were long the leaders. The Lady Thompson came in a few years ago and is probably the best variety grown.
From all quarters come praises of this variety, and planted alongside of others, the Brandywvine, Clyde, Nick Ohrner and other new varieties, went ahead of them in earliness and productiveness.
The Brandywine was not a success; itis too late and a shy cropper, but a sweeter berry than the Lady Thompson, and it might bie called a second crop variety.
Lady Thompson planted the latter part of September ripened some fruit for Christmas, and with a light covering of pine-straw the bloom was saved through the February freeze, but got caught in the M~arch freeze, yet the plants were soon in fruit again and produced a good crop until drowned on April i8th. That night 4.78 inches of rain fell before morning and did more damage than the frosts.
In regard to fertilizers, the different soils require different treatment; more potash is necessary on new heavy soil and more ammronia on high, light soils. To glet strong p~lan~ts for setting out it is advisable to keep the bloom picked off a few rows, not allowing them to fruit, and to fertilize with a mnanuire containing







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


more ammonia than for fruiting plants. The runners will then have large, strong crowns and will stand the transplanting much better than weaker plants, consequently reducing the chances of the p~lan~ts dying and having to he replaced.
*Many articles written on strawberry culture advise planting late varieties for a succession cr0o), hut this does not apply to Florida, for if a grower has several acres to set out he wants them all early.
The prices of fruit have been greatly injured by what is called "topping," that is, putting green or imperfect berries in the bottom of the basket andl fine looking fruit on top, andI it seems that -x ith all that has been said and written agaiimt this dishonest method of packing--and dishonest it is-it is still practiced to some extent.
A representative of a large and responsible commission house in New York informed me that hundreds of crates of berries were throix'n out or sold to pedl-' diers for a song every year in New York on account of this style of packing.
WVhen a commission house knows that


fruit is put up honestly and can be recommended to the best class of dealers, these dealers know their customers and that the price is not the object, but good fruit, and will pa~y a great deal more for a brand that thcy know will give their customers satisfaction.
Put up your berries so that a dealer can turn the basket upside down and show as good fruit on the bottom as on the top, and you will get the best prices the market affords when your brand is known.
With all the back-sets of the past season, the frosts and the floods, the strawberry growers are not discouraged, but are satisfiedl with their season's vxork and almost all of them now contemplate planting a larger acage next fall.
DISCUSSION.
Major Healy-What do you consider the best table berry for home use?
Mr. Camieron-The Clyde is the best. The Brandywvine is not a profitable berry, at least around Jacksonville. I cannot recommend it either as a cropper or a shipper.














a
where the small trees may be expected to quickly develop into symmetrical and beautiful specimens. The only objection we have ever heard to this variety is that it is not considered a long-lived sort, forty to fifty years probably being the limit.
The live oak is also desirable for ornamental planting, especially if one is willing to await its much slower development. Though found naturally in more or less moist situations this variety well withstands transplanting to drier situations and when unrestricted in its development shows mucfi symmetry of growth; it also attains a gigantic size and lives to a good old age.
Among other desirable sorts may be mentioned the magnolia grandiflora, the most popular broad-leaved evergreen of the South, hardy as far north as New York; the sweet bay, another variety of the magnolia family, also very hardy; the sweet gum, a tree of remarkably syinmetrical growth, almost as hardy as the sugar maple, which it much resembles; the cabbage palm, of great beauty in any stage of growth, very numerous in some sections, and hardy as far north as South Carolina; the wild cherry, the fruit of which will attract to your homes as many birds as a mulberry; various sorts of the cedar family, several branching forms of the pine, etc.
The foregoing are grouped by themselves on account of their large growth. There are available many varieties of


The subject of ornamentals presents a subject so far-reaching in scope that in a brief paper we cannot hope to more than here and there stir the surface. It seems to us well therefore to refer particularly to Onie of the material for ornamental planting to be had in abundance in almost any locality of the State. The experience of the past few years having shown us the futility of using for permanent planting anything not strictly hardy has also added emphasis to the value of many of our native sorts for this purpose.
In many sections of Florida is found a considerable variety of oaks, of which the water oak is Verhaps most known and used for street planting and shade trees. By careful observation it will be seen that this variety shows quite a wide variation in color and shape of leaf. When putting forth new growth this variation of color is specially marked, ranging from a light, almost yellow, green through intermediate shades to the darkest green, some showing in the tender growth a distinct wine color, handsome and striking in appearance. In form of leaf a tree here shows a long, narrow leaf, while in other specimens we find the foliage much broader, some being heavily lobed. Properly used these variations admit of pleasing effects. A special and valuable feature of the water oak is that, though found growing naturally in a more or less moist, rich soil, it readily adapts itself to almost any situation and is specially suitable for planting in high, dry localities,-


REPORT ON ORN"ENTALS.

The Hardy Shade and Ornamental Trees of Florida-Native or Adopted Shrubs and Vines.

By J. W. Effsworth, of the Committee.







FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.


smaller growth also suitable for ornamental planting; among these we find the cherry laurel, a very beautiful sort, also of special value as a hedge plant; various sorts of holly, the dogwood, graybeard (chionantlius), wild plum, prickly ash (not an ash, but botanically xanthoxylum), hawthorn, aralia, etc.
The list of shrubs suitable for planting about our homes includes many sorts of great beauty, for instance various sorts of vaccinium, including vaccinium arboreum, which loads itself in spring with myriads of small lily-of-the-valley-like flowers, several species of andromeda, viburnum, prunifolium, the foliage of which is of the shiniest green, appearing


as if varnished; itea virginica, azalea undifloruin, the elder (sambucus), etc.
The list of desirable vines includes many excellent sorts and admits of a considerable variety. Perhaps the best known is the yellow jessamine . a sort that occasionally is found in bloomn from December to May; others are the trumpet vine, producing in great profusion showy red flowers; various species of smilax, or sweetbriar vine, the trumpet creeper, Virginia creeper, etc., all hardy and of free growth. This list is not intended to he complete but to direct attention to a few good sorts in each class and urge upon planters the value and use of our hardy native trees and plants.


DISCUSSION ON VEGETABLE BLIGHTS.


Mr. \Vaite-I would like to ask some of the old vegetable growers if there is any remedy for tomato blight, and what is the cause of it ? Is it a lack of anything in the soil or something else?
Mr. Gaitskill-There are two blights, one of the fungus and one of bacteria. We have not learned what will cure the bacte-ria blight. Prof. Smith, of the Agricultural Department, Washington, D. C,. has been working on it for six years and has not learned what will cure it yet.
Mr. Healy-There is not very much visible difference on sight between the two, bacteria an-d fungus.
Mr. Cameron-It is caused sometimes by too much moisture; I have several times put pieces of charcoal around them which helped them a great deal.
Mr. Gaitskill-With the fungus you


will notice the very tops of the vines wvilt and fall down, which is the first sign. If you wXill look at the ground you will find the bark will peel off. With the bacterial blight you will find one leaf will turn yellow, then another and another;' you will find that disease in the wood tissue in the plant; and there is no way to get rid of it but to pull it uip and throw it away. 'We have been planting other crops for about five years and there is no difference. Probably the dry seasons affect this; we hope this wet weather will help us out on that.
Dr. Inman-I have grown tomatoes very extensively and I call to mind an instance where the blight was very bad one
*season. On the same land we planted potatoes the following season without any blight.














ELECTION OF OFFICERS.


The Nominating Committee, consisting of S. H. Gaitskill,'B. N. Bradt and F. D. Waite, through the Chairman, presented a ticket, which was as follows:
President-George L. Taber, Glen St. Mary.
Vice-Presidents-Dr. George Kerr, Pierson; G. W. Wilson, Jacksonville; W. A. Cooper, Orlando.
Secretary-Stephen Powers, Jacksonville. * 1i
Treasurer-W. S. Hart, Hawks Park.


Executive Committee-Lyman Phelps, Chairman, Sanford; E. S. Hubbard, Federal Point; E. 0. Painter, DeLand.
Each of the above-naned gentlemen. in succession, on motion made and seconded, was unanimously elected by the Secretary being instructed to cast the vote of the Society for him. In case of the Secretary the Treasurer was so instructed. Each of the officers elect returned grateful acknowledgements in a few fitting and occasionally humorous remarks.


SELECTION OF NEXT PLACE OF MEETING.


This function, on this occasion, proved to be uncommonly spirited and exciting. There was a strong sentiment among many of the older members that, since the Society had met, at one time or another, in nearly every representative section of the State-Orlando three times, Ocala twice, Ormond, DeLand, Interlachen, Jacksonville three times, Pensacola-that the West Coast should be accorded the courtesy of meeting in that section this time. This view was ably presented by WV. S. Hart, who, as a resi(lent of the East Coast and one of the oldest members of the Society, spoke. from a vantage ground of great strength.
Early in the session the West Coast had two candidates, Tampa and St. Pe-


tersburg, but before the election came ln the friends of the two places harmoni7ed their views by agreeing to work unitedly for St. Petersburg. The attractions and inducements of St. Petersburg in particular and West South Florida in general, especially of that fertile and rapidly advancing region, the Manatee river valley, were earnestly and eloquently presented by C. W. Butler, M. E. Gillett, A. J. Pettigrew, F. D. Waite and Dr. F. NV. Inman. It was urged, with little possibility of successful contradiction, that extreme Southwestern Florida is now practically the only productive orange belt of the State; that this section has scores of splendid pineries in fruit or in building; that this Society, if it is any-




Full Text

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~Gu ? / .3t h _ , , 1 900 '--" INV. '6Q ]floriba State 1Horttcultural Socfetr.

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THIRTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE Florida State Horticultural Societu 'ti HELD AT .JACKSONVILLE, FLA., MAY 1, 2, 3 and 4, 1900. Compiled by the Secretary. PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. PRESS OF E . 0 . PA INTER & CO., PRIN'l'ERS AND BINDERS, DeLand, Fla. 1900 . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . ' .. ..

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CONTENTS. Officers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 List of Members-Honorary, Life and Annual.. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Minutes (Giving all the events and tran5.flctions of the meeting in the order of their occurrence, but omitting papers, reports, discussions, etc., which appear on subsequent pages under topical heads.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Addresses of Welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Response to Addresses of Welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 President's Annual Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Report of Committee on Local Arrangements .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Practical Protection of Orange Trees-All known devices tested by a scientific but practical grower-With artificial heat and without-Dormancy, hybridizing, whitewashing, spraying, banking-Open fires fail utterly or only partially protect-Shields, Sheds and tents do the work-Sheds best of all -Or ange culture placed on a business basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 We Do Not Give Up the Orange-Words of hope and encouragement Prophetic utterances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Fascination of Orange Culture-It will never die-Dormancy the one great requisite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................ 40 Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Prevention-Shed covers with coke burning salamanders-A success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Sheds of Split Cypress Lath-Rationale of protection-A plea for better weather forecasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Personal Experience of a Practical Man-Tenting and Shedding-Rapid covering-A lamp that can be depended on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Irrigation Under Sheds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Insects Under Sheds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Protection with Boxes-Detailed descrbtion-Protection perfect-Cost will be about $4.00 per tree in five years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Maintaining Permanent Orchard Fertility-Deep plowing-Good ventila tion-Use of lime-Cropping with field crops to use up nitrogen-Ap plication of mineral-Wide planting recommended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 The Production of a Hardy Orange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Diseases and Insects of the Citrus-The white fly-Common lon g scaleThe brown fungus as a friend of the tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Practical Peach Culture-Requisites of success stated by an experienced grower-Rich land for peaches, poor land for pears-Never prune without good reason-Errors as to pear blight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Oral Report-Profit in peach culture-Avoid pruning-The Oviedo variety 72 . ::-.. :: ~? : . .: .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . ..

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FLORIDA STATE H RTICULTURAL SOCIETY. m. Notes on Current Entomology-Joint report of the committee-A hopeful and encouraging statement-Cottony cushion scale not to be feared Crude petroleum as an insecticide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5 Pineapples and Other Tropical Fruits-Beginnings on Indian river-Historical statements-Some discussions of varieties-Irrigation not necessary on the East Coast-Few diseases encountered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 Tropical Fruit Growing in Southwest Florida-Not available for commercial purposes-Plant only for home use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Protection of Pineapples from Frost-At Orlando, the interior pineapple cen ter-Minute , practical description of some devices used . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 The Strawberry-Considered historically and commercially-Best varieties up to date-Excellent advice as to packing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Report on Ornamentals-The hardy shade and ornamental trees of FloridaNative or adopted shrubs and vines..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Discussion on Vegetable Blights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Election of Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Selection of ext Place of Meeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Report of Secretary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Report of Treasurer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Report of Executive Committee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IOI Grapes, Figs and Kaki-High praise of the scuppernong-Caprifigs introduced from Smyrna into California-A hopeful event-Japanese methods needed with the kaki. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Streaks of Sand Called Roads-Linked sandiness long clrawn out-Death to ambition and farm profits-Road funds wasted and divertecl-"Ab normally developed acquisitiveness" of road officials-\Vretched patch work system-Here a little work, there a little and nothingclone-Good roads could easily be built-\i\That they would do for the State.. . . . . . . 109 The Rationale of Marketing-High rates and hard treatment-Gluts and dearths the shipper's great enemy-The general s hipper makes the mar ket , hence the merchant is powerless-The shipper also is powerless Strong and wide organization the only hope-An able and philosophical paper ........ : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 16 A Year's Experience in Practical Protection-The McFarland tent-Every defect cured-Proof against water, insects and mildew-Can be closed in a few seconds-With artificial heat inside it affords perfect protection. 120 Florida vs. Porto Rico-For the fruit grower contemplating migration . . . . 124 Cassava Culture-Fall planting not recommended-Bank the seed canes in an upright position-Cutting and planting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Destruction of Florida's Forests-For lumber and turpentine-Comparison with Indiana forests-Useful products that might be obtained-Paper making from pine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 The Pecan as a Grove Tree for North Florida-Carefully studied and excellent directions for planting, culture, pruning, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Report on Fertilizers and Irrigation-Recent rise in fertilizer explained Lasting nature of fertilizers-Importance of irrigation-A very ingenious system at Sanford. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

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lV. FLORIDA STA'l'E HOR'l'ICUL'l'URAL SOCIETY Use of th~ Word Pomelo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Final Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Co-operation with the Agricultural College. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 A Society Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Necrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................. 148 Catalogue of Fruits. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...... ....... ....... . .. ... . I-XXII

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'151481 FLORIDA ST A TE HORTICULTURA L SOCIETY . OFFICERS-ELECT FOR 1900. PRESIDENT. GEORGE L. TABER , Glen St. Mary . VI CEPRESIDENTS. DR. GEORGE KE R R, Pierson ; G. W. WILSON, Jacksonville; W. A . COOPER, Orlando. SECRETARY. STEPHEN POWER. , Jacksonvill e. TREASURER. W. S. HART, Hawks Park. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. LYMAN PHELPS, Chairman, Sanford; E. S. HUBBARD, F e d e ral Point ; E. 0 . .PAIN rER, De Land . STAND! G COMMITTEES. CITRUS FRUITS.-E. S . Hubbard, F e d era l Point; W. A. Cooper, Orlando ; B M. Hampton, Lake mont . DISEASES AND INSECTS OF CrTRUs.-Prof. H A. Gossard, Lak e City; M. E. Gillett, Tampa; Wal ter Cooper, Sorr e nto. PEACIIES, PLUMS AND PEARS.-J. P Mace , Lake Helen; F. W . Inman, Winter Haven; C. C. Shooter, Waldo. GRAPES, Frns AND KAKI . -H . Von Luttichau, Earleton ; W, D. Griffiing, Jacksonville; G. A. Danley, Chipley. PINEAPPLES AND OTHER T R O PICAL Fnurrs . -Cyrus W. Butler, St. Petersburg; E. P. Porche r , Cocoa; C B. Thornton, Orlando. . ORN AMI!: TALs.-Rev. Lyman P helps, Sanford; Mrs. Florenc e P. Hayden, Cocoanut Grove; Mrs. F. D. Waite, Palmetto. DAMAGE l!'ROM COLD AND BE r METHODS OF PREYENTION.-E. W. Johnson, East Pa l atka; Geo W. Adams, Thonotosassa; F. G . Sampson , Boardman FERTILIZERS AND IRRIGATION . -Prof H. E. Stockbridge, Lake City; E . D . P utney, Avon P ark; Geo. H. Wright , Orlando NuT CuLTURE.-Dr . John B . Curtis, Orange Heights; C. H . Ashmead, Jacksonville; Vir.to r Schme l z, Zcllwood . TRANSI'OTtTATION.-G P. Healy, Jatrrev; E. 0. Painter, Jacksonville; Dr. George Kerr, P i P. 1 so n .

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vi. FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. STRAWBERRIES AND M1scELLANEous.-H. Price Williams, Miami ; Henry A. Schmelz, Tarpon Springs; P. L. Gould, Eustis. ENTOMOLOGY.-Prof. H. Harold Hum e, Lake Ci ty; Dr . L. Montgomery, Micanopy; F. W. Ly man, Georgiana. VEGE'fABLES. -E. V. Blackman, Miami ; W. B. H ea ly, Jafl'ery ; C. G. Whit e, Hastings. MARKE'i'ING AND GooD RoADs.-J . A. Crosby, San Mat eo; John S. Wyckoff, Citra; Chas. Henry Baker, Grasmere. F01tEBTRY.-G eo . R. Fairbanks, Fernandin a; Dr. J. F. Corrigan, St. L eo; Dr . E. E. Pratt, Limona. SPECIAL COMMITTEES, LIBRARY.-G. L. Tab e r, Gl e n St. Mary; S. Powers, Jacksonville ; W. 8. Hart, Hawks Parle lOMl'IITTTEE oF TIIREE to coo p e rat e with Committee of Two from State Agricultural Society in co nferring with Board of Trust ees of State Agricultural College.-8. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh; E. 0. Painter, Jacksonville ; Benj . N. Bradt, Hun ti n gton.

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LIST OF .M.E.M.BERS . HO OR.AR Y . Berckmans, P. J., Augusta, Ga. Redmond, D . , St. Nicho l as. LIF E . Al l en, Wm., 90 vVhite St., New York City . Andrews, Clement W., John Crerar Li brary, Chicago, Ill. Armstrong, L. H., St. icholas. Francisco, Beltran, Monterey, . L. Mexico. Conner, vV. E., 532 Madison Ave., New York City. Cunliff, L. H., Garden City, N. Y. Ellsworth, vV. J., Jessamine, Fla. Francis, Jr., Chas., Interlachen, Fla. Frink, A., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Gaitskill, S. H., McIntosh. Haden, Capt. John J., Cocoanut Grove. Ha l deman, W. N., Naples, Fla., and Louisville, Ky. Ha r ris, E. K., East Palatka. Hart, W. S., Hawks Park. Hastings, H. G . , Atlanta, Ga. Harvey, S . S . , Quintette. Healy, G . P . , J affe r y. Hempel, H. A., Gotha. Herf, B . von, 93-99 Nassau St., New York City. Ker r , Dr . Geo., Pie r son, Fla. Leonard, Geo. W., Hast i ngs. Lewis, Dr. Fred. D., 188 Franklin St., Buffalo, . Y. Merritt, Dr. Jos. C., Orlando. Milligan, Jno. W., Apopka, Fla., an d Swissdale, Pa. Painter, E. 0 . , DeLand. Painter, Mrs. E. 0., DeLand. Phelps, Rev. Lyman, Sanford. Price, F. N., Orlando. Richards, Thos. E., Eden . Robinson, M. F., Sanford . Rolfs, Prof. P. H., Clemson College, S. C. Sneden, \V. C., Waveland, Fla. Smith, Chas. E., Bog Walk, Jamaica . vV. I. Stuart , Leon N., Montemorelos, N. L., Mexico . Taber, Geo. L., Glen St. Mary . Temple, Wm. C., rn90 S h ady Ave .. Pitts burg, Pa . Wi l son, Lorenzo A., J ackso n v ill e. \ Voodroffe, Alfred, Auck l and, New Ze a land . Worcester, C. H., Pomo n a, Fla. Wyeth, J. H., Winter Pa r k. ANNUAL. Adams, Geo. W., T h onotosassa, Fla. Adams, Mrs. Geo . W., Thonotosassa, F i e>. A l baugh , Dr . A. P., Tarpon Springs, Fla. Alden, B. H., Stetson, F l a . A l den, Mrs. B . H., Stetson, F l a. A l derman, A. D., Bartow, Fla . Allen, Hugh C., Lake Maitland, F l a.

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Vlll. FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. Alsop, R. G., Prospect, Fla. Ames, Mrs. Mary Ellen, Pomona, Fla. Amsden, E. W., Ormond, Fla. Andrews, J. D., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Ashmead, C. H., Jacksonville, Fla. Bacon, C. A., Ormond, Fla. Baker, Chas. Henry, Grasmere, Fla. Baker, Mrs. F. E., Earleton, Fla. Baker, R. D., Buffalo Bluff, Fla. Baker, W. E., Melrose, Fla. Balcom, Mrs. Luke, Paola, Fla. Baldwin, F. C., Winter Park, Fla. Bass, M. M., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Battey, Capt. W. C., Myers, Fla. Beed, H. 0., Bulow, Fla. Beed, John, Bulow, Fla. Beers, John J., Emporia, Fla. Beers, Mrs. J. J., Emporia, Fla. Bell, Mrs. Mary A., St. Petersburg, Fla. Benedict, A., Daytona, Fla. Bennett, W. M., Okahumpka, Fla. Bernd, Peter, Bowling Green, Fla. Bernd, Mrs. Peter, Bowling Green, Fla. Bessey, Willis A . , Stuart, Fla. Bigelow, Hayes, Tarpon Springs, Fla. Bigelow, Mrs. Mary A . , Tarpon Springs, Fla. Bigelow, Jr., W. H., Tarpon Springs, Fla. Blackman, E . V., Miami, Fla. Blakely, Wm. P., Ocoee, Fla. Blanchard, E. B. , Lake Maitland, Fla. Bradt, Benj. N., Huntington, Fla . Bradt, Mrs. B. N., Huntington , Fla. Brecht, M. D., J. E., Myers, Fla. Brewer, E. H., Winter Park, Fla . Brewer, C. H., Altamonte Springs , Fla . Brown, C. S., 53 Main St., Utica, N. Y . Bunce, Chas. H., Belleair, Fla. Burr, Lafayette, Box 2235, Boston, Mass. Butler, C. W., St. Petersburg , Fla. Caldwell, D. J. , Higley , Fla. Calver, Dr. J. V . , Orlando, Fla. Caher, N. R., Orlando , Fla. Cameron, L., Jacksonville. Fia . Campbell, W. B., Crescent City, Fla. Carter, A. T., Cocoanut Grove, Fla. Carter, Mrs. A. T., Cocoanut Grove, Fla. Carter, J. C., Dade City, Fla. Cary-Elwes, D. G., Conway, Fla. Chamberlain, E. W., Tangerine, Fla. Chapman, J. T., Plymouth, Fla. Chilton, B. F., New Smyrna, Fla. Cliff, Walter, Crescent City, Fla. Cochran, F. C., Palatka, Fla. Coe, Burton E., Tampa, Fla. Condry, P. W., Citra, Fla. Coon, G. E., Jensen, Fla. Cooper, Walter, Sorrento, Fla. Cooper, W. A., Orlando, Fla. Corbett, C. C., Macclenny, Fla. Corrigan, Dr. J. F., St . Leo, Fla. Corry, 'vV. M., Quincy, Fla. Cox, L. C., Orlando, Fla. Crane, A. H., Nashua, Fla. Crosby, J. A., San Mateo, Fla. Curtis, Dr. John B., Orange Heights, Fla. Dewey, Freel. S., West Palm Beach, Fla. Dickerson, J. , Waveland, Fla. Dickinson, Melissa, Orange City, Fla. Dommerich, L. F., Lake Maitland, Fla. Danley, G. A., Chipley, Fla. Drake, T. P., Yalaha, Fla. Dunc a n , A. N., Belleair, Fla. Dunton, A. M., Tangerine, Fla. Dyer, Harry, Stuart, Fla . . Dyer, W. J . , Stuart, Fla. Earle, Wm. I I., Tangerine, Fla. Eldridge, Mrs. J. J. , Belleair, Fla . English, Wm. H., Medina, Fla. Ewerton, Cha ., Avon Park, Fla. Fairbanks, Geo. R. , Fernandina, Fla . Fairchild, H. C., 319 W . Duval St., Jack sonville, Fla. Farley, J. F., Malabar, Fla. Farmer, Chas . E . , Lake Mary, Fla. Felt , J. P., Emporia, Fla. Fisher, George A., Florahome, Fla. Fleming, H., Kissimmee, Fla. F l etcher, H. G., Gainesville, Fla.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. IX, Fletcher, Mrs. H. G., Gainesville, Fla. Friedlander, H., Interlachen, Fla. Fries, Albert, St. Nicholas, Fla. Furen, J. W., Sylvan Lake, Fla. Galloway, B. A., Lake Maitland, Fla. Garrett, B., Lake Maitland, Fla. Gillett, E. B., Narcoossee, Fla. Gillett, Geo. E., Interlachen, Fla. Gillett, M. E., Tampa, Fla. Gilmore, W. G., Jensen, Fla. Glessner, W. L., Macon, Ga. Gooding, George, Malabar, Fla. Gore, Mahlon, Orlando, Fla. Gossard, Prof. H. A., Lake City, Fla. Gould, P. L., Eustis, Fla. Grant, A. J., Dunedin , Fla. Graves, I I. C., Alachua, Fla. Graves, H. S., Gainesville, Fla. Griffing, A. M., Macclenny, Fla. Griffing, C. M., Jacksonville, Fla. Griffing, W. D., Jacksonville, Fla. Haden, Mrs. Florence P., Cocoanut Grove, Fla. Hampton, B. M., Lakemont, Fla. Hampton, Henry J. , El Dorado, Fla. Harrington, A. B., Winter Haven, Fla. Harrington, Mrs. A. B., \i\ T inter I Ia,en, Fla. Hayward, E. H., DeLand, Fla. Healy, W. B., Jaffery, Fla. Heller, Max, 70 E. 92d St., ew York City. Henry, James , St. Petersburg, Fla. Hepburn, H. S. Davenport, Iowa. Hilbourne, P. 0., orwalk, Fla. Hill, 0. J., DeLand, Fla. Hills, M. D., T. Morton, Willimantic, Conn. Hine, D. N., Nashua, Fla. Hodges, F. S., Federal Point, Fla. Howard , Frank, Ludlow, Vt. Hubbard. E. S., Federal Point, Fla. Hurne, Prof. H. Harold, Lake City, Fla. Hunter, I I., Pierson, Fla. Huntington. Mrs. K. B. , Huntington, Fla. Inman, F. W., Winter Haven, Fla. Irwin, Allen, Riverview, Fla. Ives, H. L., Cocoa, Fla., and Potsdam, N. Y. Jack son, vV. T., Gainesville, Fla. Jefferies, John H., Lake City, Fla. Jennings, Mrs. Harvey, Ankona, Fla. Johnson, E. W., East Palatka, Fla. Johnson, M. A ., Palatka, Fla. Johnson, T. H., Apopka, Fla. Jones, Cyrus, Bowling Green, Fla. Jones, Rev. C. J. K., Los Angeles, Cal. Jones, David, Pierson, Fla. Jones E. Lee, \Va veland, Fla. Jone s, vV. H., Orange Bend, Fla. Jouett, Rear dmiral James E., Orlando, Fla. Kerr, Mrs. Carrie Lincoln, Pierson, Fla. Kitching, Walter, Stuart, Fla. Klemm, Richard, \Vinter Haven, Fla. Knox, L. B., Bulow, Fla. Kraemer, John F., Station A, Niagara Falls, N. Y. Lees, J. W., Leesburg, Fla. Leavy , Henry J., Box 1294, New Orleans, La. Lewis, W. J., Limona, Fla. Lindsey, J. E., Davenpon:, Iowa. Lockwood, Stephen, Zelienople, Pa. Lowery , J. M., Bartow, Fla. Lubrecht, Hermann. Island Grove, Fla . Luthge, H. D. G. , New Smyrna, Fla. Luttichau, H. von, Earleton, Fla. Luttichau, Miss Pauline von, Earleton, Fla. Lyle, \i\Tm. , Bartow, Fla. Lyman, A. E., Melbourne, Fla. Lyman, F. W., Georgiana, Fla. McCarty, C. T., Ankona, Fla. McCarty, Mrs. C. T., Ankona, Fla. McClung, Moffett, Dunedin, Fla. Mace, J. P., Lake Helen, Fla. McFarland, W. H., Titusville, Fla. McKinney, J. Y., Candler, Fla. McNary, Norman, Ormond, Fla.

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x. FLORIDA STA T E HORTICULTURAL SOC IETY. Mann, W. H . , Mannville, Fla. Markley, H. C., C le arwater, Fla. Marrs, Kingsmill, Lake Maitland, Fla . Matheny , Geo. H., Sarasota, Fla . Mead, Miss Mary E., P i erson, Fla . Mead, Ray, Pierson, Fla. Meares, M r s . W. F., Tarpon Springs, Fla. Me i slahn, H. , Clarcona, Fla . Merritt , M. G., Pierson, Fla. Merr it t, Mrs. M. G., Pierson, I•la. Miller, R. E . , Winter Garden, Fla. M itch ell, Prof. A. J. , Jacksonville, Fla. Montgomery, M . D. , L., Micanopy, Fla. Montgomery, Mrs. L., Micanopy, Fla. Moremen, M . S., Switzerland, F l a. Morrison, J. R., Pomona, Fla. Mote , E. H . , Leesburg, Fla. Mullen, Mrs. John , Micanopy, F l a. Newton, A. B., winter Garden, Fla. Newton, C. M., Orlando, Fla . Nordmann, Ferd . , New Smyrna, Fla. Paine, E.T., Tocoi, Fla. Palen, Peter E . , Haines City, Fla . Perkins, Mrs . E. M., Limona, Fla. Perry, D. W., Pomona, Fla. Pettigrew , A. J ., Manatee, Fla. P h e lp s, Mrs . Mary L. , Sanford, Fla. P hilli ps, J. H., Melbourne, Fla. Ph illip s, Mrs. J. H . , Melbourne, F l a . P i erce, H. W., Tangerine, Fla. Pierson, N . L., Pierson, Fla . Pierpont, W. J. , Crescent City, F la. Pierpont, Mrs. vV . J., Crescent City; Fla. Pinkerton, Dr. L. L., Ormond, Fla. Porcher, E. P . , Cocoa, Fla. Powe r s, Stephen, Jack sonvi lle , Fla . Pratt, C. E., Miami, Fla. Pratt, Dr. E. E., Limona, Fla . P u gsley, Chas., Mannville, Fla . Putney, E . D. , Avon Park, Fla. Reasoner , E. N . , Oneco, F la. Reynold s, M. L. , Na rcoossee , Fla. Rice, M.A., Citra, Fla. Rice, R. F . , Miam i , F l a. Rich, Mrs. M. E., Limona , Fla. Richards, Harry W . , Eden, Fla. Richards, J. T . , Bartow, Fla. Richards, Mrs. M. S. W., Eden, Fla . . Richardson, M . D., Wtn. C., 4II Olive St., St. Louis, Mo . Sampson, F. G., Boardman, F l a . Sa rt orius, H. G ., Seminole, Fla . Saylor, Mrs. E. M . , Ankona, Fla. Schmelz, Victor, Sylvan Lake, Fla. Sellmer , Chas., Zellwood, F l a . Seymour, Eel. J. , Titusville, Fla . Shimer, Mrs. F. A. W . , DeLand , Fla. Shooter, C. C., Earleton, F l a. Shooter, H., Ea rleton, Fla. Simmons, vV. E., Lake Maitland, Fla. Simpson, J. F., Weirsdale, Fla . Sistrunk, Sr. , vV. P., Roodhouse, Ill. Sjostrom, L. H. 0., Hallandale, Fla. Smeltz, Henry A., Tarpon Springs, F l a. Sm i th, E. M., Winter Garden, F l a. Smith, Julius, Eustis, Fla. Sneden, Mrs. W. C., Waveland, F l a . Sperry, E. F . , Orlando, Fla. Stark L. D., Evinston, Fla. Strauss, Joseph E., Lealman, Fla. Steinman, J ohn B., Villa C it y, Fla. Stevens, H. B . , Stetson, Fla. Stivender, P. M., Orange Bend, Fla. Stockbridge, Prof. H. E., Lake City, Fla. Strickler, D., York, Pa. Taber, Mrs. G. L., Glen St. Mary, Fla. Talton, E. H., DeLand, Fla. Taylor, John , Stuart , F la . Taylor, W. D., Oca l a, Fla. Thom son, John , C le arwater Harbor, Fla. Thornton, C. B., Orlando, F la. Tisc hl e r , P., Jacksonville, Fla. Tysen, C. R., Jack sonvi lle , Fla. Tysen, J. R., Jacksonville, Fla. Van Houten, C. S . , Orlando, F l a. Vinson, L. D., Tarpon Springs, F l a . waite, F . D., Pa lm etto, F l a. \i\Taite , Mrs. F. D., Palmetto, Fla. Wakelin , Amos, Bullitt Building, Philadelphia, Pa. Wa lk e r , Dr. Geo . E . , Huntington, Fla . \i\Talker, Mrs . G. E. , Huntington, F l a.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCTETY. Walter, E.W., 9 E. Intendencia St., Pensacola, ~ Fla. Warner, S. C., Palatka, Fla. vVartrnann, E. L., Citra, Fla. \i\Teiland, Chas., 2319 Indiana Ave. , St. Louis, Mo. Welch, R. S., Ocala, Fla. White, C. G., Hastings , Fla. White, J. M., Orange City, Fla. White, K. M. , Crescent City, Fla. Whitman, Rev. H. S., Deering, Me. Whitten, \i\T. M., Punta Gorda, Fla. vVhittle , J. C. , Largo , Fla. \iVilles , F. W. , Jensen , Fla. \i\Tilliams , H. Price, Miami, Fla. Williams, R. L., Miami, Fla. vVilson, Geo. W., Jacksonville, Fla. vVilson, Wm., Ocoee, Fla. vVinter , Frank, New Smyrna, Fla. \ i\T itham , H. S., Stuart , Fla. \Vitham, Katie M. , Stuart, Fla. Wood, Geo. H., Tangerine, Fla. Woodward, F . vV ., Eau Claire, Wis. Worcester, Mrs. C. H., Pomona, Fla. Wright , Geo. H., Orlando, Fla. Wyckoff, John S. , Citra, Fla. Wylie, J. H., Interlachen, Fla. Yancy, T. A. , Orlando, Fla. Yocum , Miss G. L. , Lake City , Fla . Yocum, Dr. V.,T. F., Lake City, Fla . XI ,

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE Florida State Horticultural Societu. The thirteenth annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society was held at Jacksonville upon the invitation of the Board of Trade of that city. The Society convened in the rooms of the Board of Trade on Tuesday , May 1st, at 7 :30 o'clock p. 111. , in accordance with the programme , as published, and adjourned sine die on Friday following at 12 o'clock 111 . .MINUTES. In the minutes, which follow , all the events and transactions of the meeting are _ given, in condensed form, in the or der of their occurrence; the addresses, papers, discussions, reports and other matters of general interest or special im portance, are simply noted and appear in full under appropriate heads in the body of the volume, and may be readily re ferred to by turning to the page given in connection with each below. FIR.ST DAY. Evening Opening Session, Tuesday, 7 :30 o'clock p. m. 1. Call to order by President Taber. 2 . Prayer, Rev. R. V. Atkisson, of the McTyeire Methodist church. 3. Address of Welcome, Hon. J. E. T. Bowden, Mayor of Jacksonville; also by Capt. C. E. Garner, President of the Board of Trade. (See page 16.)

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I•'LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 13 4. Response to Address of Welcome, Dr . Geo. Kerr. (See page 17.) 5. On motion, E. 0. Painter and C. M. Griffing were authorized to act as as sistants to the Secretary. 6. President Taber's Annual Address. (See page 20.) 7. Report of Special Committee on Local Arrangements was made by Hon. Geo. W. Wilson, chairman. (See page 25.) 8. Paper on Protection of Orange Groves , by Prof. J. Y. McKinney. (See page 26.) SECOND DAY. Morn i ng Sessio n . 9. Standing Committee on Citrus Fruits made a verbal report through Rev. Lyman Phelps, chairman. IO. Standing Committee on Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Preven tion presented reports from H. B. Stev ens, chairman , E. S. Hubbard and E. 0. Painter , each one separate. (See page 26.) 11. Discussion of above reports. 12. A Committee on Final Resolu tions was appointed, consisting of W. M. Bennett, G. P. Healy and S. C. '\i\Tarner. 13. Paper, Maintaining Permanent Orchard Fertility, by C. K. McQuarrie , was read by the Secretary. (See page 57.) 14. Contribution on Protection, by J. C. Icenhour, was read by the Pre s ident. (See page 55.) A f te rno o n S essi on. 15. A committee, consisting of Dr. Geo. Kerr, Rev. Lyman Phelps and E. 0. Painter, was appointed to consider that part of the President's address relat ing to a Society Library. 16. Paper on Hardy Oranges, by Prof. H. J. Webber, read by the President. (See page 60.) 17. Standing Committee on Diseases and Insects. A. J. Pettigrew, of the Committee, read his individual report. (See page 63.) 18. Discussion of above. 19. Standing Committee on Pears, Peaches and Plums reported through W. E. Baker. ( See page 68.) 20. Discussion of same. 21. Standing Committee on Entomol ogy made a report through the chair man, Prof. H. A. Gossard. (See page 75.) 22. Discussion of the above. Evening Sessi on . 23. The President called attention to the beautiful bouquet presented the So ciety by Mills & '\Vachter; also to the fine Reel Spanish pineapple grown under cover by George McPherson, of Stuart. 24. Standing Committee on Pineap ples and Other Tropical Fruits made a verbal report through the chairman, C. T. McCarty. (See page 83.) 25. Discussion of same. 26. Paper on Protection of Fineries, by Dr. J. V. Calver. (See page 91.) 27. Discussion of same. 28. Standing Committee on Strawber ries and Miscellaneous Fruits. Individ ual report by L. Cameron, of the Com mittee. (See page 94.) 29. Standing Committee on Orna mentals. Secretary read a paper by W. J. Ellsworth, of the Committee. (See page 96.) 30. Standing Committee on Vegeta bles. No report. 3 I. Discussion on various vegetable blights. (See page 97.)

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14 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. THIRD DAY. Morning Session. 32. ominating Committee, consisting of S. H. Gaitskill, B. N. Bradt and F. D. Waite, presented a ticket which was elected, each officer being voted for sep arately. (See page 98.) 33. Secretary presented a communica tion from the United Fr11it Company, of Jamaica, touching some diseased pineap ple leaves which were displayed. 34. A Standing Committee on Trans portation was appointed, consisting of Maj. G. P. Healy, E. 0. Painter and Dr. Geo. Kerr. 35. Jacksonville was se lected as the next place of meeting by a vote of 58 for Jacksonville aga inst 41 for St. Peters burg. Tellers were W. M. Bennett, Prof. J. Y. McKinney and B. N. Bradt. (See page 98.) Afternoon Session. 36. Society did not convene, but took an excursion on the river at the invita tion of the Board of Trade. Others ac cepted the invitation of the East Coast Railroad Company and vvent on an ex cursion to Pablo Beach. The remainder of the afternoon the hall was turned over to the State Agricultural Society. Even i ng Sess i o n . 37. Secretary's report read. (See page 100.) 38. Treasurer's report read. (See page IOI.) 39. Report of Executive Committee read by the Secretary and accepted. (See page 101.) 40. Standing Committee on Grapes, Figs and Kaki. A report was made by W. S . Hart, chairman of the Committee, and A. B. Harrington. ( See page 102.) 41. Prof. H. E. Stockbridge and others discussed these topics orally. (See page 106.) 42. Report of Special Committee on a Society Library read by Dr. Geo. Kerr', chairman. 43 . On motion the President, secrl.! tary and Treasurer were appointed a committee to take steps to create a Li brary. 44. Standing Committee on Market ing and Good Roads made a report through the chairman, W. M. Bennett. (See page 107.) 45 . Standing Committee on N ornen clature. A report from Prof. H. J. Vv' eb ber was read by the President. (See page 146.) 46. Paper read by E. J. Seymour on One Year's Experience in Practical Pro tection. (See page 120.) 47. Add ress by W. H. McFarland on this subject . 48. The President read a communica tion from Hon. Geo. W. Wilson, chair man of the Board of Trustees of the State Agricultural College and Experiment Station inviting the co-operation of the Society. 49. On motion S. H. Gaitskill and E. 0. Painter were appointed as a commit tee on co-operation with the State Col lege and Experiment Station , in unison with a like committee from the State Ag ricultural Society. 50. Paper, Florida vs. Porto Rico, read by C. M. Griffing. (See page 124.) F O UR.TH DAY. rtorni n g Sessio n . 5 I. The ~ Secretary read a communica tion from Samuel B. Woods, President of the Virginia State Horticultural Soci ety, urging the Florida Society to take official action favoring the Brosius Pure Food Bill.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIET1'. 15 52. A resolution to this effect was of fered, seconded and passed. 53. Paper on Cassava Culture, by Mr. Chas. E. Farmer, in his absence, was read by the Secretary. (See page 128.) 54. Discussion on same. 55. Standing Committee on Forestry, through the chairman, Dr. Kerr, stated that their report was not completed, but would be handed to the Secretary to be published in the annual. (See page 133.) 56. Paper on Pecan Culture, by Prof. H. Harold Hume. (See page 135.) 57. Discussion of the above. 58. 0':l motion, it was voted to add a Comnnttee on Nut Trees to the other Standing Committees. 59. Standing Committee on Fertilizers and Irrigatio1,, through the chairman, M. F. Robinson, presented a report. (See page 140.) 60. Discussion on Irrigation. 61. Frederick Pfeifer, of Ocala, State Commissioner of the Pan-American Ex position, to be held in Buffalo, 1901, asked and obtained perm1ss1on to ad dress the Society. He urged the mem bers to contribute something in the line of productions to advertise Florida. 62. J. C. Colvin, Vice-President of the Southern States Exposition, at Chatta nooga, to open May 15, addressed the Society, urging a participation in its ex hibits in the interest of Florida. 63. The Committee on Final Re olu tions, through Vv. M. Bennett, chairman, reported a series of resolutions which were adopted. (See page 146.) 64. The Special Committee appointed to meet with American Pomological So ciety, Messrs. L. Phelps and G. L. Taber, reported through Mr. Taber. They also reported the result of the conference as to the orthography of the word pomelo. This form of the word was recommend ed by Prof. H. J. \Vebber, of the De partment of Agriculture. (See page 146.) 65. Adjourned sine die.

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ADDRESSES OF W ELC O ME . .Mayor J.E. T. Bowden. Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen of the State Horticultural Society-I throw open to you the gates of the city of Jacksonville . It is to your organization that the State must look largely for the intelligent cultiv .. tion of our fruits and our vegeta bles. Scientific cultivatiori mu s t take the place of the simple methods of the man with the hoe , if we are to compete suc cessfully with other States. By the in vestigations made by your body; by its intelligent research , study and e x perience explained and put in useful form by the interchange of thought and views on oc casions like this, all the people of the State are benefited, and the world is made better and richer. Appreciating this , I do now , upon the part of all of the people of the city of Jacksonville, bid you welcome , thrice welcome, and express the hope that ev ery moment of your time spent here will be enjoyed, and that when you leave you will take with you only happy recollec tions and a desire to come back. Capt. C. E. Garner. Mr. President and Members of the State Horticultural Society: In behalf of the Board of Trade , I de sire to extend to you , one and all, a most hea r ty welcome. This organization, during its exist ence, has ente r tained many distinguished visitors from a ll parts of our country. I can assure you, however, that no individ ual, however distinguished, or organized body however important, has ever re ceived, or is likely to receive, a more cor dial welcome than that which we tender to your society. We feel that you are our nearest and best friends; that your interest is our i nterest, your prosperity is our prosperity, and the benefits growing out of your annua l deliberations are for our advantage fully as much as for yours . We feel that there i s a co-partnership ex isting between this Board and the Horti cultural Society, inasmuch as we are both engaged in promoting the welfare and the upbuilcling of the State. A great many of our fellow-citizens seem to think that all prosperity comes from legislation; that proper legislation would bring universal wealth. As a mat ter of fact , however , legal enactments do not produce wealth. Legislation may stimulate or depress industry, may cause an unfair distribution of wealth , but after all the real wealth of the country comes from the soil , from the mines , from the forest , from the field. If legislation or the enactment of laws could create wealth, in

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FLORIDA S'rATE IIORTICULTURAL SOUIETY. 17 order to have universal prosperity all that would be required would be for us to multiply our politicians, our law-makers have continual sessions of Congress and of our State Legislature; and in the event this should transpire we need have no fear of there not being a sufficient num ber of patriotic citizens who would be willing to sacrifice themselves for the good of their State or their country. It does seem to me that the advance in legi lation is not so much by the en actment of new laws as by the repeal of the useless old ones, and all that the real workers and producers of this country demand of law is protection to life and that every man shall enjoy the fruits of hi s own industry. The past year, elating from your last annual meeting , has been one of unex ampled prosperity to this country. Our exports have exceeded those of any pre vious year, wages have advanced. facto ries are busy and overrun with orders, vessel tonnage is in greater cleman
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RESPONSE TO ADDRESSES OF WELCOME. Dr. George Kerr. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Our esteemed president has conferred upon me the honor of making the re sponse to the addresses of welcome. I, therefore, in his name and in the name of each and every member of this society, tender our heartfelt thanks for this gracious manifestation of your wel come, made known to us so kindly by his honor, the mayor, and the president of the Board of Trade. These expressions of greeting and sympathy are elevating and ennobling, stimulating us to a higher plane of duty in our several spheres, giving courage to the strong, strength to the weak , energy to the indolent and hope to the cast down. Never before have we known the full value of ourselves or been able to take our measure. W, are here again at your request, at your solicitation. We come gladly, p r senting our salutations and our congrat ulations. We are proud of this, your beautiful city, the chief city of our great commonwealth, alike creditable to your enterprise and your artistic perception. Beautiful ! Yes, art everywhere, wrestl ing with nature for the supremacy, you no doubt, ever remembering that your future greatness rests upon the founda tion stone of justice to all. I wish to explain a few of the seeming incongruities of country life. We coun try people imagine that our city cousins lau gh at us, saying we have frowzy heads, freckled faces, and when we come to the city we stare at the stores. \Ve ofttimes hear words of derision and see the finger of scorn pointed at the lowly tiller of the soil. Don't do it again; if there were bears about, you would b~ :n danger. 'vVe have prepared a picture or group of these lowly tillers of the soil; with your permission, Mr. President, I will now exhibit it. Behold them! I see a few among them who are not lowly til ler s. Our president good naturedly per mits them to remain merely as a contrast. \Ve may be somewhat uncouth, not hav ing the time to practice two hours a day to get the correct pose, the fashionable step, the swing of the coat-tails. to ap pear in public. vVe may have a few hay seeds in our hair and a few of the festive sandspurs clinging to our coat-tails. \Ve may not be able to dance the highland fling or the sailors' hornpipe at a fancy dress ball, but , as poor Bobbie Burns said, "A man's a man for a' that and a' that." He is also the man to stand in the breach in the day of dire distress. Volumes have been written in his praise and glory. It is of his toil and his life I would speak. He toils in the bright sunshine , breathes in the pure air of heaven, drinks of the limpid waters from the fountain head , mingling with nature in her many forms, tempest and sunshine, flower and fruit, seed time and harvest, communing with nature' s Goel. Night brings to him home , loved ones and sweet repose; day follows day with conscious thought that his labors are rewarded with life, liberty

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FLORIDA S'.rATE liOR'TICULTUl-tAL SOCIETY. 19 and happiness, if not with adequate com pensation. There is also a sad side to this picture. \Ve , too, have our trials and our sorrows. Our . daughters are sometimes beguiled into marrying some young man from the city with perfumed mustache and his hair plastered down on his forehead with po made. After a while our grandchildren come to see us, the dear little sweet nuis ances; they are so timid and frail , they must be kept away from the clogs and the cats, the chickens and the goslings. Consequently grandpa must carry them about upon hi back, hence grandpas are usually round-shouldered. After a few years these little ones come out to see us as young ladies; that is the time that grandpa and grandma have theirhands full. On Saturday afternoons the young gentlemen come out to see u , I mean to see the gi rls . They have a good time for a day or two. The young man be coming tired because it i s too tame for him , says to the ladies, "I think you would be awfully wetched if you were compelled to stay out here a couple oi months. How do you amuse your selves?" "Oh , well," they reply, "we have a splendid time; grandpa takes us around in the ox-cart with lots of straw in it, and sometimes he puts the halter and saddle upon the cow and we ride around the lawn , grandpa leadin g the cow. Oh! we've lots of fun! " "Oh!'' he says, "Not any in mine. But what do you do about these howible bugs, these ugly toads, these tewible calv es with long horns and the se fwightful wazorbacks ?" He is gone in a day or so. It is for our boys we are mostly con cernecl. They leave the home of their childhood, ofte n a humble one, followed by the tears and pray~rs of lnv inir Chris tian parents. Oh! those hallowed memo ries never fade. Away, they go, swal lowed up in the many trades,in the great marts of business, in the colleges, univer sities and other institutions of learning all over our broad land . Soon we hear of them becoming a Pre~ident of the United States, generals, a:dmirals and of ficers of the army and navy, United States Senators and Representatives and other officials of the government, of which there is no end , governors of States and their officials, presidents and secretaries of Horticultural and Agricul tural societies, mayors, presidents of boards of trade, preachers, doctors, law yers, merchants, business men of all kinds and all the make-up of a great city, even to the lowest stratum. There are a few dudes. In some parts of our country horticul ture and collateral branches are languish ing. I have discovered the cause, and hope the society will vote me a medal in t o ken of their appreciation. Our sons and many of our daughters have been called to fill the responsible places in the State and Nation. Statistics prove that over 90 per cent. of all the learned fessions , including the business men of prominence were formerly farmers' sons. The old gentleman, when the shadows of the evening of life begin to gather abo\1t him , finds that he is alone , his sons all gone, decides to put an "ad." in a prominent city paper for help. In a few clays comes a decayed city dude dressed with shabby gentility, his working clothes done up in a handkerchief. He does not know which end of the horse the collar is to be pulled over, and if it is to be buckled or snapped; he fastens it under the throat. Here is the whole matter in a nutshell.

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20 FLORIDA STA'l'E HOR'rICULTURAL l:lOCJETY. Insufficient or inefficient help. That is the trouble with Florida today. It is as bad as a frost. As a remedy it has been suggested to make our homes more happy and attrac tive to our boys, with pleasant surround ings, good books (not clime novel s), as sist them in ge.'1:ing as good an education as possible, teach them to be self-reliant. I believe in the expressive, though very inelegant phrase "root hog or die." Do not use force. Force is usually backed by anger. Give the boy a few acres of land to cultivate on shares, but be sure and g ive him his just sha re . If you have plenty of land it would be better to give him a number of acres in f ee simple; it would be an anchor to him in after years. Don't lie , swea r , drink rum, chew or smoke tobacco or anything else immoral unl ess you wish him to follow in your foot steps . The old adage is applicable here , "As the old ones crow , the young ones learn." Impress upon them that farm life is the ideal life and the peer of any calling. Our example and life are indelibly stamped upon our children. Let it be a blessing and not a curse. PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS . George L. Taber. Members of the Florida State Horti :ul tural Society, Ladies and Gentlemen: Twelve years ago a small band of Flor ida fruit growers met at Ocala and or ganized a State Horticultural Society. Of the eighteen who assisted in the organi zation one-half have since crossed the "Great Divide," and of the remaining half some have scattered or become en gaged in other pursuits, until the fingers of one hand more than suffice for the counting of those who are left of our charter members. But the principles and purposes for which we organized stood and still stand good, and notwithstanding the severe losses that we have sustained by death of men illustrious in horticulture, and notwithstanding that we have, during re cent years, encountered such severe cli matic conditions as to call forth from cal amitists the ghoulish proclann ion that "horticulture in Florida is a thing of the past," we have yet , by united effort on the part of both officers and members, been able to maintain our membership to such a high numerical average and our work to such a degree of excellence that we stand today in the recognized front rank of the State Horticultural Societies of America. This is no idle statement, for I speak advisedly when I say that there are few Horticultural Societies in America that can show as large a membership in com pari so n to State population, and, I feel fre e to say, none that are working hard er to solve current horticultural prob lems , delving deeper into scientific re search, or achieving more lasting and beneficial results. It is a matter of congratulation that not only are we in a flourishing condition as regards numbers , but also entirely free

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FLuRIDA STATE HOR'rICULTURAL SOCIETY. 21 from dissensions or factional discord. If we hold diverse views as to best modes and methods these are but the natural differences of opinion that indicate a healthy condition of the Society as a so ciety. For, if we were all of the same mind, in relation to every phase of ev~ry topic under consideration, it would sig nify nothing so much as the arrival of the co matose condition that precedes death. There is one great basic principle upon which we have built and are building, which is, that all of us, from gray-haired veterans down to the youngest acquisi tion to our ranks, are but scholars . We recognize fully that no matter how much of value we may have learned there yet remains much more of value to be ac quired; and it is this very quality of re ceptivity and power to healthily assimi late new ideas that gives us strength. Dudley W. Adams never uttered a great er truism than that the man who "knows it all" is of no use to either himself or anybody else; that such an one could be of no benefit to this Society and that we could be of no benefit to him. I am happy to say we have no such members. Standing then upi;m that broad plank of "advancement in horticulture," which our con s titution recognizes as the funda mental principle of our existence; having outgrown our swaddling clothes and demonstrated our ability to stand advers ity as well as prosperity; recognizing the dignity of our calling and the responsi bilities that attach to us as representa tives of that calling; let us look ahead for a moment and see what the future has in store for us. And here let me remark that whatever i s in store for us lies, to a great extent at least , within our own power to predeter mine. Unlooked-for vicissitudes may, and do, arise, that may, and often do, al ter the outcome of our plans, but that does not affect the validity of the state ment that either as individuals or as a Society, we should plan ahead-a long way ahead if need be-for what we wish to happen , and then do our utmost to see that it does happen. Blind luck counts for little in these days of strenuous en deavor, and he who , Micawber-like, sits idly waiting for something to "turn up" would better, to say the least , engage in any other business than that of horticul ture . l ow what I would like to see and what I have no doubt many of us would like to see, is the Florida State Horticultural So ciety with a membership of several times its present numbers, owning a library that would be of service and accessible to each one of us, and possessed of a horti cultural building that would suitably house the Society and its library and be a credit to both the Society and the city in which it were located. Some of you may say this all sounds very well, but it will never be accom plished. Perhaps not, in its entirety, in our day. But my belief in the future o f Florida, her horticulture, and this society as the representative of that horticulture, is so great that I think we may reasona bly expect the Society to live to see it, even if we as individuals do not. Other State Horticultural Societies have lived to accomplish as much. Why not this one? But, coming right clown to the practi cal point: The building is , I admit, for the immediate present, beyond our reach. But the library, which I consider of even more importance than the building, is clearly within our reach. Not that we can hope to come into immediate posses

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22 FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULl'URAL SOCIETY. sion of such an extensive and costly li brary as older and richer Societies have been years in collecting, but that we can make a beginning without which nothing of value is ever accomplished. Freed from its political significance, 1 am a great beli ever in the principle enun ciated in Greeley's phrase that "the best way to resume specie payment is to re sume," and, paraphrased, this would read, if we want a libr ary the best way for us to get it is to start it. I am aware that the present state of the Society's finances does not warrant putting any of the Society funds into it, and I would not r ecommend doing so at least not for the present. Anyone who wished to subscribe could do so, but suc h subscriptions would be purely voluntary. The secretary has already on hand some available matter which has, from time to time, and from various sources, come into the possession of the Society, and there are undoubtedly amongst our members those who have duplicates of books on horticulture, or single volumes, with which they have become so familiar that t.he contribution of them to this So ciety's library would be accompanied by a sense of gratification that such volumes could be placed where they would be a source of continuous usefulness. Money contributions, in greater or lesser amounts, would undoubtedly be made by others in the same spirit. Later and per haps larger accretions might follow from those, either in or out of the Society, who have the welfare of Florida at heart , and thus, from one source and another, we might in time become possessors of a library that would add grea tly to the So ciety's usefulness. As to the housing of the library, I would say that the Society has already re ceived generous, although informal, of fers. If the action to be taken by you is favorable to the library these offers will doubtless be renewed in a more formal way. I would also say that, if this rec ommendation is favorably acted upon, there will be considerable detail to be worked out, which can probably best be clone , for the first year at lea s t , through a committee. And if this committee were composed of the Society's secretary and treasurer, and perhaps one other member, this would make a desirable personnel. Tr1e treasurer of the Society could become treasurer of the fund to be known as "library fund ," and the sec re tary could arrange and list all available matter on hand , and that may accrue, previous to our next annual meeting, at which time the committee could make a full report , with such suggestions as to future action as a thorough investi gation of the subject would lead them to recom mend. If sufficient material has been ac cumulated by the time we meet again, and the report of the committee should be favorable to such action, a libr a rian could then be appointed. If you agree that it is a good idea to start the library it i s for you to say what the mode of procedure shall be, and per haps some of the suggestions I have made can be improved upon. I am not so much concerned as to the exact method to be followed, as I am int erested in seeing the library started. I believe that there is not a single member of this Society who would not be benefited by it, either directly or indirectly. I believe that we would each of us feel that the S oc iety had added breadth and scope and dignity and power for good, and that the

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FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 23 bond of fellowship which exists between its individual members would be still fur ther strengthened. Many of us are more or less isolated in our home life; the very nature of our calling makes this necessary. Left to ourselves we are apt to become too ab sorbed in scanning a horizon compassed by the boundary lines of our own little individual possessions. In a collective capacity-as a Society-we obtain through the medium of our annual con ventions, a more extended view, in which our boundary fences disappear and the methods, practices and resu l ts of the best thought of an entire State lie spread out before us. In laying the foundation for a carefully selected horticultural library we would be still further broadening our horizon, and making available the best thought and practices of other States and other countries on the manifold ques tions that have a direct bearing on our in dividual horticultural interests. I have already spoken of the faith that I have in this Society and, with your per mission, I will relate a little personal ex perience that will illustrate more fully than I could do in any other way, how deep this faith is: Just previous to the unprecedented freeze of February, 1899, I had been planning to plant five acres of additional orange grove. The ground, however, had not been cleared or any preparation made, other than that stakes had been driven in the places that the trees were to occupy. \Vhen that blizzard came along, and leveled to the banks the twen ty acres of orange groves that I already had, the question very naturally arose, if that were not enough? wouldn' t it be a good idea to pull up the sta kes that had been driven and save the expense of clearing ground and planting additional orange trees away up here in North Flor ida? Wouldn't it be better to turn the orange industry over to parties located nearer Cape Sable-or south of it. These were questions which were very proper to consider, and were similar to those which had to be considered by many of you who, unlike myself, are located in the counties generally included in what used to be called the "orange belt " -and which, please God, will still remain a part of the "orange belt." But, whatever may have been the proper answer to the question, I rea soned this way: I have raised oranges in North Florida without protection. Or anges, if they require protection, can be protected in North Florida. Banking with earth will protect the trees as high up as the mound extends. Burning wood in sufficient quantities will protect the tops above the mounds. I have a large amount of earth and a good supply of wood. I will plant the trees and de pend upon this combined method of pro tection until I am satisfied which one of the several methods, advocated by this Society, seems best to adopt in its place. And so, simultaneously with the cut ting off the frozen tops of the twenty acres, I went to work and planted out five acres additional, including standard varieties of both oqmges and pomelos. The trees were set out in wild land and the ground cleared after the trees were planted; the logs and stumps being placed in piles in every other middle in every other row, on much the same plan as that suggested in my address of two years ago. I have since that time had considerable experience with open-air firing and, as already indicated, shall de pend upon that, combined with high banking, until I decide which one of the

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24 I•'LORIDA STATE HORl'ICUf~TURAL SOCIETY. several methods that are being advocat ed, or already in use by different mem bers of this Society, seems to offer the best solution to the protection question. And the point that I wish to make is not that North Florida is the best loca tion for an orange grove, not by any means that the horticulture of North Florida is dependent upon the growing of oranges, not that the temporary method of protection that I adopted is necessarily the best; but simply and sole ly that I had faith enough in this Society to believe that it would solve the protec tion problem in a way that would make orange growing, even in North Florida, a safe investment. And I still believe so. The progress we have already made in this direction is very gratifying. We shall, at this meet ing, hear much of value in connection with the question from a purely practical standpoint. Many of us have been study ing it by day and dreaming of it by night -except on such particular nights as have afforded us opportunities to put our theories to practical te st. But, ladies and gentlemen, even if the orange was our first love and if her charms still continue to entice us, we must not forget that the "Golden Queen," as Adams felicitously styled her, is not all there is to Florida horticulture. A perusal_ of the programme will show you that we not only have under consid eration, at this meeting, all the principal fruits of Florida, as well as topics that have a direct bearing upon Florida horti culture, but also special papers on some subjects that perhaps might be more strictly classified as bearing on the wel fare of the horticulturist rather than that of the horticulture that he represents. But this, after all, might be analyzed into a distinction without difference, from the standpoint that anything which contrib utes tO\vard maintaining life in the horti culturist, while his horticulture is being brought to a profitable basis, i s, to a very marked extent, conducive toward ad vancement in horticulture. There are existing in Florida today two distinct State Societies which have to do with the tilling of the soil; one of them agricultural, the othe r (this one) horticultural. Although working in per fect harmony with each other neither of these Societies believes that the two s hould be amalgamated. Their lines are more or less distinct, and it is very prop er that the two Societies sho uld continue to exist. There is much in agriculture that the horticulturist does not care for, and much in horticulture that the agri culturist does not care for; but there is also a common ground, occupied by us both, in which I believe we should both be more deeply interested. It is that ground covered by the horticulturist when he is trying to provide for present necessities, by the raising of farm crops, until his o r chards come into bearing and which I bel ieve can often be profita bly continued long after his orchards come into bearing. It is that ground o f the agriculturist that holds out horticul tural inducements, and leads him to plant fruit trees as a valuable adj unct to his fields of corn and cotton. And so, to the newly formed State Ag ricultur a l Society , which holds its annual meeting in this city during the present week, our older State Horticultural Soci ety extends kindly greeting. We h ope that they may derive benefit from attend ance at our meeting, and, that if we should be asked to attend theirs, we sha ll be equally benefited.

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FLORIDA STATE IIOR'l'ICUL'TURAL SOCIETY. 25 The brief space of time that our con ventions consume may, perhaps, well be likened to an interrogation point on the, as yet, unwritten page of the history of the horticultural and agricultural pro gress of our State. We know what the past has been; what the present is; but what of the future? May we help to de cide this wisely and well, and may hope "that springs eternal in the human breast" be ever with us. and be ably sec onded by our efforts; for, without effor t , hope is but a fallacy. R E P ORT OF COMMITTEE ON LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS. Hon. Geo. W. Wilsont Chairman. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Your Committee on Local Arrange ments has the honor to report the follow ing: The East Coast Railway extends the courtesy of an excursion to Pablo Beach. It was at first thought possible by your committee to arrange a trip to Mayport and to see the immense improvements being made by 1r. Flagler; but it was found that the road would not be com pleted in time, therefore all that can be offered now is a trip to Pablo , which of fer the East Coast officials have liberally extended. It was thought at first your committee would be able to secure a special train , so that the Society would need t o con sume only a portion of the day , knowing that their time would be limited, but this was found to be impracticable. We herewith submit the letter of invi tation. The Board of Trade of the city of Jacksonville desires to tender to the So ciety a river trip at such time as the So ciety may designate. It is the purpose of the board to leave the city at IO :30 of the morning selected, returning at 2 or 2 :30. Lunch will be served on board of the boat. We here with append the letter of the board. The Times-Union and Citizen will fur nish the official stenographer to make and keep the record of your proceedings. All of which is respectfully submitted. George W. Wilson, C. M. Griffing, L. Cameron.

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PRACTICAL PROTECTION OF ORANGE TREES. All Known Devices Tested by a Sci entific but Practical Gro wer-With Artificial Heat and Without Dor mancy, Hybridizing, Whit ewashing, Spraying, Banking, Open Fires Fail Utterly or Only Partially Protect Shield s, Tents and Sheds Do the Work Sheds Best of All Orange Culture Placed on a Business Basis. By Prof. J. Y. McKinney, of Candler. Can there be mentioned a single in stance where a thoroughly established profitable industry, an industry in the sphere of either horticulture or agricul ture, has been abandoned in any country because of adverse n a tural conditions? True, in a few instances we may find that because of artificial conditions such as too great a supply for the demand, some industry has gradually given place to other more profitable investment, but with a supply constantly less than an ever incre as ing demand, no natural dif ficulty has ever yet barred the progress of human achievement. Can it be, then, that the culture of the citrus fruits in Central and Northern Florida is to stand out as an i solated ex ception , a marked contradiction to an es tabli shed law of events? That orange culture in Florida is to day and ha s been for some tim e face to face with the adverse condition of low temperatures, all will admit. That it has already passed from the plane of an es tablish ed high prosperity and is today on the low plane of absolute necessity, none will deny. That during the past winter the most earnest and intelligent efforts have been made in various parts of th e State; that the crisis with low tempera ture has been met successfully and that therefore we are now entering a period of renaissance destined to raise the in dustry to a higher plane of more expen sive, more intensive and more profitable culture, are statements that we believe can be truthfully asserted before thi s body tonight. To combat successfully low tempera tures so many plans have suggested themselve s and so many expedients have been tried that to deal with the subject in ar1y way app roaching a scientific pro cedure, it becomes necessary to classify. The whole subject naturally arranges itself under the following classifications: I. Protection Without Artificial Heat. 1. By controlling the condition of the tree. a by cultivation. b by coating t _ runk and branches. c by budding or grafting on to hardier stock. d by hybridization.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 27 c by withholding heat, moisture or light. 2. By banking with sand. a to save the bud. b to save the entire tree . 3. By airtight covers. 4. By water spraying. 5. By water and forest protection. 6. By latitude. II. Protection with Artificial Heat. I. Open fires. 2. Tents artificially heated. 3. Wind breaks with open fires. 4. Sheds artificially heated. The subject is too broad for compre hensive discussion in one paper; we shall consider in detail therefore only those methods of protection that have thus far proved successful, giving but passing no tice to many expedients here outlined. As to the value of the various methods here presented this thought shall be the criterion upon which jud gment is made , viz: "Orange culture on a Sound Busi ness Basis." Any method which in our judgment fails to bring the industry up to that standard we must discard as in sufficient. Can the orange tree then be protected in present climatic conditions without ar tificial heat by controlling the condition of the tree? That with well matured wood the various species of the citrus family will withstand great extremes of temperature, there can be no question there is no question. Compelling Dormancy. But to compel the tree to remain dor mant during the clanger periods is the vita l question. It has been suggested that this may be clone by methods of cultivation; that if we fertilize early in the year, permit no late cultivation in the fall and grow winter crops of grain among the trees to withdraw the nitrogenous matter from the sod, the trees in consequence will re main dormant until late in the spring. As to the extent of merit in these sug gestions we will not take space here to enquire. That any or all of them are en tirely insufficient has been thoroughly demonstrated. 'vVe erase therefore this expedient from the list of successful methods. C _ oatlng With Lime. Coating the trunk and branches with preparations of lime and with other pat ented material has been strongly urged in more northern latitudes for keeping trees dormant. This treatment may be somewhat effective on the plum, peach and pear tree whose deciduous habit causes them when defoliated to depend on the lenticels or breathing spots on trunk and branches for the necessary sup ply of oxygen. To close these with such preparations might sufficiently devitalize trees of deciduous habits to require con siderable renewal of spring-time energy to awaken them to a growing condition. With members of the citrus family, however, the millions of stomata or mouths on the underside of their count less evergreen leaves render futile any attempt to render them dormant by this treatment. Budding on Hardy Stocks. Can we control the condition of trees by budding or grafting our choice fruits on more hard y and deciduous stocks? When this method was first suggested much hope was entertained that it might solve the problem. The hardy and de ciduous trifoliata seemed es;)ecially adapted to this end.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. Just what effect the root stock has on the hardiness of the bud or graft cannot b e stated with precis i on. From the evi dence at hand we are inclined to believe that the ability of a bud or graft to with stand cold depends on two conditions; first, the inherent nature of the bud it self. For instance, a seedling Satsuma is one of our hardiest trees, while the Tan gerine is less hardy. If buds or grafts from both of these are placed on com mon third stock equally suited to both the Satsuma bud or graft will be propor tionately more hardy than the Tangerine bud or graft, just as the original Satsuma seedling was more hardy than the origi nal seedling Tangerine. The second condition is not quite so fully established; the evidence, however, justifies the opinion that in addition to the inherent nature of the bud the abil . ity to with stand cold depends also on the ,( vigor of the root stock to being a good feeder rather than upon its inherent abil, ity to withstand cold. Hence a bud or graft on a rough lem on stoc k, if the bud union be protected, may withstand more cold than when placed on the hardy tri foliata stock, the former being a strong vigorous feeder, while the latter is a much less vigorous feeder. On this point we have personally ob served that several hundred Satsuma buds on rough lemon sto ck in a nursery remained uninjured , while the unbudded rough lem o n stocks in the same nursery were all killed. We have noted also another similar in stance with the same results where the trees were set in grove form. In these in stances the hardiness of the Satsuma bud did not seem to be affected by the tender nature of the root. In other instances where Satsuma buds were placed on tri foliata stocks they were killed to the ground in common with the other or anges of the neighborhood. But granting that some little differ ence in the hardiness of the bud may be secured from grafting or budding judi ciously it is at most so slight that it can not be relied upon as sufficient under present conditions. Hybridization. Much confidence is expressed by some experimenters that the solution of the problem may lie in obtaining a new and distinct species by hybridi zat ion. To do this, as it appears to us, two intricate pro cesses must first be successfully accom plished, both of which, especially if marked change in the nature of the tree is desired, require long periods of years and even then the chances of success and failure seem to be about equally balanced . The first process is to obtain a distinct species, sufficiently hardy and one that will propagate true to its kind. The sec ond process would then be to evolve or develop a good quality of fruit from the deteriorated hybrid. When we consider the wide difference between our choice high-bred Florida oranges and the inedible trifoliata, we should consider the process rapid and successful indeed if an orange approach ing in quality our common orange should be thus developed from the proposed hy brid within the next three-quarters of a century. Whatever the future of this theory may be, for the present genera tion at least we shall be on the safe side by erasing this expedient from the list also. As to the effect of shade on the con dition of the tree there are some interest ing data, but as this of itself is insuffi cient it will be more to the point to speak of it under another form of protection.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 29 The three conditions of plant growth are heat, light and moisture; since these conditions are present in their full sig nificance during many days in January and February, the orange tree is certain to re spond with new growth and bloom, hence the problem of forcing the tree to remaiu dormant is of very doubtful so lution. Protection With Sand. The efficiency of sand banking as a means of protecting the bud is too well known to admit of discussion; but since we cannot hope to raise a good crop of oranges under the ground, unless per chance the orange may be hybridized into some member of the peanut fami ily ( ?), we must draw a line around this form of protection as too limited. Sand banking to save the entire tree will perhaps admit of some discussion. To test this form of protection we had about thirty young trees covered entirely over with sand. Ten of these were cov ered on Decembr 15 and opened up March 21. These died back to within three inches of the bud union. The other twenty were opened at different times with the following results. Those cov ered four weeks were but little damaged. Those covered six weeks lost all their leaves and were otherwise devitalized so that they were slow in recovering. Some of my neighbors, however, banked as high as six and seven feet and left the banks for from five to seven weeks. Aside from lo sing their leaves the trees are but little damaged. From other sources on this point I get varying results, so that in forming judg ment on this form of protection it must be said there i s great risk attending it, so much so indeed that if we place any financial value on our young trees we 11111st exclude this expedient from a plan of orange culture on a sound business basis. The next device, an original one, we shall term the ventilated sand case. vVe had 150 fine young buds from four to six feet high placed under this treatment. The trees were first tied up into as small a space as practical by means of No. 18 galvanized wire; a case was then placed close around the tree. Most of these inner cases were of thin boards; some few even of paper. A second case was then made about three inches from the first this outer case was made of small boa/els placed laterally between trough like corner pieces. The space between the two cases was packed with sand. At the bottom a ventilating box extended from the outside into the tree. This vent and the top were closed and covered with sand during the cold wave period only. The labor of putting up this device and attending it during the winter and clear in g it away in the spring cost us 20 cents per tree. The lumber used was odds and ends from our mill and did not figure in the expense. The trees were placed in these cases during the week of December 15 and so remained until the week of March 21, with the follow in g result: A number came out without loss of leaves and in excellent condition. Others were defoli ated on the lower branches, the top branches retaining their leaves. Some were entirely defoliated, but the wood was in good condition and quickly put on leave s when the cases were removed. On the whole this plan may be regarded as a safe one, and if the vents are large enough there will be no serious risk at tending it from either suffocation or the

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30 FLORIDA STATE HORTICUL'l'URAL OCIETY. cold. ll s practical use, however , is limit ed to small trees. Ai r Tight Covers, Spraying, Etc. As to the next point on the outline we can assert with confidence that no form of cover, whether of air-tight cloth, pa per, wood, pine straw or other collected vegetable materials pla~ed. around a tree will save it without artificial heat. .. The resident heat from the ground positively cannot be relied upon. . As to water spraying as an effective means of saving from the freeze , we have observed one failure and are strongly of the opinion that any effort to sav_e on an extended scale by this means will meet with disappointment if not disaster . The oretically the plan has merit. When wa ter freezes a great quantity of latent heat is given out that mus~ rais~ the tempera ture of the surrounclmg air; also when masses of ice are frozen around any veg etable organism the consequent s low thawing will greatly le ssen and some times entirely prevent damage. Doubt less if means could be devised so that water could . be kept constantly freezing in the atmosphere immediately surround ing the tree effective work might be clone. But an attempt to do this in the blizzard of '99 proved to our satisfaction that to accomplish this successfu ll y the tree must , first be sheltered from the high wind and if that expedient had to be re sorted to other means of heating would be more satisfactory . Water spraying is therefore erased from the list. Well selected locations with respect to large bodies of water and forest~ will be of service as a means of protection, but that these alone are entirely insufficient, dead stumps in many such localities to day are in full evidence. With reference to latitude in the State of Florida we will simply make this statement, that during the past two ,~inters the official record is that no portion of the mainland of the State was entirely without freezing conditions . An exami nati on of the records, as far as there are authentic data, reveals no tende~1cy to wards general climatic change, nor are the cold waves more frequent or of lono-er duration than formerly; but the t:, facts do warrant the fear at least that these cold waves are gradually clipping further and further southward, thus in tensifying the extremes. It i s a matter of known fact that within the memory of men now livin g oranges were rai sed in South Carolina. The north boundary of Florida has produced large crops. A quarter of a century ago the extremes of cold in the central portion of the State very closely resembled the extremes much further south today. vVhatever the causes that have Jed to this southward clipping of the cold waves, the q~estion arises, may not these causes contmue ~o be operative? There being no mountam barriers to arrest the southward progress of these waves a slight increase in the cause may drive them southward hun dreds of miles. Should we go to the southern limit of the State and plant new groves , may not the cold waves, like a bad conscience, follow us? May there not be clanger that the sad experience that has befallen the industry in the central belt will be repe ated in the southern portion of the peninsula? . We dismiss this part of the subJect with the assertion that we believe there is no permanent practical security that will place the industry on a sound busi ness basis without preparation for arti ficial heat. Artificial Heat R.equired. During the past winter we have wit

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FLORIDA STATE IlO.RTICULTURAL SOCIETY . 31 nessed some very effective work done by means of open fires. From our own ex periments, as well as trials by others, we believe that this form of protection can be trusted in still freezes when not more than eight degrees of freezing tempera ture are to be combated. In windy freezes the limit is from two to four de grees Fahrenheit. In the past winter during the cold wave in January the temperature fell to seventeen degrees Fahrenheit. The night was clear and without wind. The trees were in a dormant condition . They/ could have withstood twenty-four and perhaps twenty-two without much dam age to leaves, and perhaps eighteen de grees without serious injury to wood . In this instance groves protected by oprn fires lost but few leaves. This would in dicate that a temperature of at least five degrees above the outside temperature was maintained. During the moderately windy freeze in February when the sap wa s rising in the trees the temperature fell t') twenty degrees Fahrenheit. Open fires in this instance were only partially successful; much new growth and bloom were killed and even wood. In a blizz:ird such as we had in Feb ruary, '99, to save a grove by open fiI e~ would be next to impossible. The wind accompanied by sleet and rain was so in tense that we witnessed sticks of wood hurled from the fires as if they were hunches of straw. Fires at one end of the row would be blown clown and ex tinguished before the one in attendance could replace those at the other end. Trees not more than six feet through were scorched on one side while the ther mometer registred fourteen degrees Fah renheit on the opposite side . In such conditions, and even in conditions much less severe we must conquer the wind be fore we can hope to combat the cold suc cessfull y; therefore we conclude that open fir s will not place the orange in dustry on a sound business basis as long as such conditions are among the proba bilities. Protection by Tents. Can we protect trees successfully by tent s or other individual enclosures heat ed by lamps or stov e s ? To test this proposition we had tents placed over 150 trees. The tent used was a small paper tent , a model of which is here produced in order that the data given may be bet ter understood. The tent was 3x3 6 feet high. The trees were tied in the same manner as th ose placed in sand cases . By raising the tent on legs and banking beneath we were enabled to protect trees eight feet ?igh and seve n feet through, before ty mg up . By a number of tests as t o proper ven tilation we found the best results were reached when the door was raised about ten inches from the bottom and at least one-half the top opened. When thus opened it was found that the temperature inside during warm weather would be several degrees cooler than the o utside temperature. One experimenta l tree tied up and en closed November IO, 1899, and opened up March 21, 1900 , showed no bad ef fects either from being tied up or from tent enclosure. Of the 150 trees under tent enclosure we had three damaged from failure of lamp to operate. The others came out in excellent condition; many had bloom and some few had or anges set when the tents were removed. The lamp u s ed was simply a Mason fruit jar, in the lid of which a hole was cut by

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32 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL ~oCIE'rY . an ordinary washer cutter of such a size that a No. 3 burner would snugly screw into the opening. During the past winter this tent was tried by heavy rains, high winds and one h ai l storm. On storing away we found that not more than ten per cent. will need repairs before being again used. For small trees it forms a very prac tic a l and thoroughly efficient device. with it properly h and l ed trees can be protected in any conditions that have vis ited the orange belt. While this tent can be en l arged to only a moderate size, yet the general principle of tent protection observed in this tent will hold good in tents of larger design and equally well adapted for the needs of the case. Hence we believe the plan of tenting trees with properly designed tents can be relied upon as a safe and sat i sfac tory plan. Having saved the tree the. question of tent protection is only partially answered. Vie must enquire whether it can be done at sufficiently low cost to justify the in vestment. It will give an idea of the probable cost of operating tent protec tion if we present briefly the cost of pro tecting I 50 trees during the past winter. The lamps were lit seven nights. Three barrels oil at $9 per barrel. $27 oo Lighting l amps seven nights at $1 . 50 per night. . . . . . . . . . . . IO 50 Fi llin g and trimming seven times at $1.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO 50 Putting up tents, taking same clown and storing in barn. . . . . I 5 oo Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... $63 oo Cost per tree, 42 cents. As the trees grow l arger more fuel will be required, so that for bearing trees sixty cents per tree will probably cover the expense of protection, exclusive of the first cost of tent, during the average winter. per box Hence if I box per tree is produced protection costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6oc 2 boxes per tree is produced protection costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30c 3 boxes per tree is produced protection costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20;: 4 boxes per tree is produced protection costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 5c S boxes per tree is produced protection costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2c 6 boxes per tree is produced protection costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10c The first cost of tents or of protection in any permanent form is to be regarded as part of the investment and not as part of the running expense. While all forms of protection are more or less perishable and therefore each year are becoming less valuable, on the other hand the trees are increasing in producing capacity, which much more than compensates for the slight yearly deterioration in the pro tecting device. Aside from saving the trees the secur ity of the fruit under thorough protec tion enables the grower to se l ect his mar ket. From the record of fruit sales in the past this one item would many times pay for all cost of protection. In this form of protection there are cautions that must be observed " if success is to crown our efforts. Great care must be taken to adjust the blaze of the lamp properly. If turned too high the lamp will smoke, suffocate and go out. If left too low, sufficient heat will not be generated and damage will result. An other difficulty to be met when ordinary wicks are used is the thick incrustation that forms on the wicks after several hours burning . The l amp then ceases to give out its normal heat. By a number of tests with self-registering thermome

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 33 ters I found when first lit that a lamp in a tent of this design would make a dif ference of from twenty to thirty-one de grees increase in temperature. But inva riably the difference would fall off before morning to from six to eight degrees. During the past winter this did not en danger the trees, but should we have a repetition of the ' 99 blizzard this would prove disastrous. The remedy to be sug gested is, either to have a second lamp ready to light or retrim the one already lit when the outside temperature falls be low eighteen degrees Fahrenheit. In taking the temperature in all these experiments the thermometer was placed one foot from the ground and remote from the lamp . The most serious objection to the tent plan of protection is the need of chang ing the size of the tent to suit the rap idly growing tree. Considered in all its phases , however , the plan of tent protection with well-de signed tents and under proper manage ment will, in our judgment, place the growing of oranges in Florida on a good business basis. Windbreaks With Open Fires. The next point in the outline is protec tion by means of windbreaks with open fires. Since it has been repeatedly demon strated that low temperatures can be successfully overcome in still freezes , it nat urally follows that if we control the wi1,d the problem is so l ved. In pursuance of this idea one year ago we constructed about 3 , 000 running feet of wall in what we deemed the proper locations in our grove. This wall was of solid plank twenty feet high. when these titanic barricades were up they looked as if they ought to have kept out even his Satanic F.I-I.S.-3 Majesty. But when the blizzard of '99 appeared on the scene we had the en couraging experience of seeing the trees killed to the banks in spite of fires and protecting barricades , excepting those in the rows next the north and south walls. In these rows with fires at interva~s of fifty feet water was kept from freezing during the coldest part of that memora ble blizzard. Trees in these rows were unque stio ably saved until after daylight. The sup ply of wood then failing there was no al ternative but to order the trees banked and give up the fight. After removing the banks all the trees in the fi.rct row from the north and south walls were a li ve to the top of the banks, as were also a few in the second row. The others in this division were killed to the ground. Out of this expensive wreck we recov ered as salvage one idea , namely, that a windbreak with fires is good protection in the immediate vicinity of the wall only. During the past winter we had parts of the walls again constructed , forming enclosures approximately I 50 feet each way. During the still freezes in January to control the temperature within these enclosures was comparatively easy. In the windy freeze in February all the trees riext the west wall were saved perfectly and easily, new growth, bloom and all. Two or three rows from the walls, how ever, the trees were saved only by heavy firing, and then even we lo st considera ble new growth. The fact that trees were saved easily near the walls pointed toward smaller in dividual windbreaks as a more effectual device. Several devices were constructed with a view of studying carefully the be havior of wind currents in presence of windbreaks. The most important device from a "Ci

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34 FLORIDA STA'l'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. entific standpoint was a large semi-circu lar wall sixteen feet in diameter by four teen feet high, presumably large enough to encircle a full-bearing tree. This semi-circular wall, constructed of light material, was supported to a cen tral pivot and balanced by a swinging stove located diametrically opposite the center of curvature. The whole device thus freely movable was operated auto matically by a weather vane; by this means the stove was always opposite the wind and the semi-circular shield between the wind and the tree. With this device I could obtain a con stant effect even in the frequently shift ing winds. By filling the device with smoke and by other means, such as small uaper weather vanes, during the presence of a heavy wind the various currents could be traced with surprising precision. The accompanying diagram will show clearly the movements of the air within the device when a heavy wind is blowing. A main reflex current is generated whose center passes backward over the main axis B C. On reaching the wall this main current diverts, part forming an ascending current and part turning to the sides. These lateral currents meet the inward encl currents, forming vortices of whirling, ascending currents at A and AL It will readily be seen that by plac ing a fire at B the greater part of the in terior of the device will be filled with heated air and smoke. The two vortices at A and AI form effectual barriers against the cold end currents. /3 --\ ) The high temperature that can be maintained within this windbreak is evi dently due to three causes. First, and most important is the reflex current just mentioned _ : second , the reflection of heat from the walls, and third, the absorption of heat by the walls and consequent re racliation. A strictly scientific device that would produce the maximum effect from all these causes perhaps would be a shield

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 35 in the form of a parabolic curve with the fire and the wall so relatively situated that all rays of reflected heat would pass back in parallel lines, thus distributing the heat equally to all parts of the tree. Since curves and circles are difficult and expensive in construction the nearest form that will produce almost equal re sults and at the same time is thoroughly practical in construction, is the triangle. As a more practical test a triangle was constructed of boards. The tree selected was five feet high. The two sides of the triangle were made six feet high, of boards eight feet long laid on edge. The open side of the triangle faced the south east, our cold winds invariably coming from the northwest. During the January freeze a thermom eter placed just outside the wing of the triangle showed a temperature of eigh teen degrees Fahrenheit. Another ther mometer placed on the innermost limb of the tree and hence farthest from the fire showed forty-two degrees Fahrenheit, a difference of twenty-four degrees. The fire was not a large one, simply three small sticks of wood blazing a foot and a half high. So satisfactory were the results that we at once directed that a portion of the high wall be torn down and constructed into triangles. Thirty of the largest grapefruit and some other varieties of or ange trees were selected. At the time of the February blizzard these trees in the triangles were in the tenderest condition; they had made the largest new growth of all the trees in the grove. They were simply bristling all over with new growth from five to ten inches long with some bloom. The triangles were placed in charge of a regular hand as part of his regular work for the night. The result was completely satisfactory; the new growth and bloom were as bright the next morning and continued to grow as if no blizzard had occurred . These trees matured the leaves and wood of the first growth fully two weeks earlier than those protected by any other device. All our experiments with this form of protection would indicate that, if proper ly handled, it can be relied upon as abso lute protection against any temperature that has ever reached the orange belt; and I am of the opinion that even much lower temperatures can be successfully overcome with them. Owing to the fact that the triangle was introduced hurriedly just before the Feb ruary blizzard and the wood gathered from other parts of the grove, we cannot give exact figures as to the cost of firing. The fuel burned we believe need not ex ceed one-third the amount necessarv for ordinary open fires. We dismiss this part of the subject by saying that we have great confidence in the triangle as a means of thorough pro tection, and predict for it an important place in the future of the orange culture. Perhaps the cheapest form of protec tion if a new grove is to be planted would be to plant dwarf trees in rows running northeast by southwest, plaqting them as close as practicable, say eight feet apart. The rows should be fifty feet, better sev enty-five feet apart, co11struct a portable fence that can be placed close up against the trees on the northwest side and fire on the southeast. In thrs arrangement a tree ten feet high could be protected with a twelve foot fence, or ninety-six square feet of fence for each tree. P r ot ec ti o n Wi t h S he d s. The last device on the list is the orange shed. Under this form of protection we

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36 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. had 111 all 500 trees; 167 were from stumps of old bearing trees, 333 were newly set intermediate trees. The space covered is 400 feet long by 230 feet wide. The shed was designed with reference to three essential points: first, permanency; second, sufficient light, and third, quick operation. As to the first point, the very best heart pine lumber was selected for all the permanent parts. The posts are placed on tarred blocks that can easily be re moved if signs of decay appear. The whole frame work is self-supporting in all its parts and rigidly nailed into one complete structure. The walls are porta ble, being put up without nails, the de sign being to take them down each sea son and store in a suitable building. The roof consists of two parts, a per manent part laid in two feet widths and a portable part made of hinged doors. The doors are made of light sap lumber and are to be removed and stored during the summer. The shed is fifteen feet in the clear and since the doors operate entirely above the stringers the trees may occupy the 1 entire space beneath without interfering with the working parts. The amount of light and method of operation can be seen from the accom panying cross-sectional view. This cut represents one bent in the frame work; all the rest are exact duplicates. When the doors are raised in to the positions shown by a a a a and b b b b in drawing they are held in that position by draw wires B B, one such wire passing along one end of every one of the doors. All the doors inclined in the same direc tion in two rows are fastened to cne of the draw wires, that extends entirely across the shed. To drop the doors the wire is unfastened at B and pulled in the direction of Br. It is only necessary to pull the doors a short distance and grav ity quickly does the rest. When the doors are up a two-thirds light is admit ted. The operation of closing the entire shed is quickly and easily performed. One man passes clown each side of the roof of the shed; each unfastens the wire to be pulled by the other, each united pull of the two men closes 128 doors. l

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIE T Y. 37 In larger sheds this could be greatly increa sed and still be within practical lim its. A bout twenty minutes is required for tw o men to close this shed over 500 trees, oc cupying an area of a little over two acres . This places this form of pro tection entirely out of danger from being caught by surprise. Results Obtained. The results obtained under the shed thus far place this far in advance of any other protective device used. During the first night in the January freeze of the past winter the temperature outside fell to twenty degree s Fahren heit. Twenty-eight degrees Fahrenheit was the lowest recorded under the shed, and hence no artificial heat was needed; no fires were lit. On the second night of the freeze at about three thirty o'clock a. m. the tem perature inside approached the danger point-twenty-six degrees Fahrenheit. In fifteen rni1iute s, with the assistance of one hand , we had sixty small open fires lit and the temperature raised to thirty six degrees Fahrenheit. During the third night of the freeze we had the fires kindled only two hours, merely lighting the fires and letting them take their course. In the February blizzard we found the results equally satisfactory, having tc foe but four hours during the duration of the wave. The total number of hours firing in the shed during the entire winter was ten, as against seventy or more in all the other forms of protection . The total amount of wood consumed in the shed during the entire win ter was a little less than four cords. Fifty cords were consumed in saving one-third the number of trees in an equal area within the high wall enclosure. F.H.S.-4 The total cost of operating the shed is as follows: Fuel, four cords wood at $1. IO .. $ 4 40 Labor in firing ten hours at 2 5c per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 50 Arranging kindling . . . . . . . . . . I oo Manipulating doors and other labor connected with protection. 2 50 Total .......... . ........ $IO 40 Five hundred trees, or a trjfle over 2 cents per tree. The cost of taking clown doors and walls, storing them in lumber shed and putting same in place again when needed is estimated at $-J.o.oo per year, making the total cost of shed protection of this design $50-40, or a little over ten cents per tree. \i\TJ10 will challenge the assertion that under intensive culture , with thorough protection, trees planted twelve and one half feet apart wiil produce two boxes per tree or 500 boxes per acre? \Vhile we confidently hope in time to do much better than that, yet with this yield pro tection would cost only five cents per box. Auxiliary Benefits. Shed protection not only affords the most thorough control of the tempera ture , but is attended with the least care in its operation and in the encl we are confident it will be found the cheapest and most satisfactory protection that has been devised. _ Not only this, but the effect on the condition of the tree will of itself place the shed paramount. If the results in the future shall continue as they vvere during the past winter, and we see no reason to doubt it-under a well designed shed the condition of the tree is largely under the control of the owner. It can be kept dormant during the warm

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38 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. weather in January or February, or be pushed forward into growth at will. During the past winter portions of the shed that were given one-third light only remained dormant until well along in March , while trees given two-thirds light started to grow almost as soon as those in the open. At the time some fear was entertained that we had not given the trees in the shed sufficient light, and consequently they were remaining dor mant too long. On taking clown the walls and opening up the roof to admit two-thirds light, towards the last of March, the results were simply marv e ous. I can compare it to nothing but the sudden outburst of springtime verdure in the more rigid latitude of my native State; and even that does not do it jus tice. In less than six weeks the trees , far surpassing in growth all those protected by other devices , had more than doubled their entire volume, some of the new growth measuring over thirty-six inches, hardy , sound and perfect in color. Men of long experience in the orange industry inform me that they have never witnessed such a spring growth and sel dom one equal to it in mid-summer. It has been urged against shed protec tion that it deprives the tree of dew and otherwise places it in unnatural condi tions. Our observation thus far has been very much to the contrary. As we walk among these trees in the early morning the clew drops sparkle from every leaf, and vanish only at the instance of the early rays of the morning sun . A closer study of the nature of the or ange in its natural wild state shows that it invariably seeks the shelter of the pal metto, the live oak or the stately magno lia. Have not the brightest fancy fruits in the past been gathered from the dense ly shaded hammock groves? The shed reproduces t11ese conditions. \!\Tith a motive single to the expression of natural truths as we have witne s sed them in our various e x periments , we are of th"! firm conviction that after duly cnn sidering all the facts pertaining to protec tion yet in evidence, the shed so far sur passes all other protecting devices that we have r e ached the conclusion that thorough shedding, if E O t the only bu s ness method , is the most business-like method of dealing with the prohlLrn. In conclusion we will say that we be lieve the orange industry is here to st a y. Under methods of th o rough protection with complete control of sunlight and shadow , of heat and moisture, the culture of the orange can be carried to the high plane commensurate with the fondest dream of the most passionate horticul turist , the sati s faction of the ambitious investor and the world-wide fame of our adopted and beloved State .

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WE DO NOT GIVE UP THE ORANGE. Words of Hope and EncouragementPro phetic Utt erances. By Rev . Lyman Phelps, Chairman of the Standing Committee. Mr. President and Members of the State Horticultural Society: It was aptly said on this floor five years ago, "T he sub j ect of citrus culture is a very broad one." The words are true to day in a way we did not know then. The subject has been "thrashed" over and over and again and again. Still it will not clown, more than Banquos g host. Our practical, wise President has given it the place of honor in the thirteenth annual proceedings. In all our meetings we have counted on attentive ears as well as willing minds when discussing the cit rus and the matters thereto appertaining. V/as it not true of last night's proceed in gs? Citrus has been the one thing ahove all others in the State Horticul tural Society. Today it still is the one thing w hich brings this goodly Society together, and will cement and unify it while the r ed blood, made by Florida's sunlig ht , courses through artery and vein, and we hold faith with Goel and our neighbor. And, my brothers, "God willing," we s h all yet grow oranges on the old orange lands and better ones than in the good times before we were parted from so much of our very selves, which now to us is " a dead pas t ," and one we can " let bury itself," while we work for future success. Florida is still much alive, not yet "kic king at nothing. There is still work appertaining to cit rus for us, never was there more, none of us doubt it. The Society set work for itself thirteen years ago. It has never faltered in that work, and is as busy de vising ways and means in which and by which to have more attractive, brighter, more refined and perforce better fruit. It has been cynically said the love of bright colors is a survival of savagery. T s it true? o. Ask the women who have come to this meeting, and adorn this room and gladden the hearts of the Horticulturists. Their hats emphatically say no. In the olden time Goel said, '' Be hold the lilies of the field how they grow, and yet Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these," that is , so georgeously colored. You who will yet ship you r queen of fruits know your most highly colored ones will most delight the cultured and most refined women, even in king's pal aces, as well as in humble cottages. A professor's wife once wrote me, "T hose oranges so highly co l ored were the most refined things I ever saw . " The Queen of Belgium once wrote on receipt of a box of F l orida's "go ld en spheres," "Ki ng and I have been up to our ears in the di vi: 1c juice all cl ay."

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-10 F'LORil)A STATE IIORTI C' ULTURAL SOClE'rY . From our most highly colored fruits came the fancy prices which enabled us to improve quality as well as quantity. Today there is a hopeful feeling about citrus culture in Florida. Even the pine apple and t.he celery do not deter the orange grower. The question of ques tions asked, ten to one, is, "How are the trees?" There is more activity in orange lands in the old orange belt t.han at any time since 1895; more sales of land for the cultivation of citrus, more attention is being given, more trees bein g set. Not since the cold of 1886 has there been such a normal growth on t.he citrus trees. This question of late has been asked me a score of times, "Did you ever see such a growth on the orange trees?" There is money coming to Florida for in vestment. There is much inquiry for cit rus lands. There is a growing belief that we have passed the crisis of disaster, that the higher level of success is appearing , not in the uncertain dim distance afar off but now nigh at hand. I have a good hope, a well grounded belief, that after two years we shall see forty years of normal Florida weather, and probably even bet ter than we have seen, and I have seen pineapple leaves standing in open air five feet, enclosing pines weighing fourteen pounds, lemon trees fruitin g 14 , 000 lem ons and an orange tree holding twenty and more boxes of oranges. The coming of t.he normal rainy sea son of '99 made us very hopeful of a nor mal winter to follow. In a measure we were not disappointed. This spr ing has developed a leaf growth on forest tree and bush and flow er we have not had since '86. The Pinus inops at Christmas had the old-time fragrant bloom, only more of it. A little later the Pinu s s erotin a s ent o ut double the bloom I ev e r saw before. Then followed t.he . Cubensis, with its great wealt.h of beauty and fragrant pollen, and last of all the Pinus palust.ris, the grand est of our sout.herri pines, never n1ore healthy and attractive in leaf and bloom than in the spring of 1900. Fascinations of Orange Culture It Will Never Die Dormancy the One Great Requisite . . By M. 5. Moremen, of the C o mmittee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: The growing of citrus fruits in Florid a has passed through such an ordeal of dis aster in recent y e ars that it becomes "' difficult matter to decide from whal standpoint to treat the subject assigned to your committee. Treat it as we may. we must bear in mind that t.he para mount object is to discover some method whereby the production of citrus fruits in Florida shall become reasonably safe and profitable. It is said that the wayward child has the warmest and most enduring affection of its parents. In like manner 1t seems that the more disast e r that befalls the citrus industry, the more energy, thought and industry are given to it, in ord e r to overcome and counteract the seemingly ever pending calamity . And this is true, becau s e we st.ill have faith in the suit ablen ess of Fl or ida ' s climate and soil , to produ ce t.he best oranges of the worl
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FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTUilAL SOCIETY 41 ed effort. But no disaster warned us, the times were propitious. \Ve planted and nourished. \Ve lived with the trees until they became a part of us. \Ve saw the tree grow and c!evelop into a thing of beauty, but alas! not a joy forever. \Vhen destruction came on the wings of the blizzard and swept our groves away, it was not as though a flood had destroyed the corn or the caterpillars had devoured the cotton; for it touched our lives; it stung our affections; it wrecked our hopes. Yea, it made us feel as though a beloved member of the family, who had filled our lives with hope, confidence and consolation, had been torn from us, and left bleeding at our feet, piteously plead ing for succor. Likewise the appeal moved us. \\7 e stretched forth our hands and applied re s torative measures. \Vhen hope would spring again to life a cruel blow would fell it again to the earth. Many, di s heart ened, have turned mournfully away from the once fascinating citrus culture. A few here and there, it may be a Gide on's band, are still insistently striving lo rebuild their groves. To prophesy that an abundant harvest will ultimately crown their efforts is not hazarding a great deal, since what has been can be. It may be added with equal safety to one's reputation as a prophet that the many appliances and methods resorted to for protection will fall into disuse and pass into the history of citrus culture. However, it is well while the present habits of February weather continue to take refuge behind that which promises most protection, be it sheds, tents or fires. In the meantime, the skilled hor ticulturist must discover some certain way of keeping the trees dormant until March, for when dormant the matured citnis trees will live through the colde st weather that visits Florida. At least the orange will. This has been demonstrat ed time and again. v.,r ould it not be well for the Horticul tural Society to appoint a standing com mittee whose purpose shall be to gather all known facts relative to methods of keeping trees dormant and reporting same to the Society at the next meeting, or, _having same published through our agricultural papers next autumn. It will behoove ever orange grower in Florida to experiment with a view to discover ing some method of keeping the tree dor mant. A thoroughly dormant tree is better protected than it can be by any method yet proposed. Should this Society through its labor<> ind wisdom discover a method practica ble and within the grasp of the Florida orange grower, of rendering the tree dor mant until after blizzard dangers are over, it will have builded for itself a mon7 ument enduring as time and will confer a blessing immeasurable. Damage from Cold and Best Methods of Pre vention Shed Covers With Coke-Burning Salamanders A Success. By H. 8. S teven•, Chairman of the Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Of the many best methods that will be presented to this Society I will confine myself to that of sheds, as the method that has prove d the most successful with us. \Ve found that with an outside tem perature of twenty-one degrees a five acre shed could be kept warm enough to prevent damage from cold with 32 salamandern, burning from one hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds of coke per salamander, and that one man could fire them for the night. We have one five-acre shed so fired that came throug h

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42 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL 8O0IE1'Y. in perfect condition. A fifteen-acre shed, not fired in the January cold, shed most of its leaves, but the yo ung wood was not injured, and with six fires to the acre it went through all the later colds without the new growth being injured, even though the outside temperature was clown to twenty-two. As for the cost of the sheds, that will depend on the price of lumber and labor , but where the trees are planted as we plant ours-four acres of trees to one acre of shed-it will cost not far from $2.00 per tree, and sho uld last many years, or until the trees are large enough to crowd so much as to need moving; and as they would then be old, well-hard ened trees they could stand the outside temperature much better than our trees do now. We find that trees grow well under the sheds, that they do not suffer so much in dry weather, that the ferti li zer goes farther, and that the y require less labor than those outs ide . Sheds of Split Cypress Lath Rationale of Pro= tection A Plea for Better Weather Forecasts. By E. S. Hubbard, of the Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Ha v ing been requested by Mr. Stev ens, Chairman of this Committee , to pre se nt a separate report, I am somewhat in the dark in doing so, as my own exper ence is small and I am not aware what points will be more particu l arly covered by the other members of the committee. The conditions affecting orange cul ture are continually changing. For the pa s t three years we have had water and to spare in my section of the State in the spring months, but it i s not so many yea r s ago that drouth , red spider and irri gation were the li ve topics. These were followed by limb blight and foot rot, with the fungicide and fer tilizing questions. In 1893 and '94 half the l eaves and most of the fruit on my orange trees nearest the St. Johns river were blown off by hurricane storms and the remain der of the fruit in my grove was more or less damaged by the threshing it received and by the excess of water. From 1895 on freezes have received our undivided attention, but judgin g the future from the past, it is reasonable to suppose that the belated northern win ters with their abnormal and extreme blizzards will soon return to more equa ble conditions such as prevailed before 1895; and that favorable locations in the central and northeastern sections of the peninsula will again produce oranges with comparative immunity. The bulk of the oranges propagated since the freezes have been early varieties to be shipped before Christmas. An orange tree carrying a crop of fruit must circu l ate considerable sap to keep the fruit alive and is practically in a growing condition; twenty-eight degrees or lower wil l soon damage fruit and the trees that car r y it, while a dormant tree without fruit will stand much more cold without injury. Personally, therefore, I shall protect by she lt er only late varieties, and it would have paid me to do it under the old con ditions. Protection is a question of more fire or more shelter ranging from thickly placed firec:; in open groves, as practiced in South Florida, to close, dark shelters without fire which will retard growth for several weeks, but with que s tionable ef fect on health and fruitfolness of the trees. For myself I am following a com binat;on of fire and she lter to achieve all round re s ults as eco n om ic ally as possible

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICUL'IURAL SOCIETY. 43 by using tight sides around and a slatted roof over the \\ hole enclosure. The orange in its native clime is an un dergrowth bush and will thrive as well and produce finer fruit under half shade than in the open, while the diffused sun light of a slat roof is far superior for this purpose to the natural shade of forest trees. As t.he diameter of the sun is to its distance from the earth approximately as I to rn7 a slat roof of lath I 3-8 inches wide, no matter what width spaced apart, 147 inches or 12 feet 3 inches above the ground, would cast no solid shade, as t.he spread of the rays from opposite edges of the sun's disk would meet under the haclows at that distance; and probably such lath set three-fourths of an incl1 apart fifteen feet above the ground would give ample cliffu eel sunlight in summer 1.o produce healthy foliage and fully ma tured fruit. My own shelter of about one and one-fourth acres is covered with riven cypress pickets five feet long aver aging about five inches wide and se t about four inches apart, the ends being fastened to 1xr2 boards laid flat on rx6 stringers on edge, nailed on posts set roxro feet, standing fifteen feet hi g h. This gives over three-fourths shelter, and about two-thirds sunlight on the ground. One-half of my cover is in ten-feet pan els, to be taken clown in summer if neces sary; but with only one-fourth taken clown I have ample sunlight, and I am using part ,Yith all in position. Two thirds to three-fourths protection in still frost.y weather will raise the temperature about five degrees above the outside air for seve1 al hours, but if the outside tem perature drops below twenty-six degrees or twenty-seven degrees and the surface of the soil is moist inside the shelter fires must be built and the inside temperature kept at or above the freezing point. Otherwise. if the temperature inside the shelter falls to twenty-eight degrees or below the ground will freeze in an hour or two , radiation of heat from t.he earth will be shut off . and it will take twice as much artificial heat to prevent damage. My shelter was not completed this winter at the time of the February 17th freeze; and having burned some wood previously, I did not have enough on hand to keep up suffi cient heat against the eddies and undertow of cold air that surged through the one-fourth openings. Still I saved part of my young growth, with a minimum temperature outside of twenty-one degrees one foot from the ground, but lost some foliage and tips of fall growth on part of my trees, chiefly from the fact that killing of undeveloped young shoots three to six inches long killed also the auxiliary buds at their bases, which prevented further sprouting from these young branches. At present this shelter is filled with small sour orange nursery stock between the regular orange tree rows , but I pro nose later to plant in thickly with small growing, heavy-blooming and bearing late varieties of oranges at the rate of r,ooo trees to the acre, to be given in tensive culture. This will make protection cost about fifty cents per tree good for ten years, with but small repairs and but little ma nipulation, and a total durability of about twenty years, with forty cords of two foot wood per acre placed for small fires in fireplaces 2ox20 feet apart I shall feel secure against any emergency we have yet had to meet. It is arduous work fighting cold arti ficially even with the closest and most expensive plans of shelter, and the pluck, judgment and endurance of the incli vid ~1al will prove the chief factors in obt~in mg success. A Plea for Better \Veather Forecasts ...

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4-4 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. Before closing I would put in a plea for better service from the Weather Bu reau in the daily press. The temperatures given in the morn ing papers are those of the preceding evening, while the morning temperatures which are the ones that really convey in formation as to the fluctuations and in tensity of changes, are too late even for mailing by the bureau to the needy por tions of the State. The Times-Union and Citizen also fails to give regularly the memoranda as to direction, move ments and force of storms that are custo mary with the Northern papers. It would greatly help intelligent hor ticulturists and agriculturists if both the morning and evening temperatures, with data tables and evening memoranda of the clay previous were published, for with these as guides they might guess as closely as the bureau obs'erver who pre dicted twenty-five degrees for February I 7th and registered nineteen degrees mi nus. Any intrested person can easily prepare a blackboard, say three by four feet, with outline of the country and loca tion of the stations as in the bureau charts, and with different colored cray ons draw isotherms and isobars of the morning and evening temperatures and barometer readings with wind directions, thereby being able to watch the progress and velocity oi, storms and cold waves. If a cold wave is moving from the northwest towards us, a comparison of morning and evening temperatures will show probable range or drop of temper ature, modified by time of day and veloc ity of wind when it reaches us, and height of barometer will be a guide to loss of earth heat by radiation. Our nearness to the G ulf stream and ocean often causes us to give undue prominence to local weather indications. I trust the Society, the Press and the Weather Bureau will work together to give the best possible service to all suf ferers from cold waves in Florida. Personal Experience of a Practical Man Tent ing and Shedding Rapid Covering A Lamp That Can Be Depended On. By B. 0. Painter, of the Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: My observations and practical experi ence during the past winter with tents proved conclusively that the orange tree can be protected in this way to a cer tainty, providing the grove-tender or owner is not found napping when the critical moment arrives. The principal item of interest that I have learned from experience is , that the transparent tent of any kind that is per manently placed over a tree will be found to work to disadvantage from the fact that the temperature inside of the tent is from five to ten degrees warmer in the daytime than outside, which forces the tree forward earlier, making it more ten der, so that in case of a blizzard, it is more susceptible to the cold and liable to be frozen out, when trees in a normal condition would not be injured. Again, in case of cold the temperature inside the tent will go from four to six degrees lower than the outside, if no artificial heat is used. I gleaned this from experience of a year ago when I had five acres cov ered with tents. The past winter I perfected a tent made from spec ially prepared mildew proof cloth which has the advantage of giving the tree the benefit of air, su n shine and temperature, with the aclclition al advantage that it can be quickly clo s ed on the approach of cold weather. Last fall I expected to cover my five acres with this form of tent , but

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FIG. 1 0PEN . FIG . 2 CLOSED . E. O. PAINTER ' S ORANGE TREE TENT.

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I<'LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 45 unfortunately my materials were de s troyed by fire last November, so that all I had left was my sample tents, which have done good senice. The trees that were protected with them now stand out like an oasis in the desert, for on all sides the trees that were not tented were frozen back lo the banks. 1 found it very little trouble to care for them, as on nights when damaging cold was ex pected I had the lamps lighted, the cur tains dropped, and after making the rounds to see that the lamps were burn ing all right I went to bed. I was not troubled with my lamps creeping up or down, owing to the fact that I foresaw this possible trouble and purchased the best brass burners. These I had soldered to tin cans made for that purpose, which would hold enough oil to last twenty four hours, so that in case the cold con tinued throug-h the day the trees would not suffer before they could be re-filled. I used a tin chimney. The whole outfit of lamp cost about twenty cents apiece . I have visited nearly all of the shedded groves in the State, and have seen many different devices. The merits of the dif ferent ones have been placed before you. ferent ones have been placed before you in my illustrated edition of the Agricul turist of N ovem her 22, I 899, a copy of which any one can secure by addressing me at DeLand. The principal thing to figure on in the shed covering is to get something that can be worked rapidly. The quickest op erating cover that I have seen is that built by Mr. M. H. Lubrecht, Island Grove. with his method, which is something like a window blind, he c:in cover his four acres in two hours. The next is that built by Mr. Stevens over his Citra grove and also one at Stetson , both of which are illustrated in the Agriculturist. I have been asked my candid opinion as to the best method of protection, and my conclusions are these: If any one has money with which to build sheds they are the cheapest in the long run, as the cost can be reduced to about $2 per tree. But if your condition is similar to that of the orange grower who said he had "many trees but few cash," the indi vidual tent system will enable you later to secure sheds. In cutting out my cloth for tents, I make them so that the sheets are 6xr6, intending to increase the size another year by doubling them. In this way the cloth can be used as long as it will last, without having to be cut up or made over. I have not had much experience with firing , but during the past spring have noticed its effects in several groves in the southern part of the Slate. The groves that were fired are now covered with fruit on the outside limbs as well as on the inside, but the groves that were not fired have no visible fruit on the first six inches or a foot of the limbs, showing that the fires were sufficient protection to keep the chilling blasts from killing the buds on the outside limbs. \Vhether the fruit saved is enough to pay for the expense of wood, etc., remains to be seen, but there is one thing evident. that if the cold had gone a few degrees lower, the man with the fire protection would have been in far better shape to escape than the one who depended on Providence. I am thoroughly convinced that the problem of protection will be solved so that those who still cling to the orange industry will be able, in a measure, to re construct their fortunes in a manner which their perseverance and hard labor deserve.

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46 FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. DISCUSSION. Mr. 1\IcCarty-I would like to ask Mr. Hubbard what variety we must plant to get trees about seven feet apart, which would be the distance of 1,000 trees to the acre. Mr. Hubbard-I recommend using Valencia Late, which resembles the Ma l ta Oval, and the King. I have seen a box of fruit apiece on trees which were o nl y about six feet high. I have no doubt they will do just as well under shelter. The King is not the old long legged King, but a compact, improved variety. Mr . Hart-One interesting point rai sed here is the question as to the com parative economy as between tents awl s h eds for young trees. I would like to say in r egard to this, that a tent is merely a protection against cold . That is what it is used for, that is the whole aim and encl of a tent. A s h ed, according lo ny experience and from what I can learn from others, has other ad vantages than that of merely being a protection from cold. If damaging cold was elim in ated entirely from our consideration s heds would till pay well for their building. One of the main benefits of shedding, where there is half shade and that cover is left on in the summer, is increasing the gro\\"th of the trees throughout the whole season of growth . Another benefit is ia doubling the moi ture in the top foot of soil which it doe s during a drought. There is double the quantity of available water under a shed that there is in the open ground in a dry s pell. In California the Everest Company have sheclded some of their 0 -roves, about 17 acres, and they claim that the one matter of in creased moi s ture alone pays for the shed din g . They have to buy water for irri gation and the shed reduces thi s t>xpen ., e one-half. Sometimes they cannot get water ::it any price and their open groves go back, but with the shed they have water in the soi l to bridge over without irrigation, so the mere matter of in creased moisture alone will pay for the shed and might even save the grove in a dry year. This matter of moisture has a wider bearing than one would think at the first consideration, and that brings up another point, the economy of ferti lizer. That water in the soil with ample heat keeps plant food soluble and availa ble to the trees to such a degree that the trees continue to grow straight alo 11g through severe drouths . The nitrifying and other ferments are given the best condition for rapid development and other activ iti es increa se as well in pro portion to the amount of water in the soil up to a certain limit. The s hed keeps the ground porous so air can penetrate it. This ae ration also ha s a beneficia l ef fect on the soil ferments. I will read in this connection extracts from an a rticl e published in 1893 in The Experiment Station Record on this subject. I was g r eat ly at a lo ss to understand how my trees under shed could get such and abundance of nitrogen, none havino been applied in the past two years. Th~ quotation satisfactorily and scientifically explains this. I would like you to see how dark and rich these leaves are and how large . Dur ing last season's extreme drouth they had the appearance as though the oi l was dripping from them, as Maj . Healy said of Col. Harvey's trees at Pensacola, while outside the leaves were turning yel low and the trees becoming barkbound. You could turn the earth over with your foot and find moist earth just under the surface. Last season I planted about 12 acres to beggar weed. I got a good growth under my s h ed, while on the out

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FLORIDA STA'.rE HORTICULTURAL SOCJETY. 47 side I got nothing. My experience about applying organic nitrogen to or ange trees under shed indicates that it is best that we go slowly until we know more about it, or we may over do the thing and cause dieback. Nitrogen is the most expensive element of plant food we apply to our trees. \Vith potash and phosphoric acid at 4 to 6 cents nitrogen will cost about 17, therefore that one fact of developing it in abundance and mak ing it available to the trees should have proper attention as a matter of great economy. If you want protection from cold alone on very small trees, I do not see but that tents are economical and would serve the purpose, but when trees ge t larger you will have to get another set, and when they get from twelve to fifteen feet high, no horticultural industry that I know of can stand the expense. It seems to me that the cost of tents for fifteen or twenty foot trees is prohibitive. \Vhy not cover the grove over with canvas when you want protection alone? That is very much cheaper than covering each tree sepa rately , if above banking size, and when trees get large they interlock their limbs, but I want something more than protection from the cold , and I get it through the shed and very cheaply, al most as cheaply as you can buy your small size tents, and I have protection that I believe will last fifteen to twenty years. But I will put it at eight, and still you get benefits that will pay for the ex pense outside of the protection from cold. The greatest benefit s are received from the sheds when the trees are small ancl the cover shades the ground . My shed is small, it is only an acre and a half , but it i s sufficiently lar!!e to allow of consider able in the way of experimentation. My shed is about 15 1-2 feet high; that will with small fires (all effective plans re quire artificial heat) furnish absolute pro tection until the trees get up to the top. \\'hen the trees reach such a size that the branches interlap and the tops want to push through, I can take that cover off, leave my walls up and still protect them just as well. In protecting with tents if your trees are large it is too expensive, even if there is room to get the canvass bet\\ een the trees, when you can protect them with open fires, if you have shelter o~ a high wall about them. By all means, with my experience, I would choose the shed. My shed only cost $450 an acre and even with the increased price of wire and lumber I think they can be built for $550 an acre, and they are there for a lo_ng time, ~s they are mostly galvanized wire and thm cypress, both of which are very lasting. Mr. Pierpont-I would like to have Mr. Hart's experience about the fruit of the trees under his shed. Mr. Hart-Most of my trees under the shed 5re small trees because they have been cut back year after year by freezes until I put the shed on a year ago. I then h.ad about -six trees that were large enough to bear ora nges, and they were protected simply by the palmetto tree!>. vyhen I started shedding every tree was killed below the height of my knees ex cept six, so you can see they are not in the condition yet to put growth into fruit buds as much as in the leaf. I can say, however, that considering the growth the trees are making they are fruiting fairly well. On our coast we have th ousa nds and thousands of wild orange trees growing under heavy live oak, bay, hickory and palmetto. In some of these we find thin tops because the trees grow high for light and are crowd ed above and below ground, bnt what

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48 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. tops there are on them put on fair crops of fruit. My shaded trees are wide spreading and of dense foliage. I know of quite a large acreage of hammock trees where they bear ample crops, and where they get very much more shade than my shed gives. Of course this shed ding is a matter of experiment to a great extent yet. We will have to have more experience before we will learn all the advantages and disadvantages, but I feel very sure that we will have ample bloom, because I see it in the hammocks, and I feel sure that a larger proportion oi the bloom will set and give more perfect fruit than trees on the outside. Mr. F. D. Waite-From my past ex perience in growing oranges under for est protection, I believe that orange trees grown under sheds will give finer quality and thinner peel than those grown 01'1 the outside. Mr. Jones-When I was on my way here, a great many asked me if this Soci ety, which was a recognized organizatiou of the State and had great influence, could not petition the. Government to have a Commission appointed to see whether the destruction of the fore~t had any influence on the climate of Florida, and whether any steps could be taken to remedy this matter if such was the case. If so, we would know what we are going to do, if not we will go on in the same old way. It seems that in many places turpentine men cutting clown the forest seem to have a tendency to create a vac uum or opening. They asked me to bring this before this meeting to see if we could petition to have a Commission appointed to enquire into this matter. Dr. Geo. Kerr-It fa not my intention to answer Mr. Jones at this point. It has been proven that the destruction of our foresf s has little or nothing to do ,yith the climatic conditions that we have had recently in Florida. I would say that I believe if the citrus trees had simply been shaded or protected from the cold dur ing this past winter, they would have come out uninjured, that is, shaded until the middle of the clay. I have a King or ange tree standing on the west side of my house, two of them. There are gen tlemen here who have seen them. The house is sixty feet long north and south; these trees stand within ten feet of the house, probably nine, and they received no sun until mid-day; they did not shed their le:1ves. I believe that simply shad ing in the morning would have prevent ed much injury to orange trees during the past winter, but when it comes down to shedding, it does little or no good. Maj. G. P. Healy-I do not believe any of these isolated cases prove any thing. I have orange trees, or did have -have none now-that stood on the west side of the house and they were all killed to the ground this winter. We have a neighbor a thousand feet from me with a small Tangerine grove out in the open with no protection of any kind; his trees never lost a leaf; he was in the wide open and my trees were protected. If a man could tell me how it was possible that my neighbor carried his grove through the winter without shedding their leaves and I not 200 feet from him had mine killed to the ground, then I would take some stock in these isolated cases of what happened in the sun, wa ter and mud. Mr. , Butler-Frequently I have seen orange trees on the north side of the house killed; it was because they were not protected. To shed a tree will make a great difference. The Tangerine tree is the hardiest tree we ha ve . I believe if a good healthy tree it will stand almost

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FLORIDA STA'l'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. as much cold as any, but sheds will pro tect and have protected in hundreds and hundreds of cases. I put up seven sheds and what is said in regard to moisture under those sheds is true. I think it a mistake not to get that additional mois ture. Mr. Hart-In regard to the question of moisture and cultivation under the sheds, I will say that my trees have the same cultivation when inside the sheds as on the outside; it is not a matter of my opinion or experience but an actual experience at \Vest Palm Beach and in California. I In regard to nitrification in the shed that is another point. Under a shed there is need of application of nitrogen much less than in the sunshine. Mr. Phelps-There is one question I would like to ask Mr. Hart. He spoke of the time when he would remove the sheds, the trees being so large that the branches would be interlaced; also the necessity of heating them when they are interlaced. \ Vhere, then, is he going to put his fires? Mr. Hart-I will say that I have thought of that considerable. I see the difficulty of burning open fires under trees that are closely grown all through like that. The question is, whether I will ha ve stoves with long pipes carrying the he at a long distance to let it out, or spreading it so that it will not be intense at any point; or whether I will take out a tree here and there. It will be only necessary to have a very few fires on an acre when the trees are large and there is a reasonably good wall around the out side. That matter can be easily over come in some way; I am satisfied I will be able to work it out by the time it is required. Mr. Jones-I will ask Dr. Kerr what ;,wthority he has for saying the destruc tion of the forest trees has no climatic in fluence in Florida. Dr. Kerr-The Government h::i.s al ready had a Commission appointed to in vestigate that matter and that is their decision. Mr. Bradt-As to the statement that the destruction of forests has nothing to do with the climate, I will say that the gentleman is not in touch with the vVeather Bureau. It has been proved that the forest does protect the immedi ate vicinity. There is no evidence that the mean temperature of Florida has changed, but there is evidence of local changes . It has been proven beyond question that the destruction of forests does affect climate, and the turpentine business is jeopardizing the climate also. Mr. vV. H. Mann-There is one ques tion connected with protection that I do not think we give due consideration to, that is the condition of the trees. We find one tree is killed and another is not. In 1886 I had a young grove of about one hundred trees; that winter the ther mometer went down to 16, still we went on and budded those trees that were small. \Vhat we want to know is how to get the trees in a proper condition so that we can overcome these difficulties and so they will be enabled to stand the cold. Dormancy. Mr. Gillett-I have been interested in this discussion of protection and I think what Mr. Mann has just said is the point we must begin upon. My experience has been with larger and older trees dur ing the past year. This matter of retard ing the growth or keeping the trees dor mant until after cold has passed, is the one we should determine upon, and it would, in my opinion, fix the whole mat

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FLORlDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. ter. As far as my experience has been, however, I can see no way by which we can accomplish it. Last fall I stopped working my grove about the rnth of Oc tober; there was no more work done; it seems the opinion of others was to stop the cultivation in the fall as soon as possible that the trees might harden up. I did this and was confident I had struck the right plan. Some of my neighbors continued to plow until February and as I can see their groves went through the freeze just as well as mine did, and they fertilized heavily, too. It seems the cit rus tree can stand almost any kind of treatment and there is no fixed rule to go by. In regard to building fires in groves. During the freeze of February I was told of a grove where fires had been built and was told that they had lo s t no leaves; had all bloomed heavily. The groves I have charge of now are near Tampa, the trees are twenty-five years old and many of them bear many orang-es; we h ad fi res twenty-five to thirt y feet apart just un der each tree. In December we fired for the first time with the thermometer at 1.wenty-four , but thinking that the ther mometer would continue to fall as it usually does , we started other fires. When we began firing the therm omete r stood at twenty-four; within thirty min utes , although the ground was frozen hard , the temperature had risen ten de grees , making it thirty-four , and the ground immediately thawed out soft. I was satisfied with the experiment, although we did not need the fires. By 6 o'clock the thermom eter was thirty-six , with a stiff wi~1d. I had had no experience in firmgunder those conditions but we be p.-c111 li g hting the fires and we'nt from one grove to the other watching the ther mometer, which registered twenty-six. The thermometer on the inside regis tered thirty-two to thirty-three. We had the wood piled up and got chips and brush matted together with resin, from the turpentine stills, cut it up into chunks and put pieces of it under the encl of the wood pile. I had tongs ancl would take hold of a piece, put it into the fire and get it thoroughly lighted and a man would run through the grove and ignite those piles. This turpentine or rosin will i gn ite under almost any con ditions. I put some in a bucket of wa ter two hours and then lit it with a match. We kept those fires going until 6 o'clock in the morning. During this last freeze there were buds a foot long, but I did not see any damage. J •vent into the groves of those who had no fires and while there was some damage , they have about as good a crop as we have. Last year under the same conditions ev erything was killed on the trees all about Tampa; I am at a loss to ex:plain this and have not found anybody yet who can ex plain thi s. If we could find some wa" to k eep our trees dormant, we could l~eeo them from freezing. Mr. Mote-Mr. President, I am inter ested in the growing of oranges. I have been at it for sometime and would like to ask the question whether or not 1 he orange industry is being driven from north to south in Florida. Is it true that they used to raise them in Savannah, Brunswick, Valdosta and other places as high as that? It looks to me as t 1 1 ~ ugh the winters a re getting colder and driv ing the orange business south. I would like to have any data on that point that these gentlemen can give. I will ask Mr. Hart about the shedding in California . I spent a year in Califor

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY . 51 nia and failed to find any place in that State where they could raise oranges without irrigation. Where is that grove of s eventeen acres where they did not ir rigate? Irrigation Under Sheds. Mr. Hart-It is 150 acres, near River side. E. H. Mote-I do not believe that particular grove is any criterion to go by. If the gentleman knew the condi tion of that grove, he would say it was no criterion. The trees were far from being that dark rich color that some of the gentlemen speak of. If I remember correctly they irrigated there right along. Every grove that I saw in Cali fornia had to be irrigated. I would like to ask the question: Does the shedding of groves as advocated by some of the gentlemen, produce more insects? I would like an answer to that question. Are the trees that are covered up during the summer liable to be more infested with in sects than those on the outside? I would say yes. As to one grove freezing down 1 , 000 feet from another, and one grove freez ing on one side of a wire fence where one on the other side escaped, I am unable to explain. It may be the kind of stock the buds are put in; it may be the way they are put in, or it may be that they are grafted or budded, I will answer Maj. Healy's question by asking another. Why is it that of two adjacent tomato fields, one will be killed and the other not? The condition of the tree has a great deal to do with it, how the stock is budded and how it has been worked for years past. Mr. Gillett advocates the idea of keeping the trees dormant. Why is it the trees in California will stand sev eral degrees more cold than they will in Florida? It is a fact; it is because they are dormant. If our trees in Florida would stay dormant, as they do in Cali fornia, we should not have the trouble of having them freeze down every win ter. The winters in California are much colder than they are in Florida. In the middle of the day, during the summer season, it is very warm; about 3 or 4 o'clock it begins to get cooler; I saw the same conditions exist in the middle of winter with two or three weeks of warm weather in the winter. If the nights had been as warm in proportion the sap in the trees would have continued to move. The sap being down, the trees being dor mant, this is what saved them. If we could find some way to keep the trees dormant, we would solve the whole ques tion. If there can be no way devised to keep the trees from being destroyed by insects or frozen down every winter, then the orange business will have to be stopped. Mr. Gillett-When I first came to Florida, as an Irishman would say, I went to Georgia. I landed in St. Mary's, Ga., and the collector of the port there tried to convince me that it was useless to go further south to grow oranges. He showed me his grove, a very handsome one, looking very healthy and vigorous, but we had a frost, a heavy one too, ev ery morning; so I came on further south and got to Jacksonville, where they told me was the best place to raise an orange grove. But I proceeded to Palatka and from there went to Lake Weir, and I have seen the orange industry move on, and in my opinion there is abs,Jlutely no safety in what is known as the "or

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FLORWA STATE HOR1'ICULTURAL SOCIETY . ange belt," unless the trees are grown as hot-house plants. I spent six or eight winters in Califor nia. but the conditions there are differ ent from Florida. I have a brother there who has charge of 250 acres of orange tree s, and he says there is hardly a win ter when they are not frozen, but as long as we fellows in Florida do not have any oranges here, they can manage to sell what they raise. The first winter he was there the thermometer went to eighteen; he expected to see the grove ruine
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FLORIDA S'l'ATE IIORTICULTURAL SOCIE'rY. 53 must market it 11 at the same time and get the same results. As Mr. McKin ney said, we mu t bring this thing down to a business basis. If we shed our trees we have six months in which to market our fruit and we can hold the fruit or sell it , and market it when it is needed. Maj. Healy-The whole subject of shedd in g a grove is a rich man 's privi lege. A rich man can shed and the poor man cannot. It is impl y impractic able, the whole thing , as far as the average orange grower is concerned. \Vith plenty of money you can put up heels, but the man who can't raise 13 cents cannot shed his grove. If you want to protect the poor orange grower at the same time, you have got to do it some other way , do it with something that don't cost anything, and you will never do it any other way. Mr. Gaitskill-A great many of our people are growing truck among their orange tree s . Those groves are culti vated. possibly beginnin g in September and all through the winter. They ferti lize at different times, use ammoniated fertilizers, and I do not se e much differ ence between those groves and the one belonging to the man who does not cul tivate his. One gets killed and the other does not. As to Mr.• Jones ' question about the past record of cold , I believe that our Weather Bureau has published statements that they have found that over two thousand years ago there were periods of extreme cold, but I do not know whether all the timber was cut clown or not. I do not know if there was very much turpentining clone then. I do not know if taking the forest trees out will make any difference. Mr. Hart-I want to protect against F.II.S.-5 this question of shedding being only the rich man's privilege. I am poor, yet if I put forth all my energies I could shed several acres and I could do it in a year or two if I had not one cent. This south ern country is made up of energetic, en terprisinoprogressive people and there is hardly one here of that class but what, if they are not deeply in debt at present, can shed half an acre or more , and then they would have a nest egg, and very soon they would be in better condition. It seems to me a man is weak in the knees; if he is out of debt, who cannot get to work and shed half an acre; he can do it if he tries. If he really wants anything and is willing to work for it, he can get it. If he will go at it with a vim he will do it. In reply to the ques tion of insects under the sheds, it is too early for me, at least , to answer that question fully. A Member-It has been demonstrat ed that the wild o ran ge tree is free from insects, but when cultivated and the soil is s tirred up the insect s come. The sweet orange tree \\hen wild is almost as free from in sec ts as the sour. It is when the soil is culti va ted that you have insects. Insects Under Sheds. Mr. Hart-The purple mite has ap peared in my grove this year. It is a relative of the reel spicleli, but turns the leaves gray or whitish, instead of yellow, as does the latter. It also wor k s on the top as well as under part of the leaves. This is my first experience with it. Early in the season I saw it on a few trees in one of my groves; now it is on every tree in that grove. Soon after I found it on two trees in my shed. I am now un able to find them on any trees except

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54 FLORIDA S'l'ATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. those two; in stead of spreading in the sheclclecl grove, as they did in the open grove, they have confined themselves to these two trees. There are few birds and little wind to help spiders bridge from tree to tree to carry them, so the conditions seem to be strongly against crawling insects spreading from one tree to another under a shecl. That one item is in the line of evidence that the insects will not be as numerous under a s hed . The scale insects may possibly be more plentiful under sheds to start with, but if we can get the white headed and San J ose fungi sta rted , which we can, with the help of their other enemies, we need not worry over them. Mr. Mote-In California certain in sects are very bad. There is a State law that requires each man who has an or ange grove to fumigate his trees. If there are insects in his grove, within a certain period he is expected to do away with them; they throw over the tree some spray and use certain means to kill them. If that m~m fails to get rid of those insects in a certain time, the State takes charge of the grove, and charges the expense of ridding it of insects to the grove. The white fly is th e worst enemy that the orange has to deal with in Florida. One man takes care of hi s grove, but hi s neighbor is allowed to go along without taking care of his. If the State would take this matter up , they cou ld remedy this evil to a great extent. Rev. Lyman Phelps-This question of insects has come up. If there is one thing in the past that this Society has discussed, besides citrus fruits, it is in sects. I began shedding for a protection as an argument for growing oranges as early as 1878 ; I abandoned it as I went along to give my atte n tion to the in sects. Dr. Inman-I have come to my con clusions by practical experience. I could show you on the first clay of March young groves that were budded the first day of March of the previous year that did not have their buds injured. and my Tardiff trees would ha ve stood twenty eight degrees without injury. Speaking I of fertilizers, I have come to the conclu sion that in fertilizers a stimulating one containing a good percentage of am\ mania is very good. I use that for the first application in the spr ing. Mr. Butler-In regard to keeping or ange trees growing until they want to rest, that is a practical matter. By work ing the tree until late in the fall, apply ing only phosphoric acid and potash , it makes some difference in the matter of its dormancy. Trees that are so treated blossom four weeks later than those not so treated. One year ago this spring my trees blossomed four weeks later than they usually do on account of this treatment. This is well illustrated in case of a late spring drought. Mr. Gillett-I wish to quote Maj. Healy; he sa id , "All this proves rot." As I stated before, we had trees all around Tampa , s.9me of which had been worked every month in the year, others which were not worked after the first of October , and all had a growth five or s ix inches long and all endured a tempera ture of twenty-six without any injury. It proves nothing. Maj. Healy-Prior to 1895 we talked this old que s tion over and over; this is the same old thrashing machine, Mr. P1'esident. Going back to personal rec ollections and personal experience, I think that there are some here who will

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 65 remember that on Thanksgiving Day, 1878, they saw on their young t rees icicles hanging . I think there are so me here who can remember that, and yet these tre~s came through without harm; that cold did very little harm. That was at a time when the trees could not have been dormant. I cannot see how you are going to make a perennial tree dor mant. How is it possible for a tree to be perennial and dormant? If there is no circulation of sap, how can the leaves re main upon the trees? What makes de ciduous trees? It is nothing but the descent or reflow of the sap. That is not true of any evergreen tree I ever sa,Y. It must flow at all times during the year to a greater or less extent. It is the nature of the tree to do so and how are you going to check it without a cold storage plant over each tree? Dr. Inman-There may be some ridic ulous points in this subject, but it is of vast importance. It is more important to keep our trees dormant than anything else, but when it comes to orange grow ing, we have got to grow them in the open fields of Florida. Nine-tenths of us have to do that. 'vVe cannot shed our large trees in groves of one hundred or two hundred acres. The winds will tear down all the shedding or tents we can con truct. Does fertilizing and the cul tivation of trees change their condition? If it does , then we can overcome these difficulties by changing our methods of cultivation. I do not depreciate tenting and s hedding for those who can afford it. I only want to learn if there is not so me mode of protection feasible for the rest of us. PROTECTION WITH BOXES. Detailed Description-Protection Perfect-Cost will be About $4.00 per Tree in Five Years . By J.C. Icenhour. Feeling that protection to citrus trees in the northern portion of the orange belt will be a topic of intere st at this meeting, I thought a word about the method I used in protecting 1,500 trees, the cost and their condition would be of interest. We have nothing patented, nor have we anything to sell. We at all times are ready to give any information we have in regard to the scheme. We boxed in each tree. Our box sec tions were four feet wide and six feet high, made out of matched three-quar ter-inch cypress, the material being nailed to two battens, each 3-4 in by 3 in. by 4 feet. The section facing east at bottom had an entrance IO in. by 12 in., closed by hox head, through which a lamp was placed. A cover was made of unbleached sheeting and for this, the first season, they were made six feet square, leaving a margin of a foot to drop over sides of box. hen the box was set up this covt::r was nailed to top of west side, aud

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56 FLORIDA STA'l'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. caught up and lightly tacked, to so re main till the weather man gave the warn ing to draw over and make fast. This we did January 1st, but did not light our lamps till January 12th. Vv e use a common glass lamp, such as fits the ordinary bracket, a No. 2 sun burner, inch wick and a tin chimney, with hood to shield the overhanging limbs from direct heat of lamp, and to shield wick from rains, etc. The founts cost, delivered, 70 cents a dozen; burners, 57 cents a dozen; chim neys, $4.50 a hundred; wicks, 70 cents a gross. This lamp in our boxes kept the tem perature up to 42 degrees or 44 degrees when it was 18 and 20 degrees on the outside . This lamp will burn from fourteen to sixteen hours. We used I 30 degree oil, but found it unsatisfactory, as the wicks would crust and would have to be scraped after each burning to insure best results. vVould advise the use of the best oil and a really good burner. Do not try to save in these two items, for if you do, some cold day you will wi s h you had not. Our sheeting cost us 4 3-4 cents in New York; our l umber, cut to lengths, cost us on lighter, at our clock $10 . 50 per I , ooo feet. It was a No. 4 grade, good enough for the purpose. V../ e paid $r per day for our labor. Our sections were nailed together on forms. Material was forced together and held in place by orclinai:y bench screws. Tops of horses were strapped with iron, so as to clinch the nails when driven through. Counting every item and all labor used in making and setting up boxes, lamps, oil (13 barrels), labor of tending (paying 20 cents an hour for night and Sunday work), we found on March 15th our pro tection had cost us $1.85 a tree. Our box sections are on skids, cov ered with a few sections, and as battens give a 3-4 inch air space, I claim they will be good for ten years. I estimate the cost to protect our trees for five years will not exceed $4 per tree, and for ten years not over $7 per tree. When the tree gets so large that two sections must make a side ( eight sections to a tree) I have a simple way (not to be pat entee!) to fasten two sections into one, and to facilitate handling and piling, dis engaged by drawing two wire nails, cost per tree about 15 cents at present price of malleable iron. We expect to keep the trees headed low. Aspiring shoots will be severely dealt with. But as the tree grow s, our modern walls will expand , and the cover will be cut ample to meet them. Our trees came out of the boxes look ing as if they had wintered on the key s . The expense of such protection does not annihilate prospective profits. It gives employment to home labor , a_nd make~ a demand for a class of lumber that can not be shipped to distant markets. Ha, ~ ing your lamps lighted you can go to bed as I do , though the cold is driven by a thirty mile gale. The box scheme is not ornamental , but the McCormick & Hubbs trees prove its efficiency , and the figures I have given count the cost.

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.M.AINT AINING PERMANENT ORCHARD FERTILITY . D eep Plowing-Good Ventilation Use of Lim eC ropping with Field Crop s to use U p Nitro ge n Appli cation of M inerals-Wide Planting Recommended . By C. K. McQuarrie. In choosing a location for an orchard one i s often apt to overlook some very imp o rtant points in the matter. The quality of the soi l , the exposure to sun, it;; level character or sloping nature, its subsoil and drainage facilities, its prox imity to a thick belt of timber on either si le, preferably to the north, and yet to be so located that there is always a cer tainty of a good air current all through it during hot weather. I may say that my remarks on this occasion will be confined entirely to peach, pear and plum orchards. My preference for a location is a high level piece of pine land with a southeast ern exposure, and, if possible, a belt of pine timber on the northern side. I do not want any hammock lands near my orchard in any case whatever, because the hammock cuts off air circulation ow ing to its density, and the ravages of the San Jo e scale and the pear blight are inten sified by lack of this air circulat:on. From practical experience and close observation I find that during our hot moist days of July and August, the scale and pear blight are more destructive than at any other period of the year, because all the conditions are then favorable for its rapid production, and if the orchard is surrounded by belts of dense timber or hammock its ravages are doubly dest ruc tive. After choosing the location the next step is to put the land in proper condi tion to receive the trees. If newly cleared land is used it should be thor oughly broken up as deep as possible without interfering with the subsoil, and all trash and rubbish burned up. If pos sible the stumps should be also removed , but as it some times happens that this i s impo ssib le at the time, at least any of them that interfere with the proper cul tivation of the future orchard should be remo ved. We are sometimes rushed for time at planting and think that a little later we can get more leisure to attend to details; but that period, when we have more time than the present, very seldom ever comes around, so we had better do things properly while we are at it. The aim of one who plants an orchard should be to get the most returns for outlay of time and capital, therefore he should make a proper beginning, his chief aim being to a lways improve the quality of his soil eve r y year; and this

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58 FLORIDA BTATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIE T Y. brings up the point of the best methods to be employed for this purpose . A void Too Much Nitro~en . The first year of the tree's existence in the orchard is the most critical period of its whole career. If on planting, too much nitrogenous fertilizer is used the wood made will be sappy and unreliable to bui l d a good tree upon. On the other hand , if enough of this wood and foliage-making material is not used the tree will be unthrifty and lack yitality. The peach particularly is very much of a problem i n this respect, for if the spring growth is rank and the wood made of a soft nature it is apt to continue the operation in the fall and make two growths in one season; in that case the buds on the second or fall growth are sure to be destroyed during the following winter's frosts. We see this going on all over this State every year, that is, stretches of limbs on peach trees on which there is not a single live bud, all having been de stroyed by the previous winter 's frost. After considerable experimenting with fertilizers for first year ' s growth of the trees my preference is for cotton seed meal and acid phosphate, half of each by measure. A handful of this mixture put in the hole at planting time but not to touch the roots, and a couple of hand fuls more a few weeks tater scattered around the tree and worked into the soil will keep it growing and in a thrifty con dition, for we must remember that what is wanted is a thrifty tree , not a prodigy in size or extra growth of wood. The future care of the orchard should be to ward improving its fertility so that our trees shall give good account of them selves at fruiting time; but we must not ove rlook the fact that we cannot get this permanent fertility by simply dumping so much fertilizer in it year after year. No, the proper way is to grow crops in the orchard that will improve the soil and at the same time improve the trees. Now, this is a point that opens np a long lane of debatable ground and I have no d?ubt a good many of my audience will dispute so me of the assertions that I am about to make; but all that follows is founded on personal exper i ence and close observation of conditions as I found them in growing pears, plums and peaches. Croppin g . At first a crop of cowpeas, beans, or such can be grown with profit and ad vantage, though these crops are nitro genous in their nature and should not be plowed under, but cut for hay and the roots used for fertilizing purposes. Af ter the orchard gets into bearing the only crop of this nature that I would grow would be buckwheat. Neither rye nor oats should ever be grown in a bear ing orchard. A crop of buckwheat sown in August, plowed under when it is in fu!l blossom, a ton of l ime per acre ap phed at the same time, and hairv vetch sown for a winter cover, will do rnore to add to the fertility of the orchard than anything I know of. Here let me say a word about lime and the mode of appli cation. A pply Lime . In applying lime if we air-s l ake it first we lose more than half of its value. It should be scattered just a little at a time and plowed in at once; in that wav we get the benefit of the effect the gases generated in the slaking process have on the soil, and that effect is more potent

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 59 toward improving the fertility of the soil than we are willing to give it credit for. In the case of plowing under any green material, unless lime is applied and plowed in with it, the effect will be inore hurtful than beneficial. The treatment that I have thus indicated will leave orchard soil, in the spring, full of nitro genous matter and to counteract any bad effect it might have on our trees by causing them to make too much wood we must plant a crop that will absorb a good deal of this matter and add phos phoric acid and potash as required. The three fruits under consideration are great consumers of potash, and must have it to give good results; therefore, in pre paring for any crop we must apply enough of these elements to supply the wants of the tree over and above what is wanted for the crop. The objection can here be made, Why grow a crop at all? But in growing a crop we are providing cultivation and using the unde sirable portion of the soil fertility, our aim being t o encourage less wood and more fruit . Then, again, Why grow a winter crop that will give you so much nitrogen that you must grow another crop to use it up? Because we want the soil covered all w int er to prevent the leaching of fer tility that would take place if left bare. In orchards where hay has been cut the hay stubble will prevent washing or leaching, but in that case also those very hay roots and stubble will give more of this undesirable fertility than you want. Again, the more cultivation and work ing the soil gets and the more it is cov ered from the hot s un the better the sup ply of moisture will be for the roots of the trees, for it is a well known fact that a healthy peach tree will require a supply of water equal to six gallons every twelve hours during our hot summer weather. Best Crops to Plant. Now comes the point, \i\That crops would be the most desirable to grow? As already said, I would avoid all small grain crops because they are very ex hausting on the soil and they do not want any cultivation in their growth. Potatoes are good, either Irish or sweet, o r both, but should be followed next year with a vine crop. Cabbage is also a very desirable crop, but will require an extra amount of pot ash to serve both cabbage and fruit trees. Tomatoe s and celery are also rec ommended. The main thin g to be kept in view is the proper rotation of crops and making sure that you add to, every year, more than you take away from the soil. In years when there is no fruit , with crops in the orchard, the trees will be apt to make extra wood in spite of ef forts to prevent it. In that case fertili ers for the crops should be applied di rectly in the drill, because the cultiva tion of th e oil is enough to keep the trees thrifty and in condition for next year's fruit crop. Plant Wide. There is one other ' point in thi s con nection that I want to make, and that is that we plant our trees too close to gether. When I go through our coun try and see plum trees set sixteen feet apart, pears twenty-five feet and peaches twenty feet , I feel sorry for the owners of the se orchards, because they neve cari properly take care of them so clo se ly planted; and when the trees attain their full size the whole orchard will be

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60 FLORIDA STA'l'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. one huge propagating bed of disease of some kind or other. The density of foli age in that orchard will help the breed ing of all known enemies to both trees and fruit. It Preve n ts Disease . Every practical fruit grower knows that he gets the best fruit and the best trees when they are set wide apart to ;,.) low free air currents and sunshine to pass all through and around them. I planted my Elberta peach trees, when I first set out my orchard, twenty-five feet apart each way; expects said I was wasting land taking up too much room, but the results prove the contrary. I set some LeConte pears fifty feet apart and have grown crops on the land ever since. That was nine years ago, and there never has been a blighted leaf among them . I planted other LeContes twenty five feet apart, simply plowed the land and applied fertilizer in the orthodox fashion. These are all dead from blight and burned up long ago. I planted Alex ander and other early peach trees sixteen feet apart, treated them in the orthodox fashion; the San Jose scale came along, ate them all up; they have also gone the way of all scale-infested trees-to the fire pile. My trees set wide apart, I have been growing crops among for the past five years, and there is not a scale on them today, and they are as full of fruit as they can carry, and I defy Florida to produce thriftier or healthier looking trees. Therefore, in conclusion , the remedy in combating and keeping away pear blight and San Jose scale from our or chards lies in setting trees wide , say not less than fifty feet for plum and peaches and sixty feet for pears. Thus we can keep the soil in the condition nature planned for good fruit crops and have plenty of air circulation to keep the tr es free from all diseases and insect en m'ies. Therein lies the whole secret of profita ble fruit growing and at the same time permanently increasing the fertility of our orchards. The Prod u ctio n of a Hardy O ran ge. By Herbert J Web b er, lJ. S. Department of Agricult ur e. At the meeting of the Horticultural Society, last year, the writer had the pleasure of outlining the work of the De partment of Agriculture in the produc.. tion of a hardy orange, and at that 1.ime showed photographs of some of the hy brid trees illustrating the intermrdiate characters exhibited by some of them. In the present paper the only attempt will be to give an idea of the progre 9s of the work, the experiments not yet hav ing reached a conclusion. None of the trees will fruit within two or three yearc; yet and the success of the experiments. of course, cannot be determined until that time. The members of the Society will remember that Mr. Swingle has been associated with the writer in this work and must be given equal credit. All of the hybrids which were made with an idea of securing increased hardi ness were transplanted from Washington to the South last spring, the tops which were cut off in transplanting them being used as bud wood to secure stocks for extending the experiments. Something over 800 Trifoliata s tocks were budded with these in the nursery of President G. L. Taber, of this Society, at Glen St. Mary, Fla. During the summer the buds made a. growth averaging about three feet or 3 I-2 feet in height and were in excellent condition during the

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 61 past winter to exhibit their qualities of hardiness. The following notes are com piled from a report on their condition kindly furnished by Mr. Taber. On the nights of January 2d and 3d the thermometer at Glen St. Mary went clown to twenty-two degrees when hung on porches under cover and when hung in the open air entirely unprotected reg istered seventeen degrees above. An examination of the trees January 19, 1900, gave the following results: r. One hybrid of Ruby crossed with pollen of Trifoliata-All of the numerous ' buds of this hybrid were frozen back se verely. 2. Three h ybrids of Sanford Mediter ranean cros ed with pollen of Trifoliata. -Numerous buds of two of these hy brids which resembled the mother plant only (Sanford Mediterranean), proved to be quite tender, being frozen back se verely. Mr. Taber estimated the: injury at about twenty-five per cent. Buels from the third hybrid of this combina tion, however, proved more satisfactory. It had trifoli ate leaves like the male par ent but with the central leaflets enlarged . It differed from the Trifoliata further more in being evergreen like the com mon orange. All the buds of this hybrid had the foliage still green and perfect, being entirely uninjured. 3. Thirty-six hybrids of the Trifoliata crossed with pollen of the Sweet Orange. -Of these thirty-six hybrids, twenty-six resembled the mother parent so far as could be observed, having deciduous trifoliate leaves. The buds of these showed no injury from the frost, but can not be considered promising, as they seem to be typical Trifoliata. The other ten of the hybrids of this combination, however. were distinctly intermediate between the two parents, being ever green and having the central leaOet larger than in the true Trifoliata. These ten were also uninjured, their foliage re maining green and perfect. 4. Eleven hybrids of Tangerine cro sed with the pollen of Trifoliata. Ten of these hybrids had foliage like the mother parent, the Tangerine, and were quite seriously injured. though a few of the larger buds proved omewhat resist ant. One of the eleven, however, had trifoliate leaves simi lar to the Trifoliata but was evergreen, and buds of this seedling were wholly uninjured, their foliage remaining green and perfect. It will be seen by comparing the above statement that twelve of the hybrids which showed plain intermediate charac ters between• the orange and Trifoliata were uninjured by the freeze and re tained their foliage green and perfect. In regard to the comparative hardiness of these Mr. Taber wrote as follows: "I haYe already mentioned that Citrus tri foliata has lost all of its foliage and hence a comparison of these varieties that are marked 'foliage green and perfect' shows that said varieties are not only extreme ly resi tant to cold, but are also entirely evergreen . Some of them are in fact very handsome. For further compara tive purposes I would mention that one year-olcl Satsumas side by side with these Government varieties will lose about one-third of their foliage and per haps five per cent. of the tender growth of the tops." f The importance of this comparison in hardiness of the twelve evergreen hybrid orange with buds of Satsuma on Trifo liata stock will be apparent to all orange grower~, as Satsuma on this stock is, I think, unque tionably the hardie st ever

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62 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. green orange known to us up to ~he present time. These twelve hybnds which seem plainly to be hardier than the Satsuma thus become now the _ hardi est known evergreen oranges. After the freeze of February 17 and 18, 1900, Mr. Taber again examined the trees for us and found that these twelve hardy evergreen hybrids still retained a large portion of their foliage uninjured. lt will be seen from this that so far as hardiness is concerned the hybrids are proving to be all that could be asked. Should they further favor us by produc ing good fruit the battle will be won. VVe, however, cannot expect to succeed so easily, and as a brace to your contin ued patience, I must reiterate what I said last year, that it is probable that these first generation hybrids will not give us fruit of the quality we desire. We must be prepared to go on with the work when these hybrids fruit, and obtain nu merous blends between them and our best sorts, and by this means it would seem that we must ultimately obtain what we desire. I should further state that budded trees of these hybrids have been placed with the various Southern Experiment Stations for thorough testing as to hard iness and other qualities. If in the course of the experiments we are fortu nate enough to secure good fruits, buds will be distributed to growers and the members of this Society will largely reap the benefit of the work. Until that time we trust that vou will be patient with our failures and give us your sympathy and aid. Washington, D. C., April 30, 1900. By Prof. Webber ' s request, President Taber added: Of the fifty-one varieties referred to there are a dozen that certainly went through the winter very handsomely. while the leaves of these particular twelve varieties retain the trifoliate char acter they are considerably modified in form from the type of foliage of the true C. Trifoliata and these twelve sorts also remained evergreen all winter, while the true C. Trifoliata is pronounced decidu ous and sheds its foliage early in the win ter. My observation of the whole fifty one varieties in nursery would lead me to make the general statement that tho _ se of which the foliage resembles the sweet orange most closely are the most ten der, while those whose foliage resem bles C. Trifoliata most are the most hardy. Some of these fifty-one varieties are so nearly like true C. Trifcliata that it would be impossible to distinguish he tween them by theil' growth and foliage , while others show their sweet pare11tage much more than they do the C. Trifoli ata. It is worthy of emphasis that the twelve varieties particularly referred to stou
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DISEASES AND INSECTS OF THE CIT RUS . The White Fly Common Long Scale-The Brown Fungus as a Friend of the Tree. By A. J. Pettigrew, of the Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: The Committee appointed to report on Diseases and Insects of Citrus Fruits hav e seve r al large and intricate subjec ts before them, and they wish most eani estly t hat they could tell you how to ex t erminate all the injurious insects and h ow to prevent or cure a ll the diseases. \Ve surely would if we only knew. Hon esty to you and to ourselves compels us t o say that \\"hat your committee do not know would make a large and valuahle book. We hope that you do not expect much of us and we think that the best we can do w ill be to give some of our ex pen e nce. The White Fly or Mealy Wing. Aleyrodes citri appeared near my place south of Manatee as early as at any place in the State , and Col. C. H. Foster, own er of Fair Oaks groves, was one of the first, probably the first, to send speci mens to \ Vashington and to receiv e let ters and advice from the Department. The first advice was to use kerosene emulsion, which he did and killed mil li ons. Then other mixtures were tried , nearly all of which destroyed all it t ouched. The final summing up was that with the resin wash or some other good and c h eap sprays the flies could be con tr olled in i solated groves or in wliole neighborhoods if all would spray. But the flies could not be exterminated be cause they breed on many native growths in the hammocks. My nursery and young grove was on Col. Foster's road from his place to Manatee, and after the freeze of February '95, he and I agreed to have every remaining leaf removed fr o m all our citrus trees before hat.ching time. \Ve did so, but the next October so me of the pupae cou l d be found on the out side trees next the uncleared hammocks and the next year they had so increased as to blacken some trees. Before this freeze a red fungus had appeared and was destroying some of the pupae and the year a f te r or the next year Professor \Vebber fou nd a fungus which he called the brow n fungus which propagates both by spores a nd mycelia, and under favorable circumsta nces it in creases many hundred times faster than the flies can, a nd it will ultimately ex terminate them. A fter the most careful inquiry and investigation as to their or ig in I am convinced that they are native and also their fungus enemies, and I be lieve the spores of their fungus enem_ies could be dormant a thousand years and then arise and destroy them if they s hould again become numerous. Or ange trees usually h ave one fair crop of

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64 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. fruit after the flies commence on them, but after that no more as long as the flies remain n~1m
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I•'LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 65 Clemson Coll e ge, S. C., April 26, ' oo. My Dear Mr. P e ttigrew: I s imply want to add one word to your intere s ting paper on Orange Insects and Di s ea es. vVhile studying some plant diseases at Manatee last year I had oc casion to pas s through some groves. This called to mind the fact that our Trea s urer , l\Ir. \ V . S. Hart , had lost his culture or start of the white headed fun g u s which is so de s tructi v e to the long s cale. After making inquiries and ex amining several groves Messrs. \Vyman & Rogers took me to some trees that had been infested by long scale. After some searching I found the white-headed fun gus in abundance. This was a delight ful find from the fact that it gives us a perma;.1ent source of supply. Soon after returning to the college I mailed some s pecim e ns to Mr. Hart, who acknowledg e d the receipt of them gratefully. He will doubtless have a good s tart of thi s fungus now, but not enou g h to be able to distribute any for a year or tw o . B y putting a grove in proper sanitary c o ndition and m a king a judicious u s e of the white h e aded fun g us , there should be no preceptible loss from the long scale. I find that the long scale , the purple scale and the chaff scale are all attacked by the San Jose scale fungus ( sphaero stilbe coccophila, Tu!.) (See Bulletin 41 of Fla. E x p. Sta. , Lake City, Fla.) Thi s fungus is distributed throughout all porti o ns of Fl o rida , and is a very for m i d a ble enemy of many scale insects, but as a rule it is quite inconspicuous , and often needs a good microscope to prove its presence and identity. To clear trees and vegetation of :n sects and to protect them against fungi promptly it is usually necessary to spl'ay; but this is at best only a temporary ex pedient and one not capable of eradicat ing the evil-doer. ~•,e fungus remedy is nature's own method of striking a bal ance, though, like nature, it may be somewhat slow. Respectfully , P.H. ROLFS. DISCUSSION. Prof. Hume-Ladies and Gentlemen: Since Prof. Rolfs left the Station the De partment of Entomology has been sep arated from that of Botany and Horti culture, and I took charge of the sections of Botany and Horticulture, while Prof. Gossard is in charge of Entomology. Since I came to the State in October last, I have given the question of fungus diseases of citrus trees considerable study. I realized in coming here that the citrus industry was one of the most important. We naturally associate Flor ida and oranges together. I find that the most prevalent diseases were foot-rot, the white fly and its accompanying trou ble, the sooty mold and the die-back. These were causing the most trouble of the whole lot, I think , and as the gentle man who has spoken said, we have per haps more to fear from the white fly than from anything else. The condition of many groves of Florida is rather de plorable; they look as though they were coated over ,vith shoe black. This sooty mold is not a parasitic fungus; it does not live upon the tissues of any plant. The white fly is common throughout cer tain sections of the country, and I found plenty of it. It appears to me that the white fly has to be dealt with in a serious manner. I am willing to grant both the red fungus and the brown fungus their places of honor, but never will the white

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136 !FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL OOTETY. fly be in any degree held in check until the people take the matter in hand. The fun gi are subject to the sa me natural laws as the insects them se lves , but when the white fly is able to develop the fun gus i s not always able to do so, conse quently the orange trees get the worst of it. In re!!ard to the treatment of the white fly, I tl;ink Prof. Gossard will have something to say. Blight. Mr. Hart-I will take my cha nces with cold any time if they will give me a remedy for blight. Not even the cause is known. It is a very ser i ous matter, something we want to study closely. Prof. Hume-It is a matter which I overlooked. I find that the bli g ht is st ill here. I noticed it at least in three dif ferent localities , but only a few trees in each place were affected, and my obser vations on it bear me out in sayinathat it is of a contagious nature , and the only advisable thing to do is to do away wit h the trees. Mr. Waite-The blight is in nearly ev ery grove in Manatee county; in every o ld bearing grove. It is a very serious thing . At present the only reme ly I know of is to dig the trees up and burn them, but this year I am making a few experiments myself, and it does look hard to burn those trees up. After dig in g them up with a sufficient root and cutting back the top , I set them out about half a mile from where they stood and put them in a different soil and I am watching the result. So far the trees are making a very fine growth, but I remem ber several years ago Mr. Adams made some experiments in the way of cutting back the tops , and for two or three years the trees made good growth , but Mr. Adams said they eventually went back to the original condition. But possibly removing the trees from their present po sition and placing them in a different soil may change the conditions. , Mr. Hart-I will say it is not best to base your hopes too strongly on moving trees. As much as fifteen or eighteen years ago, when the blight appeared, I cut ome tree s back according to the ad vice of Dr. Moore, who thought it was a sort of fungus w hich killed the smaller limbs by suffocation or strangulation. I cut back to where the limb s were about two inches in diameter. Those trees put on a very fair grow th in a year or two, but they only put on the new growth for a s hort time, then went back. In an other experiment the trees were doc tored, treated and sprinkled with the dif ferent washes and insecticides , then transp o rted to another grove some distance off , and we watched that experiment, but they have all gone but one tree. That tree has a small top on it, and right now has a very few small or anges on it, but it shows the disease is hopeless, as the tree will never become a good one. I believe the only thiuowe can do is , as soon as the blight shows on a tree , to dig it up and destroy it. It is hopeles s to ever expect it to produce a profitable crop , even a small one. Mr. Pettigrew-Nine or ten years ago I lo s t nearl y every lemon on some of my tree s which were affected with bli g ht; the leaves looked like fire-blight. Those lemons were cut out , but they have never been strong . I knew of some cases of blight where they could not do one thing to stay its progress. I know of one instance where a grove on high pine land had the blight, but it spread very little-took a long time to kill a tree ,

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 67 and in some instances it takes one or two years to get to the next tree. I know of another grove where it spread fifty to one hundrd feet in three or four months and it killed trees in less than a year. All our knowledge cannot help save the tree when it is once attacked with blight; the only way we can do is to dig it up and burn it. J\Ir. \i'/aite-I would like to ask if the members ever saw blight on trees with sour roots. Maj. Healy-I have seen it on the bit ter-sweet, sour and every kind. Mr. Hart-In my grove for the last year or two the blight seems lo prevail to some extent. I took the affected trees up. Amongother experiment I made was to cut off a large handsome tree-by the way, it takes your handsomest trees, it may destroy the whole tree immedi ately or it may go on for years-I cut off a large tree that only had blight on one side. I showed the tree to a friend who questioned its being diseased at all. I took him around to the other side when he recognized it at once. I had it cut off at the ground, and we set it near a good sound, healthy tree with the limbs interlapped, to prove whether the disease is contagious or not. In that case the limbs interlapped were sound until the freeze cut it back and it is sound today, what there is left of it; so for that reason I have not always burned the stock, but I dig it up. Mr. Phelps-Have you noticed wheth er it was inoculated from the top or from the roots? Mr. Hart-I have tried many experi ments to test that matter. Some years ago we had some trees budded from the diseased trees into healthy ones and vice versa. Time and time again every ex periment that I could think of and some that I did not think of were tried, . but the orange tree is a slow-growing one, and it hardly ever shows a disease until it is six or seven years old, so it takes a long time to prove an experiment; and in the meantime freezes come on and de stroy the trees in which the experiment is being made, so we lose our work and I do not know nor does any one whether it comes from the roots or the top. Dieback. Mr. Lyle-I would like to hear a state ment by the Professor on the dieback. Prof. Hume-Mr. Lyle, I am not a member of the Committee and I came without a report. I have looked into the matter of dieback and I have reached the conclusion that others have, that it wili be produced by the use of loo much rank fertilizer. It seems to be due to a case of over-feeding or indigestion. There has been a good deal of discus sion for the past year in horticultural pa pers regarding the use of Bordeaux mix ture for dieback, and it seems to produce a good effect. I saw one experiment that had been carried out by 1\/Ir. Harring ton; and he had by applying Bordeaux mixture suceecled in getting a new growth where he had had none. This mixture seems to exert a good effect, a stimulating one, on the plant. I think the best treatment is to remedy our fer tilizers and drainage, which pe.rtain inti mately to the health of the orange tree. Mr. Farley-In regard to drainage: '\Vhere I live is on a high ridge, a heavy hilly hammock. I do not think there is a grove in that locality but what has the dieback. The condition of a grove that I have in mind is that it has not been fertilized for some years; the weeds grew around it and there had been nothing clone to it for two years. On about an

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68 FLORIDA S TAT E HOR'l'IOULTURAL SOCIE l 'Y. acre which is east of an artesian well, there is not a tree but what is affected mor e o r l ess with this die back; and it is on the s ide of a hill with about ten feet fa ll to the banks of a river, so it does not seem to me it co ul d be remedied by drainage. M r. Pett i grew -Ha ve th e trees ever been frozen? Mr . Farley-They were frozen in 1899, but were not killed out. Mr. Pettigrew-'vVe r e th e stocks large with heavy tops? Mr. Farley-They we r e and they looked black; later on all th at growth showed the reel ru st or dieback. PRACTICAL PEACH CULTURE. Requi si tes of Success Stated by an E xperie nc e d Grower-Rich Land for Peache s, Poor Land for Pears Never Prune Without Good Reason Errors as to Pear Blight. By W. E. Baker, of the Committee. Mr. I resident, Ladies and Gentlemen: I fa il to und erstand why I was chosen as one of this Committee, unless it was that President Taber, seeing that I want ed to be a fruit growe r so very much, in the good n ess of his heart thought that he would give me a littl e boost by plac in g me on a n im portant committee. If s uch wa his reason , I can say it seems to h ave had the desired effect, as I have been asked to take charge of various peach orcha r ds in East Florida, aggre gating some three hundred and. fifty ac r es, and now am sure you will agree with me before I am through reading thi s paper, when I say I have a fictitious reputation o n peach c ultur e . I came to this State a little more than eighteen yea r s ago an invalid with the h ope that the h ea lthful climate would re s t ore me s uffici ent l y to engage in the se ductive orange cu ltur e. I was only an inexperienced l ad then, of course, and on arriving at Lake City, Columbia county, I was told that there was no bet ter place in t h e State to grow oranges, as some large seed li ng trees around that town would seem to testify. \ Ve pro ceeded forthwith to purchase land and set a sma ll grove, setting mo r e peach trees, h oweve r , than we did ora n ges, as peac h trees were much cheaper than or anges, and we knew somet hin g about growing peaches and nothing about growing oranges . The peach industry was not on at that time, of course, but it was a very notice able and remarkable fact that every bushel of decent peaches brought to Lake City, sold from $1 to $1.50 per bushel, whi l e hundreds of bushels were a ll owed to drop off and spo il over the farms throughout the county, which cou l d have been made marketable by a littl e care and attention to the trees at the proper time. But at that time cotton was bringing from twenty-five to thirty cents per pound, which paid for the ex

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. pense of raising it, and that wa good enough for the average farmer. I was interested in fruit growing, how ever, and after learning that I had stopped in the wrong section to follow the same, I drifted to the high lake reg ions of Putnam and Clay counties, and entered the employment of a wealthy Connecticut gentleman who had a vari ety orchard, oranges, figs, pears, plums and peaches. I took such interest in the business that I was subsequently pro moted to foreman of a fifty thousand dol lar property, and later bought the prop erty for less than five per cent. of the original cost. You can all guess about the time this was done. '.Veil, I soon realized that I had a ver itable white elephant to pay taxes on and nothing to pay taxes with, as the orange trees were killed, the peach, plum and pear were aeglected, having given no re turns to the former owner. So I began to trim up, work out and fertilize the old peach trees of which there were about five hundred of the Peento and Honey varieties, believing as I diet that the proper way to get returns from peaches was to give them the same close atten tion that I would anything else. The re sult was I made money sufficient from less than half of these old peach trees (the Peentos proving unprofitable thus far north), to pay the taxes on the prop erty, besides buying the necessaries of life for my family, as long as I owned the property, which was over two years; and I proved so conclusively to the gentle man to whom I sold that there was money in the peach that he now has over a hundred acres in peaches . Well, now.for my methods of planting and cultivating. F.S.II.S. G Soil. The soil for a peach orchard should be, if possible, naturally well drained, and of the best quality of land you have. Some people seem to think that if they have an old field, that will not produce profitable farm crops any longer, there is the place to plant the orchard. o greater mis take can possibly be made. If you are not willing to devote good land to the orchard, my advice would be to let the business alone. In the section of coun try for which I am writing, we have no reel lands and but little clay subsoil, but the gray sandy loam is good enough for me. For an ideal peach orchard plat, I would select some good lake front slop ing to the north, or northwest if possible, virgin soil only, as nine times out of ten the old-land peach orchard has proven unsatisfactory in the end, though I do not say peaches can not be grown on old land. I would also try to get a plot as free from the little bush commonly known as the gopher apple, as possible, for I consider this a very prolific breeder of root knot; and my theory is, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." Setting Out. I need not attempt to give any ideas as to this very essential part of the sub ject, after we have just had such an excel lent article from President Taber. Fertilizing. A pound of good bone meal at the time of setting, I find gives the tree a wonderful impetus, and for the second application a pound or so to the tree of any well ground and blended high grade

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70 FLORIDA STA'rE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. commercial fertilizer. I find Mapes to be most excellent, especially if early fruiting i s desired. But I find after a visit to the fruit growing sections of Georgia, that their methods for fertilizing for fruit are dif ferent from ours, or from my experience on the light sa nely soil of my section . They seem to think , and no doubt justly , that lheir great success in peach growing is clue lar ge l y to the knowledge which th e growers hav e of the need s of their soil. The manure treatment I find es pecially to differ fr om my experience here in the following particulars: '\iVhere I would cultivate my orchard up to Oc tober at least they cease to cultivate af ter June, when the Janel is sown in cow peas or some humus or nitrogen -ga ther ing crops. Nitrogen being the most ex pen s ive ingredient, they claim g,1:eat economy in supplying it thus , which has proven to me, while beneficial to the land , very detrimental to the p each tree , having a tendency as it does to breed root-knot. Pruning. It would no doubt be inter es ting to know the different ideas that actuate the minds of some of th e g reat army of those who wield the shears, the saw and the pruning knife. It may be the case that many of them are victims of mistaken notions , like the apprentice whom I once heard of who was set to grind the tools in his master's absence one clay, and when asked at night whether he had ground all the tools replied in the affirm ative except that he had not been able to grind down the teeth of the big saw. If we had to guess at the intention s of some of the pruners of deciduous tree s, whom I have seen at work one would imagine they had been sent to give the trees a good hacking, and if so they carried out orders to the letter. '\iV e have seen those who were supposed to be experienced hands set to prune peach trees and no ticed that not only the breast wood was cut back, but all spurs were cut back too, irrespective of whether there were fruit buds below the cut or not. There are those whose conceptions of pruning are to share all sides alike o as to make a tree as uniform as possible; and there are other kinds of uniformity that are very offensive to the eye and entirely objec tionable. This is the practice in pruning large trees all to one uniform shape , not merely that bracing branches may be headed back to make the trees more compact but to fashion them according to one preconceived ideal; and when such trees are leafless they are sugges tive of scarecrows. There should always be some object in pruning, though no doubt every wielder of the knife stands ready to affirm that he had that aim, but whatever the object may be, let me in sist that the hand shall be guided by judgment and reason. Va ri e ti es . The selection of varieties for the com mercial orchard is a vital point to its suc cess , and in making this selection there are many considerations that need our attention. While I do not condemn new varietie , yet it i s wisdom on the part of the commercial grower to go very slow until he has tested them himself or they have been te s ted by others than the nur ery men , and that in soil anti location similar to his own. The matter of hardi ness is another vital one, for while a va riety may be beautiful in appearance and fine in flavor, it may on account of its

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 71 non-productiveness be altogether un worthy a place in the commercial orch ard. The grower should also study the production of other peach-growing cen ters, with which he may be brought into competition, and should confine his list to a few varieties such as are not grown in other favored large peach-growing sections. The \Valdo, Angel and Honey varieties are good enough for me, and do not come in contact with the large Albertas, etc., of Georgia, unless we have a very dry season and they have a very favorable one. Will treat on best meth ods of packing perhaps when we get more fruit to ship. Diseases. I claim to try to be an up-to-date peach grower in all respects save the bi ological aspects of diseases and the bi ographical history of insects such as in fest the peach trees, for all my experi ence has been confined to high pine lands which I think freest from all in sects. I claim to have never been both ered with any to any considerable extent except the borer. Borer. This fellow has no respect for location, health or climate and will attack a sick tree the same as a well one, a well fed tree or a poorly feel one, and, as we all know is a stubborn fellow to combat. I find but one sure practical remedy for him, and that is the quack's potato-bug remedy , catch him and kill him. This would seem to some a very tedious and loathsome task, but being my occupation in boring season, I can say it is not as bad as you might suppose, and there is something expectant about it which seems to interest one; like the faithful clarkey _ imrod who had fished all day '"ithout getting a bite, but was expecting one every minute. Plums. I have not much to say for the plum, my experience with this fruit being con fined to the Kelsey only. I had ten acres or about four hundred very lar ge flour ishing Kelsey trees which were budded on sweet nati-•,e stock; I have just had the major part of them cut clown and relegated to the orange tree cemetery on the lake shore, after patiently but vainly waiting nearly ten yea rs for the fr11its of my labor, a veritable snowbank of white bloom each spring being the only com pensation for many hard lick s and dol lars spent. Pears. Of the pears grown in this sect ion of the State, I find the LeConte to be the most profitable , and in fact the only kin, ] worth growing, and that only for home use , as, if depended upon for a money maker , like the Kelsey plum, it wil only prove in the end a delusion and a snare. The blight or dieback being the only se rious enemy to the pear, I will just say a few words in regard to my observations on the same. I quote here from a lengthy article on the subject seen in the Farmer and Fruit-Grower department of the Times-Union of last summer, which was very misleading , though from the pen of a man whom I know to be prac tical and successful in most things, viz: "'Ne have in our pear orchards what is by some of our growers called blight or dieback, and for all I know there may be other names. I have taken some pains to ascertain the cause of this malady in my travels through a large portion of Clay and Putnam counties this summer, and I have concluded that ih the major

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72 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY ity of cases it is starvation, or what might be termed indigestion which is simply starvation by another name." Now any old settler in the pear growing section of Florida (the writer of the above being an amateur of only three years' residence in the State), has long since learned that it would not do to plant a pear tree in a very rich place, as there is where the blight was always known to first attack them. Being a resident of one of the richest farming sections of Columbia county and noticing this result of good care on good land in a large pear orchard owned by Mr. Legrone, I decided to plant my orchard in the poor est plat of land I owned in Clay county, which is as poor as can be found in the State, if not in the world. The result is I have eighty trees, all I have , eight years old with not a sign of blight nor have they ever had the slightest sign, nor have they ever had but one sma ll application of fertilizer and but little cultivation; and ,, hile they have made a comparatively slow growth , of course, they are today lhe picture of health, as the old lady liv ing in the Okefenokee swamp would like you to say of her children. Oral Report Profit in Peach Culture -A void Pruning The Oviedo Variety. By Maj. G. P, Healy, I made an attempt to grow peaches ten years ago, and I find myself today a good deal in the same position that I did when my orange grove was frozen. I knew more about raising oranges when I first went into the business than I did when it was frozen in 1895. The longer I was in it the less I knew about it. Growing peaches will never be as popu lar as growing orange trees. Now, it is a fact that you must have something be sides tents and sheds to grow bread and butter out of. You may grow bread and butter under tents and sheds, but I have very little faith in it so far, and having little faith in it, I concluded that it must be a wise thing to put part of my eggs into another basket, and I went into the peach, pear and plum business. I was led astray in the plum business by the President of this Society. I do not blame him now, as he was a poor man then and wanted some of my money and he ad vised me to buy Kelsey plums. I never had a plum after wrestling with them fif teen years. I said to him, "My Kelsey plums won't bear." He advised me to just let them grow up and they would bear. Of course I took his advice-I al ways do, I take anybody's advice. They grew up in the "rough" for seven or eight years and this year the fire got into the "rough," and what is left ol the trees are loaded with plums. I think we have a plum now that is go ing to be a co nmercial commodity. There is no , loubt but that there is some thing in it. If there is anybody here who wants to go into something and make a dollar out of it from my experience, I would say undoubtedly it was a valuable thing to know abou~ this. So far as the peach industry is con cerned, Florida will be unquestionabl y in the next ten or fifteen yea rs the largest peach State in the country; she is plant ing faster than any other State in the Union. Peach trees are being put out in large quantities. Of course there will be mistakes made, and if I can lead you in a line that will enable you to produce this crop I will be glad to do so. One of the points is, that when the orange ripens, it hangs upon the tree for six months, but with a peach crop you will have to

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 73 begin picking when the peach is _ ripe anc" you must send it to market or 1t 1s lost when a peach is ready to go, it must go at once. If you have a large crop you will have to have a force there and you must handle it when it is ready to go whether you have any market for it ~1 not. If the market is overflowed there 1~ but one thing you can do and that is to let your peaches rot on the ground. I heard Mr. Pettigrew say today, whatever you do, do not cut a peach tree I say with Mr. Pettigrew, don't put a knife on a peach tree, do not trim or cu1 a limb of it. It should be headed as low as you can possibly head it, but neve1 cut it. Do not cut back the limbs, a:. the peach has a fancy to bear at the ends of limbs; in any Florida peach orchard you will find that it bears right along down the limbs. You shou ld make it a rule to pick off at least four-fifths of the peaches, and if you do not the peaches will load down the limbs until they are broken. when a tree is so loaded the fruit is absolutely worthless. I begin td take them off as soon as the peaches be gin to form and in about three weeks I take off another picking , so as to get rid of three-fourths of the peaches. There is a certain limit of danger in peach trees being frozen; our early peaches are liable to be frozen. If the early peaches put out I calculate in about two out of five years we lose them . \Ve lost one year ago all the early peach trees. Mr. Mace, who is possibly the old est peach grower for market in the State, said to me some time ago that he found the Oviedo was so shy that he was go ing to cut it down. His Oviedos do not bear; my Oviedos bear so heavily that l prune them almost as closely for fruit as any on my place. My trees bear a great deal more than I care to leave on them. vVe have enemies in every direction, but the worst is the borer, ancl is so con sidered by the peach growers. The borer is the one thing that we have no way of managing , except as Mr. Baker has st al ed: get down on your knees with a kJJife and pick them out. But then' is another remedy that is very simple a11Cl that is hilling up around the tree about one foot high. In this way about 50 per cent. will be kept off, but you have to fight them. As I say again that it is not a s;-1hjec t that you are intere sted in, but I believe today it is the most profitable fruit indu stry in the State, but you have got to learn it in order to be successful grow ers. DISCUSSION. Mr. Phelps-I am very glad to hear the practical talks 1ajor Healy gives us. But I see no reason why the culture of oranges should prohibit a man from knowing something about other things. I believe that there are a great many or ange growers who believe ju st as much in peaches. For some years past the one enemy above all others ha s been the borer, but I would like to know what I am to do about it. The worms are all hatched out by the first of March. Maj. Healy and I differ in many things. I do not believe the hilling amounts to much. Nature is a great deal wiser than I am. If I furnish sufficient food, instead of spending my time in getting the borers out, the trees will do well. I sold severa l hundred bushels in Sanford last year. I threw away ped1aps a fifth of the peaches I had. I sent a great many peaches to market that would weigh three peaches to the pound. They had to be picked night and morning and put in a cool place and started to market at once. Tho se picked in the morning I picked

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74 J•'LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIErY. and put m my cellar and they stayed there until sent to market. I sold peaches in Sanford when my peaches brought double the price that my neigh bors' did for the same variety. I have taken more money from peaches than I have ever taken from oranges. I believe in peaches and I believe in them today. They need care, and what does not need care? The child brought up in the Epis copal church learns, and the directions to the sponsors of the child are : "I must take care." Prof. Hume-In Mr. Baker's paper there are two things I would like to call attention to. I think I can perhaps ex plain or at least come near explaining the reason why the Kelsey plum does not bear. It is a well kriown fact in the cul tivation of apples, pears and plums that many varieties are self-sterile. It is not safe, for many varieties, to plant a solid block of the same variety. Now, perhaps if you had had some other varieties of plums scattered through there, you would have had fruit. In Maj. Healy's case he, had some old shoots, he says. I ask him if tj1e shoots grew up. Maj. Healy-They were worthless, but we h ad a great deal of that wild plum fruit. Prof. Hume-The pollen of the wild plum is a fertilizer of the Kelsey. Re garding the blight of the pear, I would make the statement that it is clue to a species of bacteria, a vegetable para~;ite of a low order. I give the scientific name for it (rnicrococc us amylovorus). It be longs to the same class that breeds con sumption, etc., and about the only rem edy for this is to do as Mr. Baker did. Let the tree take its chances for living and give it very fittle care and attention. Then there is le ss sappy, vigorous growth produced, and there is very little chance for the bacteria to take hold. In regard to the fruits of Florida be ing self-sterilizing, I believe in Florida the question of self-sterility is an impor tant one. It exists in certain varieties of citrus fruits, in the plum and I think that is perhaps the explanation of Mr. Bak er 's case. I would like to ask a question regarding certain diseases. Has any one noticed any cases of the peach rosette in Florida? Mr. Phelps-There is a question that is not understood; I do not know any thing about it. There are isolated cases of Kelsey plums that bear a large crop; in my neighborhood there are some that bear well, and others have never grown a crop. Some bear every year, others do not bear at all. As far as sterility is con cerned, I have experimented on a few Ke l seys, but the bloom comes earlier than any other plums that come out. This year I s ucceeded in getting some near them to bloom at the same time, and this year I have a fair crop. We have some pear trees that do not bear; I do not know why, for they bloom until they are white every year . Some of the pears that bloom late bear, some bear in abundance. This year I concluded to try spraying and out of the first blooms I have a splendid crop of Satsuma plums coming on. In order to test the matter I did not spray some and they all fell off and I have not a single plum from the second bloom. I sprayed with an in sec ticide, the receipt of which I will give to any one who desires it. Mr . Hart-The remarks of the ge tleman who has just spoke n call to my mind a matter that I would like to bring before the Society, it is in regard to the honey bee and others of the bee family

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL BOCIE1 1 Y . 75 which gather honey and pollen from these trees and fertilize their bloom. In the North it is the only insect on hand in numbers to accomplish this fertiliza tion of the fruit trees, and even in Flor ida if you spray with poisonous spray at the time the trees are in bloom you will not accomplish anything that can not better be done just before the bloom opens or after it has fallen, except on the other hand, you destroy many dollars worth of bees and thousands of their lives which is wrong to all neighboring apiarists that any just man will gladly avoid. A great many of the States haYe made laws prohibiting citizens from sp raying fruit trees while in bloom. Most of the Experiment tations have instructed against this spraying of trees while in bloom, so a to preYent destroy ing the li ves of the bees. As to the fer tilizing blossoms of the Kefsey plum: There mu st be some other reason for the non-bearing of our Kelseys than the lack of pollination of the bloom. I have not examined the blossom of the Kelsey plum nor do I know if it has a perfect bloom or not. Pears are mostly light bearers in South Florida. The lack of more than one variety in bloom at a time may have something to do with this. The pear is best cross fertilized, althoug h scientists tell us they are more self-ferttle dmrn here than further North. This explains why the LeConte pear will pro duce fairly when there is no other va riety near; it would not do so North, but as in the case of many other va rietie s, produce imperfect fruit and an abortive seed when not cross fertilized. The fruit on my LeConte trees have the appearance of being self-fertilized. I think probably it would improve the chances for our crop in Southern Florida if we had more light on this subject. NOTES ON CURRENT ENTOMOLOGY . Joint Report of the Committee A Hopeful and Encouraging Statement Cottony Cushion Scale N ot to be Feared Crude Petroleum as an Insecticide . Report R ea d by Prof. H. A. Gossard, Chairman. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: During the past year the usual batch of inquiries regarding such insects as the aphis, the pickle worm, grasshoppers, leaf hoppers , weevils, curculio, etc . , has been received by one or another of the members of your committee, but the number of entomolgical problems to which attention has been chieAy direG,J: ed has been confined to a much smaller field. Perhaps no new outbreaks of par ticularly dangerous insects have hap pened since our last meeting, though some species possessing ample capabili ties for mischief have extended their range of distribution somew hat and have appeared in new localitie s .

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76 FLORIDA STA'l'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. The New Peach Scale. In West Florida, at Molino and Quin tette, the new peach scale, Diaspis amyg clali, has obtained a strong foot-hold and is devastating some of the orchards in that vicinity. The insect is supposed to be of West Indian origin, and is, there fore, commonly spoken of as the West India or Jamaica scale. Like many of our insects imported from abroad, it must be regarded as an insect with some what threatening possibilities, though it can doubtless be controlled beyond the power of greatly checking the vitality of the trees it infests, by ap12lication of ker osene, whale oil soap or petroleum and water. The White Fly. The white fly reached about its normal degree of destructiveness the past year, a few groves in the Manatee section, per haps, suffering a little more than usual. The observations of careful growers seem to indicate that closely planted groves are far more badly infested by this insect than those in which the tree s are well spaced, and in which sufficient pruning is done to allow free circulation of air through the tops of the trees. In a few instances where inquiries have been received at the Experiment Station regarding the insect, we have recom mended Prof. Webber's resin wash, and some very favorable results have been r ported from the use of this application. vVe have reached a pretty definite con clusion that California methods of tent fumigation can be followed in this State with great profit in those districts where the orange is a reasonably certain crop, and we further believe that the process can be profitably used with deciduous trees under some circumstances. Experimental work in grove and orchard fumi gation is contemplated by the Florida Station in co-operation with practical growers and brcharclists, and is already in progress in the Manatee district. In the early part of February we had the pleasure of working for a few days with Mr. C. P. Fuller, of Ellenton, Florida, who had procured an outfit of tents and was anxf ous to give the process a trial. A number of leaves taken from the fumi gated trees and brought to Lake City were examined some ten days afterwards and a large percentage of the pupae were beginning to decompose, showing that they were unmistakably dead. No in sects ever issued from any of the pupae cases, but we did not expect that they would retain their vitality upon the dry ing leaves for more than two or three weeks at the lon gest, and, therefore, can not regard the conclusion as certain that everything was killed by the gas treat ment. Some specimens of reel spider and other imported insects were also killed , but we are unable to pass a decisive judg ment as to whether the gas may be relied upon to kill the eggs of any of these in sects, although we think it very proba ble. One of the fumigated trees was dripping with clew when it was tented, and we , therefore, increa sed the strength of the chemicals u sed by the California people about one-third, and still expect ed that the work would be unsatisfac tory. However, an examination of in fected leave s taken from this tree, made after an interval of some two weeks, in dicated that a large percentage of the pupae were in process of decomposition, from which we infer that the treatment was much more thorough than we ex pected it wou ld be. We suspect that the heavy clews of Florida will be found to

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FLuRJDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 77 constitute the most disturbing factor since it is well-nigh necessary when fumi gating trees in leaf to do this work at night away from sunlight, and of course the dew cannot be avoided at this time. Since the gas is effective against all forms of insect life, the common grove scales as well as the insects that we have just been discussing, we hope that one or at most two fumigation treatments per year will practically hold in check all of the insects with which the orange grower has to deal. A correspondent at Tarpon Springs sent in a communication a few days a:go saying that white fly had suddenly ap p eare d there in great numbers. We also had specimens come in from Marion county last summer. Crude Petroleum as an Insecticide. During the past year Dr. J. B. Smith, Entomologist of the New Jersey Experi ment Station, has put forth a bulletin upon crude petroleum as an insecticide, in which he makes the following state ments: " Since January, 1898, nearly four thousand trees in ordinary orchard fruits other than cherry, have been treated with crude petroleum either undiluted or mixed with from 60 per cent. to 75 per cent. of water. The trees varied from stock just out of the nursery row to old trees in full bearing. ot a single case of injury to any tree treated in winter has been observed; on the contrary, in a number of cases the oil seems to have acted as a stimulant, and the sprayed trees have s hown greater vigor and bet ter foliage than those untreated. It is ful ly as effective against scale insects as kerosene, and is harmless to the most tender var ieties and on the ~youngest trees. As the oil remains on the surface for a long time it makes no difference whether it is put on undiluted or mixed with water. * * * It remains as an oily or greasy surface coating for many weeks, and no scales can set on this coating within a month of the appli cation and live. * * * A minor advantage is the fact that it gives a greasy brown color to the bark, making it easy to see exactly how thorough the application has been. " In view of the fa~t that pure kerosene was at one time considered by some en tomological authorities to be a safe win ter application to fruit trees, and it was afterwards discovered that it is exceed ingly variable and capricious in its behav ior under what are apparently precisely similar condition s, and when we remem ber th~t extensive orchards have been killed by its use, it seems safe to be some what cautious in accepting Dr. Smith's statements as being applicable to the en tire country. On the 25th day of January some ap plications of 100 per cent. crude petro leum were given to pear , plum and peach trees. The variety of pear is unknown , but three trees of which we will speak as Nos. I, 2 and 3 were badly infested with San Jose scale. Tree No. 1 was ap parently nearly dead, the trunk blistered and crusted with scales, the leaves and branches having been thickly infested the preceding season clear to the tips. To all appearances the tree could not be expect ed to live , whether the scales upon it were killed or not. The bark upon both trunk and branches was very much hide bound , and had to be slit open with a knife . in order to give the new wood a chance to form beneath. This tree was slow in putting out its lea ves in the spring, but eventually leaved out and is

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78 FLORIDA srATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. living today with a fighting chance for life. All scales upon it seem dead, and while it looks almost impossible for it to recover any degree of healthful vigor, yet we are un certain regarding the out come. Tree No . 2 was a larger pear of the same variety, and not so badly in fested, although many of the branches were completely crusted and coated with sca l es, and the bar k of the trunk and l arg er branches had to be sp li t with a knife as in the first case, to give an opportunity for new wood to grow. This tree leaved out at the usual time, and today it is vig orous and thrifty in appearance, and ap parently has suffered no injury from the application g i ven it. A smaller pear tree No . 3 was also given a treatment of 100 per cent. petroleum and s ems to be in perfect condition at present. Upon the same clay a number of plums of eight dif ferent varieties were sprayed with mo per cent. petroleum. Beside each of these trees, in an adjoining row, another tree of the same variety was left untreat ed as a check for compari on. Unfortu nately both the treated row and the check row seem to be in an unhealthy condition , and it has been impossible to weigh accurately the effects of the pe troleum spray . The sprayed trees are ap parently but little , if any, worse than the check row , though they are certain l y wo r se than some adjoining rows that were sprayed with a thirty per cent. me chanical mixture of water and petroleum. It is my be li ef that these larger trees were injured in some degree, but some smal l er plum trees that h ave been in the ground only one year seem to have su vived the application without the least noticeable injury. One hundred per cent . was a l so ap plied to nine bearing Flor i da Gem peaches on the 26th of January. Of these trees but two or three have any signs of life today, and they are practically ruined. In other words, the Florida Gem variety of peach will not stand a heavy dose of crude petroleum in Florida, un less the conditions governing its applica tion are different from those that sur rounded these particular trees. No spe cial care was taken in making these ap plications, as onr object was to find out what would be the effect of crude petro leum if put on liberally in quantity s uffi cient to just reach the dripping point, anti without regard to sunshine or the precautions that are generally observed in making applicat i ons of kero se ne. Some hundreds of plum and peach of va rious varieties were sprayed with from fifteen per cent. to thirty per cent. me chanical mixture of petroleum and water, and we have been unable to detect the lea st injury of any kind following any of the se diluted applications. The trees in all cases were sprayed until they just reached the dripping point, and in no case were they banked , nor was any at tention paid to cloudy weather or to the hours of the evening near to dusk. Some applications were made upon bright clays, but mo t of the time the weather was de cided l y hazy, the sun being scarcely if at all visible. We believe that Dr. Smith has con tributed a very important material to our list of insecticides , but it is quite possi ble that it will be found to require cau tious handling, as kerosene has prove d to need in the past. We are as yet un able to say that it would be safe to ap ply undiluted petroleum to fruit trees of whatever description in Florida, even in the mo st cautious manner , and for the present would advise that the same pre

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FLORIDA STA'l'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 79 cautions be taken with petroleum that are observed in the use of kerosene. The Cottony Cushion Scale. The cottony cushion scale has extend ed its range of distribution about Clear \ Ya ter Harbor to a considerable degree, being now in a number of groves in that vicinity. One season's observations upon the insect have largely dispelled our fears as to its ultimate importance, even under the worst possible conditions. We naturally assumed when its presence first became known that it would likely repeat in Florida about the same story that it had in California and other countries into which it had been introduced unless it was quickly taken in hand, here as there. However, a number of factors seem to be at worl< in Florida that make the con ditions quite different from those that ex i st in most of the countries where the cot tony cushion scale has become famous, and has at times been clreaclecl; and while we are not yet prepared to minimize the clanger that might follow the work of this insect if entirely let alone we still be lieve that, at the worst possible outcome, it will prove to be a very insignificant economic in se ct in Florida as compared with what it has been in some other coun tries. We commenced a field study of the cottony cushion scale about the first of July last year , and continued on the ground for seYeral weeks. At this time the insect was very a15unclant in some groves, although we noticed it h a d prac tically disappeared from the myrtle thick ets where it had been abundant in the preceding l\lay. \Vithin two or three clays we were al3le to find some trees thickly infe sted with sca l es, which were being rapidly consumed by a small caterpillar which we were soon able to iden tify as loetilia cocciclivora, an insect hith erto recorded as feeding upon the lecan ium scales, pulvinaria, mealy bugs, the wax scales, the cochineal insect, and at times upon the armored scales. Mr. H. G. Hubbard, in speaking of this insect, writes as follows: "Unde rneath the covering of web , the caterpillars of loetilia move back and forth actively engaged in removing the bark lice from the back and suspending them in the investing web. Nothing could be more thorough than their work. Branches incrustecl with lecanium scales are very quickly cleared of the lice, and the loetilia larvae do not cease to extend their operations until every individual coccid in the colony has been lifted from its place and securely fastened in the web above. * * * It devours not only the eggs and the young and the softer parts of the bark lice, but even to some extent the harder skin or scale. The result of its operations upon lecanium and cero pla tes scales is to utterly annihilate the colonies of these insects which they at tack." An Insect Foe. What Mr. Hubbard observes of this insect in connection with the lecanium s and ceroplastes we also affirm of it in re gard to the cottony cushion scale. A re cent inspection made by the writer of these trees which had attracted our spe cial interest disclosed a scale here and there, but they were practically free , and it would seem to us that there can be no doubt that hundreds of moths will ap pear in a short time to complete the work of total annihilation so nearly accom plished last season. The trees are prac tically uninjured, and although white

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80 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. with iceryas last summer, it is apparent to the most casual observer, who knows anything of their recent history, that they have been and are today in far great er danger of injury from the common l ong scale, mytilaspis gloverii, than from icerya purchasi. We found the same cat erpillar scattered everywhere over the in fested district and multiplying rapidly. Among the myrtles and even in places where would be found an isolated infe s ed tree, half a mile or more away from other infested ones, we found this little caterpillar at work and often in numbers. vVe found a number of other predace ous insects feeding upon this scale, some of them possessing a considerable degree of efficiency. The work of none of these insects can be considered equal to that reported of the Australian lady-bug, for the reason that they are more or less re stricted in their movements, and will not go out upon the leaves hunting for their dinners. However, it may be boldly questioned if the cottony cushion sca _ le can stand before them for more than one or two seasons , and there is some warrant for the belief that a gro v e is in little clan ger of destruction when they are present, although it may suffer serious injury. It must be further said in their favor that they are natives of Florida, that they feed upon other insects than the cottony cushion scale, and they will never be ab sent nor become lost, nor need artificial propagation in order to insure their per petuity, and if our climatic conditions, as may be entirely possible , should prove unsuited to the health of the lady-bug we may r e st secure in the knowledge that WC have at hand some native bugs whose efficiency exceeds that of any other in sects hitherto recorded as feedin g upon icerya , with the excepti o n of novius cardinalis and novius koebelei from Australia and possibly of rodolia iceryae in South Africa. A Fungus Friend of the Trees. During the last season a fungus dis ease which as yet has received no biolog ical study and is only known to belong in the family phymataspoi;ae, destroyed more scales than any other agency. The fir s t specimens were found on the 27th of July upon certain badly infested or ange trees, and a few days later we no ticed that the weeds and undergrowth of this, the worst infested grove in Florida, especially in damp situations, were cov ered with the remains of slaughtered scales. We, therefore, impatiently await ed a shower of rain and from the 23d to the 26th of July were favored with a con tinuous downpour, accompanied with heat , as much as fourteen or sixteen inches of water at the very least coming down in seventy -two hours. vVe exam ined the trees upon which the fungus was discovered at the conclusion of the storm while it was sti ll raining, and found them enveloped in a white winding sheet of dead scales from the trunks to the tips of the leaves. '/\ T e est im ated that not less than ninety-five per cent. of the scales in all stages had perished. About one month later ,ve estimated that not more than one sca le in a thousand was living upon what ha cf been the worst infested trees in the grove, and the few living ones that could be found were newly hatched larvae, a few of the eggs in the egg-sacs apparentlly not having been completely destroyed by the fungus. Our correspondent, writing under elate of September 22, reported that the bugs in the grove before mentioned were rle creasing, that the fungus was affecting

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I<'LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIEl'Y. them very. badly; he coufd scarcely find one that was not affected, and that while some trees in the grove still harbored some young scales, the fungus was to be found upon all. He further reported that about ninety-five per cent. of the insects in some other groves that were just be ginning to show the presence of the fun gus at the time of our departure were dead and the owners stated that where ten scales existed three weeks earlier not more than one could be found at the date of writing. The fungus was found present in a number of groves a few days ago, and we entertain no doubt that it will be an important factor in reducing the crop of scales this coming season. That this dis ease and the insects before mentioned will prove of immense value in subduing the insect during some, and perhaps we may say all, seasons we can not doubt, but it should still be remembered that the scale multiplies vigorously during certain periods of the year and that it is capable of inflicting damage during this time . It seems probable that the Cali fornia lady-bug will prove more efficient than any of these native checks if it is able to stand Florida conditions and cli mate . Australian Lady Bug Not a Succes s. We made an attempt to colonize the Australian lady-bug last summer, but so far as we can judge, the introduction was unsuccessful. A number of adult bugs , somewhere between two dozen and thirty, were hatched from California ship ments, kept under close observation un til they were observed to have copulated, after which they were confined for a short time in a large sack upon thickly infested limbs, so as to insure the deposition of their eggs before they flew to other trees \Ve hoped that some of the bugs had gone to other trees than the ones upon which they were turned loose, since they were confined in the sack not more tha11 twelve to fifteen hour s, or over night, and 1hat many lady-bugs would appear in the grove later, but up 1.o this time nothing has been known to develop, although the. trees upon which the bugs were liberated are almost wholly free from scales at present. \Ve attribute the disappearance of the scales, however, to the fungus dis ease and native predaceous insects and not to a probability that any lady-bugs had anything to do witfi it. We instrnct ed our correspondents to keep a careful watch on the field and report to us later in the season if circumstances seemed to favor a new introduction. Under date of September 19 one of our correspondeuts wrote: "The weather ' that we have been ',av ing this month ha been favorable, it seems, for the spread of the fungus, as quantities of the dead bugs in their vari ous stages show and it is very question able just now, I think, if the situation would justify the undertaking of getting a sufficient supply of lady-bugs from Cali fornia to stock up with." In December a letter from our corre spondents indicated that the bugs were sufficiently nurnerou in some groves to warrant the belief that the introduction of the lady-bug would probably prove successful. We therefore wrote to the California Board on the 2d of January, informing them of the situation and our desires, but had to wait two months for a reply , and then were informed that their colonies were low, and they could not supply us with bugs until the latter part of May. However, Mr. Kimball, a

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82 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOOTETY. gentleman stopping in Clear Vv ater, has succeeded through the inAuence of the " Fruit \Vorld," in getting a consignment from one of the County Boards of Horti culture, at San Diego, California, and the bugs were recently put upon a tree that would seem to promise good results. If the bugs rea11y get a foot-hold they will have time to multiply enough so that they they will possib l y sta nd the severe conditions of existence that we certainly look for them to be obliged to face again in July and August. It will require a longer period of observation to gauge with a reasonable degree of certainty the exact status of the scale or of its insect enemies, native and imported. There are some groves near "Clear Water that are going to look very scary in the course of a couple of months, but we certainly hope and are inclined to believe that these groves wi11 suffE;r less from the icerya than from some otheiinsects that have long been in Florida . We very much doubt if the cottony cushion scale at its worst will do the damage that white fly inflicts upon the orange groves every ear. It will probably become numerou s and threatening every time it reaches a new locality , but it is not likely to remain on the sa me spot in numbers for more than one or two seasons . C u t Worm s a nd W hit e Cricket s. The fo11owing observations regarding methods of fighting cut worms and white crickets are submitted by those who have used the remedies given with marked success. and we, therefore , take pleasure in submitting their remedies to people who may not have enjoyed exemption from the attacks of these insects. For cut worms , take dry bran and mix enough Paris green with it to give it a greenish tinge all through, then st ir in enough syrup to make all a little sticky and scatter among the infested pl a nts. Great success with the remedy is report ed among strawberries and in seed beds. For white crickets there is said to be nothing like a littl e hot water. If the insect s are very abundant over much of an area the best way i to have a large kettle or other vessel se t so as to keep sufficient water h ot without ha ving to go too far to get it. A few spoo nfuls poured into their nests kill s them. No digging is necessary since under the mound they make on the surface there are always two hole s leading clown to the nest, and when water i s poured on the mound it quick ly soaks clown to the insects. By carefully going over the ground two or three times they are gotten rid of. DISCUSSION. Mr. Vv aite-About three years ago I had the purple mite and I wrote to the Experiment Station and they gave me a formula for a sulphur sp ray and I com menced using it , and when I had use
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FLORIDA STATE HOR T ICULTURAL SOCIETY. 83 b1;own and on the back the wood looked bad, almost exactly like the work of the reel spider. Mr. Hart-Did you spray any bearing trees? The purple mite seems to be thick on our trees, although we have had some yery hard rain This purple mite i s a new enemy with me, and the rain does not seem to affect them seriously at all. I am afraid to use that spray on these trees, as they are mostly bea r ing. PINEAPPLES AND OTHER TROPICA L F RUITS . B eginni n gs on I ndian River Historical S ta t ements-Some Discussion of Varieties Irrigati o n Not N e e essary on the East Coast-Few Diseases Encountered. Ot al Repor t b y C . T. McC arty, o f t he Comm ittee. Our Committee is a new one and is still disorganized; we hope to get in better shape later on . If there are any ques tions when I am done speaking, I would be plea eel to have them asked. Please bear in mind that what I say on this sub ject will be confined very largely to our experience and observations on the East Coast of Florida, in the territory between Melbourne and Miami. Of the condi tions prevailing in the interior where they have Smooth Cayennes (fancy pine's) un der cover I am not familiar. It was hoped that Mr . Price would give us a re port on that subject. There are also pe culiar conditions prevailing on the Flor ida keys which I will not attempt to de scribe; the methods of cultiYation are dif ferent. I hope to be able to give you a few facts which , as they go into the rec ord, you will be able to consider more when yo u get the Annual Report. Some other things are more a matter of incli vicl ual ob ervation and experience , but the facts I can readily give you . The industry on our coast i comparatively new, that is, on the main land of the United States. It has been carried on perhaps two generations on the Flor ida keys between Miami and Key \Vest, being introduced there from Cuba and other places. Vi T ith us the pineapple was planted along in tlie 8o's; our shipments commenced about in '8 4. The first vari ety introduced there is now known as the Egyptian Queen. That is not the true name. It was introduced by Capt. Burn ham. It s true name is Cleopatra, who was an Egyptian queen, consequently the name s were confused. The indust r y grew very rapidly during the early 9o's, at which time it had reached a considera ble magnitude. Later on we shipped about 225.000 crates containing between six and seven million pineapp l es. A few years ago I was asked to make a canvass of the East Coast to get the status as to the crop and increase of that year t h at we might know what preparations to make for the transportation of the crop. Tha t year I found that the East Coast had in cultivation 1,400 acres of pineapples;

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84 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. that we shipped something over six mil lion fruits; that the number of new plants set out that year was 3,850,000, while the increase in acreage during the s in gle year was twenty per cent. of that which existed before. This was considered at that time a fair estimate of the annual in crease of the pineapple business. It has not kept up that pace because of climatic conditions. There is a rumb ling sound of protection in my head; it is a very familiar topic. Present Outlook. But this year we are very glad to re port a very nice crop of pineapples on the East Coast. In tFie next six or seven weeks we will move from that territory 125,000 crates of pineapples which will very nearly amount to four million fruits. The fancy varieties including the Smooth Cayenne, Abal
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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. the bloom comes out, the size of the ap ple is determined. The same number of eyes in embryo is seen there and as soon as the grower sees one-quarter the growth of the apple he practically knows with ce rtaint y th size it will be, if it has the proper amount of moisture. Some of us have tried irrigation and many of us believe that it has no special advant age. This apple is much above the aver age size, and it would take about eigh teen of this size to the crate; that is a large size of the Reel Spanish. The Porto Rico weighs fifteen pounds , and is nearly as large as a peck measure, packing eight to the crate, while this packs eigh teen. There is a vast variety of pineap ples; we have about twenty-two varieties on our place. I do not believe there is any special advantage in having so many varieties and we have sifted it clown to about six. The Reel Spanish is sturdy and a good shipper; the Smooth Cayenne is worth about ten cents apiece in our territory, and if you plant ten thousand on an acre it would cost you $1,000; Red Spanish would cost net for the plants $75.00. In saying this I do not detract from the Smooth Cayenne or the Abak ka , but consider the old Reel Spanish financially good enough for most of us. The topic contemplates that I say something about Other Tropical Fruits. The mango , sapaclillo and a great many other . In our own territory we consider the avocado pear a failure, and the man go is too tender for our locality. It fruits well and is desirable , but we have long since thought it was best not to crowd the tropics too far north. We were growing the avocado pear, mango, etc., and found it was better to go to the F.S .H.S. -7 territory provided for them. In the vi cinity of the Florida keys and on the rock lands around Miami the aYocaclo pear seems to be at home. The mango does well there and so indeed do the guava and other tropical products. I said I would not keep you long, and I will be glad to respond to any questions asked. Mr. Crane-I would like to ask what effect an exce s of moisture has on the pineapple. Mr. l\IcCarty-It is bad; it renders the fruit sof t and perishable. As to fertilizer, I would use a fertilizer of at least twelve per cent. tash, which makes the fruit vigorous. The Red Spanish is hardy and others are also. I would not advise too much moi ture at any time. Shedding Pineapples. l\Ir. UcCarty-A word or two in ref erence to shedding pineapples. I had in tended in my repoi t to mention that. There is a little shedding being done in the pineapple territory. It is not deter mined whether it will be a permanent success or not. It is too soon yet to know. There is no use of being hasty in our conclu ions about these matters; it is better to . be sure of it before we go into it. The shed has an advantage and it has several disadvantages; the princi pal one is that it makes the pJa nt grow too tall. Like everything else under a shed, the leaves grow very long, and, if of the Red Spanish variety, after a few years they get too high and they fall Over. Shedding is othervvise objection able. If Smooth Cayenne , there is not the same objection because it is not al lowed to carry on its success ion uninter ruptedly. There are many sheds in our territory that are very decided failures. Entirely aside from their cost there are

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86 FLORIDA STATE HORTICUL'l'URAL SOCIETY . some up to this day that are not a suc cess, and I believe they will not be in the future, that is, from now on; the cost is too much. Whenever you invest from $300 to $400 in an acre of pineapples and $400 or $500 more in the price of a shed you will reap but s mall profits. There is a better way of protecting pineapples and it may be called a local method of carry ing plants through the winter when you begin to feel nervous . I call it insur ance; some use a switch grass which grows with us and which can be laid on top of the plants. We covered 150,000 plants, principally with the slv palmetto leaves. We keep the entire clump to gether, so that we can lay them over the plants without their being blown away by the wind. It is a good protection, warm and cosy; it is cheap and not inju rious to anything. The cabbage palmet to fan is the same. Put on the first of January and taken off the first of March, it only costs you $ro or $15 an acre, as against an investment of $300 to $500 in a shed. The shed is too expensive and too uncertain; it is an experiment yet. I was asked to report on that subject, and I will say that until we have had four or five years' experience, I could not say whether the shed is a good idea or not . I do not think it a necessity, and as to the advantages on that score I think it out of the question. It is a conservative statement; I am not carried away with any such theories. If you have not the money, cover with something else. It ~s wise, safe and conservative. DISCUSSION. Mr. Sperry-I would like to ask if there are any diseases prevalent among _the pineapples grown on the East Coast, and if so, what is their ch a racter? Mr . McCarty-If you mean different diseases on different kinds, I broadly say not . I am inclined to believe that there are some varieties that are more suscep tible than others. I do not want to be too dogmatic in my statements, because there is such a thing as being too hasty, but I will say tnat tne Egyptian Queen pineapple has shown itself to be suscepti ble to the reel spider, more so probably than any other. There has been the last few years a little of what is called wilt on the Smooth Cayenne; it is so little we do not consider it much. Among our Red Spanish we have a certain amount of spike or long Tea; that is not a dis ease but a condition. I would say broad ly that one kind is not more susceptible to disease than others, but some few are more liable. There are some insects that are harmless; the mealy bug is entirely harmless; the reel spider is not harmless, and there are otlier things that are not harmless. We do not know what causes the spike or long leaf. Prof. Webber was right in ms conc l usion that it was caused by the condition of the plant, caused by propagating pines from the same plants for ten years, causing low vi tality. I am satisfied of that now. A Member-Is it a fact that the pres ence of lime in the soil is injurious to the plant? Mr. McCarty-That is one of our old time fads. The original feeling that went around the State with reference to that, resulted from a misapprehension of the individual who first put it out. The first few plants that were planted in our ter ritory were planted on low land. There was a good deal of shel1 in that land , and from the fact that they did not do well, he came to the conclusion that the shell did the damage . On ou r high, well

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIE'rY. 87 drained, spruce-pine land which is very poor, he did succeed with fertilizer, and it was concluded that was better than the other. \,Vet land is injurious. As far as lime is concerned, it is far from being a bad thing; I have used it as a fertilizer in the proper way. A Member-Have you had any trou ble with scale of any kind on your plants? Mr. McCartyo, sir, none whatever; we have none. Mr. Harrington-Do you meet with any perceptible loss in your uncovered pineapples by the effects of the sun's rays? Mr. McCarty-\,Ve meet with a very small loss in that respect. The seasons differ. \Vh en it is very rainy and bright , sunshine may wilt the plants; two per cent. will cover all the loss from sun burn and in the present conditions we have none whatever. TT1e only way is to plant them close together. If you plant yo ur pineapples twenty inches apart in squares the first year they will be sunburnt; after that they are so near together there will be no sunburn. As to fertilizing, if you give a ton to th e acre for twelve thous and plants and after they are fruited and yo u have twenty or twenty-five thousand suc kers , fertilize for the number of plants, then you have no trouble. A member-Diel yo u broadcast your fertilizer or put it on the plants? Mr. McCarty-When the plants are large we broadcast; when tli.ey are young we put it on the ground. When very yo ung we put a mixture of about a tea spoonful of cottonseed meal, and the same of tobacco dust to each plant; after that we put our fertilizer entirely on the ground. When they are high we broad cast it, taking care not to have anything exceedingly caustic so as not to burn the plant. Prof. Gossard-I understand, Mr. Mc Carty, that you use tobacco dust when you first put the plants out. Mr 1cCarty-Y es, a mixture of half and half as a preventive. \Ve think there is a reason for everything we do. Prof. GossardDo you base your statements on your personal experience or as general statements, as to the exist ence of the mealy bug? Mr. McCartyWe have no knowl edge of the bug existing on the small plants. Prof. Gossard-I have seen a few pine apples raised; the bugs had been thick enough, but th ey were not there when I saw the plants. The owner said the bugs had been there in large quantities and he had been using a pmYder upon them and killed them. I have had plants sent in with enough mealy bugs on them to be convinced that they would do harm. There is sometimes a scale that gets upon pineapples, but it has never been report ed that it did any harm. Dr. Kerr-I would like to ask Mr. Mc Carty how the wilt affects the pineapple, and what is the remedy? Mr. McCarty-TT1e wilt affects them by drying up the extreme outer ends of the leave s and they drop, and the remedy is to take the plants up and throw them away. We do not know the cause even. Mr. Phelps-Have you seen mealy bugs during rainfalls? Mr. McCarty-The seasons when we have had heavy rainfall and no rainfall are out of my mind, but I think there would be a difference in that, although I do not want to be put on record as to that.

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88 FLORIOA S'l'ATE HORTICUL'l'URAL SOCIETY Mr. Phelps-Fifteen or eighteen years ago, it was very dry and mealy bugs were in evidence . A full spray washed them away, but when there was a heavy rain, there were no mealy bugs. Mr. Sperry-I have had pines planted both on high and low lands. The low land is known as a bay-head, the water standing continuous l y a foot from the surface. There I have had no trouble, but on high pine land I have had trouble, but nothing serious. I would like to ask Mr. McCarty whether the disease they have designated as wilt is not sometimes called blight. Mr. McCarty-Yes, the same thing. Mr. Beach, of West Palm Beach, first called it the wi lt in The Farmer and Fruit Grower, but it is th-e same thing. A Member-I understand this is more or le ss prevalent among all varieties. Mr . McCarty-I think it is mostly con fined to Smooth Cayennes; not enough among the Red Spanish to be considered serious; I know we have had it among Egyptian Queens. A Member-In reference to accumula tion of sand after setting young plants. Do you resorr to washing it out or re moving it in any way? Mr . McCarty-We have three ways of doing that. The best way is by the use of cottonseea meal sprinkled in the heart of the plant; this crusts the sand and the growing plant pushes it out. If it is too bad we blow it out with a pair of ' bellows. If the sand is in a bad con dition the use of the bellows is the better way. If the weather is we t we can wash it out with a little water. We are not much troubled tliat way. Dr. Kerr-How long do you discon tinue fertilizing before fruiting? Mr . McCarty-Dr . Kerr, there has been a considerable divergence of meth ods along that line during the past five years. When I came to the State the custom was to put the last fertilizer e n about the la st of January or February. That season became earlier until six years ago they were fertilizing about the middle of December; now they put it on in November, not later than December. This is based upon the theory that be fore the bloom is formed the apple can be incr eased by swelling the eyes. If the fertilizer is put on earlier the plant pro duces a larger fruit and a farger plant. The better practice is to apply in N ovem ber; seventy -fi ve or eighty per cent. of the growers are doing that at the pres ent time. Prof. Hume-Mr. McCarty h as men tioned the drying up or wilting of the tops or leaves; I am convinced that the trouble is back of that, which is only a manifestation of the diso1=cler. If you take up one o f these plants and cut a sec tion of it clown under where the roots or iginate , you will find from one-half to two inches of the bottom is l acking the root . I have made some careful examinations of those portions to determine whether there a re any traces of fungus in them , but I have not discovered any, but it oc curs to me that the trouble must be either bacterial or a fungus. The , , vhole root system is cut off and the wilt at the top is a manifestation of its approaching death. With regard to the Egyptian Queen being subject to the red i'pide r ; there is a difference in the susceptibility of the different varieties to this disease. I have a li st giving the different varieties, eight or ten of them, in the way of in s tance s . My recollection is that the

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FLORIDA STA'fE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 89 Egyptian Queen is one of the most sub ject to the disease and the Red Spanish is almost entirely proof against it, but that I am not certain. The disease ap pears to be contagious and I have seen other fancy varieties taken up and in their stead the Red Spanish was planted with out showing any sign of the di s ease. Mr. Sperry-Have you any kno w ledge how this disease is communicated to one plant from another, whether by root con tact, leaf contact or otherwise? My ob servation has been that it grows in groups. But some of those plants that I have observed are perfectly healthy. Prof. Hume-I have no certain knowl edge as to how this disease spreads. I have some e x periments under way now to detennir:e whether it is contagious or not. Mr. Butler-Before this subject is dropped, I want to protest against the remark that pineapple sheds are built with " grandmother ' s money," at least so far a s the West Coa s t is concerned , for upon the Pinellas Penin s ula there must be thirty or forty Smooth Cayenne piner ies, every one of which is under a shed and nearly all paying well. Among the larger ones , I do not know of a single failure , and many have netted over four thousand dollars per acre for the first crop of fruit and suckers. Mr. McCarty-I confined my remarks to the fruit grown o n the East Coast. I am glad to know the y are making $4 , 000 an acre on the \Ve s t Coast, and if I could make as much as that , I should be a bloat ed bond-holder. Mr. Blackman-The topic has refer ence to other fruits besides the pineapple. There are fruits in our Southern country that grow without disease and other trou bles. One of the best fruits that we grow in Dade county is the alligator pear, one of .the greatest bearers. There are trees with apparently no soil near or on the surface, with comparatively light trunks, that every year bear a thousand of this fruit, -,vhich finds a ready market. Last year in the grove of Capt. Tyler a branch of an alligator pear broke off and he found there were 360 well-developed fruits on that branch. That fruit was worth forty cents a dozen, and that was only one branch of many on that tree. Also with the mango, which grows with ease, has no insect enemies, no diseases and comes into bearing the third or fourth year, and the fruit brings a good price in the local markets. As to the guava, that used to be grown all over the State but is now confined to the lower East and West Coasts. Last year the priced dropped to $1.25 and $1.50 per bushel delivered at the depot. It gruws there not as a bush or shrub but to the size of the trees of the forest, and every branch is loaded. Hardly anybody liv ing in this northern part , where these tropical fruits do not grow, is aware of these facts, but I want you to know that there is a country where you can grow these tropical fruits with ease, as much ease as in Cuba or any other tropica l country , and that they grow and they bear. I have seen orange trees growing and thriving, three and a half years old, bearing three to three and a half boxes per tree. ( ?) We must not overlook these tropical fruits. No one has ever said much from our section, so I make these few remarks about the tropica l fruits that grow on our own continent and in our own State.

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TROPICAL FRUIT GROWING IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA . Not Available for Commercial Purposes Plant Only for Home Use. By W. P. Neeld, of the Committee. Of course we know of no other section of the State where tropical fruits have been grown except in South Florida. If there is truly more happiness in pursuit than in possession we can heartily rec ommend tropical fruit-growing in any "favored locality " south of the twenty eighth parallel of latitude. Our experi ence in this industry is confined to the little sub-peninsula of Pinellas on the west side of Tampa Bay. Our observa tion embraces about all of Southwest Florida . . The lower sub-peninsula high pine lands seemed to be especially adapted to the mango and avocado pear. It would be tedious to mention all the tropical fruits that we have demonstrated to be unsuited to our pine land s, and we have no hammocks. The tamarind, the sugar app l e, the Jamaica apple and the sapadil lo , are notable failures with us, though these fruits seem to flourish on the islands further south, while the mango is almost a failure, except at or about Fort Myers. On the island of Marco the avocado pears were quite prolific, but not near so fine as with us, while the mango was not in evidence, or at least not in countenance. The writer does advise the setting of a few trees of a tropical nature and of a kind demonstrated to be "at home ," but he does not advise any one to attempt to grow tropical fruits for market . After we had ruli the gauntlet of the colds of average winters and produced thousands of boxes or crates of mangoes and avoca do pears there was no extensive market for them. A few cities in the South paid fairly well for our product, but s trangers did not like them, and our marketing was a flat failure, to use a terse term. If history is to repeat itself and cli mates never change-in the history of man-we may expect our tropical fruit trees to be destroyed in the future as in the past. Pineapples are grown successfully un der sheds, and a great many are being set continually . The writer is an advo cate of the high lands for pines, and fa vors the lower sub-peninsula as the best locality he knows.

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PROTECTION OF PINEAPPLES FROM FROST . At O rlando, the Interior Pineapple Center Minute , Practical Description of Some Devices Used . Paper by Dr. J. V. Calver The freeze of February, 1899, empha sized the necessity for some means of per fectly protecting the pineapple from frost. \ The few pineries that at that time were partially protected by covers demonstra ted their utility so that in the following autumn the larger part of the growers in and about Orlando took hold of the mat ter in earnest. Fortunately many plans were tried, and although sufficient time has not elapsed to dem
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92 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. quickly felt. Very much less fuel and la bor are req'uired. The cost of firing un der cloth in a large pinery should not ex ceed $2 per acre each night. Several kinds of cloth have been tried, varying from an eight ounce duck to a four ounce muslin, and various ways of preserving the cloth have been tested to a limited extent. Which is the most eco nomical will take several years to deter mine. An extensive experiment was tried with the cloth prepared by the Varn pro cess. This being very heavy it was found impracticable to use as a movable cover, but spread on the top of the slats and se curely fastened answered very well. I ts first cost is great, but it promises to be durable. Its disadvantages seem to be its great weight in handling, and being nearly water proof it requires irrigating facilities to afford the necessary moisture for the plants. What appears to be a good method of treating the cloth is to prepare a bath by dissolving one pound of sulphate of zinc in forty gallons of water and afterwards adding one pound of sal soda and two ounces of tartaric acid, each previously dissolved by itself. The cloth is soaked in this solution for twenty-four hours and then dried without wringing. Five ounce muslin treated by this process is in good condition after two seasons' use. We personally used a four ounce mus lin, passing it through a hot bath of par affine and oil (heated for safety by a steam pipe) and immediately after through a wringer, using four to six pounds of paraffine to each gallon of oil. Twelve thousand yards were treated in about eighteen hours with the labor of one man and two boys. The muslin had been already sewed into strips three yards wide. The object in this treatment was to use as much paraffine as possible without making the muslin water proof after the oil evaporated. The muslin came off in good condition at the encl of one season. There are two methods of using the muslin, one putting it above the slats, the other below. when the cloth is placed on top of the slats it is necessary to fasten it very se curely. For this purpose wires over the cloth secured by staples were generally adopted. We used the muslin under the slats , resting on wires three and one-half feet apart. The edge of the muslin was se cured by drawing it under and around the corner of the stringer and tacking it once in eighteen inches or two feet , the other edge being lapped over a pole one inch square, which in turn was nailed to the stringer. This proved perfectly se cure. The only disadvantage in this method seems to be that as the strips of cloth cross the beds, the cover is more difficult to put on and take off when the plants are very large. To obviate this we would suggest making the strips of cloth fifteen feet wide, and running them lenghwise of the beds. A strip o f wood 1x3 inches nailed from post to post would afford means to support the wires and the edges of the cloth. The wires could pass through the centre of the strip or be se cured by staples to the under side. Tack the edge of the cloth around the corner on the upper side and the next piece of cloth around the corner on the under side. Fastening it with four ounce tacks in this way once in eighteen inche s will make it perfectly secure, and it can be easily put on and taken off. Other methods are being tried, among

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 93 which is a wooden cover to open and shut like a window blind; a similar cover is used for protecting brick in the brick yards along the Hudson river. The amount of heat required under a tight cloth cover is comparatively sniall. \Ve used with great satisfaction a very simple coke stove, consisting of a cylin der of No. 20 sheet-iron twelve inches in diameter and thirty inches in length, made slightly tapering. A piece three inches by four inches was cut out of the lower edge, and the whole slipped over the flange of a cast-iron grate, the grate being without legs and when in use sup ported on three brick . The fires were started with a very small quantity of wood or charcoal and the coke broken into egg-size. To prevent any po sible clanger to the cloth, two wires were bent into the form of a letter . vV and slipped over the upper edge of the stove and these supported a piece of tin about eighteen inches square three or four inches above the stove. Six of the s e stoves to the acre were found sufficient to keep the temperature at 40 degrees when it was 23 degrees outside, so that ten or twelve to the acre will be sufficient for any cold likely to occur where the pineapple is raised. The cost of these stoves is about $1 each. The cost of coke with us being not less than $8 per ton, some preferred to use wood. The best plan adopted for burning \Yood was to use it in a stove of sheet iron of oval form resting on the ground; it had a large door with a verti cal movement and a pipe passing through a piece of sheet-iron three feet square to protect the doth. These stoves, we un derstand, gave very good satisfaction. They cost, with the necessary pipe, about $3.50 apiece. \Ve contemplate trying some experi ments with oil-burners. It has been estimated that the addi tional growth of plants under the cloth cover during a single winter will nearly or quite pay for such a cover. It may afford the means, when prop erly understood, of bringing the crop forward so as to perfect the fruit at the season when it is most desired. The many advantages of a cloth cover seem to justify us in pronounci ng it a de cided success. DISCUSSION. l\Ir. McFarland-I ask the gentleman in speaking of treating cloth with paraf fine, etc., to make it water proof and mil dew proof , does he treat it for mildew be fore he gives it the water proof? My rea son is I believe that by the experimenting we have clone since 1895 we hope to spread around our successes and failures as mucl'. as we possibly can. I believe that it is for the benefit of the State of Florida to find out what is right and what is not right to do, and I say what I do without antagonizing any one. In speak ing about water proofing a piece of cloth: After twenty-two years' experience by one that knows what canvas is, he ought to have more knowledge about the treat ment of canvas for mildew or water proofing than any one who has treated canvas in the United States. Unless you treat a cloth for mildew, do not put on the paraffine; it will mildew quicker than if you do not do anything to it. You must take the starch all out of that cloth; that is what causes mildew; take that out, then put it in a solution of alum-that does not allow it to take mildew. After that water proof it, then you have mil dew proof and water proof and you have not got it until you do. Those are facts and I know it.

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THE STRAWBERRY . Considered Historically and Commercially Best Varieties Up to Date Excellent Advice as to Packing. By L. Cameron, of the Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: The strawberry has been termed the Queen of Fruits, but i n Florida we can not yield it that place, as the orange is Queen here, but the st rawberr y comes next. It has given renewed life and pros perity in a great many localitie s when the fro st killed the hope of orange-rais ing. Duval county has the honor of having raised the first strawberry for s hipment to Northern markets. The Wilson's Albany was the first planted here, and was the leading variety up to 1886. The Charleston Seedling and the Newnan followed. In those days the fruit began to come in in the latter part of January, and Feb ruary was always reck oned as the s traw berry month. Co ndition s have changed and March and April a re now the strawberry months. l Fruit shipped from here from 1886 to 1890 brought from 50 ce nt s to $1.00 per quart , and it did not pay to ship when prices "vent belo,v 30 cents. It ther cost about 15 cents per qua rt to put the fruit in the Boston or New York markets. There ha ve been numerous varieties plant ed during the pa s t few years with more or le ss s ucc ess. The Hoffman, Cloud and Mic hel were long the lead ers. The Lady Thompson came in a few years ago and is probably the best vari ety grown. From all quarters come praises of this variety, and planted alongside of others, the Brandywine, Clyde, Nick Ohmer and other new var ieties , went ahead of them in earliness and productiveness. The Brandyw ine was not a s ucce ss; it i s t oo late and a shy cropper, but a sweet er berry than the Lady T h ompson, and it might be called a second crop variety. Lady Th ompson planted the latter part of September ripened some fruit for C hri stmas, and with a light covering of pine-straw the bloom was saved through the February free ze, but go t caught in the March freeze, yet the plants were soon in fruit again and produced a good crop until drowned on Ap ril 18th. That night 4.78 in ches of rain fell before morn ing and did more damage than the frosts. In regard to fertilizer s, the different soi ls require different treatment ; more potash i s nece sa r y on new heavy soil and more ammonia on high , li ght soi l s. To ge t strong plants for setting out it is adv i sab le to k eep the bloom picked off a few rows , not allowing them to fruit , and t o fertilize with a manure containing

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOOTETY. 9 5 more ammonia than for fruiting plants. The runners will then have large, strong crowns and will stand the _ transplanting much better than weaker plants, conse quently redudng the chances of the plants dying and having to be replaced. •Many articles written on strawberry culture advise planting late varieties for a succession crop, but this does not apply to Florida, for if a grower has several acres to set out he wants them all early. The p_rices of fruit have been greatly injured by what is called "topping," that is, putting green or imperfect berries in the bottom of the basket and fine looking fruit on top, and it seems that wilh all that has been said and written against this dishonest method of packing-and dishonest it is-it is still practiced to some extent. A representative of a large and respon sible commission house in New York in formed me that hundreds of crates of berries were thrown out or sold to pecl cllers for a song every year in New York on account of this style of packing. \ Vhen a commission house knows that fruit is put up honestly and can be recom mended to the best class of dealers, thes e dealers know their customers and t h a t the price is not the object, but good fruit, and will pay a great deal more for a brand that they know will give their customers satisfaction. Put up your berries so that a dealer can turn the basket upside down and show as good fruit on the bottom as on the top, and you will get the best prices the market affords when your brand is known. With all the back-sets of the past sea son the frosts and the floods, the straw berry growers are not discouraged, but are sa tisfied with their season's .vork and almost all of them now contemplate planting a larger acreage next fall. DISCUS S I O N. Major Healy-vVhat do you consider the best table berry for home use? Mr. Cameron-The Clyde is the best . The Brandywine is not a profitable berry, at least around Jacksonville. I cannot recommend it either as a cropper or a shipper .

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REPOR T ON ORNAMENTALS . The Hardy Shade and O rnamental Trees of Fl o rida-Native or A dopt e d Shrubs and Vines. B y J . W . Ells worth , o f t he Committee . The subject of ornamentals presents a subject so far-reaching in scope that in a brief paper we cannot hope to more than here and there stir the surface. It seems to us well therefore to refer particularly to s'ome of the material for ornamental plant . ing to be liad 1.n abundance in al most any locality of the State. The ex perience of the past few years having shown us tli.e fotility of using for perma nent planting anything not strictiy hardy has also added emphasis to the value of many of our native sorts for this purpose. In many sections of Florida is found a considerable variety of oaks, of which the water oak is
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I<'LORJDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 97 smaller growth also suitable for orna mental planting; among these we find the cherry laurel, a very beautiful sort, also of special value as a hedge plant; vari ous sorts of holly, the dogwood, gray beard (chionantFius), wild plum , prickly ash (not an ash, but botanically xanthox ylum), hawthorn, aralia, etc . The list of shrubs suitable for planting about our homes includes many sorts of great beauty, for instance various sorts of vaccinium, including vaccinium arbo reum, which loads itself in spring with myriads of small lily-of-the-valley-like flowers , several species of andromeda, vi burnum, prunifolium, the foliage of which is of the shiniest green, appearing as if varnished; itea virginica, azalea un diflorum, the elder (sambucus), etc. The list of desirable vines includes many excellent sorts and admits of a con siderable variety. Perhaps the best known is the yellow jessamine , a sort that occasionally is found in bloom from December to May; others are the trum pet vine , producing in great profusion showy red flowers; various species of smilax, or sweetbriar vine, the trumpet creeper , Virginia creeper , etc., all hardy and of free growth. This list is not in tended to be complete but to direct at tention to a few good sorts in each class and urge upon pfanters the value and use of our hardy native trees and plants. DISCUSSION ON VEG ET ABLE BLIGHTS. Mr. Waite-I would like to ask some of the old vegetable growers if there is any remedy for tomato blight, and what is the cause of it? Is it a lack of any thing in the soil or something else? Mr. Gaitskill-There are two blights, one of the fungus and one of bacteria. We have not learned what will cure the bacteria blight. Prof. Smith, of the Ag ricultural Department, Washington , D. C,. has been working on it for six years and has not learned what will cure it yet. Mr. Healy-There is not very much visible difference on sight between the two , bacteria ancl fungus. Mr. Cameron-It is caused sometimes by too much moisture; I have several times put pieces of charcoal around them which helped them a great deal. Mr. Gaitskill-Wit h the fungus you will notice the very tops of the vines wilt and fall down , which is the first sign. If you will look at the ground you will find the bark will peel off. With the bacterial blight you will find one leaf will turn yel low , then anotfier and another; you will find that disease in the wood tissue in the plant; and there is no way to get rid of it but to pull it up and throw it away. We have been planting other crops for about five years and there is no differ ence. Probably the dry seasons affect this; we hope this wet weather will help us out on that. Dr. Inman-I have grown tomatoes very extensively and I call to mind an in stance where the blight was very bad one season. On the same land we planted potatoes the following season withont any blight.

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ELECT I ON OF OFFICERS . The N orninating Committee, consist ing of S. H. Gaitskill, 'B . N. Bradt and F. D. \Vaite , through the Chairman, pre sented a ticket, whicfi was as follows: President-George L. Taber, Glen St. Ma r y. Vice-Presidents-Dr. George Kerr, Pierson; G. W. Wilson, Jacksonville; vV. A . Cooper, Orlando. Secretary-Stephen Powers, Jacksonville. i.• : I Treasurer-W . S. Hart, Hawks Park. Executive Comm i ttee-Lyman Phelps, Chairman, Sanford; E. S. Hubbard, Fed eral Point; E. 0. Painter, DeLand. Each of the above-named gentlemen, in succession, on motion made and sec onded, was unanimously elected by the Secretary being instructed to cast the vote of the Society for him. In case of the Secretary the Treasurer was so in structed. Each of the officers elect re turned grateful acknowledgements in a few fitting and occasionally humorou s re marks. SELECTION OF NE XT PL A CE OF MEE TI NG . This function, on th i s occasion, proved to be uncommonly spirited and exciting. There was a stro ng sentiment among many of the older members that, since the Society had met, at one time or an other, in nearly every representative sec tion of the State-Orlando three times, Ocala twice, Ormond, DeLand, Inter lachen , Jacksonville three times, Pensa cola-that the West Coast should be ac corded the courtesy of meeting in that section this time. This view was ably presented by Vv. S . Hart, who , as a re s dent of the East Coast and one of the oldest members of the Society, spoke from a vantage ground of great s trength. Early in the session the vVest Coast had two candidates, Tampa and St. Petersburg, but before the election came 111 the friends of the two places harmonized their views by agreeing to work unitedly for St. Petersburg. The attraction s and inducements of St. Petersburg in partic ular and Vlest South Florida in ge neral, especially o f that fertile and rapidly ad vancing region, the Manatee river val ley , were earnestly and eloquently pre sented by C. W . Butler, M. E. Gillett, A. J. Pettigrew, F. D . \i\/aite and Dr. F. W. Inman. It was urged, with little possi bility of successful contradiction, that ex treme Southwestern Florida is now practically the only productive orange belt of the State ; that this section has scores of splendid pineries in fruit or in bui l ding; that this Society, if it is any

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FLORIDA S TA'.l 'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 99 thing, is a grower of oranges and semi tropical plants; and , that to be at home and see once more magnificent towering orange trees, all unharmed and bending under their burdens of fruit , the mem bers of the Society should visit this re gion and gladden their orange-hungry eyes. Nothing could have been more cordial and eloquent than the sol icita tions of these South Florida delegates. Dr. H . E. Stockbridge also ided with South Florida, urging the mutually edu cating effect of the Society upon the place of meeting and conversely. Rev. E. V. Blackman, in a few scenic sentences invited the Society to come to Miami, "which i in the tropics where the frosts do not come to disturb us, where there is always sunshine. on the most beautiful bay that our Heavenly Father ever placed upon this earth." Capt. C. E. Garner, on behalf of the Board of Trade, extended a cordial invi tation to the Society to meet in Jack so ville , and followed this up with a well worded bu iness-like address. Maj. G. P. Healy , at great length , and C. T. McCarty, with lawyer-like inci s ive ness and loo-ic, presented the business considerations of this matter. Major Healy argued that the Society is old enough and dignified enough to have a fixed abiding place. That the Society is paramount and the individual or the lo cality entirely secondary. That by hav ing a fixed local habitation as well as a name, we could say to the tran portation compames: "Here we stand; we do business here; this is our home, and we want to know what you will charge our people to bring them here. 'Ne want to have a library , and if we adopt the recommendations of our President, we will have a library; we will become one of the fixed institutions of Florida, and be no longer nomads and wanderers, traveling up and down like a circus. This is the most accessible place in the State, where we can get better rates than to any other; this is the place for this Society, and it is a great deal ea ier for a man to come here than it is for the Society to go to the man. If yo u go to St. Petersburg , you discommode just as many as if you came to Jackson ville." Mr. McCarty argued in a somewhat similar ve in: "\Ve should not be ambul atory; we want a home, a permanent place to meet, live and do business. I submit to this Society that there has been more good will, enthusiasm, etc., in our meetings here than at any other meet ings. The influence of the meeting of this Society on any little town is very small indeed. Vv e have the best facilities for getting here more easily and more rapidly than to any other point; we have these elegant rooms of this Board of Trade to meet in ; we have here a stenog rapher ; we have here the facilities for getting before the people of the State everything we say and all we do. This alone surpasses all other arguments . Tlie people of the country come here for amusement, as well as for entertainment: the ladies like to come here to see the styles; the men like to come htre to get a new crash suit; there is everything to come here for, and we must have a li brary and a home with everything around us to work with. We will have as good a membership , more fidelity , more life here than at any other place. \/1/hile not

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100 FLORIDA S' L'A'fE HOR'l'ICUL'l'URAL SOCIETY. antagonizing South Florida I do not care to run from place to place to see the country; that is not the object of this Society." The President appointed W. M. Bennett, Prof. J. Y. McKinney and B. Bradt as tellers. Upon counting the votes it was found that Jacksonville had received fifty-eight and St. Petersburg forty-one. REPORT OF SECRET ARY. Stephen Powers. In my department the past year has been one of uneventful routine labor, but not unpleasant because it has been re lieved of its tedium by the evident fact that a great majority of the members ap preciated the mission of the Society and contributed cheerfully to its support. About six weeks before the elate of our meeting a letter was sent to the general passenger agents of the leading railroads of the State, asking the customary cour tesy of reduced transportation and sug gesting that the old rate of one cent a mile each way would be very acceptable. Much negotiation ensued a nd when the concession was finally received , April 17, it was a rate of one and a quarter fares for the round trip. President Taber and Vice-President Wilson immediately made fresh representations to the ot ficials, earnestly requesting a restoration of the former generous rate. All such matters ha ve to be referred to the South eastern Passenger Association at Atlanta , then back to the several companies, and again much delay occurred, so that it was Saturday, April 28, before the Secretary was notified of a restoration of last year's rate. This did not leave sufficient time for the notification of all local agents aml our members living in remote places to enable them to secure tickets on the ba sis of one cent a mlle each way, and a considerable number were deterred from coming who wou ld otherwise have attended. Up to the time when the new trans portation rate was announced the fees were coming forward rapidly and the out look was for a larger paid-up member ship than last year; but when the new rate was sent out there was a heavy fall ing off at once. Several who had planned to come to the meeting aban doned the intention. But even under these unfavorable circumstances the membership has nearly held its own , and is as follows up to six o'clock p. rn. May 2: Annual members ............... 293 Life members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Honorary members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Total ...................... 334 Receipts. Annual memberships . . . . .... $293. oo Back numbers sold ........ . Life memberships . . . . . . . .. . Donation from Amos \i\Takelin. 49-9 1 50.00 4.00 Total . . . . . . . . . . ........ $396. 91

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FLORIDA STATE HOR'rICULTURAL SOCIETY. 101 Expenditures. Remitted to the Treasurer Oct. 6, 1899 .. ... ........ . ... $ 30.91 0 Postage, envelopes and postal cards . .............. . .. 47.78 Stat i onery and printing .. .... . Two hundred badges ...... . . . Freight, express and drayage .. . 21 .00 9.00 IO. 17 Plate from S. F. Hall for weathc.r map.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 1 . 75 $120.61 Turned Over to Treasurer. Bank account . . . . . . . . ...... $239. 50 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.80 Total . . . . . . . . . . ........ $276. 30 REPORT OF TREASURER FOR J900. W. S. Hart. 1899. Dr. May 4, 1899, to balance in treasury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $283. 23 Jone 17, return of check from H. G . Hastings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . oo July 4, John Fabyan ' s membership fee... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I .oo October 6, received of Secretary Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. 91 Amount forward .. ... ...... 317. 14 mount brought forward 317. 14 May 3, 1900, received of Secretary Powers . . . . . . . . 276. 30 $593.44 1899. Cr. Sept. 11, by Secretary's draft favor E. 0. Painter & Co ... ... $241. 14 Oct. 6, draft for year's salary. . . 75. oo May 3, balance in treasury. . . . . 277 . 30 $593.44 REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. No regular meeting was he l d after that of May 3 in Jacksonville, until May 2, 1900, when a meeting was called by the Chairman in the Rathbun Hotel in Jack sonville. Authority was given by the members individually , by letter, to Secretary Pow ers to make such contract for the print ing of the annual report for 1899 as in his judgment might seem best for the l•'.S.H.S.-8 interests of the Society, the character of the work done and the price being both considered. The constitution req uir es that all bills authorized by the Society or the Execu tive Committee shall be paid by the Sec retary's draft upon the Treasurer, 0 . K'd. by the President. When the bill of E. D. Painter & Co., dated Aug u st 29, for the printing of 750 copies of the annual re

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102 FLORIDA S'l'A'rE HOR'l.'ICULTURAL SOCIETY. port and aggregating $23 r.68, was pre sented to the Secretary, the President was absent in the North and his address was not known. As the aforesaid firm was anxious to receive payment the Sec retary proposed to the Treasurer that if he would hon or hi s draft upon the en dorsement of the Chairman of the Ex ecutive Committee, he would hold himself personally responsible for the amount. The Treasurer accepted this guarantee, paid the draft and the firm received payment promptly. Further than this we have nothing to report. Lyman Phelps, E. S. Hubbard, H. B. Stevens. GRAPES, FIGS AND KAKI. High Praise of the Scuppernong Caprifigs Introduced from Smyrna Into California-A Hopeful Event Japanese Methods Needed With the Kaki. By W. S. Hart, Chairman of the Committee. , i\/ilh grapes the writer has had com paratively little experience of an instruc tive character in this State, outside of the Rotundifolia family. Of these varieties I have the Scupper nong , Flowers, James, Tenderpulp, Thomas and one not yet fruited, that came to me through a friend who could not give its name, but whose description shows it to be c Ufferent from that I have heretofore grown, and of as good or bet ter quality for eating out of hand. This family of grapes I have been growing for over twenty years and none have ever failed since they first came to bearing to give me fair to heavy crops of fine fruit for household use and for sale in the home market at from three to six cents per pound. Having grown many of the finest vari eties of the Aestivalis and Labrusca fam ilies of grapes in the North before corn ing to Florida , I was not, at fir st, favorably impressed with the wide growing vine an l the lar ge, thick-skinned, sma ll bunched fruit of the Rotundifolia; so I was more than willing to join my neigh bors, who rather scorned this class of g r apes and even refu sed to accept root ed vines from me as a g ift, in testing some dozen or more varieties of the Aes tivalis family. Not desiring to grow grapes exten sively I soon gave up the cultivation of these because of the care needed to pro duce fine fruit. Some of them I found could be grown here successfu ll y on a large sca le , but to protect a few irom birds, animals, insects and fungi; to make them produce fine clusters a;nd ripen evenly required more attent.ton than I care to give them just for the 1ew that I desired for home use. On the other hand, the Rotundifolias were pushing over their supports in .all directions and only calling for more ar

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 103 bor space to spread themselves on. With little pruning, no doctoring for sickness or enemies, with the same cultivation I gave my orange trees on adjoining land and about the same fertilizer, a few vines were giving me many bushels of delicious grapes, some of them measuring three and one-quarter inches in circumference, and, to my taste, a part of these varieties at least, when fully ripened on the vines, were in their juice qualities fully equal to well ripened Concords and far superior to that grape as usually placed on the market. As a table grape the reputation of the best of the Muscadine family must rest wholly on their juice qualities, as, until bred up in appearance, they can not offer the attraction to the eye possessed by many of the cluster grapes. Yet be cause of their hardiness and freedom from insect and fungus enemies, their wonderful growth of vine and bearing capacity, their fine juice qualities, some varieties for eating out of hand and oth ers for wine making-though I know it is hetrodoxy to say so-I believe this family of grapes is destined to grow more and more into favor in this State , and in the coming years to be made a greater source of health, pleasure and profit to the small grower of fruits than all the cluster grapes combined now grown in Florida. Figs. The event of the past year in fig cul ture is the successful importation in March and April, 1899, of the blasto phaga or fertilizing insect of the fig, as announced by Dr. L. 0. Howard , Ento mologist U. S. Department of Agricul ture, and its successful propagation in California by Mr. Geo. C. Roeding, of Fresno. This long hoped for success was largely brought about through the inge nuity and persistence of our valued friend and fellow-member of this Society, Prof. Walter T. Swingle, who, for the past two years has been forwarding to the U. S. Agricultural Department among many other valuable horticultural foreign trees , plants and seeds, cuttings, fruit and trees of the caprifigs from the shores and islands of the Mediterranean with a view to the introduction of this insect. Since 1880 repeated attempts have been made by private parties, firms and the U. S. Agricultural Department to ac complish the establishment of this insect and its host plant on American soil, but without success, as to the insect, until 1899, or possibly 1898, as this point is not fully settled, though several varieties of the tree have been very successfully grown here for several years. \.Vhat this importation means may best be told by quoting from Dr. Howard's paper read before the Ame rican Pomological Soci ety at Philadelphia in September last. Dr. Howatd says: "About the middle of July Mr. Roed ing found Smyrna figs which had been fertilized by the blastophaga. By July 19, not only was the difference between these figs and the unfertilized Smyrna figs most striking, but the difference between them and those which had been artificial ly pollinated was also very marked. The unfertilized Smyrna fig is hollow, can easily be squeezed together by the fin gers, and drops to the ground before it is more than three-fourths of an inch in diameter. The figs which Dr. Eisen and Mr. Roeding have been able to artificial ly fertilize by collecting pollen from the caprifigs and introducing it into the ori

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104 FLORIDA STATE HORTICUL'l'URAL SOCIETY fice of the Smyrna fig by means of a toothpick or blowpipe, become rather firm, and on reaching maturity contain many ripe seeds, probably not more than half, however, of the number of ripe seeds that may be found in the average import ed Smyrna fig. Those found by Mr. Roeding which had been pollinated by the blastophagas, however, were by the 19th of July more than twice as large as the unfertilized ones, were solid and firm and literally packed with ripe seeds, sur rounded by tissue of a beautiful pink color. \Vhat the outcome will be from this time on is difficult to predict. The blastophaga has been successfully intro duced anct has bred profusely for one generation. Whether it will breed in the mammoni* caprifigs we cannot tell as yet. "It has not been found to do so in Europe, as previously stated. The third crop of caprifigs in Mr. Roe
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FLORIDA STA'l'E HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY . . 105 edible figs, thereby insuring an abundant production of perfect seeds in perfectly ripened fruit, as well as greatly enhanc ing its size and improving its flavor, may be eminently successful. If this greatly to be desired combina tion of plant and insect life can be in duced to firmly establish itself on Cali fornia soil and in California climate so that their figs will rival those from the Orient for both eating out of hand and for drying, there will be good reason to hope that we may do the same in Florida and that fig culture may become a prom inent , permanent and profitable industry within her borders. Kakl. We now come to the consideration of a tree , the kaki , that will grow , thrive . and produce its crop of fruit in abun dance and high perfection almost any where in Florida. Its profitable market ing, however , has not yet been worked out to the extent that it has in Jap a n , where it i s a prime favorite and is grown and eaten in great abundance. Our valued brother member of this Society , Prof. H. E. Stockb~idge , who spent several years in that far away and rapidly developing country, tells us that this fruit is packed in tight barrels under pressure , allowed to go through a certain amount of fermentation, or , in other words , curing something as tobacco is cured in this country , after which it be comes a rich preserve that will keep in definitely. It is a most delicious fruit, beautiful in coloring and shape , has fine keeping and curing qualities and is sure to become a favorite in this country when our people become educated up to its peculiar char acteristics. Like the cluster grapes, it is most profitably grown in large plantings, if for market , so that a good proportion of choice fruit will be left after the birds and animals that know a good thing when they see it , h a ve had their share, and that some pain s may be afforded to place it properly before the people in the markets to which it i s shipped. REPORT FROM. POLK COUNTY. By A. B. Harring-ton, of the Committee. The subject of grapes , figs and kaki is one upon which I can say but little, as my experience has been very limited. But if committees make no report, and all have nothing to say, we should get but meagre information. I will say that I have made some little effort to produce grapes for home use. The Scuppernong does well on any soil in my locality. Other varieties have proved almost a failure with me. Have tried the Niagara, Ives and others with poor success. I have one vine grafted in a native root that gives promise of good wood growth and fair fruiting quality. I do not recollect of ever seeing grapes, except Scuppernongs , or figs on our market, hence I conclude they are not produced to a profit in South Flor ida.

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106 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIE TY. Kakl or Persimmons. This has done fairly well with me, and I think others are having reasonable suc cess, as the fruit is to be found on the market in it s season . I have had the best results from trees grafted and never moved, although trees from the nursery do fairly well. I think I can start with a persimmon seed and in four yea rs time have a larger tree than I would from a one-year graft from the nursery. I consider the fruit delicious and every one should have a few trees for home use. I have had ample fruit from one tree for home use from October r until December 15. DISCUSSION. Mr. Hart-I would like Prof. Stock bridge to tell us what he knows of kaki in Japan. Prof. Stockbridg e-I do not think I have anything to say worthy of the time of the Society at present. My experience in Japan was more as an interested con sumer than as a grower. 1n Mr. Hart's report he stated that the rt.suit of the process of sweating as practiced by the Japanese resulted in a delicious preserve. This is a misleading statement. The fruit i s not affected in any way except by the sweating process which is really a fermentation which ripens it more thot oughly, and its taste is much improved thereby. Many varieties of pears are never so good when allowed to ripen nat urally. The sweating process consists of putting the fruit into tubs or barrels somewhat conical shaped and in these tubs the fruit is subjected to pressure. A weight is put upon it, so that the cover is pressed clown by stone as the fruit gives way to the pressure. Then it is put into a dark place and the fruit under pressure is allowed to remain about six weeks and it undergoes a fermentation. Mr. Hart 's comparison to the sweating of tobacco was correct . The fruit is thereby vvon clerfully improved in all its desired quali ties. The practice to my knowledge has never been followed in this country. The Japs have as many varieties of kaki as we have of apples . They never eat one until it has been passed through this sweating process; it is a great commercial enter prise before it is placed on the market for sale and before it is actually used. It is worth our consideration, and we might improve the qualities by subjecting it to this process as the J aps do. The crop is gathered just about the time it is col _ orecl. After it has passed through that stage, it keeps all winter long. There we can get this fruit all winter until the middle of spring. Opening the tubs does not seem to interfere with the keeping qualities. It seems to be somewhat shrunken but is not swollen . Its appear ance is not interfered with at all; each one is separate and distinct. Each fruit is an individual fruit , but very soft. They always eat it with chop-sticks. Mr. Bennett-I wish some of the Committee would tell us how we could secure a fair share before the birds get it. Mr. Harrington-My method is to gather the fruit before the birds get it. Mr. Phelps-The fruit will keep long er than Prof. Stockbridge thinks. I have haJ it at my place in June. After being put through that sweating process it al ways retains its shape, but it shows it i s a preserved , dried fruit. I have been told the process by those who have been in Japan; their fruit is most delicious. I have never succeeded in trying this pro

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 107 cess. Some of them keep until the last of January, but the birds have to be sha red with and of some varieties they do not even leave me any. They begin picking it earlier than I do; at least one or two hundred taken by the bird take a large share away from me. Some vari eties are good even to January. A fter that month they do not seem to dry any more and are very edible. 'vVe must be thinking the matter over and get some process that will do as well as that of the J aps. Per hap there is something in our climate that prevents our getting to this point. Mr. Danleyot wishing to take up the time of this Society, I would like to say a few words about the grape. I have had several varieties that do fairly well, but the Scuppemong is the grape for the South. I have about five acres planted and I lrave three or four kinds of black grape and two or three kinds of white grape, but I am enthused over the Scup pernong grap e . I make a considerable amount of wine horn it ; the black grape is superior to the ,vhite and the wine is a keeping one. I have it five years old and it is better than 1Yhen first made. A few vines will be very profitable, and the fruit i very fine for birds, a well as men. The birds must have OTPething to eat. They are very prolific, and I do not miss what the bird s take. Also tltey fer tilize and cultivate the vines, and my ad vice is for everybody to raise a few of the different varieties of Scuppern011g grapes. Prof. Stockbridge-The failure of Florida growers to produce the same fruit as produced in Japan is worthy of our con icleration. There is today on a farm in Leon county, Florida, a Jap who is familiar with the process of preserv ing this fruit and if any one would be willing to furnish the fruit necessary, I think I can arrange with him to put it through this process for us. Mr. Phelps-If Prof. Stockbridge will ~ive me directions, I will ship him at any time. A good many varieties of kaki are sl ightl y beginning to color when the birds take them. There are some that are much improved by keeping some weeks before eating. A large majority of the kaki have no bitter taste even when the skin i s green. Unfermented Grape Juice. Mr. Amsden-The settlement com pose~ of Germans at Ormond are very successful in the growing and cultivat ing of the Scuppernong grape. The Thomas variety is the one preferred fo r wine and most generally planted, though the Bronze and a late variety of the same family are planted for a succession. T:1structions found in most nurserymen's catalogues are not to prune, but our Ger man growers prune severe ly, and no where have I found such hardy, vigorous vines and suc h quantities of fruit. The pruning is clone after the vine becomes dormant, and before it shows signs of putting out a
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108 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. from the Scuppernong? The most im portant part of the grape is its sugar. The Scuppernong grown in Florida in our warm climate, develops more and better grape sugar than any grape grown in the North. Our grape juice is richer in saccharine matter, I might say has dou ble that of any made from grapes that are grown in a cold climate. . We ought certainly to make what is consumed within our own borders. Last season while we were on the sub ject of protection by tent covering, the suitability of stoves for this purpose was discussed at length. The idea seemed to prevail that we should have a special stove , one built on different lines than those for ordinary use. Being local agent for the Central Oil & Gas Stove Co., of Gardner , Mas s . , one of the largest fac tories of its kind in the world, I wrote them asking if they had a stove that would answer the purpose and yet be within reach of a poor orange grower. We have had correspondence on the sub ject from that time until this present, and the result is they have shipped to my address a sample lot of special stoves to be exhibited before this Society , and I had expected to find them awaiting my arrival, but to my disappointment they have not come to hand, and I see no hope of their reaching here before the meet ing closes. However, if any member or others should be in the market to be sup plied with stoves, if they ,vill address The Central Oil & Gas Stove Co., Gard ner, Mass., for prices and description, they will get a ready reply, or if they pre fer, they can buy through my agency. Mr. Phelps-The present is the time for the discussion of the grape subject. There must be some variety of grape that was the original Scuppernong. What is the original Scuppernong in North Caro lina? The longer we prolong this sub ject the more we will be benefitted by it. We want some distinctive names for these grapes and get on a true basis. Are any of these the Scuppernong in its truer and be s t sense? Mr. Taber-The word "Scuppernong" is often improperly used. The Musca dine is the original, the generic term, and the Scuppernong is a word that is used sometimes by mistake; the Scuppernong is only one variety. Mr. Hart-I spoke of it as the Scup pernong family. That is the way it is generally used, but I understand the white grape is the Scuppernong, but all of that class of grapes is known under the name of the Rotundifolia and the Scuppernong family.

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STREAKS OF SAND CALLED ROADS. Linked Sandiness Long Drawn Out-Death to Ambition, Death to Farm Profits-Road Funds Wasted and Diverted -" Abnormally Developed Acquisitiveness" of Road Officials Wretched Patchwork System-Here a Little Work, There a Little and Nothin g D:me -Good Roads Could Easily .be Built What They Would Do for the State. By W. M. Bennett, Chairman of Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: When I read of a gentleman in a rep resentative capacity before a national good roads convention making the dec laration that "the State of Florida can boast of having pretty good roads with out much expense," I experience a sense of embarrassment that is not easily ex plained or overcome, for I am unable to determine whether the gentleman was favoring his fell ow delegates with a view of what lay before his prophetic vision of Florida in the next decade, or that he really had during his journeying to and fro through the land been sustained by his State pride and filial love to observe only the perpetual verdure of its flora, the purity and mirror-like beauty of ~ts emerald framed lakes, its unequalled cli mate, its balmy breezes laden with the perfume of innumerable flowers, and the music of the forest songsters. Or per chance he had witnessed the driver help 1-iis horse by pushing the empty wagon up the clay hills of Leon and enjoyed the spectacle of the wa~on pushing the tired horse down the other side, or while hunt ing gophers on Apop,ka mountains he has philosophized upon the reversal of the laws of gravity where good horse power is required to pull an empty wagon down hill. Or as all lines of beauty are said to be curves, may we.not conclude that his artistic nature has seen in our sandy sinuous trails that so expert ly dodge forest trees and gracefully mean der around ponds and prairies, only lines of beauty, and the four to six inches of shifting sand through which the horse delights to wallow, and the wheels do continually gr-incl and moan, as the rhyth mic accompaniment of a restful three mile an hour gait. The pine root cordu roy roads of the flat lands is another va riety with infinite variations ranging from a toothache shock to a lyddite con cussion, and these are what the gentle man called pretty good roads. Our R,oads Exceedingly Bad . Why, Mr. President, for the past six or seven years I have been telling thr

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110 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. people of Florida that our unimpro ve d road s ave r aged exceedingly bad; and that outside of the road tax they cost u s more than a ll other t axes combined, and this statement is not hard to demonstrate. There is no public utility that so cer tainly and intimately affects every indi vidual and every social and material in terest as the public roads . Every jour ne y made over a bad road entai l s a loss of time , an unnece ssary wear of the ve hicle , a waste of horse power and exer cise s an influence that tends to still fur ther degeneracy of the indolent or ex asperation of the ambitious. The farmer at an average distance of five miles from town finds that it takes a man and horse h alf a day at a cost of seventy-fi v e cents to get the mail from the postoffice or a few groceries from the store w hen the tortuous sandy trails are the li nes tra ve led. On a good road the trip co ul d be made at a cost of twenty five to thirty cents with less fatigue to the horse . It would take a man and hor se two days to haul a ton of fertilizer from town through an unimproved sanely road which would add three dollar s to it s co s t at the farm, while over a hard sur faced road , with a minimttm g r ade the same man and horse could make three trip s per day with a thousand pounds each trip , wh ich would reduce the cost of w agon tran spo rtation to one doll a r per t on. The r ailroads charge about one and one-half cents per ton per mile on fer tilizer , and on the more numerou s class of m erchand i se about s i x cents per ton per mile. On good roads the co st is less than twent y cents , while the se r pentine sand y extortion takes sixty cents per ton per mile . Money Loss in Bad R.oads , If a farmer and his team can do twice as much in a clay for one clay in each week under changed conditions as he i s now doing under eJ:eisting conditions he can add fifty-two working days to each yea: without adding to his expenses, and takmg the current rate of two dollars a nd a half per day for man and team and we find that he has made or saved one hundred and thirty dollar~ . But as~ suming that this increased ability to do work does not affe ct more than two clays per month, at the current rate of one dollar and fifty cents per clay for a man and one horse he has gained thirty-six dollar s, or twenty-four clays in the year, which is a low estimate of the time lost by the farmer struggling with bad roads. Procrastination has justly been called the thief of time, but bad roads are the hi g way robber that takes the farmer's time . ' ~rnstreats hi s h o r se, destroys his wagon, iso l ates hi s family , takes toll on all that he buys , and a ll that he takes to market; keeps the family from church and public gatherings, where their information might be increased , their ideas and aspi rations broadened and their live s bright ened. He sours the tempers, he drives the children of prom i se to the already congested channels of city life. By his presence he repels alike the advance s of the settler, the tourist and the m anufac turer; he is the unqualified enemy to wealth and progress in every form. A fter the most thorough inquir y, in vestigation and calcu l ations , three o f the best authorit i es in our country while pur s uin g in dependent and different lin es of investigati on, have reached approxi mately the same conc lu s i on-namely

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 111 that bad roads cost the people of the United States annually the enormous sum of $500,000,000, or about $7 for each man, woman and child. It will be assumed that the population of Florida does not bear its full proportion of this appalling burden , but whatever does in here from the roads of this State carries exceptional condemnation because of the fact that we have inexcusable bad roads, with exceptional facilities for construct ing good roads at very small outlay. There are no mountain ranges to traver e or rocky chasms to bridge ; no degrees of cold that ~ necessit ate deep foundations to prevent upheavals, but a gentle undu lating surface that presents an easy grad ient, a porosity of soil that furni s hes natural drainage and surfacing material within easy reach of every part of the State. But roads were not built because the mass of our people being accu tamed to our sandy trails did not appreciate the fact that they were very poor apologies for roads, and their use a great burden upon the people. Some, like our repre sentative at the good roads convention, insisted that we had good roads probably because they had never seen any other, many there were who believed that the pople were too poor to build roads and omitted to verify their opinions by an ex amination of the records. People's Time and Money Frittered Away. The facts are the people's time and money have been frittered away under a system that never has been and never can be successfully defended as a means of providing the public with highways, but as a means for the distribution of political favors would be hard to beat. Why, sir, if the labor and money contributed by the people of Florida during the past ten years ostensibly for the main tenance of highways had been systemat ically and wisely used there would have been more miles of good roads in each county than there are now within the borders of the entire State. The people do not realize how large are the s ums in the aggregate that are raised for the road and bridge fund; it eems incredible that over thirty thous and dollars could be expended on the public r oads of one county and no visible improvement result from its use. Yet such was the fact and the same waste has been going on wherever the system has been in operation. Perversion of the Law. The law, plan or agreement that di vides the road funds between the sever al commi sioners of the board and gives those commissioners unchecked author ity over its expenditure in their respec tive districts is contrary to the spirit of the constitution, is unjust in its applica tion and violates safe business principles. By the constitution the county i s the unit of territorial subdivision in the State, and a legi slat ive board is provided for its management, not of a part but the whole, not as individuals, but as a board, and no authority is vested in the board to delegate its power to an individual mem ber. The idea that the commissioner is entitled to the control of the total mile age collected for the road and bridge fund in his district for use exclusively within the district, is unsound as a the ory and unjust in practice. The reve nues of a county irrespective of the dis tricts from which collected arc used for the construction and maintenance of county buildings and without regard to

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112 FLIJRIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. their location. The compen sa tion of county officials is drawn from the county funds without question as to the district from which they were chosen. The sal aries of the school teachers are paid from the county school fund without regard to the location of the school or the home of the teacher. The costs of criminal prose cutioris are borne by the county as a whole, and the criminals are boarded at the county ' s expense without inquiry as to the precinct in which the offense was committed, or from whence the criminal came. Diversion of the Funds. Is there any good reason why the pub lic highways should be made an excep tion to the rule which regards the county as a unit for all public, financial and in ternal improvements? Precinct boun daries have no relation to county finances, but are established for the specific pur pose of providing convenient voting dis tricts. A small, compact, populous com missioner's district may embrace half of the assessed valuation of a county, have but ten per cent. of the county 's high ways, and yet be dependent for s upport upon the farming districts adjoining. Now neither justice or good policy would sustain the claim that one-half of the to tal county road fund should be u sed for the one-tenth mileage in the one district, and the other half of the revenu e for the nine-tenths mileage in the remaining four districts. The greater portion of taxable property in the populous districts is the accretions from trade with the pro ducers, and without that trade there would have been no concentration of values, and it must be apparent that by improving the channels of trade an in crease in value may be expected. No part of the county has a superior claim over anyother part to a specific portion of the road fund, except as indicated by the volume of traffic and the public de mand for increased facilities. There s hould be no disbursements except by the authority of the commissioners sit ting as a board, each member of which should be beyond all s uspicion of per sonal interest in profits from contract s or benefits to accrue through members of their families or political partisans. The employment of a competent man as road s uperintendent for the county subject to the general control of the commissioners, when acting as a board , offers the best solution of the road question. "Abnormally Developed Acquisitiveness." It i s a plain business proposition that a competent man with the incentive of continued employment and public ap proval could and would protect the pub lic from the lo sses incident to supervision by commissioners resulting from inadap tability , inexperience and abnormally de veloped acquisitiveness which has wasted thousands of the public fund s. The efficiency of a superintendent would grow with his experience, each month 's work giving better value for the expenditure, and the continuous employ ment of s uch a man would co s t les s than the perfunctory se rvices of the five com missioners usually cost, and would be im measurably more economical from any point of view. To sec ure good roads it is not so essential that taxation be in creased as that the funds be wisely ex pended. The line s must be laid out by an engineer or one having the necessary ability and experience; such a man will usuall y save many time s the cost of his services in the constru~tion, greatly Jes

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l~LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 113 sen the subsequent cost of maintenance, in ure permanent and enhanced value for traffic. The superintendency of the con struction should not be the experimental work of a novice, but that of good judg ment developed by experience. The drainage, the preparation of the roadbed, the fitness and quality of the surfacing matei-ial, the relative convexity of longi tudinal grades and levels should all be understood, and knowledge available for prompt and certain application. All work should be done on the cash basis and un der such rules as a successful business man would conduct his personal business. Improved road working machinery should be used wherever money can be saved by its use. Convicts "Doctors of Deviltry." The able bodied boarders in the coun ty jails who now eat the bread of idlene s and study mischief during their term of retirement , preparatory to graduating a doctors of deviltry, should be required to add to their curriculum the practical study of highways which would give healthful employment to their minds and bodies and fit them for earning an honest living when again given their freedom. From being a burden upon the tax-pay er, they could be converted into a source of profit, without being brutalized by the cruelties of the convict camps; and there after the judge's sentence would not carry an order for food and rest for the law-breaker and added burden for the honest tax-payer. Provision can be made for the group ing of counties where the proper num ber of convicts in each county could not be profitably employed, with the cost en tailed by the necessary precautions against escape, and that county of the group which would pay most could take the convicts of the group. In several States convicts have been used with the most satisfactory results from a moral, hygienic and financial point of view. In the States where the system has become established the cost per diem for each man has averaged about twenty four cents for feeding, clothing, guarding and medical attendance. A portable structure of corrugated sheet iron very readily solves the question of shelter and security at night and protection from in clement weather. Use of Wide Tires. The increased use of wide tires 1s a most encouraging indication of the growth of knowledge and of interest in the principles that tend to cheapen wagon transportation; when it is realized that a change from one and one-fourth to three to four inch tires about doubles the horse power on yielding sand, and that the im proved roads are preserved by the use of wide tires, while the narrow tires are very destructive, we may reasonably hope that no more narrow tired wagons will be con structed or brought into this State. In the countries of Europe where good roads are the rule and four to six thous and pounds a common load for a farm team the use of narrow tires for heavy vehicles prohibited, and wheels from four to ten inches wide and non-tracking axles for the heavier class represent the most advanced ideas on highway legisla tion. Compare the cost of moving six thousand pounds ten miles on a sandy road in Florida with the same task in France. Where it would take six days 1n Florida, in France or Germany it would be done in one, with several hours to spare for other work. J s it surprising

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114 J~LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. that we cannot compete with the pauper labor of Europe, as our demagogues love to tell the dear people. It may be ,,ug gested that we have not the population that demands, or the financial ability to construct such roads to which a qualified assent mu s t be given. 'T i s true that the lighter traffic here does not require such wear resisting material for surfacing, nor yet the depth necessary to withstand the effects of frost , but we can and s hould have all our roads laid on the shortest practical lines, avoiding angles and l1 e2vy grades. Wrong-Headed Engineering. Gen. Roy Stone, the eminent road en gineer and director of the United States office of Public Road Inquiry , in an ad dress delivered in Morris county, N. J., gave an illustration in his hearers' neigh borhood of the cost of heavy grades and of the folly of attempting to maintain roads on lines in violation of all rules of engineering. Over an old road three and three-quarter miles long between Morris town and Whippany there is an average of one hundred and fifty tons of freight hauled daily in loads of one and one-half to three tons, but because of the heavy grades but two trips a day can be made which brings the cost up to eighty cents per ton . By a change of route the dis tance can be shortened one-quarter of a mile, the grades so changed that three trips could be made each day with dou ble the load , thus reducing the cost to twenty -seve n cents per ton, making a saving of two thousand dollars per month, a loss which in nine months would build the proposed new road. What an amazing waste is here disclosed -twenty-four thousand dollars per year; if it has averaged but one-fourth of this amount during the past twenty years the waste has aggregated one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. Twenty years ago the people would have objected to raising eighteen thousand dollars either by ta xa tion or bonding. To have bor rowed the money the annua l cost would hav e been about $1,100, but they saved the $1,100 at a yearly tax upon the busi nes s of the neighborhood of $6 ,000, a net loss of $4.900, which would have paid the loan in four years, and as a result of the transaction the community would have had a good road and saved the $96 , 000 lost during the succeeding sixteen years with the probability that the unnoticed and indirect losses have even exceeded this amount . False Economy in Taxation. Are we not doing the same thing in Florida? Are we not beguiling ourselves with the idea that the reduction of ex penditures and the evasion of taxes is a personal benefit in the interest of econ omy? It has appeared to be the policy of some county boards to get glory by cut ting clown the tax levies for roads , and that they may not be accounted non-pro gressive they solicit subscriptions from their fellow citizens for building roads, offering to furnish one-fourth from the county funds. This is regarded by the commissioners and their non-subscribing friend s as ve ry sharp financiering until it is understood that over one-half of the taxes are paid by non-resident property owners, and under the subscription plan they pay but one-eighth of the cost of the improvements , while receiving equal ben efits with the resident in the enhanced value of their property. Conceding that our State is sparsely

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FLORIDA S'l'A T E HORTICULTURAL SOCIE1'Y. 115 settled and the people poor , the all-wise Creator has provided for just such con ditions. The soil is easily prepared, the grades are light, surfacing material can be found in every township, work can be prosecuted fifty-two weeks in the year; li ving is inexpensive, hence labor is cheap and the experience of the past two years has proven that if we will we can build roads. What Good Roads Would Do for Florida. Good country roads facilitate inter cour e between the town and the coun try for their mutual benefit; they are bet ter for the farmer 's family regarded from a religious, educational or social point of view; the increased facilities make the country home more attractive to the young and save many from a wasted l _ ife in the city, the increased capacity of the horse to go in less time and haul larger loads effects a strong saving in the num ber of horses; enables the farmer to spend more time on his farm , and thereby raise lar ger and better crops. Intelligent im migration is attracted by good roads a nd with equal certainty is repelled by bad; business enterprises need not be expect ed to locate where the bad road burden consumes the profit. Thousands of Northern citizens would spend their winters in Florida in modest hotels and country homes away from the coast if there were opportunities for enjoying the climate by driving and wheel ing. With increased population every indus try would be stimulated and for the pro ducts of the farm , garden and grove, there would be an improved home mar ket. Good roads must come, and the sooner the better. Other States are spending millions to secure manufacto ries and the tourist business, and growing rich on their investments , while the legis lators of Florida are neglecting to adopt a reasonable road system that will enable progressive counties to make improve ments that will attract the patronage of tourists and investments of capital. In some instances the people may not be ready , but there should be no legal obstacles in their way , but on the con trary , wise Legislation for their encour agement, guidance and protection. The members of the Good Roads Association have worked earnestly in disseminating reliable information. They ask all to en list in their ranks and actively co-operate in this great unselfish work. The time is at hand for the selection of our law makers. Let us see to it that we send to the Legislature men of ideas, not fossils, and require that they shall post them selves upon this great movement for bet ter roads throughout the United States, and demand that Florida shall have an equa l chance with her sister States in the great race for development.

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THE RATIONALE OF MARKETING. High Rates and Hard Treatment Gluts and Dearths the Shippers' Great Enemy The General Shipper Makes the Ma rk et, Hence the Merchant is Powerless The Shipper Also is Powerless Strong and Wide Organization the Only Hope An Able and Philosophical Paper. By W. M. Bennett, of the Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: The Florida horticulturist and agricul turist have raised many good crops, but failed in a majority of cases to obtain sat isfactory returns for their shipments. The reason for this must be known or the remedy cannot be applied; and unless a remedy can be effectively app li ed the raising of produce for shipment on com mission is too uncertain to engage in as a legitimate means of suppo rt , or a reli able source of income. Under the favor ing conditions of Florida's climate which pe rmit s of continued existence at a mini mum expense , the agriculturist in the prime of life may contribute his money crop to the Great Unknown of the cities of the North for a few y ears , while he feeds his fami l y from the sweet potato patch , the kitchen garden and the chicken coop. But shipping packages , fertilizer and numerous comforts of life to which every self-respecting American is entitled are not readily obtained for this class of home products. The credit system or a mortgage may for a time provide a way by which these esc;ent i als may be obtained, but clays of settlement and advancing age mu st be met , and unhappy is the condition of that person whom both events find unpre pared. It would therefore seem of pre eminent importance that we should learn how to carry to a successfu l consumma tion that for which all previous effort had been put forth , from the clearing of the land to the delivery of the crop to the tran spo rtation comp a ny. Our every ef fort ha s been sustained by the hope of good returns. What a g lorious friend to humanity is hope; how many millions of tired creatures have been saved from de spair by this most precious gift from the Creator. High Freight Rates. The excessive and disproportionate rat es charged for transporting Florida products to Northern markets are by very general con se nt among the most important factors in defeating the efforts of the shipper to make a profit on his investment ; but it is within the knowl edge if not the experience of a great many of my readers that a reduction to ten per cent. would not have saved the sh ipper from loss in numerous instances,

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 117 and that on occasional shipments very large profits were made where the same transportation rates were paid. There is, however , another cause close ly allied to that of excessive tariff rates which is frequently given for insufficient returns, and that is deterioration result ing from bad transportation service, un necessary delays in transit and inexcu ble roughness in handling perishable pro duce. The cost of the correspondence upon this subject between transportation line s and their patrons would pay a rea sonable dividend on the cost of a satis factory service, and yet so much still re mains to be clone that the labor seems to have been almost in vain. Gluts and Dearths the Shipper's Worst Foe. A shipment having reached its destina tion in good order, notwithstanding ex tortionate charges, slow transit and the disintegrating effects of reckless hand ling, has still to meet its worst foe. In fluenced by the report sent broadcast through the State that the market was bare and prices high, hundreds of men, each ignorant of every other shipper's purpose, act in perfect concert in hip ping every package they can prepare to the same market. A disastrous glut is the inevitable result under prevailing conditions. The shipments ha ve possi bly been divided among half as many commission men, each anxious to be first to sell out, and not a few compelled to sell that they may have the necessary funds to pay freight on incoming ship ments : The shipper and the weak commission merchant are responsible for the break, and are the sufferers; the buyer for re tail and the commission houses with cap H'.S.H.S.-9 ital are the beneficiaries, the latter mak ing returns at their market rates, and immediately shipping their receipts to unsupplied markets, not infrequently making over one hundred per cent. The making of this enormous profit after tak ing out the regular commission is not considered unfair 01: dishonorable, be cause the shipper selected his own mar ket, and was paid the market rate on the clay of arrival. Powerlessness of the Single Commission nan. The unfortunate shippe r with the best part of his crop gone, and his fertilizer, packages, taxes, etc., that require cash, still unprovided for, figures on his freight bills and finds those as large as though the shipment had paid one hundred per cent. on the investments. He al o finds that the commission man has charged the usual rate of commission. He de nounces them all as robbers, and traight way at the next opportunity repeats the same performance. It may be truthfully said that these are facts with which most of us are acquainted, and an experience through which many have passed; but of what value is the knowledge unless we can apply a remedy? Some large ship pers select a man that they believe to be honest and capable in a good market and send all their shipments to him , relying upon the mutuality of their interests to secure the best prices which that market will afford; and while this plan is the safest under the circumstances, it will not be claimed that even the best man in the best market can dictate prices unlss he controls the receipts. Hence he must follow the market and take the same prices as other dealers. The theory that our crops should be held at home until the buyers are forced

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118 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY to come to us ha s been advocated by some reputed bright men, but is so mani festly impractical as applied to many of our crops, and so clearly in the intere t of the home buyer that a very brief ex amination would ensure its rejection. In preference to shipping we should always sell at home when we can, but to h old subject to offers of hom e buyers would be suicidal. Over-product ion of Florida specialties has never caused any loss to the producer, even when her citrus crop reached its maximum; yet her losses have been very heavy in consequence of the overloading of different markets at vari ous times. Decreased production would not prevent glutting by independent ac tion of individual growers; it must be apparent that independent action is re sponsible for the gluts and the lo sses in cident to them , and that the remedy lies in better distribution, which is only at tainable through or-ganized co-operation. Individual Effort Hopeless. A shipper may flatter him self that by his superior judgment in selecting his selling agent and the times of making his shipments hi s interests will always be safe, but let him rem ember, however zeal ous his agent may be, he does not control the market, and in this age of gene ral in formation the buyers keep posted and the dealer who does not keep with the mar ket will soon look in vain for his custom ers. It is the general shipper that makes the market, and until he can be induced to become a component part of an effec tive system of marketing the shipper will continue the sub ject of circumstances, more frequently adverse than favorable. The best results for the producer may be expected from that system which will reach the greatest number of cons umer s with s ufficient to s up p l y the demand through the seaso n at paying prices. Gluts and dearths must both be avoided -the former demoralize prices and the latter decrease consumption and tend to encourage competit i on. To facilitate co-operation among our se ll ing agents their number shou l d be limited to the minimum that cou ld han d l e the ship ments in the several distrib uting markets. No amount of individual acumen or enterprise can assure profit able returns for the crops of Florida with out organization among the growers or capital to control the output, and unle ss the future gave better promise of the se, the grower h ad better direct his energies into some other channel. Organization Alone Can be Effective. But I am a firm believer in the potency of organization, and the history of the race, the history of all the great enter prises of our own times, sustain me in th e belief that any worthy purpose withi1~ the range of possibilities can be attained by persistent organized effort . All organization to command the confidence of the people must be sub ject to their con trol, and this i s readily effected through local societies organized whe r e most con venient for meeting, by whom a State board of direction should be elected. By this board there should be chosen the usual officers and a genera l manager. The latter should receive at the basing points in Florida all the s hipments made by members of the organization, and dis tribute them among the va ri ous markets where agencies shall h ave been estab li s hed , such agencies whenever practica ble to be selected from the best comm i sion houses.

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FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. lHl D eta il s of Ma n age m ent. It is essential that these agents should keep the general manager fully advised as to the condition of their respective markets so that the supply shall in no case exceed the demand. It would be the duty of the general manager to ad vise the selling agents of all shipments in transit for their market so that those agents would be enabled to prepare for the further distribution of any possible excess to smaller tributary markets. Thus would the residents in all acce si ble territory have an opportunity of re ceiving our products with the lea s t _possi ble clelav, and thereby enhance the lt rep utation and increase their consumption. The agents enjoying a monopoly of our specialties in their markets would have the strongest incentive to render the best possible service in order that they might retain o lucrative an appointment. They could also ,yell afford and doubt less would be very glad to give the or ganization a discount from the regular commission, sufficient to pay the running expenses . Such an organization could secure special and valuable shipping fa cilities from transportation lines and ef fect prompt settlement of just claims. . But to secure any of these benefits there must be produced evidence of or ganized strength, there must be the vol ume of business to command conces sions. To organize, then, is the first step and as men will not move spontaneously there must be personal explanation and persistent effort, and this could only be accompli hed at considerable expense . That the effort to effect such an organi zation would meet with opposition from a large majority of commission men . and their local solicitors we may reasonabl~ expect. It may be asserted that since the grea t destruction of our orange groves there ha been no crop so large as to require organized effort to market, and while not conceding this to be correct it is worthy of consideration as affecting the time when such a movement should be inaug urated. If the future brings large crops for which markets must be found, it will be poor recompense for years of waiting and working if the increase only acids to the labor and expense without corre spondinoincrease in profit. To avoid such a fate we must be prepared. "\Vith the State Horticultural Society united on a system of marketing, there would be a nucleus for organization in very many of the shipping centres of the State, and on the presentation of a plan that had been carefullv considered and inclorsed by thi . Society there should be no room for doubt that the people would promptly come to its support and give the move ment a momentum that would carry it to success.

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A YEAR'S EXPERIENCE IN PRACTICAL PROTECTION. The McFarland Tent-Every Def ect Cur ed-Proof Against Wat er, Insects and MildewCan be Clo se d in a Few Seconds With Artificial Heat Inside it Affords Perfect Protection. By E. J. Seymour. Mr. President, Ladies and Gent lem en: Before I anp ly my se lf to the subject, I wish to express my deep se nse of appre ciation of the interest taken by this So ciety in the question of protection. I feel that in addressing you I am facing an au dience that is fully in sympat h y with ev ery effort made to aid in the development and improvement of the natural re sources of the State . Since I ha ve through my association with others in tent on the same object taken an active interest in the solution of the problem of protection to citrus and other fruits , from the disastrous effects of frost , I have been told that it was useless to try to fight Nature . But when I look into the faces of the intelligent men and women who have come today, to profit by the interchan ge of exoeriences each has had in his own particular battle with Nature's opposing forces , I am assured that not one of the illogical pessimists who refuse to "fight Nature" was ever possessed of the spirit a'i1d purpose which led to the organization of the Florida State Horti cultural Society . I see here gray haired veterans whose whole life has been a con stant warfare against Nature in the rough. Their weapons have in some in stances been pruning hooks; others have fought frost with fire, and the hand s of manf of you have been stained with the blood of martyred insects, which have swarmed upon your vineyards and groves with all the voracity of the tribes of the desert upon the habitation s of civ ilization. Every story of horticultural success is a story of a fight with Nature. There fore , although there may be an element of novelty , a new departure in the meth od on which I propose to speak in carry ing on the same fight, it is only an ad vance on the line along which you have been struggling. The road to s ucce ss in nearly every great enterprise or indu stry is paved with failure and disappointment ,. what the fruit growers have had to con tend with in fighting various scales, with a frequent recurrence of killin g frosts thrown in. While California still h as her troubles in that direction she ha s risen superior to them and the citru s indu stry in that State, after years of discourage ment, seems to be on an assured basis. Ten years ago the orange indu s tr y in California seemed doomed. Fifteen months ago it was the opinion of the majority of the orange growers in the recognized citrus belt of this State, that further attempts to grow orange s for

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) J A PROTECTED TREE AFTER THE FREEZE .

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 121 profit must be abandoned. Today there is a different story to tell and the very fact that the citrus nurseries of the entire State have been exhausted in the effort to supply the renewed demand for tree s bears testimony to this statement. vVithout any assumption on my part, and speaking in behalf of the many minds that have devoted time and money to the solution of the only serious prob lem in the way of the successful culture of the citrus family , I think I can truth fully say that this change of view is due to the demonstration that practical and positive protection can be assured to the grower. Consequently we may look for ward to the reconstruction of the most profitable and by far the most fascinating industry in the State. vVhile there are numerous devices now in use for the protection of semi-tropical fruits and plants from the ravages of frost, all possessed of more or less merit, and while I heartily endorse any effort made in the direction of restoration of the orange industry in the State of Flo,r ida , I propose to confine myself to de scribing the only method of protection with which I have been ' intimately associ ated during the past few months. I refer to the invention of William H. McFar land, known all over the orange belt as T h e M c Farland Te n t. I think I can speak without contradic tion when I say that the McFarland ten_! is better known , more P-enerally used and has given a greater imeptus to the pro gress of restoring confidence in citrus culture, in that portion of the orange belt which has been halting between renewal and abandonment, than any other device extant. I think it has been generally ad mitted that the application of sufficient heat to a tree enveloped by a canvas tent will preserve the tree thus protected from any temperature experienced in this lati tude. This point was established to the satisfaction of Mr. McFarland the sec ond night of the freeze of February, 1899. When he awoke on the morning of February 13 the work of destruction had been consummated. He at once grasped the idea of protection by means of artificial heat and a tent in which to confine it. That day he busied himself in the construction of a tent and on the second night of the freeze placed it over a tree in his yard. After securing the tent , he placed inside a thermometer and an ordinary barn lantern of three-quar ter-inch wick. A thermometer was also placed on the outside and a series of care ful observations taken. When, after an all-night trial he took his final obser vation, the mercury outside showed a temperature of eighteen degrees above zero, and the atmosphere inside of the tent . was thirty-four. This was the first test that confirmed the principle, not a new one perhaps, around which the construction of a per fect tent revolved. It was then that the real task of the inventor began. Experi ment after experiment was tried and re jected, as some radical defect showed it self , or an idea proved, when worked out, to be impracticable. There were many things to consider, in order to insure its practicability for general use in large groves. In the first place it must be dur able. Mr. McFarland had less difficulty with this problem than others which fol lowed, as he was already rich in experi ence on this line. His twenty years of actl.ve management of some of the larg est circuses in the country had taught him the proper method of treating can vas for outdoor exposure, so as to make it mildew and water proof. In fact Mr.

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122 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. McFarland water-proofed the first circus tent ever treated. He was aware that mildew was the great destroyer of textile fabrics and had already found a prevent ive. Mildew is a fungus growth, feeding on the dead matter in the cloth, in other words, the sizing, and his first care was to remove the cause and treat the cloth in a solution that would prevent its re currence. After the mildewing proces s came that of water-proofing. Canvas can easily be rendered water -proo f, as there are numerous formulas for the ac complishment of that result. But to ren der it water-proof and at the same time durable and perfectly pliable is an achievement that h as only been evolved after careful and exhausti ve experiments. Structure of the Tent. These problems having been success fully surmounted, the next question was to make a tent that could be handled with the least amount of labor, in the shortest possible time. Here is where the inventive genius of the maker was brought to the severest test. After try ing many ideas of his own and following out the idea s suggested by others, only to di sca rd them as new obstacles devel oped, he finally hit unon the plan of a circular tent which required no guy ropes or other time-wa s ting devices to maintain the tent in its equilibrium in the event of wind storms. His idea was also to provide a covering that would not in any way deprive the tree of the natural conditions of sun, clew , air or moisture, and at the same time would be in a po sition to be nuickly utilized in the event of a frost. The idea of makin g a tent that would depend for its support on the tree itself he di scar d ed, as experience has proved that wherever a leaf touches the surface of the tent without any circulating air between, it will freeze as quickly as if left unprotected. In making the circular tent Mr. McFarland attached to each seam, and in the smaller sized tent s between each two seams, a cypress strip, placed perpendicularly, and with the bot tom ends prolonged several inches below the canvas. These ends are sharpened and, when the tent is closed around the tree, the sharpened ends are pressed into the ground and thus give additional re sistance to the wind. A hoop is used around which the tent is run in closing it around the tree. The hoop is secured by stakes, nearly halfway up the heigh t of the tent. As the lower ends of the strips are fastened in the ground and the upper ends simply attached to the can vas, they give to the wind, and have the effect of spilling it similar to a sail. The tent when not in use is clewed to an up right and can be loosed in a moment, car ried around the tree and closed with a latch in ten seconds or less. For tents of less than ten feet in height and diameter a single arm projecting to the center of the tent is used. For larg er tents a double arm with a cross-piece serves the purpo e. The value of time in case of the short notice a grower usu ally ha s of an approaching cold wave can easily be annreciated by the owner of a large grove. With from s ix to eight homs notice of the approach of a freez e. it is highly necessary that a device for protection, to be practical, must allow the covering of a large grove within that time. I read with interest in the Times Union and Citizen of April 23 a lett er from Mr. W. C. Doolittle, of Belleview, relatin g h ow he saved four large trees by means of an improvised tent of his own manufacture, in which he stated that these trees he estimated would have from four to ten boxes of fruit next season.

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FLORIDA STATE HO.RTICUL'l'URfL OCIETY. 123 He added, however, that the tents could be put in position in twenty-five min utes. The owner of a good grove could not afford to adopt a style of tent or any other kind of protection that would re quire twenty-five minutes to cover one tree. Now, I stated at the out et that there had been a new spirit of hope regarding the future of the orange in this State, and that this feeling was the result of a confidence growing out of the belief that positive protection was no longer an ex periment. As an illustration of this feel inoI will cite the case of Washington E. Connor, a wealthy New York broker. who owns a sixty-acre grove in New Smyrna. Since the freeze o'f 1895 Mr. Connor has kept up his grove, but has not attempted anything further. During the past season he has been experiment ing with protection and is now convinced that freeze or no freeze we can raise or anges in Florida. He has consequently given orders to his manager, Mr. B. F. Chilton , one of the members of this So ciety, to clear up an additional forty acres and set it out in orange trees . Mr. H. M. 1-ytle , who owns the once famous Bodine grove of Enterprise. practically abandoned it until he aw the effects of protection of an adjacent grove. He has now replanted the grove with choice young buds and will protect them next season. Mr. G. F. Chamber lain, also the owner of property in En terprise, has contracted to set cut a ne\v grove which he will protect. All these indications are encouraging, but over-confidence is sometimes disas trous. For instance , several growers had sufficient confidence in the McFarland tent during the freeze of January 2 and 3 to depend upon it to save the trees with out the necessary application of artificial heat. The consequence was that their trees lost their leaves, while those who lighted their lamps in time did not lose a leaf. As , a matter of fact, the McFarland tent does not of it elf afford protection from frost, any more than a fireplace af fords warmth without a fire. It is simply designed to confine heat and this heat must be applied or the tent will fail in its purpose. I believe that the future of the citrus family is bright with promi e and that once more we will compete with the world in the production of the finest and most popular oranges ever placed o n the market.

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FLORIDA VS . PORTO RICO. For t he F ru it Grower C ont e mplating M ig r ation . B y C . M . Gr iffing. Porto Rico has been so thoroughly discussed in Congress and in the pres~ during the last few months that the sub ject seems well nigh exhausted and it is easy to imagine a sig-nificant smile pass ing over the face of the members of the Society when the subject is introduced. The social, political, tariff and financial problems, as well as the beautiful scenery have been so thoroughly covered that it is use l ess to touch on these in this paper. Does Porto Rico offer better induce ments to fruit and vegetable growers and to the settler from the North seeking a home i n a more genia l clime? and wi ll the market for the Florida products be injured or ruined by Porto Rican pro ducts of a similar character? are ques tions of interest to Floridians as a whole and espec i ally to the ho r t i culturists. The cl i matic cond i tions a r e, as to tem perature, superb. It is tropical but not . to rr id . The heat is continuous but not ext r eme . During the six weeks I was in the island the maximum temperature in San J u an was eig h ty-six degrees and the minimum was sixty-six degrees, a range of twenty degrees, and the averagf dai l y rang-e was a litt l e over nine de grees. The lowest temperature reported s i nce the American occupation was forty eig h t degrees , at Comerea in the mo L mtain section and the highest in the island ninety-six degrees . . The winter or dry season extends from October and November until April or May. On the northern lope and more especia l ly from a little west of central to the northeastern corner of the island suf ficient rain falls durimr the dry period to sustain vegetation and keep the ground in fairly good co ndition for cu l tivation. On the southern slope and a l so in the western and southeastern portions of the island practically no rain falls from.No vember till May, and in s0.111e sections very little during the entire year, irriga tion being necessary for the cultivation of all crops. In this last named section of the island the rivers are short, water rights are scarce and the cost of building and oper ating an i rrigation plant is very heavy. The limited supply of water is too valua ble to be utilized for fru i t-growing or other lines of agriculture except sugar cane. The suminer is marked by a slight in crease in the average temperature and a greater rainfall accompanied by consid erable humidity. The shower are fre quent and as a rule of short duration an ~ 1 very heavy, usually follO\ , ved by bright

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 125 sunshine, in fact much like our summer showers in Florida. Porto Rico has been visited several times by tropical cyclones coming at ir regular intervals and with varying de grees of destructiveness. The first on record occurred in 1 s I 5, the econd, and accordinfY to hi sto ry the most v iolent the island ever experienced, occurred in Au gust, 1772, and subsequent storms have occurred September, 1819, October, 1867, and in August, 188 6, the sout h and southwestern portion of the island alone suffered. The la s t and probably one of the most disastrous was on Au gust 9th, last year. This storm was particularly destruc tive on the south and southeast portion of the island. The city of Homacoa was nearly destroyed, the town of Yabacoa, lying in a beautiful valley of the same name, was left a mass of ruins. The crops of coffee and cane were se verely damaged in all parts of the i land; orange, lemon and other fruit trees and nut trees were either uprooted or strip ped of their leaves and fruit by the vio lence of the wind, and in many sections all crops and vegetation were practically destroyed. It is estimated that between 2,000 and 3,000 people lost their lives and the los s to live stock pasturing on the low lands was very great. The rainfall amounted to eleven and 20-100 inches in twenty-four hour s, sev eral landslides occurred, bridges were washed away, and in most cases public highways were rendered practically im passable. At the elate of my visit during January and February, 1900, six months after the cyclone , vegetation had practically re gained itself , banana plants having at tained a blooming size, orange, lemon , mango, sapadillo, bread-fruit and other fruit and food-producing plants and trees indigenous to the island were cov ered with a luxuriant growth and many of the trees were hanging full of half grown fruit. Practically nothing has ever been done in raising fruits of any description for market and very few experiments with vegetables or fruits have been conducted. The very few vegetables that are raised and brought to the markets in the cities are of an inferior quality. The toma toes are small, few of them measuring two inches in diameter, rough and usual ly bitter. Other vegetables of similar character are equally poor and would not be considered saleable in the American markets. This inferior quality may be caused by deterioration from the repeated planting of seed taken from the inferior product or from improper cultivation. In not a single instance did I see a field in a high state of cultivation, as we know the word in the States. One party claimed to have eecl from an American seed house but with no better results. Large herds of cattle are raised on the land s that have been exhausted from constant cropping with cane and tobac co. The cattle are apparently fat, being plump and pictures of health , but the beef i s disappointing to Americans, be ing s _ triney and entirely without fat. Few grain crops are raised. The na tive horses, which are too small for prac tical farm or grove work, feed upon the native grass. They are tough and wiry and will carry a heavy person or a pack weighing from 1 c:o to 200 pounds from morn till night without apparent fatigue. All agricultural work, except packing the produce to market, is clone with oxen.

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126 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. The scarcity of grain crops and the necessarily high price of hay and grain make the use of h o r ses and mules im practicable. Experiments with grasses su itable for hay and with grain crops are being made and economical agriculture much de pends upon the success of these experi ments. A mountain rice is grown in regions where rain is most plentiful and small patches of Indian corn are grown on the mountain slopes . Both are cultivated entirely by hand and the latter is gro und into meal for home consumption by very primitive methods. Sugar cane , coffee and tobacco raising are practically the only lines of agricul ture pursued in the island from a com mercial standpoint and little information relative to other crops and especially fruit s could be had, conclusions having to be drawn almost exclusively from ob:.. servation. It will be several years before s ufficient experiments wi ll have been made to demonstrate practically what will and will not s ucceed in the island and what fruits can be profitably grown for Ameri can and foreign markets. It is claimed by fruit men vis itin g Porto Rico that no bananas and few o"f the pineannles are of a class suitable for shipping. I had the pleasure of seeing but little of either of these fruits, they having been practically destroyed by the storm. Nowhere did I see a pineapple p lanta tion in a hi g h state of cultivation as we hav e them here in Florida . The pines brought into the local markets are grow n almost in a wi ld state. A few small plantations are being set by Americans and one b y a former Flor idian and the development resulting from proper cultivation and care will be watched with interest. Guavas, mangoes , sapadillos and other tropical fruits abound in every quarter. The orange industry is the most prom i s ing but on l y a limited p0rtion of the island seems adapted to an economical production of the fruit for market pur poses. The quality of the native orange cheno as the native calls it-is good. It is juicy, sweet, as a whole , thin-skinned and brig-ht. Some of the trees growing near the native huts look exceptionally healthy, having a dark g lo ssy green foli age of fine appearance and seem to have borne large crops of fruit, although little fruit was in evidence at the time of my visit. There are no cultivated groves in the island as we know them in Florida , neither are there any wild groves. All orange and citrus trees are a lmost invariabl y found growing either around the native houses or near where a house has previously stood. Even though the hous was not in evidence at the time, I found in every instance by careful invest igation and inquiry that in years past a house or native hut had stood near. The difference in the condition of the trees a little distant from the house and those nearer showed that the former lacked the little fertilizer accruing from the wastes of the household, and that for best results fertilizer must be used. Mayague z, at the west encl of the ishind , is the acknowledged fruit section. There has been in a measure a market estab lished there for the fruit, boats calling there for it and taking it to other ports in the island. Consequently oranges and pineapples are brought to this port from miles in the mountain districts. While there I procured fifty oranges

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY . 127 at sixty cents per 100 and in the fifty found four oranges with perfectly devel oped navel marks. All were of very good quality, bright and thin-skinned. I was informed that the fruit was brought on pack animals carrying about 150 pounds each from I 1-2 days ' journey in the mountains. The custom is to measure distance by the time it takes to travel it rather than by miles. The roads this fruit was brought over were practi cally impassable for anything but pack animals. Around Mayaguez for severa l miles the orange trees and the pineapples were suffering severely from the drought, showing that irrigation was necessary. The leaves were badly curled and trees and plants had made a poor growth the prev10us season. None were looking as well as in the north and northeastern part of the is land. Nothing is known among the natives about budding or grafting and not a bud ded tree is in be a ring on the i s land as I could hear of. To illustrate the ignorance of the Por to Ricans about horticulture we visited one farmer who had several orange trees producing a very superior fruit. Some of these trees he declared were budded, but upon being asked who budded them and where the buds came from he said no one budded them, "They just came so." The freight rates are very high and the service poor on the limited railway system which extends only about two thirds of the length of the island near the northern coast. The macadamized wagon roads are very good indeed but the horrible con dition of all other roads is sufficiently bad to more than counterbalance the good ones. Many times during the rainy season it takes eighteen to twenty hours to move a ton of freight seven or eight miles with from six to eight oxen and three or four men. The expense of road building to reach the rural districts is great; the roads not only have to be graded , a large item in itself, considering that over ninety per cent. of the island is very mountainous, the slopes rising at an an gle of from twenty-five to forty degrees and in many instances even steeper; but the road must also be covered with crushed rock and then be continually re paired if they stand the heavy tropical storms that occur annually. The tex ture of the soil is such that while it makes good roads when dry, as soon as it be comes wet and traveled it becomes so soft that it is almost impassable even for pack animals. There is, according to late surveys, 2,460,400 acres in the island. I estimate that fully or over half of this is practically of no value for cultivation of any kind because of high and steep mountains, ex cess of rock , swamps, etc. Nearly 400,000 acres of the balance is devoted to sugar , coffee and tobacco, and not eight per cent. of the remainder is suitable for fruit and fully two-thirds of this is in the southeast , south and west portions of the island where irrigation is necessary. The prices of fruit lands range from $25 to $100 per acre. There are no gov ernment lands. The property for the most part con sists of small holdings, there being on an average seven farms to every square mile. The island is densely populated and

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128 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. the production of food for home con sumption occupies a large part of the land. This leaves a comparatively small part of the central and northeastern encl of the island adapted to economical orange culture. In this section oranges of good quality could be as easily grown as in Florida and without the risk of frost. But the area is small and the production can never be large. This section is in easy touch with San Juan, at which port ninety per cent. of the steamers leaving the island touch l ast, while in shipping from other sec tions fruit would have to lie in the ships fr om three to six days l onger than when shipped from San Juan. Considering the unfavorable conclitions of the roads, the high freight rates on the railroads, the lightera ge to the vessels, the uncertainty of quick trans portation to American markets and that the care of the trees would be as much or more than in Florida because of the uneven and rocky land, leaves the bal ance in favor of the Florida grower with the possil le exception of the small area in the north and northeastern part of the island. Provided the Florida grower can de vise some economical method of protec tion , we need have no fear of finding a serious rival in Porto Rico. The Florida orange has the reputation for quality and will command fancy prices in competition with fruit from any quarter of the globe . CASSAVA CULTURE. Fall Planting Not Recommended-~ank the Seed Canes in an Upright Position-Cutting and Planting. By Chas. E. Farmer. I very much regret being unable to at tend the annua l meeting of your Society and as promised I send you together with my best wishes for a: successful meet ing a short paper which I hope will be of some guidance to intending cassava growers in preparing for and planting their next crop. I shall no doubt only repeat a g r eat deal of what has already been heard and read by those who ha ve followed the development of the cassava industry during the last year , and in this I must ask your indulgence, for this is not a crop which varies in its care and cultivation very much from other farm crops. When once a few essential de tails have been mastered the raising of cassava is a simple proposition which any farmer will quickly solve for himself. Banking Seed. The seed cane will stand but a very slight frost without injury, and if left standing in the field after November Is is liable to be spo il ed. To preserve it through the winter for spring planting! after the first snanning off with the fin gers that portion still holding leaves the

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FLORIDA S'l'ATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 129 canes should be cut at the ground and broken at the forks to make them pack closely. Select a high and well clraine
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130 FLORIDA S'l'A'l'E HOR'l'ICUL'l'URAL SOCIETY. January and leaving in the rough until a favorable spe ll of weather sets in in Feb ruary, then harrow and level the ground and let the planting follow immediately on this last working. The stirring of the ground will warm it and the seed will germinate quickly, and will appear before that planted in November. If the acre age is large and there are fears that la bor cannot be obtained to get all the crop in the ground in good season let the plowing be commenced in December a11d some planting be done in January. But during cold snaps which last in South Florida three clays a s a rule let the plant ing cease; do not take seed from the banks and expose it to the cold weather, even although it may not be actually freezing. If these lines are followed I do not think the grower will have any replant ing to do. All through the last winter and spring the ground has been unusual ly cold and wet and yet I see eighty to ninety per cent. stands of cassava in field s planted since January, and where only one piece of seed was dropped and that from tvvo and a half to three inches long. Cultivation. This must be on the level and consists ch i efly of keeping the ground stirred and the growth of grass and weeds down. On no account, even toward the end of the growing season, should these be al lowed any headway; it is not only an in jury to the cassava crop, but it makes the harvesting very much more difficult and expensive. Breaking the surface ju t be fore pul lin g the root is a great help and will warrant the expense of so doing. Cutting Seed. To cut the cane into the desired lengths use a saw clamped between two. pieces of lumber and fixed in a frame for convenience or held in position by placing one end on a block against a wall, the other end being supported by the body. Run the cane over the teeth and a clean cut is made and without any split ting of the pieces. Or a stout pair of shears fixed to a bench will do good work. Fertilizer. Cassava is not as great a drain on the land as is generally supposed; good culti vation means as much to it as fertilizer. An application of chemicals which will give to an acre forty-five pounds potash (K2O), from fifteen to eighteen pounds phosphoric acid and nine pounds of nitro gen will give satisfactory results. DISCUSSION. Mr. Mann-In regard to cassava grow ing. I want to know how it is best to pull it up. I find it qu it e a task to pull it up. If there is an instrument for that purpose let us know about it; I would ask Prof. Stockbridge how he pu ll s it up? Prof. Stockbridge-That. is an impor tant matter in the production of cassava, and it has been a bugbear to a great many, because the necessary hand labor increases the cost of production. I have made some careful tests, for I wanted to know exactly what it costs to harvest it. Up to this time there has been no means of getting it out except by pulling, and we find it necessary to exert a great deal of strength to pull it up. I have several persons working on this , trying to devise some tool for this purpose. The cost of hand-power is great and there is no other method except by loosening the earth around the roots; that makes the harve ing expensive. I have kept a record dur ing the past season and I know what it costs by using men and teams. I find that I can harvest a ton of cassava for forty-five cents , that is an actual and pos itive fact, through a whole season of an

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FLORIDA STATE HORTIOUL'rURAL OCIETY. UH entire crop, at an average cost of forty five cents per ton. This is extremely economical and cheap, and it does not materially interefere \\'ith the profits . Mr. Mann-The Professor does not count backache in with that forty-five cents. I have raised cassava for stock and other purposes and after pulling up fifty hills, I got fifty backaches. I thought perhaps somebody had a clamp and lever that would raise it out; I think it can be clone. Mr. Danley-About how much power does it take to pull it up? Prof. Stockbridge-About a man's power. Vv e had ten acres and one man harvested that entire crop, on each morn ing through the season from October until May, bringing in one to two loads of cassava. Mr. Gaitskill-The old cotton grow ers say planters used to have an arrange ment to pull stalks which could be used to pull cassava, with a lever which is pried clown and up, and it seems this could be used to pull up cassava. Mr. Adams-I have lived in Florida thirty-two years and for twenty-two I have raise I cassava; I never have failed to harve st a cassava crop yet. I have never had any trouble in digging it up, as it only takes a short time to do so. My man goes out every noon and digs enough for our stock night ai'1d morning. Mr. Hill-I have grown a great deal of cassava; we never had any implement for clig-ging it except a shove l and our hands. A man can dig enough in the morning for his stock, but if he digs all day he is pretty apt to have his back weakened. Vle have a clamp made by which you can stand up erect and do your pulling much better than using the hands. There is a great deal of differ ence in digg-ing cassava on pine land and digging on hammock Janel, and in the practical working of it there is more ex pense in getting the broken roots than in digging the larger part of the hill; but with a little care you can get out all of it, and time spent in loosening the roots and gettinothem out carefully is better than breaking and then digging down for them. Prof. Stockbriclge-W e have been \\'orking on this ubject of the commer cial value of cassava at the Experiment Station during the past winter trying dif ferent means of utilizing the crop, and I might make a statement on that point, becau e I believe it has a very important bearing on the question of the value of the crop. The point is this: Showing the actual value of the crop to the pro ducer as compared with the market value as determined by the price offered by the starch manufacturers, which is only $5 per ton. The crop is worth more than that, as it has a greater commercial value. I recognize the importance of the value of the crop to the State of Florida at $5 per ton. It furnishes us with an immedi ate outlet. Can the crop be made to be worth more than $5? \Ve have been feeding cassava to cattle and I will make a statement on that point. I can tell ex actly just how much can be passed through the organism of the cattle. One steer can be feel forty clays on one ton of cassava, which will be sufficient to fatten the steer or the equivalent of 300 pounds of cotton seed meal. Our experience has been as follows : You or I can go out on the ranges and buy all the carcasses you want for $15; you can get the frame on which to build the meat. You can feed it on 500 pounds of hay, 300 pounds of cotton seed meal and one ton of cas sava and at the end of ninety days he is worth from $30 to $35 in the market.

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132 Jfl,ORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. An original investment of $15 in the an imal, by the use of cassava, . can be made to bring you back $35. This is actually the result of the feeding of the animal himself. The feeding value of the cas sava in the actual return of the animal is not less than ten dollars per ton. Any member of this Society can take the raw animal and put that amount of feed into it for an investment of $15 and in ninety days return to his pocket $35. That is a very good dividend. That is the corn, mercial value of the cassava. Mr. Mann-Tell us what it is worth for milk. Prof. Stockbridge-It has as much \lalue for milk as for meat. There is more labor in the production of marketable butter than in the production of meat. There has to be skilled labor and greater supervision in the manufacture of butter than meat; I do not know much about that point. vVe have been feeding cas sava to dairy cows all winter and we can tell immediately in the amount of cream that we get from it in twelve hours whether the cow is feel on cassava or not. It immediately increases the cream con tent. Dr. Kerr-In regard to the feeding of milk cows. There are a number of peo ple who feed their cows on both cassava and velvet beans. They turn their cows into fields and they learn to eat them both , and it is said they exceed anything for milk cows and that these beans are better for that purpose than anything they can use, not excepting the cassava. The use of velvet beans is a little like the use of tobacco-a taste for it has to be acquired. These cattle fed on velvet beans are as fine as any cattle in the State, as any fed on cassava. Mr. Pre vatt has as fine cows as are in the State and they leave the cassava and eat t.he beans in preference every time. Mr. Danley-There is one trouble about feeding cattle on velvet beans, and that is the cows get too fat and give too much milk. Mr. Hill-In reference to raising cas sava on pine land and hammock land. It is more expensive raising cassava on hammock land; the digging and loading on cars cost us about $1.65 a ton. Dr. Kerr-I am interested in this vel vet bean question. There is a gentle man present here who fed a cow on vel vet beans for two months and what he got out of the velvet beans was $52.50 from the milk sold from that cow. Mr. Phelps-There is just the same difference between cattle and men in that respect. First and last I have grown cas sava to feed about twenty-five different cows. Sometimes I find a cow that will not touch cassava; the reason I do not know. The cassava is left and not touched and other feed is eaten. I often find it so. Mr. Gaitskill-In regard to the velvet bean feed. I have fed velvet beans for a couple of Y.ears and the cows like them and they are good for them, but they can be fed too much. They must not have unlimited access to the beans. Mr. Danley-We want to mix a little common sense in this matter of velvet beans. A cow that has been raised and fed on wiregrass will eat too much.

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DESTRUCTION OF FLORIDA'S FORESTS. For Lumber and Turpentine Comparison With Indiana Forests Useful Products That Might Be Ob tained-Paper-Making From Pine. By Prof. E. T. Cox, Chairman of Committee. One of the problems that now beset Florida is, how to restore, in a measure, at least , the magnificent for~st that once adorned the greater part of its surface. The portable sawmill, in connection with the far more rapacious stationary mill made fearful inroads in the past, and' since the material advance in the price of lumber they have redoubled their efforts to secure timb er. Since the destruction of the pine for ests in the adjoining States, the turpen tine producers have come clown upon Florida in numbers , not as numerous, but hardly less destructive on the pine forest than the locu sts of Egypt are upon the harvest fields. Trees not larger around than your arm havy rec eived their death wound. Immense numbers of fine large trees, on the turpentine farms, in this State have died and become worthless, from ' inordinate boxing, though in use o nly two years. Enough bark ha.cl not been left between. the boxes to leave the tree sufficient vitality to enable it to with stand the winter frost. Therefore they were killed and soon attacked by the pine borer, which renders them worthless for lumber. In the destruction of the Florida forest history is only repeating itself. The once F.S .II .S.-10 noble forests of hardwood trees that adorned the Northern and Western States have suffe red from the inroads of the lumbermen until only a meagre rem nant of its former grandeu r remains. Forest Giants of the Wabash. Along the valley of the lower wa bash river there existed in my young days a forest of hardwood trees that was the equal of any sylva to be found in the Union. It has given way to the axe and lumberman; "gone is gone, lost is lost forever." From the mouth of the Wa bash up for one hundred miles and more black walnut trees were cut clown for the forks and the trunks w"ere left to. rot. To such an extent was the felling of these trees carried and so g reat was the num ber of forks cut that the contractors were unable to get them all to market, and fully one-quarter were never utilized. while in charge of the Indiana geo logical survey I had an assistant measure some of the trees in a portion of the \11/a bash river bottoms. It may not be un intere sti ng to repeat here a few of these measurements, though they represent but a fraction of a once lu x uriant and ex ceedingly ma ss ive growth of forest trees. The measurements were taken for girth three feet above the ground. For height

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134 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. of the trunk to the first limb , then to the top for total hei ght. I read them in this order: Pecan ( carya olivaeformis )-Circum ference, 16 feet; to first Jim b, 90 feet; t0 top of tree, 1 17 5 feet. Burr Oak (quercus macrocarpa)-Cir cumference, 20 feet; to first limb, 7 5 feet; to top of tree, 160 feet. White Oak (quercus alba)-Circumfer ence, 22 feet; to first limb, 72 feet; to top of tree, 165 feet. Persimmon ( diospyros Vi rginiana Circumference, 5 1-2 feet; to first limb, 80 feet; to top of tree, 115 feet. Black Walnut (juglans nigra)-Cir cumference, 22 feet; to first limb, 74 feet; to top of tree, 155 feet. Sycamore (platanus occidentalis)-Cir cuni.ference , 33 1-2 feet; to first limb , 68 feet; to top of tree, 176 feet. Poplar (tulip tree, liriodendron tulipi fera)-Circumferenc e , 25 feet; to first limb , 91 feet; to top of tree, 190 feet. Cottonwood (pop ulu s monilifera) Circumference, 22 feet; to first limb , 75 feet; to top of tree, 170 feet. Black Hickory (carya tomentosa) Circumference, IO 1-2 feet; to first limb, 55 feet ; to top of tree, 112 feet. Sugar Maple (acer saccharinum)-Cir cumference, 12 1-2 feet; to first limb, 60 feet; to top of tree, 113 feet. In the previous year (1874) I measured in Jackson county, Indiana. on Mr. T. F. Belding's land four poplar trees that stood within a few feet of each other. The lar gest was thirty-eight feet in circum ference, three feet from the ground, six ty-five feet to the first Jim b and 120 feet to the top. The others v\Tere, respective ly, 18 1-2, eighteen and seventeen feet in circumference. On the same land a red elm measured eighteen feet in circumfer ence. I also measured a chestnut stump nine feet two inches in diameter and a black walnut stump nine feet in diameter. Enormous Wastage. In removing sawlogs from trees fully one-third of the wood, including limb s, twigs and lea ves, i left in the woods to rot and go to waste; another considera ble portion of the tree is lost in the slabs wastefully burned at the mills. Every particle of the wood so wantonly de stroyed can be utilized by converting it into commercial products. This may be clone by subjec tin g it to dry distillation in lar ge kilns, made to hold forty to sixty cords of wood at a charge. If the pro cess is conducted with proper care there will be obtained, from each cord of wood, the following products: Four to 6 gallons of wood alcohol (methylic spirits), I to 2 gallons of ace tone, 150 to 180 gallons of pyroligneous acid (wood vinegar), creosote and car bolic acid, I to 2 barrels of tar, 40 to 45 bushels of charcoal. By using my device for condensing these products, they may be obtained nearly pure by the first' process. The alcohol and acetone will have to be rectified. The se products obtained from a single cord of the waste wood will be worth from $12 $15. Such a vast output of charcoal from one large kiln alone could not find a mar ket in the form it is taken from the kiln, but it may be ground and mixed with ten per cent. each of pitch and sawdust and two to three per cent. of clay and compressed into briquettes (little bricks). "\ i\T hen thus prepared it is a fuel s uit able for steamships and all indu strial and household purposes. In France they not only compress the culm or waste of coal at the mines into

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FLORIDA TATE HORTICUL'l'URAL SOCIETY. 135 briquettes, but they find it economical to grind up the lump coal and coke and convert it into briquettes. In this form it is greatly preferred for locomotive fuel. Paper-Making From Pine . There is another use to which the waste timber may be put. At Pensacola, F l a . , there is a mill manufacturing paper out of pine slabs. W. S. \1/are, the ice man of Jacksonville, is interested in this mill. He gave me a sample of the product. It is an excellent quality of brown paper. The process is new and to my mind has great possibilities. In the foregoing I have given no views regarding the means of restoring the de pleted forests, prefe rrin g to leave that part of the subject to our sk ill ed horti culturists, but have confined myself to that part of the subject that treats of t he utilization of the immense waste t.hat arises from leaving one-third of the saw timber in the woods to rot. THE PECAN AS A GROVE TREE FOR NORTH FLORIDA. Carefully Studied and E x cellent D irecti ons for Planting, Culture , Prun i ng, Etc. By Prof. H. Harold Hume, of State Agricultut'al College. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: The outlook for the horticultural in dustry in Florida today is bright. The orange will ere long occupy the place which it once did. The recent cold snaps have but proven that our people are neither lacking in re ource, nor in faith in their State. The latent energy in our growers has found for itself a new channel in orange protection, and within the past five years the amount of work which has been done along those lines is simply astounding . Something will eventually be evolved which will answer our needs. Then, too, we shall in due course of time reap results from the work that Prof. webber has done, if not from the eras es already obtained, then from others which will be obtained later , and to the orange hybrid and grove protec tion we perhaps have to look for the fu ture o r ange grove in North F l orida. The more sanguine of us believe that we shall see a return of warmer weather, and that many of us who are here this afternoo n will yet see the clay when the orange w ill bloom and ripen its golden fruit in the region of Jacksonville. But I may frankly state that I do not believe it wise to confine our efforts to the development of one line of horticul tural work. I am a believer in diversified fruit growing and in so far as possib le l et us work toward all-round horticulture. There is one tree the more extensive cu tivation of which will pay handsomely, namely, Carya olivaeformis, the pecan. That it will grow well in Florida on a wide range of soils there is no doubt. The trees are here as proof. It certainly is adapted to our climatic conditions . T hat there is profit in grow in g it, and that there is a place for it in our markets, are statements which I do not think any o ne will quest ion. For the fiscal year ending June , 1899,

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136 FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTURAL SOCIETY there was imported into our country about two and a half million dollars worth of nuts. The pecan can reasonably be expected to take the place of some of the imported goods . The preparation of various nut-foods opens up a new chan nel for disposing of the product, and if we can sell pecan nuts at five cents a pound, and I believe we can , there is a good profit in them. By placing the trees forty feet apart we can set out thirty-nine to the a.ere. These tree s when twelve to fifteen years old will bear at a very conservative estimate one hundred pounds of nuts, which would give $5 to the tree, or between $r 50 and $200 to the acre. Again, if the market value s hould ever drop so low as to make their sa le unprofitable, we could utilize the nuts by feeding them to our hogs. VI/ e could get more bushels of pecans with less work from an a.ere of ground than we cou ld of corn, and the feeding value is, I feel quite certain , equal to that of corn, if not superior. There is practically no limit to the number of crops which can be secured from a grove and I simply mention the fact of utilizing them as hog feed as proof posit i ve that the man who plants the pecan has nothing to lose. It Will Grow Everywhere. Throughout Northern and We ste rn Florida. there a.re a considerable number of _pecan groves and many individual trees scattered here and there . Perhaps no fruit or nut tree will grow with less attention and do well than the pecan; at the same time it will respond to careful cultivation and fertilization. It can be planted in the hammock, flat woods , or on high pine land. Yes , and I have se en it growing on soil which was quite wet the year round; still I would not advise any one to plant the pecan on wet, soggy soil. It deserves better treatment than that. The old plan advocated for starting a pecan grove was to plant the nuts where the trees were to stand, but for several reasons this is not desirable. Squirrels, moles and mice u s uaJly do away with a considerable number. When the trees are grown the grove will in all ~robabi_l ity be quite irregular and certamly will not make as rapid growth for the first three or four years as it would have clone had two-year-old trees been set out in soil that had been previouslv well prepared. If any one wishes to grow a pecan grove from the see d let him prepare a nursery and plant the nuts there. The ground for this purpose should be as carefully prepared as for veaetable seeds and laid off in rows two or two and a half feet apart. In these rows plant the nuts four or five inches apart and when the trees are one or two years old transplant them to their permanent places. Seedling trees and budded trees can be obtained from most of our nurserymen , and it seems to me that it is the more satisfactory plan to obtain trees from them. Plant budded trees by preference, for while the pecan will come true to seed we cannot be certain to what extent. It may vary from fifty to one hundred per cent. , and though the seedling trees may prove satisfactory from a commercial standpoint, still the same uniformity of product cannot be secured from a seed ling as from a buckled grove. Of buckled trees do not plant one variety exclusively. That self sterility exists in the pecan, I must believe; to what extent among the varieties now propagated I do not know. There is considerable variation in the time of blooming of different varieties, and to be on the safe side solid blocks of single varieties should not be planted.

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FLORIDA STA'fE HORTICULTURAL SOCIE ' rY. 131 Preparation and Planting. The ground on which the pecan grove is to tand should be thoroughly and carefullv prepared previous to setting out the trees. If the ground has been cultivated for some time, it would be well to fertilize about the places where the trees are to stand , though I believe that the pecan can be made to grow even without this. If it is desired to plant the trees on pasture ground, it would be bet ter to break it up, though the plan might be adopted of simply digging up and cul tivating circular plots about where the trees are to stand or by cultivating strips along the line of rows. The trees should not be planted less than forty feet apart, and even at that distance the tops will touch in the course of twent y -fi v e or thirty vp ars, and many recommend that they be planted at a greater distance than this. But by heading in or cutting back the branches, I believe that this distance is ample. If, on the other hand, the soil is rich and rather moist, it may be better to plant them fifty or even sixty feet apart. By using the triangular method and forty feet distance we can place thirty-nine trees to the acre. The ground s hould be carefully staked off and where each tree is to stand a hole should be du()' I:) three or four feet in diameter and as ?1any feet deep. \Vith the ground that 1s thrown out a liberal amount of fer tilizer , composed of barnyard manure or some balanced commercial fertilizer should be mixed. This done , the soii should be thrown back into the hole and slightly mounded up. It is preferable that this be done two or three weeks be fore the time for planting. It is best to plant either one or two year old trees, and my preference would be for the latter. At that a CT e the trees will have from twelve to eigl;teen inches of top and from three to four feet of root. The root should be cut back to the so1id white wood within twelve to eighteen inches of the crown. Some few lateral roots will be found attached to the main tap root and these should be cut off. I do not believe it to be necessary to prune the top at all. The trees start off very nicely without cutting the top and if the top is cut they usually develop quite a number of shoots. If deemed advisable, however , the top may be cut off, leaving four or five inches, though I look upon it as so much loss, and one of the shoots trained up to become the trunk of the tree. During the time the trees are out of the ground care should be exercised that they do not become dried out, and neither sun nor wind should come in con tact with them. This may not be abso lutely necessary, but if one follows this plan he is on the safe side. At the Ex periment Station in planting trees my plan is to wrap them in the shed in an old blanket which has been thoroughly moistened. The trees are then carried to the orchard in the wagon and as a tree is needed for planting , it is removed from the bundle. The planting of young trees after the holes are dug , as already indicated, and the ground prepared , is a very simple matter. A sharp stick is thrust clown into the center of the specially prepared por tion as deep as is required and in this hole the tree is set, and the earth carefully firmed about it. The best time for plant ing is immediately after the leaves fall in the autumn, or say the middle of N ovem ber to the last of December. The win ter showers will firmly pack the earth, the tree will become established and when the spring season comes on it is ready to start growing. It is well to mulch after planting or to keep the ground about the

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138 FLORIDA ST ATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. tree well cultivated to provide a surface mulch of earth. Care of the Grove. Seven or eight years must elapse be fore nuts will be produced though trees frequently fruit at an earlier age. From the time at which the trees come into bearing the crop increases until af fifteen or sixteen years old the grove will be quite remunerative. Up to the time that the trees commence to bear and even afterwards, the grove should be cultivat ed and one of two plans may be adopted. If the land is suitable for vegetable grow ing or the raisingof cotton these crops may be planted in the grove for six or seven years, or until such time as so much shade is produced as to render their cultivation impracticable. Each year the planted area will become less. In some cases peach trees might be set out on the same ground to give place, later, to the pecan. By adopting any of these plans the ground will not be idle and may be put to remunerative use. On the other hand, the olan may be adopted of pur suing a system of clean cultivation from February until July, and sowing down to beggar weed, cowpeas or velvet beans af ter the latter month. When the trees have become so large as to shade the whole ground they should be given sole possession, and some of the grasses might be sown at this time and the grove used as a pasture. \i\Thile, as I have already stated, the pecan will grow and produce large crops of nuts without fertilizing, still I believe that a certain amount of manuring will pay. If other crops are raised in the grove the fertilizing would simply con sist in applying a little more than those crops would use. If clean cultivation is adopted, the grove should be fertilized once or twice a year on the same principie as adopted for orange groves. A well balanced commercial fertilizer, barnyard manure, or some such form of fertilizer may be used. A splendid practice would be to grow and turn under various cover crops. After the trees have become well established ~ and their roots have deeply penetrated the soil, fertilizing will mani fest its effects in fruit, while during the earlier life of the grove it will give in crease in wood development. Cut the Taproot. In reference to the matter of pruning, I have already made one statement to the effect that the tap root of a young tree should be cut when the tree is planted. Now, I know that many will disagree with this statement, but I am certain that the cutting of the tap root is attended by no evil results. In the first place, if there is any virtue in the tap root, a question which I am not going to discuss, the fact remains that it is replaced by a root or roots which develop from the place where the root has been cut. Furthermore, the cutting of the root has no injurious ef fects upon either the productiveness of the tree or the quality of the nut. This idea seems to have gotten a firm hold on the public mind , and it is high time that it should be laid aside. The subsequent pruning of the tree has relation principal ly to the forming of the head. Two plans may be adopted; the one of low heading, the other of letting the top of the tree develop as it chooses. The latter plan is the one usually adopted in Florida, and the lowest branches are allowed to de velop from five to six feet from the ground. However, it may be advisable to adopt the other plan, as it will bring the bearing surface of the tree closer to the ground and a more compact head will be the result.

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FLORIDA TATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 139 Varietal Differences are Important. Generally we think that the varietal difference in the pecan exists in the fruit. Such, however, is not the case, for there is considerable variation in the time of blooming, the general habit of the trees and the shape of the leaves. To discuss the merits of all the varieties of pecans requires more time than I have at my dis posal. Roughly we may divide them into three classes-large, medium and small-the classification being based en tirely upon the size of the nuts. To the first class belong Centennial, Frotschers, Van Deman and Georgia Giant. The first three are well known old varieties; the latter is a new variety propagated by G. M. Bacon, of De Witt, Georgia. These are by no means all of the large pecans, but they are ones which are very com monly known. In the second we may place Turner, propagated by G. L. Ta ber; Curtis and Randall, propagated by Dr. J. B. Curtis, of Orange Heights, Fla.; Egg, propagated by D. L. Pierson, Mon ticello, Fla., and the Senator, propagated by G. M. Bacon. Of the third class we have, as a most excellent example, the Ladyfinger, propagated by Mr. Pierson. All that I have mentioned are now being grown and propagated either in Florida or Georgia. It has been my observation that the medium and the small-sized nuts are usually better in quality than the larger ones, and I think that those of you who have g-iven the matter consideration will agree with me, but each of those re ferred to above has its own peculiar mer its. As I have already stated, I do not deem it advisable to plant one variety only; several should be selected. To sum up the reasons why the pecan should receive more attention than it does, we have the following: It is per fectly at home on Florida soils in the northern and western parts of the State; it is not affected injuriously by our cli matic conditions; it will thrive with less care and attention than any other fruit tree we have and at the same time it will respond to intelligent care. The cultiva tion of the pecan is remunerative; at a conservative estimate, an acre of pecans at fifteen years old will bring an income of from $150 to $200. The problem of reforesting is confronting us; the pecan has a strong claim to recognition in that work. DISCUSSION. Dr. Kerr-You say you cut the tap root? Prof. Hume-I would cut them back twelve or fourteen inches. The only practical means of controlling the girdler is to cut off the branches and burn them . If the branches on which they lay their eggs are destroyed , there will be no fur ther trouble with this pest. Mr. Robinson-The girdling of a tree is a benefit, according to the opinion of a Texas man. Mr. Gillett-I am interested in t hi s question. I have three or four hundred trees growing. I planted those trees in hammock soil in Summerfield and gave them no particular care or cultivation other than is given to corn. When some had grown about fifteen or sixteen feet high, I was alarmed at one time about the girdler. Some limb s were cut back two or three feet, but I found that where one limb was cut three or four more came out. I have heard that the worm depos its its eggs in these twigs and I gath ered some of them and whittled the bar k off and found he goes toward the point. V-l e have found a line of th e se groups, yet next year we got a good crop on the trees. The gathering up of these twigs is a very good idea. I met a man from

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140 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. Tampa representing a nursery in Texas; he had some very large pec~ns. I sent for some and got several pounds of the nuts and planted them. The squirrels and mice destroyed some of them, but I have some now about a year old. I had quite a conversation with the gentleman and he has more trees in Tampa which I intend going to see. He sa id in five or six years they were bearing very well. He said also that he grafted many on hickories; he had some very large ones grafted on the hickories, and they were growing very well. I think all the trees that bore last year averaged over mo pounds of nuts to the tree, which was ex ceptionally fine, not as large as I have seen, but they were exceedingly sweet. I am of the opinion that even a see dling will bear in eight or ten years quite free ly. I have several of them corning on. REPORT ON FERTILIZERS AND IRRIGATION. Recent Rise in Fertilizer Prices Explained Lasting Nature of Fertilizers-Importance of Irrigation A Very Ingenious System at Sanford. By M. F. Robinson, Chairman of Committee. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Your Standing Committee on Ferti lizers and Irrigation would be most happy to communicate a great deal of very valuable information on subjects of such vital importance to the members of this Society. But, unfortunately , these subjects cannot be studied out, like ex amples in exact sciences, but depend for their solution upon long and exhaustive experiments which your Committee is neither qualified nor equipped to per form. At the Experiment Stations, where they have facilities for making these experiments, the officers are doing their best to conquer the difficulties which surround many absorbing problems per taining to fertilization and irrigation , and the knowledge thus obtained is being widely distributed in official bulletins, from time to time, which are eagerly pe rused by thousands whose success or failure so lar gely depend upon a correct so lution of th ese highly important branches of agriculture and horticulture. At the present time the market condi tions of fertilizers and fertilizing mate rials will interest the members of the So ciety, many of whom may have been un able to understand the causes which led to the recent advance in prices. An ap peal to Mr. E. 0. Painter, than whom there is no better authority on the sub ject of fertilizers and the market condi tions thereof, elicited the following reply: . Simon Pure Chemical Fertilizer \i\T orks, Jacksonville , Fla., April 28th, 1900. Mr. M. F. Robinson, Sanford , Fla., Dear Sir-In reply to your favor of April 13th, would say: First. There has been an advance in the cost of fertiliz ing material during the last four months that has varied from $2 to $5 per ton.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTlCULTURAt SOCIETY. 141 The prime cause has been the increased demand for fertilizers all over the coun try, the good price received for cotton, wheat, etc., having stimulated the plant ing of increa sed acreage. The Spanish-American war advanced the price of sulphur and nitrate from twenty-five to one hundred per cent., and the prices of these materials had not re turned to the normal level when the Eng lish-Boer war again increa ed the de mand. Consequently the prices remain high. Owing to the scarcity of vessels, freight rates for ocean carriage have ad vanced in some cases fifty per cent. This is a big item in the cost of goods, as fer tilizing materials are often carried as bal last and at a very low rate. Another cause of the higher prices is the forming of the so-called fertilizer trust, which has established a price for certain goods and held them there. But I do not believe they could have held up the price to the present high point if it had not been for the other factors which have made an increased demand over previous years. Second. Florida produces enough phosphates to supply every pound used in this State and several other States , and yet not ten per cent. of the phosphate used in fertilizers is mined here. The amount of phosphate shipped from the State during 1899 is approximately as follows: Port Tampa ....... . . . Fernandina. . . . . . . . .. . Puntai Gorda . . . . . . ... . 200,605 tons 245,622 tons 83,073 tons Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 , 300 tons Pensacola is credited with 142,153 tons, but the bulk of this amount came from Tennessee, consequently could not be classed as a Florida phosphate. South Carolina has always been considered the greatest phosphate-producing State, but her export shipments last year were only 499 , 716 tons, against 529 , 300 from Flor ida. otwithstanding the fact that Flor ida produces more and better phosphate she pays from $1.50 to $3 per ton higher for her acid phosphate than South Caro lina. This is caused from the fact that very little phosphate is acidulated in this State. Consequently the Florida rock goes to points orth for acidulation and is returned to Florida either as acid phos phate or in manufactured goods, but gen erally the latter. That all the phosphate used in the State should be acidulated here is very plain. There are but two acid chambers in the State, one at Pensacola and the other in South J acksonv ille , but the great bulk of the acidulated goods is used in the south ern and central parts of the State, conse quently freight rates from Pensacola would be against that market. I under stand that one of the reasons why more rock is not treated in South Jacksonville i s on account of the high freight rates on the raw material from the mines to the factory, being more than from the same mines to Charleston . It is my hope, some day, to assist in changing this by locating an acid chamber where the dis adva ntage s of local rates can be over come . Third. There is one fact that the Flor ida grower can congratulate him s elf on, and that is, he is buying his fertilizers and fertilizing materials as cheaply and in many cases cheaper than the farmers in the North . I recently sold a bill of goods to a gentleman who has interests in Florida and in Cent ral New York. He found that he could ship high grade pot ash from here to his place in New York cheaper than he could buy in New York and deliver to his farm. Fourth. As to the immediate future.

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142 FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. The pre~ent indications are that there is not likely to be any very perceptible change in the p1ices of fertilizing mate rials for a year. Prices on potash salts for the coming year have been estab li shed, and many other materials are still in active demand with a limited output. There is also an active demand for cot tonseed meal, which furnishes the am1i1onia for many brands of fertilizers made through the South, and this will have a tendency to keep the price of other do mestic ammoniates higher. Yours respectfully, E. 0. PAINTER. Your Committee desire to thank Mr. Painter for the information contained in the above communication, and heartily join him in the hope that in addition to his present unsurpassed facilities for the preparation and distribution of fertilizers , h e will soon be able to add an acid cham ber and thereby save us the expense and humiliation of sending our phosphates out of the State for acidulation and pay in g the frei1 2" ht both ways. ~asting Nature of Fertilizers. It is an interesting and important fact that many of the orange groves which had been highly and annually fertilized before the trees were killed to the ground in 1895, have retained a remarkably pro ductive soi l , and without any additional fertilizer since that time continue to pro mote a rapid growth to the new trees th~t ~re coming on, thu s proving that in bmldmg up a soil with fertilizers, we make an investment that will yield divi dends for several years, at least. Wheth er any considerable amount of the chem icals remains in the soil that were in the fertilizer deposited, or whether they are re--produced by turning under repeated crops of beggarweed, etc., is not mate rial. The fact that the soil is still much more productive than similar land that was not thus fertilized, is very encourag ing to those who must look to the future for a reward. It is also encouraging to know that through the medium of the velvet bean and beggarweed we have a means of perpetuating the fertility of the soil, indefinitely, and at the san1e time profitably. This is probably the most im portant fact of recent discovery in Flor ida. At the No rth the r ed clover serves the same purpose admirably, and for many years has enabled the farmers to keep up the fertility of their land. Red clover could not be successfully grown in Florida, and until a substitute was found, the Florida farmer was greatly handi capped by the natural poverty of the land, particularly in some localities. He was obliged to confine his efforts to small areas, specially adapted, that he could find means to enrich sufficient ly to grow his crop. Now, with the positive knowl edge that the fertility of large areas can be improved from year to year, we may confidently look forward to a prosperity which a few years ago could not have been reasonably predicted. Irrigation. Irrigation is as old as the hills and the members of this Society have had the matter under discussion for severa l years until now it is pretty generally admitted that, notwithstandin g the large amount of rainfall in Florida , there are seasons when, for most crop s and many orchards artificial irrigation i s indispensable to sue~ cess. The modes for irrioating in Flor ida are about as varied as they well could b_e, a1;d no system i s applicable to every 1tu_atton and purpose. Many do not avail them se lves of convenient natural fa cilities , while others are succeeclinounder very difficult conditions and at g;eat ex pense .

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FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTURAL SOCTETY. 143 In several locations artesian flowing wells are readily and cheaply obtainable. These wells are located on the highest side of the field. Ditches are dug to accurate grades with a view to the drain age of the land, as well as the con veyan ce of water from the wells for irrigation, \\ hen irrigation is required. An Ingenious System. Your Committee is indebted to the courtesy of Mr. F. H. Rand, 0 Sru1ford, for the following description of his plant, which seems to be everything desired for the purpose intended, to-wit: growing celery and other crops. He says he se lected a lot near Sanford where flowing wells could be obtained, twenty acres, being 800 by r,128 feet, and as nearly level as practicable. He put down four artesian wells to an average depth of I 50 feet and in each case obtained a good flow of water, averaging about three inches. These wells are situated along the south side of the field and 280 feet apart . Running directly north from each of these wells he constructed a line of catch-basins of brick and cement, water tight, twenty-four inches long north and south, fourteen inches wide, twenty three inches deep and extending four inches above the surface of the ground. These catch-basins are subdivided by a parti tion running east and west, two inches thick and fifteen inches high, leaving the south chamber fourteen inches square and the other 8x14 inches. Nate that the smaller chamber is on the opposite side from the well and that the partition comes within four inches of the surface of the ground and eight inches from the top of the basin. In the partition are two three-inch holes. One of them is one inch from the bottom of the basin and the other is two inches above the top of. the first one. In these holes are set threeinch iron thimbles. These catch-basins are set twenty feet apart, from center to center, the whole width of the field, mak ing forty in a row. They are connected north and south by three-inch vitrified sewer pipe, cemented at the joints and to iron thimbles opening into the catth basins. The object of iron thimbles at the openings is to enable them to be plugged without breaking them. The top of these vitrified pipes must be four teen inches below the surface. The water from the well, when turned on, flows into the top of the larger cham ber in the first catch-basin. The entire fall in this 800 feet is only two inches. The basin at the north side empties into a pipe that empties into an open ditch which has sufficient capacity and fall to carry the water off quickly. After this line of pipe has been tested by turning on the water and then draining it off , they may be at once covered with earth. The irrigation pipes are laid at right angles with the pipes just described and extend from basin to basin, entering the same through iron thimbles, and are two-inch, earthen, unglazed pipes from ten to eighteen inches long with square ends, and are laid foLitteen inches below the surface of the ground on a bed of char coal two inches thick, without cement, and covered with about four inches of charcoal before the earth is put on. They connect with the large chambers in the basins. At the west end of the field these irrigating pipes empty into an open ditch through short iron pipes at each termi nus. It will be observed that the water pipes and the irrigating pipes connect at each basin, and that the water from the different wells can be turned into any part of the field by means of inserting wooden plugs or removing them in suc h a mrumer that the water can be sent where it is needed and prevented from going where it is not wanted.

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144 FLuRIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. The partitions in the catch-basins are to prevent the land from being too mu~h flooded in case of an unexpected ram storm when no one i s present to remove the plugs . The outlets from the sma ll chambers not being plugged, the water can only ri se until it runs over. the t~ps of the partitions and the surpl us 1s earned off. The object of two holes in the p~r tition s is to better regulate the quantity of water that is to be put into the land through the irrigating pipes. On this twenty acres there are 160 catch-basins, 45,130 feet of t wo -inch pipe and 3, 200 feet of three-inch pipe. It required to build the basins and lay the pipe 12,000 brick and twenty-three barrels of hy draulic cement. This plant has been flooded in a dry time from the wells in eighteen hours , and then the water drain ed off in four hours. Notwithstand ing thi s has been a wet season, he has n eve r lost a day from cultivation on ac count of too much or too little water. It seems to be all that could be desired for the purpose intended. On account of the. excessive rains and protracted droughts in Florida, if every farmer could have one fie! l , even though small, und er perfect control as to drain age and irrigation, it would prove a very satisfactory inv es tment. However, for fruit trees a carefully selected location will obviate all necessity for irrigation or draina ge, and where suc h locations can be obtained they are hi g hly d es irable. If a spot i s se lected where there is water . or a water-bearing clay from eight to tw e lve feet below the su rface , by the time the trees a r e old enough to bear, the roots will h ave penetrated this moist stratum and the trees w ill not d rop their foliage or fruit during the most protracted drought. That suc h l ocat ion s are to be found in many parts of the State of cons iderable e x tent is a very fortunate cir cumstance connected with the industry. DISCUSSION. Mr. Waite-Have any of the growers tried sub-irrigation, using wooden drains? Also, have they ever noticed any injury to orange trees by using ar tesian water? vVe have three wells on our place and in growing celery we have noticed no injury, but I wa s told by a gentleman from Palatka that he is not going to use artesian water on his grove any longer; that it was injurious to the trees. Mr. Farley-I do not know that I can answer the question satisfactorily, but it i s generally considered with us ( on In dian river) that artesian water is not good for the trees. We have a well five hun dred feet deep and about three years ago the water was allowed to run out all be low the artesian well. Today there is not a s ingle tree on that side but what is af fected more or less with die back. My neighbors on the south and north ha ve also artesian wells and have also allowed them to run through their groves and the best of their trees are suffering from die-back ve ry badly. Many on the south are affected in the same way. They h ave no definite knowledge as to whether it is caused by that or not , but the fact is the trees ha ve the die-back and they did not h ave it before. In re gard to the drain age, the land is what i known as a hick ory ridge a nd it would s eem that the drainage ought to be perfect, as it ha s a fall from the ridge to the river with a bank eight or ten feet more and the drainage ought to be good . Prof. Stockbridge-Is there any rea so n for believing that the die-back i s clue to the u se of artesian water, or the u se of water? Would not any water do the sa me thing?

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I 1 'LORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 145 Prof. HumeDoes Mr. Waite know anything regarding the mineral proper ties of the water, whether any analysis has ever been made? Mr. Waite-I do not think any analysis has ever been made of it. It acts cliffer entfy from rain water. I tested it on vegetables. If you spray beans with that water, it gives them rust; with r a in water it does not have that effect. Mr. Painter-Is the water allowed to run all the time through the grove? Mr. Waite-A few years ago it was al lowed to do so, but the last three years I have a pipe to carry it to the river and it is controlled by this pipe. Befor e that the trees had the die-back badly. Mr. Robinson-For many years it has been known that in the immediate vicin ity of the coast it is difficult to raise or anges, and they think there is too much salt in the air. I think the water in the wells has too much salt in it. Mr. Moremen-There is a great deal of difference between artesian wate rs . I have noticed on the East Coast artesian water is impregnated with some minerals which 1 I do not think are very conducive to plant life. In our vicinity artesian water has been used for eight of ten years without detriment to the plants. Some of the growers flood the groves with this water, yet they do well. Mr. Hart-They have had artesian wells on the East Coast for twenty-four years. One company has put clown over sixteen hundred wells there. In Daytona years ago many used them for irrigation of their gardens. Mr. Charles E. Jack son, a very intelligent man and quite an expert in matters of irrigation, tested the water thoroughly on plants and trees, but had to give it up. The water was used for irrigation for a number of years, but it seemed to put something in the soil that ruined it for horticultural purposes. Then they used it for power to pump sur face water through h o use and garden. Some of the water contains chloride of sodium , but other wells seemed to have no trace of it. Speaking about the difficulty of rais ing orange trees on the peninsula be tween Mosquito Lagoon and the beach: There are other cau s es besides those mentioned why the trees will not succeed there. One of them is the looseness and thirstiness of the soil. After the tree is set there a little while it gets loose, and for a great many miles there is no place where you can set the orange tree so that it will be firmly fixed for any length of time. The ground lacks cohesiveness and you do not strike ground where you can raise orange tree south of Daytona. I do not know of a profitable grove of any size south of Ormond, although that ground raises crops and some kinds of trees abundantly, but the orange tree it does not suit. I have seen thousands of dollars wasted on that land, simply thrown away , trying to raise orange groves. On the we s t bank of the coast rivers there is none of this trouble and oranges are grown in greatt!st perfection.

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USE OF THE WORD POMELO. The Special Committee, consisting of Professor H. J. vVebber, G. L. Taber and Rev. Lyman Phelps, appointed to confer with the American Pomological Society on this subject, report through Professor Webber: I ha ve given some little attention to the question of the wo rd "pomelo" which we were appointed to consider in connec tion with the Amer ican Pomolgical So ciety. Of course you know as well as I what this Committee accomplished, and I trust you will be able to make a favor able report to the Society. If I were present I presume I mi g ht be able to say s ufficient to answer as a report, but to write it out in colcl blood i s something I cannot attempt. I find that the grea est difference exists in publications on citru s fruits in regard to spelling this term. The two most common forms are "pomelo" and "pumelo." The term u se d in German is mainly "pampelmus." The French use the term " pampelmous se . " Sava s tano, the Italian writer on such sub ject s, uses " pompelrno." Standard Dic tion a ry gives "pomelo" as the preferable spelling, with "p umelo" and "p ummelo " as second and third choice respectively. For my own part, it seems to me that as lon g as pomelo is almost univer sa lly used in this country this s pelling should be reco gn i zed as correct. The question of trying to substitute this termpomelo-for grapefrui t is of course another matter. Pomelo is com ing to b e u sed extensively, howe v er, in stead of grapefruit, and if the Horticul tural Society members would make an effort in speaking and writing of the fruit as "pornelo" instead of grapefruit, I feel certain that this term could be made the sta ndard in common use. FINAL RESOLUTIONS. The following re so lutions, formulated by a special committee, were reported and duly adopted: "Resolved, That the heart y thanks of the State Horticultural Soci ety be here by conveyed Jo the Florida East Coast, S. , F. & W. and F. C. & P. Railroads for the courte sy of a reduced transportation rate accorded to our members. "Reso l ved, That our gratefu l recogni tion be extended to the Jack sonv ille Board of Trade for their hospitality and kindness in giving us the use of their beautiful assembly hall and a pleasant excursion on the river. Also to the East Coast Railroad for an excursion to the seaside. Also to Mills & Wachter for their elegant floral embellishment of our table. "Resolved, That we hereby express our high appreciation of the thoughtful and timely labors of Mr. Geo. W. Wilson in promoting the welfare of this Society, and especially for his generosity in pro viding, on behalf of the Times-Union and Citizen, a stenographer to report our pro ceedings. "Resolved, That our thanks be re

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FLORIDA STATE IIORTICULTURAL O IETY. 147 turned to the proprietors of the Cummer lumber mill for their courteous invitation to visit the mill and their exhibition of its workings. "Resolved, That the Secretary be in structed to forward to each of these parties a copy of these resolutions, and a complimentary copy of our forthcoming annual report. "W. M. BENNETT, "G. P. HEALY, "S. C. WARNER, ''Committee." CO-OPERATION WITH THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. A letter was received from Hon. Geo. 'vV. 'vVilson, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the State Agricultural Col lege, suggesting the appointment of a committee to work with a like commit tee from the State Agricultural Society 111 harmony with the State Agricu ltural Col lege and Experiment Station. The fol lowing resolution was adopted: Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed by the President to join with a similar committee from the Flor ida gricultural Society to represent the interests of the horticulturists of the State before the management of the Agricul tural College and Experiment Station and the State Legislature, with reference to our relations t()I the institution and its improvement. The President appointed S. H. Gait skill, E. 0. Painter and B. N. Bradt as this committee. A SOCIETY LIBRARY. Report of Committee. Mr. President: We, your committee appointed to consider the question of starting a Li brary for the Florida State Horticultural Society, beg leave to report the follow ing: We consider the recommendation as made by the President a very pertinent one, which, if carried out, will be of great benefit to the Society. Therefore we sug gest that a committee be appointed, con sisting of the President, Secretary and Treasurer of the Society, to constitute a Library Committee to receive such do nations in the way of books on horticul tural topics, cash, to be expended for the purchase of books, etc., or any other ma terials that will be of interest and benefit to the members. We also recommend that each member take a personal inter est in making the Library one that will be of great value to its members and sec ond to no State Horticultural Library in the United States. E. 0. Painter, Lyman Phelps, George Kerr, Committee. The Library Committee, consisting of the President, Secretary and Treasurer, met after the Society had closed its ses sions and voted to accept the offer of the Times-Union and Citizen, tendering the Society a room for the reception of its Library. They also received a liberal cash donation toward the purchase of a book-case. The Secretary was instructed to proceed at once to put the Library on an active footing.

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NECROLOGY. GEORGE PARK KINNEY. Was born in Tolland, Conn., in 1834 and experienced the privations of narrow means, which early inspired him to a vig orous struggle with adverse destiny. Drifting westward, to Buffalo , to Union vI-1le , Ohio , he engaged in various pur suits with more or less financial success until the breaking out of the gold min ing excitement in Montana, in 1863. Or ganizing a party to convoy a train of goods, he boldly pushed across the plains 1,500 miles, having many encounters with the Indians; arrived safely in Vir ginia City after a trip of roo clays and disposed of his goods at a profit. He then returned with a party down the Yel lowstone in open flat boats , a feat of dar ing , since previous voyagers had been massacred to a man by the savages. He returned to Ohio, but soon turned westward again and in Nebraska en gaged in the nursery business, having al ways had a fondness for plants and trees. But the intense rigor and the blighting winds of Nebraska's winters and open prairies rendered the enterprise unprofit able and it was abandoned. He removed to Chicago in 1874 and engaged success fully in merchandising until 1892, when he retired from business. He had traveled a great deal in Eu rope, Cuba and over a large part of North America. In the spring of 1886 he vis ited Florida and was so delighted with the climate that he returned the follow ing season, established a winter home and planted an orange grove at Pierson, Volusia county. He took much pride in this grove and every winter found him devoting to it all the attention and labor which an incurable malady permitted. In the subsequent cold winters he fought for it with characteristic vi(Tor, and the State is much indebted to him for his Uium phant demonstration, in the memorable winter of 1894-5, of the practicability of saving orange groves with open fires. For twenty years these fires had been used in a fitful, half-hearted way; but he threw into his work such energy, such sleepless vigilance, provided such abund ant supplies of fuel and kindled such a multitude of hot fire s, that he fairly scared the Frost King away and saved his trees. Hundreds of growers were encouraged by his success, as pub lished by the Horticultural Society, and emulated his example. The largest liv ing orange trees in North Central Flor ida stand today as his monument. He was an unwavering believer in the future greatness of Florida, both on ac count of its horticultural resources and its matchless climate. Death came to relieve him of long and acute s uffering. His body was cremated and the ashes were p l aced in an urn pre pared by himself and deposited in Grace land Cemetery, Chica go. He leaves a widow and two sons . J. H. JOHNSON. A quiet and home-keeping orange grower of Ormond, who found his great est happiness among his trees. "One who knew him best and loved him well" writes: "He thought no care too good for his orange trees , but gav e them the best he had , treated them as he would a child." His grief over the unsightly wrecks of his once flourishing trees hast ened his death, as he had not the strength to fight for and restore them. He hi g hly prized the annual report s of the Horticultural Society and directed that after his death they houlcl be placed in the village library,

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Florida State Horticultural Society. CATALOGUE OF FRUITS l 9 0 0

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CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. ADOPTED BY THE SOCIETY AT THE TENTH ANNUAL MEETING AND REVISED UP-TO-DATE. In making a complete Catalogue of the Fruits of Florida , indicating intelligi bly, in summarized and tabular form, the relative value of varieties for different sections, the wide-stretching territory , diversity of soil and climate, and the lim ited range of each of the numerous fruit s, render it essential that the State be divid ed, so that regions allied throughout in their adaptability to fruits may be desig nated and referrred to. To this end, four districts have been formed, as described below. Geographi cal lines cannot be made to indicate pomological conditions with accuracy. More than approximate correctness could not be expected from an arbitrary division of this kind, especially where local conditions vary so greatly as in Florida. Work ing by general averages , some sections are unavoidably left in the wrong districts, judging by the standard of local conditions. The divisions, however , will be found to answer their purpose better, than any that could be made without fur ther sub-divisions , which would be impracticabl e . . WESTERN NORTH FLORIDA-That part of the State west of the Au cilia river. EASTERN NORTH FLORIDA-That part of the State between the A u cilla riv er and a stra ight line drawn across the State from the mouth of the St. Johns river to Cedar Keys. CENTRAL FLORIDA-That part of the State between the line above re ferred to and the counties constituting South Florida. SOUTH FLORIDA-The counties of Brevard, Dade, Monroe , Lee, De Soto and Manatee. For important contributions to this Catalogue, acknowledgements are du i as follows: To Lyman Phelps, W. S. Hart and E . S. Hubbard, for aid in preparing the lists of Citrus Fruits. To G. L. Taber , for aid in preparing the lists of Deciduous Tree Fruits. To H. vo n Luttichau , for aid in pre parin g the li sts of Grapes . To J. B. Beach and C. T. McCarty , for aid in preparing the lists of Tropical Fruits. To C. H. Ward, C. H. Ch urchill and L. Cameron, for aid in revising the li st of Strawberries. S. POWERS , Secretary .

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EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS. The abbreviations and signs used in the columns which appear in the ensuing pages signify as follows : ORIGIN-Of variety or species. (R efe r s to species, rac e, or geographica l derivation, as best cal culated to defin e .) A., American. E., English. E. I., East Indi es F., For e ign . H., Hybl'id J., Japan ese N, Nativ e of Florida . 0., Oriental. S. A., South America. W. I., W est Indies. ORIGIN-(Refernng to oranges on ly . ) The o ri gin of oranges is given to conform as nearly as possible to the prepond e ranc e or in fluence ev id e nc e d of the particular strain or it s probabl e wild ancestry: Sev., Sweet Sev ill e or Sweet China; St . llf., SL . Michael or P o rtu g al; Mal., Malta Bloods, th e ir progeny and kindred; ./JIEan., the Mancl:Lrin, or Ci trns Au ran ti um Nobilis varieties . ORIGIN-(Referring to peaches only). H., Honey race . N. C . , North Chinese race. N. O. Il., New Ori e ntal Bloods. P e r., Persian rac e P-to, Peen-to race. S., Spanish rac e . ORIGIN-(Referring to g rap es only). A., Aestivalis. L., Labrusca . R., Riparia. V., Vulpina. SEX--Of variety . (Referring to stra wb e rr ies only) . b, bisexual. p, pistillat e . USE-Of fruits. cl, dessert, eaten without culinary pr e para tion. c, culinary, including drinks, confections, condiments and domestic and manutactnr ecl preparations for gustatory use. s, shipping, for general mark et; good long distance carrier. 11 , near-by market only. (B eca use of r e st ri ct cl demand or p oo r canying qualities.) a, All purposes nam e d above. w, Win e . (Referring to grapes only.) SIZE-Of fruit. l, l a r ge m, medium. s, small. v, very. FORM-Of frnit . b. , blunt (obt u se). c., con i cal e., elliptical. f., flattened (oblat e ). h., heart-shaped (cordate). le, kidney-shaped (reniform). l., l e mon-shaped. o . , ovate. ob., obovate. ol., oblong. p., pyriform. pt., poi n tecl apex. q . , quarter-marked . r., r ound. FORM-Of bunch (appli es to g rape s on l y). br., broad. cl., cylindrical. cp., compact. sh . , shouldered. COLOR-Of frnit. e xcept as to peaches. where it r efers to flesh. Use acljecti ve o t noun accord i 11,1.\ to application 'rhus. r . sta nd s for "r e el" or "reddish"; r . y., '"l' eclcl i s h-y e ll ow"; r and y .. "red and y e ll ow" (as :i, yellow fruit with 1ed cheek or ot h e r r e el markings). b., black. bl., blue. br., brown. bz., bronze. c .. crimson er., carmine. d., dark. g., green. l., light. o., Orang e (not a shade of r e d, buL the co l or of rip e oranges ) . p., purpl e. r., red s. , salmon. sc. , scarlet. v., violet. w . , white . y., yellow. CLASS-Of fruit. C., cling sto n e. F., fr eesto n e

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CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. V QUALITY-Of fruit. b., best. f, fair. g., good. v., very. FLESH-Of fruit (tippli es to strawberries only). f., firm. m., medium. s .. soft. SEASON-Of rip ening of fruit . e .. ear ly. ev . . eve rb earing. f., fall. I., lat e. m., medium. . summer. sp., spring. v., very. w., wintn. (v. e., "very early"; L. M , "late medium," etc.) VIGOR-Of tree, vine or plant. g., good grower. m., m oderate growe r . v., vigorous grower . PROLIFICNESS-Of tree, vine or plant. f., fair bearer g , good bearer p , prolific. s., shy. v , very . ADAPTABILITY-Of variety or species to region named. (*) One star-recommended for r egio n named. (*•) Two stars-especially well adapted and desirable . (t) A dagg e r-new, recently introduced, or but little known, and promi ing. (-) A dash-not adapted . or found undesi r able. ( ) Blank space-no mark or sign in "Adaptability" column indicat es that no r eport has been miide. CITRUS FRUITS. OR.ANGES-( Citrus aurantium.) NoTE.-The development of orange culture in this State has given rise to a multiplicity of varieties many of which, while meritorious, have no distinctive qualities. or supe ri o rity, as com pared with others. It is impracticable to avoid this duplication by cutting down the li st, which would exclude many desirable kinds that hiwe b en extensive l y planted , or about which there is demand for information. To avoid the confusion o[ a long list embracing many kinds without distinctive differences, the plan of using two kinds of type has been r e sorted to. The names in heavy type are d e signed to constitute a complet e list for the State embracing varieties of the high est excelle ne e in all th e desir e d characteristics of season, qua.Ii ty. dis ti ncti vcness, productiveness, etc The names in light type ar e those whose characteristics are possessed in an eq ual or superior degr ee by other varieties which appear in h avy type. Some varieties in light type equa l others in heavy type having the same character i stics, but where th e re is a difference it is in favor of th e varieti es in heavy type. In cases of equal e xc e llence, the best known has the preference. So that the varieties in heavy type as ,t whole, and without disparagement to other excellent sot•ts, may be said to embrace the leading kinds for general culture. rew, or comparatively unknown var:eties also appear in light type; but for this distinction see "Adaptability" column. NOTE -In r efer rin g to the time of ripening, in the column headed "Season", ' very ea rly" ap plies to v:irieties mat'keted in Septembet and Octob e r; "early", to October and November v:Hieties; early medium". November and December; 'm edi um", December. January and February; "la.Le medium", February and March; "bite", March a nd April; "very l ate", April, May and lat e r. NoTE.-The r gion of orange production proper extends southward from Central Florida, overlapping the upp e r portion of Southern li'lorid,a. ' rh erefo r e under 'Adaptabi Ii Ly " below the va rieties hav e been starred fot " Southern Flori ht"; here, h oweve r , Lh,:i star riu g applies more parLicn larly to the upper portion of the district.

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rSee Explanation of Abbrev ia tion, on page iii.) DESCRIPTION. Adaptability . Fruit. TRl!E. r.i oi r.i r.i 'O re, ~ .., ~ 0 ui .... .... Fi: NAMES. Cll 0 0 0 Cl) :z. :z. A A ;,:, 0 A A .; .... s .., ..; .... Cl) c-j Cl 0 0 p w 0 CJ en p, 1" 0 rn SWEET ORANGES C i tms aura n ti um duhJis. ds I g m g p * * 1 Acitpulco St M r 0 ............ . .. .... . . ds I I V p * * 2 A cis .... StM r 0 g .... •"'' .... em * * 3 Am o r y Blood . . . . .. . . ..... ........... .. . ... Mal ds Ill r or g V p 1 I m * * 4 B e ach No 5 ... . .. . . .... StM els e or g g p . .. ... I * *" Bessie . ..... ...... ..... . S t M els 0 g 5 ...... . . .. ...... Io t t * 6 Boone (Boone's Early) ... .. Mal ds r ve ...... * * 7 Botelha . .. ........... .... ...... . . St M ct s m r 0 g m g g l o * * 8 Braz ili an ... . . .... ........ . .. . .. ... St:M cl s Ill r 0 vg " g .,. * Centennial St M ds m r 0 b em V p 9 .......... .... ... ........... f * * 10 C harl ey B r ow n ... ... St M cl s 1 0 O" m .. .......... " * * 1 o 11 Ch in a (Mandarin). l\fan cl s m s g . . .. . .. . .... * * 1 2 Circassian ... . .. . St M els sm r 0 vg m g g .... .. .... . .. . .... * * 13 Colmar (San Corel 's Sweet .131oocl) Mal cl s l TI rf or vg em * lt 1 4 Cunningham ... . St M cl s !Tl 0 vg CID g g .... ...... ... .. * * 1 5 Drak e Sta r ............ . ......... St M els I r 0 g lll V * * 16 Double Imperial Navel .. .. St l\I cl s ID e 0 vg Ill g s .,. * * 1 7 Dulcissima .. . ......... ....... ... St M cl s s r 0 vg e g g * * 1 8 Dumm it ..... .. . . tM els I 0 g rn V p ........... .. ... lt* * 19 Du Roi . . .... St l\I els JU r 0 g I m V p .... ..... ....... .. .,. * * 20 Early Oblon g (S t. Mic I mel Egg) Sev ds m e 0 f YO g p 21 Enterprise Stiedless (Starke lt *X* Seedless) .... ...... ......... . . ..... Sev cl s m r 0 vg e g vg lt * 22 Exquisite . . .......... ....... ........... cl s m r 0 vg ID O' p St l\I " * * * 23 Fortuna ... ... .... . ... ......... . .... Ma l cl s JU rf 0 vg m g vp .,. * *" 24 Fost e r .. . . ........... . .. St M ds n1 r 0 g e g p 25 Harts Late (Tardifi', Brown, Excelsio r ) ...... .. . ............ . ds g vl V JJ ** ** St M m e 0 26 Higley Late ......... . .......... g I V p ** .. t l\f cl s m r 0 ** * 27 Homosassa ........ . .. .. .... .. . Sev ds J U r 0 V g JD V p 28 Imperial Blood ............ ... . .. ds V g• * ** Ma , l m r or e 29 Jaffa .. .. . . ..... . .................. . . b g p ** * Mal cl s Ill r 0 111 30 Jaffa Blood ...... . ...... .. b g p X-:t * ... .. . Mal ct s s e or m 31 King ......... . .... . . . . .. ..... Man 32 Knick e rbock e r Blood . .. l\fal cl s r or vg Ill p t t rn 33 Lamb Summe r cl s vl .,. * . . . . . . . ...... StM e 0 34 Long (S an ford's Ob l ong) ... . .. M al cl s m 0 0 g m g p f t 35 Ma dam Vinous ......... . ....... . t M ds r b JD V * JU 0 36 M agnum Bonum ... . .......... StM cl s I r vg m V g .,. * 0 37 Majorca . ........... ...... . .. . .. .... M a l cl s r b I m V p -.,..,. .. JU 0 38 Maltese Blood .... . . ... ... . Mal d s e b m * * s or 30 Maltese Egg . . .. ... . . Mn.I ds 0 vg JD g p * * 40 Maltese Oval (Gn.r ey M e d. sm 0 S w eet) ............................ Mal cl s 1 e 0 vg } g p ** ** 41 Mays ..... ... .......................... . . . . StM cl s 111 r 0 vg m g g .,. * 42 M e dit e rran ea n S w eet (Sa n f o rd 's) StM cl s I C 0 vg 1 111 p * * 43 Meli te n s i s N avc l ......... .. . ........... . Bev cl s l re 0 vg C O' f t t t 44 Mikado ...... " .,. .. . ............... . Man m I 0 g y (' g p * . 45 Nonpareil. .......... . .... .. .. Sev d s l r b e m V p .,. ** 0 46 Old Vini (Beach No , 2) . . ... . .. Sev ds rn r vg 111 V p * * 0 47 Paper Rind ..... .. .. . ...... . .. . St 1\1 as s e lo g I m g vp * *

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CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. VII ORANGES -C ontinued . DESCRIPTIO Adaptability. Fruit. TRltE OR 0 0 0 p 0 C1 r.f). P-< r.f). .. St. M .. 0 g e V p * ** * 48 Parson Brown ................... ... ds lU e 40 Peerless ...... t,M ds r 0 vg ill V p * * m .... ..... St. M vg m V p * * 50 Pineapple ds . ... .... Mal lo m * * 51 Prata ...... ..... . . .. .......... ds s r g g g 52 Prolifio t,M ds m r " vg m g vp t t . ....................... * * .,. 53 Sanguinea (Ruby,DuRoiB!ood) Mal ct s JU r or vg em, g p Man f vg ve g vp ** * 54 Satsuma . ds m 0 ............. .. ' .. * * 55 St. Mi ohael St. M ds m r 0 g m g p .... .. . . . .. Mal b m * * 56 St. Michael Blood .... ds m r 0 g p 57 Sauls Blood .. . ....... ...... .......... Mal ds m f or vg ill g p t t t 58 Star Calyx ... . t.M ds l g ill g g -* * r 0 50 Sweet Seville (Sanford's * * * Sweet Seville) ................ Bev ds s r 0 g ve V p 60 Tttngerin e (Danoy, Cowgill,Mor** * ague) .......... J\fan ds Im f vg m g vp ..... . .. 61 Timg e rona ...... Man els s r or g Ye V p * * * .... ......... ..... 62 T ep hi Mal ds m r 0 vg ill vp p * * * ............ ..... 63 Thorp e (Trophy) ................ ds JD r 0 g ve * ** * ev 64 Valencia Late ................... ... .. Mal ds 1 e lo g 1 g p * ** 65 Washington Navel .... Bev ds l re 0 b em g s * * * 66 White .. ... .. .. .. ..... ............ Mal ds 1 r lo g m g p t t 67 Whit.taker s ds m r 0 vg ill V vp * * .... .... . V BITTER ORANGES Citrus Aurantium Bigaradia ................ . 68 Bitter Sweet ....... . ........ N de l rf do * * * 69 Dwarf .. ........ ................ F C l rf do * * * 70 Italian Sour . . ............ .. ...... F C l ? ? ? 71 Navel.. ... . ........... .. ........... F C l ? ? ? 72 Phillips Bitter Sweet .......... N d C 1 rf do * ** * 73 Sour ....................... ...... ... N (! l rf do * * * REMARKS-On varieties as numbered above: Nos. 21 and 48, desirable early sorts: 15, 47, 58 and 63, distinct; 16, native of Louisiana ; 10, distinctly corrugated, desirable; 25 and 31, ver : desirable lat e sort!; 26, 27, 20, 37, 45 and 5 0 , desirable; 60, a market favorite; 54, a favorite in early market; 68 and 72, very refr e shing in summer; 73, refreshing acid; 7, 12, 17, 19, 20, 38, 51, 52, 55 58 and 66 came from Thomas Rivers, of E11gland, the weJl-known nurs eryma n. OF ORANGES, the leading fruit crop of the State, and great staple of the Central region, over five million boxes were produced in . the season of 1894-05. TIIE NAVEL VARIETIES are much -esteemed on account of the delicate texture and superior quality of their fruit. They are nsuaJly shy bearers, although expe rience indicates that they are much more prolific upon "rough" lemon and trifoliata stoc ks than,as generally grown, upon orange stocks.

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VIII FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. TrrE BLOOD VAmETrns ar c sw e et, and th e r e fore marketabl e , e arly in season, as indicaL e d by the abbrevi:1.tions i11 th e " Season" column. At this time their disti11ctive character is not apparent, and they have littl e advantttg c in market over other early sorts. As the season ticlvanoes, their ruby tints develop, until quite appar e 11t on th e e xterior , a11d th e ir quality continu e s to improve u11til, at full ripeness , they are equaled by few ttnd surpassed by non e . In locations sufTiciently e xempt from frost to permit their b e ing h e ld on the tr ee s until th e y reach perfection, th e y bring high prices and are exccptiomtlly profitable. TrrE SA'l'SUMA is va . lued on account of its hardin e ss, which is incr e ased by being grafted upon the entir e ly hardy Trifoliata stock. As it is marketed before cold weather (it ripens very e ar l y), it is much plant e d in s e ctions north of th e usual rang e of ornng e s . O'1'IlElt VARIE'l ' IE S. -Excluding th e Nav e ls, Bloods and Satsuma, not e d abov e, and without dis paragem e nt to oth e r sorts of e qual merit, the followin g tir e sugg e sted as ti desirabl e list for gen e ral plantiug, arranged in ord e r of succession: V e ry Early , Bo o n e , Sweet Seville; Early, Enterprise S e ed l e ss, Parson Brown; Early Medium , Nonpareil, Centennial ; Medium, Pinctippl e , Jaffa, Homosassa; Lat e Medium, Majorca, Du Roi; Late, B e ssi e , King, MttH c s e Oval; V e ry Lat e , Hart's Lat e Varieti e s distinctly mark e d in th e ir ext e ri o r app e arance , like th e Navels, Bloods, Du Roi, e tc., are, other things b e ing e qual, most d e sirabl e for mark e t POMELOS Grape fruit (Citrus Pomelanus) al)d Shaddock.s (Citru s Decumana.) (S e c Explanation o f A bbrevititions o n pag e iii) DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. Fruit. Tree. oi oi .i ...... fa;, .; "Cl '.;; ,q "Cl c ui ... .., c 0 ... NAMES . r/1 0 0 0 Q) z z A A i::i ;,:, i::i "' A e ...... ... s ,,,: .., ,,,: CA } ., Q) 'Sn .,, 0 Q) ... ,q di di 0 ...... f/l 0 ;.::; .., .., .., c ... 0 ., ., bl) 0 f/l f/l A p f/l N 0 p Q) ... Q) w > ., Q) 0 0 p fa;, u CJ rn P-c u rJ:J 1 Aurant,ium ............ . ............... N ds Im r Iy g 1 Ul V vp * ~ * 2 Bl o od Shadd o ck . ........... . .... . . . F I r 1 o f V +: * i< 3 "F rbidd c n Fruit'' ..... ... . . . ... .. F * '* 4 M,tys (li,LrtJ .... N cl s I r Iy vg Im V vp * * . ... ... ... .......... * 5 Jos se lyn N ds I r Iy g Im V vp -X * . ..... .. ........... . 6 Mammoth ( o r Omn gc J Shttdd ck .. . F I 1 o f ** * r V 7 S ee d! s s .. ... ...... ........ ............. t t 8 'l'riumph ...... N ds SID r ly vg lm V vp ** * ........... ... . ...... . .. !) Walt e r . . .... N ds Im r Iy g Im V ** * . ............... . .... . TIIE POMELO.-Growing th e Pomelo for mark e t is a comparativ e ly r e cent dev e lopment, but consid e rabl e quantiti e s ar e now shipped , and its culture is rapidly e xt e nding. It has proved popular in the general mark e t, and its culture profitable . Its range o.f adaptability is about the same as th e ornnge . Most of the older t r ees were planted befor e named varieties were introduced . The above list compr i s e s the l e ading kinds now generally planted .

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/ CATALOGUE OF FRUITS ." IX LEMONS-( Citms Limonum.) (Se e Explanation of AbbreviaLions on page iii.) , ______ D _ JDS _ C _ R _ I _ P _ T _ IO _ N _ . ---, \ ~dap.tability. Fruit. Tree. oc I oc 1--..,------r-------c-----:-1--~--1\ ] NAMES, (V,uieties.) :p s k ai ai 0 ,_. ,_. "' N 0 0 0 p in R Q 1 Belruir . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . F cs Ill bl l y 2 Genoa (Eur eka) . . . . . . . ....... . 3 Imp e rial (Messina) ...... ......... . . F CB m 1 l y C s m 1 y 4 SiciJy (Sanford's 'rhornle ss) . . . 5 Vilht Franca .... .. ... . ... ... . F cs Ill 1 ly F cs Ill 1 l y t> ;::I 0 k ., rJJ 0 ., bl) p Ql CJ U1 b f V b f V g f V b f V b f V ui rJJ Ql A 0 0 ,_. P-< vp vp vp vp vp , t: t: -~ ..8 I o o . R ; z z R A i cd t rJJ .:l A A A ,_. cd 0 ,_. ,_. Ql s k k

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DECIDUOUS FRUITS. PEACli ES -(Pers i ca vu l gar is.) NoTE.-The time of ripening of a ny particul a r viuiety varies considerably, in Florida, as else where, according Lo seaso n itnd l oca li ty. Under h ead of ''Season," "ve ry ea rly " me,1,ns April 20 Lo J un tl 15; "early," fr om Jun e 1 Lo July 15; "medium," from July 1 to August 10; "ht Le," from Aui;usL I to Septembe r 20; "very late," September 10 to November 1. NoTE.-"Color," as cipplied to peaches, ref e r s Lo the flesh, and not to the exterior, as with ot h er fruits. (See Explanation of Abbreviations, on page iv.) DESCRIPTION . Adaptability . Fruit. Plant. +> .k N ol 0 "' bo 0 en "' A p en p
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CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. XI PEACt-jESOoutiuued. DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. Fruit. Plant. oi oi ,a ...... fl'-! oi :9 .Q :9 H NAMES (Varieiles.) rh .., 0 H H H r/}. 0 0 0 Q) z z ...... A fl'-I A ;,:, C) A e H ,..: .., ,..: q:I H Q) :> ui ;o 0 ;o Q) Q) H Cl) Cl) UJ 0 c:I r/}. 0 .., .., .., ...... c:I bl) 0 r/}. A ::, H r/}. N :'1 0 ::, Q) > H Q) 0 00 6 0 a UJ P-< 1$ Q) 0 0 UJ 36 Oviedo ... ...... ...... .. H [\ m f w g e g g * ""* * * 37 Pallas ...... H ds m f w g e ill f * * . ... ..... . . ....... 38 Peen-to ..... ..... ..... .. P-to a m C w g ,. e V vp * ** 3\J ro"cr' Scptemb e l' ... ... ... s dn f w g V l g f * * * ... m 40 Red Ceylon . ....... NOB C t' r f ve m p * * ........... m 41 Sangmel. ...... . .... ..... . . ... H cl s m C wr O' e ill p * * * "' 42 Sneed ....... N r, cl s C w g ve g g X-* .,. .... . ..... .. ..... m 4~ Stanley ....... . H cl s C w g e p * ** * ...... . .... .. . m V 44 Suber .......... ............ . . P-to ds m C w g ve V p * "** 4:5 Tnber .. . ... .. . .. . ... .. .. ... Ii ds ill C wr b e g p ** ** * * 4G Tbmbel' ......... .. . re den I f w g ill f * * ........ . . g 47 Triana ........ ........ . . . . . ... H ds Ill f wr g e g g * * .. 48 Triumph ....... ...... .... ... ' P e r ds m f y g y g f t * t 40 Victoria ....... ........ . .. .. .. s den 1 f y g l g f * * * 50 Wa
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XII FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. PLUMS (Prunus.) No-r E. " J ," as us ed in "O ri g in " co lumn, m ea ns that t h e variety b e l o n gs to the Japan ese c la s s (P. Triflora) but n ot n ecessa rily import ed fr o m Japan . (See Expl a na t i on of Abbreviations on page iv .) DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. FRUI'l'. TREE. oi oi oi s s oi 'O ..0 'O ;::: NAMES (Vari et ies.) ""' ;::: 0 .,; ... ... "' 0 0 0 Q) z z s 0 t, 0 cl 0 ... ci Q ... 0 ,.; '.::; ... Q) s ,.; .,; 0 Q) ... -5 -~ oi oi 0 "' "' 0 0 ... ol Q) 0 0 p w :, 0 0 CJ rn p.. r:il 0 rn 1 Abundance . .. . . . .. . ... J a Im yr C g e ID V f * * 2 Babcock .. . . .. J a 1 r C g Ill V f * * . . .. 3 Berckmans . ... J a lm y&r C g e V f * * ... 4 Burbank .. .. . . J a lm PY C g e m V g *71~ * .. 5 C habot .. . . .... .. .. . ... J a lm rp C g ])] V f * * ( j Ex ce l sio r .. . .... . .. . ... JH a m rp C b ve V vp ** ** "** * 7 Hale .. . .. .. .... J a l r C 0m I V f t t 0 8 K e l sey . .. ..... .. . . .... J a v l gy f g 1 V f * * 9 Normand . . J a Ill r f " e V s * * ...... . 0 lO R e el .Tun e .. . .. ... . ... J a m r C g " V f * * )1 S:1 Js urn:1 ......... . . . .. J 3. 1 p C b n, I V f * * j :! ,vi c l rno n . ..... . ....... J a l br C b 111 V * * t PEARS (Py ru s Communis.) (See Exphtnat.ion of Abbr ev iati o ns on page iv .) DESCRIPTION. Adaptabil i ty. Fruit. Plant. ol ai .; ai 'O .,:: 'O i:: ,s .., i:: 0 r AMES (Varieties.) . ... ui k 0 0 f/J 0 z Q) z A p:, A A A k <.) ol Q) ,.; .., ,.; k ... "Sn .... 0 Q) Q) ... ..0 Q) oi 0 ol f/J 0 0 .., .., +' .., i:: f/J N 0 0 ::l ., b.o f/J f/J A p 00 ...
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NAMES (Varieties .) 1 Concord ....... 2 Cynthiana ..... 3 Delaware ... 4 Diamond ....... 5 Elvira ........ 6 Flowers ........ 7 Goethe ...... .. 8 Herbemont .... 9 Ives ........ ... 10 Niagara ...... 11 Norton ...... .. 12 Salem ........ 13 Scuppernong ... H Lindley ....... 15 Thomas ..... ... 16 Wilder ...... .. 17 Eden ... .... .... 1S James ........ . CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. GR,APES(Vitis-Labrusca, 2Estivalis, Vulpina, etc.) ( ee Explanation of Abbreviations on pa~e iv.) DESCRIPTION. FRUI'l' . VINE. BERRY. BUNC11. ai U1 Q.) Ci g '-' Ci s ,.; ,.; nt.

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XIV FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. K.AK.1 Japanese Persimmon-(Di ospyros Kald.) (Se c Explanation of Abbreviations on pag e iv.) DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. Fruit. TREE. cl cl cl 'O .<:I -~ ,,; +' C k k k NAME S. en 0 0 0 Q) z z A A i::l i::l " A A k s r..: r..:
+> ,:: N k 0 d d bJJ 0 en "< 0 0 rn Pi Q) 0 0 U1 1 Costata ..... . ...... . .. J cl s m r c pt sr f 1 V p X-K -X-:t )Ht * 2 Hachiya .... . .... . .. . . J cl s vl o bp t br Q g s * * * 3 Hyakume .. . . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. J cl s 1 rfo b or g 1 11 V p X->E** * 4 Ok a. me ... . , .. ... ... . . J cl s 1 rf g b e r vg e& m V vp X-:t *:t ** * 5 Tab e rs No. 1 29 . ...... J cl s m rpt ur g ve V p ** +:* -.'f* * 6 Tone-nashi ... . .. .. .. . ... ' . , . J as 1 r cpt lr b m g g ** ~'fX"-* * 7 Tsuru .... . . ...... .. ..... .. .. J ds 1 olpt b r er V I V vp -:Ht ** * " 8 Yecldo-icbi , . . . . . . . ... ...... J cl s n1 rf cl r vg Ill g 0- •:h'f ** 7~-x* " 9 Y e mon ... .... ... . .. . .... J cl s 1 r f g o&r vg Ill V p *X*~'+ * 10 Zengi ..... . ... . .. ...... , .... J cl s s rf cl r g ve V vp ~* TIIE KA.JU succeeds w e ll throughout. t h e State, and is ge n e,a lly , though not exte n s iv e ly, gro wn. For mark et, this d e licious fruit has the m e rit of s hippin g w e ll and keeping l o n g . Whil e new mar k e ts are oft e n r e luctan t to take hold o f it , wherever kn o wn it se ll s w e ll. NOMENCLATURE.-While there ha s b ee n much confusion in r ega rd to th e nam es of varieties, th e above kinds ar e now as w e ll known a s t.h e l ea ding vari et i es of other fruit s ; they e mbrac e the mo st valuabl e kinds, and th e nam es as given are correctly applied. 0HARACTERISTICB .Some of t h e va ri eties hav e dark flesh, ot h e r s light fl es h, still ot h e r s a mix ture of th e two . Th e light and dark fl esh differ radicall y in t.ext ur e and cons i ste n cy as w e ll as appear anc e, and wh e n found i a the sa m e frui t a r c n ever bl e nd e d but always distinct. Th e dark fl es h i s neve r astring e nt ; the light fl es h i s a st ring e n t until it softens. Th e dark-fleshed frui t is c ri sp and m eaty,l ik e an appl e , and is e dibl e b efo re it m at ur es. So m e of t h e ent ir e l y dark-fl es h ed kinds impr ove its they soften, lik e Hyakume and Y ed do-ichi ; ot h ers ar e best wh e n st ill h a rd , lik Z e n g i rrnd Tab e r 's No . 129. As they ar e good to e a t b e for e they ar e rip e, it is n o t , so importa n t t h i tt the dark-fl es h e d kind s b e allowed to r eac h a certain st. ag e b e for e b e in g o ff e r e d to consumers unfamiliar with t.hc fruit . Th e li ght-flesh P d kinds, and t.h osc w ith mix e d li g ht a nd dark flesh, are ve r y clelic1ouswhcn they r eac h the custard lik e consistency o f full rip e n ess. In so m e t. h e astring e n cy di sappea r s as the fruit begins to soften, as with Yemon, and in it l ess d eg r ee wi th Okamc an d T a n c -n as hi ; in ot h e r s it persists until th e fruit i s full rip e, as wit.h T s uru Th e li g ht-fl es h e d ki nds s h o uld not b e offered to co n su m e r s unacquaint e d with th e fruit until in condit.ion to be eate n. A p e r so n wh o ha s atte mp te d to cat o n e of t h em wh e n gr ee n and "puck e ry" will n ot b e quick to r epeat. Lhe ex p c,. im c n t Seeds acco mpany th e dark flesh. The light-fl es h e d ldnd s ar e see dl ess . Th e kind s wit.h mi xe d fl es h hav e see d s in prop o r t i o n to th e quantit.y of dark fl es h. Hyakum e, Z e n g i and Ha c hi ya are u su all y ove r s pr e ad :it t h e bl osso m end with p e nciling or n et -w o rk of dark l in es, an d t h is so m et. imcs occ ur s in ot h e r kinds . VARIETIEs.-Tan e -n as hi , Okame, Yemon aad Yeddo-ichi exce l in q uali ty, perhaps in t.he o rd e r nam e d , Okam e (on acc o unt of th e diffi c ult y o f gett in g t.he frui ts all in t h e sa m e stage o f rip eness ) and Hachiya are not as goo d s hipp e r s a s t.h e ot h e r s; the latt. e r i s va lu ed f o r its imm e n se size and sho win ess . Okame, on account of it s l o n g seaso n, exq uisi te b e au ty, aucl s up e ri o r quality, i s t.he best for hom e use and l oc al market. Z c ngi and Tab e r 's No. 1 2 9 are valu e d for th e ir ea rlin ess, as ar e Tsuru and Cos taLa for th e ir h i t e n ess . Co st.ata i s very di st in ct and h a nd so m e in both Lr cc and frnit. Hy:i.kum e is m os t general l y grown of t.hc dark-fl es h ed kind s . Tan e -Na s hi is, perhaps, m ost hi g hly e st.e e m e d in mark e t. S roci c -Th e Kaid s h o uld b e gra ft e d o n t.he n at.ive pe r s imm o u, o n whi c h iL i s mu c h rr.ore satisfactory than upon it s o wn o r imp o rL l)d st.ocks

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CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. xv MINOR DECIDUOUS FRUITS. (8 e Explanation of Abbr e viation on pag e iv.) DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. Fruit. TREE OH PLAN'!'. oi 'Cl cl .Cl ..... 'Cl ,s ..., k .:: k 0 0 NAMES. ui k 0 ...... ., 0 z Fl Q.) z t A ...... A CJ A A ell .... A s "' "'

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MISCELLANEOUS FRUIT S . STRA WBERRIES -(F ra gar i tt. ) (Sec Exp l a n at i o n o f Abbr cv ilL t i o n s o n pa ge iv. ) D E S CR lPTIO N . A da p tab ili ty. Fll U l'l '. PL AN '!'. <6 '" <6 5 ,c; <6 N Ai\ l J BS ( Vari et i rs . ) 'O ,.. d, ;.., ;.., ;.., 0 ~0 0 0 z z ;,.:, Q"' 0 0 .; p .... 0 ce .... 0 ..., ..ci ,_; "' .... "' : ~ o s ,_; 0 'O 0 ..., .... ,c; ;.,: .,; .,; 0 "' "' 0 0 "' ..., " .... 0 p "' ol .~D .... "' "' 0 .... "' "' in 0 "' p.. Is: ' "' 0 C w i=J ,:.:. 0 a w Po p:1 0 w ] Cloud ....... ... . A p ft 1 b o d e f m c l V p * * ** ~2 Hoffm a n ....... A B s m e de f f v e m f * * * ** 0 Lady Thomp on . . A B s 1 0 S C f f e m p ** * " * ** ** 4 i\Ii c h e l. .... .. . . . A B dn 1 be y r V s y e V p * * * .,. 5 N e wnan . .... . ' .. A B a m 0 e g f e l V f i.~* ** ** * G Clyde ......... . . A B a 1 C e b f e 1 V p ** 7 Brandywin e . . ... A B dn 1 C C f f I m f ** s Ni c k Ohmer .... . . A p n I C de b m 1 V p * * 0 Bismar c k ....... A B s l C S C f f C V p ** lfl Ph e nom e nal. .. .. F B a 1 C de b f C, 1 V p * l! Bubach ...... . .. A p cln l r C cl C f s I ill f 12 Exc e ls i o r . . ... A B a m o I d c g m ve m p ** ** ~1" Ri s ing Se e dling A p m o 1 de f ** .. .. a lll v e V v p 14 i\lurray's Enrly ... A p a m 0 cl C m f ve V vp ** REMARKS. Sinc e 1895 strawb e rry cultur i! has b ee n larg e ly ex t e nd e d , e sp e cially o n th e W e stern sl J p e of the p e ninsula. Th e N e wnan bas b ee n a ll o w e d to d ege n e rat e and th e fruit is n o w rath e r smaJI for s hipm e nt. Th e H o ffman d oes bett e r o n cl a y th a n o n sanel y l a nd s and n ee ds high f e rtihzing . Th e Cloud is vi go r o us in N o rth Florida and stancl s , clrouth w e ll ; pr o lific e arly in th e s e ason. Not lik e d so w e JI in S o uth Florida. Th e Rising S e edlin g is v e ry vig o rous and prolific, a firm b e rry and an e c c Jl c nt shipp e r . Its folia ge, howev e r, grows rnth e r op e n and it d oc s not prot e ct i t s fruit w e ll again s t a frost The Ph e nom e nal s ee ms t o b e almost id e ntical with th e H o ffman in physical charncteristics , but it has it long e r s e ason in South Fl o rida. In Bradford countv Arom a and Middl e ton's Early hav e b ee n t es t e d by individuals a n d r e port e d o n favorably . Gl e n Mary, Ho o d Riv e r , D o Jlar , Warfi e ld , StM, Robbin s EtLrly , Spl e ndid, Prid e of Cumberland and Gandy h a v e b ee n t es t e d and cond e mn e d .

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FLORIDA S TATE HORTICU L TURAL SO C IETY . XVII MINOR MISCELLflNE OU S FR.UITS . (See Explanation of Abbr evi ati o ns on page iv .) DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. Fruit. TREE OR c6 .; PLANT . c6 '"O NAMES . '"O -~ .; -~ 0 i.. k rn 0 .e 4) z i:l R i:l r.i tr.i C) i:l i:l --; k ,.: ,.:
k 4) ol 0 p u5 R 0 0 U) P-i ril 0 0 r:n BLACKBERRIES Ru bus vill os us .. .... A dn * * I I DEWBERRIEs-Rub u s can a densis . ... A dn * * * LOQUATs-Erio b otrya J aponica . . ... . F dn m e y vg Sp V p * * ** OLIVES-Olea Europ ea .............. F cs s e rb F V p * * * SURIN AM CHERRY (Eugenia Mich e li). EI d e s r y I* * DEWBERRIES, also BLACKBERRIES in some varieties su cc eed admirably in the r eg ions indicated, but arc not cultivat ed to any considerable extent, o win g to t h e abundance of native, wild berries. LOQUATS Are g r o wn in a s mall way for hom e c o nsuml)t . ~n. Th ey are a desirable fruit for table, as w ell as culinary us e. A t pr ese nt the Loquat is pr o p a gate d from seed, and the fruit va r ies greatly in size and qua. l ity. Impr ove d variP.ties should b e originated and disseminated . OLrvEs . llfany t r ees hav e b ee n p l anted, aud there a r e some old gr oves. The va r ieties , of whi c h there a r e many, ar e not s u fficiently known in this State to catalogu e . THE SURINAM CHERRY.-A delicious, acid fruit-is g r o wn to a limit e d e xt e nt, for home use. TROPIC A L F RU ITS. PINEAPPLES -(Annas Sativa.) (See Explanation of A bbr e viati o ns o n page iii) NAMES . r.i "So ;::; 0 2 An cigua, Bla ck. . . . . ... .. . . . F 1 Abakka . . ............. . ...... 1 F 3 A.ntigua, Whi te . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 4 Bla c k ,Jam aica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F al rn p a a a a al ., u5 I s m m DESCRIPTION. Fruit . 0 R ol ol r o I ,.: 0 0 0 oy oy y oy t;:::: ol :::i CJ b b g g r.i 0 Ul ol 4) r:n m s ill ill ill l l I Tr ee. V m g m

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XVII I CATALOGUE O F FRUITS. P IN E APPLE S Cont i nu ed. DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. NAMES. Fruit . u.i "' Q) t, A i i <:) s i,.; i,.; ' 6'o ;!:I 0 0 ai ai 0 "' "' "o '"' "' b.O '"' "' N 0 0 ::, Q) > '"' 0 i:J u3 r;:. 0 CJ en P-1 oi oi oi oi "C ..c:I "C i:: +' i:: 0 '"' 0 0 .2 z z r;:. A A A '"' '"' t a:, Q) '"' '.;3 ... +' +' "' r/J A ::, Q) '" Q) 0 s: l"l 0 rn 5 Black Prince ...... "' .. . .......... p a ID oy f m 111 JU s G Blood ...... .... ... . .. . . . . . . .. F a s l' 0 f V f m g p 7 C rown Prince ... .. ... ......... F ::t ID oy O' m 111 m f "' Charlotte Rothschild . .. . . . ... F n. JU OY vg Ill JU gf 9 Egyptian Queen ........ ....... F ll ID y g m e p 10 R ip l ey Queen .. . . .... ..... . ... ] a Il1 dy b f l ID f ]l. Lorcl Carrington . .. . . . .. ... . .. F [l ID oy " JU ro ID f ,.., ]2 Prince Albert ... .... .. . ... . . .. F a 1 oy f ID m 0p " 13 Porto Rico ... ..... . . . .. . .. .. F ::t vl oy g ID e g f H Perna ID buco ..... . .. . . ... .. .. F cl 11 s cl y V VS m O' \' p "' 15 R ed Spani h .... . . ..... . ..... F fl ID r g "' f e V p 0 1G mooth Cayen n e . .... ......... F n. 1 oy vg f m .., p 0 17 Sugar Loaf .. . . . . .... ...... . ... F a s y vg s I ID f JS Enville ........ .. . . . . ........ F a m oy f s ID ID f REMARKs.-All va ri et i es of pineappl es a r e ada.pted to South Florid11. with li g ht protection, though three-fourths of the acreage is unpr otected and es capes in ordinary win te rs without mat e rial dama ge from cold. In South Central Fl o rid a t.hey r eq u i r e artificial h e at to protect th e m from fros t durin g t.h e wint e r. Furth e r Nor t h th e y cannot b e s ucc ess fully g r o wn exce pt und e r glass . Th e R e el Spanish, P orto Rico, Abakka and Smooth Cay e nn e are g rown most exte nsiv e ly for mark et. Th e Egyptian Queen, Ripl ey Queen, Blood, P e rn a mbLlCO and Sugar Loaf are g rown for market. l ess extensively . The Charlo t t. e R ot. hschild and Envill e are very littl e grown, and all the r est abov e list ed o nly by coll ecto rs. Th ese remark s apply to the East Coast. Int.h e num ero us and ex p e nsiv e s h ecldecl pineries of Orange County i1nd th e W est Coast , whi Jh a r e cult.ivated o n an int. e nsive system, t h e Smoot.h Cay e nn e is plant e d a lm ost e xclusiv e ly. Bf! N .l', NflS -(Musa.) (S ee Explanation of Abbreviations o n pa ge iv.) NAMES, (Vari e ti e s.) A s t, i:l "So ;!:I 0 ai ai 0 "' i:: N '"' "o "' '" "' 0 ::, (1) 0 i:J u3 P'! 0 CJ en 1 B araooa (Red Jamaica) . . . . . .. WI ds 1 r g 2 Cavendish .. . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . EI ds m y b 3 G o lden ('rahit i ? ) ....... . .... WI cl n 1 y g 4 Harts Choice .... .. .. ........ . WI dn s y b 5 Magni!era . . . . .. . . .... ..... . WI cl s 1 r g 6 O rinoco ('Hrs e Banana") ... . . .. s A den I y f V p ** V p ** V p ** V p * ** V p l V p * **

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CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. XIX REMARKS-On varieties as numbered above. Nos. 1, 2 and 3, general market; 4 and 6, home u se COMMERCIAL BANANA CULTURE is confined to the extreme lower portion of the peninsula,. V ARIETIES.-The Baracoa is the ord inary Red Banana of commerce The Cavendish (M. Cav endishii) is a dwarf species, also known as "Dwarf," "Dwarf Jamaica," 'Chinese," "Martinique." Except the Orinoco, Hart's Choice has a more northern range than the other sorts. '.rh e Or in oco matur es further north than any other var i ety, it is anorclinaryplantain k Q) 0 p w 6 0 CJ en H Q) 0 l"il 0 en 1 Common Gnav:1, (P. Guaiava) many unnam e d varieties . . . WI den s&f V vp * ** 2 White Winter (P. Guaiava) .... WI den m p g g f V p * ** 3 Cattley ( P. Cattleyanum) ... .... A en s r r er s & r V p * ** ** 0 4 Chinese (P. Lucidum) .......... C n s r y g s ' f V p * ** ** REMARKB.-On varieti e s as numb e r e d above. No. 2, d es tinct and desirable; 3 and 4, hardy. Trrn GUAVA is exten siv ely grown in Centra l and Southern Florida for home use , local market and the manufacture of jelly. It is a most delicious fruit for dessert, as w e ll as cooking and p r eile rv'. ing. Ther e are num e rou s varieties , as yet unclassified. Th e hardy kinds, Cattley and Chinese, have about the same rang e as oranges. MflNGOES(l'tiangifera Inclici.) (See Explanation of Abbr eviations o n pa2"e i v .) DESCRIPTION. Aclapta bility. Fruit. Plan t . ol ca o:i k Q) "' Q) 0 0 p 00 f.-1 0 0 en P-, [:?.: l"il 0 en 1 Common (the ordinary ROrt) .. EI den I k y&r g s V p * * 2 Apricot ...... .. .. . ... vn den m k r&y vg s V p .. ** 3 No. 11 ( Apple) ......... . ...... ,n den I r y vg s V p * **

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xx FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. MANGOES-Are grown in Tropical Florida for home consumption and local market. Many new sorts, of probable superiority, have been introduced in recent years, but have not been sufficiently tested to be catalogued. MINOR. TR.OPI C A L fR.U IT S . (See Explanat.ion of Abbr e viations on pao-e iv.) 0 DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. Fruit. Tree. , .; .; .; 'O .; c :s ..., 0 NAMES. k k .,; k 0 0 "' 0 z .... Cl) z f;;r; A A J:i tJ:i C) A A k -; ..: CA k k Cl) .,.. s ..: 0 Cl) Cl) k .!:P al al 0 ;::: "' 0 ..., ..., ..., k 0 "3 "' t,.o "' :n ::, A k "' N 0 ::, Cl) > k Cl) "' 0 Cl) .,.. 0 p rn f;;r; 0 Cf rn p., f"l rn 0 1 Avocado Pear (Persea gratissima) ...... ................ WI des 1 p y&b r g s&f V p ** 2 Cherimoya (Anona cherimolia) SA dn I e bry g s V p ** 3 Custard Apple/ Anona reticulata) WI de 1 C g g s V * 4 Granadilla (Passiflora edulis) .. WI de m r I r g s V * * 5 Hog Plum (Spondius lutea) ........ WI d s r g b s V * 6 Jamaica Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdiriffa) ....................... EI C m r f V p * * ** 7 Mammee Apple (Mammea Am** ericana) .................. WI ds 1 r br s * 8 Mammee Sapota (Lucuma ma.mmosaJ ... ... . . WI d s 1 e y g s * 9 Otaheite Gooseberry (Cicca disticha) .. .. .. . ........... . ......... WI C $ r w g V p * 10 Pawpaw (Carica pap,iya) ..... . E&WI d c n 1 e y f ev V p ** 11 Rose Appl e (Eugenia Jambos) EI d c m r 1 f Sp &S V p ** 12 Sapodilla (Achras sapota) .... WI d s m r br g e v V p ** 13 Sour Sop (Anona muricata) .... WI C 1 C g g s V p 14 Spani. h Lime (Melicocca biguga WI d s r g g s V p ** 15 Star Apple (Chrysophllum cai ** nito) ...................... WI d m r g g s p V p -* 16 Sugar Apple (Anona squamosa) WI d c m C g g s & f V p * ** 17 Tamarind (Tamari nduslndi cus) EI ds sm pod br f e v V p ** REM.+.RKs.-On species as numbered above : Nos. 1, 7, 12 and 17, s e ll well in g e neral mark e t; 2, 3 and 16, much admired in the tropics; 5, delicious ; 6 and 9, desirable for cooking; 13 and 17, esteemed for acid drink; 4, 6, 9 and 11, especially fin e for jelly. THE MINOR TROPICAL FnurTs. Listed above are none of them raised for mark e t on a large scale 1 but all are desirable, and are grown, over a more or less e xtended area, in the more tropical regions of the Stat e , a number b e ing produced in considerabl e quantiti es for local market or con sumption. A few, lik e the Mamme Apple, Sapodilla and Avocado Pear, ship well and find r e ady sale; the Avocado Pear has brought good pric e s in New York mark e t, Some, like th e foregoing, the Star Apple and the Hog Plum, are agreeabl e to most palat e s upon first acquaintanc e; oth e rs , lik e th e Sugar Apple, Ch e rimoya, and Sour Sop, which ar e much est ee med by thos e accustomed to the fruit, requir e an acquired taste to be appreciated. A number are grown for hom e us e , almost or quite exclusively, either because too tender for transportation, lik e the Sugar Apple and Pawpaw, or for their value for culinary purposes; of the latter , the Otaheite Goos e berry is a valuable acid fruit for cooking and preserving. Th e Jamaica Sorrel is not a fruit, in th e prop e r sense, but produces a pulpy calyx, which makes an excellent substitute for cranb e rri e s. Th e acid Sour Sop is us e d for flavoring , pr e paring drinks, e tc., and is much e steemed in sickn e ss. Th e T a marind b e ar s a pod with a pleasant acid pulp which, pr e s e rv e d in s ugar, finds r e ady sal e in the g e n e ral market.

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. XXI NUTS. (See Explanat.ion of Abbr eviat i o ns on pa ge iv.) . DESCRIPTION. Adaptability. Fruit. Tr ee. I ol ol ,Ii ,Ii 't:I ,.q 't:I i:: ..., 0 k a., "' a., 0 k .... 0 p rn CJ p... u rn CHEST NUTS -Castanea 1 Chinquapin (C. pumila) ................. . ..... .. A do s vg V p * * 2 Japan Chestnut (G . Japonica) .... . F d cs vi g V g * * * t ..... ...... PECANS -Car ya olivreform is. 3 Pap er Shell. .. A ds b b V p ** * * ....... .. . ....... .. . .. .. . .. . ... La ds I b V p ** ** ... 4 Cent e nnial. . ... ... .. . ... .. .. . ..... . ............ La ds I b V p ** * ** 5 Frolsch er .... . ........ . . ...... . .... ..... ....... Miss ds 1 b V p ** ** ** 6 Stuart ................. .. ...... w ALNUTS-J uglan s . 7 Japan Walnut (J. Seiboldii) . . ...... ... . ........ F d m b V p t t t t COCOANUTS. 8 Seedlings . ........ ... ............ .............. F des I b V p ** NuTs . -The pecan has Jon g been grown in the Stat e in a small way; it flourishes in ma n y loca l ties a nd i ts culture is pr ofitab l e. In addition to the four varieties above listed, othe r good vari e ties as yet only of l oca l r e put e , will undoubtedly become p rominent in the near future. The Japan chest n u t of comparativelv r ecent introduction , has prov e d fairly w e ll adapted but hardly worthy ofex te n sive commercial culture. The Japan walnut, of still m o r e r ece nt intr o duc tion, bears we ll and mak es a r e markably handsom e tr ee , but is not up to t he standard of th e b est English walnuts in q u ality. Extensive Cocoanut plant ations ar e to be found o n the southern coast . Little o r no attention bas been paid to varie ties .

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FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 1900. . ..