Miccosukee Everglades news

Material Information

Miccosukee Everglades news
Place of Publication:
Miami Fla
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida
Creation Date:
July 1, 1985
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4 v. : ill. ; 45 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Newspapers -- Florida ( lcsh )
Mikasuki Indians -- Newspapers ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Miami (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Miami-Dade County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Dade -- Miami
25.787676 x -80.224145 ( Place of Publication )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 4, no. 10 (Oct. 1982)-v. 7, no. 9 (Nov. 1985).
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
002033559 ( ALEPH )
36179317 ( OCLC )
AKM1263 ( NOTIS )
sn 97027662 ( LCCN )

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Miccosukee Tribe of Indians, PO Box 440021, Miami, FL 33144 Vol. 7, No. 7

Richie Havens guest musician

at tribe's annual Music Festival

With the return of Richie Havens and the Osceola, Seminole dancers. .HH
addition of four new acts the tribe's Groups new to the festival are local reggae ..'
Everglades International Music and Crafts band Ti-Shan, local country group Gator
Festival will mark its tenth anniversary over Kicks, a Nicaraguan dance ensemble and H..."
three days of live music and good times., Aloha Hawaiians, a Polynesian dance group.
The festival takes place at the Miccosukee Although live music will be played _^.,,,.,
Indian Village Friday, July 19, through throughout each day, music is only half of the
Sunday, July 21. festival. The other half is the arts and crafts.
Indian and non-Indian artisans willdisplay a '
Folk/singer guitarist Havens will perform variety of works, which festival patrbns can : ....
one showi at 3 p.m., Saturday, in the sheltered buy or simply adie. .. -
atmphtheater. Havens is best known for And each day will start with championship -
"Preedom" (his performanceof itisrecordedin alligator wrestling, in which indians wrestlers
the docmenttary film Woodstock) and his will compete for the title. Noncompetitive .. ,
version of George Harrison's "Here Comes the wrestling shows will be repeated several times ".
Sun, but his repertoire appeals to even a day. Then there's lots of native food to- ,
familiarr audiences, sample, the Miccosukee Museum to browse ",, ,.1.
Other.-returning artists are Tiger-Tiger, a through and airboat rides to take.. ,
pop rock band founded by Miccosukee brothers Admission is $6.50 for adults, $4 for children "
Stephen and Lee Tiger; Yarko Antonevych, a ages five through 12. Admission includes all Solo artist Richie Havens will perform at 3 p.m.,
solo bandura player; the Mora Arriaga performances and access to the crafts Saturday, July 19, as part of the tenth
Family, a mariachis group; and Tina and O.B. chickees, museum and alligator farm. anniversary of the music festival.


Judge dismisses felony charge against Billie for panther killing

tribal land for subsistence (survival) and for
traditional-a and ceremonial purposes, and
that these rights were not revoked by the
legislature when it made killing Florida
panthers illegal.
(Since the arrest of Billie, the legislature
amended the law at the request of the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to
include any panther. Cases like Billie's could
have boiled down to proving whether the animal
killed was indeed a Florida panther and not a
non-native cougar. The game commission
defines a Florida panther as one having three
distinguishing characteristics: a crook at the end
of the tail, whitish flecks on the back of the neck
and whorled hairs on its back.)
During the 18 months between his arrest and
trial, Billie had publicly admitted to killing the
panther on the Seminoles' Big Cypress
Reservation. He was arrested when game
commission officials, following an anonymous
tip, found the cat's remains at Billie's camp.
Panther parts are traditionally used in Indian
medicine and in religious ceremonies. It is also
considered a food delicacy among traditional
Florida Indians. Billie said he wasn't hunting for
a panther but when he came upon one, he felt
obligated to take it because ofits rarity and high
spiritual value.

He was quoted in the Fort Myers News-Press a
year after the shooting as saying, "Yes, I shot it.
I shot him on the reservation to eat. It's part of
my culture, just like ham and eggs is to yours."
Panther killings were outlawed at the
beckoning of the game commission, which nw
claims there are only 30 iu -5 :eft in the state

Seminole Tribal Chairman James Billie
can't be tried by the state for the December 1983
slaying of an endangered Florida panther, a
judge ruled June 28 when he dismissed the felony
Collier County Circuit Judge Hugh Hayes said
the state has no jursidiction over Indians
hunting and fishing on tribal land because of
treaties signed between the Seminoles and the,
federal government, and because the state
legislature did not specifically, Address those
treaty rights when it outlawed killing panthers.
But because the Florida panther is also on the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's list of
endangered species, Billie could be prosecuted for
the same incident in a federal court, said Jim
Shore, his lawyer. The case may also be appealed
by the state. .
Shore said the dismissal was consistent with
court rulings for similar cases in other regions of
the nation.
"As far as we are concerned, the judge here kept
in line with the current state of law. It's not new,
but for Florida it is," he said.
Billie, who could not be reached for comment,
could have been ,sentenced to up to five years in
jail plus a $5,QOO fine for thethird-degree felony.
Hayes said that treaties made nearly two
centuries ago and a state statute guarantee the
Seminoles the right to hunt, fish and trap on

Music Festival showtimes,phOos on pag
Mui Fetv ot,

July 1985-

Pre-election series
begins ,this issue
Perhaps the most important event in four
years for the Miccosukee community will take
place this November. tribal elections. To
prepare the community, this newspaper will
print a four-part series, one part per monthly
issue, examining the powers of elected officials
and the procedures for electing them. The only
sources of information for the series are the
tribal constitution., bylaws and election
Part one, which deals with the governing
authority of the tribe, is on page 3. Part two
(August) Will discuss the specific duties of
elected officials, part three (Sept.) will outline
the pre-election procedures and part four (Oct.)
will detail the ballot procedure.
continued on page 3

Sa-bine Corporation plugs test oil well,

plans to drill another on tribal land

Finally, college thatruns on modernIndia m
Finally, college that runs on modern Ilndi~an time




2"col- E #lOdO News

2-L aa


Finally, higher education that runs on Indian
It's the solution for Miccosukee people who
want to "go" to college but don't have the time to
atted nasses regularly because of family and
job responsibilities, according to Lou Hererra,
higher education coordinator. Indeed, this
method of earning a college degree can even help
people make up for lost time.
Heerra is trying to start the first external
degree program on the reservation, one for
business degrees. Unlike the current
arrangement with Miami-Dade Community
College, in which an instructor teaches one
course each semester on the reservation, the
exeral degree program is actually a series of
corresqMpondence courses, fully accredited. And in
the external degree program, students can often

earn credit for work experience related to their
'"This program is for people who are already
working in the field [of business], who are highly
motivated," said Hererra. '"They can work at
their own pace, with no time limit." Without ever
stepping foot on a college campus, in most cases.
Generally, students would get workbook
assignments to complete and return to Hererra,
who would forward them to Northwood Institute,
a college with four campuses in the nation.
Hererra said attending class is not necessary
except for computer-science majors who would
need minimal instruction from a teacher "to
learn the basics of operating a computer." After
that those students would only need access to a
computer to do their coursework, which Hererra
said can be arranged with the tribe's Learning

Center. Accounting students may also need a
p ofessor's instruction initially, she said,
Students can earn associate's or bachelor's
degrees ir business, which normally take two
and four years to complete, with majors in
accounting, management, economics, marketing
and computer science.
Hererra said if there are at least five students
taking the same course she can set up a study
class, if they want, to get together and work on
their assignments.
Anyone interested in the external degree
program should contact Hererra immediately so
she will have time to coordinate the program for
the fall, she said. Her -office is in the
neighborhood building, next door to
photocopying. An appointment is not necessary.

Volunteer music teacher Lisa Del Rio shows Miccosukee Indian school students how easy it is to play
this stringed instrument. Del Rio, a professional musician who placed second in the national
division of the International Music Contest, taught at the school through a volunteer program of
the Miami archdiocese.

Sabine Corporation has plugged a test oil well
it recently drilled on the Alligator Alley
Reservation, but a spokesperson said the
company intends to try again to find a productive
oil field on tribal land.
The tribe would get 20 percent of the value of
any oil drawn off tribal land, according to the
terms of the gas and mining exploration lease
that the lessee contracted out to Sabine.
"We are evaluating the results of the test well to
be able to decide whether and where to drill, family
quickly, probably in a couple of months," said
Carter Cline, division land manager for Sabine.
"I would venture to say that we will drill another
If the company decides to drill again, it will
have to repeat the nine-month process of
obtaining government permits to build a

platform, install huge equipment and otherwise
disturb the wilderness.
Sabine took a core sample-a chunk of rock
formation found more than 11,000 feet under the
swamp's surface-from the test well to determine
whether enough oil was there worth pumping,
and now it's using the sample to locate thenext
test site.
"There were shows of oil in the core
sample. .a minute accumulation of
hydrocarbons [organic compounds found in
petroleum]," said Cline. He said oil and gas
hydrocarbons migrate through the porous rock
layer, and that the "only time they accumulate is
when they migrate to a point where they can't
move any further, into a trap. You have to have a
trap to have an accumulation of oil" large enough
to extract.


Miccosukee Everglades News is published on or
about the 15th of each month by the Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida.
Letters to the editor regarding community issues
are invited. All letters must be signed to be
considered for publication. Published letters, which
may be edited, express the opinion of the author and
not necessarily that of the tribal administration or
The paper also welcomes contributions of art and

news articles. Contributors can bring their work to the
newspaper office, in the neighborhood building, or
leave it in the paper's mailbox in the administrative
Advertising is accepted. Call or write to the editor
at the address at the left for rates and more
information. ,
Subscriptions are $10 for one year, $18 for two.
Send check or money order with complete address to
address at left.

Everglades News
PO Box 440021, Tamiami Station
Miami, Florida 33144

Wendy Cobourne, Editor


Damage by thieves

costs more than

stolen property

Burglars have taken a cassette radio, a
shotgun, cash and more in separate incidents
recently on the Tamiami Reservation, sometimes
causing more damage thanthe worth of the stolen
goods, according to Miccosukee Police.
Raymond Tigertail and family were the first
victims of thieves unknown. The family returned
from Corn Dance to find missing a shotiun, its
case and some shells, plue a cassette radio, a
portable movie screen and cash. The goods and
cash were valued at about $240.
Miccosukee Police later recovered the shotgun
and shells from a juvenile, who was referred to
the tribal court for possession of stolen property.
In another incident, someone forced open the
door to the photocopying room to get inside the
neighborhood building during the night of June
18. The person or persons then removed.' ceiling
tile, climbed through the crawl space to the
Community Action Agency office and took about
$40 cash and a patchwork skirt from the Elderly
Coop room.
The burglars did more than $200 worth of
damage, said Police Chief Tony Zecca, because
the copy-room door had to be replaced and the
burglars, once inside, smashed a glass door, too.
The next night, someone forced open the rear
door of Tippy's Restaurant on the Old Trail, pried
the locks on several video gainmes and the pool-
table money box and got away with about $30.
Damage was estimated at about $200.
"It's a sad state of affairs that we had three of
them in a short period of time," said Zecca. He
requested anyone with information about the
crimes to contact the police, saying that such a
person's name would "be held in the strictest of
confidence." The day telephone number of the
department is 223-8380, extension 350. Evenings
the number is 223-1600, which sometimes
is hooked to an answering/recording machine.


- ---

~- ~ C-rZ rZ:

SDear Customers,
Kip & Krista
11403 S. Dixie Hwy. (next to Pompernik's) Miami, FL 33156 35/235-5525
is Closing Out Everything but
Indian Jewelry-Indian Clothing-Broadcloth
Notions & trim 40% off-Fabrics 25-50% off
All patterns 25-50% off-Paintings, pottery, baskets 25% off
P.S. Fabric sales will continue from home of owner, Lynn Paskewich



Miccosukee Everaodes News 3

July 1985


from page 1
The "authority" of the tribe is vested in the-
Miccosukee General Council, according to Article
III, section 1 of the tribal constitution. The
General Council is not elected, but consists of all
enrolled, adult members of the tribe who are at
least 18 years old.
A quorum is necessary before the General
Council can conduct business, or make official
decisions, and this is defined as a minimum of 25
members who represent at least three clans.
Sections 2 and 3 of Article III state that the
General Council shall have five officers-
chairman, assistant chairman, secretary,
treasurer and lawmaker-which shall serve the
General Council when it is in session. When
General Council is not in session, the five officers
constitute the Business Council. They perform
the same duties in either capacity.
The General Council "reserves unto itself the"
authority to approve an annual budget," states
Article IV, section 2, ThelBusiness- council has
authority to change up to 25 percent of the budget
approved by the General Council.
The General Council also has power to charge
fees "upon members and non-members doing
business within the reservation," subject to
review by the Secretary of the Interior, according
to Section 4.

Article V outlines the powers of the Business
Council to put into action the decisions of the
General Council, which include the following:
*To prevent the sale, loss, lease, use of tribal
lands or assets without the consent of the tribe
*To employ attorneys
*To make agreements with local, state and
federal governments on behalf of the tribe
*To manage, lease, permit or otherwise handle
tribal lands and assets, and to acquire other land
for the tribe
*To "engage in any business that will further
the economic well-being of the members of the
tribe," or to undertake projects for the economic
advancement of the people
*To borrow money from the federal
government or other sources, and to use the
money "for productive- purposes, or to loan
money thus borrowed to members of the tribe"
with the Secretary of the Interior's approval
*To prepare an annual budget for the General
Councils approval, and when the budget is
approved -t6 administer any funds controlled by
the tribe, including paying salaries and expenses
to tribal officials and employees
According to section 10, Article .III, "All
expenditures of tribal funds under control of
Business Council shall be authorized in legal
session and the amounts so expended shall be a
matter of public record."

Florencio Yescas

Scott Osceola is their foreman, and Tracy
Cypress was just promoted to assistant
foreman. They supervise the following people,
whose primary job is to landscape the
Miccosukee Indian Village: Brenda Osceola,
Steve, Billie, Nora Billie, Jeffrey Willie,
Kashane Tiger, Douglas Daye, Donna Billie
and Terry Willie. Jake Keyser, a year-round
weekend employee who is not employed by the
program, is helping them this summer.

Mosquito mad
No, people aren't getting slaphappy in the
Everglades. They're getting mosquito mad.
But there are better ways than swatting to
keep the blood-suckers at bay. If commercial
insect repellants aren't keeping mosquitos off
you, try something that's not supposed to:
Skin-So-Soft bath oil. The fragrant oil
apparently doesn't smell good to mosquitos,
who buzz off from people wearing the scent.
Some park rangers and wildlife officers rely
on Skin-Su-Soft, although its manufacturer,
Avon Products, advertises it solely as a bath
oil. Users dilute the oil with an equal amount of
water, then lightly coat their exposed skin
with the mixture.

I a I 0


'Western Trail Auto

6698 SW 8th Street
Miar-ni, Florida 33144

SService and parts departments: 261-1141

I Discount on Parts

Monday Friday: 8- 8
SSaturday: 8 6
SSunday: .9 3
!,, ik ; A P' t -',-"

I 559-
I 0999
- - --ll Il

Between Tropical Supermarket and Saylor's Hardware
12804 SW 8 Street, Miami
l /- - - -M I I l-- - - -

First part in pre-election


powers of General and Business Councils

Leader of Aztec dancers

Florencio Yescas dies

Florencio Yescas, leader of the South American
Indians dancers Esplendor Azteca, died July 4 of
heart failure during surgeryfor a brain tumor. He
was 69.
Yescas and his group of young men, some of
them his sons, performed ritual dances in
elaborate, traditional costumes at the
Miccosukee Tribe's annual Indian Arts Festival
for more than five years, according to Lee Tiger,
director of marketing and public relations.
After last year's festival, saidTiger, Yescas
and most ofthe restofEsplendor Azteca "did us a
great big favor" by staying six months to
performnon weekends at the Miccosukee Village
to help boost tourism there. Apparently, said
Tiger, Yescas developed symptoms of his illness
during that time, although he may have known
about it earlier.
"He was a heart-of-gold kind of guy," said
Tiger. "He anything for you. We had
great regard for him.
The only member of Esplendor Azteca to
perform the New Fire Dance-in which he held
his hands, legs and feet in a flame-Yescas was
considered a spiritual leader among his people.
He once explained that it takes many years to
perform the ancient ritual, that it is learned from
"our grandfathers" and that it takes great
In the non-Indian world, he was regarded as an
expert on the Aztec people, and he served as a
consultant to Walt Disney World in developing
the Aztec display at Epcot Center. Tiger said
Yescas "had danced all over the world."


Bept offer
The Miccosukee Police Department will sell
a 1977 Cadillac to the highest bidder in a
sealed bid auction on July 30, at 11 a.m. The
Cadillac will be sold as is. All bids should be
marked Attention: Miccosukee Business
Council." No bids will be accepted after 11a.m.
July 30. Minimum bid is $1,500. All bids will be
opened publicly inside the Round Room. The
winning bidder must be able to pay for the
vehicle in cash or certified check at time of bid
opening. Vehicle can be seen at police parking

Intro to landscaping'
As they sow, so are a group of young people,
reaping. They were hired into the tribe's
summer youth employment program, and
now they spend sunny days digging, planting
and sweating. And earning money. Jimmy


PIP from $40 with
REGULARLY $43 coupon

Liability from

4Miccosukee Everglades News

Clockwise from below left: Ti-Shan, reggae band; Lee (left) and
..^^^^H| HH^Stephen Tiger of Tiger-Tiger rock band; Aloha Hawaiians,
Sdancers; alligator wrestling shows by William "Bot Jim and
Smothers; Yarko Antonevych and his bandura; O.Bist OsceolA,

S(Seminole dancer. Performers not pictured: Tina Osceola,
. Saturday, July 19, 3 PM'

" Clockwise fro' below Ieft: Ti-Shan, reggae band;: lft n
.....Stephen Tiger of Tiger-Triger rock 'band; Aloha Hwias
dancerse; alligator wrestling shows, by William "B" iman
: others; Yark0 Antonev'ych' and, his banduraO.B, Ocoa
!.i:. i.::.Seminole dancer' Performers not pictured: TIn.Ocoa
yl. }: ::. .. .Seminole dancer; Gator Kicks, country band; and a Nicaraguan
.|.,. .^^^HllB dance ensemble. Photos of Tiger-Tiger and O.B. Osceola courtesy
of Bill Held.

- .. _iLi

I .. I

Miccosukee Everglades Ne


10th Anni

Everglades Inte:

Music & Crafts



10:30 AM
11:00 AM
12:00 PM
1:00 PM
*2:00 PM
3:00 PM
*4:00 PM

Championship Indian Alligator Wrestling
Tina and O.B. Osceola (Seminole Indians Dancers)
Championship Indian Alligator Wrestling
Gator Kicks (Country Music Band)
Tiger-Tiger (Miccosukee Indian Rock Band)
Ti-Shan (Reggae Band)
Tina and O.B. Osceola (Seminole Indian Dancers)

Championship Indian Alligator Wrestling
Tina and O.B. Osceola (Seminole Indian Dancers)
Ti-Shan (Reggae Band)
Mora Arriaga Family (Mariachis Group)
Aloha Hawaiians (Polynesian Dance Group)
Tiger-Tiger (Miccosukee Indian Rock Band)
Woodstock Veteran RICH I K HAVENS
Gator Kicks (Country Music Band)



Championship Indian Alligator Wrestling
Tina and O.B. Osceola (Seminole Indian Dancers)
Gator Kicks (Country Music Band)
Nicaraguan Dance Group
Yarko Antonevych (Solo Bandura Player)
Ti-Shan (Reggae Band)
Tiger-Tiger (Miccosukee Indian Rock Band)
Mora Arriaga Family (Mariachis Group)




<11- -'"








Hosted by Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida





11:00 AMN

f I- '

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I I IYY~~ -L





6 Micosukee Everglades News

July 1985

Priscilla Buster, sixth grader from the
Miccosukee Indian School, and William Jim, Jr.,
eighth grader from the Everglades School, and
their chaperone, Renee L Billie.
The method for selecting these eligible
students for participation was based on grade-
point averages.
They had the opportunity to learn, first-hand,
the subjects they had chosen, which they
describe in-their essays below. They showed a
great deal of enthusiasm and expressed that they
now have a "better view of what's going on in
these areas."
In the evenings, after the conferences were
over, tours were provided to places like Cherokee
Drama Theater, "Unto These Hills," Oconaluftee
Indian Village, Museum of the Cherokee Indians,
Cyclorama Wax Museum of Cherokee History.
There was a fish fry on the river, sponsored by the
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Fish was
Transportation to and from these places was
provided by the Cherokee Boys Club.
The Nashville Program Office and the staff,
the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and the
Cherokee Hospital staff made this event a
success, and I hope there'll be another one next
year so that other students will experience it.
By William Jim, Jr., Grade 8
I went to the Indian Health Service's Health
Camp from June 24-28, and I liked the entire
program very much.,
My first rotation was Health Education. I
learned a lot about diabetes and what services a
health educator can do for diabetics.
Then my second rotation was Dietary, which
was OK. I learned how to measure body fat and
other things.
Finally, my third rotation was Pharmacy,
which was very interesting. First they told us,
how to become a pharmacist; you would have to
take quite a few years of medical school.

Considering the entire program, I would rate-
this excellent and I would recommend it to other
tribal students.
By Priscilla Buster, Grade 6
I went to the Health Camp/Health Fair on
June 24-28. It was exciting.
In health education, we were assigned to three
rotations. My first rotation was Community
Health Services. I found CHA interesting. I
learned how to take blood pressure and take
My second rotation was In-patient Nursing.
That's a person who looks after patients with
trouble breathing, heart problems and stuff like
that. The nurse showed us how to use the
machines for these.
My third rotation was Mental Health. It was
interesting and fun. The man talked about
alcoholism. He told us if we try and help a little
that we might help stop people from drinking
every day and night.
After rotating in the hospital, we went to the
fairgrounds and played relay races until lunch.
For recreation, some people played softball and.
swam. Swimmingwas fun, except when people
tried to jump over you in the pool, but instead
they landed on you. Oops!
For field trips, we went to see the Cherokee
drama "Unto these Hills;" we went to
Oconaluftee Indian Village. I saw women
making beaded belts. Beautiful designs were
organized by Cherokee women in their
beadworks, using the methods of their ancestors
of 200 years ago. The next day, we went to the
Cyclorama Wax Museum of Cherokee History.
I saw interesting stuff in the museum. It was fun.
The last day we had a general session.
American Indian people talked and told about
themselves and how they got to be what they are
in health careers. There were a nutritionist, a
nurse, a doctor and more.
I think the health camp was fun. If they have
it again, I hope I can go again.

By Renee L. Rillie
On June 24 through 28, the first Annual Youth
Camp and Health Resources Conference was
sponsored by Cherokee Hospital, the Eastern
Band of Cherokee Indians and Director James
Meredith and his Indian Health Service (IHS)
staff of the Nashville Program Office.
The basic purpose of this trip is to encourage
Indian youths' interests toward pursuing health
careers and to privde them with information
about how to prepare for health careers, such as
with higher education. To inform them of the
career choices that are available and possible,
Indian health care pt ofessionals were introduced
ly Gladys Bratcher at the first general session.
They spoke about what motivated their interests
to enter .the profession, and about rewards
and/or obstacles they had to encounter along the
These speakers were selected because they are
employed in the priority health-care-career
categories for scholarships for 1985-86. Their
careers are dentist, engineer, environmental
health worker, medical record librarian, nurse,
pharmacist, physician and optometrist.
The speakers were Bill Pearson, Choctaw
(Oklahoma), associate director of adminsitration
and management, IHS; Richard Wise,
Seminole/Creek, sanitarian chief of IHS
Environmental Health Services; Jeanette
Gibson, Choctaw (Mississippi), director of
medical records for Choctaw Health Center; Dr.
Richard Church, Ottawa, chief of pharmacy
services for IHS; Dr. Yvonne Jackson, Cherokee
(Oklahoma), Chief of Nutrition and Dietetics,
IHS: and Beatrice Carson, Choctaw
(Mississippi), nutrition educator, Choctaw
Health Center.
Although five students were invited to
participate from each of the 21 programs funded
through the Nashville Program Office, only two
students with a chaperone were able to go from
the Miccosukee Tribe. These students were

Commission, so he is already
familiar with the area and knows
how to drive anairboat. He paid his
own way'. through the Broward
Police Academy.

Timothy O'Daniel was hired for
patrol duty on the Tamiami
Reservation. A 29-year-old half
Oglala Sioux, he attended
University of Wyoming, Witchita
State. He worked three years on the
Honolulu Police force after going
through what Zecca called "the
longest basic training I've ever
heard of."

Those two strangers in familiar
uniforms are not impersonating
Miccosukee Police officers, they're
the real thing.
Lawrence Leon, 24, was hired as
the land enforcement officer for the
Alligator Alley Reservation but
until there is more to enforce up
there, he is the sixth officer on the
Tamiami beat.
"Until the tribe's ready to send
him up there, Leon will be in field
training and on patrol here," said
Tony Zecca, police chief. Once he's
moved into his official position,
Leon's "sole duty will be to regulate
and control trespassers on that
reservation." He will work closely
with the land resource manager,
when one is hired.

Leon, who has abachelor's degree,
was an auxiliary officer for the
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish

all to

Both officers will rotate
until they've worked them
complete their field training.

The department also hired Henry
Bert, Sr., as a community service
aid. He works at the station from 5
p.m. to midnight.

Timothy 0'Daniel, left, who is half Oglala Sioux, patrols the Tamiami Reservation.
Lawrence Leon is doing the same until the tribe sends him to Alligator Alley for his
official duty as land enforcement officer.

options ,
ades News-are $10 for one year- "



128th AVENUE


- ------I-

Subscriptions to Miccosukee Evergl
(12 issues) or $18 for two years (2



Students, chaperone describe trip to Health Camp

Tribal police hire officers for Tamiami and Alligator Alley

WE EXPOL*RT 226-6=65




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Miccosukee Everglades

July 1985

: .

Indian, non-Ind ian
alcoholics vary in
drinking habits",
American Indian and non-Tndian alcoholics
differ significantly in their drinking habits,
according to James Whittaker, a social
psychologist at Pennsylvania State University.
In general, Indians drink much more alcohol
per sitting, drink more often, feel no guilt and
drink rarely alone but in groups. Non-Indian
alcoholics seldomly drink in groups and often
feel guilty about their drinking, Whittaker said,
according to an article in Muscogee Nation
Whittaker has been studying social, physical
and psychological theories f6r the cause of
Indian alcoholism for 23 years. He began his first
study in 1961, eight years after prohibition for
Indians was lifted.
In a follow-up study in 1981, Whittaker found
that alcoholism among women has increased,
along with guilt feelings. One out of every four
deaths of, Indian women between 35 and 44 died
from cirrhosis. The death rate for alcoholic
cirrhosis among American Indians is five times
higher than any other racial group in the
Sixty-two percent of the Indians Whittaker
surveyed on the .Standing Rock Sioux
Reservation reported having blackouts from
drinking; 70 percent said they couldn't control
their drinking once they started; 52 percent
reported arrests for being intoxicated; and 17
percent said they were preoccupied with








Notes needs notes
Akwesasne Notes, the self-described journal
for native and natural people, is appealing to
the public for financial help. The newsjournal
exists solely on subscriptions and donations,
with no advertising or help from government
or corporations. The paper's diverse coverage
includes land and fishing rights, pollution of
the planet, movements of indigenous peoples
all over the world, self-sufficiency and the
peace movement. Notes is available here in the
Community Library and in the newspaper
office. Tax-deductible donations can be sent to
the paper in care of Mohawk Nation, via
Rooseveltown, NY 13683.

Print it
The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Chippewa
Indians has one of the best Indian newspapers
in the country, according to Chairman Rick St.
Germaine. Germaine says the reason "has lots
to do with the policy of the tribal government,
which has allowed it to analyze, criticize and
cover controversial issues. The editor covers
many meetings in which there is controversy.
He then tells it like it is. He prints letters which
strike at the weaknesses of our tribal
government. This land of freedom marks the
greatness of a tribal government and its

Ruined ruins
Indian ruins throughout the nation may
soon be destroyed if the artifacts business is
not strictly regulated, concluded a task force
established to protect Indian ruins. The
committee said an estimated 80 percent of
known sites already have been vandalized by
looters, hikers and tourists. The growing
business of selling artifacts has caused many
archeological objects, such as pots, to
disappear from ruins, especially in the past
five years. The task force recommends limiting
the trade of artifacts by making laws that
could include requiring proof of how and where
an object was obtained before it could be sold
or loaned. It said if nothing is done the little
Indian ruins that remain will disappear in
another five years.

Deal's a deal
A judge in South Dakota recently dismissed
three land-claim suits brought by Indians,
possibly setting a precedent for dismissing
thousands of like cases. The land involved was
once held in federal trust, but between 1917
and 1920 the government transferred
ownership to individual Indians in parcels of
usually 160 acres.The Indians later sold or lost
ownership. The suits, filed by the descendants
of the original Indian owners, claim that the
government forced Indians to take individual
ownership and so the transactions were
illegal. But federal District Judge Andrew
Bogue ruled that federal law gave the former
owners no right to sue, that the federal
government could not legally be a party in the
case, and that the transactions of the land to
individual owners was within the law.


- __


8"tecotu -E-rQ- NAm

:kr13 1985

Alcoholism is a dieame characterized by
three stages:
Stage 1 is called the early, adaptive stage,
Stage 2 is known as the middle stage and
Stage 3 is called the late, deteriorative
In the early, adaptive stage of this
disease the alcoholic has the ability to increase
his (I'll use he, his, him, etc., but alcohol affects
both sexes equally) intake of alcohol and still
function "normally." In all other diseases, the
person has immediate and obvious penalties
that result in reduced fbmctioning rather than
improvement in functioning. But in the early
stages of alcoholism the alcoholic is not sick,
or in pain, or visibly abnormal.
In fact, during this stage of alcoholism, the
alcoholic seems to be marked by the opposite of
the disease. He is "blessed" with the
supernormal ability to tolerate alcohol and
"enjoy" its stimulating effects. At this stage
the alcoholic and his family and friends don't
see any reason to suspect that he is suffering
from a progressive and often fatal disease.
There is no actual cut-off line between the
early and middle stages of alcoholism, but
there are some features of the progress of the
disease that signal a new stage has begun. As
changes in the body's ability to function occur,
the penalties of drinking start to outweigh the
benefits. Drinking for a' "high," an uplifted
feeling, gives way to a more urgent need to

"cure" the pain brought on by previous
drinking. Organs and systems that once
welcomed large amounts of alcohol and
tolerated its toxic effects are being damaged.
Now when the alcoholic stops drinking he
suffers withdrawal symptoms, and the only
thing that will ease his suffering is to drink.
This is often tefeited to as craving. This cycle
of drinking, suffering and drinking again
gradually progresses to the point where the
alcoholic can no longer control his drinking
consistently. Noticeable loss of control helps
to define the end of the middle stage and the
beginning of the late, deteriorative stage.
The late-stage alcoholic spends most of
his time drinking since not drinking causes
severe pain and agony. During the late stage of
alcoholism, the alcoholic's mind and body are
seriously damaged. Damage to the vital
organs drains the alcoholic's physical
strength, resistance to disease and infections
is lowered, mental stability is shaken.
The late-stage alcoholic is so destroyed by
his disease that he cannot even understand
that the alcohol is killing him. He is only
aware that a.c offers quick and
miraculous reliei from the constant agony,
mental confusion and emotional turmoil.
Alcohol, his deadly poison, is also his
necessary medicine.
Why does the alcoholic confine to drink after
it is evident that drinking is destroying him?

The answer is simple. At every stage the
disease itself prevents the alcoholic from
realizing that he is addicted to alcohol.
In the earliest stage when the body is
adapting to alcohol and tolerance is gradually
increasing, the alcoholic does not consider
giving up alcohol because he doesn't appear
sick. In the middle stage, when his body has
become more dependent on the alcohol for
functioning, he may be aware that he needs
alcohol more often and in greater amounts, he
just doesn't understand why. In the late stage,
he is frequently irrational, deluded and
incapable of understanding what is
happening inside him. He cannot see himself
as others see him. His actions, thoughts and
emotions are warped by alcohol, his behavior
governed by his addiction.
To everyone else it may appear that the
alcoholic is responsible for his disease
because he ignores all warnings and continues
to drink. But he is already an alcoholic when
his behavior and mental stability first begin to
deteriorate. The physical disease is well
established by the time the alcoholic begins to
act like an alcoholic.
In this issue I've outlined the stages of
alcoholism. In next month's issue, I'll describe
what an alcoholic in each of the three stages
may be feeling and how he might act.
-Crystal Hipkins, R.N.
Prevention education coordinator"

'' ;' t
. .-;.<

Do you have a fat style of eating?
It's not only how much you eat, but when,
what and how often that can cause your body
to shift into thrifty habits that help you stay fat.
Here is a short quiz that will help you determine if
you have a "fat style of eating."
I. Do you eat most of your food in one large
meal each day?
2. Is the one large meal at night?
3. Does your food intake vary drastically from
day to day (for instance, big weekends followed
by days ofa little restrained eating)?'
4. Do you frequently go without food for a full
5. Do you go on a low calorie diet once or twice a
6. Do you eat more processed, high-fat, salty or
sugary foods (fried foods, desserts, chips, soft
S drinks, sugary cereals) than whole grain foods,
fruits and vegetables?
7. Do you eat fewer than eight servings of whole
grains (breads, cereals, rice), beans fruits and
vegetables each day?
A "yes" to two or more of these questions may
mean that your style of eating is causing your
body to maximize the laying down of fat from the
food calories you eat.
But, a calorie is a calorie; aren't all calories the
A calorie is a measure of the energy content of
food. One calorie is the energy needed to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of water one degree
SCelsius. It doesn't matter whether the calorie
comes from fat, carbohydrate or protein-in a
lab, that is.
The human body processes food differently,
depending on when you eat, how frequently you
4 eat, how much food is eaten at a meal, how much
"fiber it contains, the amount of fat in it and the'
body's immediate caloric needs (depending on
rate of activity).

processes. Much of it is given off as heat and
some of it is converted to fat for future energy
needs. This thermal effect is greatest early in the
day and lower as the day goes on. And when it is
fed a low calorie diet, or meals are skipped often,
the body eliminates part or all of the thermal
effect in order to conserve energy (store fat).
A high-fiber diet (foods of complex
carbohydrates like whole grains, legumes
[beans], fruits and vegetables) is transported
through the intestine quickly and smoothly. Also
the fiber combines with a portion of the fat in the
intestine, preventing it from being absorbed by
the body.
To change a fat style of eating:
-get daily exercise
-have regular meals
-eat smaller portions
-eat fewer sweets and fats
-eat more fruits, vegetables, beans and whole
-Terry Perone


CO r

Now's the time to start working up an appetite
for the community feast Thursday, August 8. The-
feast is part of the Indian Health Service's
Fourth Annual Alcohol Conference. Everyone's
invited to the meal, noon in the gymnasium.'

Restaura nt emp loyees

finish sanitation class
Congratulations to the' following employees of
the Miccosukee Restaurant who recently
completed a six-hour course in food service
sanitation conducted by the Miccosukee Health

Donna Billie
Jennie Billie
Michelle Billie
'David Brodie
Sally Jirn
Pedro Montero
Lois Osceola
S -Hugo Romero
Irene Tiger

health notes


Alcoholism is disease before symptoms


H1Ve a fat style of eating? Take a quiz

IHS Alcohol

mu nity feast here

set for Aug ust 8

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