Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 New roles for older people : a...
 Creating new careers for older...
 Industrial gerontology
 Employment of the elderly poor
 Second careers in education
 Operation seasoned service
 Experience unlimited
 New careers, part-time employm...
 A company program to provide employment...
 Role of research, development,...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Institute of Gereontology series - University of Florida Institute of Gerontology ; v. 20
Title: New careers for older people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053481/00001
 Material Information
Title: New careers for older people
Series Title: Institute of Gerontology series, v. 20
Physical Description: xxvii, 110 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Osterbind, Carter C ( ed. )
Conference: Southern Conference on Gerontology, 1971
Publisher: Published for the University of Florida Institute of Gerontology by the University of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1971
Subject: Older people -- Employment -- Congresses. -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Edited by Carter C. Osterbind.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053481
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01563654
lccn - 72190956
isbn - 0813003326

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page iv
    Front Matter
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
    New roles for older people : a national challenge
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Creating new careers for older people
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Industrial gerontology
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Employment of the elderly poor
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Second careers in education
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Operation seasoned service
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Experience unlimited
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    New careers, part-time employment
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    A company program to provide employment for older persons
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Role of research, development, and demonstration
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

The Southern Conference
on Gerontology


(Communications relating to gerontology at the University of Flor-
ida should be addressed to Institute of Gerontology, 221 Matherly
Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. This publi-
cation, and all previous publications of the University of Florida
Institute of Gerontology, may be obtained from the University of
Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.)

Institute of Gerontology Series

Vol. 1-Problems of America's Aging Population, 1951
Edited by T. Lynn Smith
Vol. 2-Living in the Later Years, 1952
Edited by T. Lynn Smith
Vol. 3-Health in the Later Years, 1953
Edited by John M. Maclachlan
Vol. 4-Economic Problems of Retirement, 1954
Edited by George B. Hurff
Vol. 5-Aging and Retirement, 1955
Edited by Irving L. Webber
Vol. 6-Aging: A Current Appraisal, 1956
Edited by Irving L. Webber
Vol. 7-Services for the Aging, 1957
Edited by Irving L. Webber
Vol. 8-Organized Religion and the Older Person, 1958
Edited by Delton L. Scudder
Vol. 9-Society and the Health of Older People, 1959
Edited by Irving L. Webber
Vol. 10-Aging: A Regional Appraisal, 1961
Edited by Carter C. Osterbind
Vol. 11-Aging in a Changing Society, 1962
Edited by Ruth E. Albrecht
Vol. 12-Continuing Education in the Later Years, 1963
Edited by J. C. Dixon
Vol. 13-Social Change and Aging in the Twentieth Century, 1964
Edited by D. E. Alleger
Vol. 14-Maintaining High Level Wellness in Older Years, 1965
Edited by Lois N. Knowles
Vol. 15-Medical Care under Social Security, 1966
Edited by Irving L. Webber
Vol. 16-Income in Retirement, 1967
Edited by Carter C. Osterbind
Vol. 17-Potentialities for Later Living, 1968
Edited by O. Bruce Thomason
Vol. 18-Feasible Planning for Social Change
in the Field of Aging, 1969
Edited by Carter C. Osterbind
Vol. 19-Health Care Services for the Aged, 1970
Edited by Carter C. Osterbind
Vol. 20-New Careers for Older People, 1971
Edited by Carter C. Osterbind


Edited by
Carter C. Osterbind

Published for the
University of Florida Institute of Gerontology
by the
University of Florida Press
Gainesville, 1971

A University of Florida Press Book


Library of Congress Catalog Number 53-12339
ISBN 0-8130-0332-6



Mrs. Harriet V. Agster
501 W. Davis Blvd.
Tampa, Florida 33606

Ruth E. Albrecht
312 Peabody Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Daniel E. Alleger
1710 S.W. 49th Place
Gainesville, Florida 82601

Elaine Allen
USF Institute on Aging
4202 Fowler Avenue
Tampa, Florida 33620

Park Allen
Volusia County Advisory Council
524 S. Beach
Daytona Beach, Florida 32014

Mrs. Bruce Anderson, Jr.
440 Angela
Cocoa Beach, Florida 82931

Marcelle P. Anderson
440 Angela
Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931

Mrs. Ruth Baker
826 Evernia Street
West Palm Beach, Florida 33402

Sam Banks, Jr.
Assistant Professor of Medicine and
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 82601

George D. Barton
Winter Park Towers
1111 S. Lakemont Avenue
Winter Park, Florida 32789

M. A. Barton, M.D.
1900 Almeria Way, S.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33712

Mrs. M. A. Barton
1900 Almeria Way, S.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33712

Carolyne Bates
Box 668
Davenport, Florida 83837

Dexter Bates
Box 668
Davenport, Florida 33887
R. O. Beckman
805 S.W. 6th Street
Miami, Florida 33130

Gladys M. Biber
3919 S.W. 5th Place
Gainesville. Florida 32601

New Careers for Older People

G. W. Blackburn
480 Bosphorus
Tampa, Florida 33606

Colon Blue
1661 Idle Drive
Clearwater, Florida 33516

Mrs. Thelma Bonner
112 Dolores Drive
Altamonte Springs, Florida 32701

Mrs. Mary J. Bowen
2724 Alvarado Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32217

Peter Briggs
409 N.W. 24th Street
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Jeanne Brock
Consultant for Adult Education
Knott Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32302

Mrs. Caroline P. Brown
1041 S.W. 1st Avenue
Ocala, Florida 32670

John M. Buckner, O.D.
2560 N.W. 13th Street
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Adelaide K. Bullen
Florida State Museum
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Unelma N. Bullock
1380 Viburnum Lane
Winter Park, Florida 32789

Elwyn R. Burke
P.O. Box 430
Woodville, Florida 32362

Glenn B. Calmes
715 Powder Horn Road, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30342

Susan C. Camp
Room 3014D, McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Marion H. Campbell
P.O. Box 2050
Jacksonville, Florida 32203

Harry M. Carey
507 Harbor Drive
Belleair Beach, Florida 33535

Annafreddie Carstens
303 Minorca Avenue
Coral Gables, Florida 33134

Antony E. Casalino
153 Central Avenue
St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

L. J. Clowers
225 W. Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Mary A. Cobb
P.O. Box 728
Palatka, Florida 32077

Lucretia Collins
613 East Ridgewood
Orlando, Florida 32803

N. W. Coppinger, M.D.
V.A. Center
Bay Pine, Florida 33504

Shirley J. Courson
621 Lakeview Street
Orlando, Florida 32804

Herbert W. Craig
4457 Chippewa Drive
Jacksonville, Florida 32210

Trudy Cross
368 Churchill
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405

Mary C. Crum
1450 S.W. 41st Court
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33315

Franklin S. Cuyler
P.O. Box 1491
Lake Worth, Florida 33460

Mrs. Franklin S. Cuyler
P.O. Box 1491
Lake Worth, Florida 33460

Miss Beth Daane
1402 N.W. 7th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Mrs. John M. Darby
100 N.E. 8th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

L. V. Davis
Department of Commerce
Caldwell Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Marie K. Davis
2900 45th Street, S.
Gulfport, Florida 33711

Dorothea B. Dear
P.O. Box 607
Palatka, Florida 32077

Samuel Demps
621 W. 44th Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32208

Joan Gorski Devlin
313 Summit Avenue
Brighton, Massachusetts 02146

Mrs. Emily Dickinson
915 S. Rome Avenue
Tampa, Florida 33606

Edwin C. Doulin
1225 Connecticut Ave., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20012

Alexander S. Edwards
7648 Cove Terrace
Sarasota, Florida 33581

Sidney Entman
1800 Stockton Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204

Mark Erenburg
Associate Professor of Economics
Sangamon State University
Springfield, Illinois 62702

Francisco Escobar
1564 N.E. 191st Street, Apt. 221
Miami, Florida 33162


Helen K. Fallert
254 Charley Johns Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32804

J. M. Farris
1531 Wellington Road
Birmingham, Alabama 85209

N. E. Fenn, Jr.
Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, Florida 32307

Catherine C. Finnigan
821 14th Ave., N.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

Mrs. Ruth B. Flanagan
1715 5th Avenue, N.
Jacksonville Beach, Florida 32250

Eugene Flatau
19301 S.W. 87th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33157

James H. Fling
Department of Education
Knott Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Tal D. Fowler
120 Marietta Street, N.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30303

J. E. Fulghum, M.D.
4831 Avon Lane
Jacksonville, Florida 32201

Jesse J. Fuller
307 Ashley Drive
Tampa, Florida 33602

Robert R. Furlough
2514 Hartsfield Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32303

Mrs. Ruth H. Gage
1217 Pearl Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32201

Olive Galloway
8622 S. Coolidge
Tampa, Florida 33609

Lloyd H. Gardner
11410 114th Terrace, N.
Largo, Florida 33540

New Careers for Older People

Hugh W. Gaston
301-1872 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30309

Mrs. Jean Gervais
2217 Anna
Tampa, Florida 33612

Alden S. Gilmore
University of South Florida
289 Rafael
St. Petersburg, Florida 33704

Alice R. Goonan
1214 Labelle Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32205

Steven E. Goss
1970 State Street
Waycross, Georgia 31501

Virginia O. Grazier
Florida State Library
Supreme Court Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32303

Mrs. B. Greek
333 E. Ashley Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

J. Griffen Greene
128 N. Adams Street
Daytona Beach, Florida 32014

Mrs. Katherine Griffin
2825 W. Hillsboro Street
Lake City, Florida 32055

Mrs. Viola Guhse
314 33rd Avenue, N.E.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33704

Sarinthia A. Gushanas
1920 Montmarte Drive
Jacksonville, Florida 32210

Sr. Carol Hale
3485 N.W. 30th Street
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33311

George L. Hall
6 S. Key Street
Quincy, Florida 32851

S. E. Hand
118 N. Woodward Avenue
Tallahassee, Florida 82306

Jack Hardy
125 32nd Avenue, N.E.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33704

Miss Sylvia Harless
1800 Stockton Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204

Helene C. Harrington
1100 S. Federal
Boynton Beach, Florida 33435

Miss Ruth B. Haugen
P.O. Box 12153
St. Petersburg, Florida 33733

Jane Henderson
P.O. Box 247
Scottsmoor, Florida 32775

Andrew Hendrickson
920 W. College
Tallahassee, Florida 32306

Mrs. Altamese H. Henry
1203 W. 30th Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32209

Mrs. Ardith W. Highleyman
814 Florida Title Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

Selden S. Hill
1103 Emeralda Drive
Orlando, Florida 32808

Miss Louise Hodges
100 N.E. 8th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Frances Hoffman
Box 210
Jacksonville, Florida 32201

Joseph W. Hoffman
363 W. State Street
Trenton, New Jersey 08625

Normeda Hope
Room 308
800 Twiggs Street
Tampa, Florida 33602

Marie Hombrook
2008 N. Village
Tampa, Florida 33612

L. F. Howbert
928 S.E. 10th Street
Ocala, Florida 32670

James M. Hull
1071 S. Edgewood Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida 32205

Dorothy Hurst
1407 N.W. 7th Street
Miami, Florida 33125

John Hutchison
Office of Operations
Office of Economic Opportunity
Washington, D.C. 20506

Sister M. Innocent
4725 N. Federal Highway
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33308

E. Russell Jackson
Division of Health
P.O. Box 210
Jacksonville, Florida 32201

Dorothea Jaeger
P.O. Box 667
Palisades, New York 10964

Oliver Jernigan
4623 Lumb Avenue
Tampa, Florida 33609

Ramon A. Johannsen
10205 S.W. 106th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33156

Collus O. Johnson
203 Griffin Drive
Carrollton, Georgia 30117

Geraldine B. Johnson
4415 Beach Blvd.
Jacksonville, Florida 32207

Mrs. Hazel Johnwick
417 S.W. 8th Street
Gainesville, Florida 82601


Miss Maryanne Judkins
2216 12th Street, N.W.
Winter Haven, Florida 33880

Mrs. Helen D. Kaechele
1110 Alabama Drive
Winter Park, Florida 32789

G. W. Karelas, M.D.
The Medical Rotunda
Newberry, Florida 32669

Edwin Kaskowitz
One Dupont Circle, Suite 520
Washington, D.C. 20036

Mrs. Elizabeth J. Kenny
2381 Margaret Street
Sarasota, Florida 33577

Miss Marian F. Kerin
P.O. Drawer "E"
18 S.E. 4th Street
Boca Raton, Florida 83432

Anna Keyzer-Andre
1407 N.W. 7th
Miami, Florida 33125
Mrs. Elizabeth Kieffer
P.O. Box 816
Bartow, Florida 33830

Joseph F. Kilch
8220 W. Orange Blossom Trail
Orlando, Florida 82804

Paul E. Kimberly, D.O.
4700 9th Avenue, N.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33718

Victor King
1034 Dunraven Drive
Winter Park, Florida 32789

Miss Louise Kingman
1205 S.E. 2nd Street
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301

Dora H. Klemer, M.D.
1809 Brickell Avenue
Miami, Florida 33129

Deaconess Kate S. Knapp
868 N. Orange
Orlando, Florida 82801

New Careers for Older People

Mrs. Camilla B. Komorowski
180 N.W. 145th Street
Miami, Florida 33168

Maxine Kreis
Wesley Manor Retirement Village
State Road #13
Jacksonville, Florida 82223
Chuck Lamb
1512 Bowman Drive
Tallahassee, Florida 82303

Esther P. Lane
P.O. Box 1503
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Mrs. Grace N. Lanning
2828 Central Avenue
St. Petersburg, Florida 33712

Joseph Lavoie
8777 First Street
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
L. Bob Law
319 Starmount Drive
Tallahassee, Florida 32308

Mrs. Laura A. Lee
P.O. Box 1174
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Gregory Lefever
607 W. Maple
Independence, Maryland 64050

Dana T. Leitch
Florida Department of Commerce
818 Shell Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32303

Miss Bertha Levison
601 N. Newnan Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

Aaron Lipman
Sociology Department
University of Miami
Box 8162
Miami, Florida 33124

H. Huntley Lloyd, Jr.
Housing Authority of St. Pete
572 2nd Avenue, S.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33711

Clara E. Lodge
1225 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

Wayne C. Looper
Route 4
Pickens, South Carolina 29671

Roy T. Loyd
P.O. Box 1520
Columbia, South Carolina 29202

Lois Carter Lyan
381 9th Street
Atlantic Beach
Jacksonville, Florida 32233

Edward M. McGehee
Industrial Relations Center
University of Chicago
1225 E. 60th Street
Chicago, Illinois 60637

Ira H. Mackie
2034 Ernest Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204
Adele Malonoskie
3930 Cambay Place
Jacksonville, Florida 32210

Olin J. Mason
Box 273
Sebring, Florida 33870

H. J. Massie
P.O. Box 4232
Fondren Station
Jackson, Mississippi 39216

R. E. Masters
Box 72, Route 2
Crawfordville, Florida 32327

John T. Mauldin, M.D.
1372 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia 30309

Glenn Mauzy
8530 First Avenue, N.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33704

Garson Meyer
9971 West Bay Harbor Drive
Bay Harbor Islands, Florida 33154

Regina Meyerhardt
1800 Stockton Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204

Sister M. Michael
3333 5th Avenue
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 15213

R. C. Millard
817 Chipley Court
Winter Park, Florida 32789

Vervil L. Mitchell
3005 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Miss Lana Morgan
457 E. 46th Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32208

Captain Danny Morrow
505 North Main Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

Elizabeth E. Mumm
Room 3008B
McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Sr. M. Bernard Nevolo
St. Joseph's Residence
3485 N.W. 30th Street
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33311

M. N. Newquist, M.D.
15 Hibiscus Road
Clearwater, Florida 33516

James W. Noble
1050 N.E. 9th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33304

Daniel J. Novack
8400 N.W. 25th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33147

Joseph R. Nutt
1300 S. Andrews Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33316

Charles E. Odell
Office of Systems Support
Manpower Administration
Department of Labor
Washington, D.C. 20210

Mrs. Marie G. Olive
P.O. Box 1675
Delray Beach, Florida 33444

Lou O'Steen
512 Falmouth
Temple Terrace, Florida 33612

Justine R. Ostroff
3527 Vista Court
Miami, Florida 33133

Liane S. Palacin
11355 S.W. 57th Street
Miami, Florida 33143

Barbara M. Palmer
P.O. Box 401
Brandon, Florida 33511

Robert E. Palmer
Rt. #1, Box 209
Land O'Lakes, Florida 33539

Harold Parker
1372 Peachtree Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30309

Robert L. Parry
2001 18th Street, W.
Bradenton, Florida 33505

Zoda Peck
Gospel Island
Inverness, Florida 32650

Mrs. Fern M. Pence
479 Tabor Drive, S.
Jacksonville, Florida 32203

Jean Jones Perdue, M.D.
6421 N. Bay Road
Miami Beach, Florida 33141

Mrs. P. H. Phillips
6090 7th Avenue, N.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33710

New Careers for Older People

John B. Porter
919 W. Highway 41
Brooksville, Florida 33512

James K. Poston
Gadsden Community Action
P.O. Box 389
Quincy, Florida 32351

Charles W. Pruitt, Jr.
256 East Church Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

Miss Ruth Rankin
Pasco County Schools
Dade City, Florida 33525

John Rawls
Division of Family Services
800 Twiggs Street
Tampa, Florida 33602

L. H. Reagan
3206 Springdale Drive
Tallahassee, Florida 32303

Gerald S. Rehm
P.O. Box 4689
Clearwater, Florida 33518

Irene C. Rice
Barrington Terrace
215 Annie Street
Orlando, Florida 32806

Thomas Rich
Associate Dean and Professor
of Liberal Arts
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33612

Henry E. Richards
Florida Governor's Committee on Em-
ployment of the Handicapped
Caldwell Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Paul B. Richardson
524 S. Beach Street
Daytona Beach, Florida 32014

William W. Roberts
706 South Ride
Tallahassee, Florida 32303

John W. Rogers
Louisville, Kentucky 40202
Mrs. Rowena E. Rogers
151 E. Minnehaha Avenue
Clermont, Florida 32711

Miss Evelyn Rooks
3008C McCarty Hall
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Mrs. Alice Ruhlman
Masonic Home of Florida
125 32nd Avenue, N.E.
St. Petersburg, Florida 88704

Anna M. Russell
Coquina Gates
Jacksonville, Florida 32207

Janet Ryan
1116 N.W. 76th Avenue
Hollywood, Florida 33024

Warren Samples
814 Florida Title Building
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

Ben J. Schultz
Wesley Manor Retirement Village
State Road #13
Jacksonville, Florida 32223

Rev. B. F. Schumacher
1930 S.W. 87th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33157

Joseph T. Shackford
1516 N. Harvey
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73103

Elmer H. Shafer
401 S. Prospect
Clearwater, Florida 33516

Mrs. Emily Shapter
P.O. Box 188
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33302

William E. Shea
1145 N.E. 20th Place
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Nan Shenk
3039 Samara Drive
Tampa, Florida 33618

Harold Sheppard
W. E. Upjohn Institute for
Employment Research
1101 17th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

Father Edwin Shirley
2211 N.W. 30th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33311

Robert Sipes, Jr.
Dade County Teacher Aide Project
Dade County Board of Public
1410 N.E. 2nd Avenue
Miami, Florida 33132

Edna M. Smiley
Box 324
Crescent City, Florida 32012

William Smith
Waycross, Georgia 31501

Lee D. Speece
3 Utah Court
Pensacola, Florida 32505

Charles J. Spell
Sunland Training Center
P.O. Box 2369
Ft. Myers, Florida 33902

Ted F. Srygley
3705 N.W. 7th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Franklin B. Stagg
9280 Kingcrest Parkway
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70804
Jane M. Staly
1415 LaSalle Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32207

Mildred A. Sterling
601 N. Newnan Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Grace Adams Stevens
546 N.E. 6th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Rita R. Storz
601 N. Newnan Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

Mary D. Stover
6092 26th Avenue, N.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33710

Mrs. Agnes Straver
100 N.E. 8th Avenue, Apt. 512
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Michael A. Strunak
1825 W. Flagler Street
Miami, Florida 33135

Paul D. Swartz
1716-36 N.W. Third Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Bernard L. Swieringa
Room 1244
Penn Central
No. 6 Penn Center Plaza
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

Juan Jose Tarajano
4330 S.W. 1st Street
Miami, Florida 33134

M. J. Taves
3629 HEW Building, S.
Washington, D.C. 20201

Esther Test
1350 W. 3rd Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44113

James Thibeault
402 Professional Building
Charleston, West Virginia 25301

Frances G. Thomas
121 Meadowbrook Lane
DeFuniak Springs, Florida 32433

Jessie M. Tompkins
1830 Kings Road
Jacksonville, Florida 32209

Edwin B. Turlington
2133 S.W. 70th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

New Careers for Older People

Diana M. Turnier
1245 E. Adams
Jacksonville, Florida 32211

Ruth Unland
3025 York Street, S.
St. Petersburg, Florida 33707

Al Volker
10625 S.W. 82nd Avenue
Miami, Florida 33156

Kryn Vyververg
527 E. University Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Kenneth J. Waite
3911 Omega Lane
Sarasota, Florida 33580

Constance Walker
Florida Bureau on Aging
Division of Family Services
P.O. Box 2050
Jacksonville, Florida 32203

Howard S. Wallach
1225 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

William R. Walton, M.D.
5820 Bahama Shores Drive
St. Petersburg, Florida 33705

Mrs. Naomi B. Watts
P.O. Box 728
Palatka, Florida 32077

Barth Weinberg
1800 Stockton Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204

Mrs. Mildred Whitlock
Mt. Sinai Hospital
4300 Alton Road
Miami Beach, Florida 33140

Mrs. Blanche Whitney
215 Market Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202

Marjorie Williams
744 California
Tallahassee, Florida 32304


Thomas Williams
808 E. Broward
Tallahassee, Florida 33301

Al Wilson
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620

Mae S. Woodford
Rt. #1, Box 139
Hernando, Florida 32642

Juanita K. Wootton
6517 Ned Drive
Jacksonville, Florida 32216

Edith M. Worber
2701 Lake Avenue
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405

Iris Worthington
Rt. 1
Caryville, Florida 32427

M. O. Worthington
539 N.E. 4th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33301

Peter B. Wright, Jr.
Florida Junior College
Cumberland Campus, Building 1
Jacksonville, Florida 32205

Norma T. Wyss
4610 N. Moor Court
Pensacola, Florida 32503

Mrs. Charlotte A. Yates
P.O. Box 1468
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Council of Institute of Gerontology

Pauline F. Calloway
3041 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

John M. Champion
907 Lake Shore Towers
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Alice C. Jantzen
A94-Teaching Hospital and Clinics
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Elise C. Jones
221 Matherly Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Lois N. Knowles
H101-Teaching Hospital and Clinics
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

C. C. Osterbind
221 Matherly Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Richard D. Palmer
802 Seagle Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Audrey S. Schumacher
152 Building E
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Carol E. Taylor
H524-Teaching Hospital and
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Irving L. Webber
Department of Sociology
305 Peabody Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Cooperating Agencies

Administration on Aging, HEW,

Administration on Aging, HEW,
Region IV, Atlanta

Altrusa International, Inc.

American Association of Retired Per-

American Cancer Society, Florida
Division, Inc.

American Nursing Home Association

American Physical Therapy Associa-
tion, Florida Chapter

American Public Welfare Association
Council on Gerontology, University
of Georgia

Florida Association of Homes for the

Florida Association for Mental Health

Florida Association of Sheltered

Florida Bureau on Aging

Florida Bureau of Alcoholic Reha-
bilitation, Avon Park

Florida Bureau of Blind Services,

Florida Bureau of Employment

Florida Council on Aging

Florida Council for the Blind

Florida Council of Churches

Florida Department of Community

Florida Department of Education

Florida Department of Health and
Rehabilitative Services

Florida Department of Transportation

Florida Division of Economic Op-

Florida Division of Family Services,
Florida Division of Health, Jackson-
Florida Division of Labor and Em-
ployment Opportunities
Florida Division of Mental Health
Florida Division of Veterans Affairs


New Careers for Older People

Florida Division of Vocational Re-

Florida Division of Vocational, Tech-
nical, and Adult Education

Florida Federation of Senior Clubs,

Florida Heart Association, Inc.

Florida League for Nursing, Inc.

Florida Library Association, Tampa

Florida Nurses Association

Florida Nursing Home Association

Florida Occupational Therapy Asso-

Florida Osteopathic Medical Associ-

Florida Rehabilitation Association

Florida Retired Teachers Association

Florida Speech and Hearing Associ-

Georgia Gerontology Society, Inc.

Georgia State Commission on Aging

Gerontological Society, Inc.

Institute of Gerontology, University
of Michigan

Lutheran Senior Citizens' Foundation,
Inc., Miami

Maryland Commission on Aging

Memorial Home Community, Penney
Farms, Florida

Mental Health Association of Florida,

Miami Adult Center for Retarded,


Michigan Commission on Aging

Mississippi Council on Aging

Mound Park Hospital Foundation,
Inc., St. Petersburg
National Association of State Units
on Aging
National Council on the Aging

National Retired Teachers Association

National Retired Teachers Association,
Florida Division

New York State Office for the Aging

Office of Economic Opportunity,

Pinellas County Health Department,
St. Petersburg

Presbyterian Homes of the Synod of

Retired Citizens Association of Flor-
ida, Inc.

River Garden, Hebrew Home for the
Aged, Jacksonville

Salhaven Foundation, Inc.

Senior Citizen Services of Metropoli-
tan Atlanta, Inc.

Senior Service Foundation, Miami

South Carolina Interagency Council
on Aging

Texas Governor's Committee on Aging

Virginia Gerontological Planning Sec-

VISTA, Washington

West Virginia Commission on Aging

William Crane Gray Inn for Older
People, Davenport, Florida


Foreword . . . .
SAM A. BANKS, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of
Medicine and Religion, University of Florida
Preface . . . .
CARTER C. OsTErBIND, Ph.D., Editor of the
Proceedings and Director, Bureau of Economic
and Business Research, University of Florida
New Roles for Older People: A National Challenge
IRVING L. WEBBER, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology,
University of Florida
Creating New Careers for Older People . .
HAROLD L. SHEPPARD, Ph.D., The W. E. Upjohn
Institute for Employment Research
Industrial Gerontology: Implications for Older
Workers Served through Government Programs
CHARLES E. ODELL, Director, Office of Systems
Support, Manpower Administration,
Washington, D.C.

Employment of the Elderly Poor: Office of
Economic Opportunity Programs . . .
JOHN GRADY HUTCHIsoN, Older Worker Specialist,
Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington,

. xxi

. xxv


S. 14

. 26

Second Careers in Education . . .. 41
JEANNE D. BROCK, Consultant for Adult
Education, Florida Department of Education,
Tallahassee, Florida
Operation Seasoned Service: Senior Citizen Teacher Aides 52
ROBERT SIPES, JR., Program Evaluator, Dade
County Board of Public Instruction, Miami,
Experience Unlimited, Inc. . . .. 70
GERALD S. REHM, President, Experience
Unlimited, Inc., Clearwater, Florida
New Careers, Part-time Employment, and the Older
Worker: A Case Study ............ 79
MARE ERENBURG, Ph.D., Associate Professor of
Economics, Sangamon State University,
Springfield, Illinois
A Company Program to Provide Employment for
Older Persons . . . 96
BERNARD L. SWIERINGA, Penn Central Company,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
The Role of Research, Development, and Demonstration:
Looking Toward the 1971 White House Conference
on Aging . . . 103
MARVIN TAVES, Ph.D., Director, Research and
Demonstration Grants, Administration on
Aging, Washington, D.C.




IN SEEKING ways of understanding and meeting
the needs of aging persons today, we enter a complex, ever
changing maze. We lack authoritative, well-worn road maps. We
find ourselves engaged in a creative, exciting stumbling toward new
ways of relating to this group of human beings-and to ourselves
as aging persons. We who seek these new ways of being are similar
to the son of a friend of mine, an eight-year-old boy. He and his
family had enjoyed the visit of a teenage girl, a distant relative.
During her stay, he had become quite attached to her, develop-
ing a strong "crush." When he knew that she was leaving, he
approached her shyly and said, "I like you very much. Will you
marry me?" Seeing herself as a mature, "older woman," the
girl replied haughtily, "Don't be silly You're much too young"
My young friend, rebuffed but still persistent, summoned up his
courage and replied, "Then will you be my grandmother?"
As a group searching for new structures and modes of relation-
ship, we must adopt a similar posture. In approaching the
problems and possibilities of aging, none of us has an ultimate
blueprint. Harry Stack Sullivan, the eminent American psychiatrist,1
stressed that the fully mature man must engage in what he called
1. H. S. Sullivan, The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry (W. W. Norton,
1953), pp. 298-300.

New Careers for Older People
"syntaxic modes of experience": the continual "checking out" of
one's own perceptions, thoughts, and plans with those about us.
Creativity requires both intense listening to one's inner world and
acute awareness of the way that others see and evaluate that inner
world as we express it. Our kaleidoscopic, multifaceted society
demands the emergence of an "aristocracy of the attentive," to use
Halford Luccock's phrase. A contemporary Christmas carol portrays
the shepherds turning to each other after hearing the unexpected
proclamation of the birth of Jesus in the stillness of the night. They
ask, in the haunting refrain, "Do you hear what I hear?" Confer-
ences on aging have this purpose. We pool with each other our
experiences of new problems, emerging solutions, challenging
information. So, too, my brief remarks to you are a way of saying
again, "Do you hear what I hear?"
Through advances in transportation and communication, we
have been thrust into new awareness of the tensions resulting
from the many sharp differences among the groups composing our
nation. We who attempt to build a sense of community know all
too well the rents in the fabric of that community. Polarization
of political, class, racial, and age groups is a visible threat.
Let us examine one such potential conflict: the danger of
fragmentation through the establishing of "age ghettos." Develop-
mental theorists have demarcated the various tasks specific to the
different ages of man. These provide a basis for age subcommuni-
ties to develop, clusterings of those who share the problems and
tasks common to that stage of life. Such developmental constella-
tions are natural and may be a source of creativity in a healthy
society. The emergence of a youth culture in America, for example,
may offer a supportive bridge for the teenager as he migrates from
childhood to adult life.
What is the process by which the various age groups become
alienated from each other, separated and walled off in their own
ghettos? The first step seems to be that of externalization. Man
forgets that he is not "an island entire of itself." He engages in
what Ronald Laing calls the division of community into "us" and
"them." Certain groups and individuals (e.g., those older than we)
are seen as "them," no longer internally related to us, not really
sharing our concretely human situation.

The Jew in Nazi Germany was subjected to an extreme form
of externalization, becoming the dehumanized "outsider." As a
result, his property, his occupation, even his life was devalued.
Such externalization is easily followed by stereotyping, through
which we mentally herd people together, assigning attributes and
qualities based upon bias rather than upon an attentive awareness
of their real existence. In stereotyping, our perceptions and con-
cepts are used not to sensitize us to the richness of human life
but as cookie cutters that shape the unique human being to our
own preconceived mold.
While the Nazi stereotyping of the Jew led to overt violence
and death, many of us take the short step from our stereotypes to
an attitude of condescension toward those groups that we have
externalized. Our awareness of aging people as unique individuals
can erode subtly. We may come to see them as ciphers rather than
as selves. When this occurs, it is not difficult to think of aging
people as data with which we work rather than as co-deciders in
the fate of the community.
When "age ghetto" boundaries form, how can we shatter them?
It is not enough to exhort people to become more sensitive, more
humane. We need to establish some form of reward system for
successful aging in our society. Perhaps we need to remind our-
selves that, together with physical requirements, the aging person
has basic emotional needs including the hunger for meaningful life
purposes and satisfactory personal relationships. John W. Gardner,
in his provocative book No Easy Victories, asserts that while we
have made substantial progress in meeting the needs of the aging
individual for adequate income, health, and living arrangements,
his need for interest and purpose in life is often the "least
recognized and the most neglected."2
No one can live without a sense of meaningful direction that
gives dignity to one's daily action. Nietzsche put it sharply: "If a
man has a why to live, he will find a howl" Further, while aging
is characterized by the loss of close ties, it is for that reason even
more crucial that the older person have the opportunity to establish
and enjoy good relationships. Each of us needs to choose those who
will affirm and choose us.
2. John W. Gardner, No Easy Victories (Harper, 1968), pp. 153-54.

New Careers for Older People
To break through the walls of the "age ghetto," we must retain
the understanding of aging as a process in which we all participate.
Each of us can look back to those who have not yet experienced
his age level and offer the resources of his experience. Each can
look ahead to those who are preceding him developmentally, offer-
ing the support of his more youthful vitality and resources. We are
much like a mountain-climbing team roped together in the ascent of
a cliff. The journey is less precarious when both the top and bottom
men offer the specific help afforded by their particular positions.
The care of the aging is really a part of the total care of the
community, in which structures for mutual support and sharing
are essential. Some universities and law firms have recognized that
aging professors and attorneys may be retired into activity, offering
the unique perspectives and capabilities that can only be obtained
with accumulated experience through the years. In this manner,
the aging person is not a competitor but a resource for the ambitious
younger man.
The obliterating of age ghettos is a challenge for the long dis-
tance runner, a "task for the tough-minded," in Gardner's terms.
A recent popular song begins, "We've only just begun. ." Social
change of this nature will require careful scrutiny of existing
approaches. It will demand a realistic counting of costs. The keys
to change in institutions are found not in rhetoric but in the
establishment of salary lines, space allocations, and expense
budgets. Do you hear the need that I hear? How shall we answer it?




SINCE THE 1961 White House Conference on
Aging, social gerontology has received considerable attention
through both research and ongoing programs. Wilma Donahue,
Clark Tibbitts, Robert Havighurst, and many others have added
greatly to our knowledge in this area. A new field of applied re-
search and service has been identified within social gerontology as
a response to the growing literature in gerontology and the con-
tinuing search for knowledge. It is called "industrial gerontology."
In the foreword to the recent book Industrial Gerontology,
edited by Harold L. Sheppard, the following statement is made by
Norman Sprague: "Industrial gerontology is the study of the
employment and retirement problems of middle-aged and older
workers. It is the science of aging and work. ... [It] draws
upon economics, industrial psychology, industrial medicine, occu-
pational and industrial sociology, adult education, industrial and
labor relations and management science."
Looking toward the 1971 White House Conference and the
decade of the 1970s, we feel that industrial gerontology is an im-
portant field in which there is a need for research and action in
order to maximize the employment opportunities of older workers.
In view of the need for emphasis in this area, the Twentieth


New Careers for Older People
Annual Southern Conference on Gerontology directs its attention
to new careers for older people. By examining the contemporary
scene, the developments which may be providing new career op-
portunities for older people, and the personal and social constraints
imposed on these opportunities, we hope to identify the goals for
which we should strive.
The Council of the Institute of Gerontology is indebted to the
people who participated in the program or in other ways gave their
time and assistance to the conference, since its initiation in 1951-
many individuals and groups in Florida, in the Southeast, and in the
nation. We are glad to have three supporting groups meeting here
at this time: the Sixth Annual Clinical Session on Gerontological
and Geriatric Nursing; the Florida Bureau on Aging; and the
Florida Council on Aging. The three groups participated in the
plans for the conference and assisted in various ways during the
The conference has also received strong continuing support
from the cooperating agencies listed in the proceedings, repre-
senting units of federal and state governments and private organi-
zations. At this year's conference there were official representatives
from agencies or commissions on aging from thirteen states and
the District of Columbia. We are indebted to all of these individ-
uals and groups for their contributions. The Council of the
Institute of Gerontology wishes to express its appreciation to other
participants in the conference in addition to those who have papers
that appear in this volume. Among these individuals are: Dr. Jean
Jones Perdue, Past President of Florida Council on Aging; Dana
Leitch, Administrator of Employment Services, Florida Depart-
ment of Commerce; Hugh Gaston, Chairman, Georgia Commission
on Aging; Mrs. Constance Walker, Deputy Chief, Florida Bureau
on Aging; Thomas Rich, Associate Dean, University of South
Florida; Charles Pruitt, President, Florida Council on Aging; and
Henry E. Richards, Secretary, Florida Governor's Committee on
Employment of the Handicapped. The Council is grateful to the
Division of Continuing Education, the University agency that joins
with the Institute of Gerontology in the overall administration of
the conference. Robert L. Fairing, Associate Dean of this Division,
W. T. Coram, Jr., Head, Department of Special Programs, and

Richard D. Palmer, Educational Coordinator, handled a broad
range of administrative details incident to conference plans and
local arrangements.
The Council also expresses its appreciation to Mrs. Helen
Kaechele and her co-workers from the Florida Council on Aging
for their services as hostesses.


New Roles for Older Peoples A National


THE CONFERENCE which begins today directs
attention to the topic "New Careers for Older People." Perhaps this
theme means different things to different people; to me it brings
a hopeful image of constructive change in American society that
would lead to more satisfying, more meaningful, more worthwhile
lives for the elderly. In dealing with such a possibility, we are, in
my opinion, facing the most fundamental dilemma that underlies
what rightfully must be called the problem of aging and the aged
in our nation. The situation of the older segment of our population
can be evaluated optimistically or pessimistically, depending upon
which aspects one wishes to stress. There can be little if any doubt,
however, that from the viewpoint of the integration of the elderly
as full-fledged participating members in community and society,
certain factors and trends give valid cause for alarm. In this paper
I wish to begin by sketching the nature of the problem of keeping
older people in the mainstream of life. Next I shall look at the
concept of role in the light of its usefulness as a tool for solving
the basic difficulty, the side-tracking of those who reach their
sixties. But my major emphasis will be upon the responsibility of
our society itself to restructure its roles so that those in the older
ages may continue to be useful and contributing citizens.

New Careers for Older People

In a thoughtful article in which as a historian he looks critically
at the field of gerontology, Berwick sees a paradox: "The gerontolo-
gist is concerned with human dignity in the aging process; yet, at
a time of unprecedented advances in the extension of the human
life-span, a truly dignified and useful old age is becoming increas-
ingly difficult to achieve." Further, he refers to the "irony that we
who pride ourselves on our dedication to human dignity should
have permitted the creation of an expanding population composed
of aging human vegetables" (Berwick 1967:257-58). His chief
concern is with the fact that while we have been successful in
extending the average length of life so that larger and larger shares
of people reach old age, we have not had equal success-one might
say that we have had little or no success-in modifying the social
environment to make the added years useful and dignified.
Unpleasant as it may be to do so, we must accept in large
measure the correctness of such a gloomy assessment. Everyone is
familiar with the figures showing that both the number of older
people and the proportion they comprise of the total population are
rising, and it is not necessary to belabor this point by citing statis-
tics. A rapid review of certain social indices for the elderly serves
to demonstrate that, in considerable degree, the social situation of
these people leaves much to be desired. For example, the data
show that in 1968 more than seven in every ten people aged 65
and over had annual incomes of $2,500 or less and that nine of
every ten received $5,000 or less (U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare 1970:8). Not only are these amounts
exceedingly inadequate in terms of current costs of living, but many
elements in the income are fixed, thus creating grave difficulties as
inflation inexorably continues to erode the value of our money.
Of even greater significance, however, is the trend toward early
retirement of wage-earners from the labor force. In 1947, 47.8
per cent of older men were still at work in paid employment; by
1966 this proportion had dropped dramatically to 27.0 per cent
(U.S. Senate 1970:1195). From one point of view, early retirement
is undesirable because it cuts the size of already limited Social
Security benefits; from the point of view to which I am giving

New Roles for Older People-Webber
attention, it signals a social step, withdrawal from active participa-
tion in work roles, which is even more serious in its consequences.
The reasons for the trend toward retiring from employment at
early ages are complex and need not be explored here; the main
point, as Mrs. Rashelle Axelbank has noted, is that the workers
involved believe they have no better alternative available to them
(U.S. Senate 1970:1183).
The phenomenon of lower rates of participation in the labor
force with the passing years apparently is neither a short-term
tendency, nor is it limited to the United States. The decline has
been under way in our country at least since 1900, when more
than two-thirds of men in the 65-and-over age class were employed
(Riley and Foner 1968:42). Such decreased involvement of older
men in the labor force seems to be characteristic of industrial
societies in general; in fact, United Nations data indicate that
declines likewise have occurred in the proportions of those aged
55 to 64 who are in paid employment, although they have been
less impressive in size than those for the 65-and-over category
(Riley and Foner 1968:43).
What the foregoing factors have to do with usefulness and
dignity in old age is fairly obvious on a logical basis. Poverty and
dignity are uneasy bedfellows; low incomes connote poverty or
something close to that; and early retirement leads to sharply
lowered incomes for most people. To be useful requires in the
usual case that the elderly person be active in some role or other;
lack of money interferes with keeping active; and being without
employment further narrows the range of contacts and opportunities
for useful activity.
Beyond this, the findings of social science research likewise give
strong support for the proposition that losing major social roles,
including that of worker, has untoward effects. The overall level of
activity in later life has been found to be comparatively higher for
older people who are married, live near relatives and friends, have
lived for a long time in the same place, and are employed (Riley
and Foner 1968:419-20). It has been found also that satisfaction
with life is greater among older people who are still working,
compared with those already retired, and this remains true even
for persons whose health and socioeconomic levels are similar

New Careers for Older People
(Riley and Foner 1968:350-51). Other investigations have made
it clear that people who are retired are more likely to feel old
than their counterparts who are still employed (Riley and Foner
1968:305); and, given the stigma that being old has in our society,
this research result probably means that the retired are less satisfied,
less hopeful, less "adjusted" to life around them than those still
Recently Palmore (1969) has reported findings that appear to
make it even more important that certain key social roles such as
meaningful work be continued. On the basis of an analysis of data
about volunteers in the longitudinal, interdisciplinary study of aging
under way at Duke University, he concluded that work satisfaction
is positively related to longevity; more generally, he found that
his "evidence suggests that maintaining health, mental abilities,
and satisfying social roles are the most important factors related
to longevity" (Palmore 1969:108).

From what has been said it seems fairly evident that continuing
to perform in certain major social roles brings significant benefits
to the elderly in satisfaction with life and longevity. Yet at the same
time the statistical evidence points to a steep, long-term decline
in the extent to which the elderly (men in particular) remain in
the role that in our work-oriented society is almost certainly the
most important, that of paid worker. Indeed, the loss of roles is a
general characteristic of the cycle of aging which sets in in middle
age and reaches its end point with death (Riley and Foner
Ernest W. Burgess, the sociologist who made distinguished con-
tributions to social gerontology, recognized the nature of this
problem years ago when he introduced the phrase "roleless role
of the aging." "The retired older man and his wife are imprisoned
in a roleless role," he observed. "They have no vital function to
perform such as they had in rural society. This is doubly true of
the husband, because a woman as long as she is physically able
retains the role and satisfactions of homemaker" (Burgess 1960:20).
Burgess identified five social trends accounting for the role plight
of the retired older person. He has lost his economic independence

New Roles for Older People-Webber
as part of the movement from self-employment to salaried or wage
employment; a shift has occurred from rural to urban living; the
decision to retire comes to be that of the employer rather than
the worker; with the passing of the extended family, made up of at
least three generations and often including collateral relatives, the
favored position of grandfather and grandmother ceases to be
centrally important; and, finally, as an outcome of the preceding
occurrences, the retired person is "cursed instead of blessed by
leisure time in abundance and little or nothing to do with it"
(Burgess 1960:20). There are, however, other factors that have led
to the present situation, one of which is undoubtedly the changes
in the structure of industry that have increased the difficulty of
older persons' remaining in the labor force (Riley and Foner
1968:53); and another, the uncertainty about what really does
constitute the most humane and appropriate course for the elderly
in our society. (It should also be kept in mind that in presenting
the "roleless role" formulation Burgess consciously overstated reality
[Burgess 1960:21]; he fully recognized that no role can be truly
In summary, then, the progressive loss of significant roles has
come about as a result of basic structural changes in our society,
changes associated with the evolution from a traditional to a
modern type of social organization. How this process has paralleled
changes in the age and sex characteristics of the population was
illustrated vividly by Irma Withers in a recent article (1970:17-21)
on "The Vanishing Pyramid." Comparing the ages of the people of
the United States in 1870 with those in 1969, she observed that the
conventional pyramidal shape no longer represents the age-sex
distribution. Instead, the figure is much closer now to a rectangle.
In view of this, we must re-examine a situation in which larger
and larger proportions of our adults are found in the older ages,
for which meaningful social roles largely are lacking.

If a solution is to be found to the problem just set out, it is
likely to be through the reactivation of old roles for the elderly
or the creation of new roles. The term role is familiar to us in
everyday usage, especially with reference to the playing of parts in

New Careers for Older People
dramatic productions, but it also serves as a centrally important
concept in theory of social organization and thus is invoked
frequently in sociological and other social science writing. While
role theory is becoming more and more sophisticated and complex
(Biddle and Thomas 1966), we may limit ourselves here to a few
essential elements in order to see how these relate to the formation
of new roles.
Fundamentally, a role consists of a set of expectations for the
behavior of an individual who occupies a specified social position
or status. Thus a person who occupies the status of, say, housewife
is expected to do certain tasks such as cleaning, cooking, and
laundering or arranging for laundering. The role comprises both
rights and obligations; the housewife has the right to decide how to
spend household monies but she also has the obligation to serve
meals and to keep the dwelling place clean and orderly (although
the nature of these demands will vary, obviously, according to the
social class orientation of the family).
Now all roles involve role relationships; in the example we are
using, the housewife is related to a number of other people, that
is, in her role of housewife. The totality of these relationships is
referred to as the role set. Within the whole set of role relationships,
then, we can specify, if we wish, the particular rights and obliga-
tions that flow in both directions. This means also that in making
new roles or modifying existing ones, one cannot ignore the
corresponding role set.
It should be clear that, for the most part, roles, in the sense
that they are no more than behavioral expectations, exist in the
minds of the people who are in the particular system of social
relationships in which the roles are found. Mainly they have
evolved gradually in dynamic modern societies, and they are
always in the process of change. During recent generations, for
example, we have witnessed a steady modification in the role of
the woman as she has moved out of the home, thus substituting
work and community tasks for some of the housekeeping and child-
rearing tasks she formerly performed. With regard to such key
social roles, there is no question that they can undergo change.
There is, however, another type of role found chiefly in business,
industry, and government which is in effect created out of hand,

New Roles for Older People-Webber
since a new division of labor is decided upon, new names given
to the various sets of tasks involved, and new people trained for
and placed in the formerly nonexistent roles: only a few years ago,
for instance, the development of computer technology led to the
designation of the role of programmer.
It seems evident that societal roles can be modified and that
new ones can be brought into being. But when we direct ourselves
toward the possibility of applying this knowledge in behalf of
older people, we have to take into account still another dimension.
One aspect of our expectations about roles is frequently a convic-
tion about the appropriate social and biosocial characteristics of
those who undertake specified roles. It is felt not to be fitting, for
example, that an elderly man enter the role of husband to a very
young woman or that a woman become president of the United
States-although in view of the pressures of women's liberation,
that conviction may be in the process of passing away. Everyone
will recognize this as a major obstacle in the case of old people;
in fact, the widespread opinion that old people cannot appropriately
act in a wide variety of roles is at the very center of the difficulties
we face in generating new roles for old people.
The foregoing examination of some dimensions of the role
concept indicates that, theoretically at least, it should be possible
consciously to develop new sets of specifications for roles with the
purpose of permitting the elderly to remain in or re-enter social
relationships in their communities and thus to alter the present
process whereby they terminate, step by step, their performance
of roles without being able to go into other satisfying ones. How-
ever, we must underline one other requirement for any such new
roles: they must be important, significant in terms of the function-
ing of our society; they must not be, on the other hand, artificial,
peripheral, merely "made" work.

The undertaking that I am proposing poses a tough challenge,
but it is by no means a hopeless task. At bottom it calls upon the
society as a whole to overhaul its social structure with the express
intent of providing roles that are meaningful for people who are no
longer young. It can be begun in a piecemeal fashion, but ultimately


New Careers for Older People
it should reach the proportions of a social movement that will
eventuate in extensive changes in the way in which tasks are
grouped and essential societal functions performed. Fundamentally,
it requires that we take an inventory of important functions for
our well-being, identify the tasks which can be performed by
people who are middle-aged and over, and then arrange these
tasks in clusters-roles-for the benefit of both the older people
and society at large.
Until now there have been few signs of such a far-reaching
approach; nevertheless, it is possible to illustrate on a limited scale
some of the possibilities. The teacher aide program that originated
in Dade County satisfies the criteria already established (Anony-
mous 1970b). The aide's is a new role; it involves the performance
of a function that is of genuine and intrinsic importance in itself;
and it offers an opportunity for the persons over 55 years of age
who were appointed to these positions to remain firmly enmeshed
in a network of social relationships, in a word, to continue to be
useful and to do so with dignity.
The health-care field provides another opportunity to see how
new roles may be brought into being in response to societal needs.
There is fairly general agreement that our medical-care delivery
system leaves much to be desired; in fact, it may be called, more
or less accurately, a nonsystem. Confronted by the difficulties of
getting required services to those who are ill and to those who
should have preventive care, leaders in the medical field have
implemented the new role of physician's assistant. The person who
holds this position is trained to perform many tasks of medical
care under the supervision of a physician; he is more easily
accessible than the physician, his fees are lower, and he relieves
the physician of numerous routine tasks so that the latter may
spend more time doing the things for which only he is trained.
But the main point is that a totally new role has come into being,
one which gives promise of persisting even though certain difficul-
ties are still in the process of being worked out. The physician's
assistant is only one example among numerous ones that could
be mentioned in the health-care area of efforts made to deal with
urgent problems of giving care more efficiently and effectively
through the creation of formerly nonexistent roles.

New Roles for Older People-Webber
Somewhat related to the present proposal are programs for job
redesign in order to extend employment opportunities for the
older worker (Barkin 1970:25-29). This procedure uses human-
engineering principles to change the division of labor and the
particular requirements of jobs. It is important to note, however,
that job redesign defines the task within the already circumscribed
framework of the existing employment market. It thus stops short
of the scope of the approach I am putting forward. The same may
be said of two other excellent plans, that of Mature Temps, which
hires people aged 55 and over and places them under contract
in temporary jobs (Anonymous 1970a), and Project Senior Abilities
at Albertson, Long Island, New York, which is in effect a special
employment agency that seeks to match the skills of older workers
on its lists with the needs of industry (Anonymous 1971).
My thesis is not that such efforts as those just mentioned are
not important, useful, and deserving of support. Rather, if such
programs accept the present social organization of society as a given
and attempt to achieve slight modifications of it, gains in em-
ployment of older people should result, whether through change
of the job structure or through placement of older workers in jobs
or their continuation in employment. It seems to me that such
measures can do much good in the short run. In the long run, I
contend more heroic measures are called for and must be insisted
The plight of older people in our society is but one aspect of a
troubling phenomenon that runs throughout the fabric of our
social organization. Flexibility in life styles is difficult to attain no
matter what the age of the person. The professional man, for
example, is expected to follow a line of career development that
consumes most of his time and energy; he is caught in the vise
of role requirements that do not take into account the possibility
of pursuing two unrelated careers on a part-time basis, and very
few professional persons do so. Work is scheduled to take full
days and full working weeks; in business, industrial, and govern-
mental structures it simply is not possible to work half time, or
quarter time. Working careers at any level are perceived as
wholes: one enters a line of work, progresses in it, and finally
leaves it when he has reached the end of his work life. Starting

New Careers for Older People
centuries ago from a base of traditional social organization that
contained few commercial and technical roles, we have evolved an
elaborate and highly complex system of structures and functions
that, in the end, have locked us into an inflexibility that is
counterproductive for the young, the middle-aged, and the old,
for it places a premium upon career choice, linear education and
training, and stable career patterns, leaving little or no room for
novel combinations of occupations along the way or for changes
in lines of career development until the working span comes to its
In a word, then, an urgent need exists for our whole society
to engage in a process of reorganization that will result in the
provision of suitable, vital roles for its older members. It has to
be noted, of course, that not all the elderly wish to remain active
and involved in work or other meaningful activities because of
decrements in health and energy; for present purposes, that is
irrelevant: the opportunity must be offered so that failure to
remain participants in real-life activities does not reflect the
absence of chances to do so. Moreover, how the elderly perceive
their own abilities to work and to contribute is not directly in
question. It is to be expected that for the most part older people
will see themselves as they think that others see them. If this is
so, they will accept the societal judgment that the old have little
or nothing more to give and therefore should retire from the arena
as gracefully as possible. Changes in the way older people perceive
their potential for prolonging their involvement in significant social
roles must be brought about in the process of reassessing social
needs and redistributing social roles.


Let me summarize my argument to this point. The transition to
modern society has cut away most key social roles of older people,
and the trend is toward still earlier retirement and thus the
relinquishment of highly significant roles, for men especially, The
existence of this "role vacuum" has grown progressively more
serious in its consequences as the numbers and proportions of the
population in the older years of life have mounted. From the point

New Roles for Older People-Webber
of view of our national society, this situation represents a tragic
waste of human resources; from the point of view of the elderly,
it has been shown to be associated with feelings of uselessness and
unhappiness, and loss of major social roles appears to be correlated
with decreased average length of life. The present structure of
roles, with which the foregoing undesirable conditions are
associated, can be changed, for old roles constantly undergo
alteration without conscious social engineering, and new roles are
frequently "created" to adjust to changed social and technological
conditions. Current programs intended to make it easier for older
people to find employment and to hold jobs longer are promising
efforts to maintain or restore the work role, but a realistic assess-
ment leads to the conclusion that only a sweeping change in the role
structure of our whole society can possibly result in the re-
integration of the elderly in it. Finally, our focus upon the older
segment of the population should not blind us to the fact
that a dysfunctional inflexibility in life styles, including those
having to do with work, is a pervasive characteristic of modem
industrial societies, an evil which tends to bind individuals to rigid
careers at a time when increased leisure and higher levels of living
for the majority should be permitting us to move toward greater
freedom of choice and self-actualization.
Achievement of the end that I have set out-an objective that
calls for nothing less than a thoroughgoing re-examination of the
major functions essential to the operation of our society and for
redistribution of these functions by means of a different structure
of roles that would encompass genuinely significant roles for older
people-requires its establishment as a national goal. To make it
a national goal will require the exercise of political power, of
course, but the first and most important step is to recognize the
nature of the challenge. Older people in general and those of us who
have devoted ourselves to the field of gerontology have been much
too apologetic in our approach and modest in our demands for the
restoration of the older members of our society to their rightful
places as citizens. Examples are not lacking in the modern world
that the legitimate needs of substantial minorities cannot be
ignored with impunity. In our own country the so-called black
revolution and the civil rights movement provide excellent illustra-


New Careers for Older People

tions. In the world at large the emergence of the third world of
underdeveloped nations as a growing force is another instance.
The task that I have set out is formidable, but first and fore-
most it depends upon imaginative, innovative thinking. The
conference that begins this evening provides a forum for such
thinking. Whether or not you can agree with the thesis I have
advanced, I hope that it can serve as a take-off point for worth-
while discussions. It is all the more essential that we begin now to
work toward this national goal because of the increased speed of
social change. Men and women now old saw us go from the horse
and buggy to the moon. What will the world be like when those
now young are in their sixties? Clearly this is a challenge that
must be taken up.

1970a Older Workers Hired, Easily Placed in Contract Jobs by Mature
Temps. Aging, No. 188-89 (June-July):10-11.
1970b Statewide Extension of Senior Teacher Aides under :Study in
Florida. Aging, No. 188-89 (June-July):16.
1971 SRS-Aided Long Island Project Finding Jobs for 55+ Seniors.
Aging, No. 195 (January):8-9.
Barkin, Solomon
1970 Retraining and Job Redesign: Positive Approaches to the Continued
Employment of Older Persons. In Industrial Gerontology, ed.
Harold L. Sheppard, pp. 17-30. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman
Publishing Co.
Berwick, Keith
1967 The "Senior Citizen" in America: A Study in Unplanned Obso-
lescence. The Gerontologist, No. 7 (December):257-60.
Biddle, Bruce J., and Thomas, Edwin J., eds.
1966 Role Theory: Concepts and Research. New York: John Wiley
& Sons.
Burgess, Ernest W.
1960 Aging in Western Culture. In Aging in Western Societies, ed.
Ernest W. Burgess, pp. 3-28. Chicago: University of Chicago
Palmore, Erdman B.
1969 Physical, Mental, and Social Factors in Predicting Longevity.
The Gerontologist, No. 9 (Summer):103-8.
Riley, Matilda White, and Foner, Anne
1968 Aging and Society. Vol. 1. An Inventory of Research Findings.
New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Administration on Aging
1970 Facts on Aging. Reprint from Aging (May). AoA Publication
No. 126.

New Roles for Older People-Webber

U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Aging
1970 Economics of Aging: Toward a Full Share in Abundance. Hearings
before the Subcommittee on Employment and Retirement Income.
Part 9-Employment Aspects, Washington, D.C., December 18-19,
1969. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Withers, Irma
1970 The Vanishing Pyramid. Industrial Gerontology, No. 6 (Sum-

Creating New Careers for Older People


IN TALKING about this very broad but fasci-
nating topic of new careers for older people, I shall, as I have
been asked, concentrate on the nature of the employment problem
created by the attributes of older people, the nature of that em-
ployment problem as created by conditions existing in the labor
market, and the types of research and programs designed to in-
crease the employment opportunities for older people.
At the outset I want to make it clear that we must not let the
term "new careers" degenerate into meaning essentially jobs and
employment opportunities of a "make-work" or a charitable work-
shop nature. I want to return to that issue later.
Neither do we want to forget, especially those of us who have
most of our training-and thus our intellectual perspectives-from
such fields as sociology, psychology, and social work, that a
fundamental reason for developing a movement for new careers
for older Americans or any other Americans is a sheer and simple
economic or financial reason. On the other hand, whenever I'm
with economists, I point out to them the need to remember the
psychological, sociological, and social work aspects of any given
economic problem. I believe in marrying all these perspectives.
I think it is a tragedy, and perhaps a barometer of the kind of

Creating New Careers-Sheppard
society we really are (not the kind we like to think we are), that
men and women who do not remain in the factories and offices of
our affluent land are exposed to the greatest risks of poverty. That
is, we have continued to stress the requirement that if you want
money, you have to earn it. I don't want to argue too simplistically
about that point of view. I, too, don't believe that nonworking able-
bodied people, especially men (women liberationists forgive me),
should have the same income as people who make the personal
sacrifice roughly five days a week of getting up in the morning
(or in the afternoon, if on an evening shift) the same time every
day and showing up, usually on time, to go through the motions
of producing goods and services needed or wanted by the rest
of us-who also do the same thing.
But what about those millions of men and women who once
did do the same thing (including the women who served without
pay providing household services for the men who were spending
time-serving time-in those factories and offices, that is, the wives
of workers)? What about these millions of men and women who
were doing the same thing for thirty, forty, or fifty years and who
thus created the economic base and the springboard for the level
of technology and economy from which the labor force of today
derives its well-being, its income?
These people do not deserve to be treated as if they were lazy
good-for-nothings. For one thing, why should they have their re-
tirement incomes-primarily derived through our Social Security
system-based on their earning years and only their earning years
and at best remedied through begrudging cost-of-living adjust-
ments? I think it is important to remember that there is a difference
between keeping up with the cost of living, and keeping up with
the standard of living which is constantly going up in our society.
It seems to me that if we don't have a revolutionary shift in our
thinking about the use of older people in our work force-which
also means a radical reformulation of stereotypes about the
capacity of older people and the stereotypes about growing old-
we should at least recognize the claims of the truly retired worker
or the truly retired population upon the increasing wealth of this
nation. They should not only be guaranteed immunity from pov-
erty-they should also be guaranteed a share in the rising standard

New Careers for Older People
of living of our affluent economy. After all, they helped make it pos-
sible. Why should the people who came after them, the younger
workers, get all this rising wealth? What did they do to make the
economic base possible-the base that provides the springboard
for that rising standard of living? That's getting more for doing
Income, or wealth, therefore, is the indispensable reason for
concern about creating new careers for older people. I'm not leav-
ing out the other reasons.
"In the emphasis on the non-economic aspects of the problems
of our aging population," wrote Edwin Witte (one of the authors
of the Social Security Act) more than twenty years ago, "there
may be an element of wishful thinking to get away from the un-
pleasant subject of the large costs to employers and the public
which the economic needs of the older people will entail. A mini-
mum income sufficient for a decent existence is an absolute essential
for all older people, as it is for the rest of the population. Attempts
to play down this truth will not get rid of the problem." This state-
ment was published in the 1950 Proceedings of an Industrial Rela-
tions Research Association.
I think you ought to take a look at one of the new bibles in
the field, called The Economics of Aging for a Full Share in
Abundance, that was just released by the Senate Special Committee
on Aging. It is a summary of two thousand pages of testimony and
other reports over the last three years. I think it should be part
of the materials for the White House Conference that we're all
working for. It updates the issue discussed by Witte.
Since income in retirement at a level commensurate with the
needs required for human dignity, let alone subsistence, will be
a long time coming in this country, we are forced to take a look
at the world of work from which all monetary blessings flow-
including those of coupon-clippers and landlords.
New careers for older Americans must therefore be created as
an additional-not the total-approach to meeting the income
problems of such people. But before we can talk about and pre-
pare the detailed steps necessary for making such new careers a
reality, we must cope with the point I made at the outset, namely,
the possibility that top policy-makers, opinion leaders, and Con-

Creating New Careers-Sheppard
gressional representatives will look upon the new career movement
merely or primarily as a substitute for the dole-for hand-outs at
best, and that is what is meant by "make-work." The equally un-
fortunate term "government as employer of last resort" is probably
the new synonym for such older slogans-reminiscent of the ugly
stereotypes about the WPA projects of the thirties. You will recall
the unfortunate choice of language used in the veto of the recent
Manpower Bill. The President even used that term, WPA, as a
nasty word and then he flew off to Camp David (which was built
by the WPA).
Incidentally, I was in Phoenix for a meeting on aging recently,
the day before that veto, walking down the street with some other
economists and looking at the beautiful sidewalks in Phoenix-
clean and uncracked. We were all commenting on the fact that
on every corner there was stamped into the cement "1940-WPA."
What horrible work they did: those sidewalks are still there, un-
cracked, thirty years later.
The expression "government as employer of last resort" is a
poor choice of words, partly because it suggests that employment
in the government should be provided only after private enterprise
has proven it cannot employ all job-seekers, of any age. The term
implies that such jobs would be temporary positions, pending a
rise in demand in the private sector for more workers. The term
clearly conveys to the public and to the possible employee in such
programs that the job he would perform is neither very desirable,
anyway, for him as an individual human being, nor useful and
really needed by the general community.
But government should not be viewed primarily as an employer.
It is a provider of services to the citizens of a society. We know
today that unemployment is high, at roughly 6 per cent, not
counting those people-especially the older ones (in their late
forties, early fifties and over)-who have become discouraged and
have simply left the labor force. This means they don't get counted
as unemployed. Furthermore, regarding the more important
measure of duration of unemployment with which I'm concerned
as an industrial gerontologist, more than one-third of the long-term
unemployed today are older men and women, 45 and older, again
not counting the "labor force drop-outs."

New Careers for Older People
To repeat: the government should not be viewed primarily as
an employer, but as a provider of services to society. In a study
I did for the Urban Coalition on the need for public employment
service at the municipal level, as estimated by the mayors and
personnel directors of the larger cities of our country (100,000
and over), it was revealed that 300,000 more jobs-just in these
larger cities and for only 13 municipal functions-could be created
if the city governments had the funds. But under current local
taxation policies and conditions, they do not have such resources.
I pointed out in this study that there are several categories of
public service functions that are not being adequately provided
under the existing levels of funding, and administrative-legislative
policies. The Joint Economic Committee of the United States
Congress, about four years ago, wrote a report on State and Local
Public Facilities and Financing, citing six types of public services.
Basic Community Services.-These include the provision of
water, electricity, gas, and sanitary services, including today a wide
variety of anti-pollution needs which have only begun to be rec-
ognized. When you think what the manpower implications are in
a truly effective environmental program in our country for survival,
if nothing else, the manpower needs are limitless.
Transportation Services.-These cover not only construction and
maintenance of highways, streets, roads, and bridges, but modern
transit systems, parking facilities, airports, and so on.
Educational Services.-These include not only public elementary
and secondary schools, but private ones as well; vocational schools
and institutions, junior colleges, and colleges and universities; col-
lege housing services and ancillary services such as food services,
public educational television, etc.
Health Services.-I won't elaborate on what goes into that cate-
gory; it should be obvious.
Recreational-Cultural Activities.-This category includes out-
door theaters, parks and arenas, neighborhood athletic centers,
museums, auditoriums, libraries, etc.
Miscellaneous.-There is always this most important category
which includes child care centers, jails, and prisons. Someone ap-
parently associates jails and child care centers and prisons and
other custodial facilities.

Creating New Careers-Sheppard
The main point is that we've done very little to meet the man-
power demands of these areas where we have need-not necessarily
what we want, but what we need-and this is a very important
source for the new career movement; it must be done on a much
more widespread and permanent basis. It seems to me a little sad
that any new or public service legislation should be written in such
a way so that these are temporary jobs-that when the economy
picks up, people are dismissed from fighting pollution, for example.
In other words, when the private sector picks up, we are supposed
to stop fighting pollution. Think about that.
Let me return now more directly to the problem of jobs and
older Americans. Our current trends, if not our present policies,
are leading us to a point when, very soon, among men 55 to 59, a
group once considered immune from the ravages of aging in the
field of employment-men well below 65-there will be a 25 per
cent increase in the proportion no longer in the labor force, com-
pared with the figure ten years ago. Don't confuse this with the
notion that this is proof that pension coverage and pension ade-
quacy have become so utopian that men can't wait to retire. We
are talking about men who are too young to retire, in the normal
meaning of that term. One of the major reasons for this rise in out-
of-the-labor-force figures is the previously unexamined consequence
of the general trend toward lower retirement ages, partly as a way
of semantically solving our unemployment problem. The point is
that the lower the retirement age, the lower the hiring age has to
It's such a simple piece of logic that I've hardly thought about
it. The trend toward earlier retirement creates problems for people
in their forties if and when they are laid off for whatever reason.
These include Ph.D. scientists, engineers, and technicians in many
of our high level technology industries, as we are all reading about
in the Seattle area, Los Angeles, and even around Cape Kennedy
here in Florida.
I want to talk about another aspect of the need for new careers
and new career programs, the need to institute programs so that
they are part of our social order, in the private as well as the public
sector. Take a look at what demographers around the world call
the dependency ratio. I don't mean by that people who are on

New Careers for Older People
welfare. If you ask people of working age, arbitrarily let's say
between 20 and 64, how many of them are supporting people not
in these age groups, you will discover that the burden on the
working population is increasing. Part of this increase results from
the fact that we are lowering the retirement age for a variety of
good and bad reasons. Part of the trouble with lowering retirement
age in this modem world is that people don't die when they retire.
There are more people living to be old than ever before, and they
hang around, they hang on, and they have claims on the rest of
us to produce. We have only ourselves to blame because we are
helping to create an increased population that is not in the main-
stream of our production process. We are creating a greater de-
pendency ratio. The burden on the working population is growing.
Add to that the way we finance our services through inadequate
taxation policies at the local level and you can see how much
worse the problem becomes. This is a good argument for some
form of revenue sharing.
So, with high unemployment, and increased numbers of older
Americans suffering from long-term unemployment, and increased
numbers of under-65 workers leaving the labor force altogether,
we may be tempted to conclude that there just aren't any jobs
around to fill, and that we'll just have to wait for the private sector
to begin looking for additional workers-partly as indirect results
of new business investment tax incentives, partly as a result of
shifts in monetary supply policy, and other fiscal measures.
In the meantime, our society, compared to other ones, is still
characterized by private affluence (despite the disturbing facts
concerning the numbers of Americans living below the poverty
line). Our society is characterized by private affluence, but we are
suffering from the absence of public affluence. We are suffering
from inadequate, sometimes nonexistent, services for the human
being. We are suffering from urban ills (not to be confused with
race problems) such as neanderthal transportation systems, auto-
mobile-emanating pollution of our lungs, eyes, and bloodstreams.
We are suffering from a failure of our education systems to keep
up with the changing demands of the society and the changing
nature of youth.
We are suffering also from a notion that dominates much of

Creating New Careers-Sheppard
industrial gerontology. There isn't a month that goes by that I don't
get a few phone calls from a reporter or some well-meaning persons
in the country, asking, "What kinds of jobs are there for older
people?" Well, what are "nigger" jobs, what are "women's" jobs,
and what are "old folks" jobs? This is a mentality that we have
got to get rid of. Race, age, and sex should be considered irrelevant
in the question of what kinds of occupations the people perform.
We need something much more functional, much more relevant
to what the job is that needs to be done. Naturally, I wouldn't
expect a man to apply for a job modeling bikinis. We have got
to overcome that type of thing in talking about what are the types
of jobs older people can perform. This is partly due to the fact
that we are dominated by what I call stereotypes resulting from
statistical averages. They confuse us, and obscure the variations
and detract from the need to make a separate decision on each
individual. If you are a personnel director in a company, an em-
ployment expert, or some kind of specialist in the employment
service, there is a frequent mental process that takes place by
pigeonholing. We too frequently reason as follows: "That person
is old; the average older person cannot do such and such a job;
this person is old and therefore I'm not going to refer him to that
job," without asking the question "What can this man or woman
do?" and that makes a big difference. Averages obscure the distri-
bution of physical abilities. In opening up new career opportuni-
ties, we must therefore consider each person as an individual, test-
ing his or her abilities and interests, and not year of birth.
We are suffering from the rigidities of a public service delivery
system which includes the nature and structure of the personnel
needed to deliver those services. We are suffering from a series
of public and private bureaucratic rules and regulations, partly
rooted in fears of destroying hard-won professional standards, that
stand in the way of redesigning old jobs and creating new types
that would increase the odds for success in the movement to in-
crease our public affluence.
I am trying here to convey the point that all of us are suffering
from a growing, chronic deficiency of public services that could
lead to a crisis-and that one of the major solutions is the develop-
ment of a system that would recruit and train men and women of


New Careers for Older People
all ages for new and/or second careers. And such careers should
be for more than men and women in poverty. I mean this for all
income groups. I'm not just talking about the poor. The research
I have been doing recently among what we would call the middle-
American working class (white male union members in northern
states at high wage levels) shows that that group, as well as profes-
sionals and executives, has as many as 30 per cent who want to
change careers. But they need opportunities, structured opportuni-
ties, for this need. I don't know how many of you know it, but in the
manpower bill that the President vetoed in December, 1970, there
was a provision for mid-career development. We still need a mid-
career development program. Perhaps we need separate legislation
for this purpose.
Now, new careers and related programs won't work unless we
constantly recognize three obstacles that have to be coped with.
The first has to do with the individual himself, the job-seeker, or
the potential job-seeker. The second is what I call the intermediate
agencies consisting of the "gate-keepers," such as the public em-
ployment service and our vocational training institutions. The third
is what I call the ultimate job-giver, the employer. All of these
groups have beliefs and practices that stand in the way of achieving
the goals of the new career program. For example, in the first
category, the individual job-seeker, there are such things as the
self-image that the older worker has, what he thinks his capabilities
are. Many older persons are themselves convinced that old dogs
can't learn new tricks. We now know that old teachers can't teach
new tricks and we must train teachers to learn how to teach older
workers. Most of our pedagogical theory is based on research
with infants and children, and the people who go through an
educational system based on those theories are not very successful
when working with older people. They then attribute their failures
to their older pupils. Nevertheless there is the problem of the older
worker who thinks he can't learn, who also thinks that employers
are going to discriminate; therefore he doesn't apply for the job
and thus carries out a self-fulfilling prophecy.
In the intermediate agency, I have already given an example
of the problem there: the educational system which is based on
learning theories derived from the research on children and guinea

Creating New Careers-Sheppard
pigs. We need much more in the way of knowledge about adult
learning. I have already said that there is a lot of confusion being
disseminated about how older people do learn.
In the book Industrial Gerontology, there is a chapter by a
British psychologist named Belbin who has been working on this
problem-not in a laboratory but in factories and government
agencies training trainers to teach older job applicants and older
people already on the job. The people who need to be changed
are the educational administrators and the teachers themselves
who say that schools are for kids and nobody after "x" age can
come back to learn. We need also to change the attitudes and
practices of service agencies at the public level, the private per-
sonnel officers at the factories at the company level, and the private
employment services. I would also include the unions, many of
whom have a fear of what we used to call "the competitive
menace," that the fewer people in the labor market the better for
those who are in the labor market. This fear is understandable, but
we have got to find ways of eliminating that fear. All of the gate-
keepers in these institutions have images about older workers'
abilities, again based on data that report averages only. We have
not yet moved to a new and basic point of view in our approaches
toward educating people before they enter the labor force-in other
words, the youth. There is the possibility or high probability that
before they die, willy-nilly, they will have been in three or four
separate occupations. Unfortunately most of them are not prepared
for that reality. We are still dominated by the single career con-
cept. ("What are you going to be when you grow up?" "I'm going
to be a fireman.") We ought to be preparing people for the chang-
ing world of work. That also includes the imparting of knowledge
about the labor market; we must teach people a new kind of skill,
how to find a job, how to go to look for a job. Job-seeking skills
are among those that people need as workers. The problem is that
many persons have been in one company for thirty to forty years
and they have lost the skill of looking for a job. In teaching people
to look for jobs there are efficient ways and inefficient ways. I am
not talking now about just the individual, but also about the inter-
mediate agencies, the credentialism-for example-of the civil serv-
ice system which functions as an obstacle to new career programs.

New Careers for Older People
There are people who look at that problem, do not know how to
solve it, and walk away. But I believe that there are ways of solving
the problem of civil service regulations which too often prevent
the establishment of new career programs. I am not an expert on
how to do that, but I know there are people who have been work-
ing it out. There's the National Civil Service League which has
been working at municipal, county, and state levels to change the
rules or re-interpret them to make it easier to have a new careers
The third group consists of the employers themselves-public
agencies as well as private companies. They present a number of
obstacles in the way of achieving and maintaining a successful
new careers program. One has to do with policies about retirement
and pension systems. Many employers cite certain pension plan
provisions as an argument for not hiring older workers when it is
not the real reason. Sometimes they believe it is the real reason,
but it isn't. Even when it is the real reason they ought to change
the nature of their pension system. Usually people take it as an
answer and walk away when they are told, "Well, our pension
system doesn't allow for it." There is something wrong with any
pension system if it is an obstacle for the hiring of human beings.
Something I have already alluded to is the notion of functional
criteria, of functional tests for determining the employability, the
upgrading ability, or retirability of an individual. Here again, there
is work being done and not just in the laboratories. It is being
done in government agencies and in factories. We could learn a
lot from Canada, for example, through the work of a physician
named Leon Koyl, who has been constructing tests for functional
criteria regarding employability, upgrade-ability, etc. He has a
chapter also in the book Industrial Gerontology.
We need a little more imagination on the whole question of how
to allocate where people work and for how long. There is talk of
a four-day forty-hour week, for example. As we move more and
more toward a service economy, it may be that the idea is more
and more possible, and that it will be part of our way of life before
many of us are dead. This also ties into the whole idea of job
redesign. This is a skill and technique which includes the restruc-
turing of jobs and job rotation. It includes the idea of job enrich-

Creating New Careers-Sheppard
ment and many things that personnel psychologists talk about these
days. All of these new or untried old ideas will be required in
creating new career opportunities for older Americans.
From the point of view of many of the theorists writing about
new careers, the ideal should include an element of upgrading.
They argue that we should not be creating new career jobs that are
actually dead-end positions. But perhaps one of the advantages
of having older people in a variety of new career positions is that
they may not be as hung-up about climbing-about climbing up
the organization-as younger persons. After all, there may be cer-
tain positions which do not contain much opportunity for upward
mobility (except through increased wages and salaries). As long
as such new career jobs offer decent incomes and involve doing
something interesting, worthwhile, and/or challenging, the demand
for guaranteed upgrading may not be so crucial.
But on the point of being in a dead-end job, let me add that
I believe that most people believe their current jobs contain little
or no opportunity for promotion. But two critical questions must
be asked: how much does this bother them, and are they willing
and able to make significant shifts to jobs with greater opportunities
for mobility? The fact that most people feel they are in dead-end
jobs also means that such a feeling is not a monopoly of the poor,
or of blacks only.
I am convinced, furthermore, that much of the bitterness,
malaise, and the "blues" we hear so much about cannot be sepa-
rated from our society's neglect of the quality of life and of the
need for public services. To repeat, we have chased the Holy Grail
of private affluence at the expense of public affluence. In order to
improve that life quality-in order to make us richer in the public
services sphere-we must enlarge upon the meager steps taken so
far to create new careers aimed at enhancing our public affluence.
And, finally, I know that older Americans would not only benefit
from such an enlarged program in terms of meeting much of their
own income problems, but they would also be among the first to
want to be a part of a total, nation-wide, and community-wide
commitment to improving the quality of American life. You in
this audience should be among the agitators for this concept of
public service employment new careers, to create a better America.

Industrial Gerontology: Implications for Older
Workers Served through
Government Programs


THERE ARE a variety of ways to go in seeking
solutions to the unemployment problems and income maintenance
requirements of middle-aged and older people. It is tempting to
recommend large doses of palliation in the form of increased
pensions; earlier retirement; government-created work as a last
resort; sheltered workshops; age quotas in training, hiring, and
employment levels; and so on. At the other extreme, it is equally
tempting to write off the current generation of middle-aged and
older persons as a lost generation suffering from under-education,
inadequate health and social services, and a consequent lack of
flexibility and capability to deal effectively with competition and
dynamic change in modern society.
The former approach is euphemistically called remedial or
palliative; the prescription popularly associated with the latter
approach calls for large doses of anticipatory and preventive
health, education, and welfare directed at the younger generation.
When I sat down to think about this paper, I found myself
wanting to go in both directions at once, but also being horrified
by the thought of the consequences. Perhaps this is because of
the varying perspectives from which I have looked at the problem.
I first became interested and professionally concerned with

Industrial Gerontology-Odell
the so-called older worker problem in 1947-48-a period after
World War II when large numbers of older workers, many called
back from retirement to work in war industry, were being laid
off because of the shift of production and service industries from
wartime to peacetime needs. Throughout the decade of the fifties,
there was a continuous and persistent "shakeout" of older workers
from American industry. We learned in this period that older
workers as a group were highly regarded by their employers as
long as they remained on the payroll but once they were laid off
on any but a short-time seasonal basis, they suddenly became
liabilities, as a "group," to new employers. The stereotyped views
of older workers held by most prospective employers are all too
familiar: they are too old to work; they lack flexibility; they can't
learn new tasks; they are difficult to get along with; they are too
slow; and furthermore it costs a lot more in pensions, insurance,
workmen's compensation, etc., to take on older workers.
In the fifties we thought that this was largely a problem that
would be solved by full employment; in the sixties we found
that full employment did help some, but it still left a hard core
of middle-aged and older workers who desperately needed work
and couldn't get it. We also thought that age discrimination laws
would help in the fifties and we managed to get a number of these
on the books at the city, state, and even the national level. We
learned in the sixties that these laws could indeed be helpful
in eliminating the overt forms of age discrimination-in newspaper
advertising, in the manner of recruitment, and in selection and
referral by public and private employment agencies and indeed
by employers and unions. But we also discovered that such
legislation was more effective as an educational device than as a
legal sanction, and yet we have never staffed any of our state
or federal programs adequately to do an effective educational job.
In the fifties we thought that training and retraining programs
on a significant scale were needed to provide skill training for the
first time or to refurbish the skills and abilities of the middle-aged
and older unemployed. In addition, we believed that such people
would also benefit from upgrading and skill development programs
while still employed, in anticipation of changes in production
methods and systems. But despite the passage of the Manpower


New Careers for Older People
Development and Training Act in 1962, and its subsequent
liberalizing amendments, workers 45 and over have never consti-
tuted more than 11 per cent of the total trainees in institutional
training programs. The reasons for this low enrollment have been
analyzed. They are, in part, a result of conflicting national priori-
ties and, in part, a result of institutional hangups in attitudes and
in the substantive content and methodology used in such pro-
grams. But they are also, in large part, a result of the basic
attitudes of older workers themselves-attitudes about ability to
take such training; the relative values of a short-term maintenance
of income versus longer-range improvement in skills; and, indeed,
of family attitudes toward a middle-aged father going back to
school, and so on.
In the fifties we learned that by concentrating a larger, better
trained cadre of employment service counselors and interviewers
on the job of helping the older worker, we could double the
number of older workers getting and holding jobs through the
employment service and we could also improve the quality of the
placement and the job to which older workers were referred. Yet
in the sixties when additional resources became available to the
employment service, only a small part of them went to increase
the staffing of specialized services of older workers. They went
instead to create a whole new delivery system for young people!
The rationale for that decision was that the middle-aged and older
workers "were relatively better off" from the point of view of
rates of unemployment, and that therefore the youth, and particu-
larly black and Spanish-speaking youth, deserved priority. Leaving
aside the relative merits of that judgment and the problems that
resulted from the establishment of separate and competing youth
employment services, the truth was, and is, that older workers
have always had lower rates of unemployment but far longer
spells of unemployment. A wise decision would have been, there-
fore, to provide equitable resources for both programs based on
a sophisticated analysis of need rather than to build up one at
the expense of the other.
Subsequently we have attempted to balance off these conflicting
priorities and to establish a new basis for the allocation of resources
in what is known as the Community Manpower Services Model.

Industrial Gerontology-Odell
The model is designed to free more personnel and resources for
work with the hard core and disadvantaged by providing a self-
service delivery system to the so-called job-ready who are defined
as workers (or claimants for unemployment insurance) with
experience and training sufficient so that their only real problem
is to know where the best job opportunities are. By use of
computer-assisted job banks, and ultimately man-job matching
systems, we hope to be able to provide the job-ready with a wealth
of job leads including access to all the openings listed with us
by employers on any given day.
The second area of service in the model is directed to those
who have skills and training but who have trouble marketing
those skills either because they don't know where and how to look
for a job or because they have problems which they must overcome
to meet employer resistance. In this group would be many re-
turning veterans, older workers, and handicapped workers. The
services they need can generally be provided by a skillful,
selective placement interviewer or a job counselor trained and
experienced in what we call individualized job development. This
type of service probably calls for some specialized staff who
understand the special needs of youth, older workers, the
physically handicapped, and the veteran.
The third area of service is directed to those who lack any
significant experience, training, or skill and who need intensive
employability development services. In the past we have tried to
deliver these services by moving the client from place to place or
from specialist to specialist either within an office or between
offices. In the new model there is an employability development
team composed of a counselor, a job developer, a training and
work training specialist, a placement interviewer, and a coach.
Thus, all or most of the expertise needed to help a client is
available in one place and at one time. This system has been tried
in our implementation of the Work Incentive Program, the fore-
runner of the Family Assistance Act, and we are reasonably certain
that it will work effectively in behalf of the poor, the hard core,
and the disadvantaged.
You may legitimately ask where the older worker fits into this
new model. The answer is that his needs and his personal interest

New Careers for Older People
and motivation will determine how much and what kinds of service
he will receive. We do plan, however, to use our expertise for
older workers in all three areas of service to the degree that con-
centration of effort and staff is needed after a careful review and
feedback on the nature and characteristics of the load accessing
each of the three levels of service.
In addition, we are continuing to identify training and staff
needs for older-worker staff throughout the manpower system.
We have, for example, a $50 million investment in a program
called Operation Mainstream delegated by OEO to the Depart-
ment of Labor under the Economic Opportunity Act. These
resources have been used to contract with public and nonprofit
community agencies for work training sites and programs for
middle-aged and older people living on incomes below the poverty
line. In many of these programs we have successfully built in
volunteer intake and placement services for older people who
need and want jobs. The senior volunteers under Mainstream
actually staff basic older workers services with the guidance of
an older-worker specialist from the regular service. This program
has been extended into rural and smaller areas this fiscal year.
We have also continued to fund the National Council on Aging
to establish and maintain a National Institute of Industrial Geron-
tology. The purpose of the institute is to define and describe from
ongoing literature and projects, as well as projects initiated by
the institute itself, developments in the emerging field of indus-
trial gerontology. The institute is also conducting bi-regional
seminars for us introducing key State Employment Service per-
sonnel to intensive training in order to improve their understand-
ing and performance in behalf of middle-aged and older workers.
The institute also sponsors unique special projects that contribute
to the knowledge in the field, as well as to the capacity of prac-
titioners to serve middle-aged and older persons better. A good
example of this kind of activity is the program of in-plant analysis
and utilization of middle-aged and older persons developed by
Dr. Lee Koyl of Toronto in cooperation with the De Havilland
Aircraft Company. The institute has not only published and
distributed papers on some of Koyl's experiences but has also
brought key personnel from other parts of Canada and the U.S.

Industrial Gerontology-Odell
to take a hard look at the program in operation. It is hoped that
operational research spinoffs will develop so that Dr. Koyl's work
will begin to have impact on preventive as well as rehabilitative
industrial gerontological practice throughout the world.
You will recall that I started on the note about preventive
versus palliative measures and went on to say that I was caught
up somewhere in the middle of this dilemma. Koyl's work beauti-
fully illustrates the point that at any given time in the individual's
life span, both preventive and palliative measures have relevance
and we really need both. Koyl's approach to industrial, preventive
medicine is designed to forestall massive and catastrophic illness
by periodic examinations and measures designed to prevent
undetected potentials for disaster. The same principles need to
be applied to the education, welfare, employment, rehabilitation,
and gerontological disciplines associated with the life processes
involved in growth, development, fulfillment, and decline.
Certain problems of the middle-aged and older person in this
generation are perhaps more acute in certain respects than will
be the same problems in the next generation. But this is not a
good societal rationale for dumping our concern for this generation
to concentrate on better preventive measures for the next. Marie
Antoinette lost her head for just such a social policy pronounce-
ment when she said of the mob crying for social justice, "Let 'em
eat cake!"
Beginning with the national conference on aging in 1950, we
have produced hundreds of good ideas and descriptions of successful
experiences for dealing with the welter of problems of middle-aged
and older people. We don't lack ideas. What we lack is the will
to mount a pervasive and effective attack on many of the social
problems associated with aging and longevity.
Several special and ongoing publications of the NCOA's National
Institute of Industrial Gerontology define both the areas of current
need and the practical and experimental experiences which will
lead to solutions of the problems of middle-aged and older workers.
Some examples of these publications are the following:
1. The quarterly journal Industrial Gerontology, in which
are published articles and digests of ongoing research and
demonstration in the field.

New Careers for Older People
2. The Curriculum Guide on Services for Middle-Aged and
Older Workers, which is used as required reading in the bi-regional
seminars that were previously described.
3. Industrial Gerontology, a publication edited by Dr. Harold
L. Sheppard of the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment
Research, in which are described the results of a seminar conducted
by the National Council on Aging to better describe and define the
whole field of industrial gerontology.
4. A special report done by the National Institute of Industrial
Gerontology and NCOA for the Special Senate Committee on
Aging in November 1969, called Employment Aspects of the
Economics of Aging.
The challenge to the participants in this conference and others
like it throughout the world is not specifically one of defining the
problems or indeed of finding effective solutions. We already know
far more about the problems and how to solve them than we are
prepared to put into practice. The challenge is to reach a broad
enough cross-section of the society with a message leading to
commitment-the will to act upon our knowledge with the
understanding and the funds and resources necessary to achieve
simple and manageable goals for the whole society and specifically
for middle-aged and older people. For, surely, the "fortunate"
among us all will "inevitably" be the middle-aged and aged in the
future. So what we do for today's middle-aged and older population
is a benchmark for what we can expect for ourselves if we are
lucky enough to survive. Surely, this is not a plea for charity.
Rather, it is an argument for enlightened self-interest!

Employment of the Elderly Poor: Office of
Economic Opportunity Programs


PERHAPS I should begin by explaining that
Albert Abrahams, the OEO Director of Special Programs, has the
official assignment from the agency as coordinator for the White
House Conference on Aging. As one of the two other National
Headquarters Staff people directly concerned with the aging and
as the former Deputy Director and Acting Director of the OEO
Office of Older Persons Programs, I am equally interested in en-
couraging widespread grassroots participation in the community
conferences and the state White House conferences by the OEO
constituency and those professionals who can so well articulate
the employment problems of the elderly poor.
Since I have been working with the OEO Office of Older
Persons Programs from its inception in 1967, I am acutely aware
that our efforts to date have been rather little and rather late,
especially so considering the fact that the community conferences
are scheduled during March and April, and the state White House
conferences for May.
Nonetheless, there are people in the OEO headquarters and
regional offices who are deeply concerned with the success of the
White House conference and are doing what they can to facilitate
the inclusion of the elderly poor people who are enrolled in the

New Careers for Older People
OEO Manpower Programs, which are being administered in a
large part by the Department of Labor.
In President Nixon's press statement of October 15, 1969, on
the reorganization of the OEO and in various statements by the
former director, Donald Rumsfeld, and the present acting director,
Frank Carlucci, the point was clearly and repeatedly made that
the agency was being restructured to strengthen its efforts for
older poor persons along with other priority program areas.
In his appearance on the program of the Conference of National
Senior Organizations, meeting in Washington, D.C., on October
27, 1969, former director Rumsfeld stated: "I am here today
because I share your concern about the problems of those low-
income older Americans who find themselves facing limited oppor-
tunities, limited income, and who far too often find few real
options for changing those dim prospects."
The problems of older persons, many of whom are still working
and are still poor and others who want to work and need to work
for financial, health, physical, or psychological reasons, are revealed
by some stark facts.
Demographically, the picture is this. There are more than five
million poor Americans 65 years and older-more than 20 per cent
of the total poor population. An additional two and one-quarter
million are 55 to 64 years of age and also living on incomes below
the poverty level. These two age groups make up nearly one-third
of the poor of our nation. When the middle-aged worker, age 45
to 54, and his dependents, who are poor, are added to the above
categories, together they comprise a poor population of more
than 40 per cent of the universe of the poor.
Preliminary reports from the 1970 census reveal that poor
persons age 65 and over now constitute 25 per cent of all the elderly.
We are faced with the fact that while the number of poor people
of all ages has declined dramatically in recent years, from more
than 35 million in 1964 to less than 24 million in 1970, the number
of elderly poor has been reduced little. In fact, the number of
older women living alone and in poverty has actually increased.
Surely it is this group, the elderly poor, that has the greatest
need to be heard and the greatest handicaps in making their voices
heard-generally lower educational level, poorer health, less

The Elderly Poor and the OEO-Hutchison
mobility, and greater isolation from the mainstream of economic,
social, and political life. It is the job of all of us at this conference
to do what we can to help them overcome these obvious handicaps
to meaningful and appropriate employment and involvement.
The OEO has a special legislative mandate to serve, involve,
and employ in all programs the poor who are 55 years of age or
Within the OEO there is an increased awareness of the causa-
tive factors of poverty among the aged and the aging. We know
these facts:

-that a growing number of the elderly poor are women;
-that the rapid growth of technology has left behind the skills of
many older persons;
-that one of every two job openings in this country is not available
to older persons because of discrimination in hiring;
-that inflation has had particularly adverse effects on the elderly
who live on fixed incomes;
-that a longer life span and shorter work careers create a problem
of income in old age;
-that at retirement age, income to the average retiree drops 50
per cent (this means, in many cases, that those reaching retire-
ment age become poor for the first time in their lives);
-that the cost of health care after age 65 is nearly three times
(2.75) that incurred by younger age groups (improved health
services and care have given us additional years of life, but those
years mean an increased burden in medical expenses).

That is our awareness of the problem. There is also an awareness
that the efforts of several government agencies have been involved
in attempting to meet the needs of this group of disadvantaged
Those of us in OEO concerned with the problems and poverty
of the aged completely agree that the time is ripe for another
White House conference. Certainly many significant results did
come out of the 1961 conference-Medicare, the creation of the
Administration on Aging, and so on-but a whole decade has
passed, and the momentum generated by the last conference has

New Careers for Older People
been lost. Meanwhile, a host of old needs remain unserved, and
a whole bag of pressing new problems and needs has emerged.
Despite some remarkable progress in housing programs for
the elderly in the past decade, the housing of the majority of old
people who do not occupy new, federally subsidized housing units
for the elderly is undoubtedly worse than 10 years ago.
From what we hear about nursing homes-including recent
testimony before a Senate committee-the standard of care could
never have been worse than it is now in many nursing homes, and
we all know what has happened to the price of nursing-home care.
Transportation problems for the elderly have probably worsened
since 1961. The last of the local trains that a generation ago carried
old people safely and economically from villages to nearby larger
towns for medical care and other services has given way to the
automobile, and the elderly are precisely the ones who suffer most
from this change because they are unable to drive or cannot afford
to own, maintain, or insure automobiles. City and rural bus service
on the whole has probably deteriorated in the last ten years, and
the cost of fares has doubled or tripled. Fortunately, in a growing
number of cities, reduced bus fares are now being offered seniors
for off-hour transportation.
Local health services accessible to older people have certainly
declined in availability if not in quality. The number of doctors
in small rural towns is much lower than 10 years ago and infinitely
lower than 30 or 40 years ago. This lack of accessibility to medical
services, interestingly enough, is not a problem of just rural com-
munities and small towns. In the cities, doctors are increasingly
moving their offices from community locations to centralized down-
town specialists' rows which are difficult for old people living
only three or five miles away to reach.
In OEO we have been studying recently a proposal to set up
a network of community health stations to take care of the chronic
ailments of the elderly-arthritis, diabetes, etc.-this in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, of all places, a city of only about 100,000, with
some of the nation's greatest medical schools, medical research
centers, and hospital complexes. But even in Cambridge, with its
riches in medical resources, there is a real need; the elderly people
have great difficulty getting to medical services. Most of the city's

The Elderly Poor and the OEO-Hutchison
elderly and nearly all of its elderly poor live on the east side, about
four or five miles from specialists' row. Ten years ago 15 physicians
maintained their offices in the East Cambridge community. Now
there are only three and they are all so old that they are trying to
retire or reduce their practices. What help is Medicare if you
can't get to a doctor, even in Cambridge?
I wonder how many of you had an opportunity to watch
Commissioner Martin's series of appearances on television in which
he had as guests various knowledgeable experts in the field of
aging. At one such interview a number of weeks ago he had with
him on the program a physician who practices psychiatry with
specialization in old people. When Commissioner Martin questioned
him about the extent of medical research going on in the country
in the painful, disabling illnesses of old age, the reply was that the
medical schools and other research centers were doing very little
work in this field. In other words, much is being done with the
killing diseases, enabling the elderly to live longer, but very little
to combat the painful, degenerative diseases which make life not
worth living for a great many old people.
I think there is no question that the shocking increase in
violence, civil disorder, and crime in the cities is taking its most
devastating toll among the elderly. Unlike younger, wage-earning
people, the elderly as a general rule cannot escape to the safety
of the suburbs but must remain defenseless and terrified in the
midst of mounting disorder in deteriorating neighborhoods in
central cities.
These and many many more old and new problems cry out
for attention and point to the need for a White House conference.
In addition to the multiple unsolved problems faced by our
older population, the nation must wake up to the magnitude of the
population explosion that is occurring in the older age groups and
particularly the very elderly. People are living much longer. Mean-
while, with the national birth rate and immigration declining and
becoming stabilized, the elderly have become the most rapidly
increasing age group in the population. They are becoming much
more numerous as a group and a larger proportion of the total
population than ever before. If this trend continues into the
decades ahead, it will require revolutionary changes in many

New Careers for Older People
aspects of American life and public policy-housing, transportation,
health, employment and social service systems, tax policy, and all
the rest will have to be reoriented drastically. It is not too soon
for a national conference to start looking at the staggering long-
term implications of this demographic phenomenon.
After that discouraging account of what I can only summarize
as a net worsening rather than an improvement in the well-being
of our older people during the past decade, I believe one very
encouraging, positive thing has occurred in the last ten years which
may prove to be the most important result of the 1961 White
House conference. I refer to the vast increase in our knowledge
about the special needs and problems of the elderly and of tech-
niques for dealing with these problems once our local communities,
counties, cities, states, and nation as a whole decide to revise
their priorities and devote enough of their abundant resources
to solve those problems of the aged which can be solved by better
incomes, more and better employment, better nutrition, better
health care, better housing, and a better quality of social life.
For youth, the major goal is to break the cycle of poverty from
generation to generation. For youth, measures undertaken and
programs designed to break the linkages of poverty may be long-
range, beginning even in infancy. For the old who are poor,
however, efforts must be directed toward results in the immediate
or near future. The OEO Manpower Programs for the elderly poor
are thus directed toward increasing the very meager and limited
monies of this group. The programs contain some training for the
upgrading of skills or the learning of a new skill. They contain
some opportunities for the development of a new career or second
career, but basically they provide an opportunity for the elderly
poor to be paid for what they best know how to do or can do with
little or no additional training-an older displaced farm worker to
put his "green thumb" to work beautifying our highways, im-
proving our highway rest stops, planting trees, bushes, and flowers
near the entrances to a town or city; a retired mother, father,
grandmother, or grandfather to become a foster grandparent to
neglected, deprived, maladjusted, and sick children and to young
teenagers who lack close personal relationships with their peers,
parents, or adults; and older person with warmth, compassion,

The Elderly Poor and the OEO-Hutchison
and empathy to serve as a home health aide, a homemaker assistant,
a nutritional aide in one of the OEO Senior Aides projects.
In the remaining time, I would like to direct your attention to
the innovative and demonstration programs for the elderly poor
which the OEO has begun, operated, funded, or spun off to other
federal agencies. The first national demonstration program to be
implemented was the Foster Grandparent Program. The Foster
Grandparent Program, having demonstrated its worth to both
children and the elderly, was continued by the OEO through
fiscal 1969, at which time the program was transferred from the
OEO to the Administration on Aging of the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare. Further, the agency has and is attempting
to deal with the employment problems of the elderly poor in a
variety of ways. First, a significant portion of its Title I manpower
funds is being channeled to the Department of Labor for Main-
stream and Senior Service Aides programs which are designed to
create new career opportunities for older persons and demonstrate
their capability of performing a large number of community
service functions effectively and economically. Second, an effort is
being made to insure that all programs of the agency, whether
they be directed at health, legal services, housing, employment,
education, economic development, or whatever, involve, serve, and
employ the elderly poor in proportion to their numbers. Third,
through a series of research and demonstration projects, such as
Medicare Alert, Project FIND, Legal Research and Services for
the Elderly, and Project Late Start, the OEO has sought to probe
and identify the problems, needs, and job opportunities peculiar
to the elderly poor and to discover and demonstrate practicable
programs to resolve some of the problems and serve some of the
needs and provide some of the job opportunities. Fourth, through
the Senior Opportunities and Services Program, authorized by the
1967 amendments to the Economic Opportunity Act, the agency
funds a limited number of programs designed by local communities
to meet the special needs of elderly poor persons and to fill some
of the gaps in services locally unavailable. Given its limited re-
sources and its broad mandate to rescue all Americans from
poverty, all of the agency's efforts for older people must be
regarded as demonstrations to point the way to other institutions-

New Careers for Older People
local, state, and national, public and private-which have much
greater resources. There is growing evidence that well-designed
and well-operated senior programs at the local level are achieving
this catalytic function. Already many of the major social service
agencies are modifying their procedures to serve more effectively
the needs of the elderly. This includes the employment of older
poor people in many vital community service roles. In some
communities the existence of one small but effective senior service
center has provided the example and stimulus for local groups
and agencies to establish from their own resources a comprehensive
network of similar centers to serve the needs of all of the com-
munity's elderly.
Only by changing the attitudes of society in general, by in-
creasing public awareness of the worth as well as the special
problems of the elderly, by eliminating discrimination in employ-
ment, by improving health, housing, and other social services, and,
most importantly, by a large-scale income maintenance program
can all of the elderly be restored to lives of dignity and self-
In conclusion, in a short span of years and with very limited
resources, I think the OEO has done some very creditable and
significant things and has made some important beginnings in
providing meaningful employment opportunities for the elderly
poor. Many of these efforts have been complemented, directed,
and sustained through the dedication of many of you present at
this conference.
The presentations to be made during this Twentieth Annual
Southern Conference on Gerontology, and the subsequent work
of this conference, can contribute much toward the 1971 White
House Conference on Aging and the building of greater job
opportunities for all older Americans.
I commend you for your interest, your unreserved dedication,
and your hard work. I am looking forward to the published report
of this conference, and I look forward with you to the White
House Conference on Aging which can help create a better life
for the older Americans who have already given so much of
their lives toward building a better society for us all.

Second Careers in Education


THE DEPARTMENT of Education and the Bu-
reau on Aging conducted a conference in June, 1970, with the
idea of promoting the use of older people as teacher aides. Mr.
Sipes of the Dade County Board of Public Instruction will give
you a report concerning the demonstration project that we have
using just senior citizens as teacher aides, but first I will give you
some information on our total teacher aide program in Florida.
Statistics from the accreditation office of the Department of
Education show that there were 12,373.8 salaried aides used in
the public school system for the state as of December 1, 1970.
These included administrative aides, audio-visual aides, library
aides, etc., but 6,233 were designated teacher aides.
The State Board of Education Regulations define a teacher aide
as "any person assigned, pursuant to the officially adopted policies of
the school board, to assist one or more members of the instructional
staff in carrying out his instructional or professional duties and
responsibilities."' There are some definite requirements: each
teacher aide shall meet the health and age requirements established
for certified personnel; each shall have a clear understanding of
1. State Board of Education Regulations 130-1.70.

New Careers for Older People
procedures, regulations, instructional practices, and policies; and
each shall have supervised practice.
The Florida Department of Education has published a Teacher
Aide Training Guide for Classroom Teachers and a manual entitled
Defining the Role of the Teacher Aide. Teachers have generally
been trained to teach children rather than adults, so some of the
orientation and in-service training of aides will, of necessity, require
additional training of the teachers.
The guide for classroom teachers says, "The use of teacher aides
offers an exciting challenge to educators, and fills a long recognized
need. With the assistance in routine but necessary duties, the
teacher has the opportunity to make maximum use of his professional
skills. In fact, with the aide's assistance, he would be able to
experiment with innovative techniques which he has long been
wanting to apply. It is assumed the aide will have had a general
orientation by the school district before assignment to an individual
teacher. Hence, no attempt is made to provide any training
suggestions except those to be used by the teacher after the aide
is assigned to him."2
The training manual is designed as a series of "mini-modules"
in that it includes in each the objectives, activities, materials for
input and practice, and evaluation. Practice materials needed for
each objective are suggested, and in some cases supplied. These
may be replaced by materials tailored for specific situations.
Teachers often fail or do not have time to do research, to visit
libraries and media centers, but aides can alleviate this discrepancy.
Defining the role of the teacher aide is complex in nature since
this movement is just beginning to make an impact throughout
the country. However, the manual on the role of the teacher aide
includes, among other things, "Exploring the Feelings of Teacher
Aides" and "Promoting Human Relations through Total Team
An attempt has been made to simplify instructions so each
participant may perform at his optimum level with a minimum
of assistance. There are detailed procedures for each specific

2. State of Florida Department of Education, Teacher Aide Training
Guide for Classroom Teachers B-2 Teacher Education Module (Box 190,
Chipley, Florida: Panhandle Area Educational Cooperative, 1970), p. 1.

Second Careers in Education-Brock
objective, with accompanying study sheets, transparencies, film
strips and records, and post tests.
Studies have shown that individual tutors can affect sufficient
improvement in basic reading skills. Many students grasp ideas
and master skills when given help on an individual basis-some
can master skills in twenty minutes that they couldn't grasp in
several days of group instruction.3 According to the report of
the National Advisory Committee to the Secretary of Health,
Education, and Welfare (August 1969), of the 51.5 million
children in schools today, about one-fourth, or almost 14 million,
are classified with some kind of reading disability.4
One result of consideration of this problem, which was the main
concern of the Right-to-Read Workshop in Washington last spring,
was the establishment of much needed assistance for the classrooms
in our nation and development of a new concept of volunteer
training. Several basic assumptions have been made: (1) that
there are many people who want to become classroom volunteers;
(2) that volunteers can be trained to educationally assist children
(and adults) with reading and learning disabilities; (3) that the
interest and dedication of the volunteer can lead to more effective
use of new types of materials; (4) that with careful program
planning the teacher and volunteer can provide for the individual
needs of the student.5
To parents who often lack understanding of school goals, the
learning process, and new educational trends, and who may feel
generally insecure with teaching and administrative personnel, the
classroom aide or volunteer is invaluable as a liaison between
school and parents. Home problems, including numbers of children
in the family living space, welfare, nutrition, and basic needs, are
subjects which may be more freely discussed between the parent
and an aide, particularly one from the target area, than with the
There may seem to be a lot of emphasis on volunteers, but most
counties do not have money to hire many aides. There are some
3. Ibid., p. 86.
4. Julia M. Haven, "The Magnitude of the Problem," paper presented
at the Washington Technical Institute Right-to-Read Workshop (March 1970),
p. 1.
5. Ibid., p. 2.

New Careers for Older People
sources for program support, however, including the Education
Professions Development Act, which offers state grants to provide
intensive short-term pre-service training to bring persons from
the community into the schools. Small EPDA grants are being
awarded some counties to test the use of the materials developed
by the Department of Education. The Leon County project
director has asked our office for suggestions on recruiting senior
volunteers. Other funding sources are the Elementary-Secondary
Education Act, the Higher Education Act, Adult Education Act,
and various OEO programs such as New Careers, Head Start,
Migrant Education, and Career Opportunities Program. In Florida,
the legislature has enabled us to have Educational Improvement
Expenses which may be used to employ teacher aides.
One of the outstanding programs in Florida using volunteers
as tutors and resource people is in Pinellas County. Mr. Thomas
Southard, superintendent of schools, said, "It seemed to me the
resources of Pinellas were not being used effectively to improve
the curriculum and instruction in the schools so the Office of
Community Resources was created in July of '68 with Mr. Francis
Pfost as director. The subsequent organization and recruitment of
tutorial assistance for the underachieving child, the enrichment
on all levels, K-adult, was begun."6 There are now approximately
860 tutors and resource people listed in Pinellas, and perhaps 375
that are not registered but have contacted the office to offer their
services at one time or another. There are 115 schools taking
advantage of this program, including county, parochial, and private
schools. Tutors are largely from the retired teacher population or
are other well-trained people who, by their experience and back-
grounds, can relate on a one-to-one basis with the student who is
an underachiever or with an unusually gifted student who is work-
ing on a special project.
Mr. Pfost estimates that the use of these volunteers represents
a savings to the taxpayer of $200,000 in salary costs alone. This is
based on hiring tutors at a low rate of approximately $3 an hour
when, in fact, most tutors make between $5 and $6 an hour. It
is very difficult to put a monetary value on the services that these
6. Pinellas County Board of Public Instruction, Up With People (Clear-
water, Florida, 1969), Foreword.

Second Careers in Education-Brock
volunteers offer. There is a retired doctor in his eighties who tutors
students in his own home. He is so active that he really should not
have had to retire in his seventies, and this gives him a chance
to continue to contribute. There is also a retired psychiatrist, a 76-
year-old woman, who tutored six children this summer. They
were all badly disturbed emotionally and having extreme difficulty
in school. Of these children, five have returned to regular classroom
studies again. How can you possibly measure the cost of a service
like this?
Auxiliary persons such as tutors or aides do not stand in the
authoritarian position of teachers or parents; they may serve as
interested persons to help the student with his attitude toward not
only school authority but other forms of authority as well. They
can do much to alleviate the feeling of failure that many of our
children develop within our present system.
Mr. O. J. Keller, Jr., director of the Division of Youth Services,
tells me they want and can use the help of retirees to work with
the youths in Halfway Houses.
In Hillsborough County, Foster Grandparents are used in two
juvenile delinquent homes and two centers for retarded children.
Mrs. Carol Smith, supervisor of the project, said that the grand-
parents have been a spectacular success as support personnel for
the children in the detention homes, some of whom are on drugs
at age seven. These grandparents may work in classrooms with
the teachers, but many are used "behind the bars" on a one-to-one
basis with severely disturbed children. Some of these boys and
girls may have two shifts of grandparents assigned to them in order
to give them a feeling of security and love that they need.
One of the problems with the program seems to be that of
follow-up with the children after discharge. The court is overworked
and the counselors have little time. It would be to everyone's
advantage if some sort of home visitation program could be
established to keep up with these children after they have left the
institution. Some of these children have had a tendency to run
away from their own homes to come back to the juvenile home
because of the security and attention they have received from the
Foster Grandparents.
The Foster Grandparents Program in Ft. Lauderdale, directed

New Careers for Older People
by Mary Crum, is one of the outstanding grandparent programs
in the country and has 100 foster grandparents working in the
schools and 30 in community centers such as those for migrant
and pediatric programs. Mrs. Crum said, "We have a long waiting
list but our grandparents are so enthusiastic about the program
that they are never absent-they work all week and die on Sundays
if necessary"
Some of these grandparents were on welfare before they came
with the projects; but since they can make their quarters on social
security in the project, many of them are off welfare now. The
projects also carry workmen's compensation, which helps greatly
if the grandparents have an accident. However, these projects have
proved that the attendance of the grandparents is better than the
average attendance by other service people and staff personnel at
these institutions.
The Senior Services Corps of the Model Cities Program in
Tampa has 50 seniors working in 30 jobs on a part-time basis.
Some of these are working on Project Star with retarded children,
going into their homes to assist them with lessons. Some are
working in what are called "extended day schools" where the
juvenile crime rate is quite high. Classes or courses are offered
after regular school hours and the seniors help keep these schools
open so that the children will not be roaming the streets while
their parents are at work.
Before discussing the use of teacher aides in our adult program,
I would like to show you a short film on adult basic education
(ABE) in Florida. As you heard, in Florida alone there are over a
quarter of a million adults who are functionally illiterate, meaning
that they have less than a fifth-grade education. A large percentage
of our older people were denied an earlier education, and we are
offering resources now to enable them to pick up an education as
a second career. The 1960 census statistics showed that only one
in ten adults in the 65-year-and-over bracket had completed high
school. A new Adult Basic Education Act has been passed, which
will allow the adult basic program to go through the high school
level. When the funds are appropriated for this, it will enable us
to offer this tuition-free program to many more adults.
Mrs. Alice Leppert, program specialist in ABE for Church

Second Careers in Education-Brock
Women United, said, "Paraprofessionals and volunteers help to
provide a personal factor in reaching and teaching the adults who
need a second chance at learning the fundamentals."7 Last year
she worked with Florida State University to conduct a workshop
to train volunteer tutors for projects involving adult illiterates. The
United Church women provided ten teams of two volunteers each
from eight southeastern states to attend the workshop which was
designed to develop those skills necessary for the creation and
maintenance of a local unit of volunteers in ABE.
Adult education can make and has made great contributions
to the personal development of millions of poorly educated older
adults. It has helped them learn to read, opened up new channels
of communications, and furnished new means of personal and
social satisfaction. There are approximately one million adults over
65 who have never been to school and are now just learning
to read and write. There are more than nine million who represent
about one-fourth of our 65+ who don't have high school diplomas
yet.8 Many go back just for the sake of getting their diplomas or
to go on to college-level studies, and also to improve their
retirementt" potentials.
Adult educators were one of the first groups in education to
recognize the implications of the aging population for their field.
In 1949, they set forth objectives to be urged on all adult education
agencies: (1) revision of attitudes of all community groups toward
the needs of older people; (2) creation of educational activities to
prepare all people for the second half of life; (3) retraining
older workers for employment; (4) giving professional workers in
all fields knowledge for successful work with older people.9 The
first responsibility of the adult educator is to create learning op-
portunities leading to new attitudes and skills. Working with the
older person, the educator's task is to promote confidence, to help

7. Elmer Fleming and Alice Leppert, "Opportunities for Careers in
Adult and Continuing Education for Paraprofessionals and Volunteers," paper
prepared for National Association of Public and Continuing Adult Educators
Professional Development Committee (1970), p. 2.
8. "A Time for Learning," Harvest Years (July 1968), pp. 41-49.
9. Education for an Aging Population (Washington: Department of
Adult Education of the National Education Association, December 1949), vols.
14, 60.

New Careers for Older People
develop skills and talents, and to enable the older person to realize
that he is still a useful and important citizen.
The State of Florida can offer a great many courses in
Education for Aging under the Minimum Foundation Program.
Courses are offered under this title which are designed to pro-
vide middle-aged and older adults with information that will help
them cope with problems of aging. Short courses in pre-retirement,
psychological aspects of aging, the role of the aging in the
modem world, and courses dealing with health, housing, financial
planning, and worthy use of leisure time may be offered. Im-
plications of current social, scientific, economic, and political
developments of the older citizen are studied.10 Besides these
specific subjects relating to aging, older people join in regular
classes and take everything from Arabic to zoology. Education in
the arts for older people can be extremely helpful since it fulfills
not only the creative needs of the person, but offers an opportunity
to earn extra money to add to what quite often is a meager income.
Handcrafts are not presently allowable under our state MFP
program, but such courses may be financed by the county or by
fees charged to the participant. An interesting example of one
of our older students in adult education is Federico Castillo, who,
at 85 years of age, is enrolled in the Miami Senior High Adult
Center. He is studying bookkeeping in an attempt to get another
Many older people do not seek to improve their employ-
ment skills through our technical and vocational adult classes.
They do have cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests and
a great deal of leisure time which they want to spend in a
worthwhile constructive manner. One of our most outstanding
programs in adult education for older people is in Charlotte
County. The new cultural center building at Port Charlotte was
opened in 1968, and it is a true success story. General Development
Corporation donated the five-acre building site which has an
appraised value of $100,000. The project received a federal library
10. State of Florida Department of Education, Adult Offerings Under
Minimum Foundation Program Support, Bulletin 70H-18 (Tallahassee, April
11. "Learned Cuban, 85, Continues Studies in Miami, Seeking Job,"
Aging (November-December 1970), p. 17.

Second Careers in Education-Brock
grant, and the Charlotte County Commissioners granted funds
from a bond issue. Local donations added $55,000.12 The Port
Charlotte group suggests that any county that is having trouble
getting support for its K-12 program should get a sizable retirement
community! Involving these mature citizens in public school
programs as active participants can win their influence to support
bond issues, millage elections, construction, and a better overall
education program. In Charlotte County the retired people have
provided the bulk of cultural and post-public school educational
From October to December, 1970, the Port Charlotte Cultural
Center had 1,971 registered in 130 different classes. It is estimated
that in the winter term the enrollment will be over 2,050. This
center has served an ever growing number of people since it
opened in 1960. It has given meaningful mental and physical
outlets to an ever increasing number of dedicated volunteer
workers as well as to a sizable faculty and staff, almost all of
whom were drawn from the retired ranks.
Retired teachers can teach up to 500 hours without losing their
teacher retirement. Retired teachers with Rank II certificates may
make $6 an hour minimum salary. Those who teach part time in
adult education may now work on temporary certificates which
need to be renewed only every ten years. A minimum of four years'
experience may be substituted for any college year necessary for a
teacher's certificate, so there are many retirees who enjoy teaching
what formerly had been a vocation or even a hobby to them.
The Orange County retirement education program is unique
in that it uses the "club" approach to setting up programs and
classes. Helen Kaechele, who coordinates that program of educa-
tional activities for older people, visits numerous senior citizens
clubs each year helping them to plan their programs, offering
visiting speakers, and giving them ideas for regular classes. One
of the classes that has just started in a retirement high-rise is
a class in making clothing for donation or sale to the handicapped.
This may well grow into a small business enterprise for the older

12. Floyd L. Pfeiffer, "A Successful Retirement Center," paper pre-
sented at the Port Charlotte Regional Conference on Successful Retirement
(September 1968).

New Careers for Older People
citizens. This class is a good example of cooperation between
agencies, since the CAP agency is donating the sewing machines
and instructors.
Adult education cooperates with many different organizations
and agencies to establish training to enable older people to retread
or learn new skills and also helps educate communities to a better
attitude about older people. We work with industry on pre-
retirement courses, with volunteer groups on leadership training,
with churches, and with medical and health agencies; we teach
consumer education, money management, proper nutrition, driver
education, and citizenship, to mention a few.
For those of you who are working actively in the field of trying
to provide second careers, I invite you to avail yourself of adult
education courses such as Psychology of Adults, or Introduction
to Adult Education, in order that you can get a better idea of
the professional basis for the education and retraining of older
Why should adult education assist older people to learn or
improve skills when employment practices for older workers are
so unfavorable? Whether or not the older person receives monetary
rewards, we can readily state that developing competence in an
individual brings an improvement in attitudes and a lessening of
anxiety. Learning itself can be interesting and stimulating to the
older person as well as to the young. Education offers a bridge to
good adjustment and a positive orientation to life.
Donahue has made the following observations: (1) there is
good evidence that the greater the individual's intellectual
endowment and the greater the amount of education, the less steep
is the decline in intellectual ability; (2) exercise of the mind seems
to retard deterioration of intellectual processes; (3) if minds are
kept active through exercise of intellectual and creative imagination,
outstanding achievements in fields not involving physical powers
are possible in the seventh, and perhaps even the eighth, decade.13
The best preparation for retraining is education, and now we
know that continuing education is the answer to maintaining an

13. Wilma Donahue, "Changes in Psychological Processes with Aging,"
Living Through the Older Years, Proceedings of the Charles A. Fisher Memorial
Institute on Aging (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1949), Ch. IV.

Second Careers in Education-Brock
intellectual environment that affords older people the means of
making their later years happier, healthier, and more useful.
The wonderful little woman you saw going into the small
country church to class and treading home down the sandy road
in the moonlight won our hearts completely. She had never had
but one month "schoolin'" in her whole life and never intends to
move from the scrubby rural Panhandle farm where she lives. But
she was finding sheer joy in continuing her education at age 65.
As the narrator said, "Some reach for the stars, others struggle
humbly; for some this is the beginning of knowledge-for others
the beginning is knowledge."

Operation Seasoned Service: Senior Citizen
Teacher Aides


INCREASING INTEREST in new career oppor-
tunities for older persons, coupled with the increasing interest of
public school systems in supplementing regular professional per-
sonnel with paraprofessionals, made the time ripe for an experi-
mental program which placed senior citizens in the public schools
as teacher aides. Such a project was carried out by the public
school system of Dade County, Florida, in 1967-68. It was funded
through a matching-funds grant of the Administration on Aging
under the provisions of Title IV, Public Law 89-73, Older Ameri-
cans Act of 1965.
The project was designed to answer questions of paramount
interest to both the Administration on Aging and the Dade County
school system. The government agency was concerned with the
possible personal, social, and financial benefits to be realized by
senior citizens participating in such a project. The school system,
on the other hand, was interested in determining what contribution
such a project could make toward improving the quality of the
instructional program. Instruments covering the assessment of a
wide range of criteria, objective and subjective, were devised to
evaluate the various ramifications of the project.
Direction of the project was shared by the Dade County Super-

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
visor of Language Arts and the Supervisor of Industrial Arts
in cooperation with the Office of Special Programs. At the school
level, administrative and organizational responsibilities were desig-
nated by the principal. A special Senior Citizens Coordinator was
employed by the project to provide liaison between the aides and
the various levels of leadership responsibility. Evaluation of
the project was conducted by the Dade County Department of
Research, Development, and Evaluation, with the assistance of the
University of Miami Research Training Program.

The experimental program sought to recruit senior citizens for
part-time employment as teacher aides in order to determine
(a) if this age group can perform effectively some of the non-
instructional duties required of classroom teachers and (b) if this
represents a potential resource of skills and manpower available
for expanded use in the schools. The following five questions
were posed to specify objectives of the program:

1. Will the senior citizens find part-time employment as teacher
aides attractive in meeting their need for activity in endeavors
related to their skills and former endeavors?
2. Will part-time employment as teacher aides attract the
quality and quantity of senior citizens desired for expanded use
in the school system?
3. Will the senior citizen's performance as a teacher aide be
generally acceptable to teachers, administrators, and pupils?
4. Will the senior citizen's performance as a teacher aide make
it possible for the teacher to effectively devote more time to
professional duties and less time to nonprofessional duties?
5. Will the income offered by part-time employment as a
teacher aide be adequate to meet the supplementary needs of
substantial numbers of senior citizens?

The school system employed the normal recruitment, screening,
and placement procedures applicable to noninstructional personnel
in its administration of the senior citizens program, except that

New Careers for Older People
some special activities were carried on to publicize the project.
Most of the aides learned of the project in one of five ways:
from an advertisement in the local newspaper; through a feature
story about the project in a local newspaper; by word of mouth
from personnel within the school system or local community
agencies; through application for other positions in the school sys-
tem; from public information talks given by the Senior Citizens
Coordinator at local centers.
The only special qualification for employment in the teacher
aide corps was that of age: aides were required to be 55 years
or older. The range of age among the seniors employed actually
covered the wide span of 55 to 70 years. The median age for men
was 64 and for women 62. Other general criteria for selection of
aides were: effective oral expression; positive attitude toward young
people; good health and reasonable vigor; ability to follow direc-
tions; cooperative attitude and pleasant personality; clerical ability-
typing desirable; skill or training related to industrial arts; educa-
tion or experience related to language arts.
The senior citizens were required to take health examinations,
supply recommendations, complete application forms, undergo
routine checks and interviews, and so on, as with all job applicants
in the system.
The decision of which schools to invite to participate in the
project was left to the supervisors of the two areas designated in
the original proposal: language arts and industrial arts. According
to the proposal these instructional areas were selected because
both have significant numbers of oversized classes, and in industrial
arts there is a critical shortage of teachers. In addition it is felt
that these two areas will appeal to two distinctly different skill
areas among the senior citizens.
The schools selected included both junior and senior highs in
both areas, as well as a good cross-section of the different school
populations in Dade County; aides were assigned to schools
serving upper- and middle-income, predominantly white students;
to those serving lower-income white students; to those serving
predominantly Cuban students; to those serving predominantly
Negro students; and to those serving integrated student bodies.
When fully operational, the Corps of Senior Citizen Teacher

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
Aides comprised twenty-five persons employed at thirteen junior
and senior high schools. Ten of the aides worked in industrial arts
programs in ten different schools on a one-to-one basis with
teachers, and fifteen aides worked in the area of language arts in
three schools on an approximately one-to-three basis (one aide
to three teachers). Late in April a fourteenth school was added to
the program where a single aide was employed to assist the
librarian. The aides were employed for a five-day week with a
daily schedule ranging from four hours daily to eight hours daily,
largely depending upon the preference of the aides themselves.
The aides were paid at the hourly rate of $1.56, which was the
beginning step for teacher aides in the general clerical grade of
the county's unified classification and pay plan.
Nearly all of the applicants were interviewed by an adminis-
trator and/or department head at the school level before final
employment was effected. For the most part, no additional job
specifications were made at the school level at first, though one
language arts department did require that all applicants be able
to type. Where replacement of aides became necessary during the
project, the concerned schools tended to benefit from their ex-
perience with the aide program by defining more carefully the
objectives of the aide program in their school and the qualifications
which they felt would best lead to fulfillment of the objectives.
One of the last positions in the project to be filled was that of
Senior Citizens Coordinator. The qualifications called for a senior
citizen with (1) training or experience in dealing with problems
of the elderly, (2) demonstrated ability to work with community
groups, and (3) some experience in a school setting. This position
was filled by a retired Dade County school principal. His extensive
knowledge of school operation, of community facilities, and of
the senior citizens age group was of immeasurable value in
expediting the operation and evaluation of the project.

The stated objectives of the project point to two general areas
of evaluative concern. First, what is the value of the project in
meeting certain personal, social, and financial needs of the citizens
themselves? Second, to what extent do the services of senior

New Careers for Older People
citizens as teacher aides benefit the instructional program of the
Dade County schools? It was recognized that evaluative procedures
would have to be devised to assess both objective evidence of the
project's concrete effects and subjective data concerning the per-
sonal responses-satisfactions and dissatisfactions-of the individuals
involved in the experiment.
As a preliminary step, each of the proposed objectives of the
project was restated as a hypothesis so that evaluative criteria
might be developed for each. The five hypotheses, together with
their criteria, are as follows:
HYPOTHESIS i: The senior citizens will find part-time employ-
ment attractive in meeting their need for activity in endeavors
related to their skills or former occupations.
Criterion A: Sufficient numbers of senior citizens will seek
employment in the project.
Criterion B: Applicants will present qualifications from past
endeavors compatible with the requirements of job openings.
Criterion C: The aides who are employed will remain with the
project throughout its duration.
Criterion D: The aides will express satisfaction with the job
and wish to continue with the project in the future.
Criterion E: The aides will demonstrate favorable attitudes in
problem situations related to the job.
HYPOTHmsI n: The opportunity for part-time employment as
a teacher aide will attract the quality and quantity of senior
citizens desired for expanded use in the school system.
Criterion A: Recruitment activities will be smooth and follow
normal or established procedures.
Criterion B: Aides will present qualifications suitable for the
job openings.
Criterion C: Aides will maintain satisfactory records of re-
liability, punctuality, and permanence on the job.
Criterion D: Aides will be adaptable to the varying situations
of job placements.
HYPOTHEsis m: The senior citizen's performance as a teacher
aide will make it possible for the teacher to effectively devote
more time to professional duties and less time to nonprofessional

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
Criterion A: There will be a decrease in the teacher's time
spent on noninstructional duties.
Criterion B: There will be an increase in the teacher's time
spent on instructional duties.
Criterion C: There will be qualitative changes in the teacher's
instructional and noninstructional operations.
HYvOTHsis Iv: The senior citizen's performance as teacher
aide will be generally acceptable to teachers, administrators, and
Criterion A: Teachers and administrators will express satisfac-
tion with the project in general.
Criterion B: Teachers and administrators will rate the per-
formance of aides as satisfactory or better.
Criterion C: Teachers and administrators will recommend con-
tinuation and extension of the use of aides in the school system.
Criterion D: Students will accept the presence and services of
the aides as a normal part of the school operation.
HYPOTHESIS v: The income offered by part-time employment as
a teacher aide will be adequate to meet the supplementary income
needs of substantial numbers of senior citizens.
Criterion A: Sufficient numbers of aides will be recruited at
the hourly rate and working schedule offered by the project.
Criterion B: Aides will report satisfaction with the financial
returns of their work.
Criterion C: Aides will wish to continue with the project as
financially constituted.
Instruments were developed to secure information that would
be responsive to the criteria set out under the five hypotheses. This
report does not examine the specific instruments that were de-
veloped but rather focuses on the information that was obtained
from them and the other information sources utilized in the project.
It should be noted, however, that many of the instruments were
deliberately designed, not to quantify data, but to elicit as wide
and free a response as possible. It was felt that, in a pilot study
such as this, which attempts to combine a preliminary survey
approach and a more controlled field experiment approach in one
package, the use of such open-ended, almost completely un-
structured techniques is not only allowable, but greatly to be

New Careers for Older People
desired. It should be fully understood, then, that in reporting the
data obtained through use of these highly subjective instruments,
the investigators make no pretense to even partially controlled
scientific accuracy; they have merely attempted to convey to the
reader the flavor of the responses obtained.

Although recruitment procedures for the project were not ex-
tensive, no special difficulty was experienced in attracting and
placing qualified persons in the job openings. During the course
of the project, fourteen senior citizens were placed in industrial
arts positions and seventeen were employed in the language arts.
The project received eighty-nine additional applications from
persons who presented satisfactory qualifications but who could
not be placed.
The qualifications which the senior citizens brought to their
new positions were drawn from a wide variety of previous oc-
Machinist Secretary (5)
Engineer (2) Teacher (3)
Carpenter Bookkeeper
Golf course caretaker Manager, dry cleaning office
Food checker Typist (5)
Probation officer Payroll clerk
Metal worker Book saleslady
Railroad electrician Government office employee
Navy yard rigger
Teacher (2)
Construction worker (2)
Life insurance man

The range of educational background was equally as varied,
spanning grade school diplomas to graduate college degrees. The
median educational background for men was two years of college,
for women one year of college.
Stability of background was evident in that the aides averaged
fifteen years' previous residence in Dade County for men and
twenty-two years for women. The attractiveness of the project in
drawing persons was somewhat evident in the interval between

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
entering the senor citizens corps and the date of prior employment.
The men who joined the project had ended their previous em-
ployment from two months to seven years prior. The women's
previous employment had been from three months to twenty-five
years earlier. Men averaged 2.2 years, women 5.8 years. The
project evidently was of some influence in encouraging a number
of retired persons to re-enter the job market.
That the desire to utilize past skills was a determinant in their
seeking positions in the corps is evidenced by the fact that twenty-
four out of twenty-five aides cited this as an important reason for
accepting employment as a teacher aide. Moreover, twenty-three
aides specifically stated that their previous skills had been put to
some use in the project. Despite the wide divergence in background
and experience which the senior citizens brought to the situation,
they found employment as teacher aides personally satisfying.
Resignations from the corps numbered only four from October to
April. The school system originated only one termination, and
that was for a person physically unable to perform the required
Twenty-four out of twenty-five senior citizens desired to con-
tinue working as teacher aides if employment were available;
only one person was undecided. Moreover, all aides said they
would recommend to their friends employment as a teacher aide.
Seventeen of twenty-five aides felt that they needed to acquire or
improve specific skills in order to perform their tasks well. Nineteen
of the aides enumerated specific experiences they had encountered
for the first time in their lives as a part of the project. Although
some aides reported difficulties in adjusting to the school-age
generation, only two teachers cited this as a problem, and six of
the aides especially singled out working with youngsters and
persons of another race as among the particular rewards of the
undertaking. Although hesitancy and lack of confidence were often
admitted to when the aides began work, their willingness to learn
and to adjust to unusual situations was overwhelmingly apparent.
Throughout the project they made many constructive suggestions
for improving their own performance and the effectiveness of the
project as a whole.
It was concluded from this evidence that senior citizens did


New Careers for Older People
find employment as teacher aides attractive. Not only did they
put their previous skills into practice, but they were willing and
able to acquire new skills related to the job. Their attitudes were
favorable towards continued employment, and they readily recom-
mended to others employment as a teacher aide.
The recruitment activities went smoothly and did not depart
in any important respects from established county procedures.
There was no difficulty experienced in obtaining aides with the
necessary qualifications. In fact, as has been previously reported,
eighty-nine additional applications were received from persons who
qualified for the corps but who could not be placed in the pilot
program. The informal consensus of most teachers and adminis-
trators was that senior citizens proved a most reliable and stable
working group. In fact, some teachers feared openly that their
aides were overextending themselves physically in their zealous
desire to serve. From October through April 15, the corps of aides
totaled 2,153 days present and 127 days absent from the job, or
an overall attendance record of 94 per cent. Eight of the aides
had a perfect attendance record and nine of the aides were absent
five days or fewer. A number of aides experienced personal family
emergencies that required their absence from work, although they
themselves were not ill. Punctuality was exceptionally high, and
turnover replacements of five, reported above, were reasonable
considering the formative nature of the project.
In postulating the kinds of services that senior citizens might
perform, the original project proposal suggested three categories:
Paraprofessional assistants: college graduates and/or retired
teachers who would assist the classroom teachers with specific areas
of learning in language arts. A retired teacher qualified in language
arts, for example, would be used as a lay reader or reader of
English themes as well as other duties in the instructional area.
Skilled craftsmen would be used in a similar capacity in industrial
arts. A machinist, for example, could be used to assist students in
performing skillful operations involving the use of tools and
machinery. Others with appropriate skills could construct instruc-
tional aids, models, cut-a-ways, and specimen joints, and could
perform maintenance on equipment. In general, aides in this
category would assist the classroom teacher in activities involving

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
instruction of students rather than performing noninstructional
Clerks: aides in this category would be used to perform clerical
or noninstructional duties, i.e., typing, reproducing, and filing
teaching materials, grading objective tests, checking attendance,
issuing supplies and tools, and other noninstructional tasks
otherwise performed by the teacher.
Community resource consultants: senior citizens with highly
specialized skills, unusual experiences, or specialized abilities appli-
cable to a specific topic or project in language arts or industrial
arts would be used on a one-time or periodic basis, as appropriate,
to stimulate the classroom activity. For example, an engineer or
architect might lecture, present slides, or otherwise present in-
formation on a project of interest to an industrial arts class. A
similar procedure could be followed in language arts.
Tasks which noncertified teacher aides (paraprofessional and
clerical personnel) might perform were further broken down as
follows: prepare class materials for the teacher; set up class
experiments, displays, demonstrations, etc.; check attendance and
maintain seating charts; help pupils carry out routine practice
exercises which have been assigned by the teacher (such duties
must be under the immediate supervision of the teacher); set
up and maintain bulletin boards and display rooms and keep such
displays current; supervise pupils during lunch periods; check
objective tests and mark errors; collect materials needed by the
teacher in presenting units of work; operate audio-visual equip-
ment; render secretarial services which relate to the instructional
position; assemble, adjust, and maintain equipment used in the in-
structional program; give out and collect tools, books, and other
instructional materials and devices issued to students during the
class period. Though this seemed to be an exhaustive list, it did
not begin to enumerate the diverse noninstructional activities
actually performed by the aides at the various schools.
In the industrial arts classes, observers were particularly struck
by the diversity of the tasks performed by aides, ranging from
activities entirely removed from pupils, such as cutting stock and
building display cases, through routine paper work, such as roll-
taking, to direct and constant interaction with the students, under

New Careers for Older People
the supervision of the teacher. Evidently, each participating teacher
had his own idea of how an aide could best aid him, and each
aide adjusted to the particular demands made upon him. Such
flexibility is particularly worth noting in a group of older people,
who are generally categorized as inflexible.
A review of the actual tasks performed by the senior citizens
indicates that they fell largely within the first two groups, para-
professional assistants and clerks. Although no aides were employed
as lay readers, the presence of retired teachers among the group
would indicate that persons might have been recruited to perform
this function if the schools had specifically requested it. In at least
one senior high school there was interest in experimenting with
theme readers. The last category, community resource consultant,
was not developed during the program, although a number of
industrial arts teachers did draw upon the extensive background
of their aides for such activities from time to time. Part-time
consultative activities by outstanding senior citizens is an area that
still bears exploration.
The quality of senior citizens recruited by the project was
obviously high, as measured by their general employment record
and their adaptability to a wide range of employment tasks. Since
these persons were recruited through the normal channels and
procedures of the school system and since there were additional
numbers of qualified applicants for whom positions could not be
found, it is reasonable to assume that senior citizens could be
recruited as teacher aides in quality and quantity to satisfy school
system needs.
Teachers were asked to estimate the following: "What per cent
of the noninstructional tasks connected with your job do you
estimate the aide now performs?" A frequency chart of the re-
sponses is shown. Although there was wide distribution in the
teacher's estimate of direct benefit derived from the project, two
tendencies at least may be noted. Teachers who enjoyed the services
of the aide full-time or more than half of the time tended to get
the greatest per cent of relief from their noninstructional duties.
On the other hand, twenty teachers who felt the aide's services
provided relief from only one-quarter of their noninstructional duties
or less enjoyed the services of the aide less than 30 per cent of

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
the time. In fact, the thirteen teachers who rated the aide's services
within the "less than 10 per cent" category were involved in a
department-wide pool arrangement in which they shared the
services of an aide with at least four other teachers. A number of
the teachers who enjoyed the aide's services full-time but who
recorded only 25 per cent relief from noninstructional tasks ex-
plained this by citing the unusually large burden of noninstructional
duties their jobs entailed. It would appear, nevertheless, that the
services of the aide did help decrease the amount of the teacher's
time spent on noninstructional duties.

Per cent of non-
instructional tasks Per cent of aide's time available to teacher
performed by aide
100 More than Less than
50 30
100 1
75 5 3 3
50 5 3 3
25 4 1 7
Less than 10 13

In order to assess both the quantitative and qualitative changes
that might occur in instruction as a result of the aides' services, a
special time study was conducted in the industrial arts area where
aides and teachers generally worked on a one-to-one basis within
the shop situation itself. The study proved that not only did
teachers with aides spend a greater portion of their class time in
instructional activities than did their colleagues without aides, but
they also were able to devote more of their time to direct teaching
activities and to spend more time at one sustained activity before
moving on to another.
Though all of the hypotheses tested by the time-study instru-
ment were substantiated, the observers felt that the instrument
was still not sensitive to the many kinds of differences which were
observed in the experimental classes as opposed to the control
classes. The differences noted were qualitative as well as quantita-
tive and, as such, could not be picked up by a quantitative instru-

New Careers for Older People
It was concluded on the basis of both objective and subjective
evaluation that the services of an aide do provide teachers with
relief from the performance of noninstructional duties, thereby
enabling the teacher to increase both the quantity and the quality
of instruction.
Eighteen principals and department heads were asked to rate
the project on a five-point scale relative to its value to the teacher,
to the aide, to the students, and to the school or department as
as whole. A summary of the results is given. As can be clearly seen,

How in general would
you rate the value No Minor Some Of Excep- No re-
of the senior citizens value value value great tional sponse
teacher aides program: value value
To the teacher? 8 10 -
To the aide? 9 8 1
To the students? 9 8 1
To the school/dept.? 9 8 1

seventeen of the persons involved rated the project as either "of
great value" or "of exceptional value," which represent the upper-
most range of the scale. The ratings which had to be shown as "no
response" were comments (tending to be favorable) rather than
ratings. None of the ratings indicated leadership dissatisfaction
with the value of the project in general.
In specific comments on the value of the project, principals and
administrators cited such diverse factors as "improved teacher
morale," "improved inter-racial relations," "increased time for
planning," "neater, more artistic work prepared," "more time to
help youngsters," "more stable atmosphere in classrooms," "release
of teachers from clerical tasks," "better teaching and more learning
all around."
Since it was believed that the teachers, who were most closely
involved in the program's operation and the most direct bene-
ficiaries of its possible advantages, were therefore best able to
make evaluative judgments, a large part of the assessment data
was drawn from them. An indirect index of their general enthusiasm

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
for the project was the teachers' willingness to comply with the
considerable burden of instrument completion the project called for.
A rating scale was submitted to the directing teachers on De-
cember 18, 1967, asking them to rate their aides on a five-point
scale in three different categories: (1) recruitment and orienta-
tion, (2) effectiveness of aide's schedule, and (3) extent to which
objectives concerned with opportunities for change in instruction
were realized. The same scale was submitted again to the directing
teachers on April 17, 1968. The data obtained seemed to indicate
that, while language arts teachers were not as pleased with the
program as were the industrial arts teachers, the teachers generally
rated the program as above average, with satisfaction evidently
increasing as experience with aides increased. As an overall average,
94 per cent of the teachers assigned ratings of "satisfactory" or
above on the second scale as opposed to 91 per cent on the first
scale. Within this range, the "very good" to "superior" ratings re-
mained essentially the same (66 per cent as opposed to 65 per
cent) while the percentage of teachers assigning either "satisfac-
tory" or "very good" ratings climbed from 60 per cent to 65 per
cent. The data obviously indicate overwhelming satisfaction with
the program.
In addition to the objective rating scales, subjective responses
of the teachers were also sought. Through these a number of
significant points were revealed. Each of the industrial arts teachers
except one cited ways in which he had personally benefited by
the aide's services. Although the items were called "personal
benefits," they often were actual means toward the teacher's more
effective instructional role, i.e., "For the first time in twelve years
of teaching I have more time to spend with students" or "His help
lessened tension and relieved me of all noninstructional work. I
could do a better job." Most of the teachers recognized that the
aide's presence contributed certain additional responsibilities, but
the few added duties noted were dramatically outweighed by the
teachers' enumerations of specific benefits to their instructional
programs and to their students which the aide had made possible.
The benefits most frequently cited by teachers were the stability of
attitude, maturity of understanding, and breadth of experience
which the senior citizen added to the classroom.

New Careers for Older People
As noted above, the language arts teachers were by no means
unanimously convinced of the program's value. Enthusiastic satis-
faction with the program was balanced by a percentage whose
reaction could at best be called reserved. A number of teachers
who had originally turned down the opportunity of having an
aide assigned part-time later in the year were anxious to join the
project when the demonstrated benefits of the program spread
through the department.
The administrators and department heads surveyed were unani-
mous in recommending their schools' continued participation in
the senior citizens program if the possibility were again available.
Moreover, seventeen out of eighteen of these persons specified
other areas in their schools where senior citizens might also be
utilized, and one principal indicated that extension of the program
would depend upon competencies of senior citizens available.
Among the teachers queried, recommendations were generally
favorable for continuation and extension of the program. Thirty-
one language arts teachers indicated that they would apply for
an aide again the coming year if the program were available; two
language arts teachers said they would not apply, and one failed
to comment. Thirty-one language arts teachers likewise felt they
could recommend to fellow teachers the services of a senior citizen
aide, while two were opposed to such action, and one felt that a
recommendation would be dependent upon the individual's qualifi-
cations. To the query "Would you or would you not recommend
that the school system employ senior citizen teacher aides as a
regular practice?" thirty-two language arts teachers recommended
the program be made county wide, although several indicated that
the program might need adjustment or call for special screening
in certain situations. One language arts teacher was opposed to the
program's extensions, and another teacher said, "In some cases,
yes." As for the industrial arts teachers, the thirteen were unani-
mously in favor of continuing the program themselves, recom-
mending it to others, and suggesting the school system's use of
senior citizen aides as a regular practice.
No instruments were constructed specifically to survey or ob-
serve student reaction to the project; comments can only be made
by inference. In most industrial arts shops visited, the students

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
seemed to accept the aide simply "like another adult" in the class-
room. However, a number of aides in both language arts and
industrial arts did mention the problems involved in working with
today's young people. In two schools, teachers and administrators
pointed out friction between the aide and certain students. On the
other hand, a number of teachers, as well as aides, suggested that
certain students were freer in relating to the aide as a lesser
authority figure in the classroom than in approaching the teacher
himself. In one school where multi-ethnic groups increased class-
room tensions at times, the aide as a second adult in the classroom
was seen to exert a decidedly stabilizing influence on the situation.
This was particularly apparent when the teacher was absent and a
substitute was in charge. In general, it must be pointed out that
visitations to those classes enjoying the services of an aide revealed
a high level of decorum throughout, and students appeared to be
well versed in the role the aide played and the duties he was
expected to perform.
It was concluded, from all data considered, that the senior
citizen's performance as a teacher aide is eminently acceptable to
teachers, to administrators, and to students with whom he works.
Not only do school staffs generally wish the continued services of
such an aide personally, but they also recommend the use of
senior citizens as teacher aides for other programs in their own
school and for the school system as a whole.
The project was able to recruit the number of aides it required
for job openings at the offered hourly rate of $1.56. Lack of trans-
portation to available jobs and distance to be traveled were more
frequent reasons for applicants' refusing positions than was the
amount of salary involved. The desire for financial supplement was
cited by twenty-three out of twenty-five aides as a principal reason
for their seeking employment as a teacher aide, thereby showing
that the income considerations of the project were of fundamental
importance to the senior citizens considered. In reporting whether
or not the financial returns were satisfactory, nine senior citizens
considered the income supplement sufficient for their needs, fifteen
found the supplement insufficient for their needs, and one aide
considered the return more than sufficient for personal require-
ments. From this report alone, it would seem that employment as

New Careers for Older People
a teacher aide did not solve financial problems for more than half
the senior citizens involved.
Another aspect of the financial situation was the relation of
remuneration to the nature of the work itself. Fourteen of the
twenty-five aides did not consider the return adequate for the
work performed.
One of the ways of adjusting to the income requirements of
the aides was by assignment of the number of working hours
daily. It had been thought that the majority of aides would have
wanted to work the minimum four hours daily, but this did not
prove to be the case. Only three aides chose to work the four-hour
minimum. The distribution of aides' working hours was as follows:
3 aides worked 4 hours daily; 4 aides worked 6 hours daily; 5
aides worked 6% hours daily; 1 aide worked 7 hours daily; 1 aide
worked 7% hours daily; 11 aides worked 8 hours daily. In assessing
their plans for the future, twenty-three of the aides felt, in terms
of personal health and energy, that they would prefer to continue
working their present number of hours, and none preferred ad-
ditional hours. But in terms of financial needs, while twenty-two
preferred their present working schedule, three persons felt they
might seek additional hours if possible.
One of the serious problems facing the aides was the financial
squeeze of the job situation. Cost of transportation to the job,
cost of lunches, clothing, and other expenses were enumerated as
serious problems many encountered. On the other hand, a number
of aides were restricted in the amount they could earn by social
security limitations. Others in the project were disturbed that
money was being deducted for "retirement" when they were more
interested at their age in living well in the present than in pro-
viding for retirement at some hypothetical time. As reported
previously, twenty-four of the twenty-five aides indicated their
desire to continue working in the project if employment were
available. This would imply that, despite some wishes for greater
or more satisfactory financial return, the aides were primarily con-
cerned with retaining the income support they currently enjoyed.
The project, beginning as it did out of legitimate concern for
our senior citizens, can be viewed through their own personal
sense of worth. In the words of the senior citizens themselves,

Operation Seasoned Service-Sipes
service in the Corps of Senior Citizens Teacher Aides yielded these
measures of human profit: "It kept me alert and ready for sudden
action, which is good as one gets older. This I like." "Being able
to make use of my past skills, occupy my leisure time, and share
my knowledge and past experiences with others-there were no
dislikes to the job." "I found out how much I enjoy being with
young people." "I'm deriving knowledge on subjects which I did
not have in high school." "This program is good. Having definite
hours and duties to perform each day keeps the aide alert. This
helps keep him mentally and physically fit, keenly watchful and
nimble." "Doesn't everyone like the feeling of being constructive
and active? I know I do." If one is charged to evaluate, might not
these be value enough?

Mr. Sipes' presentation is based on a more detailed report entitled
Operation: Seasoned Service released by the Dade County Public Schools and
published by the Dade County Board of Public Instruction in June, 1968.

Experience Unlimited, Inc.


specializing in the temporary employment of mature persons, was
chartered as a nonprofit business in Florida on November 26, 1969.
The primary purpose of this corporation is to assist older people
and to provide an employment program for the older worker.
Experience Unlimited was founded and funded by the Jack and
Ruth Eckerd Foundation.
On January 5, 1970, Experience Unlimited started its operation
in Pinellas County to assist the older worker and to provide the
business community with an untapped source of part-time labor.
During 1970, Experience Unlimited's success, as measured by many
yardsticks, has been impressive. At the year's end, over 2,700
applications for work were on file, and follow-up surveys indicate
over 1,300 people still available for employment.
More specific statistics for 1970 show 475 employees in the
course of the year, a payroll of $189,000, 168 customer accounts
developed, 750 jobs filled and 933 orders received, and over
68,000 hours worked in part-time and full-time positions. The goal
for 1970, to achieve a weekly working level of 4,000 hours, was
accomplished the third week in December. Projections for 1971
indicate work for the older worker in excess of 320,000 hours and

Experience Unlimited, Inc.-Rehm
a payroll in excess of $625,000. To do this, the firm will work at the
level of 6,000 to 7,000 man-hours per week.
Viewing the first year's performance and the second year's
projection might lead to the belief that Experience Unlimited is
only a businessman's statistic. But it is far more than that, as the
words of a few employees of Experience Unlimited may make
clear: Experience Unlimited "gave me back confidence that my
previous experience and knowledge are useful"; "Experience Un-
limited is very worthwhile. If it wasn't for the confidence of the
counselor in me, I wouldn't have the present job in which I am
doing well. Thank you. I attended the free schooling that you
gave.... I only wish that more could realize what you are trying
to do for this group of people"; "Experience Unlimited is a splendid
program. It gives us older folks a ray of hope"; and from an inter-
view by the St. Petersburg Times about Experience Unlimited, "I
won't tell you [my name and age] if you are going to print it in
the paper because if I should ever apply for a job on my own again
I will have to lie about my age."
To our customers, Experience Unlimited has been a meaningful
business. To the county school system, "Experience Unlimited has
been a source of part-time custodians and food handlers when
needed and where needed to fill vacancies created by sickness or
lack of available younger applicants." To savings and loan associa-
tions, "It has been an excellent service to businesses to fill a need
for part-time employees to work at peak periods. Experience Un-
limited has been the best temporary employment ever." To a club, it
has been an available part-time secretary and stenographer. To a city
government, it has been the source of a new finance director and
a sanitation inspector. To the parent Eckerd corporation, it has
been a source of part-time drug clerks, switchboard operators,
distribution-center clerks, and a way of reducing extensive over-
time costs. (These experiences prove to be an excellent selling
tool to other retail businesses.) To the banking community, it has
been a source of messengers, tellers, and accountants. To an
engineering drafting firm, Experience Unlimited has been a source
of thirty retired professionals.
To its own staff, Experience Unlimited has been a challenge
to do something about the older worker in America. The firm does

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