Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Florida Centennial
 Indispensable books on Florida
 Recommended readings on Florid...
 Maps and charts
 State and federal publications

Group Title: Recommended readings for the Florida centennial : a standard guide to the best books on Florida with helpful explanations and critical evaluations
Title: Recommended readings for the Florida centennial
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053478/00001
 Material Information
Title: Recommended readings for the Florida centennial a standard guide to the best books on Florida with helpful explanations and critical evaluations
Physical Description: 63 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hanna, Alfred Jackson, 1893-
Union catalog of Floridiana, Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla
Publisher: Union Catalog of Floridiana
Place of Publication: Winter Park Fla
Publication Date: c1945
Subject: Bibliography -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by A.J. Hanna.
General Note: "First printing, July, 1945."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053478
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01560635
lccn - 45008706

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Florida Centennial
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Indispensable books on Florida
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Recommended readings on Florida
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Maps and charts
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    State and federal publications
        Page 63
Full Text




A standard guide to the best books
on Florida with helpful expla-
nations and critical evaluations.


Copyright, 1945, by A. J. Hanna
First printing, July, 1945, 3,000

The editing, printing, and distribution of this Centennial publication
of the Union Catalog of Floridiana, have been made possible by the
cooperative aid of specialists in Floridiana and by the generous support
of others who believe in the enduring value of such a project.

Proceeds from the sale of this publication are to be devoted to the
development of the Union Catalog of Floridiana.

The Union Catalog of Floridiana is a library card index and location
guide to materials relating to Florida. Its major objectives are (1) to list
records by author, title, and subject; and (2) to indicate the locations
of these records. It was established in 1937 as a cooperative undertaking
by historians, librarians, and others interested in Florida history; it is
located at Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, is administered by
Rollins College as trustee, and is maintained and developed as a specific
contribution to the State of Florida and for the general advancement of

The price of Recommended Readings for the Florida Centennial is fifty
cents for paper bound copy; one dollar for cloth bound copy. Copies
may be purchased from book stores or from the Union Catalog of
Floridiana, Winter Park, Florida.


PURPOSE ...... ..




Biography ......

Children's Books .

Conservation . .

Description . .

Education ......

Exploration .....

Fiction . .

Industries . .

Inter-American Relations .

Nature . .

Regional and Local Areas

Religion . .

Settlement .....

Sports and Recreation .

War and Reconstruction .







A..... .. 10
. . 7

A . 10

RIDA . 15
. . 16

. . 19

. . 23
. . 28
. . 28

. 29

. 31
. . 49
. . 38

. . 52
. . 40

. . 43

. . 47
. . 50
. . 50
. 52
. . 54

. . 55

. .59

. . 61

NS . 63

" Y BREADTH of reading ... a gentleman will ... keep from
Error's path," attributed to Confucius, is one of the many
epigrams uttered by sages in support of reading. Dr.
Samuel Johnson warned that, "No man should think so highly
of himself as to think he can receive but little light from books."
Reading is not a simple process. Of the many problems in-
volved, Ralph Waldo Emerson spoke of one of the most difficult
when he exclaimed, "Would that some charitable soul, after
losing a great deal of time among the false books and alight-
ing upon a few true ones which made him happy and wise, would
name. .. [them] !"
Problems of reading become more acute when the surprising
assertion of Lord Beaconsfield is recalled: "Books are the curse
of the human race; nine-tenths of them are nonsense; the other
one-tenth are the refutation of that nonsense."
Unhappily, that statement may be applied with considerable
truth to many books about Florida; yet, the merit of a few
refutes the nonsense of the others. To provide a practical
evaluation of the limited number of superior books, this list of
recommended readings on Florida has been compiled.
A guide to selected literature on Florida is long overdue.
Since the establishment of the Union Catalog of Floridiana,
requests for the publication of a critically edited reading list
have increased progressively. Now that the one hundredth
anniversary of the admission of Florida to the Union empha-
sizes anew the need for disseminating knowledge about the
State, demands for an adequate guide seemingly make obliga-
tory such an undertaking as is here presented. The Florida
Centennial provides an occasion and incurs a responsibility for
an examination of what has gone into the making of a state.
Selected and arranged primarily for the student and general
reader, Recommended Readings for the Florida Centennial is


designed not only to suggest the best that has been written on
Florida, and thus serve as a reference work of permanent value;
its purpose is, also, to create keener appreciation of the century
of statehood and to stimulate broader interest in Florida's back-
ground of more than four centuries. The scholar or otherwise
qualified investigator will find time and money-saving guides,
in the bibliographical and location files of the Union Catalog of
Floridiana, to vast printed and manuscript source materials in
the great depositories of Spain, England, France, and other
countries, as well as in the National Archives of the United
States, the Library of Congress, and other libraries of dis-
Aside from the profit to be derived from an acquaintance
with knowledge about Florida and the pleasure to be enjoyed
from reading literature of merit, this list of readings should
enable the student and general reader, by acquiring a clearer
understanding of the often fascinating past and the more im-
portant present, to achieve that discrimination in values so
essential for charting, wisely, the future.
When subsequent editions are required to realize these objec-
tives, it is proposed to expand this exploratory publication.
Inasmuch as critical observers have found in the United States
a culture and a civilization of present significance and of pro-
found importance for the future of the world, it is hoped this
appraisal of a fractional part of American literature treating a
specific region will stimulate an interest that will assist in com-
prehensive and organized interpretations of American life.


T HIS publication, Recommended Readings for the Florida
Centennial, is in response to a proclamation issued Janu-
ary 19, 1945, by Governor Millard F. Caldwell, calling
upon Floridians to mark with appropriate observance the signi-
ficant fact that 1945 ends the first century of the statehood of

Four years prior to Governor Caldwell's proclamation, the
Legislature created a Florida Centennial Commission, the pur-
pose of which was "to combine and co-ordinate the efforts of the
people of Florida, the departments of the State, county and
municipal governments, and the full resources of the State in
a program of continuing improvement, attaining a crescendo
in and through 1945; for the purpose of promoting, developing,
and publicizing the unrivaled attractions, untapped natural
resources, and unmatched climate of this State; for the purpose
of staging a state-wide centennial celebration on the one hun-
dredth anniversary of Florida's statehood." An appropriation
of $36,000 was provided for the Commission.

The war has somewhat altered and delayed the carrying out
of the Centennial Commission's functions. One of the projects
which the Commission has in process, according to the Chair-
man, LaMonte Graw, is the publication and distribution of a
volume of source materials tracing the movement which resulted
in the admission of Florida to the Union. Proposed, planned,
and organized by the Florida State Library Board Kathryn
Abbey Hanna, chairman, Daniel H. Redfearn, and Harold Colee
--this volume is being prepared by State Archivist Dorothy
Dodd. The object of the volume is to present an accurate and
interesting account of the statehood movement, which constituted
one of the sharpest controversies in the history of Florida,
through the reproduction of the essential documents and reports,
as well as related materials from the press and similar sources.


Preface to the volume is being written by State Librarian W.
T. Cash.
A distinguished exhibition to commemorate the centenary of
Florida's entrance into the Union was held in the spring of 1945
by the Library of Congress at the request of a number of mem-
bers of the Senate and House of Representatives from the State
of Florida, under the direction of the Librarian of'Congress,
Dr. Luther H. Evans. Tracing the history of Florida from
its discovery until the present, this exhibition included maps,
manuscripts, books, letters, documents, transcripts from Spanish
archives, and recordings of folk music. At the opening of this
exhibit an address was made by Senator Claude Pepper.
A program in commemoration of the Florida Centennial was
introduced into the proceedings of the House of Representatives
in Washington, March 2, 1945, by members of the Florida dele-
gation. A feature of these exercises was the reading of a mes-
sage from Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, which is reproduced
in part as follows:
The Honorable Joe Hendricks has, with a politician's naive and
simple approach to art, asked me, "to describe the beauties of
Florida, the lakes, streams, trees, flowers, birds, etc., in just a
brief story." I myself have already written six full-length books
in such an attempt, and the total volumes of this inexhaustible
subject, in the more than four centuries of Florida's chaotic
history, must be of almost equal bulk to that of The Congres-
sional Record.
Yet it can be said, and briefly too, that Florida is unique among
states in that her history is founded on that very beauty. Other
states grew for reasons of agriculture, of forests and of gold;
were sought out in search of political or religious freedom. But
from the moment of Ponce de Leon's dream of the Fountain of
Youth, to the same dream today in the heart of the gray-beard
who totters or is wheeled to the sun of St. Petersburg or Miami,
men have sought Florida out of the purest and most aesthetic
human impulse, the love of beauty. ..
Much of Florida is unchanged down the ages, and the ancient
Spaniards came on the same wonders as delight us today. Pine


forests, half shadow and half sunlight, like cathedral aisles, stretch
for miles. The pines break, and there is hammock land, black of
soil, lush with magnolia, sweet gum, bay, holly and live oak.
The live oaks are pendulous with gray Spanish moss, stirring
in the wind like the beards of long forgotten gods. The ham-
mock breaks, and the orange groves lift their bright balls of
light to the good sun. The golden apples of the Hesperides, the
golden apple of Atalanta, were the orange. Limes and lemons,
mangoes and papayas- all the rich fruits of the Tropics and
the sub-tropics, offer their succulence. Everywhere are the
palms, shaggy-topped and noble. And scattered throughout, like
necklaces of diamond, of aquamarine and amber, are the lovely
lakes, and cypress-bordered magic rivers run shining to the
sea. .
If human wantonness and human greed have here and there
destroyed Arcadia, with the careless cutting and burning of
forests, the useless and destructive draining of lands that were
refuges for all the wild things; with the erection of billboards and
transient camps; if avid purveyors to Florida's great cash crop,
the tourist, have a little soiled the beauty and over-charged the
seeker of loveliness, lay the blame fairly where it belongs, as all
such things as greed and war and man's general inhumanity to
man, must be laid, on the frailty of human nature, and not on
Florida, great and gracious tropical queen. She waits, as she
has done through the centuries, to be all things to all men.


ALTHOUGH no man is indispensable, a book may be; un-
deniably, several books are indispensable for at least an
introduction to Florida.

These books have been selected with two objects in view:
(1) to provide brief, essential information for a general, intro-
ductory knowledge; (2) to render assistance to those readers
who may not have time or inclination to embark upon exhaus-
tive reading.

Although a number of these books are of superior grade, it
must not be assumed that all of them are of uniform quality and
importance. Some are the only publications providing infor-
mation in the fields and periods treated; hence, they are keys
which unlock doors to storehouses of information otherwise

ABBEY, KATHRYN TRIMMER, Florida, Land of Change, 1941
Indispensable, because it is the only account by a professional
historian of Florida's history from its earliest beginnings to
modern times.
Its purposes are confined to relating the Florida of the pres-
ent to the larger tides of human thought and behavior, tracing
the factors which have contributed to making her what she is,
and seeking to explain what she has done with the stuff of
her existence.
Here are traced Florida's more than four and one-quarter cen-
turies of history, a record longer than that of any other state in
the Union. .. [The author] vividly depicts the ever-changing
scene through the contrasting groups of missionaries and heathen
Indians, traders and Seminole fighters, planters and wreckers,
blockade-runners and scalawags, filibusterers and warmongers,
schoolmasters and legislators, rum-runners and empire builders,
migratory workers and economic royalists. Contemporary
illustrations recreate the atmosphere for each period. An ingen-


ious organization of material and a lucid conversational style
give the book that rare distinction in historical writings: popu-
lar appeal combined with faithful adherence to the requirements
of scholarship.
-N. Y. Times, June 15, 1941.

BARTRAM, WILLIAM, Travels 1791

Indispensable, because it was one of the first great books
written and published in the Western Hemisphere, and because
it influenced at least a dozen noted English and American writ-
ers (such as Wordsworth and Coleridge) in their descriptive
writings and their philosophy of nature.
Contains superb descriptions of plant and animal life in
Florida. For a biography of the author see Ernest Earnest,
John and William Bartram, (1940).

BROOKS, PHILIP COOLIDGE, Diplomacy and the Borderlands,

Indispensable, because it is a definitive study of the Adams-
Onis Treaty by which Florida was transferred by Spain to the
United States. It supersedes such earlier studies as H. B.
Fuller, Purchase of Florida, (1906), which, based largely on the
American State Papers, neglected the role played by Spain,
and showed only a cursory reference to the archives of the
Department of State.
Dr. Brooks rejects the previously accepted term "Florida
Treaty" as unsoundly limited. He employs the phrase "Trans-
continental Treaty" to emphasize its broad scope and to recog-
nize the true significance of the western boundary issues, an
understanding of which is essential for valid conclusions. Thus,
he makes clear why John Quincy Adams regarded this treaty
as the greatest achievement of his career.

[Dr. Brooks] precedes the main study with two chapters which
summarize the regional background and earlier diplomatic
details bearing on his topic. One welcomes the numerous


character sketches that lighten the narrative, based as they
frequently are on information pieced together from contemporary
diplomatic correspondence. In addition to his main text the
author presents an illuminating preface. ...
-American Historical Review, April, 1941.

[CORSE, CARITA DOGGETT, ed.], Florida: A Guide to the South-
ernmost State, 1939

Indispensable, because of the vast amount of information
it contains about Florida, and because of its excellent organ-
ization for ready reference.
Compiled and written by the Federal Writers' Project of the
W.P.A. for the State of Florida, sponsored by the State of
Florida Department of Public Instruction.

One of the American Guide Series. Ranging from such
typical scenes as the Suwannee River and the Miami skyline to
such unexpected views as a sugar-cane field in the Everglades
and a porpoise jumping like a dog for dinner at the Marine
Studios, its 100 effective gravure illustrations, combined with
maps of the state and of nine cities do much to extend the attrac-
tiveness and usefulness of the volume .... By far the largest part
of the book is concerned, as it should be, with twenty-two
tours, since 85% of visitors travel by motor. Outlined in
green are five extensive national parks. One received the gen-
eral impression from this guide that the state is gradually
rising from the low estate to which it was consigned by the
New York Herald three-quarters of a century ago as "the smallest
tadpole in the dirty pool of secession."
N. Y. Times, Jan. 28, 1940.

JOHNSON, CECIL, British West Florida, 1763-1783, 1943

Indispensable, because it is the counterpart of Dr. Mowat's
study of East Florida under the English.
A Yale Historical Publication, this volume treats one of the
twenty-odd parts of the British Empire in the New World, out-
side the "original" Thirteen Colonies, which was eventually
included in the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and


Florida. West Florida, says the author, "offers an engaging
study in colonial administration and in land, as regards both
distribution and speculation. It was a part of the western move-
ment with immigrants from all of the older colonies. The Span-
ish conquest of the province is an interesting but neglected
aspect of the American Revolution."
Inasmuch as no comprehensive picture of West Florida based on
the documents has been heretofore published, Mr. Johnson's
book represents a pioneer achievement British West Florida
is an able brief account of a little known subject. It is not a
definitive study, for the sources contain much material which has
been used only sparingly and there are other mines of infor-
mation, such as the Spanish Archives of the Indies, which have
not been touched at all except through secondary literature.
--Journal of Southern History, Aug., 1943.

MANUCY, ALBERT C., Building of Caslillo de San Marcos, 1942
Indispensable, because it is a brief, readable, authentic ac-
count of one of the most remarkable fortifications in the United
States. It is a National Park Service monograph with illustra-
tions and maps.
Symbolic of the .Spanish colonial system and reminiscent of
the almost three centuries of that background in Florida, the
Castillo de San Marcos at St. Augustine was begun in 1672
and completed a quarter of a century later at a cost of approxi-
mately $150,000. It is a typical example of fortification evolved
from the medieval castle transplanted to the Western Hem-

The Castillo is Florida's most noteworthy monument, and it ranks
high among the historic landmarks of this country. [The
author] has given the story life and compelling interest. His
The Building of Castillo de San Marcos is the first published in
a series of interpretive booklets issued by the National Park
Service ....
-Florida Historical Quarterly, July, 1943.


The National Park Service has rendered a real service by
publishing this well written and well illustrated booklet ....
--Florida Times-Union, July 4, 1943.

MARTIN, SIDNEY WALTER, Florida During the Territorial Days,
Indispensable, because it is the only detailed study that has
been made of that period extending from 1821, when Florida
became a territory of the United States, through 1845, when it
was admitted as a state. A Florida Centennial publication by
the University of Georgia Press.
This period has particular significance in Florida because
of the transition from the Spanish American to the Anglo-
American culture. The apportionment of space to the social,
cultural, economic, and political life of the period is not uni-
formly balanced, but this is a defect natural to a study of a
period not hitherto systematically explored. Despite evidence
of lack of thoroughness, this book is fundamental to an under-
standing of present-day Florida.
[The author] describes the feelings of the residents of such
communities as St. Augustine and Pensacola when their nation-
alities were changed over night, the religious and educational
beginnings in the state, and the growth of frontier towns, com-
merce, and industry. The informal and conversational style
makes the book interesting and readable ...
U. S. Quarterly Book List, March, 1945.

MOWAT, CHARLES LOCH, East Florida as a British Province,
1763-1784, 1943
Indispensable, because it is an exhaustive study of the twenty
years during which Florida was an English colony.
Professor Mowat's English background furnishes him with insight
into the operation of the British government of the eighteenth
century, which he uses to good advantage. Appendices, which
make available in condensed form much important information,
contain tables of trade and shipping, titles of laws enacted by
the assembly, and lists of provincial officials.
Journal of Southern History, May, 1944.


NASMUCH as this compilation has been designed primarily to
assist the student *and general reader, its scope has been
restricted to subjects of popular appeal and general useful-
ness. That a wider range of subjects has not been included, or
more books listed under each subject heading, is due to the
unfortunate lack of readable and accurate printed materials.
These gaps indicate how comparatively unworked is the Florida
field; moreover, these deficiencies serve to concentrate attention
on the inviting opportunities awaiting writers for noteworthy
service to the State. It is encouraging to note that there is now
in preparation a number of urgently needed books on hitherto
neglected subjects.

For over three hundred years books on Florida were written
by people who were more impressed by its oddities than its
characteristics. This was perhaps due to the fact that the
authors were rarely able to stay long enough to become well ac-
quainted with the region.

Since Florida is still largely peopled by newcomers, a na-
tive literature has been long in developing. These facts should
be borne in mind when assaying the uneven quality of the sum
total of Florida books.

The selection of books under the following subject headings
has been made on the basis of authoritative concept, accuracy
of content, soundness of interpretation, and facility of style.
The books listed possess the best available qualities to meet high
standards in concept, content, interpretation, and style; in some
instances, however, there is an approach, only, to these standards.

Selection of books has also been restricted to those exclusively
about Florida, with minor exceptions where the broader treat-
ment provides essential perspective.



As listings under this subject indicate, the surface of this
field has hardly been scratched by the pen of competent biogra-
phers. Perhaps the most comprehensive effort to print biogra-
phical sketches of leading Floridians was made in 1902 in R.
H. Rerick, Memoirs of Florida, though the editor of these two
volumes disclaimed any supervision of this part of the work.
Biographical sketches of a similar nature, with which in most
instances the biographee extended the utmost cooperation, have
been printed in many of the volumes listed under "Regional and
Local Areas." Similar information may be found in W. T.
Cash, The Story of Florida, 4 vols., (1938), George M. Chapin,
Florida 2 vols., (1914), H. G. Cutler, ed., History of
Florida, 3 vols., (1923), and Makers of America, 4 vols., (Flor-
ida edition, 1909-1911).

Dictionary of American Biography, 1928-

This is the most useful reference work for brief, authentic
biographical sketches of men and women who have made signi-
ficant contributions to Florida life in its manifold aspects.
Edited under the direction of the American Council of Learned
Societies, the record as of the time of publication of each volume
was completed in twenty volumes in 1936. An Index Volume
was subsequently added, and in 1944 a first Supplemen-
tary Volume was issued, bringing the record up to January
1, 1936. Other Supplementary Volumes are to be added from
time to time. No living persons are included.

Who's Who in America, 1899-1900 -

Brief, personal sketches of Floridians whose position or
achievement has made them of general interest have been
included in each of the twenty-three volumes that have appeared
every other year.


BEACH, REX, Personal Exposures, 1940

Lively reminiscences of his boyhood in Tampa, his college
career at Rollins, his adventures in Alaska, his life in New York,
and his later activities back in Florida.
Mr. Beach is an almost perfect example of the Philistine exploiter
of an artistic medium. But no matter how shocking this may
seem at first, reflection engenders a reluctant admiration for Mr.
Beach. For he does not consider himself an artist and this
absolute lack of pretension is refreshing and honest.
Canadian Forum, June, 1941.

GEIGER, MAYNARD, Biographical Dictionary of the Franciscans
in Spanish Florida and Cuba, 1528-1841, 1940
It contains much essential information not available else-

HARTRIDGE, WALTER C., ed., Letters of Don Juan McQueen to
His Family, 1943
This publication of the Georgia Society of the Colonial Dames
of America contains letters written by McQueen from Spanish
East Florida, 1791-1807, and a biographical sketch. These
letters give an accurate description of the type of Anglo-Am-
erican immigrant who embraced Spanish citizenship. Says the
editor, "McQueen lived in a robust age when it was not unusual
for a gentleman to bilk his creditors by fleeing to a foreign land,
to change his religion as seemed expedient, and to contemplate
discreet blackbirding. Whatever his faults, McQueen was a
man of great charm to whose polished manners, lively curiosity,
and facile pen we owe an entertaining and instructive picture of
social life in East Florida during the Second Spanish Occupa-

HURSTON, ZORA NEALE, Dust Tracks on a Road, 1942
Full of humor, color, and good sense, this autobiography re-
ceived the Annisfield Award of $1,000. Born in Eatonville, a


town in Central Florida run entirely by Negroes, the author
was graduated from Barnard and has conducted folklore re-
search on fellowships from the Guggenheim and Rosenwald

IRVING, WASHINGTON, "The Early Experiences of Ralph Ring-
wood," Wolfert's Roost, 1855

Ralph Ringwood was the fictitious name given by Irving to
William Pope DuVal, Governor of Florida, 1822-1834, about
whom he makes the following explanation:

I have given some anecdotes of his early and eccentric career in,
as nearly as I can recollect, the very words in which he related
them. They certainly afforded strong temptations to the em-
bellishments of fiction; but I thought them so strikingly charac-
teristic of the individual, and of the scenes and society into which
his peculiar humors carried him, that I preferred giving them in
their original simplicity. [p. 249].

These anecdotes in the life of DuVal antedate his Florida

JOHNSON, JAMES WELDON, Along This Way, 1933

In this autobiography of one of the foremost American Negroes
of our day [a native of Jacksonville] we have a full-bodied nar-
rative of the social, political and cultural adventures of a
strikingly unusual member of the black race. At the same time,
by inference always, frequently by direct statement, we have
the story of the struggles in this country of the race itself.
Lawyer, poet, musical comedy composer, diplomatic official,
author, editor, orator and educator, James Weldon Johnson has
gazed on far wider horizons than most of his fellows, white or
-N. Y. Times, quoted in Book Review Digest, 1933.

SMYTH, G. HUTCHINSON, Life of Henry Bradley Plant, 1898

An inadequate biography of a noted developer.


Children's Books
The popularity among adults of many books for children is
proof of the assertion that "anything written properly for chil-
dren is a classic for all ages." This is particularly true of such
books with a Florida background.
For years the only writer of romantic juvenile fiction about
Florida was Kirk Munroe whose influence in this field, says
Marjory Stoneman Douglas "is much as that of Cooper in Amer-
ican literature. He is a classic, yet, for us rather dated. On
the other hand, no reading list could possibly ignore him. He
had an enormous following of readers."

BRONSON, WILFRED S., Children of the Sea, 1940
The illustrations in this book give a fine sense of the wonder
and vastness of the sea. Designed for children it is also of
interest to grown-ups because of its scientific accuracy and
fancy. The description of sea creatures is absorbing and
touched with humor. State adopted.

CARSON, RUBY LEACH, Fabulous Florida, 1942
In narrative style, Fabulous Florida combines history, geogra-
phy, and biography. Emphasis is placed on discovery, explora-
tion, and development. Without emphasis on political trends,
the young reader is introduced to a panorama of economic acti-
vities, recreations, culture, and beauty spots.

GARNER, ELVIRA, Ezekiel, 1937
The story is enlivened with tiny colored pictures by the author.
This book is based on an intimate knowledge of its people, and
conceived in tender humor which touches the simple incidents
with real distinction. It is told in true Negro dialect which
strikes the ear in happy rhythms and makes it especially appeal-
ing when read aloud to four-year-olds, as well as to the six and
eight ages for whom it is primarily intended.
-N. Y. Times, Oct. 10, 1937.


Ezekiel Travels, 1938
In these little stories there is more action than in the preceding
volume, but the rhythms of the happy dialect have not changed,
and the same type of little drawings stud the text with color
and humor.
N. Y. Times, Nov. 20, 1938.

Sarah Faith Anderson: Her Book, 1939

Story of the daughter of a missionary to the Seminoles in the
early nineteenth century, primarily for the fourth and fifth
grades. State adopted.

GOULDING, FRANCIS R., Young Marooners on the Florida Coast,

This masterpiece for juveniles, written by a Presbyterian
clergyman born in Georgia of Connecticut parents, has been
described as a "corking yarn of the Tampa Bay area." Be-
tween 1853 and 1898 there were at least twenty-five editions,
one Confederate, five English, and one French. An introduc-
tion for the 1898 edition was written by Joel Chandler Harris.

GRAY, ROBERT A., and TRYON, FLORENCE R., Government of
Florida, 1941

Written in seven parts, it includes Florida's plan of govern-
ment, lawmaking, enforcement and administration of laws, in-
terpretation of laws, services performed for the people by their
government, financing, and local government. Profusely illus-
trated and containing questions and other aids to study, the
book is a comprehensive and well-written text for high school.
A copy of the State Constitution is reproduced.

KANTOR, MACKINLEY, Noise of Their Wings, 1938

The scene is in the Ten Thousand Islands off the southwestern
coast of Florida. It is a story of carrier pigeons, which reveals


the disastrous impact of sudden wealth on a primitive fisher-
man. For tenth to twelfth grades.

LONGSTREET, R. J., and GOULDING, R. L., Stories of Florida,

Compiled "to provide rich and valuable reading materials
for the pupils of the upper elementary grades in their study of
English, history and geography." Contains a map and illus-
trations in color.

MUNROE, KIRK, Coral Ship, 1893

A story about buried treasure and piracy on the Florida keys,
planned around the main, and semi-historical, character of Black

,Flamingo Feather, 1887
Marjory Stoneman Douglas says "this is the story for which
boys of an earlier generation especially remembered Kirk
Munroe. It is written, as are all his, in the elegant English of
old fashioned romances, with all the Indians saying 'Thou
dost' and so on. But the story is full of excitement of the clas-
sic pattern, laid against the background of Jean Ribaut's at-
tempted conquest of St. Augustine for the French, the mas-
sacre of the French by Menendez, the expedition of Dominique
de Gourgues, and the Indians. The historical material is exact;
the Indian material is sketchy and romanticized. This book,
as all the others of Kirk Munroe, is valuable as a Florida
For sixth to eighth grades. State adopted.

Through Swamp and Glade, 1896
"This is the story of the last Indian wars in the Everglades,"
explains Marjory Stoneman Douglas, "with Osceola and Coa-
coochee as characters with a romantic Indian girl heroine. Again,


more romance than anything but the most obvious facts, but
good descriptions of the country."

,Wakulla, 1886
A story of pioneer life in north Florida, with good descrip-
tions of alligator hunting, much less romantic than the his-
torical romances and consequently much more alive.

POWER, EFFIE, Osceola Buddy, a Florida Farm Mule, 1941
The combination of information and quiet humor makes this
a lively and readable story which small children (grades one
to three) will find a genuine delight. State adopted. Illus-
trated by Howard Simon.
The author was the first children's librarian in the Cleveland
Public Library before she made Florida her home. It was on
a farm not far from the Everglades that she made the acquain-
tance of Osceola Buddy.

SACKETT, BERT, Sponger's Jinx, 1943
Combines atmosphere and action; for boys in the seventh to
ninth grades.
The sponge fishermen who work in the Florida waters are Greek
and though they dive in modern equipment, their methods are
much the same as those which their forbears have handed down
through the centuries. They carry with them, too, many of
those old-world superstitions, as Soc Tillis found out to his
sorrow when he tried to become one of them.
-N. Y. Times, Nov. 14, 1943.

WOOD, MARY B., and GRAHAM, BLANCHE H., Florida Through
the Years, 1942

Contains much background, including historical sketches of
leading cities and some material on the more important indus-
tries. The descriptive writing is interspersed with games and
activities to assist the young student. Poems and illustrations
in color and black and white add interest.


Although Florida is one of the last frontiers in the United
States, she is faced with the imminent danger of a depletion
of her natural resources. Forest fires, indiscriminate cutting of
timber, wanton destruction of wild life, neglect of water sup-
plies, unwise cultivation of eroding and drained lands, and
selfish use of irreplaceable assets, such as the use of shells from
Indian mounds for road building, have aroused Floridians, how-
ever, to a consciousness of their responsibilities in the field of
Private, State, and Federal agencies are endeavoring to meet
this emergency. Four State Forests of 200,000 acres and thir-
teen State Parks of 33,000 acres have been established, and
many more parks and small wayside recreational areas are
being planned. The U. S. Forest Service has four large forest
areas, and the U. S. Fish and Wild Life Service has recently
acquired a ten year lease of about 800,000 acres in and near the
Everglades which may eventually be transformed into the long
hoped for Everglades National Park.

The National Audubon Society, the Florida Department of
Conservation, and the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries have also pro-
tected wild life and fishes. By the united effort of all these
agencies conservation is being promoted. These efforts of pub-
lic agencies, augmented by that of the Florida Forest and Park
Association, the Florida Audubon Society, and the committees
and divisions of local, state, and national organizations, are
beginning to produce favorable results.
The considerable writings on the subject of conservation have
taken the form of reports, analyses, descriptive pamphlets, and
single chapters in books. Articles in the Proceedings of the
Florida State Horticultural Society are of particular merit.
Scientists who can write for popular consumption are rare, but
the Florida scene has been blessed by at least one scientist who


writes delightfully. "No one better than Charles Torrey Simp-
son," according to Marjory Stoneman Douglas, "has known the
country of the Everglades and its bordering coasts, or written
about all the rich variety of life in them, plants and tree snails
and people, with a finer knowledge or more lasting charm."

BARBOUR, THOMAS, That Vanishing Eden, 1944
"I have tried to recapture some of the original charm Florida
held, not only for the naturalist, but for any observer of this
rich and versatile field," explains the author. "My book is pure-
ly for the casual visitor seeking relaxation who wonders what
the country was like before it was reduced to the condition in
which he sees it today."

SIMPSON, CHARLES TORREY, Florida Wild Life, 1932
This is a study of the flora and fauna, the influence of climate
and environment on their development, and the conservation of
wild life. State adopted.

In Lower Florida Wilds, 1920
/ A naturalist's observations on the life, physical geography,
and geology of the southern portion of the State, with maps and

Out of Doors in Florida, 1923
Here are adventures of a naturalist with essays on wild life
and geology, written with popular appeal yet with a sound
scientific background.

SMALL, JOHN KUNKEL, Eden to Sahara, Florida's Tragedy,
A narrative of botanical exploration designed to emphasize
the wholesale devastation of the Florida scene. Both scientific
and common names are used and illustrations emphasize, ironi-
cally, the alleged improvements of man on nature.


Under this subject are to be found some of the best and some
of the worst material and writing on the general subject of
Florida. Much of the best has appeared in sections of books
of a general nature or in magazines; some of the worst ephe-
mera have appeared in the form of guide books, propaganda
pamphlets, etc.

MCLEAN, eds., Jonathan Dickinson's Journal ..., 1945
In this rare and interesting Journal, Jonathan Dickinson, a
Quaker, tells of how the barkentine Reformation, sailing in Sep-
tember of 1696 from Jamaica for Philadelphia with twenty-
three persons on board, was wrecked by a storm off Jupiter
Island, Florida. He relates further how this party consisting,
besides himself, of his young wife and their infant son, a noted
Quaker missionary, Robert Barrow, and various servants, prob-
ably slaves, suffering from terror and exhaustion, insufficient
food and clothing, finally made their way from the vicinity of
the present Palm Beach up the coast to St. Augustine, to
Charleston, and finally to Philadelphia.
The Journal is not only a story of adventure but is source
material for American colonial history, the chosen field of work
of Professor Andrews. As such, it has received the careful
editing of Charles and Evangeline Andrews that characterizes
their Journal of a Lady of Quality, (1921). They have supplied
an introduction, appendices, and illustrations which give Dick-
inson's Journal (never before edited) its proper historical set-
ting and atmosphere; the editors have also reconstructed for
the reader the lives and personalities of the more important in-
dividuals who shared the remarkable experience of this voyage
of 1696. It is one of the Yale Historical Publications.


BARBOUR, GEORGE M., Florida for Tourists, Invalids, and
Settlers, 1881

The author, a correspondent of the Chicago Times, gathered
information for this book in 1879 while accompanying General
U. S. Grant on his tour of Florida.

BRINTON, DANIEL G., Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary History,
Indian Tribes and Antiquities, 1859

A pioneer work on the antiquities of Florida, considered au-
thoritative enough to be extensively quoted by Swanton and
Hrdlicka in their works on the aborigines of Florida.

CABELL, BRANCH, and HANNA, A. J., St. Johns, 1943

The St. Johns ... in the Rivers of America Series, is a fortunate
piece of genuine collaboration. Dr. Hanna, author himself of the
fine historical study, Flight into Oblivion, has provided with
patient research facts on one of the most beautiful of American
rivers. Mr. Cabell has provided glamour, served up with de-
licious wit and irony, in a style that has no equal in our time
for glittering precision Delightful illustrations by Doris Lee
carry out the scholarship of Hanna and the wicked insight of
-Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings in New York Herald
Tribune, Sept. 5, 1943.

CORSE, CARITA DOGGETT, Key to the Golden Islands, 1931

The Golden Islands stretching from the St. Johns River to
Charleston on the north, were thought by the early Spaniards to
shelter the gold of El Dorados in the eastern part of this con-
tinent. Later they were recognized as sheltering the golden em-
pire of the Floridas and the contest for that empire centered about
the key to the Golden Islands, Fort George Island, at the mouth
of the St. Johns.. For 250 years the island's history was one of
constant struggle and bloodshed. It could have no other fate
because it was the key to the Golden Islands.
-N. Y. Evening Post, quoted in Book Review
Digest, 1932.


FAIRBANgS, GEORGE R., History and Antiquities of the City of
St. Augustine, 1858

The early history of St. Augustine is primarily the early
history of Florida, as this writer demonstrates. One of the
advantages of this book is that it was written before the manu-
facture of romantic legends for the entertainment of tourists.
Much of the development of St. Augustine as a winter resort
is attributed to the writings of this pioneer who was a leader in
many fields.

LANIER, SIDNEY, Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History,
Lanier described [this book] as "a kind of spiritualized
guide-book." Though it was designed for the practical purpose
of luring visitors to the state and furnishing them with informa-
tion concerning the best ways to reach and to tour it, it was
inevitable that Lanier should have put much poetry and much
of himself into it.
-A. H. Starke, Sidney Lanier (1933), p. 226.

MATSCHAT, CECILE HULSE, Suwannee River, 1938

Third volume in the Rivers of America Series.
Mrs. Matschat's trouble, superficially, would seem to be that
her editors gave her a bad assignment. There isn't a book, at
least not this sort of book in the Suwannee, because unlike other
famous rivers scheduled in the series, there is not much in the
way of human history about it. It lacks details, and the personal
color that scales such primeval subjects down to chronological
chit-chat. She is better in her own field, about plants and
gardening and sounds at the end as if she had been mighty glad
to get out of the Suwannee's swamps.
--Saturday Review of Literature, Aug. 27, 1938.

TORREY, BRADFORD, Florida Sketch Book, 1894

Possesses the discursive fluency and whimsical humor of the
true essayist.


The first school in what is now continental United States was
that conducted by the Franciscans at St. Augustine according
to Dr. Maynard Geiger, noted authority on that period. Prob-
ably a combination of school and seminary, note was made of
it in 1606 (one year prior to the settlement of Jamestown), by
Bishop Juan de Las Cabezas de Altamirano.
This rich tradition has not, unfortunately, aided the progress
of education in the state of Florida. As late as 1885 it was
reported to President Noah Porter of Yale that Florida schools
"were running from two to five months per year with little
classification and wholly inadequate facilities. Most of the
'crackers' or 'poor whites' of adult age cannot read. Florida
is one of the most illiterate of the states."

Federal and Florida State Department of Education reports,
supplemented by publications of colleges, universities, andre-
lated institutions, indicate that since that time appreciable prog-
ress has been made.

ARMSTRONG, O. K., Life and Work of Dr. A. A. Murphree, 1928

This biographical study gives, also, so much of the history
of the University of Florida that it is included under the sub-
ject of education. Additional data on this university is to be
found in Florida Teacher Magazine, December, 1941, and in
other periodicals.

BUSH, G. G., History of Education in Florida, 1889
U. S. Bureau of Education Circular of Information No. 7.

COCHRAN, THOMAS E., History of Public School Education in
Florida, 1921
Bulletin No. 1 of State Department of Education.


DELAND, HELEN P., Story of DeLand 1928

A history of the founding of John B. Stetson University, by
the daughter of Henry A. DeLand, original founder of that

EZELL, B. F., Development of Secondary Education in Florida,

HANNA, A. J., Founding of Rollins College, 1936

Published in observance of the semi-centennial anniversary of
the founding of this college.

SPIVEY, LUDD, M., ed., Story of Southern College, 1935


So heavily taxed was the European imagination by the actual
and assumed exploits of discoverers in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries that there ensued an age so credulous as to consign to
oblivion the once proud position of Ananias.

Yet, when Florida was described as a continent, there was
truth in the claim. Discovered, claimed, and partly explored by
the Spaniards, Florida was the southeastern portion of North
America. It was the aggressions of the English which re-
stricted, eventually, the territory bearing the name of Florida to
something like its present boundaries.

So indistinguishable were reality and unreality in these early
days that contemporary chronicles need to be subjected to care-
ful scrutiny in order to sift out the truth. This literature was
penned not only by Spanish writers but by French and English.
It constitutes one of the most arresting sections of American


BOURNE, E. G., ed., Narratives of the Career of Hernando de
Soto, 2 vols., 1904
In the Trail Makers Series.
One of the most readable and authentic accounts of the dis-
coverer of the Mississippi River who, landing in the vicinity of
Tampa in 1539, explored much of the present state.
In 1939, Congress created a Commission to organize the
celebration of the four-hundredth anniversary of De Soto's ex-
pedition. See Final Report of the U. S. DeSoto Expedition
Commission, (1939).
HALLENBECK, CLEVE, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca ..., 1940
A personal account of the Spanish attempt to settle the west
coast of Florida in 1528, and of Vaca's remarkable journey from
the vicinity of Tampa three thousand miles across the continent.
Nine specially prepared maps and charts provide a valuable
... a work of sound scholarship, possibly the definitive tale of
the journey of that famous Spanish pedestrian in sixteenth cen-
tury North America .. makes very interesting reading.
--American Historical Review, Oct., 1940.
RIBAUT, JEAN, The Whole and True Discouerye of Terra
Florida, 1563
Jeannette Thurber Connor edited in 1927 a facsimile reprint
of the original English edition of this quaint account of the first
episode in the French exploration of Florida.
TRUE, DAVID O., ed., Memoir of Fontaneda Respecting
Florida, 1944
This reappraisal and amended translation has been made
under the direction of and published by the University of Miami
and the Historical Association of Southern Florida. The editor
states this Memoir is "one of the earliest source records of
Florida [and] gives much more information than a mere
cursory reading would suggest."


Florida first appeared on the legitimate stage of fiction in
1801 when Francois Chateaubriand, the French diplomat and
romanticist, published his Atala. So successful was it that the
story has been translated into virtually every civilized tongue.
Much of its enchanting Florida description was lifted from
Bartram's Travels....
By the 1850's Florida claimed a novelist of high rank though
'the claim was open to considerable question. She was Caroline
Lee Hentz who had won a $500 prize for her De Lara which was
produced in Philadelphia and Boston. Characterized by a lead-
ing literary historian as "the most cultured, perhaps, of all the
women writers of her period," she moved to Florida where she
completed her last writing.
A more valid claimant for Florida in the field of fiction was
Elizabeth Whitfield Croom Bellamy, (1837-1900), born near
Quincy. The definite scene and time of action of one of her
books, Old Man Gilbert, (1888), was Tallahassee in 1857.
Among Northern novelists who wrote of Florida was Maurice
Thompson in A Tallahassee Girl, (1882).
Among more famous fictionists who have used Florida as
locale were James Fenimore Cooper in ]ack Tier; or The Florida
Reef, (1848), William Gilmore Simms in The Lily and the
Totem, (1850), and Eugene O'Neill in his fantasy, "The
Fountain" in Plays, (1925-1926).
Of the numerous successful short stories for which Florida has
served as the locale, one of the best known is Stephen Crane's
"The Open Boat." It tells of a shipwreck off the coast, in which
Crane, who was going to Cuba to report the Spanish American
War, was one of the chief actors. Other authors of notable short
stories with a Florida background are Marjory Stoneman Doug-
las, Edwin Granberry, Theodore Pratt, and Marjorie Kinnan


BENET, STEPHEN VINCENT, Spanish Bayonet, 1926

This is a romance with a factual background drawn from the
American Revolutionary period and concerned with the alleged
exploitation of the Turnbull colony of Minorcans, Greeks, and
Italians. Yet so uninformed were the majority of reviewers who
wrote of this book that they regarded its incidents entirely im-
probable. The author's ancestors were Spanish colonists who
settled in St. Augustine.

As swift and colorful a novel as I have read in many years. He
has captured his period in a few quick strokes, and spends the
rest of his time telling a stirring story with beautiful phrases and
striking scenes.
Bookman, April, 1926.

CABELL, BRANCH, First Gentleman of America, 1942

Use of the dramatic background of Florida by high ranking
novelists was emphasized by the appearance of this book which
the late Stephen Vincent Benet regarded as one of Mr. Cabell's
best. The hero is an American Indian whose life is influenced
by sixteenth century happenings in Florida.

GRANBERRY, EDWIN, Erl King, 1930

The author is the Irving Bacheller Professor of Creative
Writing in Rollins College.

[The scenes] are laid on the coast of Florida, a coast where
treacherous coral reefs that forbid sailing find a sort of echo on
the landward side in limestone pools and hollows. Mr.
Cranberry's landscape is as ghostly, as full of magic noises
and terrifying transformations, as any landscape of a romantic
or drugged poet Here is exquisite writing, a story of tragic
dignity told with extraordinary reserve.
--Chicago Evening Post, Nov. 21, 1930.


Strangers and Lovers, 1928

The locale is Arcadia; the time, World War I.

The story is so coherently unified to the tropical violence of
the scene of its action, the hurricanes, the mobs, the cruel luxu-
riance of nature, that the tale flows smoothly with the lilt of a
natural poetry and that happy marriage of character to appro-
priate action which distinguishes drama from melodrama. ...
The story is expressed in a supple, glowing prose which has the
deceptive simplicity of fine style. Better still, it is a virile,
imaginative style ....
-N. Y. Times, Feb. 19, 1928.

The author has the most perfect ear for Southern speech that I
have ever known. He has the feel of the region and its land-
scape and the mystical people who move within it. His novel
is superior in all respects, for it tells a memorable tale with
mature craft and it produces human beings of vitality.
-New Yorker, April 14, 1928.

HEMINGWAY, ERNEST, To Have and Have Not, 1937

The scene of the book is Key West and Cuba. The story is a
sort of saga, disconnected and episodic, of one Harry Morgan,
burly, surly, hard-natured "conch" (as Key West natives call
themselves), whose life has been spent in the single-minded effort
to keep himself and his family at least on the upper fringes of the
"have nots."
Time, Oct. 18, 1937.

HURSTON, ZORA NEALE, Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937

The scenes are laid in Eatonville, seven miles north of Or-
lando, where the author was born, and in the Everglades area.

From first to last this is a well-nigh perfect story--a little
sententious at the start, but the rest is simple and beautiful and
shining with humor.
-N. Y. Times, Sept. 26, 1937.

S. its conception of these simple Florida Negroes is unaffected
and really beautiful.
New Republic, Oct. 13, 1937.


PRATT, THEODORE, Barefoot Mailman, 1943

All the conventions of frontier melodrama, from the simple hero
to the good but alcoholic Indian, are observed in this novel
with a charm which makes them seem not only fresh but natural
as daylight .... Steven's adventures are told with beguiling good
humor, and are set in brilliant, loving descriptions of the Florida
coast, calculated to make any reader rush for the nearest beach
to take off his shoes and hunt seashells.
Atlantic Monthly, Oct., 1943.


Book-of-the-Month Club selection for April, 1942, it can best be
described as an autobiographical regional study.
N. Y. Times, Mar. 16, 1942.
[The author's] reminiscent, unhurried, humorous account of
how she discovered and took possession of a new U. S. literary
landscape (Florida), a new literary folk (the Florida backwoods
people) and the Cracker idiom ....
-Time, Mar. 23, 1942.

South Moon Under, 1933

It is a simple story of life in the Florida backwoods, in the scrub
country where the hard conditions of pioneer life still exist.
Lant Jacklin, the hero of South Moon Under, is a modern des-
cendant of Deerslayer and the Indian fighters, a keen hunter,
a solitary unable to adjust himself to the social requirements
of the community .... Mrs. Rawlings brings her fullest powers
of observation to bear upon the scrub itself, on Lant's long hunt-
ing trips, his trapping and logging expeditions, his encyclo-
pedic knowledge of the woods.
-New Outlook, quoted in Book Review Digest, 1933.

Yearling, 1938

Awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Presents a superb description
of the scrub region near the St. Johns River in the decade after
the Civil War. State adopted.


With ... its skillful use of native vernacular, its tender relation
between Jody and his pet fawn, The Yearling is a simply written,
picturesque story of boyhood that stands a good chance, when
adults have finished with it, of finding a permanent place in
adolescent libraries.
Time, April 4, 1938.

STRABEL, THELMA, Reap the Wild Wind, 1941

Ran as a serial in the Saturday Evening Post and later filmed
by Paramount. Period: 1840's. Of the picture Time (April 20,
1942) says:
[The picture] has all that money ... can buy: horrendous hurri-
canes, sailing ships to buck them; a monster squid, brave men
and bold to tackle it; a dressmaker's dream of a cotillion; flora
and fauna and seascapes galore; vermilion cockatoos and great
red cheeses; redcoated slaves and monkeys in the rigging; rooms,
houses, towns, cities, dripping with elegance and Technicolor ....
The story itself is the successful fight of shipowners to break up
a gang of salvage pirates among the Florida keys.

man the Keeper: Southern Sketches, 1880
There is story-value and motion in her most descriptive of South-
ern writings, "The South Devil." Among her writings, it is for
Florida what "St. Clair Flats" is for the Great Lakes country. In
the company of approaching death, and finally with death itself,
she takes the reader through the South Devil swamp, beautiful,
odorous, oppressive, poisonous, deadly, with claret-colored pools,
lilies, tall cypress trees, birds, and snakes and other venomous
--South Atlantic Quarterly, Jan., 1940.



The story of Florida's economic development has yet to be
written. Federal, State, and privately printed pamphlets and
reports provide considerable information on the subject. A
number of the industries have been surveyed in publications of
the State Department of Agriculture, the University of Florida
Economic Series, and the United States Sugar Corporation.

The oldest and perhaps the most famous industry, that of
citrus, was introduced by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century.
It produced during the season 1944-45 a crop valued at approxi-
mately $163,000,000. This industry has received considerable
treatment in the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural
Society, in other periodicals, in newspapers, and in sections of

Stockraising, particularly cattle, was also introduced by the
Spaniards. Until the introduction of citrus into Central Flor-
ida, cattle raising was the most important source of wealth
there. Rex Beach has written a novel, Wild Pastures, (1935),
about cowboy life in the Ft. Myers region, in which Jacob Sum-
merlin, probably best known of Florida cattlemen, appeared.

A prosperous industry but one with questionable standards
was the profession of wrecking which developed. along the
Florida keys during the first half of the nineteenth century. In
time it became regularized and was the means of making Key
West at one time the largest city in the State. Property valued
at at least $1,000,000 passed annually through this port.

Lumber and naval stores have until recent times ranked among
sources of wealth. In the 1820's, 1830's, and 1840's, Florida's
ancient live oaks were sought by New England shipbuilders.
Manufactures and tourists rank at present among the foremost
sources of revenue; each accounts annually for an income in the
$300,000,000 bracket.


Unique among farm products, the total income from which
approaches $150,000,000 per year, is the celery crop of the St.
Johns River Valley centering at Sanford and the Lake Okee-
chobee area, constituting as it does more than one-third of the
world's production. Other winter vegetables, as well as cot-
ton, corn, tobacco, sweet potatoes, and peanuts, and the rapidly
expanding sugar cane industry, are the principal products of
Florida farms.
Fishing, including oysters, shrimps, and sponges, provides
an annual income of approximately $25,000,000; mining prod-
ucts, principally phosphate, limestone, and Fuller's earth are
responsible for an additional $21,000,000.

CAMPBELL, A. STUART, Cigar Industry of Tampa, 1939
"An authentic and fairly comprehensive picture of the Tampa
cigar industry," says the author, who was at the time director
of the Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University
of Florida.

DACY, GEORGE H., Four Centuries of Florida Ranching, 1940
The title of this book is somewhat misleading, since virtually
the entire treatment relates to the last century. It is valuable
in parts but on the whole leaves many questions unanswered.

HUME, H. HAROLD, Cultivation of Citrus Fruits, 1926
A comprehensive review of the established facts with regard
to citrus culture, chiefly from the Florida viewpoint. It includes
not only the historical and commercial aspects of the industry
but a discussion of the botany of the citrus group, breeding, and
selection of new varieties, and how they are propagated. Full
discussion is given to such topics as the choice of grove sites and
soils, planting and cultivation methods, the proper use of fer-
tilizers, protection against frost, grove sanitation, and market-
ing methods. Numerous illustrations.


RERICK, R. H., Memoirs of Florida, Vol. I, 1902
This pioneer work, containing chapters on State finances and
banking, railroads, navigation, export trade, resources and in-
dustries, etc., was edited by Francis P. Fleming, Governor of
Florida 1889-1893.
WOLFF, R. P., Miami, Economic Pattern of a Resort Area, 1945
A superior and comprehensive work which has grown out of
a series of studies undertaken by the author for the Post-War
Planning Commission of the University of Miami. "These
studies," he explains, "were aimed at supplying background
material for the economic and sociological planning of the
Greater Miami area and its integration and coordination into
South Florida."
Inter-American Relations
Florida has been closely related always through numerous
bonds with Hispanic America. During the period 1513-1763,
Spanish Florida was important to the empire of which it was a
part because of the protection its long south-to-north coast line
afforded the treasure galleons, and because its northern boun-
dary obstructed English aggression southward. Much litera-
ture on this general subject will be found under "Exploration,"
"Settlement," "Indispensable Books," and "Religion."
When in 1821 Florida was transferred from Spanish sover-
eignty to that of the United States, its economic pattern was
dominated by the cotton interests of the lower South. The
northern part of the State therefore became a pale reflection of
the economic system of the Old South, despite the fact that
nature created Florida an economic entity of the Caribbean area.
However, in recent years this law of nature has found expression
in a more intelligent pattern which takes into account its unique
advantages of soil and climate, and its strategic location in the
center of the Americas adjoining that sea of destiny, the


Some of the more recent political connections between Florida
and Cuba have been traced by Ruby Leach Carson in "Florida,
Promoter of Cuban Liberty," Florida Historical Quarterly,
January, 1941. Other relations between Florida and Cuba have
been traced and described in national magazines and in books
on related subjects.
The phenomenally rapid advance in air transportation between
the United States and the other American republics, as observed
at the Miami airport, presents an impressive array of facts which
make clear the steadily advancing relationships between this
southeasternmost sector of the United States and lands to the
Recognition of increased inter-American relationship is to
be found in a recently published guide to Miami (in Spanish).
An undertaking of far-reaching possibilities in the realm of
inter-American affairs is the St. Augustine Historical Program,
initiated in 1936 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in
cooperation with citizens of Florida, particularly those of St.
Augustine. In a scholarly publication, The Defenses of Spanish
Florida, 1565 to 1763, (1941), Verne E. Chatelain writes
that the purpose of the Program is "to undertake a systematic
study, as well as the preservation, of historical sites, buildings,
and other remains, so that these resources might be made avail-
able in the future as a means of historical education, and as a
nucleus of a center for examining the origin and development
of certain aspects of American culture in relation to Spanish
activities in Florida." The Legislature of Florida has appro-
priated $50,000 toward the realization of these objectives and
other gifts have been made by groups in St. Augustine. Al-
ready a number of old houses have been purchased and are be-
ing preserved and restored by State and local organizations.


In Florida, where the temperate zone is influenced by sub-
tropical waters, the study of nature is particularly rewarding in
its surprising variety. On and about this peninsula in the center
of the Americas, wild life of the Western Hemisphere con-
verges; and in manifold colors, forms, and perfumes, flowers
contribute beauty to the winter scene.
Nowhere else in the world except in the upper reaches of the
St. Johns River do several species of birds exist in considerable
numbers. The coast, particularly in the vicinity of Sanibel
Island, is an Elysium for the shell collector. From the 1830's
to the present, benefactors such as Dr. Henry Perrine, Gen.
Henry S. Sanford and Dr. David Fairchild, have increased
the commercial value and abundantly enriched the beauty of
the Florida plant world by the introduction of exotics.

ALDRICH, BERTHA, and SNYDER, ETHEL, Florida Sea Shells,
The authors have tried to meet an ever-increasing demand for
information about shore life.

BAKER, MARY FRANCIS, Florida Wild Flowers, 1926

"From a great number of plants I have taken 700 of the more
common and of the more remarkable," explains the author, "and
have attempted to describe them in simple terms, so that without
the trouble of consulting a glossary, and without special study
of botany, those who are fond of the out-door world may learn
to know the Florida flowers."

COOK, C. WYTHE, Scenery of Florida Interpreted by a Geo-
logist, 1939
In this State of Florida Department of Conservation Geologi-
cal Bulletin No. 17, is presented a geologist's view of the Flor-


ida landscape, as intelligible to the layman as it is useful to the
geomorphologist. It explains the geologic composition, factors
shaping the peninsula, and describes the coast line, islands,
beaches, lagoons, bays, harbors, rainfall, ground waters, springs,
lakes, streams, and sinks.

DAVIS, JOHN H., JR., Natural Features of Southern Florida,

This scientific treatment of the main physical and biological
features of that part of Florida south of the northern border
areas of Lake Okeechobee is State of Florida Department of
Conservation Geological Bulletin No. 25. Its value is much
enhanced by numerous maps, diagrams and photographs.

HARPER, ROLAND M., Geography of Central Florida, 1921

In the thirteenth annual report of the Florida State Geological

,Geography and Vegetation of Northern Florida,

In the sixth annual report of ,the Florida State Geological

HARSHBERGER, JOHN W., Vegetation of South Florida, 1914

Generally recognized by scientists as the most satisfactory
treatment of botany in lower Florida.

LONGSTREET, R. J., Bird Study in Florida, 1930

Written for the beginner this book is illustrated and has a
key for the location of the names of birds. Included is a con-
sideration of bird study in Florida, a brief presentation of prin-


ciples of scientific nomenclature and classification, and an out-
line of the principal field marks of the more common resident
and migrant birds.

NEHRLING, HENRY, Plant World in Florida, 1933

This is a remarkable work by a scientist who dedicated his
life exclusively to the plant world of Florida. The difficult task
of collecting, condensing, and editing his manuscripts was
achieved by Alfred and Elizabeth Kay.

PERRY, LOUISE M., Marine Shells of the Southwest Coast of
Florida, 1940

This is a sound, technical treatise, illustrated. The author
points out that the "abundance of southern Florida's molluscan
fauna is tnexcelled by any other in America, and by but few
areas of like extent anywhere else."

SMALL, JOHN KUNKEL, Ferns of Florida, 1931

This little manual describes and illustrates nearly all of the
interesting plants of Florida.

SMITH, MAXWELL, East Coast Marine Shells, 1937

A combination popular handbook and technical work cov-
ering the Atlantic coastal regions from Maine to Texas with
special treatment of Florida. Contains one thousand illustra-
tions (photographs and figures) and a map of Florida showing
where shells are most likely to be found.

SNYDER, ETHEL, Florida Trees, 1940

A practical handbook whose illustrations make identification


Regional and Local Areas
Authors of local histories are, generally, able and successful
in their vocations, but few of them have recognized the neces-
sity or have had an opportunity of training themselves for the
writing of history. Consequently, written as they are in the
tradition of the older annalists and chroniclers, these books,
with several notable exceptions, fail to meet those standards of
organization, balanced treatment, and facility of style for which
no amount of industry, enthusiasm, and devotion to locality can

However, the books listed below make available and preserve
many facts that otherwise might have been destroyed, lost, or
forgotten. They give valuable information about regions, coun-
ties, cities, and towns.
Lack of space has prevented listing guide books; several of
these, prepared by the W.P.A. Writers' Program in the Ameri-
can Guide Series, are excellent.

ARMSTRONG, H. CLAY, ed., History of Escambia County, 1930
Narrative and biographical.

BELL, EMILY LAGOW, My Pioneer Days in Florida, 1876-1898,
A fresh and human story of life on the east coast.

BETHELL, JOHN A., Pinellas; a Brief History of the Lower
Point, 1914
The author has recorded his personal observations.

BICKEL, KARL A., Mangrove Coast, 1942
The author, now a resident of Sarasota, was president of the
United Press 1923-1935, and is now president of the Florida
Historical Society.


In the epilogue Mr. Bickel says of his book that it is "no
history of the region but a call to the historians to see how rich
this part of the coast is." The Mangrove Coast extends
roughly from Tampa southward.along the west of the peninsula
of Florida. While most of Mangrove Coast relates to the
to the region proper, Mr. Bickel wanders off to other realms
whenever it suits his mood and deals with the incidents in which
he is interested. He tells of Jackson's arrival in Pensacola for
the exchange of flags, of Tallahassee's early days, and of
Napoleon's nephew, Achille Murat, who settled there. Mr.
Bickel gives evidence of wide reading of the literature of Florida
and, even more important, a broad knowledge of the lore of the
coast and the natural life inhabiting it.
Journal of Southern History, Feb., 1943.
BLACKMAN, E. V., Miami and Dade County, 1921
Narrative and biographical.

BLACKMAN, WILLIAM F., History of Orange County, 1927
Narrative and biographical. The author was president of
Rollins College, 1902-1915.

BROWNE, JEFFERSON B., Key West, the Old and the New, 1912

BUCHHOLTZ, FRITZ W., History of Alachua County, 1929
Narrative and biographical.

CANOVA, ANDREW P., Life and Adventures in South Florida,

COHEN, ISIDOR, Historical Sketches and Sidelights of Miami,

DAVIS, T. FREDERICK, History of Jacksonville and Vicinity,
1513 to 1924, 1925
A Florida Historical Society publication.
The work contains special articles on the old churches,
banks, clubs, military organizations and other special features of
great and lasting interest, not only to the city of Jacksonville
and Duval County, but the entire state of Florida.
-Florida Historical Quarterly, Oct., 1925.


FITZGERALD, THOMAS E., Volusia County, Past and Present,

FRIES, KENA, Orlando in the Long, Long Ago ... and Now, 1938

GATEWOOD, GEORGE W., On Florida's Coconut Coasts, 1944

GIFFORD, JOHN C., Keys and Glades of South Florida, 1934

GOLD, PLEASANT DANIEL, History of Duval County, 1928
Narrative and biographical.

,History .of Volusia County, 1927

Narrative and biographical.

GONZALEZ, THOMAS A., comp., Caloosahatchee, 1932

A miscellaneous treatment of the Caloosahatchee River and
the city of Fort Myers.

GRISMER, KARL H., History of St. Petersburg, 1924

The most detailed and comprehensive history of St. Peters-
burg; written by a journalist.

HANNA, A. J., Fort Maitland, 1936

A detailed account of the building of a Seminole War fort
with some information about the town of Maitland. Maps and

HETHERINGTON, M. F., History of Polk County, 1928
Narrative and biographical.

HOLLINGSWORTH, TRACY, History of Dade County, 1936
Narrative and biographical.


KENNEDY, WILLIAM T., ed., History of Lake County, 1929
Narrative and biographical.

McDUFFEE, LILLIE B., Lures of Manatee, 1933
Reproduces much original source material of the region
surrounding Bradenton. It is much superior to the usual local

MCKINNON, JOHN L., History of Walton County, 1911

Story, 1930
A narrative of life on Biscayne Bay, coconut planting on the
keys, boat designing and building, and legal salvage work.
This story ... is just such a local chronicle of the development
of a community as every city or region ought to be glad to have
.. It is the kind of a volume that is always treasured in
historical collections because of its value as a source book.
-N. Y. Times, Nov. 30, 1930.
NASH, CHARLES EDGAR, Magic of Miami Beach, 1938

PLOWDEN, JEAN, History of Hardee County..., 1929

REYNOLDS, CHARLES B., Old St. Augustine; a Story of Three
Centuries, 1885

ROBINSON, ERNEST L., History of Hillsborough County, 1928
Narrative and biographical.

SEWALL, RUFUS KING, Sketches of St. Augustine, 1848
STRAUB, W. L., History of Pinellas County, 1929
Primarily biographical. The work of a former editor of the
St. Petersburg Times.
WHITEHURST, MARY K., ed., Brooksville and Hernando County,



With two minor exceptions, religious activities in Florida
from 1513 to 1821 were those of the Roman Catholic Church.
A Franciscan missionary, Francisco Pareja, became the leading
scholar of the Timucuan language while working with Indians
in the St. Johns River area in the early 1600's. Subsequently
published in Mexico, his translations constitute much of what is
known of this dialect.
The work of other churches dates from 1821 and has been
recorded primarily in tracts, pamphlets, articles in periodicals,
and publications of a miscellaneous nature. Among the more
extensive of these writings are those of the Rev. Edgar L.
Pennington about the Protestant Episcopal Church.

CAMPBELL, DOAK S., Florida Baptist Association: the First
Hundred Years, 1842-1942, 1943
This was the first missionary Baptist association in Florida
and may be regarded as the parent of the Florida Baptist Con-
vention. The author is president of the Florida State College
for Women.

CURLEY, MICHAEL J., Church and State in Spanish Florida, 1941
Aside from the clear exposition of the activities of the church,
the author gives a scholarly interpretation of the policies in Spain
in the field of civil government in the Floridas.
-Florida Times-Union, Dec. 7, 1941.

GEIGER, MAYNARD, Franciscan Conquest of Florida, :1573-
1618, 1936
On page 77 the author notes, "St. Augustine may ... claim
to be the first city within the present limits of the United States
that had a hospital."
Although himself a Franciscan, the Rev. Dr. Geiger has made his
point of view broadly social and not strictly ecclesiastical. The
appraisals of the economic and social view of the friars, and the


care shown not to slight the important tools and products which
are being forged by the anthropologists, indicate his breadth of
view. Wherever the anthropologists have made general studies
and especially where they have made particular ones, they are
indispensable to a story of missionization as now required both
by lay and religious specialists. The functioning of the mission
as an institution could not be made clearer..
-Hispanic American Historical Review, Feb. 1939.

HOSKINS, F. W., History of Methodism in Pensacola, 1928

LANNING, JOHN TATE, Spanish Missions of Georgia, 1935
The Spanish missions treated in this volume were in that
part of Spanish Florida which is now the State of Georgia.

LEY, JOHN B., Fifty-two Years in Florida, 1899
Based on the author's diary of 1845-1897, this now rare book
recounts incidents, information about which is not available
elsewhere, such as the experiences of Methodist circuit riders,
church property, condition of roads, and biography.

NANCE, ELLWOOD C., Florida.Christians, 1941
In reviewing this history of the Disciples of Christ in Florida,
the Tampa Tribune (Jan. 4, 1942) calls attention to the naming
of the second oldest church of that denomination in the State,
the'Withers Memorial Church at Ocoee near Orlando. It bears
the name of its founder, a Confederate officer who "hated the
North so keenly that he named his daughter 'Rebel' and a niece
'Virginia Secession.'"
The author is president of the University of Tampa.

THRIFT, CHARLES T., Trail of the Florida Circuit Rider, 1944
This small book is devoted to the history of Methodism in
Florida east of the Apalachicola River from the earliest mission-
ary efforts to the present time. The author turned aside from
the writing of a "larger study on Florida Protestantism" to write
this book as a portion of the centennial celebration of the Florida
Conference of the Methodist Church in 1944.
-Journal of Southern History, Nov., 1944.



Since the settlement of Florida as a territory dates from 1821
when it came under the sovereignty of the United States, and in
view of the fact that settlers came from other areas of the
United States, the racial stock is predominantly Anglo-Saxon.
There are, however, small groups of descendants of early
Spanish inhabitants, principally in Pensacola and St. Augustine.
A number of these Spanish Americans trace their descent from
the late 1700's.

A survey of today's population reveals unique elements. The
use of Spanish dialects and customs in St. Augustine, though
rapidly disappearing, identifies descendants of that nation. In
Tampa almost one-third of the population is Spanish and Latin
American. This group bears no relationship to the Spanish
colonial period; its presence is explained by the establishment
in the 1880's of the cigar industry. In Tarpon Springs is a
colony of first, second, and third generation Greeks who account
for the sponge industry. There are other, less important,
colonies which retain inherited national characteristics.

South of a line drawn from St. Augustine to Tampa will be
found the most recently-arrived settlers in Florida, pioneers or
their descendants who found their way to Florida from the
East or Middle West after the 1890's. For maps presenting
studies of the distribution of population from 1830 to 1900 see
ABBEY, Florida, Land of Change, included under "Indis-
pensable Books on Florida."

[CORSE], CARITA DOGGETT, Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the New
Smyrna Colony, 1919

This unique settlement was established in 1767. It consisted
of approximately twelve hundred Minorcans and a number of
Greeks and Italians who were to develop an ambitious agricul-


tural project covering more than 100,000 acres. Descendants
of this colony make up the present Spanish element in the
population of St. Augustine. Much inferior fiction and one
excellent book (BENET, Spanish Bayonet, see "Fiction") have
been written about these early settlers.

LOWERY, WOODBURY, Spanish Settlements within the Present
Limits of the United States, Vol. I, 1901, Vol. II, 1905

Vol. I covers 1513-1561; Vol. II extends from 1562 to 1574
and, in addition to the Spanish, includes an account of the
French settlement on the St. Johns River.

Sports and Recreation

Hunting, fishing, swimming, boating, and ball games occu-
pied much of the time of Florida aborigines in pre-Columbian
days. Among Spanish and French chroniclers who described
these activities was Jacques Le Moyne, a French artist who,
in the sixteenth century, spent a year on the St. Johns River.
He left, in a set of unique drawings, a noteworthy record of
these sports.

In the latter part of the nineteenth and the early part of the
twentieth centuries, when the rise of big business enabled
Florida to become a winter playground for millions, facilities
for sports and recreation accounted for an estimated outlay
of $750,000,000.

Sports for the individual include those of prehistoric times,
as well as golf, tennis, yachting, and shuffle board. The more
popular spectator sports are horse racing, dog racing, and base
ball. They have been described in travel books, guides, and
other ephemeral literature.


CORY, CHARLES B., Hunting and Fishing in Florida, 1896

Although written at a time when there existed a relative
abundance of wild life, this book is still timely. It is adequate-
ly illustrated and contains much scientific information. The
author was the curator of the Department of Ornithology in the
Field Museum of Chicago.

DIMOCK, A. W., Book of the Tarpon, 1911

The author contends that "no available sport offers greater
legitimate excitement than tarpon fishing." Photographs re-
flect the skill this sport requires.

ENDICOTT, WENDELL, Adventures with Rod and Harpoon Along
the Florida Keys, 1925

GREGG, WILLIAM H., When, Where, and How to Catch Fish on
the East Coast of Florida, 1902

HENSHALL, JAMES A., Camping and Cruising in Florida, 1884

KAPLAN, MOISE N., Big Game Anglers' Paradise, 1937

MILLER, STEWART, Florida Fishing, 1931

The waters of southeastern Florida are, says the author,
"the most productive of game fish of any waters in the world."
In this illustrated guidebook, he describes the ten per cent of
the more than six hundred varieties of fishes which are com-
monly taken by fishermen.

ROMAN, ERL, Fishing for Fun in Salty Waters, 1940


SWar and Reconstruction

The Spanish colonial history of Florida is primarily a record
of border conflicts between the Spanish and the English. In
the 1830's and 1840's the peninsula was the scene of the most
important conflict between the United States and the Indians.
This was the Seminole Indian War which lasted as long as the
Revolution of the thirteen Anglo-American colonies and resulted
in the removal to the west of several thousand Indians and the
driving of the undefeated remainder into the Everglades.

This war, declared Theodore Roosevelt, "cost $30,000,000
and baffled the efforts of several generals and numerous troops
. [From] their gloomy, tangled swamps, and among the
unknown and untrodden recesses of the Everglades, the Indians
... issued... to burn and ravage almost all the settled parts of
Florida .... Our troops generally fought with great bravery;
but there is very little else in the struggle, either as regards
its origin or the manner in which it was carried on, to which
an American can look back with any satisfaction."

Otherwise, Florida does not differ materially from other
states in its participation in wars waged by the United States,
except that her proximity to Cuba gave her a special role to
play in the Spanish American War. Reference has been made
to these conditions under "Inter-American Relations."

DAVIS, WILLIAM WATSON, Civil War and Reconstruction in
Florida, 1913

This is a voluminous record of the war and its aftermath as
localized in the state of Florida; a record rather than a narrative,
although the book is full of minor narratives of absorbing in-
terest. National politics and events are brought into view only
in so far as they are necessary to the comprehension of affairs
in Florida.
-American Historical Review, Jan., 1914.


SPRAGUE, JOHN T., Origin, Progress, and Conclusion of the
Florida War, 1847
Accepted by historians as a standard authority. An active
participant in the Seminole War, Captain Sprague drew a
vigorous portrait of this bloody conflict, remarkably impartial
for one who was personally concerned in its prosecution.

WALLACE, JOHN, Carpetbag Rule in Florida, 1888
The author explains in the preface that he was "held as a
slave until 1862, when he made his escape . entered the
U. S. Army ... 1863 ... and served two years and six months
... in Florida in the year 1864, and the early part of 1865 ....
Was elected twice to the lower branch of the Legislature, serving
four years, and twice elected to the Senate, where he served for
eight years . The design of this work is to correct the
settled and erroneous impression that has gone out to the world
that the former slaves, when enfranchised, had no conception of
good government. .."

T KNOW fully what has taken place on the peninsula of
Florida and why, it is essential to discover where it
happened. This is not a simple procedure when it is
realized that the State is almost as large as the combined New
England states, that it possesses one of the longest shore lines
in the Union, innumerable lakes, and more than its share of
rivers, small streams, and springs, not to mention cypress
hammocks, and almost impenetrable swamp areas.
As early as the turn of the sixteenth century cartographers
made at least vague records of the existence of the peninsula,
since which time map makers have advanced in varying degrees
scientific knowledge of this southeastern portion of North
America. Consequently, maps of Florida are extensive in
number and in conflicting outlines. The student who, there-
fore, undertakes a serious study of historical development finds
at his command tools for an understanding of geographical
The War Department through its staff of engineers and the
Department of Commerce through the Coast and Geodetic
Survey have made topographic maps and charts, basing them
on careful and scientific surveys and studies. A map by T.
Frederick Davis showing the track of Ponce de Leon leading
to the discovery of Florida will be found in the July, 1932,
number of the Florida Historical Quarterly.
ADAMS, J. T., ed., Atlas of American History, 1943
A companion study to the Dictionary of American History,
it is concise, easy to use, carefully thought out, and authorita-
tive. The Florida maps were drawn under the supervision of
Kathryn T. Abbey.
PHILLIPS, P. L., ed., The Lowery Collection. A Descriptive
List of Maps .... 1912
Of the 750 maps described, many are of Florida.


UNDER this heading have been listed two widely differing
groups of books. In one group will be found one or
more books relating to a subject for which space does
not permit a regular subject listing, such, for instance, as the
subject of "Indians." The other group of books included
under "Miscellaneous" are those which seemingly defy classifi-
cation under any particular subject, such as Florida Breezes,
the high value and absorbing interest of which demand inclusion.

CASH, WILLIAM T., History of the Democratic Party in Florida,
This is a valuable account of the dominant political party in
Florida. It is based on the personal observations of the author
who was a member of the State Legislature (first in the House
and later in the Senate) during virtually all of the period
from 1909-1920.

DEAN, NINA OLIVER, Golden Harvest, 1937
A pageant depicting the important events in the history of
Florida citrus from its introduction into the State by the
Spaniards to the present. The episodes include the bringing
of grapefruit to Tampa by Dr. Odet Phillipe, the tragic story
of Dr. Henry Perrine's experiment station on Indian Key, the
introduction of new citrus varieties by General H. S. Sanford
Sat "Belair" (now the Chase grove at Sanford), the Big Freeze,
the subsequent development of groves southward, and the
progress made by the use of modern machinery and insecticides.

KENNEDY, STETSON, Palmetto Country, 1942
In the American Folkways Series, this volume tells the story
of Florida in terms of the folkways of all the groups which have
contributed to the State's culture. It includes approximately


one hundred fifty Florida folk-songs, many of them indigenous.
Here is Florida flavor of both man and land.
The real purpose of his book .is to translate the people of
the palmetto country into prose-the Conchs, the Crackers, the
Negroes, the tourists, the madams, the jookers, the voodoo artists,
the tall-tale-tellers and the numerous remainder . But Mr.
Kennedy does more than retail the local variants of familiar
yarns-he seines up new material and he recognizes folk material
in the making .... He knows Florida business from cigars to
turpentine. In fact, Mr. Kennedy knows about everything, and
no Oxford Grouper could share more readily.
-Trenton Times, Dec. 27, 1942.

LONG, ELLEN CALL, Florida Breezes, 1882
This book is "a compilation of anecdotes, facts, and histories,
intended for reference and the entertainment of posterity"
(p. 259), by a daughter of Richard Keith Call, twice territorial
governor of Florida. Mrs. Long was born in Florida in 1825,
when her father was delegate to Congress. She enjoyed un-
usual opportunities for observation, and was fortunate in being
the recorder of the memoirs of an enlightened frontier leader
of the Jacksonian era. Her form of presentation is somewhat
fictional and she took liberties with the sequence of events.
Bitter resentment over some of her statements led to the destruc-
tion of almost the entire number of volumes printed. Less
than a dozen copies have been located by the Union Catalog.

POWELL, J. C., American Siberia, 1891
This book is allegedly written as a result of fourteen years
experience in a Florida convict camp; it describes the criminal
conditions of the convict leasing system.

READ, WILLIAM A., Florida Place-Names of Indian Origin,

Louisiana State University Studies No. 11.


The author says, "Most of the Indian names in Florida are
derived from three languages of the Muskhogean family-the
Seminole, the Hitchiti, and the Choctaw.

ROBERTS, KENNETH L., Florida, 1926
Based on articles in the Saturday Evening Post.
As a composite picture of a variegatedly insane episode in real
estate history, Mr. Roberts' account of the Florida boom is
fascinating material. It should be of interest to such widely
diverse readers as prospective investors, agriculturists, press
agents, tourists, and alienists. But perhaps most interesting of
all to social psychologists.
-N. Y. Times, June 13, 1926.
A horrible example of what overwriting does to a competent
-N. Y. World, May 23, 1926.
The book is a brilliant interpretation of one of the most
interesting phenomena of our times. The author has done for
the fad for going to Florida what Mark Twain did for the
California gold rush.
-N. Y. Evening Post, July 31, 1926.
Seminole Indians in Florida, 1940

This publication of the Florida State Department of Agri-
culture was compiled by workers of the W.P.A. Writers'
Program and edited by Ethel Cutler Freeman, Special Field
Assistant of the Department of Anthropology, American
Museum of Natural History. Based on A Survey of the
Seminole Indians of Florida, (1931), by. Roy Nash, Special
Commissioner to investigate Indian Affairs, it is popular in
form, illustrated, and contains a colored map of the Everglades
showing sites of Seminole Indian camps.

SWANTON, JOHN R., Early History of the Creek Indians and
Their Neighbors, 1922
Bulletin 73, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian
Institution, this authoritative work on the Indians of Florida is


invaluable. A great ethnologist, Dr. Swanton was chairman
of the Federal Commission for the observance of the Four
Hundredth Anniversary of the Expedition of De Soto.

THRIFT, CHARLES T., ed., Marshaling Florida's Resources, 1945
In this Florida Centennial Publication by the Florida
Southern College Press are reproduced formal addresses and
reports of a conference held at Florida Southern College the
general theme of which was "Marshaling Our Human Resources
for Florida's Development."
"Not only was the conference colored by the problems of an
approaching postwar era," explains the editor, "but likewise by
the individuality of many of Florida's problems . Florida
is in many ways in the South, but not of the South. Too old
to belong to the Old South, and too new to belong to the New
South, Florida's connections with each is far more geographical
than historical or cultural."


THE EARLIEST newspaper in Florida, The East Florida
Gazette, was established as a semi-official organ of the
English government at St. Augustine in 1783 in the last
year of British sovereignty. It was edited by Dr. William
Charles Wells, an English Loyalist from Charleston, who fled
to St. Augustine when the English troops withdrew from

The first newspaper to appear after Florida became in 1821
a territory of the United States Wvas The Florida Gazette, a
weekly published at St. Augustine by Richard Walker Edes.

Of the approximately 450 newspapers that since 1783 have
been printed in Florida, approximately 250 have ceased publi-
cation; 200 remain in operation, of which 47 are daily. Two
notable collections of these Florida newspapers exist, one at
the University of Florida; the other, in the Library of Congress.

In 1943 the Union Catalog of Floridiana began a survey
of Florida newspapers to render available essential information
such as exact name, place, frequency, and length of publication,
name of editor, policies, and other data such as James Owen
Knauss included in his admirable study, Territorial Florida
Journalism, (1925).

Newspapers serve as valuable, though not always accurate,
sources of information in many fields of knowledge because
of their wide range of interests. The frequency of their publi-
cation enables one to observe changes in trends of thought and
action and to compare and contrast points of view.

While most newspapers deal with topics of general interest,
Florida has at least one newspaper that seeks to specialize in
a particular field. This is the American Eagle, which is
devoted to the printing of material on plant life. It is published


by the Koreshan Unity, a religious co-operative community,
established in 1894 at Estero near Ft. Myers.
In 1939 one of the Pulitzer awards in journalism was made
to the Miami Daily News "for the most disinterested and
meritorious public service rendered by an American newspaper
during the year," in recognition of a successful campaign for
the ousting of a majority of the Miami City Commissioners.


F LORIDA by its very peninsular curve whimsically
terminates the United States in an interrogation-point,"
once wrote Sidney Lanier. Life on this so curiously
formed geographical region is reflected in periodicals of a
wide variety of purpose and content, issued by literary, scien-
tific, civic, business, and social organizations. Much of the
State's advancement during the past one hundred years is due
in large measure to influences exerted through these periodicals.
Coincident with its survey of Florida newspapers, the Union
Catalog of Floridiana is in the process of surveying periodicals
that have been and are now being published in the State. To
date more than 125 such have been catalogued, approximately
eighty-two of which are in current publication. They represent
agriculture, business, history, literature, promotion, religion,
social relations, and travel.
Probably the State's most learned periodical is the quarterly
Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences, an organization
devoted to the advancement of the biological, physical, and
social sciences. Maintaining a similar standard is the Florida
Naturalist, official organ of the Florida Audubon Society, one
of a very limited number of Southern periodicals in the field
of natural history. One of the most useful publications of 'the
State is the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural
Society, issued annually since 1888.
Other magazines of high standard are the Florida Magazine
of Verse, the Journal of the Florida Medical Association, and
the Florida Law Journal. Since 1923 the Journal of the Florida
Education Association, the present circulation of which is 11,500,
has exerted considerable influence in the improvement of
Although the Southern Folklore Quarterly is not exclusively
a Florida magazine, it is edited and published at the University


of Florida, and is the only periodical printing historical and
descriptive studies of Florida folklore and discussions of folk
material as a living tradition.
In addition to annuals and irregularly published periodicals,
there are three regularly published historical journals:
Tequesta of the Historical Association of Southern Florida,
published by the University of Miami; Apalachee of the Talla-
hassee Historical Society; and, the Florida Historical Quarterly
of the Florida Historical Society. This last-named journal
was established in 1908 by Francis P. Fleming, former governor
of the State, and in 1908 president of the Society.
In the Florida Historical Quarterly has been printed a vast
amount of material much of which is important. There have
been articles on early settlements, colonial days, Spanish
missions, Indians, wars, and forts. There have been letters and
'diaries giving intimate contact with the life of all periods, and
numerous biographies of Floridians of every era. There has
also been printed information on education, roads and every
kind of transportation, newspapers with a list of extant issues,
courts, citrus, land grants, churches, censuses, meteorology,
yellow fever, slavery and free Negroes, as well as some treat-
ment of the culture of each period. Economics has been
featured, with articles on plantations, trade, the early banks,
and railroad building.
Improvement is noticeable in the majority of these periodicals,
though many of them are handicapped by lack of adequate
financial support. An indifference to standard editorial prac-
tices is noted in several of these journals, such as the inclusion
of unsigned reviews in which occasionally is injected a pro-
vincial, emotional touch. Inasmuch as only a very limited
number of newspapers carry, regularly, book review columns,
Florida periodicals should give more space 'to an evaluation
of new books, many of which are of permanent value and
deserve wide reading.


INNUMERABLE publications relating to Florida have been
issued by State and Federal agencies. The majority are
in pamphlet form; their contents represent varying degrees
of quality and usefulness. Many have been issued as reports
required by law; others are the result of thorough research.
Nearly all of them are, if not out of print, free to the public.
A large number of these publications have been issued by
the State Department of Agriculture and other agencies in this
field, such as the State Agricultural Experiment Station and
the Agricultural Extension Service. Other publications have
been produced by the State Department of Education, the
office of the Secretary of State, etc.
To a larger extent, Federal agencies, such as the Department
of Agriculture, the Department of the Interior (including in
particular the National Park Service), have published materials
to aid development projects.
More recently a number of publications, of varying quality,
have been prepared by the W.P.A. Writers' Program and have
been made available through sponsorship of State agencies.
These publications relate to agriculture, archeology, flora and
fauna, history, industry, and recreation.

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