Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Origin of the committee
 State organization plan
 Objectives of county affiliate...
 What a county survey tells
 What is a health unit?
 Colored auxiliary
 Organizing the county committe...
 Executive committee
 Topics for meetings
 The health situation in Florid...
 Public relations committee
 Legislative committee
 Keeping the committee active
 How organization is financed
 What is public health?
 As others see it
 Committee organization chart
 Suggested county constitution
 County health unit law
 Additional sub-committees
 List of newspapers by counties
 A-B-C's of preparing newspaper...
 Officers and board of state-wide...
 List of chairmen and co-chairmen...
 Map of Florida by committee...

Group Title: Manual for Florida State-wide Public Health Committee,
Title: Manual for Florida State-wide Public Health Committee
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053465/00001
 Material Information
Title: Manual for Florida State-wide Public Health Committee and county affiliates
Physical Description: iii, 170 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Health
Henderson, Jean
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville
Publication Date: [c1940]
Subject: Public Health Administration -- Florida   ( mesh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Jean Henderson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00053465
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 14721602

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    Origin of the committee
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    State organization plan
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Objectives of county affiliates
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    What a county survey tells
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    What is a health unit?
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Colored auxiliary
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Organizing the county committee
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Executive committee
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Topics for meetings
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The health situation in Florida
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Public relations committee
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Legislative committee
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Keeping the committee active
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    How organization is financed
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    What is public health?
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    As others see it
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Committee organization chart
        Page 113
    Suggested county constitution
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    County health unit law
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Additional sub-committees
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    List of newspapers by counties
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    A-B-C's of preparing newspaper copy
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Officers and board of state-wide public health committee
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    List of chairmen and co-chairmen by districs and counties
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Map of Florida by committee districts
        Page 171
Full Text





and county affiliates



Public Relations Consultant
State Board of Health


Executive Secretary, State-
Wide Public Health Committee


Copyright 1940
Florida State-Wide Public Health Committee
All rights reserved

Published January 1940

State Board of Health
Jacksonville, Florida.

The Florida State-Wide Public
Health Committee is essentially
a lay organization and should con-
cern itself only with those broad
questions of public health which
may be participated in by lay per-
sons. Matters of a specific or
controversial nature should be
worked out with the County Health
Officer or, in the case of no
full-time Health Unit, with the
State Health Officer, Dr. A. B.
LcCreary, State Board of Health
headquarters, Jacksonville, Flor-



1. To Disseminate accurate public health informa-
tion to the people of Florida.

2. To assist in the organization and maintenance
of full-time Health Units in all counties in
the state.

3. To assist in securing the adoption of recom-
mendations in "The Health Situation in Flor-
ida," as approved and adopted by the State
Board of Health.

4. To cooperate with the State Board of Health
and the Florida Medical Association and af-
filiates in their public health programs.


1. To secure a survey by the State Board of Health
of the health needs and resources of the coun-
ty, and to assist in carrying out the recommen-
dations presented in the survey.

2. To secure the formation of a full-time Health

3. To actively assist the Health Unit in carrying
out its program under the guidance and with the
advice of the County Health Officer.

4. To cooperate with and assist the State-Wide Pub-
lic Health Committee in its work of dissemina-
ting information concerning public health prob-
lems in the state and the correction of these
problems as recommended in the American Public
Health Association state-wide survey, "The Health
Situation in Florida".

Origin of the Committee 1
State Organization Plan 10
Objectives of County Affiliates 17
What a County Survey Tells 20
What is a Health Unit? 23
Colored Auxiliary 31
Organizing the County Committee 35
Executive Board 43
Meetings 46
Topics for Meetings 57
"The Health Situation in Florida" 64
Sub-Committees 68
Public Relations Committee Publicity
and Health Information 70
Legislative Committee 80
Keeping the Committee Active 84
How Organization is Financed 87
Reports 90
What is Public Health 93
As Others See It 102

A Committee Organization Chart 113.
B Suggested County Constitution 114
C County Health Unit Law 119
D Additional Sub-Committees 125
E List of Newspapers by Counties 135
F A-B-C's of Preparing Newspaper Copy 148
G Officers and Board of State-Wide
Public Health Committee 157
H List of Chairmen & Co-chairmen by
Districts & Counties 160
I Map of Florida by Committee Districts 171
Available upon application to State-Wide
Committee headquarters, Jacksonville.
County Health Questionnaire
Quarterly & annual report forms
Telling the Community, bulletin on publi-
city channels.


The Florida State-Wide Public Health Com-

mittee is essentially a lay organization whose

members include the state's leaders in civic,

industrial and educational affairs. It does,

however, have the endorsement and approval of

the state health department* And includes a-

mong its members many private physicians, den-

tists, lawyers and representatives of voluntary

health agencies.

These people are deeply and sincerely con-

cerned over the welfare of their state. They

are convinced that the grave public health prob-

lems brought to their attention by the Committee

must be overcome before permanent prosperity

The terms state department of health and State
Board of Health are used interchangeably in this
Manual. One of the major recommendations of the
American Public Health Association Florida survey
is that of changing the name of the official state
health agency from the State Board of Health to
the State Department of Health.

can be assured.

After giving careful study to the public

health problems and the means of solving them,

Committee members are convinced the only pen.ia-

nent solution is the carrying out of recommen-

dations set forth in the Florida health survey

made by the American Public Health Association

during the first six months of 1939. These re-

co~aendations, according to the unanimous opin-

ion of experts who have studied the report, re-

present the most modern, scientific and economical

method of administering public health.

Thus, the foundation upon which the Florida

State-Wide Public Health Ccamittoe rests is the

American Public Health Association survey. In its

summarized form, the survey is scae 75 pages in

length. Ten thousand copies are being distributed

by the Ccmmittee and the State Board of Health as a

bulletin entitled "The Health Situation in Florida".

The complete report is three times the

length of the summary and contains nany chapters

on departmental health administration studies

that are of interest only to staff members. It

is this report that has been adopted by the

State Board of Health as its long-time program.

Dr. A. B. lMcCreary, State Health Officer,

says he well realizes the program is so ambitious

"as to be alinost heroic. Nevertheless," he has

stated publicly, "the State Board of Health be-

lieves its adoption is to the best interests of

Florida people. Every resource of the state

health department will be utilized to put this

program into action as quickly as it is humanly


The U. S. Public Health Service and the U. S.

Children's Bureau, who allocate large sums of Fed-

eral money to the state health department, echo

their approval of Florida's decision to adopt the

survey as its official program. Newspapers of the

state have also been loud in their praise.

That the adoption of the program is no

idle gesture on the part of the State Board.

of Health is borne out by the fact that two

major recommendations have already been put

into effect as this goes to press. The first

was, of course, the establishment of the State-

Wide Public Health Committee, which was a primary

recommendation of the American Public Health As-

sociation field staff headed by Dr. Carl E. Buck

and his associate, Dr. G. F. Anyot. The second

was the discontinuance of the State Board of

Health district service.

When the American Public Health Associa-

tion field workers cane to Florida to make their

study they found the state divided into five of-

ficial health districts by the state Board of

Health. These districts encompassed the 50

counties that do not have full-time Health

Units. Each district had an average population

of 300,000 persons, To them a staff of one


Health Officer, one nurse and one sanitarian was

supposed to administer full-time health service.

That this was humanly impossible is easy to see.

The district health service was described in

the American Public Health Association report as

"expensive, inefficient and archaic." They

recommend that the districts be abolished and

the money thus saved devoted to strengthening

existing full-time Health Units and establish-

ing new ones. The U. S. Public Health Service

and U. S. Children's Bureau heartily concurred

and refused to permit further use of Federal

funds for support of district service.

Therefore, on October 1, 1939, health dis-

tricts in Florida were offi-clly relogated.to

the history pages. (Editor's-not&: The read-

er should differentiate between this kind of

health district, and the health districts be-

ing operated by sane states where they serve

such small populations and are so fully staffed

as to be comparable to County Health Units.

Such districts are, indeed, Health Units opera-

ting over several counties instead of one be-

cause the counties are small in both area and


Field workers of the Anerican Public

Health Association arrived in Florida on Janu-

ary 1, 1939 to begin their survey. They con-

pleted it June 30, the same year. The entire

cost was borne by the Association from a grant

given by the Conmanwealth Fund for the speci-

fic purpose of making state studies.

Florida had considerable competition in its

request for the survey. Bids from other states

were being considered by the State Heal th Stu-

dies Committee of the American Public Health As-


Florida's invitation was accepted because

(1) it had the endorsement of the State Board of

Health, the State Congress of Parents and Teach-


ers, The Florida Medical Association, the State

Planning Board, the State Department of Educa-

tion, and the Florida Public Health Association.

(2)' there was a definite need for the survey (3)

Florida citizens C:ave evidence of sufficient in-

terest and leadership to do something with the

survey after it was made.

In February 1939 a handful of representa-

tive public-spirited citizens net to discuss

the plans for organizing the State-Wide Public

Health Coanittee. As the survey progressed this

group became so interested in the findings and

felt that they were of such paramount impor-

tance to the future welfare of the state that

in May it was decided the Committee should lay

plans toward permanent organization.

The original "handful of people" became

know as the State Planning Coimittee of the

State-Wide Public Health Committee. John P.

Ingle, Sr., Jacksonville, was elected chairman.

Lrs. Eialcolm McClellan, president of the Flor-

ida Congress of Parents and Teachers, was elected


The State-Wide -ublic Health Committee of-

ficially took permanent form on November 2, 1939.

A constitution was adopted and permanent offi-

cers elected. Mr. In,:le became President and

Mrs. McClellan, his co-chairman, was elected


At the time of his election, I;r. Ingle had

been in retirement from business and civic af-

fairs for two years. As President of the State-

Wide Public Health Camittee he re-entered the

civic life of Florida to carve an even deeper

niche than he had done during the long and ac-

tive period of service prior to retirement.

This statement is still more significant when

it is remembered that the earlier niche had in-

cluded such civic responsibilities as president

of the Community Chest, twice president of the


Jacksonville Chamber of Comimerce, president of

the Rotary Club, president of the Jacksonville

Motor Transit Company. Not long after accept-

ing the Committee chairmanship Mr. Ingle was ap-

pointed general manager for the Associated In-

dustries of Florida, Inc. By virtue of this ap-

pointment, public health and Florida industry be-

came closely aligned.


In formulating a practical plan of organi-

zation for the State-Wide Public Health Commit-

tee, three principles were kept in mind:

(1) Necessity for representation from every
section of the state.
(2) Securing prominent and enthusiastic lo-
cal leaders as Committee members.
(3) Representation of every important group--
civic, professional, lay, fraternal,
religious, industrial

Since the primary function of the Committee

is to give voice to the people, no officials of

the state, county or city health departments are

permitted to hold office in the Committee, or to

vote. They are, however, considered ex-officio

members and will attend meetings of the Committee

whenever possible in order that members may have

the benefit of their experience in public health.

The State Executive Board of the State-Wide

Public Health Committee is composed of the fol-

lowing representatives who serve by virtue

of their office in other civic and professional or-

ganizations are:

American Legion, State Commiander
Florida Bar Association, President
Florida Federation of Business & Pro-
fessional Women's Clubs, President
State Chamber of Commerce, President
State Dental Society, President
State Dental Society, President-elect
Florida Federatiao of Labor, President
Florida Medical Association, President
Florida Medical Association, President-
State Nurses Association, President
Florida Congress of Parents & Teachers,
Florida Federation of Women's Clubs,
Florida Federation of Women's Clubs,
First Vice-President

and eight members-at-large appointed by the

State Health Officer.

Thus the charter members of the State-

Wide Public Health Committee who serve by vir-

tue of their offices in state organizations are:

W. C. Brooker Tanpa
D. H. Redfearn Miami
Miss Verdie Selman Jacksonville

Harold Colee*
E. B. Penn, D.D.S.
I. W. Shields, D.D.S.
Charles E. Silva
Leigh Robinson, M.D.
John S. Turberville, M.D.
Mrs. Martha Stetson
Mrs. Malcolm McClellan
Mrs. J. Ralston Wells
Mrs. Thurston Roberts

Ft. Lauderdale
St. Petersburg
Daytona Beach

and the following appointees of the State Health

John P. Ingle, Sr.
Mrs. Willis M. Ball
Luther W. Holloway, M.D.
George C. Killings
Mrs. John G. Kellum
Gilbert S. Osincup, M.D.
Charles B. Mabry, h.D.
Thomas E. Buclkman, L.D.**


District Chairmen serving as associate mem-
bers of the State Executive Board are:

A. J. Cleary
Marion T. Gaines
0. W. King
Edward M. Newald
Clifford A. rayne
F. A. Rhodes
P. G, LeMoyne, (Acting)

Ft. Myers

*Succeeded by Carl D. Brorein, Tampa, Dec. 5, 1939
**Dr. Buckman's term expired December 5, 1939.
S. R. Norris, M.D. Jacksonville, now serves on
the Executive Board.


In order to stimulate local interest and

thus establish local responsibility, the rules

and regulations set down in the state constitu-

tion and the suggested constitution for county

affiliates have been mado as flexible as possi-


Experience has proved that organizations

with humanitarian goals should be free to "carry

on" to the best interest of the public whom they

would serve. It is anticipate! that at tines,

in order to fulfill this obligation, it may be

necessary to move in ways that should not be

shackled by iron-clad rules, nor cluttered with

red tape.

Officers of the State-Wide Public Health

Committee are elected annually and eligible for

re-election. The Executive Secretary does not

necessarily have to be a monber of the Conrmittee.

The State Executive Board, appointed by

the President, carries on the work of the Com-


mittee between annual meetings. It meets at the

discretion of the President, but can be called in-

to session upon written notice from one-fifth of

the membership of the Executive Board.

It is the duty of the Executive Board to or-

ganize affiliate and local committees in each of

Florida's 67 counties. It is also their duty to

decide matters of policy for the State-Wide Committee

as a whole and, upon invitation, for county commit-

tees that may desire such service.

State Districts Seven District Chairmen

and Co-chairmen are appointed by the Executive

Board to preside over the seven districts into

vaich the state has been divided to facilitate

Committee operation. These men and women are

associate members of the State Executive Board.

It is the duty of the District Chairmen to

assist in the organization of county committees

within their district, and to see that these

committees remain active, to hold district


meetings or conferences as frequently as deemed

necessary and to serve as a clearing house for

the state organization.

In appointing District Chairmen and Co-

chairmen, the precedent has been established of

choosing a nan for one position and a woman for

the other. In counties, the sane idea can be

carried out to advantage. It is thought that

this policy will engender a nore diversified

interest in the Comnittee's program.

As a matter of policy it is not desirable

that one person be allowed to hold more than

one office. For example, a District Chairman

or Co-chairman should not also serve as an of-

ficer on the Coimittee in his hore county. He

night, however, very profitably serve as a mem-

ber of the County Executive Board.

This same policy applies to members of the

State Executive Board. They should not serve

as District Chairmen, or officers of a county


affiliate. But they may prove very val-

uable as members of the County Executive



In counties that do not have full-time Health

Units, the first and most important object of the

County Public Health Co~nittee should be the estab-

lishment of such a Unit* for the protection of the

health of all who live in the county.

In order to more fully appreciate the magni-

tude of the county's health problems and the size

Unit necessary to cope wvith those problems, a de-

tailed survey of actual conditions in the county

should be made.

Usually, surveys cost money and frequently are

very difficult to obtain. But such is not the case

with County Health Surveys. These are obtainable

upon request to the State Board of Health. But so

* It is the responsibility of the Committee to ac-
quaint the County Medical Society with the fact that
as a matter of policy the State Board of Health
and the U. S. Public Health Service recommend to the
staff of full-tine Health Units only those persons
having the approval of the County Medical Society.


numerous are the demands, and so limited the per-

sonnel of the state health department that it is ne-

cessary to handle them in the chronological order in

which applications are received.

Applications for county surveys should be drawn

up as formal resolutions or official letters of in-

vitation. These should come from the County Public

Health Committeo as well as from the County Medical

Society and the Chamber of Commerce, or any other

group sufficiently concerned with the welfare of the

county to participate in such a request. Anong the

possibilities are County Council of Parent-Teachers

Associations, County Federation of Women's Clubs,

American Legion, County Tuberculosis Association, etc.

In presenting invitations to the State Board of

Health requesting county surveys, it should be remem-

bered that the more passing of resolutions is not

sufficient. Copies must be sent to the headquarters

of the State Beard of Health in Jacksonville before

work on the survey can begin. The resolutions should


be addressed to the attention of the State Health

Officer, Dr. A. B. .icCreary.

When the survey is cocpleted and local health

problems set forth in a mimeographed bulletin, the

County Public Health Conm2ittee and other sponsors

will have a concrete foundation upon which to

base their clain for the necessity of a full time

Health Unit. It is the type of factual document

with which the Co -nitteo can face the County Com-

is sioners.

After the Unit is established the County

Public Health Comiittce still has work tG do. Its

merbors should then assist the Unit with its pro-

gran and keep the citizens of the county informed

as to progress being made.

In standing behind the Health Unit, the Con-

nittee makes a definite contribution toward the

maintenance of the highest standards of public

health service obtainable for the amount of money



In surveying the health conditions in a coun-

ty the State Board of Health entmerates and analyz-

es in detail the health problems of the. entire

county, making recommendations for their solution.

The result might be likened to surveys made by

civil engineers prior to starting work on a piece

of major construction.

As with the civil engineer, so with the health

officer. Each must know whore he is going and

what obstacles have to be overcome to reach that

goal. The survey naps cut the route for the Coun-

ty Health Officer.

That is why a survey is a prerequisite for the

establishment of a Health Unit. Even after the Health

Unit is organized the survey is valuable to the health

officers for he uses it to plan his initial disease

prevention and health promotion.

The survey is also used to dotormine the

minimum staff and budget required to satisfactorily

set up a full-time Health Unit that can be

enlarged and augmented as more funds are avail-


The type of information contained in the sur-

vey is:

Population trends over a period of years, ac-

cording to race, sex, age groups.

Analysis of climate and soil in relation to

health conditions.

Commercial and economic background.

Analysis of birth and death statistics over

a period of years by race.

Investigation of disease which should be

reported to public health authorities but in all

probability are not being reported, since the

county has no full-time Health Unit.

Report on any existing facilities for mater-

nal and infant hygiene instruction through pri-

vately operated clinics, county nursing service,


Enrollment in schools by grades, race. Ex-

tensive sanitary survey of all school plants, with

a report of condition of water supply, lavatories,

sewage disposa-, ventilation, lighting, heating, etc.

List of physicians and doctors practicing in

county and analysis of geographic distribution. Num

ber of midwives practicing in county. Analysis of

hospital facilities.

Survey of tourist camps in regard to sanitation.

Survey of mosquito problem to determine whether it is

confined to pest mosquitoes or whether malaria or oth-

er disease carrying mosquitoes are present.

Recommendations for coping with the above prob-


Budget setting forth appropriation necessary to

establish a nininum full-tine Health Unit, stating

the amount which must be raised locally and the a-

mount that will be supplemented by the State Board of

Health, U. S. Public Health Service, and U. S. Chil-

dren's Bureau.


A full-time Health Unit seems to be a very

vague and bewildering object in the minds of most

people. Apparently they don't quite know what it

is, why it is, or what it does!

Just as the state health department is the

official health agency of the state, so the full-

time Health Unit is the official health agency

of the county.

In Florida, County Health Units are created

by what is known as a permissive law. Not in the

law, Lut estcalishel as a matter of policy by the

State Board of Health is the requirement that per-

sonnel of the Health Unit have the approval of the

County Medical Society.

The County Health Unit belongs to the County

and responsibility for its operation rests solely

with the county. The extent of State and Feder-

al operation in counties is confined to (1) Par-

tial financial maintenance (2) Consultation ser-


vice from State and Federal public health special-

ists (3) Distribution of free biologics to local

health officers and private physicians (4) Use of

State Board of Health laboratories at Miami, Pensa-

cola, Tanpa, Tallahassee and Jacksonville.

The state health department does not render

the direct service of health officers, sanita-

rians and nurses in any community or county other

than on occasions of emergency or highly technical

questions. It is no more reasonable to expect the

state health dopartnent to run county and city health

departments than it is to expect the U. S. Public

Health Service to establish offices in the state for

the purpose of operating the state health department.

This practice, if it were attempted, would not be

tolerated by democratic people.

Supervisory bureaus and divisions operated by

the State Board of Health for the purpose of as-

sisting full-tine Health Units with their pro-


health, engineering including environmental'sanitation,

health education, vital statistics and local health


Specifically, the services to be expected frcm

the modern, fully-staffed, adequately financed Coun-

ty Health Unit are:

The investigation of communicable diseases such

as syphilis, gonorrhea, malaria, infantile paralysis,

meningitis, typhus fever, undulant fever, tuberculo-

sis, hookwvom, diphtheria, typhoid, with specific re-

gard to instituting measures for the control of these


Detailed and periodic investigation and super-

vision of general sanitary conditions, particularly

as related to water supply and sewage disposal.

Supervision of the public health aspects of the

production, pasteurization and distribution of milk.

Inspection of industrial plants to eliminate

health hazards.

Examination and inspection of-sehool

children for the discovery of communicable dis-

eases or physical defects. Notification to

parents of the findings of these examinations

and referral to private physicians for diag-

nosis and treatment, or in the case of indi-

gents, to any available clinic or institution.

Operation of a dental program that includes

courses in balanced diets as aids in building

healthy teeth; pre-school dental clinics with

dental health education instruction for the moth-

ers. Effort should also be made to establish

clinics for the correction of defects of dental

indigents among children. Where there is some

moans of caring for dental indigents so that cor-

rections are assured, dental inspection by the

local dentists is desirable.

Nutrition should be an integral part of

every county health program.

Health conferences designed to improve in-

fant and pre-school care for essentially well

children. Also conferences, such as pre-natal

care for those who would not otherwise obtain

medical supervision.

Clinics for diagnosis of syphilis and gon-

orrhea. Treatment for those patients unable to


Protection against certain communicable dis-

eases movwn to be preventable. These include

smallpox, diphtheria and typhoid.

Clinics for the early diagnosis of tubercu-

losis and follow-up service on active cases, in-

cluding the examination of all members of the fam-

ily in which there is or has been an active case.

Public health nursing service in the home to in-

clude teaching both patient and family in the

care and prevention of the spread of tuberculosis.

Assistance in obtaining institutional care, and

service to rehabilitate the person who has returned


from the institution.

Public health nursing, which includes in-

numerable services, such as assisting at con-

ferences, school services, health education and

home visits where instruction is gi-ve in carry-

ing out the physician's orders or the regulations

of the health department.

Recording and analysis of births, deaths and

disease reports. These are essential for build-

ing future programs and evaluating the effective-

ness of past programs.

A continuous program of health education,

vhich means the dissemination of information on

healthful living and disease prevention to every-

one in the community, adults as well as children.

Working through newspapers, radio, clubs, schools,

movies, the Health Officer, public health nurse,

sanitarians and health educators to communicate to

the citizens the means of controlling, and in many


cases completely eliminating certain health prob-


Distribution of free biologics from the State

Board of Health to private physicians. These in-

clude smallpox and typhoid vaccine, diphtheria tox-

oid, tuberculin, diphtheria anti-toxin, tetrachlo-

roethylene for treating hookworm, insulin for in-

digent diabetics, silver nitrate to prevent blind-

ness in newborn babies, and anti-rabic treatment

for indigents.

Child guidance clinics should be a part of

every Health Unit activity. Although there arc

no mental hygiene programs being carried on at

present by Florida Health Units, the State Board

of Health hopes some will be established in the near


To be successful a County Health Unit must:

1. Be full-time, meaning that its employ-

ces must work only for the Health Unit and should

not engage in private practice.


2. The staff nust be well trained as public

health specialists. A good practitioner of private

medicine does nct automatically make a good practi-

tioner of public health any more than a good practi-

tioner of public health would, by virtue of being

exceptional in that field, prove exceptional as a

private practitioner.


As soon as the State-Wide Public Health

Committee and its county affiliates beccrle fair-

ly well established they should diret.t their atten-

tian toward the organization of a Colored Aux-

iliary. Since one-third of the population of

Florida is composed of Negroes it is important

that attention also be focused on them in the

state-wide movement to improve health conditions.

The Colored Auxiliary of the State-Wiie

Public Health Cornittee can best be prcnoted

through colored ministers and school principals.

It must be borne in mind that no one denomination

should be given preference over another, but rath-

or an attnipt should be made to enlist one repre-

sentative from each denomination simultaneously.

In the order of size of membership, the leading

denominations are Baptist, African Methodist,

Episcopal, Catholic. The latter two have very


snall congregations.

Tho state office cf the State-Wide Public

Health Co mittee is already taking steps to enlist

colored leaders in various counties. As these are

recruited their names are being forwarded to the

chairmen of the County Public Health Cornlittee. For

this reason it would be well for any County Connittee

plnnitg a Colored Auxiliary to get in touch with the

state office of the State-Wide Public Health Conaittee

before taking definite steps.

Once the interest of the colored leaders is se-

cured, it is almost certain that enthusiastic pro-

grams will be carried on. They are eager for infor-

nation and take pride in having the opportunity to

help their people.

Too often are colored people the victims of

unscrupulous persons, nany times of their own race.

They need the assistance of honest, conscientious

people, both white and colored, who are in position

to guide then.


Syphilis, maternal and infant deaths and

tuberculosis take the greatest toll among color-

ed people. The cost is a heavy one, because, by

and large, colored people either do not know what

to do, are not financially able to do it, or if

financially able, are prone to fall prey to quacks,

untrained midwives or patent medicine vendors.

If white people are not interested in pro-

moting better health among Negroes from a human-

itarian standpoint then they should be interest-

ed frca a standpoint of self-protection. Negroes

perform most of the domestic duties in Floridad

They go into homes to cook food, wash clothes, tend

children, wait on tables, bringing -with them the

germ of whatever conmunicable disease they may have.

Outside the home they serve as chefs, waiters and

waitresses, maids, elevator operators, chauffeurs,

who in every instance are capable of transmitting

dangerous and infectious disease germs.

Too often is the remark heard, "If it weren't


for our large Negro population the Florida disease

and mortality rate wouldn't be so high." Those dho

make this statement do not stop to think that other

states also have their underprivileged groups which,

in all probability are as much or more of a problem

than Florida's.

Disease and death do not recognize race or

social class. Therefore, public health cannot recog-

nize then. The health of the people is a common prob-

lan that must be net by all for all.


The first consideration in organizing

County Public Health Com.aittee should be that

of membership and selection of officers. Invita-

tions for membership should be extended to those

leaders in the county whose identification with

and interest in the Committee will create a favor-

able impression upon the public. Many tires such

persons are already established as civic leaders

but just as frequently the Committee will be the

means of discovering and developing new leaders.

This, of course, is a healthy condition for any

organization to promote because new blood acts as

a stimulant.

County Cammittees should consist of a mini-

mum membership of 25, divided as equally as possi-

ble among men and women. No limitation is placed

on membership, which varies according to population.

Counties with large populations may have as many as

200 or 300 members.

The largest community in the county is

usually Committee headquarters. This means

that the county seat may not always be Committee


As in the State Committee, so with the Coun-

ty, the organization must be planned on a basis

of (1) geographic representation (2) civic repre-

sentation. 'No area or group in the county should

be omitted.

Geographically The county may be divided into

arbitrary districts, making as many districts as deem-

ed necessary except in counties where there are Health

Units. In these counties, the districts laid out by

the Health Unit are accepted by the Committee.

In Hillsborough and Duval Counties, where the

County Health Unit does not operate within the cor-

porate city limits of Tmpa and Jacksonville, the Coun-

ty Public Health Committee should add a city district

or districts to its Com:ittee. Members of county dis-

trict committees located in cities where there are

full-time City Health Departments must remnn-

ber to utilize these official departments as

they do the County Unit.

It is helpful to black off the district bound-

aries on a large county map or blueprint. These

can usually be procured from the county engineer's


In planning districts for counties without

Health Units, it is better to use the various can-

munities as a nucleus for each district. Thus, the

CoAiittee's pro-unit districts should be approximate-

ly the sane as those which will be set up by the Unit.

Each county district should have its own committee

headed by a chairman and co-chainman vho reside in the

district. The county district is represented on the

County Executive Board by the county district chair-

nan. These county district committees are the founda-

tion upon which the structure of the County Public

Health Conmittee rests. Their strength or weakness


determines the strength or weakness of the entire

county organization.

The county district committee can easily adapt

the organization plan of the County Public Health

Committee to its ovn use. The district organization

should be a replica in miniature of the county or-


Civic Representation The County Public Health

Committee must be especially careful to secure repre-

sentation from every oivic organization. Among those

found in the majority of counties and which it is es-

pecially important to include, are American Legion

and American Legion Auxiliary, Parent-Teachers groups

and councils, Rotary, Lions, Kiranis, Civitan, Optimist,

Exchange, Junior Charber of Conmerce, Senior Chamber of

Commerce, County Federation of Women's Clubs and the

more active local woman's clubs, Business and Profes-

sional Women's Clubs, Pilot Club, and such voluntary

health organizations as Tuberculosis, Cancer, Heart,

Crippled Children and Social Hygiene.


The council of Social Agencies and organi*.-

zed labor should also be represented. There

should also be representation from various profes-

sional groups such as the County Medical Society,

Dental Society, etc. A more complete list is to be

found in the Suggested County Constitution in the Ap-


Official Representation The following local

tax-supported agencies should be represented on the

County Public Health Counitteel County Cornission-

ers, district welfare board, the county budget con-

mission, school board, school superintendent.

As stated in an earlier chapter, the County

Health Officer, public health nurses, sanitary

engineers and other Health Unit staff members are

ex-officio nonbers. They do not hole office or


Fraternal and Religious No denoninaticn

should be overlooked. The Comnittee is a democra-


tic organization and some of the most important

work is done by pastors. They are the key persons

and carry the message behind the scenes to those

members of their congregation whom they feel best

qualified to assist in the health movement. Ladies'

Auxiliaries of such bodies should also be remembered.

Method of Inviting Representatives In seeking

representation from any organization, the proper pro-

cedure and the one that brings best results is that

of asking the president of the organization whose re-

presentation is sought, to appoint a representative.

It should be suggested that if he himself is too busy

to serve, he appoint a member interested in health


Choice of representation for the organization

should be left with the president. If however, the

County Public Health Committee Chairman knows of some-

one whom it is thought would make an interested mem-

ber of the Committee, there is no reason why the in-

dividual's name cannot be suggested.

Health Councils Those counties that

have had active County Health Councils or lo-

cal community councils are affiliating with

the State-Wide Public Health Committee. This

is in accordance with an agreement between the

Bureau of Public ,Health Nursing, State Board of

Health, which organized these counsils three

years ago as adjuncts to the public health nurs-

ing service.

The merger in no way curtails the activ-

ities of the former councils. On the contrary,

it increases their scope, for they continue to

carry on nursing committee programs as a vital

and necessary function of the general program

of the Committee.

In a majority of counties where there are

Health Units, the merger has already been com-

pleted. Thoso are Pinellas, Hillsborough, (whose

Unit Auxiliary brought more than 250 members to

the State-Wide Public Health Conmiittee) Escanbia,


hosee Cormiittee merged with the Council and add-

ed some 120 new members to the State-Wide Comiittee

roster) Taylor, Jackson, Broward, Monroe, Orange,

Lake, Highlands, Gadsden. They are taking the name

of the Committee and in nost cases the Comaittee's

chairman. At this writing (January 1, 1940) only

Leon-Wakulla, Gulf-Franklin, Bay and Duval Coun-

ties have both a Council and a Connittee.


No matter how small the Lmenbership of the

County Public Health CoLuittee, an Executive

Board is needed to supervise the organization's

affairs. The Board acts as a clearing house for

all activities of the organization including those

of the County District Cor.nittees and sub-comnittees.

It is the duty of the Executive Board to plan

a general program for the County Committee on an

annual basis and turn it over for administration

to the various sub-comrmittees concerned. The Ex-

ecutive Board, however, is responsible to the gen-

eral maibership and should therefore maintain con-

tinuous supervision of all projects.requiring per-

iodic reports from sub-coiritteos.

It should not be possible for any sub-connittee

to start a project or release publicity without first

securing official approval from the Executive Board.

In counties with Health Units, the Executive Board of

the Committee should not approve any project without


first having discussed all phases of it with

the Health Unit director. Where there are

full-time City Health Departmeats, such as Tampa,

Miami, Jacksonville, the same holds true if the

projects affect the city.

Publicity Supervision The Board should

draw up rules governing release of publicity in

order to guide the Public Relations chairman and

protect the organization itself. The Suggested

Constitution for County Cci..ittees provides that

publicity releases such as health columns or any

stories or broadcasts relating to health shall

be approved by either the County Health Officer,

the State Board of Health, County Medical Socie-

ty or the Florida Medical Association. This is

considered a reasonable safeguard against inac-

curacy and should do much to promote the confi-

dence of the general public in the reliability of

information emanating froa the Connitteo.

Membership of County Executive Board The mem-


bership of the Board should be kept as small as possi-

ble and still provide full representation of the whole


There should be a minimum of 5 members and a maxi-

mum of 15. They should include the officers of the

County Comaittee, the chairman of each county district

committee, chairman of standing sub-conmittees of the

County Committee, and perhaps 2. or 3 members-at-large.

Meetings Since the County Executive Board is

responsible for the success of the County Cor.mittee,

and since the Comaittee usually neets only once or

twice a year, it is important that the Executive Board

hold frequent meetings. They should be held at least

every two months, and even more often if necessary.

For this reason, in drawing up the Cormittee's consti-

tution, care should be taken not to limit the Executive

Board meetings to specific dates.


The degree of interest stimulated by fast mov-

ing, informative meetings will determine the degree

of success the County Public Health Conmittee enjoys.

It is possible for anyone to conduct interest-

ing meetings if he really wants to. All that is nec-

essary is a little preparatory planning and a firm

determination to start promptly and keep the meeting

lively after it gets under way.

If there is any secret to successful meetings

and successful leadership, it is probably that of

giving credit where credit is due, and bestowing re-

cognition in public so that the person commended

knows he is genuinely appreciated. Nothing makes

people work harder than pats on the back.

It is important that an agenda be written for

every meeting. There should be three copies, one for

the secretary, one for the shairnan-of-the-day.and

one for the Cormittee Chairman or presiding officer.

The chairman-of-the-day should be made con-

scious of the fact that accurate timing of the

progron is essential. Care must be taken that he or

she receives full credit for work done, both in the

meeting and in the publicity appearing in newspapers

in connection with the meeting.

Kind of Meeting Meetings need not be of the

same type throughout the year, sore can be luncheons,

others dinners. In fact, it night lend variety to

adopt an interchangeable policy, Local conditions,

however, determine the advisability or inadvisability

of instituting this policy. All meetings should be

well publicized in advance, not only to newspapers,

but also by written notices to each member. These

notices should be sent out well enough in advance

of the meeting to enable members to make a place for

it on their calender. If the Committee holds month-

ly meetings, a weeks notice should be sufficient. If

it meets only every two or three months, then two

weels notice is advisable. And if still less fre-

quent meetings are held, then the first notice should


go out a month in advance to be followed the week

before the meeting with another brief notice. If

possible, these should be followed by telephone call

reminders the day of the meeting.

We live in a busy world. Public-spirited people

who serve and work on committees are in great demand

and therefore, extremely busy. It is no reflection

on the County Public Health Committee and no indica-

tion of lack of interest if members need to be remind-

ed several times about a meeting in order to prevent

their unwittingly forgetting it.

Therefore, unless sane member asks that he or

she not receive a telephone reminder, it is the cour-

teous and wise thing to do. Usually, the membership

list is so large that it is too much of a burden for

one person to handle alone. In such cases a telephone

committee can be appointed to divide the responsibility

of calling.

Frequency of Meetings The frequency of general


meetings of the County Public Health CorAlittee

varies greatly in different counties. It de-

pends solely upon the wishes of the members.

Largo Ccnnittees usually meet in general

session only once or twice a year, the business

of the organization being carried on during the

interim by the County Executive Board. Smaller

Committees may hold general meetings either quar-

terly, every two months or even every month, as

directed by members.

First Meeting The first meeting is, of

course, the organization meeting and extremely

important. Special care should be taken in the

choice of time and date in order to assure the

very largest possible attendance.

The list of those to be invited should be

thoroughly assembled and as complete as it is

possible for the small group planning the meet-

ing to make it. The procedure for the organization

meeting should be planned as carefully as the list

of persons invited to attend. It is customary to


permit 10 or 15 minutes leeway at the first

meeting between the tine stated on the notice

and the tine it is actually called to order.

The constitution and by-laws will be pres-

ented for consideration and study. A sufficient

quantity should be on hcad at the first meeting

to permit thorough reading by all present. The

form of the Suggested Constitution is given in

the Appendix of this Manual. Copies for distri-

bution nay be obtained from state headquarters.

At scme point during the meeting it should

be made plain that the membership is not limited to

those present. They form a nucleus around which

the organization is to be built, and are, therefore,

privileged to suggest other candidates for membership.

The tueporary chairman for the meeting is ar-

ranged in several ways. A volunteer previously de-

cided upon usually the state-appointed County

Chairman may call the meeting to order and take

the chair. Or, saneane in the audience may be


"primed" to nominate a certain person as Chair-

nan inzuediately after the meeting is called to


Still a third alternative is offered if a

representative of the state office happens to be

present. In this event, the representative could

open the meeting, state the purpose of the Connit-

tee to be organized,then at the conclusion of the

remarks call for a notion to organize, followed by

consideration of constitution and by-laws.

The main requirement for holding a successful

organization meeting is careful planning of details

in advance. Nothing should be left to chance, for

the difference between a strong and a weak organi-

zation is often determined by the strength or weak-

ness of the first meeting. A haphazard first meet-

ing may result in the election of the wrong people

as officers, and the Connittee's death before it is

born. A suggested order of business for a first

meeting would be as follows:

Call to order
Selection of meeting chairman
Selection of secretary
Purpose of mneting
Resolution to organize
Connittoe to draft constitution
and by-laws
Roll call, securing full name,
exact mailing address
and telephone number
of all present
Announce ciont of next ne eating
at which election of
officers will take place.

Or, if it is felt that it vill not be easy

to hold a second meeting v;ith as large an attendance

as secured at the first meeting, the constitution nay

be adopted and officers elected at the first meeting.

In the event consolidation of first and second

meetings is deemed advisable, the person planning

the organization meeting should have an unofficial

committee of three meet to draft a tentative consti-

tution, which will be as nearly in its final form as

it is possible to make it. Someone familiar with such

documents and with the purpose of a County Public

Health Committee should head this group.


Then at the general meeting, the three persons

can be officially appointed as the constitution

cornittee and thus be prepared to present the doc-

ument to the assembly for immediate consideration.

Order of Business, Regular Meetings The

order of business for regular meetings can be

varied greatly, giving precedence to important


The County Public Health Connittee should

adopt an order of business best suited to its


Necessity for reading of the minutes nay be

eliminated by having then mimeographed and nail-

ed to all members irnnediately following each

meeting. When this is done the Chairman should

state, at the subsequent meeting, that the min-

utes were nailed to each neaber and ask if there

is any discussion or any corrections before of-

ficially incorporating them in the organization's


The model order of business which follows is

subject to change to meet local needs:

1. Roll call
2. Reading of minutes
3. Reports of Executive Board and
Standing Comniittees
4. Reports of special Ccraittees
(this includes reports of
progress made or any action
taken at previous meeting)
5. Report of County Health Unit Direc-
tor and Supervising Nurse
6. Announcements (including health and
medical events of current interest
in the county, state and nation)
7. Unfinished business
8. New business
9. Special program
Annual Meeting In addition to the rou-

tine business and election of officers that al-
ways transpired at annual meetings, this would
also be a good time to feature an "Off the Chest"
ballot. By this is ncant that all present be per-
mitted to express their opinion and offer sugges-
tions as to what might profitably be included in
the Ccxaittoecs program for the coing year.

Ideas thus advanced could be presented on


signed ballots. The ballots could be serially

numbered with the author's naae on the stub and

his idea or suggestion an the other portion of

the ballet. Stubs containing the name should be

put in one box and the part of the ballot con-

taining the idea in a separate box.

The special sub-conr.ittee appointed to ana-

lyze the ideas should carefully consider each

suggestion. Any com.iendable ideas should be pres-

ented to the County Executive Beard (the author's

nane still unrevealed). In the event the Execu-

tive Board decides to incorporate any of the sug-

gosted ideas in the Cmnnittee's program, full rec-

ognition should be given the author of the idea.

He night receive a Special Achievement Award at

suitable ceremonies. No nmeaber of the health de-

partment staff should be eligible to receive the


Preliininary Procedure --The Stato-W ie" Public

Health Ccr.-ittoo reoonnends that Robert's Rules of


Order Revised be used as the authority for all

decisions. If this recornuendation is accepted

by the County Public Health Committee it

should be incorporated in the constitution or


A copy of "Robert's Rules" should be in

the possession of every Cl..in.-.nr for ready ref-

erence. It is most helpful in planning details

of procedure for meetings and for general use

in directing the activities of the CoLnittee.


No Chairman should ever be at a loss for

interesting subject material for study, discus-

sion or talks at Committee meetings. There is

probably a much larger number of subjects than

there are meetings.

In fact, in order to utilize even a fraction

of the available material the Conmittee undoubted-

ly will have to divert some of the subjects to

guest appearances before other organizations. For

this reason, the chairman of the Public Relations

committee is advised to devote sane tine to this


After choosing the subject for the meeting,

the next step is choice of a speaker. For Coun-

ty Public Health Committee meetings the speaker

usually should be someone outside the Committee.

Although, by virtue of its size, diversity and

professional representation, the Comittee nen-
bership might offer an excellent supply


of speakers who could and should be put to work. In

this way the Conmittee meetings would serve as a

testing ground for the Speakers Division of the Pub-

lic Relations corrittee.

When a Conmittoe member is the guest speaker at

the Coranittee meeting, the County Chairman and chair-

nan of the Public Relations committee should nake a

special point of listening to the talk with the idea

of booking the speaker for appearances before other

organizations. The notes that follow, scratching on-

ly the surface of a vast supply of subjects, are in-

tended more to pique tho imagination than to pose as

a source of material:

1. Highlights of the American Public Health
Association survey of Florida health con-

2. The County-vide Public Health Committee
(a) Organization
(b) Scope
(c) Value
(d) Purpose
(e) Functions

3. The importance of having a county survey of
health conditions made by State Board of

4. What is Public Health?

5. The Value of a County Health Unit to our

6. How can local voluntary health agencies
be brought into the general health pro-
gram of the county?

7. Why health department personnel needs spe-
cial training in Public Health.

8. Highlights of Florida's new school health

9. How to place publicity.

10. Demonstrations by the public health nurse
of communicable disease technique in the
home and many other phases of nursing ser-

11. Current trends in public health.

12. The State Board of Health, its organization
and functions.

13. The relationship of the State Board of
Health to the local Health Units.

14. The importance of early case finding and
hospitalization of cases of tuberculosis.
(This should be given by the County Health
Officer or someone from the State Sanitori-
un, or the Division of Tuberculosis, State
Board of Health.)

15. The State Hospital (Chattahoochee) by some-
one vho is a number of the staff.

16. The Crippled Children's program by someone
connected with the organization.

17. The contribution of the Industrial Home
for Boys to the State of Florida.

18. The contribution of the Girl's School of

19. The contribution of the Home for the Feeble
Minded, by someone employed by the institu-

20. The contribution of the Deaf and Blind Home,
St. Augustine, by member of the staff.

21. How the Red Cross can assist in the health
program of a county.

22. How service clubs can assist in the county
health program.

23. The achievements by other sections of the
country in public health work.

24. Program of the 4-H Club, given by the Home
Demonstration Agent.

25. Plans for National Negro Health Week, nonth
of April. Secure a good Negro speaker from
Tuskogee Institute, or from the A. and M.
College, Tallahassee.

26. Plans for annual May Day Child Health pro-

27. Maternal Mortality in Florida (Mother's

28. The state-wide and local midwife problem.
This should be given by a member of the
Public Health Nursing Bureau of the State
Board of Health or a County Health Unit
nurse assigned by the State Health Officer.

29. The value of a field nursing visit. By
public health nurses.

30. Program on annual Social Hygiene Day.
This is usually first of February.

31. The deficiency diseases and their rela-
tion to nutrition. This should be given
by the State Nutritionist from the Ex-
tension Department in Tallahassee.

32. The Malaria Control Project now being con-
ducted in Escambia County.

33. The Rockefeller Hookworm Survey by a mem-
ber of the State Board of Health staff.

34. Health insurance debates by members of
County Public Health Canmittee.

35. Health conditions in industrial plants
in your community.

Study Reference Material Suggested:
All books listed here can be borrowed from the
library of the State Board of Health. The li-
brary will also be glad to suggest additional
references on each subject:
Bassett, Clara: "Mental Hygiene in the Communi-
ty", N. Y. Macmillan, 1936.
Bauer, W. W.: "Health, Hygiene and Hooey".
Indianapolis, Bobbs-lIerrill, 1938.

Becker, S. W.: "Ten Million Americans Have it".
Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1937.
Bluemel, C. S.: "The Troubled Mind, A Study of
Nervous and Mental Illnesses", Baltimore,
WTms. & Watkins, 1938.
Burhoe, B. W.: "Social Adjustment of Tubercu-
losis", N. Y. Nat'l Tuberculcsis Associa-
tion, 1934.
Colcord, Joanna C.: "Your Community, Its Provi-
sion for Health, Education, Safety and Wel-
fare", N. Y., Russell Sage Foundation, 1939.
Educational Policies Commission: "Social Services
and the Schools", Wash. the Comnission, 1939.
Escambia County Health Department. Malaria De-
partment: Progress report activities
of the malaria department. 1937 to date.
Pensacola, the Department, 1937-
Finney, Roy P.: "Story of Motherhood", N. Y.
Liveright, 1937.
Galdston, Iago: "Maternal Deaths The Way to
Prevention", I. Y. Commonwealth Fund, 1937.
"Health Problems of Women in Industry", Wash.
Government Print. Off., 1931.
Heiser, Victor: "American Doctor's Odyssey",
N. Y. Norton, 1936.
Hill, Frank E: "Educating for Health", N. Y.
Anerican Association for Adult Education, 1939.
Hiscook, Ira V.: "Ways to Community Health Edu-
cation", N. Y. CommInwealth Fund, 1939.
Hodgscn, Viblet H. "Public Health Nursing in
Industry", N. Y. Macnillan, 1933.
Howard University, Bureau of Education Research:
"Health Status and Health Education of Negroes
in the United States". Wash. Howard Univer-
sity, 1937.
Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate
Health and Welfare activities: "The Nation's
Health; Discussion of the National Health
Conference, 1938", Wash. also "Toward Better
National Health", Govt. Print. Off., 1939.

Mayer, Raymond C.: "How to do Publicity", N. Y.
Harper, 1938.
Milbank Mienorial Fund: "Modern Health Trends",
N. Y., the Fund, 1938.
Mustard, H. S., "Introduction to Public Health",
Coanonwealth, 1936.
Orr, D. W. and J. W.: "Health Insurance with
Medical Care" N. Y. Macmillan, 1938.
Parran, Thomas: "Shadow on the Land", N. YA
Reynal and Hitchcock, 1937.
Pratt, George K.: "Your Mind and You", N. Y.
Funk and Wagnals, 1937.
Reed, Louis S.: "Health Insurance", N. Y.
Harper, 1937.
Rose, M. S.: "Foundations of Nutrition", N. Y.
Macmillan, 1935.
Stimson, A. M.: "The Communicable Disease",
Wash. Govt. Print. Off., 1939 (Miscella-
neous Publication of U. S. Public Health
Service No. 30).
Tobey, J. A.: "Riders of the Plague", N. Y.
Scribner, 1930,
"Wcaon in Florida industries", Wash. Govt.
Print. Off., 1930.


In order to derive the greatest benefit from

the American Public Health Association survey of

Florida, the County Public Health Committee should

give some thought to coordinating its program with

that of the state as a whole.

This report enumerates not only the problems

but also offers constructive suggestions for meet-

ing them. The suggestions are in the form of rec-

ommendations of which more than 20 are listed as

of major importance.

A special coinmittee might well be appointed

to study the report. In this way the County Pub-

lic Health Committee will be prepared to assist

the State-Wide Public Health Committee more effec-

tively when the time comes to inaugurate the var-

ious recommendations.

There should be no hesitancy about accepting

these recommendations when it is remembered that,

as stated in the first pages of this Manual, they

are so heartily approved by the U. S. Public

Health Service, the U. S. Children's Bureau

and the Florida State Board of Health. Or,

when it is further remembered that several rec-

ommendations have already been put into effect.

Briefly, the remaining recommendations of the

report are:

1) That the State Board of Health be increased to
five members appointed by the Governor for
long over-lapping terms of office.

2) That, subject to the approval of the Governor
and to the candidate's qualifications accord-
ing to law, the State Board of Health be made
responsible for the appointment of the State
Health Officer.

3) That the State Health Officer be privileged to
appoint personnel of the State Department of
Health with the consent of the Board and pro-
viding the candidate is fully qualified.

4) That the name of the State Board'of Health. be
changed to the State Department of Health and
the State Health Officer to the State Commis-
sioner of Health.

5) That Legislation be enacted authorizing the
State Department of Health to prepare rules
and regulations dealing with all sanitary and

health problems regarding the agency or agencies
responsible for their enforcement; it should
further provide that the enforcement shall be
a function of the duly constituted local health
authorities in those areas having full-time
health departments,

6) That the supervision and control of the fluid
milk supply be transferred from the Department
of Agriculture to the State Department of Health
and that a bureau of milk and food supervision
be established in the State Department of Health.

7) That all state health laws be intensively stud-
ied and rewritten to confonn with the modern
practice of public health.

8) That the state appropriation to the State De-
partment of Health be increased to provide state
funds more proportionately to public health
needs; to provide extension of syphilis and
gonorrhea control; assistance for development
of additional health units.

9) That a c.opetent public health administrator be
employed as deputy cormissioner and executive

10) That sufficient funds be allocated for the pro-
per training of personnel.

11) That,whore counties are financially able, they
should mebo a larger portion of the cost of
local health service.

12) That a capable epidemiologist be added to the
Epidemiology staff for field studies and to
act as advisor and consultant to full-time

local'health officers through the Section of
Io0all.Health Service.

l): That a pediatrician be added to the field
staff of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau.

14) That, through legislation, physicians and mid-
wives be required to put silver nitrate solution
in newborn infants' eyes.

15) That the number of public health nurses in full-
time health units be increased.

16) That an additional public health engineer be ad-
ded to the Bureau of Public Health Engineering,
and its program be broadened to include improve-
ment of community and rural sanitation.

17) That the housing conditions in Florida be in-

18) That a bureau of malaria and mosquito control
be set up vrith a qualified public health physi-
cian at its head.

19) That health courses be compulsory in all schools
and universities.

20) That teachers be required to have adequate health
teaching courses and that they be instructed in
health teaching methods.


Each County Public Health Committee should

have at least two standing sub-committees, Legis-

lative and Public Relations. Such other standing

sub-committees as may be necessary will be deter-

mined by local conditions.

The chapters that follow are devoted to the

duties of Legislative and Public Relations commit-

tees. For details concerning the possible typos

and activities of other sub-comnittees, see the Ap-

pendix, page 125.

In counties with full-time Health Units, all

sub-committees, like the County Conmittee itself,

work with and through the County Health Officer, who

is director of the Health Unit. Plans for all pro-

grams must be submitted to the Executive Board of

the County Public Health Committee, which in turn

discusses them with the Health Unit director before

they can be inaugurated. This procedure prevents

unnecessary confusion and duplication, and also pro-

toots the County Ccmmittee against onbarking upon

a progron that might not be in accordance with

modern public health practice.

In counties without full-tine Health Units,

the County Public Health Committee and its sub-

cormittees concentrate their efforts upon the es-

tablishment of a full-time Unit- If any other

activities are attempted they should be confined

to programs of health education vd~ich have been

authorized by the County Committee's Executive



(Publicity and Health Information)

If organizations expect to accomplish big

things these days they must have either unlimited

finances or unlimited publicity. Since the State-

Wide Public Health Committee has no money it must

have publicity.

What is true of the State Committee is equally

true of its county affiliates. For this reason the

Public Relations Comnittee occupies a key position

in the life of the County Public Health Committee.

The success or failure of the Public Relations Com-

mittee determines whether the door to a brilliant

future will be unlocked to the County Comiittee or

whether its program will fall on barren soil and

perish for lack of cultivation.

Nowhere is public relations more important

than in the administration of health organizations.

One of the greatest services public health can render

the public is in the amount of accurate health

information disseminated. Utilizing not only news-

paper publicity but also radio, exhibits, speakers,

notion pictures, posters, window cards and panphlots,

public relations becaoes the bulwark of every health

education program.

All publicity, and, in fact, the entire program

of the Public Relations Co nitteo nust be carefully

coordinated with the general program of the County

Public Health Conrittee. Releases, speeches, or

any other data for public dissemination should go

through such a systematic channel of checking and

double checking that there is no chance of a story

being released without official approval.

Most health topics are technical and untold ham

would result if the information released were inac-

curate. The County Public Health Cormittee cannot af-

ford, therefore, to release information that is not


That is why it is suggested in a previous


chapter that the organization's consti-

tution make it obligatory for technical ar-

ticles on public health and medicine to be

read and approved by eihfcr the County

Health Officer, the County medical Society,

the State Board of Health or the Florida

Medical Association, before being authorized for

release by the County Executive Board.

Public Relations Chairman The appointment

of a Public Relations Chainan is one of the iost

serious tasks facing the Chairman of the County

Conriittee. Although the person selected nay count

upon the state office of the State Conmitteo for

assistance and guidance in a publicity program,

the County Chairman should nake every effort tc

secure a Public Relations Chairman who has had

professional newspaper or publicity background.

In the event it is impossible to secure an
experienced person to act as chairman, perhaps
someone with newspaper or publicity experience
will agree to write the stories and radio scripts,

letting the chairman plan the general program

for the Public Relations Committee.

When confronted with the task of planning

the County Committee's publicity program, the

Public Relations Chairman should concentrate

upon utilizing every available channel in his

area. A few suggestions are given below in

the hope they will prove helpful.

Newspapers For details concerning prepara-

tion of copy the reader is referred to "A-B-C's

of preparing Newspaper Copy" in the Appendix.

Radio The scarcity of easily accessible

broadcasting stations makes radio a somewhat

difficult medium in certain areas. However, if

stations are accessible, their managers are us-

ually most generous with time. For that reason

it is important not to abuse their generosity

by either asking too much time, furnishing in-

adequately prepared scripts or booking speakers

who are either unrehearsed or do not have


pleasing voices*

A warr, personable voice is an absolute neces-

sity for a successful radio program, and is what

should be sought in scouting around for a speaker.

If he or she is pracinent in the community or active-

ly identified with public health or medical vork, so

much the better, for the name will add weight to the


Talks and interviews are usually the easiest

form of radio broadcast for the amateur to present,

Unless, of course, it is th4 spot announcement,

which is no trouble at all to the amateur because

he does not make theo! The station staff is usual-

ly responsible for the delivery of "spots".

Dramatic sketches are better left undone un-

less it is possible to recruit the services of a

proficient drama group with radio experience. It

is frequently possible to have dramatizations pre-

sented by Little Theatre groups, WPA projects,

high school and college theatrical groups.

Speakers Division This is an inpor-

tant part of the Public Relations Committee and

should be painstakingly developed. No speaker

should be allowed to go before other groups as

a representative of the County Public Health

Committee until the County Chairman has made

certain that he or she is thoroughly familiar

with the subject. If the data needed for pre-

paration of the speech is not available from a

Health Unit, the State Ccnnittee will be glad

to assist in securing the necessary material.

When booking engagements for speakers, it

is only fair to make certain the audience will

be large enough to compensate the speakers for

time and money expended in preparing the speech

and making the trip. In presenting invitations

to out-of-tovn speakers it should always be

stated very clearly whether or not the organi-

zation can afford to pay an honorarium.


or expenses, or both.

The inability to pay either expenses or

an honorarium should not deter an organization

from inviting an out-of-town speaker, but he

should be made aware of this fact. To be inde-

finite shows lack of experience and may easily

lead to unpleasant difficulties.

The Public Relations Chairman should study

thn. chapter on Topics for Meetings, since it is

a source of material for both publicity and


Health Motion Pictures These should be

shown as often as possible. Films may be bor-

rowed from the State Board of Health and from

the Florida Tuberculosis and Health Associa-

tion, headquarters of both of which are in Jack-

sonville. Someone should be present to discuss

the picture and answer questions.

House Organs Industries' house papers should

not be overlooked. They are usually happy to co-

operate with the promotion of good health, and'

should even be remembered for general releases

that do not necessarily pertain to a specific

campai gn.

Exhibits These should be carefully placed

in the nost populated districts if they are to

be effective. It is useless to have an elaborate

and attractive exhibit hidden in some remote un-

frequented place where there is no one to attract.

The problem of getting the exhibits can generally

be solved by schools, whose faculties are usually

glad to have ideas for exhibit subjects.

Posters Window cards nay be used in hotels,

banks and theatre lobbies, on counters at grooory

department and drug stores, bus and railroad sta-

tions, on bulletin boards of schools, churches and

club rooms.

Posters for billboards or space on painted

sign boards will usually be donated by some pub-

lic-spirited merchant in the community if he is


asked far enough in advance. Billboard companies

are also very generous about donating space

when their boards are vacant.

Trailers Short notion picture trailers are

very effective if the County Coi-ittee has a few

dollars to spend on them. Information on compan-

ies making movie trailers may be secured frno the

State Cocimittee office.

Newspaper Advertising Space In most in-

stances this can be utilized without cost if the

chairman solicits it correctly. .The space should

only be sought occasionally and then for specific

campaigns where it is possible to insert a few

words -- perhaps the slogan -- and thereby draw

the public's attention to the work. Most nor-

chants who use large amcunts of advertising space

are glad to insert a line or the can:aign insig-

nia in at least one of their ads, and often nore.

Handbills Those can be wrapped in packages

by merchants. In no case should h-ndbills be

distributed in such a way as to clutter up

streets, sidewalks or porches. Not only is

this undignified, but it produces a bad psy-

chological effect upon the person for whoc

the nmssage is intended. Being angered by the

untidiness of his premises he is in no frame

of nind to pay attention to the message, :iuch

less consider it favorably.

Contests This is a valuable aid in any

special campaign. There are many different

kinds of contests besides the old standby, the

essay. A little imagination should develop nov-

el and effective variations.


Someone who has a special liking and apti-

tude for legislation should be selected as chair-

man of the County Legislative Cor.mittee. For un-

less this Committee can function efficiently, it

had better not be appointed at all.
The first thing the Legislative Committee

should do is conduct an investigation of all ex-

isting health laws. These nay be found on both

county and municipal books.

Laws should be studied and analyzed to de-

termine whether (1) they are up-to-date (2) they

are the best laws available for the purpose they

propose to serve.

Whether or not laws are being enforced is

also something to be considered by the Committee.

If they are not being enforced, the Legislative

Committee night make inquiries to determine the

reason. In the event the law is obsolete, the

Legislative Coranittee should gather data and make

tions to the County Executive Board. Such rec-

ommendations night state that the law should be

repealed, or they night advocate replacement with

a modern law.

Under no circumstances should any legisla-

tive changes affecting public health be under-

taken unless they have been. approved by either

the director of the Health Unit or the State

Health Officer.

It should be the duty of the Legislative

Committee to comb all county newspapers for re-

ports of any legislation that might affect pub-

lic health, such as water supply, boards of

health, sanitation, clinics for indigents, etc.

When such items are found, a copy of the

proposed legislation should be secured. It

should be carefully analyzed and compared with

standards set up by official health departments,

either city, county, state or national, to de-

termine whether it is good or bad legislation.


A report of the findings should be made imme-

diately to the County Chairman and referred to

the County Executive Board for action. This

will frequently result in a delegation from the

County Public Health Committee going before

councils and commissioners to voice their opin-

ion and wishes and thus give lawmakers the bene-

fit of their first-hand knowledge of public health.

In order to be a source of information to the

general membership of the County Public Health Com-

mittee, the Legislative Committee should familiar-

ize itself with the following laws: The U.S. Pub-

lic Health Service Standard Milk Ordinances*; Meat

Inspection ordinances*:laws governing licenses to

practice medicine which prohibit all but medical

doctors from administering narcotic drugs; the

County Health Unit law; County Board of Health law;

The Committee should study local and state laws

Information available from State Board of Health


pertaining to public health administration, in-

cluding appropriations, and should carefully con-

sider the legislative recommendations outlined by

the American Public Health Association in "The

Health Situation in Florida".

Below are just a few additional questions the

Legislative Connittee could study to advantage:

How many communities in the county have milk

ordinances? Do they conform to the latest U. S.

Public Health standard ordinance which is consider-

ed the best municipal legislation available governing

rilk production and legislation? What ordinances

are there governing the production, distribution

and handling of food and food products?


Whether or not a County Committee remains ac-

tive depends to a great extent upon its Chairman.

He, or she, should occupy a position of prestige in

the community, have a genuine interest in its wel-

fare and a firm conviction that that welfare can

best be promoted through proper health protection.

In addition, he must also possess that intangible

and illusive something called leadership. Reduced

to its essentials, leadership means an embodiment

in one person of an innate ability to get along

with other people, plus the driving force of em-

bition and accomplishment.

The Chairman must keep the organization busy

but must not overload those members who are unable

or unwilling to be active. The fact must be recog-

nized and accepted that only a few persons will do

the actual work in any organization.

The remainder of the membership will bask


in the reflected glory of a job well done. Never-

theless, they are just as important to the organ-

ization as the more active members. Much educa-

tional material of inestimable value flows through

than. They may influence many persons to vlno the

more active members have no access, thus counter-

balancing their non-participation in the routine

business of the Connittee.

There is so much to do that no Connittee

should beccno inactive for lack of an interest-

ing program. If the Conmittee has difficulty in

drawing up such a program, the state office will

be glad to offer suggestions either by nail or

through personal consultation.

To stimulate community interest and pride

in the Connittee, a Health Award might be given

annually to the citizen in the county (exclusive

of state or local health department personnel)

who has contributed the most to the advancement

of public health during the year, irrespective


of whether or not he is a member. Suitable cere-

monies should accompany the award presentation

in order to impress not only the recipient but

the public and the Committee members themselves.

This idea is enlarged upon in the chapter an Meet-

ings, under the sub-head "Annual Meeting".

Proper distribution of responsibility among Cam-

nuittee nmboers will also do much to keep them inter-

ested. The more the members can be made to feel per-

sonally responsible for the Co.mittee, the nore success-

ful the organization will be.


The State-Wide Public Health Committee re-

quires no membership dues. However, nothing in the

constitution prohibits raising funds for a specific

purpose if it beccaes necessary. County affiliate

conmittees nay specify nominal dues to take care

of postage and other clerical necessities if they

so desire.

Quite a few County Public Health Cor7ittees

raise funds for purposes incidental to carrying on

their program. The Hillsborough County Health

Unit Auxiliary, affiliated with the State-Wide

Public Health Committee, recently raised $1,500

to purchase a mobile clinic for the Health Unit.

Since no dues are required of its 200-some-odd

members, the money was raised from contributions

solicited by members. They were assisted in the

drive by newspaper editors who became interested

in the project.

Cost of stationery, postage, publicity, re-


leases, bulletins and services of an Executive Se-

cretary for the State-Wide Public Health Committee

are borne by the State Board of Health. They also

supply two field workers in the persons of super-

vising nurses who serve the state at large. The Com-

rittee work done by both the Executive Secretary and

the field representatives is in addition to their

routine duties as State Board of Health staff members.

County Committees receive certain supplies and

services from the state office. A limited amount of

mimeographing service is obtainable in addition to

letterheads and membership cards for county committees.

Every member of every County Committee receives

a copy of "The Health Situation in Florida", and his

or her name is placed on the mailing list of Florida

Health Notes, official monthly publication of the

State Board of Health.

In counties with full-time Health Units a cer-

tain amount of clerical assistance is available

from the Unit. In unorganized counties, the Goun-


ty CoLraittee must look to the State Comiittee

headquarters for this assistance.


Quarterly activity reports are required of

all County Comnittees cn the first of January, April,

July and October. A brief annual report must also

be filed with the Ccanittee's state office. Forms

for these reports are available from State Committee

headquarters, P. 0. Box 210, Jacksonville.

These forms include such information as:

Number of meetings held
Total membership
Now members since last report
Program for next quarter
Funds raised and for what purpose
Conferences in which Health Unit was assisted.

(a) school
(b) home
(c) clinics

Sunmary of Committee's activities:

(a) Classes organized in Home Hy-
giene through State Board of
Health Nursing Bureau
(b) Equipnent secured for Units
of centers
(c) Rooms secured, etc.

Sub-Cormittee progrcns:

(a) Standing
(b) Special

As soon as the organization of the County

Public Health Ccmmittee is completed, a graphic

picture of the county should be furnished State

Committee headquarters. This is supplied on a

report form kowno as the County Health Question-


Tho Questionnaire dot' forth in brief-those

basic facts concerning phases of county life and

environment that may affect either directly or in-

directly the public's health. The forn is distri-

buted by state headquarters and will be revised

at intervals until a Health Unit is established.

In this way, an accurate check is maintained to

detenaine whether the county is progressing or


Other than those three reports, the state

office does not burden county affiliates with the

making of tine-consuning records which are of


doubtful value. The State Cormittee prefers

that County committees spend their tine on

projects beneficial to the counties in which

they are located.


Those who confuse public health with state

or socialized medicine are laboring under an en-

tirely erroneous conception.

Public health is strictly a preventative

science. Its purpose is to eradicate the con-

ditions that breed those diseases which medical

science has, through years of research and experi-

aent, rendered preventable and, therefore, un-

necessary. Its further purpose is to praocte

good health and encourage healthful living.

In the course of carrying on its progr-n,

public health finds many persons suffering froa

early stages of diseases they do not suspect

they have. Such persons, unless indigent*, are

promptly sent to their family physician for diag-

noses and treatment. Public health is responsi-

ble for sending to doctors many persons who

*Decision of what constitutes indigency is left to
the County Medical Society and County Welfare Board.


might never have sought medical attention had the

need not been discovered by the Health Officer.

Thus, the public health worker in the full-time

Health Unit becomes one of the strongest allies

of the private physician. Doctors' already over-

loaded charity burden is also lightened by a full-

time Health Unit.

Public health sees in preventable disease

not a condition to be cured, but a condition to be

eradicated. Public health looks at a person with

malaria and sees not a sick man alone, but also the

mosquito that transmitted the disease germ to the

man. It sees also the undrained land that bred the

mosquito that gave the man the germ. Public health

knows that this man ............ and thousands of

other men ......... can be neither permanently cured

nor safe until the land is drained and malaria mos-
quitoes no longer have a place to breed.

Public health sees in a child or adult suf-

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