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Biennial report, Superintendant of Public Instruction, State of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00053454/00001
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report, Superintendant of Public Instruction, State of Florida
Alternate Title: Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Florida for the two years ending ..
Portion of title: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Florida for the two years ending ..
Physical Description: : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: The Department.
Place of Publication: Tallahasee Fla. etc.
Creation Date: 1893
Frequency: biennial[-1964/66]
annual[ former 18 -]
Subjects / Keywords: Education -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: -1964/66.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year irregular.
Issuing Body: Issued by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
General Note: Title varies slightly.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001523501
oclc - 01569426
notis - AHD6734
lccn - 08010112
System ID: UF00053454:00001
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Report - Commissioner of Education, State of Florida

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Register of State Superlntenldents,

*C. THURsTo, CHAsB ........ .......... .. August -, 1868
REv. CHARnIES BEECHER. ................. March 18, 1871
JoNATITAN C. GInnB, (colored) ........... January 23, 1873
SAMITEL B. McLIN, Secretary of State and Acting Super-
intendent ........................... August 17, 1874
.* EY. WM. WATKIN HICKS ................ March 1, 1875
W M. P. 1IAISLEY ......................... .January 6, 1877
:ELEAZE IK. FOSTER. .....................January 31, 1881
ALBERT J. RussEI. ................... February 21, 1884
W M. N. SHRATS................ ......... January 3, 1893

State Board of Education,

HENRY L. MITCHELL, Governor................. .President
.JNo. L. CRAWFOnD................. Secretary of State
"CLARENCE B. COLLINS .................... State Treasurer
,WM. B. LAMAr ........................ Attorney-General
WM. N. SHEATS, State Superintendent of Public In-
struction ...... ........................... cretary

TALLAHASSEE, FLA., December 31, 1894.
SIE:-In compliance with Section 27, Article IV., of the
Constitution, I have the honor to submit herewith the bi-en-
nial report of the Department of Public Instruction, for the
period commencing October 1, 1892, and ending June 30,
Your obedient servant,
State Superintendent of Public Instruction.


Department of Public Instruction


TALLAIIASSEE, Dec. 31, 1894.
As the history of Common Schools for a quarter of a cen-
tury in the State is made, I have thought it proper to prepare
the following epitome showing its inception and development,
.and place it here for preservation, as complete records are
now difficult to obtain and becoming more so every year.

Some public interest in the matter of education was mani-
fested in Florida as far back as January, 1831, when the or-
ganization, at Tallahassee, of the Florida Education Society"
was formed, the object of which, with its branches, was to
collect information in regard to the educational status and
needs of the Territory, and to pave the way for the estab-
lishment of a system of education. These societies awakened
a general interest for intellectual development rarely witnessed
in a new and sparsely settled country. While the establish-
ment of a general system of common schools at that date was
highly impracticable, still under the influence of one of the
Branch societies an effort was made at St. Augustine to estab--

lish a free school, that being one of the largest, if not the-
largest, school community of the Territory, having 341
children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. In the year
*1832, of these, 137 were reported as attending school. The
public school ardor seems to have been soon quenched, how-
ever, nothing being recorded of the success of the attempt,
and the educational societies themselves ceased to exist shortly,
after this time.
The Territory, however, had school lands [which had been'
donated by an act of Congress. The first form of legal or-
ganization to utilize the benefits to be derived therefrom, was
perfected by an Act of the'Legislature in March, 1839, which
provided for three school trustees in each township-though
many townships had not a single inhabitant. The duty of'
these trustees was to look after the sixteenth section of land
in their respective townships, and to see that the rents or
profits accruing-from the same were applied to the common
A few years later, it was made the' duty of the sheriffs of
the several counties to give special attention to the education
of the children of the poor.
Several succeeding Legislatures made different amendments
to the law, and in 1845 the County Judges of Probate were
entrusted with partial supervision of the township trustees,
and required to perform some of the present functions of a
County Superintendent of Schools. The trustees were to
report to the judge, and these officers were required to con-
~olidate t'.ese reports and submit the same to the Secretary of
State, which by him were to be embodied in his report to the
The first legislation found upon the subject, after the Terri-
tory became a State, was an Act in 1849, which provided for
an increase in the school fund by adding to the sale of school
lands the net proceeds of 5 per cent. of other public lands, of
all escheated property, and of all property found on the coasts
of the State; and also provided for the establishment of a
crude system, as it would now be called, of common schools.
In 1850, taxation by the counties for the support of schools
was authorized, but the results showed little disposition to
educate by means of taxation. The people, few as they were,
were too proud, to avail themselves of the benefits of a free-
school fund, which, though small, was by common consent
applied almost exclusively toward the payment of the tuition
of the children of the poor.
SSo few townships organized to get the benefit of the town.
ship fund (it being the original intention of the general gov-

ernment to encourage the establishment of township schools,
with the lease or interest on proceeds of sale of the sixteenth
sections), that Congress authorized the. State to sell the lands
and to consolidate the funds. The Register of Public Lands
was made ex-officio State Superintendent of Common Schools.
On the 23d of November, 1850, Hon. David S. Walker,
afterwards Governor of the State, took charge of the office of
Register of Public Lands, and became ex-officio Superintend-
ent of Schools, and published in the Journal of the Legisla.
ture of 1854 his bi-ennial report, which contains full statistics
of the sale of Seminary and Common School lands, of the
investment of the proceeds, of the number of children (be-
tween 5 and 18 years of age) in each of the twenty-nine
counties, and of the school fund interest apportioned to each.
The report for the year from July, 1853, to July, 1854, shows
'that there were 16,577 white children of school age, the ag-
gregate apportionment, $5,031.07-30.35 cents for each child
-Gadsden county getting by far the largest sum, $546.91,
certainly too little to be of much practical benefit.
In 1852, under the influence of David S. Walker, a public
school was established in Tallahassee, sustained by a tax lev-
ied upon the city, and is worthy of mention, as it was among
the earliest successful schools in the South sustained by tax-
There is little doubt' that he, as Superintendent, is to
be credited with the Common School Law approved January
1, 1853, which took a step as far in the direction of adopting
a system of free public schools supported by taxation, as
was at that time practical under existing conditions-for it
can be said thirty years after it is dead, that the institution of
slavery was not conducive to the growth of free edu-
cation. By this Act, the County Commissioners and
Judge of Probate were made ex-officio, the one a
County School Board, and the bther County Superintendent
of Schools. The School Board thus constituted had the ap-
portionment of county school funds, and it was ma de their
duty to add' to the sum apportioned to the county by the
State, any sum which they may deem proper to be paid out of
the county treasury.". This same law provided for a rigid
system of reports which rendered possible on the part of
Superintendent Walker the report hereafter quoted from. In
this report Superintendent Walker says: "But few of the
counties have as yet put our school system into practical ope-
ration. With the exception of the counties of Monroe and
Franklin, I have heard of none that have contributed any-
thing froni the county treasury for the augmentation of the

school money received from the State." "I very much regret
the apathy which has prevailed in the public mind on this all
important subject." "The Judge of Probate and County
Commissioners have not, I fear, given to this subject the con-
sideration it deserves, or else they have concluded that the
means at their command are too small to make even a begin-
ning with." "Few persons anywhere, seem to have given the
subject much attention." Certainly, under our.free govern-
ment nothing whatever can be of more vital importance than
the general education of the people, since upon their intelli-
gence and virtue depends the very existence of our institu-
tions." At this period of the world, particularly, it is im-
portant that our children should be educated. Intelligence,
like wealth, is a comparative thing. .A man who would have
passed as intelligent in the dark ages might be considered
very stupid now, and when we consider the great attention
that is being paid to education at this time throughout Chris-
tendom, we must feel that our children will be compelled to
blush for our neglect of them, unless we afford them better
means of instruction than we have hitherto done. Our pos-
terity can not reproach us with any more crying sin than that
of having neglected their minds. The wealth we may be-
queath our children in lands, slaves, or money, will be com-
paratively but a worthless boon, if it be not accompanied by
the far richer legacy of intellectual treasures, and high moral
cultivation. In a free country 'Knowledge is power,' and I
will add, when the child'has been properly educated, knowl-
edge is virtue and wealth also."
The high authority has been quoted from so freely for the
double purpose of showing the spirit that at that time pos-
sessed many of the leading men of the State (though the public
system was still looked upon with disfavor by the masses), and
to give the dead, from the midst of the dusty archives of
State, an opportunity to speak to the people whom he loved,
these burning words of truth and eloquence.
The school fund under the system and'inaaiigcii'nI de-
scribed, was distributed among the teachers of I.riva'. --ihools
largely as they had influence or as their necessities demanded.
So, in the midst of some form of public school operation,
there was virtually no public school system.
The Superintendent's report of 1858 shows that really. little
progress had been made; that there were then 20,885 white chil-
dren of school age; that $6,542.60 interest was apportioned for
their education; that a few counties were taking hold of the
public schools and running them for three months; and that
the public schools cost less and were superior to private ones.

It is evident that just prior to the Civil War, public senti-
ment was rapidly inclining towards a free school system; but
the conditions during that period and the darker days of re-
construction, were not favorable to foster in the hearts of the
people the idea of free public schools supported by taxation,
when after the war all the taxes were to come from one. class,
and the general government at Washington was threatening to
force upon them the odious doctrine of co-education of the
It was owing to this fear, the period being so turbulent, that
the Constitutional Convention of 1865 took no advance steps
in the direction of a free school system. To be a just and
impartial historian, it must be admitted that no effective legis-
.lation contemplating the establishment of a uniform system of
public schools supported by taxation, was secured" until the
adoption of the Constitution of 1868, and the enactment of
the school law compiled by State Superintendent C. Thurston
Chase, by the Legislature in 1869, which is practically the
statutory provisions for the public schools of the State at the
present time. A few modifications have from time to time
been made in that law, the most important of which were
made by the Constitutional Convention of 1885; in providing
for the election of State and County Superintendents by the
people; in specifying in the organic law a county levy for schools
"of not. less than three mills nor more than five mills" on all
taxable property; in providing for school sub-districts and a-
district tax, maximum three mills, a State one mill tax, two
Normal Schools, one each for whites and negroes; abolishment
by the Legislature of 1889, of the trustee system and'the
charging of the Board of Public Instruction with the employ-
ment of teachers, as first suggested in December 1880, by Jno.
L. Crawford then Superintendent of Wakulla county, now for
-the fourth term Secretary of State; and last, the enactment
by the Legislature of 1893, of the present State Uniform 'Ex-
amination law, and the making of County School Boards eleo-
tive,-all s-telpin the line of progress that will be referred to
'The only real public school system the State ever had was
created under the Act, approved January 30, 1869; and the
report of State Snperintendent Chase was the first from the
department after the adoption, of a uniform school law.
Eighteen reports in all, six of these being bi-ennial, had
been made under this system up to January, 1893. Two
annuals, by Superintendent C. Thurston Chase; two annuals,
by Superintendent Rev. Chas. Beecher, one annual by Super-
intendvnt Jonathan C. Gibbs; one annual, by Acting Superin-

tendent Samuel B. McLin; one bi-ennial, by Superintendent,
Wm. Watkin Hicks; two bi-ennials, by Superintendent Wm.
P. Haisley, one bi-ennial, by Superintendent E. K. Foster;
eight, two biennials and six annuals, by Superintendent Albert
J. Russell.
Were it the design of this article to record an extended ac-'
count of the organization and growth of public education in
the State, it would be most interesting reading to tell the part
contributed towards the success of the enterprise by each of
these officers, and to quote elaborately from their several re-
This present report being a bi-ennial and recording the
work of the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth years under the
uniform system, will be styled the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-
sixth Annual Reports of the Department of Public Instruc-
(The Legislature will be asked to make provision for the
reports from this department in future to be made annually,
as the school operations have assumed proportions too large
to-admit of condensing the report of two years' work within
the limits of a convenient sized pamphlet; besides'the depart-
ment is required to report annually to the Commissioner of
Education of the United States, and is annoyed because un-
able to comply with repeated requests from every quarter
for the yearly reports. This expenditure allowed, the next
report may be numbered the twenty-seventh, indicating both
the number of the report and the .age of the real public
school system of the State; and so on with each succeeding
In making a resume of the history of the inception, and
growth of the State's school system, it is especially desired to
be just and impartial, beyond every other consideration, toward
all taking part therein. While it is our aim to account for
and to,condone the recorded opposition to the establishment
of free schools on the part of many of the ante-bellum inhab-
itants of the State, it will give equal pleasure to bestow the
meed of praise upon the patriotic, wise, benevolent, and
zealous labors of those prominent in inaugurating and per-
fecting our present system.
First on the list stands Hon. C. Thurston Chase, the first
State Superintendent, whose first report was made to Gov..
Harrison Reed, January 9,.1869. In this he clearly indicates
the then chaotic condition of educational affairs, the want of
funds, school buildings, proper teachers, and of a suitable

organic school law. In speaking of the schools of the previous
year (1869), he especially commends the self-sacrifice and
devotion of teachers of three classes of schools; private for
both races, those established for freedmen under an act of
1868, and those, for freedmen also, conducted under the
auspices of Northern benevolent associations,-all laboring
amidst hardships and privations, one class expecting $12 a
month, but receiving nothing through failure to collect a poll
tax levied upon freedmen, and many teachers continuing their
schools when the compensation was not sufficient to pay their
board, many in fact being driven from their work into other
callings to earn their daily bread.
In this same report Mr. Chase makes known the fact that
he had made a study of the different school systems of the
older States, and had conferred with eminent educators and
.school officers, and had abill ready to submit to the Legisla-
ture. That bill was the law approved twenty days after, pass-
ing both Houses by a large vote without an amendment being
offered, and which has proved itself one of the best in the
country, having been copied and commended as simple and
ample by every State Superintendent since its adoption, with
few modifications suggested.
So to Mr. Chase is due the credit of being the law-giver
and organizer. He was firmly convinced that public sentiment
was in favor of universal education, quoting as foundation
for his 'belief, from the report of that well known friend and
advocate of public education before alluded to, the Hon.
David S. Walker, who though Governor of the State, in 1867,
had taken part in an Educational Association held in Tallahas-
see, and as chairman of a "Committee on the Education of
Our Colored Population" had reported in strong language
"commending this great work to every Chri.tian and patriot
in the land," and gave utterance also to the following lan-
guage: Some of our most respected white ladies and gen-
tlemen in the State have taken positions in these schools, and
besides the approval of a good conscience, feel that they have
rather gained than lost social position by so doing. There is
not a good man or woman in the State that does not feel the
obligation of this high duty."
It is safe to say, notwithstanding the exalted position that
he held in the State and in the affections of the people, that
at that time and in that utterance Gov. Walker was among
his fellow citizens almost sui generis. Supt. Chase also' little
comprehended the fearful obstacles that must be encountered
and the bitter opposition that his successors were to experience
before the public.school system could be thoroughly engrafted

in the hearts of a majority of the white population in many
sections of the State. The negroes, of course, were great
friends to the public schools from the first, as'it was all gain
arid practically no outlay to them. The novelty of education
with them and the expectation that great profit and prefer-
ment would come to them by it with little expenditure of
effort and less of money, caused many of them to be very
eager for an education; but'after they had experienced that
great good can come in an educational way only through
painful sweat and toil-no easy or royal road to learning-we
regret to have to record that with the great mass of them, the
avidity to learn was most intense with their first opportunities.
Considering the environment that attended its introduction,
it is something wonderful that the school law of 1869 met
with the favor that it received. For the better understanding
of the circumstances attending its introduction, it is proper to
tell who passed the law and who were the first five State
Superintendents charged with its administration.
The law itself was an import; the Legislature that passed
it was composed largely of freedmen less than four years out
of slavery, with a sprinkling of typical carpet-baggers the
controlling spirits of that body; the Governor and his Cabinet
were in office not bv the vote of the intelligent property
holders of the State the Superintendent hirhself was a recent
accession from Ohio, though indorsed by broad and liberal
minded Southern men coming in contact with him as a "frank,
honest, conscientious, capable man," and that while he came
with a bad crowd to rule over us through the disfranchisement
of many of our citizens and the elective franchise put into the
hands of the negro, still he was far better than the crowd
he came with." Mr. Chase planned well; he began a great
work, and gratitude and honor are due him. He knew that
he had wrought a grand work, and predicted in his final report
that "the system will triumph, and becoming a part of the
permanent polity of the State, will endure to bless thioiigh
party changes and successive administrations."
This law, passed by law makers in the main with nothing
themselves to tax, proposed to levy a tax upon large and non-
productive estates, rendered so by the results of the war, and
for the education of whom? The white and black child alike
ostensibly, but it was then known that it would be so, and
after facts demonstrated, that the chief beneficiaries of that
system and of that tax, for eight years or more, were to be the
recent denizens of the cotton patch. .The reports of the De-
partment at that period are so defective that they do not
:show it, but those of us on the scene of action at the time

know, that there was an average of three negro children or:
more to every white child in school throughout the State.
It was not until conditions were changed, confidence was
restored, prejudices were allayed, and the white children be-
gan to enter the schools, that the phenomenal growth in
school attendance began to be recorded. So it is wonderful,
we repeat, that the system met with the favor it did. The
people of the State showed themselves deserving of the
Reputation of being long suffering and forbearing, and fitly
bore the name of Conservatives, as the opposition was then
called. It all goes to prove that the people at heart were in
favor of public education, and that the seed sown fell in good
soil though under unfavorable conditions.
Mr. Chase did not live out his term of office. Rev. Charles
Beecher, a brother of the famous Henry Ward Beecher, who
with his wife was living a kind of hermit life at the little
coast town of Newport (himself and wife, with occasionally a
daughter, two white fisher-lads and a hundred or, more ne-
groes constituting the only inhabitants for miles around), was
appointed State Superintendent and assumed the duties of his
office about the middle of March, 1871, his term of service
Extending to the early part of 1873. Hle was a Christian
gentleman of fine ability, and, like his predecessor, an import.
The growth of the schools during the two years of his ad:
ministration is shown in Table A. In both his reports
he detailed the circumstances that checked and discour-
aged the progress of the common schools; one year, such as
temporary vacancy in the office after the decease of his pre-
decessor, the limiting by the Legislature of the county school
levy to one mill, the depreciation in value of the State's war-
rants apportioning the school fund, to as low as 33 cents on
the dollar; the other year, bad crops, bad collections of school
revenue, similar depreciation in the State's warrants, the ex-
citement of State and Natiorial elections, etc. He took cour-
age and congratulated the friends of education for the follow-
ing: That the. ratio of pupils enrolled in the schools had
approximated 1 in 4 of the school population; that all coun-
ties, save four, had levied a school tax-a few, more than the
one mill required by law; that the people manifested a greater
willingness to be taxed for schools, and paid their taxes cheer-
fully; and that all counties had organized and had a Superin-
ten'dent, except two.
Mr. Beecher was a conservative man, and advocated the
policy of giving the Conservatives (Democrats) representa-

tion on every 'School Board, because "A large part of the
white population are Conservatives, and it is important to
secure their co-operation in educational movements," and "in
counties where no competent Republican could be found, to
'employ Conservatives, if qualified, as County Superintend-
,ents." "This principle, the fundamental one of Civil Service
reform, it is hoped, will be continued, so that this Department
may, as far as possible, be separate from party politics and
the liabilities and mutations of party strife."
The above sounds the keynote to what success attached to
Mr. Beecher's administration. There are found among his
county school officers some of the best men in the State. As
Superintendents, such men as John R. Richard, of Bradford ;
Dr. Josephus Anderson, of Leon; Henry W. Long, of Marion;
W. A. Shands, of Levy, etc.; as members of School Boards,
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Duv-al, et al., and as a result in such
counties the number of white schools and the enrollment of
white children were largely increased.
While nothing that he recommended seems to hhve been
enacted into law, still there are found among his recommenda-
tions the following: That Congress be memorialized to grant
all reserved lands in the State for educational purposes; that
-the Seminary lands be devoted to the support of one Univer-
sity instead of to two Seminaries; that County Boards be
required to furnish free text books, prohibiting the use of any
except those adopted by the Stat3; that County Boards be
limited to three members to increase their efficiency and
diminish expenses; that the County Superintendent be re-
quired to take census of youth of school age once in five
years, instead, of the Tax Assessor every year; that funds
forfeited by a county for failure to keep its schools in opera-
"tion for the legal time, be allowed expended by the State
Superintendent for Institute purposes in the county, or for
the higher instruction of teachers.
As a whole, Mr. Beecher's administration may be classed as
conservative and reasonably successful for the time and cir-
cumstances, and though one of the "hateful imports of his
party, still he must have retired with the respect of many of
the conservative men of the State.
Notwithstanding his recommendation to Gov. O: B. Hart,
'on January 9, 1873, that Conservatives be recognized and
'their co-operation sought in educational matters, and that the
Department of Public. Instruction be separated from party
politics, it was not many days before Hon. Jonathan C. Gibbs,

ex-Secretary of State, a negro, a native of Pennsylvania, a
:graduate of Dartmouth College, Class of 1852, t: citizen of
Florida after December, 1866, was appointed as Mr. Beecher's
successor. Now from all that has preceded, a perfect Hegira
of Conservatives from school offices is doubtless expected. It
is true that the next report shows the substitution in the office
of Superintendent in Alachua County of W. K. Cessna, a
rabid, for S. F. Halliday, an exceedingly conservative Repub-
lican; in Bradford, A. Lawrence for J. R. Richard; in Leon,
J. P. Apthorp for Josephus Anderson; in Levy, Thos. B.
Faitoute for Wm. A. Shands; in Marion, W. J. Tucker for
Henry W. Long, etc., but there is no record of why such
-changes were made, and we do not presume to say.
While it is regarded as exceedingly unfortunate that a
negro should have been put at the head of educational affairs
in a Southern State at that particular, juncture, when the sys-
tem needed above everything else popularizing with the white
population, and their co-operation to make it a success-it is
folly to undertake to force the prejudices of any people,
especially of a Florida "Cracker "-still justice must be done
SMr. Gibbs, without regard to his color, his politics, or his
birthplace. He is reputed to have been a man of in-
tegrity, culture, an orator, and quite a gentleman. He
was generally conceded to be far superior in all that consti-
tutes a man of worth to the great majority of his white
partisans who held office in the State at that time.
There is nothing of special note to record in the report of
Supt. Gibbs, beyond the fact that it was a well written piece
of composition, gotten up in nice form. The recommendations
of his predecessor were renewed, and it was during his ad-
ministration that the Agricultural College Land Scrip was
sold at 90 cents on the dollar. He enjoys the distinction of
-being the only Superintendent of Public Instruction of this
State that has ever been assigned a place on the programme
of the National Educational Association, having addressed
that body on "Education in the South," at Elmira, N. Y.,
August 7, 1873. It is a matter of rumor that no representa-
tive from the South has ever received so great an ovation at
the hands of that body. The statistical part of his adminis-
tration will be found recorded in .Table A. The facts.
recorded therein were obtained from the report of his
successor, and by him confessedly the result of estimation, as
no regular statistical tables show how the facts were arrived
at. Suffice it to say, that during this administration there was
.a large increase in the number of schools and attendance in
;the "black countiess ", a corresponding decrease in the white

*. a

-counties organized prior to that year, but a large and unpre-
cedented increase in the number of schools reported from the
southern counties of the State; for example, Levy reported a
gain of 21 schools, Hillsborough and Manatee, 5 each, etc.,
a total increase of 67 schools during the first year of this
Before the next report was prepared, Supt. Gibbs died sud-
denly oh August 17, 1874, in the prime of his manhood and
lion. Samuel B. McLin, Secretary of State, was Acting
Superintendent until about March 1, 1875, and prepared
the report for the last year of Supt. Gibb's administration.
The report, like the one of the year previous, is worth little
as a matter of statisties--though recorded in Table A. Mr.
McLin himself says, "the reports of County Superintendents
and such other sources of information as have been found in
the office are so incomplete and deficient that it is impractic-
able to ascertain results with absolute accuracy." Otherwise,
this report is the ablest one of the whole number made from
this Department. In it are over twelve pages of solid printed
matter, which reads like Classic English, and demonstrates
that its author was fearless in expression, had clear-cut and
well defined ideas as to the condition and needs of the sbcools,
and was brimful of suggestions as to what vital'points to
touch to improve their condition. If space permitted, it
would be worth preserving by inserting the whole here; while
this can not be done, short extracts under the principal heads'
touched upon, are here given to indicate the tone of the
Under the sub-head "County Reports," after enlarging
upon the necessity of their being accurate, complete, and
promptly submitted, he says: "Whatever has been the cause
of this failure to make proper reports on the part of County
Superintendents, it will be followed by serious results to the
interests of the State. It is very damaging to lot such annual
exhibits of the State and progress of education here go
abroad as we are compelled to make. 'And even in a majority
of the reports which have come to'hand there is a sad want of
exactness and of attention to details, which is not creditable
to the parties charged with this work."
Under the sub-head "Teachers," he says: 'One of the
greatest drawbacks to the success of our system is the'want
of competent teachers. No matter how admirable the system
may be, its excellence will not be felt except the practical

operations are conducted by properly qualified teachers.
Just as the stream can not rise higher than the fountain, the
school will not be found to be better than the teacher. Al-
most everything depends on him. Three out of every four
are unfit for the places they occupy, in respect to scholar-
ship, methods, and principles of teaching, general intelligence,
and ability to organize and govern a school."
Under the sub-head "Teachers' Institutes," after recom-
mending the establishment of annual institutes of one month's
duration, under the charge of experienced and skillful edu-
cators; the grading of teachers attending the same, on the
basis of fitness or capacity, looking to the payment of salaries
according to merit or qualification, he says, "the money thus
spent would do more to promote the cause of education than
a hundred times the amount expended in paying incompetent
teachers. To leave teachers to learn their business by experi-
menting on the children is the most costly of all systems of
teacher-training, when the results are considered. As regards
the art of teaching, there is no more fallacious proverb than
that 'Practice makes perfect.' Practice gives familiarity; but
if not based upon proper principles it will only fix bad habits."
Under the sub-head "County Superintendents," he says:
" One indispensable qualification in a County Superintendent
is intelligence and culture. It is sheer folly to suppose that
an ignorant man can successfully manage school interests.
His obvious duties are to visit, to note methods of instruc-
tion, judge of text-books and discipline, give direction in the
science and art of teaching, be adviser and assistant to the
teachers, as well as examiner of them; and to do this requires
intelligence of a high order, and a practical knowledge of
schools. How can a man conduct the examination of teachers
unless he has the necessary literary qualifications, and how
can he counsel and aid the teachers, except lie be familiar
with the work? If we had more faithful and
efficient officers of this class,, there would be a change in the
condition and appearance of the public school houses through-
out the State. His qualifications also are, sym-
pathy with the system, public spirit, moral uprightness. To
sum up: He should be a man well qualified as to knowledge
of books; he should be well acquainted with
practical school room work ; he should be a
man of energy, and also a man of unexceptionable habits
and character ; he should be. capable of
withstanding the influences sometimes brought to bear
upon such officers to induce them to give certificates to.

candidates unworthy or unqualified to become teachers; he
should be enterprising and public spirited, and, in short,
known as a live, qualified, faithful, honest man, before en-
trusted with the responsibility of this position.. While a few
of our County Superintendents are in every way worthy,
qualified, and efficient officers, a large majority of them are
notoriously unfit for position, and utterly incapable of per-
forming-their duties. The literary qualifications of some of
them, if we may be permitted to judge from the letters and
annual reports sent to this office, are of a very primitive type,
and some of them are so indolent, incompetent, or uninter-
ested as to omit the making of an annual report at all."
'.He favored divorcing the office from party politics, saying
it had fallen too frequently into the hands of men who had
prostituted it to their political advancement or pecuniary
gain. He recommended the creation of "a State Board
of 'Examiners, and require of each aspirant for this
office a certificate of merit from said Board before receiv-
ing his appointment. It is a solecism in our school system,
that while no teacher is employed or paid without due exam-
ination and licensing, no credentials or qualifications are re-
quired of the man who conducts the examination, and issues
or refuses to issue the certificate. It is submitted that this is
neither reasonable nor safe, etc."
Much more is said on these subjects, and on the necessity
of better school houses and uniformity of text books, in the
same bold strain; but with an apology for quoting so much
from this source, the next administration is taken up.
Rev. |Wm. Watkin Hicks received the appointment at the
hands of Gov. Marcellus L. Stearns, as the next State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction, and entered upon the dis-
charge of his duties about March 1, 1875. Mr. Hicks is a
Welshman by birth, a Methodist minister of noted pulpit
ability, and his labors before coming to Florida, for several
years had been in one of the Georgia conferences, in conneo-
tion with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Hicks
was also an import, and has always been' recognized, as he
still lives, as a man of pre-eminent ability, though erratic.
Possibly as late as the campaign of 1872, he published some
very extreme articles for a divine, either as editor or corre-
spondent, in one of the Macon secular papers, espousing the
Southern view of politics. Only a man of ability could have
changed his State and completely somersaulted in politics and
have received such distinguished recognition at the hands of

-the appointing power of a new State in so short a time. As
Mr. Hicks' reputation is national, it is useless to say more of
him personally, than that he was quite a prominent figure in
politics-a most celebrated Republican stump speaker, and
was the last of the dynasty of Republican State Superin-
In the bi-ennial report made to Gov. Stearns, December 31,
1876, Mr. Hicks states that "little data was found in the Su.
perintendent's office, and the first quarter passed before any-
thing like a correct record of school, officers from all the coun-
ties was obtained." In the same strain with all of his pre-
decessors, he complains of the failure to get reports, and
says, either from lack of intelligence or zeal, Superintend-
ents and Boards have failed to report to this department, as
required by law, and no amount of correspondence seems
equal to the task of provoking them to this necessary good
work. The remedy for this lamentable defect may be found
in the instant removal of negligent officers, or in making com-
pensation payable only upon satisfactory performance of serv-
ice." He also directs attention to the "opposition to the
school system" saying, "It cannot be denied that the power-
ful opposition which confronted the common school system
upon its introduction in the State, still confronts it, losing
none of its bitterness, but with gradually waning power."
A large part of his report is devoted to the "Progress of
the People of Color in Education," in which he avows the
existence of a strong prejudice against the education of the
negro, and even his right to receive it at all. "As to the pre-
judice against the negro's right to education, it is enough to
say that it is un-American, and has stamped upon it the
,reprobation of civilization, the interdiction of the Constitu-
tion and the curse of God."
After greatly exaggerating the progress made by them, he
says, "I do not mean to suggest or to imply that since the es-
tablishment of the common school in this State the colored
race has made satisfactory progress. I fear not. Influences
outside of the school-and particularly political influences,
begetting an all absorbing political ambition, have somewhat
weakened the attractions and claims of education, and par-
tially obscured and overshadowed it. What I may safely
claim, in spite of the discounting facts referred to, is very
"commendable progress."
An examination of the statistical tables in the report/for
his two years' terms of office, would convince anyone that
Superintendent Hicks had grounds for complaint against his
,County Superintendents for defective reports, or for failure

to report altogether. There are no statistics at all for the-
year 1876, or they are not so separated from those of 1875 as
to be distinguishable one from the other. No footings
are made, possibly in consequence of so many counties making
no report. Those reporting, however, indicate an increase
in the number of schools and attendance, as recorded in Table
A very valuable table was undertaken, exhibiting the com-
parative growth in the number of schools, enrollment of
pupils, and school expenditure in each county for the six years,
1870 to 1875, inclusive, but it contained so many blanks, for
want of data, possibly, that its value is greatly impaired.
It must not be overlooked that it was during Superintendent
Hicks' administration that the Agricultural College was,.
located at Eau Gallie, and that it was Messrs. Hicks and Var-
num, the Select Committee from its Board of Trustees to ex-
amine locations, who recommended the selection of that place,
May 1, 1875. And upon the order of the Board, General
John Varnum went to work and cut away the forests and
laid off an avenue two miles long, with cross streets, and fin-
ished in the wilderness, by December 1 of that year, a tem-
porary, fire proof college building of cut coquina stone, 35 by
65 feet, two stories high, with ten rooms, stone partitions and
plastered. There was erected also a two-room dormitory, a
toolhouse and other outbuildings. The College was provided
with a fine pair of mules, harnesses, wagon, cart, plows,
wheel-barrows, a harrow, a variety of farming implements,
carpenter's tools; a kitchen stove and utensils, beds and bed.
ding, tables, chairs, Fairbank's scales, a handsome sloop-
rigged yacht-boat, a skiff, etc., etc." All it needed was stu-
dents and a sufficient faculty. Verily, verily, Florida had a
white elephant on her hands in the shape of an Agricultural
College for a long time before she learned what to do with it.
It must also be remembered that it was during Superin-
tendent Hicks' term that the State series of uniform text-
books recommended by Mr. McLin was adopted by the State
Board of Education and a uniform series prescribed for
adoption and distribution by County Boards; though like most
things undertaken in those days, it practically ended with its
With this review of the first eight years' history of the
public school system, it is here proper to pause for a few re-
flections upon the testimony and statistics presented by the
five report-makers we have been reviewing.
The impressions produced by their recital of facts, con
trasted with the statements and statistics of the three succeed-.

ing State Suprintendents, should be ample evidence to justify
a very reliable verdict. While admitting that there was ap-
parent grounds for the claim that the Reponstructionists forced
the public school system upon the State, and that there was
really bitter opposition to universal education supported by
taxation, especially as it applied to the negro, on the part of
some of the white population, still in the light of subsequent
facts and legislation as well, the conclusion can be justly
drawn: First, that there was but little real opposition to the
free school system; Second, that there was but little intelli-
gent opposition to the education of the negro; Third, that
the opposition was not to the education of the masses, to the
law adopted, or to the tax levied-for many of the published
reports of County Superintendents stated that the taxes were
levied, collected, and "paid cheerfully." Opposition is a
recognized fact, but the opposition was not so much against
the educational movement per se, as against the men them-
selves, their antecedents, -their affiliations, who had introduced
and were charged with the execution of the law.
It is our especial desire right here to correct the imputation
that the majority of the intelligent citizens of the State-who
control public action in every government-was ever at any
time since his emancipation opposed to negro education, or to
universal education at public expense. The responsibility for
whatever opposition there was, rightfully rests upon the heads
of the men making the charge. Their lives, their characters,
their social practices and advocacy of principles and lines
of conduct not related directly to the subject of education
per se, were at the foundation of the alleged opposition.
The truth is, the wrong party was in power in the State, for
anything to succeed; and this truth was often virtually con-
fessed, especially when Mr. Beecher declared that the co-opera-
tion of the Conservatives must be secured in order that the edu-
cation problem might be solved. It always has been, is, and
always will be unfortunate when aliens, or the representatives of
the prevailing side in a contest take the reins of government in
hand and attempt to enforce rapidly their sentiments, customs,
or forms of law upon the overpowered. Success comes
quicker and surer when new comers or victors merge them-
selves into the people and engraft their notions by acting
through and with them.
Grave mistakes were made at that time on many important
questions like this; it is neither true nor just that all of the
blame should be laid at the door of the ignorance, prejudice,
.or lawlessness of Southern citizens.

22 *

In proof of the position assumed, call to mind the constant
legislation and the favorable sentiment constantly growing'
and converging towards the public school idea up to the-
breaking out of the Civil War, with slavery in existence; is it
not reasonable and fair to presume with this class, as citizens,
that a free public school system would have soon followed
without the intervention of alien help or notions ?'
In January, 1866, when every branch of the State govern-
ment was under the control of ante-bellum inhabitants, with,
property values all destroyed and the people prostrated by the
results of war, with not a dollar in the State treasury, a bill
passed the Legislature providing for the education of the
children of freedmen. This provided for levying a poll tax
of one dollar on all male persons of color between the ages
of 21 and 45 years," and for the collection of a tuition fee of
fifty- cents a month for each pupil. Governor Walker
appointed Rev. Duncan, Commissioner to organize these.
schools, which officer reported that he was welcomed and
aided everywhere by the planters of the State, and that they
readily gave sites and built or helped to build school houses,
and contributed towards the payment of teachers of colored
schools. In their poverty, despoiled by war, they were not
ready to assume the education of this people, but this act
shows that there was from the very outset no general opposi,
tion to his education.
In the heated campaign of 1876, the speakers of the party
with which Superintendent Hicks was aligned, frightened the-
colored voters by telling them that the boon of public schools,
would be taken from them if the Democrats won the election.
They won it, and Superintendent Hicks' successor two years
after wrote, "The doubts and apprehensions once entertained.
by the colored portion of our population have been dispelled.
Their schools have everywhere been in proportion to their
numbers, and they express themselves as fully satisfied that
justice has been accorded them." They won it; and the
colored teachers and patrons in Alachua county, between the
years of 1881 and 1892, told the writer, their County Superin-
tendent, hundreds of times, that they had better schools, better
paid and more competent teachers, and their schools received
more attention under Democratic than under Republican rule.
They continued to win them; and when the Constitutional
Convention of 1885 (nine years after these charges) con-
vened-more than two-thirds Democratic-it provided for
a State Normal School for colored students. Its President,
Prof. T. DeS. Tucker a colored man of ability, in his report of
1887 writes, "Up to the assembling of the Conventi6n of,

1885, which framed the present organic law of the State, there
was a growing conviction in the public mind that the colored
people of the State should be given the advantages of an ed-
ucation higher than that furnished in the common schools "
Not only do legislation and personal witnesses deny this impu-
tation, that should not go'down to history undisputed, but so do
all the subsequent statistics, the most convincing] evidence,
from Mr. Hicks administration to the present.
The truth of the matter is, there was too much politics in
the State, in schools as well as everything else, and too much
talking by the party in power for political effect North. Bad
old days these, both North and South, when campaign thun-
der consisted of vilification, each believing the other.
It is sufficient refutation of the charge that the white Dem-
ocrats were opposed to the free school system, or to the impo-
sition of a tax to educate white and black alike, to examine
the statistical tables in this volume and to remember that they
have been in absolute and almost universal control of the gov-
ernment, county and State, since 1877.
The question naturally will arise, why would their opposition
to the men themselves lead them to hold themselves aloof so
largely from school matters, while in sympathy with the prin-
ciple ?
The answer is easy, and for hundreds of years 'yet in the
South, if not for all time, their actions and apprehensions will
be approved. They had no confidence in the business, integ-
rity of those in power, who with the enormous millage levied
had so depreciated all State and county warrants that they
sold for less than par value; beyond that, the Civil Rights
Bill stood as a frightful ghost; they had occasional practical
illustration by those in power of social equality, possibly for
political effect; they knew that there was no distinction of
race in schools in many of the States North and as the result
of the Civil Rights agitation that distinction would become
rarer, as it has; they witnessed social equality in practice on
the part of many of the Yankee school marms and masters
who came here to instruct the freedmen; they heard from
those same sources every now and then whisperings that The
cracker and negro ought to be educated in the same schools;"
they often heard from similar sources that amalgamation
would be the final settlement of the negro question despite
present prejudices. Who wonders then that they were chary
about deeding lots for school buildings to school boards for
many years after the representatives of such social ideas had
been hurled from power, lest their rule should return and the
buildings be taken for the education of the negro, or for whites

and blacks together ? These, these, readers of a hundred years
from now, were the grounds for the charges that the active
citizens of Florida were opposed to public education of the
masses and the negro in particular. Their cherished senti-
ments were' so gratuitously, so maliciously, so wantonly insulted
and outraged at every turn that they could not have been
southern men and submitted tamely to it. The true South-
erner is Anglo-Saxon and American in every fiber of his be-
ing and he will continue.to combat all the blandishments of
wealth and seductions of power, that his home and his schools
may remain for all time the hot bed for germinating a senti-
ment that shall plead for social distinctions and the purest
type of Anglo Saxon and true American manhood.
While all this is true, the intelligent man of the South is
the best friend the negro has or ever had, on this green earth;
he will extend him more genuine sympathy and real help in
time of need, has greater forbearance with his faults and
shortcomings-the negro knows it too-but socially he is held a
different being. The sentiment is right, philosophy and the
handwork and unwritten edict of God endorse it, and it will
live, let others think and act as suit them best. And it is well
to add right here, for the information of the pretended
friend, and friend as well, of the negro, that sentiments and
demonstrations of social equality and all efforts at co-educa-
tion of the races in this quarter of the world do the negro
infinitely more harm with his real friends (who have paid and
still must and will pay for their education) than they can
compensate for by doing a thousand times more than they will
ever do for them.
No pardon is asked for this digression, as posterity ought to
know why the charges were ever recorded that the people of
the State were opposed to public schools and the education of
the negro, or questioned his right to an education.
The next three administrations will be treated briefly, as the
statistics speak sufficiently for them.
As a result of the memorable campaign of 1876, George F.
Drew was elected Governor, and Wm. P. Haisley, a native
of Indiana, having come to Florida in 1867, a graduate of
Yale and Harvard, and a teacher of several years experience,
was by him appointed and took charge of the office of State
Superintendent of Public Instruction in January of 1877.
Superintendent IIaisley's was strictly a business adminis-
tration, no buncombe about it, nor exaggerating any of
its results beyond just deserts. For the first time

-since the organization of the system, statistics were
complete and reliable, exhibiting no marks of guess-
ing. Mr. Haisley himself wrote, No county officer
connected with the department has failed, during the last four
years, to forward to this office his regular reports-something
which had never before been done." His reports are. models
of neatness and succinctness, full but not fulsome; the statis-
tical tables bear on their face the impression that they may be
relied upon-it's cheering to examine such; they treat of
many things not before reported and stand a silent rebuke to
all previous efforts in that line.
In consequence of accumulated debts from year to year in
the shape both of disfavor of the system from bad manage-
ment and of depreciated school scrip, as low as thirty cents on
the dollar, handed down as a legacy from his predecessors,
Superintendent Haisley and many of his County Superintend-
ents hardly had a fair showing in comparison with their suc-
cessors. But the schools exhibited healthy growth in every
respect each of his four years' term of office. During the
,quadrennium the school term was lengthened; the number of
schools taught, their actual attendance, and cash school expen-
diture was doubled, while the school population ald wealth of
the State show no increase. Every county had so enhanced
the value of school warrant*, that hardly in any could school
scrip be had for less than par value. -
Mr. Haisley was truly a FIELD SUPERINTDEDENT. tie vis-
ited every county once each biennium, meeting with and in-
strncting County Boards, delivering public lectures, comming-
ling with the people and building up confidence and awaken-
ing interest in the school system. In consequence of fewness
of railroads, his travel, embracing "five and six months,"
was largely done by private conveyance, necessitating priva-
tions and hardships, bespeaking a fidelity to duty and a hero-
ism which succeeding generations will never understand and
fully appreciate.
Aside from their statistical value, the reports and recom-
mendations of his corps of County Superintendents are the
ablest that have been published from the Department even to
the present time.
His last year's service was crippled by an Act of the Legis-
lature of 1879 reducing the maximum county levy for schools
to two and one-half mills, but no diminuition is witnessed any-
where except in the amount expended for schools.
The following are among his recommendations to the Legis-
lature :

That the rate of county levy for schools be restored to five-
mills, as the people had never objected to the school tax, nor
would they when judiciously applied.
That the course of study in the common schools be limited.
to Orthography, Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Geography,
and English Grammar;
That the poll tax be made a prerequisite to the right
of suffrage, and the fund arising be applied to school pur--
That County Superintendents be required to take the
census and the fund specified from which they are to be paid.
That only teachers be eligible to the office of County Super-
He states in his last report that the adoption of county uni-
formity of text-books, reported in his first, had objections to.
it, and he recommended STATE UNIFORMITY in the following.
language: "I would recommend that a law be passed vesting.
the Board of Education, or some commission appointed for
the purpose, with power to select a series, the adoption of
which shall be enforced in all the schools of the State, and
requiring that no change shall ba made in less than five
years." 0
He, and County Superintendent F. Pasco also, recom-
mended that the duties of County Superintendents, School
Boards and minor school officers be so clearly defined and"
limited that there might be no conflict, and that it might not
appear the duty of three officers to do the same thing.
He plead for the exercise of more care in the selection' of
school officers and teachers, that incompetents and those not
in sympathy with the work should not be selected;
He urges the necessity for one, and suggests that a strong
Normal School could be established out of the Agricultural
College, Seminary, and the Peabody appropriations to the
,r State.
He reports some efforts made to establish Teachers' Insti-
tutes, which never before had been attempted; and reports
the success greater than was expected, being attended not only
by teachers, but school officers and leading citizens.
He writes: "I am aware that many condemn the public
school system as of alien birth, but it is not true, as is gener-
ally supposed, that the doctrine of educating the people at the
expense of the government is an importation into the South.
Mr. Jefferson was one of its first advocates in our country,
and claimed that it is the right and duty of a State to tax.
itself for the support of elementary schools." He further
says, where the institution had its birth, or who or what.

party had been its opponent should not concern us, if the,
conditionn of our country demand its maintenance. "The
unfriendly feeling against the public schools has, in a great
measure, given way to a strong, healthy sentiment in their
It is added in closing, considering the circumstances under
which he labored, Mr. Haisley's administration stands first,
or with the best.
On January 31, 1881, Governor Win. D. Bloxham appointed
Hon.Eleazer K. Foster, a graduate of Yale, Class of '63, State
Superintendent of Public Instruction, who immediately en-
tered upon the discharge of the duties of the office. He was
a native of the State of Connecticut, a lawyer by profession,
in habits of mind and inclination, and doubtless occupied the
office at great financial loss to himself and at a sacrifice of his
personal preferences.
Mr. Foster had been in the State sixteen years when he
received his appointment; had settled at Sanford, where he
still lives and practices his profession.
He resigned before the expiration of his term, and his suc-
cessor assumed the duties of the office February 22, 1884-
thus making his term of service a little over three years. The
poor record of the schools reported for the year 1881 is not
properly chargeable to Superintendent Foster's administra-
tion. The schools usually do not open until about October 1;
those reported for this year began the previous October and
are always practically taught before a new Superintendent
has any shaping of school matters. The decrease in many
lines reported for that year is due to the lowering of the tax
levy by the Legislature of 1879. The Legislature of 1881
made more liberal provisions for education, possibly owing
largely to Superintendent's Haisley's recommendation that a
uniform levy of 5 mills for public schools be required of all
the counties.
While the Legislature did not raise the levy to 5 mills, still
it fixed a minimum and maximum rate of 2- and 4 mills. For
that year eight counties assessed the maximum, two 38 mills,
eleven 9 mills, and eighteen the minimum. This fact is men-
tioned to illustrate the sentiment of County Commissioners
relative to taxation for schools, as they were charged with,
the duty of making the levy between these limits,
To represent that sentiment truly, the fact must not be
forgotten, that besides the county levy, there was all
through these years a State levy of one mill for the public

-schools; to which was added the interest on the permanent
school fund and other funds set apart for these purposes,
though not amounting to a great deal in the aggregate.
Besides many good suggestions and recommendations con-
tained in his report, Superintendent Foster expressed a hope
also that the time will come when teachers shall be paid ac-.
cording to their capacity and the character of the labor per-
formed rather than on the basis of average attendance of
pupils, as is now so often the case."
The following are among his suggestions and recommenda-
tions to the Legislature, some of them being also endorsed
and emphasized in the message of Governor Bloxham: That
a law be enacted "requiring County Superintendents to keep
proper records and make full and complete reports" to the
State Department, "affixing a penalty for failure to do so"
(his statistical tables bespeak a crying need for the law and its
enforcement); that the 1 mill tax be sent to the State Treas-
ury and apportioned on the basis of school population, like
the interest fund; that an appropriation be made for Teach-
ers' Institutes; that the power of School Boards relative to
building and furnishing school houses be more closely defined;
that a STATE UNIFORM SERIES OF TEXT-BOOKs be adopted, or
county adoptions be made obligatory for a term of years;
that it be made a misdemeanor for school officers to act as
agents of publishers in securing the adoption of text-books;
that a State Reformatory School be established; that the sys-
tem of appointing School Boards on the recommendation of
the legislators of a county be changed; that an Institute for
Deaf Mutes be established; that County Superintendents be
given the power to revoke certificates of teachers for intem-
perance, immorality, or for other good cause;" after stress-
ing the importance of selecting fit men for County Superin-
tendents, if such be selected that the law be so changed as
to require these officers to visit each school during each
scholastic session, and to spend one day, when practicable, at
each school;" that School Boards be reduced to three mem-
bers,-suggesting that in some counties their duties might be
well performed by the County Commissioners, with the hint
implied that when they were made responsible for the conduct
of the schools, that perhaps the disposition to economize
would not then always be at the expense of the schools.
He simply endorsed thorough examinations, and reiterates
the fact emphasized by all of his predecessors, to-wit: "Bet-
'ter teachers is the great need of the school system in the

In recommending great care and the closest scrutiny
in selecting teachers as to moral character, he says, under no
circumstance issue certificates to those who may be addicted to
He concludes with the statement that "marked improve-
ment" had been made in the schools and in school interest in
two years, but that the system and the schools are still far
from perfect."
He stated a fact that was more applicable to the next admin-
istration than to his own, in saying "many boards look more
at the quantity than the quality of the schools."
It is due to this administration to say, that more of its sug-
gestions and recommendations were enacted into law by the
Legislatures of 1888 and succeeding legislatures, than those
of any other; in fact, nearly every one of them has been en-
grafted into the school law in some shape at one time or
The Legislature of 1883 made an appropriation of $4,000.00
each for years 1883 and 1884, for Institutes and Normal In-
structions. This appropriation was expended in conducting
four institutes each for whites and negroes, one Normal of a
month's duration for colored teachers, andin maintaining Nor-
mal departments in East and West Florida Seminaries.
It was made a misdemeanor for school officers and teachers
'to deal in text-books or to be agents of publishers in securing
adoptions, the system of appointing School Boards was
changed; a Deaf Mute Institute was established; County Su-
perintendents were given power to revoke certificates and were
required to visit schools; School Boards after some years were
reduced to three members.
So it may be truly held that this administration was a suc-
cess in suggesting and securing the passage of such laws as
tended to perfect the system and to aid in its after develop-
The reader is now referred to table A which speaks more
forcibly, clearly and truthfully about this administration than
many lines composed or quoted by the writer.
Hon. Albert J. Russell was born in Petersburg, Va.,
January 15, 1829, educated at Anderson Seminary, in
his native town. His occupation in earlier life was that
of architect and builder, studying his profession in
Philadelphia, afterwards pursuing it for eight years in
Charleston, S. C. Removing to Florida in 1859, he
took part in the discussions on Secession, and afterwards.

served as an officer through the Civil War. While County
Superintendent of Duval county, on the resignation of Supt.
.Foster, he received the appointment of State Superintendent
at the hands of Gov. Wm. D. Bloxham, February 21, 1884.
He was re-appointed by Gov. Edward A. Perry in 1885, and
was nominated and elected on the Democratic ticket by vote
of the people in November 1888, the Constitution of 1885
having made the office elective, thus serving continuously
from February 21, 1884, to January 3, 1893, a term of eight
years, 10 months and 12 days.
Much had been done by the two previous administrations
towards popularizing the public schools. The enrollment as
compared with the school population had been increased from
35 per cent. in 1876 to 70 per cent. in 1882; that is, 35 in
every 100 children of school age were enrolled in the schools
in 1876, while 70 in every 100 went to school in 1882. Yet
in the language of both Superintendents Haisley and Foster
the public schools were "far from perfect" and there was
much still to be accomplished-may difficulties to be overcome,
and the work will require the exercise of great patience, as
well as the most energetic effort."
In arousing the popular. mind to a proper appreciation of
the public schools, it hardly admits of question, that Superin-
tendent Russell was better suited to the work and succeeded
beyond any of his predecessors. Not only was he particu-'
larly fitted for the work by rare natural endowments, but his
peculiarly advantageous environment and his wide affiliations
gave him a breadth and strength of influence possessed per-
haps by few men in the State; and his appointment by Gov-
ernor Bloxham was a most fortunate one.
In the first place, he was a Confederate Veteran -and, by,
virtue of this relation, had influence with the very element
whose interest was so desirable to be enlisted; besides this,
he was prominent in Sunday school and church work, a highly
honored Free Mason, Odd Fellow, Knight of Honor, tem-
perance man in various orders, and with it all an earnest,
eloquent, magnetic speaker, wvho in his various offices had
spoken from nearly every rostruth in the State, either upon
politics or upon other popular subjects, in the discharge of
some of his fraternal obligations.
The best of all, he was an enthusiastic advocate of uni-
versal education at State expense, not given to criticism or to
defect hunting in the school system, or in his loyal colaborers
.and subordinates, but on the contrary, predisposed to congrat-
ulate and compliment everyone into good spirits and into
.his best efforts, and to praise everything done, until the doer

'felt proud of his work. It is not a matter for surprise then,
that he had won a warm place in the hearts of many of his
officers and teachers, even though some of his work
might not stand the test of careful scrutiny. Nor is it to be
wondered at that one so constituted should say in one of his
last reports "the people are alive to the importance of the"
public schools, "and properly value the privileges and oppor-
1tunities afforded, and are using them to the greatest advan-
tage. Improvement, wherever possible, is the manifest spirit
everywhere, as to patrons, school officers, teachers and
In a similar strain in his last report he says, "the people
-cherish the school (meaning the public schools) as a great
blessing," and "an earnest desire for excellence and success
pervades the entire corps of teachers of the State; even the
humblest have caught the inspiration and are hard at work
and study, seizing upon every opportunity for advancement."
"There is not a county in the State in which there does not
exist an abiding interest, and a disposition to improve their
respective schools in every respect." It does not admit of
any question, that Superintendent Russell believed every line
-that he penned, for it is his nature to feel so, his head and big
heart were so completely full of his great work that he imag-
ined everyone making pretensions in that direction was as
deeply in earnest and in love with the work as himself. Yet
his language bespeaks a condition that seldom exists in pub-
lic school affairs. There is hardly a doubt that he saw
very little improvement to be made in the system as
operating, and all that it required in his opinion was to be let
-alone and allowed to grow. No fair mind will deny that a
grand work was done during this long administration, espec-
ially in begetting confidence, in allaying prejudices born in
the early history of the system, and in lifting the public mind
and conscience to a proper appreciation of the possibilities of
the public schools, and in creating a cheerful willingness to
support them by taxation. This was the very work needed
most at the time, and which Superintendent Russell as pecu-
liarly qualified therefore was called upon to perform.
But as nothing devised or carried on by human agencies
,ever reaches perfection, it could not be soberly said that edu-
cational interest on the part of either patrons, school officers
or teachers had* anything like approximated perfection. In
the work of public education there is ample room for all to
'work and to progress for all time to come.
There was a rapid increase in the State in wealth, population
sand school expenditure in the decade beginning about 1880;

and as the natural result of these, a large increase in the
attendance upon schools, not due, however, in an especial
manner to the efforts or influence of any single individual.
The marvelous growth in many lines exhibited in Table A
is due to a combination of influences, such as, the result of
the election in 1880 demonstrating that power had safely
passed out of the hands of those ruling the State during the
reconstruction period; the confidence begotten through the
rapid payment of the accumulated debts fastened upon the
State through a period of eight years; the large reduction of
tax rates; and the advertising the State had received through
her Bureau of Immigration and the Disston Land Sale. In
consequence of this a strong tide of immigration set in, large
bodies of land for the first time found their places on the tax-
books, railroads began to multiply and to pay taxes, and the
truth is, it would have been strange if school interests had not
kept pace with the increase in wealth and population.
Previous administrations have a share in this growth, be-
cause they paid the debts, helped to restore confidence, and
thereby cleared the way for progress.
There are some facts apparent in Table A that need ex-
planation. It appears that in the year 1882 70 in 100 of
all the children of school age were attending school, while in
1892, at the close of Superintendent Russell's administration
of popularizing the system, only 65 in every 100 were en-
rolled. It is evident that the school census of 1892 is exag-
gerated-there being too much inducement to the great
number of persons entrusted with the primary work of taking
that census, to make large returns. Hence the apparent falling
off above alluded to, is questioned by attacking the census.
It is our belief that there was a larger per centage of the
children of school age enrolled in the schools at the close of
Superintendent Russell's term than ever before.
That census is attacked, on another ground; if there were
144,106 children of school age in 1892, at the usual rate of
one school child for every three and one-half or four, or even
three, of the population, the census takers of 1890 ought to
have returned a population for the State of a half million or
more. While it is strongly believed that there never has been
anything like a reliable census of the State under Republican
rule, still the school census of 1892 would indicate too great a
disparity between the estimated and reported, census to beget
confidence in that report.
Those who will stop to consider must pity the administra-
tion that immediately succeeds that of Superintendent Rus-
sell's and that must be compared with it. While it has been

lauded 11ll that language will bear, still it had its defects, and
there is left work that a proper successor might do. Suffi-,
cient time has not elapsed to estimate correctly an administra-
tion so popular with those having most to do with it, nor is
its immediate successor the proper historian for it. Still it
occurred to him that the first work to which he ought to de-
vote attention was to dispel some of the glamour of congratu-
lation and eulogy beneath which the,true condition of things
was largely hidden; and ignoring appearances and profes-
sions, test how large a proportion of the teachers were in
reality as enthusiastic and well fitted for their responsible
duties as thought and reported to be. If any be found
wanting, to inaugurate means to help them. The next duty,
to improve the statistics reporting the condition of the work.
Superintendent Russell was not a careful statistician, or suc-
cessful gatherer of statistics. He permitted himself to
transcribe into his tables, and carried over into his totals and
summaries, fabulous facts which show on their face that they
can not be true. In proof of this statement, only one or-two
instances among many will be cited; in the attendance of
pupils from Orange county for the years 1885 and 1886; his
reports show an enrollment of 10,473 and 12,554 pupils
respectively for those years, not only equal to the population
of the county, but twice the school enrollment of the most
populous county of the State. These amounts appear in the
totals, showing that it could not have been a mere typograph-
ical error.
Again, the average attendance of pupils for the year 1884-
85 when properly footed should be 41,970, instead of 45,850;
anlt in Osceola county for the year 1888-89, it is recorded as
5,206, and so carried into the footings, while the enrollment
in schools in that county for that year was only 741-the
whole population of the county being less than the reported
average attendance in her schools. These are the largest
errors, but there are many more that have passed undisputed
and have been published and have created an impression,
that will never be effaced, should any one care to correct
them. They place at great discount the administration that
must be compared with such reckless use of figures.
There is no pleasure in calling attention to such facts, and
it is rendered necessary only in self-defense of an administra-
tion that is exceedingly careful in trying to speak nothing but
absolute facts through the language of figures in statistics.
Despite these small matters, Superintendent Russell and

his work deserve to and will go down in history crowned with
the greatest honor.
It would be entirely out of place here to give more than an,
,outline of the work performed during this long and active
:administration. It began, it may be said, almost simultan-
eously with the era of great growth in every line in the State.
In proof of this statement, observe the increase in population,
assessed value of property, and invested school fund exhibited
for every year in Table A.
Taking up this administration topically, the more im-
portarit features of each topic will be traced through the
-whole period, one after another.
Ten months after Superintendent Russell entered upon the
*discharge of the duties of the office, in, his first report, he
-said: "It is my very great pleasure to report a greatly in-
.creased interest on the part of the people in the work of the
-schools all over the State." Public meetings were held and
the people of several counties were addressed and conferred
-with and they, "without exception, evinced a deep and abid-
ing interest in the schools."
In his report for the year 1885, "I can heartily con-
gratulate the people of Florida upon the growth and advance-
ment made in the public school system in the State, not only
in number of schools, the attendance of pupils, and interest
on the part of the people everywhere, but also upon the ex-
cellency of the work done, the increased efficiency of the
teachers, coupled with a most laudable ambition on their part
to excel in everything that tends to make up a real teacher."
In the report of 1886, "I am happy to be able to state that
this increase, growth and interest, has not abated during the
year 1886, but that throughout the State, in every county,
there is organization, interest and advancement. Teachers
are more alive to their work, recognizing that the day for the
Sold schoolmaster, with his green spectacles and buck-horn
handled cane and birchen rod,' has passed. Parents,
.and guardians have awakened to a much deeper interest in
the schools."
In the.report of .1887, "There has been a steady growth of
interest throughout the State in the public schools, a constant
advance in their efficiency, while a most healthful 'esprit du
*corps' animates the teachers as a rule, a result of which is
that much better work has been accomplished. Patrons are

'becoming more identified with the schools and manifest a deep
and lively interest in their management and success.
It can be safely said, there are but few children who live
in isolated places now in the State to whom the door of the
school is not opened without fee or hindrance, of any race or
condition of the population, and there is every reason for be-
lieving there are comparatively very few of the youth of
school age who are not able to read.
"Every county in the State, even the most remote and iso-
lated, is organized and has its public schools in operation.
The six new counties created by the last Legislature have
been organized, and started off upon their work at the begin-
ning of the school year, October 18, with less friction than
could possibly have been expected."
In the report of 1888, "The time is past when it was
necessary for the officer in charge of the great interests of
popular education to feel the necessity of either argument or
persuasion, to induce the people generally to avail themselves
of the inestimable privilege of the public school. Every.
county in the State is now thoroughly organized, and in almost
every settlement or neighborhood in the counties there is a
school organized and operated, the door of which is wide
open to every child, schools for both the white and negro
children. Illiteracy is being rapidly banished from
the State."
In the report of 1889, The continued interest, progress,
and improvement, in the system of public instruction through-
out the entire State is exceedingly gratifying and of brilliant
promise for the future; indeed, it may be said that no other
interest has a greater hold upon the appreciation of the peo-,
ple, the effort is to increase the facilities, adopt
the new and approved methods of imparting instruction, and
making the school room really attractive and winsome to the
pupils. Building new school houses still continues in most
counties; while nearly all school houses are being
supplied with improved furniture. *
"The school interests of the State are really now in the
condition of the prudent and thrifty farmer's crops; the
soil has been thoroughly prepared, the seed has been care-
fully and properly sown, the germs have sprung, so that to
protect, guard, and direct, and the whole State must reap and
gather a harvest for the grand future coming to it, of men and
women, citizens better prepared and qualified for the questions
of the future and its duties and responsibilities, and discharge
.them with honor and blessing."
In the report of 1890, "I have great pleasure in reporting

the continued and increased interest in the public schools in;
every county in the State, as well as a steady advance in thor-
eughness and efficiency, a stricter requirement in the qualifica-
tions of the teachers, and in the attention given by county
authorities to institutes for teachers. In addition
to this, is the universal increase of care and interest on the
part of the people and parents, more frequent visitation and
inquiry into the affairs of the school room. *.* There
has been in many of the counties a large increase in the
erection of new school houses, and these have been, in almost
every instance, furnished and equipped with the best sittings
and furniture, charts and appliances. The number
of schools has been still increased, notwithstanding it had ap-
peared at the close of the- preceding school year that the
State, in most parts, had been fully supplied.
"It is a matter of deep interest and a cause of congratula-
tion to witness the passing away of the crude old-time school
house, and, taking their places, the new and more comfortable,
better ventilated, lighted, and pleasant school houses." He
reports 93 erected during the year, costing $33,000; supplied
with 5,774 sittings costing $12,673.
In the report of 1891, "Continued success and advance
characterize the public schools of the State in every county.
The people are alive to the importance of the work, and prop-
erly value the privileges and opportunities afforded, and are
using them to the greatest advantage. Improvement, wher-
ever possible, is the manifest spirit everywhere, as to patrons,
school officers, teachers and pupils. Steadily does
the improvement in school houses, furniture and general
equipment, and appliances and facilities, advance with the
growth and popularity of the system."
And in the report of 1892, he sums up as follows: The
work of the public schools of the State has progressed with:
unabated zeal and with excellent results in every county in
the State. This is my last report of a long term of
years in the educational work of my beloved State. *
I have had the great reward to see and feel its wonderful
growth and development. From a very poor state of organi-
zation and life, I have been permitted to aid in its develop-
ment to thrice itself in numbers; in popularity with the peo-
ple; in the melting away of prejudice; in the hearty support
given it by the people, to an extent unexceeded by the people
in any State. A truer and more earnest body of
men and women as teachers have never worked under the
superintendency of any man, or, in the main, have been bet-
ter qualified."

After such positive, overflowing and reiterated testimony as
-to'continuous increase in every year on the part of all con-
,cerned, to marvelous growth in every particular essential to a
perfectly successful school system, and to results that call
yearly for earnest and deep congratulations on the part of all
having an interest, what history is necessary more than to give
the statistical results of each year, as proposed in Table A,
and permit the reader to judge as to the merits and growth of
the system and the basis for so great satisfaction and congrat-
ulation for results ?
I But possibly, there are those desirous of knowing how such
results were obtained, beyond being told that they were largely
due to the fitness of the man entrusted with the guidance and
leadership of the work. In order to satisfy those curious to
know the means employed to effect such happy results, a par-
tial outline of some of the more prominent features of the
,work will be given.
The Legislature of 1883, the most liberal in the history of
the State, save the one of 1887, in making appropriations for
educational purposes, had set aside $1,000 for county In-
stitutes for that and the succeeding year, 1894. This amount
and $1,300 donated from the Peabody Fund were at Supt.
Russell's disposal for this purpose. Consequently competent
instructors were employed and Institutes were held in seven
"individual counties" that year. The plan of grouping two,
three or more counties was first tried, and abandoned as a fail-
,ure; because there were only two or three teachers present
from the counties in the group outside the one in which the
Institute was held. At first many kept themselves away, hav-
ing the "impression that these Institutes were to be places
.and times of severe test and examination." Reported as ex-
pended for Institutes this year only $600. The work of the
Institutes was highly commended and the Legislature of 1885
was urged to make larger appropriations for holding them "on
a still more enlarged and extended plan;" to enact a law mak-
ing "it obligatory upon County Superintendents to organize"
and work these up at the appointment of the State authorities,
and also (to make it obligatory) upon the teachers to attend
them or be disqualified to teach."
The Legislature of 1886 made an appropriation of $1,000.
per annum for the continuance of this work for the years 1885
and 1886. In 1885, with Professor H. N. Felkel and Jno. A.
,Graham, as principals, and Madames Helen B. Webster and
II. K. Ingram, as assistants, there were held fifteen Institutes

embracing seventeen counties, with an aggregate attendance-
of 497 teachers brought under the influence" of these in-
structors, which instructors were laboring to be intensely
practical and thorough" and earnestly trying "to teach how
to teach."
Supt. Russell says, "I determined, if possible, to make our
Institutes for the year 1886, still more enthusiastic, instructive
and useful, and to bring the people out to witness and enjoy
our work." The Institutes held for that year for a period of
one and two weeks, as circumstances warranted, were as fol-
lows: One in ,Duval county for the negro teachers of
East Florida, nine for white teachers, which through combin-
ing reached fourteen counties. The expense of these county
Institutes for the two years 1885 and 1886 was $3,760.54, of
this $2,473.54 was from State appropriation and $1,287 out of
the Peabody Fund. It was stated that the expense of these
Institutes had been "greatly reduced and the cost made
almost nominal when compared with the cost in other states."
The Peabody Fund was withdrawn from this State at the
meeting of -the Trustees in 1885 on account of some trouble
in regard to Florida bonds. The fact must not be overlooked
that in February 1886, the first State Teachers' Institute
and the first County Superintendents' Convention ever held
in this State" met at DeFuniak Springs, confessedly through
the "enterprise and liberality of the Florida Chautauqua."
The railroad and steamboat lines reduced their rates to one-
half a cent a mile for all teachers, school officers, and workers
attending the session. As the result of this, "345 teachers
and the Superintendents from a majority of the counties"
were in attendance. "We were supplied with lecturers from
among the foremost educators of the country, both male and
female, and the entire time during the forenoon of each day
for one week was freely surrendered to the Institute." It was
at this gathering that the Florida State Teachers' Xssociation
was formed and regularly organized by the election of Rev.
F. Pasco as President.
The Legislature of 1887 continued the appropriation for-
County Institutes for the years 1887 and 1888, with an allow-
ance of $1,500 per annum.
The State Teachers' Association was again held at De-
Funiak Springs, the second week in February. Over three
hundred'teachers, with County Superintendents from eighteen
of the thirty-nine counties were present and "enjoyed a
week of.most profitable instruction from such men as Dr.
Payne, of the Michigan University, Dr. Edward Brooks, of
Pennsylvania, and others of equal prominence." The same-

rate of ope-half cent per mile going and returning and low
rates of board were secured for all attending.
The County Institute work proper began June 15th, the
corps of instructors consisting of Professors H. N. Felkel, J..
W. N. Erwin, Henry Mertz, Harry W. Demilly and Mrs. H_
K. Ingram. Institutes were held in thirteen counties before-
September 30th, as follows: Three lasting two weeks, ten for
one week, four being for negroes and six for whites. Their
cost in the aggregate was $1,587.59. The State Superintend-
ent was present at most of these and addressed the teachers.
and the people.
In 1888, the State Teachers' Association and County Super-
intendents' Convention, of the latter seventeen counties repre-
sented, were again held at DeFuniak Springs in March, under
the same auspices and with the same favorable rates, through
the continued friendship, to the enterprise, of Capt. A. O. Mac-
Donell and Col. W. D. Chipley, railroad officials, but the at-
tendance was somewhat diminished.
As soon as the county schools of -that year were closed, a
double corps of County Institute instructors was put into the
field. There were held nine institutes for whites, embracing
ten counties; one for two weeks and eight for one week.
Also one institute for negroes at Lake City for all the coun-
ties, for two weeks-the whole costing $1,387.22.
The institutes were acknowledged to have been the "most
effective instrumentality in the hands of the State Superin-
tendent in awakening interest," and the Legislature was ear-
nestly urged by Superintendent Russell to continue the appro-
priation and to increase it "a few hundred dollars."
The Legislature of 1889, however, refused to make any
appropriation for County Institutes, for the first time since,
Superintendent Foster first secured,an appropriation for that
In his report for that year Superintendent Russell said:
" Of course, the State Superintendent could not hold and con-
duct institutes without the means with which to defray the ex-
penses of them." Nevertheless, eleven of the counties held
them, and with great success, on their own account, among
these were Alachua, (for two months, one each for both
races, as had been her custom for several years), Escambia,
Duval, Sumter, Lake, Putnam, Volusia, Orange (two weeks),.
Brevard, Hillsborough and Levy."
The State Teachers' Association was again held at De
Funiak Springs, in March, under the same favorable auspices,.
and was well attended, but quite diminished from that of pre-
ceding year's attendance, estimated by someinot to be over

150. In consequence, the next meeting was voted by the
Association to be held at Ocala, in accordance with the idea of
having the meetings move around, as advocated for, some
years by the County Superintendent of Alachua and a few
In the year 1890, the State Teachers' Association met in
Ocala, in March, and,though -not so favorable transportation
rates as formerly had been secured, still a rate of one cent a
mile each way wasobtained, and the attendance was greater
than it had been since the first meeting at DeFuniak Springs.
Lecturers were provided from the ranks of the teachers of the
State, the whole time was devoted to the consideration of
matters pertaining to the school work before, them, without
the attractions and distractions of the Florida Chautauqua.
I)r. W. F. Yocum was elected president instead of F. Pasco,
who had occupied that position from the organization. The
next Association was by vote carried to Tampa. On the
whole, the meeting at Ocala was one of the most enjoyable
and profitable in the history of the Association. For the first
time since its organization, the State Superintendent was ab-
sent in consequence of sickness, and his presence and counsel
were greatly missed.
The regular County Institutes were not held again this year
under State auspices for the reason already assigned. Yet
many of the counties, under their own management and at
county expense, held Institutes, "some for two months, one
month, two weeks, and one week." Those held for two
months were in Alachua (one each for both races) and Polk.
Those for one month were, Hillsborough, Marion, Putnam,
Washington, Levy, Jefferson and St. Johns.
In the year 1891, the State Teachers' Association and County
Superintendents Convention, of the latter 26 out of 45 pres-
ent, were held at Tampa in March. There was still an in-
creased attendance over, the year previous, and the largest in
the history of the Association up to that date. A splendid
programme filled principally by teachers of the State, was
carried out; a new constitution for the Association was
adopted, prohibiting a president from being his own successor.
Professor J. M. Stuart was elected president. The next Associa-
tioh was voted to be held in Jacksonville, and the time of
meeting, at the suggestion and advocacy of the County Super-
intendent of Alachua, was fixed for the week immediately fol-
lowing Christmas week, so as to make only one break in the
schools for the holidays.and the Association meeting.
Again, for this year, no County Institutes were held under
State control, as the Legislature of 1891, like its immediate


predecessor, had made no appropriation for that purpose, and
the Peabody Fund had been withdrawn from the State, as be-
fore mentioned.
But county school officers selected and employed competent
instructors and held Institutes. Summer Schools, or Summer
Normals (as they now begin to be called) in sixteen counties
of the State from two weeks to two months. These counties
holding them as reported to this office. are" says Supt. Rus-
sell:" Alachua, (for two months) both for white and negro
teachers separate, Escambia, Holmes, Washington, Jefferson,
Suwannee, Columbia, Bradford, Marion, Putnam, Orange,
Polk, Manatee, Lafayette and Levy," and the writer adds,
IHilisborough, as it was evidently omitted by oversight.
In 1T92, the State Teachers' Association met in the city of
Jacksonville the first week in January, some of the transpor-
tation lines giving entirely free rates, notably the J. T. & K,
W., R. R. system, and others mere nominal rates. This with the
further favorable circumstance of holding the meeting the first
week in January, conspired to bring together the largest
attendance of teachers, school officers and advanced pupils,
yet recorded in the history of the Association, estimated to be
about 1,000, in all, about 600 probably being teachers. The
programme was made up almost entirely from the ranks of
Florida teachers. As to how they measured up to the respon-
sibilities placed upon them, Supt. Russell, said: The papers
read were admirable, full of truth, and adapted to the work in
Florida. It was a great and profitable meeting."
The next Association was carried to DeFuniak Springs again,
and the time fixed for April. Prof. G. P. Glenn was elected
County Institutes were held by the counties, as in the year
before, for the reason heretofore assigned. In some counties
they lasted as long as three months, notably in Hillsborough,
in others for two months, and for shorter periods. The coun-
ties were; Alachua, (one for each race for two months) Ma-
rion, Volusia, Lake and Polk; for shorter periods DeSoto,
Washington, Holmes and Pasco.
Upon the authority of Supt. Russell: "These Institutes
can not be exaggerated as to the amount of good resultant
from them." He endorsed the suggestion that had been con-
sidered in part by the State Teachers' Association, that the
Association should formulate a course of study for the County
Institutes, running through a course of years, which should be
.adopted by the conductors of all County Institutes, so that
uniformity as to methods, work and discipline might be se-

So ends the history of two of the agencies that contrib-
uted largely towards the successful development and existant
progress in all school lines during this administration.
The next strongest agency, possibly, in contributing to the
breadth and depth of interest taken in the public schools at
this period, was the effort made in furnishing normal instruc-
tion to the teachers of the State. On his entrance into office
Superintendent Russell found $3,000 set apart by the Legisla-
ture of 1883, through the instrumentality of his predecessor,
Superintendent Foster, for the pursuit of that all important
work. During the year 1884, the Normal Departments that
bad already been established in both the East and West Flor-
ida Seminaries were continued as before. These training
classes were open to white persons of good moral character
over fifteen years of age, desiring to make teaching a pro-
fession, on their promising to remain in these departments for
two years, and, after that time, to teach at least two years in
the State. The consideration for this agreement was free
tuition in these schools. The number complying with these
conditions and enrolled in these departments for that year, was
reported as fifteen in the West, and ten in the East Florida,
The provision made for the negroes for the same year was
two "Normal Schools" of two months' duration, one at
Gainesville and one at Tallahassee. Said Superintendent
Russell, "the best instructors at my command were em-
ployed, who earnestly and faithfully labored to teach these
people how to teach. I have every reason to believe much
good has been accomplished. The principals of these schools
were Professors W. N. Sheats at Gainesville, and John A.
Graham at Tallahassee." The attendance at each was forty-
seven; from this aggregate of ninety-four, certificates to teach
.were issued to fifty-one, eleven receiving second grade, and
forty third grade certificates. The cost of both schools was
The Legislature of 1885 appropriated $1,000, each, for the
continuance of normal instruction for the years 1885 and
The Normal Departments were continued through both
years in the two Seminaries, at a cost of $750 per annum in
each. The attendance is not reported, but Superintendent
Russell said: "The reports made by the Presidents of these-
Seminaries exhibit a very satisfactory state-of progress, as to-
increase in attendance." As to the character of the work, he

said: Very good. work is done. It is true these-
Seminaries have not the facilities that mpny Normal Schools
have, but they have excellent workers and produce good re-
During these same years the "Normals" for negro teachers
were continued at Gainesville and Tallahassee for two months
each. In regard to the conduct of these schools 'the State
Superintendent said: "I have sought to obtain good instruc-
tors, and employed Professors Sheats, Waters, Goodwin,
Maddox, and Mrs. Ingram (not all the same year), at Gaines-
ville;, and Professors Felkel, Graham and Merz at Talla-
hassee." The attendance at Gainesville was "forty-nine and
seventy" respectively, for each year; at Tallahassee "forty-
seven and seventy-one,"'a total of 237 of the teachers of this
race receiving two months' normal instruction. The cost of
both,for 1885 was $817.25, for 1886, $1,088.39.
While these efforts were being made to prepare the teach-
ers of the State for a better grade of work, the public mind
was being educated to do more liberal things and to create a
more systematic organization for imparting normal instruction.
In May, 1885, the Constitutional Convention met to revise the
old or to adopt a new State Constitution.
That body recognized the demands of public education en-
cumbent upon the State as no past legislative body had ever
done. The matter of providing for education at public ex-
pense was no longer left to capricious economists in succeed-
ing Legislatures seeking cheap notoriety at efforts to relieve
the burdens of government upon "the dear people" by reduc-
ing the school tax. This convention created a State Board of
Education as now constituted: the Governor, Secretary of
State, State Treasurer, Attorney General, and State Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction. It specified definitely what
funds should be set apart for the creation of a permanent
State School Fund. It provided for a State tax of one mill,.
ana for the apportionment of this fund, with the interest on
the permanent fund among the counties of the State annually;
for a County Tax c" of not less than 3 mills nor more than 5-
mills;" for a School District Tax "not to exeed 3 mills,
whenever a majority of the qualified electors thereof (of such.
district), that pay a tax on real or personal property, shall
vote in favor of such levy." It further made it mandatory
upon the next Legislature at "its first session" to "provide
for the establishment, maintenance and management of such,

Normal Schools, not to exceed two, as the interests of public
,education demand." .
It is a matter of history, which he trusts he may with par-
donable pride mention here, that the writer of this epitome
was the author of all but one of these provisions, and a firm
and zealous advocate of all of them, he, at that time, being
County Superintendent of Schools and a delegate in that
Convention from Alachua county.
The section providing for such liberal County School Tar
and fixing it in the organic law of the State, and the one
making possible a District School Tax, met with determined
and persistent opposition, both in that body and in some of
the leading journals of the State; notably among the latter,
the Daily Herald of Jacksonville, edited by John Temple
G'aves, which in long editorials asserted that the school
crank" in the Convention was trying to "confiscate the prop.
erty of the State to educate negroes with," and that there
could be no use for so much school fund. Both of these seo-
tions were -adopted originally by a small majority, furnished
by a minority of the Democratic vote in that body, aided by
the Republican yote, which the Journals of that body will
show, and a full and just statement of the whole truth renders
it necessary to record.
This Constitution was ratified by a vote of the people in
November, 1886.
It comes in place here to state, that the intrench ment of
these prov sions in the organic law of the State, thereby in-
suring certain and increasingly augmented school revenues
(which began to be collected in 1887, and will continue to be
raised for all time, without let or hinderafce on the part of
succeeding Legislatures-until voted down by the people,
which they will never do), had more to do with the after suc-
cess and growth of schools and all school interests in Florida
than the labors of any one individual or set of individuals
since that date. These are facts of the State's educational
history, and as such are recorded here with no purpose to dis-
parage the claims and assumptions of any of the other agen-
cies or persons having rendered important service in the de-
velopment of the State's school system.
So the Legislature of 1887 made no provision for the con-
tinuance of such Normal" instruction as had been furnished
up to that time, but obeyed cheerfully the mandate of the
Constitutional Convention and provided for the Normal
While it was not our purpose to write the history of Higher
Education here, those schools are so intimately related to the

growth of the public school system that a brief account of
their growth and establishment seems necessary.
The Legislature of 1887, as has been stated, created two
Normal Schools, as was contemplated in the Constitutional
provision, one for whites and one for negroes.
The management of these schools was vested in the State
Board of Education. The one for whites was located at De-
Funiak Springs, the one for negroes at Tallahassee. The ap-
propriation for these schools was $4,000 each for each of the
two years 1887 and 1888.
(By the Legislature of 1889, a donation of $5,000 was also
made to the Normal School and Business Institute located at
White Springs, in Hamilton county, to aid in the construction
of a building. This was a private enterprise belonging to
Professor J. L. Skipworth, the consideration on the part of the
State for this exceedingly liberal appropriation being a tender
of free tuition in that school perpetually for one pupil from
each Senatorial district, to be subject to the appointment of
the State Senator thereof).
The State Board of Education elected as the first principals
of each of these State Normals, Professor H. N. Felkel for
the one at DeFuniak, and Professor T. DeS. Tucker, colored,
who still occupies that responsible position, for the one at
A new building for the Normal for negroes-a wooden,
one-story structure, "a simple Grecian temple, cruciform in
shape," capable of accommodating 150 students-was com-
pleted in time for the opening of the school in October of that
The Chautauqua Association provided, free of rent, a large
building for the Norma' for whites.
Both schools opened with fair equipment, such as patent
desks, globes, atlases, blackboards, and all requirements for
first class work."
Both began work on Monday, the 3d day of October, 1887,
the one for whites enrolling 16, and the one for negroes, 15
pupils the first day, the former reaching 57 and the latter 52,
during the first school year. Tuition was free, and both were
open to the admission of either males or females from 16
years old and upwards. The course of study in each was ar-
ranged to embrace two years' work in such branches as were
necessary and would aid in developing the art of teaching and
of imparting instruction.
In his trst report, President Tucker urged that the Normal

-for negroes be removed to the country and located on about
a 30-acre piece of land; the reasons will appear later.
The Legislature of 1889 appropriated $2,000 for the erec-
tion of a college building for the Normal at DeFuniak, and
$8,750 per annum for the maintenance of the two schools
for the years 1889 and 1890.
On a beautiful lot donated by Senator A. R. Jones, there
was completed at DeFuniak in time for the school to move
into it before the close of the year 1889, what was said to be
a commodious wooden structure, one story high, cruciform
in shape and Grecian in architecture," the main body being
"80 feet'in length and 30 in breadth, the arms of each being
20 by 25 feet," capable of seating 150 pupils.
From the school for whites 13 graduates were turned but at
the close of the second school year 1888-89, who were eagerly
sought for as teachers.
In consequence of want of proper preparation in the pri-
mary branches, there were no graduates from the school for
negroes for the first three years, though the students easily
found work as teachers.
The school for negroes was organized at first on precisely
the same plan as that for whites with similar but slightly dif-
fering curricula. During the calendar year 1889, 83 pupils
were enrolled in the white school, and upwards of 90 in the
one for negroes.
The only assignable difficulty in the way of the progress of
the Normal for negroes was the want of sufficient boarding ac-
commodations. It was said, that the actual teachers of public
schools hastened back at the close of their term of school to
enjoy the benefit of the training class in the school.
Before the close of the first half of the school year 1890-
91, eighty-four pupils were reported as enrolled in the Normal
for whites and large accessions expected in February, when
the active teacher pupils returned after the close,of their pub-
'lic schools. At this date, January 1, 1891, the buildings con-
sisted of the College building proper, a dormitory, and a
President's residence, "all valued at ten thousand ($10,000)
dollars." This dormitory, the gift of the same friend, Hon.
A. R. Jones, was said to be commodious and well adapted to
the wants of the school.
The College was now provided with a library of reference
books," and apparatus ample for illustrating the essential
truths of chemistry, physics, physiology, physical geography
-and astronomy.

The enrollment at the Normal for negroes up to the same
-date, January, 1891, was forty-four, six being' expected to
graduate at the close of that school year. President Tucker
urged the erection of a dormitory for each of the sexes, and
the addition of an Industrial Department to the school.
The Legislature of 1891 appropriated $13,500.00 for the
conduct of both schools for the years 1891 and 1892.
While still doing most excellent work, the Normal for
whites complained of being hampered by the diminished al-
lowance set apart by the Legislature. The attendance was
slightly decreased, though twelve counties were represented,
and board in the dormitory was at a minimum of ten dollars a
SWhile this was the status of the Normal for whites, the
-Normal for negroes had struck a streak of magnificent luck
by virtue of being the leading school for negroes in the State.
It had become the recipient, along with the State Agricultural
,College (for whites), sharing equally with that institution, of the
Morrill Bill appropriation to the State, which began with $15,-
*000, and by the provisions of the bill is to increase $1,000 ant
nually for ten years, until the maximum of $25,000 is reached,
the appropriation to become perpetual at that sum.
As the result, this school was moved from its old site on
College Hill, west of the city, to Highwood," about one mile
south, and occupies a beautiful hill-top overlooking Tallahas-
see. To the Normal has been added Academic, Agricultural,
and Mechanical Departments. It now has an ample farm
area, fruit grove, a college building, an industrial training
and laboratory building, a commodious dormitory.and barns.
The farm is supplied with all modern implements and labor-
saking machines, the laboratory with chemicals and appli-
ances, the industrial training building is supplied with tools,
implements, lathes, and steam power ; it has a
large library of practical books of reference, history, encyclo-
piedias, etc." The enrollment was sixty-eight, and had it not
Been for the "restrictions on admission as to age and scholar-
ship, the school would have been overcrowded."
In the Normal for whites there were enrolled seventy-five
pupils, representing twelve counties, early in the school year
President Felkel said, "The influence and popularity of the
:school are being extended from year to year and there can be
ino question that the Institution is destined to become a most im-

portant factor in our educational system." He reported the
dormitory as crowded to its fullest capacity and that if the
school continued to grow, both college building and dor-
-mitory would have to be enlarged.
The name of the Normal for negroes was changed to the
Florida State Normal and Industrial College for Colored
Students. There had been enrolled 79 students for the school
year 1891-92 ; and at the opening of the school year 1892-93,
47 students appeared the first day, two-thirds being new stu-
dents and from many different counties, over 100 were looked
for when pupils out teaching returned. The. girls' dormitory
was already crowded and pupils of that sex had to be turned
away for want of boarding accommodations.
Such is the history of the beginning of Normal Schools in
the State under State auspices. With their influence and
that of their students and graduates, they contributed no
little to the success of the school system in the State during
the decade from 1880 to 1890.
Had it been the design of this history to record more than
the origin and development of the public school system of the
State, it would be a work of pleasure to prepare an extended
account of the East and West Florida Seminaries and the
State Agricultural College, from their first inception, and to
trace their history through the various stages of development.
It would be a labor of love to record what a splendid in-
fluence these institutions, working from the top downward
and outward, and co-cperating with public school effort work-
ing from the bottom upward. through their various faculties,
graduates and undergraduates, have had in helping to bring
to pass the magnificent epoch, from about 1880 to 1895, in
educational interest and growth in all grades of schools in the
But this delightful task must be left to some Alumnus of
these institutions, who can prepare a more elaborate account
than would be here permissible, and can present the annals of
his alma mater in a more attractive style than one possessed
of less time and a less gifted pen.
It will be said, however, in brief that the State Agricultural
College grew out of an Act of Congress of July 2, 1862, ap-
propriating for the establishment of such an institution, to
each of the several States, land scrip to the amount of 30,C00
acres of public lands for each Senator and Representative in

The college was established by Chapter 1766, of the laws of
Florida, enacted by the Legislature of 1870. By this Act, a
Board of Trustees was created and authorized to locate the col-
lege by first securing by gift or purchase at some central point in
the State a tract of land of not less than 100 acres, to be used
for an experimental farm and for other purposes. This site
was first selected in Alachua county in 1873, but on her failure
to comply with the terms of the bid, the college was afterwards
located, as before mentioned under Superintendent Hicks' ad-
ministration, in May 1875, at Eau Gallie. That proving a
failure, various opinions were prevalent as to what should be
done with the fund. Superintendent Haisley, with no incon-
siderable following, favored the creation of one strong Normal
School by combining the funds of all three institutions. A
Joint Resolution of the Florida Legislature was approved
March 7, 1877, asking Congress to allow the Agricultural Col-
lege and Seminary Funds to be merged into the Public School
Fund of the State.
On the same day'that Joint Resolution was approved, an
Act amendatory of the Act of 1870, was also approved, which.
created a new Board of Trustees composed of, Judge J.
Wofford Tucker, Ex-Gov. David S. Walker, Col. J. H. Roper,
Judge Jas. M. Baker, Hon. Chandler H. Smith, Hon. F.
Branch, Hon. W. D. Barnes, and ex-officio, State Supt. Wm. P.
Haisley and State Treasurer, Walter Gwynn.
The Board thus created, by Section 4 of the same Act was
vested with authority to remove the college from Eau Gallie
and to locate it at any point that in their judgment will be-
for the best interests of the State of Florida; Provided, That
the point which may be selected for its location should be eas-
ily accessible and as near the center of the State as practica-
This Board met at Eau Gallie on November 14th, and 15tli,
1878. One of the first votes taken at this meeting was upon
a resolution of Judge Tucker looking to the withdrawal of the
Joint Resolution before Congress asking that these funds be
allowed incorporated with the Public School Fund, also the-
rescinding by the next Legislature of the memorial.
The vote of the Trustees, only eight being present, stood
five for, and three against, or favoring that these funds'be so
Steps were taken at that same meeting of the Trustees to
remove the college, and a resolution was adopted requesting-
the committee appointed to select a location, "to select a place-

central within the meaning of the law (the Act of 1870), and,
other considerations being equal, on condition of the largest
available subscription to the building fund, and lands for the
use of the college."
After four years of hitch and delay, not necessary to record
herb, these trustees located the college at Lake City in 1883,
the bid and availability of that place being pronounced the
best, the bid consisting of 100 acres of land and $15,000 in
cash, its availability consisting in central location, healthfulness
and accessibility.
This occurred in the last year of Superintendent Foster's
term of service, who,by virtue of thie Act of 1877 was Presi-
dent of the Board of Trustees.
When Superintendent Russell came into office, the college
was located, the contract was let to a reliable and competent
Builderr" and the foundation of the college building was laid,
though he watched its erection with considerable eagerness
and afterwards took deep interest in helping to put the college
,on a successful basis.
The college building was completed that year, a faculty
was elected, and the doors of the institution were thrown
open to the admission of students on the first Monday in Oc-
t6ber, 1884.
The history of this institution and that of the Seminaries is
dropped here with the statement that they have gradually
grown year by year in strength and in public favor, and
have contributed an ever increasing influence and help to the
cause of education in the State, not only for of higher but
for primary education also.
They have been helpful adjuncts in producing the enthusi-
asm and activity characteristic of the public school movement
in the State. Though the same candor that has characterized
this history compels the statement, that considering their op-
portunities and the many munificent gifts for buildings and for
other purposes each of them has received from the State Treas-
ury, neither has as yet fully measured up to the limit of its
possibilities nor wholly met the demands of public expectation.
While the original design of this history did not embrace
higher education, nor any schools save those supported from
public funds, still primary education is so interlinked with that
*of .higher in this State, that it is almost impossible to write
:the history of one without mentioning the other, or acknowl-
,edging the interdependence of one* upon the other. And
since the schools of collegiate rank under State auspices have

*been mentioned, and the part acknowledged which they have
*contributed towards bringing to pass the splendid era of
school growth and of intellectual elevation witnessed in the
past decade, it is but just to recognize the equally incalculable
'benefit and the admirable help rendered the State school sys-
tem by a number of denominational institutions, and Inde-
pendent Normals not existing through State aid.
With the election of Wim. D. Bloxham as Governor in the
fall of 1880, the hope being converted into a strong assurance
that the State would not again pass under the yoke of such
carpet-bag rule as had been barely thrown off four years
before, a growth in every respect set in during this brilliant
administration from 1881-85, surpassing the brightest antici-
pations of the most hopeful friends of the State. Population
began to increase, property values to multiply, and with the
incoming tide of wealth and immigration there flowed in quite
a number of successful school enterprises and planted them-
selves where a few years before had been practically an uninhab-
ited wilderness. It is not exaggeration to say that they con-
tributed largely through their work and zeal, as well, to
widen, deepen, and intensify educational effort and sentiment
existing in the State, and, both directly and indirectly aided the
public schools and helpedto lift their statistics to the present
The assistance these institutions have rendered should be
recognized and recorded.
Foremost among these in point of time came the Independ-
ent Normal at White Springs, established early in the '80's
(though not incorporated until June, 1887), by Piof. J. L.
Skipworth, as president and business manager. It is due this
institution to say, that in its palmiest days, before the health
of its business manager began to fail, it had twice as many
students from its halls teaching public schools, as any two in-
stitutions in the State; and for a time it exerted a won-
derfully beneficial influence over the teaching force of the
A few years later, J. M. Guilliams, a former professor in the
above named Normal, established the Jasper Normal Institute
at Jasper, in Hamilton county also, which to-day has a larger
patronage, and 100 per cent. more students successfully con-
ducting public schools at this time than any two schools de-
pendent upon State appropriations.
We now tread gently upon the ashes of the'' Florida Uni-
versity," the ignis fatuus that flared up in February, 1883,
issued a catalogue for the year 1,-4l-.5, and disappeared,
though predicted to become the chief cope stone to our edu-

national fabric." We also pass mournfully and silently by the.
graves of several "'Normals" that sprung up and flourished
for a little while and died of too much pretense.
The denominational schools, embracing all grades of work,
from the primary to the university, are worthy of men-
tion. They were established under the auspices of various
churches, the Baptist, Congregational, Catholic, Episcopalian,
Christian, and both families of the Methodist church. The
limit fixed for this paper precludes mention even of all of
them. Suffice it to say, that the Catholic church has nearly a
score of good high schools, but none claiming the rank of a
Next in age comes the DeLand Academy, established at De
Land, Volusia county, by H. A. DeLand, of Fairport, N. Y.,
in 1883, its doors opening to pupils November 8th, of that
year. In 1885 this school passed under the management of
the Baptist State Association, and became DeLand Academy
and College in 1886. It was chartered as DeLand University
May 4, 1887, later changed to Stetson University. Through
the beneficence and generosity of Jno. B. Stetson, of Phila-
phia, H. A. DeLand, of Fairport, and C. T. Sampson, of
North Adams, Mass., this institution is fully equipped with
college buildings, dormitories for both sexes separately,
library, gymnasium, etc., until it may be said that it has about
the handsomest, most comfortable, and substantial college
outfit in all the country. Its departments are, academic,
commercial, normal, etc. Its endowment is quite large, and
there are upwards of 200 students enrolled in the different de-
partments. It is further in the fortunate position of having a
successful college man at its head in the person of M. A.
Forbes, and several monied friends, besides the Baptist denom-
ination at its back.
Next in age, possibly, comes the Florida Conference College,
under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal church, South,
first established at Orlando as a high school, a year or two
later removed to Leesburg, in Lake county, and chartered as a
college. This institution has as yet met no rich patrons or
friends to endow and fully equip it, but is growing year by
year in strength, influence and usefulness. Under the able
management of Rev. W. F. Melton, its equipment is improv-
ing, its patronage is growing; and it has been in the past and
is destined to become an ever increasing factor in thelState's
educational system.
Another institution of importance, with much more than a
local influence, is Rollins College, at Winter Park, in Orange
county. This college was incorporated April 28, 1885, and

it by giving $1,000 and five acres of land most delightfully
situated in the northern limits of the city.
Superintendent Russell said, (who from this on superin-
tended the work) "plans were made consisting of a group of
buildings for the accommodation of both races, separately,
both as to living and study."
The lowest bidder, Wm. A. MacDuff, received the contract
and erected the buildings, nice wooden structures, for the sura
of $12,749.
The Institution was opened for the reception of pupils in
December 1884. Professor C. H. Hill of Maryland Institute
was elected as principal, but failed to accept. Professor Park
Terrell, of Columbus, Ohio, a most efficient man for the place,
was elected at a salary of $1,800.00 on January 29, 1885, and
took charge and held the principalship from early in 1885 till
his resignation at the close of the school year 1889-90.
Professor Wm. A. Caldwell took charge as principal at the
beginning of the school year 1890-91 and held to the close of
the school year 1892-93, when he was succeeded by Professor
II. N. Felkel.
The largest attendance reached at any time was 62 during
the year 1892, under Mr. Caldwell's administration when there
were several pupils over 21 years of age. The school is complete
in all its appointments as a school and a home; the grounds are
beautiful, buildings are well adapted, supplied with both arte-
sian (sulpher) and free stone water; tuition, board, and cloth-
ing for the indigent are provided at State expense.
The Academic and Industrial departments are supplied with,
efficient teachers and necessary equipment to teach such things
as are usually taught in such schools. The principal and ma-
tron are parents, as it were, for all the children; their teachers
watchful friends, all living under the same roof. Superintend-
ent Russell deserves credit for the benevolent manner and
fatherly interest he took in looking after the welfare of these-
poor unfortunates.
Superintendent Russell took great interest also in the Me-
chanical and Industrial departments of the Agricultural College,
in the State Normal School for colored students; and in the
Jacksonville Colored Graded School, that department being
supported by Slater fund, and under his influence a building
was erected for it largely by the colored patrons themselves.
He frequently urged that the initiatory steps be taken for intro-
ducing industrial training into the public schools, especially
in towns and cities, that a taste for tool-craft might be culti-

He said, let every school obtain a plane, a saw, a hatchet,
an auger, a chisel. Let the teachers, whether men or women,
acquaint themselves with the theory of the use of them, and,
then interest and instruct the pupils, and we shall have at least
started the good work." Under his influence the State Board
of Education adopted "Regulation 7," urging county school
officers and teachers to devise some plan for giving to the boys,
at least, a knowledge of tools "used in the arts and trades,
and to the girls some training in sewing, cookery, and house-
Beginning with the first report and ending with the last,
'Superintendent Russell argued the necessity and plead with
:succeeding Legislatures to establish a Reformatory-Industrial
:School. It would be interesting to quote much that he said on
the subject, but the following alone will be inserted:
"To complete our excellent system of public education,
we need now only a Reformatory School, with farm and shops
as well as the books, into which the tainted and vicious youth
of our cities, towns and villages may be placed, and while be-
ing educated so trained also morally that they may leive the
school prepared to enter upon a good useful citizenship. Such
-a school would be in the interest of true economy in that it
would relieve the public treasury greatly of that most horri-
ble expense of the jails and State prison, from which rarely
,ever comes any other return but hardened criminals and
abandoned hope, but to return to.prison for deeper and more
Dreadful crime."
Superintendent Russell took great delight in the observance
'of Arbor-Day. It was instituted by proclamation of Governor
Perry and first observed February 9th, 1886. A strong and
enthusiastic circular letter was issued by Superintendent Rus-
sell urging school officers, teachers, pupils and patrons to prop-
4erly observe the day.
Hie demanded reports of County Superintendents as to the
lumber of schools observing the day, number of pupils, pat-
rons and friends participating; also as to the number of trees
planted. In quite a congratulatory spirit he reported to the
'Governor that schools in a total of 17 counties, in all 379
,schools, 19,186 pupils had observed the day. He said, ,The
report of the number of trees planted was net as complete as
I desired, but I can reasonably fix the number at twenty thous-

and (20,000)"-,-that is, an average of over ten trees to
every school operated in the State that year.
The day was observed again February 10, 1887. This time
lie said, "Arbor Day was almost unanimously observed with
great enthusiasm and pleasure and profit. The schools, hs
well as the patrons look forward in each recurring year for
the coming of Arbor Day, and all commend the introduc-
tion of its observance as full of blessing and profitable in-
struction.' The reported result of the work of the day was a
total of 304 schools, 9,779 school children participating; and
5,129 trees planted.
The day was again observed February 8th, 1888, the result
reported was some larger than that of the year before.
On February 14, 1889, in obedience to proclamation of
Governor Fleming, it was again observed; 476 schools, 13,468
pupils, 3,309 other persons participating; 5,353 trees planted.
The day was observed in February, 1890, and said to have
-exceeded in results all of its predecessors." The report of par-
ticipation is as follows: 32 out of 45 counties; 769 out of 2,333
schools; 26,525 pupils out of a total enrollment of 92,472;
5,154 parents and friends. Total trees set, 11,069.
He further states, Upon investigation and reports made I
safely estimate that there are now living and in a flourishing
condition 30,000 forest shade trees and fruit trees, out of 55,-
000 planted since Arbor Day was inaugurated in this State."
(This reads very nice, but the writer is of the opinion, that
Superintendent Russell is far wide of the mark, if he means
to imply that there were 30,000 set trees living on school lots.
That would be an average of thirteen trees for every school re-
ported, while it is a fact that few school lots have that number
on them, and there is one-third or more of the school grounds
without a living tree upon them at this writing.)
The day was observed in 1891, on the 8th day of January,
the anniversary of the battle of New Orleans, in obedience to
proclamation of Governor Fleming. The report shows, 15
counties, 276 schools, 8,P24 pupils, 1,943 patrons participating,
and 2,711 trees planted.
January 8, 1892, was observed. Its observance was greatly
interfered with by the fact that the State Teachers' Association
was in session all the week previous. Still the reported re-
sults show, 319 schools, 8,178 pupils, 1,008 parents and
friends as participating, and 3,062 trees and shrubs planted.
As before remarlked, with the exception of the radical re-
forms made by the Legislature of 1893, our school law has

remained practically the same since the administration of
Superintendent Chase.
In 1889, Superintendent Russell prepared and presented to
the Legislature a bill entitled, An Act to Establish a ni-
form System of Common Schools, and County ligh
Schools." This bill, however, approved June 8, 1889, and
afterward known as "The New Law," was nothing more than
a revision and recast of the law as compiled and published by
Superintendent Foster in 1881, with a few minor changes and
additions, the most important of which were (1) the limiting
of School Boards to three members, (2) charging School
Boards with sole authority in the matter of the employment
and assignment of teachers, and (3) the establishment of the
three-mile limit in the locating of schools. Other
than in these instances, while the phraseology was in some
cases somewhat changed, the school law, and the school sys-
tem, remained during Superintendent Russell's administration
practically as he found it.
There are many other interesting features that might have
been brought out, but enough has been written and quoted to-
illustrate the character and spirit of this long and brilliant ad-
ministration. The verdict of the careful reader must be that,
though not perfect, by any means, it was, in many respects, a
grand one; contemporaneous with the era of Florida's great
growth in all directions, it was a most fortunate one; and
surcharged, as it was, by a resistless enthusiasm, and glorified
by a resplendent optimism, it will go down into history as at
least,- an era of good feeling in the educational life of the-
Those capable of culling facts from statistics, will find more
real information in the two pages of Table A, in regard to the
development and growth of our school system, than is con-
tained in all that has been written. Copious foot-notes will
be found in explanation of the various items of the table.
Many blanks and defects, however, will be found in this table,
due both to the incomplete system of reports long in vogue,
and to the carelessness and indifference of many of the officers
entrusted with the gathering and reporting of facts to the State
The data with regard to negro education are particularly
meagre and defective, owing to the scrupulous pains taken by
the early administrations to avoid making any distinction
whatever as to race, as well, perhaps, as toprevent the too.
curiously inclined from examining too carefully into the real

condition of progress of this race, educationally. While it
may be safely said that up to the year 1878, the greater por-
tion of the school enrollment was made up of colored child-
ren, it is also a fact that the rapid growth beginning with the
year following was wholly due to the increased interest mani-
fested by the white population, contending against a decrease
of interest in the colored race.
In comparing Florida with other States of equal population,
the relative wealth must also be considered; neither must the
facts be overlooked that in this State a dual system of schools
must be sustained and that 40 per cent. of the entire popula-
tion, scattered over an immense territory, is made up of
negroes with little that is taxable, and, for the most part, with
a minimum of interest in all that pertains to progress or in-
tellectual advancement.
Wherever both races are included, at least 25 per cent. must
be added to the general, showing to obtain anything like true
statistics for the white population, who are reduced in the
general showing at every point because of having to share
everything with a less interested race that really contribute
nothing to the general educational showing of the State, except
to lower the averages. It may be safely said, that while the
ratio of population is about 60 to 40, a fairly approximate
showing for the two races would be about 75 to 25 in favor of
the whites; and on this basis, data involving both races com-
bined may be separated into a reasonably just showing for
With this recital of facts, tedious, perhaps, but not uninter-
esting, it is hoped, this sketch will close.
The task of the conscientious historian, especially when
dealing with a period the chief actors in which, if retired
from the stage,.have yet both their following and their foes, is
a delicate, and at best, perhaps, a thankless one. The writer
has tried to be just, and, divesting himself, as far as possible,
of all prepossessions and prejudices, has endeavored to see
only with the eyes of an impartial historian, and to record.
here for future generations the story of our beloved State's
early educational struggles and triumphs.
If it be be charged that he has been too scant of praise, it
must on the other hand be conceded that he has not "set
down aught in malice." He has given facts, leaving the reader
to draw the conclusions, award the praise, or impute the-

If the preparation of this monograph will assist our people
to a better understanding of the difficulties and the obstacles
against which in its earlier history our public school system
had to contend, heighten their appreciation of what has been
accomplished and inspire them with larger hopes and renewed
-determination to press on in the great and good work, we will
feel that the time and labor were not spent in vain, and will
find in that feeling a rich reward for many hours of hard and
patient work.

The following are some early statistics of the school
history prior to 1860: In 1840, five years before the State
was admitted into the Union, there were reported in the Ter-
ritory 18 academies and grammar schools with 732 pupils, 51
common schools with 925 pupils, all white. The census of
1850 reports the population of the State as 87,000, 47,000 of
these being white. There were 10 academies and 69 com-
mon schools with a total of 3,129 pupils in attendance.


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REPORT FOR THE YEARS 1892-93 AND 1893-94.
It embraces apparently two full years of school work; but
the fact must not be overlooked that the Legislature of 1893,
by Chapter 4196, Laws of Florida, made the school year to be-
gm July 1st, of each year. The report for the school year
1892-3 embraces only the period of nine months, from Octo-
ber 1, 1892, through June 30, 1893. In consequence, a larger
diminution in the number of schools and other statistics was
expected than the record in the tables really exhibits, as a
number of County Superintendents reported schools either
as not begun, or as unfinished when they* were required for
that year to report only school expenditures and operations
prior to July 1, 1893.
The change in the school year was expedient, as it was de-
sirable to conform to the school year established by the Com-
missioner of Education of the United States to whom annual
reports must be made. This school year is adopted by nearly
all the states for this reason, and because the limit fixed better
corresponds with the natural closing of schools and with the
fiscal year. It was especially desirable by a number of coun-
ties in this State wishing to open schools earlier than October
1,the old beginning of the school year, and still wishing to
keep each year's operations within the school year to which
they belong and in which they must be reported. The change
really caused no friction beyond lessening somewhat the statis-
tical showing for the year 1892-93, and possibly-may cause a
little larger exhibit than is normal for the years 1893-94,
which embraces a full year from July 1, 1893, through June
30, 1894.
1891-92. 1892-93, (9Mos.) 1893-94.
Whole number of schools. 2,368 2,366 2,404
Number for whites.... 1,774 1,752 1,775
Number for negroes .... 594 614 629
Whole number of teachers 2,782 2,678 2,923
Number of teachers of
whites .............. 2,006 1,984 2,151
Number of teachers of
negroes ............ 776 694 772
Number of white male
teachers ............... 830 904

Number of white female
teachers ...........
Number of negro male
teachers ........ ....
Number of negro female
teachers ...........
Average number of pupils
for each white teacher
Average number of pupils
for each teacher of ne-
groes...... .. ...



47 53


,1891-92. 1892-93,
Total enrollment. ....... 93,780 95,728
Averageattendance .... 62,226 62,238
Enrollment of whites. 57,181 58,957
Enrollment of negroes.. 36,599 36,771
Enrollment of white
,males ............ .. 29,325 29,598
Enrollment of white fe-
males ............. 27,856 29,359
Enrollment of negro
males ............ .. 17,593 17,501
Enrollment of negro fe-
males ............ .. 19.006 19,266
Total enrollment of males 46,918 47,099
Total enrollment of fe-
males.............. 46,862 48,625
Average attendance of
-whites.. ........... 38,858
Average attendance of
negroes ............. .... 23,380
Percentage of whites of
school age enrolled,
basis of census.. 1892 .71 .73
Percentage of negroes of
school age enrolled,
basis of census 1892. .57 .57
Average attendance of
whites enrolled ............ .67
Average attendance of
negroes enrolled.... ...... .63

(9 Mos.) 1893-94-









* .64.


1891-92. 1892-93. 1893-94.

Number levying the maximum
5 m ills...................
Number levying more than 4
m ills.......: ..... ........
Number levying 4 mills......
Number levying more than 3
Sbut less than 4 mills.......
Number levying the minimum
i m ills .... ......... .. ....

'Total Counties..........

17 21

7 9
8 8

6 3

7 4

45 45


RECEIPTS. 1891-92.
Amount raised by
County Tax ...... $459,373.06*
_Amount of One Mill
Tax distributed.. 85,235.25
Amount Interest
Fund distributed.. 34,542.23
Amount received
from Poll Tax.... '53,496.001:
Amount received
from fines, etc..... 6,063.53
Amount received
from County Ex-
aminations ....... .........
Amount received
from all other
sources .......... .. ......

'Total receipts... $638,710.07
Salaries of Teachers. 8423,133.99
Salaries of Co. Supt.. 26,965.58
Cost of School
Boards .......... 8,925.15
For school lots..... .........
-Tor new buildings.. 20,980.62
Yor furniture and ap-
paratus ....... 8,919.75
Yor repairs.................

1892-93. 1893-94.










.. . 2,343.67

.......... 145,679.20










For insurance...... .... .
F or rent .......... .........
For janitors... ..... ........
For summer schools
for teachers. .... ... .....
For office expenses,
County Boards and
Superintendents. ........
For interest on in-
debtedness ...... .........
For examination of
teachers......... ..........
For incidental ex-
penses .......... 48,310.29

T otals ...... .... .:, ,-_ .., .:;,

.......... 1,027.60
....... 839.00
.. 2,717.55

1,044.70 1,524.26

5,261.52 4,355.00

.. 6,610.12

... 1,770.33

3i-;.- '-. $647,174.86

Year 1893-94.
Number of log school houses...................... 450
Number of frame school houses ................... .1,590
Number of brick school houses...................... 11

Total number of school houses. ................. 2,051
Total number furnished with patent desks........ 431
Evidently includes all funds except State apportionment. :I:Rcported as
paid by 28 counties, 17 not reporting. Poll taxes were evidently better paid
than now.
It was stated as far back as the year 1889 that the number
of schools was such that there was no reason why every child
in the State of school age could not with slight inconvenience
attend a public school; having increased 79 from that date to
the close of 1892, it could hardly be expected that their
number would largely increase in a short lapse of time. There
was a decrease of two in the total number of schools during
the nine months' school year 1892-93, while there was still an
increase in the number of pupils enrolled and in the total
school expenditure for that year.
It is strong evidence that interest on the part of the people
has not abated, when it is noted that there was an increase of
36 schools over any previous number in the school year
1893-94, and that the growth in number of teachers, school
enrollment, and average attendance was at least normal dur-
ling that year.

It was very significant, when it is optional to assess between,
three and five mills, that 24, a majority of all the counties,.
levied the maximum school tax of five mills; and that all but
three levied four mills or upwards of that amount. To arrive
at the true status of appreciation of the schools on the part of
the people, the above fact should be connected with the further
facts, that the State collects a one mill tax and a dollar poll
tax which with other funds are applied to the schools, and that
in addition, a great number of school sub-districts by a vote of
the tax-payers are now levying and collecting a sub-district
tax of from one to three mills, and applying to the support of
their individual schools.
It is regrettable that the system of reports heretofore used
does not bring to light the number of such districts and the
amount collected and disbursed under the sub-district provis-
ion of our school laws, supplementary to the county and State
support given the public schools.
The blanks have been revised and these facts are promised'
in future reports.
Since the tax levy has increased, it is but natural to look for
increase in the amount raised for school purposes and in the
aggregate salaries of teachers and superintendents, as well as.
in the length of the school term.
Growth in salaries should denote a corresponding growth in
the efficiency of teachers and in school supervision by school
officers. So with enlarged school fund should come enhance-
ment in the comfort, appearance, and adaptability of school
buildings, and in the quantity and value of school appliances.
More will be said of salaries under other heads.
In the later forms of blank reports a more detailed state-
ment of receipts and expenditures is required than formerly.
This serves the purpose of causing county officers to keep a
correct record and to look carefully into every item of receipt
and disbursement that it may be reported under its proper
head and not combined with some other item, or probably re-
ported twice. The real design is to beget and to enforce bet-
ter business principles and a closer attention to duty in all its
details. The large amount reported under the head of Re-
ceipts" in the the year 1898-94, under the sub-head "Amount
received from all other sources," is one of the kind of entries
that need itemizing, which in this case is made up of over
$65,000 as the aggregate cash balance of several counties.

brought over from the year previous, upwards of $15,000 re-
-ceived from land sales and tax certificates, and mainly smaller
amounts from many sources.
The amounts heretofore reported as expended for buildings
has been restricted in County Superintendents reports to the
expenditures from public funds by County Boards, and sepa-
rated so as to show the items whether cost of lots, new build-
ing, of repairs, of rents, of furniture and the like.
The amounts reported as expended for new buildings, fur-
niture and apparatus, do not appear so large in the report of the
,last two years as in the year preceding, and it is partly due to
the fact stated above, of separating these items of expense,
:and partly due to buildings and furniture being largely paid for
in some sections now out of district funds.
Many new buildings far superior in architecture and more
costly than the ones whose places they have taken, have been
reported as erected during the past two years. Some of these
have been built and furnished out of district funds entirely,
some at private expense, and others partly by voluntary con-
tributions. It was a matter of oversight that no report of the
number and entire cost of such buildings was elicited.
The remark is now often heard that the negroes make better
use of public school privileges than the whites; in fact, some
go so far as to allege that they get 'the benefit of the greater
part of the school fund. The above statistical totals, and
more particularly the items recorded in the tables, show that
such is not the case. Not only a much larger percentage of
white children of school age enter the schools, but the facts
show that those entering attend more regularly than do the
negro children.
The fact is also brought out that the average number of
'pupils to the negro teacher is much larger than the average
number in charge of white teachers. This is partly due to
-the fact that the tendency of the negroes is to congregate in
villages, cities, and densely populated neighborhoods, making
it easy to assemble large numbers of children in schools; and
is partly due to the difficulty of obtaining as yet a -sufficient
number of suitable teachers for their schools. On the other
hand, the whites are scattered over large areas of sparsely
settled country districts, and their schools are from necessity
small. The above fact also accounts in part for the difference
in the relative cost per capital of the two races in some seo-

tions of the State, it being granted that it costs less to pro-
vide teachers and facilities for educating a large number of
pupils in one school than the same number in several small
It is due to the negroes to say, that they are manifesting, in
the main, as commendable ambition to obtain an education as
any race in like social and financial conditions anywhere in
the world. While the great body of them do not appear as
eager for an education as when the doors of the schools were
first thrown open to them, still many are laboring and sacri-
ficing to obtain a degree of education far beyond that which
at first satisfied their ambition; namely, to scrawl and read,
after a fashion. It may be truthfully said that no appreciable
number of intelligent whites begrudge them their educational
advantages, but that taxes are cheerfully paid to give them
school privileges. This will continue to be the case if their
unwise friends will not intermeddle, but permit them to be
educated as the people are willing that they should be, in
their own schools separately, without any efforts at co-educa-
tion of the races. Any effort to enforce mixed education of
the races as it obtains in many of the States would forever
destroy the public school system at one swoop, and cause the
whites to abandon all efforts at their education. The efforts.
Northern benevolent associations are making in this State to
educate a few of them in schools with the whites are excecd-
ingly exasperating to the negro's Southern friends, who
bear the burden of their education; and in the aggregate, such
help ends in harm to the race. The truth is, the race has too,
many loving guardians.
For the most part, there is no discrimination against them
in school matters; they are given as nearly equal advantages
as under their present conditions they are able to make use of
or to materially appreciate. Negro teachers are paid as lib-
eral salaries as teachers of similar qualifications receive any-
where in the United States.
There are quite a number of prominent negro educators get-
ting splendid salaries, that are working industriously to ad-
vince the intellectual and material welfare and progress of
their race. Many others are constantly fitting themselves for
a better grade work, and as a result they are receiving con-
stantly increasing salaries.
If the present examination law is wisely enforced, the time
is not far distant when there will be a much better grade of
negro teachers than has heretofore existed, and the advantage-

will be that their race will get more value out of their-
schools. Some schools may go untaught for a time, but this
need cause no alarm, and it will end in gain rather than a loss;
as they would be much better not taught at all, than taught
by such teachers as are too often obtained.
There is no necessity for making exceptions in school laws,
for the benefit of negro teachers; only be firm and they will
very soon work up to required demands. In order that they
may be encouraged to properly fit themselves to do the
teaching of their race, and to prevent the worthy from being
crowded out by others with an overweening desire to have
a share in their education, it is our judgment that the
time has arrived when a law should be passed protecting
the educated negro in the right to teach his own race. They
are fully able to stand alone in this respect.
I have the temerity to ask the Legislature to enact a law*
prohibiting, in both public and private schools, any but
negroes from teaching schools for negroes, excepting in the
matter of normal instruction to their teachers in institutes and
summer schools.
The race is prevented by Constitutional and statutory pro-
visions from intermarrying or attending schools with the
whites, why not give them some exclusive privileges?
I would. at the same time fortify the statute preventing
amalgamation, by making it a penal offense to teach whites
and negroes in the same schools in either public, private or
benevolent institutions. I request this as an act of friendship
to the race, to shield them from the folly of some of their
The sentiment of the negro and his race pride, which it is
especially desirable to develop, is strongly opposed to having
white teachers placed in charge of their schools, and they do
not seek co-education of the races.
While there has been an increase of thirty-six schools dur-
ing the past two years, I would have been equally as well
pleased to have reported no increase. The policy of this
administration has been better schools, and fewer, if necessary
to produce that result. Finding that too much satisfaction
had been taken in the number of schools rather than in
their quality, and that school funds and efforts were being
greatly dissipated and neutralized by the establishment of too
great a number of small schools with weak teachers-the
tendency being towards still greater subdivision, to satisfy
unthinking patrons- early in my term of office a circular

letter was issued counseling School Boards to adopt the
policy of reducing rather than of increasing the number of
schools, unless absolutely necessary to give school privileges
.to youth of school age.
County Boards were encouraged to reduce by combining
two or more schools into one,where Section 28 and paragraph
vi of the Compilation of the School Laws of 1893, in regard
to the three-mile limit, was violated; or to rescind the loca-
tion of old sites and select others, when by so doing the es-
tablishment of new schools could be prevented. Such action
to be taken only as speedily as consistent with the best inter-
est of all concerned, and as far as consistent with the greatest
attendance of pupils, and as the preservation of harmony
would justify, when opposing the preconceived notions of
people nearest old established sites in feeling that they had
vested rights in the schools being so located.
The object of this policy, of course, was to leave more
fund for each school, that a better grade teacher might be em-
ployed for a longer time, and not, as some suppose, to deprive
.any of school privileges.
It is honestly believed that it would be far better for every
,child in the State to be compelled to walk from one and a
half to two miles to school, and, after it gets there, to receive
instruction from a true teacher, than to multiply the schools
beyond the ability of the fund to reach competent teachers,
and secure a walk of half a mile, or less, for half of the
.children of the State in reaching a poor school. Twenty
years ago children thought nothing of walking three miles to
school. It is too often the case that requests to sub-divide or
.to create new schools have as their real foundation, not the
chief interests of the children, though the children are placed
iirst in the plea to secure favorable action by -Boards, the
real object being to provide places for friends and kin-people
of the patrons petitioning.
County Boards of Public Instruction should weigh well all
-circumstances before taking action thatincreases the number
of schools.
The policy contained in this circular letter to school officers
,was afterwards endorsed and promulgated by the State Board
,of Education in the adoption of Regulations 16 and 17, as
published in the School Laws of 1893.
The reported efforts of these officers in various counties to
prevent the multiplication of schools and to reduce their
number by combining, where possible, two and even three
-schools into one, led to the belief that the number of schools
would be rather diminished than increased. The reported

disestablishment of old sites where they had been ill-advisedly
or too nearly located for the prosperous conduct of schools,
led to the same belief. So it is more a matter of surprise
than of gratification that the statistical tables reMlly show.the
number of schools increased thirty-six during the year
1893-94, since the fact was published five years ago that a
school was within reach of every child.
It is readily admitted that statistics are of little value, unless
complete and reliable.
All made from this office are dependent upon the reports of
County Superintendents, who in turn must rely upon the
teacher for the basis of much of his report.
While it is not my purpose under this sub-head to make
wholesale complaint against these officers for dereliction of
duty, but to remind many of them that complaint has been
or ought to have been made by every State Superintendent
from the organization of the public school system down to
the present, on account of the delay, indifference or careless-
ness in preparing and filing these reports.
In evidence that the above is true, ignoring the strong ex-
pressions on the subject recorded by several predecessors, you
:are referred to the file of reports from the Educational de-
partment from Superintendent Chase's first one to Superin-
tendent Russell's last one, and asked, what do the numerous
foot-notes reading, "From the report of previous year," or
,"Not reported," as well as, the hundreds of dotted blanks in
the body of the table testify?
Superintendent Haisley alone, I believe, was able to record
the fact that a report had been received from every County
Superintendent each year during his term of office, and he had
to admit that many of these were very defective and that it
took constant work to get them. I am enabled to make the
same declaration for both the years 1892-93 and 1893-94, some
of them received, however, several months late after much
*coaxing and correspondence. Regulation 18 of the State
Board of Education of 1893, prescribes the limit for prepar-
ing in conformity with blanks furnished and for filing these
reports with' the State Department not later than July 15, of
each year; yet several did not reach this office until the last
week in November. Still it is not so much the delay, as the
shape in which some of them came, that provokes complaint;
:and strange to say, some of the very officers of whom' the pub-
lie would least expect it, are the most careless in the prepara-
tion of their reports. But in deference to the feelings of cer-

tain ones who do keep their accounts in such shape that they
can report intelligently all the facts asked in the blanks and
did take the care to do so, I will refrain explaining the loose and
defective way in which some of these reports are made. It
seems to be regarded by some as a matter of no importance,
some items are reported and some left blank, statements on
the same subject in different parts of the report will not
agree, columns are not footed up necessitating much extra
work in this office, and financial data will not at all balance.
None but past superintendents and those connected with the
office have any idea how difficult it is to make out a complete
statistical table from the data furnished on any item reported,
or one that bears on its face reasonable evidence of being re-
liable. The tables in this report have been figured upon and
correspondence entered into looking to their perfection ex-
tending through the past four months or more, and in conse-
quence, this report is very much delayed.
Ip partial palliation of defective reports from many coun-
ties, the fact should be stated, that beyond the indifference,
want of business habits and principles, and real indolence
manifest on the face of some reports, much of this defect was
due to the want of correspondence in the different grades of
reports for the year 1892-93.
For example, the County Superintendents' report was de-
pendent upon the teachers' reports, while the blanks furnished
the latter did not solicit from the teachers the items asked the
County Superintendent. On the same hand, the State Super-
intendent is asked for information by the Commissioner of
Education of the United States that can be obtained only
from the County Superintendent, while the same information
was not sought in the blank furnished that officer.
So to relieve the difficulties on this line, the blank forms for
report have been completely revised by me, from the teacher's
monthly to the Superintendent's annual.
A Teachers' -Final Report blank was added to the number
already in use. This report was very favorably received by
County Superintendents and heartily endorsed in many letters
on file, and in consequence of its preparation fuller and more
perfect reports may be expected,-are promised and no doubt
will be received in future.
These blanks were not put in use sufficiently early to relieve
the difficulties in reports of this year nor to give such data as
I desired, or will, hereafter through their operations, be able-
to secure.

So every obstacle in the way of blanks has been met. But
how to meet the. want of business habits and methods, or to
overcome the indifference and carelessness, and, it may be
truthfully said, the indolence of officers in some quarters, I
am unable to suggest.
This is a fact, rendered in some instances painful, that the
schools of a county will not rise above the ability and interest
of its county officers. Many counties are doing well, but the
condition of some is deplorable, and, as I see, it is chargable
to the want of proper leadership and supervision.
My predecessors in office have made various suggestions:as
to how this matter might be reached. One suggests, that the
Governor use the power vested in his office and supply the
vacancy he creates with a live, faithful, honest, worthy, quali-
fied, public spirited man, with adaptability to and sympathy
for the work; another, that the salary should be made paya-
ble upon satisfactory performance of service; another, that
the Legislature enact a law requiring County Superintendents
to keep proper records and to make a full and complete report
to this office, affixing a penalty for failure to do so;" another
still, that a State Board of Examiners be created from which
each aspirant be required to obtain a certificate of merit be-
fore eligible to this office.
It is believed, however, that all present difficulties may be
reached without any legislative enactment, if County Boards
will only pay these officers sufficient salaryto justify good men
in seeking them, and will demand that their time shall be solely
devoted to the discharge of the duties.
There is but one way for a County Superintendent ever to
be ready to make a proper report. He must give enough time
to his official duties to examine carefully every report when
made to him and see that it is correct before he permits it to
go to file or pays out money based on it; then, when needed,
his data will be ready and reliable. Again the records of his
office must be kept full and accurate, all financial transactions
must be promptly and correctly posted, so as always to be in
hand in usable shape.
That superintendent who accepts and files just anything
handed him in the shape of a teacher's monthly orfinal report,
or who fails to make immediate entry of every financial trans-
action in the proper book, will always find the data of his
office in confusion, it matters not what books or blank forms
are furnished him. His want of business habits can only

result m delay and annoyance to his ranking officer and cause
him in turn to provoke the one above him.

Realizing from what little had been seen of the defective
system of records kept in some offices, one of the first duties
performed after coming into office was the issuance of a circu-
lar letter suggesting to County Superintendents and Boards
the procuring of a book of record gotten up by Superintend-
ent Payne, of Marion county, afterwards adopted and revised
by myself. It is easily kept, and will contain such data,
in condensed and convenient form, as every County Board
ought to have before it at every meeting.
This is not the only book of record needed, but it contains
much that is valuable and of ready reference. Only a few
hours' work each month is required to keep it in shape to
furnish data for an immediate report or for intelligent action
of the Board on most subjects coming before it.
A majority of the County Boards ordered a copy of this
book from the Walker, Evans & Cogswell Co. But
after visiting and inspecting the offices of many County
Boards, I learned that there was one serious defect in the
book, it is not self-recording, and it has .been found that it
will not post itself monthly.
During the year 1893, I made it my business, while holding
Teachers' Institutes and in visiting various counties on other
lines of official duty, to inspect the books of many County
Superintendents. Many had a full set of record books, posted
to date, neatly, and, to all appearances, accurately kept; but
,there were found offices almost without any books of record,
save a little, cheap, pasteboard-back blank-book, with entries
.made with lead-pencil and with no data recorded that could
be of much service, though it was necessary' to keep record
of the disbursement of several thousand dollars annually.
Some of these counties were induced to invest in a better
stock of office books, and suggestions .were made as to how'
-they should be kept. As to improvement in this line, I am
without information.
In order that trouble aad a possible damaging defalcatiox
may not grow out of such loosely kept records, also that
reasonable uniformity may be secured in the matter of keep-
ing county school accounts, I recommend that a series of
record books for the offices of County Boards of Public In-
-struction be prescribed, and that a list be made of such things

as shall be made a matter of record therein, and that a penalty
be attached for failure on the part of the County Superintend-
Ant to keep a full and distinct record of all matters pre-
scribed, and to report properly the same to this office on de-
It is proper here to state that as far as the large majority
of school officers of the present are concerned, there is.
no necessity for the enactment of such a law, hence no objec-
tion can be raised by those not affected thereby.

The Legislature of 1893 created six grades of Teachers'
certificates, in lieu of three grades in existence prior to that
time. Two of the latter, called Second and Third Grade Cer-
tificates were issuable in the county, on annual examinations,
and good for only one year; but the annual examination pro-
vision was faithfully carried out only in a very few counties.
The other was called a First Grade or State certificate, good
for five years, issuable on examination in the High School
Course of Study, but oftener granted on recommendation and
renewable upon request; hence it was practically a compli-
mentary life certificate, with the privileges attached to it very
much abused.
The six. certificates created by the last Legislature are
divided into three County grades and three State grades; the
County grades are known as the First, Second, and Third
Grade Certificates, issuable only upon examination held in the
county as prescribed by law, on set days and on branches
specified by law, the questions being prepared in all cases by
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. They are
good for three, two, and one year respectively. The average
required for the First Grade is 80 per cent., with no grade
below 60, on each of the following fourteen branches; Or-
thography, Reading, Penmanship, Arithmetic, English Gram-
mar, Geography, U. S. History, Physiology, Composition,
Theory. and Practice of Teaching, Algebra, Physical Geo-
graphy, Book-keeping, and Civil Government. This certifi-
cate is good in any part of the State, if endorsed by the
County Superintendent, where presented.
The Second and Third Grade Certificates differ from the
above: (1), in beinggood for two and one year respectively,
and only in the county where issued; (2) in requiring exami-
nation only in the first ten of the above branches; (3) the
Second requiring a general average of 75 per cent., with no
grade on any branch below 50; the Third Grade requiring an

-average of 60 per cent., with no grade on any subject below
40 per cent.
The three grades of State Certificates are known as the
State, Life, and Primary Life, all good in any part of th6
State. The State Certificate is issuable only upon examinna-
tion by the State Superintendent on the fourteen branches
required for the First Grade, with examination on the ten
additional branches: Geometry, Trigonometry, Physics, Bot-
any, Zoology, English Literature, General History, Mental
Science, Rhetoric, and Latin. The general average grade
required is 85 per cent., with no grade below 60 per
cent. This certificate is good in any part of the State, for
a term of five years, and not issuable to one who has, not
taught at least 24 months, 8 of which must have been suc-
cessfully taught within the State.
The Life Certificate, as its name implies, is good for life
within the State, and is issuable, without examination, only to
eminently successful teachers who are endorsed in a pre-
scribed way and have taught at least 30 months in this State
under a State Certificate.
The Primary Life Certificate is good for life, and, as its
name further implies, is good only in the Primary department
of regularly graded schools, and is issuable only to eminently
successful primary teachers who have received special training
in kindergarten or primary work, and who have taught suc-
cessfully for three years in this State.
New forms were gotten up for each of these certificates,
-the three County grades and the State Certificate being nicely
lithographed and bound in books of 100 each, with stub to
keep complete record of the name, sex, age, address, and
grade made in the examination on each branch on both stub
and'certificate, of every person to whom issued. Each is in,
different colors. One book of each grade of the County cer-
tificates was furnished to every County Superintendent. The
Life Certificates are on imitation parchment and are beautiful
both in artistic design and execution.
With an experience running through twelve years as County
Superintendent of schools, and from frequent and close con-
tact with the leading teachers and school officers of the State
at annual gatherings and other times, I had become firmly
convinced years ago, that the chief defect in our public school
system was the loose manner in which teachers were selected
rand the evident lack of regard paid to qualMication of teach-

Users, and the almost entire absence.of any form of examination,
'that could be called such, in many of the counties.
In short, the great need of the system was not only a corps
of better qualified teachers, but a band of acquiring, research-
ing and growing teachers, not satisfied with present attain-
ments, but keeping step to the march of progress in educa-
tional movement all over the country. I felt that the standard'
of the ideal teacher was entirely too low in every respect.
SConsequently, upon assuming the duties of the office of State
Superintendent of Public Instruction, I conceived it to be my
duty as I was capable of seeing it, to inaugurate some system
of examination that would improve the scholarship of the
teaching force, which, to say the least, is one of the funda-
mental essentials to a successful teacher. I felt that the
whole force needed to be set to work again. To do this suc-
cessfully, I realized that the matter of examination would of
necessity have to be taken partially out of the hands of local
authorities, often incapable in point of education of properly
conducting them, and too often biased in their judgment of
the fitness of candidates to teach by questions of necessity,
relationship, politics, personal advantage, spite, or other in-
I had realized by actual experience the force of the truism,
As is the teacher, so is the school," and, from witnessing
the magic influence over a community of a qualified, earnest
and enthusiastic teacher, I had reached the conclusion that the
welfare of the State and its future citizenship demanded a
larger body of the same kind.
There was too little distinction recognized between the dif-
ferent grades of teachers and too great disparity in the require-
ments for the same grade of certificates in the few counties in
which anything like examinations were held. It was apparent
that if there was to be anything like a State school system in
fact as well as in name, the mode of examinations and
Sthe requirements in the same could not be left to the caprice
of county school authorities, even as good as some were.
The fact is admitted that up to this point the State had
made wonderful progress in the matter of education, and
had many teachers of which any State might feel proud, and
it was earnestly believed that this class were broad and patri-
otic enough to be willing to sacrifice something of personal
pride or gain in any efforts that might be made to elevate the
whole body of co-laborers. Especially, since under existing
state of affairs, such teachers were neither in the matter of
Salary nor in' recognition of their qualifications, sufficiently
Differentiated from the general mass. As a result, proper

incentives to progressive study and the attainment of a high
grade of qualification were lacking.
So to provide both for the present need and future growth
of our public school system, I drafted and'presented to the
last Legislature a bill providing for a system of State Uni-
form Examinations, embodying the general features of the
system which I as County Superintendent had for years been
successfully operating in Alachua county. This is essentially
the same system as was first put into operation in the State of
New York, afterwards in Indiana, thence rapidly passing into
many of the leading States educationally in the Union; and is
destined to become inthe near future the universal method in
the United States. The Bill, with but little opposition,
passed both houses and became a law by the signature of the
Governor June 8, 1893.
That part of the Bill providing for the different grades of
certificates has already been mentioned. It provides for two
annual examinations, to be held the first Tuesday after the
first Monday in May and September of each year, lodging
with the State Superintendent authority to order examinations
on other dates for any county or counties, when necessity to
him seems apparent.
All questions for these examinations are prepared by the
State Superintendent and by him transmitted under seal to
County Superintendents, who in each county is the examining
A uniform method of procedure is prescribed for the de-
tails of the examination. The papers of the candidates are
all prepared in the presence of the County Superintendent, or
his assistant, and unmarked as to authorship, are deposited
with the County Superintendent and by him numbered to
denote authorship, and turned over to a Grading Committee
composed of thiee teachers selected from the best by the
County School Board. This committee grades the papers,
whose 'authorship is unknown, and their own personality is
,supposed to be unknown to the examinees. The work of this
committee completed, a Gradation Sheet containing the grade
of each examinee, who is denoted by a number, on each
branch, is delivered to the County Superintendent, who under
conditions prescribed, issues certificates therefrom.
So far as it affected County Certificates, this law met. with
little opposition on the part of intelligent teachers, conscious
of their ability to stand the examination. In fact, it was
heartily endorsed as being fair; and was favorably received

because it abolished the heretofore annual examination by
giving longer term certificates, offered an increasing premium
to competency and progress, and drew a sharper distinction
between the various grades of qualifications.
It provided for a system of State Certificates articulating
with the system of County Certificates, and based like them
upon written examination, so far as the first one is concerned;.
but unlike them, in that successful experience in teaching for
a number of months, a part of which must have been in the
schools of this State, is precedent to eligibility to- one of
these certificates, and in that with continued success and
growth as a teacher, they may terminate in a professional Life
Certificate without further examination. The whole system is
progressive in every respect, from the lowest to the highest
grade of certificate.
Like all pronounced reforms, especially in school matters,
this law met with Its share of opposition on the part of the
class from which it Was naturally expected, and more particu-
'larly because it contained a provision which cancelled several
hundred unexpired five-year certificates. (They were five-
year ostensibly, but as custom had run, in reality perpetual
certificates). These certificates had been scattered so pro-
fusely and indiscriminately over the State, that they had be-
come worthless as signifying teaching ability or even scholar.
While worthily held, of course, by all prominent and lead-
ing teachers, still hundreds of inexperienced boys and girls
and incompetent older teachers had managed to intrench
themselves behind this safe protection, forming a dangerous
gangrene about the vitals of our educational body. This had
to be reached.
It would have been a pleasing task, had it been possible, to
have framed a law that would, while effectually reaching the
latter, have recognized and protected the former; but to reach
the deep seated disease, it was found necessary to cut through
some good sound flesh. None regretted this more than my-
Opposition on the part of a certain class was anticipated
and fortified against; as the history of the law shows it to
have met such in every State into which it has been introduced.
Vampires on the body politic always make a death struggle
when their hold is loosened.

-Opposition to the law has everywhere, however, soon died
away; and in many cases its most violent opposers in the be-
ginning have become its most ardent advocates in the end.
The opposition in this State was never so extensive nor
consequential as the public was led to believe from the
amount of noise made by a few concerted, and in many cases,
wholly unworthy opponents, operating in ambush under a now
(de plie, or through the pen of an irresponsible ncwsgath-
*erer. The opposition in general grew out of motives of a
[...-,,i ,1 or selfish nature, and such as was from worthy and
,conscientious sources was confined to a very few as compared
;to the whole body of officers and teachers.
In the three or four counties where this opposition was ap-
preciable, it was readily traceable to'two or three persons of
influence in school positions, and if it were just to deal with
:motives, even these might be stated.
Given time and faithful execution, the law will fully vindi-
cate its wisdom and verify to the fullest extent the promises
:and fondest hopes of its friends, and accoTn"plish for our own
:State what is claimed it has done for other States in which it
.has been tested.
It is unnecessary to repeat and to' refute here the many
-charges made against it as being inoperative, impossible to
put into execution, and the like, by those hunting some way
:to evade it; we have only to report that the impossible has
been accomplished, and the system is everywhere in operation
and working smoothly and harmoniously, the slight friction
incident to the starting of new machinery having almost or
quite disappeared.
It is admitted that a missing link or two in the law had to
be supplied by official interpretation ; these were promptly
furnished and there was not the least difficulty found in
putting in operation the provisions of the law in seven-
-eighths of the counties of the State; in the one-eighth, it 6x-
isted more in the imagination and obstinate blindness of those
charged with its execution, and who were at the same time
hunting grounds for evasion.
In order to be able to acquaint the Legislature with the
Ir.i.,ti,: workings of the law after a few months' operation
-and to disprove the predictions of some of the opponents of
the law, on November 25, 1894, a circular letter was ad-
-dressed to County Superintendents soliciting information with
:'regard to the number of certificates issued under the "New

Law," in which the following questions were submitted for
1. How many of the failures to obtain certificates do you regard
as unfortunate for the educational interests of your county ?
S. How many of your regular and efficient teachers failed to ap-
ply for examination undf r the new law ?
3. How many of these efficient teachers failing to apply, do you
think were driven out of the profession by the new examination
law ?
4. To what extent and in what direction have the educational in-
terests of your county been affected by the uniform examinations?
6. -Have the places thus made vacant in the ranks of your teachers
been filled by better, or by worse material?
7. How do your teachers this year compare with those of the year
previous in general qualification and interest in school work ?
8. Have you always heretofore been able to open all your schools
at the beginning of the school year. with satisfactory teachers ?
9. How many schools of your county will not be opened at all this
year on account of insufficient) of teaching force ?
10. How does the popular interest in public education in your
county this year compare with that of the year previous ?
11. From what you have seen of its practical workings, what do
you think will be the effect of the uniform examination law if faith-
fully- and discreetly executed ?
12. Do you favor, or oppose uniform examinations? Give your
reasons for your answer.


From information thus elicited, it appears that in the regu-
lar examinations in May and September, and the special ex-
:amination of October, there were 2,829 certificates issued; 280
First Grade, 1,209 Second Grade and 1,340 Third Grade-a
sufficient number to enable every school in the State to be
taught during the year, when we take into consideration the
fact that 280 of these teachers are not circumscribed by county
lines and may teach two or even three schools.


To the questions above submitted, the Superintendents
answered as follows:
To Question No. 1.-32 answered "None;" 2, "Not one;"
2, "Not any;"' 1, "Possibly none;" 1, Can't say;" 2, One;"
1, "Two;" 1, Three;" and 1, "Four."
To Question No. 2-21, None ;" 1, None, a few school
keepers;" 1, "Few, if any ;" the rest, reporting from 1 to 9,
75 in all, as failing to apply.
To Question No. 3-22, "None ;" 1, "None, they, never were
-'in it' ;" 1, "Few, if any;" 2, Do not know ;" the rest, re-
porting from 1 to 12.

To Question No. 4-26 expressed great satisfaction:
at the results, answering as follows: "Better teachers by
50 per cent;" "Teachers feel their profession protected; "
"Gives us more competent teachers; Greatly beneficial "
" Considerably for the better," etc. Eleven saw no appreci-
able difference; five expressed disapprobation in the follow-
ing language: -'Causes dissatisfaction among patrons,"'
"Closed a few schools," "A temporary set-back," Good
teachers were lost," Hurts small schools."
To Question No. 6-27 answered, By better material ;" 8
"Equally as good," or "about the same;" few non-conmit-
tal, and one said Worse."
To Question No 7-36 expressed a gratifying showing as fol-
lows: "Decidedly better," "Better qualified," "More inter-
ested," "The best we have ever had," Far better," 50 per
cent. better," "Better both as to qualification and interest,"
" More earnest," "More enthusiastic," etc; 6, undecided; one
says, Improvement, but not the result of the law."
To Question No. 8-36 answered "No;" 8 Yes."
To Question No. 9-27 "None;" others, answering from 1
to 30, mostly colored, aggregating 116.
To Question No. 10-36 express a gratifying showing as
follows: "Better by 100 per cent; A great deal better;"
" Very favorably;" "Greatly enhanced; "Unusual interest,"
etc; 7 report, "About the same;" 2 not reporting.
To Question No. 11-Forty are most enthusiastic over the
promise of the New Law, expressing themselves as follows:
" It gives a better system in every particular;" "Will insure
us m uch better teachers; Will advance educational inter-
ests generally;" "Will give a superior class of teachers;"
" Will give better teachers, the law is good; Its permanent
effects will certainly be good;" Good, it has stimulated the
teachers and induced much study; The result will be bet-,
ter teachers, better schools, better and more systematic
work;" Will bring us into line with the leading States and
encourage good teachers;" "Will give teachers who know
something and pupils who can pass examinations; Improved
schools and assured good teaching;" "It will prove a lasting
benefit to the children of the State ;" Will drive out lazy
incompetents and inspire a wholesome respect for the teach-
er;" Will prove a blessing," etc. Five express themselves
as follows: The law is an injustice ;" With some amend-
ments it would be all right;" "Needs some amendments;"
"Can not answer; one evades answer.
To Question No. 12-Forty put themselves on record as.
heartily favoring the system, fortifying their answers with

well written and carefully thought-out discussions on the sub-
ject, the length of which precludes their publication. Of the
remaining five, three evade answer; one says, I would favor
it with changes; and the other has made the astonishing dis-
covery that, The law is a failure!"
A circular letter similar to the one addressed to County
Superintendents was also, on November 22, last, sent to County
Boards of Public Instruction soliciting their opinion in regard
to the school law, and asking for information as to public sen-
timent in their several districts in regard to the same. Their
opinion was sought,'also, on four slight amendments to.the
laws suggested, in the same letter, which will be discussed under
the head of amendments. The following were the questions
1. Do you favor the Uniform Examination Law adopted by the last
Legislature ?
2. Do you approve of the amendments to it that I have suggested
in this letter?
3. In your judgment, what proportion of the people in your School
Board district favor it?
4. What argument, not prompted by self interest or prejudice,
have you heard urged, against it, that you really regard as of any
force ?
5. Have you any amendment to suggest to this law or to any other
school statute ? If so, state them briefly to me.
Answer 1-Answers were received from a large number of
135 of these officers. Though many failed to report, still it is
,exceedingly gratifying, that of the large number reporting,
not a single one but heartily endorsed and spoke in praise of
the law. Some of the strongest endorsements that the Uni-
form Examination Law has received are contained in these
reports, and I deeply regret that the great amount of space
already taken up under this head prevents copious quotations
from them. They. are, however, on file and subject to inspec-
Answer 2-While a majority favored the amendments sug-
gested, still quite a number vigorously opposed' any changes
in the law.
Answer 3.-The answers to this question varied; some re-
ported that the law met with no opposition at all, while
others reported that a small proportion of the citizens of their
district opposed it, but that it was generally understood to be
from selfish considerations.
Answer 4.-Almost the universal reply to this question was,

Answer 5.-Answers to this question brought out a few
suggestions, most of which will be discussed under other-
heads, but the general tenor of their answers leaves the im-
pression that they are satisfied with the school laws as they
are; or, as some stated, are "willing to entrust the suggestion
of needful changes to the State Superintendent."

The usual cry of "catch questions" was occasionally heard
respecting the questions distributed for the Uniform Exam-
inations. In fact, it would have been a sad disappointment
and astonishment as well, if this voice had not been raised.
Feeble efforts at criticism were attempted by penny-a-liners
in some of the newspapers, wherein some verged upon the
point of exposing their extreme ignorance of matters about
which they were essaying to appear learned. I do not pro-
fess to be an adept in the matter of preparing questions for
examination. There are, in reality, but few teachers of any
rank specially gifted in that line, and I have failed as vet to
see any set of questions upon any subject, it matters not by
whom prepared, that it did not appear that some question
might not with profit have been substituted by some other.
Those inclined to criticism should bear in mind that the
questions were not designed for the ignorant, or those of
other professions; nor were answers to many of the questions
expected to be given in mathematically correct or measured
terms, but were intended to draw out the knowledge of text-
books with which teachers daily deal, their degree of profes-
sional reading, and their powers and habits of thought along
the channels in which their minds are expected to daily move.
Comparison of the questions submitted with those pub-
lished in the annual reports from nearly all of the States, will
convince any intelligent person that the questions recently
used in this State are about on a level with those used in simi-
lar examinations in the other States, with the possible excep-
tion that they are not quite so difficult.
I would be glad that intelligent persons would make the
comparison in order to satisfy themselves that their r ii.
Superintendent is nearly as well prepared for this important
work as some who have presumed to criticize him. Samples
of the .questions used are below submitted from each of the
three sets sent out for examination this year, one or more
being taken from eaclh,in order that this comparison may be

I will interpose no objection, if any desire it done, to the-
Legislature's creating a committee of two or more leading edu-
cators to assist in the delicate and arduous work of preparing
examination test-questions, if thereby the usual "catch-ques-
.tion may be avoided and greater satisfaction with the work
can be assured.


Knowledge of text-books is not the ONLY, but is TIE FUNDAMENTAL.
qualification for teaching.

1. Examinees should provide themselves with legal cap paper, pens&
and ink, and write all their work in ink.
2. Answers should be numbered to correspond with questions and
their subdivisions. The' pages on each subject should be fastened to,
3. Examinees should be seated so as to prevent, as far as possible,
their seeing each other's work; no books, note-books, nor anything
containing rules or data of any kind should be permitted to be
brought within the. room; examines should not be allowed to com-
municate with each other during the preparation of any paper.
4. The Grading Committee must give to each perfect answer the
number of credits printed after each question.

I. (a) What is spelling ? (b) Define alphabetical equivalents.
(a) 5, (b) 5.
III. What is meant by word analysis ? 10.
IV. Syllabicate, mark the primary accent, and give the proper dia-
critical mark to each vowel in the following words: lenient, lamenf-
able, strata, mercantile, phraseology. 9 each.
V. Give five nouns, underscoring the -*.iM.- .. 01,. ,;*, :. .1. !
act of, to make, one who, pertaining to, r.,t. I. .'. ..
VI. What is the distinction between the phonic and the ortho-
graphic spelling of words? 10.
VII. Use a prefix with each of the following words, and show how
the meaning is changed: print, fair, modest, sight, rate. 2 each.
VIII. (a) What are the words called that sound alike, but are-
spelled differently ? (b) That are not alike but mean nearly the same.
(a) 5, (b) 5.

IX. Spell and define each of the following words and two others,
having the same sound as each one: write, road, raise, seen. sAght.
2 each.
X. Spell correctly each of the following: Silinder, embarass,
privaledge, sintillate, thur-o, slite, preferable, catapiller, camfeene,
1. How would you teach a child to begin to read? Name in order
the steps to be pursued.
2. Distinguish between the word method and the phonic method
of teaching reading.
3. Is the alphabet method at any time preferable?
4. When would you begin to teach primary classes pauses, empha-
sis, etc., in reading?
5. What is the prevailing fault with primary readers? Whence its
origin? How would you remedy it?
6-10. Read a paragraph of prose for the examiner.
[The examiner will grade the last on the examinee's paper from
'0 to 50 for the use of the Grading Committee in determining your
.standing on reading.]
Egl Mere answers will not be accepted. Process must be indicated
and solution written out.
1. (a) At 27 bushels an acre, how many bushels of wheat will be
harvested from 640 acres? (b) Which is the multipliand in this ex-
ample, and why? (a) 5. (b) 5.
II. If division is a short way of performing many subtractions:
(a) What in division corresponds to the subtrahend ? (b) What to
the minuend? (a) 5. (b) 5.
III. Given the divisor 99, the quotient 909, and the remainder 9,.
what is the dividend ? 10.
1V. Resolve 31570 into five prime factors. 10.
V. What is the quotient of the least common multiple of 16. 20,
24 and 30, divided by the greatest common divisor of 2873 and 6667 ?
VI. 4+5-45 of ?

VII. (1260X3.49)-1-.047-88.62 -00211= ? 10.
VIII. A tin box 11 inches long, 7 inches wide, and 3 inches thick
-vill hold how many gills? 10.
IX. T. F. McBeath bought for $2 an acre the Wj of NE4, the S4
.of NW, the NW1 of SE4. and NEI of S W4 of a section of land; he
sold the .NWJ or NE at $2.50 an acre, the SW4 of NEI at $3 an
acre, the SWI of NW. at $1.20 an acre, the SE of NW4 at $2 an
acre, the W4 of NEI of S Wi at $5 an acre, the E4 of NW of SE
at $4 an acre : (a) How much land did he buy ? (b) How much did
he sell? (c) What is the description of what he now owns? (d) Be-
sides clearing the land he now owns, what per cent. did he make on
.his speculation? (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 2. (d) 3.
X. How long must $1301:64 be on interest to amount $1522.92 at
.5 per cent? 10.
I. Name and define five properties of nouns. 2 each.
II. Write the possessive case, plural number, of it, which, cupful,
son-in-law, Knight-Templar. o 2 each.

III. (a) Which parts of speech are declined? (b) Which are com-
pared? (c) Which are conjugated? (d) Decline son-in-law.
(a)2. (b) 2. (c) 2. (d) 4.
IV. Give the rule applying and compare each of the following:
bad, handsome, lovely, polite, beautiful. 2 each.
V. Give the principal parts of the following verbs: dive, say,
drink, eat, gird, cling, set, shoe, lie (to recline), lay. 1 each.
VI. (a) Give all the properties of the verb. (b) Tell how the passive
voice is formed. (a) 5. (b) 5.
VII. Give synopsis of the very see with he through all tenses of
the indicative mood. 10.
VIIL-IX. Analyze or diagram:
"When a man dies, they who survive him ask what property
he has left behind." 20.
X. Parse in the above sentence: When, they, who, what, ask.
2 each.
1. What is composition?
2. Write five rules for the use of capital letters.
3. Give six rules for the use of the comma, and illustrate each.
4. Name the other marks of punctuation.
b. Mention four essential properties of style.
6. Write a composition on one of the following subjects:
1. There is always room at the top.
2. The tramp.
3. Home made apparatus for schools.
4. The teacher in the community.
5. Diligence is the father of success.
NOTE.-The composition must contain not less than 100 nor
more than 300 words.
Credits will be given on the merits of composition with refer-
ence to the following points:
(1) Value of the thought expressed................. 25
(2) Correct orthography ......................... 10
(3) Correct punctuation.......................... 10
(4) Correct use of capitals......................... 10
(5) Correct division into paragraphs ............... 5
(6) General appearance................ .......... 15
(7) Answers to first five questions (5 each).......... 25
1. How would you begin the teaching of writing with children
who have just entered school?
2. Give correct position with relation to the body, the hand, and
the paper.
3. Write some of the one space letters.
4. Give proper comparative heights of n, t, r, s, d, 1.
5. What is meant by space in height and space in width ? Illus-
trate each by a letter.
6. Analyze by elements, a, d, c, h, x.
7. Illustrate what is meant by slant.
8. Name and illustrate the principles or elements in the capitals.
9. Is it good for the average teacher of penmanship to set copies
for pupils? Should a regular period of time be devoted to writing?
Should the teacher read or crochet during that period?


10. Write as a specimen of your penmanship:
Lives of great men all remind us.
We can make our lives sublime,'
And, departing, leave behind us,
Footprints on the sands of time.
NOTE.-Maximum grade for the specimen is 55, all otherques-
tions 5 each, as to merit.
I. (a) What was the Declaration of Independence? (b) Who was
its author?' (a) 8. (b) 2.
II. Explain the allusion in "Charter Oak." 10.
Il. (a) Give date of Andrew Jackson's administration. (b) Name
two important political questions settled. (a) 5. (b) 5.
IV. What was the principal political issue on which Polk was
elected President ? 10.
V. (a) Who enunciated the Monroe Doctrine?" (b) What
was it? (a) 2. (b)8.
VI. What five men, afterwards celebrated in history, first came
into notice during the Mexican war? 2 each.
VII. What was the era of good feeling," and' who was Presi-
dent? 10.
VIII. (a) How did the United States get Florida? (b) Who was
the first governor after it became a State ? (a) 7. (b) 3.
IX. Couple the names of the inventors with what you consider the
five greatest American inventions. 2 each.
X. Name five great battles of the Civil War, and tell which side
was victorious in each. 2 each.
I. Define the axis of the earth. 10.
II. Name the five zones and give the width of each in degrees.
2 each.
III. (a) What nation controls the Suez canal? (b) What waters does
it connect? (a) 3, (b)7.
IV. Starting from Chicago and traveling entirely by water, on what
waters would you sail in order to reach Vienna? 10.
V. (a) Name the countries' crossed by the 40th parallel of north
latitude. (b) Begin on the west coast of the United States and name
in order going east the states crossed by it. (a) 5, (b) 5.
VI. (b) Where are the dykes found ? Why were they built.
(a) 4, (b) 6.
VII. Name ten valuable articles of commerce exported from
VIII. (a) Name five countries of Europe bordering on the Mediter-
ranean sea, (b) Give capital of each. (a) 5, (b) 5.
IX. Compare the animal life of Europe and America. 1A0.
X. (a) Name the six largest cities of Europe. (b) Locate each.
(a) 5, (b)
1. Distinguish between the terms physiology, anatomy and hy-
2. (a) Give tfle composition of bone. (b) Explain the uses of the,
3. Name the organs of respiration.
4. (a) What is the heart? (b) Size? (c) Shape? (d) Functions?

5. (a) What is the average length of time required to digest a meal'
(b) Name the organs of digestion.
6. What are the effects of rapid eating ?
7. Why should we not study or labor immediately after eating?
8. Tell how to properly care for the eyes, with reference to (a)
character of light; (b) direction from which it should come; (c) size
of print; (d) when to rest them.
9. (a) What is the effect of alcoholic drinks upon the digestion,? (b)
Upon the brain?
10. What effect has the excessive use of tobacco both in regard to
(a) smoking and (b) chewing.
I. What is the real purpose of education? 10.
II. What is the purpose of recitation? 10.
III. (a) Give necessary qualifications in a teacher to secure the best
results from recitations. (b) How do you economize time in a recita-
tion? (a) 7. (b) 3.
IV. Name the requisites in a teacher to secure good government.
V. Discuss oral instruction: (a) Its use. (b) Its abuse.
(a) 5. (b) 5.
VI. What is the difference in telling a thing and in teaching it ?
VII. (a) What is the synthetic method of teaching? (b) The ana-
lytic ? (c) Which is more applicable to primary instruction, and why ?
(a) 4. (b) 4. (c) 2.
VIII. What do you understand by the educational maxim: "Pro-
ceed from the known to the unknown ?" 10.
-IX-X. Have you attended a teachers' summer school this year?
If yes, 20. No, 0.

I. Illustrate with words all the diacritical marks of tile vowel o.
II. a What is meant by the syllabication of words? b Separate
the following into their syllables and mark the accented syllable:
Leniency, zndefensible, lamentation, obligatory, vehement.
a 5. b. 5.
III. a Define a primitive word ; b a derivative word; c a com-
pound word. d Form a derivative and a compound word with man.
a 2. b2. c 2. d 4.
IV. How are words designated as to the number of their syllables?
V. Form and define a word with each of the following prefixes: un,
dis, be, ante, en. 2 each.
VI. Form and define an adjective with each of the following suf-
fixes : er, ish, ible, ous, en.
VII. Give the rule for spelling the second of each of the following
pairs of words: bog, boggy; note, noting; begin, beginner; victory,
victorious ; daisy, daisies. 2 each.
VIII. Give tile reasons for the spelling of the second word in each
of the following pairs of words: ,change, changeable; shoe, shoeing;:
hate, hateful; prefer, preference; singe, singeing. 2 each.

IX. Write and define a homonym corresponding to each of the
following words: one, beau, rye, choir, holy. 2 each.
X. Correct the following words spelled phonically: kon-shens,
kon-ker, kre-a-ta-b'l, men-azh-e-ry, paj-ant-ry, rek-wi-zish-un, blas-
fe-my, am-a-tur, lik-wi-date, suf-fish-ent. 1 each.
I. a What is reading? b Define articulation. c Give an error in
articulation, a 5. b 3. c 2.
II. a What is emphasis ? b Mention three ways of using it.
a 4. b 2 each.
III. a there a difference in quantity of tone and pitch of voice
in reading b Explain your answer, a 5. b 5.
IV. What drills do you give pupils as to: a Position of body?
b Holding of book? c Breathing? d Gesture? e Facial expres-
sion? 2 each.
V. How would you conduct a reading lesson in a large class, look-
ing to : a Correcting errors? b Naturalness? c Mastery?
a 4. b 4. c 2.
VI-X. Read an extract of ten lines each of prose and poetry for
your examiner.
[Examiner will grade from.0 to 25 each extract read, and de-
liver same to the Grading Committee to be added by them to the
grading of the questions above].
I. Construct and name each of the seven principles employed in
the Spencerian system of writing. 10.
II. What is meant by the following: (a) space in width! (b) space
in height? (c) main slant? (d) connective slant? (e) shading?
2 each.
III. What should be the height in spaces of each of the following
letters: n, r, I, t ? 10.
IV. (a) Which one of the thirteen short letters is shaded ? (b) What
-other small letters? (c) Which of the capitals are shaded? (d) Where
is shading always heaviest? (a) 2. (b) 4. (c) 2. (d) 2
V. Analyze the letters a, r, y, A, O. 2 each.
VI-X. Write the following correctly, to be graded as a specimen
of your penmanship:
Dare to be true, nothing can need a lie;
A fault which needs it most grows two thereby.
-George Herbert.
P Process will be considered as well as correct answer, so
write out the solutions-mere answers can not be accepted. Connect
your work by proper signs. You are at liberty to abridge by cancel-
1. A can do 1 of a piece of work in 4 days; B can do } in 4
-days; C can do 1 in 8 days: D can do I in 7 days. How long will it
take them all to do it?
2. Divide thirty-five hundred-thousandths by T millionths; also 54
and five-tenths by 545.
3. A fence five boards high is built around a square field contain-
;ing 10 acres, the top board is 4 inches wide, the base board is 10

inches wide, the middle boards each 6 inches wide; what is the cost-
of the lumber at $12.50 per M ?
4.' What per cent. did a huckster make on his investment, who'
bought five bushels of chestnuts at $3 a bushel and retailed them at
10 cents a quart liquid measure? Ans. 24k per cent. +.
5. When it is 6 a. m, at Washington, 770o3 W. longitude, what will
be the hour of the day and the longitude of a place east, at which
the difference in time is 5 hrs. 8 min. 12 sec.
Answer ...................(Long.)
6. A bought a lot for $450, which was 25 per cent. less than its true
value, and sold it for 25 per cent. more than its true value. What
per cent. did he make on his money?
7. What is the distance in yards from the centre to each corner of
a section of land ?
8. If $800 had been put at 8 per cent. interest January 1st last, find'
the date when the amount will be $1000.
9. What is the distance in a direct line between one of the lower
corners and the opposite upper corner of a hall 32 feet long, 24 feet
wide and 30 feet high?
10. At a mark for 4 inches square, what will it cost in U. S. money
to gild the surface of a sphere three feet in diameter?
Ans. $69.60 .
1. Give rule and write the plural of each of the following; Adz,
colloquy, cameo, madame, bandit, billet-doux, goose-quill, manchild,
2. When more than one give different plurals, and explain the
formation of the plural of the following: Staff, Miss Smith, Mrs.
Jones, Dr. Coe and Lee, fish, hose, heathen, four pair, by score, poli-
3. Classify verbs: 1st, As to form, and illustrate.
2d, As to meaning, and illustrate.
3d, Give the modifications or properties of verbs.
4. Tell how the passive voice is formed; what verbs may have a
passive voice; and give the synopsis of the verb "see" in the indi-
cative mood, passive voice, using the second person.
5. Classify sentences according to their use; as to their structure.
Which is synthesis? Which analysis?
6. What two elements must every sentence contain ? Name and
define all the elements of any sentence.
7. I like the lad who, when his father thought
To clip his morning nap by hackneyed praise
Of vagrant worm by early songster caught
Cried, "Served him right! 'tis not at allsurprising;
The worm was punished, sir, for early rising."
(a) What kind of sentence is the above ?
(b) Point out all the subordinate clauses and tell what kind of an
element.each is.
(c) Name all the phrase element and tell what each modifies.
(d) What are objects of "cried ?"
8. Diagram the sentence.
9. Pars in full the words: Lad, who, when, clip, caught, served,
right, sir.
10. 'Write a sentence or sentences, containing an adjective phrase,.

San adverbial phrase, an adjective clause, an adverbial clause, and a
:substantive clause.
1. (a) Name the chief countries of Europe. (b) What two are re-
publics ?
2. Name and define all the imaginary lines used in mathematical
3. Give best proofs of the form and motions of the earth.
4. Name the river system of North America.
5. (a) What is the approximate distance from New York to Liver-
pool? (b) From San Francisco to Yokohama ?
6. From what strait on the east to what water on the west does
Asiatic Russia extend ?
7. Name the South American States and the Capital of each.
S. (a) How many States comprise the German Empire ? (b) Name
the four largest, (c) Name the two houses of the Imperial legislature
(d) How are the members of each chosen?
,19. Draw an outline map of Florida, and locate its largest lake,
three, largest rivers, six chief cities.
10. Draw a township, number the sections, sub-divide the 16th sec-
tion into quarter quarters, ard locate a school house in the NE} of
SNW-T by a-.
I. Into how many, and what periods, does U. S. History divide
itself ? 10.
II. (a) Give the history of the Whig party. (b) What were some of
its principles? (a) 5, (b) 5.
III. Describe the Battle of Shiloh, giving important results. 10,
IV. What is meant by (a) a protective tariff ? (b) tariff for revenue?
(c) free trade? (d) internal revenue? (e) civil service? 2 each.
V. How did the United States acquire (a) Texas? (b) Florida? (c)
Kentucky? (d) Arkansas? (e) Oregon? 2 each.
VI. Why are the following places historic ? (a) Montgomery, Ala ?
(6) Fortress Monroe? (c) Appomatox? (d) Philadelphia? (e) Hampton
Roads! 2 each.
VII. (a) What was the Monroe doctrine, and (b) when, if ever, has
the United States government officially endorsed it ? (a) 5, () 5.
VIII. Who was (a) Daniel Boone? (b) General Custer? (c) Kit Car-
son? (d) "Captain Jack?" (e) John Brown? 2 each.
IX. What were the causes leading to the war of 1812? 10.
X. Mention five events of the present year of historic significance.
Why? 10.
1. (a) What is the use of the paragraph in composition ? (b) Illus-
trate. (a) 5. (b) 5.
II. (a) Name the different parts of a letter. (b) How should each
be punctuated? (a) 5. (b) 5.
III. (a) What is meant by outlining a subject ? (b) Make an out-
line of the following subject: A Day at a Picnic.. (a) 4. (b) 6.
IV. (a) Name five figures of speech. (b) Illustrate each with a
:short sentence. (a) 5. (b) 1 each.
V. (a) How would you rank letter writing in importance among
the various forms of composition? (b) At what stage of the pupi's
education would you teach letter writing? (a) 5. (b) 5.

VI-VII. Write a short letter to a County Superintendent applying
for a school. State your age, experience in teaching, educational
advantages. your late reading on teaching as a science, salary you
expect, and name two persons as references as to your character, and
success as a teacher. Be careful about the beginning "and closing of
your letter. 20.
VIII-X. Outline your subject with not less than five heads and
write an essay of not less than 100 and not over 200 words on one of
the following subjects:
(a) The Recent Strike.
(b) Teachers' Summer Schools.
(c) The Press of the Preent Day. 30.
NOTE -Punctuation, capitalization, spelling, paragraphing, style
and subject matter each to be considered in grading the last ques-

I. Define: (a) Physiology; (b) Anatomy; (c) Hygiene; (d) Ossification:
(e) Assimilation. 2 each.
II. Name and describe the parts of the hip joint. 10.
III. (a) What is the cause of soreness after violent exercise? (b)
What will be the effect, physiologically speaking, of tlhl, and
rubbing at such times? (a, .*. il 5.
IV. What parts of the body require the following: a albumen;
(b) lime; (c) iron? (a) 3. (b) 3. (c) 4.
V. Begin with the left auricle and trace the circulation of the
blood through the system, naming the valves, chambers, tubes, and
organs through which it passes. 10.
VI. (a) Name the excretory organs. (b) Explain the functions of
each. (a) 4. (b) 6.
VII. (a) Describe the nervous system. (b) Show its connection with
psychology. (a) 7. (b) 3.
VIII. Is the "sense of touch" a special sense, as compared with
the other senses? 10.
IX. What effect has alcohol on: (a) the heart; (b) the stomach;
(c) the capillaries; (d) the brain? (a) 2. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 3.
X. How would, you explain the evil effects of: (a) re-breathing;
(b) rapid eating; (c) tobacco?

I. Distinguish between a lesson and a recitation. 10.
II. Give five fundamental principles of teaching. 10.
III. Distinguish between to instruct, to teach, to educate. 10.
IV. Where and to what extent should object teaching be employed
in arithmetic ? 10.
V., Name in order of their relative greatest activity the principal
mental powers. 10.
VI. How many recitations a day should a child in the Third
Reader Grade have, and in what studies? 10.
VII. To what extent should the teacher assist pupils in the prepar-
ation of lessons? 10.
VIII. Should prizes, honor marks, etc., ever be used as incentives
to study or good conduct? Give reasons for your answer. 10.

IX. What daily preparation on the part of the teacher is essential
to good teaching ? 10.
X. What works bearing on the subject of teaching or education
have you read since last October ?
31 per cent. for each book up to three.
I. (a) What is the reason for having two houses of Congress? (b)
Why chosen differently and for different periods ? (a) 5, (b) 5.
II. What sovereign powers have the individual States of the Uxi-
ion? 10.
III. What is meant by (a) an ex post facto law? (b) bill of attain
der? (c) writof habeas corpus? (d) "the right to bear arms?" (e) what
constitutional provision with regard to each ?' 2 each.
IV. (a) What was the purpose in giving the *President the veto
power?. (b) Why was it not made final.? 5 each.
V. What kind of bills can originate from the House of Representa-
tives only ? Why? 10.
VI. How are members of the Supreme Court of the United States
chosen, and for what length of term? 10.
VII. How are the members of the Supreme Court of Floridachosen,
and for what length of term ? 10.
VIII. How many grades of certificates issued from the Depart-
ment of Education in this State, and on what conditions? 10.
IX. What constitutes the county School Fund, and for what may
it be disbursed ? 10.
X. What School funds are distributed from the State Treasurer's
office, and on what basis is the apportionment made ? 10.

1, Define the province of Physical Geography,
2. Upon what does the climate of a place depend ?
3. (a) What are the causes of winds ? (b) What are the trade winds
and their causes ?
4. a Describe the mountain system of North America and give the
probable cause of the elevations and depressions; b their influence
upon climate.
5. Describe the manner in which rain, hail, snow, frost, and'dew
are formed.
6. (a) What are isothermal lines? (b) How and why do these lines
vary in North America as they approach the Pacific coast?
7. What is meant by "the line of no variation," and where does it
cross the United States?
8. (a) Account for the direction of the Gulf Stream across the At-
lantic Ocean. (b) What is Maury's theory of the causes producing this
stream ?
9. What angle does the axis of the earth make with the plane of its
orbit ?
10. (a) June 21st, on the Arctic circle, where would the sun appear
at midnight? (b) Where atnoon ? (c) On the equator, where would it
appear at the same time?


I. (a) What is algebra? (b) Define symbols; (c) Equation; (d) On
what does the degree of an equation depend ?
(a) 3. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 2.
11. Resolve a8-b8 into its prime factors. 10.
III. Divide 3xy xa3-y3-- by y-x-1. 10.
IV. (a) Prove that (x-y)(= l. (b) Prove that a--3= .
(a) 5. (b) 5.
a-1 b-2 c3 m"
V. Reduce b--
a' b-- C-1 m-n to an equivalent fraction having
positive exponents. 10.
VI. Find the greatest common divisor of x3+'7x--x-7, x- 5x2
-x-5 and x2--2x-l. 10.
VII. Find the value of x in the equation, 5x-- (x+3)=14.
VIII. Required the number of two figures, which added to the
number obtained by changing the place of the digits gives 77; and
subtracted from it leaves 27. 10.
.lx1 4x-_3
IX. Solve the equation x+1 4x-30
x-1 x9 10.
X. A certain farm is a rectangle, whose length is twice its
breadth. If it should be enlarged 20 rods in length, and 24 rods in
breadth, its area would be doubled. How many acres in the farm ?
I. What is Book-keeping? 10.
II. What are the principal books used in single-entry? 10.
III. What auxiliary books may be used ? 10.
IV. How does single-entry differ from double-entry? 10.
V. What book in double-entry requires the most skill and thought
to be correctly kept? 10.
VI-X. Using only Journal and Ledger, work by double-entry the
following short "set." Consider the printed memoranda as your
Day-Book. Close your Ledger and find the loss or gain and the
worth of the business at closing.
Sept. 1.-Began business with resources and liabilities as follows:
I have on hand $3,000 in cash and $5,000 in goods. I owe the Am.
Book Co. $600.
Sept. 2.-Paid rent of store in cash $50. Sold for cash $165.80. Sold
on acct. to W. F. Yocum $60.50. Sold to J. S. Tomlin on acct. $54.90.
Sold to D. L. Ellis on acct. $25.00.
Sept. 3.-Sold for cash $180.75. Sold W. F. Yocum on acct. ..'" ;..
Sold C. P. Walker on acct. $12.20. Sold W. L. Floyd on his note at
60 days, mdse. $135,
Sept. 4.-Sold for cash $90.80. Paid for stationery $12.00. Sold D.
L. Ellis on acct. $32.65. W. F. Yocum pays cash on acct. $75.
Bought mdse. for cash $2,150. Paid Am. Book Co. $600.
Sept. 5.-Paid D. L. Ellis on acct. $42.75. Sold for cash $85.60.
Bought mdse. on my note at 60 days, $1,850.
Inventory shows mdse. on hand $7,500. 50.

As the law stands at present, the candidate before obtaining
a State Certificate must pass an examination on 24 branches,
14 of which are the same, or equivalent to the ones required
for the County First Grade Certificate, samples of which have
just been given above, so there are given below only samples
of the questions used for the other ten branches.


1. Do not write your name upon any of your papers.
2. An endorsement of good moral character and a fee of one dollar, rpfund-
able for no cause, must be handed to the.examiner, before you are eligible to
the examination.
3. Write all your work upon legal cap paper with pen and ink; number and
'letter your answers to correspond to questions.
4. Any other regulation will be explained at request of any examine, or
when the examiner deems it necessary.


I. (a) What marks the beginning, and what the close of mediouval
history? (b) Into what agds is the period sometimes divided?
5 each.
II. Make a list of the nations existing: (a) at the beginning of this
period; (b) at its close. 5 each.
III. What of the ruling idea and of the empire of Charlemagne ?
IV. (a) Give a brief history of the Saracens, telling something of
their founder. (b) What good resulted from them? 5 each.
V. (a) What is meant by the Feudal system? (b) What of itseffects
upon civilization ? 5 each.
VI. (a) What were the Crusades? Tell of : (b) their origin; (c) their
number; (d) their aim; (e) their effect upon the world. 2 each.
VII, (a) Give the origin of the Cavaliers. (b) name some renowned
men developed by the struggle. (c) Give in brief contemporaneous
American history. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 5.
VIII. Of the Thirty Years' War, tell: (a) By whom begun; (b)
what nations became involved ; (c) how it ended ; (d) the result of it.
IX. Give a brief account of the beginning of England. 10.
X. Of the French Revolution, tell: (a) its origin ; (b) its nature;
(c) the names of leading characters; (d) how it terminated. 10.
-1. Define chord, tangent, apothegm, postulate, hypothesis.
2. Adjacent angles of a parallelogram are either equal or supple-
mentary. Prove.
3. The difference of the squares described on two lines is equal
to the rectangle of the sum and difference of the lines. Prove.

4. If from the middle point of any side of a triangle, lines be drawn
"to the middle points of the other sides, the two lines with the oppo-
site segments will form a parallelogram. Prove.
5. The line joining the middle points of the diagonals of a trape-
zoid is parallel to the bases and equal to one-half their difference.
6. To find a fourth proportional to three given lines. Solve.
7. From a given point outside a circle to draw a tangent to the cir-
cle. Solve.
8. The area of an equilateral triangle is 300, required the side.
9. The radius of the circle being 10, required the apothegm of an
inscribed octagon.
10. Given the base, an angle at the base, and the difference of the
-other two sides; construct the triangle.
1. Draw a figure illustrating the several trigonometrical lines.
2. Show that'sin'2x+cos2x=l.
3. Prove that cos 600=+R.
-4. Prove that a: sin A::a: sin B.
5. How do we extract the root of a number by logarithms?
6. Explain what you mean by logarithms.
7. To what are the sine and cos of 900 equal?
8. To what are the tan and sec of 900 equal?
9. Given the hypothenuse of a right angled triangle 45, and one of
the adjacent angles 370 22'; find the other parts. [Si'mply state pro-
portions for finding sides].
10. In an oblique angled triangle given BC-980. angle A=70 6'
26", and angle B=100o 2' 23' ,to find other parts. [Simply state the
proportions for finding the sides.]
I. Repeat Newton's laws of motion.
II. Make a drawing and explain (a) space passed through by a fall-
ing body the first three seconds; (b) law of increase of rate; (c) whole
distance passed through; (d) method of determining the rate of any
III. (a) A piece of lead exactly balances a piece of cork, will they
still balance under a receiver after the air is exhausted ? (b) Explain
the philosophy.
IV. (a) Explain the principle of the lever. (b) Illustrate three
V. A well is 240 feet deep, (a) how much time will elapse after a
child falls into it before the sound of the splash reaches the ear ? (b)
Give formula.
VI. Name a substance which may exist in a solid, liquid and gas-
eous form, and explain the molecular differences in the three states.
VII. Make drawing and illustrate the effect upon an object seen
through a concave lens.
VIII. (a) What is meant by specific gravity? (b) How would you
find the specific gravity of a block lighter than water? (c) It weighs
6 lbs. in water and 4 out, what is its specific gravity?
1. Classify the animal kingdom into its main divisions. What book
have you studied ?
2. What do you understand by mollusca, and into what groups may
.they be classified ?

3. Compare the fore-leg of a horse with the hand and arm of a man,-
noting correspondences and differences.
4. In what way do (a) insects, (b) crustaceans, (c) mollusca
breathe ?
5. What do you know of the geographical distribution of the ele-
phant, of the puma. of marsupials?
6. In what respect does an ostrich differ from an ordinary bird?
7. How would you distinguish the mouth parts of a butterfly from
those of a bed-bug ?
8. Classify as far as you are able the following animals: jelly-fish
earth-worm, cuttle-fish, shark, alligator.
9. Describe the principal anatomical differences between man and
one of the higher apes.
10.- What is coral ? What important work has this animal accom-
plished ?
1. Describe minutely the physiology of plant life, and growth.
2. Name and explain the various processes of plant reproduction.
3. Distinguish between exogenous and endogenous plants, and give
the outward characteristics of each class.
4. Name and describe the parts of a complete flower, in order.
5. Define the terms "perfect." "symmetrical," "complete," and
"regular," as applied to flowers.
6. Describe the structure and function of the leaf, ani classify as
to venation and arrangement on the stem.
7. What is the office of the pollen ? Explain in full.
8. Classify the following as to orders: Apple, peach, wheat, sugar-
cane, Indian corn, Irish potato.
9. Define fruit, and classify the orange, guava, pomegranate, to-
mato, eggplant and pecan.
10. Illustrate, by drawings, the various forms of inflorescence.
I. Translate as literally as good English will allow:
Pro his Divitiacus-nam post discessum Belgarum, dimissis Haed-
uorum copiis, ad eum reverterat-facit verba: 'Bellovacos omni
tempore in fide atque amicitia civitatis Haeduae fuisse: impulses a
suis principibus, qui dicerent Haeduos, ab Caesare in servitutem
redactos, ones indignitates contumeliasque perferre, et ab Haeduis
defecisse, et populo Romano bellum intulisse. Qui ejus consilii
principles fuissent quod intellegerent quantam calamitatem civitati
intulissent in Britanniam profugisse. Petere non solum Bellovacos,
sed etiam pro his Haeduos, ut sua dementia ac mansuetudine in eos
utatur.'-Caesar, Bk. II, Chap. 14.
II. What would have been the tense and mood of fuisse, perferre
and profugisse had it [the discourse] been Oratio Directa?
III. Account for the mood of each of the following: dicerent,
fuissent, intellegerent, utatur.
IV. Give the principal parts of: impulses, dicerent, redactos, per-
ferre, defecisse, petere, utatur.
V. Give one English word from each of the following and tell from
which root [if a verb] it comes: dimissis, impulses, principibus, re-
daetos, perferre, defecisse, intellegerent. petere, utatur, dementia.
VI. Give construction of dimissis. copies, tempore, redactos, per-
ferre, consilii, civitatis, civitati, petere, dementia.
VII. Translate into Latin: Caesar led the army to the summit of
the hill, and drew up a triple line of battle. The enemy fought

'fiercely until sunset, many wounds being given and received. The
Romans were victors.
VIII. Translate:
Dixerat ille; et iam per moenia clarior ignis
Auditur, propiusque aestus incendia volvunt.
Ergo age, care pater, cervici imponere nostrae;
Ipse subibo-umeris, nec me labor iste gravabit:
Quo res cumque cadent, unum et commune periclum,
Una salus ambobus erit. Mihi parvus Iulus
Sit comes, et long serve vestigia coniunx.
Vos, famuli, quae dicam, animis, advertite vestris.
Est urbe egressis tumulus templumque vetustum
Desertae Cereris, iuxtaque antique cupressus
Religione patrum multos servata per annos.
Aeneid II-705-715.
1. What relation has rhetoric to grammar ?
2.- Define and give an example of each: simile, allegory, metaphor,
,apostrophe, irony.
3. Illustrate by quotation or original example metonomy, antith-
esis, i ...~.' ".' I, 't,. l ." 'ole.
4. '.' rr!:. r,-. i!Ii',-in r- of a good sentence, and explain.
5. Define purity, propriety, precision, as applied to diction.
6. Give rules for paragraphing composition.
7. Point out the particular merit in style of each of three great
8. Name the figures found in the following sentences: (a) He fell
asleep. (b) I seek not to penetrate the veil (c) He was addicted to the
bottle. (d) For fools rush in where angels fear to tread. (e) Grim-vis-
aged war hath smoothed his wrinkled front.
9. Give rules for the choice of words in writing.
10. Give caution in regard to the use of rhetorical figures.

1. Give a brief sketch of Shakespeare's life.
2. What is dramatic poetry? Distinguish between the two princi-
pal divisions of. To which class does Merchant of Venice" be-
long? Why?
3. Give a synopsis of the drama, and a brief sketch of the char-
.acter of Portia and Shylock.
4. What was the real source of Shylock's animosity to Antonio ?
Prove your answer by references to the drama, or quotations from
5. What do you regard as the finest line, or lines, in the drama ?
Give good reasons for your answer.
6. Was Portia dark or fair? tall or low ? What was her prob-
able age ? Prove your answers correct by reference to the drama,
7. Give a brief sketch of the life and writings of Washington
8. Analyze the charm of his writings; and explain why he has
been called the "Father of American Literature."
9. Give a brief synopsis of the "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,"
;and discuss Ichabod Crane.
10. What do you regard as the most pathetic scene in "Rip Van
Winkle ?' What the most comic? Explain your answer.

1. What is meant by The Physical Basis of Thought?"
2. Name and distinguish between the three modes of mental man-
3. Name and define the principal intellectual activities in the or-
der of development.
4. Define percept, concept, and distinguish clearly between per-
ception and apperception.
5. Analyze the mental process of conception, and explain the
formation of general notions."
6. Classify the sensibilities (feelings).
7. Define the will, and discuss briefly its relations to the intellect
and the sensibility.
8. What is meant by the "Freedom of the Will," and to what
extent is the doctrine sustained by mental science?
8. Describe and illustrate the two processes of reasoning.
10. Show how that psychology is intimately related to physiology
on the one hand, and to ethics on the other.

It is evident, that high grade certificates are either not so
valuable as they once were, or the latter method of obtaining
them is not so popular as the former was.. There had been
644 First Grade, or State Certificates, issued in all prior to
January 1, 1893 ; 561 of which were still in full force January
1, 1894, when they were revoked by statute of 1893. Not
one was issued after I came into office. Timely notice was
given that opportunity would be presented to re-take by ex-
amination under the new law one of these five-year State
Certificates at Gainesville, January 4-6, 1894, where there as-
sembled several hundred teachers in State Association.
Again, notice was given that an opportunity would be af-
forded to take this examination at each of the Summer
Schools, held in July and August, at Marianna, Monticello,
Gainesville, Ocala, and Bartow, there being in attendance-
upon each, from 125 to 260 teachers.
Then, there was a standing notice that I would meet as
many as six teachers at any time and at any place in the State,
they would agree upon for the purpose of extending the
privileges of this examination.
Still with all these opportunities, only 17 attempted the
examination for a State Certificate during the whole year
The great body of teachers that had. previously held these
certificates under the old order of things, were either willing-
to be content with a lower grade, did not find it cofivenient
to take the examination, or were relying upon the success of