The adventures of Robinson Crusoe


Material Information

The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description:
xv, 263 p., 20 leaves of col. plates : ill. ; 21 cm.
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Unwin, Thomas Fisher, 1848-1935 ( Publisher )
B., S. R
Kauffmann, Paul Adolphe, 1849- ( Illustrator )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Unwin Brothers ( Printer )
Gresham Press ( Printer )
T. Fisher Unwin
Place of Publication:
London (26 Paternoster Square)
Unwin Brothers, The Gresham Press
Publication Date:
Newly edited after the original editions.


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1884   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
England -- Chilworth


Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with twenty illustrations by Kauffman.
General Note:
Added col. t.p.
General Note:
Introd. signed: S.R.B.
General Note:
The illustrator may be Paul Adolphe Kauffmann. A New York ed. of this text (pt. I) has P. Kauffman as the illustrator (NUC pre-1956, 0118716 (v.136, p. 613)) and an Unwin, 1892 ed. cites the name as "Kauffman <sic>" (NUC pre-1956, 0118518 (v. 136, p. 605)). The pub. catalogue specimen b&w ill. (the same as an unsigned col. version in the text) is signed P. Kauffmann.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe abridged. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue of new and recent books for the 1883-4 season, dated 1883, (56 p.) at end. The catalogue includes many specimen ill.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001819930
oclc - 30762727
notis - AJP3916
System ID:

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TRAVELS TO LONDON ... *.. ... ... .. 10

SETS UP AS A GUINEA TRADER ... ... ... ... ... 10-12


IN SLAVERY AT SALLEE ... ... .. .*** ** 13

ESCAPES FROM SLAVERY ... *... *. *** *** 14, 15


PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE *... ... .. ... 23

TAKEN TO BRAZIL ... ... .. ** .** *** 24

BECOMES A PLANTER IN BRAZIL ... ... ... .** 25-6



CRUSOE THE ONLY ONE SAVED ...... ...** ** 30-I


THE DAY AFTER THE STORM ......... *** 33



IHE VIEWS THE COUNTRY ... ... ..... .. 36








LIKE DEBTOR AND CREDITOR ... ... ... ... 45

CRUSOE'S JOURNAL FROM SEPT. 30, 1659, TO SEPT. 30, 166o ... ... 47-70

THE CORN ... ... ... ... .. ** 71-2



HIS DAILY EMPLOYMENT .... ... ... 77-8

CROP ... E*. ... ... ... ... ..* 79, 80




THE SHIP'S BOAT ... .. ... ... ...... 84-86



HIS VOYAGE ROUND THE ISLAND .. ... ... .. 91-94

CRUSOE AND HIS PARROT ... .. ... ... .. 95








,SAVAGES ON THE ISLAND AGAIN ... ... ...... I17-8







FRIDAY'S LOVE AND FAITHFULNESS ... ... ..... 141-143



SPANIARD AND FRIDAY'S FATHER ........ ... 146-152




TLANS TO RECOVER THE SHIP ... ...... ... 166-170





PLANTATIONS ..*... ........***







VISITS THE ISLAND AGAIN ......... ...* ... 207-209

SAVAGES ... 210-240'


MARRIAGE ON THE ISLAND ... ... ... ... ... 241


-FRIDAY'S BURIAL ...... ... .... .. 243




SAIL WITH HIM AGAIN ... ... ... ... 249


BEING PIRATES ... ... ... ... ... ... 250-2-

PUT INTO QUINCHANG ... ... ... ... ... 253:




THE ADVENTURE WITH AN IDOL OF WOOD ... ... ... 259, 260.




A BOAT CAME OFF TO US ............... Frontisfiece


A SIGNAL OF DISTRESS ...... ... ... ... ... 23


THE LADDER FINISHED ... ... ... ...5 .. *.* 55

FRUIT ON THE ISLAND ........... ...... 66

AN ISLAND KILN ..... ... ..... 82

FULL DRESS ... ... ... ... ... ... ... IOO


AFRAID ...... ** ** 11


A SAVAGE EXECUTIONER ..... ... *** 30


THE RESCUED SPANIARD ............ 149


DELIVERANCE ......** **** 75


"THE POOR MAID ...... ... ... 206




"TOM JEFFERY'S END ... ... ... ... ... 246

THE STATE HE RODE IN ....... ... ... ... *.. 255

AN IDOL MADE OF WOOD .. ... ... ... ... ... 258




SANIEL DEFOE, the author of Robinson Crusoe," had a career
which is, perhaps, one of the most remarkable in English literary
history. The times in which he lived and worked were, indeed,
(" such as produced remarkable careers. He was born in 1661, in
the year after the Restoration. Milton was still alive, and men were still com-
paring closely the Monarchy with the Commonwealth. When the Plague of
London occurred, which he described so ingeniously, if not ingenuously, as an
eye-witness, he was four years old. He was sixteen when Titus Oates evoked
the Popish scare. He saw Charles II. succeeded by James II., and took part
at twenty-four in the rising of the Duke of Monmouth, which ended in the
battle of Sedgemoor and the execution of its leader. He hailed with joy
the Glorious Revolution." He took a personal part in arranging the Union
between England and Scotland, did his very best to inflame the minds of the
:people against the Pretender and the Jacobites, saw the Hanoverian line
come in, andid died a pensioner of George II.
He was the son of a Cripplegate butcher named James Foe, and in his
early years called himself by his patronymic; but wishing apparently to
dignify himself with Norman lineage, he assumed the lordly prefix with as
little compunction as Robinson Crusoe showed in pretending that he was a
governor in his castle, when he wished to catch the mutineers, whose coming
enabled him to escape from his island.
James Foe was a Nonconformist, and desiring for his son the office of
iDissenting Minister, gave him an education with the pulpit in view; but
When the time came for him to take the sacred office, Daniel refused a


position which he regarded as unsuitable to his temper. His education
had not been so academical as to satisfy the exquisite wits of the literary
Coffee House, and, throughout his life he was taunted with being illiterate;
but it had at least made him desire knowledge, and capable both of acquiring
and imparting it. When he turned from the pulpit to the counting-house,
he set up as a trader in hosiery; his business led him to an acquaintance
with people who had seen many lands, and almost certainly took him abroad
himself; he probably visited Spain, and there imbibed that admiration for
the Spanish character which induced him to make the Spaniards on the Island
high types of humanity; and very possibly the journey from Lisbon through
France to London is founded upon reminiscences of his wanderings. But
one thing is certain. While his business was going to ruin and he was pre-
paring bankruptcy for himself, he was acquiring languages, mastering
geography, and learning the course of the world's trade. He was never for
long together very prosperous. He would bask in the sunshine for a while,
and then we see him flying away from his creditors, and apparently undone for
ever. But in his worst hour he never despaired, and misfortune only showed
of what infinite resources he was master.
His experiences were meanwhile fitting him for the real business of his life.
For, successful as he was as a romancer, story-telling in the elaborate fashion of
modern fiction was taken up only when he was fifty-eight years of age. Defoe
was led to it through the paths of journalism. He was a born journalist.
His early interest in politics is shown by his complicity in the Monmouth
Rebellion; his peculiarly practical education had put facts at his command
not to the hand of the purely literary man ; and he began early in life-how
early we do not know--to write pamphlets upon current events. His first
great success was a poem in the satiric style of Dryden called, "The True
Born Englishman," which touched the burning question of the day. The
Jacobites' made it a charge against King William that he was a Dutchman,
and asked for an English ruler. In reply, Defoe, in the strongest language,
rated all his countrymen as descendants of a horrid crowd of rambling
thieves and drones, who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns, Picts,
Scots, painted Britons, Norwegian pirates, and red-haired Danes. These
are the heroes that despise the Dutch," he exclaimed; and all England
bought the lampoon upon itself, and laughed heartily over it. It hit the
popular taste, and, what was more, it pleased the sovereign. William called
the hosier to his closet; and the son of a butcher became the mouthpiece of
the King.

Defoe had been an independent man until this moment. He had written
for love of the cause, inspired by conviction. And as, when he was at his
best, he might have given hints to Swift in style, so he might have sustained
the lofty patriotism of Milton himself, and have been eyes to the cleverest
statesmen of that period. But there is every evidence that his connection
with the Court became the means of corruption; and when he was at his
worst, he might have taught Talleyrand the method of plausible dissimulation,
and Pope the art of mystification. So long as William lived, Defoe's services
were redeemed from the suspicion of being mercenary by his sincerity, but
afterwards, having tasted the delights of Court favour, he became the lacquey
of successive Governments, and what, in William's service, had been a uniform,
was, in the service of his successors, a livery.
He did not sell himself for hire, however, until he had discovered the perils
of independence, and the chances of being misunderstood. When the contro-
versy was raging about the Act of Toleration, Occasional Conformity, and
other measures touching the rights and liberties of his brethren, the Dissenters,
he produced a pamphlet called "A Short Way with Dissenters," in which,
without stating his own opinion, he argued as a High Tory that the best
way to get rid of the Separatists was to banish all who went to a meeting-
house, and to hang the preacher. The High Tories were in power. Queen
Anne herself was incensed at its being represented as possible that she would
adopt this policy. Defoe was charged with libel ; and the court condemned
him to prison and the pillory. Until the Government put their construction
upon the pamphlet, the Dissenters, who in that day rather despised literary
artifice, looked askance upon the author and his work. But now the mob
made Defoe a hero. When, on three days at the end of July, 1703, he
appeared in the pillory before the old Royal Exchange, the citizens gathered
round him, and the women bombarded him with flowers, while the men drank
his health. He revenged himself by writing A Hymn to the Pillory," which
declared that his appearance in it was a scandal. While he was still in prison,
the High Tories lost their places, and Harley and the more moderate men of
the party came into power. Harley released Defoe upon conditions. Defoe
was set at liberty upon the understanding that he was to be henceforth
the bondsman of the Government. This was not his last discovery that
whatever may have been the taste for architecture and blue china in those
days, irony was not appreciated in the reign of the much bepraised Queen
Anne. He wrote another pamphlet ten years later in the interest of the Pro-
testant Succession, asking What if the Pretender should Come ?"and What


if the Queen should Die?" Another libel, and another imprisonment ; from
which again he had to pray the Government to release him.
Defoe's services to the Government were rendered in his capacity ofjournalist.
He founded the Review, and he wrote for many papers on both sides; but his
crime was that he professed to his friends to be of one opinion, to the public
to be independent, and to his leaders to be on their side; while all the time
he was secretly taking Government pay to write, in various papers, the precise'
contrary of the opinions which he was supposed to hold. He got on the staff
of one paper for the express purpose of turning his position to the advantage
of the Government, connived at the prosecution of its proprietor, and gene-
rlly betrayed those who paid him'for his work believing it to be honest-.
while all the time he was receiving State pay to act the traitor. It is not
without some satisfaction that one notes that he was at length discovered,
and that the man whom he had "gulled," having no remedy in law, inflicted
severe chastisement upon him.
As a journalist, Defoe may be said to have been the first descriptive
reporter, the anticipator of the Society journal, and the inventor of the leading
article. And while he was thus employed he was also engaged in constant
secret service for the Government. He was as astute as he was plausible
When the Government of France sought to bribe him, he pocketed the money
and told the Queen.
His last days should have been happy. His services to the Government-
and his journalism and his novels had brought him prosperity. He had a'
family, and his daughters had married well: his son had been in trouble, but
only for such a journalistic offence as the father had committed. Yet trouble'
came, we hardly know how. Defoe fled from his home; not even his son-in-
law could get to see him; and he died, solitary and in hiding, on April 26, 173 1,
at Ropemaker's Alley, Moorfields.
There is little doubt that the idea of Robinson Crusoe" was found in the
adventures of Alexander Selkirk, the Scotch sailor who, abandoned on the
island of Juan Fernandez in November, 1704, was not relieved until February,
1709. There is just as little doubt that, being accustomed to dress up" his
stories for his newspapers, and being past master of the art of mystification,
the author intended his book to be another attempt upon the credulity of the
people. They were unlikely to discover that there was not such an island at
the mouth of the Orinoco, or to measure the improbabilities of the tale. He
took extraordinary pains to give it reality. His carefully circumstantial
detail is 'probably sometimes used as much as a safeguard against his own


tripping as in the way of pure artifice; but its effect in heightening the merit
of the story is incalculable. Nevertheless he was found out, even before the
appearance of the Second Part. A slip here and there betrayed him; and he
had to justify himself to his friends, the Dissenters, who disapproved of
romances, in a very dull book-though as much fiction as the romance itself-
explaining that the story was an allegory.
Nobody cares for the allegory; but the story has become the chief of all
boys' books, and every Englishman loves it. For no fiction perused at a later
day can reproduce the exquisite feeling of fanciful fear caused by reading of
the footprint in the sand ; or bring again such admiration as is felt for Man
Friday; or give the delight inspired by Friday's encounter with the bear:
happy memories of days when not only were we, but all the world, was young.
S. R. B.




SWAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
S though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of
Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by mer-
chandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called,-nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
and mother knew what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who /was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the


law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands, of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that thereseemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He
told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road ; and these things were all either too far above me, or too far
below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the
best- state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to
the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other
people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable con-
sequence of being born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this, as the standard of felicity, when he
prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread ; that he would
do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life
which he had been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy
and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder
it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged
his duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to


whom he had used the same persuasions to keep him from going to the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease
to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this
foolish step God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
.assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
,observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off
the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could be
otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father's desire. But alas! a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities,
in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I
did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but
I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force
me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late
to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure if I did
I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea ; and if she would speak, to
my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so
much hand in my destruction ; and I should never have it to say that my
mother was willing when my father was not. Though my mother refused to
move it to my father, yet as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the


discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh-:
"That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, he will be the miserablest wretch that ever was born : I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after, this that I broke loose, though, in the
meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their being so
positively determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me
to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being there, and
one of my companions being about to sail to London in his father's ship, and
prompting, me to go with them with the common allurement of seafaring
men, viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
"father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as.they might, without asking God's blessing or my father's,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill
hour God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for Londofi.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of the
Humber, but the wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a most frightful.
manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body, and terrified in' mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon.
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty ;
all the good counsels of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me-
with the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All'this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never been.
upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after: but it was enough to affect
me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more; in this agony of mind, I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage,.


"if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived ; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station
'of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore ; and I resolved that I
would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave
"for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
enticed me away, comes to me.
"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do you do after
it ? I warrant you were frighted, weren't you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind ? "
"A capful d'you call it ?" said I ; "'twas a terrible storm."
A storm, you fool you," replies he; "do you call that a storm ? why, it
was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob : come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d'ye see
what charming weather 'tis now ?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors ;
the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it; and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears .and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the


serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I
shook them off, and roused myself from them, and applying myself to drink
and company, soon mastered the return of those fits-for so I called them
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was
to have another trial for it still.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the
wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary for seven or eight days.
We had not, however, ridden here so long, but we should have tided it up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea ; but the eighth day, in
the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our
top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that-the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that
we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the' faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times,
"Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone and the
like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which
was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself, against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that
this would be nothing like the first. But when the master himself came by
me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never
saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four
minutes; when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us;
two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead


of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing. The lightships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented, and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also,
and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but
a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken
at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every
now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect that I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent that I saw what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the
men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak ;
another said there was four feet of water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me,
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me and told me that I, that was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another: at which I stirred up and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged
to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so


surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody
had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run into a port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a lightship, who had ridden it out
just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length which they,
after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us,
after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship, so all agreed to
let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and
our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship before
we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what. was meant by
a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking, for from that moment they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my heart was
as it were dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar, to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near, but we made but slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the lighthouse at
Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind : here we got in, and, though
-not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great


humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
,quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone home, I had been happy, and my
father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me ; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason and my
more composed judgment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was im-
possible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
such visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master's son, was now less forward than I ; the first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were
separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how I
had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad; his
father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone:
"Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man."
Why, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more ?"
"That is another case," said he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty;
but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist; perhaps this has all
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," con-
tinued he, what are you ; and on what account did you go to sea ?"
Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion.


"What had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come-
into my ship! I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for
a thousand pounds."
This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet:
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority
to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to.
go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin ; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me:
"And, young man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,.
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no.
more; which way he went I know not. Having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, whether I should go.
home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and-
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,.
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,.
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not:
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the-
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,.
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune ;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even command of my father: I
say the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast ofi
Africa ; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.


"What had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come-
into my ship! I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for
a thousand pounds."
This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet:
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority
to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to.
go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin ; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me:
"And, young man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,.
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no.
more; which way he went I know not. Having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, whether I should go.
home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and-
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,.
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,.
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not:
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the-
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,.
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune ;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even command of my father: I
say the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast ofi
Africa ; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.


It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learned the duty and office
of a fore-mast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master: but as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and
so I neither had any business in the ship, or learned to do any.
I first fell acquainted with the master of the ship, who, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I
had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I
should be at no expense; I should be his mess-mate and his companion, and
if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that
the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict friendship with this captain,
who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about 40 in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 4o I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I cor-
responded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn ; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
3oo0; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,.
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 0oo of my-


-new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, which I had lodged with my
friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes ;
.and the first was this-our ship making 'her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised
-in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us
"with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry tq have got clear; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
-we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake,
just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had ,on
board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
"board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
,decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging.
We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part
*of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
.a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended, nor
-was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
-change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's prophetic dis-
course to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse ;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of the story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man-of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope


of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his
house ; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me ; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least prospect
of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the
old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head: my
patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as
I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go
out into the road a-fishing ; and, as he always took me and a young Maresco'
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dex-
terous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a.
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they called him, to
catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog
rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it ; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all
day, and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore; however, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty
fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of him-
self for the future ; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provisions ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who
also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle
of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer,
and hale home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails ; she sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail ;
and the boom jibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and, low,


and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
.fit to drink; particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dex-
"terous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he
had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees with powder and shot which were on board his ship; for that
"they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
-with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendents out, and everything to
accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out,
.and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and com-
manded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house;
.all which I prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and my
my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business,
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer ; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get
-something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread; he said that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusks or biscuit of their kind, and three jars of fresh water into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident
by the make were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master; I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat,
which weighed about half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of twine or thread,
a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, whom they called
Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him-" Moely," said I, our patron's guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be


-we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know
-he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."-" Yes," says he, I'll bring some ;"
'and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a pound and a
half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat ; at the same time, I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one
,of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty; pouring what was
in it into another: and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out
-of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we' hauled in our sail and set us down to fish; the wind blew
from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly,
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had fish on
my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, "This will not do ; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
farther off;" he, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat,
set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish, when, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his twist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would
go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind ; upon which
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none: But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach to the
shore, and the sea is calm ; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do
you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head,
for I am resolved to have my liberty:" so he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury,


if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's.
beard, I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me-
gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do) : for who would have supposed we were
sailed on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations
of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could not go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
more merciless savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered directly south-and-by-east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of
wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be
less than 150 miles south of Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's-
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful appre-
hensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded,
"also, that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, nor what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not
what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me
not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may
be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
"-" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them run
wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our


patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up; after all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it; we dropped our little anchor and lay still all night; I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yelling, that
I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and 'indeed so was I too; but we were both
more' frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. No," says I, Xury; we can slip our cable, with the
buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,
which something surprised me ; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and
howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within
the country, upon the noise or report of the gun ; a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that
there was no going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too ; for to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of
the lions and tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for
water, for we had not a pint left in the boat ; when and where to get to it was
the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he
would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why
he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, as made me love him ever after. Says he,
If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey."-" Well, Xury," said I, we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat
neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out
of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore;
carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.


I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that
he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off
from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast
till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited; the Negroes having abandoned it, and
gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other
furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was


forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, "look, yonder
lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall
go on shore and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him lie still, and took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets;
and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him into the
head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling
at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little
noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me
let him go on shore. Well, go," said I: so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot
him in the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes
on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury ?" said I.
" Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great


I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might be of some-
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I
went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at
last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun,
effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve-
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is
to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that
all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those Islands; and, in a
word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
"When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we-
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to,
me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a,
great way with good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them by-
signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat..
Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was; however we-
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us ;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and;
then came close to us again.


We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
-amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter;
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night, and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from
them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
,diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if
he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling
of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope, which
I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore,
and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
.admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
.came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of


wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could
have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,.
making as if I would give it them; but made signs for the skin, which they
gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,.
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made signs to
them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun;
this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars,.
and filled them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and
leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about a distance of four or five leagues before me, and
the'sea being very calm I kept a large offing to make this point; at length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on
the'other side to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed,.
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin and sat
down, Xury having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master,,
master, a ship with a sail! and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, but I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea for
Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to
the shore, upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone before I could make any signal to
them. But after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship that


* 10

A Signal of Distress.
L. : 1,

A Sina o istes


was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them,
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that
I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. For," says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or
other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," said he,
when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I
should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I
only take away that life I have given. No, no," says he, Seignor Inglese"
(Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and those things will
help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to
a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything that I
had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for his ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it ?
I told him he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not
offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me 8o pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also 6o pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain
have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted


me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that. he would
give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian.
Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember:
he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two of
my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax-for I had made candles of
the rest: in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo : and
with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it (that is, a
plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself; by' that means, with the manner of planting and making of suga-;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I
resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I. would turn planter among
them, resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money,
which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement;
such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two years. However, we began
to increase, and our land began to come into order ; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help; and now
I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my-boy Xury.


But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder; I
was gotten into an employment quite remote to my genius, directly contrary
*to the life I delighted in, for which I forsook my father's house; nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
.as well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done; I had no body to converse with but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he
Save me this friendly and sincere advice. "Seignor Inglese," says he (for so
he always called me), "if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if
it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take ; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procura-
tion to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures-
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the .order only, but a full account of my story to a merchant at
London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only
delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a
very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me. /
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and


he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had taken
care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not
accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being my own produce.
Neither was this all : for my goods being all English manufacture, such as,
cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than.four times the value of my first cargo, and was.
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also-I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
Having lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language,.
but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as.
well as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and in my
discourses among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles, such as.
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold
dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the
Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but
especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes, which was a
trade at that time, not far entered into.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a.
secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that:


as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the
Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but to go on as I had begun for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too ; for me to think of such a
voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will, one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped
to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up
my plantation; had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and
not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its hazards.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather
than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo.
furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage,,
I went on board in an evil hour, the Ist of September, 1659, being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull.


Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast when
we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
"was the manner of their course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
.Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by
our last observation, in 7 degrees 22' northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive;
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of
the winds directed.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men die
of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little; the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about I10 north latitude, but that
he was 220 of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he
found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond
the river Amazon; towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River; and began to consult with me what. course he should take, for
the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the sea-coasts
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea,
to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make
our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship
and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in


order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our
voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of I2 deg. 18
min. a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in
danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early in:
the morning cried out, Land and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close-
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances : we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and every
man, acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this : that which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not
break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our-
stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there.
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every-
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the-
help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the ship's side; and getting
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's.


mercy and the wild sea,; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
-the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called den
wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly, that the
-sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have
*done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the
boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the
breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
-our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew
-not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expecta-
tion was if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the
land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing of this
-appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a
fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat
.as from one another, gave us not time to say, "0 God for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
"-from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost. dry, but half dead with the
water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that,
,seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and
endeavoureded to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible
to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with: my
.business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could:


and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible : my greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate
relief. I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and, finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against the
return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me, and then took
to my heels and ran, with what strength I had, further towards the shore.
But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again ; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-near been fatal to me; for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a
piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water ; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as
at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away;
and the next run I took, I got to the main land, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass; free
from danger and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life,


what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may-
say, out of the very grave.
"For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as
I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand
gestures and motions, which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my com-
rades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
" Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore!"
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was.
next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I
had a dreadful deliverance: for. I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs; in a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box; this was all my provisions ; and this threw me into
terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my
lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up into
a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die,
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great
joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a
short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably


as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand ; I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her ; but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about half a mile broad ;
so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany as I now was; this forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship ; here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water ;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was 'dry ;
for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to


as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand ; I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her ; but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about half a mile broad ;
so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany as I now was; this forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship ; here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water ;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was 'dry ;
for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to

the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of
to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this
extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship : I resolved
to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in
the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to work, and
with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains, but the hope of fur-
nishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight; my next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this, I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these I
filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn), which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to'my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found several cases of bottles -belonging to
our skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six
gallons of rack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm ; and I had the mortification to see
my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon the sand,
swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen and open-knee'd, I


swam on board in them and my stockings; however this set me on rum-
maging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted
for present use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon-as, first,
tools to work with on shore; and it was after long searching that I found out
the carpenter's chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got
it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms: there were two very
good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ; these I secured first,
with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of
them dry and good, the third had taken water ; those two I got to my raft,
with the arms ; and now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder ; and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements : st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide rising
and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew me towards
the land: and having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat--
and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and
a hammer, and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where
I had landed before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was, there appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft
as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream: but here I had like
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think, verily, would
have broke my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground
at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that
was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my
back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in; but holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner near
half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more


upon a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again,
and I thrust her off with the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up.
higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both sides,.
for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved
to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as.
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I
had liked to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again; all that I could do,.
was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like
an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,.
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her on
upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking-
my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on
the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,.
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was'to view the country, and seek a proper place for my-
habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or on an
island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts.
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep,
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a
ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to.
the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to-
the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed every way by the sea, no land to be seen except some rocks, which
lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason
to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none;.
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when I killed


them could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I
shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great
wood; I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the
wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a
,confused screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual note,
.but not one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the creature I killed, I
took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day; what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to
lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
,though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's
lodging; as for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I
had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
-to set all other things apart till I had got everything out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council-that is to say, in my thoughts-whether I
should take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go
.as before when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I
'went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
'drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having
"had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldly, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the
carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone; all these I secured, together with several things belonging
,to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-
,bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of


powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ;
but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes I could find, and a spare-
fore-top sail, hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I came back, I
found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon
one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,.
and then stood still; she sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full,
in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my
gun at her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned
at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not.
great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and
ate it, and looked, as if pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels (for they were too heavy,.
being large casks), I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail,.
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun, and I piled all
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the:
beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship,.
as to get them on shore.
"I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
I could: so every day at low water I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine-
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon


occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder: in a word, I brought away all the
sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as
mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still was that, last of all, after I had made
five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect
from the ship that was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found
a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this
safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables ; and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down
the sprit-sail yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away; but my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldly, and so
overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of
cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain
to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this,
I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now 13 days on shore, and had been 1 times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well
be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather
held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise:
however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could be found, yet
I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or dozen of good knives


and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some
.European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: O drug!" said I, aloud,
"Cwhat art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the. taking off
the ground: one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no manner of
use for thee-even remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it
away, and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making
another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and
the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from
the shore. It occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft
with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all;
accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the
roughness-of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about
me, very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when
I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen I was a little surprised,
but recovered myself with the satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no
time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that could be
useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had, had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages (if any should appear), or wild beasts, if any were in the island ;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make; whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both, of the manner and des-
cription of which, it may not be improper to give an account.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, because it was
upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I
resolved to find a more healthy and convenient spot of ground.


,I"L, ll l i
f..', /,I

,r I? "

Mone is no elk otesoiu


I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me : Ist, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from
the heat of the sun ; 3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or
beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might.not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish
.all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so
that nothing could come down upon me from the top; on the side of the rock
there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
,cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent : this plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and, at the end of it descended
irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every day,
till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries,
is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which
took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
-ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top ; the two rows
did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them
in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about
two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it; this cost me a great
,deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them
to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently, slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.


Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains,
that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails. And now I lay no
more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by
the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which
till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing
all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my-
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took:
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself-" 0 my powder! My very
heart sank within me when I thought, that, at one blast, all my powder might
be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as.
I thought, entirely depended : I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to-
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once ; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think
my powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided in not
less than a hundred parcels: as to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which in my
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among:


the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything
fit for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle,.
and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them ; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and
then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me ; from whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see-
objects that were above them ; so afterwards, I took this method,-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,.
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me
heartily ; for when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came-
and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid
down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself; these two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly,
and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, and also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this.
horrid island, when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the.
latitude 9 deg. 22 min. north of the line.


"After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts
that I should be losing my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and
ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great
-cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, I came on shore here on
the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square post I cut
*every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again
as the rest, and every first day of the month, as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives,
-charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I
might want them or no: also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to
me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three Popish prayer-
"books, and several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both
the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself,
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years ; I wanted nothing that he could
fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me. I only wanted to
have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show
that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was gone I
.could not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
-that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was one, as also a spade, pick-
.axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded my
habitation; the piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
.a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in


bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing-
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, made-
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need.
I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other employment, if that had
been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I
was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me, for I was likely to
have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them,.
and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the
good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case
from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the-
comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :-

I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive ; and not drowned,
island, void of all hope of recovery, as all my ship's company were.
I am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all
it were, from all the world, to be the ship's crew, to be spared from death;
miserable. andHe that miraculously saved mefromr
death, can deliver me from this condition.
I am divided from mankind- a ButI am not starved, andperishing on
solitary; one banished from human a barren place, affording no sustenance.
I have not clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if f
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.
I am without any defence, or means But I am cast on an island where I
to resist any violence of man or beast. see no wild beasts to hurt me.
I have no soul to speak to or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship
he. in near enough to the shore, that I have
got out as many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or enable me to
supply myself, even as long as I live.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship-I say, giving over these
things, I began to apply myself to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of
-a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of post and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about
two feet thick on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a year and
.a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain;
"which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me; but I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they
took up all my place, I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge
my cave and work farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was
pretty safe as to.beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock; and then, turning to the tight again, worked quite out, and made me a
*door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me
-not only egress and regress, as it were a back way to my tent and to my
.storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I could not write or
-eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table. So I went
-to work; and here I must needs observe, that by making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application,
and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have
made it, especially if I had had tools; however, I made abundance of things,
-even without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which perhaps were never made that way before, and that with infinite labour;
for example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
-set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
Hiad brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze.


It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree;
but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
board : but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as-well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship; but when I had wrought out some boards as above, I
made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and,
in a word, to separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them, I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns
and all things that would hang up: so that, had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ; and I had everything
so ready at my hands, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employment;
for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind; and my journal would have been full
of many dull things.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got
all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy
at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal ; of which I shall
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.
September 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal,
unfortunate island, which I called The Island of Despair ;" all the rest of
the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-


stances I was brought to; viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor-
place- to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me,
.either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree,.
for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October i.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island ;
"which, as it was some comfort, on one hand-for seeing her set upright, and
not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief-so, on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had
all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would
not have been all drowned, as they were ; and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to have
carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself,on these things ; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry,
I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This day
also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely spent in many
several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore
every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some
intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but, being-
in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind ; during-
which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than
before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at:
low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix:
my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the-
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper
place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double-
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my
new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.


The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see
for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid
followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November I.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to
live on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessively hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for
I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one
Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing; every creature
that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frighted with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at them, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and
finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, Ioth,
and part of the 12th (for the I Ith was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me
a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times.
Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled


the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I
resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, i6.-These three days I spent in making little square chests,
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of
powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and
remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make
room for my further convenience. Note, Three things I wanted exceedingly
for this work; viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and
make-me some tools; as for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel, or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it;- but what kind of one to make I knew not.
SNov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding
hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way,
made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
the boctom, it would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend 'to make wicker-ware, at least, none yet found out; and as to a
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had
no notion of, neither did I know how to go about it; besides I had no
possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the
labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and


the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less
than four days-I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun
-which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed, also, bringing home something
fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished, I went on, and working every day, as
my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
,and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously. Note,
During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and
'a cellar; as for my lodging I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the
wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry;
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long
poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with
flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December o1.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a
sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not
without reason too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
gravedigger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again, for I
had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. i I.-This day I went to work with it, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post;
this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about
"a week more I had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to part off the house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails
-on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I began
to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my
house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made me another
Dec. 24-Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught it and


led it home in a string; when I had it home, I bound and splintered up its
leg, which was broke. N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew tame,.
and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go away; this was.
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,.
that I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 3 i.-Great heats and no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my
things in order within doors.
January I.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay-towards the centre of the island, I found there were plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.--Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats ; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog,
and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, it is sufficient to observe that I was
no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April working,
finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-
four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another
place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the 'rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together ; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished-; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground ; for I made them much bigger than I need to
have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come
on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it
was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day when
the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of some-


thing or other to my advantage ; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons,
which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in
the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed
them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat. And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for
me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was: for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped; I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before;
but I could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I
spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or join the
staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also
,over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles ; so that as soon as
ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go
to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with which I made candles in
my African adventure; but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had
was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some
,oakum, I made me a lamp ; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the
.ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in the
bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in it but husks and dust;
.and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put
powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
:shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification under the
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this
stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some
;few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
-might be some plant I had not seen ; but I was perfectly astonished, when,
.after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts
qon this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;


indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained'
any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as.
we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events for the world;.
but after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper
for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me-
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused His.
grain to 'grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.
And this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along:
by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks..
of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was.
ashore there. I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all
over that part of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner,,
and under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any ; at last
it occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chicken's meat out in that
place; and then the wonder began to cease ; and I must confess, my religious.
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering:
that all this was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been.
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to me, that should order-
or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when,
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ; as
also, that I should throw it out in. that particular place, where, it being in the
shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately: whereas, if I had thrown it
anywhere else, at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,.
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, sufficient to
supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow-
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, for It
lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; for I
sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,.
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose -to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it.


irZn*~l~ L~;3P~'~;r~~AA

The Laderfiished


without baking, though I did that also after some time. But to return to my
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my wall done;
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This was a complete
enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:-As I
was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I
was terribly frighted with a most dreadful st'rprising thing indeed ; for, all on
a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set
up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner:' I was heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me; I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks
as would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to
have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood
about half a mile from me next the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise
as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into
violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at
sea ; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, and rousing me from
the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of
nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and
burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began


to take courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down
and disconsolate, not knowing what to do ; all this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought ; nothing but the common "Lord have mercy upon
me!" and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would
rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than
half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth; the shore was covered with the breach of
the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate; in two hours more it
was quite calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected;
when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being
the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over,
and I might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits
began to revive ; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be
beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid lest it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through my
new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have
flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still
no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed.
And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small sup of rum ; which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of
building a little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as
I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill ; and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the


two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how
to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet;
and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was almost equal
to it ; but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very
loth to remove. In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture
where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to
remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was
finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a
statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my
machine for turning my grindstone performing very well..
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now I
took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy.
May I.-In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide being low, I
saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
'cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
.and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck
of the ship, to look for more.


When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed; the fore-
castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and
the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and
cast on one side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,.
that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I could not come-
within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence
the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habita-
tion, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether
I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. However,
as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from
her would be of some use or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I
thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which layhighest; but the tide comingin, I was obliged to give over for that time.
SMay 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I
was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made to
float on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of her, and other
pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came home very much tired,.
and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work, but.
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it, but almost full of water and sand.


May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand; I wrenched open two,
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide ; I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of
the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could
not break them up ; I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it
was too heavy to remove.
May 10-14.-Went every day to the wreck ; and got a great many pieces-
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred-weight of iron.
IMay 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the-
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other ;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance,.
near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found it was a
piece of the lead, but two heavy for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first blowing:
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the I5th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron--
work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got,
at several times and in several pieces, near Ioo weight of the sheet-lead.
June I6.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle; this
was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect
of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs;
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever


I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
'in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the
rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which I knew was not usual in
that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my
sad condition-to be sick, and no help. Prayed to God for the first time
since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.
[-une 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and
hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it,
-and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
.again, but was light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
,knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, "Lord, look upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing else for two
or three hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far
in the night. When I awoke I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced
to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this
terrible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where
I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground.
He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look
towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible
for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I
.thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and


all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards.
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came-
to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so
terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I
understood was this: Seeing all these things have not brought thee to
repentance, now thou shalt die ;" at which words, I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able
to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. Nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good'
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. In the
relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed,,
when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day
befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being the hand of God,
or that it was a just punishment for my sin ; my rebellious behaviour against
my father-or my present sins, which were great-or so much as a punish-
ment for the general course of my wicked life. I only said to myself often,.
that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable. But now,
when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came
to place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of
a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever;
conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life. Now," said I aloud, my dear father's words are
come to pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or
hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in
a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ; but
I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn
under the consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would
have lifted me in the world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great for even nature itself to.
support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried
out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress."


This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my
"dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large
.square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed ;
and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a
quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a
piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper
the next day; at night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which
I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first
.bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, even as I could remember, in
my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that) ; so I
went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground looking out upon the
:sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here
some such thoughts as these occurred to me :-What is this earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much ? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
.all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal ? Whence are we ?
.Sure we are all made by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea,
.the air and sky; and who is that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God
that has made all. Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made all
these things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern
-them; for the power*that could make all things must certainly have power to
guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His
works, either without His knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here,
.and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
-appointment, He has appointed all this to befall me. Immediately it
-followed-Why has God done this to me ? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me
like a voice-" Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ? Look back
upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done ? Ask,
-why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not


,drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the ship was taken by
the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa;
or drowned HERE, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask,
What have I done?" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say-no, not to answer to myself, but rose
up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as
if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had
no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for
;t began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll
of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that
was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure
both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz.,
the tobacco; and, as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one
of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure or inclination to look into; I say, I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of the
tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or whether it was good for it or no:
but I tried several experiments with it, as if I resolved it should hit one way
or other: I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which,
indeed, at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and
:strong, and that I had not been much used to it; then I took some and
-steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when
I lay down ; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose
close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as
the virtue of it, and I held almost to suffocation. In the interval of this
operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too
much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,
-having opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were
these, Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me." The words were very apt to my case, and made some im-
pression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much
as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as
I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension
*of things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when they were
-promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?" so I


began to say, "Can God Himself deliver me from this place ?" And as it was.
not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon
my thoughts; but however the words made a very great impression upon
me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco.
had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep ; so I left my
lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went:
to bed; but, before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life-I
kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called
upon Him ifi the day of trouble He would deliver me. After my broken and
imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could scarcely
get it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I found presently it
flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no.
more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon
the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I
know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the-
week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by
crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than a day ; but in
my account it was lost, and I never knew which way. Be that, however, one
way or other, when I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my
spirits lively and cheerful. When I got up I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit
the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too far: I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat them;
so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day before,
viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ; only I did not take so much as before, nor
did Ichew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was
not so well the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should
have been ; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full
strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, I will deliver thee ;" and the


possibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it : but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred
to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received, and I was as it
were made to ask myself such questions as these; viz.: Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness-from the most distressed con-
dition that could be, and that was so frightful to me ? and what notice had I
taken of it ? Had I done my part ? God had delivered me, but I had not
glorified Him-that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance; and how could I expect greater deliverance? This touched
my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks
aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and, beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read a
while every morning and every night; not tying myself to the number of
chapters, but long as my thoughts should engage me; it was not long after I
set seriously to this work but I found my heart more deeply and sincerely
affected with the wickedness of my past life; the impression of my dream
revived; and the words, "All these things have not brought thee to repent-
ance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me repentance, when it happened, providentially, the very day that, reading
the Scripture, I came to these words : He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour,
to give repentance and to give remission." I threw down the book; and
with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince
and Saviour! give me repentance'!" This was the first time I could say, in
the true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed
with a sense of my condition and a true Scripture view of hope, founded on
the encouragement of the Word of God ; and from this time, I may say, I
began to have hope that God would hear me.
From the 4th of July to the 14th I was chiefly employed in walking about
with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was
gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The appli-
cation which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never
cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any one to practise, by
this experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for


some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be.
I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I
had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see
what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the '5th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of
the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good ; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it-at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as
it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as might be
supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great- and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,
which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might, perhaps, have
virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could
find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I con-
tented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of
any of the fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring it to no
conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was in the
Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field ; at least, very little that
might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the I6th, I went up the same way again; and, after going
something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
savannahs began to cease, and the country become more woody than before.
In this part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees ; the vines had spread,
indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them ; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,

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Fruit on the Island.
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Frui o tle Isat


:remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
fevers ; but I found an excellent use for these grapes; that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I
thought would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat when
no grapes could be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which,
by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In the
might I took my first contrivance, and got up in a tree, where I slept well;
and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.
At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed
to descend to the west ; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of
the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a
constant verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden.
I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a
,secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts) to
think that this was all my own ; that I was King and Lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance as completely as any Lord of a Manor in England. I
saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees; but
all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very whole-
.some; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
,enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well of
grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I
knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes
in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled home-
wards; resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this
journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave) ; but before
I got thither the grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruit and the weight
of the juice having broken them and bruised them, they were good for little
or nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.


The next day, being the i9th, I went back, having made me two smalf
bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, when coming to my-
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, to find
them all spread about, trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I
knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and
no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed,
and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took
another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun ;
and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand'
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure
the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the
security from storms on that side, the water, and the wood: and concluded
that I had fixed upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst
part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where now I was situ-
ated, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
"This thought ran long'in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some
time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer
view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least
possible that something might happen to my advantage, and, that the same
ill-fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any such thing should
ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of
the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not
only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any
means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent
much of my time there for the whole of the remaining part of the month of
July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I
built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong
fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood ; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together; always going over it with a ladder as before; so that I
fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this work
took me up to the beginning of August.


I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the
rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I
made me a tent like the other with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well,
yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind
me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung
up perfectly dried, and indeed excellent raisins of the sun ; so I began to take
them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my
winter food ; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner
had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but
it began to rain; and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained,
more or less, every day till the middle of October ; and sometimes so violently,
that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had
been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I
thought, had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my aston-
ishment, she came home about the end of August, with three kittens. This
was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wild -cat, as I
called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our
European cats ; yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one; from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats,
that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them
from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I
began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which
was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus :-I ate a bunch of raisins
for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything),
.and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I
was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself before,



I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest:
creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I
cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred
and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for
religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious.
humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments
upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and
not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going
down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to
bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath-
day; for, as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the
days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I had been
there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for
a Sabbath ; though I found at the end of my account I had lost a day or two.
inmy reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I
contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
remarkable events of my life.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but I
bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was.
one of the most discouraging experiments that I made.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I
had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and I believe:
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I
thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as.
I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my
grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper time for
it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of
what I sowed this time came to anything: for the dry months following, the
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and


then it grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not
grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister
piece of ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near
my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the
vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy months of March and April to
water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having
part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a
small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of
each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect
two seed times, and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which was of use to
me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to
settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up the country
to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just as I left them. The double hedge that I had made was not only
firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew
thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a
willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and
yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow : and I pruned them, and
led them up to grow as much alike as I could. It is scarce credible how beauti-
ful a figure they grew into in three years ; so that though the hedge made a
circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might
now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more
stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean
that of my first dwelling), which I did ; and placing the trees or stakes in a
double row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew
presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards
served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry
seasons, which were generally thus:
The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April-rainy, the
sun being then on or near the equinox. The half of April, the whole of May,
June, and July, and the half of August-dry, the sun being then to the north
of the Line. The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of



October-rainy, the sun being then come back. The half of October, the
whole of November, December, and January, and the half of February-dry, the
sun being then to the south of the Line. The rainy season sometimes held
longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences
of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as
much as possible during the wet months.
In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the time,
for I found great occasion for many things .which I had no way to furnish
myself with but by hard labour and constant application ; particularly I tried
many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the
purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in
standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see them
make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to
help, and a great observer of the manner in which they worked those things,
and sometimes lending a hand, I had by these means so full knowledge of
the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into
my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew,
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and
I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to
cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them;
these I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for
use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed
myself in making, as well as.I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did
not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and
as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong deep baskets to
place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity
of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I
bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessels
to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full


,of rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others which
were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so
much as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of
the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I desired it for, viz., to make
broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain would have
had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to make one; however,
I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting
my second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-working all the summer
*or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it could be
imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I' built my bower, and
where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being
a very clear day, I fairly described land, whether an island or continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at a very
great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I
knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded by all my observations,
must be near the Spanish dominions. After some thought, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see
some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the
savage coast between the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the
worst of savages ; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder
and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that
:side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine, the open or
savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did,
.after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a
stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years
before I could make him speak. However, at last, I taught him to call me


by my name very familiarly; but the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds.
hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all
the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several; but I had no need to be venturous; for I had no want of
food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-
market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company: and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause
for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food ; but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I
could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down all night; and then either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded
myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one
tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken
up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here, indeed, the shore was.
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but
three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some which I had not seen before, and many of them very good
meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called penguins. I
could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder
and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I
could better feed on ; and though there were many goats here, more than on
my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner
than when I was on the hills.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet
I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation
it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it
were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore
of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up,
a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go home again;
and the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east


from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again; of which in its.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily
keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first
dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for, being
come about two or three miles, I found myself descended into a very large
valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor
even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the
It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for-
three or four days while I was in the valley; and not being able to see the
sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find the-
sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way as I went: and then,.
by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and
my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it ; and I,
running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I
had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of
tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should be all
spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed.
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had
been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old.
hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed; this little wandering journey, with-
out a settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own
house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared to
that; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I
would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay
on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long
journey: during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair
of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to
be well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I
had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home,


or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for
indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went
and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and
threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog; and, as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary
of my landing on the island, having now been there two years, and no more
prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy this life I
now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked life I led
all the past part of my days; my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new, from what they were at my
first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a
sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the
eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my mind, this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands and weep like
-a child. Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
"immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or
vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having exhausted itself,
-would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts: I daily read the
Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state; and
began to conclude in my mind, that it was possible for me to be more happy
in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever have
been in any other state in the world; and with this thought I was going to
,give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was,
but something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the
words. How canst thou become such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, "to
pretend to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from ?"