Citation
The adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Unwin, Thomas Fisher, 1848-1935 ( Publisher )
B., S. R
Kauffmann, Paul Adolphe, 1849- ( Illustrator )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Unwin Brothers ( Printer )
Gresham Press ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London (26 Paternoster Square)
Publisher:
T. Fisher Unwin
Manufacturer:
Unwin Brothers, The Gresham Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Newly edited after the original editions.
Physical Description:
xv, 263 p., [20] leaves of col. plates : ill. ; 21 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1884 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
England -- Chilworth
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note:
Added col. t.p.
General Note:
Introd. signed: S.R.B.
General Note:
The illustrator may be Paul Adolphe Kauffmann. A New York ed. of this text (pt. I) has P. Kauffman as the illustrator (NUC pre-1956, 0118716 (v.136, p. 613)) and an Unwin, 1892 ed. cites the name as "Kauffman <sic>" (NUC pre-1956, 0118518 (v. 136, p. 605)). The pub. catalogue specimen b&w ill. (the same as an unsigned col. version in the text) is signed P. Kauffmann.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe abridged. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Publisher's catalogue of new and recent books for the 1883-4 season, dated 1883, (56 p.) at end. The catalogue includes many specimen ill.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with twenty illustrations by Kauffman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
|University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
028952916 ( ALEPH )
30762727 ( OCLC )
AJP3916 ( NOTIS )

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5.uwI i. IlldRB 26, PATERNOSTER SQUARE
f,.piu M 8THERS.COLO. R PR-INTER. SNDON E. C.









THE ADVENTURES OF



ROBINSON CRUSOE



BY
DANIEL DEFOE



ktewtaj jittt after tJI origqineal o(lition



WITH- TWENTY ILLUSTRATIONS BY KA UFFMAN













T. FISHER UNWIN
26, PATERNOSTER SQUARE
1884





























































































UNWIN BROTHERS, THE GRESHAM PRESS, CHILWORTH AND LONDON.































CONTENTS.





PART I.
PAGE
CRUSOE'S BIRTH AND PARENTAGE ... ... .. ... I

DESIRES TO GO TO SEA-HIS FATHER'S COUNSEL ... ... 2-4

RUNS AWAY TO SEA-FROM HULL TO YARMOUTH ROADS .. ... 4-9

TRAVELS TO LONDON ... *.. ... ... .. 10

SETS UP AS A GUINEA TRADER ... ... ... ... ... 10-12

SHIP CAPTURED BY TURKISH ROVER ... ... ... .. 12

IN SLAVERY AT SALLEE ... ... .. .*** ** 13

ESCAPES FROM SLAVERY ... *... *. *** *** 14, 15

WITH XURY OFF THE AFRICAN COAST ... ... ... ... I -22

PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE *... ... .. ... 23

TAKEN TO BRAZIL ... ... .. ** .** *** 24

BECOMES A PLANTER IN BRAZIL ... ... ... .** 25-6

SAILS FOR THE COAST OF GUINEA TO TRADE FOR NEGROES ...... 27-8

A STORM-THE SHIP IS STRANDED ON AN ISLAND ... ... 29

CRUSOE THE ONLY ONE SAVED ...... ...** ** 30-I

GETS UP INTO A TREE TO SLEEP FOR THE NIGHT ... ... 32










vi CONTENTS.
PAGE
THE DAY AFTER THE STORM ......... *** 33

G3ES ON BOARD THE STRANDED SHIP ... ... **. 33-4

MAKES A RAFT TO BRING THINGS FROM THE WRECK ... ... ** 34-5'

IHE VIEWS THE COUNTRY ... ... ..... .. 36

MAKES A SECOND RAFT TO BRING STORES ASHORE ...... .* 37-8

CRUSOE BRINGS AWAY EVERYTHING MOVABLE IN TWELVE TRIPS ... 39

DISCOVERS MONEY ON BOARD-ITS WORTHLESSNESS TO HIM ... ... 40

THE SITUATION HE SELECTED FOR HIS SETTLEMENT 0.. ... 41

MAKES HIS FORTRESS, AND ENCLOSES ALL HIS GOODS THEREIN ... 42

DISCOVERS GOATS UPON THE ISLAND ... ... ... **. 43

HIS METHOD OF RECKONING TIME ... ... ..... 44

SERIOUSLY CONSIDERS HIS CONDITION, AND IMPARTIALLY SETS IT DOWN
LIKE DEBTOR AND CREDITOR ... ... ... ... 45

CRUSOE'S JOURNAL FROM SEPT. 30, 1659, TO SEPT. 30, 166o ... ... 47-70

EXPERIMENTS WITH BARLEY AND RICE SEED-MAKES BASKETS TO HOLD
THE CORN ... ... ... ... .. ** 71-2

ON A JOURNEY HE DESCRIES LAND TO THE WEST OF THE ISLAND 73-75

THE RAINY SEASON-READS THE BIBLE ...... ... .. 76

HIS DAILY EMPLOYMENT .... ... ... 77-8

HARVESTING HIS BARLEY AND RICE PREPARES LAND FOR NEXT
CROP ... E*. ... ... ... ... ..* 79, 80

MAKES SOME EARTHEN VESSELS, AND DISCOVERS HOW TO BURN THEM 81-2

THE DIFFICULTIES IN THE WAY OF BREAD-MAKING ... ... ... 83

MEDITATES UPON HIS PROSPECTS OF ESCAPE, AND TRYS TO RIGHT

THE SHIP'S BOAT ... .. ... ... ...... 84-86

REACHES THE FOURTH YEAR OF HIS DWELLING UPON THE ISLAND 87

CRUSOE MAKES HIMSELF CLOTHES FROM SKINS ... ... ... 88-90

HIS VOYAGE ROUND THE ISLAND .. ... ... .. 91-94

CRUSOE AND HIS PARROT ... .. ... ... .. 95

THE ELEVENTH YEAR OF HIS RESIDENCE HE CATCHES SOME GOATS 96-93










CONITE N TS. vi
PAGE
THE "PRINCE AND LORD OF THE WHOLE ISLAND" ... ... 99, 100

HIS VARIOUS PLANTATIONS AND DWELLINGS ... .. o10

THE FOOTPRINT ON THE SAND, AND ITS EFFECTS ... ... 102-0 7

SIGNS OF CANNIBALISM ON THE ISLAND-DESIGNS AGAINST THE SAVAGES Io8-II2

DISCOVERS ANOTHER CAVE, WHICH HE MAKES INTO A MAGAZINE ... [I3-II5

HIS CONDITION THE TWENTY-THIRD YEAR OF HIS RESIDENCE ... I16

,SAVAGES ON THE ISLAND AGAIN ... ... ...... I17-8

ANOTHER STORM-A SHIP WRECKED ON THE "CONCEALED ROCKS" ... II9-122

*CRUSOE VISITS THE WRECK, AND BRINGS AWAY MANY THINGS ... 123-4

`IS SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE SAVAGES-SEES THEM AT THEIR FEAST 125-128

HE RESCUES A SAVAGE, WHOM HE CALLS FRIDAY ... ... 129-13K

MAKES CLOTHES FOR FRIDAY-FRIDAY'S SLEEPING QUARTERS ... 132-3

CIVILIZING AND CHRISTIANIZING MAN FRIDAY ... ... 134-140

FRIDAY'S LOVE AND FAITHFULNESS ... ... ..... 141-143

-MAKES A BOAT WITH WHICH TO LEAVE THE ISLAND .. ... 144-5

:SAVAGES AGAIN WHOM CRUSOE AND FRIDAY ATTACK, AND RESCUE A

SPANIARD AND FRIDAY'S FATHER ........ ... 146-152

CRUSOE'S NEW SUBJECTS-THE SPANIARD'S STORY ... ... 153-156

:SENDS THE SPANIARD TO INVITE HIS COUNTRYMEN TO LIVE ON THE ISLAND 157-159

ENGLISH VISITORS-THE MUTINEERS ...... ...... 160-165

TLANS TO RECOVER THE SHIP ... ...... ... 166-170

THE RUSE SUCCESSFUL, AND DELIVERANCE POSSIBLE ...... 171-176

"THE GOVERNOR OF THE ISLAND ........ 77

LEAVES THE ISLAND, AND REACHES ENGLAND, JUNE II, 1687 ... 178-9

RESOLVES TO GO TO LISBON TO INQUIRE AFTER HIS BRAZILIAN

PLANTATIONS ..*... ........***

1BY HELP OF THE OLD PORTUGUESE CAPTAIN HAS HIS PROPERTY RESTORED ,181-184

TRAVELS THROUGH SPAIN AND FRANCE TO ENGLAND-IN ENGLAND 185-195

.SETTLES DOWN AND MARRIES-HIS FAMILY ... ... ... 96










viii CONTENTS.



PART II.
PAGE
CRUSOE HAS STRONG INCLINATIONS TO TRAVEL AGAIN ..... 19-9

GOES ON A VOYAGE WITH HIS NEPHEW ...... ... 200-206

VISITS THE ISLAND AGAIN ......... ...* ... 207-209

THE SPANIARD'S HISTORY OF THE COLONY, INCLUDING THE BEHAVIOUR
OF THE ENGLISHMEN AND SPANIARDS, AND THEIR FIGHTS WITH THE
SAVAGES ... 210-240'

CRUSOE DINES WITH THE COLONISTS, AND GIVES THEM A CARGO OF GOODS 240-

MARRIAGE ON THE ISLAND ... ... ... ... ... 241

FINALLY LEAVES THE ISLAND AND SAILS FOR BRAZIL ... ... 242:

ENCOUNTER WITH SAVAGES IN CANOES, AND THE DEATH OF FRIDAY
-FRIDAY'S BURIAL ...... ... .... .. 243

FROM BRAZIL SAILS TO THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE ... ... 2441

ADVENTURES IN THE ISLAND OF MADAGASCAR ... ... ... 245

THE DEATH OF TOM JEFFERY, AND REVENGE BY THE SHIP'S CREW 246-248.

REACHES BENGAL-THE SAILORS IN HIS NEPHEW'S SHIP WILL NOT
SAIL WITH HIM AGAIN ... ... ... ... 249

BECOMES A TRADER TO CHINA, AND PART-OWNER OF A DUTCH SHIP ... 250-

VOYAGE TO THE EAST INDIES AND CHINA-THEY ARE SUSPECTED OF
BEING PIRATES ... ... ... ... ... ... 250-2-

PORTUGUESE PILOT ENGAGED TO TAKE THEM TO NANKIN; BUT FINALLY
PUT INTO QUINCHANG ... ... ... ... ... 253:

PART WITH THEIR SHIP, AND JOURNEY TO PEKIN ... ... 254-5

AN EXAMPLE OF A CHINESE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN ... ... 255-6-

CRUSOE'S TRAVELS IN CHINA AND TARTARY ...... .. 257-260

THE ADVENTURE WITH AN IDOL OF WOOD ... ... ... 259, 260.

TRAVELS IN SIBERIA AND RUSSIA, AND ARRIVAL IN LONDON IN 1705 261-263

AT SEVENTY-TWO YEARS OLD IS PREPARING FOR A LONGER JOURNEY... 26



























LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.





I.
A BOAT CAME OFF TO US ............... Frontisfiece

II.
THE PRINT OF A FOOT UPON THE SAND ... ... T//

III.
PAGE.
A SIGNAL OF DISTRESS ...... ... ... ... ... 23

IV.
MONEY IS NOT WEALTH TO THE SOLITARY ... ... ... 40

V.
THE LADDER FINISHED ... ... ... ...5 .. *.* 55

VI.
FRUIT ON THE ISLAND ........... ...... 66

VII.
AN ISLAND KILN ..... ... ..... 82

VIII.
FULL DRESS ... ... ... ... ... ... ... IOO









x LIST OF ILL USTRA TIONVS.

IX.
'AGE
AFRAID ...... ** ** 11

X.

A SAVAGE EXECUTIONER ..... ... *** 30

XI.

THE RESCUED SPANIARD ............ 149

XII.

DELIVERANCE ......** **** 75

XIII.

"THE POOR MAID ...... ... ... 206


XIV.
THEY LEFT NOT THE LEAST STICK STANDING 216


XV.
HE FELL UPON THE POOR SAVAGE TO KILL HIM ... ... ... ..224


XVI.
HOW MANY THEY KILLED OR WOUNDED THEY KNEW NOT ...... 236

XVII.
"TOM JEFFERY'S END ... ... ... ... ... 246

XVIII.
THE STATE HE RODE IN ....... ... ... ... *.. 255

XIX.
AN IDOL MADE OF WOOD .. ... ... ... ... ... 258

XX.

PREPARING FOR A LONGER JOURNEY ... ..... ... 263






















INTRODUCTION.



SANIEL DEFOE, the author of Robinson Crusoe," had a career
which is, perhaps, one of the most remarkable in English literary
history. The times in which he lived and worked were, indeed,
(" such as produced remarkable careers. He was born in 1661, in
the year after the Restoration. Milton was still alive, and men were still com-
paring closely the Monarchy with the Commonwealth. When the Plague of
London occurred, which he described so ingeniously, if not ingenuously, as an
eye-witness, he was four years old. He was sixteen when Titus Oates evoked
the Popish scare. He saw Charles II. succeeded by James II., and took part
at twenty-four in the rising of the Duke of Monmouth, which ended in the
battle of Sedgemoor and the execution of its leader. He hailed with joy
the Glorious Revolution." He took a personal part in arranging the Union
between England and Scotland, did his very best to inflame the minds of the
:people against the Pretender and the Jacobites, saw the Hanoverian line
come in, andid died a pensioner of George II.
He was the son of a Cripplegate butcher named James Foe, and in his
early years called himself by his patronymic; but wishing apparently to
dignify himself with Norman lineage, he assumed the lordly prefix with as
little compunction as Robinson Crusoe showed in pretending that he was a
governor in his castle, when he wished to catch the mutineers, whose coming
enabled him to escape from his island.
James Foe was a Nonconformist, and desiring for his son the office of
iDissenting Minister, gave him an education with the pulpit in view; but
When the time came for him to take the sacred office, Daniel refused a








xii INTRODUCTION.

position which he regarded as unsuitable to his temper. His education
had not been so academical as to satisfy the exquisite wits of the literary
Coffee House, and, throughout his life he was taunted with being illiterate;
but it had at least made him desire knowledge, and capable both of acquiring
and imparting it. When he turned from the pulpit to the counting-house,
he set up as a trader in hosiery; his business led him to an acquaintance
with people who had seen many lands, and almost certainly took him abroad
himself; he probably visited Spain, and there imbibed that admiration for
the Spanish character which induced him to make the Spaniards on the Island
high types of humanity; and very possibly the journey from Lisbon through
France to London is founded upon reminiscences of his wanderings. But
one thing is certain. While his business was going to ruin and he was pre-
paring bankruptcy for himself, he was acquiring languages, mastering
geography, and learning the course of the world's trade. He was never for
long together very prosperous. He would bask in the sunshine for a while,
and then we see him flying away from his creditors, and apparently undone for
ever. But in his worst hour he never despaired, and misfortune only showed
of what infinite resources he was master.
His experiences were meanwhile fitting him for the real business of his life.
For, successful as he was as a romancer, story-telling in the elaborate fashion of
modern fiction was taken up only when he was fifty-eight years of age. Defoe
was led to it through the paths of journalism. He was a born journalist.
His early interest in politics is shown by his complicity in the Monmouth
Rebellion; his peculiarly practical education had put facts at his command
not to the hand of the purely literary man ; and he began early in life-how
early we do not know--to write pamphlets upon current events. His first
great success was a poem in the satiric style of Dryden called, "The True
Born Englishman," which touched the burning question of the day. The
Jacobites' made it a charge against King William that he was a Dutchman,
and asked for an English ruler. In reply, Defoe, in the strongest language,
rated all his countrymen as descendants of a horrid crowd of rambling
thieves and drones, who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns, Picts,
Scots, painted Britons, Norwegian pirates, and red-haired Danes. These
are the heroes that despise the Dutch," he exclaimed; and all England
bought the lampoon upon itself, and laughed heartily over it. It hit the
popular taste, and, what was more, it pleased the sovereign. William called
the hosier to his closet; and the son of a butcher became the mouthpiece of
the King.









INTRODUCTION. xiii
Defoe had been an independent man until this moment. He had written
for love of the cause, inspired by conviction. And as, when he was at his
best, he might have given hints to Swift in style, so he might have sustained
the lofty patriotism of Milton himself, and have been eyes to the cleverest
statesmen of that period. But there is every evidence that his connection
with the Court became the means of corruption; and when he was at his
worst, he might have taught Talleyrand the method of plausible dissimulation,
and Pope the art of mystification. So long as William lived, Defoe's services
were redeemed from the suspicion of being mercenary by his sincerity, but
afterwards, having tasted the delights of Court favour, he became the lacquey
of successive Governments, and what, in William's service, had been a uniform,
was, in the service of his successors, a livery.
He did not sell himself for hire, however, until he had discovered the perils
of independence, and the chances of being misunderstood. When the contro-
versy was raging about the Act of Toleration, Occasional Conformity, and
other measures touching the rights and liberties of his brethren, the Dissenters,
he produced a pamphlet called "A Short Way with Dissenters," in which,
without stating his own opinion, he argued as a High Tory that the best
way to get rid of the Separatists was to banish all who went to a meeting-
house, and to hang the preacher. The High Tories were in power. Queen
Anne herself was incensed at its being represented as possible that she would
adopt this policy. Defoe was charged with libel ; and the court condemned
him to prison and the pillory. Until the Government put their construction
upon the pamphlet, the Dissenters, who in that day rather despised literary
artifice, looked askance upon the author and his work. But now the mob
made Defoe a hero. When, on three days at the end of July, 1703, he
appeared in the pillory before the old Royal Exchange, the citizens gathered
round him, and the women bombarded him with flowers, while the men drank
his health. He revenged himself by writing A Hymn to the Pillory," which
declared that his appearance in it was a scandal. While he was still in prison,
the High Tories lost their places, and Harley and the more moderate men of
the party came into power. Harley released Defoe upon conditions. Defoe
was set at liberty upon the understanding that he was to be henceforth
the bondsman of the Government. This was not his last discovery that
whatever may have been the taste for architecture and blue china in those
days, irony was not appreciated in the reign of the much bepraised Queen
Anne. He wrote another pamphlet ten years later in the interest of the Pro-
testant Succession, asking What if the Pretender should Come ?"and What








"xiv INTROD AUCTION

if the Queen should Die?" Another libel, and another imprisonment ; from
which again he had to pray the Government to release him.
Defoe's services to the Government were rendered in his capacity ofjournalist.
He founded the Review, and he wrote for many papers on both sides; but his
crime was that he professed to his friends to be of one opinion, to the public
to be independent, and to his leaders to be on their side; while all the time
he was secretly taking Government pay to write, in various papers, the precise'
contrary of the opinions which he was supposed to hold. He got on the staff
of one paper for the express purpose of turning his position to the advantage
of the Government, connived at the prosecution of its proprietor, and gene-
rlly betrayed those who paid him'for his work believing it to be honest-.
while all the time he was receiving State pay to act the traitor. It is not
without some satisfaction that one notes that he was at length discovered,
and that the man whom he had "gulled," having no remedy in law, inflicted
severe chastisement upon him.
As a journalist, Defoe may be said to have been the first descriptive
reporter, the anticipator of the Society journal, and the inventor of the leading
article. And while he was thus employed he was also engaged in constant
secret service for the Government. He was as astute as he was plausible
When the Government of France sought to bribe him, he pocketed the money
and told the Queen.
His last days should have been happy. His services to the Government-
and his journalism and his novels had brought him prosperity. He had a'
family, and his daughters had married well: his son had been in trouble, but
only for such a journalistic offence as the father had committed. Yet trouble'
came, we hardly know how. Defoe fled from his home; not even his son-in-
law could get to see him; and he died, solitary and in hiding, on April 26, 173 1,
at Ropemaker's Alley, Moorfields.
There is little doubt that the idea of Robinson Crusoe" was found in the
adventures of Alexander Selkirk, the Scotch sailor who, abandoned on the
island of Juan Fernandez in November, 1704, was not relieved until February,
1709. There is just as little doubt that, being accustomed to dress up" his
stories for his newspapers, and being past master of the art of mystification,
the author intended his book to be another attempt upon the credulity of the
people. They were unlikely to discover that there was not such an island at
the mouth of the Orinoco, or to measure the improbabilities of the tale. He
took extraordinary pains to give it reality. His carefully circumstantial
detail is 'probably sometimes used as much as a safeguard against his own









INTR OD AUCTION.

tripping as in the way of pure artifice; but its effect in heightening the merit
of the story is incalculable. Nevertheless he was found out, even before the
appearance of the Second Part. A slip here and there betrayed him; and he
had to justify himself to his friends, the Dissenters, who disapproved of
romances, in a very dull book-though as much fiction as the romance itself-
explaining that the story was an allegory.
Nobody cares for the allegory; but the story has become the chief of all
boys' books, and every Englishman loves it. For no fiction perused at a later
day can reproduce the exquisite feeling of fanciful fear caused by reading of
the footprint in the sand ; or bring again such admiration as is felt for Man
Friday; or give the delight inspired by Friday's encounter with the bear:
happy memories of days when not only were we, but all the world, was young.
S. R. B.

















THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE.





SWAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
S though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of
Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by mer-
chandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called,-nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
and mother knew what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who /was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the
2







2 ROBINSON CR USOE.

law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands, of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that thereseemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He
told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road ; and these things were all either too far above me, or too far
below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the
best- state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to
the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other
people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable con-
sequence of being born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this, as the standard of felicity, when he
prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread ; that he would
do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life
which he had been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy
and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder
it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged
his duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to








CRUSOE IS DE TERMINED TO GO TO SEA. 3

whom he had used the same persuasions to keep him from going to the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease
to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this
foolish step God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
.assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
,observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off
the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to
me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could be
otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father's desire. But alas! a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities,
in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I
did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but
I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force
me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late
to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure if I did
I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea ; and if she would speak, to
my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so
much hand in my destruction ; and I should never have it to say that my
mother was willing when my father was not. Though my mother refused to
move it to my father, yet as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the








4 ROBINSON CR USOE.

discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh-:
"That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, he will be the miserablest wretch that ever was born : I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after, this that I broke loose, though, in the
meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their being so
positively determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me
to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being there, and
one of my companions being about to sail to London in his father's ship, and
prompting, me to go with them with the common allurement of seafaring
men, viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
"father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as.they might, without asking God's blessing or my father's,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill
hour God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for Londofi.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of the
Humber, but the wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a most frightful.
manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body, and terrified in' mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon.
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty ;
all the good counsels of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me-
with the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All'this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never been.
upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after: but it was enough to affect
me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more; in this agony of mind, I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage,.








GETS IN BAD COMPANY. 5

"if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived ; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station
'of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore ; and I resolved that I
would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave
"for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
enticed me away, comes to me.
"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do you do after
it ? I warrant you were frighted, weren't you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind ? "
"A capful d'you call it ?" said I ; "'twas a terrible storm."
A storm, you fool you," replies he; "do you call that a storm ? why, it
was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob : come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d'ye see
what charming weather 'tis now ?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors ;
the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it; and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears .and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the







6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I
shook them off, and roused myself from them, and applying myself to drink
and company, soon mastered the return of those fits-for so I called them
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was
to have another trial for it still.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the
wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary for seven or eight days.
We had not, however, ridden here so long, but we should have tided it up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea ; but the eighth day, in
the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our
top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that-the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that
we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the' faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times,
"Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone and the
like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which
was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself, against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that
this would be nothing like the first. But when the master himself came by
me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never
saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four
minutes; when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us;
two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead








EFFECTS OF A TERRIBLE STORM. 7

of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing. The lightships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented, and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also,
and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but
a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken
at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every
now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect that I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent that I saw what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the
men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak ;
another said there was four feet of water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me,
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me and told me that I, that was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another: at which I stirred up and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged
to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so







8 ROBINSON CR USOE.

surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody
had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run into a port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a lightship, who had ridden it out
just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length which they,
after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us,
after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship, so all agreed to
let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and
our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship before
we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what. was meant by
a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking, for from that moment they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my heart was
as it were dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar, to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near, but we made but slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the lighthouse at
Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke off a little the violence of the wind : here we got in, and, though
-not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great








ADVISED NEVER TO GO TO SEA AGAIN. 9

humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
,quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone home, I had been happy, and my
father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me ; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not
drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason and my
more composed judgment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was im-
possible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
such visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master's son, was now less forward than I ; the first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were
separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how I
had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad; his
father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone:
"Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man."
Why, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more ?"
"That is another case," said he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty;
but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist; perhaps this has all
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," con-
tinued he, what are you ; and on what account did you go to sea ?"
Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion.








10 ROBINSON CR USOE.

"What had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come-
into my ship! I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for
a thousand pounds."
This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet:
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority
to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to.
go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin ; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me:
"And, young man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,.
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no.
more; which way he went I know not. Having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, whether I should go.
home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and-
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,.
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,.
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not:
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the-
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,.
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune ;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even command of my father: I
say the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast ofi
Africa ; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.








10 ROBINSON CR USOE.

"What had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come-
into my ship! I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for
a thousand pounds."
This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet:
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority
to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to.
go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin ; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me:
"And, young man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,.
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no.
more; which way he went I know not. Having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, whether I should go.
home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and-
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,.
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,.
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not:
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the-
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,.
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune ;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even command of my father: I
say the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast ofi
Africa ; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.








"I WAS NOW SET UP FOR A GUINEA TRADER." I

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learned the duty and office
of a fore-mast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master: but as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and
so I neither had any business in the ship, or learned to do any.
I first fell acquainted with the master of the ship, who, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I
had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I
should be at no expense; I should be his mess-mate and his companion, and
if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that
the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict friendship with this captain,
who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about 40 in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 4o I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I cor-
responded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn ; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
3oo0; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,.
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 0oo of my-








"t12 ROBINSON CR USOE.

-new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, which I had lodged with my
friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes ;
.and the first was this-our ship making 'her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised
-in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us
"with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry tq have got clear; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
-we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake,
just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had ,on
board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
"board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
,decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging.
We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part
*of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
.a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended, nor
-was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
-change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's prophetic dis-
course to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse ;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of the story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man-of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope









MEDITATES ESCAPE FROM SLA VERY. 13

of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his
house ; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me ; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least prospect
of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the
old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head: my
patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as
I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go
out into the road a-fishing ; and, as he always took me and a young Maresco'
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dex-
terous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a.
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they called him, to
catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog
rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it ; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all
day, and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore; however, we got well in again, though with a
great deal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty
fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of him-
self for the future ; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provisions ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who
also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle
of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer,
and hale home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails ; she sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail ;
and the boom jibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and, low,








S4 ROBINSON CR USOE.

and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
.fit to drink; particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dex-
"terous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he
had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees with powder and shot which were on board his ship; for that
"they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
-with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendents out, and everything to
accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out,
.and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and com-
manded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house;
.all which I prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and my
my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business,
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer ; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get
-something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread; he said that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusks or biscuit of their kind, and three jars of fresh water into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident
by the make were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master; I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat,
which weighed about half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of twine or thread,
a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, whom they called
Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him-" Moely," said I, our patron's guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be









ESCAPES, AND GETS RID OF THE MOOR. 15

-we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know
-he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."-" Yes," says he, I'll bring some ;"
'and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a pound and a
half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat ; at the same time, I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one
,of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty; pouring what was
in it into another: and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out
-of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we' hauled in our sail and set us down to fish; the wind blew
from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly,
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had fish on
my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, "This will not do ; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
farther off;" he, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat,
set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish, when, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his twist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would
go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind ; upon which
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none: But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach to the
shore, and the sea is calm ; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do
you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head,
for I am resolved to have my liberty:" so he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury,







16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man ; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's.
beard, I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me-
gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do) : for who would have supposed we were
sailed on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations
of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could not go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
more merciless savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered directly south-and-by-east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of
wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be
less than 150 miles south of Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's-
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful appre-
hensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded,
"also, that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, nor what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not
what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me
not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may
be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
"-" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make them run
wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our









XURY AND CR USOE -IMEET WITH DANGERS. 17

patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up; after all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it; we dropped our little anchor and lay still all night; I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yelling, that
I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and 'indeed so was I too; but we were both
more' frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. No," says I, Xury; we can slip our cable, with the
buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,
which something surprised me ; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and
howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within
the country, upon the noise or report of the gun ; a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that
there was no going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too ; for to have fallen into the
hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of
the lions and tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for
water, for we had not a pint left in the boat ; when and where to get to it was
the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he
would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why
he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, as made me love him ever after. Says he,
If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey."-" Well, Xury," said I, we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat
neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out
of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore;
carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
3








1x8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that
he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild.
mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off
from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast
till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited; the Negroes having abandoned it, and
gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other
furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was








FIND A LION ASLEEP, AND KILL IT. 9

forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, "look, yonder
lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall
go on shore and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him lie still, and took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets;
and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him into the
head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling
at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little
noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me
let him go on shore. Well, go," said I: so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot
him in the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes
on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury ?" said I.
" Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great
one.








20 ROB NSON CRUSOE.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might be of some-
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I
went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at
last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun,
effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve-
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is
to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that
all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those Islands; and, in a
word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish.
"When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we-
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to,
me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a,
great way with good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them by-
signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat..
Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was; however we-
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us ;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and;
then came close to us again.









MEET WITH KINDLY NEGROESS. 21

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
-amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter;
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night, and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from
them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
,diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if
he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling
of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope, which
I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore,
and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
.admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
.came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of








22 ROBINSON CR USOE.

wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could
have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,.
making as if I would give it them; but made signs for the skin, which they
gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,.
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made signs to
them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun;
this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars,.
and filled them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and
leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about a distance of four or five leagues before me, and
the'sea being very calm I kept a large offing to make this point; at length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on
the'other side to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed,.
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin and sat
down, Xury having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master,,
master, a ship with a sail! and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, but I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea for
Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to
the shore, upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone before I could make any signal to
them. But after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship that


































S....









* 10
























A Signal of Distress.
L. : 1,

A Sina o istes








PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 23

was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them,
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that
I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. For," says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or
other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," said he,
when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I
should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I
only take away that life I have given. No, no," says he, Seignor Inglese"
(Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and those things will
help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to
a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything that I
had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for his ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it ?
I told him he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not
offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me 8o pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also 6o pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain
have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted







24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that. he would
give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian.
Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember:
he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two of
my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax-for I had made candles of
the rest: in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo : and
with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it (that is, a
plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself; by' that means, with the manner of planting and making of suga-;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I
resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I. would turn planter among
them, resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money,
which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement;
such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two years. However, we began
to increase, and our land began to come into order ; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help; and now
I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my-boy Xury.








CRUSOE BECOMES A PLANTER IN BRAZIL. 25

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder; I
was gotten into an employment quite remote to my genius, directly contrary
*to the life I delighted in, for which I forsook my father's house; nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
.as well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done; I had no body to converse with but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he
Save me this friendly and sincere advice. "Seignor Inglese," says he (for so
he always called me), "if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if
it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take ; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procura-
tion to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures-
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the .order only, but a full account of my story to a merchant at
London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only
delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a
very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me. /
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and








26 ROBINSON CR USOE.

he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had taken
care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not
accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being my own produce.
Neither was this all : for my goods being all English manufacture, such as,
cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than.four times the value of my first cargo, and was.
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also-I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
Having lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language,.
but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as.
well as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and in my
discourses among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles, such as.
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold
dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the
Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but
especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes, which was a
trade at that time, not far entered into.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon
what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a.
secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that:








AGREES TO GO TO GUINEA FOR NEGROES. 27

as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the
Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but to go on as I had begun for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too ; for me to think of such a
voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will, one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped
to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up
my plantation; had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my
own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and
not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its hazards.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather
than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo.
furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage,,
I went on board in an evil hour, the Ist of September, 1659, being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull.








28 ROBINSON CR USOE.

Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast when
we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
"was the manner of their course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
.Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by
our last observation, in 7 degrees 22' northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive;
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of
the winds directed.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men die
of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little; the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about I10 north latitude, but that
he was 220 of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he
found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond
the river Amazon; towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River; and began to consult with me what. course he should take, for
the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the sea-coasts
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea,
to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make
our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship
and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in








THE SHIP STRIKES UPON THE SAND. 2 9

order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our
voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of I2 deg. 18
min. a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in
danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early in:
the morning cried out, Land and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close-
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances : we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and every
man, acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this : that which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not
break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our-
stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there.
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every-
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the-
help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the ship's side; and getting
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's.







.30 ROBINSON CR USOE.

mercy and the wild sea,; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
-the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called den
wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly, that the
-sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have
*done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the
boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the
breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
-our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew
-not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expecta-
tion was if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the
land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing of this
-appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a
fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat
.as from one another, gave us not time to say, "0 God for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
"-from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost. dry, but half dead with the
water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that,
,seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and
endeavoureded to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible
to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with: my
.business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could:








CRUSOE IS WASHED ASHORE. 31

and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible : my greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate
relief. I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and, finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against the
return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me, and then took
to my heels and ran, with what strength I had, further towards the shore.
But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again ; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-near been fatal to me; for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a
piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water ; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as
at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away;
and the next run I took, I got to the main land, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass; free
from danger and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life,








32 ROBINSON CR USOE.

what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may-
say, out of the very grave.
"For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as
I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand
gestures and motions, which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my com-
rades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
" Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore!"
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was.
next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I
had a dreadful deliverance: for. I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs; in a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box; this was all my provisions ; and this threw me into
terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my
lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up into
a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die,
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great
joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a
short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably








THE DA Y AFTER THE -STORM. 33

as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand ; I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her ; but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about half a mile broad ;
so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany as I now was; this forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship ; here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water ;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was 'dry ;
for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to
4








THE DA Y AFTER THE -STORM. 33

as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand ; I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her ; but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about half a mile broad ;
so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany as I now was; this forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship ; here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water ;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was 'dry ;
for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to
4








34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of
to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this
extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship : I resolved
to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in
the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to work, and
with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains, but the hope of fur-
nishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight; my next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this, I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these I
filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn), which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to'my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found several cases of bottles -belonging to
our skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six
gallons of rack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm ; and I had the mortification to see
my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon the sand,
swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen and open-knee'd, I








WITH A RAFT BRINGS THINGS FROM THE SHIP. 35

swam on board in them and my stockings; however this set me on rum-
maging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted
for present use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon-as, first,
tools to work with on shore; and it was after long searching that I found out
the carpenter's chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got
it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms: there were two very
good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ; these I secured first,
with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of
them dry and good, the third had taken water ; those two I got to my raft,
with the arms ; and now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder ; and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements : st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide rising
and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew me towards
the land: and having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat--
and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and
a hammer, and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where
I had landed before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was, there appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft
as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream: but here I had like
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think, verily, would
have broke my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground
at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that
was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my
back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in; but holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner near
half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more








*36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upon a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated again,
and I thrust her off with the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up.
higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both sides,.
for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved
to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, as.
that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I
had liked to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again; all that I could do,.
was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like
an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,.
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her on
upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking-
my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on
the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,.
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was'to view the country, and seek a proper place for my-
habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or on an
island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts.
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep,
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a
ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to.
the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to-
the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed every way by the sea, no land to be seen except some rocks, which
lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason
to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none;.
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when I killed







CRUSOE MAKES A SECOND RAF 37

them could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I
shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great
wood; I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the
wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a
,confused screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual note,
.but not one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the creature I killed, I
took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day; what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to
lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
,though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's
lodging; as for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I
had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
-to set all other things apart till I had got everything out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council-that is to say, in my thoughts-whether I
should take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go
.as before when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I
'went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
'drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having
"had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldly, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the
carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone; all these I secured, together with several things belonging
,to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-
,bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of








38 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ;
but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes I could find, and a spare-
fore-top sail, hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I came back, I
found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon
one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,.
and then stood still; she sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full,
in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my
gun at her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned
at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not.
great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and
ate it, and looked, as if pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels (for they were too heavy,.
being large casks), I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail,.
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun, and I piled all
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the:
beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship,.
as to get them on shore.
"I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
I could: so every day at low water I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine-
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon







STRIPPING THE STRANDED SHIP. 39

occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder: in a word, I brought away all the
sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as
mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still was that, last of all, after I had made
five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect
from the ship that was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found
a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this
safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables ; and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down
the sprit-sail yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away; but my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldly, and so
overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of
cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain
to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this,
I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now 13 days on shore, and had been 1 times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well
be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather
held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise:
however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more could be found, yet
I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or dozen of good knives








40 OBINSON CR USOE.

and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some
.European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: O drug!" said I, aloud,
"Cwhat art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the. taking off
the ground: one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no manner of
use for thee-even remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it
away, and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making
another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and
the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from
the shore. It occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft
with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all;
accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the
roughness-of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about
me, very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when
I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen I was a little surprised,
but recovered myself with the satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no
time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that could be
useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had, had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages (if any should appear), or wild beasts, if any were in the island ;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make; whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both, of the manner and des-
cription of which, it may not be improper to give an account.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, because it was
upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I
resolved to find a more healthy and convenient spot of ground.





















,i




,I"L, ll l i
t.i;
f,
f..', /,I


,r I? "



Mone is no elk otesoiu







SELE CTS A D WELLING-PLA CE. 41

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me : Ist, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from
the heat of the sun ; 3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or
beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might.not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish
.all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so
that nothing could come down upon me from the top; on the side of the rock
there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
,cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent : this plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and, at the end of it descended
irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every day,
till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries,
is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which
took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
-ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top ; the two rows
did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them
in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about
two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it; this cost me a great
,deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them
to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently, slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.









42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains,
that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails. And now I lay no
more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by
the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which
till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing
all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my-
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took:
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself-" 0 my powder! My very
heart sank within me when I thought, that, at one blast, all my powder might
be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as.
I thought, entirely depended : I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to-
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once ; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think
my powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided in not
less than a hundred parcels: as to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which in my
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among:







DISCOVERS GOATS ON THE ISLAND. 43

the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything
fit for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle,.
and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them ; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and
then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me ; from whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see-
objects that were above them ; so afterwards, I took this method,-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,.
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me
heartily ; for when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came-
and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid
down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself; these two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly,
and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, and also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this.
horrid island, when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the.
latitude 9 deg. 22 min. north of the line.








44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

"After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts
that I should be losing my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and
ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great
-cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, I came on shore here on
the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square post I cut
*every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again
as the rest, and every first day of the month, as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping;
three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives,
-charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I
might want them or no: also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to
me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three Popish prayer-
"books, and several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both
the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself,
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years ; I wanted nothing that he could
fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me. I only wanted to
have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show
that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was gone I
.could not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
-that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was one, as also a spade, pick-
.axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded my
habitation; the piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
.a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in
11







IMPARTIAL Y CONSIDERS HIS CONDITION. 45

bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing-
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, made-
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need.
I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other employment, if that had
been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I
was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me, for I was likely to
have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them,.
and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the
good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case
from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the-
comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :-

EVIL. GOOD.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive ; and not drowned,
island, void of all hope of recovery, as all my ship's company were.
I am singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all
it were, from all the world, to be the ship's crew, to be spared from death;
miserable. andHe that miraculously saved mefromr
death, can deliver me from this condition.
I am divided from mankind- a ButI am not starved, andperishing on
solitary; one banished from human a barren place, affording no sustenance.
society.
I have not clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if f
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.
I am without any defence, or means But I am cast on an island where I
to resist any violence of man or beast. see no wild beasts to hurt me.
I have no soul to speak to or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship
he. in near enough to the shore, that I have
got out as many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or enable me to
supply myself, even as long as I live.







.46 ROBINSON CR USOE.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship-I say, giving over these
things, I began to apply myself to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of
-a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of post and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about
two feet thick on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a year and
.a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain;
"which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me; but I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they
took up all my place, I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge
my cave and work farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was
pretty safe as to.beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock; and then, turning to the tight again, worked quite out, and made me a
*door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me
-not only egress and regress, as it were a back way to my tent and to my
.storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I could not write or
-eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table. So I went
-to work; and here I must needs observe, that by making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application,
and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have
made it, especially if I had had tools; however, I made abundance of things,
-even without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which perhaps were never made that way before, and that with infinite labour;
for example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
-set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
Hiad brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze.







CRUSOE'S JOURNAL. 47

It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree;
but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
board : but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as-well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship; but when I had wrought out some boards as above, I
made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and,
in a word, to separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them, I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns
and all things that would hang up: so that, had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ; and I had everything
so ready at my hands, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employment;
for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind; and my journal would have been full
of many dull things.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got
all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy
at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal ; of which I shall
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.
THE JOURNAL.
September 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal,
unfortunate island, which I called The Island of Despair ;" all the rest of
the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-








48 ROBINSON CR USOE.

stances I was brought to; viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor-
place- to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me,
.either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree,.
for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October i.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island ;
"which, as it was some comfort, on one hand-for seeing her set upright, and
not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief-so, on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had
all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would
not have been all drowned, as they were ; and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to have
carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself,on these things ; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry,
I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This day
also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely spent in many
several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore
every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though with some
intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but, being-
in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind ; during-
which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than
before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at:
low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix:
my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the-
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper
place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double-
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my
new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.







CRUSOE TURNS MECHA NIC. 49

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see
for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid
followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November I.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to
live on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessively hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for
I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one
else.
Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing; every creature
that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frighted with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at them, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and
finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, Ioth,
and part of the 12th (for the I Ith was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me
a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times.
Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled
5








50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I
resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, i6.-These three days I spent in making little square chests,
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of
powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and
remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make
room for my further convenience. Note, Three things I wanted exceedingly
for this work; viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and
make-me some tools; as for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel, or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it;- but what kind of one to make I knew not.
SNov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding
hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way,
made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
the boctom, it would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend 'to make wicker-ware, at least, none yet found out; and as to a
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had
no notion of, neither did I know how to go about it; besides I had no
possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the
labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and








AT WORK IMPR MOVING HIS CAVE. jr

the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less
than four days-I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun
-which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed, also, bringing home something
fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished, I went on, and working every day, as
my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
,and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously. Note,
During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and
'a cellar; as for my lodging I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the
wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry;
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long
poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with
flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December o1.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a
sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not
without reason too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
gravedigger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again, for I
had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. i I.-This day I went to work with it, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post;
this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about
"a week more I had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to part off the house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails
-on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I began
to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my
house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made me another
table.
Dec. 24-Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught it and








52 ROBINSON CR USOE.

led it home in a string; when I had it home, I bound and splintered up its
leg, which was broke. N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew tame,.
and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go away; this was.
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,.
that I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 3 i.-Great heats and no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my
things in order within doors.
January I.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay-towards the centre of the island, I found there were plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.--Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats ; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog,
and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, it is sufficient to observe that I was
no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April working,
finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-
four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another
place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the 'rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together ; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished-; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground ; for I made them much bigger than I need to
have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come
on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it
was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day when
the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of some-








CRUSOE FINDS SOME CORN. 53

thing or other to my advantage ; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons,
which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in
the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed
them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat. And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for
me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was: for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped; I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before;
but I could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I
spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or join the
staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also
,over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles ; so that as soon as
ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go
to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with which I made candles in
my African adventure; but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had
was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some
,oakum, I made me a lamp ; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the
.ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in the
bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in it but husks and dust;
.and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put
powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
:shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification under the
rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this
stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some
;few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
-might be some plant I had not seen ; but I was perfectly astonished, when,
.after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts
qon this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;








54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained'
any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as.
we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events for the world;.
but after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper
for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me-
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused His.
grain to 'grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.
And this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along:
by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks..
of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was.
ashore there. I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all
over that part of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner,,
and under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any ; at last
it occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chicken's meat out in that
place; and then the wonder began to cease ; and I must confess, my religious.
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering:
that all this was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been.
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to me, that should order-
or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when,
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ; as
also, that I should throw it out in. that particular place, where, it being in the
shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately: whereas, if I had thrown it
anywhere else, at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,.
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, sufficient to
supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow-
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, for It
lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; for I
sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,.
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose -to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it.





























































Obb


irZn*~l~ L~;3P~'~;r~~AA


The Laderfiished







"IT WAS A TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKE." 55

without baking, though I did that also after some time. But to return to my
Journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my wall done;
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This was a complete
enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:-As I
was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I
was terribly frighted with a most dreadful st'rprising thing indeed ; for, all on
a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set
up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner:' I was heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me; I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks
as would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to
have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood
about half a mile from me next the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise
as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into
violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at
sea ; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, and rousing me from
the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of
nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and
burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began








56 ROBINSON CR USOE.

to take courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down
and disconsolate, not knowing what to do ; all this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought ; nothing but the common "Lord have mercy upon
me!" and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would
rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than
half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth; the shore was covered with the breach of
the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate; in two hours more it
was quite calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected;
when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being
the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over,
and I might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits
began to revive ; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be
beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid lest it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through my
new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have
flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still
no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed.
And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small sup of rum ; which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of
building a little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as
I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill ; and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the








RESOL VES TO REY O VE HIS HABITAT TION 57

two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how
to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet;
and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was almost equal
to it ; but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very
loth to remove. In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture
where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to
remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was
finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a
statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my
machine for turning my grindstone performing very well..
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now I
took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy.
May I.-In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide being low, I
saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
'cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
.and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck
of the ship, to look for more.







58 ROBINSON CR USOE.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed; the fore-
castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and
the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and
cast on one side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,.
that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I could not come-
within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence
the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habita-
tion, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether
I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. However,
as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from
her would be of some use or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I
thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which layhighest; but the tide comingin, I was obliged to give over for that time.
SMay 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I
was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made to
float on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of her, and other
pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came home very much tired,.
and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work, but.
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it, but almost full of water and sand.








AGAIN AT WORK ON THE WRECK. 59"

May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand; I wrenched open two,
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide ; I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of
the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could
not break them up ; I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it
was too heavy to remove.
May 10-14.-Went every day to the wreck ; and got a great many pieces-
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred-weight of iron.
IMay 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the-
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other ;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance,.
near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found it was a
piece of the lead, but two heavy for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first blowing:
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the I5th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron--
work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got,
at several times and in several pieces, near Ioo weight of the sheet-lead.
June I6.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle; this
was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect
of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards.
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs;
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever







60o ROBINSON CR USOE.

I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
'in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the
rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which I knew was not usual in
that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my
sad condition-to be sick, and no help. Prayed to God for the first time
since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.
[-une 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and
hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it,
-and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
.again, but was light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
,knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, "Lord, look upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing else for two
or three hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far
in the night. When I awoke I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced
to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this
terrible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where
I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground.
He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look
towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible
for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I
.thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and







CRUSOE'S TERRIBLE DREAM. 6 r

all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of
fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards.
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came-
to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so
terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I
understood was this: Seeing all these things have not brought thee to
repentance, now thou shalt die ;" at which words, I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able
to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. Nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good'
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. In the
relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed,,
when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day
befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being the hand of God,
or that it was a just punishment for my sin ; my rebellious behaviour against
my father-or my present sins, which were great-or so much as a punish-
ment for the general course of my wicked life. I only said to myself often,.
that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable. But now,
when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came
to place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of
a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever;
conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life. Now," said I aloud, my dear father's words are
come to pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or
hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in
a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ; but
I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn
under the consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would
have lifted me in the world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great for even nature itself to.
support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried
out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress."







-62 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many
years.
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my
"dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large
.square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed ;
and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a
quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a
piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper
the next day; at night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which
I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first
.bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, even as I could remember, in
my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that) ; so I
went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground looking out upon the
:sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here
some such thoughts as these occurred to me :-What is this earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much ? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
.all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal ? Whence are we ?
.Sure we are all made by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea,
.the air and sky; and who is that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God
that has made all. Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made all
these things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern
-them; for the power*that could make all things must certainly have power to
guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His
works, either without His knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here,
.and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
-appointment, He has appointed all this to befall me. Immediately it
-followed-Why has God done this to me ? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me
like a voice-" Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ? Look back
upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done ? Ask,
-why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not







FINDS A CURE FOR BODY AND SOUL. 63

,drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the ship was taken by
the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa;
or drowned HERE, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask,
What have I done?" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say-no, not to answer to myself, but rose
up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as
if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had
no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for
;t began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll
of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that
was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure
both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz.,
the tobacco; and, as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one
of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure or inclination to look into; I say, I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of the
tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or whether it was good for it or no:
but I tried several experiments with it, as if I resolved it should hit one way
or other: I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which,
indeed, at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and
:strong, and that I had not been much used to it; then I took some and
-steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when
I lay down ; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose
close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as
the virtue of it, and I held almost to suffocation. In the interval of this
operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too
much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,
-having opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were
these, Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me." The words were very apt to my case, and made some im-
pression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much
as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as
I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension
*of things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when they were
-promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?" so I








64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

began to say, "Can God Himself deliver me from this place ?" And as it was.
not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon
my thoughts; but however the words made a very great impression upon
me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco.
had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep ; so I left my
lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went:
to bed; but, before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life-I
kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called
upon Him ifi the day of trouble He would deliver me. After my broken and
imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could scarcely
get it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I found presently it
flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no.
more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon
the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I
know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the-
week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by
crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than a day ; but in
my account it was lost, and I never knew which way. Be that, however, one
way or other, when I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my
spirits lively and cheerful. When I got up I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit
the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too far: I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat them;
so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day before,
viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ; only I did not take so much as before, nor
did Ichew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was
not so well the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should
have been ; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full
strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, I will deliver thee ;" and the







HE PRA YS, AND READS HIS BIBLE. 65

possibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it : but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred
to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received, and I was as it
were made to ask myself such questions as these; viz.: Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness-from the most distressed con-
dition that could be, and that was so frightful to me ? and what notice had I
taken of it ? Had I done my part ? God had delivered me, but I had not
glorified Him-that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance; and how could I expect greater deliverance? This touched
my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks
aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and, beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read a
while every morning and every night; not tying myself to the number of
chapters, but long as my thoughts should engage me; it was not long after I
set seriously to this work but I found my heart more deeply and sincerely
affected with the wickedness of my past life; the impression of my dream
revived; and the words, "All these things have not brought thee to repent-
ance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me repentance, when it happened, providentially, the very day that, reading
the Scripture, I came to these words : He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour,
to give repentance and to give remission." I threw down the book; and
with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince
and Saviour! give me repentance'!" This was the first time I could say, in
the true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed
with a sense of my condition and a true Scripture view of hope, founded on
the encouragement of the Word of God ; and from this time, I may say, I
began to have hope that God would hear me.
From the 4th of July to the 14th I was chiefly employed in walking about
with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was
gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The appli-
cation which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never
cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any one to practise, by
this experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
6








66 ROBINSON CR USOE.

some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be.
I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I
had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see
what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the '5th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of
the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good ; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it-at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as
it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as might be
supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great- and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,
which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might, perhaps, have
virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could
find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I con-
tented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of
any of the fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring it to no
conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was in the
Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field ; at least, very little that
might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the I6th, I went up the same way again; and, after going
something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
savannahs began to cease, and the country become more woody than before.
In this part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees ; the vines had spread,
indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them ; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,


















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Fruit on the Island.
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Frui o tle Isat








CRUSOE EXPLORES THE ISLAND. 67

:remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
fevers ; but I found an excellent use for these grapes; that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I
thought would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat when
no grapes could be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which,
by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In the
might I took my first contrivance, and got up in a tree, where I slept well;
and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.
At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed
to descend to the west ; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of
the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a
constant verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden.
I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a
,secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts) to
think that this was all my own ; that I was King and Lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance as completely as any Lord of a Manor in England. I
saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees; but
all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very whole-
.some; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
,enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well of
grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I
knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes
in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled home-
wards; resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this
journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave) ; but before
I got thither the grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruit and the weight
of the juice having broken them and bruised them, they were good for little
or nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.








68 ROBINSON CR USOE.

The next day, being the i9th, I went back, having made me two smalf
bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, when coming to my-
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, to find
them all spread about, trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I
knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and
no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed,
and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took
another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun ;
and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand'
under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure
the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the
security from storms on that side, the water, and the wood: and concluded
that I had fixed upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst
part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where now I was situ-
ated, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
"This thought ran long'in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some
time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer
view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least
possible that something might happen to my advantage, and, that the same
ill-fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any such thing should
ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of
the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not
only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any
means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent
much of my time there for the whole of the remaining part of the month of
July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I
built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong
fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood ; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together; always going over it with a ladder as before; so that I
fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this work
took me up to the beginning of August.








THE RAINY SEASON. 69

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the
rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I
made me a tent like the other with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well,
yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind
me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung
up perfectly dried, and indeed excellent raisins of the sun ; so I began to take
them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my
winter food ; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner
had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but
it began to rain; and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained,
more or less, every day till the middle of October ; and sometimes so violently,
that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had
been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I
thought, had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my aston-
ishment, she came home about the end of August, with three kittens. This
was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wild -cat, as I
called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our
European cats ; yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one; from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats,
that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them
from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I
began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which
was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus :-I ate a bunch of raisins
for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything),
.and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I
was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself before,

*








70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest:
creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I
cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred
and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for
religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious.
humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments
upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and
not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going
down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to
bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath-
day; for, as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the
days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I had been
there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for
a Sabbath ; though I found at the end of my account I had lost a day or two.
inmy reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I
contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
remarkable events of my life.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but I
bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was.
one of the most discouraging experiments that I made.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I
had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and I believe:
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I
thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as.
I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my
grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper time for
it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of
what I sowed this time came to anything: for the dry months following, the
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and








EXPERIMENTS WITH BARLEY AND RICE SEED. 71

then it grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not
grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister
piece of ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near
my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the
vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy months of March and April to
water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having
part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a
small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of
each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect
two seed times, and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which was of use to
me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to
settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up the country
to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just as I left them. The double hedge that I had made was not only
firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew
thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a
willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not
tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and
yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow : and I pruned them, and
led them up to grow as much alike as I could. It is scarce credible how beauti-
ful a figure they grew into in three years ; so that though the hedge made a
circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might
now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more
stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean
that of my first dwelling), which I did ; and placing the trees or stakes in a
double row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew
presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards
served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry
seasons, which were generally thus:
The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April-rainy, the
sun being then on or near the equinox. The half of April, the whole of May,
June, and July, and the half of August-dry, the sun being then to the north
of the Line. The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of




6








72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

October-rainy, the sun being then come back. The half of October, the
whole of November, December, and January, and the half of February-dry, the
sun being then to the south of the Line. The rainy season sometimes held
longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences
of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as
much as possible during the wet months.
In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the time,
for I found great occasion for many things .which I had no way to furnish
myself with but by hard labour and constant application ; particularly I tried
many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the
purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in
standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see them
make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to
help, and a great observer of the manner in which they worked those things,
and sometimes lending a hand, I had by these means so full knowledge of
the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into
my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew,
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and
I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to
cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them;
these I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for
use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed
myself in making, as well as.I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did
not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and
as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong deep baskets to
place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity
of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I
bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessels
to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full








DISCOVERS LAND TO THE WEST OF THE ISLAND. 73

,of rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others which
were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so
much as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of
the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I desired it for, viz., to make
broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain would have
had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to make one; however,
I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting
my second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-working all the summer
*or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it could be
imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I' built my bower, and
where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being
a very clear day, I fairly described land, whether an island or continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at a very
great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I
knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded by all my observations,
must be near the Spanish dominions. After some thought, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see
some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the
savage coast between the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the
worst of savages ; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder
and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that
:side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine, the open or
savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did,
.after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a
stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years
before I could make him speak. However, at last, I taught him to call me








74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by my name very familiarly; but the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds.
hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all
the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several; but I had no need to be venturous; for I had no want of
food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-
market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company: and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause
for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food ; but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I
could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down all night; and then either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded
myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one
tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking
me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken
up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here, indeed, the shore was.
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but
three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some which I had not seen before, and many of them very good
meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called penguins. I
could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder
and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I
could better feed on ; and though there were many goats here, more than on
my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner
than when I was on the hills.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet
I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation
it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it
were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore
of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up,
a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go home again;
and the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east








CRUSOE UPON A O URNEY. 75,

from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again; of which in its.
place.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily
keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first
dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for, being
come about two or three miles, I found myself descended into a very large
valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor
even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the
day.
It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for-
three or four days while I was in the valley; and not being able to see the
sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find the-
sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way as I went: and then,.
by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and
my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it ; and I,
running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I
had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of
tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should be all
spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed.
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had
been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old.
hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed; this little wandering journey, with-
out a settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own
house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared to
that; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I
would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay
on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long
journey: during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair
of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to
be well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I
had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home,







76 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for
indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went
and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and
threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog; and, as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary
of my landing on the island, having now been there two years, and no more
prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy this life I
now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked life I led
all the past part of my days; my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new, from what they were at my
first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a
sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the
eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my mind, this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands and weep like
-a child. Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
"immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or
vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having exhausted itself,
-would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts: I daily read the
Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state; and
began to conclude in my mind, that it was possible for me to be more happy
in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever have
been in any other state in the world; and with this thought I was going to
,give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was,
but something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the
words. How canst thou become such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, "to
pretend to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from ?"





Full Text


ae



trations


INTRODUCTION. XIL

Defoe had been an independent man until this moment. He had written
for love of the cause, inspired by conviction. And as, when he was at his
best, he might have given hints to Swift in style, so he might have sustained
the lofty patriotism of Milton himself, and have been eyes to the cleverest
Statesmen of that period. But there is every evidence that his connection
with the Court became the means of corruption ; and when he was at his
worst, he might have taught Talleyrand the method of plausible dissimulation,
and Pope the art of mystification. So long as William lived, Defoe’s services
were redeemed from the suspicion of being mercenary by his sincerity, but
afterwards, having tasted the delights of Court favour, he became the lacquey
of successive Governments, and what, in William’s service, had been a uniform,
was, in the service of his successors, a livery.

He did not sell himself for hire, however, until he had discovered the perils
of independence, and the chances of being misunderstood. When the contro-
versy was raging about the Act of Toleration, Occasional Conformity, and
other measures touching the rights and liberties of his brethren, the Dissenters,
he produced a pamphlet called “A Short Way with Dissenters,” in which,
without stating his own opinion, he argued as a High Tory that the best
way to get rid of the Separatists was to banish all who went to a meeting-.
house, and to hang the preacher. The High Tories were in power. Queen
Anne herself was incensed at its being represented as possible that she would
adopt this policy. Defoe was charged with libel ; and the court condemned
him to prison and the pillory. Until the Government put their construction
upon the pamphlet, the Dissenters, who in that day rather despised literary
artifice, looked askance upon the author and his work. But now the mob
made Defoe a hero. When, on three days at the end of July, 1703, he
appeared in the pillory before the old Royal Exchange, the citizens gathered
round him, and the women bombarded him with flowers, while the men drank
his health. He revenged himself by writing “A Hymn to the Pillory,” which
declared that his appearance in it was a scandal. While he was still in prison,
the High Tories lost their places, and Harley and the more moderate men of
the party came into power. Harley released Defoe upon conditions. Defoe
was set at liberty upon the understanding that he was to be henceforth
the bondsman of the Government. This was not his last discovery that
whatever may have been the taste for architecture and blue china in those
days, irony was not appreciated in the reign of the much bepraised Queen
Anne. He wrote another pamphlet ten years later in the interest of the Pro-
testant Succession, asking “ What if the Pretender should Come ?” and “ What
168 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

_ which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they would rather have left the boat
at an anchor some distance from the shore, with some hands in her, to guard
_ her, and so we should not be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first
thing they did, they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to see they
were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as above, of all that was in
her, and a great hole in her bottom. After they had mused awhile upon this,
they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if
they could make their companions hear ; but all was to no purpose. Then they
came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their small arms, which, indeed,
we heard, and the echoes made the woods ring: but it was all one; those in
the cave, we were sure, could not hear; and those in our keeping, though they
heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They were so
astonished at the surprise of this, that as they told us afterwards, they resolved
to go all on board again to their ship, and let them know that the men were
all murdered, and the long-boat staved ; accordingly, they immediately launched
their boat again, and got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this, believing
they would go on board the ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades
over for lost, and so he should still lose the ship, which he was in hopes we
should have recovered; but he was quickly as much frighted the other
way. :

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we perceived them all
coming on shore again ; but with this new measure in their conduct, which it
seems they consulted together upon, v7z., to leave three men in the boat, and
the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows.

This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to
do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would be no advantage to us if
we let the boat escape, because they would row away to the ship, and then
the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering
the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to wait and see

what the issue of things might present: the seven men came on shore, and
_ the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good distance from the
shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that it was impossible for
us to come at them inthe boat. Those that came on shore kept close together,
marching: towards the top of the little hill under which my habitation lay;
and we could see them plainly, though they could not perceive us: we should
‘have been very glad if they would have come nearer to us, so that we might
have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off, that we might
LHE FOOTPRINT STILL A TERROR. 105

‘of good cheer, and He shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.”
It is impossible to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully
laid down the book, and was no more sad.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it came
into my thoughts one day, that all this might be a mere chimera of my own,
and that this foot might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore
from my boat: this cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself
it was alla delusion ; that it was nothing else but my own foot ; and why
might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going that way to
the boat ?

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again; for I had not
stirred out of my castle for three days and nights; so that I began to starve
for provision ; for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes
and water. Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which
usually was my evening diversion ; and the poor creatures were in great pain
and inconvenience for want of it ; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of them,
and almost dried up their milk. Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief
that this was nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and that I might
be truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and
went to my country house to milk my flock ; but to see with what fear I went
forward, how often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every now and then,
to lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would have made any one have
thought I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most
terribly frightened ; and so, indeed, I had.

However, I went down thus two or three days, and having seen nothing, I
began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in it but my
‘own imagination ; but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should
go down to the shore again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by
my own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be assured
it was my own foot : but when I came to the place, first, it appeared evidently
to me, that when I laid up my boat, I could not possibly be on shore any-
where thereabout. Secondly, when I came to measure the mark with my own
foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal ; both these things filled my
head with new imaginations, and gave me the vapours again to the highest
‘degree, so that I shook with cold like one in an ague ; and I went home again,
filled with the belief that some man or men had been on shore there; or, in
‘short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was
aware; and what course to take for my security I knew not.
16 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

if you will be faithful to me, I’ll make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s.
beard, “I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to-
me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their:
wits must have been supposed to do): for who would have supposed we were.
sailed on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations
of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
we could not go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
_ more merciless savages of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered: directly south-and-by-east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of
wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be
less than 150 miles south of Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s.
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful appre-
hensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded,
also, that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now give
over ; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what.
country, what nation, nor what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
people ; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this.
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country ; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not
_ what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me.
not to go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t ; but it may
be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.”

—‘“ Then we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them run
wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
18 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river ; but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it ; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that
he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild.
mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when the
_ tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off
from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
_ what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast
till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited ; the Negroes having abandoned it, and
gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other
furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries ; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was

x
THE BULLIES CAST OFF. 227

‘they desired some dried goat-skins for beds and covering, which were given
them ; and upon giving their words that they would not disturb the rest, or
injure any of their plantations, they gave them hatchets, and what other tools
‘they could spare; some peas, barley, and rice, for sowing; and, in a word,
anything they wanted, except arms and ammunition.

They lived in this separate condition about six months, and had got in their
harvest, though the quantity was but small, the parcel of land they had
planted being but little; for, indeed, having all their plantation to form, they
had a great deal of work upon their hands; and when they came to make
boards and pots, and such things, they were quite out of their element, and
‘could make nothing of it; and when the rainy season came on, for want of a
cave in the earth they could not keep their grain dry, and it was in great
‘danger of spoiling; and this humbled them much: so they came and
begged the Spaniards to help them, which they very readily did ; and in four
days worked a great hole in the side of the hill for them, big enough ‘to secure
their corn and other things from the rain: but it was a poor place at best
compared to mine, and especially as mine was then, for the Spaniards had
‘greatly enlarged it, and made several new apartments in it.

About three-quarters of a year after this separation, a new frolic took these
rogues, which, together with the former villainy they had committed, brought
mischief enough upon them, and had very near been the ruin of the whole
‘colony ; the three new associates began, it seems, to be weary of the laborious .
life they led, and that without hope of bettering their circumstances: and a
whim took them that they would make a voyage to the continent, from
whence the savages came, and would try if they could seize upon some
prisoners among the natives there, and bring them home, so as to make them
do the laborious part of the work for them.

The project was not so preposterous, if they had gone no further. But they
did nothing, and proposed nothing, but had either mischief in the design, or
mischief in the event.

The three fellows came down to the Spaniards one morning, and in very
humble terms desired to be admitted to speak with them. The Spaniards
very readily heard what they had to say, which was this:—that they were
tired of living in the manner they did, and that they were not handy enough
to make the necessaries they wanted; and that having no help, they found
they should be starved ; but if the Spaniards would give them leave to take
one of the canoes which they came over in, and give them arms and ammuni-
tion proportioned to their defence, they would go over to the main, and seek




26, PATERNOSTER SQUARE,

_Lonpon, E.C.,

NVov., 1883.

CATALOGUE

Mr. T. FISHER UNWIN’S
NEW BOOKS.

. Ls. a.
ARMINIUS VAMBERY; His Life and

Adventures. Written by himself. With Wood-
bury Portrait and 13 Illustrations. Demy 8vo.,
cloth extra... eee wee wee wee .. O16 O

This volume gives a very full and detailed account of a
remarkable life. Commencing from the earliest days of the
famous linguist and triveller, the reader is presented with a
consecutive narrative of his boyhood’s struggles, his self-educa-
tion, his Eastern travels as an Effendiand Dervish, his receptions
in the European capitals, and his interviews and conversations
with great Statesmen and Diplomatists, including a great
amount of information, Political and otherwise, now first pub-
lished.

GLADYS FANE; The Story of Two Lives.
By T.WEmyss REID, Author of “Charlotte Bronté,
a Monograph,” etc. 2 vols., Crown 8vo., cloth !

extra ove eee eee ese eee eee @en Oo I2 O

A story of modern real life, social and political, in England,
in Paris, and at Monte Carlo,








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these things, we cannot but believe that Miss Zimmern’s work
will meet with such acceptance as will justify her own expectations
when, in her preface, she expressed the hope that it had been
reserved for her to make more widely known some of the immor-
tal beauties contained in Firdusi's poem.’— British Quarterly
Review.

‘‘Miss Zimmern has been well advised in attempting to_para-
phrase this work. In one volume she presents her reader$ with
the essence and the gist of Firdusi’s Epic, carrying the story
down as far as the death of Rustem—that is, as far as the end of
the purely poetical portion of the poet’s work. She has selected
well, and written the stories in a vivid style. Firdusi’s stories may
have a chance of becoming really popular in England.’— Zhe
Limes.

‘Seems likely to effect something towards removing the
reproach of almost total ignorance in this country of the writings
of one of the most famous of Oriental poets.” —Dazly News.

‘‘Miss Zimmern has accomplished a great and laborious work,
for which all persons capable of taking pleasure in the tenderest
love, or in adventures which stir the soul like martial music, will
give her most hearty thanks. Not only with fine literary tact, but
with just poetic intuition, Miss Zimmern has retold these poems
of Firdusi. . . . In the ‘Shah Nameh,’ modern poets will discover
a very mine of poetic material, while the schoolboy can delight
in its thrilling wonders and thrilling adventures as he does in
‘ Robinson Crusoe,’ or in ‘ Gulliver's Travels.’ The version before
us 1s in allrespects an important addition to English literature.” —
Morning Post, Dec. 28, 1882.

‘‘Of Miss Zimmern’s fitness for writing stories of this kind there
need be no question. She has in other fields of literature shown
how well she could adapt the productions of foreign writers to
British tastes. In this case she had to compress enormously long
stories into moderate compass. She had to keep in mind that
the imagery of Persian poetry was not always likely to be either
acceptable to or understood by the British reader, and she had to
invest the stories with something of a modern interest. Not that
she proposed to change the incidents, or to modernise the cha-
racters who moved in the stories ; but she had to remember the
tastes of to-day, and to give to her re-told stories the acceptable
flavour. She has done this admirably.—Sco/sman.

Also an Edition deluxe, on Dutch Hand-made
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«* A limited number of these editions may still be had.








TAKEN FOR A PIRATE. 251

captain to put into the river of Cambodia. While we were here, and going
often on shore for refreshment, there comes to me one day an Englishman, a
gunner’s mate on board an English East-India ship, then riding in the same river-
“Sir,” says he, addressing me, “you are a stranger to me, and I to you; but
I have something to tell you that very nearly concerns you. I am moved by
the imminent danger you are in, and, for aught I see, you have no knowledge

of it.”—‘“I know no danger I am in,” said I, “but that my ship is leaky, and
I cannot find it out; but I intend to lay her aground to-morrow, to see
if I can find it.’—“ But, sir,’ says he, “leaky or not leaky, you will be wiser

than to lay your ship on shore to-morrow, when you hear what I have to say
to you. Do you know, sir,” said he, “the town of Cambodia lies about fifteen:
leagues up the river ; and there are two large English ships about five leagues.
on this side, and three Dutch ?”—* Well,” said I, “and what is that to me?”
I could not conceive what he meant ; and I turned short upon him, and said :
“T wish you would explain yourself.”—‘ I can tell you but part of the story,
sir,” says he ; “but the first part of it I suppose you know well enough—that
you were with this ship at Sumatra; that there your captain was murdered.
by the Malays, with three of his men; and that you, or some of those that
were on board with you, ran away with the ship, and are since turned pirates.
This is the sum of the story, and you will all be seized as pirates, I can assure
you, and executed with very little ceremony ; for you know merchant ships
show but little law to pirates if they get them into their power. If you have
any regard for your life, and the lives of your men, put to sea without fail
at high water.’—“ Well,” said I, “you have been very kind in this: what shall
I'doto make you amends ?”—“ Sir,” says he, “you may not be willing to
make me any amends, because you may not be convinced of the truth of it.
I will make an offer to you: I have nineteen months’ pay due to me on board
the ship, which I came out of England in; and the Dutchman that is with
me has seven months’ pay due to him. If you will make good our pay to us,
we will go along with you; if you find nothing more in it, we will desire no.
more; but if we do convince you that we have saved your lives, and the
ship, and the lives of all the men in her, we will leave the rest to you.”

I consented to this readily, and went immediately on board, and the two.
men with me. As soon as I came to the ship’s side, my partner who was on
board, came out on the quarter-deck, and called to me, with a great deal of
joy, “We have stopped the leak—we have stopped the leak!”—“Say you
so,” said I; “thank God! Ask no questions, and weigh anchor imme-
diately.” As we stood out to sea, before I could tell the story, a seaman
MY BRAZILIAN AFFAIRS. 18r

weing cast away and drowned, my trustees had given in the account of the
produce of my part of the plantation to the procurator-fiscal, who had appro-

‘priated it, in case I never came to claim it, one-third to the king, and two-

‘thirds to the monastery of St. Augustine, to be expended for the benefit of
‘the poor, and for the conversion of the Indians to the Catholic faith: but that,
‘if I appeared, or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it would be restored ;
‘only that the improvement, or annual production, being distributed to
-charitable uses, could not be restored : but he assured me that the steward of
‘the king’s revenue from lands, and the proveditore, or steward of the monastery,
had taken great care all along that the incumbent, that is to say, my partner,
‘gave every year a faithful account of the produce, of which they had duly
received my moiety. My partner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying
his part of it; and the king’s third of my part, which was, it seems, granted

‘away to some other monastery or religious house, amounted to above two

hundred moidores a year; as to my being restored to a quiet possession of it,

there was no question to be made of that, my partner being alive to witness

‘my title, and my name being also enrolled in the register of the country.

-Also he told me that the survivors of my two trustees were very fair, honest

‘people, and very wealthy; and he believed I would not only have their

-assistance for putting me in possession, but would find a very considerable

-sum of money in their hands for my account, being the produce of the farm

while their fathers held the trust, and before it was given up,as above; which

‘as he remembered, was for about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account, and inquired
‘of the old captain how it came to pass that the trustees should thus dispose
of my effects, when he knew that I had made my will, and had made him, the
Portuguese captain, my universal heir.

Fle told me that was true; but that as there was no proof of my being
‘dead, he could not act as executor, until some certain account should come of
my death ; and, besides, he was not willing to intermeddle with a thing so
‘remote; that it was true he had registered my will, and putin his claim; and
-could he have given any account of my being dead or alive, he would have
-acted by procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio (so they call the
“sugar-house), and have given his son, who was now at the Brazils, orders to
-do it. |

After a few days’ further conference with this ancient friend, he brought me
can account of the first six years’ income of my ‘plantation, signed by my
gartner and the merchant-trustees, being always delivered in goods, vz.,
174 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

would be faithful. However, that we might be very secure, I told him he
should go back again afd choose out five of them, and tell them, they might
see he did not want men, that he would take out five of them to be his
_ zassistants, and that the Governor would keep the other two and the three that
‘were, sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as hostages for the fidelity of
. those five; and that if they proved unfaithful in the execution, the five
-hostages should be hanged in chains alive upon the shore. This looked
-severe, and convinced them that the Governor was in earnest ; however, they
chad no way left them but to accept it; and it was now the business of the
prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their
> duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition : I, the captain, his
_ tnate, and passenger : 2, the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having
their character from the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted them
‘with arms: 3, the other two that I had kept till now in my apartment
pinioned, but, on the captain’s motion, had now released: 4, the single man
taken in the boat: 5, these five released at last; so that there were thirteen
jn all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on. board
“the ship ; but as for me and my man Friday I did not think it was proper for
‘us to stir, having seven men left behind ; and it was employment enough for.
us to keep them asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five in.
‘the cave, I resolved to keep them fast; but Friday went in twice a day to
‘them, to supply them with necessaries; and I made the other two carry
provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take them.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain, who
told them I was the person the Governor had ordered to look after them; and
‘that it was the Governor's pleasure they should not stir anywhere but by my
-direction ; that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid
in irons; so that as we never suffered them to see me as Governor, 1 now
appeared as another person, and spoke of the Governor, the garrison, the
-castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain had now no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two boats,
stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger captain of
-one, with four of the men; and himself, his mate, and five more, went in the
, other ; and they contrived their business very well, for they came up to the

ship about midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them he had brought off the men and the boat,
TAKEN FOR A PIRATE. 251

captain to put into the river of Cambodia. While we were here, and going
often on shore for refreshment, there comes to me one day an Englishman, a
gunner’s mate on board an English East-India ship, then riding in the same river-
“Sir,” says he, addressing me, “you are a stranger to me, and I to you; but
I have something to tell you that very nearly concerns you. I am moved by
the imminent danger you are in, and, for aught I see, you have no knowledge

of it.”—‘“I know no danger I am in,” said I, “but that my ship is leaky, and
I cannot find it out; but I intend to lay her aground to-morrow, to see
if I can find it.’—“ But, sir,’ says he, “leaky or not leaky, you will be wiser

than to lay your ship on shore to-morrow, when you hear what I have to say
to you. Do you know, sir,” said he, “the town of Cambodia lies about fifteen:
leagues up the river ; and there are two large English ships about five leagues.
on this side, and three Dutch ?”—* Well,” said I, “and what is that to me?”
I could not conceive what he meant ; and I turned short upon him, and said :
“T wish you would explain yourself.”—‘ I can tell you but part of the story,
sir,” says he ; “but the first part of it I suppose you know well enough—that
you were with this ship at Sumatra; that there your captain was murdered.
by the Malays, with three of his men; and that you, or some of those that
were on board with you, ran away with the ship, and are since turned pirates.
This is the sum of the story, and you will all be seized as pirates, I can assure
you, and executed with very little ceremony ; for you know merchant ships
show but little law to pirates if they get them into their power. If you have
any regard for your life, and the lives of your men, put to sea without fail
at high water.’—“ Well,” said I, “you have been very kind in this: what shall
I'doto make you amends ?”—“ Sir,” says he, “you may not be willing to
make me any amends, because you may not be convinced of the truth of it.
I will make an offer to you: I have nineteen months’ pay due to me on board
the ship, which I came out of England in; and the Dutchman that is with
me has seven months’ pay due to him. If you will make good our pay to us,
we will go along with you; if you find nothing more in it, we will desire no.
more; but if we do convince you that we have saved your lives, and the
ship, and the lives of all the men in her, we will leave the rest to you.”

I consented to this readily, and went immediately on board, and the two.
men with me. As soon as I came to the ship’s side, my partner who was on
board, came out on the quarter-deck, and called to me, with a great deal of
joy, “We have stopped the leak—we have stopped the leak!”—“Say you
so,” said I; “thank God! Ask no questions, and weigh anchor imme-
diately.” As we stood out to sea, before I could tell the story, a seaman


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LHE FOOTPRINT STILL A TERROR. 105

‘of good cheer, and He shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.”
It is impossible to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully
laid down the book, and was no more sad.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it came
into my thoughts one day, that all this might be a mere chimera of my own,
and that this foot might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore
from my boat: this cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself
it was alla delusion ; that it was nothing else but my own foot ; and why
might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going that way to
the boat ?

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again; for I had not
stirred out of my castle for three days and nights; so that I began to starve
for provision ; for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes
and water. Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which
usually was my evening diversion ; and the poor creatures were in great pain
and inconvenience for want of it ; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of them,
and almost dried up their milk. Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief
that this was nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and that I might
be truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and
went to my country house to milk my flock ; but to see with what fear I went
forward, how often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every now and then,
to lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would have made any one have
thought I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most
terribly frightened ; and so, indeed, I had.

However, I went down thus two or three days, and having seen nothing, I
began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in it but my
‘own imagination ; but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should
go down to the shore again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by
my own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be assured
it was my own foot : but when I came to the place, first, it appeared evidently
to me, that when I laid up my boat, I could not possibly be on shore any-
where thereabout. Secondly, when I came to measure the mark with my own
foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal ; both these things filled my
head with new imaginations, and gave me the vapours again to the highest
‘degree, so that I shook with cold like one in an ague ; and I went home again,
filled with the belief that some man or men had been on shore there; or, in
‘short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was
aware; and what course to take for my security I knew not.


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O

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7

26
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SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.

JAPP’S “INDUSTRIAL CURIOSITIES.”







68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two smalf
bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, when coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, to find
them all spread about, trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some-
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were:
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I
knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and.
no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed,
and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took
another course ; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun;.

-and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand.

under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure
the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the
security from storms on that side, the water, and the wood: and concluded
that I had fixed upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst

part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my

habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where now I was situ-
ated, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

“This thought ran long’in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some:
time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me ; but when I came to a nearer

_ view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least

possible that something might happen to my advantage, and, that the same:
ill-fate that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place ; and though it was scarce probable that any such thing should
ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of
the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not
only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any
means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent
much of my time there for the whole of the remaining part of the month of
July ; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I

built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong

fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood ; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together; always going over it with a ladder as before; so that I
fancied now I had my country hduse and my sea-coast house; and this work.
took me up to the beginning of August.
THREE BULLIES DISARMED. ary

When the three came back like furious creatures, flushed with the rage
which the work they had been about had put them into, they came up to the
Spaniards, and told them what they had done, by way of scoff and bravado ;
and one of them stepping up to one of the Spaniards, as if they had been a
‘couple of boys at play, takes hold of his hat as it was upon his head, and
giving it a twirl about, fleering in his face, says he to him, “ And you, Seignior
Jack Spaniard, shall have the same sauce, if you do not mend your manners.”
The Spaniard, who, though a quiet civil man, was as brave as a man could be
desired to be, and, withal, a strong, well-made man, looked steadily at him for
a good while, and then, having no weapon in his hand, stepped gravely up to
him, and, with one blow of the fist, knocked him down, as an ox is felled with
a pole-axe, at which one of the rogues, as insolent as the first, fired his pistol
at the Spaniard immediately: he missed his body, indeed, for the bullets
went through his hair, but one of them touched the tip of his ear, and he bled
pretty much. The blood made the Spaniard believe he was more hurt than
he really was, and that put him into some heat, for before he acted all ina
perfect calm; but now resolving to go through with his work, he stooped, and
taking the fellow’s musket whom he had knocked down, was just going to
shoot the man who fired at him, when the rest of the Spaniards, being in the
cave, came out, and calling to him not to shoot, they stepped in, secured the
other two, and took their arms from them.

When they were thus disarmed, and found that they had made all the
Spaniards their enemies, as well as their own countrymen, they began to —
cool; and, giving the Spaniards better words, would have had their arms
again; but the Spaniards, considering the feud that was between them and
the other two Englishmen, and. that it would be the best method they could
take to keep them from killing one another, told them they would do them
no harm ; and if they would live peaceably, they would be very willing to
assist and associate with them as they did before; but that they could not
think of giving them their arms again, while they appeared so resolved to do
mischief with them to their own countrymen, and had even threatened them
all to make them their servants.

The rogues were now no more capable to hear reason than to act reason ;
and being refused their arms, they went raving away and raging like madmen,
threatening what they would do, though they had no fire-arms; but the
Spaniards, despising their threatening, told them they should take care how
they offered any injury to their plantation or cattle ; for if they did, they
would shoot them as they would ravenous beasts, wherever they found them ;


A Signal of Distress.
232 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they could not think of shedding innocent blood; for as to them, the poor
creatures had done them no wrong, invaded none of their property, and they
thought they had no just quarrel against them, to take away their lives. So
they resolved to awaken them, and take them prisoners ; and they did so.
The poor fellows were strangely frighted when they were seized upon and
bound ; and afraid, like the women, that they should be murdered and eaten :
but they were soon made casy as to that, and away they were carried.

It was very happy for them that they did not carry them home to the
castle, I mean to my palace under the hill ; but they carried them first to the
bower, and afterwards to the habitation of the two Englishmen. Here they
were set to work, though it was not much they had for them to do; and
whether it was by negligence in guarding them, or that they thought the
fellows could not mend themselves, I know not, but one of them ran aways
and taking to the woods, they could never hear of him any more. They had
good reason to believe he got home again soon after in some other boats or
canoes of savages who came on shore three or four weeks afterwards ; this
thought terrified them exceedingly ; for they concluded, and that not without
good cause indeed, that if this fellow came home safe among his comrades,
he would certainly give them an account that there were people in the island,
and also how few and weak they were.

The first testimony they had that this fellow had given intelligence of them
was, that about two months after this, six canoes of savages, with about seven,
‘eight, or ten men in a canoe, came rowing along the north side of the island,
where they never used to come before, and landed, an hour after sunrise, at a
convenient place, about a mile from the habitation of the two Englishmen,
where this escaped man had been kept. The two men had the happiness to
discover them about a league off, so that it was above an hour before they
landed ; and as they landed a mile from their huts, it was some time before
they could come at them. Now, having great reason to believe that they
were betrayed, the first thing they did was to bind the two slaves which were
left, and cause two of the three men whom they brought with the women
(who, it seems, proved very faithful to them), to lead them, with their two
wives, and whatever they could carry away with them, to their retired places
in the woods, and there to bind the two fellows hand and foot.

When the two poor frighted men had secured their wives and goods, they
sent the other slave they had of the three, who came with the women, and
who was at their place by accident, away to the Spaniards with all speed, to
give them the alarm, and desire speedy help ; and, in the meantime, they took
42 - ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account:
above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains,
that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, one.
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it ; and covered the uppermost:
_ with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails. And now I lay no
‘ more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,,.
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship. |

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by-
the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which
till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing:
all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made mea cave, just behind my-
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought.
to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took:
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my-
_ scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud; a sudden flash of lightning happened, and.
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not:
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted:
into my. mind as swift as the lightning itsel{—“O my powder!” My very.
heart sank within me when I thought, that, at one blast, all my powder might:
be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as:
I thought, entirely depended: I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I.
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to-
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever-might come, it might not all take
fire at once ; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make-
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think.
my powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided in not.
less than a hundred parcels: as to the barrel that had been wet, I did not.
apprehend any danger from that ; so I placed it in my new cave, which in my:
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among:
74 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by my namé very familiarly ; but the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds.
' hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all
_ the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several; but I had no need to be venturous; for I had no want of
food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, vzz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-
market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company : and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause
for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food ; but had
_ rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I
could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down all night; and then either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded
myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one
tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking
me. :

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken
up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here, indeed, the shore was
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but
three in a yéar and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some which I had not seen before, and many of them very good
meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called penguins. I
could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder
and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I
could better feed on ; and though there were many goats here, more than on
my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner
- than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet
I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation
it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it
were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore
of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up
a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go home again;
and the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east
GETS IN BAD COMPANY, 5

if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived ; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station
‘of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore ; and I resolved that I
would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and indeed some time after ; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave
for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed ;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning ; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sca-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
enticed me away, comes to me.

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after
it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind ?”

“A capful d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.”

“A storm, you fool you,” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it
was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that ; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob: come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now ?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors ;
the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it; and in that one
night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
i made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the
ot ia we

x



The Rescued Spaniard.
THE SHIP STRIKES UPON THE SAND. 26

order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief ; but our
voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of 12 deg. 18
min. a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in.
danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early in.
the morning cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea,

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe
or conccive the consternation of men in such circumstances : we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the.
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and every
man, acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this: that which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not
break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
vetting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do:
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship’s rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however, there
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every’
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the
help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the ship’s side; and getting:
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s.
YNWIN BROTHERS, THE GRESHAM PRESS, CHILWORTH AND LONDON,


SPECIMENS OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.



Oat GRASS. CURRANT,

“EASY LESSONS IN BOTANY.”





. “POETICAL READER.”





pe a Ee at i a et ce

ee

54
viii CONTENTS.

PART II.

CRUSOE HAS STRONG INCLINATIONS TO TRAVEL AGAIN eee ove

GOES ON A VOYAGE WITH HIS NEPHEW

VISITS THE ISLAND AGAIN eve een eon eee ees

THE SPANIARD’S HISTORY OF THE COLONY, INCLUDING THE BEHAVIOUR
OF THE ENGLISHMEN AND SPANIARDS, AND THEIR FIGHTS WITH THE

SAVAGES eee eee eee ove ‘ee eee
CRUSOE DINES WITH THE COLONISTS, AND GIVES THEM A CARGO OF GOODS
MARRIAGE ON THE ISLAND eee eee eee eee eee
FINALLY LEAVES THE ISLAND AND SAILS FOR BRAZIL ... see

ENCOUNTER WITH SAVAGES IN CANOES, AND THE DEATH OF FRIDAY
—FRIDAY’S BURIAL ees ees ees ves eee

FROM BRAZIL SAILS TO THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE ese eee
ADVENTURES IN THE ISLAND OF MADAGASCAR eee eee eee
THE DEATH OF TOM JEFFERY, AND REVENGE BY THE SHIP’S CREW

REACHES BENGAL—THE SAILORS IN HIS NEPHEW’S SHIP WILL NOT

SAIL WITH HIM AGAIN eee eee
BECOMES A TRADER TO CHINA, AND PART-OWNER OF A DUTCH SHIP ...
VOYAGE TO THE EAST INDIES AND CHINA—THEY ARE SUSPECTED OF

BEING PIRATES ... eee eee eee eee eee
PORTUGUESE PILOT ENGAGED TO TAKE THEM TO NANKIN ; BUT FINALLY

PUT INTO QUINCHANG eee
PART WITH THEIR SHIP, AND JOURNEY TO PEKIN ves wes
AN EXAMPLE OF A CHINESE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN wee ees
CRUSOE’S TRAVELS IN CHINA AND TARTARY ... vee ees
THE ADVENTURE WITH AN IDOL OF WOOD vee ee vee
TRAVELS IN SIBERIA AND RUSSIA, AND ARRIVAL IN LONDON IN- 1705

AT SEVENTY-TWO YEARS OLD IS PREPARING FOR A LONGER JOURNEY...

PAGE

195-9
200-206

207-209

210-240
240
240.

242:

243
244
245
246-248.

249°

250
250-2:

253:
254-5:
255-6:

257-260.
259, 260.
261-263

263,
CRUSOE BECOMES A PLANTER IN BRAZIL. as

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder ; I
‘was gotten into an employment quite remote to my genius, directly contrary
‘to the life I delighted in, for which I forsook my father’s house ; nay, I was
‘coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
-as well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done ; I had no body to converse with but now and then this neighbour ;
no work to be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back ; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he
gave me this friendly and sincere advice. “Scignor Inglese,” says he (for so
he always called me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this couritry, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and, if
it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take ; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procura-
tion to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures—
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a merchant at
London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only
delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a
very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

Ihe merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and
TI4. | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home, and perform the
other services for which fire was wanting, without danger of smoke.

While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very
thick branch of low brushwood or underwood, there was a kind of hollow
place: I was curious to look into it; and getting with difficulty into the mouth
_of it, I found it was pretty large, that is to say, sufficient for me to stand
upright in it, and perhaps another with me; but I must confess to you that
I made more haste out than I did in, when looking farther into the place,
_which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature,
whether devil or man I knew not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim
light from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and making the reflection.

However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began to call myself a
thousand fools, and tell myself that he that was afraid to see the devil was
not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone; and that I durst to believe
there was nothing in this.cave that was more frightful than myself; upon
this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed again,
with the stick flaming in my hand: I had not gone three steps in, before I
was almost as much frighted as I was before ; for I heard a very loud sigh,
like that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of
words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was
indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat, and if I
had had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it that my hair might not
have lifted it off.- But still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and en-
couraging myself a little with considering that the power and presence of God
was everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped forward again, and by
the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I saw lying on
the ground a monstrous, frightful, old he-goat, just making his will, as we say,
and gasping for life, and dying, indeed, of mere old age. | |

I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up,
but was not able to raise himself; and I thought with myself he might even lie
there; for if he had frighted me,so he would certainly fright any of the savages, if
any of them should be so hardy as to come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me, when
I found the cave was but very small, that is to say, it might be about twelve
feet over, but in na manner of shape, neither round nor square, no hands
having ever been employed in making it but those of mere Nature. I
observed also that there was a place at the farther side of it that went in
further, but was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands and
MASSACRING NATIVES. 247

While this was doing, I must confess I was very uneasy, and especially
when I saw the flames, which, it being night, seemed to be close by me. My
nephew, the captain, who was roused by his men, seeing such a fire, was very
uneasy, not knowing what the matter was, or what danger I was in, especially
hearing the guns too, for by this time they began to use their fire-arms; at
last, though he could ill spare any more men, yet not knowing what exigence
we might be in, he took another boat, and with thirteen men and himself
came ashore to me.

He was surprised to see me and the supercargo in the boat with no more
than two men ; and though he was glad that we were well, yet he was in the
same impatience with us to know what was doing; for the noise continued
and the flame increased.

I was no more able to stay behind now, than I was to persuade them not
to go; so the captain ordered two men to row back the pinnace, and fetch
twelve men more ; and that, when they came back, six men should keep the
two boats, and six more come after us ; so that he left only sixteen men in
the ship.

Being guided by the fire, we kept no path, but went directly to the place of
the flame. If the noise of the guns was surprising to us before, the cries of
the poor people were now quite of another nature, and filled us with horror,
We advanced a little way further, and behold, to our astonishment, three
naked women, and crying in a most dreadful manner, came flying as if they
had wings, and after them sixteen or seventeen men, natives, in the same
terror and consternation, with three of our English butchers in the rear, who,
when they could not overtake them, fired in among them, and one who was
killed by their shot fell down in our sight. When the rest saw us, believing
us to be their enemies, and that we would murder them as well as those that
pursued them, they set up a most dreadful shriek, especially the women; and
two of them fell down, as if already dead, with the fright.

My very soul shrunk within me, and my blood ran chill in my veins, when
I saw this ; and, I believe, had the three English sailors that pursued them
come on, I had made our men kill them all ; however, we took some means to
let the poor flying creatures know that we would not hurt them ; and imme-
diately they came up to us, and kneeling down, with their hands lifted up,
made piteous lamentation to us to save them, which we let them know we
would ; whereupon they crept all together in a huddle close behind us, as for
protection.

I could not understand one word they said; but I was so terrified that I
“LT FINISHED MY FOURTH YEAR IN THIS PLACE.” 87

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal,
to bring the water up to the.canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down
to the water. Well, I began this work, and when I-began to enter into it,
and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be
thrown out, I found that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my
own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I should have gone through
with it; for the shore lay high; so that at the upper end it must have been
at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great reluctance, I gave
this attempt over also. .

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of be-
ginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our
own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept
my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever
before ; for, by a constant study and serious application to the Word of God,
and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what
I had before ; I entertained different notions of things.

The nature and experience of things dictated to me upon just reflection,
that all the good things of this world are no farther good to us, than they are
for our use; and that whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we
enjoy just as much as we can use, and no more. The most covetous griping
miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he
had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what to do.
with. I had no room for desire, except it was of things which I had not, and
they were but trifles, though indeed of great use to me. I hada parcel of
money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there
the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay ; I had no manner of business for it ; and I
often thought within myself, that I would have given a handful of it for a
gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would.
have given it all for sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England,
or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not
the least advantage by it, or benefit from it ; but there it lay in a drawer, and
grew mouldy with the damp of the cave, in the wet season ; and if I had had
the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same case; and they had been
of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

At the same time, I learned to look more upon the bright side of my con-
dition, and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather
than what I wanted; and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that
RESOLVES TO REMOVE HIS HABITATION. 57

two next days, being the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how
to remove my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet ;
and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was almost equal
to it ; but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very
loth to remove. In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture
where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to
remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was
finished ; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22-—The next morning J began to consider of means to put this
resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches,and dull; and though J had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a
statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my
machine for turning my grindstone performing very well..

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now I
took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide being low, I
saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
‘cask ; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder ; but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck
of the ship, to look for more.
100 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

skirts coming down to about the middle of my thighs, and a pair of open-:
kneed breeches of the same ; the breeches were made of the skin of an old
he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like pan-
taloons, it reached to the ‘middle of my legs; stockings and shoes I had none,
but had made me a pair of somethings, I scarce know what to call them, like:
buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side like spatter-dashes ; but
of a most barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with two.
thongs of the same, instead of buckles, and in a kind of a frog on either side:
of this. Instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one’
on one side, one on the other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened
in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under
my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too, in one of which
hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, on
my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat’s-skin
umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had about me
next to my gun; as for my face, the colour of it, was really not so mulatto-
like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within
nineteen degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till
it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both scissors and razors.
sufficient, I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which
I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen
worn by some Turks at Sallee, for the Moors did not wear such, though the-
Turks did ; of these moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long
enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape.
monstrous enough, and such as in England would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye ; for, as to my figure, I had so few to observe me,.
that it was no manner of consequence. In this kind of figure I went my new
journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled first along the sea-shore,.
directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor to get upon
the rocks ; and having no boat now to take care of, I went over the land a.
nearer way to the same height that I was upon before; when, looking
forward to the points of the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged to:
double with my boat, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet, no
rippling, no motion, no current, any more there than in any other places. I
was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to spend some time in
the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned it ;
but I was presently convinced how it was, v7z., that the tide of ebb setting.
490 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

get much laugh:” and as the nimble creature ran two feet for the bear’s one,
he turned on a sudden.on one side of us, and seeing a great oak tree fit for
his, purpose, he beckoned to us to follow; and doubling his pace, he got
nimbly up the tree, laying his gun down upon the ground, at ‘about five or
six yards from the bottom of the tree. The bear soon came to the tree, and
we followed at a distance. The first thing he he did, stopped at the gun,
smelled to it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the tree, climbing
like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I was amazed at the folly, as I:
thought it, of my man, and could not for my life see anything to laugh at
yet, till seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode near to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the small end of a
large branch, and the bear got about half way to him. As soon as the bear
got out to that part where the limb of the tree was weaker, “Ha!” says he
to us, “now you see me teachee the bear dance:” so he falls a jumping and
shaking the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he should get back; then, indeed, we
did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with him by a great deal;
when seeing him stand still, he called out to him again, as if he had supposed
the bear could speak English, “What, you come no further? pray you come
further ;” so he left jumping and shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if he
understood what he said, did come a little further; then he fell a jumping
again, and the bear stopped: again. We thought now was a good time to
knock him in the head, and called to Friday to stand ‘still, and we would
shoot the bear: but he cried out earnestly, “O pray! O pray! no shoot, me
shoot by and then;” he would have said by and by. However, to shorten
the story, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that we
had laughing enough, but still could not imagine what the fellow would do:
for first we thought he depended upon shaking the bear off; and we found
the bear was too cunning for. that too; for he would not go out far enough
to be thrown down, but clung fast with his great broad claws and feet, so
that we could not imagine what would be the end of it, and what the jest
would be at last. But Friday put us out of doubt quickly: for seeing the
bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be persuaded to come
any farther, “Well, well,” says Friday, “you no come further, me go, me go;
you no come to me, me come to you;” and upon this he goes out to the
smallest end of the bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently
lets himself down by it, sliding down the bough till he came near enough to
jump down on his feet, and away he ran to his gun, takes it up, and stands


New and Recent Books.

‘The publishers have done well in issuing these little readable
manuals for the guidance of the Londoner, who, pent up all the
week over his desk, or otherwise debarred from the sight of more
natural objects than city sparrows, seeks in the short space
granted him by the Saturday half-holiday movement, or on the
feast-days of St. Lubbock, that closer acquaintance with the
rural delights so necessary for his bodily and mental health. It
Is, Of conrse, impassible in the short space of some seventy or
eighty small pages to do more than indicate the chief attractions
of localities so pleasant by nature as those above named ; but
these are very fairly set forth, and being illustrated by sections of
a map on the scale of nearly one and a half miles to the inch,
will be found of decided utility to the pedestrian in search of
an object.”’-— The Field.

“Fulfil their purpose thoroughly as a tourist’s companions in
his rambles about districts within a short distance from London.”
— Bookseller.

‘““They combine the useful information of the hackneyed
local guide-book with something which is rarerand more difficult
to present —the fostering of a love of nature and the kindling of
some enthusiasm for the objects generally passed unheeded by
the run of holiday excursionists, because they have had no chance
of learning how to observe, nor have tasted the delights of
it. . . . The information is very closely packed, and justice is
done to the lovely scenery and scientific novelties of the neigh-
bourhood. The books are certainly cheap and well got up.”—
sVonconformist,

‘The best guides of the kind we have yet seen.”’-—Land and
Water.

‘‘ Will be found to add much interest to a Saturday afternoon
walk into the country.’’—Nature.

‘‘Should achieve a wide popularity.” —Court Circular.

‘All models of what a gossiping guide-book should be.’’?—
South London Press.

OUR NOBLE SELVES; or, Gleanings
about Grantham Surnames. By the Author of
‘* Notes on the Months,” “ Notes on Unnatural
History,” &c. ... wee eee wee vee wee

SISTER EDITHS PROBATION. By
I. CONDER GRAY, Author of “ Wise Words.
Small 8vo., cloth extra bee bee wee i

“The three tales of which this volume is composed are not
only well written, but cannet fail to strengthen those who read
them, especially the young, in pure and holy living.’’~-Lilerury
lVoréed.




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MARTIN’S “FERNS AND FERNERIES.”



590
CLVILISING A SAVAGE. 135

several days after; but would speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered
him, when he was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to
desire it not to kill him. Well; after his astonishment was a little over at
this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but
stayed some time; or the parrot, not being quite dead, had fluttered away a
good distance from the place where she fell : however, he found her, took her
up, and brought her to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance about the
gun before, I took this advantage to charge the gun again, and not to let him
see me do it, that I might be ready for any other mark that might present ;
but nothing more offered at that time ; so I brought home the kid, and the
same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I could ; and having
a pot for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some
very good broth ; and after I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, ©
who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well ; but that which was strangest
to him was to see me eat salt with it. He. made a sign to me that the salt
was not good to eat ; and putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to
nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh
water after it: on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth without
salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had
done at the salt; but it would not do; he would never care for salt with meat
or in his broth ; at least, not for a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast
him the next day by roasting a piece of the kid: this I did by hanging it
before the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting
two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across the top, and tying
the string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn continually. This Friday
admired very much; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many
ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but understand him:
and at last he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh any
more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day, I set him to work beating some corn out, and sifting it in
the manner I used to do, as I observed before; and he soon understood how
to do it as well as J, especially after he had seen what the meaning of it was,
and that it was to make bread of; for after that, I let him see me make my
bread, and bake it too; and in a little time, Friday was able to do all the work
for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed instead of one, I
must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn
168 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

_ which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they would rather have left the boat
at an anchor some distance from the shore, with some hands in her, to guard
_ her, and so we should not be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first
thing they did, they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to see they
were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as above, of all that was in
her, and a great hole in her bottom. After they had mused awhile upon this,
they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if
they could make their companions hear ; but all was to no purpose. Then they
came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their small arms, which, indeed,
we heard, and the echoes made the woods ring: but it was all one; those in
the cave, we were sure, could not hear; and those in our keeping, though they
heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They were so
astonished at the surprise of this, that as they told us afterwards, they resolved
to go all on board again to their ship, and let them know that the men were
all murdered, and the long-boat staved ; accordingly, they immediately launched
their boat again, and got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this, believing
they would go on board the ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades
over for lost, and so he should still lose the ship, which he was in hopes we
should have recovered; but he was quickly as much frighted the other
way. :

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we perceived them all
coming on shore again ; but with this new measure in their conduct, which it
seems they consulted together upon, v7z., to leave three men in the boat, and
the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows.

This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to
do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would be no advantage to us if
we let the boat escape, because they would row away to the ship, and then
the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering
the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to wait and see

what the issue of things might present: the seven men came on shore, and
_ the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good distance from the
shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that it was impossible for
us to come at them inthe boat. Those that came on shore kept close together,
marching: towards the top of the little hill under which my habitation lay;
and we could see them plainly, though they could not perceive us: we should
‘have been very glad if they would have come nearer to us, so that we might
have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off, that we might


SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS,

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NORDENSKIOLD.

PROF.

‘HEROIC ADVENTURE.”





20


How many they killed or wounded they knew not.


CIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS

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JAMES OGLETHORPE.

LIVES WORTH LIVING” SERIES.

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Jom Feffery’s end.
33

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3 6
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&40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

such as in England we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger,
I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon in some cases,
but much more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly England, which I
came from ; how we lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one
another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an
account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near
as I could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces before,
and gone. :

I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and
which I could not stir with my whole strength then; but was now fallen
almost all to ‘pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great
while, and said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon. At last
says he, “Me see such boat like come to place at my nation.” I did not
understand him for a good while; but, at last, when I had examined further
into it, | understood by him, that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore
upon the country where he lived : that is, as he explained it, was driven thither
by stress of weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and
drive ashore ; but was so dull. that I never once thought of men making their
‘escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they might come: so I only
inquired after a.description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me better to
understand him when he added with some warmth, “ We save the white mans

‘from drown.” Then I presently asked if there were any white mans, as he
called them, in the boat. “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I
asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him
then what became of them. He told me, “ They live, they dwell at my
nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined that these
might’be the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the sight of
my island, as I now called it ; and who after the ship was struck on the rock
and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were
landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired of him
more critically what was become of them. He assured me they lived still
there ; that they had been there about four years; that the savages left them
alone, and gave them vietuals to live on. I asked him how it came to pass
they did not kill them and eat them. He said, “ No, they make brother
160 : ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a
ship lyifg at anchor, at about two leagues and a half distance from me,
‘5.5.E., but not above a league and a half from the shore. By my obstrvation,
it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an ~
English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in; though the joy of seeing a ship,
and one that I had reason to believe was manned by my own countrymen,
and consequently friends, was such as I cannot describe ; but yet I had some ©
secret doubts hung about me—I cannot tell from whence they came—bidding
_ me keep upon my guard ; for that I had better continue as I was, than fall
into the hands of thieves and murderers.

-I_saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust
in at, for the convenience of landing ; however, as they did not come quite far
enough, they did not see the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but
ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from me; which
was very happy for me; for otherwise they would have landed just at my
door, as I may say, and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and
perhaps have plundered me of all I had. When they were on shore, I was
fully satisfied they were Englishmen, at least most of them; one or twg@I
thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so; there were in all eleven men,
whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and, as I thought, bound ; and
when. the first four or five of them were jumped on shore, they took those
three out of the boat, as prisoners. One of the three I could perceive using
the most passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind ‘
of extravagance ; the other two, I could perceive, lifted up their hands some+
times, and appeared concerned indeed, but not to such a degree as the first.
I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it
should be. Friday called out to me in English, as well as he could, “O
Master! you see English mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans,”—* Why,”
said I, “ Friday; I am afraid they will murder them, indeed ; but you may be |
sure they will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was, but stood
trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every moment when the
three prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up
‘his arm with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of
the poor men; and I expected to see him fall every moment ; at which all
the.blood in my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I wished heartily now
_ for the Spaniard, and the savage that was gone with him, or that I had any



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THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



3 WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,

Ex" though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of
>7 Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by mer-

at | chandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York ; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer ; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called,—nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards,
What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
and mother knew what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who:was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me for the
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* LUTHER’S TABLE TALK.
72 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

-October—rainy, the sun being then come back. The half of October, the
whole of November, December, and January, and the half of February—dry, the

sun being then to the south of the Line. The rainy season sometimes held
‘longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences
of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as
~much as possible during the wet months.
In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the time,
-for I found great occasion for many things which I had no way to furnish
myself with but by hard labour and constant application ; particularly I tried
‘many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the
‘purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in
standing at a basket-maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them
make their wicker-ware ; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to
help, and a great observer of the manner in which they worked those things,
and sometimes lending a hand, I had by these means so full knowledge of
the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into
my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew,
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and
I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
could desire ; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to
eut down a quantity. which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them ;
these I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for
use, I carried them to my cave ; and here, during the next season, I employed
myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though I did
not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose ; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them ; and
as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong deep baskets to
place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity
of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I
bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessels
to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full
xiv INTRODUCTION.

if the Queen should Die?” Another libel, and another imprisonment ; from
which again he had to pray the Government to release him. |

- Defoe’s services to the Government were rendered in his capacity of j ournalist.
He founded the Review, and he wrote for many papers on both sides ; but his
crime was that he professed to his friends to be of one opinion, to the public
to be independent, and to his leaders to be on their side; while all the time
he was ‘secretly taking Government pay to write, in various papers, the precise’
contrary of the opinions which he was supposed to hold. He got on the staff
of one paper for the express purpose of turning his position to the advantage
of the Government, connived at the prosecution of its proprietor, and gene-~
rally betrayed those who paid him’ for his work believing it to be honest—:
while all the time he was receiving State pay to act the traitor. It is not’
without some satisfaction that one notes that he was at length discovered,
and that the man whom he had “gulled,” having no remedy in law, inflicted
severe chastisement upon him.

As a journalist, Defoe may be said to have been-the first descriptive
_ reporter, the anticipator of the Society journal, and the inventor of the leading
article. And while he was thus employed he was also engaged in constant
secret service for the Government. He was as astute as he was plausible.
When ‘the Government of France sought to bribe him, he pocketed the money
and told the Queen.

His last days should have been happy. His services to the Government
and his journalism and his novels had brought him prosperity. He had a:
family, and his daughters had married well: his son had been in trouble, but
only for such a journalistic offence as the father had committed. Yet trouble
came, we hardly know how. Defoe fled from his home ; not even his son-in-
law could get to see him; and he died, solitary and i in hiding, on April 26, 1731,
at Ropemaker’s Alley, Moorfields.

There is little doubt that the idea of “ Robinson Crusoe” was found in the
adventures of Alexander Selkirk, the Scotch sailor who, abandoned on the
island of Juan Fernandez in November, 1704, was not relieved until February,
1709. There is just as little doubt that, being accustomed to “dress up” his
stories for his newspapers, and being past master of the art of mystification,
the author intended his book to be another attempt upon the credulity of the
people. They were unlikely to discover that there was not such an island at
the mouth of the Orinoco, or to measure the improbabilities of the tale. He
took extraordinary pains to give it reality. His carefully circumstantial
detail is probably sometimes used as much as a safeguard against his own
t.

92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be
able to make the island again: and, indeed, had I not got first up upon this
hill, I believe it would have been so ; for there was the same current on the
“other side the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there
was a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out of
ithe first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.
_’ [lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty fresh at
#.S.E., and that being just contrary to the said current, made a great breach
‘of the sea upon the point ; so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to
the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the sea
‘was calm, and I ventured: but I am a warning to all rash and ignorant
jpilots ; for no sooner was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat’s
dength from’ the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, anda
current like the sluice of a mill: it carried my boat along with it with such
violence that all I could do could not keep her so much as on the edge of it ;
‘ut I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on
my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do
with my paddles signified nothing: and now I began to give myself over for
dost; for as the current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few
_ deagues’ distance they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone;
_ nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it ; so that I had no prospect before
ame but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving
from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I
could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
‘water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all this to being
driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no shore, no main
dand or island, for a thousand leagues at least ? |
_ And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make even
the most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now I looked back upon
my desolate, solitary island, as the most pleasant place in the world, and all
the happiness my heart could wish for was to be but there again. I stretched
out my hands to it, with eager wishes: “O happy desert!” said I, “I shall
never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I going!” Then I
reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my
solitary condition ; and now what would I give to be on shore there again !
Thus, we never see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by
' dts contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it.
CRUSOE MAKES A SECOND RAF. 37

them could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I
shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great
wood; I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the
wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a
‘confused screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual note,
but not one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the creature I killed, I
took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common ; its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day ; what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to
lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s
lodging ; as for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I
thad seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot |
the fowl. .

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that
‘the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
‘to set all other things apart till I had got everything out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I
should take back the raft ; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go
as before when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I
went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
‘drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft ; and, having
thad experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldly, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the
carpenter’s stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing
«alled a grindstone ; all these I secured, together with several things belonging
to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-
bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of


INTRODUCTION. AV
tripping as in the way of pure artifice; but its effect in heightening the merit
of the story is incalculable. Nevertheless he was found out, even before the
appearance of the Second Part. A slip here and there betrayed him ; and he
had to justify himself to his friends, the Dissenters, who disapproved of
romances, in a very dull book—though as much fiction as the romance itself—
explaining that the story was an allegory.

Nobody cares for the allegory; but the story has become the chief of all
boys’ books, and every Englishman loves it. For no fiction perused at a later
day can reproduce the exquisite feeling of fanciful fear caused by reading of
the footprint in the sand ; or bring again such admiration as is felt for Man
Friday ; or give the delight inspired by Friday's encounter with the bear:
happy memories of days when not only were we, but all the world, was young.

S. R. B.
SETS OUT ON A VOYAGE ROUND THE ISLAND, or

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion and considera-
tion, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out of some of
the pieces of the ship’s sail which lay in store, and of which I had a great
stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found
she would sail very well ; then I made little lockers, or boxes, at either end of
my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, and ammunition, &c., into, to be kept
dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long, hollow place
I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to:
hang down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over
my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awning; and thus I
every now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but never went far out.
nor far from the little creek ; but, at last, being eager to view the circum-
ference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour, and accordingly I
victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I
should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice
(a food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder
and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which, as I
mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests ; these I took, one-
to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity,,.
that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected ;
for though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east:
side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the
sea, some above water, some under it ; and beyond, a shoal of sand, lying dry
half a league more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea to-
double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, and
come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea :
and, above all, doubting how I should get back again: so I came to an.
anchor ; for I had made a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken.
grappling which I got out of the ship. |

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a.
hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent of it,
and resolved to venture. )

In my viewing the sea from that hill, I perceived a strong and most furious
current, which ran to the east, and even came close to the point ; I took the:
more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger, that when IL
MY AMBASSADORS DEPARTURE. 159

should be put in writing, and signed with their hands: how we were to have
this done, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink, was a question which
we never asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage,
the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they might be
said to have come in, or rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners
to be devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a fire-
Jock on it, and about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be
very good husbands of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent
occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view of
my deliverance, for now 27 years and some days. I gave them provisions
of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and
sufficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and wishing therm
a good voyage, I saw them go. They went away, with a fair gale, on the day
that the moon was at full, by my account in the month of Octobei ; but as for
an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it
again; nor had I kept even the number of years so punctually as to be sure
I was right ; though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined my account,
1 found I had kept a true reckoning of years. © . |
_ It was no less than eight days I waited for them, when a strange and-
unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not, perhaps, been heard
of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man
Friday came running in to me, and called aloud, “ Master, Master, they are
‘come, they are'come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went, as
soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by the way,
was by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I say, regardless of danger,
{ went without my arms, which was not my custom to do: but I was surprised,
when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league
and a half distance, standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail,
as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in: also I
observed presently, that they did not come from that side which the shore lay -
ion, but from the southernmost end of the island. Upon this I called F riday |
in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the people we looked for, and
that we might not know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the
next place, I went in to fetch my perspective-glass, to see what I could make
of them; and, having taken the ladder out, I climbed up.to the top of the
hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my
view the plainer, without being discovered.
166 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the beach, so that they might not carry her off; and taking everything out of
. her, leave her so far useless as not to be fit to. swim; accordingly we went on
board, took the arms which were left on board out of her, and whatever else-
we found there, which was a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few
biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a gfeat lump of sugar in a piece of canvas:
(the sugar was five or six pounds); all which was very welcome to me,,.
especially the brandy and sugar, of which I had had none left for many years...

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast, sail, and.
rudder of the boat were carried before), we knocked a great hole in her bottom,
_ that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry-
off the boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could be able:
to recover the ship ; but my view was, that if they went away without the
boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to carry us to the Leeward’
Islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards in my way.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by main strength,
heaved the boat upon the beach, so high that the tide would not float her off”
at high-water mark; and besides, had broken a hole in her bottom toa big to.
_ be quickly stopped, and were sat down musing what we should do, we heard
the ship fire a-gun, and make a waft with her ancient, as a signal for the boat:
to come on board : but no boat stirred; and they fired several times, making~
other signals for the boat. At last, when all their signals and firing proved:
fruitless, and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my
glasses, hoist another boat out, and row towards the shore; and we found, as.
they approached, that there were no less than ten men in her, and that they
had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view of”
them as they came, and a plain sight even of their faces; because the tide-
having set them a little to the east of the other boat, they rode up under shore,
to come to the same place where the other had landed, and where the boat:
lay. By this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain knew
the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of whom, he said, there-
were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this conspiracy-
by the rest, being overpowered and frightened. But that as for the boat--
swain, who it seems was the chief officer among them, and all the rest, they~
were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew, and were no doubt made desperate:
in their new enterprise ; and terribly apprehensive he was that they would be:
too powerful for us. I smiled at him, and told him that men in our circum--
stances were past the operation of fear; that seeing almost every conditiom
186 | | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

much the pleasanter way: and to make it more so, my old captain brought
an English gentleman, the son of a merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to
travel with me; after which. we picked up two more English merchants also,
and two young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only ; so that in
all there were six of us, and five servants ; the two merchants and-the two-
Portuguese contenting themselves with one servant between two, to save the
charge ; and as for me, I got an English sailor to travel with me as a servant,
besides my man Friday, who was too much a stranger to be capable of sup-
plying the place of a servant on the road.

_ In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company being very well
mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof they did me the honour
to call me captain, as well because I was the oldest man, as because I had -
two servants, and, indeed, was the originator of the whole journey.

When we came to Madrid, we being all of us strangers to Spain, were
willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain, and what was worth
observing ; but, it being the latter part of the summer, we hastened away, and
set out from Madrid about the middle of October ; but when we came to the
edge of Navarre, we were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with the
account that so much snow was fallen on the French side of the mountains,
that several travellers were obliged to come back to Pampeluna, after having
attempted at an extreme hazard to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed ; and to me, that
had been always used to a hot climate, and to countries where I could scarce
bear any clothes on, the cold was insufferable: nor, indeed, was it more
painful than surprising, to come but ten days before out of Old Castile, where
the weather was not only warm, but very hot, and immediately to feel a wind
from the Pyrenean Mountains so very keen, so severely cold, as to be intoler-
able, and to endanger benumbing and perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frighted when he saw the mountains all covered
’ with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had never seen or felt before in
his life. To mend the matter, when we came to Pampeluna, it continued
snowing with so much violence and so long, that the people said winter was
come before its time; and the roads, which were difficult before, were now
quite impassable ; there was no going without being in danger of being buried
alive every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at Pampeluna; when
(seeing the winter coming on, and no likelihood of its being better, for it was
the severest winter all over Europe that had been known in the memory of
man), I proposed that we should go away to Fontarabia, and there take
246 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

destroyed. The fellow who was the occasion of all the mischief paid dear
enough for his brutality, for we could not hear what became of him for a great
while. We lay upon the shore two days after, though the wind presented,.
and made signals for him, and made our boat sail up shore and down shore
several leagues, but in vain. I could not satisfy myself, however, without.
venturing on shore once more, to try if I could learn anything of him or them..
I was careful to do it in the dark, lest we should be attacked again: but I
ought, indeed, to have been sure that the men I went with had been under
my command, before I engaged in a thing so hazardous and mischievous.

We took twenty as stout fellows with us as any in the ship, besides the
supercargo and myself, and we landed two hours before midnight, at the same:
place where the Indians stood drawn up in the evening before. We landed.
without any noise, and divided our men into two bodies, whereof the boatswain:
commanded one, and I the other. At first we could see nothing, it being very
dark. I was for going on board again; but the boatswain and his party sent:
me word that they were resolved to make a visit to the Indian town, where:
these dogs, as they called them, dwelt, and asked me to go along with them ;
and if they could find them, as they still fancied they should, they did not.
doubt of getting a good booty; and it might be they might find Tom Jeffery
there: that was the man’s name we had lost.

Had they sent to ask my leave to go, I knew well enough what answer to:
have given them ; but as they sent me word they were resolved to go, and.
only asked me and my company to go along with them, I positively refused
it. They would go; all left me but one, whom I persuaded to stay ; so.
the supercargo and I, with one man, went back to the boat, where I told them.
we would stay for them, and take care to take in as many of them as should
be left.

When they came to the few Indian houses which they thought had been.
the town, which was not above half a mile off, they were under great disap--
pointment, for there were not above twelve or thirteen houses. Just as they
had discovered these houses, three of them who were a little before the rest,.
called out aloud to them, and told them that they had found Tom Jeffery ::
they all ran up to the place, where they found the poor fellow hanging up.
naked by one arm, and his throat cut. The sight of their poor mangled
comrade so enraged them, that they swore to one another that they would be:
revenged, and that not an Indian that came into their hands should have any
quarter ; and to work they went immediately. Ina quarter of an hour they
set the houses on fire in four or five places.


Deliverance.
128 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

While’ I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective, two
miserable wretches-dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid by,
and were now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of them imme-
diately fall; being knocked down, I suppose with a club, or wooden sword,
for that was their way, and two or three others were at work immediately,
cutting him open for their cookery, while the other victim was left standing
by himself, till they should be ready for him. In that very moment, this poor
wretch seeing himself a little at liberty, nature inspired him with hopes of life,
and he sfarted away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the
sands, directly towards me, I mean, towards that part of the coast where my
habitation was. I was dreadfully frighted, I must acknowledge, when I
perceived him run my way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him
pursued by the whole body ; and now I expected that part of my dream was
coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my grove: but I
could not depend, by any means, upon my dream for the rest, that. the
other savages would not pursue him thither, and find him there. However, I
kept my station, and my spirits began to recover when I found that there was
not above three men that followed him, and still more was I encouraged,
when I found that he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained
ground on them, so that, if he could but hold out for half an hour, I saw
easily he would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned often
_ at the first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and
this I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be
taken there ; but when the savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of
it, though the tide was then up; but, plunging in, swam through in about
thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with exceeding strength and
swiftness ; when the three pursuers came to the creek, I found that two of
them could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing on the other
side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly
‘back ; which, as it happened, was very well for him in the end. I observed
that the two who swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over the
creek as the fellow was that fled from them. It came now very warmly upon
my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was the time to get me a
servant, and perhaps a companion or assistant; and that I was. plainly called
by Providence to save this poor creature’s life; I immediately ran down the
ladders with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for they were both
at the foot of the ladders, as I observed before, and getting up again with the
LIND A LION ASLEEP, AND KIITL TIT. 19

forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, yonder
lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you shall
go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kiil! he
eat me at one mouth;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him lie still, and took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets ;
and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets,
I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him into the
head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling
at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little
noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me
let him goon shore. “ Well, go,” said I: so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot
him in the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes
on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I.
“Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great
one,
122 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

flood came in, that I might judge whether if I was driven one way out, E
might not expect to be driven another way home, with the same rapidness of
the currents ; this thought was no sooner in my head than I cast my eye upon
a little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence:
‘I had a clear view of the currents or sets of the tides, and which way I was to
guide myself in my return ; here I found that as the current of the ebb set out
close by the south point of the island, so the current of the flood set in close
by the shore of the north side, and that I had nothing to do but to keep to
the north side of the island in my return, and I should do well enough.
Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to set out
with the first of the tide; and, reposing myself for the night in the canoe,
under the great watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out; I made first a little
out to sea, full north, till I- began to feel the benefit of the current, which set
-eastward, and which carried me at a great rate, and yet did not so. hurry me
as.the current on the south side had done before, so as to take from me all
government of the boat ; but having a strong steerage with my paddle, I
went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came
up to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which, by its building,
was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks; all the stern and:
quarter of her was beaten to pieces with the sea; and as her forecastle which
_ stuck in the rocks had run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast
were brought by the board ; that isto say, broken short off; but her bowsprit
was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm ; when I came close to her,
_a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me eer yelped and cried; and as
soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to come to me, and I took him into.
the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger and thirst; I gave him a
cake of my bread, and he ate it like a ravenous wolf, that had been starving a
fortnight in the snow ; I then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would have burst himself. ‘After this I
went on board ; but the first sight I met with was two men drowned in the
cook-room, or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast about one another :
I concluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a
storm, the sea broke so high and so continually over her, that the men were
not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant rushing in of the
waters as much as if they had been under water. Besides the dog, there was
nothing left in the ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but
what were spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor, whether
wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in the hold, and which, the water
AT SEA WITHOUT A COMPASS. 93.

It is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven
from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide:
ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it:
again. However, I worked hard till indeed my strength was almost exhausted,
and kept my boat as much to the northward, that is, towards the side of the
current which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could ; when about noon as the
sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face,
springing up from S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and especially
when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty small gentle gale. By this.
time, I had got at a frightful distance from the island, and had the least
cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way too; for-
I had no compass on board, and should never have known how to have steered.
towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it; but the weather con-
tinuing clear, I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail,
standing away to the north as much as possible, to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away, I
saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current was.
near ; for where the current was so strong the water was foul; but perceiving
the water clear, I found the current abate, and presently I found to the east, .
at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks: these rocks I found
caused the current to part again, and as the main stress of it ran away more
southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the other returned by the.
repulse of the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the
north-west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the
ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who have.
been in such like,extremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy was,
and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of this eddy, and the wind also.
freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the
wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot. This eddy carried me about:
a league in my way back again directly towards the island, but about two
leagues more to the northward than the current which carried me away at:
first; so that when I came near the island, I found myself open to the. |
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to.
that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by the help of
this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no farther. However,
I found that being between two great currents. viz, that on the south side
56 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to take courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down
and disconsolate, not knowing what to do; all this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought ; nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy upon
me!” and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would |
rain. .Soon after that, the wind :arose by little and little, so that in less than
half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach of
the water ; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate; in two hours more it
was quite calm, and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected ;
when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being
the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over,
and I might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits
began to revive ; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be
beaten down with it ; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid lest it should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, vzz., to cut a hole through my
_ new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have

flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still

‘mo more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed.
And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small sup of rum ; which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no inore when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of
building a little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as
I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill ; and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the
MEET WITH KINDLY NEGROES. 2

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully ; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter;
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night, and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from
them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if
he was struggling for hfe, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling
‘of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the
noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope, which
I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore,
and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree ; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they
came; nor could J, at that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
130 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid ; but when I
saw that, I presented my other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him :
upon this, my savage, for so I called him now, made a motion to me to lend
him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by my side; so I did. He no
sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow cut off his head so
cleverly that no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner or better ;
which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw
a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords: however, it seems,
as I learned afterwards, they make their-wooden swords so sharp, so heavy,
and the wood is so hard, that they will even cut off heads with them, ay, and
arms, and that at one blow too. When he had done this, he comes laughing
to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abund-
ance of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down, with the head of
the savage that he had killed, just before me. But that which astonished him
most was to know how I killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to
him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; and I bade him go, as well
as I could ; when he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at him,
_ turned him first on one side, then on the other, looked at the wound the bullet
had made, which it seems was just in his breast, where it had made a hole,
and no great quantity of blood had followed ; but he had bled inwardly, for -
he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came back, so I
turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making signs to him that
more might come after them. Upon this he made signs to me that he should
bury them with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they
followed ; and so I made signs to him again todo so. He fell to work ; and
in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big enough to
bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so
by the other also ; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour.
Then calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave, on the farther part of the island : so I did not let my dream'come to pass in
that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and
a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed
in great distress for, from his running: and having refreshed him, I made
signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had
laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself
sometimes ; so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight strong
limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped ; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six
SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.



SMITH’S “I'VE BEEN A-GIPSYING.”


REMEMBERING OLD FRIENDS. 185

faow to secure it. I determined to go back to England myself, and take my
effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this ;. and therefore,
as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to his satisfaction, who had been
my former benefactor, so I began to think of the poor widow whose husband
had been my first benefactor, and she, while it was in her power, my faithful
steward and instructor. So the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon
to write to his correspondent in London, not only to pay a bill, but to find
her out, and carry her, in money, a hundred pounds from me, and to talk
with her, and comfort her in her poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived,
have a further supply. At the same time, I sent my two sisters in the
country a hundred pounds each, they being, though not in want, yet not in
very good circumstances; one having been married and left a widow, and
the other having a husband not so kind to her as he should be. But, among
all my relations or acquaintances, I could not yet pitch upon one to whom I
durst commit the gross of my stock, that I might go away to the Brazils, and
leave things safe behind me; and this greatly perplexed me.

Having settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all my effects into
good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was which way to go to England.
I had been accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to
go to England by sea at that time ; and though I could give no reason for it,
yet the difficulty increased upon me so much, that though I had once shipped
any baggage in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and that not once, but

wo or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might be one of the
reasons ; but let no man slight the strong impulses of his own thoughts in
cases of such moment : two of the ships which I had singled out to go in, I
mean more particularly singled out than any other, having put my things on
board one of them, and in the other having agreed with the captain; I say
two of these ships miscarried ; vzz., one was taken by the Algerines, and the
other was cast away on the Start, near Torbay, and all the people drowned
except three ; so that in either of those vessels I had been made miserable.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot pressed me
earestly not to go by sea, but either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross
over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but. an easy and safe
journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to Madrid,
and so all the way by land through France. I resolved to travel all the way
by land, which, as I was not in haste, and did not value the charge, was by
CRUSOE IS DETERMINED TO GO TO SEA. 3

whom he had used the same persuasions to keep him from going to the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease
to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this
foolish step God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist in my recovery. _

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I
observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having ©
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off
the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to
me. |

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could be
Otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father’s desire. But alas! a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further importunities,
in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I
did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but
I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force
me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late
to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ; that I was sure if I did
I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak, to
my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I carne home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not. have so
much hand in my destruction ; and I should never have it to say that my
mother was willing when my father was not. Though my mother refused to
‘move it to my father, yet as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the


Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.



MEDITATIONS & DISQUISITIONS
ON THE FIRST PSALM ; On the Penitential
and the Consolatory Psalms. By Sir RICHARD
BAKER, Knight, Author of “The Chronicle of
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Deep experience, remarkable shrewdness, and great spirituality
are combined in Sir Richard. It is hard to quote from him, for
he is always good alike, and yet he has more memorable
sentences than almost any other writer.” — The Sword and Trowel,

THOMAS CARLYLE, The Man and His
Books. Illustrated by Personal Reminiscences,
Table Talk, and Anecdotes of Himself and his
Friends. By WM. HOWIE WYLIE. Third edi-
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_ warm and intimate friend of Carlyle, and to which, after perusing

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liberality of view, and wealth of friendly insight.’’— Contemporary
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SUNSHINE AND SHADOWS: Sketches
of Thought, Philosophic and Religious. By
WILLIAM BENTON CLULOw, author of “ Essays
of a Recluse.” New and enlarged edition, with
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work and prize it highly." —Bradford Observer.

O

Oo

7

26
FRIDAY AND THE BEAR. | 13Q

night or day, till he has his revenge, but follows at a good round rate till he
overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came up to him, he
was helping him off his horse, for the man was both hurt and frighted, when
on a sudden we espied the bear coming out of the wood, and a monstrous.
one it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw. We were all a little surprised
when we saw him; but when Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and
courage in the fellow’s countenance.

“O, O,O!” says Friday, three times, pointing to him; “O Master! you
give me te leave, me shakee te hand with him; me makee you good laugh.”

I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased. “ You fool,” says I, “he
will eat you up.”—“ Eatee me up! eatee me up!” says Friday, twice over again :
“me eatee him up: me make you good laugh; you all stay here, me show
you good laugh.” So down he sits, and gets off his boots in a moment, and
puts on a pair of pumps (as we call the flat shoes they wear), and which
he had in his pocket, gives my other servant his horse, and with his gun away
he flew like a swift wind. |

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with nobody, till
Friday coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the bear could understand him,
“Hark ye, hark ye,” says Friday, “me speakee wit you.”

We followed at a distance, for now being down on the Gascony side of the
mountains, we were entering a vast forest, where the country was plain and
pretty open, though it had many trees in it scattered here and there. Friday,
who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up with him quickly, and
takes up a great stone, and throws it at him, and hit him just on the head;
but did him no more harm than if he had thrown it against a wall; but it
answered Friday’s end, for the rogue was so void of fear that he did it purely
to make the bear follow him, and show us some laugh, as he called it. As.
soon as the bear felt the blow, and saw him, he turns about, and comes after
him, taking very long strides, and shuffling on at a strange rate, so as he
would put a horse at a middling gallop: away runs Friday, and takes his
course as if he ran towards us for help; so we all resolved to fire at once
upon the bear, and deliver my man; though I was angry at him heartily
for bringing the bear back upon us, when he was going about his own
business another way; and especially I was angry that he had turned the
bear upon us and then run away; and I called out, “You dog! is this your
making us laugh? Come away, and take your horse, that we may shoot the
creature.” He hears me, and cries out, “No shoot, no shoot; stand still, you


Zt





SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.



“A CUP OF COFFEE.”


24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that. he would
' give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian.
Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life ; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember :
he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two of
-my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax—for I had made candles of
the rést : in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo: and
with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an zugenzo, as they call it (that is, a
' plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted
«myself; by’ that means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar ;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I
resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them, resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money,
which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement ;
such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances asI was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
_ planted for food than anything else, for about two years. However, we began
to increase, and our land began to come into erder; so that the third year
we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help; and now
I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my-boy Xury.


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MY PLANTATIONS AND DWELLINGS. IO

from the west, and joining with the current of waters from some great river
‘on the shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that, according as the
wind blew more forcibly from the west or from the north, this current came
near or went farther from the shore ; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I
went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw
the current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a
league from the shore ; whereas in my case it set close upon the shore, and
hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at another time it would not
have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to observe the
ebbing and flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about
the island again; but when I began to think of putting it in practice, I had
such terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in,
‘that I could not think of it again with any patience, but, on the contrary, I
took up another resolution, which was more safe, though more laborious—and
‘this was, that I would build, or rather make, me another periagua or canoe,
and so have one for one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations in
the island; one my little fortification or tent, with the wall about it, under
‘the rock; with the cave behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into
‘several apartments, or caves, one within another. One of these, which was
the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification,
that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up
with the large earthern pots, of which I have given an account, and with
fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each,
where I laid up my stores of provision, especially my corn, some in the ear,
-cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand. As for
my wall, made as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles grew all like
‘trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so very much, that
there was not the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation
‘behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and upon
lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated
and sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its season ; and when-
ever I had occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, | had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable plantation

here also ; for, first, I had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in
repair ; that is to say, I kept the hedge, which encircled it in, constantly fitted
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THE SPANIARD’ S GREAT CLEMENCY. 225

desperate, and so idle withal, they knew not what course to take with them,
for, in short, it was not safe to live with them.

The Spaniard who was Governor told them, that if they had been of his own
country, he would have hanged them ; for all laws and all governors were to
preserve society, and those who were dangerous to the society ought to be
expelled out of it; but as they were Englishmen, and that it was to the
generous kindness of an Englishman that they all owed their preservation and
deliverance, he would use them with all possible lenity, and would leave them
to the judgment of the other two Englishmen, who were their countrymen.
One of the two honest Englishmen stood up, and said they desired it might
not be left to them: “ For,’ says he, “I am sure we ought to sentence them
to the gallows ;” and with that gives an account how Will Atkins, one of the
three, had proposed to have all the five Englishmen join together, and murder
all the Spaniards when they were in their sleep.

When the Spanish Governor heard this, he calls to Will Atkins, “ How,
Seignior Atkins,” says he, “will you murder us all? What have you to say
to that?” That hardened villain was so far from denying it, that he said it
was true, and swore they would do it still before they had done with them.
“Well, but Seignior Atkins,” says the Spaniard, “ what have we done to you,
that you will kill us? And what would you get by killing us? And what
must we do to prevent your killing us? Must we kill you, or you kill us?
Why will you put us to the necessity of this, Seignior Atkins?” says the
Spaniard very calmly, and smiling. Seignior Atkins was in such a rage at
the Spaniard’s making a jest of it, that, had he not been held by three men,
and withal had no weapons with him, it was thought he would have attempted
to have killed the Spaniard in the middle of all the company. This hair-brain
carriage obliged them to consider seriously what was to be done. The two
Englishmen, and the Spaniard who saved the poor savage, were of the opinion
that they should hang one of the three, for an example to the rest ; and that
particularly it should be he that had twice attempted to commit murder with
his hatchet ; and indeed, there was some reason to believe he had done it, for
the poor savage was in such a miserable condition with the wound he had
received, that it was thought he could not live. But the Spanish Governor
still said no; it was an Englishman that had saved all their lives, and he
would never consent to put an Englishman to death, though he had murdered
half of them ; nay, he said if he had been killed himself by an Englishman,
and had time left to speak, it should be that they should pardon him.

This was so positively insisted on by the Spanish Governor, that there was

16
236 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

savages, in which time our men were in hopes they had either forgot their
former bad luck, or had given over hopes of better ; when, on a sudden, they
were invaded with a most formidable fleet of no less than eight and twenty
canoes, full of savages, armed with bows and arrows, great clubs, wooden
swords, and such like engines of war ; and they brought such numbers with
them, that, in short, it put all our people into the utmost consternation.

They resolved, first of all, to take down the huts which were built for the
two Englishmen, and drive away their goats to the old cave; because they
supposed the savages would go directly thither, as soon as it was day, to play
the old game over again, though they did not now land within two leagues of
it. In the next place they drove away all the flocks of goats they had at the
old bower, as I called it, which belonged to the Spaniards ; and, in short, left
as little appearance of inhabitants anywhere as was possible. As they
guessed, so it happened: these new invaders came ranging along the shore,
‘directly towards the place, to the number of two hundred and fifty, as near as
our men could judge. Our army was but small indeed ; but, that which was
worse, they had not arms for all their number.

The Spanish Governor commanded the whole; and Will Atkins, who,
though a dreadful fellow for wickedness, was a most daring, bold fellow, com-
manded under him. The savages came forward like lions; and our men,
which was the worst of their fate, had no advantage in their situation; only
that Will Atkins, who now proved a most useful fellow, with six men, was
planted just behind a small thicket of bushes, as an advanced guard, with
orders to let the first of them pass by, and then fire into the middle of them,
and, as soon as he had fired, to make his retreat as nimbly as he could round
a part of the wood, and so come in behind the Spaniards, where they stood,
having a thicket of trees before them.

When the savages came on, they ran straggling about every way in heaps,
out of all manner of order, and Will Atkins let about fifty of them pass by
him; then seeing the rest come in a very thick throng, he orders three of his
men to fire, having loaded their muskets with six or seven bullets apiece,
about as big as large pistol bullets.) How many they killed or wounded they
knew not, but the consternation and surprise was inexpressible among the
savages. In the middle of their fright, Will Atkins and his other three let fly
again among the thickest of them ; and in less than a minute, the first three
being loaded again, gave them a third volley.

Had Will Atkins and his men retired immediately, as soon as they had
fired, as they were ordered to do, or had the rest of the body been at hand, to
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

‘been devoured before we could have helped him ; one of them fastened upon

his horse, and the other attacked the man with such violence, that he had not
time or presence of mind enough to draw his pistol; but hallooed and cried
out most lustily. My man Friday being next me, I bade him ride up, and see
what was the matter. As soon as Friday came in sight of the man, he
hallooed out as loud as the other, “O Master! O Master!” but like a bold
fellow, rode directly up to the poor man, and with his pistol shot the wolf that
attacked him in the head. : | "

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I; and, indeed, it
alarmed all our company, when, with the noise of Friday’s pistol, we heard on
both sides the most dismal howlings of wolves; and the noise redoubled by
the echo of the mountains, appeared to us as if there had been a prodigious
multitude of them; and perhaps, indeed, there was not such a few as that we
hhad no cause for apprehensions. However, as Friday had killed this wolf,
the other that had fastened upon the horse left him immediately, and fled,
having happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle had
stuck in his teeth, so that he had not done him much hurt ; the man, indeed,
was most hurt ; for the raging creature had bit him twice, once in the arm,
and the other time a little above his knee ; and he was just as it were tumbling
down by the disorder of the horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a surprising manner,
as that which followed between Friday and the bear, which gave us all (though
at first we were surprised and afraid for him) the greatest diversion imagi-
mable; as the bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not galldp as the
wolf does, who is swift and light, so he has two particular qualities, which
generally are the rule of his actions; first, as to men, who are not his proper
prey (he does not usually attempt them, except they first attack him, unless
he be excessively hungry, which it is probable might now be the case, the
ground being covered with snow), if you do not meddle with him, he will not
meddle with you ; but then you must take care to be very civil to him, and
give him. the road, for he is a very nice gentleman; he will not go a step out
of his way for a prince; nay, if you are really afraid, your best way is to look
another way and keep going on; for sometimes if you stop and stand still,
and look steadfastly at him, he takes it for an affront; but if you throw or
toss anything at him, and it hits him, though it were but a bit of stick as big
as your finger, he thinks himself abused, and sets all other business aside to
pursue his revenge, and will have satisfaction in point of honour ;—that is his
first quality: the next is, if he be once affronted, he will never leave you,
LEAVING THE ISLAND. 179.

‘make both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them every part of my own
‘story ; and told them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two
‘barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-seeds, which I told them I
~would have been very glad of. Also, I gave them the bag of peas which the
‘Captain had brought me to eat, and bade them to be sure to sow and increase
‘them.

I left them the next day, and went on board the ship. We prepared im-
‘mediately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The next morning early, two
of the five men came swimming to the ship’s side, and, making the most
lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the ship for
‘God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the captain to take
‘them on board, though he hanged them immediately. Upon this, the captain .
‘pretended to have no power without me; but after some difficulty, and after
solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on board, and were, some
time after, soundly whipped and pickled; after which they proved very
honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide being up, with
the things promised to the men; to which the captain, at my intercession,
caused their chests and clothes to be added, which they took, and were very
‘thankful for; I also encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my
‘power to send any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for relics, the great
‘goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and my parrot ; also, I forgot not to
take the money I formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless,
that it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver till it
had been a little rubbed and handled, as also the money I found in the wreck
-of the Spanish ship.

And thus I left the island, the 19th of December, as I found by the ship’s
‘account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon it eight and twenty years,
‘two months, and nineteen days; being delivered from this second captivity
‘the same day of the month that I first made my escape in the long-boat from
‘among the Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in
England the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-five years
-absent.

When I came to England, I was as perfect a stranger to all the world as if
I had never been known there. My benefactor and faithful steward, whom I
had left in trust with my money, was alive, but had had great misfortunes in
‘the world ; was become a widow the second time, and very low in the world.
252 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

came to the cabin door, and called out to us that the captain bade him tell
us we were chased by five sloops, or boats, full of men. “ Very well,” said I,
“then it is apparent there is something in it.” I then ordered all our men to
be called up, and told them there was a design to seize the ship, and to take
us for pirates,and asked them if they would stand by us, and by one another ;
the men answered cheerfully, one and all, that they would live and die with us.

The gunner had, in the meantime, orders to bring two guns to bear fore
and aft, out of the steerage, to clear the deck, and load them with musket-
bullets and small pieces of old iron, and what came next to hand. Thus we
made ready for fight ; but all this while we kept out to sea.

T'wo of those boats (which by our glasses we could see were English) out-
sailed the rest, were near two leagues ahead of them, and gained upon us
considerably, so that we found they would come up with us. They came on
till we were near enough to call to them with a speaking-trumpet, bidding
them keep off at their peril.

They endeavoured to come under our stern, so as to board us on our
quarter; upon which, seeing they were resolute for mischief, I ordered to
bring the ship to, so that they lay upon our broadside; when immediately
we fired five guns at them, one of which had been levelled so true as to carry
away the stern of the hindermost boat,and we then forced them to take down
their sail, and to run all to the head of the boat, to keep her from sinking; so
she lay by, and had enough of it; but seeing the foremost boat crowd on after
us, we made ready to fire at her in particular. While this was doing, one of
the three boats that followed made up to the boat which we had disabled, to
‘relieve her, and we could see her take out the men. And now we crowded all
the sail we could make, and stood further out to sea; and we found that when
tthe other boats came up to the first, they gave over their chase.

Being delivered from this danger, we stood out to sea eastward, quite out
of the course of all European ships. After a long voyage during which we
‘were very much straitened for provisions, we arrived off the coast of China,
and sailed due north until we came to latitude 30 degrees. We resolved to
put into the first trading port we should come at; and as we were standing in
for the shore, a boat came off two leagues to us with an old Portuguese pilot
on board, who, knowing us to be a European ship, came to offer his service.

I told him we were gentlemen as well as merchants, and that we hada
mind to go and sce the great city of Pekin, and the famous Court of the
monarch of China. “Why, then,’ says the old man, “you should go to
Ningpo, where, by the river which runs into the sea there, you may go up
PREPARING FOR A LONGER FOURNEY. 263

hence, we came to Lawrenskoy, the 3rd of July ; and, providing ourselves
with two luggage boats, and a barge for our own convenience, we embarked
on the 7th, and arrived all safe at Archangel the 18th; having been a year,
five months, and three days on the journey, including our stay of about
eight months at Tobolski.

We set sail from Archangel the 2oth of August the same year; and, after
no extraordinary bad voyage, arrived safe in the Elbe the 18th of September.
Here my partner and I found a very good sale for our goods, as well those of
China, as the sables, &c., of Siberia; and, dividing the produce, my share
amounted to 3,475. 17s. 3a, including about six hundred pounds’ worth of
diamonds, which I purchased at Bengal.

To conclude : I arrived in London the roth of January, 1705, having been
absent from England ten years and nine months, And here, resolving to
harass myself no more, I am preparing for a longer journey than all these,
having lived seventy-two years a life of infinite variety, and learned suffi-

ciently to know the value of retirement and the blessing of ending our days
In peace.


174 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

would be faithful. However, that we might be very secure, I told him he
should go back again afd choose out five of them, and tell them, they might
see he did not want men, that he would take out five of them to be his
_ zassistants, and that the Governor would keep the other two and the three that
‘were, sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as hostages for the fidelity of
. those five; and that if they proved unfaithful in the execution, the five
-hostages should be hanged in chains alive upon the shore. This looked
-severe, and convinced them that the Governor was in earnest ; however, they
chad no way left them but to accept it; and it was now the business of the
prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their
> duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition : I, the captain, his
_ tnate, and passenger : 2, the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having
their character from the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted them
‘with arms: 3, the other two that I had kept till now in my apartment
pinioned, but, on the captain’s motion, had now released: 4, the single man
taken in the boat: 5, these five released at last; so that there were thirteen
jn all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on. board
“the ship ; but as for me and my man Friday I did not think it was proper for
‘us to stir, having seven men left behind ; and it was employment enough for.
us to keep them asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five in.
‘the cave, I resolved to keep them fast; but Friday went in twice a day to
‘them, to supply them with necessaries; and I made the other two carry
provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take them.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain, who
told them I was the person the Governor had ordered to look after them; and
‘that it was the Governor's pleasure they should not stir anywhere but by my
-direction ; that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid
in irons; so that as we never suffered them to see me as Governor, 1 now
appeared as another person, and spoke of the Governor, the garrison, the
-castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain had now no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two boats,
stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger captain of
-one, with four of the men; and himself, his mate, and five more, went in the
, other ; and they contrived their business very well, for they came up to the

ship about midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them he had brought off the men and the boat,
256 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

us with about ten or twelve servants; and we were told he was going from the
city to his country seat, about half a league before us. We travelled on gently,
but this figure of a gentleman rode away before us, and we stopped at a
village about an hour to refresh us. When we came by the country seat of
this great man, we saw him in a little place before his door eating his repast.
It was a kind of a garden, but he was easy to be seen, and we were given to
understand that the more we looked at him the better he would be pleased.
He sat under a tree something like the palmetto tree, which effectually shaded
him over the head, and on the south side, but under the tree also, was placed a
large umbrella. He sat lolling back in his great elbow chair, being a heavy
corpulent man, and his meat being brought him by two women slaves. He
had two more ; one fed the squire with a spoon, and the other held the dish
with one hand and scraped off what he let fall upon his worship’s beard and
taffety vest, while the great fat brute thought it below him to employ his own
hands in any of those familiar offices which kings and monarchs would rather
do than be troubled with the clumsy fingers of their servants.

At length we arrived at Pekin. As for the Portuguese pilot, he being
desirous to see the Court, we bore his charges for his company, and for our
use of him as an interpreter, for he understood the language of the country,
and spoke good French and a little English. Indeed, this old man was most
useful to us everywhere; for we had not been above a week at Pekin, when
he came laughing. “Ah, Seignior Inglese,” says he, “I have something to
tell will make your heart glad.”——-“ My heart glad,” says I; “what can that
be? I don’t know anything in this country can either give me joy or grief to
any great degree.”—“ Yes, yes,” said the old man in broken English, “make
you glad, me sorry.” In short, he told us there was a great caravan of Mus-
covite and Polish merchants in the city, preparing to set out on their journey
by land to Muscovy, within four or five weeks ; and he was sure we would
take the opportunity to go with them, and leave him behind, to go back alone.

I confess I was greatly surprised with this good news. We went to consult
together what was to be done; and I asked my partner what he thought of
the pilot’s news, and whether it would suit with his affairs. He told me he
would do just as I would; for if he could invest in China silks, wrought
and raw, he would be content to go to England.

Having resolved upon this, we agreed that if our Portuguese pilot would go
with us, we would bear his charges to Moscow, or to England, if he pleased.
We agreed besides to give him a quantity of coined gold, which, as I com-
puted it, was worth one hundred and seventy-five pounds sterling between




Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.





SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE
‘LIVES WORTH LIVING” SERIES.

THE HUMAN VOICE AND THE
CONNECTED PARTS; A Popular Guide for
Speakers and Singers. By Dr. J. FARRAR. With

Thirty-nine Illustrations. Crown 8vo. cloth extra. o 3 6

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

‘* No doubt there are many works of the same kind, but we are
bound to say that we have never met with one where the de-*
scriptions of the whole vocal apparatus are treated in so popular a
manner. The chapter devoted to the explanation of the voices
and their compass contains some very good hints asto the
management of the various parts concerned in vocalisation. We
may add that the work contains thirty-nine illustrations, all of
which are executed with the utmost accuracy.’”’—Musical Times.

‘*A very careful and minute exposition of vocal phenomena.
Its utility is enhanced by a large number of diagrams.’— Zhe
Scotsman.

‘‘ A work that is sure to be found of real practical value,’”—
British Quarterly Review,


194 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

lamed twice as many, yet they came on again. I was loth to spend our shot
too hastily ; so I called my servant, not my man Friday, for he was better |
employed, for, with the greatest dexterity imaginable, he had charged my fusil
‘and his own while we were engaged,—but, as I said, I called my other man,
‘and giving him a horn of powder, I bade him lay a train all along the piece
of timber, and let it be’a large train; he did so, and had but just time to get
away, when the wolves came up to it, and some got upon it, when I, snapping
‘an uncharged pistol close to the powder, set it on fire; and those that were
upon the timber were scorched with it, and six or seven of them fell, or rather
jumped in among us with the force and fright of the fire : we despatched these
in an instant, and the rest were so frightened with the light, which the night
-—for it was now very near dark—made more terrible, that they drew back a
little. Upon which I ordered our last pistols to be fired off in one volley, and
after that we gave a shout; upon this the wolves turned tail, and we sallied
immediately upon near twenty lame ones that we found struggling on the
ground, and fell to cutting them with our swords, which answered our expec-
tation, for the crying and howling they made were better understood by their
fellows ; so that they all fled and left us.

We had; first and last, killed about threescore of them, and had it been

daylight, we had killed many more. The field of battle being thus cleared,
| we made forward again, for we had still near a league to go; we heard the
ravenous creatures howl and yell in the woods as we went several times, and
sometimes we fancied we saw some of them; but the snow dazzling our eyes,
we were not certain; so in about an hour more we came to the town where
we were to lodge, which. we found in.a terrible fright and all in arms: for ft
seems that the night before, the wolves and some bears had broken into the
village, and put them in a terrible fright, and they were obliged to keep guard
night and day, but especially in the night, to preserve their cattle, and indeed
their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled so much with
the rarikling of his two wounds, that he could go no farther; so we were
obliged to take a.new guide here, and go to Toulouse, where we found a warm
climate, a fruitful, pleasant country, and no snow, no wolves, nor anything like
them ; but when we told our story at Toulouse, they told us it was nothing
but what was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the mountains,
especially when the snow lay on the ground; but they inquired much what
kind of guide we had got, that would venture to bring us that way in such a
severe season ; ‘and told us it was surprising we were not all devoured. When

2,
,
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| Wi

mV







SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.

JAPP’S “INDUSTRIAL CURIOSITIES.”







258 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

appeared in the way, about thirty miles beyond the city. Accordingly, two
days after, we had two hundred soldiers sent us froma garrison of the Chinese
on our left, and three hundred more from the city of Naum, and with these
we advanced boldly. When we were entered upon a desert of about fifteen
or sixteen miles over, we knew, by a cloud of dust they raised, that the enemy
was at hand, and presently they came on upon the spur.

An innumerable company they were ; how many we could not tell, but ten
thousand, we thought, at the least ; a party of them came on first, and viewed
our posture, traversing the ground in the front of our line; and, as we found
them within gunshot, our leader ordered the two wings to advance swiftly,
and give them a salvo on each wing with their shot, which was done; that
salute cloyed their stomachs, for they immediately halted, stood awhile to
consider of it, and wheeling off to the left, they gave over their design.

We now advanced from the River Arguna by easy and moderate journeys.
Wherever we came the garrisons and governors were Russians and professed
Christians, yet the inhabitants of the country were mere Pagans sacrificing to
idols, and worshipping the sun, moon, and stars, or all the host of heaven ;
and not only so, but were of all the heathens and pagans that ever I met with
the most barbarous, except only that they did not eat man’s flesh, as our
savages of America did. Some instances of this we met, with in the country
between Arguna, where we enter the Muscovite dominions, and a city of
Tartars and Russians together, called Nertzinskoy, in which is a continued
desert or forest, which cost us twenty days to travel over it. In a village near
the last of those places I had the curiosity to go and see their way of living.
They had, I suppose, a great sacrifice that day, for there stood out upon an old
stump of a tree an idol made of wood, frightful as the devil, at least as any
thing we can think of to represent the devil, can be made; it had a head
certainly not so much as resembling any creature that the world ever saw;
ears as big as goat’s horns and as high; eyes as big as a crown-piece ; a nose
like a crooked ram’s horn, and a mouth extended four cornered like that of a
lion, with horrible teeth, hooked like a parrot’s under bill; it was dressed up
in the filthiest manner that you could suppose; its upper garment was of
sheep-skins, with the wool outward, a great Tartar bonnet on the head, with
two horns growing through it; it was about eight feet high, yet had no feet
or legs, or any other proportion of parts.

This scarecrow was set up at the outer side of the village, and when I
came near to it there was sixteen or seventeen creatures, whether men or
women I could not tell, for they make no distinction by their habits, either of
DISCOVERS GOATS ON THE ISLAND. 43.

the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything’
fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, vzz., that they were so shy, so subtle,
and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them ; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and
then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me ; from whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see
objects that were above them ; so afterwards, I took this method,—I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,.
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me
heartily ; for when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took herup; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure ; upon which, I laid
down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself; these two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly,,
and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, and also.
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island, when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude 9 deg. 22 min. north of the line.
“IT WAS A TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKE.” 55

without baking, though I did that also after some time. But to return to my
Journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my wall done;
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.

Apri 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This was a complete
enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:—As I
was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I
was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for, all on
a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set
up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner: I was heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me; I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks
as would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to
have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood:
about half a mile from me next the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise
as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into
violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied ; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at
sea ; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, and rousing me from
the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of
nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and
burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began
Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.



THE EPIC OF KINGS. Stories retold from
the Persian Poet Firdusi. By HELEN ZIMMERN,
Author of ‘‘ Stories in Precious Stones,” “ Life of
Lessing,’ &c. With Etchings by L. ALMA
TADEMA, R.A., and Prefatory Poem by E. W.
GossE. Popular Edition, Crown 8vo., cloth extra

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

‘‘Charming from beginning to end.... Miss Zimmern
deserves all credit for her courage in attempting the task, and tor
her marvellous success in carrying it out... . Miss Zimmern

has indeed mastered a pure simple English which fits the anti-
quity of her subject, and the stories are told in a manner which
must provoke the envy and admiration of all who have attempted
this singularly difficult style of composition. There is nothing
harder than to tel’ the ancient legends of a people without intro-
ducing a modern tone. Mr. Church has succeeded in re-writing
the tales of Hellas in a way hitherto deemed almost un-
approachable ; but we may now place Miss Zimmern’s paraphrase
of the Persian legends on at least a level with those of the
interpreter of Hellenic myths. ... The book will be a notable
addition to the libraries of those who care to know the great
classics of the world.” —Saturday Review.

‘*The carefulness and intelligence she displays in her selections
from the ‘Shah Nameh,’ no less than in her graceful renderings
of them, are deserving of high praise. ... Miss Zimmern’s
translations in this volume can be read with great pleasure. . . .
A striking feature of the volume is Mr. Gosse’s narrative poem,
‘Firdusi in Exile,’ in which is told, in charming verse, the pic-
turesque story of the poet’s exile and death.”—A ¢heneum.

‘*Miss Zimmern has succeeded to admiration. ... The
result appears in a language at once dignified and simple, free
from affectation, and at the same time sufficiently antiquated to
carry one into the atmosphere of the stories themselves... .
The choice of legends is a wise one. Miss Zimmern is really the
first to introduce English readers to Persian legends in a worthy
and attractive manner, and if her fine stories and admirable way
of telling were presented in a reasonable form and at a reason-
able cost,* The £pzc of Kings would enjoy a wide popularity. . .
Mr. Gosse’s poem will be enjoyed beyond anticipation ; no sus-
tained effort of his comes up to this last, ‘ Firdusi in Exile.’
Dignified as its Oriental surroundings, yet simple and natural in
treatment, it is among the finest narrative poems that have
appeared for some time.” —S. Lane-Poole, in The Academy.

‘‘Her fine appreciation of the spirit of the poet which has
enabled her to invest her creation with a garment at once so well
suited to it, and so adapted to please modern readers, can hardly
fail, we think, to gain her praise, even from those who would be
most apt to demand nice scholarship. ... Considering all



* This suggestion has since been carried out in the popular edition.



O

7



18
18 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river ; but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it ; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that
he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild.
mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when the
_ tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off
from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
_ what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast
till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited ; the Negroes having abandoned it, and
gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other
furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at
a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries ; and had a great mind
to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was

x
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2

I


32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

what the ecstasies and transports of the soul a are, when it is so saved, as I may-
say, out of the very grave.

“For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as
I may say, wrapt up in acontemplation of my deliverance ; making a thousand
gestures and motions, which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my com-.
rades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but:
myself ; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded. vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
“ Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore!”

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I
had a dreadful. deliverance: for.I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts ; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon, “either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs ; in a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box; this was all my provisions; and this threw me into.
terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my
lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they always
come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up into
~a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die,
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great
joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a
_ short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and

having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
73 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

*
weason why so much of my time went away with so little work, vzz., that what
might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labour and
‘required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding
‘this, with patience and labour I got through everything that my circumstances
“made necessary to me to do.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting my crop
‘of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up for them was
not great ; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of
half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season; but
mow my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible
to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares,
which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk,

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a
hedge ; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it required
a great deal of speed, as the creatures daily spoiled my corn. However, as
“my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced
in about three weeks’ time ; and shooting some of the creatures in the day
time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at the
gate, where he would stand and bafk all night long; so in a little time, the
enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began

to ripen apace.

- But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the
-birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for, going along
‘by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls,
of I know not how many sorts, which stood, as it were, watching till I should

_be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
ame. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which rT
had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would
devour all my hopes ; that I should never be able to raise a crop at all; and
_what to do I could not tell: however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if

possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went

among it, to see what damage was already done, and found they had spoiled
a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not
so great but that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be
saved,
52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

led it home in a string; when I had it home, I bound and splintered up its.
leg, which was broke. N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew tame,.
and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go away; this was.
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,
that I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats and no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my
things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still ; but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I. found there were plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved.
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats ; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog,
and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, it is sufficient to observe that I was.
no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April working,
finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-
four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another
place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the ‘rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together ; but I thought I should never be perfectly -secure
till this wall was finished’; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour:
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground ; for [ made them much bigger than I need to:
have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come
on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it
was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable

- occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day when
the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of some-
THE HISTORY OF THE COLONY. 211

‘back to his countrymen with the boat, when I sent him to fetch them over.
He told me there was little variety in that part, for nothing remarkable hap-
‘pened to them on the way, having had very calm weather, and a smooth sea.
As for his countrymen, it could not be doubted, he said, but that they were
‘overjoyed to see him (it seems he was the principal man among them, the
‘captain of the vessel they had been shipwrecked in having been dead some
time): they were, he said, the more surprised to see him, because they knew
‘that he had fallen into the hands of the savages, who, they were satisfied,
would devour him, as they did all the rest of their prisoners; that when he
told them the story of his deliverance, and in what manner he was furnished
for carrying them away, it was like a dream to them, and their astonishment
‘was somewhat like that of Joseph’s brethren when he told them who he was,
‘and the story of his exaltation in Pharaoh’s court. But when he showed them
‘the arms, the powder, the ball, the provisions, that he brought them for their
journey or voyage, they were restored to themselves, took a just share of the
Joy of their deliverance, and immediately prepared to come away with him.

Their first business was to get canoes; and in this they were obliged not to
Stick so much upon the honest part of it, but to trespass upon their friendly -
savages, and to borrow two large canoes, or periaguas, on pretence of going
‘out a-fishing, or for pleasure. In these they came away the next morning: it
‘seems they wanted no time to get themselves ready; for they had neither
clothes, nor provisions, nor anything in the world but what they had on them, -
and a few roots to eat, of which they used to make their bread. They were '
in all three weeks absent; and in that time, unluckily for them, I had the
occasion offered for my escape, as I mentioned in the other part, and to get
‘off from the island ; leaving three of the most impudent, hardened, ungoverned,
disagreeable villains behind me that any man could desire to meet with, to
‘the poor Spaniards’ great grief and disappointment.

The only just thing the rogues did was that, when the Spaniards came on
shore, they gave my letter to them, and gave them provisions, and other
‘relief, as I had ordered them to do; also they gave them the long paper of
‘directions which I had left with them, containing the particular methods which
I took for managing every part of my life there ; the way I baked my bread,
bred up tame goats, and planted my corn; how I cured my grapes, made my
pots, and, in a word, everything I did: all this being written down, they gave
to the Spaniards (two of whom understood English well enough): nor did
they refuse to accommodate the Spaniards with anything else, for they agreed
very well for some time: they gave them an equal admission into the house,


Fruit on the [sland
490 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

get much laugh:” and as the nimble creature ran two feet for the bear’s one,
he turned on a sudden.on one side of us, and seeing a great oak tree fit for
his, purpose, he beckoned to us to follow; and doubling his pace, he got
nimbly up the tree, laying his gun down upon the ground, at ‘about five or
six yards from the bottom of the tree. The bear soon came to the tree, and
we followed at a distance. The first thing he he did, stopped at the gun,
smelled to it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the tree, climbing
like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I was amazed at the folly, as I:
thought it, of my man, and could not for my life see anything to laugh at
yet, till seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode near to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the small end of a
large branch, and the bear got about half way to him. As soon as the bear
got out to that part where the limb of the tree was weaker, “Ha!” says he
to us, “now you see me teachee the bear dance:” so he falls a jumping and
shaking the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he should get back; then, indeed, we
did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with him by a great deal;
when seeing him stand still, he called out to him again, as if he had supposed
the bear could speak English, “What, you come no further? pray you come
further ;” so he left jumping and shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if he
understood what he said, did come a little further; then he fell a jumping
again, and the bear stopped: again. We thought now was a good time to
knock him in the head, and called to Friday to stand ‘still, and we would
shoot the bear: but he cried out earnestly, “O pray! O pray! no shoot, me
shoot by and then;” he would have said by and by. However, to shorten
the story, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that we
had laughing enough, but still could not imagine what the fellow would do:
for first we thought he depended upon shaking the bear off; and we found
the bear was too cunning for. that too; for he would not go out far enough
to be thrown down, but clung fast with his great broad claws and feet, so
that we could not imagine what would be the end of it, and what the jest
would be at last. But Friday put us out of doubt quickly: for seeing the
bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be persuaded to come
any farther, “Well, well,” says Friday, “you no come further, me go, me go;
you no come to me, me come to you;” and upon this he goes out to the
smallest end of the bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently
lets himself down by it, sliding down the bough till he came near enough to
jump down on his feet, and away he ran to his gun, takes it up, and stands
LAST FAREWELL TO THE ISLAND, 241

account whatever ; and for the use of the smith, I left two tons of unwrought
iron for a supply. My magazine of powder and arms which I brought them
was such, even to profusion, that they could not but rejoice at them ; for now
they could march as I used to do, with a musket upon each shoulder, if there
was occasion ; and were able to fight a thousand savages, if they had but some
little advantages of situation, which also they could not miss, if they had
occasion.

I carried on shore with me the young man from the wreck and the maid
also : she was a sober, well educated, religious young woman, and behaved so
inoffensively that every one gave her a good word; she had, indeed, an
unhappy life with us, there being no woman in the ship but herself, but she
bore it with patience. After a while, seeing things so well ordered, and in so
fine a way of thriving upon my island, and considering that they had neither
business nor acquaintance in the East Indies, or reason for taking so long a
voyage, both of them came to me, and desired I would give them leave to
remain on the island, and be entered among my family. I agreed to this
readily ; and they had a little plot of ground allotted to them, where they had
three tents or houses set up, surrounded with a basket-work, palisadoed like
Atkins’s, adjoining to his plantation.

For the maid, we made a wife of her before we went away. There were
besides the two carpenters and the tailor, my other man, whom I called Jack-
of-all-trades, who was in himself as good almost as twenty men ; for he was
not only a very ingenious fellow, but a very merry fellow, and before I went
away we married him to the honest maid that came with the youth in the ship.

Amongst all the needful things I had to leave with them, I had not left
them a Bible, in which I showed myself less considering for them than my
good friend the widow was for me when she sent me the cargo of 100 pounds
from Lisbon, where she packed up three Bibles and a Prayer-book. However,
the good woman’s charity had a greater extent than ever she imagined, for
they were reserved for the comfort and instruction of those that made much
better use of them than I had done, for I gave them to the colonists before I
left.

I have now done with the Island. I left them all in good circumstances
and in a flourishing condition, and went on board my ship again on the 6th
of May, having been about twenty-five days among them: and as they were
all resolved to stay upon the island till I came to remove them, I promised to
send them further relief from the Brazils, if I could possibly find an oppor
tunity.

17
&40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

such as in England we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger,
I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon in some cases,
but much more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly England, which I
came from ; how we lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one
another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an
account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near
as I could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces before,
and gone. :

I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and
which I could not stir with my whole strength then; but was now fallen
almost all to ‘pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great
while, and said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon. At last
says he, “Me see such boat like come to place at my nation.” I did not
understand him for a good while; but, at last, when I had examined further
into it, | understood by him, that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore
upon the country where he lived : that is, as he explained it, was driven thither
by stress of weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and
drive ashore ; but was so dull. that I never once thought of men making their
‘escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they might come: so I only
inquired after a.description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me better to
understand him when he added with some warmth, “ We save the white mans

‘from drown.” Then I presently asked if there were any white mans, as he
called them, in the boat. “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I
asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him
then what became of them. He told me, “ They live, they dwell at my
nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined that these
might’be the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the sight of
my island, as I now called it ; and who after the ship was struck on the rock
and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were
landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired of him
more critically what was become of them. He assured me they lived still
there ; that they had been there about four years; that the savages left them
alone, and gave them vietuals to live on. I asked him how it came to pass
they did not kill them and eat them. He said, “ No, they make brother
46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
sany condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship—lI say, giving over these
‘things, I began to apply myself to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of
a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of post and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about
two feet thick on the outside ; and after some time (I think it was a year and
-a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
‘with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain ;

which I found at some times of the year very violent.
_-I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me; but I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they
took up all my place, I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge
my cave and work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which
‘yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was
‘pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock ; and then, turning to the tight again, worked quite out, and made me a
‘door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me
‘not only egress and regress, as it were a back way to my tent and to my
Storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods,

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
_ found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I could not write or
eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table. So I went
‘to work; and here I must needs observe, that by making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application,
_ and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have
made it, especially if I had had tools; however, I made abundance of things,
even without tools ; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
‘which perhaps were never made that way before, and that with infinite labour;
for example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut downa tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
iad brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze.
LIFECLS OF A TERRIBLE STORM. 7

of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing. The lightships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented, and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also,
and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but
a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken
at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet ; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had.a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every
now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage in one
respect that I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent that I saw what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the
men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak ;
another said there was four feet of water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me,
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me and told me that I, that was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another : at which I stirred up and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged
to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened. Ina word, I was so
28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself ; we had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast when
‘we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days. We had very good weather,
‘only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by
our last observation, in 7 degrees 22’ northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It blew in such a
terrible mannet, that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive ;
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of
- the winds directed.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men die
of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little} the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about 11° north latitude, but that
he was 22° of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he
found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond
the river Amazon; towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River ; and began to consult with me what. course he should take, for
the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the sea-coasts
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea,
to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail ; whereas we could not possibly make
our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship
and to ourselves,

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in
110 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

after my boat all this time, but began rather to think of making another ; for
I could not think of ever making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with some of these creatures at sea ;
in which case, if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what
‘would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of being
discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about them ; and
I began to live just in the same composed manner as before, only with this
‘difference, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I
‘did before lest I should happen to be seen by any of them; and I was more
cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them, being on the island, should happen
to hear it; it was, therefore, a good providence to me that I had furnished
myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I needed not to hunt any more
about the woods, or shoot at them ; and if I did catch any of them after this,
- It was by traps and snares, as I had done before; so that for two years after
this, I believe I never fired my gun off once, though I never went out without
‘it; and as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out
‘with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt; I also
furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made
ame a belt to hang it on also; so that I was now a most formidable fellow to
look at when I went abroad, if you add to the former description of myself,
the particular of two pistols, and a great broadsword hanging at my side ina
‘belt, but without a scabbard.

As in my present condition there were not really many things which I
‘wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about these savage
‘wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own preservation, had taken
off the edge of my invention for my own conveniences ; and I had dropped a
_ good design, which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and that was to try if
I could not make some of my barley into malt, and then to try and brew my-
‘self some beer, This was really a whimsical thought, and I reproved myself
‘often for the simplicity of it: for I presently saw there would be the want of
several things necessary to the making my beer, that it would be impossible
‘for me to supply ; as, first, casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as
I have observed already, I could never compass: no, though I spent not only
many days, but weeks, nay months, in attempting it, but to no purpose. In
the next place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it work, no
copper or kettle to make it boil; and yet with all these things wanting, I
verily believe, had not the frights and terrors I was in about the savages inter-
A SIGNAL OF DISTRESS. 119

goats ; for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that side
of the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages ; and
if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come again with
perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them in a few days, and then I.
knew what to expect. However, I wore out a year and three months more
before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found them again, as I
shall soon observe. It is true they might have been there once or twice ; but
either they made no stay, or at least I did not see them; but in the month
of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had
avery strange encounter with them ; of which in its place.

It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my
poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all upon the post still ; I
Say, it was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of wind
all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it
was after it. I know not what was the particular occasion of it; but as I
was reading in the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts about my
present condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired
at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a different nature from any
I had met with before ; for the notions this put into my thoughts were quite
of another kind. I started up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, in a
trice, clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it after
me, and mounting it the second time, got to the top of the hill the very
moment that a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly,
in about half a minute, I heard, and by the sound, knew that it was from that
part of the sea where I was driven down the current in my boat. I imme-
diately considered that this must be some ship in distress, and that they had
some comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired -these for signals of
distress, and to obtain help ; I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to
think, that though I could not help them, it might be they might help me;
so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand, and, making a
good, handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill. The wood was dry, and
blazed freely ; and, though the wind blew very hard, yet it burned fairly out ;
that I was certain, if there was any such thing as a ship, they must needs see
it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard
another gun, and after that several others, all from the same quarter. I plied
my fire ail night long, till day broke; and when it was broad day, and the
air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance at sea, full east of the
island, whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish, no, not with my glasses,
54 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained&:
any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as.
we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end.
of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events for the world ;.
but after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper
- for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused His.
grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

And this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along:
by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks.
of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was.
ashore there. I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went alk
over that part of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner,,
and under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any ; at last.
it occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chicken’s meat out in that.
place ; and then the wonder began to cease ; and I must confess, my religious.
thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering:
that all this was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been.
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been.
‘miraculous ; for it was really the work of Providence to me, that should order:
or appoint that ten or twelve grairis of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ; as
also, that I should throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in the
shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately: whereas, if I had thrown it
anywhere else, at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,,
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, sufficient to
supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow:
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, for Ii
lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; for I
sowed it Just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least.
not as it would have done ; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,,
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose—to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it. |
240 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to live in, provided they would give satisfaction that they should keep in their
own bounds, and not come beyond it to injure or prejudice others; and old
Friday bade the fellow go and talk with the rest of his countrymen, and hear
what they said to it ; assuring them that, if they did not agree immediately,
they should be all destroyed.

The poor wretches, thoroughly humbled, and reduced in number to about
thirty-seven, closed with the proposal at the first offer, and begged to have
some food given them. They were the most faithful fellows to their words
that could be thought of; for, except when they came to beg victuals and
directions, they never came out of their bounds: and there they lived when I
came to the island, and I went to see them.

After this, the colony enjoyed a perfect tranquility, with respect to the
savages, till I came to revisit them, which was about two years after.

Having thus given a view of the state of things as I found them, I must
relate the heads of what I did for these people, and the condition in which I
left them.

We appointed a day to dine all together ; and, indeed, we made a splendid
feast. After this feast, at which we were very innocently merry, I brought
my cargo of goods ; wherein, that there might be no dispute about dividing, I
showed them that there was a sufficiency for them all, desiring that they
might all take an equal quantity, when made up, of the goods that were for.
wearing. |

Then I presented to them the people I had brought with me, particularly
the tailor, the smith, and the two carpenters, all of them most necessary
people ; but, above all, my general artificer, than whom they could not name
anything that was more useful to them; and the tailor, to show his concern
for them, went to work immediately, and, with my leave, made them every
one a shirt, the first thing he did ; and, what was still more, he taught the
women not only how to sew and stitch, and use the needle, but made them
assist to make the shirts for their husbands, and for all the rest.

Then I brought them out all my store of tools, and gave every man a
digging-spade, a shovel, and a rake, for we had no harrows or plough ; and to
every separate place a pickaxe, a crow, a broad axe, and a saw; always
appointing, that as often as any were broken or worn out, they should be
supplied without grudging, out of the general stores that I left behind. Nails,
staples, hinges, hammers, chisels, knives, scissors, and all sorts of iron-work,
they had without reserve, as they required ; for no man would take more than
he wanted, and he must be a fool that would waste or spoil them on any
.60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
‘in this horrid place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the
rain felt cold, and I was something chilly ; which I knew was not usual in
that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night ; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my
sad condition—to be sick, and no help. Prayed to God for the first time
since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.

June 22,—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

- [une 24.—Much better. |

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours ; cold fit, and
hot, with faint sweats after it.

june 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it,
and made some broth, but had no pot.

_ June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I

iknew not what to say ; only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two
or three hours ; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far
in the night. When I awoke I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty. However,as I had no water in my habitation, I was forced
to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this
terrible dream. 7

_ I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where
I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground.
He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look
towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible
for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I
thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and


They Left not the Least Steck Standing.
Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.





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250 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

merchants lodged. Here I stayed above nine months. I had some English
goods with me of value, and a considerable sum of money. I quickly
disposed of my goods to advantage; and, as I had originally intended, I
bought here some very good diamonds, which, of all other things, were the
most proper for me in my present circumstances, because I could always
carry my whole estate about me.

After a long stay here, many proposals were made for my return to
England, but none falling out to my mind, an English merchant who
lodged with me, and with whom I had contracted an intimate acquaintance,
came to me one morning, saying: “Countryman, I have a project to
communicate. Here we are posted, you by accident, and I by my own
choice, in a part of the world, where, by us, who understand trade and
business, a great deal of money is to be got. If you will put one thousand
pounds to my one thousand pounds, we will hire a ship here, the first we can
get to our minds. You shall be captain, I’ll be merchant, and we'll go a
trading voyage to China.” |

I liked this proposal very well. It was, however, some time before we
could get a ship to our minds, and when we had got a vessel, it was not
easy to get English sailors. After some time we got a mate, a boatswain, and
a gunner, English; a Dutch carpenter, and three Portuguese foremast men.
We made several voyages ; and I was well satisfied with my adventure.

A little while after this there came in a Dutch ship from Batavia; she was
a coaster, not a European trader, of about two hundred tons burden; the
men, as they pretended, having been so sickly that the captain had not hands.
enough to go to sea with, so he lay by at Bengal; and having, it seems, got
money enough, or being willing, for other reasons, to go to Europe, he gave
public notice he would sell his ship. We bought the ship, and, agreeing with
the master, we paid for her, and took possession. When we had done so we
resolved to engage the men, if we could, to join with those we had, for the
pursuing our business ; but on a sudden not one of them was to be found.

We picked up some English sailors and some Dutch; and resolved ona
second voyage to the south-east for cloves,among the Philippine and Molucca
Isles.

In this voyage, being by contrary winds obliged to beat up and down a
great while in the Straits of Malacca, and among the islands, we were no
sooner got clear of those difficult seas, than we found our ship, had sprung
a leak, but could not discover where it was. This forced us to make some
port: and my partner, who knew the country better than I did, directed the
CRUSOE EXPLORES THE ISLAND. 67

remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by thrqwing them into
fevers ; but I found an excellent use for these grapes ; that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I
thought would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat when
no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which,
by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In the
night I took my first contrivance, and got up in a tree, where I slept well ;
and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed
‘to descend to the west ; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of
the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a
constant verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a
secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts) to
think that this was all my own ; that I was King and Lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance as completely as any Lord of a Manor in England. I
saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees ; but
all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very whole-
some ; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well of
grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I
knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes
in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place ; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled home-
wards ; resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this
journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave) ; but before
I got thither the grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruit and the weight
of the juice having broken them and bruised them, they were good for little
or nothing : as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.


Fruit on the [sland
142 | ROBINSON CR USOE.

were before?” He looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said, “No,
no, Friday tell them to live good ; tell them to pray God; tell them to eat
corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man again.”—“ Why then,” said I to
him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then said, “ No, they
no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they would be willing
to learn. He added, they learned much of the bearded mans that came in the
boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that,
and told me that he could not swim so far. I told him, I would make a canoe
for him. . He told me he would go, if I would: go with him. “I go!” says I;
_ “why, they will eat me if I come there.”—“ No, no,” says he, “me make the
no eat you ;.me make they much love you.” He meant, he would tell them
how I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make them
love me. ‘Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to seven-
teen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore there
in distress,

‘From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and see if I could
possibly join with those bearded men, who I made no doubt were Spaniards
and Portuguese ; not doubting but, if I could, we might find some method to
escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good company together,
better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone, and without
help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse,
and told him I would give him a boat to go back to his own nation; and, ac-
cordingly, I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the
island, and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk in water), I
brought it out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a
‘most dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make it go almost as swift
again as I could. So when he was in, I said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall
‘we go to your nation?” He looked very dull at my saying so; which it
seems was because he thought the boat was too small to go so far. I then
told him I had a bigger ; so the next day I went to the place where the first
boat lay which I had made, and which I could not get into the water ; he said
that was big enough ; but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it had lain
two or three and twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it
was rotten. Friday told me such a boat would do very well, and would
carry “much enough vittle, drink, bread ”—this was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going over
with him to the continent, that I told him we would go and make one as big
as that, and he should go home in it. He answered not one word, but looked
THE DAY APTER THE STORM. 33

as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at
least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand; I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her ; but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about half a mile broad ;
so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany as I now was; this forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered [ did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship ; here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water ;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry ;
for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry
and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, | went to

4
“LT FINISHED MY FOURTH YEAR IN THIS PLACE.” 87

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal,
to bring the water up to the.canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down
to the water. Well, I began this work, and when I-began to enter into it,
and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be
thrown out, I found that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my
own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I should have gone through
with it; for the shore lay high; so that at the upper end it must have been
at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great reluctance, I gave
this attempt over also. .

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of be-
ginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our
own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept
my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever
before ; for, by a constant study and serious application to the Word of God,
and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what
I had before ; I entertained different notions of things.

The nature and experience of things dictated to me upon just reflection,
that all the good things of this world are no farther good to us, than they are
for our use; and that whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we
enjoy just as much as we can use, and no more. The most covetous griping
miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he
had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what to do.
with. I had no room for desire, except it was of things which I had not, and
they were but trifles, though indeed of great use to me. I hada parcel of
money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there
the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay ; I had no manner of business for it ; and I
often thought within myself, that I would have given a handful of it for a
gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would.
have given it all for sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England,
or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not
the least advantage by it, or benefit from it ; but there it lay in a drawer, and
grew mouldy with the damp of the cave, in the wet season ; and if I had had
the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same case; and they had been
of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

At the same time, I learned to look more upon the bright side of my con-
dition, and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather
than what I wanted; and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that
224 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

in case of necessity, as a safe retreat; and thither they carried also the two
barrels of powder, which I had left them at my coming away. However, they
resolved not to change their habitation ; yet, as I had carefully covered it first
with a wall or fortification, and then with a grove of trees, and as they were
now fully convinced their safety consisted entirely in their being concealed,
they set to work to cover and conceal the place yet more effectually than
before: to this purpose, as I had planted trees (or rather thrust in stakes,
which in time all grew up to be trees), for some good distance before the
entrance into my apartments, they went on in the same manner, and filled up
the rest of that whole space of ground from the trees I had set quite down to
the side of the creek, where I landed my floats, and even into the very ooze
where the tide flowed, not so much as leaving any place to land, or any sign
that there had been any landing thereabout ; these stakes also being of a
wood very forward to grow, they took care to have them generally much
larger and taller than those which I had planted.

And now they had another broil with the three Englishmen ; one of whom,
a most turbulent fellow, being in a rage at one of the three captive slaves,
because the fellow had not done something right which he bid him do, and
seemed a little untractable in his showing him, drew a hatchet out of a frog-
belt, in which he wore it by his side, and fell upon the poor savage, not to
correct him, but to kill him. One of the Spaniards, who was by, seeing him
give the fellow a barbarous cut with the hatchet, which he aimed at his head,
but struck into his shoulder, so that he thought he had cut the poor creature’s
arm off, ran to him, and, entreating him not to murder the poor man, placed
himself between him and the savage, to prevent the mischief. The fellow,
being enraged the more at this, struck at the Spaniard with his hatchet, and
swore he would serve him as he intended to serve the savage: which the
Spaniard perceiving, avoided the blow, and with a shovel which he had in his
hand (for they were all working in the field about their corn land) knocked
the brute down: another of the Englishmen, running up at the same time to
help his comrade, knocked the Spaniard down; and then two Spaniards more
came in to help their man, and a third Englishman fell in upon them. They
had none of them any fire-arms or any other weapons but hatchets and other
tools, except this third Englishman ; he had one of my rusty cutlasses, with
which he made at the two last Spaniards, and wounded them both: this fray
set the whole family in an uproar, and more help coming in, they took the
three Englishmen prisoners. The next question was, what should be done
with them? They had been so often mutinous, and were so very furious, so
LSCAPES, AND GETS RID OF THE MOOR. : 15

‘we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know
he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.’”—“ Yes,” says he, “ V’ll bring some ;”
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a pound and a
half of powder, or rather more ; and another with shot, that had five or six
pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat ; at the same time, I had
found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one
of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty ; pouring what was
in it into another: and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out
of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we hauled in our sail and set us down to fish; the wind blew
from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly,
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had fish on
my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, “This will not do ; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
farther off ;” he, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat,
set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish, when, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his twist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would
go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind ; upon which
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I
would do him none: “ But,” said I, “you swim well enough to reach to the
shore, and the sea is calm ; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do
you no harm ; but if you come near the boat, I’ll shoot you through the head,
for I am resolved to have my liberty :” so he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury,
THE UNFUST ENGLISHMEN. 215

the Spaniards should stand by to see fair play. So they got up in the morn-
ing before day, and came to the place, and called the Englishmen by their
names, telling a Spaniard that answered, that they wanted to speak with them.

It happened that the day before, two of the Spaniards, having been in the
woods, had seen one of the two Englishmen, whom, for distinction, I called
the honest men, and he had made a sad complaint to the Spaniards of the
barbarous usage they had met with from their three countrymen, and how
they had ruined their plantation, and destroyed their corn that they had
laboured so hard to bring forward, and killed the milch-goat, and their three
kids, which was all they had provided for their sustenance ; and that if he and
his friends, meaning the Spaniards, did not assist them again, they should be
starved. When the Spaniards came home at night, and they were all at
supper, one of them took the freedom to reprove the three Englishmen, though
in very gentle and mannerly terms, and asked them how they could be so
cruel, they being harmless, inoffensive fellows: that they were putting them-
selves in a way to subsist by their labour, and that it had cost them a great
deal of pains to bring things to such perfection as they were then in.

One of the Englishmen returned very briskly, “What had they to do there?
that they came on shore without leave; and that they should not plant or
build upon the island; it was none of their ground.”—‘“ Why,” says the
Spaniard very calmly, “Seignior Inglese, they must not starve”? The
Englishman replied, like a rough-hewn tarpauling, “They might starve; they
should not plant nor build in that place.’—“ But what must they do then,
seignior ?” said the Spaniard. Another of the brutes returned, “Do? they
should be servants, and work for them.”——“But how can you expect that of
them:” says the Spaniard; “they are not bought with your money; you
have no right to make them servants.” The Englishman answered, ‘The
island was theirs; the Governor had given it to them, and no man had any-
thing to do there but themselves ;” and with that he swore that he would go
and burn all their new huts ; they should build none upon their land. “Why,
seignior,’ says the Spaniard, “by the same rule, we must be your servants
too.” —“ Ay,” returned the bold dog, “and so you shall, too, before we have
done with you ;” mixing two or three oaths in the proper intervals of his
speech. The Spaniard only smiled at that, and made him no answer. How-
ever, this little discourse had heated them ; and starting up, one says to the
other (I think it was he they called Will Atkins), “Come, Jack, let’s go, and
have t’other brush with them ; we'll demolish their castle, I’ll warrant you ;
they shall plant no colony in our dominions,”
138 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this island, and get
among those white men. He told me, “ Yes, yes, you may go in two canoe.”
I could not understand what he meant, or make him describe to me what he
meant by “two canoe,” till at last with great difficulty, I found he méant it must:
be in a large boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday’s discourse I
began to relish very well, and from this time I entertained some hopes that,
one time or other, I might find an opportunity to make my escape from this
place, and that this poor savage might be a means to help me to do it.

_ During’ the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that he
began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting in the wish to
lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his mind: particularly I asked him
one time who made him. The poor creature did not understand me at all,
but thought I had asked who was his father : but I took it by another handle,
and asked him, who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the hills
and woods. He told me, “It was old Benamuckee, that lived beyond all.”
He could describe nothing of this great person, but that he was very old,
“much older,” he said, “than the sea or the land, than the moon or the stars.”
I asked him then, if this old person had made all things, why did not all
things worship him? He looked very grave, and, with a perfect look of
innocence, said, “All things say O to him.” I asked him, if the people who
die in his country went away anywhere? He said, “ Yes, they all went to
_ Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether those they eat up went thither too-
He said, “ Yes.”

From these things, I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true
God. I told him that the great Maker of all things lived up there, pointing
up towards heaven : that He governs the world by the same power and provi-
_ dence by which He made it; that He was omnipotent, and could do everything
for us, give everything to us, take everything from us; and thus, by degrees,
I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention, and received with
pleasure the notion of: Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and of the
manner of making our prayers to God, and His being able to hear us, even in
heaven. He told me one day, that if our God could hear us, up beyond the
sun, he must needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a.
little way off, and yet could not hear till they went up to the great mountains
where he dwelt to speak tohim. I asked him if ever he went thither to speak
to him. He said, “No; they never went that were young men; none went
thither but the old men,’ whom he called their Oowokakee, that is, as I made
him explain it to me, their religious, or clergy ; and that they went to say O
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

what the ecstasies and transports of the soul a are, when it is so saved, as I may-
say, out of the very grave.

“For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as
I may say, wrapt up in acontemplation of my deliverance ; making a thousand
gestures and motions, which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my com-.
rades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but:
myself ; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded. vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
“ Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore!”

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I
had a dreadful. deliverance: for.I was wet, had no clothes to shift me,
nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts ; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon, “either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs ; in a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box; this was all my provisions; and this threw me into.
terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my
lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they always
come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up into
~a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die,
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great
joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a
_ short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and

having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
DISCOVERS GOATS ON THE ISLAND. 43.

the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything’
fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, vzz., that they were so shy, so subtle,
and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them ; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and
then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me ; from whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see
objects that were above them ; so afterwards, I took this method,—I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,.
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me
heartily ; for when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took herup; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure ; upon which, I laid
down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself; these two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly,,
and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide
a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, and also.
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life
such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island, when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude 9 deg. 22 min. north of the line.
CRUSOE TURNS MECHANIC. 49

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see
for some food, and discover the country ; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid
followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the
place I-had marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; vzz., every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o’clock ; then ate what I had to
live on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessively hot ; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for
I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one
else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing ; every creature
that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frighted with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at them, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.

Nov, 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and
finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
mend it. )

Nov. 7—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, oth, roth,
and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me
a chair,and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me ; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and coole

5
a . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us out
of fear of the-savages, if they had’ come, unless their number had been very
great, we went freely all over the island, whenever we found occasion ; and as
we had our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at
_ least for me, to have the means of it out of mine; to this purpose, I marked
out several trees, which I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday and his °
_ father to cut them down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I im-
parted my thoughts on that affair, to oversee and direct their work ; I showed
them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single
planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they made about a dozen large
_ planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two
inches to four inches thick: what prodigious labour it took up, any one may
imagine. . | | -

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock of tame goats as _
much as I could; and for this purpose I made Friday and the Spaniard go
out one day, and myself with Friday the next day (for we took our turns),
and by this means we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest;
for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added them to our
flock ; but, above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I caused
Such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that, I believe, had we
been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled
sixty or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, was a great part of our
food—very good living, too, I assure you, for it isexceedingly nourishing food.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order; it was not the most
plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however, it was enough to
- answer our end. When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of
corn, we fell to work to make more wicker-ware, v7z., great baskets, in which
we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part, and
often blamed me that I did not make some things for defence of this kind of
work ; but I saw no need of it. And now, having a full supply of food for
all the guests I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main,
to see what he could do with those he had left behind him there. I gave him
a strict charge in writing not to bring any men who would not first swear, in
the presence of himself and the old savage, that they would in no way injure,
fight with, or attack the person they should find in the island, who was so
kind as to send for themi in order to their deliverance; but that they would
stand by him and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever they
went, would be entirely under and subjected to his command ; and that this
86 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who.
had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without
determining whether I was ever able to undertake it; not but that the
difficulty of launching my boat came often into my head; but I put a stop
to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer which I gave myself: “Let me
first make it; I warrant I will find some way or other to get it along when it
is done.” |

This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of my fancy
prevailed, and to work I went and felled a cedar tree; I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building ‘of the Temple of
Jerusalem ; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the
‘stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet ;.
after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into branches. It was
not without infinite labour that I felled this tree; I was twenty days hacking
and hewing it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches and
limbs, and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed.
through with my axe and hatchet, with inexpressible labour ; after this it cost
me a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought todo. It cost me
near three months more to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an
exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel,
and by the dint of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome
periagua, and big enough to have carried six and twenty men, and consequently
big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it ;
the boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua that.
was made of one tree, in my life; many a weary stroke it had cost, you may
be sure, and had I gotten it into the water, I make no question but I
should have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed,
that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me ; though they cost me
infinite labour too; it lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not
more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill towards the creek.
Well, to take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of
the earth, and so make a declivity : this I began, and it cost me a prodigious
deal of pains, but who grudge pains that have their deliverance in view ?
But when this was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was still
much at one, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.


T RESCUE A SAVAGE. 129

same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and having a
very short cut, and all down hill, clapped myself in the way between the
pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him"that fled, who, looking back,
was at first perhaps as much frighted at me as at them ; but I beckoned with
my hand to him to come back; and, in the mean time, I slowly advanced
towards the two that followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I
knocked him down with the stock of my piece; I was loth to fire because I
would not have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not have
been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they would not
have known what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the other
who pursued him stopped, as if he had been frighted, and I advanced
towards him: but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and
arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me: so I was then necessitated to shoot
at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot. The poor savage
who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and. killed,
as he thought, yet was so frighted with the fire and noise of my piece, that
he stood stock still, and neither came forward nor went backward, though he
seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him,
and made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and came a
little way, then stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped again, and
I could then perceive that he stccd trembling, as if he had keen taken
prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned
to him again to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement that
I could think of, and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or
twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment for my saving his life. I smiled at
him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer ; at
length, he came close to me, and then he kneeled down again, kissed the
‘ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set
my foot upon his head ; this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my
‘slave for ever. I took him up and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the savage
whom I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and
began to come to himself: so I pointed to him, and showed him the savage,
that he was not dead ; upon this he spoke scme words to me, and though I
could not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear ; for
they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted,
for above twenty-five years. But there was no time for such refections now - -
the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon
IO
SETS OUT ON A VOYAGE ROUND THE ISLAND, or

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion and considera-
tion, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out of some of
the pieces of the ship’s sail which lay in store, and of which I had a great
stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found
she would sail very well ; then I made little lockers, or boxes, at either end of
my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, and ammunition, &c., into, to be kept
dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long, hollow place
I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to:
hang down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over
my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awning; and thus I
every now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but never went far out.
nor far from the little creek ; but, at last, being eager to view the circum-
ference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour, and accordingly I
victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I
should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice
(a food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder
and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which, as I
mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests ; these I took, one-
to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity,,.
that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected ;
for though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east:
side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the
sea, some above water, some under it ; and beyond, a shoal of sand, lying dry
half a league more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea to-
double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, and
come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea :
and, above all, doubting how I should get back again: so I came to an.
anchor ; for I had made a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken.
grappling which I got out of the ship. |

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a.
hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent of it,
and resolved to venture. )

In my viewing the sea from that hill, I perceived a strong and most furious
current, which ran to the east, and even came close to the point ; I took the:
more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger, that when IL
66 — ROBINSON CRUSOE. — ;

some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be.

I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I
_ had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see
what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of
the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good ; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it—at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as
it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as might be |
supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great: and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,
which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might, perhaps, have
_ virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could
find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I con-
tented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of
any of the fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring it to no
conclusion ; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I was in the
Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field ; at least, very little that
might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, 1 went up the same way again; and, after going
something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
savannahs began to cease, and the country become more woody than before.
In this part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees ; the vines had spread,
indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them ; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
yO ROBINSON CRUSOE.

_ I was in a perfect enclosure ; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed; and
- yet I could not perceive that ‘there was any living thing to fear, the biggest:
creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.

| Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I
cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred
and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for
religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious.
humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments.
upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and
_ not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going
down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to
bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath-
_ day; for, as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after-
“some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a longer notch than
‘ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the
-days were ; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I had been
there a year ; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for
a Sabbath ; though I found at the end of my account I had lost a day or. two
in my reckoning. . A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I
contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the most
remarkable events of my life.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly ; but I
bought all my experience before I had it, and this Iam going to relate was.
one of the most discouraging experiments that I made.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of. barley and rice, which I
had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and I believe:
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I
thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as.
I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my
grain ; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper time for
it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of
what I sowed this time came to anything: for the dry months following, the:
earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist.
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and
20 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might be of some:
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I
went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at
last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun
effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve-
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is
to say, anywheré about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. -I knew that
all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or to-
«Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those Islands; and, in a

word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must

meet with some ship, or must perish. |
* When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we’
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also-
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them ; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to:
me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a lone
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a
great way with good aim. SolI kept at a distance, but talked with them by-
signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat ;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat.
Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with:
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country ; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was; however we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and.
then came close to us again.
THE RAINY SEASON. 69

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the
rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation ; for though I
made me a tent like the other with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well,
yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind
me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung
up perfectly dried, and indeed excellent raisins of the sun ; so I began to take
them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my
winter food ; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner
had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but
it began to rain; and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained,
more or less, every day till the middle of October ; and sometimes so violently,
that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family ; I had
been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I
thought, had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my aston-
ishment, she came home about the end of August, with three kittens. This
was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I
called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our
European cats ; yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one ; from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats,
that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them
from my house as much as possible |

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I
began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat ; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which
‘was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus :—I ate a bunch of raisins
for my breakfast ; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything),
and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I
was not perfectly easy at lying so open ; for, as I had managed myself before,
ANOTHER VOYAGE. 201

hhand-mills to grind corn, was a good turner, and a good pot-maker; he also
made anything that was proper to make of earth or of wood; in a word, we
called him our Jack-of-all-trades, With these I carried a tailor, who proved a
most necessary handy fellow as could be desired, in many other businesses
besides that of this trade.

My cargo, as near as I can recollect, for I have not kept account of the
particulars, consisted of a sufficient quantity of linen, and some English thin
stuffs, for clothing the Spaniards that I expected to find there, and enough of
them, as by my calculation, might comfortably supply them for seven years:
if I remember right, the materials I carried for clothing them, with gloves,
hats, shoes, stockings, and all such things as they could want for wearing,
amounted to above two hundred pounds, including some beds, bedding, and
household stuff, particularly kitchen utensils, with pots, kettles, pewter, brass,
&c. ; and near a hundred pounds more in iron-work, nails, tools of every kind,
staples, hooks, hinges, and every necessary thing I could think of.

I carried also a hundred spare arms, muskets, and fusees; besides some
pistols, a considerable quantity of shot of all sizes, three or four tons of lead,
and two pieces of brass cannon; and, because I knew not what time and
what extremities I was providing for, I carried a hundred barrels of powder,
besides swords, cutlasses, and the iron part of some pikes and halberts; so
that, in short, we had a large magazine of all sorts of stores; and I made my
nephew carry two small quarter-deck guns more than he wanted for his ship,
to leave behind if there was occasion; so that, when we came there, we might
build a fort, and man it against all sorts of enemies.

We set out on the 5th of February from Ireland, and had a very fair gale
of wind for some days. As I remember, it might be about the 2oth of
February in the evening late, when the mate, having the watch, came into the
round-house, and told us he saw a flash of fire, and heard a gun fired; and
while he was telling us of it,a boy came in, and told us the boatswain heard
another. This made us all run out upon the quarter-deck, where for a while
we heard nothing; but in a few minutes we saw a very great light, and found
that there was some very terrible fire at a distance ; immediately we had
recourse to our reckonings, in which we all agreed that there could be no
Jand that way in which the fire showed itself, no, not for five hundred leagues,
for it appeared at W.N.W. Upon this, we concluded it must be some ship on
fire at sea; and as, by our hearing the noise of guns just before, we concluded
that it could not be far off, we stood directly towards it, and were presently
satisfied we should discover it, because the further we sailed, the greater the
98 oo ROBINSON CRUSOE..

open piece of meadow land, or savannah (as our people call it in the western
colonies) which had two or three rills of fresh water in it, and at one end was
very woody : I say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them I
began‘ by inclosing this piece of ground in such a manner, that. my hedge or
pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so
great as to the compass, for it was ten miles about, I was like to have time
enough to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats would be as wild in
so much compass as if they had had the whole island, and then I should: have
so much room to chase them in that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards when this
thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and for the first
beginning, I resolved to inclose a piece of about 150 yards in length, and 100
yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should have in any
reasonable time, so, as my flock increased, I could add more ground to my
inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage. I
’ was about three months hedging in the first piece, and, till I had done it, I
tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near
me as possible to make them familiar ; and very often I would go and carry
them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand;
so that, after my inclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they would
follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of
about twelve goats, kids and all ; and in two years more I had three-and-forty,
besides several that I took and killed for my food. After that, I inclosed five
- several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into,
to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all : for now I not only had goat’s flesh to feed on when I
pleased, but milk too, a thing which, indeed, in the beginning, I did not so
much as think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really an
agreeable surprise. For now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon
or two of milk ina day. And as nature, who gives supplies of food to every
creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of it ; so I, that had never
milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made, very readily
and handily, though after a great many essays and miscarriages, made both
butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully
can our Creator treat His creatures, even in those conditions in which they
seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction! How can He sweeten the bit-
CRUSOE’S TERRIBLE DREAM. 6r

all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of
fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards.
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me ; and when he came
to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so.
terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I
understood was this: “Seeing all these things have not brought thee to.
repentance, now thou shalt die ;” at which words, I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able
to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. Nor is it any more
possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. In the
relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed,
when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day’
befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being the hand of God,
or that it was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious behaviour against
my father—or my present sins, which were great—or so much as a punish-
ment for the general course of my wicked life. I only said to myself often,.
that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable. But now,
when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came
to place itself before me ; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of
a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever ;
conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life. “Now,” said I aloud, “my dear father’s words are
come to pass ; God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or
hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in
a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but
I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn
under the consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would
have lifted me in the world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great for even nature itself to.
support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried
out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.”


152 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

quarter: of their way, and continued blowing so hard all the night, and that
from the north-west, which was against them, that I could not suppose their
boat could live, or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday ; he was so busy about his father, that I could not
find in my heart to take him off for some time; but after I thought he could
leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came jumping and laughing,
and pleased to the highest extreme. Then I asked him if he had given his
father any bread. He shook his head, and said, “ None; ugly dog eat all up
self.” So I gave him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose; I also gave him a dram for himself; but he would not taste it, but
carried it to his father. I had in my pocket, also, two or three bunches of
raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He had no sooner
given his father these raisins, but I'saw him come out of the boat, and run.
away as if he had been bewitched (for he was the swiftest fellow on his feet
_ that ever I saw), I say, he ran at sucha rate that he was out of sight, as it
were, in an instant ; and though I called, and hallooed out too, after him, it
‘.was all one; away he went; and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come
back again, though not so fast as he went; and, as he came nearer, I found
his pace slacker because he had something in his hand. When he came up
to me, I found he had been quite home for an earthen jug or pot, to bring his
' father some fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of
bread. The bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his father; how-
_ ever, as I was very thirsty too, 1 took a little of it; this water revived his father
more than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was fainting with
thirst. |
’ When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there was any water
left. He said, “Yes;” and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard, who was
‘in as much want of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes that Friday
brought to the Spaniard, too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing
himself upon a green place under the shade of a tree; and whose limbs were
also very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he had been tied
with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to him with the water, he sat
up and drank, and took the bread and began to eat, I went to him and gave
him a handful of raisins; he looked up in my face with all the tokens of
gratitude and thankfulness that could appear in any countenance; but was so
weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he could
not stand upon his feet; he tried to do it two or three times, but was really
not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful to him; so I bade him sit
370 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the woods as possible, and then wheel about again to me by such ways as I
directed them. “

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed ;
and they presently heard them, and, answering, ran along the shore westward,
towards the voice they heard, when they were stopped by the creek, where,
the water being up, they could not get over, and called for the boat to come
up and set them over; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves:
over, I observed that the boat being gone a good way into the creek, and, as
it were, in a harbour within the land, they took one of the three men out of
her, to go along with them, and left only two in the boat, having fastened her
to a stump of a little tree on the shore. This was what I wished for; and
immediately leaving Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I took
the rest with me; and, crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the
two men before they were aware—one of them lying on the shore, and the
_ other being in the boat; the fellow on shore was between sleeping and
waking, and going to start up; the captain, who was foremost, ran in upon
him, and knocked him down; and then called out to him in the boat to yield,
or he was a dead man. There needed very few arguments to persuade a
single man to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade:
knocked down; besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were not so
hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded
not only to yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the mean
time Friday and the captain’s mate so well managed their business with the
rest, that they drew them, by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another,
and from one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but left
them where they were very sure they could not reach back to their boat before-
it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also, by the
time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to falf
upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours after
Friday came back to me before they came back to their boat ; and we could
_ hear the foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling to those
behind to come along; and could also hear them answer, and complain how
lame and tired they were, and not able to go any faster: which was very”
welcome news to us. At length they came up to the boat; but itis impossible
to express their confusion when they found the boat aground in the creek, the
tide ebbed out, and their two men gone; we could hear them call one to
another in the most lamentable manner, telling one another they were got
224 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

in case of necessity, as a safe retreat; and thither they carried also the two
barrels of powder, which I had left them at my coming away. However, they
resolved not to change their habitation ; yet, as I had carefully covered it first
with a wall or fortification, and then with a grove of trees, and as they were
now fully convinced their safety consisted entirely in their being concealed,
they set to work to cover and conceal the place yet more effectually than
before: to this purpose, as I had planted trees (or rather thrust in stakes,
which in time all grew up to be trees), for some good distance before the
entrance into my apartments, they went on in the same manner, and filled up
the rest of that whole space of ground from the trees I had set quite down to
the side of the creek, where I landed my floats, and even into the very ooze
where the tide flowed, not so much as leaving any place to land, or any sign
that there had been any landing thereabout ; these stakes also being of a
wood very forward to grow, they took care to have them generally much
larger and taller than those which I had planted.

And now they had another broil with the three Englishmen ; one of whom,
a most turbulent fellow, being in a rage at one of the three captive slaves,
because the fellow had not done something right which he bid him do, and
seemed a little untractable in his showing him, drew a hatchet out of a frog-
belt, in which he wore it by his side, and fell upon the poor savage, not to
correct him, but to kill him. One of the Spaniards, who was by, seeing him
give the fellow a barbarous cut with the hatchet, which he aimed at his head,
but struck into his shoulder, so that he thought he had cut the poor creature’s
arm off, ran to him, and, entreating him not to murder the poor man, placed
himself between him and the savage, to prevent the mischief. The fellow,
being enraged the more at this, struck at the Spaniard with his hatchet, and
swore he would serve him as he intended to serve the savage: which the
Spaniard perceiving, avoided the blow, and with a shovel which he had in his
hand (for they were all working in the field about their corn land) knocked
the brute down: another of the Englishmen, running up at the same time to
help his comrade, knocked the Spaniard down; and then two Spaniards more
came in to help their man, and a third Englishman fell in upon them. They
had none of them any fire-arms or any other weapons but hatchets and other
tools, except this third Englishman ; he had one of my rusty cutlasses, with
which he made at the two last Spaniards, and wounded them both: this fray
set the whole family in an uproar, and more help coming in, they took the
three Englishmen prisoners. The next question was, what should be done
with them? They had been so often mutinous, and were so very furious, so


21



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WESTON’S “ DICK’S HOLIDAYS.”,




fo2 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

up ta its usual height, the ladder standing always in the inside; I kept the
trees, which at first were no more than stakes, but were now grown very firm
and tall, always cut, so that they might spread and grow thick and wild, and
_ make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectually to my. mind. In
the middle of this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of a sail
spread over poles, set up for that purpose, and which never wanted any repair
_ or renewing ; and under this I had made me a squab or couch, with the skins
of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket laid on
them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved ; and a great
watch-coat to cover me; and here, whenever I had occasion ‘to be absent.
from my seat, I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that is to say, my
goats ; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and inclose:
this ground, so I was so uneasy to see it kept entire, lest the goats should’
break through, that I never left off till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the
outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that:
it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand
through between them, which afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all.
did in the next rainy season, made the inclosure strong like a wall, indeed’
stronger than any wall. This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that:
I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my com--
fortable support.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended
on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very
carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet ; and indeed!
they were not agreeable only, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and:
refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place
where I had laid up my boat, I generally staid and lay here in my way
thither ; for I used frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all things about, or
belonging to her, in very good order ; sometimes I went out in her to divert:
_ myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a.
stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out
of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any other accident. But
- now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly
-. surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, which was very
plain to be seen on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had
236 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

savages, in which time our men were in hopes they had either forgot their
former bad luck, or had given over hopes of better ; when, on a sudden, they
were invaded with a most formidable fleet of no less than eight and twenty
canoes, full of savages, armed with bows and arrows, great clubs, wooden
swords, and such like engines of war ; and they brought such numbers with
them, that, in short, it put all our people into the utmost consternation.

They resolved, first of all, to take down the huts which were built for the
two Englishmen, and drive away their goats to the old cave; because they
supposed the savages would go directly thither, as soon as it was day, to play
the old game over again, though they did not now land within two leagues of
it. In the next place they drove away all the flocks of goats they had at the
old bower, as I called it, which belonged to the Spaniards ; and, in short, left
as little appearance of inhabitants anywhere as was possible. As they
guessed, so it happened: these new invaders came ranging along the shore,
‘directly towards the place, to the number of two hundred and fifty, as near as
our men could judge. Our army was but small indeed ; but, that which was
worse, they had not arms for all their number.

The Spanish Governor commanded the whole; and Will Atkins, who,
though a dreadful fellow for wickedness, was a most daring, bold fellow, com-
manded under him. The savages came forward like lions; and our men,
which was the worst of their fate, had no advantage in their situation; only
that Will Atkins, who now proved a most useful fellow, with six men, was
planted just behind a small thicket of bushes, as an advanced guard, with
orders to let the first of them pass by, and then fire into the middle of them,
and, as soon as he had fired, to make his retreat as nimbly as he could round
a part of the wood, and so come in behind the Spaniards, where they stood,
having a thicket of trees before them.

When the savages came on, they ran straggling about every way in heaps,
out of all manner of order, and Will Atkins let about fifty of them pass by
him; then seeing the rest come in a very thick throng, he orders three of his
men to fire, having loaded their muskets with six or seven bullets apiece,
about as big as large pistol bullets.) How many they killed or wounded they
knew not, but the consternation and surprise was inexpressible among the
savages. In the middle of their fright, Will Atkins and his other three let fly
again among the thickest of them ; and in less than a minute, the first three
being loaded again, gave them a third volley.

Had Will Atkins and his men retired immediately, as soon as they had
fired, as they were ordered to do, or had the rest of the body been at hand, to
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6 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes ; but I
shook them off, and roused myself from them, and applying myself to drink
— and company, soon mastered the return of those fits—for so I called them ;

and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was:

- to have another trial for it still.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the
wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary for seven or eight days.

We had not, however, ridden here so long, but we should have tided it up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five
_ days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men_
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in
the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our
top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that-the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
_- had come home ; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that
we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.

. By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the’ faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times,
-“ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone!” andthe
like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which
was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the
first penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself, against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that
this would be nothing like the first. But when the master himself came by
me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.,
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never
saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four —
' minutes ; when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us ;
two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead
MY OLD HABITATION. 209

legs, and kissed them, and then got up again, and stared at him—one would
have thought the fellow bewitched. But it would have made a dog laugh to
see how the next day his passion ran out another way: in the morning, he
walked along the shore with his father several hours, always leading him by
the hand, as if he had been a lady; and every now and then he would come
to the boat to fetch something or other for him, either a lump of sugar, a
dram, a biscuit, or something or other that was good. In the afternoon his
frolics ran another way ; for then he would set the old man down upon the
ground, and dance about him, and make a thousand antic postures and
gestures ; and all the while he did this, he would be talking to him, and telling
him one story or another of his travels, and of what had happened to him
abroad, to divert him. In short, if the same filial affection was to be found in
Christians to their parents, in our part of the world, one would be tempted to
say there would hardly have been any need of the fifth commandment.

But this is a digression: I return to my landing. It would be needless to
take notice of all the ceremonies and civilities that the Spaniards received me
with. The first Spaniard, whom, as I said, I knew very well, was he whose
life I had saved. He came towards the boat, attended by one more, carrying a
flag of truce also ; and he not only did not know me at first, but he had no
thoughts, no notion of its being me that was come, till I spoke to him.
“ Seignior,” said I, in Portuguese, “do you not know me?” At which he
spoke not a word, but, giving his musket to the man that was with him, threw
his arms abroad, and saying something in Spanish that I did not perfectly
hear, came forward and embraced me, telling me he was inexcusable not to
know that face again that he had once seen, as of an angel from Heaven, sent
to save his life’ He said abundance of very handsome things, as a well-bred
Spaniard always knows how ; and then, beckoning to the person that attended
him, bade him go and call out his comrades. He then asked me if I would
walk to my old habitation, where he would give me possession of my own
house again, and where I should see they had made but mean improvements.
So I walked along with him ; but alas! I could no more find the place than if
I had never been there ; for they had planted so many trees, and placed them
in such a position, so thick and close to one another, in ten years’ time they
were grown so big, that, in short, the place was inaccessible, except by such
windings and blind ways as only they themselves, who made them, could
find.

I asked them what put them upon all these fortifications. He told me I
should say there was need enough of it, when they had given me an account

15
260 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ground. Two of us then waited at the door, expecting that another would
come out to see what the matter was, but we waited so long till the third
man came back to us; and then nobody coming out we knocked again
gently, and immediately out came two more, and we served them just in
the same manner, but were obliged to go all with them, and lay them
down by the idol at some distance from one another. Ina word, we took
them, bound them as we had the other, and all without any noise. When
we had done this, we carried them altogether to the idol. When we
came there we fell to work with him; and first we daubed him all over,
and his robes also, with tar and such other stuff as we had, which was
tallow mixed with brimstone ; then we stopped his eyes, ears, and mouth full
of gunpowder, and then we wrapped up a great piece of wild-fire in his
bonnet, and then sticking all the combustibles we had brought with us upon
him, we looked about to see if we could find anything else to help to burn
him, when my man remembered that by the tent or hut, where the men were
there lay a heap of dry forage, whether straw or rushes I do not remember ;
away he and one of the Scotchmen ran, and fetched their arms full of that.
When we had done this, we took all our prisoners and brought them, and
having untied their feet, and ungagged their mouths, and made them stand up,
set them just before their monstrous idol, and there set fire to the whole.
We stayed by it a quarter of an hour, or thereabouts, till the powder in the
eyes and mouth and ears of the idol blew up, and we could perceive had
split and deformed the shape; and, in a word, until we saw it burn into a
nrere block or log of wood ; and then setting the dry forage to it, we found it
would be quite consumed, when we began to think of going away. But we
might not go, for these poor deluded wretches would all throw themselves
into the fire, and burn themselves with the idol. So we resolved to stay until
the forage was burnt down too, and then we came away and left them. In
the morning we appeared among our fellow travellers exceeding busy in
getting ready for our journey ; nor could any man suggest that we had been
anywhere but in our beds.

So enraged were the people that they threatened war upon the Russian
Governor, who told them of our caravan, and warned our people to make all
the haste forward possible. Nobody knew that we had done this thing, but
our leader hurried forward. Still it had been serious for us, for the people
pursued us in a great army, and we escaped only by a feint. A cunning
fellow, a Cossack, calling to the leader of the caravan, said to him, “TI’ll go send
all these people away to Siheilka ;” this was a city, four or five days’ journey


184 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

merchant-trustees shipped me 1200 chests of sugar, 800 rolls of tobacco, and
the rest of the whole account in gold.

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was better than the
beginning. It is impossible to express the flutterings of my very heart when
‘T found all my wealth about me; for as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the
same ships which brought my letters brought my goods: and the effects were
safe in the River before the letters came to my hand. In a word, I turned
pale, and grew sick ; and, had not the old man run and fetched me a cordial,

I believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset nature, and I had died upon
_the spot. Nay, after that, I continued very ill, and was so some hours, till a
physician being sent for, and something of the real cause of my illness being
known, he ordered me to be let blood, after which I had relief, and grew well:
but I verily believe, if I had not been eased by a vent given in that manner to
the spirits, I should have died.
_ I was now master, all on a sudden, of above 5000 pounds sterling in ‘money,
and had an estate, as I might well call it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand
pounds a year, as sure as an estate of lands in England: and, in'a word, I was
Ina condition which I scarce knew how to understand, or how to compose
myself for the enjoyment of it. The first thing I did was to recompense my
original benefactor, my good old captain, who had been first charitable to me
in my distress, kind to me in my beginning, and honest to me at the end. I
showed him all that was sent to me; I told him that, next to the providence
of Heaven, which disposed all things, it was owing to him; and that it now
lay on me to reward him, which I would do a hundred-fold. So I first .
returned to him the hundred moidores I had received of him; then I sent for
a notary, and caused him to draw up a general release or discharge from the
four hundred and seventy moidores, which he had acknowledged he owed me
in the fullest and firmest manner possible ; after which I caused a procuration
to be drawn, empowering him to be my receiver of the annual profits of my
plantation; and appointing my partner to actount to him, and make
the returns, by the usual fleets, to him in my name; and by a clause in the
end, made a grant of 100 moidores a year to him ‘during his life, out of the
effects, and 50 moidores a year to his son after him, for his life. And thus I
requitted my old man.

I was now to consider which way to steer my course next ; and indeed I
had more care upon my head now than I had in my silent state of life in the
island, where I wanted nothing but what I had, and had nothing but what I
wanted ; whereas I had now a great charge upon me, and my business was
TRAVELLING IN GRAND TARTARY. 254

us, and to bear all his charges, both for himself and horse, except only a horse
to carry his goods. Having settled this between ourselves, we called him to
let him know what we had resolved. He shook his head and said it was a
long journey, and that he had no pecune to carry him thither, or to subsist
himself when he came there. We told him we had resolved to do something
for him that should let him see how sensible we were of the service he had
done us, and also how agreeable he was to us. He received the proposal like
a man transported, and told us he would go with us over the whole world ;
and so we all prepared for our journey.

It was the beginning of February, New Style, when we set out from Pekin.
The company was very great, and, as near as I can remember, made between
three and four hundred horse, and upwards of one hundred and twenty men,
very well armed, and provided for all events; for as the eastern caravans are
subject to be attacked by the Arabs, so are these by the Tartars,

In a few days we passed the great China Wall, made for a fortification
against the Tartars: and a very great work it is, going over hills and moun-
tains in an endless track, where the rocks are impassable, and the precipices
such as no enemy could possibly enter, or indeed climb up, or where, if they
did, no wall could hinder them.

In about five days we entered a vast wild desert, which held us three days
and nights’ march: and we were obliged to carry our water with us in great.
leathern bottles, and to encamp all night, just as I have heard they do in the
desert of Arabia. I asked our guides whose dominion this was in: and they
told me this was a kind of border, that might be called no man’s land, being
a part of Great Karakathy, or Grand Tartary: that, however, it was all
reckoned as belonging to China, but that there was no care taken here to
preserve it from the inroads of thieves, and therefore it was reckoned the worst
desert of the whole march, though we were to go over some much larger.

In passing this frightful wilderness, we saw two or three times little parties
of the Tartars, but they seemed to be upon their own affairs, and to have no
design upon us. Once, however, a party of them came so near as to stand
and gaze at us. After a while they marched off, but they saluted us with five
arrows at parting, which wounded a horse so that it disabled him, and we left
him the next day, poor creature, in great need of a good farrier.

As we were approaching the city of Naum, a frontier of the Chinese Empire,
fortified in their fashion, messengers were sent express to every part of the
road to tell all travellers and caravans to halt till they had a guard sent for
them ; for that an unusual body of Tartars making ten thousand in all, had

18
CRUSOE DESERTED AGAIN. 249

carry me on board any more. Any one may guess what a surprise I was
in at so insolent a message; and I asked the man, who bade him deliver
that message to me. He told me the coxswain. I immediately found out
the supercargo, told him the story, and entreated him to go immediately on
board in an Indian boat, and acquaint the captain of it; but I might have
spared this intelligence, for before I had spoken to him on shore the matter
was effected on board. The boatswain, and all the inferior officers, as soon
as I was gone off in the boat, came up, and desired to speak with the captain ;
and then the boatswain, making a long harangue, told the captain that as I
was gone peaceably on shore, they were loth to use any violence with me,
which, if I had not gone on shore, they would otherwise have done, to oblige
me to have gone. They therefore thought fit to tell him, that as they shipped
themselves to serve in the ship under his command, they would perform it
well and faithfully ; but if I would not quit the ship, or the captain oblige me
to quit it, they would all leave the ship, and sail no further with him ; and at
that word “all,” he turned his face towards the mainmast, which was, it seems,
a signal agreed on, when the seamen, being got together there, cried out, “ One
and all! one and all!”

My nephew, the captain, was a man of spirit, and of great presence of
mind; and though he was surprised, he began to talk smartly to them; told
them that I was a very considerable owner of the ship, and that if ever they
came to England again, it would cost them very dear; that the ship was
mine, and that he could not put me out of it; and that he would rather lose
the ship, and the voyage too, than disoblige meso much: so they might do
as they pleased. However, he would go on shore and talk with me, and
invited the boatswain to go with him, and perhaps they might accommodate
the matter with me, But they all rejected the proposal, and said they would
have nothing to do with me any more; and if I came on board, they would
all go on shore. “Well,” said the captain, “if you are all of this mind, let
me go on shore and talk with him.” So away he came to me with this
account, a little after the message had been brought to me from the coxswain.

When he had told me what they had said to him, I told him he should not
be concerned at it at all, for I would stay on shore. I only desired he would
take care and send me all my necessary things on shore, and leave me a
sufficient sum of money, and I would find my way to England as well as I could.

I had the mortification to see the ship set sail without me ; however, my
nephew left me two servants, or rather one companion and one servant. I

took a good lodging in the house of an Englishwoman, where several
ot ia we

x



The Rescued Spaniard.
CRUSOE BECOMES A PLANTER IN BRAZIL. as

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder ; I
‘was gotten into an employment quite remote to my genius, directly contrary
‘to the life I delighted in, for which I forsook my father’s house ; nay, I was
‘coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might
-as well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done ; I had no body to converse with but now and then this neighbour ;
no work to be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back ; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he
gave me this friendly and sincere advice. “Scignor Inglese,” says he (for so
he always called me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this couritry, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and, if
it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take ; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procura-
tion to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures—
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply ; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a merchant at
London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only
delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a
very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

Ihe merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and
PREPARING FOR ACTION. 167

that could be was better than that which we were supposed to be in, we ought
to expect that the consequences, whether death or life, would be sure to be a
deliverance. JI asked him what he thought of the circumstance of my life, and
whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for.

“And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief of my being preserved here on
purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago? For my
part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the prospect of it.”

“What is that?” says he.

“Why,” said I, “it is that, as you say, there are three or four honest fellows
among them, which should be spared; had they been all of the wicked part
of the crew, I should have thought God’s providence had singled them out to
deliver them into your hands; for depend upon it, every man that comes
ashore is our own, and shall die or live as they behave to us.”

As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it
greatly encouraged him; so we set vigorously. to our business: we had, upon -
the first appearance of the boats coming from the ship, considered of separating
our prisoners; and we had, indeed, secured them effectually.

Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent
with Friday, and one of the three delivered men, to my cave, where they were
remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered, or of finding
their way out of the woods, if they could have delivered themselves ; here they
left them bound, but gave them provisions, and promised them, if they con-
tinued there quietly, to give them their liberty in a day or two; but that if
they attempted their escape, they should be put to death without mercy.
They promised faithfully to bear their confinement with patience, and were
very thankful that they had such good usage as to have provisions and light
left them ; for Friday gave them candles (such as we made ourselves) for their
comfort; and they did not know but that he stood sentinel over them at the
entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept pinioned, *
indeed, because the captain was not able to trust them; but the other two
were taken into my service, upon the captain’s recommendation, and upon
their solemnly engaging to live and die with us; so with them and the three
honest men we were seven men, well armed; and I made no doubt we should
be able to deal well enough with the ten that were coming, considering that
the captain had said there were three or four. honest men among’ them also,
As soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay, they ran their
boat into the beach and came all on shore, hauling the boat up after them ;
132 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

enemies were gone ; and pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the
place where they had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes ; so
that it was plain they were gone, and had left their two comrades behind
them, without any search after them. |

But I was not content with this discovery’; but having now more courage,.
and consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving him
the sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I found
he could use very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two:
for myself ; and away we marched to the place where these creatures had’
been ; for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence of them. When
I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my veins, and my heart sunk
within me, at the horror of the spectacle ; indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at.
least it was so to me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place was:
covered with human bones, the ground dyed with their blood, and great pieces.
of flesh left here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched ; and, in short,
_ all the tokens of the triumphant feast they had been making there, after a
victory over their enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands, and the bones of
three or four legs and feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies ; and
Friday, by his signs, made me understand that they brought over four
prisoners to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and that he,
pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a great battle
between them and their next king, of whose subjects, it seems, he had been
one ; and that they had taken a great number of prisoners, all which were
carried to several places, by those who had taken them in the fight, in order
to feast upon them, as was done here by these wretches upon those they
brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and whatever remained,
and lay them together ina heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn
them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some
of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature ; but I, discovered so much
abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it, that
he durst not discover it; for I had, by some means, let him know that I
would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle; and there I fell to
work for my man Friday ; and first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers,
which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which I found in the.
wreck, and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well; then I made
him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as my skill would allow, and I was now
130 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid ; but when I
saw that, I presented my other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him :
upon this, my savage, for so I called him now, made a motion to me to lend
him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by my side; so I did. He no
sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow cut off his head so
cleverly that no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner or better ;
which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw
a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords: however, it seems,
as I learned afterwards, they make their-wooden swords so sharp, so heavy,
and the wood is so hard, that they will even cut off heads with them, ay, and
arms, and that at one blow too. When he had done this, he comes laughing
to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abund-
ance of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down, with the head of
the savage that he had killed, just before me. But that which astonished him
most was to know how I killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to
him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; and I bade him go, as well
as I could ; when he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at him,
_ turned him first on one side, then on the other, looked at the wound the bullet
had made, which it seems was just in his breast, where it had made a hole,
and no great quantity of blood had followed ; but he had bled inwardly, for -
he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came back, so I
turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making signs to him that
more might come after them. Upon this he made signs to me that he should
bury them with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they
followed ; and so I made signs to him again todo so. He fell to work ; and
in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big enough to
bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so
by the other also ; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour.
Then calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave, on the farther part of the island : so I did not let my dream'come to pass in
that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and
a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed
in great distress for, from his running: and having refreshed him, I made
signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had
laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself
sometimes ; so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight strong
limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped ; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six
210 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

how they had passed their time since their arriving in the island, especially '
after they had the misfortune to find that I was gone. He told me he could
not but have some satisfaction in my good fortune, when he heard that I was
gone in a good ship ; and that he had oftentimes a strong persuasion that one
time or other he should see me again ; but nothing that ever befell him in his
~ life, he said, was so surprising and afflicting to him at first, as the disappoint-
ment he was under when he came back to the island, and found I was not
there.
. As to the three barbarians (so he called them) that were left behind, and of
whom, he said, he had a long story to tell me, the Spaniards all thought
_ themselves much better among the savages, only that their number was so_
small; “and,” says he, “had they been strong enough, we had been all long
ago in purgatory ;” and with that he crossed himself on the breast. “ But,
sir,” says he, “I hope you will not be displeased when I shall tell you how,
forced by necessity, we were obliged, for our own preservation, to disarm
them, and make them our subjects, who would not be content with being
moderately our masters, but would be our murderers.” I answered, I was
_ afraid of it when I left them there, and nothing troubled me at my parting
from the island but that they were not come back, that I might have put
them in possession of everything first, and left the others in a state of subjec-
tion, as they deserved ; but if they had reduced them to ‘it I was very glad,
_ and should be very far from finding any fault with it: for I knew they were a
parcel of refractory, ungovernable villains, and were fit for any manner of
mischief.

While I was thus saying this, came the man whom he had sent back, and
with him eleven more: in the dress they were in, it was impossible to guess
what nation they were of; but he made all clear, both to them and to me.
First he turned to me, and pointing to them, said, “ These, sir, are some of the
' gentlemen who owe their lives to you;” and then turning to them, and
pointing to me, he let them know who I was; upon which they all came up
one by one, not as if they had been sailors, and ordinary fellows, and the like,
but really as if they had been ambassadors or noblemen, and I a monarch
or great conqueror: their behaviour was, to the last degree, obliging and
courteous, and yet mixed with a manly, majestic gravity, which very well
became them ; and, in short, they had so much more manners than I, that I
scarce knew how to receive their civilities, much less how to return them in
kind.

I desired the Spaniard would give me a particular account of his voyage .


The Ladder finished.
200 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when my nephew, whom I had
brought up to the sea, and had made commander of a ship, was come home
from a short voyage to Bilboa, being the first he had made. He came to me,
and told me that-some merchants of his acquaintance had been proposing to
him to goa voyage for them to the East Indies, and to China, as private
traders. “And now, uncle,” says he, “if you will go to sea with me, I will
engage to land you upon your old habitation in the island; for we are to
touch at the Brazils.”

I paused awhile at his words, and looking steadily at him, “ What devil,”
said I, “sent you on this unlucky errand?” My nephew stared as if he had
been frightened at first; but perceiving that I was not much displeased with
the proposal, he recovered himself. “I hope it may not bean unlucky proposal,
sir,” says he. “I dare say you would be pleased to see your new colony
there, where you once reigned with more felicity than most of your brother
monarchs in the world.” In a word, the scheme hit so exactly with my
temper, that is to say, the prepossession I was under, that I told him, in a few
words, if he agreed with the merchants, I would go with him; but I told him
I would not promise to go any further than my own island. “Why, sir,” says
he, “ you don’t want to be left there again, I hope?” “But,” said I,“can you
not take me up again on your return?” He told me it would not be possible,
that the merchants would never allow him to come that way with a loaded
ship of such value, it being a month’s sail out of his way, and might be three
or four. “Besides, sir, if I should miscarry,” said he, “and not return at all,
then you would be just reduced to the condition you were in before.”

- This was very rational; but we both found out a remedy for it, which was,
to carry a framed sloop on board the ship, which being taken in pieces, and
shipped on board the ship, might, by the help of some carpenters, whom we
agreed to carry with us, be set up again in the island; and finished, fit to go
_ to sea, in a few days.

My nephew was ready to sail about the beginning of January, 1694-5 ; and
I, with my man Friday, went on board, in the Downs, the 8th; having,
besides that sloop which I mentioned above, a very considerable cargo of all
kinds of necessary things for my colony, which, if I did not find in good
condition, I resolved to leave so.

_ I carried with me some servants whom I purposed to place there as inhabi-
tants, or at least to set on work there upon my own account, two carpenters,
a smith, and a very handy, ingenious fellow, who was a cooper by trade, and
was also a general mechanic; for he was dexterous at making wheels, and
AGAIN AT WORK ON THE WRECK. 59°

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand; I wrenched open two-
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide ; I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day. :

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of
the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could.
not break them up ; I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it
was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14.—Went every day to the wreck ; and got a great many pieces.
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred-weight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other ;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet. |

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods to get:
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance,.
near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found it wasa
piece of the lead, but two heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—"very day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first blowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind.
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out ; and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron-. .
work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got,
at several times and in several pieces, near 100 weight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle; this
was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect:
of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs;
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever:
162 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition to get any sleep, were,
however, sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a
mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this I
resolved to discover myself to them, and learn something of their. condition.
Immediately I marched as above, my man Friday at a good distance behind
. me,as formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite so staring a spectre-
like figure as I did. I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then,
before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them in Spanish, “ What are
ye, gentlemen?” They started up at the noise, but were ten times more
confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I made. They
made no answer at all, but I thought I perceived them just going to fly from
“me, when I spoke to them in English.

“Gentlemen,” said I, ‘‘do not be surprised at me; perhaps you may have
a friend near, when you did not expect it.”

“He must -be sent directly from Heaven, then,” said one of them very
gravely to me, and pulling off his hat at the same time to me; “for our
condition is past the help of man.”

“All help is from Heaven, sir,” said I: “but can you put a stranger in the
way to help you? for you seem to be in some great distress. I saw you when
you landed ; and when you seemed to make application to the brutes that
came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”

_ The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looking
like one astonished, returned—

“Am I talking to God, or man? Is it a real man, or an angel ?”

_“ Be in no fear about that, sir,” said I; “if God had sent an angel to relieve
you, he would have come better clothed, and armed after another manner than.
you see me in; pray lay aside your fears; I am a man, an Englishman, and
disposed to assist you ; you see I have one servant only; we have arms and
ammunition ; tell us freely, can we serve you? What is your case?”

“Our case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell you, while our murderers are so
near uS; but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship: my men have
mutinied against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder me,
and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate place, with these two men
with me—one my mate, the other a passenger ; where we expected to perish,
believing the place to be uninhabited, and know not what to think of it.”

“Where are those brutes, your enemies,’ ’ said I; “do you know where they
are gone?” 4

“There they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket of trees; “ my heart





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INTRODUCTION.

——_ooo———

NE ANIEL DEFOE, the author of “ Robinson Crusoe,” had a career
which is, perhaps, one of the most remarkable in English literary
history. The times in which he lived and worked were, indeed,
such as produced remarkable careers. He was born in 1661, in
the year after the Restoration. Milton was still alive, and men were still com-
paring closely the Monarchy with the Commonwealth. When the Plague of
-London occurred, which he described so ingeniously, if not ingenuously, as an
eye-witness, he was four years old. He was sixteen when Titus Oates evoked
the Popish scare. He saw Charles II. succeeded by James IL, and took part
at twenty-four in the rising of the Duke of Monmouth, which ended in the
‘battle of Sedgemoor and the execution of its leader. He hailed with joy
“the Glorious Revolution.” He took a personal part in arranging the Union
between England and Scotland, did his very best to inflame the minds of the
‘people against the Pretender and the Jacobites, saw the Hanoverian line
come in, and died a pensioner of George II. :
He was the son of a Cripplegate butcher named James Foe, and in his
early years called himself by his patronymic; but wishing apparently to
dignify himself with Norman lineage, he assumed the lordly prefix with as
little compunction as Robinson Crusoe showed in pretending that he was a
governor in his castle, when he wished to catch the mutineers, whose coming
enabled him to escape from his island. |
James Foe was a Nonconformist, and desiring for his son the office of
‘Dissenting Minister, gave him an education with the pulpit in view; but
when the time came for him to take the sacred office, Daniel refused a




| G

Cx
14 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

cand had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
‘with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
- fit to drink ; particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing ; and as I was most dex-
terous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he
had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily ; and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a
larger store of provisions than ordinary ; and had ordered me to get ready
‘three fusees with powder and shot which were on board his ship ; for that
' ‘they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
‘with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendents out, and everything to
accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that fell out,
and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
-catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and com-
manded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house ;
-all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command ; and my
‘my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business,
‘but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer ; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get
‘something for our subsistence on board ; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron’s bread ; he said that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusks or biscuit of their kind, and three jars of fresh water into the
boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident
by the make were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master; I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat,
which weighed about half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of twine or thread,
a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, whom they called
Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him—*Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns
are on board the boat ; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be
Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.





A HANDBOOK TO
THE FERNERY AND AQUARIUM,

containing full directions how to make, stock, and
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J. H. MARTIN and JAMES WESTON. With 43
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‘‘Though what Mr. Weston has to say is comprised within
fifty pages, it forms one of the best manuals on the subject we
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‘‘ Few of the people, perhaps, who are sincere lovers of flowers
and gardens, imagine the ‘ fern paradise’ it is possible for them
to make with very little trouble. To such we would commend
this admirable manual. In brief compass, and without wasting
words, it tells all that is necessary to be known for the general
cultivation of these lovely plants.”—Lzterary World.

‘*Those who are anxious to know the methods by which the
fresh-water, the insect, the microscopical and the marine aquaria,
are managed with success will do well to consult Mr. Weston’s
pages.’~—-/veld Naturalist.

[ Ready.

ADULTERATIONS OF FOOD (How to
Detect the). By the Author of “ Ferns and Fern-
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sewed ... bes bes

‘The little work before us offers many useful hints to house-
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THE BATH AND BATHING. By Dr. J.
FARRAR, F.R.C.P.E. Crown 8vo., limp cloth

‘‘Dr. Farrar’s manual is not only cheap, but it is so clear,
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. Oo

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O

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T RESCUE A SAVAGE. 129

same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and having a
very short cut, and all down hill, clapped myself in the way between the
pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him"that fled, who, looking back,
was at first perhaps as much frighted at me as at them ; but I beckoned with
my hand to him to come back; and, in the mean time, I slowly advanced
towards the two that followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I
knocked him down with the stock of my piece; I was loth to fire because I
would not have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not have
been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they would not
have known what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the other
who pursued him stopped, as if he had been frighted, and I advanced
towards him: but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and
arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me: so I was then necessitated to shoot
at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot. The poor savage
who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and. killed,
as he thought, yet was so frighted with the fire and noise of my piece, that
he stood stock still, and neither came forward nor went backward, though he
seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him,
and made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and came a
little way, then stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped again, and
I could then perceive that he stccd trembling, as if he had keen taken
prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned
to him again to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement that
I could think of, and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or
twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment for my saving his life. I smiled at
him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer ; at
length, he came close to me, and then he kneeled down again, kissed the
‘ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set
my foot upon his head ; this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my
‘slave for ever. I took him up and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the savage
whom I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and
began to come to himself: so I pointed to him, and showed him the savage,
that he was not dead ; upon this he spoke scme words to me, and though I
could not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear ; for
they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted,
for above twenty-five years. But there was no time for such refections now - -
the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon
IO


“CONTENTS.



PART I.

CRUSOE’S BIRTH AND PARENTAGE eee eee
DESIRES TO GO TO SEA—HIS FATHER’S COUNSEL vee
RUNS AWAY TO SEA—FROM HULL TO YARMOUTH ROADS
TRAVELS TO LONDON eee eee eee eee
SETS UP AS A GUINEA TRADER ... eee eee
SHIP CAPTURED BY TURKISH ROVER ... eee eee
IN SLAVERY AT SALLEE eee eee eee
ESCAPES FROM SLAVERY eee eee vee eee
WITH XURY OFF THE AFRICAN COAST eee eee
PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE eee eee eee
TAKEN TO BRAZIL eee eee eae eee
BECOMES A PLANTER IN BRAZIL tes eee eee
SAILS FOR THE COAST OF GUINEA TO TRADE FOR NEGROES
A STORM—THE SHIP IS STRANDED ON AN ISLAND tee
CRUSOE THE ONLY ONE SAVED eee eee vee

GETS UP INTO A TREE TO SLEEP FOR THE NIGHT as.

Io

eee Io-I2

12

bee 13

14, 15

bes 16-22

25-6

27-8

29

see 30-1

32
THE SAVAGES DEPART. 235

take, or how near the enemy might be, or in what number; so they resolved
to go away to the place where their wives were, to see if all was well there,.
and to make them easy. They found everything very safe, only the women in
a terrible fright ; while they were here, they had the comfort to have seven.
of the Spaniards coming to their assistance ; the other ten, with their servants,.
and Friday’s father, were gone in a body to defend their bower, and the corn
and cattle that were kept there, in case the savages should have roved over to
that side of the country. With the seven Spaniards came one of the three:
savages, who, as I said, were their prisoners formerly ; and with them also.
came the savage whom the Englishman had left bound hand and foot at the
tree ; for it seems they came that way, saw the slaughter of the seven men,,
and unbound the eighth, and brought him along with them ; where, however,.
they were obliged to bind him again, as they had the two others who were left.
when the third ran away.

The prisoners began now to be a burden to them; and they were so afraid’
of their escaping, that they were once resolving to kill them all, believing they
were under an absolute necessity to do so for their own preservation; however,.
the Spanish Governor would not consent to it, but ordered, for the present.
that they should be sent out of the way, to my old cave in the valley.

When the Spaniards came, the two Englishmen were so encouraged, that
they could not satisfy themselves to stay any longer there; but taking five of
the Spaniards, and themselves, with four muskets and a pistol among them,.
and two stout quarter-staves, away they went in quest of the savages. The
party resolved, though with all possible caution, to go forward towards their
ruined plantation ; but, a little before they came thither, coming in sight of
the sea-shore, they saw plainly the savages all embarked again in their:
canoes, in order to be gone. They seemed sorry at first, that there was no.
way to come at them, to give them a parting blow; but, upon the whole, they
were very well satisfied to be rid of them.

The poor Englishmen being now twice ruined, and all their improvements.
destroyed, the rest all agreed to come and help them to rebuild, and assist
them with needful supplies. Their three countrymen, who were not yet
noted for having the least inclination to do any good, yet as soon as they
heard of it (for they, living remote eastward, knew nothing of the matter till
all was over), came and offered their help and assistance, and did very friendly
work for several days to restore their habitation, and make necessaries for
them. And thus in a little time they were set upon their legs again.

It was five or six months after this before they heard any more of the
‘

238 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

‘They would have had the women keep back, but they said they were resolved
to die with their husbands. Having thus formed their little army, they
marched out from among the trees, and came up to the teeth of the enemy,
‘shouting and hallooing as loud as they could ; the savages stood all together,
but were in the utmost confusion, hearing the noise of our men shouting from
three quarters together: they would have fought if they had seen us; for as
soon as we came near enough to be seen, some arrows were shot, and poor old
Friday was wounded, though not dangerously. But our men gave them no
time, but running up to them, fired among them three ways, and then fell in
with the butt ends of their muskets, their swords, armed staves, and hatchets,
and laid about them so well, that, in a word, they set up a dismal screaming
and howling, flying to save their lives.

Our men were tired with the execution, and killed or mortally wounded in
the two fights about one hundred and eighty of them ; the rest, being frighted
out of their wits, scoured through the woods and over the hills, with all the
speed that fear and nimble feet could help them to; and as we did not trouble
‘ourselves much to pursue them, they got all together to the sea-side, where
they landed, and where their canoes lay. But their disaster was not at an end
yet ; for it blew a terrible storm of wind that evening from the sea, so that it
was impossible for them to go off. Our men, though glad of their victory, yet
got little rest that night; but having refreshed themselves as well as they
could, they resolved to march to that part of the island where the savages.
were fled, and see what posture they were in.

At length they came in view of the place where the more considerable
remains of the savages’ army lay, where there appeared about 100 still; their
posture was generally sitting upon the ground, with their knees up towards
their mouth, and the head put between the two hands, leaning down upon
their knees. When our men came within two musket shots of them, the
Spaniard Governor ordered two muskets to be fired, without ball, to alarm
them ; this he did, that by their countenance he might know what to expect,
whether they were still in heart to fight. This stratagem took: for as soon
as the savages heard the first gun, and saw the flash of the second, they
started up upon their feet in the greatest consternation imaginable; and as
our men advanced swiftly towards them, they all ran screaming and yelling
away up the hills into the country, with a kind of howling noise.

At first our men had much rather the weather had been calm, and they had
all gone away to sea; but they did not then consider that this might probably
have been the occasion of their coming again in such multitudes as not to be
fo2 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

up ta its usual height, the ladder standing always in the inside; I kept the
trees, which at first were no more than stakes, but were now grown very firm
and tall, always cut, so that they might spread and grow thick and wild, and
_ make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectually to my. mind. In
the middle of this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of a sail
spread over poles, set up for that purpose, and which never wanted any repair
_ or renewing ; and under this I had made me a squab or couch, with the skins
of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket laid on
them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved ; and a great
watch-coat to cover me; and here, whenever I had occasion ‘to be absent.
from my seat, I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that is to say, my
goats ; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and inclose:
this ground, so I was so uneasy to see it kept entire, lest the goats should’
break through, that I never left off till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the
outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that:
it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand
through between them, which afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all.
did in the next rainy season, made the inclosure strong like a wall, indeed’
stronger than any wall. This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that:
I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my com--
fortable support.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended
on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very
carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet ; and indeed!
they were not agreeable only, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and:
refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place
where I had laid up my boat, I generally staid and lay here in my way
thither ; for I used frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all things about, or
belonging to her, in very good order ; sometimes I went out in her to divert:
_ myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a.
stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out
of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any other accident. But
- now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly
-. surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, which was very
plain to be seen on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had
106 | ~" ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night ; but in the morning

I fell asleep ; and having, by the amusement of my mind, been,“as it were,
_ tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and waked much better
composed than I had ever been before ; and now I began to think sedately ;
and, upon the utmost debate with myself, I concluded that this island (which
was so exceedingly pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the main land than
as I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I might imagine; that
although there were no stated inhabitants who ‘lived on the spot, yet that
there might sometimes come boats off from the shore, who, either with design,
or perhaps never but when they were driven by cross winds, might come to
this place. That I had lived here fifteen years now, and had not met with
the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and that, if at any time they

_ should be driven here, it was probable they went away again as soon as ever
they could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here upon any occasion to:
this time. That the most I could suggest any danger from was, from any
casual accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it was.
likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills ; so they made
no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed, seldom staying one
night on shore, lest they should not have the help of the tides and daylight
back again ; and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some
safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the spot. |
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring

a door through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where my
fortification joined to the rock: upon maturely considering this, therefore, I
resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the manner of a semicircle, at a
distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees about
twelve years before, of which I made mention : these trees having been planted
- so thick before, they wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that
they might be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon finished. So
that I had now.a double wall; and my outer wall was thickened with pieces
of timber, old cables, and everything I could think of, to make it strong;
having in it seven little holes, about as big as I might put my arm out at. In
the inside of this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick, with continually
bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and
walking upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to plant the
muskets, of which I took notice that I had got seven on shore out of the ship;
these I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that held them.

_ like a carriage, so that I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time ;
REMEMBERING OLD FRIENDS. 185

faow to secure it. I determined to go back to England myself, and take my
effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this ;. and therefore,
as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to his satisfaction, who had been
my former benefactor, so I began to think of the poor widow whose husband
had been my first benefactor, and she, while it was in her power, my faithful
steward and instructor. So the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon
to write to his correspondent in London, not only to pay a bill, but to find
her out, and carry her, in money, a hundred pounds from me, and to talk
with her, and comfort her in her poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived,
have a further supply. At the same time, I sent my two sisters in the
country a hundred pounds each, they being, though not in want, yet not in
very good circumstances; one having been married and left a widow, and
the other having a husband not so kind to her as he should be. But, among
all my relations or acquaintances, I could not yet pitch upon one to whom I
durst commit the gross of my stock, that I might go away to the Brazils, and
leave things safe behind me; and this greatly perplexed me.

Having settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all my effects into
good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was which way to go to England.
I had been accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to
go to England by sea at that time ; and though I could give no reason for it,
yet the difficulty increased upon me so much, that though I had once shipped
any baggage in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and that not once, but

wo or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might be one of the
reasons ; but let no man slight the strong impulses of his own thoughts in
cases of such moment : two of the ships which I had singled out to go in, I
mean more particularly singled out than any other, having put my things on
board one of them, and in the other having agreed with the captain; I say
two of these ships miscarried ; vzz., one was taken by the Algerines, and the
other was cast away on the Start, near Torbay, and all the people drowned
except three ; so that in either of those vessels I had been made miserable.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot pressed me
earestly not to go by sea, but either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross
over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but. an easy and safe
journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to Madrid,
and so all the way by land through France. I resolved to travel all the way
by land, which, as I was not in haste, and did not value the charge, was by
126 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Heaven, seemed to be suspended ; and I had, as it were, no power to turn my
thoughts to anything but to the project of a voyage to the main, which came
upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not to
be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such
violence that it set my. very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as if I
had been in a fever, merely with the extraordinary fervour of my mind about
it, Nature, as if I had been fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of
it, threw me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have
dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it; but I dreamed
that as I was going out in the morning as usual, from my castle, I saw upon
the shore two canoes and eleven savages, coming to land, and that they
brought with them another savage, whom they were going to kill, in order to
‘eat him ; when, on a sudden, the savage that they were going to Kill jumped
away, and ran for his life; and I thought, in my sleep, that he came running
into my little thick grove before my fortification, to hide himself; and that I,
seeing -him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him that way,
showed myself to him, and smiling upon him, encouraged him: that he
_ kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him ; upon which I showed
him my ladder, made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and he became
my servant ; and that as soon as I had gotten this man, I said to myself,
-“Now I may certainly venture to the main land, for this fellow will serve me
as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to go for provisions, and
whither not to go for fear of being devoured ; what places to venture into,
and what to escape.” I waked with this thought ; and was under such inex-
pressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that
the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that it
was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the other way, and
threw me into a very great dejection of spirit.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion : that my only way to go about
to attempt an escape was, to endeavour to get a savage into my possession ;
and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners, whom they had condemned
to be eaten, and should bring hither to kill, But these thoughts still were
attended with this difficulty: that it was impossible to effect this without
attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them all; and this was not
only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry ; but, on the other hand, I
had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to me; and my heart trembled at.
the thoughts of shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliverance.
THE MUTINEERS CAPTURED. 173

for his life; and all the rest begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might
not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me, that the time of our deliverance was come, and that
it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting
possession of the ship; so I retired in the dark from them, that they might
not see what kind of a Governor they had, and called the captain to me ; when
I called, as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak again,
and say to the captain, “Captain, the commander calls for you;” and
presently the captain replied, “ Tell his Excellency I am just a-coming.”
This more perfectly amused them, and they all believed that the commander
was just by, with his fifty men. Upon the captain coming to me, I told him
my project for seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved
to put it in execution the next morning. But, in order to execute it with:
more art, and to be secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners,
and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the worst of them,
and send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay : this was committed
to Friday and the two men who came on shore with the captain. They
conveyed them to the cave as to a prison ; and it was, indeed, a dismal place,
especially to men in their condition. The others I ordered to my bower, as I
called it, of which I have given a full description; and as it was fenced in,
and they were pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering they were
upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter into a parley
with them ; in a word, to try them, and tell me whether he thought they
might be trusted or not to go on board and surprise the ship. He talked to
them of the injury done him, of the condition they were brought to; and that
though the Governor had given them quarter for their lives as to the present
action, yet that if they were sent to England, to be sure they would all be
hanged in chains; but that if they would join in so just an attempt as to
recover the ship, he would have the Governor’s engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by men
in their condition ; they fell down on their knees to the captain, and promised,
with the deepest imprecations, that they would be faithful to him to the last
drop, and that they should owe their lives to him, and would go with him all
over the world; that they would own him as a father to them as long as they
lived. “Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell the Governor what you
say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent to it.” So he brought me
an account of the temper he found them in, and that he verily believed they


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“T WAS NOW SET UP FOR A GUINEA TRADER.” IE

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did not ship.
myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learned the duty and office:
of a fore-mast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not fora master: but as it was always my fate to choose for:
the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman ; and
so I neither had any business in the ship, or learned to do any.

I first fell acquainted with the master of the ship, who, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I.
had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I
should be at no expense; I should be his mess-mate and his companion, and
if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that
the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict friendship with this captain,
who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about £40 in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had
mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I cor-.
responded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
captain ; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
#300 ; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin. !

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,.
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest.
voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £100 of my





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INTRODUCTION.

——_ooo———

NE ANIEL DEFOE, the author of “ Robinson Crusoe,” had a career
which is, perhaps, one of the most remarkable in English literary
history. The times in which he lived and worked were, indeed,
such as produced remarkable careers. He was born in 1661, in
the year after the Restoration. Milton was still alive, and men were still com-
paring closely the Monarchy with the Commonwealth. When the Plague of
-London occurred, which he described so ingeniously, if not ingenuously, as an
eye-witness, he was four years old. He was sixteen when Titus Oates evoked
the Popish scare. He saw Charles II. succeeded by James IL, and took part
at twenty-four in the rising of the Duke of Monmouth, which ended in the
‘battle of Sedgemoor and the execution of its leader. He hailed with joy
“the Glorious Revolution.” He took a personal part in arranging the Union
between England and Scotland, did his very best to inflame the minds of the
‘people against the Pretender and the Jacobites, saw the Hanoverian line
come in, and died a pensioner of George II. :
He was the son of a Cripplegate butcher named James Foe, and in his
early years called himself by his patronymic; but wishing apparently to
dignify himself with Norman lineage, he assumed the lordly prefix with as
little compunction as Robinson Crusoe showed in pretending that he was a
governor in his castle, when he wished to catch the mutineers, whose coming
enabled him to escape from his island. |
James Foe was a Nonconformist, and desiring for his son the office of
‘Dissenting Minister, gave him an education with the pulpit in view; but
when the time came for him to take the sacred office, Daniel refused a




| G

Cx
216 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Upon this they were all trooping away, with every man a gun, a pistol, and
a sword, and muttered some insolent things among themselves, of what they
would do to the Spaniards too, when opportunity offered ; but the Spaniards,
it seems, did not so perfectly understand them as to know all the particulars,
only that, in general, they threatened them hard for taking the two English-
men’s part. Whither they went, or how they bestowed their time that even-
ing, the Spaniards said they did not know ; but it seems they wandered about
the country part of the night, and then lying down in the place which I used
to call my bower, they were weary and overslept themselves. The case was
this: they had resolved to stay till midnight, and so to take the two poor men
when they were asleep, and as they acknowledged afterwards, intended to set
fire to their huts while they were in them, and either burn them there, or
murder them as they came out: and as malice seldom sleeps very sound, it
was very strange they should not have been kept waking. However, as the
two men had also a design upon them, as I have said, though a much fairer
one than that of burning and murdering, it happened, and very luckily for
them all, that they were up and gone abroad, before the bloody-minded rogues
came to their huts.

When they came there, and found the men gone, Atkins, who, it seems, was
the forwardest man, called out to his comrade, “ Ha, Jack, here’s the nest, but
the birds are flown.” They mused awhile, to think what should be the
occasion of their being gone abroad so soon, and suggested presently that the
Spaniards had given them notice of it ; and with that they shook hands, and
swore to one another that they would be revenged of the Spaniards. As soon
as they had made this bloody bargain, they fell to work with the poor men’s
habitation ; they did not set fire, indeed, to anything, but they pulled down
both their houses, not leaving the least stick standing, or scarce any sign on
the ground where they stood; they tore all their little household stuff in
pieces, and threw everything about in such a manner, that the poor men
afterwards found some of their things a mile off from their habitation. When
they had done this, they pulled up all the young trees which the poor men
had planted ; broke down the inclosure they had made to secure their cattle
and their corn; and, in a word, sacked and plundered everything as com-
pletely as a horde of Tartars would have done.

The two men were, at this juncture, gone to find them out, and had resolved
to fight them wherever they had been, though they were but two or three ;
so that, had they met, there certainly would have been bloodshed among
them, for they were all very stout, resolute fellows, to give them their due.
58 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed ; the fore-
castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and
the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and
cast on one side,and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I could not come
within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I-could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence
the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habita-
tion, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether
I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. However,
_ as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from
her would be of some use or other to me. _

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I
thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side

which lay highest ; but the tide comingin, I was obliged to give over for that time.

_ May 4.—I1 went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I
was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. JI had made. me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
_yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
_ dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made to
float on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of her, and other
pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came home very much tired,.
and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7—Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work, but.
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it, but almost full of water and sand.
A STRATAGEM. 169

come abroad. But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where they
could see a great way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards the
north-east part, and where the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed
till they were weary : and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore,
nor far from one another, they sat down together, under a tree to consider it:
hhad they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other part of them
had done, they had done the job for us; but they were too full of appre-
hensions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though they could not tell what
the danger was they had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation of
theirs, vzz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to endeavour to
make their fellows hear, and that we should all sally upon them just at the
juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly yield,
and we should have them without bloodshed. I liked the proposal, provided
it was done while we were near enough to come up to them before they could
load their pieces again. But this event did not happen; and we lay stilla
long time, very irresolute what course to take; at length, I told them there
would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night; and then, if they did not
return to the boat, perhaps we might find a way to get between them and the
shore, and so might use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on
shore. We waited a great while, though very impatient for their removing ;
and were very uneasy, when, after a long consultation, we saw them all start
up, and march down towards the sea: it seems they had such dreadful appre-
hensions of the danger of the place, that they resolved to go on board the
ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on with their
intended voyage with the ship.

“As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to be as it
really was, that they had given over their search, and were going back again ;
and the captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the
apprehensions of it: but I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them >
back again, and which answered my end toatittle. I ordered Friday and
the captain’s mate to go over the little creek westward, towards the place
where the savages came on shore when Friday was rescued, and so soon as
they came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade them
halloo cut, as loud as they could, and wait till they found the seamen heard
them ; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer them, they should
return it again ; and then, keeping out of sight, take a round, always answer-
ing when the others hallooed, to draw them as far into the island and among
THE SHIP STRIKES UPON THE SAND. 26

order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief ; but our
voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of 12 deg. 18
min. a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in.
danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early in.
the morning cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our close
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea,

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to describe
or conccive the consternation of men in such circumstances : we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the.
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and every
man, acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this: that which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not
break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
vetting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do:
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship’s rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was
driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however, there
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every’
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the
help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the ship’s side; and getting:
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s.
t.

92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be
able to make the island again: and, indeed, had I not got first up upon this
hill, I believe it would have been so ; for there was the same current on the
“other side the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there
was a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out of
ithe first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.
_’ [lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty fresh at
#.S.E., and that being just contrary to the said current, made a great breach
‘of the sea upon the point ; so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to
the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the sea
‘was calm, and I ventured: but I am a warning to all rash and ignorant
jpilots ; for no sooner was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat’s
dength from’ the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, anda
current like the sluice of a mill: it carried my boat along with it with such
violence that all I could do could not keep her so much as on the edge of it ;
‘ut I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on
my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do
with my paddles signified nothing: and now I began to give myself over for
dost; for as the current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few
_ deagues’ distance they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone;
_ nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it ; so that I had no prospect before
ame but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving
from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I
could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
‘water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all this to being
driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no shore, no main
dand or island, for a thousand leagues at least ? |
_ And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make even
the most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now I looked back upon
my desolate, solitary island, as the most pleasant place in the world, and all
the happiness my heart could wish for was to be but there again. I stretched
out my hands to it, with eager wishes: “O happy desert!” said I, “I shall
never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I going!” Then I
reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my
solitary condition ; and now what would I give to be on shore there again !
Thus, we never see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by
' dts contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it.


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school-children his volumes will present all the charms of novelty.
The compiler has evidently a large acquaintance with the poetical
literature of our country, and an excellent ear for the music of
poetry, .. . The work is therefore one of exceptional interest.” —
Schoot Boatd Chronicle.
110 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

after my boat all this time, but began rather to think of making another ; for
I could not think of ever making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with some of these creatures at sea ;
in which case, if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what
‘would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of being
discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about them ; and
I began to live just in the same composed manner as before, only with this
‘difference, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I
‘did before lest I should happen to be seen by any of them; and I was more
cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them, being on the island, should happen
to hear it; it was, therefore, a good providence to me that I had furnished
myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I needed not to hunt any more
about the woods, or shoot at them ; and if I did catch any of them after this,
- It was by traps and snares, as I had done before; so that for two years after
this, I believe I never fired my gun off once, though I never went out without
‘it; and as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out
‘with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt; I also
furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made
ame a belt to hang it on also; so that I was now a most formidable fellow to
look at when I went abroad, if you add to the former description of myself,
the particular of two pistols, and a great broadsword hanging at my side ina
‘belt, but without a scabbard.

As in my present condition there were not really many things which I
‘wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about these savage
‘wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own preservation, had taken
off the edge of my invention for my own conveniences ; and I had dropped a
_ good design, which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and that was to try if
I could not make some of my barley into malt, and then to try and brew my-
‘self some beer, This was really a whimsical thought, and I reproved myself
‘often for the simplicity of it: for I presently saw there would be the want of
several things necessary to the making my beer, that it would be impossible
‘for me to supply ; as, first, casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as
I have observed already, I could never compass: no, though I spent not only
many days, but weeks, nay months, in attempting it, but to no purpose. In
the next place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it work, no
copper or kettle to make it boil; and yet with all these things wanting, I
verily believe, had not the frights and terrors I was in about the savages inter-
A BEDFORDSHIRE FARMER. 199

powerful impulse of Providence upon me, which had determined me to go
thither again; and that she found nothing hindered my going, but my being
engaged to awife and children. She told me that it was true she could not
think of parting with me; but as she was assured, that if she was dead, it
would be the first thing I would do. So as it seemed to her that the thing
~ was determined above, she would not be the only obstruction. “ Rather,”
says she, “than I will be the only hindrance, I will go with you; for though I
think it a most preposterous thing for one of your years, and in your condi-
tion, yet if it must be,” said she again weeping, ‘‘I won’t leave you ; for if it be
of Heaven, you must do it.”

These words brought me for a time out of my vapours. I bought a little
farm in the county of Bedford, and found its management and improvement
suited to my instinct. I farmed upon my own land, I had no rent to pay,
was limited by no articles ; I could pull up or cut down as I pleased. What
I planted was for myself, and what I improved was for my family; and
having thus left off the thoughts of wandering, I had not the least discomfort
in any part of life as to this world. Now I thought, indeed, that I enjoyed
the middle state of life, that my father so earnestly recommended to me, and
lived a kind of heavenly life, something like what is described by the poet
upon the subject of a country life:

“Free from vices, free from care,
Age has no pain, and youth no snare.”

But in the middle of all this felicity, one blow from unforeseen Providence
unhinged me at once; and not only made a breach upon me inevitable and
incurable, but drove me, by its consequences, into a deep relapse into the
wandering disposition, which, as I may say, being born in my very blood, soon
recovered its hold of me, and like the returns of a violent distemper, came on.
with an irresistible force upon me; so that nothing could make any more:
impression upon me. This blow was the loss of my wife.

My sage counsellor was gone. I was like a ship without a pilot, that could
only run afore the wind. My thoughts ran all away again into the old
affair; my head was quite turned with the whimseys of foreign adventures ;
and all the pleasant innocent amusements of my farm and my garden, my
cattle and my family, which before entirely possessed me, were nothing to
me, had no relish, and were like music to one that has no ear, or food to one
that has no taste. In a word, I resolved to leave off housekeeping, let my
farm, and return to London; and in a few months after I did so.
218 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and if they fell into their hands alive, they should certainly be hanged. How-
ever, this was far from cooling them, but away they went, raging and swearing
like furies. As soon as they were gone, came back the two men, in passion
and rage enough also, though of another kind; for having been at their
plantation, and finding it all demolished and destroyed, as above mentioned,
it will easily be supposed they had provocation enough; they could scarce
have room to tell their tale, the Spaniards were so eager to tell them theirs ;
and it was strange enough to find that three men should thus bully nineteen,
and receive no punishment at all.

The Spaniards, indeed, despised them, and especially, having thus disarmed
them, made light of their threatenings ; but the two Englishmen resolved to
have their remedy against them, what pains soever it cost to find them out.
But the Spaniards interposed here too, and told them, that as they had
disarmed them, they could not consent that they (the two) should pursue them
with fire-arms, and perhaps kill them. “ But,” said the grave Spaniard, who
was their Governor, “ we will endeavour to make them do you justice, if you
will leave it to us: for there is no doubt but they will come to us again, when
their passion is over, being not able to subsist without our assistance; we
promise you to make no peace with them without having a full satisfaction
for you ; and, upon this condition, we hope you will promise to use no violence
with them, other than in your defence.” The two Englishmen yielded to this
very awkwardly, and with great reluctance ; but the Spaniards protested that
they did it only to keep them from bloodshed, and to make them all easy at last.

In about five days’ time the vagrants, tired with wandering, and almost
starved with hunger, having chiefly lived on turtles’ eggs all that while, came
back to the grove; and, finding my Spaniard, who, as I have said, was the
Governor, and two more with him, walking by the side of the creek, they came
up ina very submissive, humble manner, and begged to be received again
into the family. The Spaniards used them civilly, but told them they had
acted so unnaturally by their countrymen, and so very grossly by them (the
Spaniards), that they could not come to any conclusion without consulting
the two Englishmen and the rest ; but, however, they would go to them and
discourse about it, and they should know in half an hour. It may be guessed
that they were very hard put to it; for, as they were to wait this half-hour for
an answer, they begged they would send them out some bread in the mean-
time, which they did, and sent them, at the same time, a large piece of goat’s flesh,
and a boiled parrot, which they ate very eagerly, for they were hungry indeed.

After half an hour’s consultation they were called in, and a long debate
A SLEEPLESS NIGHT. 125

year of my first setting foot in this island of solitariness ; I was lying in my
bed or hammock awake, very well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no.
uneasiness of body, nor any uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could
by no means close my eyes; that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all night
long. It is impossible to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that
whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain, the memory, in this
night’s time: I ran over the whole history of my life in miniature, or by
abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and also of that
part of my life since I came to this island.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in
considering the nature of those wretched creatures, the savages, and how it
came to pass in the world that the wise Governor of all things should give up.
any of his creatures to such inhumanity—nay, to something so much below
even brutality itself—as to devour its own kind: but, as this ended in some
(at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to inquire, what part of
the world these wretches lived in? how far off the coast was from whence
they came? what they ventured over so far from home for? what kind of
boats they had? and why I might not order myself and my business so, that
I might be able to go over thither, as they were to come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with
myself when I went thither ; what would become of me if I fell into the hands
of these savages ; or how I should escape them if they attacked me; but my
mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing over in my boat to the
main land. I looked upon my present condition as the most miserable that
could possibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into anything but
death, that could be called worse ; and if I reached the shore of the main, I
might perhaps meet with relief; or I might coast along, as I did on the
African shore, till I came to some “inhabited country, and where I might find
some relief; and, after all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship
that might take me in; and if the worst came to the worst, I could but die,
which would put an end to all these miseries at once. All this was the fruit
of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper, made desperate, as it were, by the
long continuance of my troubles, and the disappointments I had met in the
wreck I had been on board of, and where I had been so near obtaining what
I so earnestly longed for—somebody to speak to, and to learn some know-
ledge from them of the place where I was, and of the probable means of my
deliverance. I was agitated wholly by these thoughts; all my calm of mind
in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of
GETS IN BAD COMPANY, 5

if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived ; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station
‘of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore ; and I resolved that I
would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and indeed some time after ; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave
for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed ;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning ; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sca-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
enticed me away, comes to me.

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after
it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind ?”

“A capful d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.”

“A storm, you fool you,” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it
was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that ; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob: come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now ?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors ;
the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it; and in that one
night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
i made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ; and the
100 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

skirts coming down to about the middle of my thighs, and a pair of open-:
kneed breeches of the same ; the breeches were made of the skin of an old
he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like pan-
taloons, it reached to the ‘middle of my legs; stockings and shoes I had none,
but had made me a pair of somethings, I scarce know what to call them, like:
buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side like spatter-dashes ; but
of a most barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with two.
thongs of the same, instead of buckles, and in a kind of a frog on either side:
of this. Instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one’
on one side, one on the other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened
in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under
my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too, in one of which
hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, on
my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat’s-skin
umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had about me
next to my gun; as for my face, the colour of it, was really not so mulatto-
like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within
nineteen degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till
it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both scissors and razors.
sufficient, I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which
I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen
worn by some Turks at Sallee, for the Moors did not wear such, though the-
Turks did ; of these moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long
enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape.
monstrous enough, and such as in England would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye ; for, as to my figure, I had so few to observe me,.
that it was no manner of consequence. In this kind of figure I went my new
journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled first along the sea-shore,.
directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor to get upon
the rocks ; and having no boat now to take care of, I went over the land a.
nearer way to the same height that I was upon before; when, looking
forward to the points of the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged to:
double with my boat, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet, no
rippling, no motion, no current, any more there than in any other places. I
was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to spend some time in
the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned it ;
but I was presently convinced how it was, v7z., that the tide of ebb setting.
SLAVERY INAUGURATED. 231

The first thing they did was to cause the old Indian, Friday’s father, to go
in, and see first if he knew any of them, and then if he understood any of
their speech. As soon as the old man came in, he looked seriously at them,
but knew none of them: neither could any of them understand a word he
said, or a sign he could make, except one of the women. However, this was
enough to answer the end, which was to satisfy them that the men into whose
hands they were fallen were Christians; that they abhorred eating men or
women ; and that they might be sure they would not be killed; as soon as
they were assured of this, they discovered such a joy, and by such awkward
gestures, as is hard to describe. The woman, who was their interpreter, was
bid, in the next place, to ask them if they were willing to be servants, and to
work for the men who had brought them away, to save their lives ; at which
they all fell a dancing ; and presently one fell to taking up this, and another
that, anything that lay next, to carry on their shoulders, to intimate they were
willing to work.

The Governor asked the men what they intended to do with these women,
and how they intended to use them, whether as servants or wives. One of
the Englishmen answered, very boldly and readily, that they would use them
as both. |

Then the Englishmen asked the Spaniards if they designed to take any of
them? But every one of them answered “ No.” Some of them said they had
wives in Spain, and the others did not like women that were not Christians.
On the other hand, the five Englishmen took them every one a wife, and set
up a new form of living.

Early one morning, there came on shore five or six canoes of Indians or
savages, call them which you please, upon the old errand of feeding upon their
Slaves.

After the canoes with the savages were gone off, the Spaniards peeped
abroad again ; and some of them had the curiosity to go to the place where
they had been, to see what they had been doing. Here, to their great surprise,
they found three savages left behind, and lying fast asleep upon the ground ;
it was supposed they had cither been so gorged with their inhuman feast,
that they were fallen asleep, and would not stir when the others went, or they
had wandered into the woods, and did not come back in time to be taken
in.

The Spaniards were greatly surprised at this sight, and perfectly at a loss
what to do ; as for slaves, they had enough already ; and as to killing them,
there were none of them inclined to do that: the Spanish Governor told me
SIGNS OF CANNIBALISM. 10g

I observed a place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the
earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat down to.
their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no.
notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while: all my apprehensions
were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and
the horror of the degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had heard of
it often, yet I never had so near a view of before: in short, I turned away my
face from the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just at the-
point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder from my stomach; and
having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not
bear to stay in the place a moment ; so I got me up the hill again with all the-
speed I could, and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile, as.
amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost affection of
my soul, and, with a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast
my first lot ina part of the world where I was distinguished from such dread-
ful creatures as these.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to be
much easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before :
for I observed that these wretches never came to this island in search of what
they could get ; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, anything
here ; and having often, no doubt, been up to the covered, woody part of it,.
without finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had been here now
almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps of human creature
there before ; and I might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I
was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had no manner of’
occasion to do; it being my only business to keep myself entirely concealed
where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make.
myself known to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches
that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman custom of their:
devouring and eating one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and
kept close within my own circle, for almost two years after this. When I say
my own circle, I mean by it my three plantations, vzz., my castle, my country-
seat, which I called my bower, and my inclosure in the woods: nor did I look.
after this for any other use than as an inclosure for my goats; for the aversion
which nature gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as fearful
of seeing them as of seeing the devil himself. I did not so much as go to look
AGAIN AT WORK ON THE WRECK. 59°

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand; I wrenched open two-
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide ; I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day. :

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of
the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could.
not break them up ; I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it
was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14.—Went every day to the wreck ; and got a great many pieces.
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred-weight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other ;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet. |

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods to get:
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance,.
near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found it wasa
piece of the lead, but two heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—"very day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first blowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind.
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during this
part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out ; and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron-. .
work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got,
at several times and in several pieces, near 100 weight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle; this
was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect:
of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs;
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever:



Os

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“IT WAS A TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKE.” 55

without baking, though I did that also after some time. But to return to my
Journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my wall done;
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.

Apri 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This was a complete
enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:—As I
was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I
was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for, all on
a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set
up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner: I was heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me; I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks
as would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to
have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock which stood:
about half a mile from me next the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise
as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into
violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor
discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied ; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at
sea ; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, and rousing me from
the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of
nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and
burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began
206 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

All the while the mate was relating to me the miserable condition of the
ship’s company, I could not put out of my thought the story he had told me.
of the three poor creatures in the great cabin. So I ordered my own boat to
go on board the ship, and, with my mate and twelve men, to carry them a
sack of bread, and four or five pieces of beef to boil. Our surgeon charged
the men to cause the meat to be boiled while they stayed, and to keep guard
in the cook-room, to prevent the men taking it to eat raw, or taking it out of
the pot before it was well boiled, and then to give every man but a very little
at atime: and by this caution he preserved the men, who would otherwise
have killed themselves with that very food that was given them on purpose to
save their lives. I found the poor men on board almost in a tumult, to get
‘the victuals out of the boiler before it was ready: but my mate observed his
orders, and kept a good guard at the cook-room door ; and the man he placed
there, after using all possible persuasion to have patience, kept them off by
force ; however, he caused some biscuit cakes to be dipped in the pot, and
softened with the liquor of the meat, which they call brewis, and gave them
every one some, to stay their stomachs, and told them it was for their own
safety that he was obliged to give them but little at a time. But it was all in
- vain; and had I not come on board, and their own commander and officers
with me, and with good words, and some threats also of giving them no more,
I believe they would have broken into the cook-room by force, and torn the
meat out of the furnace ; however, we pacified them, and fed them gradually
and cautiously.

But the misery of the poor passengers in the cabin + was of another nature,
and far beyorid the rest. The poor mother, who, as the men reported, was a
‘woman of sense and good breeding, had spared all she could so affectionately
for her son, that at last she entirely sunk under it; help came too late, and
-she died the same night.

The youth, who was preserved at"the price of his most affectionate mother’s
life, was not so far gone; yet he lay in a cabin bed, as one stretched out, with
hardly“ any life left in him; he had a piece of an old glove in his mouth,
having eaten up the rest of it; however, being young, and having more
‘strength than his mother, the mate got something down his throat, and he
began sensibly to revive.

But the next care was the poor maid: she lay all along upon the floor, and
just like one that had fallen down in a fit of apoplexy, and struggled for life.
The poor creature was not only starved with hunger, and terrified with the
thoughts of death, but, as the men told us afterwards, was broken-hearted for
PREPARING TO VISIT THE WRECK. 121

next the shipwreck : he had on no clothes but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of
open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt ; but nothing to direct me so
much as to guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in his pocket but
two pieces of eight and a tobacco pipe ; the last was to me of ten times more
value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to this
wreck; not doubting but I might find something on board that might be
useful to me ; but that did not altogether press me so much as the possibility
that there might be yet some living creature on board, whose life I might not
only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle, prepared
everything for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot of fresh water,
a compass to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that
left), and a basket full of raisins; and thus, loading myself with everything
necessary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her and got her
afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again for more. My
second cargo was a great bagful of rice, the umbrella to set up over my head
for shade, another large pot full of fresh water, and about two dozen of my
‘small loaves, or barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s milk,
and a cheese : all which with great labour and sweat I brought to my boat ;
and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling
the canoe along the shore, I came at last to the utmost point of the island on
that side N.E. And now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to
venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran con-
‘stantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were very terrible
to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my
heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those
currents, I should be carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of sight
of the island again ; and that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale
-of wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give over my
enterprise ; and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I
stepped out, and sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and
anxious, between fear and desire about my voyage ; when, as I was musing, I
could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon which,
my going was for so many hours impracticable. Upon this, presently it
occurred to me, that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could
find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay when the


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25
A SIGNAL OF DISTRESS. 119

goats ; for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that side
of the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages ; and
if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come again with
perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them in a few days, and then I.
knew what to expect. However, I wore out a year and three months more
before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found them again, as I
shall soon observe. It is true they might have been there once or twice ; but
either they made no stay, or at least I did not see them; but in the month
of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had
avery strange encounter with them ; of which in its place.

It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my
poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all upon the post still ; I
Say, it was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of wind
all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it
was after it. I know not what was the particular occasion of it; but as I
was reading in the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts about my
present condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired
at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a different nature from any
I had met with before ; for the notions this put into my thoughts were quite
of another kind. I started up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, in a
trice, clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it after
me, and mounting it the second time, got to the top of the hill the very
moment that a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly,
in about half a minute, I heard, and by the sound, knew that it was from that
part of the sea where I was driven down the current in my boat. I imme-
diately considered that this must be some ship in distress, and that they had
some comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired -these for signals of
distress, and to obtain help ; I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to
think, that though I could not help them, it might be they might help me;
so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand, and, making a
good, handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill. The wood was dry, and
blazed freely ; and, though the wind blew very hard, yet it burned fairly out ;
that I was certain, if there was any such thing as a ship, they must needs see
it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard
another gun, and after that several others, all from the same quarter. I plied
my fire ail night long, till day broke; and when it was broad day, and the
air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance at sea, full east of the
island, whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish, no, not with my glasses,
370 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the woods as possible, and then wheel about again to me by such ways as I
directed them. “

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed ;
and they presently heard them, and, answering, ran along the shore westward,
towards the voice they heard, when they were stopped by the creek, where,
the water being up, they could not get over, and called for the boat to come
up and set them over; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves:
over, I observed that the boat being gone a good way into the creek, and, as
it were, in a harbour within the land, they took one of the three men out of
her, to go along with them, and left only two in the boat, having fastened her
to a stump of a little tree on the shore. This was what I wished for; and
immediately leaving Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I took
the rest with me; and, crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the
two men before they were aware—one of them lying on the shore, and the
_ other being in the boat; the fellow on shore was between sleeping and
waking, and going to start up; the captain, who was foremost, ran in upon
him, and knocked him down; and then called out to him in the boat to yield,
or he was a dead man. There needed very few arguments to persuade a
single man to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade:
knocked down; besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were not so
hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded
not only to yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the mean
time Friday and the captain’s mate so well managed their business with the
rest, that they drew them, by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another,
and from one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but left
them where they were very sure they could not reach back to their boat before-
it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also, by the
time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to falf
upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours after
Friday came back to me before they came back to their boat ; and we could
_ hear the foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling to those
behind to come along; and could also hear them answer, and complain how
lame and tired they were, and not able to go any faster: which was very”
welcome news to us. At length they came up to the boat; but itis impossible
to express their confusion when they found the boat aground in the creek, the
tide ebbed out, and their two men gone; we could hear them call one to
another in the most lamentable manner, telling one another they were got
MY MAGAZINE, 115

knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not; so, having no candle, I
gave it over for that time, but resolved to go again the next day provided
‘with candles and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of the
muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of my
“own making ; for I made very good candles now of goat’s tallow; and going
into this low place I was obliged to creep upon all-fours, as I have said, almost
‘ten yards ; which I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that I
‘new not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I was got
through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty
feet ; but never was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it
‘was to look round the sides and roof of this vault or cave ; the walls reflected
a hundred thousand lights to me from my two. candles; what it was in the
rock—whether diamonds or any other precious stones, or gold—which I
rather supposed it to be—I knew not.

The place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or grotto, of its kind,
though perfectly dark ; the floor was dry and level, and had a sort of a small
loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous creature to
be seen, neither was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof; the only -
‘difficulty in it was the entrance—which, however, as it was a place of security,
and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was a convenience ; so that I was
really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to bring
some of those things which I was most anxious about to this place ; par-
ticularly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare
arms, vzz., two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all; and three muskets, for
of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only five, which stood ready
‘mounted like pieces of cannon on my outmost fence, and were ready also to
‘take out upon any expedition.

Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition I happened to open the
‘barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea, and which had been wet,and .
I found that the water had penetrated about three or four inches into the
powder on every side, which, caking and growing hard, had preserved the
inside like a kernel in the shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very good
‘powder in the centre of the cask. This was a very agreeable discovery to me
vat that time ; so I carried all away thither, never keeping above two or three
pounds of powder with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind; I
-also carried thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to live in






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SUSPICIOUS. I4t

with them ;” that is, as I understood him, a truce ; and then he added, “ They
no eat mans but when make the war fight;” that is to say, they never eat
any men but such as come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the
hill, at the east side of the island, whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear
day, discovered the main or continent of America, Friday, the weather being
very serene, looks very earnestly towards the main land, and, in a kind of
surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some
distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. “O joy!” says he;
“O glad! there see my country, there my nation!” I observed an extraordi-
nary sense of pleasure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his
countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his
own country again; and this observation of mine put a great many thoughts
into me, which made me, at first, not so easy about my new man Friday as I
was before ; and I made no doubt but that, if Friday could get back to his
own nation again, he would not only forget all his religion, but all his obliga-
tions to me, and would be forward enough to give his countrymen an account
of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred or two of them, and make a
feast upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with those of
his enemies, when they were taken in war.

But I wronged the poor honest creature very much, for which i: was very
sorry afterwards ; however, as my jealousy increased, and held me some weeks,
I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before:
in which I was certainly wrong too; the honest, grateful creature having no
thought about it, but what consisted with the best principles, both as a
religious Christian, and as a grateful friend.

Whilst my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every day
pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the new thoughts which I
suspected were in him; but I found everything he said was so honest and so
innocent, that I could find nothing to nourish my suspicion; and, in spite of
all my uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again, nor did he in
the least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not suspect him of
deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea, so
that we could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, “ F riday, do you
not wish yourself in your own country, your own nation?”—“Yes,” he said, ‘ I be
much O glad to be at my own nation.”—“ What would you do there?” said I:
“would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and bea savage, as you


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54
CRUSOE DESERTED AGAIN. 249

carry me on board any more. Any one may guess what a surprise I was
in at so insolent a message; and I asked the man, who bade him deliver
that message to me. He told me the coxswain. I immediately found out
the supercargo, told him the story, and entreated him to go immediately on
board in an Indian boat, and acquaint the captain of it; but I might have
spared this intelligence, for before I had spoken to him on shore the matter
was effected on board. The boatswain, and all the inferior officers, as soon
as I was gone off in the boat, came up, and desired to speak with the captain ;
and then the boatswain, making a long harangue, told the captain that as I
was gone peaceably on shore, they were loth to use any violence with me,
which, if I had not gone on shore, they would otherwise have done, to oblige
me to have gone. They therefore thought fit to tell him, that as they shipped
themselves to serve in the ship under his command, they would perform it
well and faithfully ; but if I would not quit the ship, or the captain oblige me
to quit it, they would all leave the ship, and sail no further with him ; and at
that word “all,” he turned his face towards the mainmast, which was, it seems,
a signal agreed on, when the seamen, being got together there, cried out, “ One
and all! one and all!”

My nephew, the captain, was a man of spirit, and of great presence of
mind; and though he was surprised, he began to talk smartly to them; told
them that I was a very considerable owner of the ship, and that if ever they
came to England again, it would cost them very dear; that the ship was
mine, and that he could not put me out of it; and that he would rather lose
the ship, and the voyage too, than disoblige meso much: so they might do
as they pleased. However, he would go on shore and talk with me, and
invited the boatswain to go with him, and perhaps they might accommodate
the matter with me, But they all rejected the proposal, and said they would
have nothing to do with me any more; and if I came on board, they would
all go on shore. “Well,” said the captain, “if you are all of this mind, let
me go on shore and talk with him.” So away he came to me with this
account, a little after the message had been brought to me from the coxswain.

When he had told me what they had said to him, I told him he should not
be concerned at it at all, for I would stay on shore. I only desired he would
take care and send me all my necessary things on shore, and leave me a
sufficient sum of money, and I would find my way to England as well as I could.

I had the mortification to see the ship set sail without me ; however, my
nephew left me two servants, or rather one companion and one servant. I

took a good lodging in the house of an Englishwoman, where several
220 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there is certainly some mischief working near us ;” and presently he asked
him, “ Where are the Englishmen ? ”—* They are all in their huts,” says he, “ safe
enough.” It seems the Spaniards had kept possession of the main apartment,
and had made a place for the three Englishmen, who, since their last mutiny,
were always quartered by themselves, and could not comeat the rest. “Well,”
‘says the Spaniard, “there is something in it, I am persuaded, from my own
experience ; I am satisfied our spirits embodied have a converse with, and
receive intelligence from, the spirits unembodied, and inhabiting the invisible
world ; and this friendly notice is given for our advantage, if we know how to
make use of it. Come,” says he, “let us go and look abroad; and if we find
nothing at all in it to justify the trouble, I’ll tell you a story to the purpose,
that shall convince you of the justice of my proposing it.”

In a word, they went out to go to the top of the hill, where I used to go,
when they were surprised with seeing a light as of fire, a very little way off
from them, and hearing the voices of men, not of one or two, but of a great
number.

We need not doubt but that the Governor and the man with him, surprised
with this sight, ran back immediately and raised their fellows, giving them an
account of the imminent danger they were all in, and they again as readily
took the alarm, but it was impossible to persuade them to stay close within
where they were, but they must all run out to see how things stood. While it
was dark, indeed, they were safe, and they had opportunity enough, for some
hours to view the savages, for it was they, by the light of three fires, they had
made at a distance from one another.

The Spaniards were in no small consternation ; and, as they found that the
fellows went straggling all over the shore, they made no doubt but, first or
last, some of them would chop in upon their habitation, or upon some other
place where they would see the tokens of inhabitants; and they were in creat
perplexity also for fear of their flock of goats, which would have been little
less than starving them, if they should be destroyed ; so the first thing they
resolved upon was to despatch three men away before it was light—vzv7z., two
Spaniards and one Englishman—to drive all the goats away to the creat
valley where the cave was, and, if need were, to drive them into the very cave
itself. Could they have seen the savages altogether in one body, and at a
distance from their canoes, they resolved, if there had been a hundred of them,
to have attacked them; but that could not be obtained, for they were some
of them two miles off from the other; and, as it appeared afterwards, were of
two different nations.
MY AMBASSADORS DEPARTURE. 159

should be put in writing, and signed with their hands: how we were to have
this done, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink, was a question which
we never asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage,
the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they might be
said to have come in, or rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners
to be devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a fire-
Jock on it, and about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be
very good husbands of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent
occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view of
my deliverance, for now 27 years and some days. I gave them provisions
of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and
sufficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and wishing therm
a good voyage, I saw them go. They went away, with a fair gale, on the day
that the moon was at full, by my account in the month of Octobei ; but as for
an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it
again; nor had I kept even the number of years so punctually as to be sure
I was right ; though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined my account,
1 found I had kept a true reckoning of years. © . |
_ It was no less than eight days I waited for them, when a strange and-
unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not, perhaps, been heard
of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man
Friday came running in to me, and called aloud, “ Master, Master, they are
‘come, they are'come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went, as
soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by the way,
was by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I say, regardless of danger,
{ went without my arms, which was not my custom to do: but I was surprised,
when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league
and a half distance, standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail,
as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in: also I
observed presently, that they did not come from that side which the shore lay -
ion, but from the southernmost end of the island. Upon this I called F riday |
in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the people we looked for, and
that we might not know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the
next place, I went in to fetch my perspective-glass, to see what I could make
of them; and, having taken the ladder out, I climbed up.to the top of the
hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my
view the plainer, without being discovered.
THE ISLAND REVISITED. 197

as to their battles with the Caribbeans, who landed several times upon the
asland, and as to the improvement they made upon the island itself—and how
five of them made an attempt upon the mainland, and brought away eleven
‘men and five women prisoners, by which, at my coming, I found about twenty
. young children on the island.

Here I stayed about twenty days,—left them supplies of all necessary things,
-and particularly of arms, powder, shot, clothes, tools, and two workmen, which
I had brought from England with me,—v7z., a carpenter and a smith.

Besides this, I shared the lands into parts with them, reserved to myself the
‘property of the whole, but gave them such parts respectively as they agreed
on ; and having settled all things with them, and engaged them not to leave
‘the place, I left them there.

From thence I touched at the Brazils, from whence I sent a bark, which I
‘bought there, with more people to the island ; and in it, besides other supplies,
I sent seven women, being such as‘I found proper for service, or for wives to
‘such as would take them. As to the Englishmen, I promised to send them
some women from England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they would
-apply themselves to planting—which I afterwards performed. The fellows
Proved very honest and diligent after they were mastered, and had their
properties set apart for them. I sent them, also, from the Brazils, five cows,
some sheep, and some hogs, which when I came again were considerably
increased. ,

But all these things, with an account how three hundred Caribbees came
and invaded them, and ruined their plantations, and how-they fought with
that whole number twice, and were at first defeated, and one of them killed ;
‘but, at last, a storm destroying their enemies’ canoes, they famished or de-
-stroyed almost all the rest, and renewed and recovered the possession of their
plantation, and still lived upon the island: all these things, with some very
surprising incidents in some new adventures of my own, for ten years more, I
amay, perhaps, give a further account of hereafter.






TS ¥ TC of ANS
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yu
3400 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tne bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rumi in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of
to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me. SO
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this
extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship : I resolved
to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in
the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light ; so I went to work, and
with a carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains, but the hope of fur-
‘nishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion. |
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight ; my next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this, I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft ; the first of these I
filled with provisions, vzz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn), which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed ; there had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to’ my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to
_ our skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six
gallons of rack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm ; and I had the mortification to see
my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon the sand,
swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen and open-knee’d, I
* 182 | ROBINSON CRUSOE. |

tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests, besides rum, molasses, &c., which is the
consequence of a sugar-work; and I found by this account, that every year
the income considerably increased ; but the disbursements being large, the
sum at first was small: however, the old man let me see that he was debtor ~
to me four hundred and seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty chests of

sugar, and fifteen double rolls of tobacco, which were lost in his ship; he
having been shipwrecked coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after
-my leaving the place. The gocd man then began to complain of his misfor-

tunes, and how he had been obliged to make use of my money to recover his.
losses, and buy him a share in a new ship. “ However, my old friend,” says.
he, “you shall not want a supply in your necessity ; and as soon as my son.
returns, you shall be fully satisfied.” Upon this he pulls out an old pouch,.
and gives me twohundred Portuguese moidores in gold; and giving me’ the
writings of his title to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of
which he was quarter-part owner, and his son another, he put them both into-
my hands for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the poor man to-
be able to bear this ; and remembering what he had done for me, how he hadi -
taken me up at sea, and how generously he had used me on all occasions, and’
particularly how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain:
weeping at what he had said to me; therefore I asked him if his circum-
stances admitted him to spare so much money at that time, and if it would.
not straiten him. He told me he could not say but it might straiten him a.
little ; but, however, it was my money, and I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I could hardly-
refrain from tears while he spoke. In short, I took one hundred of the:
moidores, and called for a pen and ink to give him a receipt for them: then I.
returned him the rest, and told him if ever I had possession of the plantation
I would return the other to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did) ; and that:
as to the bill of sale of his part in his son’s ship, I would not take it by any
means ; but that if I wanted the money, I found he was honest enough to.
pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive what he gave me reason to.
expect, I would never have a penny more from him.

When this was past, the old man asked me if he should put me into a.
method to make my claim to my plantation. I told him I thought to go.
over to it myself. He said I might do so if I pleased ; but that, if I did not,.
there were ways enough to secure my right, and immediately to appropriate:
_ the profits to my use; and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just ready
DISCOVERS LAND TO THE WEST OF THE ISLAND. 73

of rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others which
were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so
much as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of
the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I desired it for, vzz., to make
broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain would have
hhad was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to make one; however,
I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting
my second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-working all the summer
‘or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it could be
imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and
where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being
a very clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an island or continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at a very
great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off. | |
« I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I
knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded by all my observations,
must be near the Spanish dominions. After some thought, I considered that |
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see
some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the
savage coast between the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the
worst of savages ; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder
and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that
‘side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine, the open or
savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, it
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did,
after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down witha
stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years
before I could make him speak. However, at last, I taught him to call me


28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself ; we had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast when
‘we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days. We had very good weather,
‘only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino ; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by
our last observation, in 7 degrees 22’ northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It blew in such a
terrible mannet, that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive ;
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of
- the winds directed.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men die
of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little} the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about 11° north latitude, but that
he was 22° of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he
found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond
the river Amazon; towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River ; and began to consult with me what. course he should take, for
the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the sea-coasts
of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea,
to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail ; whereas we could not possibly make
our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship
and to ourselves,

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in
134 : ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to be so easy that I began to say to myself, that could I but have been safe
from more savages, I cared not if I was never to remove from the place where
I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I thought that, in-
order to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from the relish.
of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh; so I took him
out with me one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill a-
kid out, of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it ; but as I was going,
I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids sitting by her.
I caught hold of Friday. “ Hold,” said I, “stand still;” and made signs to.
him not to stir. Immediately, I presented my piece, shot, and killed one of”
the kids. The poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the:
savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could not imagine how it was done,,
was sensibly surprised ; trembled, and shook, and looked so amazed that I
thought he would have sunk down. He did not see the kid I had shot at, or
perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waiscoat, to feel whether he was:
not wounded, and, as I found presently, thought I was resolved to kill him =.
for he came and kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees, said a great:
many things I did not understand; but I could easily see the meaning was,.
to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm, and’
taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I
had killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did: and while he-
was wondering, and looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my”
gun again, and by-and-by, I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a tree:
within shot ; so, to let Friday understand a little what I would do, I called’
him to me again, pointing at the fowl, which was indeed a parrot, though I_
thought it had been a hawk; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun,,.
and'to the ground under the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I
made him understand that I would shoot and kill that bird ; accordingly, I
fired, and bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall He stood’
like one frighted again, notwithstanding all I had said to him; and I found’
he was the more amazed, because he did not see me put anything into the:
gun; but thought that there must be some wonderful fund of death and’
destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything near or far-
off ; and the astonishment this created in him was such as could not wear off
for a long time; and, I believe,if I would have let him,he would have worshipped
me and my gun; as for the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it for
PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 23

was lost ; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them,
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in F rench,
but I understood none of them ; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that
I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods. ~

It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or
other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,” said he,
“when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I
should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I
only take away that life I have given. No, no,” says he, “Seignor Inglese”
(Mr. Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and those things will
help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”

“As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to
a tittle ; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything that I
had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars. .

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for his ship’s use, and asked me what I would have for it ?
I told him he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not
offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me 80 pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain
have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted






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74 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by my namé very familiarly ; but the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds.
' hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all
_ the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several; but I had no need to be venturous; for I had no want of
food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, vzz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-
market could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company : and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause
for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food ; but had
_ rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I
could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down all night; and then either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded
myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from one
tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking
me. :

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had taken
up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here, indeed, the shore was
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but
three in a yéar and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some which I had not seen before, and many of them very good
meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those called penguins. I
could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder
and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I
could better feed on ; and though there were many goats here, more than on
my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner
- than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet
I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation
it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it
were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled along the shore
of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up
a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go home again;
and the next journey I took should be on the other side of the island east
248 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could not stay there, but went back to my own men, and resolved to go
through the fire, or whatever might be in the way, and put an end to it, cost
what it would. At the very moment, came four of our men, with the boatswain
at their head.

‘As soon as the boatswain saw us, he set up a halloo like a shout of triumph,
for having, as he thought, more help come; and, without waiting to hear me,
“Captain,” says he, “noble Captain! Iam glad you are come; we have not
half done yet. I'll kill as many of them as poor Tom has hairs upon his head :
we have sworn to spare none of them ; we’ll root out the very nation of them
from the earth;” and thus he ran on, out of breath, too, with action, and
would not give us leave to speak a word. At last, raising my voice, that I
might silence him a little, “ Barbarous dog!” said I, “what are you doing?
I won't have one creature touched more, upon pain of death. I charge you
upon your life to stop your hands, and stand still here, or you are a dead man
this minute.” —“ Why, sir,” says he, “do you know what you do, or what they
have done? If you want a reason for what we have done, come hither ;” and
with that he showed me the poor fellow hanging, with his throat cut. I
confess I was urged then myself, and at another time would have been forward
enough: but I thought they had carried their rage too far.

But I had now a new task upon my hands ; for when the men I carried with
me saw the sight, as I had done, I had as much to do to restrain them as I
should have had with the others ; nay, my nephew himself fell in with them,
and told me, in their hearing, that he was only concerned for fear of the men
being overpowered ; and as to the people, he thought not one of them ought
to live ; for they had all glutted themselves with the murder of the poor man,
and that they ought to be used like murderers. Upon these words, away ran
eight of my men with the boatswain and his crew, to complete their bloody
work ; and I, seeing it quite out of my power to restrain them, came away
pensive and sad ; for I could not bear the sight, much less the horrible noise
and cries of the poor wretches that fell into their hands. I walked back alone
to the boats, immediately took the pinnace, and went aboard, and sent her
_ back to assist the men who came dropping back when they had finished their
dreadful work.

The next day we set sail; and at last we reached the Roads at Bengal:
being willing to see the place, I went on shore with the supercargo, in the
ship’s boat, to divert myself; and towards evening was preparing to go on
board, when one of the men came to me, and told me he would not have
me trouble myself to come down to the boat, for they had orders not to
Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.





I'VE BEEN A-GIPSYING: or Rambles

among our Gipsies and their Children in their
Tents and Vans. By GEORGE SMITH, of Coal-
ville, Author of “ The Cry of the Children from the
Brickyards of England,” “‘ Our Canal Population,”
“ Gipsy Life,” ‘“‘ Canal Adventures by Moonlight,”
&c. With an Appendix showing the Author’s
plans for the Compulsory Registration of Gipsy ~
Vans, and the Education of Gipsy Children. Mlus-
trated. Crown 8vo, cloth extra... eee 2 O 6

Fler Mayesty the Queen has been graciously pleased to accept,
and to thank Mr. Smith for, a copy of the above work.

The Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford Northcote, M.P., thus writes to the
author :—‘‘ Accept my best thanks for your book, which cannot
fail to be most interesting, both on account of the subject and of
the author. Your good works will indeed live after you.”

‘‘Mr. Smith’s sketches of his visits to the gipsies are graphic
and varied, and will, we trust, serve to excite a wider interest in
the perplexing question of their amelioration, to which the author
has already given yeoman’s service.""—Contemporary Review,
September, 1883.

‘«The author of ‘Gipsy Life’ has so far made the characteris-
tics and social condition of this race the study of his life, that
nothing from his pen is likely to be otherwise than instructive.
‘I’ve been a-Gipsying’ will fully answer the expectations of its
readers.’’— The Record.

‘‘No imaginary picture is drawn of distant sufferers on a dark
continent, for the evil, vice, wretchedness, and misery may be
seen any day at our very doors.’”—Dazély Chronicle.

‘* A rugged book by a rugged man in real earnest about his life
work . . . These graphic sketches cannot fail to do good service
by calling public attention to a crying evil, and so helping to
hasten the day when an awakened Parliament shall wipe away
this reproach from the nation.” —Czréstzan.

‘*Those who deliberately and carefully go over Mr. Smith’s
book will be able to see this is not exactly the Sort of philanthro-
pical work which is habitually dismissed with a careless wave of
the hand.”—Modern Review.

‘‘The earnestness, the enthusiasm, the high moral purpose of
the man everywhere shine through, dominate the book, and
enforce respect alike for the author and his design.” —Christian
World.

‘‘More interesting than any novel, and holds the reader spell-
bound . . . The revelations contained in this book are very
startling and painful.”—Shefield Independent,

‘“Will do considerable good, and it throws a flood of light on
a subject of which most men know scarcely anything.”—
Christian Leader.

‘‘Merits a wide circulation, both on its literary merits, and
the importance of its purpose.’’"—Lzverpool Daily Post.


A GREAT BATTLE. 237

have poured in their shot continually, the savages had been effectually routed ;
for the terror that was among them came principally from this, v7z., that they
were killed by the gods with thunder and lightning ; but Will Atkins, staying
to load again, discovered the cheat: some of the savages who were at a
distance spying them, came upon them behind; and though Atkins and his.
men fired at them also, two or three times, and killed above twenty, retiring
as fast as they could, yet they wounded Atkins himself, and killed one of his
fellow Englishmen with their arrows, as they did afterwards one Spaniard, and
one of the Indian slaves who came with the women.

Our men being thus hard laid at, Atkins wounded, and two other men
killed, retreated to a rising ground in the wood; and the Spaniards, after
firing three volleys upon them, retreated also. oe

When our men retreated, they left the Spaniard and the Englishman that
were killed behind them: and the savages, when they came up to them, killed
them over again in a wretched manner, breaking their arms, legs, and heads
with their clubs and wooden swords, like true savages. But finding our men
were gone, they did not seem inclined to pursue them, but drew themselves
up ina kind of ring, which is, it seems, their custom, and shouted twice, in
token of their victory.

The Spanish Governor having drawn his little body up together upon a
rising ground, Atkins, though he was wounded, would have had them march
and charge again all together at once ; but the Spaniard replied —* Seignior
Atkins, you see how their wounded men fight : let them alone till morning ;
all these wounded men will be stiff and sore with their wounds, and faint with
the loss of blood ; and so we shall have the fewer to engage.” So they waited.

But as it was a clear moonlight night, and they found the savages in great
disorder about their dead and wounded men, and a great noise and hurry
among them where they lay, they afterwards resolved to fall upon them in the
night. This they had a fair opportunity to do; for one of the two Englishmen
in whose quarter it was where the fight began, led them round between the
woods and the sea-side westward, and then turning short south, they came so
near where the thickestof them lay, that, before they were seen or heard, eight
of them fired in among them, and did dreadful execution upon them ; in half
a minute more, eight others fired after them, pouring in their small shot in
such a quantity that abundance were killed and wounded: and all this while
they were not able to see who hurt them, or which way to fly.

The Spaniards charged again with the utmost expedition, and then divided
themselves into three bodies, and resolved to fall in among them all together,
xii | INTRODUCTION.

position which he regarded as unsuitable to his temper. His education
had not been so academical as to satisfy the exquisite wits of the literary
Coffee House, and, throughout his life he was taunted with being illiterate ;
but it had at least made him desire knowledge, and capable both of acquiring
and imparting it. When he turned from the pulpit to the counting-house,
he set up as a trader in hosiery; his business led him to an acquaintance
with people who had seen many lands, and almost certainly took him abroad
himself ; he probably visited Spain, and there imbibed that admiration for
the Spanish character which induced him to make the Spaniards on the Island
high types of humanity ; and very possibly the journey from Lisbon through
France to London is founded upon reminiscences of his wanderings. But
one thing is certain. While his business was going to ruin and he was pre-
paring bankruptcy for himself, he was acquiring languages, mastering
geography, and learning the course of the world’s trade. He was never for
long together very prosperous. He would bask in the sunshine for a while,
and then we see him flying away from his creditors, and apparently undone for
ever. But in his worst hour he never despaired, and misfortune only showed
of what infinite resources he was master.

His experiences were meanwhile fitting him for the real business of his life.
For, successful as he was as a romancer, story- -telling in the elaborate fashion of
modern fiction was taken up only when he was fifty-eight years of age. Defoe
was led to it through the paths of journalism. He was a born journalist.
His early interest in politics is shown by his complicity in the Monmouth
Rebellion ; his peculiarly practical education had put facts at his command
not to the hand of the purely literary man ; and he began early in life—how
early we do not know-—-to write pamphlets upon current events. His first
great success was a poem in the satiric style of Dryden called, “The True
Born Englishman,” which touched the burning question of the day. The
Jacobites made it a charge against King William that he was a Dutchman,
and asked for an English ruler. In reply, Defoe, in the strongest language,
rated all his countrymen as descendants of a horrid crowd of rambling
thieves and drones, who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns, Picts,
Scots, painted Britons, Norwegian pirates, and red-haired Danes. “ These
_ are the heroes that despise the Dutch,” he exclaimed; and all England
bought the lampoon upon itself, and laughed heartily over it. It hit the
popular taste, and, what was more, it pleased the sovereign. William called
the hosier to his closet ; and the son of a butcher became the mouthpiece of
the King.






Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.





THE TREASURE BOOK OF CON.-
SOLATION: For all in Sorrow or Suffering.
Compiled and Edited by BENJAMIN ORME, M.A.,

Editor of “The Treasure Bock of Devotional
Reading.” Crown 8vo., cloth extra, gilttop ...0 3 6

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS,

‘*'The book is a striking testimony to the fact that, whetever
else Christianity may be, it is emphatically a power that consoles.
Pain and sorrow, as mirrored in these extracts, are no accidents
of human life, not evil to be endured with what firmness a man
may, but something by which life is made wider, deeper, purer,
and infinitely more glorious than it otherwise could have been.
Pain is transfigured in the light ofa larger life, when it isaccepted
by the sufferer as a step towards the grand optimism ot
Christianity, in which all things are regarded -as working together
for good. With great taste and judgment, and with wide
catholicity of sentiment, Mr. Orme has made his selections.
His book is, indeed, a book of consolation. We believe it will
find a welcome in many a household, and help many who suffer to-
bear their pain hopefully.” —Spectator.

BEAUTIES AND FRIGHTS, WITH
THE STORY OF BOBINETTE. By Saran
TYTLER, Author of “ Papers for Thoughtful Girls,”
“Footprints,” &c. Illustrated by M. E.
EDWARDS. Second Edition. Small 8vo., cloth
extra, gilt edges ... bee vee bee vee o 2 6

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS,

‘* Delightful sketches of girls’ lives.” —Academy.

‘‘ Miss Tytler is one of the few writers of modern times who
know how to write girls’ stories. It is impossible for her to be
dull ; her tales are always sprightly, easy, and clever, and while
she does not condescend to preach, there are admirable life-lessons
to be learned in all she writes.”—-Léterary World.

‘* Clever bits of character sketching.”— Publishers Circular.
oO






FRIDAY FAITHFUL. 143

very grave and sad. I asked him what was the matter with him. He asked

me again, “Why you angry mad with Friday ?—what me done?” I asked
him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with him at all. “No
angry !” says he, repeating the words several times; “why send Friday home
away to my nation ?”—*“ Why,” says I, “Friday, did not you say you wished
you were there ?”—“ Yes, yes,” says he, “wish we both there; no wish Friday
there, no Master there.” In a word, he would not think of going there without
me. “I go there, Friday!” says I, “what shall I dothere?” He turned very
quick upon me at this. “ You do great deal much good,” says he; “ you teach
wild mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God,

and live new life.’—“ Alas, Friday!” says I, “thou knowest not what thou
sayest ; J am but an ignorant man myself.”—-“ Yes, yes,” says he, “ you teachee
me good, you teachee them good.” “No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go

without me; leave me here to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked
confused again at that word ; and running to one of the hatchets he used to
wear, he takes it up hastily, and gives it to me. “What must I do with this ?”
says I to him. “You take kill Friday,” says he. “What must I kill you
for?” said I again. He returns very quick—‘What you send Friday away
for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.” This he spoke so earnestly
that I saw tears stand in his eyes. Ina word,I so plainly discovered the
utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told him
then, and often after, that I would never send him away from me, if he was
willing to stay with me. |

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affection to me,
and that nothing could part him from me, so I found all the foundation of his
desire to go to his own country was laid in his ardent affection to the people,
and his hopes of my doing them good; a thing which, as I had no notion of
myself, so I had not the least thought or intention, or desire of undertaking it ;
but still I found a strong inclination to attempting my escape as above, founded
on the supposition gathered from the former discourse, that there were seven-
teen bearded men there ; and therefore, without any more delay, I went to
work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large
‘periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the
island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or canoes, but even of good
large vessels ; but the main thing I looked at was, to get one so near the
water that we might launch it when it was made, to avoid the mistake I com-
mitted at first. At last, Friday pitched upon atree; for I found he knew
much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it, F riday was for burn-
THE THREE PRISONERS. 223

very stomachs, made them sick when they thought of it, and filled their
minds with unusual terror, that they were not themselves for some weeks
after. For a great while after they were tractable, and went about the
common business of the whole society well enough. But some time after this
they fell into such measures again, as brought them into a great deal of
trouble.

They had taken three prisoners; and these three being lusty stout young
fellows, they made them servants, and taught them to work for them ; and as
slaves they did well enough ; but they did not take measures as I did by my
man Friday, to begin with them upon the principle of having saved their
lives, and then instruct them in the rational principles of life, much less of
religion—civilizing and reducing them by kind usage and affectionate argu-
ings ; but as they gave them their food every day, so they gave them their
work too, and kept them fully employed in drudgery enough; but they failed
in this, that they never had them to assist them and fight for them as I had
my man Friday, who was as true to me as the very flesh upon my bones,

Being all now good friends (for common danger had effectually reconciled
them) they began to consider their general circumstances; and the first thing
that came under their consideration was whether, seeing the savages particu-
larly haunted that side of the island, and that there were more remote and _
retired parts of it equally adapted to their way of living, and manifestly to
their advantage, they should not rather move their habitation, and plant in
‘some more proper place for their safety, and especially for the security of
their cattle and corn. After long debate, it was conceived that they should
not remove their habitation; because some time or other, they thought they
might hear from their Governor again, meaning me; and if I should send any
-one to seek them, I should be sure to direct them to that side, where, if they
should find the place demolished, they would conclude the savages had killed
us all, and we were gone, and so our supply would go too.

But, as to their corn and cattle, they agreed to remove them into the valley
where my cave was, where the land was as proper for both, and where, indeed,
there was land enough. However, upon second thoughts, they altered one
part of their resolution too, and resolved only to remove part of their cattle
thither, and plant part of their corn there ; so that if one part was destroyed,
the other might be saved. And one part of prudence they luckily used ;
they never trusted those three savages which they had taken prisoners, with
knowing anything of the plantation they had made in that valley, or of any
cattle they had there ; much less of the cave at that place, which they kept, |
x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

IX.
VAGE
AFRAID wes wee wee vee vee bee ee w. II4
X.
A SAVAGE EXECUTIONER ... wee vee ves Sane eee 130
XI,
THE RESCUED SPANIARD vee wee vee wo vee ... 149
XII.
DELIVERANCE... wee wes vee wee ves vee 175
XIII.
THE POOR MAID ves wee re ves bes bes ... 206
XIV.
THEY LEFT NOT THE LEAST STICK STANDING wee aes oe 216
XV.
HE FELL UPON THE POOR SAVAGE TO KILI. HIM ... wee vee ws. 224
XVI.
HOW MANY THEY KILLED OR WOUNDED THEY KNEW NOT eee ves 236
XVII.
TOM JEFFERY’S END ves bes wee 246
XVIII.
THE STATE HE RODE IN ... ves vee eee wes ves 255
XIX.
AN IDOL MADE OF WOOD ~ ,,., bee bee vee i .-. 258
XX,

PREPARING FOR A LONGER JOURNEY wee ves vee eee 263
96 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

occasion, have made a very good carpenter, especially considering how few
tools Thad. —

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware, and.
contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely
easier and better ; because I made things round and shapeable which before
were filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I was never more vain of
my own performance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for my
being able to make a tobacco-pipe. And though it was a very ugly, clumsy
thing when it was done, and only burned red, like other earthenware, yet as it:
was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted
with it ; for I had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes in the:
ship, but I forgot them at first, not knowing that there was tobacco in the:
island ; and afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I could not come at
any pipes at all. :

In my wicker-ware, also, I improved much, and made abundance of necessary”
baskets, as well as my invention showed me ; though not very handsome, yet
they were such as were very handy and convenient for laying things up in, or
fetching things home in. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang
it up ina tree, flay it, dress it, and, cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a
basket ; and the like by a turtle, I could cut it up, take out the eggs, and a.
piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and bring them home in a
basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were the
receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and
cured, and kept it in great baskets. | |

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably, and this was a
want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to
consider what I must do when I should have no more powder ; that is to say,
how I should kill any goats. I had, as is observed in the third year of my
being here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was in hopes of
getting a he-goat: but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid
grew.an old goat ; and I could never find in my heart to kill her, till she died
at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said,.
my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare.
the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them alive; and par-
ticularly, I wanted a she-goat and her young. To this purpose I made snares.
to hamper them ; and I do believe they were more than once taken in them,
but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and I always found them.


SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.



‘ARMINIUS VAMBERY; HIS LIFE AND









ADVENTURES.”


HIS DAILY EMPLOVMENTS. 17

So I stopped there, but though I could not say I thanked God for being
there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever
afflicting providences, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for
my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my
very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England, without:
any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assisting me after-
wards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year ; and though
I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my
works this year as the first; yet in general it may be observed that I was.
very seldom idle, but having regularly divided my time according to the
several daily employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to
God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time
for, thrice every day ; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took me up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain;
thirdly, the ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had killed or
caught for my supply: these took up great part of the day. Also, it is to be
considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the
violence of the heat was too great to stir out ; so that about four hours in the
evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working, and went to.
work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the exceeding
laboriousness of my work; the many hours which for want of tools, want of
help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out of my time. For example,
Iwas full two and forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I
wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit,
would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day. My case was.
this : it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down, because my board ©
was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days in cutting down, and two.
more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber.
With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into.
chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I turned it, and made.
one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to end ; then, turning that.
side downward, cut the other side till I brought the plank to be about three
inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the labour of
my hands in such a piece of work; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things. I only observe this in particular, to show the.
A SAVAGE BATTLE. 221

After having mused a great while on the course they should take, they
resolved, at last, while it was dark, to send the old savage, Friday’s father, out
as a spy, to learn, if possible, something concerning them, as what they came
for, what they intended to do, and the like; the old man readily undertook it ;
and stripping himself quite naked, as most of the savages were, away he
went; after he had been gone an hour or two, he brings word that he had
been among them undiscovered, that he found they were two parties, and of
two several nations, who had war with one another, and had a great battle in
their own country ; and that both sides having had several prisoners taken in
the fight, they were, by mere chance, landed all on the same island, for the
devouring their prisoners and making merry; but their coming so by chance
to the same place had spoiled all their mirth; that they were in a great rage
at one another, and were so near, that he believed they would fight again as.
soon as daylight began to appear; but he did not perceive that they had any
notion of anybody being on the island but themselves. He had hardly made
an end of telling his story, when they could perceive, by the unusual noise
they made, that the two little armies were engaged in a bloody fight.
Friday’s father used all the arguments he could to persuade our people to lie
close, and not be seen; he told them their safety consisted in it, and that they
had nothing to do but lie still, and the savages would kill one another to their
hands, and then the rest would go away; and it was so to a tittle. But it
was impossible to prevail, especially upon the Englishmen; their curiosity
was so importunate, that they must run out and see the battle ; however, they
used some caution—v7z., they did not go openly, just by their own dwelling,
but went farther into the woods, and placed themselves to advantage, where
they might securely see them manage the fight, and, as they thought, not be
seen by them; but the savages did see them, as we shall find hereafter.

The battle was very fierce ; and, if I might believe the Englishmen, one of
them said he could perceive that some of them were men of great bravery, of
invincible spirits, and of great policy in guiding the fight. The battle, they
said, held two hours before they could guess which party would be beaten ;
but then that party which was nearest our people’s habitation began to
appear weakest, and after some time more, some of them began to fly; and
this put our men again into a great consternation, lest any one of those that
fled should run into the grove before their dwelling for shelter, and thereby
involuntarily discover the place; and that, by consequence, the pursuers
would also do the like in search of them. Upon this, they resolved that they
would stand armed within the wall, and whoever came into the grove, they
SIBERIAN WINTER, 261%

at least to the south, and rather behind us. So he takes his bow and arrows,
and getting on horseback, he rides away from our rear directly, as it were
back to Nertzinskoy. After this, he takes a great circuit about, and comes
to the army of the Tartars, as if he had been sent express to tell them a long
story; that the people who had burnt the Cham-Chi-Thaungu, were gone to
siheilka, with a caravan of miscreants, as he called them, that is to say,
Christians ; and that they had resolved to burn the God Schal-Isar, belonging
to the Tongueses. As this fellow was himself a mere Tartar, and perfectly
spoke their language, he counterfeited so well that they all took it from him,
and away they drove in a most violent hurry to Siheilka, which it seems was
five days’ journey to the north, and in less than three hours they were entirely
out of our sight, and we never heard any more of them ; and we never knew
whether they went to that other place called Siheilka or no.

I have nothing material to say of my particular affairs till I came to
Tobolski, the capital of Siberia, where I continued some time. We had now
been almost seven months on our journey, and winter began to come on
apace ; whereupon my partner and I called a council about our particular
affairs. They told us of sledges and reindeer, to carry us over the snow in
the winter time, by which means, indeed, the Russians travel more in winter
than they can in summer, as in these sledges they are able to run night and
day : the snow, being frozen, is one universal covering to nature, by which the
hills, vales, rivers, and lakes are all smooth and hard as a stone, and they run
upon the surface without any regard to what is underneath.

But I had no occasion to urge a winter journey of this kind. I thought it
better to winter where I was. It is true I was now in quite a different climate
from my beloved island, where I never felt cold, except when I had my ague.
Now I had three good vests, with large robes or gowns over them, to hang
down to the feet, and button close to the wrists; and all these lined with furs
to make them sufficiently warm. As to a warm house, I must confess I
greatly dislike our way in England of making fires in every room in the house
in open chimneys, which, when the fire is out, always keeps the air in the
room cold as the climate. So I took an apartment in a good house in the
town, and ordered a chimney to be built like a furnace, in the centre of six
several rooms, like a stove ; the funnel to carry smoke went up one way, the
door to come at the fire went in another, and all the rooms were kept equally
warm, but no fire seen, just as they heat baths in England.

I had been here eight months, and a dark, dreadful winter I thought it ; the
cold so intense that I could not so much as look abroad without being


SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.

we

»
a
ai f

“A RIVER HOLIDAY.”





44
THE BULLIES RETURNED. 229

Christian nation upon earth but will do us good rather than harm.” While
they were debating thus, came up the three Englishmen, and, standing without
the wood, which was new planted, hallooed to them. They presently knew
their voices, and so all the wonder ceased. But now the admiration was turned
upon another question—what could be the matter, and what made them
come back again ?

It was not long before they brought the men in, and inquiring where they
had been, and what they had been doing, they gave them a full account of
their voyage in a few words, véz.: that they reached the land in less than two
days, but finding the people alarmed at their coming, and preparing with
bows and arrows to fight them, they durst not go on shore, but sailed on to
the northward six or seven hours, till they came to a great opening, by which
they perceived that the land they saw from our island was not the main, but
an island ; that entering that opening of the sea, they saw another island on
the right hand north, and several more west; and being resolved to land
somewhere, they put over to one of the islands which lay west, and went
boldly on shore ; that they found the people here courteous and friendly to
them ; and they gave them several roots and some dried fish, and appeared
very sociable ; and that the women, as well as the men, were very forward to
supply them with anything they could get for them to eat, and brought it to
them a great way upon their heads. They continued here four days, and
inquired, as well as they could of them by signs, what nations were this way,
and that way, and were told of several fierce and terrible people, who used
to eat men; but, as for themselves, they said, they never ate men or women,
except only such as they took in the wars ; and then they owned they made a
great feast, and ate their prisoners.

The Englishmen inquired when they had a feast of that kind; and they
‘told them about two moons ago, pointing to the moon and to two fingers;
and that their great king had two hundred prisoners now, which he had taken
in his war, and they were feeding them to make them fat for the next feast.
‘The Englishmen seemed mighty desirous of seeing those prisoners; but the
others mistaking them, thought they were desirous to have some of them to
carry away for their own eating ; and, accordingly, the next morning they
brought down five women and eleven men, and gave them to the Englishmen,
to carry with them on their voyage.

As brutish and barbarous as these fellows were at home, their stomachs
turned at this sight, and they did not know what to do; however, upon some
«debate, they resolved to accept of them ; and, in return, they gave the savages
SIBERIAN WINTER, 261%

at least to the south, and rather behind us. So he takes his bow and arrows,
and getting on horseback, he rides away from our rear directly, as it were
back to Nertzinskoy. After this, he takes a great circuit about, and comes
to the army of the Tartars, as if he had been sent express to tell them a long
story; that the people who had burnt the Cham-Chi-Thaungu, were gone to
siheilka, with a caravan of miscreants, as he called them, that is to say,
Christians ; and that they had resolved to burn the God Schal-Isar, belonging
to the Tongueses. As this fellow was himself a mere Tartar, and perfectly
spoke their language, he counterfeited so well that they all took it from him,
and away they drove in a most violent hurry to Siheilka, which it seems was
five days’ journey to the north, and in less than three hours they were entirely
out of our sight, and we never heard any more of them ; and we never knew
whether they went to that other place called Siheilka or no.

I have nothing material to say of my particular affairs till I came to
Tobolski, the capital of Siberia, where I continued some time. We had now
been almost seven months on our journey, and winter began to come on
apace ; whereupon my partner and I called a council about our particular
affairs. They told us of sledges and reindeer, to carry us over the snow in
the winter time, by which means, indeed, the Russians travel more in winter
than they can in summer, as in these sledges they are able to run night and
day : the snow, being frozen, is one universal covering to nature, by which the
hills, vales, rivers, and lakes are all smooth and hard as a stone, and they run
upon the surface without any regard to what is underneath.

But I had no occasion to urge a winter journey of this kind. I thought it
better to winter where I was. It is true I was now in quite a different climate
from my beloved island, where I never felt cold, except when I had my ague.
Now I had three good vests, with large robes or gowns over them, to hang
down to the feet, and button close to the wrists; and all these lined with furs
to make them sufficiently warm. As to a warm house, I must confess I
greatly dislike our way in England of making fires in every room in the house
in open chimneys, which, when the fire is out, always keeps the air in the
room cold as the climate. So I took an apartment in a good house in the
town, and ordered a chimney to be built like a furnace, in the centre of six
several rooms, like a stove ; the funnel to carry smoke went up one way, the
door to come at the fire went in another, and all the rooms were kept equally
warm, but no fire seen, just as they heat baths in England.

I had been here eight months, and a dark, dreadful winter I thought it ; the
cold so intense that I could not so much as look abroad without being
A SAVAGE INVASION. 233

their arms, and what ammunition they had, and retreated towards the place
in the wood where their wives were sent ; keeping at a distance, yet so that
they might see, if possible, which way the savages took. They had not gone
far, but that from a rising ground they could see the little army of their
‘enemies come on directly to their habitation, and, in a moment more, could
see all their huts and household stuff flaming up together, to their great grief
and mortification ; for this was a great loss to them, irretrievable, indeed, for
some time. They kept their station for a while, till they found the savages,
like wild beasts, spread themselves all over the place, rummaging every way,
and every place they could think of, in search for the people, of whom they
had intelligence.

The two Englishmen seeing this, thinking themselves not secure where they
stood, as it was likely some of the wild people might come that way, so they
might come too many together, thought it proper to make another retreat
about half a mile further. The next halt was at the entrance into a very
thick-grown part of the woods, and where an old trunk of a tree stood, which
was hollow and very large; and in this tree they both took their standing,
resolving to see there what might offer. They had not stood there long before
two of the savages appeared running directly that way, as if they already had
noticed where they stood, and were coming up to attack them; and a little
way further they espied three more coming after them, and five more beyond
them, all coming the same way ; besides which, they saw seven or eight more
at a distance, running another way.

The poor men were now in great perplexity whether they should stand and
keep their posture, or fly ; but, after a very short debate with themselves, they
considered that if the savages ranged the country thus before help came, they
might perhaps find out their retreat in the woods, and then all would be lost ;
so they resolved to stand them there, and if they were too many to deal with,
then they would get up to the top of the tree, from whence they doubted not
to defend themselves, fire excepted, as long as their ammunition lasted, though
all the savages that were landed, which was near fifty, were to attack them.

While they were thus waiting, and the savages came on, they plainly saw
that one of the three was the runaway savage that had escaped from them ;
and they both knew him distinctly, and resolved that, if possible, he should
not escape, though they should both fire: so the other stood ready with his
piece, that if he did not drop at the first shot, he should be sure to have a
second. But the first was too good a marksman to miss his aim; for as the
savages kept near one another, a little behind in a line, he fired, and hit two
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the distance was so great, and the weather still something hazy also ; at least
it was so out at sea! .

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did not
move ; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at anchor;. and being
eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran
towards the south side of the island, to the rocks where I had formerly been
carried away by the current, and getting up there, the weather by this time
being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck of a
ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which I found when
I was out in my boat ; and which rocks, as they checked the violence of the
stream, and made a kind of counter-stream, or eddy, were the occasion of my
recovering from the most desperately hopeless condition that ever I had been
in in all my life.

Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction ; for it seems
these men, whoever they were, being out of their knowledge, and the rocks
being wholly under water, had been driven upon them in the night, the wind
blowing hard at E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily
suppose they did not, they must, as I thought, have endeavoured to have
saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but their firing off
guns for help, especially when they saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled me with
many thoughts.

- In the condition I was in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery
‘of the poor men, and pity them, which had still this good effect upon my side,
that it gave me more and more cause to give thanks to God, who had so
happily and comfortably provided for me in my desolate condition; and that
of two ships’ companies who were now cast away upon this part of the world,
not one life should be spared but mine. Such were my earnest wishings, that
but one man had been saved— O that it had been but one!” that I believe I
. repeated the words, “ O that zt had been but one /” a thousand times ; and the
desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the words, my hands would
clinch’ together, and my fingers press the palms of my hands, that if I had had
any soft thing in my hand, it would have crushed it involuntarily ; and my
teeth in my head would strike together, and set against one another so strong,
that for some time I could not part them again.

But it was not to be; either their fate, or mine, or both, forbade it; for till
the last year of my. being on this island, I never knew whether any were saved
out of that ship or no ; and had only the affliction some days after to see the
corpse of a drowned boy come on shore, at the end of the island which was


SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.


50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the earth ; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, [
resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger. _

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests,
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of
powder ; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and
remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it. .

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make
room for my further convenience. Note, Three things I wanted exceedingly
for this work ; v2z.,a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and
make*me some tools; as for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy : but the next thing was a shovel, or spade ;
this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it ; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

- Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding
hardness ; of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way,
made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
the boctom, it would aot Jast me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware, at least, none yet found out; and as to a
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had
no notion of, neither did I know how to go about it; besides I had no
possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the
labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and
THE SAVAGES CONQUERED. 239

resisted, or, at least, to come so many and so often, as would quite desolate
the island, and starve them. Will Atkins, therefore, who, notwithstanding his °
wound, kept always with them, proved the best counsellor in this case: his
advice was, to take the advantage that offered, and step in between them and
their boats, and so deprive them of the capacity of ever returning any more
to plague the island.

Will Atkins told them they had better have to do with a hundred men than
with a hundred nations: that as they must destroy their boats, so they must
‘destroy the men, or be all of them destroyed themselves. In a word, he
showed them the necessity of it so plainly, that they all came into it ; so they
went to work immediately with the boats, and getting some dry wood
together from a dead tree, they tried to set some of them on fire, but they
‘were so wet that they would not burn ; however, the fire so burned the upper
part, that it soon made them unfit for swimming in the sea as boats.

When the Indians saw what they were about, some of them came running
out of the woods, and coming as near as they could to our men, kneeled down
and cried, “Oa, Oa, Waromokoa,” and some other words of their language,
which none of the others understood anything of; but as they made pitiful
gestures and strange noises, it was easy to understand they begged to have
their boats spared, and that they would be gone, and never come there again.
But our men were now satisfied that they had no way to preserve themselves,
or to save their colony, but effectually to prevent any of these people from
‘ever going home again ; so they fell to work with their canoes, and destroyed
every one that the storm had not destroyed before ; at the sight of which, the
savages raised a hideous cry in the woods, after which they ran about the
island like distracted men, so that, in a word, our men did not really know at
first what to do with them. They found out my plantation at the bower, and
pulled it all to pieces, and all the fences and planting about it; trod all the
‘corn under foot, tore up the vines and grapes, being just then almost ripe, and
did our men an inestimable damage, though to themselves not one farthing’s
worth of service.

It was some while before any of them could be taken ; but being weak and
half-starved, one of them was at last surprised and made a prisoner. He was
sullen at first, and would neither eat nor drink; but finding himself kindly
used, and victuals given to him, and no violence offered him, he at last grew
tractable, and came to himself. They often brought old Friday to him, who
talked often with him, and told him how kind the others would be to them
all; that they would not only save their lives, but give them part of the island
142 | ROBINSON CR USOE.

were before?” He looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said, “No,
no, Friday tell them to live good ; tell them to pray God; tell them to eat
corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man again.”—“ Why then,” said I to
him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then said, “ No, they
no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they would be willing
to learn. He added, they learned much of the bearded mans that came in the
boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that,
and told me that he could not swim so far. I told him, I would make a canoe
for him. . He told me he would go, if I would: go with him. “I go!” says I;
_ “why, they will eat me if I come there.”—“ No, no,” says he, “me make the
no eat you ;.me make they much love you.” He meant, he would tell them
how I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make them
love me. ‘Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to seven-
teen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore there
in distress,

‘From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and see if I could
possibly join with those bearded men, who I made no doubt were Spaniards
and Portuguese ; not doubting but, if I could, we might find some method to
escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good company together,
better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone, and without
help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse,
and told him I would give him a boat to go back to his own nation; and, ac-
cordingly, I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the
island, and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk in water), I
brought it out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a
‘most dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make it go almost as swift
again as I could. So when he was in, I said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall
‘we go to your nation?” He looked very dull at my saying so; which it
seems was because he thought the boat was too small to go so far. I then
told him I had a bigger ; so the next day I went to the place where the first
boat lay which I had made, and which I could not get into the water ; he said
that was big enough ; but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it had lain
two or three and twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it
was rotten. Friday told me such a boat would do very well, and would
carry “much enough vittle, drink, bread ”—this was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going over
with him to the continent, that I told him we would go and make one as big
as that, and he should go home in it. He answered not one word, but looked
HE TRYS TO RIGHT THE SHIP'S BOAT. 85

‘twenty together; much more I that was but one, and could make little or no
‘defence. All these things, I say, which I ought to have considered well of,
‘and did cast up in my thoughts afterwards, yet took up none of my appre-
‘sions at first; but my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting over to
the shore,

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-of-
‘mutton sail, with which I sailed over a thousand miles on the coast of Africa ;
but this was in vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat,
which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way in the storm,
‘when we were first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not
‘quite ; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom.
upwards against the high ridge of a beachy, rough sand, but no water about.
hher as before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched
“her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I might have
‘gone back into the Brazils with her easy enough; but I might have easily
foreseen that I could no more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom,
than I could remove the island ; however I went to the woods, and cut levers
and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do;
suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, I might easily repair
the damage she had received, and she would be a very good boat, and I might
:go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think,
three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible to heave it up with
my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so
to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in
the fall. But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to
get under it, much less to move it forwards towards the water; so I was
forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my
‘desire to venture over for the main increased, rather than decreased, as the
‘means for it seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was possible to make
tmyself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make, even
‘without tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk of a great tree.
‘This I not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely
‘with my thoughts of making it, and with my having much more convenience
for it than any of the Negroes or Indians; but not at all considering the
particular inconveniences which I lay under more than the Indians did, vz,
want of hands to move it, when it was made, into the water. |
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

7 |
caves and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them ; for I persuaded
myself, while I was here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they
could never find me out; or if they did, they would not venture to attack me:
here. The old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth of the cave the:
next day after I made this discovery ; and I found it much easier to dig a
great hole there, and throw him in and cover him with earth, than to drag:
him out ; so I interred him there, to prevent offence to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this island, and was:
so naturalized to the place and the manner of living, that, could I but have
enjoyed the certainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb me,,
_ I could have been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my
time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and died, like the:
old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diversions and amuse-
ments, which made the time pass a great deal more pleasantly with me than.
it did before ; as first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak ; and’
he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very
pleasant to me; and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years:
how long he might have lived afterwards I know not, though I know they
have a notion in the Brazils that they live a hundred years. My dog wasa
very pleasant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years of
my time, and then died of mere old age ; as for my cats, they multiplied, as I
have observed, to that degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at
first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had ; but, at length, when the
‘two old ones I brought with me were gone, and after some time continually
driving them from me, and letting them have no provision with me, they alk
ran wild into the woods, except two or three favourites, which I kept tame,.
and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned ; and these were:
part of my family. Besides these I always kept two or three household kids.
about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had two more
parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call “Robin Crusoe,” but none
like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had
done with him. I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose name I knew not,
that I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the little stakes which
I had planted before my castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick
grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees, and bred there, which was.
very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I began to be very well con-
tented with the life I led, if I could have been secured from the dread of
savages. But it was otherwise directed.
42 - ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account:
above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains,
that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, one.
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it ; and covered the uppermost:
_ with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails. And now I lay no
‘ more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,,.
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship. |

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by-
the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which
till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing:
all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them
up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made mea cave, just behind my-
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought.
to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took:
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my-
_ scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud; a sudden flash of lightning happened, and.
after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not:
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted:
into my. mind as swift as the lightning itsel{—“O my powder!” My very.
heart sank within me when I thought, that, at one blast, all my powder might:
be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as:
I thought, entirely depended: I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I.
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to-
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever-might come, it might not all take
fire at once ; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make-
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think.
my powder, which in all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided in not.
less than a hundred parcels: as to the barrel that had been wet, I did not.
apprehend any danger from that ; so I placed it in my new cave, which in my:
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among:
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YOUNG'S “‘LIGHT IN LANDS OF DARKNESS.








30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
‘the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called dex
‘wild gee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. |
4nd now our case was very dismal indeéd ; for we all saw plainly, that the
‘sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
‘drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have
‘done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the
boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the
‘breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
‘our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
land. .

What the shore was, whéther rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew
not ; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expecta- -
‘tion was if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the
land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing of this
-appeared ; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea. | |

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
‘reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
‘plainly bade us expect the coup de grdce. In a word, it took us with such a
fury, that it overset the boat at once ; and separating us, as well from the boat -
as from one another, gave us not time to say, “O God!” for we were all
‘swallowed up in a moment. . a

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk
‘into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
‘from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost. dry, but half dead with the
‘water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that,
seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and
‘endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another
‘wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible
‘to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with : my
“business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could:
118 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

too ; but when I observed their coming must be always with the current of

the ‘ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate in my mind, being satisfied:
' that I might go abroad with safety all the time of the tide of flood, if they-
were not on shore before: and having made this observation, I went abroad:
about my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved ; for, as soon as the tide made to the westward,

I saw them all take boat, and row (or paddle, as we call it) all away. I should.
have observed, that for an hour or more before they went off they were:
dancing, and I could easily discern their postures and gestures by my glass ;
I could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they were stark.
naked, and had not the least covering upon them ; but whether they were men:
or women I could not distinguish..

_ 4s soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon my-
shoulders, and two pistols at my girdle, and my great sword by my side-
without a scabbsad, and, with all the speed I was able to make, I went away to-
the hill where I had discpvered the first appearance of all; and as soon as I.
got thither, which was not in less than two hours (for I could not go quickly,
being so loaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had been three canoes:
more of the savages at that place; and looking out farther, I saw they were
all at sea together, making over for the main. This was a dreadful sight to
me, especially as, going down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror
which the dismal work they had been about had left behind it, vzz., the blood,,

the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies eaten and devoured by those:
wretches with merriment and sport: I was so filled with indignation at the.
sight, that I now began to premeditate the destruction of the next that I saw
there, let them be who or how many soever. It seemed evident to me that
the visits which they made thus to this island were not very frequent ; for it.
was above fifteen months before any more of them came on shore there again ;-.
that is to say, I neither saw them, nor any footsteps or signals of them in all.
that time ; for as to the rainy seasons, then they are sure not to gpme abroad,.
at least not so far ; yet all this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the:
constant apprehensions I was in of their coming upon me by surprise: from
whence I observe, that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffering.

I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting:

that I should one day or other fall into the hands of these merciless creatures ;
and if I did at any time venture abroad, it was not without looking around:
me with the greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to my
great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or herd o€


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THE PRINCE OF THE ISLAND. 99

‘terest providences, and give us cause to praise Him for dungeons and prisons!
What a table was here spread for me in the wilderness, where I saw nothing
at first but to perish for hunger!

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little family sit
‘down to dinner; there was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole
‘island ; I had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute command. I could
hang, draw, give liberty, and take it away, and no rebels among all my
‘subjects. Then, to see how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended by my
‘servants ; Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person permitted
to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown old and crazy, sat always at my
tight hand ; and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one on the other,
‘expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of especial favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first, for they
‘were both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by my
‘own hand ; but these were two which I had preserved tame ; whereas the rest
‘ran wild in the woods, and became indeed troublesome to me at last, for they
would often come into my house, and plunder me too, till at last I was
“obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many ; at length they left me.
‘With this attendance, and in this plentiful manner I lived ; neither could I be
‘said to want anything but society ; and of that, some time after this, I was
like to have too much. |

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my boat,
‘though very loth to run any more hazards; and therefore sometimes I sat
‘contriving ways to get her about the island, and at other times I sat myself
‘down contented enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my
mind to go down to the point of the island, where, as I have said, in my last
‘ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the current set,
that I might see what I had to do: this inclination increased upon me every
‘day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land, following the edge of
‘the shore. I did so; but had any one in England met such a man as I was,
it must either have frighted him, or raised a great deal of laughter; and as I
‘frequently stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of
‘my travelling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a dress.
_ Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as follows :—

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s skin, with a flap hanging
down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain off from
aunning into my neck, nothing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain
wipon the flesh under the clothes. I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the
THE RUSE SUCCESSFUL. 17k

into an enchanted island; that either there were inhabitants in it, and they
should all be murdered, or else there were devils and spirits in it, and they
should be all carried away and devoured. They hallooed again, and called
their two comrades by their names a great many times; but no answer. After
some time, we could see them by the little light there was, run about, wringing”
their hands like men in despair ; and sometimes they would go and sit down:
in the boat to rest themselves, then come ashore again, and walk about again,.
and so the same thing over again. My men. would fain have had me give
them leave to fall upon them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take-
them at some advantage, so as to spare them, and kill as few of them as I
could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing of any of our men,.
knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved to wait, to see if they
did not separate; and therefore, to make sure of them, I drew my ambus-.
cade nearer; and ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon their
hands and feet, as close to the ground as they could, that they might not be
discovered, and get as near them as they could possibly, before they offered.
to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain, who was:
the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown himself the most
dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards them, with two
more of the crew. The captain was so eager at having this principal rogue so-
much in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let him come so
near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue before: but when

they came nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at

them. The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next:man was shot in
the body, and fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour or two after =
and the third ran for it. At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced
with my whole army, which was now eight men; v7z., myself, generalissimo
Friday, my lieutenant-general ; the captain and his two men, and the three
prisoners of war whom we had trusted with arms. We came upon them,,
indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our number; and I made the
man they had left in the boat, who was now one of us, to call them by name,.
to try if I could bring them to a parley, and so perhaps might reduce them to:-
terms ; which fell out just as we desired : for, indeed, it was easy to think, as:
their condition then was, they would be very willing to capitulate. So he
calls out as loud as he could to one of them, “Tom Smith! Tom Smith!”

‘Tom Smith answered immediately, “Is that Robinson ?” for it seems he knew-

the voice. The other answered, “Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw
THE MUTINEERS. 163

‘trembles for fear they have seen us, and heard you speak; if they have, they
will certainly murder us all.”

“ Have they any fire-arms?” said I.

“They had only two pieces,” he answered, “one of which they left in the boat.”

“Well, then,” said I, “leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep; it is
“an easy thing to kill them all; but shall we rather take them prisoners ?”

He told me there were two desperate villains among them that it was scarce
safe to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, he believed all the rest
‘would return to their duty. I asked him which they were. He told me he
-could not at that distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in
‘everything I would direct.

‘“ Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of their view or hearing, lest they awake,
-and we will resolve further.”

So they willingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your deliverance, are you willing
‘to make two conditions with me?” He anticipated my proposals by telling
‘me that both he and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and com-
‘manded by me in everything; and if the ship was not recovered, he would
live and die with me in what part of the world soever I would send him; and
‘the two other men said the same.

“Well,” says I, “my conditions are but two: first—that while you stay in
‘this island with me, you will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put
-arms in your hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me, and do
no prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and in the mean time be governed
‘by my orders ; secondly—that if the ship is or may be recovered, you will
‘carry me and my man to England passage free.”

- He gave me all the assurance that the invention or faith of man could
‘devise, that he would comply with these most reasonable demands, and,
besides, would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions as.
dong as he lived. “Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with
‘powder and ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be done.” He
‘showed all the testimonies of his gratitude that he was able, but offered to be
wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing anything ;
“put the best method I could think of was to fire on them at once. as they lay,
.and if any were not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we might
save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence to direct the shot. He
‘said, very modestly, that he was loth to kill them, if he could help it ; but that
‘those two were incorrigible villains, and had been the authors of all the mutiny
THE GOVERNOR OF THE ISLAND. 177

clothed me from head to foot. It was avery kind and agreeable present, as
any one may imagine, to one in my circumstances; but never was anything
in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it was to me
to wear such clothes at first putting on.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things were brought
into my little apartment, we began to consult what was to be done with the
prisoners we had ; for it was worth considering whether we might venture to
take them away with us or no, especially two of them, whom we knew to be
incorrigible and refractory to the last degree ; and the captain said he knew
they were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he did carry
them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered over to justice
at the first English colony he could come at; and I found that the captain
himself was very anxious about it. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired
it, I durst undertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own
request that he should leave them upon the island. |

‘“T should be very glad of that,” says the captain, “ with all my heart.”

“Well,” says I, “I will send for them up, and talk with them for you.”

So I caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now discharged,
their comrades having performed their promise; I say, I caused them to go
to the cave, and bring up the five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower,
and keep them there till I came. After some time, I came thither dressed in
my new habit ; and now I was called Governor again. Being all met, and the
captain with me, I caused all the men to be brought before me, and I told
them I had got a full account of their villanous behaviour to the captain, but
that they were fallen into the pit which they had dug for others. They might
see by-and-by that their new captain had received the reward of his villainy ;
for that they would see him hanging at the yard-arm; as to them, I wanted
to know what they had to say why I should not execute them as pirates,
taken in the fact, as by my commission they could not doubt I had authority
to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to
say but this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their
lives, and they humbly implored my mercy: but I told them I knew not
what mercy to show them ; for as for myself, I had resolved to quit the island
with all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go for England;
and as for the captain, he could not carry them to England, other than as.
prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny, and running away with the ship ;
the consequence of which, they must needs know, would be the gallows; so

13
230 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that brought them one of their hatchets, an old key, a knife, and six or sever:
of their bullets, which, though they did not understand, they seemed particularly
pleased with : and then tying the poor creatures’ hands behind them, they (the
people) dragged the prisoners into the boat for our men.

The Englishmen were obliged to come away as soon as they had them, or
else they that gave them this noble present would certainly have expected
that they should have gone to work with them, have killed two or three of’
them the next morning, and, perhaps, have invited the donors to dinner. But
having taken their leave, with all the respects and thanks that could well pass
between people, where, on either side, they understood not one word they
could say, they put off with their boat, and came back towards the first island,.
where, when they arrived, they set eight of their prisoners at liberty, there
being too many of them for their occasion. In their voyage, they endeavoured
to have some communication with their prisoners: but it was impossible to.
make them understand anything; nothing they could say to them, or give
them, or do for them, but was looked upon as going to murder them. They
first of all unbound them ; but the poor creatures screamed at that, especially
the women, as if they had just felt the knife at their throats; for they imme-.
diately concluded they were unbound on purpose to be killed. If they gave
them anything to eat, it was the same thing; they then concluded it was for
fear they should sink in flesh, and so not be fat enough to kill; if they looked
at one of them more particularly, the party presently concluded it was to see.
whether he or she was fattest, and fittest to kill first; nay, after they had.
brought them quite over, and began to use them kindly, and treat them well,.
still they expected every day.to make a dinner or supper for their new masters.

When the three wanderers had given this unaccountable history, the
Spaniard asked them where their new family was ; and being told that they
had brought them on shore, and put them into one of their huts, and were:
come up to beg some victuals for them, the whole colony resolved to go.
down to the place and see them. When they came into the hut, there they
sat, all bound ; for when they had brought them on shore, they bound their
hands, that they might not take the boat and make their escape ; first, there.
were three comely fellows, well shaped, with straight limbs, about thirty to.
thirty-five years of age ; and five women, whereof two might be from thirty
to forty, two more about four or five and twenty ; and the fifth, a tall, comely
maiden, about seventeen ; the women were well-favoured, agreeable persons,
both in shape and features, only tawny ; and two of them, had they been.
perfect white, would have passed for handsome women, even in London itself.
8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

surprised that I fell down ina swoon. As this was a time when everybody
had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder ; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run into a port, so the
master continued firing guns for help ; and a lightship, who had ridden it out
just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
_ the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length which they,
after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us,
after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship, so all agreed to
' let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and
our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master ; so partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship before
we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what: was meant by
a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking, for from that moment they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my heart was -
as it were dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near, but we made but slow way towards
the shore, nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the lighthouse at
‘Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
Jand broke off a little the violence of the wind : here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
76 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for
indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went
and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and
_ threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away ; but
it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog; and, as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary
of my landing on the island, having now been there two years, and no more
prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy this life I
now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked life I led
all the past part of my days; my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new, from what they were at my
first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country,
the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a
sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the
eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my mind, this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands and weep like
a child. Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or
vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having exhausted itself,
‘would abate.

- But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts: I daily read the
‘Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state; and
‘began to conclude in my mind, that it was possible for me to be more happy
_ in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever have
‘been in any other state in the world; and with this thought I was going to
-give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was,
but something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the
words. “How canst thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to
‘pretend to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour
‘to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?”
“ FRIDAY?” 3x

~years of age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect,
‘but seemed to have something very manly in his face; and yet he had all the
“sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance too, especially when
‘he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like wool ; his forehead
‘very high and large ; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes.
“The colour of the skin was not quite black, but very tawny; and yet not an
‘ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other
‘natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had
in it something very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His face:
‘was round and plump; his nose small, not flat like the Negroes, a very good
-mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as white as ivory. After he
"had slumbered rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke again, and
came out of the cave to me; for I had been milking my goats, which I had
in the inclosure just by: when he espied me, he came running to me, laying
‘himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble,
thankful disposition, making a great many antic gestures to show it; at last
the lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my other
‘foot upon his head, as he had done before ; and after this, made all the signs
to me of subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, to’ let me know
how he would serve me so long as he lived. I understood him in many
things, and let him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time
T began to speak to him, and teach him to speak to me; and, first, I let him
‘know his name should be FRIDAY, which was the day I saved his life: I
‘called him so for the memory of the time; I likewise taught him to say
Master ; and then let him know that was to be my name: I likewise taught
him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning of them ; I gave him some
milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my
‘bread in it ; and I gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly
complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I kept there
with him all night; but, as soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come
‘with me, and let him know I would give him some clothes ; at which he
seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the place where
‘he had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me
the marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to me that we
‘should dig them up again and eat them. At this, I appeared very angry,
expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it,
and beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he did immediately,
‘with great submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his
SAVAGES ON THE ISLAND. 117

It was now the month of December, as I said before, in my twenty-third
year ; and this, being the southern solstice, for winter I cannot call it, was the
particular time of my harvest, and required my being pretty much abroad in
the fields ; when, going out early in the morning, even before it was thorough
daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a
distance from me of about two miles, toward that part of the island where I
had observed some savages had been ; and not, as before, on the other side,
but, to my great affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within my
‘grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised ; and yet I had no more
peace within, from the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in rambling
through the island, should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my im-
provements, they would immediately conclude that there were people in the
place, and would then never give over till they had found me out. In this
extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the ladder after me,
and made all things without look as wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence ; I
» loaded all my cannon, as I called them; that is to say my muskets, which
were mounted upon my new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to
‘defend myself to the last gasp, not forgetting seriously to commend myself to
the Divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the
hands of the barbarians. In this posture I continued about two hours, and
-began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out.
-After sitting awhile longer, and musing what I shoyld do in this case, I was
not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer ; so setting up my ladder to
‘the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and
‘then pulling the ladder up after me, I set it up again and mounted the top of
‘the hill; and pulling out my perspective glass, which I had taken on purpose,
I laid me down flat on the ground, and began to look for the place.

I presently found there were no less than nine naked savages, sitting round
a small fire they had made, not to warm them, for they had no need of that,
the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some of their’
barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought with them, whether
-alive or dead I could not tell.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up upon the shore ;
and as it was then tide of ebb, they seemed to- wait for the return of the flood
‘to go away again ; it is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me
anto, especially seeing them come on my side of the island, and so near me




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3
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

“What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come:
into my ship! I would not set my foot i in the same ship with thee again for
a thousand pounds.”

This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet:
agitated by the sense of his loss,and was farther than he could have authority
to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to.
go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin ; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me:

“And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go back,.
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-.
ments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after ; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no.
more ; which way he went I know not. Having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land ; and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, whether I should go-
home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my:
thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at.
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and:
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often.
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,.
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,.
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not:
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are:
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
_ In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what.
' measures to take and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance.
continued to going home; and asI stayed awhile, the remembrance of the-
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in.
my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the.
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune ;,
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf.
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even command of my father : I
say the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of:
Africa ; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guznea.
202 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

light appeared ; though the weather being hazy, we could riot perceive any-=
thing but the light for a while. In about half an hour’s sailing, the wind
being fair for us, though not much of it, and the weather clearing up a little,
we could plainly discern that it was a great ship on fire in the middle of
the sea. .

I immediately ordered that five guns should be fired, one soon after
another, that, if possible, we might give notice to them that there was help
for them at hand, and that they might endeavour to save themselves in their
boat; for though we could see the flames of the ship, yet they, it being night,
could see nothing of us. |

We lay by some time upon this, only driving as the burning ship drove,
waiting for daylight ; when, on a sudden, to our great terror, though we had
reason to expect it, the ship blew up in the air; and in a few minutes all the
- fire was out, that is to say, the rest of the ship sunk ; this was a terrible, and
indeed an afflicting sight, for the sake of the poor men, who, I concluded,
_ must be either all destroyed in the ship, or be in the utmost distress in their
boat, in the middle of the ocean ; which, at present, as it was dark, I could
not see ; however, to direct them as well as I could, I caused lights to be hung
out in all parts of the ship where we could, and which we had lanterns for,
and kept firing guns all the night long ; letting them know by this that-there
was a ship not far off.

About eight o’clock in the morning we discovered the ship’s boats by the
help of our perspective glasses, and found there were two of them, both
thronged with people, and deep in the water. We perceived they rowed, the
wind being against them; that they saw our ship, and did their utmost to
make us see them.. We immediately spread our ancient, to let them know we
saw them, and hung a waft out, as a signal for them to come on board, and
then made more sail, standing directly to them. In little more than half an.
hour, we came up with them, and, in a word, took them all in, being no less
than sjxty-four men, women, and children; for there were a great many
passengers. |

Upon the whole we found it was a French merchant ship of 300 tons, home-
bound from Quebec, in the river of Canada. The master gave us a long
account of the distress of his ship, how the fire began in the steerage, by the
negligence of the steersman ; which, on his crying out for help, was, as every-
body thought, entirely put out ; but they soon found that some sparks of the
first fire had got into some part of the ship so difficult to come at that they
_ could not effectually quench it; and afterwards getting in between the
186 | | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

much the pleasanter way: and to make it more so, my old captain brought
an English gentleman, the son of a merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to
travel with me; after which. we picked up two more English merchants also,
and two young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only ; so that in
all there were six of us, and five servants ; the two merchants and-the two-
Portuguese contenting themselves with one servant between two, to save the
charge ; and as for me, I got an English sailor to travel with me as a servant,
besides my man Friday, who was too much a stranger to be capable of sup-
plying the place of a servant on the road.

_ In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company being very well
mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof they did me the honour
to call me captain, as well because I was the oldest man, as because I had -
two servants, and, indeed, was the originator of the whole journey.

When we came to Madrid, we being all of us strangers to Spain, were
willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain, and what was worth
observing ; but, it being the latter part of the summer, we hastened away, and
set out from Madrid about the middle of October ; but when we came to the
edge of Navarre, we were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with the
account that so much snow was fallen on the French side of the mountains,
that several travellers were obliged to come back to Pampeluna, after having
attempted at an extreme hazard to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed ; and to me, that
had been always used to a hot climate, and to countries where I could scarce
bear any clothes on, the cold was insufferable: nor, indeed, was it more
painful than surprising, to come but ten days before out of Old Castile, where
the weather was not only warm, but very hot, and immediately to feel a wind
from the Pyrenean Mountains so very keen, so severely cold, as to be intoler-
able, and to endanger benumbing and perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frighted when he saw the mountains all covered
’ with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had never seen or felt before in
his life. To mend the matter, when we came to Pampeluna, it continued
snowing with so much violence and so long, that the people said winter was
come before its time; and the roads, which were difficult before, were now
quite impassable ; there was no going without being in danger of being buried
alive every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at Pampeluna; when
(seeing the winter coming on, and no likelihood of its being better, for it was
the severest winter all over Europe that had been known in the memory of
man), I proposed that we should go away to Fontarabia, and there take
SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.

fare a aint: namo = ecm emencescomens one



PROF. GIBB’S “GUDRUN.”

14
56 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to take courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down
and disconsolate, not knowing what to do; all this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought ; nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy upon
me!” and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would |
rain. .Soon after that, the wind :arose by little and little, so that in less than
half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach of
the water ; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate; in two hours more it
was quite calm, and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected ;
when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being
the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over,
and I might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits
began to revive ; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be
beaten down with it ; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid lest it should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, vzz., to cut a hole through my
_ new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have

flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still

‘mo more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed.
And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small sup of rum ; which, however, I did then and
always very sparingly, knowing I could have no inore when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of
building a little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as
I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill ; and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent ; and I spent the
HARVESTING. 79

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see
the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I
was gone away, and the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I
was gone, I was no sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down one by
‘one into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was, as
it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence ; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for;
:so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England,
vig., hanged them in chains for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine
that this should have such an effect as it had; for the fowls would not only
not come at the corn, but forsook all that part of the island, and I could never
‘see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was
very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter end of December, which
was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and all I could
-do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of the broadswords, or
‘cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as my
crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped
it my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at the
end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed I had near
‘two bushels of rice,and above two bushels and a half of barley ; that is to say,
‘by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw that, in
‘time, it would please God to supply me with bread; and yet here I was
‘perplexed again, for I neither knew how‘to grind, or make meal of my corn,
-or indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
‘bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These
‘things being added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to
‘preserve it all for seed against the next season, and, in the mean time, to
‘employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of
‘providing myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a little
‘wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought much upon; vwzz., the
‘strange multitude of little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing,
dressing, making, and finishing this one article of bread. I, that was reduced
73 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

*
weason why so much of my time went away with so little work, vzz., that what
might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labour and
‘required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding
‘this, with patience and labour I got through everything that my circumstances
“made necessary to me to do.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting my crop
‘of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up for them was
not great ; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of
half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season; but
mow my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible
to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares,
which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk,

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a
hedge ; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it required
a great deal of speed, as the creatures daily spoiled my corn. However, as
“my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced
in about three weeks’ time ; and shooting some of the creatures in the day
time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at the
gate, where he would stand and bafk all night long; so in a little time, the
enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began

to ripen apace.

- But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the
-birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for, going along
‘by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls,
of I know not how many sorts, which stood, as it were, watching till I should

_be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
ame. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which rT
had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would
devour all my hopes ; that I should never be able to raise a crop at all; and
_what to do I could not tell: however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if

possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went

among it, to see what damage was already done, and found they had spoiled
a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not
so great but that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be
saved,
Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.

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et

o 3 6
0 3 6
.o 3 6

23


202 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

light appeared ; though the weather being hazy, we could riot perceive any-=
thing but the light for a while. In about half an hour’s sailing, the wind
being fair for us, though not much of it, and the weather clearing up a little,
we could plainly discern that it was a great ship on fire in the middle of
the sea. .

I immediately ordered that five guns should be fired, one soon after
another, that, if possible, we might give notice to them that there was help
for them at hand, and that they might endeavour to save themselves in their
boat; for though we could see the flames of the ship, yet they, it being night,
could see nothing of us. |

We lay by some time upon this, only driving as the burning ship drove,
waiting for daylight ; when, on a sudden, to our great terror, though we had
reason to expect it, the ship blew up in the air; and in a few minutes all the
- fire was out, that is to say, the rest of the ship sunk ; this was a terrible, and
indeed an afflicting sight, for the sake of the poor men, who, I concluded,
_ must be either all destroyed in the ship, or be in the utmost distress in their
boat, in the middle of the ocean ; which, at present, as it was dark, I could
not see ; however, to direct them as well as I could, I caused lights to be hung
out in all parts of the ship where we could, and which we had lanterns for,
and kept firing guns all the night long ; letting them know by this that-there
was a ship not far off.

About eight o’clock in the morning we discovered the ship’s boats by the
help of our perspective glasses, and found there were two of them, both
thronged with people, and deep in the water. We perceived they rowed, the
wind being against them; that they saw our ship, and did their utmost to
make us see them.. We immediately spread our ancient, to let them know we
saw them, and hung a waft out, as a signal for them to come on board, and
then made more sail, standing directly to them. In little more than half an.
hour, we came up with them, and, in a word, took them all in, being no less
than sjxty-four men, women, and children; for there were a great many
passengers. |

Upon the whole we found it was a French merchant ship of 300 tons, home-
bound from Quebec, in the river of Canada. The master gave us a long
account of the distress of his ship, how the fire began in the steerage, by the
negligence of the steersman ; which, on his crying out for help, was, as every-
body thought, entirely put out ; but they soon found that some sparks of the
first fire had got into some part of the ship so difficult to come at that they
_ could not effectually quench it; and afterwards getting in between the


23



SPECIMEN OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS.

By L, Atma TapveEma, R.A,



ZIMMERN’S “‘EPIC OF KINGS.”


MAKES CLOTHES OF SKINS. 89

naked—no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not ;—nor could I
abide the thought of it, though I was all alone. The reason why I could not
‘go naked was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked
as with some clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin ;
whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and whistling under
the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it; no more could I ever bring
myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of
the sun, beating with such violence as it does in that place, would give me
the headache presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a cap or
a hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would
presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few rags I had,
which I called clothes, into some order; I had worn out all the waistcoasts I
had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets out of the
great watch-coats which I had by me, and with such other materials as I had;
so I set to work, a-tailoring, or rather, indeed, a-botching, for I made most
piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three new waist-
coats, which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for breeches or
drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I had
killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up, stretched out, with
sticks in the sun; by which means some of them were so dry and hard that
they were fit for little, but others, it seems, were very useful. The first thing
I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to
shoot off the rain ; and this I performed so well, that after this I made me a
suit of clothes wholly of these skins ; that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches
open at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanted to keep me
cool, than to keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were
wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor ;
however, they were such as I made very good shift with, and when I was
abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being outer-—
most, I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella; I
was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one. I had
seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats,
and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the
equinox ; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most useful
thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took a world of pains at it,
SIGNS OF CANNIBALISM. 10g

I observed a place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the
earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat down to.
their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no.
notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while: all my apprehensions
were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and
the horror of the degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had heard of
it often, yet I never had so near a view of before: in short, I turned away my
face from the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just at the-
point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder from my stomach; and
having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not
bear to stay in the place a moment ; so I got me up the hill again with all the-
speed I could, and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile, as.
amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost affection of
my soul, and, with a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast
my first lot ina part of the world where I was distinguished from such dread-
ful creatures as these.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to be
much easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before :
for I observed that these wretches never came to this island in search of what
they could get ; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, anything
here ; and having often, no doubt, been up to the covered, woody part of it,.
without finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had been here now
almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps of human creature
there before ; and I might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I
was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had no manner of’
occasion to do; it being my only business to keep myself entirely concealed
where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make.
myself known to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches
that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman custom of their:
devouring and eating one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and
kept close within my own circle, for almost two years after this. When I say
my own circle, I mean by it my three plantations, vzz., my castle, my country-
seat, which I called my bower, and my inclosure in the woods: nor did I look.
after this for any other use than as an inclosure for my goats; for the aversion
which nature gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as fearful
of seeing them as of seeing the devil himself. I did not so much as go to look
THE CAPTAIN DELIVERED. 165

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one another's
‘with an attention even to amazement, and particularly at the wonderful man-
ner of my being furnished with provisions and ammunition ; and, indeed, as
my story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply ; but when
he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have been pre-
served there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran down his face, and he
could not speak a work more. After this communication was at an end, I
-carried him and his two men into my apartment, leading them in just where
I came out, vzz., at the top of the house; where I refreshed him with such
‘provision as I had, and showed them all the contrivances I had made during
my long, long inhabiting that place.

All 1 showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing ; but above
all, the captain admired my fortifications ; and how perfectly I had concealed
my retreat with a grove of trees, which, having been now planted nearly
‘twenty years, and the trees growing much faster than in England, was become
a little wood, and so thick that it was impassable in any part of it but at that
‘one side where I had reserved. my little winding passage into it: this I told
him was my castle and my residence ; but that I had a seat in the country,
‘as most princes have, whither I could retreat upon occasion, and I would show
him that, too, another time; but at present our business was to consider how
‘to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that, but told me he was
perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were still six and
‘twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by
‘which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it now
by desperation; and would carry it on, knowing that if they were subdued
‘they would be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or to
-any of the English colonies; and that, therefore, there would be no attacking
‘them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very
‘rational conclusion, and that therefore something was to be resolved on
-speedily, as well to draw the men on board into some snare for their surprise.
-as to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us: upon this, it presently
‘occurred to me that in a little while the ship’s crew, wondering what was
become of their comrades and of the boat, would certainly come on shore in
‘their other boat to look for them, and that then, perhaps, they might come
-armed, and be too strong for us: this he allowed to be rational. Upon this,
4 told him the first thing we had to do was to stave the boat, which lay upon
12 : ROBINSON CRUSOE.

new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged with my
friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes ;
and the first was this—our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised
" in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us
‘with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry to have got clear; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
‘we prepared to fight ; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringiag to, by mistake,
just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he interided, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
‘upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had .on
board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
‘board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging.
We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part
‘of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended, nor
was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was per-
fectly overwhelmed ; and now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic dis-
_ course to me, that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse ;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of the story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man-of-war ; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

eee
I.
A BOAT CAME OFF TO US wee vee vee bee . Lrontispiece
Il.
THE PRINT OF A FOOT UPON THE SAND wes vee ves vee Title
ITI.
PAGE.
A SIGNAL OF DISTRESS ves ves vee wes ves wee 23
IV.
MONEY IS NOT WEALTH TO THE SOLITARY ... | ves ves wes 40
V.
THE LADDER FINISHED vee wee bee eee ves we «55
VI.
FRUIT ON THE ISLAND .,.. ves ves bas bee bee 66
VII.
AN ISLAND KILN vas wee bes ves te bee .. 82
VIII. |

FULL DRESS eae eee eee eee wee wee vee I0G




Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, 26, Paternoster Square.



WINMORE &CO. A Tale of the Great Bank

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MY PLANTATIONS AND DWELLINGS. IO

from the west, and joining with the current of waters from some great river
‘on the shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that, according as the
wind blew more forcibly from the west or from the north, this current came
near or went farther from the shore ; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I
went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw
the current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a
league from the shore ; whereas in my case it set close upon the shore, and
hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at another time it would not
have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to observe the
ebbing and flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about
the island again; but when I began to think of putting it in practice, I had
such terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in,
‘that I could not think of it again with any patience, but, on the contrary, I
took up another resolution, which was more safe, though more laborious—and
‘this was, that I would build, or rather make, me another periagua or canoe,
and so have one for one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations in
the island; one my little fortification or tent, with the wall about it, under
‘the rock; with the cave behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into
‘several apartments, or caves, one within another. One of these, which was
the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification,
that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up
with the large earthern pots, of which I have given an account, and with
fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each,
where I laid up my stores of provision, especially my corn, some in the ear,
-cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand. As for
my wall, made as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles grew all like
‘trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so very much, that
there was not the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation
‘behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and upon
lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated
and sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its season ; and when-
ever I had occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, | had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable plantation

here also ; for, first, I had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in
repair ; that is to say, I kept the hedge, which encircled it in, constantly fitted












YOUNG'S “‘LIGHT IN LANDS OF DARKNESS.








150 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

five that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three of them fell with the: hurt
they received, so the other two fell with the fright. :

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing to keep my~
charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword: so I
called to Friday, and bade him run up to the tree from whence we first fired,.
and fetch the arms which lay there that had been discharged, which he did
with great swiftness ; and then giving him my musket, I sat down myself to.
load all the rest again, and bade them come to me when they wanted. While:
I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engagement between the-
Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at him with one of their great:
wooden swords, the weapon that was to have killed him before, if I had not:
prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be-
imagined, though weak, had fought the Indian a good while, and had cut two:
great wounds on his head; but the savage being a stout, lusty fellow, closing: '
in with him, had thrown him down, being faint, and was wringing my sword.
out of his hand; when the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting the:
sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and
killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running to help him, could come:
near him. 7 .

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches with no-
weapon in his hand but his hatchet ; and with that he despatched those three:
who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and fallen, and. all the rest he:
-could come up with: and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him.
-one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages, and.
wounded them both ; but, as he was not able to run, they both got from him:
into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one of them, but the
other was too nimble for him; and though he was wounded, yet plunged into-
the sea, and swam with all his might off to those two who were left in the:
canoe; which three in the canoe, with one wounded, that we knew not.
whether he died or no, were all that escaped our hands, of one and twenty.
The account of the whole is as follows :—three killed at our first shot from:
the tree; two killed at the next shot ; two killed by Friday in the boat; two.
killed by Friday of those at first wounded; one killed by Friday in the wood ;.
three killed by the Spaniard; four killed, being found dropped here and there,,
of the wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four escaped in the-
boat, whereof one wounded, if not dead—twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-shot, and!
though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit any-
20 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might be of some:
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I
went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at
last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun
effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve-
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is
to say, anywheré about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. -I knew that
all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or to-
«Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those Islands; and, in a

word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must

meet with some ship, or must perish. |
* When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said,
I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we’
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also-
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them ; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to:
me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a lone
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a
great way with good aim. SolI kept at a distance, but talked with them by-
signs as well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat ;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat.
Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with:
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country ; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was; however we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and.
then came close to us again.
PREPARING TO VISIT THE WRECK. 121

next the shipwreck : he had on no clothes but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of
open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt ; but nothing to direct me so
much as to guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in his pocket but
two pieces of eight and a tobacco pipe ; the last was to me of ten times more
value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to this
wreck; not doubting but I might find something on board that might be
useful to me ; but that did not altogether press me so much as the possibility
that there might be yet some living creature on board, whose life I might not
only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle, prepared
everything for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot of fresh water,
a compass to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that
left), and a basket full of raisins; and thus, loading myself with everything
necessary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her and got her
afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again for more. My
second cargo was a great bagful of rice, the umbrella to set up over my head
for shade, another large pot full of fresh water, and about two dozen of my
‘small loaves, or barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s milk,
and a cheese : all which with great labour and sweat I brought to my boat ;
and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling
the canoe along the shore, I came at last to the utmost point of the island on
that side N.E. And now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to
venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran con-
‘stantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were very terrible
to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my
heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those
currents, I should be carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of sight
of the island again ; and that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale
-of wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give over my
enterprise ; and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I
stepped out, and sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and
anxious, between fear and desire about my voyage ; when, as I was musing, I
could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon which,
my going was for so many hours impracticable. Upon this, presently it
occurred to me, that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could
find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay when the


Preparing for a longer Fourney.
FRIDAY RESCUES HIS FATHER. 151.

of them. Friday would fain have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue
them ; and, indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the
news home to their people, they should come back perhaps with two or three
hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere multitude; so I consented to
pursue them by sea, and running to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade
Friday follow me; but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find
another poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was,
for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing what was the
matter; for he had not been able to look up over the side of the boat, he was
tied so hard neck and heels, and had been tied so long, that he had really but
little life in him. | |
. immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had bound him

with, and would have helped him up; but he could not stand or speak, but
groaned most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only unbound in
order to be killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him, and
tell him of his deliverance ; and pulling out my bottle, made him give -the
poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of his being delivered, revived
him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came to hear him speak,
and look in his face, it would have moved any one to tears to have seen how
Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed,
jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his own
face and head; and then sung and jumped about again like a distracted
creature. It was a good while before I could make him speak to me, or tell
me-what was the matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told me
that it was his father. |

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstasy and
filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his father, and of
his being delivered. from death; nor, indeed, can I describe half the ex-
travagances of his affection after this; for he went into the boat, and out of
the boat, a great many times: when he went into him, he would sit down by
him, open his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom for many
minutes together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and ankles, which were
numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his
hands ; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of my
bottle to rub them with, which did them a great deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other savages,
who were now almost out of sight; and it was happy for