Citation
The sports and pastimes of American boys

Material Information

Title:
The sports and pastimes of American boys A guide and text-book of games of the play-ground, the parlor, and the field. Adapted especially for American youth
Creator:
Chadwick, Henry, 1824-1908
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York (9 Lafayette Place)
Publisher:
G. Routledge and sons
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
2 p. 1., [9]-303 p. : front., illus., diagrs. ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sports -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Games -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1884 ( rbgenr )
Boys' nonfiction -- 1884
Bldn -- 1884
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
Statement of Responsibility:
By Henry Chadwick ...

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
023756045 ( ALEPH )
02748429 ( OCLC )
AHM1131 ( NOTIS )
05029297 ( LCCN )

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Full Text


















\ N \ AN NY \ A \ SRN ‘

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ROADSIDE.

THE

BY

REST





, THE

SPORTS AND PASTIMES ©

OF

f

AMERICAN BOYS

A GUIDE AND TEXT-BOOK OF GAMES OF

THE PLAY-GROUND, THE PARLOR, AND THE FIELD

ADAPTED ESPECIALLY FOR AMERICAN YOUTH
BY

HENRY CHADWICK

Author of American Hand-Books of Games, etc., etc.



NEW YORK

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS
g LAFAYETTE PLACE



~IN UNIFORM STYLE.
Copiously Lllustrated.

ILLUSTRATED POEMS AND SONGS
FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

LABOULAYE’S ILLUSTRATED FAIRY
TALES.

SPORTS AND PASTIMES OF AMERI-
CAN BOYS.

THE PILGRIM’S PROGRESS.

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBIN-
SON CRUSOE.

THE SWISS FAMILY ROBINSON.
LAMB’S TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE.

WOOD’S ILLUSTRATED NATURAL
HISTORY FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

All bound in handsome lithographed double
covers; also in cloth.

George Routledge & Sons,

9 LAFAYETTE PLacge, New York.



Copyright, 1884,
By Joseru L. BLaAMire.










INTRODUCTION.

OW that the spirit of the age favors the plan of a judicious combination of
physical recreation with mental culture, it is timely to prepare a text-book
of sports and pastimes for boys, which will best tend to promote this system of
paying due attention to physical as well as mental education. An old writer says,
** Let me make the songs of a people, and I care not who makes their laws.’’ This
rule is as applicable to the structure of the sports of a people as it is to the com-
position of their songs. The pastimes of boys of all nations partake largely of the
peculiar character of the people whose youth engage in them. The boys of a war-
like nation find their chief recreation in sports in which feats of brutal courage,
and of endurance of fatigue and pain, are marked characteristics. On the other
hand, the youths of a peaceful people enjoy those pastimes best which most com-
pare in their character with the national life of their progenitors. Differences in
climate necessarily have their relation to the character of national sports ; but it is
more in the essential character of the people themselves that their national pastimes
differ, and this is especially noticeable in the receative sports of boys. It is in this
respect that the games of American boyhood are different, as a rule, from those of
English youths. Of course, there is a certain degree of similarity in most of
them, arising from their English origin ; but there is scarcely an imported game
that is at all open to improvement, which has not of late years been essentially.
‘‘ Americanized ;’’ witness the evolution of our manly national game ¢ of Base-Ball
from the old English schoolboy game of ‘‘ Rounders,”’

There is one thing in connection with the subject of youthful sports which
merits special attention, and that is the tendency of boys of the period to forego
such pastimes and to replace them with habits of their leisure hours, which are at
war alike with health and morality. Far too many of our American boys jump
from the games of their early school days, even before they have reached their
teens, into the vicious ways of fast young men. For this reason parents and
guardians cannot do better than to foster a love of out-door games among their
boys, if only as a means of keeping them out of the mischievous habits they are so
prone to indulge in when not at their school desks or actively engaged in physical
recreation suitable to theirage. It isa sad sight to see boys of from twelve to



10 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

fifteen years of age with cigarettes in their mouths, canes in their hands, and with
precocious appetites for stimulants, visiting, during their leisure hours, race-
courses, pool-rooms, variety-saloons, and other vicious places of public amuse-
ments, when they should be either on their regular playground, enjoying their
boyish games, or out on the fields participating in a higher class of youthful
sports,

The experience of the last half century of our American progress in refined
civilization has conclusively shown that physical culture must keep pace with
mental education, if the latter is to be carried to the point of perfection. There
are, of course, extremes in this respect as in everything else; and just as we
Americans, up to within the past twenty-five years, cultivated our minds at the
expense of our bodies, just so are our English cousins of the present day giving
too much of their attention to physical culture, to the neglect of that of the mind.
To read such influential sporting journalsas Zhe Field ; Landand Water, and weekly
papers of that class in England now—not to mention Seil’s Life and kindred
journals—one might very reasonably think that the English leisure classes had
little else to do or to think of than sports and pastimes. But this is as much the
extreme in one way as it has been, since the early days of the Republic, with us
the other way, The happy medium, however, unquestionably recognizes out-door
recreation as going hand in hand with mental culture. Morally, too, the aspect of
the case is one which gives encouragement to national pastimes as essential to the
right and proper growth of our young people. The inhabitants of our large
American cities have, up to within a late period, lacked a healthy physique.
Their mental powers have drawn too heavily on the nervous forces of their bodies,
and the result has been that the middle period of life has seen thousands carried
to the grave, who, with proper attention to physical exercise and recreation in
youth and early manhood, would have reached a good old age, ere the sere and
yellow leaf of time had made itself apparent. But it is useless further to sermonize
on the subject. Experience has taught us as a people that our old-time system of
‘‘all work and no play,’’ of overtaxing the mind at the expense of a neglected
physique, is a very bad policy, and very wisely and characteristically we are gain-
ing yearly in wisdom in this respect ; and hence the increased and growing popu-
larity of out-door sports for our boys and young men, and for physical exercise for
the fair sex as well, in the large cities and towns of the American Continent.



TRAINING FOR SPORTS.

N this work we shall give no special rules for training to excel in any particular
sport or branch of athletic exercises, inasmuch as this book is intended only

for games and sports calculated to aid in promoting physical culture as an impor-
tant ally of mental education. In regard to training, an important question arises
which bears upon the encouragement of physical exercise and recreation in our
colleges, and that is the question concerning the amount of time required for the
purpose of special training for particular sports in our colleges and large schools.
Certain sports are engaged in by collegians, and strenuous efforts are made to
excel all other colleges in them, without due regard being paid to the loss of time
in training involved in getting into winning form ascompetitors in matches. The
fact that young men go to college to advance themselves in the higher branches
of education is too frequently lost sight of, and valuable time is wasted in training
for special excellence in some one particular sport, which ought to be devoted to
study. While the question of physical education, in combination with that of
mental culture, should not be lost sight of, it is certainly very necessary that the
former should be made subordinate to the interests of the latter. In taking up
this question of the time wasted in training, the college Faculty fail to judiciously
discriminate in the matter, and they too often apply a general rule to the subject
when only a single sport is involved. For instance, there is a great difference in
the time required for training to excel in ball games—such as base-ball, cricket,
lacrosse, and foot-ball—and that needed to get into winning form as one of the
‘‘ University crew,’’ or as a competitor in a running or walking match in the inter-
collegiate contests ; it being impossible to excel in either one or other of the latter
sports without devoting an amount of time to necessary training which greatly
trespasses on the hours required each day for diligent study. To get into ‘‘ form’’
in any of the ball games, it is only necessary to occupy the ordinary leisure
time of a student’s daily life ; and the out-door work involved is of a character
advantageous as healthful recreation and desirable in a sanitary point of view.
But to train properly for a position in the racing crew of a college, or as the
champion athlete of the University, on the other hand, involves not only exceed-
ingly arduous labor, but a loss of time which necessarily interferes with the more



12 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

important class duties of the college. Moreover, aside from this loss of time in
training, there is the terrible strain upon the system, involved alike in the rowing
and running matches which is never incurred in the ball games. This important
difference in the matter of time used in training should be more duly considered
by the governing powers of our colleges than it is, otherwise an injustice will be
done to a class of out-door sports for collegians, which are admirably adapted for
healthful recreation, while not at all infringing on the hours required for study.

FAIR PLAY IN GAMES.

HE most marked feature of true manliness of character is a love of fair play.
It is a jewel in the crown of manhood of the first water, and without it all
sports degenerate into low and dishonest struggles to win by trickery and decep-
tion instead of by honorable efforts to excel. A love of fair play is inherent
in the breast of every man worthy of the name, and all such detest to see unfair
play exhibited on any field whatever, but especially in games where athletic
skill is the chief attraction, for on such fields it is that fair play shines out at its
brightest. Without referring to any other line of sports, sufficient examples can
be found in the arena of the American game of base-ball to fully illustrate the
nature of fair play and its opposite. When two contesting nines enter upon a
match game of base-ball, they do so with the implied understanding that the
struggle between them is to be one in which their respective skill in handling
the ball and the bat, and in running the bases, is alone to be brought into
play, unaided by such low trickery as is comprised in the acts of cutting the
ball, tripping up base runners, hiding the ball, wilful collisions with fielders,
and other specially mean tricks, of the kind characteristic of corner-lot loafers
in their ball games. All these so-called ‘‘ points’’ are beyond the pale of fair and
manly play, and rank only as among the abuses of the game. While strategic
skill is a legitimate feature of a contest on the diamond, it includes only such points
of play as are shown in a skilful outwitting of the batsman in the delivery of the
ball and in out-manceuvring opponents in base running.



ATHLETIC GAMES.

N the selection of games for this work we have omitted several which have
hitherto been included in boys’ books of games, for the reason that in their
construction and characteristics they are in no way calculated to improve a boy
either physically or otherwise. We have eliminated all sports and games marked
by anything of a cruel or brutal nature, as unworthy of a work intended for the
promotion of true manliness of character and of gentlemanly conduct. What is
not manly is not gentlemanly, and anything that inculcates brutality or any phase
of cruelty is not manly. Boys’ sports should be part of their school education in
preparing them to be manly in the moral attributes of truth, honor, kindliness,
and a charitable consideration for the failings of humanity, as well as in the
manliness of a well-trained physique. Especially should the mastering of quick
tempers be regarded in this matter of mental training by recreative exercise. We
begin this chapter on ‘‘ Games of the Playground,’’ with the sports of boys from
ten years of age upward. For purposes of education it would be well to have some
grown person present to superintend the games of the school playground. But.
the individual should be one who has not forgotten that he was once a boy him-
self, and also one who should bear in mind the old saying that ‘‘ boys will be
boys.’’ These memories involve due consideration for that freedom of action and
absence of undue restraint in supervision which, while giving the boys a free rein
to go their own pace in the race for enjoyment, yet holds them within proper
bounds in governing their words and actions, when temper or passion attempts to
assume entire control. There is a sort of electric battery of physical force in the
composition of boys of healthy physiques, which must be allowed an avenue of,
escape or evil consequences are likely to ensue ; and it is better to guide the direc-.
tion of this explosive material than to allow it to have its own way in its working
off. In other words, it is not judicious to allow wild play to a boy’s excess of
animal spirits ; nor is it advisable to check the overflow too suddenly. Train up
your boys in the way they should go—alike on the playground or the field of
sport as in the school of morality—and maturity will assuredly find them the right
kind of men for progressive humanity. With this brief reference to the moral
philosophy of sports, we proceed with our work. |



Iq SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

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TUG OF WAR.

This is an exceedingly lively game, giving exercise to the muscles of the chest
and arms. It is played by two parties, as nearly equal in numbers and strength
as can be mustered ; one party takes hold of one end of a strong rope, while their
antagonists take hold of the other; each party then strives to pull the other over
a line chalked or marked on the ground for the purpose, and those who are so
pulled over, being made prisoners, lose the game,

In this game two leaders should be appointed, who must calculate the powers
of their own side, and concert plans accordingly. The leader of either side
should have a code of signals, in order to communicate with his own friends, that
he may direct them when to stop, when to slacken, or when to pull hard. So im-
portant is the leader’s office, that a side with a good leader will always vanquish a
much superior force which has no commander to guide it. For example, when al]
the boys are pulling furiously at the rope. the leader of one side sees that his op-
ponents are leaning back too much, depending on their weight more than on their
strength. He immediately gives the signal to slacken, when down go half the
enemy on their backs, and are run away with merrily by the successful party, who
drag them over the mark with the greatest ease. Or if the enemy begins to be
wearied with hard pulling, a unanimous tug will often bring them upright while
they are off their guard, and, once moved, the victory is easily gained. No knots
are to be permitted on the rope. In the school-boy game of tug of war the game is
not to be considered as won unless the entire side has been dragged over the line.



ATHLETIC GAMES. 15

PRISONER’S BASE.

This is one of the best of the running class of games, and it is played as
follows. Sides of from six to ten players are chosen from among the swiftest
runners of the crowd. Two of the best players choose sides, after which the
‘‘home’”’ and “ prison’ bases are marked out. These are laid out by drawing a
line ten or a dozen yards from a wall, and dividing the inclosed space into two
equal portions, each of which ought to be large enough to contain all the players
on one side. At some distance (from a hundred to two hundred feet) in front of
these bases, two more spaces must be marked out for prisons, the prison of one
party being opposite the home base of the other.

The game is commenced by a player from one side called the ‘‘ leader”’ run-..
ning out of his base toward the prisons ; when he has got about half way he calls”
out ‘‘ chase,’’ at which signal one of the opposite party rushes from his base and
endeavors to catch him ; a partner of the first player next dashes out to capture
the second, and so on, both sides sending out as many of their partners as* they
please, to touch or take their opponents. Each player strives to overtake and
touch any one of the opposite side who quitted his base before he did, as he must
not touch any one who started after him, although they may, if they can, touch
him before he gets back to his own base; but if a player has taken a prisag
cannot be touched when he makes his way back to his base again. It is
that a player may touch only one of his adversaries every time he leaves his base,
and every prisoner must be taken to the prison of the party opposed to him, where
he remains unti] one of his partners can manage to touch him. It is to be borne
in mind that he who comes to rescue the captive must have started from his base , -
after the other has been taken, and the prisoner and his liberator are not allowed *
to touch any one, or to be touched on their return home. The victors are those
who can contrive to make all their opponents prisoners; the game may also be
decided by one player taking possession of the base belonging to his opponents
when they are all out ; it is therefore prudent to leave some one in charge of each
base. :



STEEPLECHASE.

This is a trial of speed and agility, and may be played by any number off
boys. It consists in the boys agreeing upon some distant object for a mark, such ~.,
_ as a conspicuous tree, or house, or steeple. The players then start off in whatever ©
direction they please, each one being at liberty to choose his own course. In-a



ATHLETIC GAMES. 15

PRISONER’S BASE.

This is one of the best of the running class of games, and it is played as
follows. Sides of from six to ten players are chosen from among the swiftest
runners of the crowd. Two of the best players choose sides, after which the
‘‘home’”’ and “ prison’ bases are marked out. These are laid out by drawing a
line ten or a dozen yards from a wall, and dividing the inclosed space into two
equal portions, each of which ought to be large enough to contain all the players
on one side. At some distance (from a hundred to two hundred feet) in front of
these bases, two more spaces must be marked out for prisons, the prison of one
party being opposite the home base of the other.

The game is commenced by a player from one side called the ‘‘ leader”’ run-..
ning out of his base toward the prisons ; when he has got about half way he calls”
out ‘‘ chase,’’ at which signal one of the opposite party rushes from his base and
endeavors to catch him ; a partner of the first player next dashes out to capture
the second, and so on, both sides sending out as many of their partners as* they
please, to touch or take their opponents. Each player strives to overtake and
touch any one of the opposite side who quitted his base before he did, as he must
not touch any one who started after him, although they may, if they can, touch
him before he gets back to his own base; but if a player has taken a prisag
cannot be touched when he makes his way back to his base again. It is
that a player may touch only one of his adversaries every time he leaves his base,
and every prisoner must be taken to the prison of the party opposed to him, where
he remains unti] one of his partners can manage to touch him. It is to be borne
in mind that he who comes to rescue the captive must have started from his base , -
after the other has been taken, and the prisoner and his liberator are not allowed *
to touch any one, or to be touched on their return home. The victors are those
who can contrive to make all their opponents prisoners; the game may also be
decided by one player taking possession of the base belonging to his opponents
when they are all out ; it is therefore prudent to leave some one in charge of each
base. :



STEEPLECHASE.

This is a trial of speed and agility, and may be played by any number off
boys. It consists in the boys agreeing upon some distant object for a mark, such ~.,
_ as a conspicuous tree, or house, or steeple. The players then start off in whatever ©
direction they please, each one being at liberty to choose his own course. In-a



16 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

long run of a mile or so it very often happens that hedges, ditches, and other
obstructions have to be got over, which adds great interest to the play, and the
best climbers and jumpers are the most likely to come in victors.




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HARE AND HOUNDS.

This is one of the best of the athletic class of school games. The principle of
it is simply this: one boy represents the hare, and runs away, while the others act

as hounds and pursue him toa specified goal. The proper management of the



ATHLETIC GAMES. 17

game, however, requires considerable skill. The first thing to be done is to
choose ahare. The hare should not be the best runner, but should be daring, and
at the same time prudent, or he may trespass into forbidden lands, and thereby
cause trouble. A huntsman and whipper-in are then chosen. The huntsman
should be the best player, and the whipper-in second best. Things having
advanced so far, the whole party sally forth. The hare is furnished with a large |
bag of white paper cut into small squares, which he scatters on the ground as he .
goes. An arrangement is made that the hare shall not cross his path, nor return
home until a certain time ; in either of which cases he is considered caught. The
hounds also are bound to follow the track or “‘ scent’’ implicitly, and not to make
short cuts if they see the hare. The hare then starts, and has about seven
minutes’ grace, at the expiration of which time the huntsman blows a horn with
which he is furnished and sets off, the hounds keeping nearly in Indian file, the
whipper-in bringing up the rear. The huntsman is also furnished with a white
flag, the whipper-in with a red one, the staves being pointed and shod with metal.
Off they go in the chase until the huntsman loses the scent. He immediately
shouts *‘ Lost !’’ on which the whipper-in sticks his fag in the ground where the |
scent was last seen and the entire line walks or runs round it in a circle, within
which they are tolerably sure to find the track. The huntsman in the meanwhile
has stuck his flag in the ground, and examines the country to see in what direction
the hare is likely to have gone. When the track is found, the player who discovers
it shouts Tally ho! the huntsman takes up his flag, and ascertains whether it is
really the track or not. If so, he blows his horn again, the hounds form in line
between the two flags, and off they go again. It is incredible how useful the two
flags are. Many a hare has been lost because the hounds forgot where the last
track was seen, and wasted time in searching for it again. Moreover, they seem
to encourage the players wonderfully. Sometimes the chase extends fourteen or
fifteen miles in length ; but before such an undertaking is commenced it is neces-
sary to prepare by a series of shorter chases, which should however be given in an
opposite direction to the course fixed upon for the grand chase, as otherwise the
tracks are apt to get mixed, and the hounds are thrown out. The hare should
always carefully survey his intended course a day or two previously, and then he
will avoid getting himself into quagmires or imprisoned in the bend of a river.
A pocket compass is a most useful auxiliary, and prevents all chance of losing the
way.



18 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

. BALL GAMES.

There are no sports or games engaged in by either men or boys which surpass
in interest and pleasure those in which a ball or balls are used. From the simple
ball game of the playground up to the most scientific of all games of ball,
cricket, a variety of sports are presented which gives the palm to the ball as a
means of recreative exercise. In this chapter on ‘‘ Ball Games’’ we not only in-
clude games in which ten-year-olds can readily participate, but also the manly
games of ball, such as cricket, base-ball, lacrosse, and foot-ball, the latter of which
are described especially for the use of boys, while we also devote considerable
space to each game designed for the perusal of an older class of readers. The
majority of ball games call for the exercise of considerable mental powers as well
as of physical ability to excel in them. Especially is this the case in cricket,
base-ball, and lacrosse. A manly physique is not more necessary to attain the
honors of victory in contests at these games, than are the mental powers of judg-
ment, courage, nerve, pluck, and control of temper. Games requiring such at-
tributes necessarily become valuable aids in education.

FUNGO.

This game is played with a round bat and a common ball. One player acts
as the batsman while all the others are fielders. The batsman takes the ball in
one hand, tosses it up in the air, and as it falls hits it ‘‘on the fly”’ to the out-
field, and if it be caught by any fielder on the fly the batsman goes to the field
and the fielder who caught the ball becomes the batsman. The batsman is out
also if he sends the ball to the fielders on the bound, or if he strikes at the ball
three consecutive times without hitting it, in which case the fielder next in turn
goes to the bat. Usually the latter receives the ball when thrown in from the
field, and passes it to the batsman. The game simply affords good practice to
out-fielders in catching the ball, it being comparatively useless as good practice

for batting.

TWO OLD CAT.

This game is a variation of fungo, and a preliminary step to the regular
game of base-ball. It is generally played by nine players, one of whom acts as
pitcher, another as catcher, three others as base players, another as short stop,



18 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

. BALL GAMES.

There are no sports or games engaged in by either men or boys which surpass
in interest and pleasure those in which a ball or balls are used. From the simple
ball game of the playground up to the most scientific of all games of ball,
cricket, a variety of sports are presented which gives the palm to the ball as a
means of recreative exercise. In this chapter on ‘‘ Ball Games’’ we not only in-
clude games in which ten-year-olds can readily participate, but also the manly
games of ball, such as cricket, base-ball, lacrosse, and foot-ball, the latter of which
are described especially for the use of boys, while we also devote considerable
space to each game designed for the perusal of an older class of readers. The
majority of ball games call for the exercise of considerable mental powers as well
as of physical ability to excel in them. Especially is this the case in cricket,
base-ball, and lacrosse. A manly physique is not more necessary to attain the
honors of victory in contests at these games, than are the mental powers of judg-
ment, courage, nerve, pluck, and control of temper. Games requiring such at-
tributes necessarily become valuable aids in education.

FUNGO.

This game is played with a round bat and a common ball. One player acts
as the batsman while all the others are fielders. The batsman takes the ball in
one hand, tosses it up in the air, and as it falls hits it ‘‘on the fly”’ to the out-
field, and if it be caught by any fielder on the fly the batsman goes to the field
and the fielder who caught the ball becomes the batsman. The batsman is out
also if he sends the ball to the fielders on the bound, or if he strikes at the ball
three consecutive times without hitting it, in which case the fielder next in turn
goes to the bat. Usually the latter receives the ball when thrown in from the
field, and passes it to the batsman. The game simply affords good practice to
out-fielders in catching the ball, it being comparatively useless as good practice

for batting.

TWO OLD CAT.

This game is a variation of fungo, and a preliminary step to the regular
game of base-ball. It is generally played by nine players, one of whom acts as
pitcher, another as catcher, three others as base players, another as short stop,



ATHLETIC GAMES. 19

and the last three as out-fielders. The pitcher is only allowed to pitch the balf
to the bat, no kind of throw in the delivery of the ball being permitted ; and |
he acts as pitcher until the batsman is put out, when the catcher goes in to the °
bat, and the pitcher becomes the catcher, and each of the occupants of the
other seven positions advance one position, the retiring batsman going to right
field. The batsman can be put out on a fly catch of a fair or a foul ball, and ona
foul-bound catch, and also on three strikes. He can also be put out after
hitting a fair ball on the bound, if the ball be held at first base before the batsman
reaches it. Should he make his base after such hit, however, he is entitled to take
the bat again, or he can resign it in favor of any player he chooses. Of course the
game is played on a diamond field, roughly laid out so as to mark the several base
positions,

TRAP BALL.

This favorite game is played with a ‘‘trap,’’ which is a solid piece of wood
shaped something like a shoe, and having a movable tongue or spoon. Be-
fore playing it, it is as well to fix the trap by sinking the heel in the ground.
Innings being tossed up for, the winner places the ball in the spoon of the trap,
touches the tongue of the trap with his bat, and as the ball rises, strikes it away as
far as he possibly can. If he makes more than two unsuccessful efforts at striking
the ball, or touches the tongue more than twice without being able to hit the ball,
he is out, and the next player takes his innings, which order of succession should
be settled beforehand. If one of the fielders can catch the ball before it falls to
the ground the striker loses his innings; but if it is not caught, the fielder who
stops it must bowl it from the spot where he picked it up, toward the trap ; if it
touches the trap, the striker is out, but if, on the contrary, it misses, the batsman
counts one toward his game.

It is usual in the present game of Trap and Ball to place two boundaries, at a
given distance from the trap, between which it is necessary for the ball to fall when
struck by the batsman, for if it falls outside of either, he is out.





ATHLETIC FEATS.

THLETIC exercises and feats of muscular strength, when not carried to
excess, are very beneficial to boys, not only in assisting in the development
of their young muscles, but in promoting health by causing the blood to circulate
freely and by producing perspiration, thereby giving healthy action to the skin.
In practising light feats of strength, care should be taken to avoid overstraining
of untrained muscles. Athletic exercises, as a general rule, should be practised
just as a child learns towalk. Each movement should be acquired by degrees, not
too suddenly. The simple exercises necessary to be gone through with before
any special feats are attempted may be regarded by most boys as needless, but
they properly prepare the muscles to sustain without injury the extra strain put
upon them in performing any special athletic feat of strength.

Almost all the feats of strength and activity which follow may be performed
readily enough by any boy who will take the trouble to practise them. We
recommend him to use great caution in making the first essays, both for his own
sake and for the sake of the furniture with which some of these gymnastic exer-
cises are performed. These feats are peculiarly suited for wet weather, when out-

door exercise is not at command. We begin with the simplest form of feats, and
of these the first is






ATHLETIC FEATS. 23

THE PALM SPRING.

The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing. the space as you gradually attain greater
proficiency in the exercise.



TRIAL OF THE THUMB.

Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it; and it is best to begin, as in the
‘palm spring,’’ with the feet ata little distance from the table, increasing the
*‘ trial of the thumb”’ by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.

Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together ; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger ©
than you are. ‘It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent.
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.

PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.



ATHLETIC FEATS. 23

THE PALM SPRING.

The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing. the space as you gradually attain greater
proficiency in the exercise.



TRIAL OF THE THUMB.

Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it; and it is best to begin, as in the
‘palm spring,’’ with the feet ata little distance from the table, increasing the
*‘ trial of the thumb”’ by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.

Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together ; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger ©
than you are. ‘It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent.
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.

PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.



ATHLETIC FEATS. 23

THE PALM SPRING.

The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing. the space as you gradually attain greater
proficiency in the exercise.



TRIAL OF THE THUMB.

Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it; and it is best to begin, as in the
‘palm spring,’’ with the feet ata little distance from the table, increasing the
*‘ trial of the thumb”’ by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.

Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together ; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger ©
than you are. ‘It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent.
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.

PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.



ATHLETIC FEATS. 23

THE PALM SPRING.

The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing. the space as you gradually attain greater
proficiency in the exercise.



TRIAL OF THE THUMB.

Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it; and it is best to begin, as in the
‘palm spring,’’ with the feet ata little distance from the table, increasing the
*‘ trial of the thumb”’ by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.

Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together ; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger ©
than you are. ‘It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent.
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.

PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.



22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

KNUCKLE DOWN.

Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line,

THE TANTALUS TRICK.

Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.

Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee withit, and stand stead-
ily in that position.

THE TRIUMPH.

This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back ; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.

This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B’s right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C’s left hand; R
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.

Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.



22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

KNUCKLE DOWN.

Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line,

THE TANTALUS TRICK.

Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.

Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee withit, and stand stead-
ily in that position.

THE TRIUMPH.

This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back ; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.

This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B’s right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C’s left hand; R
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.

Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.



22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

KNUCKLE DOWN.

Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line,

THE TANTALUS TRICK.

Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.

Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee withit, and stand stead-
ily in that position.

THE TRIUMPH.

This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back ; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.

This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B’s right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C’s left hand; R
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.

Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.



22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

KNUCKLE DOWN.

Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line,

THE TANTALUS TRICK.

Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.

Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee withit, and stand stead-
ily in that position.

THE TRIUMPH.

This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back ; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.

This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B’s right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C’s left hand; R
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.

Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.



22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

KNUCKLE DOWN.

Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line,

THE TANTALUS TRICK.

Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.

Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee withit, and stand stead-
ily in that position.

THE TRIUMPH.

This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back ; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.

This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B’s right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C’s left hand; R
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.

Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.



ATHLETIC FEATS. . 23 |

LIFTING AT ARM’S LENGTH.

Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.

Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a:stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the ©
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.

Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward ; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together, ©
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.

Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.

Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the .
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity. :



ATHLETIC FEATS. . 23 |

LIFTING AT ARM’S LENGTH.

Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.

Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a:stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the ©
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.

Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward ; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together, ©
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.

Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.

Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the .
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity. :



ATHLETIC FEATS. . 23 |

LIFTING AT ARM’S LENGTH.

Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.

Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a:stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the ©
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.

Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward ; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together, ©
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.

Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.

Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the .
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity. :



ATHLETIC FEATS. . 23 |

LIFTING AT ARM’S LENGTH.

Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.

Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a:stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the ©
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.

Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward ; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together, ©
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.

Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.

Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the .
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity. :



ATHLETIC FEATS. . 23 |

LIFTING AT ARM’S LENGTH.

Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.

Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a:stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the ©
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.

Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward ; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together, ©
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.

Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.

Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the .
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity. :



24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE LONG REACH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.

THE STOOPING STRETCH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.

FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.

Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.



24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE LONG REACH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.

THE STOOPING STRETCH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.

FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.

Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.



24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE LONG REACH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.

THE STOOPING STRETCH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.

FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.

Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.



24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE LONG REACH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.

THE STOOPING STRETCH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.

FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.

Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.



ATHLETIC FEATS. 25

TUMBLE-DOWN DICK,

A strong, long-backed old-fashioned chair is the best adapted for this feat.
Place the chair down on the floor, and put a small piece of money at the end or
else about the middle of the back. Next kneel on the legs of the chair, and take
hold with both hands of the sides of the legs near the seat rail; then bend down
and endeavor to touch the back of the chair with your face, and take up the
piece of money before mentioned with your mouth; you must be careful that
you do not fall forward, or allow the top of the chair to touch the ground. In
this amusement, the position of the hands may be altered, either higher up or
lower down the back of the chair, at the pleasure of the player, as he finds
necessary. .

TO TAKE A CHAIR FROM UNDER YOU WITHOUT FALLING.

In order to perform this feat, you must lay along on three chairs. Throw
up your chest, keep your shoulders down, and your limbs as stiff as you possibly
can ; then take the centre chair from under your body, carry it over, and place
it again under your body on the opposite side. Although this at first sight ap-
pears difficult, yet in reality it is very easy ; it is as well, however, to have a chair
of a rather lighter construction for the middle one, as you are thereby enabled to
perform it with less strain upon the muscles of the body and arm.

CHAIRING THE LEG.

After putting your left foot on the lowest back rail of a tolerably heavy chair,
you must try to pass your right leg over the back, and bring it to the floor be-
tween your left leg and the chair. In performing this trick, which must be done
with caution, it is not allowable to touch the chair with your hands. The chair
should not stand on a slippery surface, as it might by chance move, and a fall
would be the result.



ATHLETIC FEATS. 25

TUMBLE-DOWN DICK,

A strong, long-backed old-fashioned chair is the best adapted for this feat.
Place the chair down on the floor, and put a small piece of money at the end or
else about the middle of the back. Next kneel on the legs of the chair, and take
hold with both hands of the sides of the legs near the seat rail; then bend down
and endeavor to touch the back of the chair with your face, and take up the
piece of money before mentioned with your mouth; you must be careful that
you do not fall forward, or allow the top of the chair to touch the ground. In
this amusement, the position of the hands may be altered, either higher up or
lower down the back of the chair, at the pleasure of the player, as he finds
necessary. .

TO TAKE A CHAIR FROM UNDER YOU WITHOUT FALLING.

In order to perform this feat, you must lay along on three chairs. Throw
up your chest, keep your shoulders down, and your limbs as stiff as you possibly
can ; then take the centre chair from under your body, carry it over, and place
it again under your body on the opposite side. Although this at first sight ap-
pears difficult, yet in reality it is very easy ; it is as well, however, to have a chair
of a rather lighter construction for the middle one, as you are thereby enabled to
perform it with less strain upon the muscles of the body and arm.

CHAIRING THE LEG.

After putting your left foot on the lowest back rail of a tolerably heavy chair,
you must try to pass your right leg over the back, and bring it to the floor be-
tween your left leg and the chair. In performing this trick, which must be done
with caution, it is not allowable to touch the chair with your hands. The chair
should not stand on a slippery surface, as it might by chance move, and a fall
would be the result.



ATHLETIC FEATS. 25

TUMBLE-DOWN DICK,

A strong, long-backed old-fashioned chair is the best adapted for this feat.
Place the chair down on the floor, and put a small piece of money at the end or
else about the middle of the back. Next kneel on the legs of the chair, and take
hold with both hands of the sides of the legs near the seat rail; then bend down
and endeavor to touch the back of the chair with your face, and take up the
piece of money before mentioned with your mouth; you must be careful that
you do not fall forward, or allow the top of the chair to touch the ground. In
this amusement, the position of the hands may be altered, either higher up or
lower down the back of the chair, at the pleasure of the player, as he finds
necessary. .

TO TAKE A CHAIR FROM UNDER YOU WITHOUT FALLING.

In order to perform this feat, you must lay along on three chairs. Throw
up your chest, keep your shoulders down, and your limbs as stiff as you possibly
can ; then take the centre chair from under your body, carry it over, and place
it again under your body on the opposite side. Although this at first sight ap-
pears difficult, yet in reality it is very easy ; it is as well, however, to have a chair
of a rather lighter construction for the middle one, as you are thereby enabled to
perform it with less strain upon the muscles of the body and arm.

CHAIRING THE LEG.

After putting your left foot on the lowest back rail of a tolerably heavy chair,
you must try to pass your right leg over the back, and bring it to the floor be-
tween your left leg and the chair. In performing this trick, which must be done
with caution, it is not allowable to touch the chair with your hands. The chair
should not stand on a slippery surface, as it might by chance move, and a fall
would be the result.



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GYMNASTIC EXERCISES.

HE study of Gymnastics is of the utmost importance to young persons, as its

object is to call into exercise and to train to perfection all the corporeal or
bodily powers. It is the education of the limbs, joints, and muscles, and includes
not only the systematic training of these, but also assists the physical sciences of
riding, driving, wrestling, rowing, sailing, skating, swimming, etc.

In the following gymnastic exercises only those simple and useful feats which
may be said to make up the ‘‘ alphabet of the science’ are introduced. They
may be performed in very small spaces, and require no particular preparation,
expense, or place. By attention to the directions any pupil between the ages of
twelve and sixteen may train and exercise himself and a number of other children
yoynger than himself, and this excellent study may thus become a source of
amusement and delight.

Gymnastic exercises may be begun by a boy of about eight years of age, or
may be commenced at any age; but in all cases he should begin gently, and pro-
ceed gradually, without any abrupt transitions. They should be commenced
before breakfast in the morning, or before dinner or supper, but never imme-
diately after meals ; and the pupil should be very careful, after becoming heated
by exercises, of draughts or cold, and especially refrain from lying on the damp
ground, or from standing without his coat or other garments, and rigidly guard
against the dangerous practice of drinking cold water when overheated, which,
in many instances, has been known to produce immediate death.



GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 27

WALKING.

in all gymnastic exercises, walking, running, and jumping deserve the pref-
erence, because they are the most natural movements of man, and those which he
has most frequent occasion to use. This exercise, within the reach of everybody,
ought to be placed among the number of those which are direct conservators of
health, and which have the most important beneficial effects upon our mental and
moral economy. Walking provokes appetite, assists digestion, accelerates the
circulation, brings the fluids to the skin, strengthens the memory, and gives cheer-
fulness to the mind, and in fatiguing the limbs gives repose to the senses and the
brain.

It might be supposed that every one knows how to walk: not so, however ;
some persons crawl, some hobble, some shuffle along. Few have the graceful,
noble movement that ought to belong to progression, or, however well formed,
preserve a really erect position and an air of becoming confidence and dignity.
To teach young persons to walk properly, we should advise a class of them to
unite, that they may be able to teach themselves.

RUNNING.

Running is both useful and natural ; it favors the development of the chest
dilates the lungs, and, when moderate, is a highly salutary exercise. To run fast
and gracefully one should as it were graze the ground with the feet, by keeping
the legs as straight as possible while moving them forward. During the course
the upper part of the body is inclined a little forward, the arms are, as it were,
glued to the sides and turned in at the point of the hips, the hands shut, and the
nails turned inward. The faults in running are swinging the arms, raising the
legs too high behind, taking too large strides, bending the knees too much, and
in not properly managing one’s wind. In all running exercises the young should
begin gradually, and never run themselves out of breath at any time. By careful
practice a boy may soon acquire the power of running a mile in ten minutes;
this is called moderate running ; in what is called prompt running a thousand
yards in two minutes is thought very good work, and in quick running 600 yards ’
in a minute is considered good. The first distance that children from eight to
ten years of age may be made to run is about 200 yards; the second, for those
more advanced, 300 yards ; and the third, for adults, 400 yards. It is, however,
most essential that in running boys should not overtax their strength or ‘‘ wind.”
We are not all constituted alike, and a boy who could last for 200 yards or so
might injure himself considerably by racing for a mile.



GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 27

WALKING.

in all gymnastic exercises, walking, running, and jumping deserve the pref-
erence, because they are the most natural movements of man, and those which he
has most frequent occasion to use. This exercise, within the reach of everybody,
ought to be placed among the number of those which are direct conservators of
health, and which have the most important beneficial effects upon our mental and
moral economy. Walking provokes appetite, assists digestion, accelerates the
circulation, brings the fluids to the skin, strengthens the memory, and gives cheer-
fulness to the mind, and in fatiguing the limbs gives repose to the senses and the
brain.

It might be supposed that every one knows how to walk: not so, however ;
some persons crawl, some hobble, some shuffle along. Few have the graceful,
noble movement that ought to belong to progression, or, however well formed,
preserve a really erect position and an air of becoming confidence and dignity.
To teach young persons to walk properly, we should advise a class of them to
unite, that they may be able to teach themselves.

RUNNING.

Running is both useful and natural ; it favors the development of the chest
dilates the lungs, and, when moderate, is a highly salutary exercise. To run fast
and gracefully one should as it were graze the ground with the feet, by keeping
the legs as straight as possible while moving them forward. During the course
the upper part of the body is inclined a little forward, the arms are, as it were,
glued to the sides and turned in at the point of the hips, the hands shut, and the
nails turned inward. The faults in running are swinging the arms, raising the
legs too high behind, taking too large strides, bending the knees too much, and
in not properly managing one’s wind. In all running exercises the young should
begin gradually, and never run themselves out of breath at any time. By careful
practice a boy may soon acquire the power of running a mile in ten minutes;
this is called moderate running ; in what is called prompt running a thousand
yards in two minutes is thought very good work, and in quick running 600 yards ’
in a minute is considered good. The first distance that children from eight to
ten years of age may be made to run is about 200 yards; the second, for those
more advanced, 300 yards ; and the third, for adults, 400 yards. It is, however,
most essential that in running boys should not overtax their strength or ‘‘ wind.”
We are not all constituted alike, and a boy who could last for 200 yards or so
might injure himself considerably by racing for a mile.



28 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

JUMPING.

Of all the corporeal exercises, jumping is one of the most useful ; and during
our lives very many instances occur of a good jump having done us essential ser-
vice. To jump with grace and assurance one should always fall on the toes, tak-
ing care especially to bend the knees on the hips; the upper part of the body
should be inclined forward, and the arms extended toward the ground. The
hands should serve to break the fall when jumping from a great height. In jump-
ing we should hold the breath and never alight on the heels. Boys should exer-
cise themselves in jumping by jumping in length and jumping from a height,
with attention to the above cautions. They may make progressive exercises in
length by varying the distance from time to time, and in height by jumping from a
flight of stairs or steps, increasing a step at a time: they will soon be able to
jump in length three yards, and from a height six feet, without injury:

DUMB-BELLS.

Most boys know the form and appearance of dumb-bells, and probably have
some ideas of using them, but a few directions and illustrations will benefit them.
Nor would we exclude girls from the practice in moderation. A light pair of
‘** bells’? used every morning after the bath will have a wonderful effect in bracing
and strengthening the muscles and in giving elasticity to the figure.

It is a great mistake to commence with heavy dumb-bells. For a boy a pair
weighing three or four pounds will be sufficient, and this weight can be increased
as the pupil gets stronger. Another hint which boys should bear in mind is this
—a useful one in a// exercises—never attempt too much at one time. You will
only get exhausted, and though the novelty of the practice and energy will carry
you through, you will feel the evil effects next day. In this, as in everything else,
be moderate. Half an hour or a quarter of an hour at first will be sufficient.
There are numerous exercises with the dumb-bells. We will give the principal
ones :.

Exercise I. Stand erect firmly, heels close together, the elbows back. Lift
the bells, and from the chest raise them as high as the arms will reach. Then
bring them down again and up together and afterward alternately to the armpits.
Repeat.

Exercise II. Take the bells, and leaning forward from the waist drop the
right arm to the full extent, at the same time holding the left bell up to the chest.
Do likewise with left and right arms. Then leaning sideways, raise and lower the
dumb-bells right and left alternately, both arms fully extended diagonally. The
arms may also be extended full in front, as if striking a blow. (See figure.)



28 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

JUMPING.

Of all the corporeal exercises, jumping is one of the most useful ; and during
our lives very many instances occur of a good jump having done us essential ser-
vice. To jump with grace and assurance one should always fall on the toes, tak-
ing care especially to bend the knees on the hips; the upper part of the body
should be inclined forward, and the arms extended toward the ground. The
hands should serve to break the fall when jumping from a great height. In jump-
ing we should hold the breath and never alight on the heels. Boys should exer-
cise themselves in jumping by jumping in length and jumping from a height,
with attention to the above cautions. They may make progressive exercises in
length by varying the distance from time to time, and in height by jumping from a
flight of stairs or steps, increasing a step at a time: they will soon be able to
jump in length three yards, and from a height six feet, without injury:

DUMB-BELLS.

Most boys know the form and appearance of dumb-bells, and probably have
some ideas of using them, but a few directions and illustrations will benefit them.
Nor would we exclude girls from the practice in moderation. A light pair of
‘** bells’? used every morning after the bath will have a wonderful effect in bracing
and strengthening the muscles and in giving elasticity to the figure.

It is a great mistake to commence with heavy dumb-bells. For a boy a pair
weighing three or four pounds will be sufficient, and this weight can be increased
as the pupil gets stronger. Another hint which boys should bear in mind is this
—a useful one in a// exercises—never attempt too much at one time. You will
only get exhausted, and though the novelty of the practice and energy will carry
you through, you will feel the evil effects next day. In this, as in everything else,
be moderate. Half an hour or a quarter of an hour at first will be sufficient.
There are numerous exercises with the dumb-bells. We will give the principal
ones :.

Exercise I. Stand erect firmly, heels close together, the elbows back. Lift
the bells, and from the chest raise them as high as the arms will reach. Then
bring them down again and up together and afterward alternately to the armpits.
Repeat.

Exercise II. Take the bells, and leaning forward from the waist drop the
right arm to the full extent, at the same time holding the left bell up to the chest.
Do likewise with left and right arms. Then leaning sideways, raise and lower the
dumb-bells right and left alternately, both arms fully extended diagonally. The
arms may also be extended full in front, as if striking a blow. (See figure.)



GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 29

Exercise III. Seize the bells firmly and extend the arms, as far as possible, in
a line with the shoulders. From this position bring the hands together in front
and then to the back to touch, if possible—arms being all the time extended
straight from the shoulders. Repeat.



Exercise IV. Circle the bells by swinging first one and then the other, and
then both, with extended arms backward and forward, and then round the head.

Exercise V. Extend the arms in front; bring them back to the chest, the
bells hugged almost to the breast; from that position strike sharply out, opening
the arms as widely as possible, and then bring the arms round to front again.

Repeat.



The above are some of the most usual exercises, but the pupil can soon be-
come proficient if he will practise. Remember the head -should be erect, the chest



No stooping or slouching habits

SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.



From dumb-bells the pupils may go through a course of bar-exercise, or
French dumb-bells or bar-bells.

expanded, the heels together, the body upright.

can be tolerated.

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DIAGRAM OF A BASE BALL FIELD,
WITH THE LINES OF MEASUREMENT.

UMPIRE
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PITCHER’S
POSITION




18T BASEMAN
3D BASEMAN
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$ HORT-STOP
2ND BASEMAN
°
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Right-fielder. Left-fielder.
@

° OUT-FIELD.

Centre-fielder.
oO

A. A. A.—Ground reserved for Umpire, Batsman and Catcher.

B. B. B.—Ground reserved for Captain and Assistant.



THE DIAMOND FIELD,



SURFACE,




GROUND,
SMOOTH

IN-FIELD OF TURF,



In laying out a Base Ball Field the diamond shall be carefully covered with turf,
and kept rolled, so as to make it level and smooth. The base lines should be path-
ways, and the space from the pitcher’s position to that of the catcher’s should be
bare ground, with a hard smooth surface, especially behind the home base. The
above diagram shows the lines of the diamond field.





HENRY CHADWICK,

Author of Sports and Pastimes of American Boys.



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME.’

N the chapters on the American game of base-ball which we give in the
succeeding pages, we have not only taken special pains to prepare them for
youthful readers, but also to make this part of our work on sports a special feature
as a text-book of the game adopted for the amateur class of the fraternity. It is
the game of games for American boys, and therefore we devote more space to
base-ball than to any other department of the hook.

It has been justly said that there is no outdoor sport in America that equals
our national game of base-ball, either as an exciting sport to witness or as a game
affording ample opportunities for healthy, manly, and recreative exercise. In
comparison with every other field game known in the arena of outdoor sports,
base-ball bears off the palm in all those features which are calculated to secure the
popular favor of the American public. A match at base-ball scarcely averages two
hours of time, from the opening innings to the close of the contest, even at the
hands of amateur experts, and still less when the contesting nines are trained and
experienced professionals, From the moment the ball is in play to the end of
each innings of a match, the interest is kept up unceasingly. Then, too, in the
accomplishment of the work in those departments of the game which the nine in
the field has especially to attend to, opportunities are afforded for the most attrac-
tive displays of manly courage, pluck, and nerve; while activity of mind as well
as limb come into active play through the medium of pitching, catching, fielding,
throwing, and holding the ball on the bases, involved in the work of an attacking
party in a contest ; while, on the other hand, there is the great skill needed in
handling the bat, and sound judgment as well as remarkable agility required in
running the bases, this being the work of the defence in the battle for the prize of
victory ; the whole affording scope for active exercise of mind and body, un-
equalled by any field sport.

THE THEORY OF THE GAME.

There is no game now in vogue the theory of which is more simple than that
of base-ball, and hence its attractions for the masses ; and yet to excel in the game
as a noted expert requires not only the ,possession of the physical attributes of -



36 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

endurance, agility, strength, good throwing and running powers, together with
plenty of courage, pluck, and nerve, but also the mental powers of sound
judgment, quick perception, thorough control of temper, and the presence of mind
to act promptly in critical emergencies. The plain theory of base-ball is simply
as follows : A space of ground being marked out on a level field in the form of a
diamond, with equal sides, bases are placed on the four corners thereof. The con-
testants include nine players on each side—one side takes the field and the other
goes to the bat. When the field side take their positions the pitcher delivers the
ball to the batsman, who endeavors to send it out of the reach of the fielders and
far enough out on the field to enable him to run round the bases, and if he reaches
the home-base—his starting point—without being put out, he scoresarun. He is
followed in rotation by the others of his side until three of the batting party are
put out, when the field side come in and take their turn at the bat. This goes on
until nine innings have been played on each side, and then the side scoring the
most runs wins the game.

HOW TO PLAY THE POSITIONS.
THE PITCHER.

This position is the most important in the field and the most responsible of
all. He is now allowed ‘to deliver the ball to the bat either by a pitch, a toss, a
jerk, or an underhand or overhand throw.

His position is within the lines of a space of ground six feet by four. The
rules require him to deliver the ball while standing in his position, and when in
the act of delivering, or in making any preliminary motion to deliver the ball, he
must have both feet within the lines of his position, and he cannot take a step
outside the lines until the ball has left his hands. Should he do so he incurs the
penalty for balking.

The pitcher should bear in mind the important fact that the true art of pitch-
ing is to deceive the eye of the batsman—that is, to send the ball in to the bat in
such a manner as to lead the striker to believe that it is just coming in where he
wants it, while in fact it is either too high or too low, or is too swift or too slow
for the purpose. Moreover, he should have the pluck to face hot balls direct from
the bat. Unless he can do this, he can never pitch with judgment, for he will be
so impressed with the idea of avoiding being hit with the ball that he will think of
little else.

He must especially possess a full command of the ball in delivery, or his judg-
ment will be of no avail; and he should have the endurance to pitch through a



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 37











































































































































































































long and tedious game. He should also remember that there is nothing in speed
alone which makes such a style of delivery effective, and also that a merely swift
delivery of the ball without command of aim, costs more in passed balls and bases
run than is compensated for by either poor hits, tipped balls, or strikes. For
fuller instructions, see article on The Art of Pitching.

THE CATCHER.

Much of the success of a nine depends upon the ability of the catcher, and it
is therefore requisite that he should be an excellent player in his position ; and to
excel as catcher he should be able to throw with great accuracy and speed a line
balla distance of fifty yards, and be able to stop swiftly-pitched balls and low
grounders, and be especially on the alert in judging of foul balls, besides having
the nerve to face sharply-tipped balls direct from the bat. The ordinary rule is,
when the striker has made his first base, for the catcher to come up close behind
the bat, in order to be in a position to take the ball from the pitcher quick enough
to send it to second base, in case the base runner tries to steal a base on the



38. SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

pitcher. The catcher and pitcher should always have a perfect understanding
with each other in regard to their respective movements. They should havea
code of signals between them, and they should practise these signs until they can
read them as easily as their letters. Thus, when the catcher sees an opportunity
for the pitcher to catch a base player napping off his base, a certain signal should
be given by which the pitcher may understand that he is to throw to the base
promptly. Again, if the pitcher is familiar with a certain habit of the batsman
before him of hitting at a favorite ball, he should give the catcher a sign informing
him that he is going to send in a slower or swifter ball or a higher or lower one
than ordinarily is pitched.

THE BASE PLAYERS.

All basemen should be good ball-catchers, but the occupant of the first base.
should especially excel in holding the swiftest thrown balls. He should also be
fearless in facing hot balls from the bat, and expert in taking balls from the field,
while holding one foot on the base. When a ball is hastily thrown to first base,
his care should be to hold it, but at any rate to stop it. A good first-base player
ought to be able to hold a ball from the field, if it comes in anywhere within a
radius of six feet from the base, and in case of high-thrown balls he ought to take
them at least eight feet high from the base. He must remember that the ball
must be held by him, with some part of his person touching the base at the same
time, Jefore the striker reaches it, or the latter is not out ; if the ball is held at the
same time, the base runner is not out.

The second baseman requires to be a pretty active fielder, an accurate thrower
for a short distance, and a pretty sure catch; he should, however, be very expert
in catching a swiftly-thrown ball, and in holding it firmly and putting it quickly
on the player running to his base. He is required to cover the second base and to
play ‘‘right-short-stop’’ too; but his position in the field must be governed
entirely by the style of batting he is called upon to face. If a strong hitter comes
to the bat and swift balls are being sent in, he should play well out in the field
between right field and second base, and be on the gui vive for long-bound balls,
or high-fly balls which drop between the out-field and the second- ‘asopine
When the batsman makes his first base, the second baseman comes up and ‘Bets
near his base in readiness to receive the ball from the catcher. He should remem-
ber that in a majority of cases his duty is to touch the base runner, and this it
would be well to do in all cases when the latter is found off his base.

When the first baseman runs after the ball hit by the striker, the second base-
man should at once make for the first base, as he is generally nearer to it than
either the short-stop or pitcher when balls are being hit to first base. In timing



TR ee
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. &
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~

THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. - 7 Bg

for a throw to first base be sure of your aim, or if in doubt let the base be made,
- or otherwise the chances are that an over-throw will give your opponent his third.
instead of his first base. Hasty throwing is poor policy except you are pretty sure
in sending in a swift line ball, and you have a good man at first base to hold it.
When a player is on the first base, and another on the third, be on the watch so as
to make a prompt return of the ball when the catcher throws to the second and the.
man on the third attempts to run home on the throw. There is ample time for a
ball to be thrown from home to second and back to put out a player running
home.

The third baseman’s duties are the most onerous of the three positions on the
bases, as on his good fielding will frequently depend the loss of runs.to his oppo-
nents, whereas failures on the other bases are only made at the cost of a single
base. In the case of a misplay at third base, however, one or more runs scored is
generally the result—that is, in cases where players are running their bases.
When no men are on the bases the third baseman will have to be active in fielding
the ball, and quick and accurate in throwing it, in order to prevent the striker
from making his base. The third baseman takes a position closer to his base than
either of the other basemen. ‘Sometimes, however, he takes the place of the short-
stop when the latter covers the second base in cases where the second baseman
plays at right-short for a right-field hitter, a position frequently taken by a first-
class nine.

In throwing from base to base hastily, take care that you throw low rather
than high, as a low ball can be stopped if not handled, whereas a ball overhead
gives one or more bases in nearly every instance. In fact, in the long run, it is
safer to allow a player to make one base than to run the risk of helping him to two
or three bases by an over-throw. Accurate throwing from base to base is a pretty
feature of the game, and with straight throwers and sure catchers can be safely
indulged in at all times; for though a player may not be put out by a throw,
when he sees the ball thrown straight and handled prettily, it makes him hug his
bases closer. Every base player should be active in ‘‘ backing up”’ in the in-field.
The life of fielding is in the support afforded each other by the fielders who are
located near together. A good fielder or base player never stands still; he is
always on the move, ready for a spring to reach the ball, a stoop to pick it up, or
a prompt movement to stop it, and he always has his eye upon the ball, ‘especially
when it is flying about inside the base lines or from base to base. Poor base
players seldom put themselves out of the way to field a ball unless it comes within
their special district, but a good base player is on the alert to play at a moment’s
notice, on any base from which the player has gone after the ball. When bases
are vacated by runners, ‘‘ forced off’’ or foul or fly balls are struck, all the base



49 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

players handle the ball in the same way as at first base, but it is advisable to make
sure always by touching the player when he is off the base.

THE OUT-FIELDERS.

The occupants of the positions in the outer field—viz., left, centre, and right
fields, should be equal in their qualifications as fielders. Each should be able to
throw a ball a hundred yards, certainly not less than eighty at least. They should
be good runners and excellent judges of fly-balls. They should never stand still
or occupy one position all the time, but be on the move, ready for a quick run, or
to back up each other. In judging of fly-balls it is always safer to lay out fora
long hit than to get so close in as to have to get back to catch a ball. They never
should hold a ball a minute, but return it to the in-field as soon as handled. The
point to throw the ball in to is the pitcher’s position, as a general thing, but as to
that they will have to be guided by circumstances, according as the ball sent to
them is taken on the fly or fielded while a player is running his bases. One or
other of the positions in the outer field is the place for the change pitcher of the
nine, as it will afford him a chance to rest. The out-fielders should watch the
movements of the pitcher and catcher closely whenever a new batsman takes his
stand at the home base, in order to be ready to obey any signals either to come in
or go out farther, according to the character of the pitching or the peculiar style
of the batsman.

THE ART OF PITCHING.
The Value of Strategic Play.

No player can ever excel as a pitcher who is not more or less a strategist in
his work.
unusual accuracy, and also be able to add the ‘‘ curve’’ to his delivery, and yet,
from his ignorance of strategic play or ‘‘ head-work,”’ as it is technically termed,
he will rank only as second-rate in the position. Some reader will probably ask,
What is strategy in base-ball? The reply is, A resort to legitimate artifice to
blind the judgment of the party attacked. As regards the play of the pitcher, the
elements of strategic play may be summed up:as follows : First, to deceive the eye
of the batsman in regard to the character of the delivery of the ball, as to its being
fast or slow. Secondly, to deceive his judgment in reference to the direction of
the ball when pitched to him, as to its being high or low, or where he wants it.
Thirdly, to watch the batsman closely so as to know just when he is temporarily
‘out of form’’ for making a good hit ; and fourthly, to tempt him with a ball
which will be likely to go high from his bat to the out-field and be caught. The

I ee



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME, | 4!I

moment the pitcher faces the batsman in the first inning of a match, he should
begin to study his man and endeavor to find out his weak points of play, Watch
how he holds his bat, and, if he does not poise it properly in his preliminary
‘moves, count it a point in your favor. Then watch him closely to see if he takes a
temporary rest from standing in readiness to meet the ball. The latter is impor-
tant, as a batsman may stand in good form for hitting for five or six balls, and
then suddenly get tired of waiting and ‘* stand at ease,’’ as it were, when he imme-
diately becomes open to attack from a strategic pitcher. This catching the bats-
man out of form is almost sure to yield an out. It isvery readily done by a quick
return of the ball to the pitcher by the catcher, and an equally prompt delivery to
the batsman. But the ball thus quickly sent in must invariably be a fair ball—
over the base and for the striker—or the point will fail.

A great point in strategic pitching is a well-disguised change of pace. It
should be borne in mind that change of pace in pitching is comparatively useless
unless it be well disguised. Nothing bothers a batsman more than to be prepared
to strike quickly at a fast ball, only to find that his stroke has beén too quick to
meet the ball fairly, owing to the lessened speed of the ball. The same, too, when
he is expecting a medium-paced ball, and suddenly sees it flash by him at the
utmost speed of the pitcher. It requires a keen-sighted, nervy, and experienced
batsman to be ready to meet this style of pitching. .

A point of play peculiar to old-time pitchers was throwing to bases ; but ex-
perience has so plainly shown that, as a general rule, throwing to bases should be
but rarely indulged in, that it has gone out of use to a considerable extent. Not
one pitcher out of four can throw accurately enough to a base to catch a runner
napping off base. Of course, it won’t do for a pitcher to neglect throwing to the
bases, but he should only do it when well practised in it, and even when sure of
his throwing to first base it should never be done except on signal from catcher.
Watch the bases well, but throw only when a throw will be sure to tell.

The effectiveness of the curve in pitching depends greatly upon the pitcher’s
command of the ball, not only as regards accuracy of |
aim in delivery, but in being able to control the curve
itself. As we said before, the curve without ‘‘ head-
work’’ in its use loses half its effectiveness; and it is
almost impossible to use strategy in connection with the
curve unless you have thorough command of the ball.
Curve-pitchers should remember that it is frequently a
good point. to play to drop the curve for a ball or two.

The pitcher must learn to school himself to a state of apparent indifference to
the actions of wily base-runners, who try every means in their power to disconcert





42 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

him in his delivery. There is nothing more trying to a pitcher than to have a
base-runner at third base with no man out, while a runner is at first base and
about to go down to second in such way as to let the man at third get home.
Here is just where nerve in a pitcher tells. A pitcher never plays his points so
_ well, or shows his skill more plainly, than when he keeps a man on third base who
has reached there by his good hit before a man has been put out. This is a pretty
good test of a pitcher’s ability as a strategist. No machine pitcher can do it,
One word more, and we will finish this chapter. The pitcher who cannot control
his temper is as unfit for his position as would be a quick-tempered billiard profes-
sional. It is an essential of success in every position in the field, but especially in
that of the pitcher.

‘* BATTERY’’ WORK.

The pitcher and catcher in base-ball are technically called the “ battery,’’ and
this team of two players are the main reliance of the attacking force in a contest.
An effective pitcher is a tower of strength in himself, and a good catcher is almost
equally as valuable, but unless they work together as a ‘‘ team”’ they divide their
strength and weaken their power in proportion. Pitchers and catchers should
always work together in pairs. They should be familiar with each other’s peculiar
methods of playing their respective positions. A first-rate catcher for one pitcher
would be almost useless for another, as far as helping the pitcher in strategic play
is concerned. Each should fully understand the other’s signals in a match—the
catcher those of the pitcher, so as to be able to be prepared for a sudden change
of pace, and the pitcher those of the catcher, so as to know when the latter wants
his partner to pitch for throwing to bases ; for the pitcher should know that it is
impossible for a catcher to do his best in throwing to bases unless the pitcher
sends him in balls especially for that purpose. Pitchers should bear in mind the
important fact that, no matter how skilful they may be in the delivery of the ball
to the bat, they must be largely dependent for success upon the character of the
assistance rendered them by their catcher. It is especially a matter of the first
importance to a strategic pitcher that he should have a first-rate man behind the
bat to second him in all his little points of play.

THE ART OF BATTING,

In no department of the game are more facilities offered for strategic play
than in batting ; but it requires an intelligent player to engage in it successfully.
The batsman who would be invariably successful must resort to strategy, for if he
depends solely upon a quick eye and a strong arm he will fail. These are very
excellent as aids, but a poor dependence to place your trust in altogether. The



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 4:3 °

batsman, when he takes his bat in hand, finds opposed to him nine men, and
though to the casual observer it may seem a very easy undertaking to bat a ball
out of the reach of only nine men, covering as large a space as a four or five acre
field ; yet when you come to face nine experienced and active fielders, you will
soon be taught to realize the fact that ‘‘ headwork’”’ is as important an element of
success in batting as it is in pitching ; and you will then see that to earn bases on
hits and to score runs you will have to play ‘“‘ points’’ pretty skilfully. The best
preparatory form for striking is to stand as a backwoodsman does when using his
axe in cutting down a tree—viz., poising the bat over the shoulder and standing in
such form as to give the swing of the arm all the impetus a half twist of the body
can impart to it. The style of holding the bat forward and then withdrawing it
and then swinging it forward again is a waste of strength, besides being a motion
calculated to mar the aim of the striker. The holding of the bat horizontally and
then making a double movement in striking is also objectionable as wasting the
strength of the wrists, whereas in holding it over the shoulder the weight of the
bat in coming down is added to the impetus given by the arms and body, besides
affording the wrists a chance to assist the movement.

There are three classes of balls pitched for the batsman to strike at—viz.,
shoulder high, hip high, and knee high. If you can swing a heavy bat handily
and are pretty accurate in your aim, a squarely-hit shoulder ball will clear the
heads of the in-fielders and go too close to the ground to be easily caught on the
fly by the out-fielders ; but if you are not a sure hitter let this class of balls alone,
as the chances are that you will give the fielders a chance for an out oftener than
you will get a square hit. Balls hip high offer chances for good hits, provided the
movement of the bat is timed well and swung forward as near on a line with the
ball as possible, but if the line of the bat forms a semicircle in being swung for-
ward,the chances are that the ball will either be missed or sent up in the air, and,
of course, favorable for a catch. More ground balls are hit from knee-high balls
than from any other class pitched ; in fact, it must be a poorly.timed strike that
could not send a knee-high ball skimming along the ground about a foot or more
from it, making it difficult to stop and almost impossible to catch it. A waist ball
is only advantageous to strong batters, who can send a ball over the heads of the
out-fielders, as there are not one out of ten of this class of balls that does not rise
high when hit.

The moment a batsman hits the ball, whether fair or foul, he should drop the
bat—never sling it behind him—and run for his base until he hears the call of
**foul.’’ No matter if the ball has been hit so as to almost insure the catch, the
striker should nevertheless run just as if it had been hit safe. If he stops simply.
because he sees it is a ‘‘ sure to be caught,’’ he only gives the fielder more confi-



44 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

dence to make the catch, whereas, if he still run on, the very earnestness of the
fielder to hold the ball may cause him to drop it. In fact, the striker in running
to first base should act on the principle that ‘‘ nothing is sure but death,’’ and so
keep alive until he is really put out. "



PLAYING BASE-BALL ON THE ICE.

A game of base-ball played by a party of skaters on a good field of ice is very
lively sport; such a game, however, is played under different rules to those
governing the field game, especially in the delivery of the ball to the bat and in
running the bases. The ordinary rules governing the batsmen and pitcher are not
so strictly observed as in the field-game, the impossibility of obtaining a good
footing making the operation of pitching and batting rather difficult. In running
the bases in a game on the ice on skates, all that it is necessary for the base-runner
to do is to cross the line of the position, after which he cannot be put out until he
has returned to the base and again leaves it. The bases are marked on the ice in
the form of lines three feet in length, each line being marked at right angles with
the base lines from base to base, and three feet each side thereof. This line forms
the base, and on this line the base player must stand when he holds the ball, in
order to put a player out. The base-runner makes his base if he crosses the line
of the base before being touched, or before the ball is held on the base.



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME, 45

The following is the diagram of the ‘‘ diamond ”’ for a game on an ice-field :

6 feet




50 feet

La
rh
&

After hitting a ball on which the batsman can only make one base, he should
start from the home base so as to turn to the right in crossing the lines of the
base ; but in cases where his hit entitles him to two or more bases, then he should
start so as to turn to the left. If he turns to the left after skating over the base-
line he at once ceases to be exempt from being put out in returning to the base he
had overrun.

In putting players out the regular rules prevail, except in regard to outs on
catches, a fair ball caught on the first bound putting the batsman out.

In calling strikes and balls, the umpire must call a strike on every ball within
fair reach of the bat, no matter whether high or low, the batsman not being
allowed to designate the height of the ball. In calling balls he must call a ball on
each and every ball out of fair reach of the bat, and also on every thrown ball,
as only a square pitch or toss of the ball is allowed in the game. Six called balls
give a base. The essentials for a successful game of ball on the ice include a large
space of good clear ice ; a non-elastic and soft ball; a fair day, not windy or too
cool ; a field cleared of spectators, and two parties of good, plucky skaters. Under
these favorable circumstances, a really exciting display would be the result. The



46 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

ball requires to be non-elastic and soft, because a light blow will send it a good
distance, and a hard ball sent swiftly to the hands on a cold day is very painful,
and likely to result in severe injuries. The pitching also should never be swift in
a game on ice. The ball should simply be tossed in to the bat; by this means
more frequent chances are given to the field for outs, and the game is made active
and lively instead of tedious, as it would otherwise be.

THE RULES OF BASE-BALL.

The following Code of Rules has been prepared from the combined codes of
the League and the American Professional Associations, and this revised set of
rules includes every amendment made up to the close of the League and American
meetings held in March, 1884. The rules are differently classified to those of the
professional codes, in order to facilitate a reference to each rule when required.

RULE I.—MATERIALS OF THE GAME.

THE BALL,
I. The ball must weigh not less than five nor more than five and one quarter ounces avoirdupois.
It must measure not less than nine nor more than nine and one quarter inches in circumference. It
must be composed of woollen yarn, and shall not contain more than one ounce of vulcanized rubber in
mould form, and shall be covered with leather.

SUPPLYING THE BALL.
2. In all match games the ball or balls played with shall be furnished by the home club, and shall
become the property of the winning club.

CALLING FOR A NEW BALL.

3. When a ball becomes out of shape, or cut or ripped so as to expose the yarn, or in any way so
injured as to be unfit for fair use, a new ball shall be called for by the umpire at the request of either
captain. Should the ball be lost during a game, the umpire shall, at the expiration of five minutes,
call for a new ball.

THE BAT.

4- The bat must be round, and must not exceed two and one half inches in diameter in the thick-

est part. It must be made wholly of wood, and shall not exceed forty-two inches in length.

THE BASES.

5. The bases must be four in number, and they must be placed and securely fastened upon each
corner of a square, the sides of which are respectively thirty yards. The bases must be so con-
structed and placed as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The first, second, and third bases must
cover a space equal to fifteen inches square, and the home base one square foot of surface. The first,
second, and third bases shall be canvas bags, painted white, anp filled with some soft material. The



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME, * 47

home base shall be of white marble or stone, so fixed in the ground as to be even with the surface,
and wholly within the diamond. One corner of said base shall face the pitcher’s position, and two
sides shall form part of the foul lines.

THE UMPIRE’S GROUND.

6. The base from which the ball is struck shall be designated the home base, and must be directly
opposite the second base. The first base must always be that upon the right hand, and the third base
that upon the left hand side of the striker when occupying his position at the home base. In all
match games, lines connecting the home and first bases, and the home and third bases, and also the
lines of the striker’s and pitcher’s position, shall be marked by the use of chalk or other suitable
material, so as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The line of the home base shall extend four feet
on each side of the base, and shall be drawn through its centre and parallel with a line extending from
first to third base. The foul lines from first and third:bases to home base shall be continued as straight
lines to the limits of the field beyond and back of said home base. The triangular space thus laid off
behind the home base shall be for the exclusive use of the catcher, umpire, and batsman, and no
player of the side, ‘‘ at bat’’ (except the batsman) shall be permitted to occupy any portion of such
triangular space. Two lines marked in the same way as the foul lines, and parallel with said foul
lines, shall be drawn, one fifteen feet and the other fifty feet distant from them, and terminating at the
lines bounding the triangular space aforesaid.

7. Froma point half way between home and first bases, on the foul line, must be drawn a line
rectangularly to the foul line three feet in length, thence running parallel to the foul line to a point
rectangularly opposite the centre of the first base ; this is called the “ three-feet line,”

e

RULE II.—THE GAME.

THE INNINGS.

1. The game shall consist of nine innings for each side, but should the score then be a tie, play
shall be continued until a majority of runs for one side—upon an equal number of innings—shall be
declared, when the game shall end. All innings shall be concluded when the third hand is put out.
If the side first at the bat shall score less runs in nine innings than the opposite side has scored in
eight innings, the game shall then end ; it shall also end in case the side last at bat shall in the ninth
inning score the winning run even before a player has been put out; and, in case ‘‘game’’ is called by ©
the umpire on account of darkness or rain, after each side has completed five innings, the score shall
be that of the last equal number of innings; but if the side last at the bat shall have scored a greater
number of runs than the opposite side, the full number of runs made shall be the score.’

FIRST TO THE BAT,

2. The choice of first innings shall be determined by the twocaptains. The fielders of each club
Shall take any position in the field their captain may assign them; but whoever is assigned as the
pitcher of the nine must deliver the ball from the appointed position.

SUBSTITUTES FOR ABSENTEES.

3. No player taking part ina game shall be replaced by a substitute, except for reason of illness
or injury, occurring in the game then being played.



48 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

NO GAME.

4. No game shall be considered as played unless five innings on each side shall be completed.
Should darkness or rain intervene before the third hand is put out in the closing part of the fifth
innings of the game, the umpire shall declare ‘‘ No game.”

DRAWN GAME.

5. Whenever a game of not less than five completed innings on each side is stopped by rain or
darkness, and the score ai the time is equal on the even innings played, the game shall be declared
drawn ; but under no other circumstances shall a drawn game be declared ; except in case the side
that went second to the bat, being then at the bat, has scored the same number of runs as the other
side, in which case the game shall be declared drawn, without regard to the score of the last equal
innings.

A GAME STOPPED BY RAIN.

6. Should rain commence to fall during the progress of a match game so heavily as to oblige the
spectators to seek shelter, the umpire must note the time it began, and should the rain continue to fall
for thirty minutes after play has been suspended, the game shall terminate.

CALLING PLAY AND TIME.

7. When the umpire calls ‘‘ play,’’ the game must at once be proceeded with. Should either party
fail to take their appointed positions in the game, or to commence play as requested, the umpire shall,
at the expiration of five minutes, declare the game forfeited by the nine that refuses to play. When
the umpire calls ‘‘time,’ play shall be suspended until he calls ‘‘ play’’ again, and during the interim
no player shall be put out, base be run or run be scored. The umpire shall suspend play only for an
accident or injury to himself or a player, or on account of rain. In case of an accident to a fielder
“‘time”’ shall not be called until the ball is held by the pitcher in his position.

SUSPENDING PLAY.

8. The umpire in any match game shall, in case of rain or darkness, determine when play shall be
suspended, and if the game cannot be fairly concluded, it shall be decided by the score of the last equal
innings played, unless one nine shall have completed their innings, and the other nine shall have
equalled or exceeded the score of their opponents in their uncompleted innings, in which case the game
shall be decided by the total score obtained, which score shall be recorded as the score of the game.

GAME CALLED.
9g. When the umpire calls ‘‘ game,’’ it shall end ; but when he merely suspends play for any stated
period, it may be resumed at the point at which it was suspended ; provided such suspension does not
extend beyond the day of the match.

RULE I1I.—PITCHING.

PITCHER’S POSITION.

1. The pitcher’s position shall be within a space of ground four feet wide by six feet long, the front
or four feet line of which shall be distant fifty (50) feet from the centre of the home base, and the
centre of the square shall be equidistant from the first and the third bases. Each corner of the square
shall be marked by a flat iron plate or stone, six inches square, fixed in the ground even with the
surface. .



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. — 49

DELIVERY OF THE BALL.

2. The pitcher in delivering the ball to the bat must do so while wholly within the lines of his
position. He must remain within them until the ball has left his hand, and he shall not make any’
motion to deliver the ball to the bat while any part of his person is outside the lines of the pitcher’s
position. The pitcher, when taking his position to deliver the ball, must face the batsman, and in
delivering it to the bat, his hand must pass his side below the line of his shoulder: The ball, to be a
fair ball, must pass over the home base, and at the height called for by the batsman.

A FAIR BALL.

A fair ball is a ball delivered by the pitcher while wholly within the lines of his position and facing
the batsman, with his hand passing below his shoulder, and the ball passing over the home base at the -
height called for by the batsman. .

AN UNFAIR BALL. .

3. Should the pitcher in delivering the ball fail to send it over the home base, or at the height
called for by the batsman, it shall be considered an unfair ball.

A FOUL BALK.

4. Should the pitcher deliver the ball by an overhand throw, a ‘‘foul balk’’ shall be declared by
the umpire, and the batsman shall take one base, as in the case of anordinary balk. Any swing of
the arm higher than that referred to in Section 2 of this rule shall be considered an overhand throw.
{This rule ts not observed under the League Code, the overhand throw being allowed by the League rules.

AN ORDINARY BALK.

5. Should the pitcher make any motion to deliver the ball to the bat, and fail so to deliver it—
except the ball be accidentally. dropped—or should he unnecessarily delay the game by not delivering
the ball to the bat, or should he, when in the act of delivering the ball, have any part of his person
outside the lines of his position, the umpire shall call a “balk,’’ and players occupying the bases shall
take one base each. (ln the American Association’s code of rules, a ‘‘ balk” made by an overthrow gives
the batsman his base.) .

A GOOD BALL.

6. Every ball fairly delivered and sent in to the bat over the home base and at the height called

for by the batsman, shall be considered a good ball.

CALLED BALLS.

7. All balls delivered to the bat which are not sent in over the home base and at the height called
for by the batsman, shall be considered unfair balls, and every ball so delivered must be called. When
‘* seven balls’’ have been called, the striker shall take first base, and all players who are thereby forced
to leave a base shall take one base. Neither a ‘‘ball” nora ‘‘strike’’ shall be called until the ball
has passed the home base. (Zhe League rule admits of only six called balls.)

DEAD BALLS.

8. All balls delivered to the bat which shall touch the striker’s bat without being struck at, or his
{the batsman’s) person while standing in his position, or which shall hit the person of the umpire—
unless they be passed balls—shall be considered dead balls, and shall be so called by the umpire, and
no players shall be put out, base be run, or run be scored on any such ball; but if a dead ball be
also an unfair ball, it shall be counted as one of the seven unfair balls that entitle the striker to a base.
No ball on which a ‘‘ foul” or ‘‘ block” has been declared, shall be in play until held by the pitcher in
his position.



50 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

RULE IV.—BATTING DEPARTMENT.

BATSMAN’S POSITION.
x. The batsman’s or striker’s position shall be within a space of ground located on either side of
the home base, six feet long by three feet wide, extending three feet in front of and three feet behind
the line of the home base, and with its nearest line distant one foot from the home base.

ORDER OF STRIKING,

2. The batsmen must take their position in the order in which they are directed by the
captain of their club, and after each player has had one time at bat, the striking order thus
established shall not be changed during the game. After the first inning, the first striker in each
inning shall be the batsman whose name follows that of the last man who has completed his turn
(or time) at bat in the preceding inning. In case of the disability of a player, the substitute must
take the player’s position in the regular batting order.

FAILING TO STRIKE IN ORDER.

3- Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat in his order of striking—unless by reason

of illness or injury, or by consent of the captains of the contesting nines—shall be declared out, unless
the error be discovered before a fair ball has been struck, or the striker put out.

TAKING POSITION WHEN CALLED.

4. Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat within one minute after the umpire has called
for the striker, shall be declared out.
DESIGNATING HIGH OR LOW BALLS.
5. The batsman on taking his position, must call for eithera ‘‘ high ball” a ‘‘ low ball,” or a “ fair
bal/,’’ and the umpire shall notify the pitcher to deliver the ball as required ; such call shall not be

changed after the first ball delivered.
BALLS CALLED FOR.

6. A ‘‘ high bail’’ shall be one sent in above the belt of the batsman, but not higher than his
shoulder. A “low dall’”’ shall be one sent in at the height of the belt, or between that height
and the knee, but not higher than his belt. A ‘* fair da//’’ shall be one between the range of shoulder
high and the knee of the striker. Ail the above must be over the home base, and when fairly delivered
shall be considered fair balls to the bat.

CALLING STRIKES.

7. Should the batsman fail to strike at a fair ball, or should he strike at and fail to hit
such ball, the umpire shall call ‘one strike ;’’ should he fail a second time, ‘‘¢wo strikes,’? and
a third time, “three strikes,” when the batsman must run to first base, and keep within the lines
of the pathway to first base in so running.

HOW THE BATSMAN STANDS.
8. The batsman, when in the act of striking at the ball, must stand wholly within the lines or his

position.
A FOUL STRIKE.

g. Should the batsman step outside the lines of his position to strike at the ball, the umpire shall
call ‘‘ foul strike and out,’’ and base runners shall return to the bases they occupied when the ball was

hit.



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 51

FOUL BALL LINES.

10. The foul lines shall be unlimited in length, and shall run from the right and left hand corners
of the home base through the centre of the first and third bases to the foul posts, which shall be located
at the boundary of the field and within the range of home and first base, and home and third base.
Said lines sha]l be marked throughout their entire length, with chalk or some other white substance, so
as to be plainly seen by the umpire.

FAIR AND FOUL HITS.

11. Ifa ball hit high from a fair stroke of the bat first touches the ground, the person of a player,
or any other object, either in front of, or on the foul ball lines, or the first or third base, it shall be con-
sidered fair.

If the ball hit high from a fair stroke of the bat first touches the person of the batter, or the
ground, the person of a player, or any other object, behind the foul-ball lines, it shall be declared foul,
and the ball so hit shall be called foul by the umpire even before touching the ground, if it be seen
falling foul.

The following are exceptions to the foregoing section: All balls batted directly to the ground that
bound or roll within the foul lines between home and first or home and third bases, without first touch-
ing the person of a player, shall be considered fair. All balls batted directly to the ground that bound
or roll outside the foul lines between home and first or home and third bases, without first touching
the person of a player, shall be considered foul. In either of these cases the first point of contact
between the batted ball and the ground shall not be regarded.

WHEN THE BATSMAN BECOMES A BASE RUNNER.

1) 66

12. When the batsman has fairly struck a fair ball, or ‘‘ three strikes, seven balls,”’ or two ‘‘ foul
balks,” have been declared by the umpire, he shall be considered a base runner, until he is put out or
scores his run.

In case, too, the pitcher delivers the ball so as to hit the batsman, he equally becomes a base
runner. (Zhe League Code does not admit of such a ball or a balk giving the batsman a base.)

HOW BATSMEN ARE PUT OUT.

13. The batsman shall be declared ‘‘ out’”’ by the umpire as follows :

If a fair ball be caught before touching ground, or any object other than the player who catches it
—except the person of a fielder—except it be caught in such player’s cap or dress.

If a foul ball be caught before touching ground, except it touch some object other than the player
who catches it before touching ground or being caught, or be caught by the player in his cap or dress.

If a fair ball be securely held by a fielder while touching first base with any part of his person
before the batsman touches first base.

If after ‘‘ three strikes’? have been called, the ball be caught before touching the ground.

If after ‘‘ three strikes’’ have been called, he fails to touch first base before the ball is legally held
there.

If he plainly attempts to hinder the catcher from catching the ball, evidently without effort to
make a fair strike, or if he makes a foul strike.
; If in running the last half of the distance from home base to first base, he runs outside a line three

feet distant from the foul line and parallel thereto. (Zhe American Code admits of the foul-bound catch.)



52 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

RULE V.—RUNNING THE BASES.

TOUCHING THE BASES.

1. Players running bases must touch each base in regular order, viz., first, second, third, and home
bases ; and when obliged to return to bases they have occupied, they must retouch them in reverse
order, when running on fair or foul balls. Inthe latter case the base runner must return to the base
where he belongs on the run and not at a walk, or risk being put out while off a base. No base shall be
considered as having been occupied or held until it has been touched.

FORCED TO VACATE A BASE.

2. No player running the bases shall be forced to vacate the base he occupies unless the batsman
becomes a base runner. Should the first base be occupied by a base runner when a fair ball is struck,
the base runner shall cease to be entitled to hold said base until the player running to first base shall
be put out. The same rule shall apply in the case of the occupancy of the other bases under similar
circumstances. No base runner shall be forced to vacate the base he occupies if the base runner
succeeding him is not thus obliged to vacate his base.

FORCED OUT.

3. Players forced to vacate their bases may be put out by any fielders in the same manner as when

running to first base.
OVERRUNNING FIRST BASE.

4. The player running to first base shall be at liberty to overrun said base without being put out
for being off the base after first touching it, provided he returns at once and retouches first base, after
which he can be put out as at any other base. If, in overrunning first base, he also attempts to run to
second base, he shall forfeit such exemption from being put out.

AVOIDING THE BALL IN RUNNING,

5. Any player running a base who shall run beyond three feet from the line from base to base in
order to avoid being touched by the ball in the hands of a fielder, shall be declared out by the umpire,
with or without appeal ; but in case a fielder be occupying the runner’s proper path attempting to
catch a batted ball, then the runner must run out of the path and behind said fielder, and shall not be

declared out for so doing.
WHEN A RUN IS SCORED.

6. One run shall be scored every time a base runner, after having regularly touched the first three
bases, shall touch the home base before three hands are out. If the third hand out is forced out, or is
put out before reaching the first base, a run shall not be scored. Runners touching home base can
only count their runs in the same order as they go to the bat.

BASES ON BALKS.

7. When a ‘‘ balk” is called by the umpire, every player running the bases shall take one base
without being put out, and shall do so on the run. (Under the American Code the batsman is also given

a base on foul balks.)
BASES ON CALLED BALLS.

8. When seven “ balls’’ have been called by the umpire, the batsman shall take one base—pro-
vided he does so on the run—without being put out, and should any base runner be forced thereby to
vacate his base, he also shall take one base. Each base runner thus given a base shall be at liberty to



THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. , 53

run to other bases besides the base given, but only at the risk of being put out in so running. (Si
called balls only are allowed under the League Code.) -

HOLDING A BASE.
g. A base runner shall be considered as holding a base, viz., entitled to occupy it, until he shall
have regularly touched the next base in order, or until forced to leave it by a following base runner.

forced off by the batsman.
RUNNING ON FOUL FLY BALLS.

to. Any player running the bases on fair or foul balls caught before touching the ground must
return to the base he occupied when the ball was struck, and retouch such base before attempting to
make another base or score arun, and said player shall be liable to be put out in so returning, as in
the case of running to first base when a fair ball is hit and not caught flying.

OBSTRUCTING BASE RUNNERS.

11. If the player running the bases is prevented from making a base by the obstruction of an
adversary, not having the ball in hand, he shall be entitled to that base and shall not be put out.

SUBSTITUTES FOR BASE RUNNERS.

12. No base runner shall have a substitute run for him, unless disabled in the game then being
played. (The League Code allows no substitute at all for a base runner.)

HOW BASE RUNNERS ARE PUT OUT.

13. Any player running the bases shall be declared out if, at any time, while the ball is in play, he —
be touched by the ball in the hand of a fielder, without some part of his person is touching the base.
The ball must be held by the fielder after touching the runner ; unless so held the runner shall not be
given out even if touched by the ball.

FAILING TO TOUCH A BASE.

14. Any base runner failing to touch the base he ruus for shall be declared out if the ball be held
by a fielder, while touching said base, before the base runner returns and touches it.

OBSTRUCTING A FIELDER.

15. Any base runner who shall in any way interfere with or obstruct a fielder while attempting to
catch a fair fly ball, ora foul ball, shall be declared out. If he wilfully obstructs a fielder from fielding
a ball, he shall be declared out, and, if a batted fair ball strike him, he shall be declared out, and no
base shall be run or run be scored in such case.

RULE VI.—THE UMPIRE AND HIS DUTIES.

SELECTING THE UMPIRE.
I. Two clubs may, by mutual agreement, select any man to umpire any game or games, provided
that such agreement be in writing. (Zhe professional codes have special rules for umpires, who are

salaried officials.)
CHANGING AN UMPIRE.

2. The umpire shall not be changed during the progress of a match game, except for reason of
illness or injury, or by the consent of the captains of both contesting nines, and then only in case he
shall ha e wilfully violated the rules of the game.



54 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

SPECIAL DUTIES.

3. Before the commencement of a match, the umpire shall see that the rules governing the mate-
rials of the game, and also those applicable to the positions of batsman and pitcher, are strictly
observed. Also that the fence in the rear of the-catcher’s position is distant not less than ninety feet
from the home base, except it mark the boundary line of the field, in which case the umpire, for every
ball passing the catcher and touching the fence, shall give each base runner one base without his being
put out. ,

Before calling ‘‘ play,” the umpire shall ask the captain of the home club whether there are any
special ground rules to be enforced, and if there are, he shall see that they are duly enforced, provided
they do not conflict with any rules of the game.

REVERSING A DECISION.

4. No decision rendered by the umpire on any point of play shall be reversed by him upon the
testimony of any of the players or bystanders.

DECIDING AN UNSEEN CATCH.

s. Should the umpire be unable to see whether a catch has been fairly made or not, he shall be at
liberty to appeal to the bystanders, and to render his decision according to the fairest testimony at

command.
NO TALKING TO THE UMPIRE.

6. No person, not engaged in the game, shall be permitted to occupy any position within the lines
of the field of contest, or in any way interrupt the umpire during the progress of the game. No player
except the captain or player especially designated by him shall address the umpire concerning any
point of play in dispute.

PLAYERS TO STAND BACK.

7. The umpire shall require the players on the batting side who are not at the bat or running the
bases, to keep at a distance of not less than fifty feet from the line of home and first base and home
and third base, or further off if he so decide. The captain and one assistant only shall be permitted
to coach players running the bases, and they must not approach within fifteen feet of the foul lines.

A BLOCK.
8. Should a batted or thrown ball be stopped by any person not engaged in the game, the umpire
must call “ block,” and players running bases at the time shall be entitled to the bases they were run-
ning for, and the ball be regarded as dead until settled in the hands of the pitcher while standing within

the lines of his position.
FORFEITED GAMES.

g. Any match game in which the umpire shall declare any section of this code of rules to have
been wilfully violated, shall at once be declared by him to have been forfeited by the club at fault.

RULE VII.—THE UMPIRE’S JURISDICTION AND POWERS.

THE UMPIRE IN CHARGE OF THE GAME.
The gentleman selected to fill the position of umpire must keep constantly in mind the fact that

upon his sound discretion and promptness in conducting the game, and compelling players to observe
the spirit as well as the letter of the rule, largely depends the merit of the game as an exhibition. He



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THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 55

must render his decisions in a distinct and clear manner. He must keep the contesting nines playing
constantly from the commencement of the game to its termination, allowing such delays only as are
rendered unavoidable by accident, injury, or rain. He must, until the completion of the game, require
the players of each side to promptly take their positions in the field as soon as the third hand is put
out, and must require the first striker of the opposite side to be in his position at the bat as soon as
the fielders are in their places.

The players of the side ‘‘at bat’? must occupy the portion of the field allotted them, subject to the
condition that they must speedily vacate any portion thereof that may be in the way of the ball, or any
fielder attempting to catch or field it. The triangular space behind the home base is reserved for the
exclusive use of the umpire, catcher, and batsman, and the umpire must prohibit any player of the side
“at bat” from crossing the same at any time while the ball is in the hands of, or passing between the
pitcher or catcher while standing in their positions. Se

The umpire is master of the field from the commencement to the termination of the game, and
must compel the players to observe the provisions of this and of all the Playing Rules, and he is
invested with authority to order any player to do or omit to do any act necessary to give force and -
effect to any and all of such provisions. °





HOW TO PLAY CRICKET.

HE question for the novice

to consider, in learning to
play cricket, is, whether he can
most profit by book instruction
or from practical lessons at the
hands of an expert. Both are
essential in learning the art
thoroughly. For beginners,
however, it is best to ‘‘ read
up’’ about the game first, and
when puzzled to fully compre-
hend some portion of the book
instruction, or bothered in prac-
tically applying what the book teaches, then advice from an expert comes well into
play. In getting at a practical knowledge on the field of special departments of
the game, do not put too much trust in professional teaching, as the majority of
professionals are afflicted with sundry prejudices and bad habits of play, in com-
bination with their skill as experts, which often makes them anything but effective



~

HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 57

teachers. It is a peculiarity of most of them, too, that though they may be first-
class bowlers, good batsmen, and sharp fielders, they are lamentably lacking in
their ability to properly impart what they know to novices.
If you should meet with an exceptional professional, how-
ever, who excels as a ‘‘coach’’ as well as being a good
bowler or batsman, then professional instruction will aid
your book knowledge materially. Otherwise stick to your
text-book, and apply the lessons thereby learned practi-
cally to the best of your ability, leaving to experience
and a quick perception to give you a proper insight into
the intricacies of the game. Reading a chapter or two
on the game from some |
well-written work = on
Cricket will soon “‘ post
you up’”’ on the subject,
if you are mentally sharp,
and if you are not you
will never, or “hardly
ever,’’ become an expert
cricketer. Our first chap-
ter of instruction will be devoted to












THE GAME FOR BOYS. Oo Ve seen

ont et 4
) Nl i a

Suppose a party of twelve-year-old boys
want to play a game of cricket, and though hav-
ing a tolerably level piece of turfy field at com-
mand, have no materials for the game in their
possession—viz., a flat bat, a set of stumps for
the wicket, and a ball. A bat can be readily
sawed out of a piece of inch plank about three
feet long, in form as near as can be to the regular
bat as shown in the cut. (The regulation size of
the bat is 38 inches in length, of which 25 inches

aR ANY
{

‘|
1
H

i



aan








Ne
ay ‘it :
ote i, : ee i

4
X
Ry




: Wi yh \s “7A pty . Nt HS * a

are taken up by the “‘ pod,’’ or, according to the A) Nene
) METER NS on

phy Aye Ma SS ‘ wy



more modern term, the blade, and 13 by the ts
handle. No bats are made longer than this,
although, of course, they are allowed to be of various smaller proportions, in

order to suit the height of the batsman.)



58 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Having procured the bat and a common but hard ball, the next thing is to
get the stumps, and three old broom handles will answer the purpose, all that is
necessary to make stumps of them being to point them at one end and cut a nick
at the other end in which to lay the bail—two short pieces of stick. The regula-
tion stumps are in form as shown in the cut. (These stumps stand 27 inches out



of the ground, and are placed so as to occupy 8 inches of space from their outer
lines, the bails being 4 inches in length.)

The broom-handle stumps are driven into the ground a few inches, and just far
enough apart to prevent the ball from going through them. This being done you
lay out the lines of your wicket—viz., the line of the stumps, and the front line or
“‘ popping crease,’’ as it is called. Your wicket would then look as in the adjoin-
ing cut. The distance between the stump line and the front line should be a pace



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 59

and a half. Between these lines is the batsman’s ground ; 20 paces distant from
this wicket place one stump in the ground, and back of the line of this stump is
the bowler’s ground. All this being done the boys can begin play, and they
should play under the appended code of rules.

When the batsman takes his position at the wicket, he stands as shown in the
adjoining cut. It is important that he ‘‘ plays a straight bat’’—that is, that he
keeps the face of the bat in a line with the wicket.
(See annexed cut.)

Make it a rule to guard the wicket from every
Straight ball, and to hit only at balls off the line
of the wicket.

When the batsman takes his position, the
bowler then prepares to deliver the ball, having
first placed his fielders in position, according to
the number of players on a side. If there be but
three, he places one to the right of him and the other to the left, leaving one of
his adversaries—standing ready to take his turn at the bat—to field the ball
back to him after it passes the wicket. If there be five on a side, then one
goes behind the bat. If six, then two short fielders go into position between
the bowler and the wicket, but to the right and the left. No ‘‘ byes’ or ‘‘ leg
byes’? count when only a single wicket is used, the ball being practically dead
after it passes the wicket, even when hit by the bat. The rules for this ‘‘ boy’s
game’’ are as follows :



THE RULES.

The bowler can only bowl or toss the ‘ball to the bat. He cannot jerk the ball, nor throw it to
the bat, either underhand or overhand. He may bowl it either underhand, round-arm, or over his
shoulder.

In bowling the ball he must have at least one foot back of the stump line or it is ‘‘no ball."’

If he bowls the ball so that it passes the batsman out of the fair reach of his bat, itis a ‘‘ wide ball,”
and both ‘‘no balls’’ and ‘‘ wide balls’’ count the same as a run against the side the bowler is on.

The batsman can only guard his wicket from the bowler by his bat. If he prevents a bowled
ball from taking the wicket by stopping it with his legs, he is out.

The batsman is out if the wicket be knocked down, either by a bowled ball or by a ball thrown in
from the field in front of the wicket, which takes the wicket before the batsman can run back to his
ground. In the former case he is ‘‘ bowled out,” in the latter he is “ run out.”

The batsman is out if the ball from the bat be caught on the fly, even if it touch another fielder
before being caught. He is also out—when only one wicket is used—if, in making a run, he fails to
get back to his ground before the ball is thrown across the line from the wicket to the bowling stump.

The batsman, after hitting the ball, can run or not, as he chooses; and he scores a run every time
he runs to the bowler’s stump, touches it with his bat, and returns to his ground before being put out,
provided the ball is hit to the field in front of the line of his wicket ; not otherwise.



60 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Two innings on each side make a game, and an innings is completed on each side when all the
batsmen have been put out. The side making the most runs in two innings’ play wins the game.

All hits made by the batsmen on which runs are made must be made in front of the wicket, no
ball hit so as to go behind the line of the wicket admitting of a run being made on it. Neither can the
batsman step out of his ground to hit at the ball, as he can in the regular game. It would be well to
place a couple of sticks in the ground on each side of the wicket, and distant twenty paces from it, to
mark the line of the wicket, so as to judge fair balls by them. No “stumping” is allowed unless there
are at least five players on a side, when a wicket-keeper can then take his position.

When two wickets are used in the boys’ game, then the rules of the regular game come into play,
and these can be found in the last part of the chapters on Cricket.



THE REGULAR GAME.

We now come to the regular game of cricket, and the succeeding chapters will
be written for the boys of an older growth—the coming American cricketers ; and
in doing this we propose to write the game up in the interests of what we call
American cricket, and that is, the game as played with the rules of the English
playing code lived up to to the very letter. The greatest obstacle to the progress
of cricket, as a popular out-door sport for Americans, has been the tedious delays
incident to the way of playing the game customary with our English resident
cricketers. The adage that “‘time is money” governs the American people in
every phase of their national life, and in nothing so much as in the character and
nature of their sports and pastimes. In England, where there is a large class of
unemployed people, who, with wealth at command, find time hang heavy on their
hands, the style of playing the game of cricket so as to absorb as much of their
surplus of leisure time as possible, commends itself as quite an attractive feature.
But in this country, where the drones of society are decidedly in the minority, and
where the busy bees of the community find but little time to devote to recreation,
that game which most economizes time of course will naturally become popular.



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 61

The delays incident to cricket, to which we specially refer, do not belong to the
game itself so much as to the loose observance of its rules, and therefore the one
thing necessary to remove this obstacle to the popularity of cricket is simply to
insure a strict observance of the written laws of the game. In the instructions
given in the different departments of the game, brevity has been observed as far
as possible, and in the chapters on bowling, batting, and fielding only the most
important features of each department of the game are commented upon.

Ordinarily the playing code of rules governing a game ought to present the
best instructions for learning it ; but this is not the case in regard to the existing:
rules of cricket, and we therefore leave the code of rules for the last part of the
chapters on the game in this work.

HOW THE GAME IS PLAYED.

The full game of cricket is played by twenty-two persons, eleven on each
side, of whom thirteen take their regular positions on the field, eleven of one side
as fielders and two of the other side as batsmen. When the former are placed in
position for play the ‘‘ field’’ side will show a “‘ bowler’’ at one wicket ready to
bowl to the opposite wicket ; a ‘‘ wicket-keeper’’ behind the opposite wicket ready
to receive the ball if the batsman fails to hit it; a ‘‘ long stop’’ behind the wicket-
keeper to field balls passing both the batsman and wicket-keeper ; and fielders at
‘‘short-slip’’ and ‘‘ long-slip ;’’ at ‘‘ short-leg’’ and ‘‘ long-leg ;’’ at “‘ point’? and
** cover-point ;’’ and at ‘‘ mid-off’’and ‘‘ mid-on,”’ the ‘‘ off’’ side being on the
right-hand side of the batsman, and the ‘‘on’’ side on the left hand. These are
the eleven regular pdsitions on a cricket field. There are other positions techni-
cally called ‘‘ third man up,”’ ‘‘ square-leg,”’ ‘‘long-field,’’ “‘ off’? and ‘on,’
‘extra cover,’’ ‘‘ half-leg,”’ etc., which are occupied according to the character
of the bowling, there being more fielders back of the wicket for very fast bowling |
than there is for slow or even medium-paced bowling. (See diagram of field posi-
tions.) There are two umpires in a full game of cricket—one to judge the delivery
of the ball by the bowler, and the other to judge the action of the batsman at the
wicket, in stepping out of his ground, etc.

‘“Play’’ having been called by the umpire at the bowler’s wicket, the game
begins, and the bowler proceeds to bowl four balls to the opposite wicket, which
constitute an ‘‘ over ;’’ after which the other bowler does the same from the other
wicket, this change in the bowlers involving a transfer of the fielders from their -
positions relative to the first bowler to similar positions on the other side support-
ing the other. This process goes on until one or the other of the batsmen is
either Jowled out, stumped out, run out, or caught out, in which case another bats-



SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

LONG-LEG
THE FIELD PosSITIONS.
LONG-STOP
LONG-STOP
SHORT-STOP WICKET-KEEPER,
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HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 63

_ man takes his place at the wickets. When the last two men are in at the bat, and
one or the other is put out, the other remaining in “‘ carries his bat out,’’ only ten
men being put out in a regular match. Besides the players and the umpires
there are two scorers, who score the runs made in a record book under the head
of runs, byes, wides, and no balls. If the match is to be ‘‘ played out’’—that is,
played to the close of the full four innings, two:on each side—then the eleven
scoring the greatest aggregate of runs in their full two innings wins the game.
But if it be ‘‘ one day’s play only,’’ and there be not time to play the second inn-
ings out on each side, then the score of the second innings counts for nothing, the
game being decided by the full score ofthe first innings only. ‘When strong
elevens play against young clubs they sometimes play their eleven against eigh-
teen or twenty-two of their opponents ; and sometimes, when the two clubs are
short handed, they frequently play as few as eight or nine on a side ; but the regu-
lar match game at cricket calls for ‘‘ eleven vs. eleven.’’

THE THREE DEPARTMENTS OF THE GAME.
THE BOWLING.

Bowling is the most important department of the game, for there can be no
thoroughly good cricket without excellent bowling. The theory of bowling is to
endeavor to deceive the eye of the batsman so that he may fail to prevent the ball
from hitting the wicket. In order to do this the bowler must, first of all, possess
thorough command of the ball in delivery ; secondly, speed ; thirdly, the power
to impart a bias to the ball, and lastly, the experience and skill to give it the
proper length, the latter being very important. ‘‘ Headwork,’’ too, is especially
an essential in bowling. With it the bowler becomes a dangerous opponent ;
without it, no matter what his ‘‘ pace’ or accuracy of aim, he can be punished by
skilful batsmen with comparative ease.

The bowler’s position is within a space of ground bounded in front by the line
of the wicket, known as the ‘“‘ bowling crease,” and on the sides by lines called
the ‘‘ return crease ;’’ his position in delivering the ball being, at all times, behind
the wicket. The following diagram shows the lines of his position ;

8 Inches Wide.

Return Crease
Return Crease,



Bowling Crease.
6 feet 8 inches in length.



64 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

The bowler stands within the above lines while in the act of delivering the
ball, and he must have one foot or the other behind the line of the wicket and
within the line of the return crease when delivering the ball, or the umpire will
call ‘‘ no ball.’’

The rules of cricket admit of the bowler’s legal delivery of the ball to the bat,
either by the underhand pitch or toss of the ball, or by the round-arm swing on a
level with his shoulder, as shown in the following cut, or by a straight-arm swing
above his shoulder, as follows.



But he cannot legally throw the ball either by an underhand or overhand
throw, nor by a jerk, the rules limiting him to a legitimate pitch or round-arm
swing in bowling.

An old cricketing song thus pointedly makes allusion to the importance of
paying attention to the “‘ length’’ in bowling. The verse reads as follows:

‘* Ye bowlers take heed, to these precepts attend,
On you the fate of the game must depend ;
Spare your vigor at first, now exert all your strength,
But measure each step, and be sure pitch a length,”



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 65

The imparting of a bias to the ball is a great feature in bowling, especially in

combination with a fast delivery. The bias consists of giving the ball a rotary
motion in its passage from the bowler’s hand to the wicket, technically known as a
‘“‘twist’’ or ‘‘spin.’’ This can be done in round-arm bowling so as to make the
ball ‘‘ shoot,’’ ‘‘ break back,’’ or ‘‘ work.’’
A ball is said to “‘ break back’’ from the pitch when, instead of continuing on
.in the line of its delivery after it touches the ground, it suddenly diverges from
that line on the right of its delivery. And a ball is said to ‘‘ work in’’ when it
diverges on the left. On the one hand, the line of its delivery would have taken
it clear of the wicket, whereas the ‘*‘ break back’’ sends it in on the stumps. On
the other hand, the ‘‘ work”’ causes it to diverge on the other side. The lines of
both are to be seen in the appended diagram.



The effect of these several changes in the direction of the ball from the line of
its delivery to the pitch, to the line of its rebound to the wicket is greatly to puz-
zle the eye and judgment of the batsman. It is comparatively an easy task to play
a swiftly-bowled ball that comes to the wicket on one direct line from the deliv-
ery to the wicket, to what it is to play the same ball which has either a forward
or side rotary motion imparted to it by which the rebound is made so difficult to
judge. Straight bowling—that is, bowling unmarked by any bias being given to
the ball, can be readily played, even when of good length, by expert batsmen ;
but bowling marked by much ‘‘ spin” or twist requires the utmost skill to save
wickets,

There is one thing a bowler should bear in mind, and that is to pitch the ball
straight if he desires to get the batsman out “‘ leg before wicket.’’ The definition
of this term, ‘* pitching straight,’’ is that the bowled ball, when it touches the
ground at the pitch, must touch it within the lines from the outer stump of one
wicket to those of the opposite wicket. These lines are shown in the appended
diagram. |



66 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

It will be seen that the surest method of pitching a ball straight is to bowl over
the wicket.

An old bowler, in a series of ‘‘ Hints to Novices,’’ thus advises his young pupil :

Stand upright and deliver your ball high, so as to obtain a good “‘ pitch.’’

Fix upon a certain spot near your opponent’s wicket where you think your
length will tell best, and aim for that spot every ball.

If you find your opponent standing on his defence, bowl for a catch.

Regulate the speed of your delivery by the style of your opponent’s batting,
and frequently vary it.

Find out the favorite ball of your opponent, and then avoid sending him such
ball.

Never hesitate to take yourself off when you are being ‘‘ punished.’’ Bad
bowling frequently takes wickets when a good delivery fails.

Look out for the weak point of your opponent’s play. Sometimes it is at his
“‘ leg’? side, and then again to the off, or perhaps a tendency to run out at a short
pitch.

Avoid bowling too fast and beyond your strength.

Bowl straight ; balls that are ‘‘ dead on the wicket’’ always tell.

Do not keep to one style of delivery simply because it is ‘‘ the correct thing
to do ;’? remember the object of bowling is to take wickets, and if you cannot
get your opponent’s stumps with a good ball, try a bad one.

Accustom yourself to bowl on both sides of the wicket.

Adopt the style of delivery which comes most natural to you, It is the only
one you will be likely to excel in.

Pitch the ball as near to the crease as you can safely do.

Do not be deterred from adopting a line of tactics in bowling by the absurd
remark, that it is “‘ not cricket.’’ When you feel tired with bowling change off,
for you then become useless in a measure.

BATTING.

Practical instruction in batting is more advantageous than in either of the other
departments of the game, but nevertheless a great deal of information can be
gleaned from books. In fact it is very essential to examine into the theory of the
art in order to get at a good foundation for thoroughly acquiring a practical
knowledge of batting in cricket. The work of the batsman is first to defend his
wicket, @nd then to hit the ball to the field so as to make runs. What with the
speed of the ball in its delivery and the uncertain rebound from the ‘‘ pitch,”’
occasioned by the bias imparted to it by the bowler, the task of the defence is no
light one ; while what with the number of men in the field, their combined action



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 67

with the bowler in strategic play, and their individual skill as experts in their
several positions, the batsman is intrenched with difficulties in the way of run-
getting which requires no small amount of practical experience and good judg-
ment to overcome.

The batsman takes his stand within a space of ground in front of the wicket,
bounded by the line of the wicket and the line of the ‘‘ popping crease.’”? The
appended diagram shows the lines of the batsman’s position.








BOWLING CREASE
BATSMAN’S \ \\ GROUND

THE BLOCK\HOLE



LINE OF POPPING CREASE—-UNLIMITED IN LENGTH

The batsman, while the ballis in play, must either stand within the lines of his
position, as above defined, or have his bat, while in hand, grounded within the
lines—that is, back of the front line or ‘‘ popping crease.’’ He is only at liberty
to step outside of this line when the ball is dead, without running the risk of being
put out by means of having the wicket put down while he is outside the boundary
line of his position. It is immaterial whether his bat, while in hand, or any part
of his person touches the ground within the line of the ‘‘ crease ;’’ but one or the
other must do.

The first thing to learn in handling the bat is to take a correct position, and
then to make it habitual. Cuts illustrating proper positions when facing the
bowling will be found on the next page.

In taking your position at the wicket, first get your “‘ guard ;’’ then, placing
your bat upright, take your stand—one foot within the line of the crease, and the
other just outside of it—so as to admit of your swinging your bat, pendulum-like,
in a perpendicular line with the wicket, so that the habit may be acquired of
‘‘ playing a straight bat,’’ as it is called, the first essential of a correct style of de-
fence. Neither foot should be within the line running from the outer stumps of
one wicket to the other. In taking guard he should ask the umpire for the block
for the middle stump, and this done he can then vary his guard according as the
bowler delivers from one side or the other of the wicket or over it. The block
mark should be made at the distance of the bat’s length from the stumps. The



68 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

correct form in taking your position at the wicket ready for play is illustrated by
the preceding cuts. This is the position the batsman should habituate himself to
take whenever he goes to the wicket to bat, whether in practice or in a match.
Having taken his guard and his stand, as above shown, he next prepares himself
for immediate action, and in doing this he takes an upright position, keeps his
right foot firmly on the ground behind the line of the crease, making it the pivot
foot, and with his left stepping lightly in front of the line, and his bat held in such
a manner as to be equally ready for use in blocking a straight ‘‘ shooter,’’ to
swing round ata ‘‘leg’’ ball, or to promptly ‘‘ cut’’ a ball to the “ off,’’ he stands
ready in proper form for effective batting either in defence or attack, This second
position is illustrated in the appended cut.



An upright position is necessary in order to obtain the best sight of the ball ;
besides, it is the only position which admits of a free use of the muscles of the
chest and arms in batting, all other positions more or less cramping the move-
ments of the batsman.

There are two styles of play in vogue among skilful batsmen in defending
their wickets—viz., forward and backward play. In the former the batsman en-
deavors to stop the ball near the pitch by stepping forward with his bat and pre-



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 69

senting the inclined plane of the bat so as to face the ball just as it rebounds from
the pitch. This style of defence is illustrated in the appended cuts.

—



. 5 F WS yy yeas
ca SW

i \\ o
eS Ce aS Ws Tak... Wily Be NR ANUTPTRQ SN . TL AAR AN a he

SAM,

By this forward play the batsman, while presenting a pretty sure defence in
the case of bails which are well “‘ pitched up,’’ and in stopping “‘ shooters,’’ renders
himself liable to lose his stumps from swift balls which are pitched short and
which take the bails over the shoulder of the bat; and also in the case of such
swift balls which are pitched short and which have any bias imparted to them
either in ‘‘ working’’ in, or in ‘‘ breaking back,’’ the forward blocking, as above
illustrated, fails to present a sure defence unless the batsman is very quick of sight
and steady in handling the willow.

On the other hand, the backward play in defence renders it very difficult to
guard against ‘‘ shooters,’ while a very keen sight is necessary to prevent the
ball from taking the stumps. This back play is illustrated in the appended cut.

In your style of defensive operations, the batsman should be able to play
either backward or forward in accordance with the character of the pitch of the
ball and the pace of the bowling; in fact, he should be skilled in both styles of
play. Asa general rule, however, the forward play is the safest.

This preliminary chapter on batting has special reference to defensive opera-
tions, as shown in the blocking of straight balls. We now come to the method of



7O SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

defence, which at the same time combines hitting powers sufficient to score single
runs. |

In preparing to hit—not to ‘‘ block,’’ remember—the batsman should rise to
his full height, keeping his bat well up to his shoulder and ready poised, so that it

can be brought down quickly to stop a shooter or block a rising bail ball, or so-

that it can be swung round sharply to face a leg-ball as it rises from the pitch or
cut away an off-ball, bail high.

Remember that every straight pitched bal!—that is, every ball that touches
the ground between the lines from the outer stumps of batsman’s wicket to those
of the opposite wicket—must be ‘‘ played’’ either by blocking it, or hitting it
away, and every such ball, therefore, needs careful watching.

Mr. W. G. Grace, the champion batsman of the cricket world, says, in his
‘* Hints on Batting ;’’ ‘‘ Nothing is of such incalculable benefit to the student in
the art of batting, as an early adherence to the necessary principle of playing with
a straight bat. It is in this special point that a young cricketer should earnestly
seek to excel. It is the want of this essential habit, or the momentary neglect of
it, that causes so many experienced batsmen to retire with the fatal cipher at-
tached to their names. Practise, then, first of all, straight and upright play, and
you will have grounded yourself well in the first and most important rudiment
of the art.”’

Paragraphing Mr. Grace’s “‘ Hints” from the lengthy chapter in Lillywhite’s
Guide, we quote as follows :

In reference to holding the bat, he says: ‘‘ From my own experience I have
always found it to my advantage to hold the bat half way up the handle, and this
happy medium I recommend for adoption, as thereby the bat can be controlled as
effectively as if held nearer to the blade, and the benefits incidental to the extra
length are very important.’’

Further on he says: ‘‘ To hold the bat in what is termed the pendulum fash-
ion, in my opinion, gives the greatest scope for freedom of play, without in the
slightest degree diminishing the powers of defence.’’

In commenting on the best style of meeting the ball, hesays : ‘‘ Much depends
on the accuracy of the eye and much on the judgment with which the ball is
timed; but beyond all I[ think the great secret of batting, both in so far as it
affects defence and hitting, consists in meeting the ball with the ful/ face of
the bat.’’

In reference to the system of defending the stumps by “‘ playing’’ at the ball
with a straight bat instead of merely placing the bat in the way of the ball, Mr.
Grace says: ‘‘ To block a ‘shooter’ or stop a ‘bailer’ can as easily be accom-
plished in a resolute as in a hesitating manner, while in the one case runs wi// ac-

thew



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 71

crue, and in the other runs may never come. When you hit, hit hard, and when
you block do not be deterred from infusing vigor into the movement.”’
Commenting on forward and backward play, Mr. Grace says: ‘‘ To play for-
ward is undoubtedly, when possible, the more advisable plan, as by this means
are avoided all the deviations of the ball from ‘ spin,’ or accidental deflections.”’
There are ten dierent ways in which a batsman can be put out in cricket.
1. By being dowled out.
By being caught out.
By being stumped out.
By being ruz out.
. By Attting his own wicket down with his bat.
By stopping a straight ball with his leg instead of his bat.
By handling the ball while it is in play.
By hindering a fielder from catching a ball.
. By allowing some part of his dress to knock the bails off.
10. By running out of his ground before the bowler has delivered the ball,
and thereby giving him a chance to put his wicket down.
He cannot, however, be caught out except from a ball held ‘‘on the fly ;”’
neither can he be stumped out unless the wicket-keeper first handles the bowled
ball behind the wicket ; neither can he be caught out or run out on a “no ball.”’

FIELDING.

Skill in fielding in cricket is the most attractive feature of the game, and yet
itis the one most neglected. Watch any party of cricketers while awaiting the
beginning of a match, engaged in preliminary practice, and note how eager they
are to either bowl or bat, and how reluctant to do any fielding. While effective
bowling is an essential part of the attacking force in a cricket contest, unless the
work of the bowler be well supported on the field, half its effectiveness will be
lost. Of what use is it for a bowler to bowl for catches, for instance, if the ball is
dropped by the incompetent fielder placed in position purposely to catch it?
Cricket cannot advance much in popular favor in America so long as so important
a department of the game as sharp fielding is neglected as it is; especially when
the inferiority of its exemplars, in this respect, is placed in such striking contrast
to the masterly displays of skill to be seen at the hands of the exponents of the
national game of base-ball.

To be a good fielder in cricket, aman must unite in himself the qualities of
activity, courage, nerve, quick sight, and sound judgment, and especially control
of temper, and he should ever be on the alert. To see some men field in a match
one would suppose that the only duty a fielder in cricket had to attend to was to



72 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

catch or to stop and throw in any balls that came within his reach, and to go to
such places in the field as the captain may direct. Not so with the fielder.who
uses ‘‘ head-work”’ in his position. While obeying the behests of the captain, as
he should do, and go ‘‘sharper,’’ or ‘‘ squarer,’’ ‘‘ nearer in,’’ or ‘‘ further out,”’
as he may direct, this brain worker in the field does not forget to be on the alert
in watching the style of play of the batsman; and moreover, if the ball does not
happen to come near his position he is nevertheless ready to take his place to back
up the ball on the throw-in ; and also to be on the watch at all time to do the work -
of any laggards in the field rather than a point should be lost in the play.

A sharp fielder anticipates the ball as much as possible, and never waits until
it comes to him. In fact, this anticipation of the ball is the secret of good fielding,
An expert fielder will always have more work to do ina match than a poor one,
simply from his habit of covering more ground. One such man in a field is fre-
quently worth three of your slow machine-players, who simply do what they are
told, and never trouble a ball that does not come directly to their hands.

To spectators at a match fine fielding is the attractive feature of the game.
Few can appreciate really first-class bowling, and only the minority can judge
properly in regard to the skill shown at the bat, but all can understand the differ-
ence in the fielding of an expert and a ‘‘ muffin,”’

A peculiarity of cricket is that even in the one department of fielding it affords
ample scope for the display of considerable versatility of talent. In keeping
wicket the keenest sight, the steadiest nerve, and the soundest judgment are re-
quired to be brought into play at a moment’s notice. At ‘‘ point,’’ thorough
pluck and determined courage and fearlessness are essential. At ‘‘ long-stop,”’
sharp sight and quickness of movement are necessary, while in the other positions
trained pedestrianism, keen perception, cat-like activity of movement, and good
judgment are among the principal requisites.

WICKET-KEEPING,

The most important position on the field next to that of the bowler is that of
the wicket-keeper. He should possess keen sight, steady nerves, activity of move-
ment, and sound judgment, for all these qualifications are brought into play in his
position more frequently than at any other. On his keen sight depends the stop-
ping of balls that might yield ‘‘ byes ;’’ and on his activity the chances of
stumping an opponent’; while on his pluck in facing hot balls the bowler relies for
sharp catches from the bat. The wicket-keeper must remember that he cannot
Jegally put down the wicket unless with the ball in the hand with which he knocks
down the stumps. Also that when the bails are off he must knock a stump out of
the ground with the hand in which the ball is held before the batsman can be put



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 73

out. The rules governing his position also require that the wicket-keeper shall
not take a ball from the bowler for the purpose of stumping until it shall have
passed the wicket ; and moreover, if any part of his person be in front of the
wicket before the ball passes the stumps, even if the ball hit the wicket, the striker
shall not be out.

It is needless to refer in full to the other positions in the field except that of
the ‘* long-stop,’’ and that position requires a first-class fielder to occupy it. He
is the main support of the wicket-keeper, and has pretty hard work to attend to
when the bowling is fast. He should in such
case wear both pads and light gloves, the latter
for protecting the palms of his hands. He
must be prompt and accurate in returning balls
to the wicket-keeper, and should back up that
player in every way. He should be active
‘enough, too, to capture sharp leg-balls just
‘“snicked’’ from the bat, as also balls slipped
from fast bowling which go within a few yards
of his position.

The “‘ point’’ player has a rather arduous
task to perform, inasmuch as he has to face
the hardest-hit balls from the bat, at the short-
est distance. He must be plucky, very keen of
sight, exceedingly active, and be a good judge
of a batsman’s play. ‘‘ Cover point’’ simply
backs up “‘ point.’’ He has more ground to
cover than ‘‘ point’”’ has, but has not such diffi-
cult balls to field. .

‘* Mid-off’’ and ‘‘ mid-on’’ are players who
have to face some lively balls, and should be
good judges of batting in order to play their
positions properly, The ‘“‘ mid-off’’ stands to the left of the-bowler, and deeper
in the field than ‘‘ mid-on,’’ who stands to the right of the bowler and nearer in.

Very active fielders are required in the slips, as sharp grounders and high-
hit balls alternately require them to field close to the*ground or to jump up fora
catch. The short-slip stands to the right of the wicket-keeper and back of his
position, distant from the wicket from two to four yards. Besides stopping short
balls which slip from the bat, he should be ready to take the wicket-keeper’s place ©
whenever that player deems it. necessary to leave the wicket to get the ball. The
long slip stands deeper, in fact almost as far back as the long-stop. His duty is





74 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

to stop balls missed by the short-slip, or which glance from the wicket-keeper’s
hands to the off side. He should excel in backing up, and always be on the
watch. The bowler we is not bowling takes up a position in the “slips,” gener-
ally at ‘‘ short-slip’’ or ‘‘ third-man-up.’

‘‘ Long-leg’’ is a " position requiring the best thrower in the eleven, and he
should be a sure catcher and an active runner. He plays deep, or otherwise ac-
cording to the pace of the bowling, taking a squarer position to fast bowling, and
playing deep for the slows. ‘‘ Short-leg’’ is the easiest position in the field, re-
quiring little movement and no special amount of skill, as a general thing, though
at times a batsman who is good at square-leg hits will give the short-leg hot work
to do.

RUNNING BETWEEN WICKETS.

W. G. Grace, in his ‘‘ Hints to Batsmen,”’ says: ‘‘ No one can claim to bea
good cricketer who is not a good runner between the wickets. The neglect of this
essential of first-class cricket costs dozens of runs in match games. To see two
good runners at the wickets is a treat to those who understand genuine cricket.
With such there is no slovenly dallying, no indecision, no call for a run with an
immediate recall. In this respect alone a mediocre batsman may be as valuable in
a match as one of far superior batting skill. Be ready to back up the batsman
facing the bowler the moment the ball leaves the bowler's hand, but be careful to
act decisively. If you think there is a chance for a run, do not hesitate, but call at
once, and after calling on no account oblige your partner to retrace his steps, as,
if you have started well in your backing up, you can reach the opposite wicket
quicker than he can return and recover his ground. A stolen run, if the batsmen
act well in concert, is not difficult of attainment, and a succession of such runs
not only irritates the bowlers but demoralizes the fielders.”’

In taking ground preparatory to running, the batsman at the bowler’s wicket
can safely command twenty feet in front of his wicket. He should be watchful,
however, to see that he does not allow his bat to be lifted from the ground back of
the popping crease until the ball has actually left the bowler’s hand. When run-
ning, too, always keep to the right, and run wide of the lines from wicket to wicket.

GOLDEN RULES.

Frederick Gale’s ‘‘ Golden Rules’’ for cricketers contains the following sound
suggestions ;
‘* Think only of winning the match, and not of your own innings or average ;

sink self and play for your side.
‘Remember, cricket is an amusement and manly sport intended for good-



HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. | 75

fellowship, and not as a vehicle for envy, hatred, malice, or uncharitableness. If
you have any complaint against your captain, tell him to his face guéedly what you
think ; but do not form conspiracies against him behind his back. The grumblers
and mischief-makers are a/ways the greatest muffs and the worst enemies of
cricket. ;

‘“ Take the place assigned to you, and give your whole mind to the game,
from the delivery of the first ball to the fall of the last wicket. If you makea
mistake, try and mend it; many a good fielder has dropped an easy catch and
picked up the ball and thrown it in and run a man out. Remember the backing
up. A fieldsman is not a sentry on duty, but is always a fighting soldier, and if a
fiver is hit to the off, long-leg even can go into the battle and render his aid by
backing up. Every hit which is made is the business of the whole eleven in the
field until the ball is dead. A man who will not attend unless a ball comes near
him had much better be in the tent smoking his pipe.”’

UMPIRING.

John Lillywhite in his ‘‘ Hints to Umpires,’’ says :

‘The runner cannot be out for running round his ground instead of through,
because the popping crease is unlimited.

‘‘ The hitter cannot make his partner ‘ out’ by striking the ball through his
wicket, unless his partner is off his ground, and the ball touches (and therefore
may be supposed to be guided by) the hands or person of one of the opposite

party.’’ -
AMENDED LAWS OF CRICKET.

Henry Perkins, secretary of the Marylebone Cricket Club, of London, Eng., has sent to all the
prominent cricketing centres the following draft of amended laws of cricket, inviting comment before
finally reconsidering and adopting them for submission to a general meeting of the club next season.
Lord Harris has also proposed to amend Law 10 as follows: “The ball must be fairly bowled, not
thrown or jerked ; and if the umpire be of opinion that the delivery is not absolutely fair, he must call
“No ball.’ ”

THE NEW RULES.

1. A match is played between two sides of eleven players each, unless otherwise agreed to; each
side has two innings, taken alternately, except in the case provided for in Law 51. The choice of
innings shall be decided by tossing.

2. The score shall be reckoned by runs. A run is scored and shall be duly recorded: 1st. So often
as the batsmen after a hit, or at any time while the ball is in play, shall have crossed and made good
their ground from end to end. 2d. For penalties under Laws 13, 14, 32, and 39. The side which
scorcs the greatest number of runs wins the match. No match is won unless played out or given up.

3. Before the commencement of the match two umpires shall be appointed, one for each end.

4. The ball shall weigh not less than 54 0z., nor more than 5%0z. It shall measure not less than



76 | SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

-

gin , nor more than 9} in. in circumference. At the beginning of each inning either side may demand
a new ball.

5. The hat shall not exceed 4} in. in the widest part; it shall not be more than 38 in. in length.

6. The wickets shall be pitched opposite and parallel to each other at a distance of twenty-two
yards. Each wicket shall be 8 in. in width, and consist of three stumps, with two bails upon the top.
The stumps shall be of equal and sufficient size to prevent the ball from passing through, 27 in. out of
the ground, the bails each 4in. in length. The wickets shall not be changed during a match, unless
the ground between them becomes unfit for play, and then only by consent of both sides.

7. The bowling-crease shall be ina line with the stumps, 6 ft. 8 in. in length, the stumps in the
centre, with a return crease at each end towards the bowler at right angles.

8. The popping-crease shall be four feet from the wicket and parallel to it; unlimited in length,
but no shorter than the bowling-crease.
~ g. The ground shall not be rolled, watered, covered, mown, or beaten during a match, except be-
fore the commencement of each inning and of each day’s play, when, unless the inside object, the ground
shall be swept and rolled for not more than ten minutes. This shall not prevent the batsman from
beating the ground with his bat, nor the batsman nor bowler from using sawdust in order to obtain
a proper foothold.

10. The ball must be bowled ; if thrown or jerked the umpire shall call ‘‘ No ball.”

11. The bowler may require the batsman at the wicket from which he is bowling to stand on that
side of it which he may direct.

12, The ball shall be bowled in overs of four balls from each wicket alternately. When four balls
have been bowled, and the ball is finally settled in the bowler’s or wicket-keeper’s hands, the umpire
shall call ‘‘ Over !’’ The bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground behind the bowling-
crease and within the return crease, otherwise the umpire shall call ‘‘No ball!’ Such no-ball shall
not be reckoned as one of the over. The bowler may not change ends more than twice in the same
inning, nor bowl more than two overs in succession.

13. If the bowler shall bowl the ball so high over or so wide of the wicket that in the opinion of
the umpire it is not within reach of the striker, the umpire shall call ‘‘ Wide ball !’’ Such wide ball
will not be reckoned as one of the over.

14. The striker may hit a “ no-ball,’’ and whatever runs result shall be added to his score ; but
he shall not be out from a ‘ no-ball’’ unless he be run out or break Laws 24, 25, 27, 28. All
runs made from a ‘“‘ no-ball ” otherwise than from the bat shall be scored ‘‘ no balls,’’ and if no run
be made one run shall be added to that score. From a ‘‘ wide ball” as many runs as are run shall be
added to the score as ‘‘ wide balis,’’ and if no run be otherwise obtained one run shall be so added.

15. If the ball, not having been called ‘“‘ Wide!” or “No ball!” pass the striker without touch-
ing his hat or person, and any runs be obtained, the umpires shall call “ Bye!” but if the ball touch
any part of the striker’s person (hand excepted), and any run be obtained, the umpire shall call ‘‘ Leg
bye!” such runs to be scored ‘‘byes” and “‘ leg byes’’ respectively,

16. At the beginning of the match, and of each inning, the umpire at the bowler’s wicket shalk
call ‘Play!’ From that time nc trial ball shall be allowed to any bowler on the ground between the
wickets, and when one of the batsmen is out the use of the bat shall not be allowed to any person until

the next batsman shall come in.
17. A batsman shall be held to be ‘‘ out of his ground’’ unless his bat in hand or some part of

his person be grounded within the popping crease.
18. The wicket shall be held to be ‘‘down’’ when either of the bails is off; or, if both bails be

off, a stump is struck out of the ground.



Full Text





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SPORTS AND PASTIMES ©

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AMERICAN BOYS

A GUIDE AND TEXT-BOOK OF GAMES OF

THE PLAY-GROUND, THE PARLOR, AND THE FIELD

ADAPTED ESPECIALLY FOR AMERICAN YOUTH
BY

HENRY CHADWICK

Author of American Hand-Books of Games, etc., etc.



NEW YORK

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS
g LAFAYETTE PLACE
~IN UNIFORM STYLE.
Copiously Lllustrated.

ILLUSTRATED POEMS AND SONGS
FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

LABOULAYE’S ILLUSTRATED FAIRY
TALES.

SPORTS AND PASTIMES OF AMERI-
CAN BOYS.

THE PILGRIM’S PROGRESS.

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF ROBIN-
SON CRUSOE.

THE SWISS FAMILY ROBINSON.
LAMB’S TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE.

WOOD’S ILLUSTRATED NATURAL
HISTORY FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

All bound in handsome lithographed double
covers; also in cloth.

George Routledge & Sons,

9 LAFAYETTE PLacge, New York.



Copyright, 1884,
By Joseru L. BLaAMire.

INTRODUCTION.

OW that the spirit of the age favors the plan of a judicious combination of
physical recreation with mental culture, it is timely to prepare a text-book
of sports and pastimes for boys, which will best tend to promote this system of
paying due attention to physical as well as mental education. An old writer says,
** Let me make the songs of a people, and I care not who makes their laws.’’ This
rule is as applicable to the structure of the sports of a people as it is to the com-
position of their songs. The pastimes of boys of all nations partake largely of the
peculiar character of the people whose youth engage in them. The boys of a war-
like nation find their chief recreation in sports in which feats of brutal courage,
and of endurance of fatigue and pain, are marked characteristics. On the other
hand, the youths of a peaceful people enjoy those pastimes best which most com-
pare in their character with the national life of their progenitors. Differences in
climate necessarily have their relation to the character of national sports ; but it is
more in the essential character of the people themselves that their national pastimes
differ, and this is especially noticeable in the receative sports of boys. It is in this
respect that the games of American boyhood are different, as a rule, from those of
English youths. Of course, there is a certain degree of similarity in most of
them, arising from their English origin ; but there is scarcely an imported game
that is at all open to improvement, which has not of late years been essentially.
‘‘ Americanized ;’’ witness the evolution of our manly national game ¢ of Base-Ball
from the old English schoolboy game of ‘‘ Rounders,”’

There is one thing in connection with the subject of youthful sports which
merits special attention, and that is the tendency of boys of the period to forego
such pastimes and to replace them with habits of their leisure hours, which are at
war alike with health and morality. Far too many of our American boys jump
from the games of their early school days, even before they have reached their
teens, into the vicious ways of fast young men. For this reason parents and
guardians cannot do better than to foster a love of out-door games among their
boys, if only as a means of keeping them out of the mischievous habits they are so
prone to indulge in when not at their school desks or actively engaged in physical
recreation suitable to theirage. It isa sad sight to see boys of from twelve to
10 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

fifteen years of age with cigarettes in their mouths, canes in their hands, and with
precocious appetites for stimulants, visiting, during their leisure hours, race-
courses, pool-rooms, variety-saloons, and other vicious places of public amuse-
ments, when they should be either on their regular playground, enjoying their
boyish games, or out on the fields participating in a higher class of youthful
sports,

The experience of the last half century of our American progress in refined
civilization has conclusively shown that physical culture must keep pace with
mental education, if the latter is to be carried to the point of perfection. There
are, of course, extremes in this respect as in everything else; and just as we
Americans, up to within the past twenty-five years, cultivated our minds at the
expense of our bodies, just so are our English cousins of the present day giving
too much of their attention to physical culture, to the neglect of that of the mind.
To read such influential sporting journalsas Zhe Field ; Landand Water, and weekly
papers of that class in England now—not to mention Seil’s Life and kindred
journals—one might very reasonably think that the English leisure classes had
little else to do or to think of than sports and pastimes. But this is as much the
extreme in one way as it has been, since the early days of the Republic, with us
the other way, The happy medium, however, unquestionably recognizes out-door
recreation as going hand in hand with mental culture. Morally, too, the aspect of
the case is one which gives encouragement to national pastimes as essential to the
right and proper growth of our young people. The inhabitants of our large
American cities have, up to within a late period, lacked a healthy physique.
Their mental powers have drawn too heavily on the nervous forces of their bodies,
and the result has been that the middle period of life has seen thousands carried
to the grave, who, with proper attention to physical exercise and recreation in
youth and early manhood, would have reached a good old age, ere the sere and
yellow leaf of time had made itself apparent. But it is useless further to sermonize
on the subject. Experience has taught us as a people that our old-time system of
‘‘all work and no play,’’ of overtaxing the mind at the expense of a neglected
physique, is a very bad policy, and very wisely and characteristically we are gain-
ing yearly in wisdom in this respect ; and hence the increased and growing popu-
larity of out-door sports for our boys and young men, and for physical exercise for
the fair sex as well, in the large cities and towns of the American Continent.
TRAINING FOR SPORTS.

N this work we shall give no special rules for training to excel in any particular
sport or branch of athletic exercises, inasmuch as this book is intended only

for games and sports calculated to aid in promoting physical culture as an impor-
tant ally of mental education. In regard to training, an important question arises
which bears upon the encouragement of physical exercise and recreation in our
colleges, and that is the question concerning the amount of time required for the
purpose of special training for particular sports in our colleges and large schools.
Certain sports are engaged in by collegians, and strenuous efforts are made to
excel all other colleges in them, without due regard being paid to the loss of time
in training involved in getting into winning form ascompetitors in matches. The
fact that young men go to college to advance themselves in the higher branches
of education is too frequently lost sight of, and valuable time is wasted in training
for special excellence in some one particular sport, which ought to be devoted to
study. While the question of physical education, in combination with that of
mental culture, should not be lost sight of, it is certainly very necessary that the
former should be made subordinate to the interests of the latter. In taking up
this question of the time wasted in training, the college Faculty fail to judiciously
discriminate in the matter, and they too often apply a general rule to the subject
when only a single sport is involved. For instance, there is a great difference in
the time required for training to excel in ball games—such as base-ball, cricket,
lacrosse, and foot-ball—and that needed to get into winning form as one of the
‘‘ University crew,’’ or as a competitor in a running or walking match in the inter-
collegiate contests ; it being impossible to excel in either one or other of the latter
sports without devoting an amount of time to necessary training which greatly
trespasses on the hours required each day for diligent study. To get into ‘‘ form’’
in any of the ball games, it is only necessary to occupy the ordinary leisure
time of a student’s daily life ; and the out-door work involved is of a character
advantageous as healthful recreation and desirable in a sanitary point of view.
But to train properly for a position in the racing crew of a college, or as the
champion athlete of the University, on the other hand, involves not only exceed-
ingly arduous labor, but a loss of time which necessarily interferes with the more
12 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

important class duties of the college. Moreover, aside from this loss of time in
training, there is the terrible strain upon the system, involved alike in the rowing
and running matches which is never incurred in the ball games. This important
difference in the matter of time used in training should be more duly considered
by the governing powers of our colleges than it is, otherwise an injustice will be
done to a class of out-door sports for collegians, which are admirably adapted for
healthful recreation, while not at all infringing on the hours required for study.

FAIR PLAY IN GAMES.

HE most marked feature of true manliness of character is a love of fair play.
It is a jewel in the crown of manhood of the first water, and without it all
sports degenerate into low and dishonest struggles to win by trickery and decep-
tion instead of by honorable efforts to excel. A love of fair play is inherent
in the breast of every man worthy of the name, and all such detest to see unfair
play exhibited on any field whatever, but especially in games where athletic
skill is the chief attraction, for on such fields it is that fair play shines out at its
brightest. Without referring to any other line of sports, sufficient examples can
be found in the arena of the American game of base-ball to fully illustrate the
nature of fair play and its opposite. When two contesting nines enter upon a
match game of base-ball, they do so with the implied understanding that the
struggle between them is to be one in which their respective skill in handling
the ball and the bat, and in running the bases, is alone to be brought into
play, unaided by such low trickery as is comprised in the acts of cutting the
ball, tripping up base runners, hiding the ball, wilful collisions with fielders,
and other specially mean tricks, of the kind characteristic of corner-lot loafers
in their ball games. All these so-called ‘‘ points’’ are beyond the pale of fair and
manly play, and rank only as among the abuses of the game. While strategic
skill is a legitimate feature of a contest on the diamond, it includes only such points
of play as are shown in a skilful outwitting of the batsman in the delivery of the
ball and in out-manceuvring opponents in base running.
ATHLETIC GAMES.

N the selection of games for this work we have omitted several which have
hitherto been included in boys’ books of games, for the reason that in their
construction and characteristics they are in no way calculated to improve a boy
either physically or otherwise. We have eliminated all sports and games marked
by anything of a cruel or brutal nature, as unworthy of a work intended for the
promotion of true manliness of character and of gentlemanly conduct. What is
not manly is not gentlemanly, and anything that inculcates brutality or any phase
of cruelty is not manly. Boys’ sports should be part of their school education in
preparing them to be manly in the moral attributes of truth, honor, kindliness,
and a charitable consideration for the failings of humanity, as well as in the
manliness of a well-trained physique. Especially should the mastering of quick
tempers be regarded in this matter of mental training by recreative exercise. We
begin this chapter on ‘‘ Games of the Playground,’’ with the sports of boys from
ten years of age upward. For purposes of education it would be well to have some
grown person present to superintend the games of the school playground. But.
the individual should be one who has not forgotten that he was once a boy him-
self, and also one who should bear in mind the old saying that ‘‘ boys will be
boys.’’ These memories involve due consideration for that freedom of action and
absence of undue restraint in supervision which, while giving the boys a free rein
to go their own pace in the race for enjoyment, yet holds them within proper
bounds in governing their words and actions, when temper or passion attempts to
assume entire control. There is a sort of electric battery of physical force in the
composition of boys of healthy physiques, which must be allowed an avenue of,
escape or evil consequences are likely to ensue ; and it is better to guide the direc-.
tion of this explosive material than to allow it to have its own way in its working
off. In other words, it is not judicious to allow wild play to a boy’s excess of
animal spirits ; nor is it advisable to check the overflow too suddenly. Train up
your boys in the way they should go—alike on the playground or the field of
sport as in the school of morality—and maturity will assuredly find them the right
kind of men for progressive humanity. With this brief reference to the moral
philosophy of sports, we proceed with our work. |
Iq SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

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TUG OF WAR.

This is an exceedingly lively game, giving exercise to the muscles of the chest
and arms. It is played by two parties, as nearly equal in numbers and strength
as can be mustered ; one party takes hold of one end of a strong rope, while their
antagonists take hold of the other; each party then strives to pull the other over
a line chalked or marked on the ground for the purpose, and those who are so
pulled over, being made prisoners, lose the game,

In this game two leaders should be appointed, who must calculate the powers
of their own side, and concert plans accordingly. The leader of either side
should have a code of signals, in order to communicate with his own friends, that
he may direct them when to stop, when to slacken, or when to pull hard. So im-
portant is the leader’s office, that a side with a good leader will always vanquish a
much superior force which has no commander to guide it. For example, when al]
the boys are pulling furiously at the rope. the leader of one side sees that his op-
ponents are leaning back too much, depending on their weight more than on their
strength. He immediately gives the signal to slacken, when down go half the
enemy on their backs, and are run away with merrily by the successful party, who
drag them over the mark with the greatest ease. Or if the enemy begins to be
wearied with hard pulling, a unanimous tug will often bring them upright while
they are off their guard, and, once moved, the victory is easily gained. No knots
are to be permitted on the rope. In the school-boy game of tug of war the game is
not to be considered as won unless the entire side has been dragged over the line.
ATHLETIC GAMES. 15

PRISONER’S BASE.

This is one of the best of the running class of games, and it is played as
follows. Sides of from six to ten players are chosen from among the swiftest
runners of the crowd. Two of the best players choose sides, after which the
‘‘home’”’ and “ prison’ bases are marked out. These are laid out by drawing a
line ten or a dozen yards from a wall, and dividing the inclosed space into two
equal portions, each of which ought to be large enough to contain all the players
on one side. At some distance (from a hundred to two hundred feet) in front of
these bases, two more spaces must be marked out for prisons, the prison of one
party being opposite the home base of the other.

The game is commenced by a player from one side called the ‘‘ leader”’ run-..
ning out of his base toward the prisons ; when he has got about half way he calls”
out ‘‘ chase,’’ at which signal one of the opposite party rushes from his base and
endeavors to catch him ; a partner of the first player next dashes out to capture
the second, and so on, both sides sending out as many of their partners as* they
please, to touch or take their opponents. Each player strives to overtake and
touch any one of the opposite side who quitted his base before he did, as he must
not touch any one who started after him, although they may, if they can, touch
him before he gets back to his own base; but if a player has taken a prisag
cannot be touched when he makes his way back to his base again. It is
that a player may touch only one of his adversaries every time he leaves his base,
and every prisoner must be taken to the prison of the party opposed to him, where
he remains unti] one of his partners can manage to touch him. It is to be borne
in mind that he who comes to rescue the captive must have started from his base , -
after the other has been taken, and the prisoner and his liberator are not allowed *
to touch any one, or to be touched on their return home. The victors are those
who can contrive to make all their opponents prisoners; the game may also be
decided by one player taking possession of the base belonging to his opponents
when they are all out ; it is therefore prudent to leave some one in charge of each
base. :



STEEPLECHASE.

This is a trial of speed and agility, and may be played by any number off
boys. It consists in the boys agreeing upon some distant object for a mark, such ~.,
_ as a conspicuous tree, or house, or steeple. The players then start off in whatever ©
direction they please, each one being at liberty to choose his own course. In-a
16 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

long run of a mile or so it very often happens that hedges, ditches, and other
obstructions have to be got over, which adds great interest to the play, and the
best climbers and jumpers are the most likely to come in victors.




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HARE AND HOUNDS.

This is one of the best of the athletic class of school games. The principle of
it is simply this: one boy represents the hare, and runs away, while the others act

as hounds and pursue him toa specified goal. The proper management of the
ATHLETIC GAMES. 17

game, however, requires considerable skill. The first thing to be done is to
choose ahare. The hare should not be the best runner, but should be daring, and
at the same time prudent, or he may trespass into forbidden lands, and thereby
cause trouble. A huntsman and whipper-in are then chosen. The huntsman
should be the best player, and the whipper-in second best. Things having
advanced so far, the whole party sally forth. The hare is furnished with a large |
bag of white paper cut into small squares, which he scatters on the ground as he .
goes. An arrangement is made that the hare shall not cross his path, nor return
home until a certain time ; in either of which cases he is considered caught. The
hounds also are bound to follow the track or “‘ scent’’ implicitly, and not to make
short cuts if they see the hare. The hare then starts, and has about seven
minutes’ grace, at the expiration of which time the huntsman blows a horn with
which he is furnished and sets off, the hounds keeping nearly in Indian file, the
whipper-in bringing up the rear. The huntsman is also furnished with a white
flag, the whipper-in with a red one, the staves being pointed and shod with metal.
Off they go in the chase until the huntsman loses the scent. He immediately
shouts *‘ Lost !’’ on which the whipper-in sticks his fag in the ground where the |
scent was last seen and the entire line walks or runs round it in a circle, within
which they are tolerably sure to find the track. The huntsman in the meanwhile
has stuck his flag in the ground, and examines the country to see in what direction
the hare is likely to have gone. When the track is found, the player who discovers
it shouts Tally ho! the huntsman takes up his flag, and ascertains whether it is
really the track or not. If so, he blows his horn again, the hounds form in line
between the two flags, and off they go again. It is incredible how useful the two
flags are. Many a hare has been lost because the hounds forgot where the last
track was seen, and wasted time in searching for it again. Moreover, they seem
to encourage the players wonderfully. Sometimes the chase extends fourteen or
fifteen miles in length ; but before such an undertaking is commenced it is neces-
sary to prepare by a series of shorter chases, which should however be given in an
opposite direction to the course fixed upon for the grand chase, as otherwise the
tracks are apt to get mixed, and the hounds are thrown out. The hare should
always carefully survey his intended course a day or two previously, and then he
will avoid getting himself into quagmires or imprisoned in the bend of a river.
A pocket compass is a most useful auxiliary, and prevents all chance of losing the
way.
18 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

. BALL GAMES.

There are no sports or games engaged in by either men or boys which surpass
in interest and pleasure those in which a ball or balls are used. From the simple
ball game of the playground up to the most scientific of all games of ball,
cricket, a variety of sports are presented which gives the palm to the ball as a
means of recreative exercise. In this chapter on ‘‘ Ball Games’’ we not only in-
clude games in which ten-year-olds can readily participate, but also the manly
games of ball, such as cricket, base-ball, lacrosse, and foot-ball, the latter of which
are described especially for the use of boys, while we also devote considerable
space to each game designed for the perusal of an older class of readers. The
majority of ball games call for the exercise of considerable mental powers as well
as of physical ability to excel in them. Especially is this the case in cricket,
base-ball, and lacrosse. A manly physique is not more necessary to attain the
honors of victory in contests at these games, than are the mental powers of judg-
ment, courage, nerve, pluck, and control of temper. Games requiring such at-
tributes necessarily become valuable aids in education.

FUNGO.

This game is played with a round bat and a common ball. One player acts
as the batsman while all the others are fielders. The batsman takes the ball in
one hand, tosses it up in the air, and as it falls hits it ‘‘on the fly”’ to the out-
field, and if it be caught by any fielder on the fly the batsman goes to the field
and the fielder who caught the ball becomes the batsman. The batsman is out
also if he sends the ball to the fielders on the bound, or if he strikes at the ball
three consecutive times without hitting it, in which case the fielder next in turn
goes to the bat. Usually the latter receives the ball when thrown in from the
field, and passes it to the batsman. The game simply affords good practice to
out-fielders in catching the ball, it being comparatively useless as good practice

for batting.

TWO OLD CAT.

This game is a variation of fungo, and a preliminary step to the regular
game of base-ball. It is generally played by nine players, one of whom acts as
pitcher, another as catcher, three others as base players, another as short stop,
ATHLETIC GAMES. 19

and the last three as out-fielders. The pitcher is only allowed to pitch the balf
to the bat, no kind of throw in the delivery of the ball being permitted ; and |
he acts as pitcher until the batsman is put out, when the catcher goes in to the °
bat, and the pitcher becomes the catcher, and each of the occupants of the
other seven positions advance one position, the retiring batsman going to right
field. The batsman can be put out on a fly catch of a fair or a foul ball, and ona
foul-bound catch, and also on three strikes. He can also be put out after
hitting a fair ball on the bound, if the ball be held at first base before the batsman
reaches it. Should he make his base after such hit, however, he is entitled to take
the bat again, or he can resign it in favor of any player he chooses. Of course the
game is played on a diamond field, roughly laid out so as to mark the several base
positions,

TRAP BALL.

This favorite game is played with a ‘‘trap,’’ which is a solid piece of wood
shaped something like a shoe, and having a movable tongue or spoon. Be-
fore playing it, it is as well to fix the trap by sinking the heel in the ground.
Innings being tossed up for, the winner places the ball in the spoon of the trap,
touches the tongue of the trap with his bat, and as the ball rises, strikes it away as
far as he possibly can. If he makes more than two unsuccessful efforts at striking
the ball, or touches the tongue more than twice without being able to hit the ball,
he is out, and the next player takes his innings, which order of succession should
be settled beforehand. If one of the fielders can catch the ball before it falls to
the ground the striker loses his innings; but if it is not caught, the fielder who
stops it must bowl it from the spot where he picked it up, toward the trap ; if it
touches the trap, the striker is out, but if, on the contrary, it misses, the batsman
counts one toward his game.

It is usual in the present game of Trap and Ball to place two boundaries, at a
given distance from the trap, between which it is necessary for the ball to fall when
struck by the batsman, for if it falls outside of either, he is out.


ATHLETIC FEATS.

THLETIC exercises and feats of muscular strength, when not carried to
excess, are very beneficial to boys, not only in assisting in the development
of their young muscles, but in promoting health by causing the blood to circulate
freely and by producing perspiration, thereby giving healthy action to the skin.
In practising light feats of strength, care should be taken to avoid overstraining
of untrained muscles. Athletic exercises, as a general rule, should be practised
just as a child learns towalk. Each movement should be acquired by degrees, not
too suddenly. The simple exercises necessary to be gone through with before
any special feats are attempted may be regarded by most boys as needless, but
they properly prepare the muscles to sustain without injury the extra strain put
upon them in performing any special athletic feat of strength.

Almost all the feats of strength and activity which follow may be performed
readily enough by any boy who will take the trouble to practise them. We
recommend him to use great caution in making the first essays, both for his own
sake and for the sake of the furniture with which some of these gymnastic exer-
cises are performed. These feats are peculiarly suited for wet weather, when out-

door exercise is not at command. We begin with the simplest form of feats, and
of these the first is
ATHLETIC FEATS. 23

THE PALM SPRING.

The palm spring is performed by standing at a
little distance from a wall, with your face toward it,
and leaning forward until you are able to place the
palm of your hand quite flat on the wall, as represented
in the margin; you must then take a spring from the
hand, and recover your upright position without mov-
ing either of your feet. It is better to practise it first
with the feet at a little distance only from the wall,
increasing. the space as you gradually attain greater
proficiency in the exercise.



TRIAL OF THE THUMB.

Place the inside of the thumb on the edge of a table, taking care that neither
of the fingers nor the palm of the hand touch it; next move your feet as far back
as you possibly can, and then taking a spring from the thumb, recover your
standing position without shifting your feet forward. The table should be a
heavy one, and not upon casters, or the other end should be placed against a wall,
else in springing back you would in all probability push it away and fall upon
your hands and knees. It greatly facilitates the spring if you rock yourself to
and fro three or four times before you take it; and it is best to begin, as in the
‘palm spring,’’ with the feet ata little distance from the table, increasing the
*‘ trial of the thumb”’ by degrees.

THE FINGER FEAT.

Place your hands horizontally across and close to your breast, and put the tips
of your forefingers together ; another player should then endeavor to separate
them, by pulling at each arm; but if you hold them firmly in the manner described
he will be unable to achieve it, although he may be much bigger and stronger ©
than you are. ‘It is not proper for the second player to use sudden or violent.
jerks in his attempts; he must employ only a steady, regular pull.

PROSTRATE AND PERPENDICULAR.

Cross your arms on your body, lay down on your back, and then get up again,
without using either your elbows or hands in doing so.
22 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

KNUCKLE DOWN.

Knuckle down is a very good feat; it consists in placing the toes against a
line chalked on the floor, kneeling down and getting up again without using the
hands or moving the feet from the line,

THE TANTALUS TRICK.

Desire a player to stand with his back close to the wall, then place a piece of
money on the floor, at a little distance in front of him, and tell him he shall have
it if he can pick it up without moving his heels from the wall. Although at first
sight it appears very easy to perform this trick, yet it will be found impossible, as
in bending, a part of the body must necessarily go back beyond the heels.

ANOTHER TANTALUS TRICK.

Place the left foot and leg and the left cheek close against a wall; then lift
the right foot slowly and endeavor to touch the left knee withit, and stand stead-
ily in that position.

THE TRIUMPH.

This is a very excellent feat, and requires great practice to perform it adroitly.
Put your arms behind you and place the palms of your hands together, the fingers
downward and the thumbs next your back ; then turn your hands, keeping the
tops of the fingers close to your back, and the palms still together, until the ends
of the fingers are between your shoulders, pointing upward toward your head,
and the thumbs outside.

DOT AND CARRY TWO.

This is to be performed by three players, whom we will style A, B, C, in the
following manner: A, standing between B and C, must stoop down and pass his
right hand behind the left thigh of B, and grasp B’s right hand ; he should next
pass his left hand behind the right thigh of C and take hold of C’s left hand; R
and C should each pass one arm round the neck of A, and the latter, by raising
himself gradually, will be able to lift the others from the ground.

THE FLYING BOOK.

Put a book between your feet in such a manner that it is held between the
ankles and the inner side of the feet ; then kick up backward with both your feet,
and in this manner try to jerk the book over your head.
ATHLETIC FEATS. . 23 |

LIFTING AT ARM’S LENGTH.

Take an iron poker, and grasping it firmly in your right hand, lift it gradu-
ally until it is on a level with your shoulder. In performing this feat the arm
must be stretched out at the full length, and the poker being grasped firmly, with
the nails of the fingers upward, should be elevated in a right line with it.

BREAST TO MOUTH.

Measure the length of your arm, from the outside of the elbow to the tip of
the middle finger, and mark it down on a:stick ; then hold the stick horizontally
before you, with your elbow close to your side, placing the middle finger exactly
over the mark, and keeping the fingers at right angles with the stick, and the ©
thumb closed over them. You must now try to raise the left end of the stick,
from the horizontal position up to your mouth, which should be done without
changing the place of your fingers, bending your head, or moving your elbow
from your side.

JUMPING THROUGH YOUR FINGERS.

Hold a stick of wood between the forefingers of each hand, and without let-
ting go try to jump over it both forward and backward ; with a little practice it
can be done very easily, the hardest part of the feat consisting in the difficulty of
clearing the heels ; indeed, with high-heeled boots or shoes it is next to impossi-
ble to achieve it. You may also jump over your middle fingers placed together, ©
without touching or separating them with your feet.

CATCH PENNY.

Place on your elbow three or four penny pieces in a heap, then drop your
elbow very suddenly, so as to bring your hand rather below the place where your
elbow was, and try to catch the money before it falls to the ground ; a few trials
will enable you to perform this trick with the greatest facility.

THE TURN OVER.

Take a short run, place the toe of the right foot against a wall, and throw
the left leg over it, making a complete turn at the same time, so that when your
left foot touches the ground your back is to the wall. The right foot is the pivot
on which you turn, and you must take especial care to keep it quite close to the .
wall while you perform the turn over. This is by no means a difficult feat, re-
quiring only a little practice to enable you to perform it with rapidity. :
24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE LONG REACH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the toes of both feet on it, being careful
that they do not pass beyond ; then throw forward either the right or left hand,
no matter which, so far and no farther than you can easily spring back from and
readily regain your upright position, without either moving the feet from the line,
touching the floor with the hands in throwing them forward, or scraping the floor
with them in the spring back. When you have in this manner ascertained the
utmost distance to which you can stretch, and from which you can recover, with-
out scraping the hands or altering the position of your feet, you must stretch as
far forward as you possibly can, and while supporting the body upon one hand,
chalk a line on the floor with the other. You may, in order to bring your body
lower, move your feet backward from the line marked on the floor, and by so
doing you will be enabled to make a much greater stretch than you could other-
wise have done. If you can manage to chalk two lines, your own length apart, it
is a tolerably good stretch, but with a little practice you may chalk considerably
further than that measure. Some persons in performing this feat rest upon their
elbows instead of their hands.

THE STOOPING STRETCH.

Chalk a line on the floor, and place the outer edge of the right foot on it, and
at a little distance behind the right foot, put the left heel on the line. Then
take a piece of chalk in your right hand, bend down and pass the right hand be
tween your legs, and under the right knee, and chalk a line on the floor, as far
from the former line as you possibly can, yet not so far but that you can easily
recover yourself without touching the ground with your hands, or removing your
feet from the line. Your knee and body may project beyond the chalked line,
provided you keep your feet properly placed.

FEATS WITH CHAIRS.
LEAP BEFORE YOU LOOK.

Get a chair with a very narrow back, so narrow, indeed, that you can bestride
it with great ease ; stand on the seat, put your hands on the top rail of the back
and rest your knees against the middle one, then push the chair forward until it
rests only on its back legs, and before you lose your balance jump from the seat,
so that when you alight on the floor you still hold the back rail in your hand. In
all feats with chairs it is necessary to use great caution in making the first essays.
ATHLETIC FEATS. 25

TUMBLE-DOWN DICK,

A strong, long-backed old-fashioned chair is the best adapted for this feat.
Place the chair down on the floor, and put a small piece of money at the end or
else about the middle of the back. Next kneel on the legs of the chair, and take
hold with both hands of the sides of the legs near the seat rail; then bend down
and endeavor to touch the back of the chair with your face, and take up the
piece of money before mentioned with your mouth; you must be careful that
you do not fall forward, or allow the top of the chair to touch the ground. In
this amusement, the position of the hands may be altered, either higher up or
lower down the back of the chair, at the pleasure of the player, as he finds
necessary. .

TO TAKE A CHAIR FROM UNDER YOU WITHOUT FALLING.

In order to perform this feat, you must lay along on three chairs. Throw
up your chest, keep your shoulders down, and your limbs as stiff as you possibly
can ; then take the centre chair from under your body, carry it over, and place
it again under your body on the opposite side. Although this at first sight ap-
pears difficult, yet in reality it is very easy ; it is as well, however, to have a chair
of a rather lighter construction for the middle one, as you are thereby enabled to
perform it with less strain upon the muscles of the body and arm.

CHAIRING THE LEG.

After putting your left foot on the lowest back rail of a tolerably heavy chair,
you must try to pass your right leg over the back, and bring it to the floor be-
tween your left leg and the chair. In performing this trick, which must be done
with caution, it is not allowable to touch the chair with your hands. The chair
should not stand on a slippery surface, as it might by chance move, and a fall
would be the result.
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GYMNASTIC EXERCISES.

HE study of Gymnastics is of the utmost importance to young persons, as its

object is to call into exercise and to train to perfection all the corporeal or
bodily powers. It is the education of the limbs, joints, and muscles, and includes
not only the systematic training of these, but also assists the physical sciences of
riding, driving, wrestling, rowing, sailing, skating, swimming, etc.

In the following gymnastic exercises only those simple and useful feats which
may be said to make up the ‘‘ alphabet of the science’ are introduced. They
may be performed in very small spaces, and require no particular preparation,
expense, or place. By attention to the directions any pupil between the ages of
twelve and sixteen may train and exercise himself and a number of other children
yoynger than himself, and this excellent study may thus become a source of
amusement and delight.

Gymnastic exercises may be begun by a boy of about eight years of age, or
may be commenced at any age; but in all cases he should begin gently, and pro-
ceed gradually, without any abrupt transitions. They should be commenced
before breakfast in the morning, or before dinner or supper, but never imme-
diately after meals ; and the pupil should be very careful, after becoming heated
by exercises, of draughts or cold, and especially refrain from lying on the damp
ground, or from standing without his coat or other garments, and rigidly guard
against the dangerous practice of drinking cold water when overheated, which,
in many instances, has been known to produce immediate death.
GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 27

WALKING.

in all gymnastic exercises, walking, running, and jumping deserve the pref-
erence, because they are the most natural movements of man, and those which he
has most frequent occasion to use. This exercise, within the reach of everybody,
ought to be placed among the number of those which are direct conservators of
health, and which have the most important beneficial effects upon our mental and
moral economy. Walking provokes appetite, assists digestion, accelerates the
circulation, brings the fluids to the skin, strengthens the memory, and gives cheer-
fulness to the mind, and in fatiguing the limbs gives repose to the senses and the
brain.

It might be supposed that every one knows how to walk: not so, however ;
some persons crawl, some hobble, some shuffle along. Few have the graceful,
noble movement that ought to belong to progression, or, however well formed,
preserve a really erect position and an air of becoming confidence and dignity.
To teach young persons to walk properly, we should advise a class of them to
unite, that they may be able to teach themselves.

RUNNING.

Running is both useful and natural ; it favors the development of the chest
dilates the lungs, and, when moderate, is a highly salutary exercise. To run fast
and gracefully one should as it were graze the ground with the feet, by keeping
the legs as straight as possible while moving them forward. During the course
the upper part of the body is inclined a little forward, the arms are, as it were,
glued to the sides and turned in at the point of the hips, the hands shut, and the
nails turned inward. The faults in running are swinging the arms, raising the
legs too high behind, taking too large strides, bending the knees too much, and
in not properly managing one’s wind. In all running exercises the young should
begin gradually, and never run themselves out of breath at any time. By careful
practice a boy may soon acquire the power of running a mile in ten minutes;
this is called moderate running ; in what is called prompt running a thousand
yards in two minutes is thought very good work, and in quick running 600 yards ’
in a minute is considered good. The first distance that children from eight to
ten years of age may be made to run is about 200 yards; the second, for those
more advanced, 300 yards ; and the third, for adults, 400 yards. It is, however,
most essential that in running boys should not overtax their strength or ‘‘ wind.”
We are not all constituted alike, and a boy who could last for 200 yards or so
might injure himself considerably by racing for a mile.
28 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

JUMPING.

Of all the corporeal exercises, jumping is one of the most useful ; and during
our lives very many instances occur of a good jump having done us essential ser-
vice. To jump with grace and assurance one should always fall on the toes, tak-
ing care especially to bend the knees on the hips; the upper part of the body
should be inclined forward, and the arms extended toward the ground. The
hands should serve to break the fall when jumping from a great height. In jump-
ing we should hold the breath and never alight on the heels. Boys should exer-
cise themselves in jumping by jumping in length and jumping from a height,
with attention to the above cautions. They may make progressive exercises in
length by varying the distance from time to time, and in height by jumping from a
flight of stairs or steps, increasing a step at a time: they will soon be able to
jump in length three yards, and from a height six feet, without injury:

DUMB-BELLS.

Most boys know the form and appearance of dumb-bells, and probably have
some ideas of using them, but a few directions and illustrations will benefit them.
Nor would we exclude girls from the practice in moderation. A light pair of
‘** bells’? used every morning after the bath will have a wonderful effect in bracing
and strengthening the muscles and in giving elasticity to the figure.

It is a great mistake to commence with heavy dumb-bells. For a boy a pair
weighing three or four pounds will be sufficient, and this weight can be increased
as the pupil gets stronger. Another hint which boys should bear in mind is this
—a useful one in a// exercises—never attempt too much at one time. You will
only get exhausted, and though the novelty of the practice and energy will carry
you through, you will feel the evil effects next day. In this, as in everything else,
be moderate. Half an hour or a quarter of an hour at first will be sufficient.
There are numerous exercises with the dumb-bells. We will give the principal
ones :.

Exercise I. Stand erect firmly, heels close together, the elbows back. Lift
the bells, and from the chest raise them as high as the arms will reach. Then
bring them down again and up together and afterward alternately to the armpits.
Repeat.

Exercise II. Take the bells, and leaning forward from the waist drop the
right arm to the full extent, at the same time holding the left bell up to the chest.
Do likewise with left and right arms. Then leaning sideways, raise and lower the
dumb-bells right and left alternately, both arms fully extended diagonally. The
arms may also be extended full in front, as if striking a blow. (See figure.)
GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. 29

Exercise III. Seize the bells firmly and extend the arms, as far as possible, in
a line with the shoulders. From this position bring the hands together in front
and then to the back to touch, if possible—arms being all the time extended
straight from the shoulders. Repeat.



Exercise IV. Circle the bells by swinging first one and then the other, and
then both, with extended arms backward and forward, and then round the head.

Exercise V. Extend the arms in front; bring them back to the chest, the
bells hugged almost to the breast; from that position strike sharply out, opening
the arms as widely as possible, and then bring the arms round to front again.

Repeat.



The above are some of the most usual exercises, but the pupil can soon be-
come proficient if he will practise. Remember the head -should be erect, the chest
No stooping or slouching habits

SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.



From dumb-bells the pupils may go through a course of bar-exercise, or
French dumb-bells or bar-bells.

expanded, the heels together, the body upright.

can be tolerated.

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DIAGRAM OF A BASE BALL FIELD,
WITH THE LINES OF MEASUREMENT.

UMPIRE
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ol Dy. CATCHER “ ¢
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PITCHER’S
POSITION




18T BASEMAN
3D BASEMAN
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3
a
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$ HORT-STOP
2ND BASEMAN
°
| iV
Right-fielder. Left-fielder.
@

° OUT-FIELD.

Centre-fielder.
oO

A. A. A.—Ground reserved for Umpire, Batsman and Catcher.

B. B. B.—Ground reserved for Captain and Assistant.
THE DIAMOND FIELD,



SURFACE,




GROUND,
SMOOTH

IN-FIELD OF TURF,



In laying out a Base Ball Field the diamond shall be carefully covered with turf,
and kept rolled, so as to make it level and smooth. The base lines should be path-
ways, and the space from the pitcher’s position to that of the catcher’s should be
bare ground, with a hard smooth surface, especially behind the home base. The
above diagram shows the lines of the diamond field.


HENRY CHADWICK,

Author of Sports and Pastimes of American Boys.
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME.’

N the chapters on the American game of base-ball which we give in the
succeeding pages, we have not only taken special pains to prepare them for
youthful readers, but also to make this part of our work on sports a special feature
as a text-book of the game adopted for the amateur class of the fraternity. It is
the game of games for American boys, and therefore we devote more space to
base-ball than to any other department of the hook.

It has been justly said that there is no outdoor sport in America that equals
our national game of base-ball, either as an exciting sport to witness or as a game
affording ample opportunities for healthy, manly, and recreative exercise. In
comparison with every other field game known in the arena of outdoor sports,
base-ball bears off the palm in all those features which are calculated to secure the
popular favor of the American public. A match at base-ball scarcely averages two
hours of time, from the opening innings to the close of the contest, even at the
hands of amateur experts, and still less when the contesting nines are trained and
experienced professionals, From the moment the ball is in play to the end of
each innings of a match, the interest is kept up unceasingly. Then, too, in the
accomplishment of the work in those departments of the game which the nine in
the field has especially to attend to, opportunities are afforded for the most attrac-
tive displays of manly courage, pluck, and nerve; while activity of mind as well
as limb come into active play through the medium of pitching, catching, fielding,
throwing, and holding the ball on the bases, involved in the work of an attacking
party in a contest ; while, on the other hand, there is the great skill needed in
handling the bat, and sound judgment as well as remarkable agility required in
running the bases, this being the work of the defence in the battle for the prize of
victory ; the whole affording scope for active exercise of mind and body, un-
equalled by any field sport.

THE THEORY OF THE GAME.

There is no game now in vogue the theory of which is more simple than that
of base-ball, and hence its attractions for the masses ; and yet to excel in the game
as a noted expert requires not only the ,possession of the physical attributes of -
36 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

endurance, agility, strength, good throwing and running powers, together with
plenty of courage, pluck, and nerve, but also the mental powers of sound
judgment, quick perception, thorough control of temper, and the presence of mind
to act promptly in critical emergencies. The plain theory of base-ball is simply
as follows : A space of ground being marked out on a level field in the form of a
diamond, with equal sides, bases are placed on the four corners thereof. The con-
testants include nine players on each side—one side takes the field and the other
goes to the bat. When the field side take their positions the pitcher delivers the
ball to the batsman, who endeavors to send it out of the reach of the fielders and
far enough out on the field to enable him to run round the bases, and if he reaches
the home-base—his starting point—without being put out, he scoresarun. He is
followed in rotation by the others of his side until three of the batting party are
put out, when the field side come in and take their turn at the bat. This goes on
until nine innings have been played on each side, and then the side scoring the
most runs wins the game.

HOW TO PLAY THE POSITIONS.
THE PITCHER.

This position is the most important in the field and the most responsible of
all. He is now allowed ‘to deliver the ball to the bat either by a pitch, a toss, a
jerk, or an underhand or overhand throw.

His position is within the lines of a space of ground six feet by four. The
rules require him to deliver the ball while standing in his position, and when in
the act of delivering, or in making any preliminary motion to deliver the ball, he
must have both feet within the lines of his position, and he cannot take a step
outside the lines until the ball has left his hands. Should he do so he incurs the
penalty for balking.

The pitcher should bear in mind the important fact that the true art of pitch-
ing is to deceive the eye of the batsman—that is, to send the ball in to the bat in
such a manner as to lead the striker to believe that it is just coming in where he
wants it, while in fact it is either too high or too low, or is too swift or too slow
for the purpose. Moreover, he should have the pluck to face hot balls direct from
the bat. Unless he can do this, he can never pitch with judgment, for he will be
so impressed with the idea of avoiding being hit with the ball that he will think of
little else.

He must especially possess a full command of the ball in delivery, or his judg-
ment will be of no avail; and he should have the endurance to pitch through a
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 37











































































































































































































long and tedious game. He should also remember that there is nothing in speed
alone which makes such a style of delivery effective, and also that a merely swift
delivery of the ball without command of aim, costs more in passed balls and bases
run than is compensated for by either poor hits, tipped balls, or strikes. For
fuller instructions, see article on The Art of Pitching.

THE CATCHER.

Much of the success of a nine depends upon the ability of the catcher, and it
is therefore requisite that he should be an excellent player in his position ; and to
excel as catcher he should be able to throw with great accuracy and speed a line
balla distance of fifty yards, and be able to stop swiftly-pitched balls and low
grounders, and be especially on the alert in judging of foul balls, besides having
the nerve to face sharply-tipped balls direct from the bat. The ordinary rule is,
when the striker has made his first base, for the catcher to come up close behind
the bat, in order to be in a position to take the ball from the pitcher quick enough
to send it to second base, in case the base runner tries to steal a base on the
38. SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

pitcher. The catcher and pitcher should always have a perfect understanding
with each other in regard to their respective movements. They should havea
code of signals between them, and they should practise these signs until they can
read them as easily as their letters. Thus, when the catcher sees an opportunity
for the pitcher to catch a base player napping off his base, a certain signal should
be given by which the pitcher may understand that he is to throw to the base
promptly. Again, if the pitcher is familiar with a certain habit of the batsman
before him of hitting at a favorite ball, he should give the catcher a sign informing
him that he is going to send in a slower or swifter ball or a higher or lower one
than ordinarily is pitched.

THE BASE PLAYERS.

All basemen should be good ball-catchers, but the occupant of the first base.
should especially excel in holding the swiftest thrown balls. He should also be
fearless in facing hot balls from the bat, and expert in taking balls from the field,
while holding one foot on the base. When a ball is hastily thrown to first base,
his care should be to hold it, but at any rate to stop it. A good first-base player
ought to be able to hold a ball from the field, if it comes in anywhere within a
radius of six feet from the base, and in case of high-thrown balls he ought to take
them at least eight feet high from the base. He must remember that the ball
must be held by him, with some part of his person touching the base at the same
time, Jefore the striker reaches it, or the latter is not out ; if the ball is held at the
same time, the base runner is not out.

The second baseman requires to be a pretty active fielder, an accurate thrower
for a short distance, and a pretty sure catch; he should, however, be very expert
in catching a swiftly-thrown ball, and in holding it firmly and putting it quickly
on the player running to his base. He is required to cover the second base and to
play ‘‘right-short-stop’’ too; but his position in the field must be governed
entirely by the style of batting he is called upon to face. If a strong hitter comes
to the bat and swift balls are being sent in, he should play well out in the field
between right field and second base, and be on the gui vive for long-bound balls,
or high-fly balls which drop between the out-field and the second- ‘asopine
When the batsman makes his first base, the second baseman comes up and ‘Bets
near his base in readiness to receive the ball from the catcher. He should remem-
ber that in a majority of cases his duty is to touch the base runner, and this it
would be well to do in all cases when the latter is found off his base.

When the first baseman runs after the ball hit by the striker, the second base-
man should at once make for the first base, as he is generally nearer to it than
either the short-stop or pitcher when balls are being hit to first base. In timing
TR ee
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THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. - 7 Bg

for a throw to first base be sure of your aim, or if in doubt let the base be made,
- or otherwise the chances are that an over-throw will give your opponent his third.
instead of his first base. Hasty throwing is poor policy except you are pretty sure
in sending in a swift line ball, and you have a good man at first base to hold it.
When a player is on the first base, and another on the third, be on the watch so as
to make a prompt return of the ball when the catcher throws to the second and the.
man on the third attempts to run home on the throw. There is ample time for a
ball to be thrown from home to second and back to put out a player running
home.

The third baseman’s duties are the most onerous of the three positions on the
bases, as on his good fielding will frequently depend the loss of runs.to his oppo-
nents, whereas failures on the other bases are only made at the cost of a single
base. In the case of a misplay at third base, however, one or more runs scored is
generally the result—that is, in cases where players are running their bases.
When no men are on the bases the third baseman will have to be active in fielding
the ball, and quick and accurate in throwing it, in order to prevent the striker
from making his base. The third baseman takes a position closer to his base than
either of the other basemen. ‘Sometimes, however, he takes the place of the short-
stop when the latter covers the second base in cases where the second baseman
plays at right-short for a right-field hitter, a position frequently taken by a first-
class nine.

In throwing from base to base hastily, take care that you throw low rather
than high, as a low ball can be stopped if not handled, whereas a ball overhead
gives one or more bases in nearly every instance. In fact, in the long run, it is
safer to allow a player to make one base than to run the risk of helping him to two
or three bases by an over-throw. Accurate throwing from base to base is a pretty
feature of the game, and with straight throwers and sure catchers can be safely
indulged in at all times; for though a player may not be put out by a throw,
when he sees the ball thrown straight and handled prettily, it makes him hug his
bases closer. Every base player should be active in ‘‘ backing up”’ in the in-field.
The life of fielding is in the support afforded each other by the fielders who are
located near together. A good fielder or base player never stands still; he is
always on the move, ready for a spring to reach the ball, a stoop to pick it up, or
a prompt movement to stop it, and he always has his eye upon the ball, ‘especially
when it is flying about inside the base lines or from base to base. Poor base
players seldom put themselves out of the way to field a ball unless it comes within
their special district, but a good base player is on the alert to play at a moment’s
notice, on any base from which the player has gone after the ball. When bases
are vacated by runners, ‘‘ forced off’’ or foul or fly balls are struck, all the base
49 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

players handle the ball in the same way as at first base, but it is advisable to make
sure always by touching the player when he is off the base.

THE OUT-FIELDERS.

The occupants of the positions in the outer field—viz., left, centre, and right
fields, should be equal in their qualifications as fielders. Each should be able to
throw a ball a hundred yards, certainly not less than eighty at least. They should
be good runners and excellent judges of fly-balls. They should never stand still
or occupy one position all the time, but be on the move, ready for a quick run, or
to back up each other. In judging of fly-balls it is always safer to lay out fora
long hit than to get so close in as to have to get back to catch a ball. They never
should hold a ball a minute, but return it to the in-field as soon as handled. The
point to throw the ball in to is the pitcher’s position, as a general thing, but as to
that they will have to be guided by circumstances, according as the ball sent to
them is taken on the fly or fielded while a player is running his bases. One or
other of the positions in the outer field is the place for the change pitcher of the
nine, as it will afford him a chance to rest. The out-fielders should watch the
movements of the pitcher and catcher closely whenever a new batsman takes his
stand at the home base, in order to be ready to obey any signals either to come in
or go out farther, according to the character of the pitching or the peculiar style
of the batsman.

THE ART OF PITCHING.
The Value of Strategic Play.

No player can ever excel as a pitcher who is not more or less a strategist in
his work.
unusual accuracy, and also be able to add the ‘‘ curve’’ to his delivery, and yet,
from his ignorance of strategic play or ‘‘ head-work,”’ as it is technically termed,
he will rank only as second-rate in the position. Some reader will probably ask,
What is strategy in base-ball? The reply is, A resort to legitimate artifice to
blind the judgment of the party attacked. As regards the play of the pitcher, the
elements of strategic play may be summed up:as follows : First, to deceive the eye
of the batsman in regard to the character of the delivery of the ball, as to its being
fast or slow. Secondly, to deceive his judgment in reference to the direction of
the ball when pitched to him, as to its being high or low, or where he wants it.
Thirdly, to watch the batsman closely so as to know just when he is temporarily
‘out of form’’ for making a good hit ; and fourthly, to tempt him with a ball
which will be likely to go high from his bat to the out-field and be caught. The

I ee
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME, | 4!I

moment the pitcher faces the batsman in the first inning of a match, he should
begin to study his man and endeavor to find out his weak points of play, Watch
how he holds his bat, and, if he does not poise it properly in his preliminary
‘moves, count it a point in your favor. Then watch him closely to see if he takes a
temporary rest from standing in readiness to meet the ball. The latter is impor-
tant, as a batsman may stand in good form for hitting for five or six balls, and
then suddenly get tired of waiting and ‘* stand at ease,’’ as it were, when he imme-
diately becomes open to attack from a strategic pitcher. This catching the bats-
man out of form is almost sure to yield an out. It isvery readily done by a quick
return of the ball to the pitcher by the catcher, and an equally prompt delivery to
the batsman. But the ball thus quickly sent in must invariably be a fair ball—
over the base and for the striker—or the point will fail.

A great point in strategic pitching is a well-disguised change of pace. It
should be borne in mind that change of pace in pitching is comparatively useless
unless it be well disguised. Nothing bothers a batsman more than to be prepared
to strike quickly at a fast ball, only to find that his stroke has beén too quick to
meet the ball fairly, owing to the lessened speed of the ball. The same, too, when
he is expecting a medium-paced ball, and suddenly sees it flash by him at the
utmost speed of the pitcher. It requires a keen-sighted, nervy, and experienced
batsman to be ready to meet this style of pitching. .

A point of play peculiar to old-time pitchers was throwing to bases ; but ex-
perience has so plainly shown that, as a general rule, throwing to bases should be
but rarely indulged in, that it has gone out of use to a considerable extent. Not
one pitcher out of four can throw accurately enough to a base to catch a runner
napping off base. Of course, it won’t do for a pitcher to neglect throwing to the
bases, but he should only do it when well practised in it, and even when sure of
his throwing to first base it should never be done except on signal from catcher.
Watch the bases well, but throw only when a throw will be sure to tell.

The effectiveness of the curve in pitching depends greatly upon the pitcher’s
command of the ball, not only as regards accuracy of |
aim in delivery, but in being able to control the curve
itself. As we said before, the curve without ‘‘ head-
work’’ in its use loses half its effectiveness; and it is
almost impossible to use strategy in connection with the
curve unless you have thorough command of the ball.
Curve-pitchers should remember that it is frequently a
good point. to play to drop the curve for a ball or two.

The pitcher must learn to school himself to a state of apparent indifference to
the actions of wily base-runners, who try every means in their power to disconcert


42 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

him in his delivery. There is nothing more trying to a pitcher than to have a
base-runner at third base with no man out, while a runner is at first base and
about to go down to second in such way as to let the man at third get home.
Here is just where nerve in a pitcher tells. A pitcher never plays his points so
_ well, or shows his skill more plainly, than when he keeps a man on third base who
has reached there by his good hit before a man has been put out. This is a pretty
good test of a pitcher’s ability as a strategist. No machine pitcher can do it,
One word more, and we will finish this chapter. The pitcher who cannot control
his temper is as unfit for his position as would be a quick-tempered billiard profes-
sional. It is an essential of success in every position in the field, but especially in
that of the pitcher.

‘* BATTERY’’ WORK.

The pitcher and catcher in base-ball are technically called the “ battery,’’ and
this team of two players are the main reliance of the attacking force in a contest.
An effective pitcher is a tower of strength in himself, and a good catcher is almost
equally as valuable, but unless they work together as a ‘‘ team”’ they divide their
strength and weaken their power in proportion. Pitchers and catchers should
always work together in pairs. They should be familiar with each other’s peculiar
methods of playing their respective positions. A first-rate catcher for one pitcher
would be almost useless for another, as far as helping the pitcher in strategic play
is concerned. Each should fully understand the other’s signals in a match—the
catcher those of the pitcher, so as to be able to be prepared for a sudden change
of pace, and the pitcher those of the catcher, so as to know when the latter wants
his partner to pitch for throwing to bases ; for the pitcher should know that it is
impossible for a catcher to do his best in throwing to bases unless the pitcher
sends him in balls especially for that purpose. Pitchers should bear in mind the
important fact that, no matter how skilful they may be in the delivery of the ball
to the bat, they must be largely dependent for success upon the character of the
assistance rendered them by their catcher. It is especially a matter of the first
importance to a strategic pitcher that he should have a first-rate man behind the
bat to second him in all his little points of play.

THE ART OF BATTING,

In no department of the game are more facilities offered for strategic play
than in batting ; but it requires an intelligent player to engage in it successfully.
The batsman who would be invariably successful must resort to strategy, for if he
depends solely upon a quick eye and a strong arm he will fail. These are very
excellent as aids, but a poor dependence to place your trust in altogether. The
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 4:3 °

batsman, when he takes his bat in hand, finds opposed to him nine men, and
though to the casual observer it may seem a very easy undertaking to bat a ball
out of the reach of only nine men, covering as large a space as a four or five acre
field ; yet when you come to face nine experienced and active fielders, you will
soon be taught to realize the fact that ‘‘ headwork’”’ is as important an element of
success in batting as it is in pitching ; and you will then see that to earn bases on
hits and to score runs you will have to play ‘“‘ points’’ pretty skilfully. The best
preparatory form for striking is to stand as a backwoodsman does when using his
axe in cutting down a tree—viz., poising the bat over the shoulder and standing in
such form as to give the swing of the arm all the impetus a half twist of the body
can impart to it. The style of holding the bat forward and then withdrawing it
and then swinging it forward again is a waste of strength, besides being a motion
calculated to mar the aim of the striker. The holding of the bat horizontally and
then making a double movement in striking is also objectionable as wasting the
strength of the wrists, whereas in holding it over the shoulder the weight of the
bat in coming down is added to the impetus given by the arms and body, besides
affording the wrists a chance to assist the movement.

There are three classes of balls pitched for the batsman to strike at—viz.,
shoulder high, hip high, and knee high. If you can swing a heavy bat handily
and are pretty accurate in your aim, a squarely-hit shoulder ball will clear the
heads of the in-fielders and go too close to the ground to be easily caught on the
fly by the out-fielders ; but if you are not a sure hitter let this class of balls alone,
as the chances are that you will give the fielders a chance for an out oftener than
you will get a square hit. Balls hip high offer chances for good hits, provided the
movement of the bat is timed well and swung forward as near on a line with the
ball as possible, but if the line of the bat forms a semicircle in being swung for-
ward,the chances are that the ball will either be missed or sent up in the air, and,
of course, favorable for a catch. More ground balls are hit from knee-high balls
than from any other class pitched ; in fact, it must be a poorly.timed strike that
could not send a knee-high ball skimming along the ground about a foot or more
from it, making it difficult to stop and almost impossible to catch it. A waist ball
is only advantageous to strong batters, who can send a ball over the heads of the
out-fielders, as there are not one out of ten of this class of balls that does not rise
high when hit.

The moment a batsman hits the ball, whether fair or foul, he should drop the
bat—never sling it behind him—and run for his base until he hears the call of
**foul.’’ No matter if the ball has been hit so as to almost insure the catch, the
striker should nevertheless run just as if it had been hit safe. If he stops simply.
because he sees it is a ‘‘ sure to be caught,’’ he only gives the fielder more confi-
44 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

dence to make the catch, whereas, if he still run on, the very earnestness of the
fielder to hold the ball may cause him to drop it. In fact, the striker in running
to first base should act on the principle that ‘‘ nothing is sure but death,’’ and so
keep alive until he is really put out. "



PLAYING BASE-BALL ON THE ICE.

A game of base-ball played by a party of skaters on a good field of ice is very
lively sport; such a game, however, is played under different rules to those
governing the field game, especially in the delivery of the ball to the bat and in
running the bases. The ordinary rules governing the batsmen and pitcher are not
so strictly observed as in the field-game, the impossibility of obtaining a good
footing making the operation of pitching and batting rather difficult. In running
the bases in a game on the ice on skates, all that it is necessary for the base-runner
to do is to cross the line of the position, after which he cannot be put out until he
has returned to the base and again leaves it. The bases are marked on the ice in
the form of lines three feet in length, each line being marked at right angles with
the base lines from base to base, and three feet each side thereof. This line forms
the base, and on this line the base player must stand when he holds the ball, in
order to put a player out. The base-runner makes his base if he crosses the line
of the base before being touched, or before the ball is held on the base.
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME, 45

The following is the diagram of the ‘‘ diamond ”’ for a game on an ice-field :

6 feet




50 feet

La
rh
&

After hitting a ball on which the batsman can only make one base, he should
start from the home base so as to turn to the right in crossing the lines of the
base ; but in cases where his hit entitles him to two or more bases, then he should
start so as to turn to the left. If he turns to the left after skating over the base-
line he at once ceases to be exempt from being put out in returning to the base he
had overrun.

In putting players out the regular rules prevail, except in regard to outs on
catches, a fair ball caught on the first bound putting the batsman out.

In calling strikes and balls, the umpire must call a strike on every ball within
fair reach of the bat, no matter whether high or low, the batsman not being
allowed to designate the height of the ball. In calling balls he must call a ball on
each and every ball out of fair reach of the bat, and also on every thrown ball,
as only a square pitch or toss of the ball is allowed in the game. Six called balls
give a base. The essentials for a successful game of ball on the ice include a large
space of good clear ice ; a non-elastic and soft ball; a fair day, not windy or too
cool ; a field cleared of spectators, and two parties of good, plucky skaters. Under
these favorable circumstances, a really exciting display would be the result. The
46 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

ball requires to be non-elastic and soft, because a light blow will send it a good
distance, and a hard ball sent swiftly to the hands on a cold day is very painful,
and likely to result in severe injuries. The pitching also should never be swift in
a game on ice. The ball should simply be tossed in to the bat; by this means
more frequent chances are given to the field for outs, and the game is made active
and lively instead of tedious, as it would otherwise be.

THE RULES OF BASE-BALL.

The following Code of Rules has been prepared from the combined codes of
the League and the American Professional Associations, and this revised set of
rules includes every amendment made up to the close of the League and American
meetings held in March, 1884. The rules are differently classified to those of the
professional codes, in order to facilitate a reference to each rule when required.

RULE I.—MATERIALS OF THE GAME.

THE BALL,
I. The ball must weigh not less than five nor more than five and one quarter ounces avoirdupois.
It must measure not less than nine nor more than nine and one quarter inches in circumference. It
must be composed of woollen yarn, and shall not contain more than one ounce of vulcanized rubber in
mould form, and shall be covered with leather.

SUPPLYING THE BALL.
2. In all match games the ball or balls played with shall be furnished by the home club, and shall
become the property of the winning club.

CALLING FOR A NEW BALL.

3. When a ball becomes out of shape, or cut or ripped so as to expose the yarn, or in any way so
injured as to be unfit for fair use, a new ball shall be called for by the umpire at the request of either
captain. Should the ball be lost during a game, the umpire shall, at the expiration of five minutes,
call for a new ball.

THE BAT.

4- The bat must be round, and must not exceed two and one half inches in diameter in the thick-

est part. It must be made wholly of wood, and shall not exceed forty-two inches in length.

THE BASES.

5. The bases must be four in number, and they must be placed and securely fastened upon each
corner of a square, the sides of which are respectively thirty yards. The bases must be so con-
structed and placed as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The first, second, and third bases must
cover a space equal to fifteen inches square, and the home base one square foot of surface. The first,
second, and third bases shall be canvas bags, painted white, anp filled with some soft material. The
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME, * 47

home base shall be of white marble or stone, so fixed in the ground as to be even with the surface,
and wholly within the diamond. One corner of said base shall face the pitcher’s position, and two
sides shall form part of the foul lines.

THE UMPIRE’S GROUND.

6. The base from which the ball is struck shall be designated the home base, and must be directly
opposite the second base. The first base must always be that upon the right hand, and the third base
that upon the left hand side of the striker when occupying his position at the home base. In all
match games, lines connecting the home and first bases, and the home and third bases, and also the
lines of the striker’s and pitcher’s position, shall be marked by the use of chalk or other suitable
material, so as to be distinctly seen by the umpire. The line of the home base shall extend four feet
on each side of the base, and shall be drawn through its centre and parallel with a line extending from
first to third base. The foul lines from first and third:bases to home base shall be continued as straight
lines to the limits of the field beyond and back of said home base. The triangular space thus laid off
behind the home base shall be for the exclusive use of the catcher, umpire, and batsman, and no
player of the side, ‘‘ at bat’’ (except the batsman) shall be permitted to occupy any portion of such
triangular space. Two lines marked in the same way as the foul lines, and parallel with said foul
lines, shall be drawn, one fifteen feet and the other fifty feet distant from them, and terminating at the
lines bounding the triangular space aforesaid.

7. Froma point half way between home and first bases, on the foul line, must be drawn a line
rectangularly to the foul line three feet in length, thence running parallel to the foul line to a point
rectangularly opposite the centre of the first base ; this is called the “ three-feet line,”

e

RULE II.—THE GAME.

THE INNINGS.

1. The game shall consist of nine innings for each side, but should the score then be a tie, play
shall be continued until a majority of runs for one side—upon an equal number of innings—shall be
declared, when the game shall end. All innings shall be concluded when the third hand is put out.
If the side first at the bat shall score less runs in nine innings than the opposite side has scored in
eight innings, the game shall then end ; it shall also end in case the side last at bat shall in the ninth
inning score the winning run even before a player has been put out; and, in case ‘‘game’’ is called by ©
the umpire on account of darkness or rain, after each side has completed five innings, the score shall
be that of the last equal number of innings; but if the side last at the bat shall have scored a greater
number of runs than the opposite side, the full number of runs made shall be the score.’

FIRST TO THE BAT,

2. The choice of first innings shall be determined by the twocaptains. The fielders of each club
Shall take any position in the field their captain may assign them; but whoever is assigned as the
pitcher of the nine must deliver the ball from the appointed position.

SUBSTITUTES FOR ABSENTEES.

3. No player taking part ina game shall be replaced by a substitute, except for reason of illness
or injury, occurring in the game then being played.
48 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

NO GAME.

4. No game shall be considered as played unless five innings on each side shall be completed.
Should darkness or rain intervene before the third hand is put out in the closing part of the fifth
innings of the game, the umpire shall declare ‘‘ No game.”

DRAWN GAME.

5. Whenever a game of not less than five completed innings on each side is stopped by rain or
darkness, and the score ai the time is equal on the even innings played, the game shall be declared
drawn ; but under no other circumstances shall a drawn game be declared ; except in case the side
that went second to the bat, being then at the bat, has scored the same number of runs as the other
side, in which case the game shall be declared drawn, without regard to the score of the last equal
innings.

A GAME STOPPED BY RAIN.

6. Should rain commence to fall during the progress of a match game so heavily as to oblige the
spectators to seek shelter, the umpire must note the time it began, and should the rain continue to fall
for thirty minutes after play has been suspended, the game shall terminate.

CALLING PLAY AND TIME.

7. When the umpire calls ‘‘ play,’’ the game must at once be proceeded with. Should either party
fail to take their appointed positions in the game, or to commence play as requested, the umpire shall,
at the expiration of five minutes, declare the game forfeited by the nine that refuses to play. When
the umpire calls ‘‘time,’ play shall be suspended until he calls ‘‘ play’’ again, and during the interim
no player shall be put out, base be run or run be scored. The umpire shall suspend play only for an
accident or injury to himself or a player, or on account of rain. In case of an accident to a fielder
“‘time”’ shall not be called until the ball is held by the pitcher in his position.

SUSPENDING PLAY.

8. The umpire in any match game shall, in case of rain or darkness, determine when play shall be
suspended, and if the game cannot be fairly concluded, it shall be decided by the score of the last equal
innings played, unless one nine shall have completed their innings, and the other nine shall have
equalled or exceeded the score of their opponents in their uncompleted innings, in which case the game
shall be decided by the total score obtained, which score shall be recorded as the score of the game.

GAME CALLED.
9g. When the umpire calls ‘‘ game,’’ it shall end ; but when he merely suspends play for any stated
period, it may be resumed at the point at which it was suspended ; provided such suspension does not
extend beyond the day of the match.

RULE I1I.—PITCHING.

PITCHER’S POSITION.

1. The pitcher’s position shall be within a space of ground four feet wide by six feet long, the front
or four feet line of which shall be distant fifty (50) feet from the centre of the home base, and the
centre of the square shall be equidistant from the first and the third bases. Each corner of the square
shall be marked by a flat iron plate or stone, six inches square, fixed in the ground even with the
surface. .
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. — 49

DELIVERY OF THE BALL.

2. The pitcher in delivering the ball to the bat must do so while wholly within the lines of his
position. He must remain within them until the ball has left his hand, and he shall not make any’
motion to deliver the ball to the bat while any part of his person is outside the lines of the pitcher’s
position. The pitcher, when taking his position to deliver the ball, must face the batsman, and in
delivering it to the bat, his hand must pass his side below the line of his shoulder: The ball, to be a
fair ball, must pass over the home base, and at the height called for by the batsman.

A FAIR BALL.

A fair ball is a ball delivered by the pitcher while wholly within the lines of his position and facing
the batsman, with his hand passing below his shoulder, and the ball passing over the home base at the -
height called for by the batsman. .

AN UNFAIR BALL. .

3. Should the pitcher in delivering the ball fail to send it over the home base, or at the height
called for by the batsman, it shall be considered an unfair ball.

A FOUL BALK.

4. Should the pitcher deliver the ball by an overhand throw, a ‘‘foul balk’’ shall be declared by
the umpire, and the batsman shall take one base, as in the case of anordinary balk. Any swing of
the arm higher than that referred to in Section 2 of this rule shall be considered an overhand throw.
{This rule ts not observed under the League Code, the overhand throw being allowed by the League rules.

AN ORDINARY BALK.

5. Should the pitcher make any motion to deliver the ball to the bat, and fail so to deliver it—
except the ball be accidentally. dropped—or should he unnecessarily delay the game by not delivering
the ball to the bat, or should he, when in the act of delivering the ball, have any part of his person
outside the lines of his position, the umpire shall call a “balk,’’ and players occupying the bases shall
take one base each. (ln the American Association’s code of rules, a ‘‘ balk” made by an overthrow gives
the batsman his base.) .

A GOOD BALL.

6. Every ball fairly delivered and sent in to the bat over the home base and at the height called

for by the batsman, shall be considered a good ball.

CALLED BALLS.

7. All balls delivered to the bat which are not sent in over the home base and at the height called
for by the batsman, shall be considered unfair balls, and every ball so delivered must be called. When
‘* seven balls’’ have been called, the striker shall take first base, and all players who are thereby forced
to leave a base shall take one base. Neither a ‘‘ball” nora ‘‘strike’’ shall be called until the ball
has passed the home base. (Zhe League rule admits of only six called balls.)

DEAD BALLS.

8. All balls delivered to the bat which shall touch the striker’s bat without being struck at, or his
{the batsman’s) person while standing in his position, or which shall hit the person of the umpire—
unless they be passed balls—shall be considered dead balls, and shall be so called by the umpire, and
no players shall be put out, base be run, or run be scored on any such ball; but if a dead ball be
also an unfair ball, it shall be counted as one of the seven unfair balls that entitle the striker to a base.
No ball on which a ‘‘ foul” or ‘‘ block” has been declared, shall be in play until held by the pitcher in
his position.
50 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

RULE IV.—BATTING DEPARTMENT.

BATSMAN’S POSITION.
x. The batsman’s or striker’s position shall be within a space of ground located on either side of
the home base, six feet long by three feet wide, extending three feet in front of and three feet behind
the line of the home base, and with its nearest line distant one foot from the home base.

ORDER OF STRIKING,

2. The batsmen must take their position in the order in which they are directed by the
captain of their club, and after each player has had one time at bat, the striking order thus
established shall not be changed during the game. After the first inning, the first striker in each
inning shall be the batsman whose name follows that of the last man who has completed his turn
(or time) at bat in the preceding inning. In case of the disability of a player, the substitute must
take the player’s position in the regular batting order.

FAILING TO STRIKE IN ORDER.

3- Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat in his order of striking—unless by reason

of illness or injury, or by consent of the captains of the contesting nines—shall be declared out, unless
the error be discovered before a fair ball has been struck, or the striker put out.

TAKING POSITION WHEN CALLED.

4. Any batsman failing to take his position at the bat within one minute after the umpire has called
for the striker, shall be declared out.
DESIGNATING HIGH OR LOW BALLS.
5. The batsman on taking his position, must call for eithera ‘‘ high ball” a ‘‘ low ball,” or a “ fair
bal/,’’ and the umpire shall notify the pitcher to deliver the ball as required ; such call shall not be

changed after the first ball delivered.
BALLS CALLED FOR.

6. A ‘‘ high bail’’ shall be one sent in above the belt of the batsman, but not higher than his
shoulder. A “low dall’”’ shall be one sent in at the height of the belt, or between that height
and the knee, but not higher than his belt. A ‘* fair da//’’ shall be one between the range of shoulder
high and the knee of the striker. Ail the above must be over the home base, and when fairly delivered
shall be considered fair balls to the bat.

CALLING STRIKES.

7. Should the batsman fail to strike at a fair ball, or should he strike at and fail to hit
such ball, the umpire shall call ‘one strike ;’’ should he fail a second time, ‘‘¢wo strikes,’? and
a third time, “three strikes,” when the batsman must run to first base, and keep within the lines
of the pathway to first base in so running.

HOW THE BATSMAN STANDS.
8. The batsman, when in the act of striking at the ball, must stand wholly within the lines or his

position.
A FOUL STRIKE.

g. Should the batsman step outside the lines of his position to strike at the ball, the umpire shall
call ‘‘ foul strike and out,’’ and base runners shall return to the bases they occupied when the ball was

hit.
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 51

FOUL BALL LINES.

10. The foul lines shall be unlimited in length, and shall run from the right and left hand corners
of the home base through the centre of the first and third bases to the foul posts, which shall be located
at the boundary of the field and within the range of home and first base, and home and third base.
Said lines sha]l be marked throughout their entire length, with chalk or some other white substance, so
as to be plainly seen by the umpire.

FAIR AND FOUL HITS.

11. Ifa ball hit high from a fair stroke of the bat first touches the ground, the person of a player,
or any other object, either in front of, or on the foul ball lines, or the first or third base, it shall be con-
sidered fair.

If the ball hit high from a fair stroke of the bat first touches the person of the batter, or the
ground, the person of a player, or any other object, behind the foul-ball lines, it shall be declared foul,
and the ball so hit shall be called foul by the umpire even before touching the ground, if it be seen
falling foul.

The following are exceptions to the foregoing section: All balls batted directly to the ground that
bound or roll within the foul lines between home and first or home and third bases, without first touch-
ing the person of a player, shall be considered fair. All balls batted directly to the ground that bound
or roll outside the foul lines between home and first or home and third bases, without first touching
the person of a player, shall be considered foul. In either of these cases the first point of contact
between the batted ball and the ground shall not be regarded.

WHEN THE BATSMAN BECOMES A BASE RUNNER.

1) 66

12. When the batsman has fairly struck a fair ball, or ‘‘ three strikes, seven balls,”’ or two ‘‘ foul
balks,” have been declared by the umpire, he shall be considered a base runner, until he is put out or
scores his run.

In case, too, the pitcher delivers the ball so as to hit the batsman, he equally becomes a base
runner. (Zhe League Code does not admit of such a ball or a balk giving the batsman a base.)

HOW BATSMEN ARE PUT OUT.

13. The batsman shall be declared ‘‘ out’”’ by the umpire as follows :

If a fair ball be caught before touching ground, or any object other than the player who catches it
—except the person of a fielder—except it be caught in such player’s cap or dress.

If a foul ball be caught before touching ground, except it touch some object other than the player
who catches it before touching ground or being caught, or be caught by the player in his cap or dress.

If a fair ball be securely held by a fielder while touching first base with any part of his person
before the batsman touches first base.

If after ‘‘ three strikes’? have been called, the ball be caught before touching the ground.

If after ‘‘ three strikes’’ have been called, he fails to touch first base before the ball is legally held
there.

If he plainly attempts to hinder the catcher from catching the ball, evidently without effort to
make a fair strike, or if he makes a foul strike.
; If in running the last half of the distance from home base to first base, he runs outside a line three

feet distant from the foul line and parallel thereto. (Zhe American Code admits of the foul-bound catch.)
52 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

RULE V.—RUNNING THE BASES.

TOUCHING THE BASES.

1. Players running bases must touch each base in regular order, viz., first, second, third, and home
bases ; and when obliged to return to bases they have occupied, they must retouch them in reverse
order, when running on fair or foul balls. Inthe latter case the base runner must return to the base
where he belongs on the run and not at a walk, or risk being put out while off a base. No base shall be
considered as having been occupied or held until it has been touched.

FORCED TO VACATE A BASE.

2. No player running the bases shall be forced to vacate the base he occupies unless the batsman
becomes a base runner. Should the first base be occupied by a base runner when a fair ball is struck,
the base runner shall cease to be entitled to hold said base until the player running to first base shall
be put out. The same rule shall apply in the case of the occupancy of the other bases under similar
circumstances. No base runner shall be forced to vacate the base he occupies if the base runner
succeeding him is not thus obliged to vacate his base.

FORCED OUT.

3. Players forced to vacate their bases may be put out by any fielders in the same manner as when

running to first base.
OVERRUNNING FIRST BASE.

4. The player running to first base shall be at liberty to overrun said base without being put out
for being off the base after first touching it, provided he returns at once and retouches first base, after
which he can be put out as at any other base. If, in overrunning first base, he also attempts to run to
second base, he shall forfeit such exemption from being put out.

AVOIDING THE BALL IN RUNNING,

5. Any player running a base who shall run beyond three feet from the line from base to base in
order to avoid being touched by the ball in the hands of a fielder, shall be declared out by the umpire,
with or without appeal ; but in case a fielder be occupying the runner’s proper path attempting to
catch a batted ball, then the runner must run out of the path and behind said fielder, and shall not be

declared out for so doing.
WHEN A RUN IS SCORED.

6. One run shall be scored every time a base runner, after having regularly touched the first three
bases, shall touch the home base before three hands are out. If the third hand out is forced out, or is
put out before reaching the first base, a run shall not be scored. Runners touching home base can
only count their runs in the same order as they go to the bat.

BASES ON BALKS.

7. When a ‘‘ balk” is called by the umpire, every player running the bases shall take one base
without being put out, and shall do so on the run. (Under the American Code the batsman is also given

a base on foul balks.)
BASES ON CALLED BALLS.

8. When seven “ balls’’ have been called by the umpire, the batsman shall take one base—pro-
vided he does so on the run—without being put out, and should any base runner be forced thereby to
vacate his base, he also shall take one base. Each base runner thus given a base shall be at liberty to
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. , 53

run to other bases besides the base given, but only at the risk of being put out in so running. (Si
called balls only are allowed under the League Code.) -

HOLDING A BASE.
g. A base runner shall be considered as holding a base, viz., entitled to occupy it, until he shall
have regularly touched the next base in order, or until forced to leave it by a following base runner.

forced off by the batsman.
RUNNING ON FOUL FLY BALLS.

to. Any player running the bases on fair or foul balls caught before touching the ground must
return to the base he occupied when the ball was struck, and retouch such base before attempting to
make another base or score arun, and said player shall be liable to be put out in so returning, as in
the case of running to first base when a fair ball is hit and not caught flying.

OBSTRUCTING BASE RUNNERS.

11. If the player running the bases is prevented from making a base by the obstruction of an
adversary, not having the ball in hand, he shall be entitled to that base and shall not be put out.

SUBSTITUTES FOR BASE RUNNERS.

12. No base runner shall have a substitute run for him, unless disabled in the game then being
played. (The League Code allows no substitute at all for a base runner.)

HOW BASE RUNNERS ARE PUT OUT.

13. Any player running the bases shall be declared out if, at any time, while the ball is in play, he —
be touched by the ball in the hand of a fielder, without some part of his person is touching the base.
The ball must be held by the fielder after touching the runner ; unless so held the runner shall not be
given out even if touched by the ball.

FAILING TO TOUCH A BASE.

14. Any base runner failing to touch the base he ruus for shall be declared out if the ball be held
by a fielder, while touching said base, before the base runner returns and touches it.

OBSTRUCTING A FIELDER.

15. Any base runner who shall in any way interfere with or obstruct a fielder while attempting to
catch a fair fly ball, ora foul ball, shall be declared out. If he wilfully obstructs a fielder from fielding
a ball, he shall be declared out, and, if a batted fair ball strike him, he shall be declared out, and no
base shall be run or run be scored in such case.

RULE VI.—THE UMPIRE AND HIS DUTIES.

SELECTING THE UMPIRE.
I. Two clubs may, by mutual agreement, select any man to umpire any game or games, provided
that such agreement be in writing. (Zhe professional codes have special rules for umpires, who are

salaried officials.)
CHANGING AN UMPIRE.

2. The umpire shall not be changed during the progress of a match game, except for reason of
illness or injury, or by the consent of the captains of both contesting nines, and then only in case he
shall ha e wilfully violated the rules of the game.
54 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

SPECIAL DUTIES.

3. Before the commencement of a match, the umpire shall see that the rules governing the mate-
rials of the game, and also those applicable to the positions of batsman and pitcher, are strictly
observed. Also that the fence in the rear of the-catcher’s position is distant not less than ninety feet
from the home base, except it mark the boundary line of the field, in which case the umpire, for every
ball passing the catcher and touching the fence, shall give each base runner one base without his being
put out. ,

Before calling ‘‘ play,” the umpire shall ask the captain of the home club whether there are any
special ground rules to be enforced, and if there are, he shall see that they are duly enforced, provided
they do not conflict with any rules of the game.

REVERSING A DECISION.

4. No decision rendered by the umpire on any point of play shall be reversed by him upon the
testimony of any of the players or bystanders.

DECIDING AN UNSEEN CATCH.

s. Should the umpire be unable to see whether a catch has been fairly made or not, he shall be at
liberty to appeal to the bystanders, and to render his decision according to the fairest testimony at

command.
NO TALKING TO THE UMPIRE.

6. No person, not engaged in the game, shall be permitted to occupy any position within the lines
of the field of contest, or in any way interrupt the umpire during the progress of the game. No player
except the captain or player especially designated by him shall address the umpire concerning any
point of play in dispute.

PLAYERS TO STAND BACK.

7. The umpire shall require the players on the batting side who are not at the bat or running the
bases, to keep at a distance of not less than fifty feet from the line of home and first base and home
and third base, or further off if he so decide. The captain and one assistant only shall be permitted
to coach players running the bases, and they must not approach within fifteen feet of the foul lines.

A BLOCK.
8. Should a batted or thrown ball be stopped by any person not engaged in the game, the umpire
must call “ block,” and players running bases at the time shall be entitled to the bases they were run-
ning for, and the ball be regarded as dead until settled in the hands of the pitcher while standing within

the lines of his position.
FORFEITED GAMES.

g. Any match game in which the umpire shall declare any section of this code of rules to have
been wilfully violated, shall at once be declared by him to have been forfeited by the club at fault.

RULE VII.—THE UMPIRE’S JURISDICTION AND POWERS.

THE UMPIRE IN CHARGE OF THE GAME.
The gentleman selected to fill the position of umpire must keep constantly in mind the fact that

upon his sound discretion and promptness in conducting the game, and compelling players to observe
the spirit as well as the letter of the rule, largely depends the merit of the game as an exhibition. He
: =
ee aaa BESET
ee eee 2


THE AMERICAN NATIONAL GAME. 55

must render his decisions in a distinct and clear manner. He must keep the contesting nines playing
constantly from the commencement of the game to its termination, allowing such delays only as are
rendered unavoidable by accident, injury, or rain. He must, until the completion of the game, require
the players of each side to promptly take their positions in the field as soon as the third hand is put
out, and must require the first striker of the opposite side to be in his position at the bat as soon as
the fielders are in their places.

The players of the side ‘‘at bat’? must occupy the portion of the field allotted them, subject to the
condition that they must speedily vacate any portion thereof that may be in the way of the ball, or any
fielder attempting to catch or field it. The triangular space behind the home base is reserved for the
exclusive use of the umpire, catcher, and batsman, and the umpire must prohibit any player of the side
“at bat” from crossing the same at any time while the ball is in the hands of, or passing between the
pitcher or catcher while standing in their positions. Se

The umpire is master of the field from the commencement to the termination of the game, and
must compel the players to observe the provisions of this and of all the Playing Rules, and he is
invested with authority to order any player to do or omit to do any act necessary to give force and -
effect to any and all of such provisions. °


HOW TO PLAY CRICKET.

HE question for the novice

to consider, in learning to
play cricket, is, whether he can
most profit by book instruction
or from practical lessons at the
hands of an expert. Both are
essential in learning the art
thoroughly. For beginners,
however, it is best to ‘‘ read
up’’ about the game first, and
when puzzled to fully compre-
hend some portion of the book
instruction, or bothered in prac-
tically applying what the book teaches, then advice from an expert comes well into
play. In getting at a practical knowledge on the field of special departments of
the game, do not put too much trust in professional teaching, as the majority of
professionals are afflicted with sundry prejudices and bad habits of play, in com-
bination with their skill as experts, which often makes them anything but effective
~

HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 57

teachers. It is a peculiarity of most of them, too, that though they may be first-
class bowlers, good batsmen, and sharp fielders, they are lamentably lacking in
their ability to properly impart what they know to novices.
If you should meet with an exceptional professional, how-
ever, who excels as a ‘‘coach’’ as well as being a good
bowler or batsman, then professional instruction will aid
your book knowledge materially. Otherwise stick to your
text-book, and apply the lessons thereby learned practi-
cally to the best of your ability, leaving to experience
and a quick perception to give you a proper insight into
the intricacies of the game. Reading a chapter or two
on the game from some |
well-written work = on
Cricket will soon “‘ post
you up’”’ on the subject,
if you are mentally sharp,
and if you are not you
will never, or “hardly
ever,’’ become an expert
cricketer. Our first chap-
ter of instruction will be devoted to












THE GAME FOR BOYS. Oo Ve seen

ont et 4
) Nl i a

Suppose a party of twelve-year-old boys
want to play a game of cricket, and though hav-
ing a tolerably level piece of turfy field at com-
mand, have no materials for the game in their
possession—viz., a flat bat, a set of stumps for
the wicket, and a ball. A bat can be readily
sawed out of a piece of inch plank about three
feet long, in form as near as can be to the regular
bat as shown in the cut. (The regulation size of
the bat is 38 inches in length, of which 25 inches

aR ANY
{

‘|
1
H

i



aan








Ne
ay ‘it :
ote i, : ee i

4
X
Ry




: Wi yh \s “7A pty . Nt HS * a

are taken up by the “‘ pod,’’ or, according to the A) Nene
) METER NS on

phy Aye Ma SS ‘ wy



more modern term, the blade, and 13 by the ts
handle. No bats are made longer than this,
although, of course, they are allowed to be of various smaller proportions, in

order to suit the height of the batsman.)
58 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Having procured the bat and a common but hard ball, the next thing is to
get the stumps, and three old broom handles will answer the purpose, all that is
necessary to make stumps of them being to point them at one end and cut a nick
at the other end in which to lay the bail—two short pieces of stick. The regula-
tion stumps are in form as shown in the cut. (These stumps stand 27 inches out



of the ground, and are placed so as to occupy 8 inches of space from their outer
lines, the bails being 4 inches in length.)

The broom-handle stumps are driven into the ground a few inches, and just far
enough apart to prevent the ball from going through them. This being done you
lay out the lines of your wicket—viz., the line of the stumps, and the front line or
“‘ popping crease,’’ as it is called. Your wicket would then look as in the adjoin-
ing cut. The distance between the stump line and the front line should be a pace
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 59

and a half. Between these lines is the batsman’s ground ; 20 paces distant from
this wicket place one stump in the ground, and back of the line of this stump is
the bowler’s ground. All this being done the boys can begin play, and they
should play under the appended code of rules.

When the batsman takes his position at the wicket, he stands as shown in the
adjoining cut. It is important that he ‘‘ plays a straight bat’’—that is, that he
keeps the face of the bat in a line with the wicket.
(See annexed cut.)

Make it a rule to guard the wicket from every
Straight ball, and to hit only at balls off the line
of the wicket.

When the batsman takes his position, the
bowler then prepares to deliver the ball, having
first placed his fielders in position, according to
the number of players on a side. If there be but
three, he places one to the right of him and the other to the left, leaving one of
his adversaries—standing ready to take his turn at the bat—to field the ball
back to him after it passes the wicket. If there be five on a side, then one
goes behind the bat. If six, then two short fielders go into position between
the bowler and the wicket, but to the right and the left. No ‘‘ byes’ or ‘‘ leg
byes’? count when only a single wicket is used, the ball being practically dead
after it passes the wicket, even when hit by the bat. The rules for this ‘‘ boy’s
game’’ are as follows :



THE RULES.

The bowler can only bowl or toss the ‘ball to the bat. He cannot jerk the ball, nor throw it to
the bat, either underhand or overhand. He may bowl it either underhand, round-arm, or over his
shoulder.

In bowling the ball he must have at least one foot back of the stump line or it is ‘‘no ball."’

If he bowls the ball so that it passes the batsman out of the fair reach of his bat, itis a ‘‘ wide ball,”
and both ‘‘no balls’’ and ‘‘ wide balls’’ count the same as a run against the side the bowler is on.

The batsman can only guard his wicket from the bowler by his bat. If he prevents a bowled
ball from taking the wicket by stopping it with his legs, he is out.

The batsman is out if the wicket be knocked down, either by a bowled ball or by a ball thrown in
from the field in front of the wicket, which takes the wicket before the batsman can run back to his
ground. In the former case he is ‘‘ bowled out,” in the latter he is “ run out.”

The batsman is out if the ball from the bat be caught on the fly, even if it touch another fielder
before being caught. He is also out—when only one wicket is used—if, in making a run, he fails to
get back to his ground before the ball is thrown across the line from the wicket to the bowling stump.

The batsman, after hitting the ball, can run or not, as he chooses; and he scores a run every time
he runs to the bowler’s stump, touches it with his bat, and returns to his ground before being put out,
provided the ball is hit to the field in front of the line of his wicket ; not otherwise.
60 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Two innings on each side make a game, and an innings is completed on each side when all the
batsmen have been put out. The side making the most runs in two innings’ play wins the game.

All hits made by the batsmen on which runs are made must be made in front of the wicket, no
ball hit so as to go behind the line of the wicket admitting of a run being made on it. Neither can the
batsman step out of his ground to hit at the ball, as he can in the regular game. It would be well to
place a couple of sticks in the ground on each side of the wicket, and distant twenty paces from it, to
mark the line of the wicket, so as to judge fair balls by them. No “stumping” is allowed unless there
are at least five players on a side, when a wicket-keeper can then take his position.

When two wickets are used in the boys’ game, then the rules of the regular game come into play,
and these can be found in the last part of the chapters on Cricket.



THE REGULAR GAME.

We now come to the regular game of cricket, and the succeeding chapters will
be written for the boys of an older growth—the coming American cricketers ; and
in doing this we propose to write the game up in the interests of what we call
American cricket, and that is, the game as played with the rules of the English
playing code lived up to to the very letter. The greatest obstacle to the progress
of cricket, as a popular out-door sport for Americans, has been the tedious delays
incident to the way of playing the game customary with our English resident
cricketers. The adage that “‘time is money” governs the American people in
every phase of their national life, and in nothing so much as in the character and
nature of their sports and pastimes. In England, where there is a large class of
unemployed people, who, with wealth at command, find time hang heavy on their
hands, the style of playing the game of cricket so as to absorb as much of their
surplus of leisure time as possible, commends itself as quite an attractive feature.
But in this country, where the drones of society are decidedly in the minority, and
where the busy bees of the community find but little time to devote to recreation,
that game which most economizes time of course will naturally become popular.
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 61

The delays incident to cricket, to which we specially refer, do not belong to the
game itself so much as to the loose observance of its rules, and therefore the one
thing necessary to remove this obstacle to the popularity of cricket is simply to
insure a strict observance of the written laws of the game. In the instructions
given in the different departments of the game, brevity has been observed as far
as possible, and in the chapters on bowling, batting, and fielding only the most
important features of each department of the game are commented upon.

Ordinarily the playing code of rules governing a game ought to present the
best instructions for learning it ; but this is not the case in regard to the existing:
rules of cricket, and we therefore leave the code of rules for the last part of the
chapters on the game in this work.

HOW THE GAME IS PLAYED.

The full game of cricket is played by twenty-two persons, eleven on each
side, of whom thirteen take their regular positions on the field, eleven of one side
as fielders and two of the other side as batsmen. When the former are placed in
position for play the ‘‘ field’’ side will show a “‘ bowler’’ at one wicket ready to
bowl to the opposite wicket ; a ‘‘ wicket-keeper’’ behind the opposite wicket ready
to receive the ball if the batsman fails to hit it; a ‘‘ long stop’’ behind the wicket-
keeper to field balls passing both the batsman and wicket-keeper ; and fielders at
‘‘short-slip’’ and ‘‘ long-slip ;’’ at ‘‘ short-leg’’ and ‘‘ long-leg ;’’ at “‘ point’? and
** cover-point ;’’ and at ‘‘ mid-off’’and ‘‘ mid-on,”’ the ‘‘ off’’ side being on the
right-hand side of the batsman, and the ‘‘on’’ side on the left hand. These are
the eleven regular pdsitions on a cricket field. There are other positions techni-
cally called ‘‘ third man up,”’ ‘‘ square-leg,”’ ‘‘long-field,’’ “‘ off’? and ‘on,’
‘extra cover,’’ ‘‘ half-leg,”’ etc., which are occupied according to the character
of the bowling, there being more fielders back of the wicket for very fast bowling |
than there is for slow or even medium-paced bowling. (See diagram of field posi-
tions.) There are two umpires in a full game of cricket—one to judge the delivery
of the ball by the bowler, and the other to judge the action of the batsman at the
wicket, in stepping out of his ground, etc.

‘“Play’’ having been called by the umpire at the bowler’s wicket, the game
begins, and the bowler proceeds to bowl four balls to the opposite wicket, which
constitute an ‘‘ over ;’’ after which the other bowler does the same from the other
wicket, this change in the bowlers involving a transfer of the fielders from their -
positions relative to the first bowler to similar positions on the other side support-
ing the other. This process goes on until one or the other of the batsmen is
either Jowled out, stumped out, run out, or caught out, in which case another bats-
SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

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HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 63

_ man takes his place at the wickets. When the last two men are in at the bat, and
one or the other is put out, the other remaining in “‘ carries his bat out,’’ only ten
men being put out in a regular match. Besides the players and the umpires
there are two scorers, who score the runs made in a record book under the head
of runs, byes, wides, and no balls. If the match is to be ‘‘ played out’’—that is,
played to the close of the full four innings, two:on each side—then the eleven
scoring the greatest aggregate of runs in their full two innings wins the game.
But if it be ‘‘ one day’s play only,’’ and there be not time to play the second inn-
ings out on each side, then the score of the second innings counts for nothing, the
game being decided by the full score ofthe first innings only. ‘When strong
elevens play against young clubs they sometimes play their eleven against eigh-
teen or twenty-two of their opponents ; and sometimes, when the two clubs are
short handed, they frequently play as few as eight or nine on a side ; but the regu-
lar match game at cricket calls for ‘‘ eleven vs. eleven.’’

THE THREE DEPARTMENTS OF THE GAME.
THE BOWLING.

Bowling is the most important department of the game, for there can be no
thoroughly good cricket without excellent bowling. The theory of bowling is to
endeavor to deceive the eye of the batsman so that he may fail to prevent the ball
from hitting the wicket. In order to do this the bowler must, first of all, possess
thorough command of the ball in delivery ; secondly, speed ; thirdly, the power
to impart a bias to the ball, and lastly, the experience and skill to give it the
proper length, the latter being very important. ‘‘ Headwork,’’ too, is especially
an essential in bowling. With it the bowler becomes a dangerous opponent ;
without it, no matter what his ‘‘ pace’ or accuracy of aim, he can be punished by
skilful batsmen with comparative ease.

The bowler’s position is within a space of ground bounded in front by the line
of the wicket, known as the ‘“‘ bowling crease,” and on the sides by lines called
the ‘‘ return crease ;’’ his position in delivering the ball being, at all times, behind
the wicket. The following diagram shows the lines of his position ;

8 Inches Wide.

Return Crease
Return Crease,



Bowling Crease.
6 feet 8 inches in length.
64 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

The bowler stands within the above lines while in the act of delivering the
ball, and he must have one foot or the other behind the line of the wicket and
within the line of the return crease when delivering the ball, or the umpire will
call ‘‘ no ball.’’

The rules of cricket admit of the bowler’s legal delivery of the ball to the bat,
either by the underhand pitch or toss of the ball, or by the round-arm swing on a
level with his shoulder, as shown in the following cut, or by a straight-arm swing
above his shoulder, as follows.



But he cannot legally throw the ball either by an underhand or overhand
throw, nor by a jerk, the rules limiting him to a legitimate pitch or round-arm
swing in bowling.

An old cricketing song thus pointedly makes allusion to the importance of
paying attention to the “‘ length’’ in bowling. The verse reads as follows:

‘* Ye bowlers take heed, to these precepts attend,
On you the fate of the game must depend ;
Spare your vigor at first, now exert all your strength,
But measure each step, and be sure pitch a length,”
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 65

The imparting of a bias to the ball is a great feature in bowling, especially in

combination with a fast delivery. The bias consists of giving the ball a rotary
motion in its passage from the bowler’s hand to the wicket, technically known as a
‘“‘twist’’ or ‘‘spin.’’ This can be done in round-arm bowling so as to make the
ball ‘‘ shoot,’’ ‘‘ break back,’’ or ‘‘ work.’’
A ball is said to “‘ break back’’ from the pitch when, instead of continuing on
.in the line of its delivery after it touches the ground, it suddenly diverges from
that line on the right of its delivery. And a ball is said to ‘‘ work in’’ when it
diverges on the left. On the one hand, the line of its delivery would have taken
it clear of the wicket, whereas the ‘*‘ break back’’ sends it in on the stumps. On
the other hand, the ‘‘ work”’ causes it to diverge on the other side. The lines of
both are to be seen in the appended diagram.



The effect of these several changes in the direction of the ball from the line of
its delivery to the pitch, to the line of its rebound to the wicket is greatly to puz-
zle the eye and judgment of the batsman. It is comparatively an easy task to play
a swiftly-bowled ball that comes to the wicket on one direct line from the deliv-
ery to the wicket, to what it is to play the same ball which has either a forward
or side rotary motion imparted to it by which the rebound is made so difficult to
judge. Straight bowling—that is, bowling unmarked by any bias being given to
the ball, can be readily played, even when of good length, by expert batsmen ;
but bowling marked by much ‘‘ spin” or twist requires the utmost skill to save
wickets,

There is one thing a bowler should bear in mind, and that is to pitch the ball
straight if he desires to get the batsman out “‘ leg before wicket.’’ The definition
of this term, ‘* pitching straight,’’ is that the bowled ball, when it touches the
ground at the pitch, must touch it within the lines from the outer stump of one
wicket to those of the opposite wicket. These lines are shown in the appended
diagram. |
66 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

It will be seen that the surest method of pitching a ball straight is to bowl over
the wicket.

An old bowler, in a series of ‘‘ Hints to Novices,’’ thus advises his young pupil :

Stand upright and deliver your ball high, so as to obtain a good “‘ pitch.’’

Fix upon a certain spot near your opponent’s wicket where you think your
length will tell best, and aim for that spot every ball.

If you find your opponent standing on his defence, bowl for a catch.

Regulate the speed of your delivery by the style of your opponent’s batting,
and frequently vary it.

Find out the favorite ball of your opponent, and then avoid sending him such
ball.

Never hesitate to take yourself off when you are being ‘‘ punished.’’ Bad
bowling frequently takes wickets when a good delivery fails.

Look out for the weak point of your opponent’s play. Sometimes it is at his
“‘ leg’? side, and then again to the off, or perhaps a tendency to run out at a short
pitch.

Avoid bowling too fast and beyond your strength.

Bowl straight ; balls that are ‘‘ dead on the wicket’’ always tell.

Do not keep to one style of delivery simply because it is ‘‘ the correct thing
to do ;’? remember the object of bowling is to take wickets, and if you cannot
get your opponent’s stumps with a good ball, try a bad one.

Accustom yourself to bowl on both sides of the wicket.

Adopt the style of delivery which comes most natural to you, It is the only
one you will be likely to excel in.

Pitch the ball as near to the crease as you can safely do.

Do not be deterred from adopting a line of tactics in bowling by the absurd
remark, that it is “‘ not cricket.’’ When you feel tired with bowling change off,
for you then become useless in a measure.

BATTING.

Practical instruction in batting is more advantageous than in either of the other
departments of the game, but nevertheless a great deal of information can be
gleaned from books. In fact it is very essential to examine into the theory of the
art in order to get at a good foundation for thoroughly acquiring a practical
knowledge of batting in cricket. The work of the batsman is first to defend his
wicket, @nd then to hit the ball to the field so as to make runs. What with the
speed of the ball in its delivery and the uncertain rebound from the ‘‘ pitch,”’
occasioned by the bias imparted to it by the bowler, the task of the defence is no
light one ; while what with the number of men in the field, their combined action
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 67

with the bowler in strategic play, and their individual skill as experts in their
several positions, the batsman is intrenched with difficulties in the way of run-
getting which requires no small amount of practical experience and good judg-
ment to overcome.

The batsman takes his stand within a space of ground in front of the wicket,
bounded by the line of the wicket and the line of the ‘‘ popping crease.’”? The
appended diagram shows the lines of the batsman’s position.








BOWLING CREASE
BATSMAN’S \ \\ GROUND

THE BLOCK\HOLE



LINE OF POPPING CREASE—-UNLIMITED IN LENGTH

The batsman, while the ballis in play, must either stand within the lines of his
position, as above defined, or have his bat, while in hand, grounded within the
lines—that is, back of the front line or ‘‘ popping crease.’’ He is only at liberty
to step outside of this line when the ball is dead, without running the risk of being
put out by means of having the wicket put down while he is outside the boundary
line of his position. It is immaterial whether his bat, while in hand, or any part
of his person touches the ground within the line of the ‘‘ crease ;’’ but one or the
other must do.

The first thing to learn in handling the bat is to take a correct position, and
then to make it habitual. Cuts illustrating proper positions when facing the
bowling will be found on the next page.

In taking your position at the wicket, first get your “‘ guard ;’’ then, placing
your bat upright, take your stand—one foot within the line of the crease, and the
other just outside of it—so as to admit of your swinging your bat, pendulum-like,
in a perpendicular line with the wicket, so that the habit may be acquired of
‘‘ playing a straight bat,’’ as it is called, the first essential of a correct style of de-
fence. Neither foot should be within the line running from the outer stumps of
one wicket to the other. In taking guard he should ask the umpire for the block
for the middle stump, and this done he can then vary his guard according as the
bowler delivers from one side or the other of the wicket or over it. The block
mark should be made at the distance of the bat’s length from the stumps. The
68 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

correct form in taking your position at the wicket ready for play is illustrated by
the preceding cuts. This is the position the batsman should habituate himself to
take whenever he goes to the wicket to bat, whether in practice or in a match.
Having taken his guard and his stand, as above shown, he next prepares himself
for immediate action, and in doing this he takes an upright position, keeps his
right foot firmly on the ground behind the line of the crease, making it the pivot
foot, and with his left stepping lightly in front of the line, and his bat held in such
a manner as to be equally ready for use in blocking a straight ‘‘ shooter,’’ to
swing round ata ‘‘leg’’ ball, or to promptly ‘‘ cut’’ a ball to the “ off,’’ he stands
ready in proper form for effective batting either in defence or attack, This second
position is illustrated in the appended cut.



An upright position is necessary in order to obtain the best sight of the ball ;
besides, it is the only position which admits of a free use of the muscles of the
chest and arms in batting, all other positions more or less cramping the move-
ments of the batsman.

There are two styles of play in vogue among skilful batsmen in defending
their wickets—viz., forward and backward play. In the former the batsman en-
deavors to stop the ball near the pitch by stepping forward with his bat and pre-
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 69

senting the inclined plane of the bat so as to face the ball just as it rebounds from
the pitch. This style of defence is illustrated in the appended cuts.

—



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By this forward play the batsman, while presenting a pretty sure defence in
the case of bails which are well “‘ pitched up,’’ and in stopping “‘ shooters,’’ renders
himself liable to lose his stumps from swift balls which are pitched short and
which take the bails over the shoulder of the bat; and also in the case of such
swift balls which are pitched short and which have any bias imparted to them
either in ‘‘ working’’ in, or in ‘‘ breaking back,’’ the forward blocking, as above
illustrated, fails to present a sure defence unless the batsman is very quick of sight
and steady in handling the willow.

On the other hand, the backward play in defence renders it very difficult to
guard against ‘‘ shooters,’ while a very keen sight is necessary to prevent the
ball from taking the stumps. This back play is illustrated in the appended cut.

In your style of defensive operations, the batsman should be able to play
either backward or forward in accordance with the character of the pitch of the
ball and the pace of the bowling; in fact, he should be skilled in both styles of
play. Asa general rule, however, the forward play is the safest.

This preliminary chapter on batting has special reference to defensive opera-
tions, as shown in the blocking of straight balls. We now come to the method of
7O SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

defence, which at the same time combines hitting powers sufficient to score single
runs. |

In preparing to hit—not to ‘‘ block,’’ remember—the batsman should rise to
his full height, keeping his bat well up to his shoulder and ready poised, so that it

can be brought down quickly to stop a shooter or block a rising bail ball, or so-

that it can be swung round sharply to face a leg-ball as it rises from the pitch or
cut away an off-ball, bail high.

Remember that every straight pitched bal!—that is, every ball that touches
the ground between the lines from the outer stumps of batsman’s wicket to those
of the opposite wicket—must be ‘‘ played’’ either by blocking it, or hitting it
away, and every such ball, therefore, needs careful watching.

Mr. W. G. Grace, the champion batsman of the cricket world, says, in his
‘* Hints on Batting ;’’ ‘‘ Nothing is of such incalculable benefit to the student in
the art of batting, as an early adherence to the necessary principle of playing with
a straight bat. It is in this special point that a young cricketer should earnestly
seek to excel. It is the want of this essential habit, or the momentary neglect of
it, that causes so many experienced batsmen to retire with the fatal cipher at-
tached to their names. Practise, then, first of all, straight and upright play, and
you will have grounded yourself well in the first and most important rudiment
of the art.”’

Paragraphing Mr. Grace’s “‘ Hints” from the lengthy chapter in Lillywhite’s
Guide, we quote as follows :

In reference to holding the bat, he says: ‘‘ From my own experience I have
always found it to my advantage to hold the bat half way up the handle, and this
happy medium I recommend for adoption, as thereby the bat can be controlled as
effectively as if held nearer to the blade, and the benefits incidental to the extra
length are very important.’’

Further on he says: ‘‘ To hold the bat in what is termed the pendulum fash-
ion, in my opinion, gives the greatest scope for freedom of play, without in the
slightest degree diminishing the powers of defence.’’

In commenting on the best style of meeting the ball, hesays : ‘‘ Much depends
on the accuracy of the eye and much on the judgment with which the ball is
timed; but beyond all I[ think the great secret of batting, both in so far as it
affects defence and hitting, consists in meeting the ball with the ful/ face of
the bat.’’

In reference to the system of defending the stumps by “‘ playing’’ at the ball
with a straight bat instead of merely placing the bat in the way of the ball, Mr.
Grace says: ‘‘ To block a ‘shooter’ or stop a ‘bailer’ can as easily be accom-
plished in a resolute as in a hesitating manner, while in the one case runs wi// ac-

thew
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 71

crue, and in the other runs may never come. When you hit, hit hard, and when
you block do not be deterred from infusing vigor into the movement.”’
Commenting on forward and backward play, Mr. Grace says: ‘‘ To play for-
ward is undoubtedly, when possible, the more advisable plan, as by this means
are avoided all the deviations of the ball from ‘ spin,’ or accidental deflections.”’
There are ten dierent ways in which a batsman can be put out in cricket.
1. By being dowled out.
By being caught out.
By being stumped out.
By being ruz out.
. By Attting his own wicket down with his bat.
By stopping a straight ball with his leg instead of his bat.
By handling the ball while it is in play.
By hindering a fielder from catching a ball.
. By allowing some part of his dress to knock the bails off.
10. By running out of his ground before the bowler has delivered the ball,
and thereby giving him a chance to put his wicket down.
He cannot, however, be caught out except from a ball held ‘‘on the fly ;”’
neither can he be stumped out unless the wicket-keeper first handles the bowled
ball behind the wicket ; neither can he be caught out or run out on a “no ball.”’

FIELDING.

Skill in fielding in cricket is the most attractive feature of the game, and yet
itis the one most neglected. Watch any party of cricketers while awaiting the
beginning of a match, engaged in preliminary practice, and note how eager they
are to either bowl or bat, and how reluctant to do any fielding. While effective
bowling is an essential part of the attacking force in a cricket contest, unless the
work of the bowler be well supported on the field, half its effectiveness will be
lost. Of what use is it for a bowler to bowl for catches, for instance, if the ball is
dropped by the incompetent fielder placed in position purposely to catch it?
Cricket cannot advance much in popular favor in America so long as so important
a department of the game as sharp fielding is neglected as it is; especially when
the inferiority of its exemplars, in this respect, is placed in such striking contrast
to the masterly displays of skill to be seen at the hands of the exponents of the
national game of base-ball.

To be a good fielder in cricket, aman must unite in himself the qualities of
activity, courage, nerve, quick sight, and sound judgment, and especially control
of temper, and he should ever be on the alert. To see some men field in a match
one would suppose that the only duty a fielder in cricket had to attend to was to
72 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

catch or to stop and throw in any balls that came within his reach, and to go to
such places in the field as the captain may direct. Not so with the fielder.who
uses ‘‘ head-work”’ in his position. While obeying the behests of the captain, as
he should do, and go ‘‘sharper,’’ or ‘‘ squarer,’’ ‘‘ nearer in,’’ or ‘‘ further out,”’
as he may direct, this brain worker in the field does not forget to be on the alert
in watching the style of play of the batsman; and moreover, if the ball does not
happen to come near his position he is nevertheless ready to take his place to back
up the ball on the throw-in ; and also to be on the watch at all time to do the work -
of any laggards in the field rather than a point should be lost in the play.

A sharp fielder anticipates the ball as much as possible, and never waits until
it comes to him. In fact, this anticipation of the ball is the secret of good fielding,
An expert fielder will always have more work to do ina match than a poor one,
simply from his habit of covering more ground. One such man in a field is fre-
quently worth three of your slow machine-players, who simply do what they are
told, and never trouble a ball that does not come directly to their hands.

To spectators at a match fine fielding is the attractive feature of the game.
Few can appreciate really first-class bowling, and only the minority can judge
properly in regard to the skill shown at the bat, but all can understand the differ-
ence in the fielding of an expert and a ‘‘ muffin,”’

A peculiarity of cricket is that even in the one department of fielding it affords
ample scope for the display of considerable versatility of talent. In keeping
wicket the keenest sight, the steadiest nerve, and the soundest judgment are re-
quired to be brought into play at a moment’s notice. At ‘‘ point,’’ thorough
pluck and determined courage and fearlessness are essential. At ‘‘ long-stop,”’
sharp sight and quickness of movement are necessary, while in the other positions
trained pedestrianism, keen perception, cat-like activity of movement, and good
judgment are among the principal requisites.

WICKET-KEEPING,

The most important position on the field next to that of the bowler is that of
the wicket-keeper. He should possess keen sight, steady nerves, activity of move-
ment, and sound judgment, for all these qualifications are brought into play in his
position more frequently than at any other. On his keen sight depends the stop-
ping of balls that might yield ‘‘ byes ;’’ and on his activity the chances of
stumping an opponent’; while on his pluck in facing hot balls the bowler relies for
sharp catches from the bat. The wicket-keeper must remember that he cannot
Jegally put down the wicket unless with the ball in the hand with which he knocks
down the stumps. Also that when the bails are off he must knock a stump out of
the ground with the hand in which the ball is held before the batsman can be put
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 73

out. The rules governing his position also require that the wicket-keeper shall
not take a ball from the bowler for the purpose of stumping until it shall have
passed the wicket ; and moreover, if any part of his person be in front of the
wicket before the ball passes the stumps, even if the ball hit the wicket, the striker
shall not be out.

It is needless to refer in full to the other positions in the field except that of
the ‘* long-stop,’’ and that position requires a first-class fielder to occupy it. He
is the main support of the wicket-keeper, and has pretty hard work to attend to
when the bowling is fast. He should in such
case wear both pads and light gloves, the latter
for protecting the palms of his hands. He
must be prompt and accurate in returning balls
to the wicket-keeper, and should back up that
player in every way. He should be active
‘enough, too, to capture sharp leg-balls just
‘“snicked’’ from the bat, as also balls slipped
from fast bowling which go within a few yards
of his position.

The “‘ point’’ player has a rather arduous
task to perform, inasmuch as he has to face
the hardest-hit balls from the bat, at the short-
est distance. He must be plucky, very keen of
sight, exceedingly active, and be a good judge
of a batsman’s play. ‘‘ Cover point’’ simply
backs up “‘ point.’’ He has more ground to
cover than ‘‘ point’”’ has, but has not such diffi-
cult balls to field. .

‘* Mid-off’’ and ‘‘ mid-on’’ are players who
have to face some lively balls, and should be
good judges of batting in order to play their
positions properly, The ‘“‘ mid-off’’ stands to the left of the-bowler, and deeper
in the field than ‘‘ mid-on,’’ who stands to the right of the bowler and nearer in.

Very active fielders are required in the slips, as sharp grounders and high-
hit balls alternately require them to field close to the*ground or to jump up fora
catch. The short-slip stands to the right of the wicket-keeper and back of his
position, distant from the wicket from two to four yards. Besides stopping short
balls which slip from the bat, he should be ready to take the wicket-keeper’s place ©
whenever that player deems it. necessary to leave the wicket to get the ball. The
long slip stands deeper, in fact almost as far back as the long-stop. His duty is


74 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

to stop balls missed by the short-slip, or which glance from the wicket-keeper’s
hands to the off side. He should excel in backing up, and always be on the
watch. The bowler we is not bowling takes up a position in the “slips,” gener-
ally at ‘‘ short-slip’’ or ‘‘ third-man-up.’

‘‘ Long-leg’’ is a " position requiring the best thrower in the eleven, and he
should be a sure catcher and an active runner. He plays deep, or otherwise ac-
cording to the pace of the bowling, taking a squarer position to fast bowling, and
playing deep for the slows. ‘‘ Short-leg’’ is the easiest position in the field, re-
quiring little movement and no special amount of skill, as a general thing, though
at times a batsman who is good at square-leg hits will give the short-leg hot work
to do.

RUNNING BETWEEN WICKETS.

W. G. Grace, in his ‘‘ Hints to Batsmen,”’ says: ‘‘ No one can claim to bea
good cricketer who is not a good runner between the wickets. The neglect of this
essential of first-class cricket costs dozens of runs in match games. To see two
good runners at the wickets is a treat to those who understand genuine cricket.
With such there is no slovenly dallying, no indecision, no call for a run with an
immediate recall. In this respect alone a mediocre batsman may be as valuable in
a match as one of far superior batting skill. Be ready to back up the batsman
facing the bowler the moment the ball leaves the bowler's hand, but be careful to
act decisively. If you think there is a chance for a run, do not hesitate, but call at
once, and after calling on no account oblige your partner to retrace his steps, as,
if you have started well in your backing up, you can reach the opposite wicket
quicker than he can return and recover his ground. A stolen run, if the batsmen
act well in concert, is not difficult of attainment, and a succession of such runs
not only irritates the bowlers but demoralizes the fielders.”’

In taking ground preparatory to running, the batsman at the bowler’s wicket
can safely command twenty feet in front of his wicket. He should be watchful,
however, to see that he does not allow his bat to be lifted from the ground back of
the popping crease until the ball has actually left the bowler’s hand. When run-
ning, too, always keep to the right, and run wide of the lines from wicket to wicket.

GOLDEN RULES.

Frederick Gale’s ‘‘ Golden Rules’’ for cricketers contains the following sound
suggestions ;
‘* Think only of winning the match, and not of your own innings or average ;

sink self and play for your side.
‘Remember, cricket is an amusement and manly sport intended for good-
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. | 75

fellowship, and not as a vehicle for envy, hatred, malice, or uncharitableness. If
you have any complaint against your captain, tell him to his face guéedly what you
think ; but do not form conspiracies against him behind his back. The grumblers
and mischief-makers are a/ways the greatest muffs and the worst enemies of
cricket. ;

‘“ Take the place assigned to you, and give your whole mind to the game,
from the delivery of the first ball to the fall of the last wicket. If you makea
mistake, try and mend it; many a good fielder has dropped an easy catch and
picked up the ball and thrown it in and run a man out. Remember the backing
up. A fieldsman is not a sentry on duty, but is always a fighting soldier, and if a
fiver is hit to the off, long-leg even can go into the battle and render his aid by
backing up. Every hit which is made is the business of the whole eleven in the
field until the ball is dead. A man who will not attend unless a ball comes near
him had much better be in the tent smoking his pipe.”’

UMPIRING.

John Lillywhite in his ‘‘ Hints to Umpires,’’ says :

‘The runner cannot be out for running round his ground instead of through,
because the popping crease is unlimited.

‘‘ The hitter cannot make his partner ‘ out’ by striking the ball through his
wicket, unless his partner is off his ground, and the ball touches (and therefore
may be supposed to be guided by) the hands or person of one of the opposite

party.’’ -
AMENDED LAWS OF CRICKET.

Henry Perkins, secretary of the Marylebone Cricket Club, of London, Eng., has sent to all the
prominent cricketing centres the following draft of amended laws of cricket, inviting comment before
finally reconsidering and adopting them for submission to a general meeting of the club next season.
Lord Harris has also proposed to amend Law 10 as follows: “The ball must be fairly bowled, not
thrown or jerked ; and if the umpire be of opinion that the delivery is not absolutely fair, he must call
“No ball.’ ”

THE NEW RULES.

1. A match is played between two sides of eleven players each, unless otherwise agreed to; each
side has two innings, taken alternately, except in the case provided for in Law 51. The choice of
innings shall be decided by tossing.

2. The score shall be reckoned by runs. A run is scored and shall be duly recorded: 1st. So often
as the batsmen after a hit, or at any time while the ball is in play, shall have crossed and made good
their ground from end to end. 2d. For penalties under Laws 13, 14, 32, and 39. The side which
scorcs the greatest number of runs wins the match. No match is won unless played out or given up.

3. Before the commencement of the match two umpires shall be appointed, one for each end.

4. The ball shall weigh not less than 54 0z., nor more than 5%0z. It shall measure not less than
76 | SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

-

gin , nor more than 9} in. in circumference. At the beginning of each inning either side may demand
a new ball.

5. The hat shall not exceed 4} in. in the widest part; it shall not be more than 38 in. in length.

6. The wickets shall be pitched opposite and parallel to each other at a distance of twenty-two
yards. Each wicket shall be 8 in. in width, and consist of three stumps, with two bails upon the top.
The stumps shall be of equal and sufficient size to prevent the ball from passing through, 27 in. out of
the ground, the bails each 4in. in length. The wickets shall not be changed during a match, unless
the ground between them becomes unfit for play, and then only by consent of both sides.

7. The bowling-crease shall be ina line with the stumps, 6 ft. 8 in. in length, the stumps in the
centre, with a return crease at each end towards the bowler at right angles.

8. The popping-crease shall be four feet from the wicket and parallel to it; unlimited in length,
but no shorter than the bowling-crease.
~ g. The ground shall not be rolled, watered, covered, mown, or beaten during a match, except be-
fore the commencement of each inning and of each day’s play, when, unless the inside object, the ground
shall be swept and rolled for not more than ten minutes. This shall not prevent the batsman from
beating the ground with his bat, nor the batsman nor bowler from using sawdust in order to obtain
a proper foothold.

10. The ball must be bowled ; if thrown or jerked the umpire shall call ‘‘ No ball.”

11. The bowler may require the batsman at the wicket from which he is bowling to stand on that
side of it which he may direct.

12, The ball shall be bowled in overs of four balls from each wicket alternately. When four balls
have been bowled, and the ball is finally settled in the bowler’s or wicket-keeper’s hands, the umpire
shall call ‘‘ Over !’’ The bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground behind the bowling-
crease and within the return crease, otherwise the umpire shall call ‘‘No ball!’ Such no-ball shall
not be reckoned as one of the over. The bowler may not change ends more than twice in the same
inning, nor bowl more than two overs in succession.

13. If the bowler shall bowl the ball so high over or so wide of the wicket that in the opinion of
the umpire it is not within reach of the striker, the umpire shall call ‘‘ Wide ball !’’ Such wide ball
will not be reckoned as one of the over.

14. The striker may hit a “ no-ball,’’ and whatever runs result shall be added to his score ; but
he shall not be out from a ‘ no-ball’’ unless he be run out or break Laws 24, 25, 27, 28. All
runs made from a ‘“‘ no-ball ” otherwise than from the bat shall be scored ‘‘ no balls,’’ and if no run
be made one run shall be added to that score. From a ‘‘ wide ball” as many runs as are run shall be
added to the score as ‘‘ wide balis,’’ and if no run be otherwise obtained one run shall be so added.

15. If the ball, not having been called ‘“‘ Wide!” or “No ball!” pass the striker without touch-
ing his hat or person, and any runs be obtained, the umpires shall call “ Bye!” but if the ball touch
any part of the striker’s person (hand excepted), and any run be obtained, the umpire shall call ‘‘ Leg
bye!” such runs to be scored ‘‘byes” and “‘ leg byes’’ respectively,

16. At the beginning of the match, and of each inning, the umpire at the bowler’s wicket shalk
call ‘Play!’ From that time nc trial ball shall be allowed to any bowler on the ground between the
wickets, and when one of the batsmen is out the use of the bat shall not be allowed to any person until

the next batsman shall come in.
17. A batsman shall be held to be ‘‘ out of his ground’’ unless his bat in hand or some part of

his person be grounded within the popping crease.
18. The wicket shall be held to be ‘‘down’’ when either of the bails is off; or, if both bails be

off, a stump is struck out of the ground.
eeu

HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. | 77

The striker is out— ‘

1g. If the wicket be bowled down, even if the ball first touch the striker’ s bat or person—
“bowled !”

20. Or, if the ball, from a stroke of the bat or hand, but not the wrist, be held before it touch the
ground, although it be hugged to the body of the catcher—“ caught.”’

21. Or, if in playing at a ball, provided it be not touched by the bat or hand, the wicket be put
down by the wicket-keeper with the ball or with hand or arm, with ball in hand, and the striker be out
of his ground—‘“ stumped.”

22. Or, if with any part of his person he stop the ball which, in the opinion of the umpire, at the
bowler’s wicket shall have been pitched in a straight line from it to the striker’s wicket and would have
hit it—‘‘ leg before wicket.”

23. Or, if in striking at the ball he hit down his wicket with his bat or any part of his person or
dress—‘‘ hit wicket.”’

24. Or, if under pretence of running or otherwise either of the batsmen wilfully prevent a ball
from being caught—‘‘ obstructing the field.”

25. Or, if the ball be struck, and he wilfully strike it again, except it be done for ‘the purpose of
guarding his wicket, which he may do with his hat, or any part of his person, except his hands—‘‘ hit
the ball twice.”’

Hither batsman is out —

26. If in running, or at any other time, while the ball is in play, he be out of his ground, and his
wicket be struck down by the ball after touching any fieldsman, or by the hand or arm (with ball in
hand) of any fieldsman—‘‘ run out.’’

27. Or, if he touch or take up the ball while in play, unless at the request of the opposite side—
‘* handled the ball.’’

28. Or, if he wilfully obstruct any fieldsman—‘‘ obstructing the field.’’

29. If the batsmen have crossed each other, he that runs for the wicket which is put down is out ; ’
if they have not crossed, he that has left the wicket which is put down is out.

30. The striker being caught, no run shall be scored.

31. A batsman being run out, that run which was being attempted shall not be scored.

32. If a ball in play cannot be found or recovered any fieldsman may call ‘‘ lost ball,’’ when the
ball shall be ‘‘dead;’’ six runs shall be added to the score. But if more than six runs have been run
before “lost ball’’ has been called, as many runs as have been run shall be scored.

33. After the ball shall have been finally settled in the wicket-keeper’s or bowler’s hands it shall
be ‘‘dead;’’ but when the bowler is about to deliver the ball, if the batsman at his wicket be out of
his ground before actual delivery, the said bowler may run him out; but if the bowler throw at the
wicket and any run result, it shall be scored ‘‘no ball.’’

34. A batsman shall not retire from his wicket and return to it to complete his inning after an-
other has been in, without the consent of the opposite side.

35. A substitute shall be allowed to field or run between wickets for any player who may during
the match be incapacitated from illness or injury, but for no other reason, except with the consent of
the opposite side.

36. In all cases where a substitute shall be allowed, the consent of the opposite side shall be
obtained as to the person to act as substitute, and the place in the field which he shall take.
~ 37. In case any substitute shall be allowed to run between wickets, the striker may be run out if
either he or his substitute be out of his ground. If the striker be out of his ground while the ball is
in play, that wicket which he has left may be put down. and the striker given out, although the other
78 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

batsman may have made good his ground at that end, and the striker and his substitute at the
other end. . |

38. A batsman is liable to be given out for any_ infringement of the laws by his substitute.

39. If a fieldsman wilfully stop the ball with his hat or any other article, the ball shali be ‘‘ dead,”
and five runs added to the score ; whatever runs may have been made, five only shall be added.

40. The wicket-keeper shall not take the ball for the purpose of stumping until it has passed the
wicket ; he shall not move until the ball be out of the bowler’s hand ; he shall not by any noise incom-
mode the striker ; and if any part of his person be over or before the wicket, although the ball hit it,
the striker shall not be out.

41. The umpires are the sole judges of fair or unfair play, of the fitness of the ground, the
weather, and the light for play ; all disputes shall be determined by them; and if they disagree, the
actual state of things shall continue.

42. They shall pitch fair wickets, and change ends after each side has had one inning.

43. They shali allow two minutes for each striker to come in, and ten minutes between each
inning. When they shall call ‘‘ Play !’’ the side refusing to play shall lose the match.

44. They shall not order a batsman out unless appealed to by the other side.

45. The umpire at the bowler’s wicket shall be appealed to before the other umpire in all cases,
except in those of stumping, hit wicket, and run out at the striker’s wicket ; but in any case in which
an umpire is unable to give a decision he shall appeal to the other umpire, whose decision shali be final.

46. If either batsman run a short run, the umpire shall call ‘‘ One short !’’ and the run shall not
be scored.

47. No umpire shall be allowed to bet.

48. No umpire shall be changed during a match, unless with the consent of both sides, except in
case of violation of Law 47; then either side may dismiss him.

49. After the umpire has called ‘‘Over!’’ the ball is ‘‘ dead,’’ but an appeal may be made to
either umpire as to whether either batsman is out ; such appeal, however, shall not be made after the
delivery of the next ball, nor after any cessation of play.

50. The umpire shall take special care to call “ No ball !’’ instantly upon delivery ; ‘‘ Wide ball!”
as soon as it shall pass the striker.

51. The side which goes in second shall follow their inning if they have scored 80 runs less than

the opposite side.
ONE-DAY MATCHES.

‘I, The side which goes in second shall follow their inning if they have scored 60 runs less than

the opposite side.
2. Prior to the commencement of a match, it may be agreed that the over consists of five or six

balls.
THE LAWS OF SINGLE WICKET.

1. When there shall be less than five players on a side, bounds shall be placed twenty-two yards
each in a line from the off and leg stump.

2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the striker to a run, which run cannot be
obtained unless he touch the bowling-stump or crease in a line with his bat or some part of his person,
or go beyond them, returning to the popping-crease as at double-wicket.

3. When the striker shall hit the ball one of his feet must be on the ground and behind the pop-
ping-crease, otherwise the umpire shall call ‘“ No hit !”’
HOW TO PLAY CRICKET. 79

4. When there shall be less than five players on a side, neither byes nor overthrows shall be
allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out behind the wicket, nor stumped out. _

5. The fieldsmen must return the ball so that it shall cross the play between the wicket and the
bowling-stump, or between the bowling-stump and the bounds ; the striker may run till the ball be so
returned.

6. After the striker shall have made one run, if he start again he must touch the bowling-stump,
and turn before the ball cross the play to entitle him to another.

7. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the same number for ball wilfully
stopped with hat or any other article.

8. When there shall be more than four players on a side, there shall be no bounds. All hits, byes,
and overthrows shall then be allowed.

g. The bowler is subject to the same laws as the double-wicket.

10. No more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball.


80 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS. |



PRACTICE AT THE NET.

On most of our cricket club grounds on practice days, members are to be seen
engaged in ‘‘ practice at the net,’’ and the majority have an idea that they learn a
great deal by it. As ‘‘net practice’ is generally indulged in, however, it is
rather a detriment to improvement than otherwise, for it not only gives no bene-
ficial practice in batting, but it prevents fielding, which is so essential an element
of success in a match, and something in which our local clubs are sadly deficient
asarule. Net practice to yield improvement in batting requires to be attended
to systematically, and not in the indiscriminate way it is by our local clubs. To
gain a practical knowledge of batting from net practice, the batsman should re-
quire the bowler to bowl him certain stated balls, and the same pitched balls in suc-
cession until he has fully familiarized himself with the pitch. Thus he should
face a dozen balls in succession pitched to the off side for cutting, then a dozen
pitched to the on side for leg hitting ; then a dozen half volleys to practice him
in forward defence or in driving, and next a dozen balls pitched up to give him
practice in back play ; and so on through the category of various pitched balls.
Any other net practice than this is time and labor thrown away. Indeed it is
worse, for the self-same indiscriminate and unsystematized batting practice can be
better obtained without the net, and on a regular wicket with half a dozen fielders
in position. Unless the nets are used as above described it would be far better for
the improvement of the club members to prohibit the use of the net on the field,
except when there are less than half a dozen members present on the field.
LACROSSE.

ACROSSE was first seen by the European settlers of Canada when the

French. first explored the country along the St. Lawrence River, and the
Lakes, the Algonquin tribe of Indians then being the leading exemplars of the
game, they playing it not only in the spring and fall of the year along the grassy
intervals along the river sides, but on the ice in winter. An illustration of the
winter sport is given in the opening plate. They used a ball of stuffed skin, and
a bat like a hickory stick having a net of reindeer hide attached to the curved
part of the stick. The resemblance of this to a bishop’s crosier led the French to
call the game “‘ lacrosse,’ or the game of the cross.

This old American Indian game of ball is now the national game of Canada,
it being distinctly the favorite game of ball of the Canadian people, as base-ball
is that of the people of the United States.

Lacrosse in its fundamental principle is very similar to foot-ball, inasmuch as
a ball is driven from one goal to another by the contesting teams, the side which
first drives it through their opponents’ goal winning the game, and so many
games constituting a match. it is worthy of note that lacrosse as now played
under the rules of the Canadian National Association is a very different game to
that formerly played by the aborigines. The crosse is different in shape and con-
struction, the size of the field has greatly been curtailed, while the goals are now
distinctly marked out, and a special code of rules affords ample opportunities for
skilful strategic play. In fact, the original game by the Indians was only the
plain foundation on which the Canadians have built up a permanent and graceful
structure. A feature in lacrosse is the fact that for the spectator as well as the
player the interest never ceases from the moment play is called until the ball has
passed the goal. Under the existing association rules the field for skilful and
strategic play is a wide one, its features being long-distance and accurate ‘‘ throw-
ing,’’ excellence in ‘‘ catching,’’ strategy in ‘‘ dodging,’’ pluck in ‘‘ checking,’’
pedestrian power in running, skill in picking up, and surety in carrying while on
the run. The defence at the goal, too, is another element of successful play, which
calls for remarkable quickness of judgment and dexterity of movement, while at-
tacking offers an ample field for head-work play. In fact, while lacrosse is a
82 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

pedestrian’s game, and one admirably adapted to train a runner in “‘ getting his
wind,’ it is a sport requiring manly courage, pluck, nerve, and endurance. |

Lacrosse is played upon a level grassy field. The articles used in the game
are a ball of spongy India rubber, about eight inches in circumference ; the goal
posts, consisting of four light poles, six feet in height, and the crosse, with which
each player is provided. The goals should be six feet in height and six feet apart,
and the distance between goals from roo to 150 yards.

The number of players is twelve on a side, and the object of each is to pass
the ball, by means of the crosse upon the network of which it is carried, through
his opponents’ goal. The whole of the players of both sides, as in foot-ball, are
distributed over the entire field at the same time, each player having an opponent
by his side.

The positions of the twelve players on each side are shown in the appended
diagram.

The marks @ and © represent players of the respective sides.

Poe P

OPOINT

HOME ® ; COVER POINT
O FLELD e
3RD HOME® Q2ND HOME

© @FIELD
FIELD

FIELD@ Cen

CENTREO

@ CENTRE

OFIELD

O @FIELD FIELD ®@
FIELD

OC8RD HOME
FIELD®@

© 2ND HOME
e OHOME
COVER POINT POINT @

Ps B

Each side should wear caps or jerseys
Of distinctive colors.


LACROSSE. 83

Sides having been chosen, captains appointed, and preliminaries arranged,
the ball is placed on the ground in the very centre of the field, and the game
started at the word ‘‘ Play” by the two centre men, who “‘ face” for the ball as
shown in the cut below.



In ‘‘ facing,’’ the referee having placed the ball on the ground, each player
takes his crosse in both hands, and crouching down with his back to his own goal,
he lays the crosse (wood down) with its back close alongside the ball. The
referee then calls ‘‘ Play,”” and both men tussle for possession of the ball-as shown

in the following cut.



The ball must not be touched by the hands, but can only be picked up and
thrown by means of the bat or ‘‘crosse.”” With the exception of the goal-keep-
ers, who, of course, must be at opposite ends of the ground to defend their re-
spective goals, each player checks (or stands by) an appointed opponent.

It would require a small volume to give full instructions for playing all the
34. SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

strategic points of the game, and for this we commend the reader to study up
Mr. W. K. McNaught’s admirable work on the game entitled, ‘‘ Lacrosse and
How to Play It,’’ published in Toronto, Canada. Wecan but glance at the chief
points of the game, which are picking up the ball, catching and carrying it on the
crosse, throwing it, dodging attacks, checking or attacking an opponent to obtain
possession of it, and defending the goal.

In learning to play the game the novice should begin by practising to pick up
the ball. It is impossible to become a reliable expert in the game unless you can
pick up the ball with your crosse quickly and retain control of it. Place the ball
on the ground, hold the crosse in the right hand, at nearly the end of the
handle, and with the net end of it draw the ball sharply toward you, at the same



instant placing the crosse at a slight angle, between the moving ball and yourself,
so that the ball rolls on to the netting. The first cut above illustrates the action.

The ball is under the net, and it is drawn forward, and as it rolls the bat is
placed under it and lifted up high enough to prevent the ball bounding off. The
ball having been picked up, the next thing to be done is to run with it as it hes
on the crosse, and this is done as shown in the second cut above.

The ball should be held on the crosse near the centre of the netting, and the
crosse held at an angle to prevent the ball running off. The next point to prac-
tise is catching the ball on the crosse, and to do this skilfully is as difficult as

picking the ball up.
LACROSSE. 85

Catching a ball on the crosse is not unlike catching with the hands, from the
fact that the crosse should be allowed to yield just as the ball touches the crosse, so
as to prevent the natural rebound. The higher the ball is in the air the quicker
the retreat of the crosse after the ball descends upon it. The first cut below illus-
trates the movement of the crosse in catching.

In practising catching you learn throwing as well, and that is the next point
to learn. Accurate throwing is very essential, especially for short distances and
when attacking a goal. It is important as to what part of your crosse the ball lies
when the player is about to throw. Fora short throw the ball should lie on the



ae NE
by AY? ERS



-—— x
erie catann

head of the net—the part near the crook. For a medium throw the centre position
is best, and for a long throw the ball should be near the lower angle of the cross or
‘‘ pocket,’’ and nearer the handle. Fora toss of the ball on passing it to a part-
ner when pursued, a one-hand throw will suffice, but otherwise good throwing is
only possible when both hands are used. The first cut on following page illus-
trates the first and last movements of two-hand throwing.

The dotted figure shows the beginning of the throw, and the dark figure the
completion. In throwing over head by the forward throw, the action taken is
shown in the second cut above.
86 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.



The dotted figure, as before, shows the first movement, and the drawn figure
tne last. An important throw in the game is the backward throw over head, the
two movements in making it being shown in the following cut.



‘“Checking’’ is the strong point of the attacking force in lacrosse. If an op-
posing player is the first to secure possession of the ball after the face, the point
LACROSSE. 87

to be played is to check his advance toward your goal. This can be done by
striving to dislodge the ball from his crosse, and if it be knocked off, to prevent
his picking the ball up; or if he succeed in retaining possession of it, then to
check him in the act of his throwing the ball. This latter is shown by the figures
in the following cut, |



Checking is the hard, rough work of the game, and it involves more liability
to exhibitions of ill-temper and to ill-nature than any other point of the game.

Dodging needs no pictorial illustration. It speaks for itself. It is the showy
play of the game, and always attracts the ‘‘applause of the groundlings.”’
Nevertheless skilful dodging is one of the points of the game, and it comes into
play with good effect when a player finds himself pursued by a fast runner. It
won’t do to indulge in it when more than one adversary is ‘‘ after you with a sharp
stick.”’

Goal-keeping comes in as the last strong point of the game to be glanced at,
and the goal-keeper needs to be a very keen-eyed, nervy player, and one with all
his wits about him.
| The players should keep pretty well to their stations, especially point ; noth-
ing spoils the game more than every one joining in a free fight over the ball. Of
88 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

course a man who has possession of the ball may run with it as far as he can
toward the enemy's goal, but it is quite enough to have two or three ‘‘ checking”’
him ; if more, they merely prevent each other from using the crosse effectively, and
most likely leave open the way to their own goal. Beginners generally hunt the
ball in a pack, as shown in the appended cut.

re
w

5 Nas
&

Bar

J
2, a

—s

ae
ee
—
Win gee
=

VA uO LIS” ee



This practice must be particularly avoided, as it stops all proper play, and
reduces the game to a poor kind of hockey. The principle of the game, and there-
fore the correct system of play, is to work the ball toward the opposite goal by
means of passing from partner to partner until one of your home men gains posses-
sion of it, and tries to fling it between the flags. Upon a goal being obtained,
ends are changed, and the game Started as before.

The following are the playing rules of the game as revised by the United
States National Lacrosse Association in 1884:

RULE I.—THE CROSSE.

1. The crosse may be of any length to suit the player ; woven with catgut, which must not be
bagged. (‘‘Catgut’’ is intended to mean rawhide, gut, or clock-strings, not cord or soft leather.)
The netting must be flat when the ball is not on it. In its widest part the crosse shall not exceed one
foot. A string must be brought through a hole at the side of the tip of the turn, to prevent the point
of the stick catching an opponent’s crosse. A leading string resting upon the top of the stick may be
LACROSSE, 89

used, but must not be fastened, so as to form a pocket, lower down the stick than the end of the length
_ Strings. The length strings must be woven to within two inches of their termination, so that the ball
cannot catch in the meshes. .

2. No kind of metal, either in wire or sheet, nor screws or nails, to stretch strings, shall be
allowed upon the crosse. Splices must be made either with string or gut.

3. Players may change their crosse during a match.

RULE II.—THE BALL.

1. The ball to be used in all match games must be of sponge rubber, manufactured by the N. Y.
Rubber Co. In each match a new ball must be used, furnished by the home team. It shall become
the property of the winning team.

2. The ball shall be of the size of the ball marked ‘No. 40, regulation by the N. Y. Rubber Co.

RULE IJI.—THE GOALS.

1. The goals must be at least 125 yards from each other, and in any position agreeable to the cap-
tains of both sides. The top of the flag-poles must be six feet above the ground, including any top
ornament, and six feet apart. In matches they must be furnished by the challenged party.

RULE IV.—THE GOAL CREASE.

1. No attacking player must be within six feet of either of the flag-poles, unless the ball has passed
cover-point’s position on the field.

RULE V.—REFEREE.

1. The referee shall be selected by the captains, and in the case of championship matches,
must be appointed at least one day before the match. When the captains have agreed upon a referee,
they shall make a written memorandum in duplicate of the agreement, which shall be signed by both
captains. His authority shall commence from the time of his appointment, No person shall be chosen
to fill the position who is not thoroughly acquainted with the game, and in every way competent to
act. He must be a disinterested party, and neither directly nor indirectly interested pecuniarily, in the
result of the match. In the event of the field captains failing to agree upona referee the day previous
to a match, it shall be the duty of the president of the National Amateur Lacrosse Association, or in
his absence from the country, or owing to the impossibility of his being communicated with, the vice-
president, upon being duly notified, to appoint a referee, to act during the match; such referee,
however, not to be one of the number proposed by either of the competing clubs. ,

2. Before the match begins, the referee shall see that properly qualified umpires are selected, as
provided for in Rule VI. He shall also obtain from each of the captains a declaration and list of their
team, and shall satisfy himself that the players are dona fide members of the team they represent, in
accordance with Se¢é. 1, Rule IX. All disputed points and matters of appeal that may arise during his
continuance in office shall be left to his decision, which, in all cases, must be final, without appeal.

3. Before the match begins, he shall draw the players up in lines, and see that the regulations
respecting the ball, crosses, spiked soles, etc., are complied with. He shall also see that the
regulations respecting the goals are adhered to. He shall know before the commencement of a match
the number of games to be played, time for stopping, and any other arrangements that may have
been made by the captains. He shall have the power to suspend at any time during the match any
player infringing these laws—the game to go on during such suspension. “
go SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

4. When “foul” has been called by either captain, the referee shall immediately cry “time,”
after which the ball must not be touched by either party, nor must the players move from the positions
in which they happen to be at the moment, until the referee has called “‘ play.’’ If a player should be
in possession of the ball when ‘‘time’’ is called, he must drop it on the ground. If the ball enters
goal after “ time’’ has been called, it shall not count.

§. The jurisdiction of the referee shall not extend beyond the match for which he is appointed ; and
he shall not decide in any matter involving the continuance of a match beyond the day on which it is
played. The referee must be on the ground at the commencement of and during the match. At the
commencement of each game, and after ‘‘fouls,’’ and ‘‘ balls out of bounds,’’ he shall see that the
ball is properly faced, and when both sides are ready shall call ‘‘ play.” He shall not express an
opinion until he has taken the evidence on both sides. After taking the evidence, his decision in
all cases must be final. Any side rejecting his decision, by refusing to continue the match, shall be
declared losers.

6. When game is claimed and disallowed, the referee shall order the ball to be faced for from
where it is picked up, but in no case must it be closer to the goals than ten (10) yards in any direction.

RULE VI.—UMPIRES.

1. There shall be one umpire at each goal. They shall be disinterested parties, whose reputation
for truthfulness and integrity are well known and above suspicion. They shall not be members of
either club engaged in a match, nor shall they be changed during its progress, without the consent of
both captains.

2. Their jurisdiction shall last during the match for which they are appointed. They shall not
change goals during a match.

3- No umpire shall, either directly or indirectly, be pecuniarily interested in the result of the
match. No person shall be allowed to speak to an umpire, or in any way distract his attention,
when the ball is near or nearing his goal.

4. They shall stand behind the flags when the ball is near or nearing their goal. In the event
of game being claimed, the umpire at that goal shall at once decide whether or not the ball has
fairly passed through the flags, his decision simply being “ game” or ‘‘ no game,”’ without comment
of any kind. He shall not be allowed to express an opinion, and his decision shall in all cases be
final, without appeal.

5. In the event of the field captains failing to agree upon the umpires, after three nominations (in
accordance with this rule) have been made by each party, it shall be the duty of the referee to appoint
one or more umpires as may be required, who shall not be one of the persons objected to, who must
be duly qualified as required by this rule.

6. Only the captain of either side and one other player by him appointed shal] have the right to
call ‘‘ foul,’’ and the referee shall not stop the game when “foul’’ is called by any one else. In
championship matches they shall be appointed the day previous.

7. If, after the commencement of a match, it becomes apparent that either umpire, on account of
partisanship, or any other cause, is guilty of giving unjust decisions, the side offended against may
enter a protest with the referee against said umpire’s conduct, and ask for his immediate removal.
After hearing the evidence on both sides, the referee shall decide whether he shall be dismissed or
continued in office. If dismissed, the referee shall at once appoint another umpire to act in his
stead. Any decision, however, which he may have given previous to his dismissal shall hold good,
LACROSSE. OL.

RULE VII.—CAPTAINS.

Captains to superintend the play shall be appointed by each side previous to the commencement
of amatch. They shall be members of the club by whom they are appointed, and no other. They
may or may not be players in the match ; if not, they shall not carry a crosse, nor shall they be dressed
. in lacrosse uniform. They shall select umpires and referees, as laid down in these rules, toss
for choice of goals, and they alone shall be entitled to call ‘‘ foul’? during a match. They shall
report any infringement of the laws during a match to the referee. (2) Before the commencement
of a match, each captain shall furnish the referee with a full and correct list of his twelve, and a dec-
laration stating that they are all dona fide members in good standing of the club they represent,
and of no other, as provided for in Sec. 1, Rule IX.

RULE VIII.—NAMES OF PLAYERS.

The players on each side shall be designated as follows: ‘‘ Goal-keeper,’’ who defends the goal ;
“‘point,’’ first man out from goal ; ‘‘ cover-point,” in front of point; ‘‘ centre,’’ who faces; ‘‘ home,”’
nearest opponent’s goal : others shall be termed fielders.

THE GAME.

RULE IX.—MISCELLANEOUS.

1. Twelve players shall constitute a fullteam. They shall be regular members in good standing
of the club they represent, and of no other, for at least thirty days before becoming eligible to play in
a match for their club, No member shall be allowed to change clubs more than once during the season,
except in dona fide change of residence.

2. No player who has not been an actual resident for at least thirty days of the place to which his
club belongs, shall be eligible to play on team of said club, and he must also have resigned from club
of which he was previously a member for same length of time, otherwise the thirty days’ residence
clause will only take effect from date of his resignation. Members of college clubs are, however,
excepted from this rule, being. allowed to play on any team they choose during vacation. They are
also allowed the privilege of changing clubs, by giving one week’s notice.

3. The game must be started by the referee facing the ball, in the centre of the field, between a
player on each side. The ball shall be laid upon the ground between the sticks of the players facing,
and when both sides are ready the referee shall call ‘‘play.” The players facing shall have their
left side toward the goal they are attacking, and shall not be allowed to use a left-handed crosse

4. A match shall be decided by the winning of most goals in every match, unless otherwise
agreed upon. Games must in all cases be won by putting the ball through the goal from the front
side.

5. Captains shall manage, previous to a match, whether it is to be played out in one day, post-
poned at a stated hour, in the event of rain, darkness, etc., or to be considered a draw under certain
circumstances ; and, if postponed, if it is to be resumed where left off.

6. If postponed, and resumed where left off, there shall be no change of players on either side.

7. Either side may claim at least five minutes’ rest, and not more than ten, between each game.

8. After each game players must change goals. |

9. Nochange of players must be made after a match has commenced, except for reasons of
accident or injury during the game.
92 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

10, Should any player be injured during a match, and compelled to leave the field, the opposite
side shall drop a man to equalize the teams. In the event of any dispute between the field captains
as to the injured player’s fitness to continue the game, the matter shall at once be decided by the
referee.

'11, When a match has been agreed upon, and one side is deficient in number of players, their
opponents shall have the right to reduce their own number to equalize the sides, or may compel them
to play shorthanded. When the deficiency, however, exceeds three players, the opposite side may
either play nine men against their opponents’ lesser number, or refuse to play at all, and claim the
match as if by default.

12. No Indian or professional shall play in the team of any club belonging to this association, un-
less under circumstances provided for in Rule XX.

RULE X.—SPIKED SOLES.
No player must wear spiked soles or boots, and any player attempting to evade this law shall be
ruled out of the match.

RULE XI.—TOUCHING BALL WITH THE HAND.
The ball must not be touched with the hand, save in cases of Rules XII. and XII

RULE XII.—GOAL-KEEPER.

The goal-keeper, while defending goal within the goal crease, may pat away with his hand, or
block the ball in any manner with his crosse or body.

RULE XIII.—BALL IN AN INACCESSIBLE PLACE.

Should the ball lodge in any place inaccessible to the crosse, it may be taken out with the hand,
and the party picking it up must “‘ face’’ with his nearest opponent.

RULE XIV.—BALL OUT OF BOUNDS.

Balls thrown out of bounds must be “‘ faced’’ for at the nearest spot within the bounds, and all
the players shall remain in their places until the ball is faced. The referee shall see that this is prop-
erly done, and when both sides are ready shall call play. The ‘‘ bounds” must be distinctly settled
’ by the captains before the commencement of the match.

RULE XV.—ACCIDENTAL GAMES.

Should the ball be accidentally put through a goal by one of the players defending it, it is game
for the side attacking that goal. Should it be put through a goal by any one not actually a player, it
shall not count. .

RULE XVI.—BALL CATCHING NETTING.

Should the ball catch in the netting, the crosse must be struck on the ground to dislodge it.

RULE XVII.—FOULS AND PENALTIES FOR SAME.

The following shall constitute fouls and be punished as such by the referee :
1. No player shall grasp an opponent’s crosse, with his hands, hold it with his arms or between
his legs, nor shall any player more than six feet from the ball hold his opponent’s crosse with his
RS ae

LACROSSE, 93

crosse, run in front of him, or interfere in any way to keep him from the ball until another player
reaches it. , .

2. No player with his crosse or otherwise shall hold, deliberately strike, or trip another, nor push
with the hand, nor wrestle with the legs so as to throw an opponent.

3. No player shall hold the ball in his crosse with his hand or person, or lay or sit on it.

4. No player shall charge into another after he has thrown the ball.

s. The crosse or square check, which consists of one player charging into another with
both hands on the crosse, so as to make the crosse strike the body of his opponent, is strictly forbidden.

6. No player shall interfere in any way with another who is in pursuit of an opponent in posses-
sion of the ball.

7. “Shouldering” is allowed only when the players are within six feet of the ball, and then from
the side only. No player must, under any circumstances, run into or shoulder an opponent from be-
hind.

8. The referee shall be the judge of fouls, and shall call time to decide them only at the request
of the captains or the men appointed by them.

9. When a foul is allowed by the referee, the player fouled shall have the option of a free “ run”’
or *‘ throw” from the place where the foul occurred. For this purpose all players within ten feet of
said player shall move away to that distance, all others retaining their positions. But if a foul is
_allowed within twenty yards of the goal, the man fouled shall move away that distance from goal be-
fore taking the run or throw allowed him.

10. If a foul is claimed and time called, and the foul then not allowed, the player accused of
fouling shall be granted a free ‘“ run” or *‘ throw’’ under the conditions above mentioned. (Sec. 9.)

11. No player shall throw his crosse at a player or at the ball under any circumstances ; and such
action will be considered a “foul.” Should a player lose his crosse during a game, he shall consider
himself ‘‘ out of play,’’ and shall not be allowed to touch the ball in any way until he again recovers it.
Kicking the ball is absolutely prohibited to players without a crosse.

12. Any player considering himself purposely injured during play must report to his captain, who
must report to the referee, who shall warn the player complained of.

13. For deliberate fouls which occasion injury to opponents or affect the result of the game, for
the first offence the referee shall have power to suspend the player committing it, for the rest of the
game (not match); for a second offence, the referee may remove the offending player and compel his
side to finish the match short-handed.

14. Any player deliberately striking another, or raising his hand to strike, shall be immediately
ruled out of the match.

RULE XVIII.—SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES.

In the settlement of any dispute, whether by the umpires or referee, it must be distinctly under-
stood that the captains, with one player each to be selected by them, have the right to speak on behalf
of their respective clubs; and any proposition or facts that any player may wish brought before the
referee must come through the captains or the players selected by them,

RULE XIX.—FLAG-POLE DOWN.

In the event of a flag-pole being knocked down during a match, and the ball put through what
“would be the goal if the flag-pole were standing, it shall count game for the attacking side.
04 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

RULE XX.—CLUBS EMPLOYING A PROFESSIONAL.

Clubs who employ a professional as lacrosse teacher, shall be allowed to play him in all matches,
excepting matches for the championship, or for any prize or trophy offered for competition to clubs in
this association.

RULE XXI.—DEFINITION OF AN AMATEUR.

An amateur is one who follows any regular business or occupation, who is not a professional
athlete, and who does not directly or indirectly receive any compensation for his playing.

RULE XXII.—CHALLENGES.

1. All challenges must be sent by post, registered, addressed to the secretary of the club intended
to be challenged.

2. Any club receiving a challenge from another club shall, within one week after its receipt,
notify the challenging club of the time and place at which they are prepared to play. The place
named shall be either of their places of residence, or some intermediate place ; and the time mentioned
. shall be within three weeks from the reception of the challenge.

3. On the day selected, if one club only put in an appearance, it shall be entitled to claim a victory
by default. If its opponents refuse to fulfil their engagements, or do not appear upon the ground at
the specified time, the club complying with the terms agreed upon shall be declared the winners of the
match.

4. If at the time of the reception of a challenge, a club has on hand any other regular challenge
undisposed of, the time for its acceptance shall be extended within a period not exceeding six weeks ;
and if it should have more than one regular challenge undisposed of, then within a period not exceed-
ing an additional three weeks for every such challenge. Challenges shall not lapse with the end of the
season, but shall continue in force until played off. Challenges so carried over shall date from first of
May of the new season into which they have been carried.

5. A club must accept challenges in the order that they are received, but shall have the option of
accepting or declining a challenge received earlier than May tst, or later than November Ist. The
season shall be from May Ist to November Ist, inclusive.

RULE XXIII.—USING UNPARLIAMENTARY LANGUAGE.

Any player using profane or ungentlemanly language during a match shall be warned by the
referee for the first offence, and for the second offence shall be compelled to leave the field and his team
play short-handed. The referee mast enforce this rule.

RULE XXIV.—SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES.

In the settlement of any dispute, whether by the umpires or referee, it must be distinctly
understood that the captains, with one player each to be selected by them, have the right to
speak on behalf of their respective clubs ; and any proposition or facts that any player may wish
brought before the referee must come through the captains or the player selected by them,

RULE XXV.—FLAG-POLE DOWN.

In the event of a flag-pole being knocked down during a match, and the ball put through
what would be the goal if the flag-pole were standing, it shall count a goal for the attacking side.
LACROSSE, : 95

RULE XXVI.—CHALLENGES.

1. All challenges must be sent by post, registered, addressed to the secretary of the club in-
tended to be challenged.

2. Any club receiving a challenge from another club shall, within one week after its receipt,
notify the challenging club of the time and place at which they are prepared to play. The place
named shall be at either of their places of residence, or some intermediate place; and the time
mentioned shall be within three weeks from the reception of the challenge.

3. On the day selected, if one club only put in an appearance, it shall be entitled to claim a
victory by default. If its opponents refuse to fulfil their engagement, or do not appear upon the
ground at the specified time, the club complying with the terms agreed upon shall be declared the
winners of the match.

4. If at the time of the reception of a challenge, a club has on hand any other regular chal-
lenge undisposed of, the time for its acceptance shall be extended within a period not exceeding
six weeks; and if it should have more than one regular challenge undisposed of, then within a
period not exceeding an additional three weeks for every such challenge. Challenges shall not
‘lapse with the end of the season, but shall continue in force until played off. Challenges so
carried over shall date from first of May of the new season into which they have been carried.

5. A club must accept challenges in the order that they are received, but shall have the option of
accepting or declining challenges received earlier than May first, or later than November first. The
season shall be from the first of May to November first, inclusive.

RULE XXVII.—DEFINITION OF AN AMATEUR.

An amateur is one who follows any regular business or occupation, who is not a paid playér or |
attached’ as such to any club.

RULE XXVIII.—CLUBS EMPLOYING PROFESSIONALS.

Clubs who employ a professional as lacrosse teacher shall be allowed to play him in all matches,
excepting matches for the championship.

CHAMPIONSHIP RULES.

1. The club holding the ‘‘ championship’’ cannot be compelled to play any club competing there-
for more than twice in any one season, and an intervening space of two months must elapse between
such matches.

2. Club holding ‘‘championship” shall have the choice of grounds for all . ‘‘ championship”
matches. .

3. In the event of the holders losing the ‘‘ championship,’’ their secretary shall, within one week,
furnish to the secretary of the winning club copies, certified by their president, of all challenges for:-
the ‘‘ championship”’ at the time undisposed of.

4. The club winning the ‘‘championship” shall take up these undisposed challenges, and treat
them as their own, in accordance with and subject to Rule XXVI. (challenges).

5. Should the champion club be challenged by a club belonging to another city or part of the
United States, two thirds of the net proceeds received from such match shall go toward defraying
travelling and hotel expenses only of the visiting team and its captain.

6. Should two thirds the net proceeds amount to more than the actual expenses of the visiting
team, they shall receive their expenses only—the balance belonging to the champion club.
96 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

7. A statement, signed by the president and secretary of the champion club, given to the com-
peting club, shall be evidence of the amount of net proceeds taken at such match.

8. In matches where the challenging club belongs to the same city or part of the United States as
the champion club, the latter shall not be required to hand over to challengers any portion of net
proceeds of such matches.

g. Indian clubs shall not be allowed to compete for the championship.

RULE XXIX.—AMENDMENTS.

Any amendment or alteration proposed to be made in any part of these rules shall be made only
at the annual convention of the association, and by a three fourths vote of the members present.

The following is a diagram of the score sheet used in recording the score of a
match :

SCORE SHEET.

TIME—SECOND THREE-QUARTERS.

|

Play Called. | End Half, | Time Out. Corrected End

TIME—FIRST THREE-QUARTERS.





Play Called. | End Half. | Time Out. Corrected End

es OC i er rd







SCORE BY .. 0.0.0. cccesccsceeeecee ee Sb caassaceaeeecs SCORE BY .... 2... seeessesee vee
eS TS ss as ae
Goals from Touch- Goals from Field.| Touchdowns. | Safeties Goals from Touch-;

down. . down. Goals from Field. | Touchdowns. | Safeties.

eeeeesseereeeeceeeveian seeseceveeen steosteo 2 eeoeeseses Lesaeveoesseee{izseeaseee 88 ee. eee isnene- ee eee eseeeseons foseseevncesteuceleggavnesecs



Total, | | | | | Total, | | | |
Warnings given to— Warnings given to—
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Bo wcccccccscoe Se casccccncons : Sra TI. ccc scccccce Qercccccescece Beas ce essa cnes B.crecnsvccees TI cccovcesaes
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FOOT-BALL.

HIS old English autumnal field sport has become a great favorite with

American collegians, who have adopted a special code of playing rules of
theirown, by which all the intercollegiate championship matches are played. The
American game differs from both the English Rugby game and that played under
the laws of the English Foot-Ball Association, and known as the ‘‘ Association
game.” The principle of foot-ball is very simple. The ball is placed in the centre
of a field of certain dimensions, and the object of the contesting players on each



side is to gain possession of it from the kick-off, and either by running with the
ball in hand or by kicking it with the foot, to send it between the posts of the
opposing side’s goal, The English Association code of rules forbids the ball being
handled. The Rugby code, on the other hand, admits of handling the ball, while
the American College code is a modification of the Rugby rules, the idea being to
eliminate from the game some of the objectionable features of the Rugby rules.
We cannot do better, in giving instructions for learning the game, than to present








































































them in the form of a code of
the technicalities of foot-ball,
applicable to the three codes of rules
now in use and embracing the salient
points of each.

The foot-balls in use are in form
as shown in the cut on page g7. The
Rugby ball is the one used in our
college club games. A regular foot-
ball field for the American College
game measures 330 feet by 160, and
the lines are laid out as shown in the
appended diagram.

The inside lines should be clearly
defined, and it is advisable to lay out
the five-yard lines the full length
of the field. In the diagram these
are only shown in a portion of the
field. In the Association game the ball
is mainly ‘‘ dribbled ’’ along—that is,
the ball is worked along with the feet,
pushing it on witha series of gentle
kicks, and guiding and piloting it past
opponents toward the desired goal.

Another feature of the English mode of playing foot-ball is the form-
ing of what are called the ‘‘ scrimmages.’’ In the American game the

























FOOT-BALL. 99

players “‘ line up’’ in a row, facing each other, and in the centre of the line stands
the ‘' snap-back”’ of the side having the ball, whose duty it is to push it back with
his foot so that it can be captured by the ‘‘ quarter-back,’”” whoeither rushes with
the ball in hand or passes it back to the appointed “ half-back,’’ who kicks it

IN GOAL

LINE OF KICK OUT

IN TOUCH PLACE OF KICK OFF IN TOUCH
e

GROUND

GROUND

330 feet long

160 feet wide



forward. In the English game the scrimmages are formed as shown in the follow-
ing cuts.

Foot-ball is a very rough game at best, and it specially calls for great control
of temper; and for this reason it is certainly not a game for the masses ; for,
unless a bad temper is governed by educational influences, vulgar rows on the field
are sure to follow. In the college contests each season very exciting situations
100 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

occur, which rouse up the combative elements of the contestants to a pretty high
pitch, but they generally remember in time what gentlemanly conduct calls for,
and ebullitions of temper followed up by pugilistic actions are promptly apologized
for. The rules are being improved each season, and no doubt the point of excel-

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lence will be reached in due time, when the game will then afford an ample field
for the display of courage, endurance, and athletic skill generally, while strategic
play will be more a feature than it now is. The appended glossary of the techni-
cal terms used in the game presents a full explanation of every rule and point of
play known in the American College game.



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THE RULES OF THE GAME.

BALLS,

It is a singular fact that neither in the Rugby code or in that‘of the American college code is
any mention made of the size of the ball or of the materials of which it should be made. In the
London association code the size of the ball is designated as not less than twenty-seven inches in
circumference, and not more than twenty-eight inches ; but nothing is stated as to what it should
be made of.

BACKS,

The ‘‘backs’’ are the players who form the first three lines of defence from the goal; and
they consist of the “backs”’ proper, who are the players standing nearest the goal line; the ‘* half
backs,’’ who stand in front of the ‘‘ backs,” and the ‘*quarter backs,” who stand next to the line
of rushers,

BEHIND.

‘‘Behind’’ a player means between himself and his own goal line.

BOUNDS.

The ball is considered as out of the field direct, and out of bounds, when it touches the boundary
line on each side between the two goals, and goes into ‘‘ touch”’ or out of ‘‘ bounds.’’

CATCHES,

There are two kinds of catches made in foot ball—viz., a ‘‘ fair catch,’ made from a kicked ball,
and a catch made from a ‘‘ thrown” ball, either when in the act of ‘‘ passing ” the ball while in the
field, or when it is thrown out from ‘“‘touch.’”’ A fair catch under our college rules can only be made,
however, from a place kick, a drop kick, a ‘‘throw forward,” a ‘‘ knock on’’ —that is, batting the
ball with the hand—by an opponent, or from a ‘‘ punt out or on ;” and such catch entitles the player
making it to kick the ball from a ‘‘drop’’ or a “ punt,’’ or to ‘‘ place” the ball, provided the catcher
makes a mark with his heel at the spot where he stood when he made the catch; and also provided
no other player of his side touches the ball after the catch has been made. When the ball is thrown
out from ‘‘touch,’’? however, no fair catch can be made from it. Under the Rugby rules a fair catch
can be made froma ‘‘punt on” as well as a ‘‘ punt out.’’ No fair catch can be made in ‘‘ touch,”
however, from either a punt out or on.
102 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

CHARGING.

The act of charging is that of rushing forward to kick the ball, or to ‘“‘tackle” a player having

possession of it.
CROSS BAR.

The cross bar is the piece of wood which connects the two goal posts at the height of ten feet
from the ground, and over which the ball must be kicked to count a goal,

CAPTAINS.

Under the Rugby code the captains on each team act as umpires, unless the latter are specially

appointed for a match.
COUNTING TIME.

Time is to be counted on every delay in the game which is intentional or palpably unnecessary.

DEAD BALLS.

The ball is considered as ‘‘ dead” — under our college rules — first, when a player holding it
cries ‘‘ down ;” secondly, after a ‘‘ goal” has been scored ; thirdly, after a ‘“‘ touch down” has been
made; fourthly, after a safety touch down has been made; and fifthly, after a fair catch has been
*“theeled.’’ In addition, under the Rugby code, the ball is regarded as dead whenever it lies
motionless on the ground. Under all rules it is dead when it goes out of bounds into “ touch.”’

DISQUALIFIED. .
The referee is obliged, under the American rules, to disqualify every player who he has

twice warned for intentional off-side play, or for intentional tackling in touch, or for any other

flagrant violation of the rules.
DOWN.

This is a term used to give the fielder holding the ball exclusive possession of it and to free
him from being ‘‘tackled.”” Thus, if a player holding the ball or running with it be “ tackled,”
if he fails to cry ‘‘down,’’ and does not at once put the ball down when freed from tackling, he
can immediately be tackled again, and the ball can be taken from him.

DRIBBLING.
‘* Dribbling’’ is the act of kicking the ball along the ground, and it is a feature in the Rugby

game.
DROP KICK.

A “drop kick,’’ or ‘‘drop,’’ is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it the
moment it rises from the ground. In other words, it is a bound kick.
ENDS.
This is a term used in the English association code, indicative of the goals. Thus ‘‘ ends,’’ or
goals, are only changed at the end of each ‘‘half time.”
FIELD OF PLAY.
The “field of play” is the space of ground bounded by the “touch” lines on each side of the

field and the goal lines at each end.
FORWARDS.

The ‘‘forwards’” are the line of fielders who stand on the rush line facing the players of the
opposing side in the centre of the field when the game begins. Under the American rules there
are but six “forwards”—as they are called here—these forming the front lines of the defence.
FOOT-BALL. 103

FOULS.

A ‘foul’ is made whenever an opponent, while off side, interferes with a player trying to
make a ‘‘fair catch;’’ or if a player intentionally lays hands on an opponent, or interferes with
him when he does not have the ball in his possession. Also when he enters a scrimmage from
his adversaries’ side, or, being in a scrimmage, gets in front of the ball. The penalty for a foul is ©

a **down’’ for the other side.
FREE KICK.

A ‘‘ free kick’’ is a kick at the ball in any way the player kicking at it chooses, provided the —
ball is lying on the ground. This is peculiar to the English association rules, and is not mentioned
in the American code. |

FULL BACKS.

The ‘‘full backs’’ are the two players standing nearest the goal.

GOALS,

The goals of a foot-ball ground are the two posts and the cross-bar located at each end of the
field. The posts require to be at least twenty feet high, and they are placed eighteen feet six inches
apart, with the cross bar joining them at the height of ten feet from the ground.

A goal can be scored either from a ‘‘ place kick’’ or ‘‘ punt out’ after a touch down has been
made; also by any kick made from the “field direct,” except a ‘‘ punt’’ or fly kick. A goal counts
as equal to six points when obtained from a touch down, but only as five from a field. kick; and
in case of a tie in goals scored, a goal kicked from a touch down takes precedence over a goal

kicked from the field direct.
GOAL GROUND.

The goal ground is that portion of the field lying back of the line of the goal posts, and within
the boundary lines of ‘“‘bounds’’ or ‘‘touch.”’

HEELED.
A ball is said to have been “heeled’’ when the player catching it has marked the spot where he

stands with his heel after catching the ball.
HACKING.

This brutal custom—the act of kicking a fielder in the shins—is prohibited in all foot-ball rules
now, but it used to be a feature of English foot-ball play.

HALF BACKS.

The ‘‘half backs’’ are the three players forming the second line of defence out from the goal.

HALF TIME.
The ‘‘half time’? of a match—under our college rules—is forty-five minutes from the kick off,
and all delays from accidents, or to consult the rules in disputes, are to be deducted and not counted

in the time.
HELD.

A ball is ‘‘ held”? the moment a player, having been ‘“‘tackled,”’ has been obliged to say “ down.”’

IN TOUCH. 1

This term is applied to the space of ground on each side of the boundary line of the field proper.
In other words, the moment the ball goes out of bounds it is in ‘‘ touch.”
104 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS

KICK OFF,

The “kick off” is made only at the commencement of each game, after a goal has been made,
and at the beginning of each half time. It is made by a “ place kick’’ and from the centre of the field.
In the second half it is made by the side losing the goal.

KICK OUT.

A ‘*kick out’ is made whenever the ball is kicked out from any part of the field within ‘‘ touch”
and back of the twenty-five yard line, and outside of the goal line. The “ kick out” can only be
made by a bound or ‘‘ drop kick.’’ If when kicked out it pitches out of bounds and in ‘‘ touch,”
the ball must be brought back, and again kicked out until it pitches within the field. An exception
to this latter clause is when it touches the person of an opponent.

KNOCKING ON.

To ‘‘knock’’ the ball is to bat it with the hand. The act of ‘‘ knocking on” is that of batting
the ball forward toward your opponent’s goal; and whenever the ball is thus knocked on, unless
a fair catch be made from it, the ball has to be brought back to the place where the knock was
made.

MAUL IN GOAL.

‘* Mauling’’ is a peculiar attribute of modern foot ball, and the term of ‘‘ maul in goal” applies
to the act of tackling an opponent in his own goal ground. When a piayer holding the hall is attacked
by fielding opponents while in the field direct, he is there ‘‘tackled ;’’ when he is similarly attacked
while in his own goal ground he is *‘ mauled.””, A maul in goal occurs when both sides are struggling
to get possession of the ball close to the goal line, and the opposite side endeavor to crowd the party
defending the goal over the line so as to touch the ball down “‘ in goal.”

Only the player or players who are touching the ball with their hands when it crosses the goal line
can continue in the maul in goal ; and when a player releases his hold of the ball he cannot again
join in the maul. When a player, too, is tackled inside the goal line, only the player who first tackles
him on goal ground can join in the maul, unless two tackle him simultaneously.

OFF SIDE.

When a player is declared ‘‘ off side” by the referee he is out of the game until placed “on side’”’
again. But no player can be “off side’ in his own goal ground. A player becomes “‘ off side’ if he
enters a scrimmage from his opponent’s side ; or, being in a scrimmage, he gets in front of the ball ;
or does so when the ball has been kicked, touched, or is being run with by any of his own side be-
tween himself and his own goal line. He is, however, at once put “on side” when the ball has been
kicked by an opponent, or has touched the person or dress of an opponent ; and also when one of his
own side runs in front of him, either while having the ball in hand, or after he has kicked it while
behind him. A player cannot be off side but twice during a game.

ON SIDE.

A player is ‘‘on side’’ at all times when not actually ‘‘ off side.”

PLACE KICK.
This is a kick made after the ball is held in position by a fielder while the bal! is close to
the ground.
FOOT-BALL. . | 105

PUNT.

A “punt” kick is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it before it touches
the ground. It is a kick ‘‘on the fly.”’

PUNT OUT.

A “punt out” is made after a ‘‘ touch down,”’ or after a “touch in goal,’ by a player from his
opponent’s goal ground. No opponents can approach within ten feet of the player making the punt
out until the ball has been kicked.

PUNT ON.

A ‘punt on” is made when the ball from a “ punt out” has been fairly caught. A ‘ punt on,”’
too, can be made from ‘‘ touch.”

POSTER,

A “poster” is a ball that strikes the goal posts and goes either to one side or the other of
the post. Under our college rules if the ball touches the post or cross bar on the inside, and
afterward goes between the posts and over the cross bar, it counts as a goal.

Under the Rugby rules a ball going directly over the goal posts is a ‘‘ poster,’
cannot count a goal.

?

and such >

PASSING.

A ball is passed when it is thrown or tossed from one fielder to another on the same side.
But it cannot be done unless the ball passed is thrown toward the home goal and not toward -
that of the opposing side.

. QUARTER BACKS,

The “ quarter back’’ is the player who first receives the ball from the ‘‘ snap back’’ out of a
scrimmage. The player who hoids the ball in position in a scrimmage with his foot is the ‘snap
back,” and the player he snaps the ball back to is the quarter back, who either passes it to a half
back, or runs with it himself, as he thinks best.

REFEREE.

The ‘‘ referee’? in a match decides all disputed points in a match, calls ‘‘ play” and ‘‘ time,’
and he is the sole judge of fair and unfair play—he alone deciding whether players are “off side’
or not, and whether a ball has been thrown foul. He is generally appealed to by the captains
and umpires. His decision is final.

RUN IN.

A “trun in’’ is made when a player getting possession of the ball runs with it for his opponents’
goal ground, and in so running he can cross the goal line anywhere.

Under the Rugby rules a ‘‘touch down” made from such a run is not called a “‘ touch down,’’ as
in our college rules, but it is termed a ‘‘ run in.”’

RUSHERS.

99 ?

This is the title given the ‘‘ forwards’’ of a team under our college rules. The ‘‘rushers’’ of an
eleven comprise the front line of the attacking force, and stand in the centre of the field at the ‘ kick-
off.”’

SAFETY TOUCH DOWNS. .

These are ‘‘touch downs” only recognized as points by the American college rules, they not
counting in the Rugby rules. A ‘‘ safety touch down ”’ is made whenever a player, guarding his own
goal, receives the ball from a player of his own side either from its being ‘‘ passed’, to him, or from a
snap back in a scrimmage, or from a kick, and afterward deems it advisable to touch it down in his
10 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

own goal. But if the ball be kicked over the goal line by an opponent and he then touch it down, no
safety touch is charged. But should he carry the ball over his own goal line and touch it down it is a
safety touch down. These safety touch downs, in the American code, count two points each, and when
no other points are scored the game is decided by the score of safety touch downs in the score of a
match.

SCRIMMAGE,

The “‘ scrimmage, ”’ or ‘‘ scrummage ’’—as the Rugby rules have it—is a slang word which custom _
has applied as a technical term descriptive of the crowding of the players together in a foot-ball match
when a scuffle or struggle for possession of the ball ensues. Under our college rules a scrimmage
occurs when a player of the side holding the ball in the field of play puts the ball down on the ground,
and places his foot upon it in readiness to kick it back—called “‘ snapping” it—to a player behind him
—the “quarter back ; *’ and the moment he does this the ball becomes in play. Under the Rugby code,
however, a ‘‘scrummage’’ occurs when the player holding the ball while in the field of play puts it
down on the ground in front of him, when all the players on each side close around him and strive to
**dribble’’ or kick the ball from out of the crowd. A ‘‘ scrimmage ”’ or “‘scrummage ” can only occur
‘in the field of play, and neither out of bounds or in ‘‘ touch,” or back of the goal line, or in ‘touch in

goal. 29
SNAP BACK.

The ‘‘ snap back’’ is the player designated to kick the ball back out of a scrimmage. The position
is not recognized in the Rugby rules, as under that code all the players in a ‘‘scrimmage’’ are tem-
porary snap backs.

SCORING.

The rule governing the score of a game in the American college code provides that six points
shall be scored for a goal obtained by a touch down; five points fora goal froma field kick; four
points for a touch down not yielding a goal ; and two points for a safety touch down.

TACKLING.

‘“* Tackling ’’ in foot ball is the act of wrestling with a player for the possession of the ball. A
player ‘‘ tackling ’’ an opponent can grasp him round the waist, but not below the hips ; but he can-
not trip him up or kick at him. Under the Rugby rules, however, tackling below the waist is allowed.

TAKING OUT TIME.

The referee is required to deduct all time in a match which is lost by unnecessary delays.

TEAMS.

A team in foot ball comprises eleven men under the American code and fifteen under the English
tules. This is exclusive of the umpire or ‘‘ judges.’’

THROWING.

Throwing the ball from one player to another is allowed in foot ball under certain restrictions.

TOUCH DOWN.

A player makes a ‘‘ touch down”’—under our college rules—whenever he puts the ball down
while it is in his opponents’ goal ground ; or if the ball be back of the goal line and he has his hand on
it and has stopped it so that it remains dead. But no touch down can be scored from ‘‘touch’’ or
** touch in goal’’—that is, either from a ball going out of bounds or within the corner space known as
**touch in goal.’”” Under the Rugby rules a touch down can be made by putting the ball down in
‘touch in goal’’ ground. Such touch down yielding a ‘‘ try at goal.”’
FOOT-BALL. . 107

TOUCH IN GOAL,
‘Touch in goal’’ is the name given the space of ground located at each corner of the goal end of
the field, and it begins at the line of ‘‘touch’’ which divides it from the goal ground, and is also

bounded by the goal line itself.
TRIPPING.

Tripping an adversary up is foul play under all the recognized codes of rules governing foot ball.

TRY AT GOAL.

After a “touch down’’ has been made the side making it are entitled to a ‘“‘try at goal’’—that is,
the ball is placed near the ground and a player is assigned to kick it between the goal posts. Under
the Rugby code of rules ‘‘ try at goal’’ counts in the score when goals are not otherwise kicked. After
a touch down—under our college rules—a try at goal can be made either froma “ place kick’’ orfrom
a “‘punt out’’—viz, a fly kick,

UMPIRES.

Each eleven in a match is entitled to an umpire or special advocate to plead the side’s interests
before the referee. Such umpire acts also as a field director in the match, just as a field captain does
in lacrosse.

The official code of rules of the Inter-Collegiate Association are to be had on application to Mr.
Walter C. Camp, the Superintendent of Athletics at Yale College, New Haven.


HAND-BALL.

HAN Bar as played in America, is the old English game of ‘“‘ Fives,”
modified somewhat in its rules. It can be played in its simple form on a

piece of level, smooth ground adjoining the side wall of a brick house. But it is

best vlayed in a regular court, and for the court game the rules are as follows :

THE RULES OF THE GAME.

1. A game of hand-ball shall consist of twenty-one aces, to be played with a ball not more than
ten inches in diameter.

2. A game to be played by two persons shall be called a single-handed game; by four persons, a
double game.

3. When a match is made, be it double or single, the players (after entering the court) shall toss
for the first hand, the winner to have one hand only in the first inning.

4. The winner of the toss shall stand inside the line, called the ace line (which is supposed to be in
the centre of the court), and he must bound the ball on the floor, striking it with his hand against the
front wall, and he shall serve it to the player or players behind the ace line.

§. The striker failing to strike the ball over the ace line three times in succession is a
hand out.

6. If the striker, when serving the ball, strikes either side wall before striking the front wall, it is
a hand out.

7. If the striker or his partner stops the ball intentionally before it bounds, after leaving the front
wall, it is a hand out.

8. If the striker or his partner stops the ball intentionally while on its way to the front wall, it is a
hand out. .

g. If a ball struck by the player should strike the striker or his partner, it is a ‘‘hinder,”’ and it
shall be played over again.

ro. When a ball is served short to the player he has the privilege of striking it with his
hand or foot ; if struck with the foot, and it fails to go on the front wall, it does not score for
the striker ; if struck with the hand, and it fails to strike the front wall, it is an ace for the
striker.

11. A ball that is served short to the player, and he strikes it with his foot upon the front wall,
the striker, after returning it on the wall, has the privilege of preventing the player from striking
it again.

12. If a ball is struck with the foot, and assisted by the hand to the front wall, it is foul.
HAND-BALL. "109

13. When a player is about to strike the ball, and his opponent jostles him or gets in his way
intentionally, it is an ace or a hand out.

14. When a ball is served to the player he shall strike it on the fly or first bound ; failing to do so
counts an ace for the striker.

15. In a match for a prize, the contestants are allowed one minute for refreshments at the
expiration of each game before commencing another. The one failing to respond to the call of time
loses the match.

16. In a double match the striker’s partner shall stand with his back against either side of the wall
inside of the ace line until the ball leaves the front wall ; failing to do so is foul.

17. If a ball served to the player goes over the back board or strikes the gallery before bounding
on the floor, it is foul. |

18. The striker shall call time before serving the ball, and shall not serve the ball before the player
or players are outside of the ace line. "

19. In all cases when a ball is taken foul and the players play it or not, it shall be decided
as a foul ball. |

20. In striking the ball the player shall not touch the ball with any part of his person other than
the hand or foot, under forfeit of an ace or hand out.

21. If the striker, in serving the ball, strikes himself or his partner with the ball, and it goes
over the ace line, it is at the option of the player whether he plays to it or not, as it can be called
a hinder.

22. In case there are only boundary lines drawn, and no side walls, if the ball after striking
the front wall rebounds outside the side boundary line, such ball is foul, and not to be played to.

23. All disputed balls shall be decided by a referee chosen by the players, whose decision in all
cases shall be final.










































LAWN TENNIS.

O game of ball has achieved such rapid popularity in fashionable circles of
society in America as the field and court game of lawn tennis has within the

past three years. It is now the pet society game at all the watering-places and at
every fashionable summer resort in the country. Besides which, it is the only all-
the-year-round game of ball now in vogue, for when the summer lawn is covered
with snow, the tennis court is at command in any moderately-sized and smoothly
floored hall. While lawn tennis is a special favorite with those who cannot excel
in any game requiring any special attribute of physical manliness or courage,
owing to the fact that every phase of danger is eliminated from the game, it is
also popular with those who are expert in such manly sports as base-ball, cricket,
lacrosse, and foot-ball, from the fact that it necessitates litheness of limb and
activity of movement, besides affording a field for skilful strategic play when the
game is played up to its highest point, which is quite enjoyable by way of present-
LAWN TENNIS.

IIT

ing a light variety of exercise differing from the vigorous and dangerous exercises
of the other games. It is a capital game for boys, and is the most suitable field
game of ball for girls now in vogue, as it gives them the very kind of exercise they

most require for health.

THE MATERIALS OF THE GAME.

There are no votaries of any field game of ball who are so fussily particular in

regard to the special form or quality of
the rackets and balls used in the game
than are the general class of lawn-tennis
players ; and itis a notable fact that the
poorer the player the more particular he
is in this respect. Great improvements
have been made in lawn-tennis material
within the past few years, especially in
this country, the American rackets man-
ufactured by Messrs. Peck & Snyder, of
New York, rivalling the best in the Eng-
lish market, and the latest American
tennis balls equal those of the best Eng-
lish standard balls, and are better suited
toour hot summerclimate. The contrast between
the old style of racket and the new is here shown.

The English racket, as used some years ago,
was formed as if every shot was to be made low
and from a sidestroke. The new form of English
racket is as shown in the cut, and this is also the form of the model
American bat. The weight of the racket varies from twelve to
sixteen ounces. The net is different now from what it was a few
years since. Then the net reached to the ground, and consider-
able annoyance was occasioned by its stopping balls when thrown
back after the finish of a game. Now it is raised high enough
to admit of the balls passing under the net.



SERVING THE BALL.

—

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———



SS

The service is undoubtedly the most important and difficult duty devolving
on the tennis-player. As a general rule the server may be said to have the game
in his hands, and certainly ought to win most of his service. The server being
112 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

allowed two chances frequently devotes his first shot to experimental play ; but a
steadily served ball over the net at the first stroke is better than to risk a fancy
stroke. A safety service on the first stroke pays best in the end. There are three
styles of serving familiar to experts, and they are the simple “vss, the swift service,
and the ¢wist. The former should be an exceptional stroke, the most useful service
for general purposes being the swift stroke, which sends the ball just skimming
over the net line. The ‘‘ twist’’ or bias given the ball by the bat is accomplished
by combining with the forward stroke of the bat a sort of side cut, which causes
the ball to rotate on its axis, the result being that when it touches the ground the
rebound is an eccentric one instead of a rebound on the line of its progress to the
ground. It should not be sent in very swiftly, but only with sufficient force to
give due effect to the side cut or twist imparted to it.

Steady play in service is the play that wins in the long run. In the choice
between the service which never sends in two balls alike, and that which is marked
by one kind of stroke served steadily and well, the latter is the most advantageous
as an average service. The surer a server is at his stroke the most easy will he be
able to ‘* place’ the ball, and to ‘‘ place’ the ball is the true art of effective ser-
vice. As much execution may be often done by judicious placing of the ball, as
by difficult service. Watch your opponent well, find out his weak points, and
serve accordingly. If heis too far forward, serve back ; if he stands near the half-
court line, give him a ball in the opposite corner ; if he waits for you ready to take
the ball on either side, serve low to his feet, and so on.

The server should always keep one ball in hand so as to be ready for a second
service if the first is a fault. After serving the ball over the net, be on the gui vive
for the return ball, playing steadily while being ready.

STRIKING OUT.

A good ‘server’ is very apt to be also a good “‘ striker out ;’’ but there are
points peculiar to the latter process which need mentioning. First among the
rules in striking out is, the rule that it is easier to run forward for a ball than to
run back to get behind it. If it be a slow ball you have time to judge it, and to
run forward to meet it ; whereas if it be a fast ball you avoid having to run back in
following it, as also the difficulty of recovery near the end line. Another thing to
remember, with regard to position, is that—supposing you are not left-handed—it
is safer to keep to the left of your court than to the right, for to play a ball that
drops on the left of you, you must either change your racket from right to left or
take the serve backhanded ; whereas if you keep to the left of the ball you can run
LAWN TENNIS. I13

out and take it in the natural way. Of course it is possible to overdo anything,
and your adversary may catch you now and then too far back or too far to the
left, but, on the whole, it is a safe maxim in lawn tennis to observe two injunc-
tions—‘‘ Stand back,’’ and ‘‘ Keep to the left.’’

Avoid as much as possible showing your play to your adversary ; take your
time, but do not be so deliberate as to show him where you intend to place the
ball. On the other hand, do not be in such a hurry that it is odds against your

making the stroke you strive for.

THE FIELDER.

The “‘ fielder’ is the player in a four-handed match on either side who is
neither the server nor the recipient of a service, but assists his partner by looking
after the defence, taking the shots the forward player declines or misses. The
one requirement which the fielder needs beyond those of the server and striker-out
is the art of ‘“‘ volleying’’—that is, of taking the ball on its full pitch. For those
who play up near the net it is indispensable. Few things are so exciting as a
close-fought ‘‘ rally’? up at the net. Every stroke seems charged with fate, and
the spectator’s eye can often hardly keep pace with the rapid interchange of
strokes. The object of each is first to return his adversary’s shot, and next to
elude his adversary’s racket.

Coolness is a great requisite for the player who “‘ plays in,’’ for he must be
prompt to judge when to play at the ball and when to let it pass him. The back
fielder must be a good runner, for he bas a lot of ground to cover, and he should
be equally good at right or left-hand play, and be able to run one way and hit
another.

Be steady before you are showy. Do not imagine that a stylish uniform will
add to your play, or by jumping up at a ball you could easily reach without, or by
playing backhanded at a ball you could just as well have played straightforward,
will impress the spectators except to show them how little you know of the game.
To keep your temper is a golden rule; if you cannot you might as well retire from
the tennis field:

The following cuts illustrate the various methods of striking the ball. The
first is that of the straightforward stroke. The next strokes are the volleying and
half-volley strokes, shown in the appended cuts. To “‘ volley’’ the ball is to take
it ‘‘on the fly,’’ as follows. The half-volley stroke is that made in the case of a
bounding ball. Then comes the side stroke, Next comes the high backhanded
stroke.

6
Il4 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

We can best explain the working of the rules by describing an imaginary
game as follows: Brown and Jones, the two players, commence operations by

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tossing for sides. Brown wins, and may select either to have his choice of courts
or to take first service. He decides on the latter, and Jones consequently chooses
the court which he thinks will suit him best. The following diagram shows the

lines of the court in a single game.
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SIDE LINE
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Brown is called the ‘‘ server” in the first game, and Jones the “‘ striker-out.”’
Brown begins serving by standing on the right-hand half of his base-line, and has
to send the ball into his opponent’s front right-hand court, so that it falls between
LAWN TENNIS. 115

the net, the side line, the service line, and the half-court line. His first stroke
misses, and a “‘ fault’’ is charged to him. His second attempt sends the ball over
the net into the proper court, Jones runs up as it bounds, and returns it over the
net. The ball is now ‘‘in play’ as long as it falls over the net anywhere within
the outside lines, and as long as the players take it either on the ‘‘ volley’’—that
is, before it touches the ground—or on the first bound. In this way it goes back-
ward and forward several times, till presently Jones, hitting rather too hard, sends
it outside one of Brown’s side lines, who accordingly wins the first stroke, and,
scores 15. (The first ace scored counts 15, the second 30, the third 40, and the
fourth gives the gaine, provided the opposing players’ score is only 40.)

Brown, as the server, now takes up his position on the left half of his base-
line, and serves this time into Jones’s court. He gets over first time, and the ball
dropping close into the net, Jones does not reach it in time, and so fails to return
it. This makes Brown’s score 30, and once more he crosses over and serves from
right to left. But this time his ball fails to get over the net, and the second, instead
of falling into the proper square, drops on the other side. Having thus made two
consecutive faults, he loses that stroke, and the score accordingly stands at 30—15.

The next stroke he gets over the net all right, and Jones apparently returns it;
but the latter, instead of taking the service on the first bound, takes it on the
‘‘ volley,’’ which is not allowed in the case of a service (though it is quite admis-
sible when the ball is ‘‘in play’) and therefore loses the stroke, making the score
40—15. :

On Brown’s next service Jones gets well under the served ball and returns it
hard, and as Brown failed to meet it in time the stroke is Jones’s. Score, 40—30.

In the next serve, however, it seems as if Jones were to be paid back in his
own coin, for Brown’s ball in serving now touches the net and falls out of reach of
the striker-out. That, you say, makes game to Brown. No. If the ball touches
the net in the service, and falls on the other side, it counts as a ‘‘ no ball,’’ so that
not only has Brown not won the game, but he must serve again from the same
court. His first shot flies right over Jones’s base-line, and is a fault. The second
is better, though only just in, for it falls on one of the lines that bound the re-
quired square. Jones returns it, and an exciting passage at arms ensues. At:
last it falls out- on Brown’s side, but Brown, having been indiscreet enough to-
touch it as it passed with his bat, the stroke falls to Jones once more, and the score
is now 40 all, or “* deuce.’

Jones wins the next stroke, and the score is then ‘‘ vantage’’ to Jones, who, if
he wins the next, claims the game. However, he does not win it, for Brown plays
a ball over his head right on to his base-line, where he cannot reach it. The score
consequently goes back to ‘‘ deuce,’”’ where it will remain till one of the two com;

66
116 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

batants scores two strokes running. Brown leads off his next service with another
fault, which is disallowed, even though Jones takes it. But the next stroke he
gets over, and Jones misses the return: ‘‘ vantage’ to Brown. The game now
becomes exciting. Jones wins the next stroke, and the score accordingly goes
back again to ‘‘deuce.’’ And so it progresses, until finally Brown being at
“‘ vantage,’’ a smart ‘‘rally’’ close up to the net ends in his favor, owing to Jones
having struck the ball before it had passed to his side of the net. And so ends the
first game.

The ‘“‘set’’ is for the best out of eleven games—that is, whoever scores six
games first is declared winner of the set. If both players should tie at five games
each, they may choose whether the next game shall decide, or whether they will
fight the matter out by treating the score as a deuce of games, and going on till
either one wins two consecutive games on the top of ‘‘ games all,”’ as five games
each is called.

In this brief description of a single game of a ‘“‘set,’’ the novice will have
obtained an insight of the ins and outs of the game, so that when he comes to take
the bat in hand himself he will at any rate know some of the things he may do,
and some that he may not do, in lawn tennis. If he is anxious to complete his
information, he should also watch a four-handed match in progress. In one or
two respects this differs from the two-handed game. The chief difference is in the
marking of the courts. The following diagram represents a court marked out for
a three- or four-handed match.

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Here it will be seen that while the length remains unaltered, the width of the
LAWN TENNIS. Il7

court is now thirty-six feet, and that lines are drawn inside the side lines, and
paralleled with them at four and a half feet distance. The result of this variation
is, that whereas the size of the courts into which one is required to serve remains
the same as in the two-handed game, the ground itself is nine feet wider, thus
allowing considerably more scope for the general play following the service. In
four-handed games the players go in alternately : thus, if Johnson and Smith were
playing Tomkins and Green, Johnson would serve the first game, Tomkins the
second, Smith the third, and Green the fourth, and so on. If Johnson alone were
playing Tomkins and Green, Johnson would serve the first and third games, and
Tomkins and Green the second and fourth respectively.

But we must now consider our beginner to have mastered the rudiments of
the game, and even to have practised sufficiently to make him feel tolerably at
home with a bat in his hand.

INSTRUCTIONS â„¢O SCORERS.

The only data on which a correct estimate of a player’s skill.can be based, in
lawn tennis, is that which gives the figures of the score of aces by service and re-
turns. When a player serves the ball and his opponent fails to return it, the
former scores an ‘‘ ace by service ;’’ and when, on the return of the served ball
the server fails to return it successfully to his opponent, the latter scores an ‘‘ ace
by return.”’ By this data it is readily ascertained, by the figures of the score,
whether a player is most skilful in making a difficult service, or whether he is most
effective in returning served balls. In a detailed score, too, which records the
character of every played ball, whether it be a ‘‘ fault,” a ‘‘ served ”’ ball, a “‘ re-
turned,’’ ball, or a ‘‘ volleyed return ;’’ together with the number of ‘‘ exchanges’’
of played balls, the data for an analysis of a player’s general skill is obtained, on
which a correct average of his season’s play can be made out, something hitherto
unattainable under the old method of scoring the game.

The scorer, in making out a detailed score, will have to note down every in-
dividual ball played, and to do this correctly he must watch the game closely, for
the movements of the players are very rapid, and if his attention is distracted, even
but for a moment, he will be very apt to lose the run of the play. For this reason
the scorer of a match game should never act in the double capacity of umpire as-
well as scorer.

In scoring ‘‘ faults’’ no notice is to be taken of individual faults, but only of
faults yielding aces, as it is frequently a point in the game in serving the ball, to
make a fault on the first ball served, in order to deceive an Opponent as to the
character of the service.
118 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

‘* An ace by service’’ is indicated by the figure one, with a dot placed over it,’
thus (i).

‘‘ An ace by return’’ is shown by the simple figure one, thus (1).

‘‘ An ace scored "’ after a number of ‘‘ volley’’ exchanges—viz., returns of fly
balls—is marked thus, (4), the figure above the figure one showing the number of
“‘ volley’’ exchanges made before the ace was scored.

“An ace by faults’’ is indicated by the letter (f), and it is recorded to the
credit of the opposing player as a return in the total count at the close of the set.
The scorer should require the umpire to call each ace scored as made. Thus,
‘*15"’ for the first ace, ‘‘ 30°’ for the second, ‘‘ 4o’’ for the third, and ‘‘ game’’ for
the fourth. When the score stands at one to nothing, the call is ‘‘ 15 love,’’ the
word love indicating no score. When the tally is 40 to 40 the call should be
‘ deuce.’’ When the next ace is scored after ‘‘ deuce’’ the call is ‘‘ vantage,’’ and
the next ace scored after vantage—if by the same player—is game. If the next
after ‘‘ vantage’ is by the opposing player, then the call is ‘‘ deuce’ again.

The most complete score-book yet published is ‘‘ Peck & Snyder’s Lawn
Tennis Score-Book,’’ issued in New York.

THE RULES OF THE GAME.

The following is the code of rules of the United States Lawn-Tennis Association, as revised at the
Convention of 1883 ; together with the rules for the government of umpires, as, also, certain decisions
on disputed points rendered by Dr. James Dwight, the President of the Association.

THF. COURT.

1. The court is 78 ft. long and 27 ft. wide. It is divided across the middle by a net, the ends of
which are attached to two posts, standing 3 ft. outside of the court on either side. The height of the
net is 3 ft. 6 in. atthe posts and 3 ft. in the middle. At each end of the court, parallel with the net,
and 39 ft. from it, are drawn the base-lines, the ends of which are connected by the side-lines. Half
way between the side-lines, and parallel with them, is drawn the half court line, dividing the space on
each side of the net into two equal parts, the right and left courts. On each side of the net, at a dis-
tance of 21 ft. from it, and parallel with it, are drawn the service-lines.

THE BALLS.

2. The balls shall measure not less than 2.15-32 in., nor more than 24% in. in diameter, and shall
weigh not less than 1.*5-16 oz., nor*more than 2 oz.

THE GAME,

3. The choice of sides, and the right to serve in the first game, shall be decided by toss, provided
that, if the winner of the toss choose the right to serve, the other player shall have choice of sides, and
vice versa. If one player choose the court, the other may elect not to serve.

4. The players shall stand on opposite sides of the net. The player who first delivers the ball shall
be called the server, and the other the striker-out.
LAWN TENNIS. 11g

5. At the end of the first game the striker-out shall become server, and the server shall become
striker-out ; and so on alternately in all the subsequent games of the set, or series of sets.

6. The server shall serve with one foot on the ground outside of the base-line, and with the other
on the ground, within, or upon, that line. He shall deliver the service from the right and left courts
alternately, beginning from the right.

' 7, The ball served must drop between the service-line, half-court line, and side-line of the court,
diagonally opposite to that from which it was served.

8. It is a fault if the server fail to strike the ball, or, if the ball served drop in the net, or beyond
the service-line, or out of court, or in the wrong court; or if the server do not stand as directed by
Law 6.

g. A ball falling on a line is regarded as falling in the court bounded by that line.

10, A fault cannot be taken.

11. After a fault the server shall serve again from the same court from which he served that fault,
unless it was a fault because he served from the wrong court.

12. A fault cannot be claimed after the next service is delivered.

13. The server shall not serve till the striker-out is ready. If the latter attempt to return the ser-
vice he shall be deemed ready.

14. A service or fault delivered when the striker-out is not ready, counts for nothing.

15. The service shall not be volleyed, z.e., taken, before it has touched the ground.

16. A bal] is in play on leaving the server’s racket, except as provided for in Law 8.

17. It is a good return, although the ball touch the net; but a service, otherwise good, which
touches the net, shall count for nothing.

18. The server wins a stroke if the striker-out volley the service, or if he fail to return the service
or the ballin play ; or if he return the service or the ball in play so that it drops outside of his oppo-
nent’s court ; or if he otherwise lose a stroke, as provided by Law 20.

1g. The striker-out wins a stroke if the server serve two consecutive faults ; or if he fail to return
the ball in play ; or if he return the ball in play so that it drops outside of his opponent’s court ; or if
he otherwise lose a stroke, as provided by Law 20.

20. Either player loses a stroke if he return the service or the ball in play so that it touches a post
of the net ; or if the ball touch him or anything that he wears or carries, except his racket in the act of °
striking ; or if he touch the ball with his racket more than once; or if he touch the net or any of its
supports while the ball is in play ; or if he volley the ball before it has passed the net ; or if the service
or the ball in play touch a ball lying in his court.

21. On either player winning his first stroke, the score is called 15 for that player ; on either
player winning his second stroke, the score is called 30 for that player; on either player winning his
third stroke, the score is called 4o for that player ; and the fourth stroke won by either player is scored
game for that player, except as below: If both players have won three strokés, the score is. called
deuce; and the next stroke won by either player is scored advantage for that player. If the same
player wins the next stroke, he wins the game ; if he loses the next stroke, the score returns to deuce ;
and so on, until one player wins the two strokes immediately following the score of deuce, when game
is scored for that player.

22. The player who first wins six games, wins the set, except as below: If both players win five
games, the score is called pames all; and the next game won by either player is scored advantage
game for that player. If the same player wins the next game, he wins the set; if he loses the next
game, the score returns to games all; and so on, until either player wins the two games immediately
following the score of games all, when he wins the set.

}
120 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

23. The players shall change sides at the end of every set ; but the umpire, on appeal from either
player, before the toss for choice, may direct the players to change sides at the end of every game of
each set, if, in his opinion, either side have a distinct advantage owing to the sun, wind, or any other
accidental cause ; but if the appeal be made after the toss for choice, the umpire can only direct the
players to change sides at the end of every game of the odd or deciding set. .

24. When a series of sets is played, the player who served in the last game of one set shall be
striker-out in the first game of the next.

THE THREE-HANDED AND FOUR-HANDED GAMES.

25. The above laws shall apply to the three-handed and four-handed games, except as below:

26. For the three-handed and four-handed games the court shall be 36 ft. in width. 4% ft. inside
the side-lines, and parallel with them, are drawn the service side-lines. The service-lines are not
drawn beyend the point at which they meet the service side-lines.

27. In the three-handed game, the single player shall serve in every alternate game.

28. In the four-handed game, the pair who have the right to serve in the first game shall decide
which partner shall do so; and the opposing pair shall decide in like manner for the second game. The
partner of the player who served in the first game shall serve in the third, and the partner of the player
who served in the second game shall serve in the fourth, and the same order shall be maintained in all
the subsequent games of the set. .

29. At the beginning of the next set, either partner of the pair which struck out in the last game of
the last set may serve.

30. The player shall take the service alternately throughout the game ; a player cannot receive a
service delivered to his partner ; and the order of service and striking out once established shall not be
altered, nor shall the striker-out change courts to receive the service, till the end of the set.

31. It is a fault if the ball served does not drop between the service-line, half-court line, and
service side-line of the court, diagonally opposite to that from which it was served.

32. In matches, the decision of the umpire shall be final. Should there be two umpires, they shall
divide the court between them, and the decision of each shall be final in his share of the court.

ODDS.

33- A bisque is one point which can be taken by the receiver of the odds at any time in the set,
except as follows :

(2) A bisque cannot be taken after a service is delivered.

(4) The server may not take a bisque after the fault, but the striker-out may do so.

34. One or more bisques may be given to increase or diminish other odds.

35. Half fifteen is one stroke given at the beginning of the second, fourth, and every subsequent
alternate game of a set.

36. Fifteen is one stroke given at the beginning of every game of a set.

37- Half thirty is one stroke given at the beginning of the first game, two strokes given at the
beginning of the second game, and so on alternately in all the subsequent games of the set.

38. Thirty is two strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.

39. Half forty is two strokes given atthe beginning of the first game, three strokes given at the
beginning of the second game, and so on alternately, in all the subsequent games of the set.

40. Forty is three strokes given at the beginning of every game of a set.
LAWN TENNIS. I2]

41. Half court ; the players may agree into which half court, right or left, the giver of the odds
shall play ; and the latter loses a stroke if the ball returned by him drop outside any of the lines which
bound that half court.

RULES FOR UMPIRES.

1, There should be two umpires for each game, unless there is a raised stand by the net.

2. If there are two umpires they should be placed in the following manner: The umpire on the
service-side should stand opposite the end of the base-line, so as to be able to see if the server stands
as required. It is his duty to watch the base-line and one side-line throughout its entire length. The
other umpire should stand opposite the service-line on the other side until the service is returned, and
should then fall back to the end of the base-line diagonally opposite to the other umpire. He is to watch
his base-line, and the whole side-line on his side. In the absence of a scorer, the two umpires should
arrange which shall call the score.

3. Itis the duty of the umpire to call faults, strokes, games, and sets, when scored, or when requested
todoso. Not to call play, or give advice of any kind.

4. If, in his opinion, one side has a distinct advantage, and he is appealed to to direct the players
to change sides at the end of every game, he has no option whatever, but must direct them to do so,
and remind them at the end of each game.

5. In four handed games there should be a third umpire at the net, whose only duty is to see that
the rules regarding the net are observed. He usually, however, also acts as referee.

DECISIONS,

Case 1. Can a player follow a ball over the net with his racket, provided that he hits the ball on
his own side of the net ?

Decision. Yes. The only restrictions are that he shall not volley the ball until it has crossed the
net, and that he shall not touch the net or any of its supports.

Case 2. A player is standing outside of the court and volleys the ball; he then claims that the ball
was out.

Deciston, The ball isin play until it touches the ground outside of thecourt. The player’s position
. is of no consequence whatever.

Case 3. A player, standing outside of the court, catches the ball, and claims that it was certainly
going out. Who wins the stroke ?

Decision. Wisadversary. It is avery common thing fora player to stop a ball inthis way, and
score the point, but itis by courtesy only that he is allowed to do so. He loses the stroke if his oppo-
nent claims it.

Case 4. The service is delivered before the striker-out is ready. He tries to return it and fails. Is
he entitled to have it played over?

Decision. No. If he attempts to return the service, he is deemed ready.

Case 5. A ball having been played over the net, bounces back into the court from which it came.
The player reaches over the net and plays it before it falls. Has he a right to do so?

Decision. Yes, provided he does not touch the net. He hasaright to play the ball at any time
from the moment it crosses the net into his court, until it touches the ground'a second time.

Case 6. A ball is played into the net ; the net player on the other side, thinking that the ball is
coming over, strikes at it and hits the net. Who loses the stroke ?
122 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Decision, It is simply a question of which happened first. If the player touched the net while the
ball was still in play, he loses the stroke. Hitting the net after the ball is dead can make no difference.

Case 7. A player is struck by the ball served before it has touched the ground, he being outside of
the service court. How does it count?

Decision, The player struck loses the point. The service is presumably good until it strikes in the
wrong court. A player cannot take the decision upon himself by stopping the ball. If it is going to be
afault he has only to get out of the way.

Case 8. A by-stander gets in the way of a player; the latter attempts to return the ball and fails.
Has he aright to have the hand played again?

Decision. Not if he attempted to return the bali. But if he makes no such attempt, and, in the
umpire’s opinion, the bystander was distinctly in the way, he shall then have a right to have the hand
played over.


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CROQUET.

O play the game of croquet, a certain number of hoops and pegs are set up

on the lawn. Each player takes a mallet and one or more balls. The
players are divided into two sides and play in rotation, each one being followed
by one on the opposite side. The player, when his turn comes round, strikes his
ball once. If he make a point, he strikes it again; if his ball hit or ‘‘ roquet’’
another, he places it in contact with the latter, and strikes his own ball so as to
move them both—this is called ‘‘ taking croquet.’’ He can strike his own ball
again after taking croquet. The object of the game is to make all the points (the
hoops and pegs) in proper order, and that side wins which first does so with all its
balls. Thus it is not only the object of each side to make the points itself, but
also to prevent the opposite side progressing. The game may be played with six
or eight balls, by a like number of players ; but this number makes the game much
too long, the best plan being to use only four balls either with four players or
with two players, each of whom takes two balls. The latter is the most general,
and affords by far the best game, If more than four players want to play, it is
better to make two sets of four, one beginning at each end, than to make one
game of eight.

The materials of the game are the hoops, the pegs, the balls, the chips, and
the mallets. The latter are the most important part of the croquet set, next to the
balls. There is a great variety of mallets now in use, each called after its in-
ventor. One of the most used is the ‘‘ Cavendish,’ which has a cylindrical head
of boxwood, 8 inches long and 3 inches in diameter, weight 2 pounds to 3 pounds.
The end or face of the head is flat, not rounded. The handle is of ash, made of
an octagon form where it is grasped by the hand, to give a better hold, for which
purpose it is often bound with string like a cricket-bat, or covered with leather.
The length of the handle is generally about 32 inches.

The appended cut shows the latest style of mallet now used by English ex-
perts. It is known as the “sliced mallet,’’ and the feature of it is that the bottom
of the cylindrical head of the mallet is sliced off so as to let it rest flat on the
ground.
I24 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

The best setting for the hoops is that shown in the appended diagram, which
shows the order
of running the
hoops. The
Starting spot is
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THE SIX-HOOP SETTING.

pegs. Hoops up centre line of ground, one fifth of the length of the ground
CROQUET. 126

from pegs and each other. The number of points is 14, including the winning
peg. |

The old style of the ‘‘ tight croquet’ has been entirely superseded by what is
' known as the ‘‘ loose croquet,’’ the former now being left optional with the
player.

THE STROKES.

The several strokes used in the modern game are the ‘‘ rush,” the ‘‘ jump,’’
the ‘‘ stop,’’ the ‘‘ follow,’’ the “‘ passing,’* the ‘‘ splitting,’ and the ‘‘ take-off.’’
Of these the most important is ‘‘ the rush,’’ which is simply a roquet played hard,
so as to send the roqueted ball to sume distant spot where the croquet may be taken
to greater advantage than it could be if the ball were merely hit gently. This
apparently simple feat is found very difficult by some beginners, from the liability
of the striker’s own ball to jump over the other when hit so hard. To avoid this,
care must be taken not to hit down on the ball, but to strike it, if possible, slightly
under its centre, and a sharp tap must be given. A good deal of practice is often
required before this stroke is thoroughly mastered. When the player can rush in
a straight line, he may try rushing at an angle, or the ‘‘ cut,’’ as it is called, so as
to send the object ball to one side or the other, as may be desired. If, for in-
stance, it be desired to rush the ball to the left, the right side of it must be struck
by the striker’s ball. This of course can only be attempted at comparatively
short distances. |

‘‘The jump stroke’ is useful for making one’s ball jump over a ball. or hoop
which intervenes between it and the one to be roqueted. This is done by standing
a foot or two to the left of your ball and striking down on it very sharply, just the
opposite, it will be observed, of what is done in the rush.

‘‘The stop stroke,’’ in which the striker’s ball goes a short distance, while
the other goes a long way, consists merely in giving a sharp tap, and the sharper
the stroke is the shorter will be the distance run by the striker’s ball as compared
with that run by the other.

‘‘The rolling or following stroke,’’ in which both balls go about the same
distance, is accomplished by following or dwelling on the stroke with the mallet,
instead of giving a sharp tap as in the stop stroke. Care must be taken not to
make a ‘‘ double tap,’’ which would make it a ‘‘ foul stroke.””’ Though this stroke,
requires a good deal of force, yet it is more the following well on with the mallet
that is the secret of success. :

In ‘‘ the passing stroke,’’ the striker’s or rear ball passes and goes a longer
distance than the forward or croqueted ball. This result is achieved by following |

$$
126 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

the ball with the mallet even more than in the rolling stroke, and still more care
must be taken not to makea ‘‘foul.’’ It isa very useful stroke, and should be
well practised, as indeed should all the croquet strokes.

‘“ The splitting stroke’ is the most difficult of all the croquet strokes. In it
the two bulls do not go in the same direction, but fly off at an angle from each
other. The first thing to remember is that in all cases the croqueted ball will go
right away almost in the direction of the line passing through the centres of the
two balis—that is, toward a in the figure, in which y is the striker’s and x the.
croqueted ball. The direction in which the striker’s own ball goes depends upon
the sort of stroke given, and the following simple rules should be noticed :

If the stroke is to be a stop splitting stroke, aim the mallet Aalf way between the
directions to be taken by the two balls—that is, if x in the figure is to go to a and
Â¥ to B, the mallet must be aimed in the direction c; but if v is to go to B', then
aim toward B.

If the stroke is to bea rolling or passing splitting stroke, aim the mallet in
the same direction that your own ball is to take. Thus, if vis to go to c, aim
toward c ; if toward 8B, aim toward B, x in both cases going toward a.

The above rules will be sufficient for the beginner: he will after a little
practice be able to find out the various angles and distances for himself.

THE SPLITTING STROKE,

‘* The take-off,’”’ formerly called ‘‘ taking two turns off,” is a variety of split-
ting stroke in which the balls are so placed and struck that the striker’s ball re-
ceives nearly the whole force of the blow, the other ball only just moving. The
croquet ball must be moved on this shot, or it is ‘‘ foul.’’

In regard to the rules of the game here in America, each city has its own code.
There are the Newport rules, the New York and Brooklyn rules, and the Philadel-
phia code, all of which are very nearly alike.


CROQUET. 127

TERMS USED IN CROQUET.

Zo roguet (pronounced rokay). To hit with one’s own ball any other ball for
the first time in the turn, or for the first time after making a point. The player is
entitled to croquet the ball he roquets.

To croquet (pronounced crokay). To croquet, or take croquet, the player places
his own ball in contact with the one he has just roqueted, and then strikes his own
ball with his mallet.

In play.—In hand. When a player strikes his ball at the beginning of the game
it is ‘‘in play.’’ When he has made a roquet with it, it is ‘“‘in hand” until
croquet is taken. After the croquet it is ‘‘in play’’ till the next roquet is made.

Striker. The player who is in the act of playing, or has the right to play.

Player or next player. The adversary’s ball which is next to piay. |

Dead bail, The adversary’s ball which has just been played.

Olject ball. The ball at which you aim your own, or off which you take
croquet.

Break. The play by which a number of points are made in the same turn.
Thus if three points are run in proper order, it is a break of three points.

Rover. A ball that has made all the points except the winning peg.

Out and in. The player who has the command of the balls is said to be ‘‘ in,
or to ‘‘ have the break ;’’ while the other side is ‘‘ out.”’

Wiring. When a ball is so placed that a hoop or peg lies directly between it
and another ball, it is said to be *‘ wired ’’ for the latter.

a?
RACKETS.

- RACKET-COURT (Fig. 1) resembles a hand-ball court, just as the game of
rackets resembles hand-ball ; but it is larger, and can be erected only at a
Hence, it is for the most part only in the large cities where a racket
court can be found. These courts are of various sizes, ranging from fifty to fully
eighty feet in length, and from thirty to forty feet wide, with a very high roof and
a back wall of less height, having at the top of it a gallery for spectators, who can
thus look into the court from above. Across the front wall, which is black, is
fixed a board, or balk, about two feet two inches high, and a white line, called
the *‘ cut’’ line, is also traced across it, about seven feet nine inches or eight feet
above the floor.
The floor itself, which should be of smooth stone, asphalt, or concrete, per-

large cost.

BACK] WALL.



fectly level, is divided into sections, as shown in
the diagram (Fig. 1). About half way down the
court, but nearer to the back wall than the front,
a line is marked parallel to those walls ; and the
back part so marked off is divided into two equal
portions, c and D, by a line traced at right angles
to the back wall. The two small spaces marked a
and B are service spaces, within which the person
who serves must place one or both of his feet.
The balls are not more than half the size of hand-
balls, and are played with ‘“‘ rackets,’’ a peculiar
kind of bat, like a battledore, with strong catgut
laced crosswise through the frame (Fig. 2).

The game is begun by one of the players
striking the ball against the front wall, above the
white line, so as to fall, without bounding, into the
back court opposite. Thus, if he stands at a, he
must strike the ball into D, where it must be taken
by one of the players on the other side, either at the

volley orat first bound. If, in serving, the ball is struck against the side wall, or roof,
RACKETS. 129

or floor, before it hits the front wall, orif it is served below the balk line, or is struck
so hard as to go out of court, it is a ‘‘ hand out’’—that is to say, the striker loses -
his innings. . If the ball is served from the wrong place, or if.it hits the front wall
above the balk line, but below the white one, or if, after properly hitting the
front wall, it fall into any but the right court, or hit the roof or gallery without
going out of court, it is called a “‘ fault,’? and the person to whom it is served is
not obliged to take it. He may do so, however; and if he does, the game pro-
ceeds as if it had been properly served. Should he attempt to take it, and fail,
the server then scores an ace ; and the same result follows whenever his opponent
or opponents fail to return the ball above the lower line. When an ace is won,
the man in goes over from a to B, and then ‘‘ serves left’’—that is to say, into
court c. The out-players stand behind the server while the ball is being served
and taken ; and afterward the usual arrangement is that the server shall take all
the balls which fall inside the cross line, and his partner shall take all which fall
farther back. The man who is served to, on the other side, takes all which fall in
the back courts, while his partner
attends to those which fall nearer
the front wall. The game is made
up of fifteen aces, and after the first
player is put out, the others suc-
_ ceed one another in order, each pair of partners having to be put out before
the other side goes in. Thus, supposing that M and N are playing against.
X and Y, and that M and X are both better players than their respective
partners. The question which side shall go in first is usually decided, not by
tossing a coin as in cricket, but in the following way: It will be discovered, on
looking closely at a racket, that at the thin end of it, nearest the handle, the strings:
which cross the frame from edge to edge are twisted round the others which go:
lengthwise, so as to project on one side or face of the racket, and give it a.
‘“‘rough’’ appearance, whereas on the other side they do not project, but are:
‘““smooth.’’ When, therefore, it is required to decide as to innings, one of the:
players holds his racket downward with the handle between his finger and thumb,
so that the top part of it rests on the floor of the court. He then gives it a spin,
and lets it fall, while one of the adversaries in the mean time calls ‘‘ rough’’ or:
‘‘smooth.’’? When the racket has fallen on its face, it is examined to see which.
side is uppermost, and the question of innings is decided accordingly. Supposing,
then, that M and N have called ‘‘ rough,’’ and that ‘‘ rough it is,’’ M, being the:
better player of the two, will proceed to serve, and as he and his partner score:
each ace, the game will be called ‘‘ one love,’’ ‘‘ two love,’’ ‘‘ three love,’’ etc.
If he is put out after making three aces, X will succeed him, and as he serves the:


130 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

game will be called ‘‘ love three.’’ As he makes his score it will be called ‘‘ one
three,’’ ‘‘ two three,’’ ‘‘ three all,’’ and so on, until he also is put out, when his
partner must go in, and serve from the court opposite to that from which the last
service was made: .When he is out M will go in, and be followed by N. Whena
game has been won there is no change of innings, but the player who was serving
when the game ended begins the next game at “ love all,’’ and when he is out his
two adversaries go in in what order they please. Thus it will be seen that at the
commencement only one hand is allowed to go in, but afterward the two hands on
each side go in successively till the game is won. It will also be remarked that a
player who is good at serving has a great advantage, as whenever he scores the
game, which he is sure often to do, he secures not only this benefit, but that of
first innings in the next game. It is generally the rule, that when the game is
called ‘‘ thirteen all,’’ it may, upon the demand of the out-player, be ‘‘ set at five,”’
in which case five aces must be added to the'score of 13 before the game can be
concluded on either side. Ata tie of 14 the game may be “‘ set at three.”’

If in serving a ball, should the ball touch either the server or his partner be-
fore it has bounded twice, it puts him out.

If a striker in returning the ball hits the ball against his partner’s racket or
person, it counts an ace against him, or a hand out if he is in.

Tt is a “‘let’’ if the out hand unintentionally gets in the way of the striker,
and a “‘hinder’’ or ‘* balk’’ if he do it: purposely, and in the latter case counts an
ace against him.

Two consecutive ‘‘ faults’ put a server out.
HOCKEY.

HIS fine old English game may be played by any number of boys. Each

player must provide himself with a stick having a curved or crooked head at
its lower extremity. A large meadow or open common is required for this game
when the players are numerous. Two goals or bounds should be formed about
five hundred yards apart, each goal being indicated by one or two small flags.
Sides are now to be chosen by two of the best players, who select their partners
alternately. Chance decides which side is to have the first strike at the little
wooden ball, which is generally the object of contention. The ball is put down
at about one third distance from the striker’s goal, and the sides are arranged
opposite each other. When all are ready, the striker calls out ‘‘ Play !’ and
drives the ball forward toward his adversaries’ goal. The aim of the players on
one side is to strike the ball over their opponents’ bounds, while those of the other
party endeavor to prevent this by driving the ball in an opposite direction over the
other goal. When the ball is driven over either of the goals the game is decided,
and sides must.be chosen afresh. This healthy and exciting game is called
*‘shinty’’ in Scotland and ‘‘ bandy’’ in many parts of England and Wales.

In all the general principles hockey bears a great resemblance to foot-ball,
the game consisting in driving a ball through a goal.
The ball, however, is of much smaller dimensions, even
_ where a ball, and not a bung, is used. The shape and di-
mensions of the hockey stick are entirely arbitrary, being
left to the peculiar taste of the owners. Some like their
hockeys to be sharply hooked, while others prefer them
merely bent over at the end. Some players like a very
thick, heavy stick, which can be put down in front of the
ball in order to neutralize the blows of the opposite side,
while others can play best with a slight and springy
weapon, that can be used with one hand, and is employed
to tap the ball away just as an opponent is about to
strike, and to coax it, as it were, toward the goal through
the mass of adverse sticks.


132 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

The four sticks shown in the engraving are very good samples of the forms
best adapted for use.

The ball used in the game is ordinarily an ordinary cask bung. The material
requires to be something tough and strong, so as to withstand the constant blows
given it.

THE RULES.

1. The game is won by the ball passing through the enemy’s goal.

2. The ball must be struck through the goal with the stick, not thrown or kicked.

3. Each player shall strike from right to left, and any player infringing this rule is liable to the
penalty of suspension from play.

4- Each player shall remain on his own side, and if he crosses to that of the opponent is liable to
the same penalty.

5. No player shall raise the head of his stick higher than his shoulder, on pain of the same
penalty.

6. The ball may be stopped with the stick, or with any part of the person, provided that the
intervening player is on his own side.

7. If the ball be kicked or thrown through the goal, or if struck beyond the goal-lines, it is to be
brought into play again by the junior player of the side who struck the last blow, and gently thrown
toward the centre peg.

8. Any player wilfully striking another is immediately to be excluded from the game.

By means of these rules the game of hockey is shorn of the danger consequent on the loose and
unrestrained play that is sometimes seen, the sticks brandished in all directions, and the two sides so
intermixed that it is hardly possible to discriminate between them. Many a person has been seriously
damaged by such undisciplined play, and teeth have been struck out, or even eyes fost in the contest.

Hockey is a favorite game in Canada, there being a Hockey club of note in Montreal and smaller
clubs in other cities of the Dominion.


POLO.

HE game of polo is simply ‘‘ hockey’’ or ‘‘ shinney,’’ played while on horse-
back. It is, of course, a sport only available for wealthy people, for the
ponies or ‘‘ mustangs’”’ trained for the game are expensive animals, and each
player requires to have two at command, not only to relieve the animal from over-
fatigue in a match, but also in case accidents happen. The ground required for
this sport must be larger in size than a field which would do for ‘‘ hockey ;’’ and
it should be of level turf, without swampy places or intersecting roads. A space
of 120 yards in length and 70 in width is the smallest that should be used ; and it
is far better if a ground can be secured of double that size. In the middle of it, at
each of the two ends, will be placed the goals, as at foot-ball ; and it is, of course,
the object of each side to drive the ball between the posts marking the adversary’s
goal.

The great attraction of polo, which has made it popular among those who can
afford to play it, is to be found in the horsemanship which is required of the
players, as well as in the difficulty met with in hitting the ball. The stroke is
made with a long club like a mallet, whereas in hockey it is hooked, and
projects only on one side, so that the ball may be either driven forcibly forward
or partly drawn and partly pushed along the ground. Polo is, in short, almost
diametrically opposite in its system to hockey, in which dribbling is the most
important part of the game, and proficiency in keeping with the ball, and fol-
lowing it all over the field is the chief qualification of a first-rate player. There are.
twa strokes common in polo—the forward and the back-handed, and the latter is ex-
tremely useful when the ball is flying toward the goal, and a defender thereof,
galloping after it, overtakes it in time, and by one clever back-hit sends it away
far behind his back toward his friends. The rules of polo do not usually in- .
clude any restrictions as to off side, and thus a skilful player will so place his ball
as to elude the enemy, and find its way toward one of his own side. There are
generally eight players on each side; and they should be distinguished by a con-
trast of color in their costume, as it would be otherwise impossible in the heat of
action to know friend from foe.

As for the ponies used in polo, the chief requisites are that they should be
134 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

swift, both in a straightforward course and at the turn, afraid of nothing, and
obedient to the slightest movement of the rider. These, it may be thought, are
rather heavy demands to make; and, in effect, a good polo pony ought to be
worth a handsome price, and much more handsome than he generally fetches in
' the market. For an animal which is really good for polo must be good for almost
everything else, and more especially for teaching a youngster how to ride, and
how to become in all respects a good horseman.


BOWLS.

HIS is one of the oldest games of ball extant, and centuries ago was the most

popular of field games among the English nobility, bowling greens in the
olden time being as numerous as tennis lawns are now. The regular game is
played with hard Uignum-vite balls, turned in such a manner as to make them
diverge from a straight line when bowled on the green and turn in toward the
‘* Jack,’’ or ball, which the bowler aims for. In fact, the regular game is quite a -
scientific sport, and presents a field for a great display of skill. The game as
modernized for young players differs from the regular game materially, and it is
this latter game of bowls only which we have included in our list of sports in oo
work. For this a special court is laid down, in form as follows :













|
14

al x

=! om : a

fy LINE FROW “TEE” TO “TEE” = ene mene! 3)

Z 4150 feet in length |

ri - =

Zz m .

oom



To lay down a bowling court like the above, a level piece of hard surface
ground is necessary, and it would be well to sink the level of the court about four
or six inches below the surface, boarding the sides of the court. When a regular
‘court is not laid out in this way, the game can be easily played on a croquet or
tennis lawn, the only points to be laid down being the “‘ tees’” at the two ends and
the lines behind which the bowlers are to stand when bowling.
laid down in the centre of the circle at each end, and this forms the “‘ tee.’’
This court would be marked out as follows :



UNIT S,UHIMOT
aaL © FHL
|
6
136 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

THE RULES.

I. From one to five players on a side can take part in the game, each player rolling two balls, one
each alternately with the opposite player.

2. The balls used are to be regular croquet balls, marked in such a way as to distinguish those of
each side in the contest.

3. The bowler must deliver each ball with both feet back of the bowler’s line, and after it leaves
his hand, unless accidentally dropped, shall be considered as bowled.

4. Twenty-one aces constitute a game, and the best three games out of five a match.

5. When all the balls of both sides have been bowled the “end” is completed, and the side
having the ball nearest the “ tee” counts one ace. Should such side have more than one ball nearer
the “‘tee’’ than any ball of the opposite side, an additional ace is to be counted for each such ad-
ditional ball. |

6. A ball bowled so as to settle in the centre of the “ tee’’ quoit counts two aces, provided it re-
mains in position until the completion of the end, not otherwise.
_ 3. Each side shall bowl in regular order as named before beginning play, and there shall be
no change made in such order until the close of a game.

‘8. Any player bowling out of his turn shall have his ball taken off the court until the cluse of
the end.
RINK-BALL.

HIS is a game peculiar to roller-skating rinks, and is simply a variation a)

foot-ball. It would be impossible to play foot- ball on skates, and-rink-ball
is the skating substitute. It differs from the roller-skating game of polo—a.
misnomer, by the way, as polo is only played by men on horseback—in the fact
that in the latter game light sticks are used to strike a small ball; whereas in
rink-ball the ball played with is a round foot-ball.

THE RULES.

The rules of the game of rink-ball are as follows: _

1. Eleven players shall constitute a match team, but the game may be played by a less number on
aside. The eleven shall be governed by a captain elected by the team, who shall place the players as
follows : Two to guard the goal as ‘‘ backs,”’ three others to stand in front of these, and to be known

‘ half-backs,’’ and six—or four—as ‘‘ forwards,” these latter to stand near the centre line. ,

2. There shall be one umpire, selected by the contesting sides, who shall decide all disputed points
which may occur during the match, and from his final decision there shall be no appeal. .

3. At the commencement of the game the umpire shall take the ball—the same as used in foot-ball
and place it in the centre of the rink; and when the contesting sides are in position he shall call

“ play,” and until such call be made the ball shall not be in play.

4. The ball must not be kicked by any contestant nor be picked up from the floor. It is only
fairly in play when it is rolled along the floor or surface of the rink by being pushed or struck with the
hand.

5. Any player Aicking the ball during the progress of a game, or strzking it so that it be lifted.
above the head of any contestant, shall become immediately out of play until a touchdown be after-
ward scored by either side.

6. Any attempt by a player to obtain possession of the ball by any act which, in the opinion of the
umpire, is not fair play, shall become out of play, as in the case of kicking the ball. |

7. A touchdown shall be scored for the side which first sends the ball by fair rolling to their
Opponents’ goal—each end of the rink comprising the goals. But no touchdown shall be scored
unless the ball be rolled into the goal.

8. Whenever the ball has been kicked—accidentally or otherwise—a ‘‘ foul” shall be declared by
the umpire. A foul shall also be called when the ball is either picked up by any player or struck so as
to bound over the heads of any of the contestants. In either case the ball must be returned to the
place from which it was unfairly moved.
138 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

g. Three touchdowns shall constitute a goal, and one goal shall end a game; the best three games
out of five making a match. If mutually agreed upon, however, one game may decide a match.

10. Should no goal be obtained by either side within thirty minutes of the commencement of a
game, then the side making a single touchdown, or a majority of touchdowns within the half hour,
shall be declared winners.

ir, When “time” is called by the umpire, play shall cease at once, and the ball shall not be
fairly in play again until the umpire again calls “ play.”

12. Any match which is not decided in accordance with Rule g shall be declared drawn.

13. At no time during the progress of a game shall the ‘‘ backs” or ‘‘ half-backs” cross the centre
line of the rink in pursuit of the ball, except when called upon to take the place of a forward player
put out of play from a foul.
BOWLING.

ORTY years ago bowling was the most popular sport for an all-the-year-

round game in our large cities. Espécially was it a favorite in New York,
where in 1840 there was scarcely a block on Broadway, from Barclay to Bleecker
Street, which had not its bowling alley. American bowling differs from the old
English game of ‘“‘skittles,’’ which was played on an alley on which nine pins
were laid in diamond form. This game came under the ban of the law in this
country years ago, during a Puritan crusade against ‘‘ ye wicked sport of bowl-
ing,’’ and the law was evaded by substituting ten pins, set up on a triangle instead —
of a diamond, and now this is the “‘ scientific’ game of bowling. Twenty-odd
years ago saw bowling almost ‘‘ played out’’ as a popular game in this country ;
but of late years it has obtained a renewed existence, having been started on a new
lease of life by the German residents of Brooklyn, who introduced large balls
containing finger holes in them, by which the bowlers were enabled to impart a
bias to the balls. The game is once more established in public favor, and it has
become a feature of fashionable recreation at the prominent watering-places,
where at times ladies and boys participate in the exercise. There is but one draw-
back to it, and that is that it exercises the muscles of one side of the body too
much, especially those of the right side of the chest and right arm. When either
arm can be used with equal facility, the sport is a valuable exercise for health.
The following are the rules of the game as revised in 1884 by the National Bowl-
ing Association of the United States :

RULES OF THE GAME.

1. The game adopted to be played by clubs belonging to this association shall be what is known
as the American Ten Frame Game.

2. In the playing of match games there shall be a line drawn upon the alleys sixty feet from the
head or front pin.

3. In the playing of match games, any wooden ball may be used that does not exceed twenty--
seven inches in circumference, including Wood’s patent bush ball.

4. The game shall consist of ten frames on each side, when, should the number of points be -
140 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

‘equal, the play shall be continued until a majority of points upon an equal number of frames shall be
attained, which shall conclude the game. All strikes and spares made in tenth frame shall be com-
pleted before leaving the alley and on same alley as made.

§. In playing all match games ten players from each club shall constitute a full team, and they
must have been regular members of the club which they represent for thirty days immediately prior to
‘the match ; and they shall not play in a team representing any other club during the season. But,
in case either or both clubs should be short not more than one player, the game shall be considered
‘degal should either club decide to roll with nine players. The club, however, having its full team has
the privilege of playing ten men.

6. Players must play in regular rotation, and after the first inning no change can be made, except
‘with the consent of the captains.

7. In match games two alleys only are to be used—a player to roll but a frame at a time, and to
change alleys every frame.

8. The umpire shall take great care that the regulations respecting the balls, alleys, and all rules
‘of the game are strictly observed. He should be the judge of fair and unfair play, and shall deter-
mine all disputes and differences which may occur during the game. He shall take special care to
declare all foul balls immediately upon their occurrence, unasked, in a distinct and audible voice. He
shall in every instance, before leaving the alley, declare the winning club, and sign his name in the
‘score book.

g. In all matches the umpire shall be selected by the captains of the respective clubs, and he
shall perform all the duties in Rule 8, except recording the game, which shall be done by two scorers,
one of whom shall be appointed by each of the contending clubs.

10. No person engaged in a match game, either as umpire, scorer, or player shall be directly or
indirectly interested in any bet upon the game. Neither umpire, scorer, or player shall be changed
during a match, unless with the consent of both parties, except for reason of illness, or injury, or for
a violation of these rules, and then the umpire may dismiss any such transgressors.

11. No person except the captains shall be permitted to approach or to speak with the umpire,
scorers, or players during the progress of the game, unless by special request of the umpire.

12, No person shall be permitted to act as umpire, scorer, or judge on setting up pins in any
‘match, unless he be a member of a club governed by these rules.

13. Whenever a-‘match game shall have been determined upon between two clubs, play shall be
called at the exact hour appointed, and should either party fail to produce their players within thirty
minutes thereafter, the club so failing shall admit a defeat, and the game shall be considered as won,
and as such counted in the list of matches played ; unless the delinquent club fail to play on account
of the recent death of one of its members, or one of its member’s own family, and sufficient time has
not elapsed to enable them to give their opponents due notice before arriving at the place appointed
for the match.

14. A player must not step on or over the line in delivering the ball, nor after it has been
delivered. Any ball so delivered shall be deemed foul, and the pins (if any made on such ball) shall be
replaced in the same position as they were before the ball was rolled. It is also considered a foul ball
if the hand is placed on any part of the alley beyond the line. All foul balls shall count as balls rolled.

15. Should any bail delivered leave the alley before reaching the pins, or any ball rebounding
from the back cushion, the pins, if any, made on such balls shall not count, but must be replaced in
the same position as they were before the ball was rolled. All such balls to count as balls rolled.

16. No lofting or throwing balls upon the alley will be allowed. The ball must be rolled. Such
balls will be considered foul at the discretion of the umpire.


BATTLEDORE AND. SHUTTLECOCK..

HIS is a game suitable for the playground, the lawn, or the parlor, but itis .

best played on a lawn. The best materials for the game are those sold: at

the sporting-goods ‘stores ; but a common battledore can be readily made witha

hickory stick and a piece of hoop, and a shuttlecock with a cork and a few short.
feathers. The form of the battledore and shuttlecock is as follows :



BATTLEDORE, SHUTTLECOCK.

The game is played by two players, each having a battledore, and each bats
the shuttlecock from one to the other, the player failing to return it when it is.
batted to him within possible reach, losing a point in the game. A game consists
of twenty points, and the best two out of three games gains the match.
BADMINTON.

HE game of Badminton is simply a new phase of the old fashionable pastime

of battledore and shuttlecock. In fact, it is a weak variation of lawn tennis,

the essential difference being that in Badminton a shuttlecock is used instead of a

light ball, the former being served and returned under similar provisions, except

that the shuttlecock must be returned ‘‘ on the fly,’’ no rebound from the ground

being allowed. Moreover, Badminton can be played in a large parlor, and by six
or eight players. But the lawn is its proper place.

The dimensions of the court for badminton must be guided in a great measure
by the capabilities of the players, though the best size is one 28 feet long by 20
feet broad. The courts should be divided in the following way: At each end of
the ground are two courts 10 feet square, while the centre is formed by a piece of
neutral ground 3 feet long by 20 feet broad. On each of the outer lines of the
neutral ground, and in the centre are placed the posts which support the net. The
net, which is 1 foot deep, is suspended at a height 54 feet from the ground, firmly
held by guy ropes, as in lawn tennis.

The rackets used in Badminton are smaller than those used in lawn tennis,
the best size being from 24 to 26 inches in length. The shuttlecock is made in
different fashions and of different kinds for various purposes. The All England
Badminton Club uses a loaded shuttlecock 24 inches in length.

In Badminton all the variety of balls produced on the rebound of the ball in
lawn tennis are lost sight of, as the shuttlecock, if not hit while in the air, counts
a miss to the player missing it, and against his side.

The neutral ground and the divisions of the respective courts are only
observed in the serve or first hit ; after that the partners may stand where they
please on their own side of the net. The shuttlecock must be served so that it
falls clear over the net without touching the net ropes or posts, or, if it falls short
of the proper courts, into the neutral ground. In all cases a shuttlecock pitching
on any of the boundary lines is regarded as a fault, as if it had fallen outside of
the boundary lines. In all other respects with regard to the players and the faults,
the same rules guide Badminton as lawn tennis. A shuttlecock falling o# the
lines in services is termed a fault, and two faults produce ‘‘ hand out.”’
ARCHERY.

W* do not propose to preface this chapter on archery with any extended
remarks on the origin of the sport ; suffice it to say that archery, as now
practised, is one of the most fashionable field pastimes of the English aristocracy.
In the ancient days archery was a warrior’s. occupation; now it is simply the
source of a healthy out-door recreation for the leisure class of the community. As
American society increases in all the attributes of wealth, we naturally begin to
adopt those sports which seem to belong to people of wealth and leisure. Hence
the rapid growth of such sports of the field in this country as cricket, archery, and
kindred recreative exercises. :

Archery is an expensive sport. The paraphernalia of an archer’s full outfit is
costly—that is, if he desires to excel in the art, and thereby possesses himself of
the best materials. A perfectly finished yew or snakewood bow, with its comple-
ment of model arrows, walks into a fifty-dollar bill in a very destructive manner ;
and when the demand for three bows and three sets of arrows—one each for long-
range shooting, for short range, and for common practice—is satisfied, and the
necessary applicances are added, but little will be left of a bill of twice that
amount. Archery club expenses, too, are no small item. In fact, the sport is for
people of means and leisure, and it therefore can but attain only a certain degree
_ Of popularity, and chiefly in the large and wealthy cities of the country.

Standing in front of a circular target thirty yards distant, and watching the
movements of a practised archer as he grasps his bow, places an arrow in position,
and then, with comparative ease, sends it flying into the centre of the ‘‘ gold,”’ the
whole movement, with its final result, looks so simple, so easy of attainment, that
a casual observer would be apt to think the sport rather too much of boy’s play
for men to engage in. But when the novice tries his hand at this apparently sim-
ple act, and realizes, by practical experiment, what difficulties beset him, and
what a number of things he has to learn to do before he himself can hit any part
of the target at all, his respect for the sport is very apt to increase in the ratio of
the obstacles he meets with in his test of its merits. ‘‘It looks so easy, you
know.’’ But it isn’t easy at all. On the contrary, it gives a man of brains some-
thing to reflect upon, something to study up, and to analyze as to cause and effect ;
144, SPORTS AND PASTIMES -FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

and with this naturally comes hearty respect for the art, and also a love of it
for the excitement it yields. Any novice in archery will tell you what a thrill of
pleasure he feels when, after weeks of disappointing practice, blunders in handling
the bow, in ‘‘ nocking’’ his arrows, of getting into ‘‘ bad form,”’ in taking up his
position to shoot, and experiencing all the little shocks to one’s amour-propre which
a novice is heir to—when, afterall this, he strikes ‘‘ good form,” and sees his arrow
enter the magic circle of the gold, and that not by chance, but by the skill which
his mastery of the art yields, his exclamation is, ‘‘ By Jove, I did not think there
was so much in it!" and this is the idea which every learner naturally expresses
when he has once passed the outer works of the citadel of archery. Well has
the best American writer on archery expressed it in the title he gave his admirable
work, ‘‘ The Witchery of Archery.”’

To aim with a bow is very different from aiming with a gun orarifle. In the
one case you shoulder your rifle, and running your line of sight along the barrel,
you literally take deliberate aim. In doing this, the steadier your nerve the truer
your aim ; but “‘ the mind intent’ has little, comparatively, to do with it. Itisa
combination of keen sight, steady nerve, and straight aim. But with the bow it
is different. Here the mental work to be done is everything. In archery the word
aim, in the familiar sense of the word as applied to a rifle,is inapplicable.
Experience teaches the practised archer to aim with his mind, as it were. You
intuitively feel that you have your bow in the right position to send the arrow fly-
ing to the centre of the target. Moreover, you look solely at the ‘‘ gold’ centre
of the target, in shooting with a bow, and never at your bow or the arrow, as it
lies on your hand with bow arched ready for the final ‘‘loose.’’ It is this feeling
your aim, instead of seeing it, that is a peculiarity of the art of archery. This
comes only by the familiarity of constant practice. Mr. Maurice Thompson, one
of the best American writers on archery, says, in this regard: ‘‘ Do not attempt
toaim. Do not even think of guiding your arrow with your eye. The only way
to become a good bow shot is to learn to guide your shaft by feeling—namely, by
your sense of direction and distance. Your eyes must be glued, so to speak, on
the target. This is one great rule of archery. Any other will lead to slovenly,
wild, and irregular shooting.”’

In no sport you can engage in does the old saying that ‘‘ practice makes per-
fect’’ apply with such force as toarchery. Skill in long-range shooting with a
bow is only attainable by continuous and persevering practice. There are so
many little but important details to be attended to, which habit alone can train one
into, that any regular rule is almost inapplicable. It is all very well to put down
in your book of instructions that the young archer must do this, that, and the
other ; but it is practical experience in the field that alone will enable him to over-
ARCHERY. 145

-come the obstacles he must encounter, with any degree of success. The details to’
be made familiar with before you can send your first arrow into the target even,
are enough to engage all one’s attention outside of attaining the degree of mental
schooling which results from your learning to shoot straight. To hold your bow
firmly with your left hand, as if it were in a vise, is the first letter of the archer’s
alphabet. The second is to bend your bow to the arrow’s head properly, and the
third, to ‘‘ loose’ the cord from the finger of your right hand at the right
moment. This is the A BCof archery. Then comes the placing of the arrow in ©
position ; seeing that it is “‘nocked’’ in the right place on the string ; that the
‘‘ cock-feather’’ is uppermost, and that the tips of your fingers are properly on the
string, etc. When the familiarity of constant practice has made ‘“‘ the right form’’
for all these details a regular habit, then you will be prepared for the mental study
_ of the situation, and then comes ‘‘ the headwork of archery,’’ so to speak; and.
just as you are able to excel in this will you become a skilful archer.

How to “‘ stand at ease’ while using your bow is quite an important matter.
You don’t face the target as you do when shooting with a gun, but stand in the
position named in the duelling code, with the side of your body toward the target,
your face turned so as to look over your left shoulder. Here is an illustration of
the correct position.

To stand firm and steady is the object, so as to
avoid any varying of the steady position of the left
arm when it is extended. At first the novice will
naturally find this position an awkward one, but
practice will render it familiar. The left arm, too,
when extended, and when first called upon to
resist the pull of the right arm in bending the bow,
will be apt to shake and be unsteady. To avoid
this, practise holding out at arm’s length a weight
equalling that of your bow. Any exercise, too,
which will strengthen the muscles of the wrist of
your left arm will be found advantageous. This
arm is the lever on which you depend for a correct
delivery of the arrow. As it is raised or lowered,
so will your arrow fly highorlow. Alsoif the arm
is bent the power to draw the bow to the arrow’s
head is lessened. All these little details have to be borne in mind in practice.
Not one of them must be forgotten. By this means only can a regular habit—a
correct form—be attained. Then comes the matter of the using of the right arm.
Here, too, new muscles come into play, especially those which are brought into



Sf
tel ‘i 1) !]
NT ONLY



146 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

action in pulling the bow-string back as far as the length of the arrow admits of.
At first it will feel like a very constrained position, and be painful ; but as your
arm becomes trained to its new work all that disappears. To ladies who are so
accustomed to weak muscles of the chest and arms from their unemployment this
new exercise comes hard upon them; but its advantage repays all the fair ones
may suffer from it temporarily. When you have learnt to ‘ pull the string’ cor-
rectly, you will have to attend to the comparatively
simple matter of letting the cord slip from your
fingers. Any one practising with a bow, unless the
cuticle of his fingers is as thick as that of a day
laborer, will have to wear leather finger-tips, and
the face of these should be sufficiently soft and
pliant to let the cord glide from them easily. In
holding the cord, too, there is but one right way,
and that is to let the end of your arrow, as it lies on
the cord, be between your first and second fingers,
the tips of those fingers being held on the cord. To
let go the cord at the right time is an important
point, a good “‘ loose’ being very essential in aiding
the correct flight of the arrow.

Stand steady, hold your left arm out straight
and firm, look at the ‘‘ gold’”’ as you bend your
bow, and the moment your eye is on the centre of the target and your bow is bent
to the arrow’s head, loosen your hold on the cord with a quick, easy motion. As
the arrow leaves your bow, if all your movements have been correct and in har-
mony, with the thought in your mind that the arrow ought to go right to the
gold, ten to one but it will go there, and just as often as your thought and motion
harmoniously correspond.


~ QUOITING.

HE game of quoits presents a healthy exercise and an enjoyable and fre-
quently exciting sport. The drawback to it is that, like bowling, it exer-
cises but one set of muscles too much when it is indulged in as a regular pastime.
Otherwise it is a very desirable addition to the list of out-door games. The ordi-
nary game for youths is played with small quoits, in form. as shown in Fig. 1.



Fig. 1. . Fig. 2. . Fig. 3.

These are held in the hand of the player so that their edge may strike the
ground first, the method of holding them being as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

They are tossed so as to strike the ground, as shown in Fig. 4. When tossed
so as to fall on the ‘‘ hob,’’ the quoit should be pitched so as to just pass over the



Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

‘*‘hob,’’ as shown in Fig. 5. If tossed so as to strike the ‘‘hob,’’ the chances
are that it will rebound back or to one side, as shown in Fig, 6. :

When the sides have been chosen, the first player stands level with one of the
hobs, and taking a step forward with his left foot delivers the quoit by a swinging
movement of the arm from behind him to the front. The quoit must fall and re-
main with its convex side uppermost, either imbedded in the earth or clay, or else
lying flat with the concave side on the ground, If it rolls along the ground and
then stops, it does not count, unless the cause of its rolling was a collision with
some other quoit already delivered, or unless, after having been properly thrown,
148 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

it is knocked out by another afterward played. The proper rule is that each
player should play his two quoits in succession, and then be followed by the
adversary ; but in a party of four it is usual for each player to have only one quoit.
When all the quoits are thrown the score is taken by measuring the distance from
the hob to the nearest part of the nearest quoit, and the side which has thrown
best scores one or two, according as his one or two quoits are better than any one
thrown by the other side. But every ‘‘ringer’’ or quoit, which falls over the
hob and remains with the hob inclosed within its ring counts two. |

The distance from hob to hob is eighteen yards
for large-sized quoits and twenty-one for the small
size. The hobs are driven into the clay circle so as
to stand out of the ground at an angle of forty-five
degrees toward each other, and they must not pro-
ject out of the ground more than two and a half
, inches. In the regular match-game-rules for prizes
“‘ ringers’’ do not count any more than they do from being nearest the hob.


SHUFFLEBOARD.

HUFFLEBOARD is a game somewhat similar to the Scotch winter sport

of curling, and it is very popular with Scotchmen in consequence. The
game consists of sliding iron weights along the surface of a long board which
is sanded so as to facilitate the sliding of the weights. ‘‘ Points’ or ‘‘ aces’’ are
scored according as the weights are near a certain line. The player who leads
endeavors to slide his first weight as near the line—called the deuce line—as
possible. If his opponent does not knock this weight off the board, the first player

. a
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Lhe

il



proceeds to slide his second weight so as to guard the position of the first weight,
and so the game goes on until all the weights have been sent down the board, and
then the player whose weight is nearest the line counts a point. The appended
cut represents a shuffleboard. The bed is thirty feet in length, twenty inches in
width, and three and one half inches in
height. Thesurface of the board should
be two feet ten inches from the floor, with
a gutter, five inches in width, running
all the way round to catch the pieces.
The line farthest from the end is called
the ‘‘hog line,’’ but is only used in i
match games. The ‘‘ deuce line’’ is five I i
inches from the end of the board. .

The annexed cut represents the exact size of a solid cast-iron shuffleboard
weight. Each weight is distinguished by letters of the alphabet, as A, B, C,
and D, according to the number of contestants in a match.

a ia Tl
| a
I Hi i

a /


150 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE RULES OF THE GAME.

The following are the rules of the game as played in the United States :

1. The length of the board shall be thirty feet, and the width twenty inches, and three and one
half inches in height.

2. The board shall be made of white pine, or white wood.

3. The surface of the board shall be two feet ten inches from the floor, with five-inch gutters all
round the board to catch the pieces or weights.

4. Eight round pieces or weights of hard cast iron, marked ‘‘ A” and “ B,” to distinguish the
opponents, are used, each weighing three quarters of a pound, two and a half inches in diameter, and
three quarters of an inch thick. |

5. Before commencing to play, the surface of the board should be sprinkled with dry sand.

6. The deuce line shall be five inches from the ends of the board and parallel with them ; all
pieces over the deuce line counts two, and if a piece hangs over the end of the board it is called a
‘* ship,” and counts three ; when at the end of the round and no piece is in the deuce line, the piece
nearest the line shall count one.

». Ina four-handed game one opponent from each side must stand at the end of the board, not
changing from one end of the board to the other, as in a regular game, but remain as they started,
shoving the pieces alternately ; the winning man at either end always taking the lead.

8. When a piece goes off or rebounds back on the bed of the board, it must be taken off and not
counted ; or when a piece stands upright in the gutter against the edge of the board, it must be taken
away.

g. When two or more are playing, either one has the right to ask or to look for himself what
piece or pieces are ahead on the board.

10. Twenty-one points constitute a regular game.

11. When a piece or pieces of opponents are beyond the deuce line, the one nearest the end of the
board shall count.

12. There shall be a line drawn parallel five feet from the ends of the board, to be called the
‘‘ hog” line, and any piece not played beyond it shall be taken off and not counted, to be used in
match games only,
BICYCLING. BG,

ICYCLING has come: into vogue in America within the past five or six,
years as a pedestrian exercise which is bound to increase in | popularity in
proportion as the roads of the country are improved. Following in the wake of
the velocipede furore of a dozen years ago, bicycling has come to stay. It is a
most enjoyable exercise for young men of strong physique and with plenty of ©
nerve and courage ; but it is not available for any one of.the ‘‘dude’’ class of
individuals nor for young men of weak constitution, as it tests the powers of —
endurance of muscular fatigue to a considerable extent, strong limbs and a well+
developed chest being among the essential physical qualifications of an expert
bicyclist.
To learn to ride a bicycle is something which cannot be taught from books:
An hour’s practical test with a machine on the floor of a hall is worth a whol¢ .
week’s study from the best treatise on bicycling at command. The first thing t..
be attended to is to get a machine to fit you, and the scale by which you are to
be guided is as follows: !

A rider 4 feet to inches requires a driving-wheel of 40 inches.

66 6é 6¢ «¢ €6é ‘ce

5 0 42
66 «cc 66 66 és 66 ;
5 2 44 ;
6é 66 66 66 sé ce .
5 4 46
66 6 eé 6¢ 6 ee
5 6 48
6 66 cé 6« ee ce
5 8 50
¢¢ 66 ae ee 66 66
5 9 52
“ 5 €6¢ Io 6¢ oe 6c 54 66
6é 5 ec II ee . ee é¢ 56 ce
“ce 6 6¢ O° e¢ €¢ 6 58 Gs |
é 6 66 2 66 ee €¢ 60 2

Mounting a bicycle is no easy task, and yet it is soon acquired by steady:
practice. Itshould be tried over and over again, even when you can mount with
comparative east, in order to attain perfect confidence, for that is everything in
152 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

bicycle-riding. The fear of falling is the very first thing the novice must learn to
overcome. First, taking hold of the handle of the machine, give the bicycle a for-
ward movement ; and as you fol-
low it place your left foot on the
step, and balancing well lift your-
self into your seat, and then
place your feet on the pedals.
This lesson should be learned
in a bicycle hall, and when you
are practising mounting let your
bicycle be near a friendly wall on
the right, as it may save you from
painful falls. If you feel yourself
falling turn the wheel in the
direction of the threatened fall,
and if it does not check the top-
pling over, go down with the ma-
chine ; that is, on the same side as
it inclines. By disengaging the
leg nearest the ground, and ex-
tending it, you will in all proba-
bility come down gently on that
foot ; then disengage the other.
To dismount, you must let the
machine run a bit, and then after
a minute swing your right leg
back over the backbone of the bi-
cycle, at the same time dropping
the leit to: the ground: ~ Time =
not an easy feat, and requires
Steadiness, caution, and skill to











































































































































































































































































dismount nicely. When practised,
you can dismount by the step;
but we will not recommend this to
boys till they are good bicyclists.
Hete 1s: a cut. showing ime
mounted rider. It has quite a
picturesque look about it.
It is best to begin your riding with a machine of your own, and one which fits


BICYCLING. 153

you in every respect ; you will then become accustomed to it, and do far better
work with it than by learning on half a dozen different machines, one kind at one
time and another at another. To acquire a perfect balance is the leading rule in
bicycle-riding. It is allin the balance. Some men fall into this naturally, while
others need constant practice to attain the art. We might fill pages about the
attractive features of bicycling, not to mention the giving advice as to the best
machines, etc. But we must be content with this short chapter on the subject.

Read Zhe Wheelman, a Boston publication, for information on the beauties of
bicycling.

eae heel urn
Head and. oune,

alse,




ROWING,

W* suppose that every boy who takes to rowing or sailing for amusement
wishes to go fast ; now, every fast boat is more or less liable to be upset,
even with the best and most skilful management ; and when a boat is upset, he
who can swim laughs at the adventure ; he who cannot swim is not only himself in
danger, but endangers others, who feel obliged to risk their own lives in order to
save his, Therefore, let every one learn to swim before he attempts either to row
or sail in a fast boat; he will then be able to enjoy the amusement, and his
friends on shore will feel at ease, and not wish to deter him. Having acquired
this art, he may safely proceed in learning to row, and with it to learn the general
management of a rowing-boat. Boys at school and men at college can often
row very well without being watermen—that is to say, without understanding how
the boat, the oars, the rudder, etc., ought to be fitted, or how to steer or manage
a boat in difficulties, or how to row except in a boat and with an oar fitted exactly
as it ought to be; but let the beginner not follow this example—let him determine
to learn how to detect and correct any fault in the fittings of a boat, and how to
row under difficulties. Of course any one can row better in a properly-fitted boat
than in one that is not so; but grumbling at the boat and fittings is the sign of a
Senet

SARA riety we movement

seg pati i FRE
ieee
ES


ROWING. - - . 185

greenhorn ; a good waterman should be able to row anywhere ard anyhow, ‘and
at the same time should know how to make the best of a good boat and oars when
he has got them. These arts are only to be acquired by-rowing in all sorts of
boats, by listening to what experienced oarsmen have to say on the subject, by
always looking out to pick up something new, and to learn something every day ;
and first let the beginner learn the names and use of every part of a boat and of
its fittings. oo

It should be borne in mind that in order to become a ‘“‘ first-rate oar’? in the _

light crank boats. now used for racing purposes, early: hours, moderate.diet, regu-
lar and vigorous exercise are imperative requirements, and success is only attain-
able by great perseverance, toil, and self-denial. A terrible strain upon the
muscular system is inseparable from a closely contested. boat race, and there is no
hope of success except as a result of special training for the task. There is. one
special compensating result for the arduous character of the work, however, and
that is that the preparatory process is a sure preservation from the dissipation in-
cident to youth, for excellence in rowing is utterly incompatible with any form of
vicious indulgence. |

THE COMPONENT PARTS OF BOATS.

Rowing boats consist of the bows; the stem, or entrance; the stern, where
are the rudder and the lines for steering ; the rowlocks, for giving purchase to the
oars; and the thwarts, or seats. At the bottom are the foot-boards, which are
easily removed in order to bail out any water which may leak into the boat. Be-
sides these parts there is a board placed across the boat for the feet of the rower,
called astretcher. The whole boat is composed of one or more planks, called
streaks, nailed upon a light oak framework, called the timbers, or ribs ; and the
upper streak, upon which the rowlocks are placed, is called the wale-streak.
Boats with two rowlocks opposite each other are called sculling. boats, and are
propelled by a pair of light oars called sculls, the art being called ‘‘ sculling.’’
When a boat is fitted with a pair of rowlocks not opposite each other, it is called
a pair-oared boat. If with two in the middle opposite each other, and two others,
one before and the other behind, but not opposite each other, it is called a
vandan. When a boat has four rowlocks, none of which are opposite one another,
it is called a four-oared boat, and so on up to ten oars, which is the utmost limit in

common use for any kind of boat but the pleasure barge, which sometimes has

twenty-four oars, as in the city barges of London. The rowlock nearest the bow ~

is called the bow rowlock, or No. 1; the next No. 2, and so on ; and the oars used
156 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

in them receive the same number, the one nearest the stern being called the
““ stroke oar.’’ The rowlocks in river and sea boats are somewhat different in
shape, though identical in principle, both consisting of a square space of about the
breadth of a man’s hand, and both lying on the wale-streak ; but in river boats
being generally bounded before and behind by a flat piece of oak or ash called,
respectively, the thowl-pin and stopper ; while in sea boats they are merely com-
mon round wooden pins dropped into holes made in the wale-streak, but still re-
ceiving the same names. The thowl-pin is for the purpose of pulling the oar
against, while the stopper prevents the oar from slipping forward when the rower
is pushing it in that direction after the stroke. When the rower rows with an oar
in each hand, the oars are called scu//s, and are shorter ; when he uses only one
oar, it is called an oar, and is about thirteen feet five inches long.

MANAGEMENT OF THE OAR.

The rower should, as far as possible, take some good oarsman for his model,
and endeavor to imitate him in every respect, which is the only mode of acquiring
a good style. Description is useful in putting the learner in the way of acquiring
what is to be taught, but it is not all-sufficient for the purpose. In the first place,
the learner should place himself square on the seat, with his feet straight before
him, and the toes slightly turned out. The knees may either be kept together or
separated considerably, the latter being the better mode, as it allows the body to
come more forward over the knees. The feet are to be placed firmly against the
stretcher, which is to be let out or shortened, to suit the length of the individual ;
and one foot may be placed in the strap which is generally attached to the
stretcher in modern boats. The oar is then taken in hand, raising it by the
handle, and then either at once placing it in the rowlock, or else first dropping it
flat on the water, and then raising the handle it may gently be lowered to its
place. The hands should both grasp the oar tightly, the thumbs being under-
neath the handle of the oar, not above it. Sit straight and upright, not lolling
over the seat either forward or backward. When leaning forward to the stroke,
separate the knees a little, and keep the arms straight, and do not move your
hands at all, so that, when the arms are extended, the knuckles will be uppermost.
Put the oar into the water when you have stretched forward as far as you can, and do
this without splashing. Let the blade dip ‘‘crisply’’ and easily into the water.
Then throw your shoulders back and pull the hands home close to the body just
below the waist, elbows close to the sides. By keeping your hands tightly on the
oar and pulling back, you will find the knuckles will naturally come down and






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ROWING,
158 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

the finger-tips up. Thus by dropping the wrist neatly you will feather the oar
without all that excessive wrist action which is so wearisome to a novice. Mind
you pull hard from start to finish, and if you can continue the pull with the out-
side hand close to the side, you will get a longer stroke. Bring the oar out of the
water smoothly and ‘‘cleanly,’’ but do not jerk it up, nor pull in “‘ fits and
starts.’ All rowing should be done regularly, in ‘‘ time,’’ and no good oarsman
will pull himself back with his head in the air. Pull as far back as you can effec-
tively ; but if you go too far, you lose ‘‘ time,’’ and the boat will roll from side to
side as you resume your “‘ pull.’’ Rowing is done from the waist ; the seat and
legs should be firm as possible, else the boat will roll.

The essential points in rowing, are: 1st, Tostraighten the arms before bending
the body forward ; 2d, to drop the oar cleanly into the water; 3d, to draw it
Straight through at the same depth ; 4th, to feather neatly, and without bringing
the oar out before doing so ; 5th, to use the back and shoulders freely, keeping
the arms as straight as possible ; and 6th, to keep the eyes fixed upon the rower
before them, avoiding looking out of the boat, by which means the body is almost
sure to swing backward and forward in a straight line.

SCULLING.

It is very essential that a boy should be able to scull neatly, and this is only
done by practice. The first thing is to pull so that your sculls shall not ‘‘ jam’’
your fingers together, and this can be obviated by the beginner by pulling one
hand a trifle behind the other, till, when you lean back, you naturally separate
the hands ; or, better still, shift ze dody an inch or two to either side, and the:
hands will clear each other. In beginning the pull, lean well forward, dip both
sculls at once and to ¢he same depth, and not too deep, in the water. The only
difficulty is in the meeting of the hands, and this got over, as explained, the
sculler will pull his elbows to his hips and his hands just below the chest. Feather
by slightly lowering the wrists (if necessary), and by a quick recovery of the body
lean forward with straightened arms. Let arms and body work together like
machinery all the time. Jerking will never do. Smoothness and steadiness are
essential to the sculler as well as to the rower.
CANOES AND CANOEING.

(CANOEING is an amusement that must necessarily involve a considerable

amount of danger, and ought to be indulged in by no one who has not
become an accomplished swimmer. The sport is comparatively new in this coun-
try, the first boats having been built only about ten years ago, when the New
York Canoe Club was organized. At that time Macgregor, the great apostle of
canoeing, had made his last extended cruise, and English canoeists were numbered
by hundreds. The sport grew slowly, however, and it was not until the American
Canoe Association was formed at Lake George, in 1880, that it became really
popular. At the first. Lake George meeting 30 canoes were present; at the
second, 60 ; and at the third, 130; while at least 200 were collected at Stony Lake,
near Peterboro, Ont., in 1883. The American Canoe Association has some 400 |
members in the United States and Canada; and there are besides at least thirty
canoe clubs, three of which are Canadian. The whole number of canoeists on
this continent was lately estimated to be 3000, but new clubs are forming
every season. Oo

No sport has more devoted adherents. Healthy, agreeable, exciting at times,
full of novelty’and variety, canoeing offers a large range of attractions to its
votaries, and it is seldom that one who has once felt its spell recovers from its
genial influence. |

There are many models and varieties of canoes, but they may all be reduced
to two classes : the paddling canoe, of which the Rob Roy is the type, and the
sailing canoe, of which the Shadow is perhaps the most generally used in this
country.

The cut on the following page presents a fair picture of a paddling or
Rob Roy canoe, while the sailing canoe—the Shadow model—is shown in the ac-
companying cut of a lateen-rigged canoe.

Both carry sails and both are paddled, but the paddling canoe usually—
though not always—carries less sail than the sailing canoe, and is more easily
paddled, since she is smaller and lighter, Fourteen feet is the length of the
great majority of canoes, though Rob Roys of twelve feet and sailing canoes of
sixteen are not uncommon. A fourteen-foot Rob Roy ought not to weigh over
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CANOEING.
CANOES AND CANOEING. 161







































fifty-five pounds, and a fourteen-foot Shadow which weighs over seventy-five
pounds is unnecessarily heavy. Canoes are usually built of wood, although cheap
canoes can be built of canvas, and certain advantages are claimed for those built
of paper.

The true object for which the canoe is built is cruising. Hence she is made
so light that she can be carried around obstacles by the canoeist ; so strong that
she will bear the rough work of running shallow rapids ; so seaworthy that she
can brave the rough waters of large lakes ; so commodious that her owner-can
sleep on board of her and carry plenty of stores, and so beautiful that every
stranger will admire her and be proud to aid the lofty purpose of the canoeist.
No canoe which is not fit for cruising is a true canoe. She may be a good sail-
boat, or a good paddling machine, but she is not a good canoe.

American canoeists are mostly cruisers, and they have the opportunity to
make longer cruises than falls to the lot of English canoeists. Mr. Bishop’s cruise
from Troy to Florida, and the cruise of Messrs. Neide and Kendall from Lake
162 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

George to Florida, by way of the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the Gulf, are the
longest canoe cruises on record.

The practical canoeist necessarily wears a uniform suitable for his recreative
occupation,

~ “5 SA SN n OAS YAS

ee caf
ees SSN ——— |



The canoeist must, of course, learn how to paddle and how to sail; but
paddling and sailing, to quote the words of an expert, ‘‘are only branches of
canoeing. He must learn to be a boat-builder, for he may at any time have to re-
pair his own canoe himself. He must learn to bea sailmaker, for he will always
be trying to make improvements in the rig of his canoe. He must learn to cook
—in which science are included the problems of building a fire with wet wood
and of finding provisions in a wilderness. He must learn geography with a
minuteness with which only the man can learn who personally explores streams on
which no boat, except a canoe, has ever floated. He must learn the art of running
rapids and detecting at a glance where the channel through them lies—an art
which, more than any other art or any known science, develops decision of char-
acter. Hemust learn that wet and cold and heat and damp are of no consequence,
and can even be made sources of delight. And, above all, he must learn to bear
with the infirmities of the canoeist who cruises in company with him, and never to
shirk his rightful turn of duty in connection with scouring the frying-pan.”’

The canoeist is at once the captain, pilot, crew, steward, and cook of his little
craft allin one. He paddles when not sailing ; steers with his feet, trims the sails
when not paddling, and, in fact, he is ‘‘ monarch of all he surveys’’ from his seat
CANOES AND CANOEING. 163

in the centre of his canoe. It is glorious sport for young men of leisure, from
May to September inthe Eastern States and Canada, and nearly all the year round
in the South. |

We have only glanced at canoeing in this chapter, having no space for
detailed description.



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MINIATURE VACTITING.

HE building of miniature yachts, together with the rigging and sailing of
them on the park ponds of our large cities, has come to be as favorite a pas-

time with American boys as it is on the park ponds in London. It affords the
most exciting kind of sport to the boys, and in itself is a recreation which presents
an ample field for the development of mechanical skill and ingenuity in the con-
struction of the little vessels, besides which it fosters a love of yachting, and it is
very instructive in affording information in the building of model yachts and in
the method of sailing them. At the Brooklyn Prospect Park the sixty-acre lake is
set apart for the use of owners of miniature yachts, and it is surprising how many
‘old salts’? there are, who have for years been to sea in the mercantile marine,
and who take interest in these miniature yacht races, teaching the boys how to sail
their yachts, besides helping them to construct them. At Conservatory Lake at
‘Central Park, New York, too, these little yachts are allowed to sail. The sport
has come from England, where miniature yachting is quite a feature of the sports
166 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

of London boys. In fact, the little yacht regattas which take place on the Serpen-
- tine Lake in Hyde Park each summer. are quite important events. The Royal
Model Yacht Club is presided over by the Prince of Wales, and the royal family
generally have taken great interest in the. proceedings on these occasions. Some
of the yachts belonging to this club are valued at £1000, and yet they do not ex-
ceed five feet in length. The regattas are sailed for twelve guinea cups, and the
events are quite exciting at times. There are over a dozen of these Model Yacht
Clubs in London, and the leading club, learning of the establishment of a similar
organization in New York not long ago, sent a communication over to New York
desiring information looking to an international contest with miniature yachts.
The subject may seem a trifling one at a cursory glance, but the influence of these
miniature yacht associations in cultivating a taste for nautical knowledge, and
especially in giving opportunities for testing new models, is such as to make the

organizations worthy of support and encouragement.
| Had we space, we could give a lengthy chapter on the subject of the construc-
tion and sailing of miniature yachts.






















FISHING.

we N days gone by, with rare ex-
NL ceptions, the American angler
«Wasa mere novice in the Wal-
a tonian art. A bamboo cane,
a thirty-foot line, a simple
leaden sinker, and a couple
of common hooks attached
to cord snells, composed
the outfit of the old am-
ateur fisherman. This
majority class of the
angling fraternity of
some twenty - five

he years ago used to
3 smile rather su-
perciliously at
the expen-
Sive rods,

wy

the delicate
lines, the vari-

ety of hooks, and

the elaborate pre-
parations generally
made by the scientific
and practised angler to
tempt game fish from their
native element. Now all
this ischanged. Anglinghas --..-7’
become an art as much prac- ~

tised in this country as in

England. We have our anglers’ clubs and our fishermen tourists, who make
the sport a speciality. We now also have our regular seasons for the various
kinds of game fish, and what was some twenty years ago a boyish sport has
become a pastime as popular with the wealthy and cultivated class of American
168 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

society as it is in England. Here in America we have an immense advantage |
in piscatorial resources over every
other nation in the world, inas-
much as the extent of our country
and its range of climate admits of
fishing all the year round. Our
ardent anglers can throw their lines
for game fish from January to De-
cember, in either one State or the other of our great republic. Hence, our
facilities for game fishing are greater than in any other land on the face of the
globe. Salmon in the Penobscot in Maine, muscalonge in the large lakes, striped
bass on the shores of the Atlantic at Newport and other watering-places, and
" sheepshead © and ‘‘ snap- a

pers’’ in the Florida bays,
are among the largest of our
American game fish, the sal-
mon ranging as high as forty
pounds, muscalonge at times
ee «reaching a weight of fifty
pounds, and the large bass

frequently turning the scale at seventy or eighty pounds; while the Southern
sheepshead will range in the twenties, and snappers exceed at times that weight.
Then to these monsters for line fishing are to be added the angler’s pets—the
beautiful and palatable brook trout and the river bass—together with the weakfish
— and the infinite variety of fish
SG for sea-coast anglers ; while the
I lakes provide an abundance of
EP pickerel, black bass, perch, etc.

In catching these game fish,
rods aad tackle of infinite vari-
ety are used, from the heavy salmon and bass rod to the delicate, whip-like rod
of the trout-fly fisherman. The adjoining cut gives a graphic illustration of a
fishing party on the banks of a country lake abounding in sunfish and small perch.
The above cuts show the principal materials of a young rodfisherman’s turnout.






SWIMMING.

WIMMING is the most useful of all athletic accomplishments, as by it human
life is frequently saved which might have been sacrificed. It is also useful
in the development of muscular strength, as well as highly beneficial to the ner-
vous system. The artof swimming is by no means difficult of attainment, and
several authors have supplied directions to facilitate its acquisition. Above all
things, self-confidence (not rashness leading into danger) is required ; and when
this is possessed, all difficulty soon ceases. Dr. Franklin, himself an expert
swimmer, recommends that at first a familiarity with the buoyant power of water
should be gained ; and to acquire this, he directs the learner, after advancing into
the water breast high, to turn round, so as to bring his face to the shore ; he is
then to let a white stone fall in the water, which will be seen at the bottom. His
object must now be, by diving down with his eyes
open, to reach and bring up the stone. He will
easily perceive that there is no danger in this ex-
periment, as the water gets shallower, of course,
toward the shore, and because, whenever he likes,
by depressing his feet, he can raise his head again
above water.

The beginner, in this initial experiment—for
it is the very first lesson in swimming—will be
forcibly struck by the difficulty he experiences in
his attempt to get at the stone under water, in
consequence of the resistance the water itself offers
‘tohis progress. He realizes at once, by actual ex- Z i ee = iF
periment, that his body will not so readily sink as af a ma (=
he imagined ; and this important fact inspires him
at once with a degree of confidence at the very outset, which is of itself half the
battle. He becomes aware of the great sustaining power of water, and learns how
buoyant his body can become in the water by a slight exertion of muscular force.
Having thus learned this truth practically, and also the important fact of always


170 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

, yeeping his lungs well expanded with air, he will soon attain a practical knowledge
* of the other branches of the art.
Should a person accidentally fall into the water,
be provided he retained his presence of mind, a knowl-
| edge of the above facts would save him probably from
a ‘‘ watery grave.’ The body being but very slightly
heavier than the volume of water it displaces, will,
with a very slight motion of the hands under water,
float. When the chest is thoroughly inflated with air,
it is lighter than water, and floats naturally, having
half the head above water ; so that the person exposed
to danger has only to turn upon his back, in order
that that half consisting of his face, with the mouth
== and nostrils, be above the water line. But to float
thus upon the water, the greatest care must be taken
not to elevate the arms or other parts above its sur-
face; and it is in remembering this caution, that presence of mind in the time
of danger confers so much benefit ; for in the moment of terror a person thrown
into the water almost instinctively stretches out his hands aloft to grasp at some
object, thereby depriving himself of a means of proceeding which would frequently





keep him afloat until succor arrived. By elevating any part of the body in this
way, we remove it from the support afforded by the water, and thus render sinking
inevitable. But although floating in water is sufficient to preserve from immediate
danger, this will not alone enable us to swim. To swim does not mean simply to
float, but to progress, and we now proceed to show how this is to be learned.

ENTERING THE WATER.

There are certain rules necessary to be observed by those learning to swim,
which do not concern the art itself, but only the preparatory condition of the body
before entering the water, and these rules are as follows: Mever bathe within an
. SWIMMING. I7t

hour of eating a meal, either before or after, especially after. Vf you go into the water
with a hungry stomach you withdraw from the digestive functions valuable heat
necessary to digest food ; while if you go in too soon after a full meal, digestion
is impeded, and still more serious results are likely to follow. Mever enter the water
when you feel cold or chilly, as you need all the heat of your system to produce the
reaction from your first dip in the water. .

It is a very mistaken notion to enter cold water after a ‘‘ cooling off ’’ process.
It is even worse than going in overheated. A man can jump into cold water while
in a perspiration and experience no ill effects from it, provided he comes out of
the water before a reaction is prevented. But to enter the water while he is cold,
and lacks the natural heat to produce the reaction so essential to health in bathing,
is to lose all benefit from the bath.
RIDING.

BOY on horseback is a king on his throne; he feels more than ‘‘ boy” the

moment he gets astride of anything in the shape of anag. Boys have an
instinct for riding, an impulse they cannot resist, like the instinct for eating,
breathing, or moving. In his earliest days, in
the very ‘‘ boyhood of being,’’ ‘‘ Ridea cock horse
to Banbury Cross”’ is a ditty of infinite delight,
and long before the days of corduroys the eques-
trian exercise of ‘‘ Grandfather’s Stick’’ affords
him “‘ joy ineffable.’’ Then comes the noble game
of Hippas, or the wooden ‘‘ Bucephalus,’’ on
which he feels greater than Alexander ; and last,
though very little, yet still not /east, the ‘‘ pet
Shetland,’’ which adds to the bliss of being
mounted a positive progressive locomotion, and
the “greater than Alexander’’ is made greater
still. Riding on horseback is generally allowed
to be one of the most cheerful and enlivening of all exercises, whether for youth
or manhood ; and we trust that the following little treatise upon it will prove
interesting to every boy who has it in his power, or, at least, can contrive, to
mount a nag.



MOUNTING.

In mounting, the rider should place himself rather before the horse’s shoulder,
and turn his left side to it; he must hold his whip in his left hand, take hold of
the centre of the snaffle reins with his right hand, and pass the middle finger of his
left hand through them, from before, keeping the back of that hand toward the
horse’s head. He should next place his left hand on the animal’s neck, about a
foot from the saddle, with his right hand draw the reins through his left, and
RIDING. 173

shorten them until he has an equal feeling, with the latter hand, on the horse’s
neck, and then with his right hand he should throw the end of the reins to the off-
side ; with the same hand he must next take a lock of the mane, and twist it round
his left thumb, and then close his left hand on the mane and reins. After these
movements he takes hold of the left stirrup with his right
hand, raises his left foot and puts it in the stirrup, turns
his face so as to look across the saddle, places his right
hand on the cantle, presses his left knee against the saddle —
on the girth, and keeps his heels back, so as to prevent his
toes touching the horse’s side ; he next takes a spring from
his right instep, and raises himself in the stirrup, pressing
his knees firmly against the saddle, and keeping his heels NY
together, yet slightly drawn back. In this position the § ¢ fi tw \
body must be upright, and rather supported by his right / We YL
hand ; from this attitude, he moves his right hand from the .
cantle.to the pommel, passes his right leg over the horse’s

quarters to the off-side, presses his right knee against the saddle, and his body
then comes gently down into it; his right hand, of course, next quits the saddle,
and his left, the mane. .

The rider being thus mounted, he should hold his left or bridle hand, the
wrist bent outward, opposite to, and at three inches from his body, and drop his
right hand by the side of his thigh, place his right foot in the stirrup, unaided by
either eye or hand, adjust his clothes, then change the whip from his left hand to
his right, and hold it inclining toward the left ear of the horse. The whip should
always be carried in the right hand, except when in the act of mounting or dis-
mounting. If agroom attends at mounting, he must not be allowed to touch the
reins, but merely hold that part of the bridle which comes down the cheek. In
dismounting the movements are precisely the same as in mounting, only reversed.






THE SEAT AND BALANCE,

4

As the body must always be in a situation to preserve both seat and balance, | -

we shall endeavor to make our instruction upon these heads as explicit as possible.
For a firm, correct seat, the thighs, turned inward, should rest flat upon the sides
of the saddle without grasping, as the weight of the rider will give sufficient hold
without such adventitious aid, which, in fact, only lifts the rider out of his saddle ;
the thighs, however, must be kept so firm that they will not roll or move, so as to
174 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

disturb the horse or loosen the rider’s seat ; but if the horse should hesitate to
advance, they may then be slightly relaxed. The knees must be kept back, and
stretched down so as to throw the thighs somewhat out of the perpendicular, but
no hold or gripe should be taken with them, unless the rider has lost all other
means of holding on ; if the thighs are in their proper position in the saddle, the
legs and arms will be turned as they should be—that is, they will be in a line
parallel with the rider’s body, close to the horse's side, but without touching ;
they may, however, sometimes give an additional aid to the seat, by a grasp with
the calves, and also assist the aids of the hands in like manner ; the toes should be
raised and the heels depressed, and kept from galling the horse’s side. The body —
should be held quite erect, and the shoulders kept square and thrown back, the
chest advanced, and the small of the back bent rather forward. The upper part
of the arms must hang perpendicular from the shoulders, close to the hips, and be
kept steady yet without rigidity, else they destroy the hand. The hands should
be held with the wrists rounded a little outward, about four or five inches apart,
in front of the body, the thumbs and knuckles pointing toward each other, and
the finger nails to the body. |

The balance in riding preserves the body from those inclinations or swervings
from side to side, which even the ordinary paces of a horse occasions ; it acts and
corresponds with every movement of the animal, and therefore enables the rider
to sit so firmly, that nothing can shift him from his seat. To explain this very
essential part of horsemanship, we will just mention that it is for the rider when
his horse is working straight and upright on his legs, to keep his body in an
upright position ; when the animal breaks into a trot to incline his body a little
back ; and in the gallop, leap, or any violent action of the horse, generally to keep
his body back. When the horse leans or bends, as he does when turning a corner
sharply, or galloping round a circle, the rider must incline his body in the same
degree, or else he will lose his balance ; indeed, the art of balancing consists in
implicitly yielding the body to every movement of the horse, and to acquire it
properly, the practice on circles is extremely useful, working carefully and equally
to both hands. The rider should never take the least help from the reins in order
to preserve his equilibrium, for the bridle hand should always be kept fixed, and
the reins held at such a length that they may support the horse, but not the
rider.
RIDING. | 175

TROTTING.

In trotting, the horse raises two feet at a time—that is, the near fore foot and
the off hind foot, and vice versé ; thus making only two beats instead of four, as im
walking. In the trot there is a leading foot, either the right or left, by which that
side is a little more advanced than the other. The leading with either foot is
extremely useful; for if a horse unused to altering is obliged, through fatigue or
chance, to change the leading leg for that which he is not habituated to, his actiom
will be hard, cramped, and irregular. During the trot the rider must sit close to
the saddle, preserving his seat not by the pressure of his knees, but by a good
balance of the body, which must be slightly inclined forward. He should neither
stand nor rise in his stirrup, but allow his whole figure to act in unison with the
motions of the horse ; and in order to preserve a proper degree of correspondence
and appuz, he must keep his hands steady and pliant. If the horse trots too fast,.
the action should be checked by tightening the hold on the reins ; if too slow,
he must be animated and encouraged to put his foot out boldly. While giving
these animations, the rider must support his fore hand up, and then a touch of the
fingers, or an animation of the tongue, whip, or legs will have its due effect. In
road riding—the proper pace for which is the trot—if the horse trots in a disagree-
ably rough manner, the rider may ease the jolting by rising slightly in his stirrups ;
and the quicker the horse trots the easier it is for the rider, as he is elevated not
by his own movements, but by the action of the horse. Though this is called rising
in the stirrups, they are of no great importance to the rider in holding on ; indeed,
no dependence should be placed in such supports, for many persons who have relied
on their footing in the stirrups have been thrown by the horse turning suddenly
round or shying. The arms and shoulders must not be jerked up and down
through the motion of the body, for great steadiness of hand is required to pre-
serve the due degree of correspondence with the horse’s mouth ; neither should the
legs press his sides, as that would most likely cause him to break into a gallop,
which pace he must not be permitted to shift into, as it spoils the beauty of the
action to be constantly varying from one pace to the other. As the directions
respecting turns, stops, etc., which are inserted under the head of ‘‘ the walk,”
hold good with regard to the same movement in the trot, we need not repeat
them,
376 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE CANTER AND GALLOP.

In the canter, which is the most difficult kind of gallop, the horse’s feet are
raised from and come to the ground, so as to mark a regular quick, sharp time of
one, two, three, four. To urge the horse into a canter, the rider should press him
with his legs or animate him with his tongue, and at the same time slightly raise
his hand, to incite him to lift his fore legs. However, should he be inclined merely
to perform a quicker trot, the hands must be kept firm and the animations in-
creased until he moves at the desired pace. The gallop is an extended canter,
and in both actions it is immaterial with which leg the horse leads off, provided the
hind leg of the same side follows it. In galloping to the right, the horse should
lead with the inward or off fore leg, followed by the off hind leg ; and in turning
to the left, he must lead with the near fore and hind legs. When performed in this
manner the action is termed united ; but if, on the contrary, he leads off with the
_ off fore and near hind legs, and vice versd, he is considered disunited ; and if in
galloping either to the right or left he leads with both near or off legs, his action
is reckoned false. If the horse strikes off with the wrong leg, false or disunited,
the rider should, by shortening the inward rein, and applying his off leg to the
horse’s side, strive to make him change, and lead with the proper leg. If the
animations are not kept up, and the full action is not supported by the hand, the
horse will break into a trot; therefore, the moment the action is felt to be declin-
ing, it should be immediately restored by the proper animations. The stop in the
gallop should be so timed that it may be begun when the horse’s fore feet are
coming to the ground, which is the beginning of the cadence, and end when the
horse brings his hind feet to the exact distance, and so finishes the cadence. It is
useless, however, to attempt making a perfect stop, unless the horse is correct in
this pace or time of his paces. The double arrest is the stop completed in two
cadences of the gallop, instead of one, and therefore is not so distressing either to
the horse or his rider. At the first cadence, the body should be thrown gently
back, so as to check the horse’s movement in some measure, but notentirely ; and
the finish should be in the second cadence, the rider still keeping his body back,
RIDING. 177

THE STANDING LEAP.

The movable bar for leaping should not be more than from one to two feet in
height at the first, but it may be gradually elevated as the rider perfects himself ;
however, it should never be very high. The leaps are taken either standing or
flying. The former, although practised first, is by far the most difficult to sit ; but
by being taken slowly and deliberately, it affords the rider time and recollection,
and the riding-master an opportunity to render assistance in case of mishaps, and
to instruct. As its name implies, this leap is taken from a standing position,
without any run before it. When the horse is at the bar, the animations of the
hand and leg will incite him to rise, and as he does so, the rider should, to pre-
serve his perpendicular position, allow his body to come rather forward, keep his
back in, and his head firm; as the horse springs forward he should slip his breech
- under him, so as to let his body go readily back, and keep his legs close and body
back until the animal’s hind legs have come fully to the ground. The rider must
press his legs, from the knee, so closely to the horse’s sides, that the action of the
body will not relax them; the toes should be raised so as to keep the spurs from
galling the horse’s sides ; and, if requisite, they may be turned out a little, to
strengthen the hold. The position of the hands also must be particularly attended
to; at the first moment of taking the leap, the rider must give the rein to the
horse, without reserve ; and as the horse’s hind feet come to the ground, collect
the reins firmly, resume his position, and proceed at a moderate pace. The hands
should be kept low, and at the centre of the body; for if otherwise, they confine
the horse’s head, prevent the rider’s body from going easily back, and also throw
him forward. If the horse is too much collected, in order to incite him to rise, he
will bound over the bar ; and if not sufficiently so, he will perhaps not clear it. The.
animations necessary must be left to the judgment of the rider, as they entirely
depend on the temperament of the animal.

THE FLYING LEAP

is much easier than the standing leap, although the movement is quicker. It may
be taken from any pace without previously halting ; but a moderate pace is the
best, as then the horse rises at a proper time, neither too soon nor too late. From
ten to fifteen yards is the proper distance for a horse to trot before he takes the
178 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

leap ; if he is well trained, he may be allowed to take his own pace to it ; but if he
is sluggish, he should be animated with the spur just before his head is turned
toward the leap, and pushed into a short, collected gallop. It is quite useless
for the rider, when taking this leap, to bring his body forward as the horse raises
his fore legs, because the spring from the hind legs being taken instantly after-
ward, if the horse checked himself, and refused to take the leap, or did not come
fair, he might be thrown over the horse’s head through the forward position of his
body. The rider should therefore hold on firmly by his legs, and keep his hands
down. As the horse springs forward, his body will invariably take the proper
movement of leaning back, especially if he, at the moment of the spring, slips his
breech under him and brings his waist forward.

The horse requires, in this leap, little support from the hands until he comes
to the ground, when the aid of the hands assist in supporting him, and in bring-
ing the rider’s body upright.

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SKATING,

KATING, in one form or the other, has been known in America since it was
introduced in the Northern States and in Canada by the early emigrants ;
but it is only within the past quarter of a century that it has been the fashionable
and popular sport in the North that it now is. A regular furore for the sport set
in during the winter of 1858-59, when the New York Central Park lakes were
first thrown open for public skating. From that time forth the fashion for skat-
ing—starting in the metropolis—extended itself with aconstantly widening circle,
until it became the fashion in every city in the Union where skating facilities
could be had. Indeed, not content with the sport on the ice during the winter
months, the inventive art was enlisted to prepare facilities for skating on an ordi-
nary hard floor, when no ice was to be had for the purpose, and roller-skating began
to rival the sport on the ice in popularity, until ‘‘ rinking’’—as it was called—ob-
tained such favor in fashionable society as to establish it as one of the permanent.
recreative institutions of the country, the roller-skates made under the Plimpton
patent offering admirable facilities for a most enjoyable form of skating. With.
this furore for skating came improved facilities in the form of model skates, until
the point of perfection was almost reached in the form of the now unrivalled Ameri-
can club skate, which are yearly exported to Europe by the thousand.

What fielding skill is in the games of ball, so is grace of movement in the art
of skating—it is the most attractive feature of the sport. A man may be able to
accomplish the most difficult of the feats of the fancy skater’s programme of
movements, and yet, if he be devoid of grace in the accomplishment of his task,
he fails lamentably in giving a finish to his otherwise complete performance. Look
at yonder skater executing the “‘ grape-vine twist,’’ the “‘ figure threes and
eights,’’ the ‘‘ flying threes,”’ the ‘‘ spread eagle,’’ and all the other varied move-
180 _ SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

ments of the expert’s repertoire of fancy skating, and see how his arms fly from his
body, how ungainly he moves his legs, bends his‘knees, and twists and turns his
body. He accomplishes each figure he attempts, but in what manner does he do
it? He cuts the figure on the ice well enough, but what a figure he cuts in doing
it? In fact, grace is half the merit of skating, and without it all the skill of ex-
ecution is but of secondary importance. The skater who does the outside roll with
perfect grace of motion really accomplishes more than he who can execute nearly |
every figure of the Skating Congress programme without it. Itis a pleasure to
see the one move on the ice. It is annoying to see the other do so much and do it
so ungracefully.

_ * But what is grace?’ Says some juvenile reader. As applied to physical
things it is a quality which @rises from a combination of elegance of form and
ease of attitude and motion. As Milton says: ‘‘ Grace was in all her steps.’’
Grace and rapidity of motion are, in a measure, antagonistic. Graceful move-
ments are made without apparent effort. A graceful position or movement on
skates should invariably be natural and devoid of affectation. One of the greatest
obstacles to grace of movement on skates is the motion of the arms. The ten-
_ dency they have to fly off ata tangent, and to make acute angles of themselves
greatly interferes with the desire to move gracefully. To make your arms feel at
home in a natural position while you are going through your fancy figures, is the
first lesson in the art after you have learned to move on skates with confidence.

LEARNING TO SKATE.

In acquiring a practical knowledge of any special art, there is nothing which
will aid you so much as confidence in your ability to accomplish what you are
about to undertake. Confidence is a great essential in learning to skate. In this
respect it is like learning to swim. What the fear of sinking is to the young
swimmer, so is the fear of falling to the young skater. Courage and nerve are
essential qualifications as a skater. Fear of a fall is a strong barrier to progress
in a practical knowledge of the art, and the nerve required to attempt some diffi-
cult feat or other involving risks of a severe fall is very necessary.

The first thing to be done after putting on a pair of good-fitting skates for the
first time, is to learn to walk with them on the ice. After you have learned to
preserve your equilibrium on the ice in this way, and you begin to have confidence,
you then commence the next step in the art, and that is to learn to strike out. To
attain the most rapid success in learning to skate you must advance by slow
SKATING. 181

degrees. Attempting to do too much at one time is always a drawback to your
progress. In the first place, you will find that the effort to balance yourself on the
narrow standpoint of the steel runner of your skate necessarily brings into
active and rather painful
exercise comptratively un-
used muscles of the ankles
and legs. Togo on testing
the strength or endurance
of these in unusual exercise
beyond a certain point of
fatigue, is to retard rather
than advance yourself in
the art. The moment the
muscles of your ankles or
legs begin to feel the effects
of the unwonted strain, give
them a ten minutes’ rest or
so. In this way the muscles
which are specially brought
into play in skating will
gradually but surely get
trained into doing the work
required of them.

After learning to walk
well on your skates, the next
step to be made is to learn
to strike out. In doing this
you first learn to propel
yourself on the ice on one
foot while using the other
to push yourself forward.
When you can propel your-
self on the ice tolerably well
with first one foot and then
the other, you enter upon
the first plain forward move-
ment of the regular skating programme, and begin to strike out in earnest. In
accomplishing this second lesson in the rudiments of the art you will see that it
is but an extension or variation of the movement of the first lesson—viz., that of


182 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

propelling yourself with one foot. While in the first movement one skate is kept —
sliding on the ice while the other pushes it forward, in the second movement the
right foot is sent sliding forward on a half circle while the left is temporarily
lifted from the ice, leaving you balancing yourself for a moment on the right foot
as you move forward, the left foot next becoming the balance foot while the right
is lifted.

As you progress by practice and gain confidence you must extend the length
of the strokes, making them regular and with an easy motion, not forgetting
grace of movement in the very beginning of your practice. Of course in doing
even this little in skating, falls are likely to be frequent, and their frequency is
generally in proportion to the degree of confidence the skater possesses and the
excitability of his temperament—the cool and collected individual invariably pre-
serving his balance on the ice the best.

_ The first movements of the novice on skates are made on the inside edge of
the skate runner ; but this is only peculiar to the A B C work of the art. The
fundamental basis of all expert efforts on skates is the movement on the outer
edge. This once attained, to any degree of skill, the key to all fancy skating is
then atcommand. The great essential in learning to skate on the ‘‘ outside edge,”’
or to do the “‘ outer roll,’’ as it is called, is confidence. The very fear that you
will fall makes you fall. You must learn this movement on the ‘‘ nothing venture
nothing have’’ principle. If your skate has a keen edge it is just as safe to lean
over on as it is to lean on the inside edge in doing the first movement in striking
out.

To attain the outside edge movement successfully and with the least risk of
falling, you must try the first steps of the cross roll; by this means you are at
once obliged to use the outside edge of the skate. To skate the ‘‘ cross roll,’’ the
sKater stands as in learning the outside edge, and starting on the right foot,
crosses the left over it. But instead of repeating the movement, and so forming a
circle, he immediately crosses the right foot again over the left,andso on. Then,
instead of making one large circle, he forms a succession of arcs of circles, by
which he is carried forward. The legs should be crossed over each other as far as
possible, and the skater should not be content until he can even cross the knees.
This is a very pretty movement when neatly done, and one of the most graceful
on the ice. The hands must hang quite easily and quietly, and the body carried
uprightly without being stiffened.

Let it be a rule, without exception, to keep the knees straight when skating.
Nothing looks more clumsy or awkward than a skater who keeps his knees bent.
And even if he can cut all the rarest figures, the bent knees destroy their efiect,
and the skater still remains ungraceful. .
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SKATING, 183

FIGURE OF EIGHT.

We now come to the first step in real figure-skating, which is the very

quintessence of the art. The first figure learned is generally the 3or the 8. Some |

prefer the former, but we find that the latter is the better figure on

which to begin. Its appearance when cut is shown in the figure, and it

is achieved as follows: The skater makes.an entire circle before he &
crosses his feet. So that, if his right foot starts on the upper circle, —
his left makes the lower one. N. B.—Always start from the point .

where the circles cut each other. At first the skater will find some ()
difficulty in getting quite round the circles, but he will soon accom-

plish that object if he slightly swing the off-leg round toward the toes

of the other. In good skating, the course is entirely steered by the foot that
is off the ice; that which is on it only serving to sustain the skater.

FIGURE OF THREE.

No pains should be spared upon this figure, as it isa most elegant one, and is,
besides, the key to all figures. When the 3 is once mastered, other figures become
quite easy. The mode of doing it is this: Start on the right foot as if going to
make an 8, but do it as gently as possible. But instead of swinging the left foot
round so as to make a circle, /e¢ zt remain at least a foot behind the right foot. The
consequence of so doing is, that when three fourths of the
circle are completed, the off-foot gives a curious sway to the
body, and the skater spins round on his right foot, changing at
the same time from the outside to the inside edge, and cuts the
second half of the 3 backward. When the skater can do this
easily with the right foot, he should practise it with the left ;
and when he can cut the 3 with equal ease with either foot,
he should cut two together, as seen in the drawing. Let the reader here refer
to the drawing, while we trace the skater through it. He begins with the left-
hand 3, starting with his left foot on the outside edge ; when he gets to the twist
of the 3 he spins round, and finishes the figure (sti with the left foot) on a the inside
edge backward. ;


184 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE OUTSIDE EDGE BACKWARD.

When the skater has become familiar with the preceding movements, he
should turn his attention to the movement backward on the outside edge. A good
method of learning this movement is by standing to cut a 3, and immediately
after the twist to place the outside edge of the off-foot on the ice, at the same time
lifting the other foot. This is soon acquired, and assists the learner in the move-
ment which follows, which is the cross roll backwards.

THE BACK CROSS-ROLL.

Any one who can do the back cross-roll properly may count himself a good
skater. There are many who can do all the preceding figures successfully and yet
find the back cross-roll quite an obstacle in the way of further progress. One
cause of failure is that too great an impetus is given to the body at the start ; in-
deed, it may be accepted as a rule in all figure-skating, that the best skaters use the
least force. A really good skater will continue to execute figures for an hour at a
time, and none but a very practical eye can tell by what force he is impelled. In
fact, the position of the head is the great secret in these delicate manceuvres ; the
difference of an inch in its attitude making just the difference between a large
or a small circle.

In learning the back cross-roll, the skater need not start with any impetus at
all. Let him merely stand still, place the left outside edge well into the ice, lean
slightly upon that side, and gently swing the other foot round until it has crossed
the left foot and is planted with its outside edge on the ice. The left foot is then
crossed behind the right, and it will be found that the mere swing of the foot and
leg is sufficiently powerful to urge the skater backward. The greatest care should
be taken to avoid too great an impetus at starting, and in a short time the
skater will find himself able to glide over the ice in this manner with perfect
ease.

We append the special programme of the Vienna Amateur Skating Tourney
.of January, 1882—which is based on the American Skating Congress programme
—as the regular list of skating movements to be acquired, in order to enter for
competition in any special trial of skill in figure-skating.
No.

No.

No.

No,

No.

No.

I.

=

2.

bj

3:

SKATING. 185

The following figures were executed by each competitor :

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yo)

—

r,
xX

a

>

1. Outsideedge roll forward. Right and left. 2. Cross-roll
outside forward. Right and left. 3. Inside edge roll forward.
Right and left. 4. Outside edge roll backward. Right and left.
5. Cross-roll outside backward. Right and_left. 6. Inside edge
roll backward. Right and left.

7. Figure ‘‘ three :’’ Starting on the outside edge forward with
turn to the inside edge backward. Right
and left.

8. Figure ‘‘ three :’’ a) Starting on the right outside edge for-

ward with turn to the inside edge back-

ward—and starting on the left inside
edge backward with turn to the outside
edge forward.

re

No. 6. , 6) The same, starting on the left.

9. Figure ‘‘ three :’’ a) Starting on the right inside
edge forward with turn to
the outside edge backward
—and starting on the left
outside edge backward with
turn to the inside edge for-
ward.

6) The same, starting on the
left.

10. Figure ‘‘ double three’’ (half double). Starting on the out-
side edge forward with turn to the in-
side edge backward and turn to the
outside edge forward. Right and
left.

Figure ‘* double three’ (half double). Starting on the inside edge forward
with turn to the outside edge backward and turn to the inside edge
forward. Right and left.

Figure ‘‘ double three’ (half double). Starting on the outside edge backward
with turn to the inside edge forward and turn to the outside edge back-
ward. Right and left.

Figure ‘‘ double three’’ (half double). Starting on the inside edge backward
with turn to the outside edge forward and turn to the inside edge
backward. Right and left.
186

No.

No.

No.

21.

No,

23.

SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

14." Figure ‘‘loop.’’ Outside forward loop. Right and left.

18,

15.
16,
i7.
18. Figure ‘‘

6¢

“¢ Inside forward loop. co ewe
* Outside backward toop. ‘“ ‘“ “
* Inside backward loop. cee

eight’’ on one foot forward :

a) Starting on the right outside edge,
changing to the inside edge—and start-
ing on the left inside edge changing
to the outside edge. |

6) The same, starting on the left.

. Fjgure ‘‘ eight’’ on one foot backward, according to Fig. 18 @ and 4.

20. Figure ‘‘ three serpentine three’ on one foot forward :

20.

\ /

a) Starting on the right outside edge for-
ward with turn to the inside edge back-
ward, changing to outside edge back-
‘ward with turn to the inside edge for-
ward—and starting on the left inside
edge forward with turn to the outside
edge backward, changing to the inside
edge backward with turn to the outside
edge forward.

6) The same, starting on the left,

Figure ‘‘ three serpentine three’ on one foot backward according to Fig 20 @

and J,

22. Figure ‘‘ loop serpentine loop’’ on one foot forward :

» \

a) Starting on the right outside loop
changing to the inside loop—and start-
ing on the left inside loop changing to
the outside loop.

6) The same starting on the left.

Figure ‘‘ loop serpentine loop’’ on one foot backward, according to Fig. 22 @

and 4,
SKATING. 187

THE MODEL SKATE.

The following cuts represent the form and mechanism of the American club
skate. .

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The above cut shows the mechanism of the clamps which fasten the skate to
the sole of the boot.

To fasten the American club skate to the boot, throw the lever forward and
adjust the clamps to the width of the sole and heel by turning the thumb screw.
Do not adjust too tight. If you cannot bring the lever in position by a firm
pressure of the thumb, you have the adjustment too tight.
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CURLING.

HE national winter sport of Scotland is curling, and from time immemorial
has this exciting game been enjoyed, alike by the Lowland merchant and
the Highland chieftain, on the surface of the frozen lochs of ‘‘ Auld. Scotia ;’’ and
of all the national sports of our adopted citizens which they enjoy in this country,
not one more forcibly reminds them of their boyhood’s days ‘‘ at hame,”’’ or bears
with its memories such pleasant reminiscences of ‘‘ Auld Lang Syne,’’ as the
Scottish game of curling. Some ten years ago curling in America was almost ex-
clusively practised by Scotchmen; but of late years it has attained widespread
popularity with Americans, and now our “‘ Yankee curlers’ are beginning to vie
with the veterans of our Scotch curling clubs in trials of skill at the game ; one of
the most attractive of the annual curling events of the great metropolis of America
being the grand match between Scotch and American curlers.

Curling is very similar to quoiting, the principle being the same. In the
game of quoits the object is to ¢rvow the quoit as near as possible to a point called
the ‘‘hub.’’ In curling it is to slide the curling stone as near as possible to the
centre of a circle called the “‘ tee.”’

To play the game, a field of strong, smooth ice is required about fifty yards
in length and some ten yards wide. On this the lines of the “‘ rink’’ are laid out.

The length of a rink is forty-two yards, and at each end two circles of a radius
of seven feet are marked off at the distance of thirty-eight yards apart, and the cen-

6¢
CURLING. | 189

tre of these circles is called the “‘tee,’’ and the object of the players of each party
is to slide the curling stone within this circle as near the “‘tee’’ as possible. There
are four players on each side, making eight players to each rink, and each player
plays two stones alternately with his opponent ; and if all the eight stones of one
side are sent within the circle, and none of those of the opposite party, then the
former score eight shots for the ‘‘ end ’’—the end in question being equivalent to
an inning in cricket or baseball. Should one of the stones of the opposite party,
however, be within the circle, and also be the second stone nearest the ‘‘ tee,”’
then the party having the stone nearest the ‘‘ tee’’ count one only, even though
all the eight stones of their side are in the circle.

On page 190 will be seen the diagram of a curling rink as required by the
rules of the American National Curling Association.

CURLING STONES.

The stones used in curling are circular blocks of Scotch granite, rounded on
the sides, and having an iron bolt through the
centre, on which is screwed the handle in sucha
way as to admit of the upper part of the stone
being made the lower part by changing the posi-
tion of the bolt. They are polished so as to glide
over the ice easily, the under part of the stone
being smoother than the upper, the latter being
used for very keen ice. The stones weigh from
thirty to fifty pounds regulation weight, and meas-
ure thirty-six inches in circumference, that being
the limit, though they may be made smaller. The
heavier the stone the more polished its surface
needs to be; and the best quality of granite for
the purpose is that which admits of the finest pol-
ish. In Canadasome of the clubs use iron as the
material instead of stone, as the severe cold at
times makes the granite too brittle. These irons
are heavier than the stones, as their surface is
necessarily smoother, but they must not exceed
seventy pounds in weight. Curling stones suit-
able for boys’ clubs weigh from fifteen to twenty-five pounds.


1g0 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE CRAMPETS.

The ‘ crampets” are two frameworks of sheet-iron, with holes punctured in
the iron in such a way as to make a foothold for the curler when standing ready to
slide the curling stone down the rink. They are from three to four feet in length,
and about eight inches wide. They should be galvanized to prevent rusting. The
form is as follows. |



Supposing the rink to be in readiness for commencing a match, the players
and captains—technically called skips—chosen, and their order of playing ap-
pointed. Side No. 1, having won the toss, begins play by sending player A to
“* cast the first stone,’’ The skip, having taken his position at the end, directs the
player to ‘‘ draw” in to a certain spot within the circle—that is, to slide his stone
as close to the place pointed out as possible. Player A, of side No. 2, now takes

Diagram to be Drawn on the Ice Previous to Playing, and Referred to Throughout the Rules as
‘"THE RINK.”

oT
)

SCALE OF FEET















NLFTG GIA





42 YARDS

aN

aa

his position, and the skip of his party, taking his stand at the end, directs A No.
2 to strike his adversary’s stone out of the circle, and in such a manner as to leave
his own inside the circle ; as he fails to do this, A No. 1 takes his place to play his
second stone, and by the direction of the skip tries to send it so as to rest on the
line directly in front of his first stone lying within the circle, thereby ‘ guarding’
the “‘ winner’’ from being struck out of the circle by the players to follow. The

SININ DOH



5 0 10 20 30 40 50
CURLING. I9I

object of side No. 2 now is first to remove this guard, and having done that, to
send the stone lying within the circle outside of it, leaving the stone striking it
out within ; and if succeeding in this to guard the stone in question ; the stone
nearest the ‘‘ tee,’’ after all the stones of each side have been played, giving one
count to the side to which it belongs.

It will be readily seen that in the course of a game like this an ample field is
afforded for a display of a great deal of strategic skill, and as a matter of course
the captain of each side has his hands full of business in directing his players how
to send their stones to the circle and in outmanceuvring his adversary,

PLAYING THE POINTS.

The beauty of the art of curling lies in excelling in playing what are techni-
cally called the *‘ points’' of the game. These are striking, inwicking, drawing,
guarding, chap and lie, wick and curl in, raising, chipping the winner, and outwicking.
The following diagrams fully illustrate each ‘‘ point.’’

on. the Ice previous
to playing



The first diagram is that showing the lines and circles—large and small—
which are to be drawn on the ice before the contest for the point medal begins.



__ In striking, a stone is placed on the “‘ tee’’—the centre of the circle—and this
the player has to strike out of the circle in order to score the point.
IQ2 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

In tnwicking, one stone is placed upon the ‘‘ tee’ and another is located with
its inner edge two feet distant from the ‘‘ tee” and its fore edge on a line drawn
from the ‘‘ tee’’ at an angle of forty-five with the central line. The object of the
player is to hit the latter stone and carom on to that on the ‘‘ tee,’’ moving both
stones.

Tnwicking



In drawing, the object of the player is simply to cause his stone to lie within
the circle. Drawing is the first shot made in the game.



In guarding, the object of the player is to place his stone in such a position in
front of the stone on the “‘ tee’’ as to guard it from the stones of the players of the
other side.

Guarding



Guarding, like drawing, requires very careful play, and it requires practice to
excel in it.
CURLING. 193

In chap and le, the object of the player is to strike the stone—lying on the
‘‘tee’’—out of the circle, at the same time leaving his own stone remaining inside
the circle.



In wick and curl in, a stone is placed with its inner edge seven feet distant
from the ‘‘ tee,’’ and its fore edge on a line making an angle of forty-five degrees
with the central line, the object of the player being to cause his stone to strike the
stone outside the circle and rest within the circle.



Both of the above shots require not only a careful calculation of force in the
delivery of the stone, but also in measuring the distance, and in being accurate in
aim.

ad
~—_
awn
=e

In razsing, the object of the player is to hit a stone, which is placed with its
194 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

centre on the central line and its inner edge seven feet distant from the ‘‘ tee,’’
into the circle. |

In chipping the winner, one stone is placed on the “‘ tee,’’ and another with its
inner edge ten feet distant, just touching the central line and half guarding the
stone on the “‘tee.’’ The object of the player is to pass this guard and perceptibly
move the stone on the “‘tee.’’ In playing this shot a bias has to be imparted to the
stone or what is called the ‘‘ out turn,” so that after the stone passes the guard
closely it may curl in on the inner stone.

Chipping the Winner



In outwicking, a stone is placed with its inner edge four feet distant from the
** tee,’ and its centre on a line making an angle of forty-five degrees with the cen-
tral line. The object of the player is to strike this stone so that it shall lie within
the circle. 7



Aim and distance have to be carefully calculated in making this shot.
The rules in point-medal matches are as follows :

1. Each competitor shall draw lots for the rotation of play, and keep that order throughout. He
shall use two stones—unless the majority of the contestants prefer one stone —and shall play them one
after the other. He shall not during the competition change the side of the stone, nor the stone itself,
unless it be broken.

2. Every competitor must play four shots at each of the eight “ points” of the game.
CURLING. | 195

3. Each successful shot shall count oe, whatever be the point played at. No stone shall be con-
sidered wzthin or without the circle unless it clear it ; and every stone is held as resting ox the central
line which does not completely clear it—in every case as ascertained by a square.

4. In the event of two or more competitors gaining the same aggregate number of shots, they shall
play four shots at outwicking, where a stone placed with its inner edge four feet distant from’ the “‘ tee,”
and its centre on a line making an angle of forty-five degrees with the central line, is to be so struck as’
to lie within the circle. Ifthe competition cannot be decided by these shots, the umpire may order two
to be played at one or more of the preceding points.

THE RULES OF THE GAME.

THE RINK AND ITS DIMENSIONS.

1, The length of the rink played shall be forty-two yards. The “tees” shall be put down thirty-eight
yards apart. In acontinued straight line with the “ tees,’’ and four yards distant from each, a circle
eighteen inches in diameter shall be drawn on the left-hand side of said line (looking in the direction to
be played), and its edge just touching it. Within this circle, whether standing on the ice, or on any
rest, support, or abutment whatsoever, permitted by the rules, each player, when playing his stone,
shall place his right foot on the right-hand side and his left foot on the left-hand side of the central
line. (The circle to be on the opposite side of the line if the player is left-handed.) When a hack, or
hatch, in the ice is used, it must be behind the circle above described, and not of greater length ‘than
fourteen inches, measuring from the central line.

A circle of seven feet radius to be described from each ‘‘ tee’’ as a centre, and no stone to count
which is wholly without this circle.

The hog score to be distant from each ‘‘tee’’ one sixth part of the length of the whole rink played.
Every stone to be a hog which does not clear a square placed upon this score; but no stone to be con-
sidered a hog which has struck another stone lying over the hog score.

A line shall be drawn on the ice at right angles to the rink, half way between the “ tees,’’ which
shall be called the ‘‘ middle line.” In no case shall the rink played be less than thirty-two yards.

So soon as the rink is marked off, and before beginning to play, the terms of the match or game
must be distinctly stated and fixed by the skips, if they have not been previously arranged. These
terms may either be that the parties shall play for a specified time, or a game of acertain number of
shots. Though the terms have been previously fixed, they should be repeated.

PLAYERS TO A RINK,

2. Every rink to be composed of four players a side, each with two curling-stones, unless other-
wise mutually agreed upon. Before commencing the game, each skip (viz.. leader of the party) shall
State to the opposing skip the rotation in which his men are to play, and the rotation, so fixed, is not to
be changed during the game. Each pair of players shall play one stone alternately with his opponent,
until he has played both.

THE SKIPS TO TOSS FOR THE LEAD.

3. The two skips opposing each other shall settle by lot, or by any other way they may agree
upon, which party shall lead, after which the winning party of the last end shall lead.
196 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

®
THE SIZE, SHAPE, AND WEIGHT OF THE STONES.

4. All curling-stones shall be of circular shape. No stone shall be of greater weight than fifty
pounds imperial, nor less than thirty pounds ; nor of greater circumference than thirty-six inches ; nor
of less height than one eighth part of its greatest circumference.

No stone, or side of a stone, shall be changed after a game has been commenced, nor during its
_continuence, unless it happens to be broken, and then the largest fragment is to count, without any
necessity for playing with it more. If the played stone rolls and stops on its side or top, it shall not
be counted, but put off the ice. Should the handle quit the stone in the delivery, the player must keep
hold of it, otherwise he shall not be entitled to replay his shot.

POSITIONS OF THE PLAYERS.

s. Each party, before beginning to play, and during the course of each end, are to be arranged
along the sides of the rink, anywhere between the middle line and the “‘tee’’ which their skip may‘di-
rect ; but no party—except when sweeping according to rule—shall go upon the middle of the rink, nor
cross it under any pretense whatever. The skips alone are allowed to stand at or about the “‘tee,”’
as their turn requires.

PLAYING OUT OF TURN.

6. If a player plays out of turn, the stone so played may be stopped in its progress and returned
to the player. If the mistake shall not be discovered until the stone is again at rest, the opposite party
shall have the option to add one to their score, and the game shall then proceed in its original rotation,
or the end shall be declared null and void.

THE SWEEPING DEPARTMENT.

7, The sweeping department shall be under the exclusive direction and control of the skips. The
player’s party shall be allowed to sweep when the stone has passed the middle line, and until it
reaches the “tee,” and the adverse party when it has passed the ‘‘tee.” The sweeping should always
be to a side, or across the rink ; and no sweepings to be moved forward and left in front of a running
stone, so as to stop or obstruct its course.

NO STONE TO BE OBSTRUCTED.

8. If, in sweeping or otherwise, a running stone be interfered with or obstructed by any of the
party to which it belongs, it shall be put off the ice; if by any of the adverse party, it shall he placed
where the skip of the party to which it belongs may direct. If marred by any other means, the player
shall replay his stone. Should any played stone be accidentally displaced before the last stone is
played and at rest, by any of the party who are then lying the shot, they shall forfeit the end ; if by any
of the losing party at that end, who have the stone yet to play, they shall be prevented from playing
that stone, and have one shot deducted from their score. The number of shots to be counted at said
end by the winners to be decided by a majority of the players, the offender not having a vote.

. EVERY PLAYER TO HAVE HIS BROOM.

g. Every player to come provided with a broom ; to be ready to play when his turn comes, and
not to take more than a reasonable time to play his stone. Should he accidentally play a wrong stone,
any of the players may stop it while running ; but, if not stopped until it is again at rest, it shall be
replaced by the one which he ought to have played. ;
CURLING. 197

MEASURING SHOTS.

10. No measuring of shots allowed previous to the termination of the end. Disputed shots to be
determined by the skips ; or, if they disagree, by the umpire ; or, when there is no umpire, by some "
neutral person mutually chosen by them, whose decision shall be final. All measurements to be taken
from the centre of the ‘‘tee” to that part of the stone which is nearest to it. No stone shall be con-
sidered within or without the circle unless it clears it ; and every stone shall be held as resting on a line
which does not completely clear it. In every case this is to be determined by placing a ‘‘ square” on
the ice, at that part of the circle or line in dispute.

THE SKIP THE SOLE DIRECTOR.

11. Each skip shall have the exclusive regulation and direction of the game for his party, and may
play in what part of it he pleases; but, having chosen his place in the beginning, he must retain it
until the end of the game. The players may give their advice, but cannot control their director ; nor
are they, upon any pretext, to address themselves to the person about to play. Each skip, when his
own turn to play comes, shall name one of his party to take charge for him. Every player to follow
implicity the direction given him. If any player shall improperly speak to, taunt, or interrupt another,
while in the act of delivering his stone, one shot shall be added to the score of the party so interrupted,
and the end shall proceed as before.

CHANGING A RINK,

12. If, from any change of weather, after a game has been commenced, or from any other reason-
able cause whatsoever, one party shall desire to shorten the rink, or to change to another one,.if the
two skips cannot agree upon the change, the umpire for the occasion shall be called, and he shall, after
seeing one end played, determine whether the rink shall be shortened, and how much, and whether it
shall be changed, and his determination shall be final and binding on all parties. Should there be no
umpire appointed for the occasion, or should he be otherwise engaged, the two skips may call in any
curler unconnected with the disputing parties, whose services can be most readily obtained, and, sub-
ject to the same conditions, his powers shall be equally extensive to those of the umpire. The
umpire, in a match, shall have power, in the event of the ice being, in his opinion, unfit for the continu-
ance of the match, to stop the match, in which case the contest must be commenced anew, on some
future occasion, according to the rules of the National Club.
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ICE-BOATING.,

CE-YACHTS are strictly an American production, for only in America are
there any racing ice-yachts or clubs for ice-yachting. Throughout the
Northern States and on the Canada lakes ice-yachting is enjoyed during the winter
to a more or less extent; but it is on the Hudson River that the sport has
reached the point of its highest development. The principal racing course on the
Hudson is between Poughkeepsie and Newburg, and the leading ice-yacht clubs
of the country are the Poughkeepsie and New Hamburg clubs. To these is to be
added the Shrewsbury Club, which has its course on the Shrewsbury River on the
Jersey coast, not far from Long Branch. The oldest of these three clubs was
organized in 1861, since which year there have been championship contests on the
river every favorable season. The Poughkeepsie Club’s ice-yacht fleet numbers
over twenty yachts, some of them finished in very expensive style. The regular
ICE-BOATING. 199

course of this club is from Poughkeepsie to New Hamburg and return. The’
distance to be sailed is twenty-four miles with the wind ‘‘ dead on end’’ one way,
or half that distance with the wind west. The racing yachts of these clubs run
away from the fastest express trains of the Hudson River Railroad. The yacht
Whiz of the New Hamburg Club some years since ran nine miles in eight minutes |

The model yacht of the Poughkeepsie Club fleet is Commodore John A. Roose-
velt’s Icicle, the largest and finest ice-yacht in the world. From end of main
boom to the tip of her bowsprit she is sixty-eight feet in length. The width be-
tween her runners is twenty-nine feet, and she carries 1070 square feet of canvas.
She has a frame oval in form, and in this respect differs from all the other yachts,
She has been known to run a mile in forty-eight seconds.

An ice-yacht close-hauled sails nearer to the wind than any water-yacht.
With wind abeam, the speed is twice that of the wind itself; going free it is
nearly four times. It isa peculiarity of the ice-yacht that the sheets are always
flattened aft, whether by the wind or going free, and both mainsail and jib draw.
In running free, if dead before the wind, an ice-yacht would soon run out of it,
and therefore she has to keep her sails at an angle to the wind by running across
and with it. In other words, she beats to leeward. Thus, with a wind blowing
down the river and a yacht scudding before it, her sheets would be flat aft, and
she would cross from one side to the other alternately, jibing her mainsail over as
she did so. To bring an ice-boat to anchor, the jib has to be lowered and the
helm put “‘hard up’ or “‘hard down.’’ To stop the boat temporarily you only
have to bring her up in the wind without going far enough over to tack.

The appended diagram shows the framework of an ordinary ice-boat.


200 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

The hull of an ice-boat is a mere skeleton, consisting of two side timbers, a
keelson, and a cross-piece triangular in shape, the base much shorter than the
sides. On each side of the base the runner plank projects several feet. On these
extensions the runners are fastened, and at the stern the runner by which the boat
is steered is placed. The cockpit is not over four inches deep, and it is calculated
—in racing yachts—to hold but two persons. Hull, spars, and canvas have to be
made of the best materials. The standing rigging is of the best charcoal wire,
the bowsprit strands of Bessemer steel, and the canvas extra heavy. The sails
have a low hoist, and the gaff at the mainsail is much shorter than on a water-
yacht. Topsails are never used. The runners are of hard wood, sharp shod with
bar steel, with the edge touching the ice, the forward runners being longer than
the rudder runner.











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TOBOGGANING.,

OBOGGANING, like lacrosse, is a sport peculiar to Canada. It is the
American winter sport of coasting brought to perfection, The ‘ toboggan’’
is alight flat sleigh, used by the Canadian aborigines to bring home over the snow
the spoils of the hunt. The toboggan now used by Canadians consists of two or.
three slips of birch or bass-wood, about a quarter of an inch thick and six or eight
feet long, and with one end turned over, as shown in our illustration. There are
several cross-bars, and a miniature bulwark runs along each side, the whole frame
being strongly bound together by catgut. The remnant of Huron Indians, on
their reserve at Lorette, below Quebec, have almost a monopoly of the manufact-
ure of toboggans, and carry on a very profitable trade.

Great improvements have been made within the past year or two in the facili-
ties for fully enjoying the sport, especially in Montreal since the great winter carni-
vals of each year have been introduced. Originally, any hill with a straight road
and a good slant would do for the sport ; then the tobogganers began to build big
mounds of snow on top of the hills, upon which to give their long sleds a strong
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TOBOGGANING IN EARNEST.
















































TOBOGGANING. 203

and swift start. But all that became too old-fashioned after the carnivals set in,
since which time the wealthy snow-shoe clubs of Montreal have gone into the
sport regardless of expense. At the carnival of 1884 no less than five tobogganing
clubs took part in the sport, and each have their own slides. The Tuque Bleue
Club numbers near six hundred members, and the cut at the head of this article
presents a picture of their “‘slide,’’ located on the upper part of the Montreal
Lacrosse Club grounds on Sherbrooke Street. The fall of the slide is fifty-eight
feet in a distance of four hundred and fifty yards. To construct a good slide, it is
requisite to select a good hillside, with a straight roadway a quarter of a mile
long, and then to build long, slanting scaffolds at the top of the hill, fifty feet to
seventy feet from the ground at the upper end of the incline, and with standing
room at the top for scores of tobogganers and ladies. The inclined front of each
of-these scaffolds is boarded down to the point at which it meets the earth. Its
surface is then divided into three, four, or five slides by ridges of snow, and these
ridges are continued down the hillside. But snow is only used for these ridges,
which serve to keep the toboggans apart, and to prevent them from running into
one another. The slides themselves are coated with ice, made by pouring or
sprinkling water between the ridges. The snow on the hillside is also wet and
frozen so that the whole quarter of a mile of hillside is a sheet of ice. A high
ridge of snow separates the slides from the path up the hill, and along this path
the men drag their sleds. Once on top of the scaffold, the tobogganer puts his
toboggan down upon the flat platform, with its curved front end just over the
edge. When all are ready, the passengers having got firm holds upon the little
side rails at the edges of the slender board, the steerer throws himself forward
upon the toboggan, so that he rests on one haunch upon it, with one leg free to
steer with. The force of his movement and weight of his body send the frail
board flying over the edge of the scaffold and down the steep ice-clad planking.
‘The sensation experienced as the sled, with its party, dashes down the steep incline
is like falling from the roof of a four-story house. You feel yourself and the strip
of birch veneer beneath you loosened from the earth and flying like a meteor
toward the black crowd of spectators far below you at the foot of the hill. The
very manner in which the toboggan grazes the slide makes it less reassuring than
if it did not touch at all, There isa roar, a blast of intensely cold wind, a flash
of the white walls of snow on either side, and then a comforting bump and grating
as the less steep ground is touched. After that the supple board bends beneath
its load in obedience to every undulation and slight hummock in its path. The
quarter of a mile is frequently made in thirty seconds.






















































































































































SNOWSHOEING IN CANADA,






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SNOWSHOEING.

NE of the favorite winter sports of the Canadians is snowshoeing, which is
enjoyed to a great extent by the clubs of Montreal, who engage in races
and long tramps over the hills on snowshoes. The appended illustration presents
a picture of a Montreal club party returning from a trip up the mountain back of
the city. The Canada snowshoes are different in form from those used by the
Norwegians, who are very expert in the use of their peculiar form of snowshoes.
In fact, the snowshoe races form a prominent feature of winter amusements in
Norway. The children go to and from school on their snowshoes or sleighs, and
at all the fairs and festive gatherings those sports are common. Our illustration
shows a Norwegian snowshoer coming full speed down a snowhill, much after the
same fashion that a Canadian tobogganer flies downa Montreal ice-hill. Jumping
in snowshoes is frequently practised in Norway, where children learn to be exper
leaping from a bank some seven or eight feet high.












































































































































































































































































SNOWSHOEING
ROLLER-SKATING.

KATING on rollers, or wheeled skates, is an established American sport.
Skates with wheels, made for rolling on the hard surface of a floor, have
been in use for years on the stage, as a means of illustrating winter skating
scenes ; but: roller-skating as a sport has only been in vogue within the past
twenty years. The old style of wheeled skates were formed of four hard wood
wheels or hard rubber, placed one after the other on the centre line of the skate.
Nothing could be accomplished with these beyond a forward glide, and this only
with considerable exertion; and consequently such roller-skates were never
brought into general use.
In 1863 Mr. James L. Plimpton perfected an invention in the form of a roller-
skate, which admitted of similar movements on a wooden floor to those an accom-



plished skater could perform on the ice with the steel-runner skates. With this per-
fect roller-skate at command he went to work to introduce the new recreative
exercise they yielded. He established roller-skating clubs and associations and
built skating rinks for the exercise in cities where the facilities for ice-skating were
entirely wanting or were rarely at command. Thus was the new exercise very
generally introduced in this country. But somehow or other Dame Fashion only
took side-glances at it ; and seeing this, and knowing the weakness of the well-to-
do class of our countrymen in regard to the effect of a foreign indorsement, Mr.
208 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Plimpton went to Europe, and first patenting his American invention, he proceeded
to make the new American recreation fashionable with the English aristocracy.
In this he achieved remarkable success, so much so that ‘‘ rinking’’—as it was
called by the English nobility—became quite the rage in high society circles, not
only in England, but in France and even Germany. Since then roller-skating
has become fashionable in all our large cities, especially in the East and West, it
being a favorite sport at Newport.

The form of the Plimpton skate—the best form of roller-skate in use—is’ -
Shown in the appended cut. :

The peculiarity of the skate is that it runs in circles, according as the skater
leans to one side or the other, The principle is illustrated in the accompanying
diagram.



In putting on roller-skates for the first time the learner will see at once that
he can only slip backward and forward, and that side slipping is almost impossi-
ble. He should first, therefore, learn to balance himself on them with a view
to avoid the forward or backward slide, and this is best done by learning to walk
on them ; by this means the muscles of the ankles are gradually trained to the
work of obtaining command of the feet in the balancing. When he can walk
pretty well on them he should begin to slide along easily and slowly, not turning
his skate on the floor, but allowing the change of direction to be made by lifting
each foot about an inch from the floor. In doing this he should move the body
forward and outward, so as to balance well on the foot he moves forward. The
outside roll is the key movement for all evolutions on roller-skates ; for when this
beautiful movement is acquired all the others follow easily. Ice-skaters who excel
on the steel runners always make the mistake of trying to do too much when they
begin roller-skating. They seem to imagine that all they have to do is to put on
the rollers and proceed at once to execute all the difficult movements they are
familiar with on ice-skates, instead of first perfecting themselves in the funda-
mental rules of the new art.

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ROLLER-SKATING. 209

It should be understood, at the outset, that learning to skate on the ice and.
learning to glide along with ease on roller-skates are two different things. In ice-
skating not only has the learner to guard against slipping forward and backward,
but against side slipping, while he has also to learn to balance himself on a narrow
edge, which is, of course, trying to the muscles of the ankles, especially for lady
beginners. In this latter respect the Plimpton roller-skate possesses a great.
advantage over ice-skates, inasmuch, from its peculiar construction, it supports the
ankle in an upright position, and prevents it from turning over beyond a given
point ; hence, ladies and children who do not possess strength in the ankles to
balance upon the narrow edge of an ice-skate can learn to skate upon the rollers
with ease. Those familiar with ice-skating experience difficulty in learning the
use of rollers, from the fact that when they first put them on they attempt the
same movement of the feet as in ice-skating, and by this not only make little ad-.
vance in the practical knowledge of the art, but subject themselves to innumerable
and unnecessary falls.
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BILLIARDS.

F all in-uoor games in which a ball is used, billiards reigns as the most
attractive, not only as an exciting game affording an ample field for the
employment of great skill in the handling of the cue and in the movement of the
bails, but also as a very desirable exercise for both ladies and gentlemen who are
not of very strong physique, or who are at all sedentary in their habits. An
attractive feature of billiards is, that while skill is largely influential in attaining
success in the game, there is a certain degree of chance connected with it, which
gives a very pleasing variety to the game.

With games of chance the excitement is of a very unhealthy nature, develop-
ing dangerous passions and vitiating, as it were, the moral atmosphere of a man’s
social life. In other games in which chance has no part, as in chess, the mind is
apt to become wearied and overtaxed. But in the game of billiards there is just
sufficient of the element of chance to give spice to the recreation, and a sufficient
field for the employment of the mental powers to make the game attractive to
educated people, while at the same time the amount of mechanical skill necessary
to excel in billiards is sufficient to afford a reward to those who are willing to
devote time to the practice of its details.
BILLIARDS. 211

In America billiards now occupies a position which places it upon a par in
popularity, as an z#-door pastime, with that possessed by baseball as the.national
field sport of the United States. Billiards is eminently a parlor game, and a recrea-
tive exercise especially suited to the educated classes, inasmuch as it gives full
employment to the mental faculties while admitting of a healthful exercise of the
muscular system. Itis also social in its character, especially when made a pastime
for the parlor, as it now is in the highest circles of American society. Now that
the ban of opposition by the religious class has been removed from the game, and
it is indorsed by the clergy as a receation suitable for the religious as well as the
lay portion of the community, billiards will take its place as the game of games for
the household throughout the country

There are several methods of playing billiards, but the three most prominent
variations of the game now in vogue in Europe and America are the three styles of
play known asthe French, English, and American games. The former is the most
scientific, and the one which affords scope for the greatest amount of judgment
and calculation, as well as mechanical skill in the handling of the cue. The Eng-
lish game is a combination of ‘‘ caroms’’ and ‘‘ hazards,’’ which gives a sort of
variety in one respect, but it narrows the field for really scientific play. The
American game is a variety of the French, to the extent that, while being a
carom game, it allows of an additional ball, the French and English games both
being played with but three balls, while the American is played with four. The
English game finds no favor in this country. Some years ago our method of play-
ing involved ‘‘ hazards’’—viz., pocketing the balls—as well as ‘‘caroms.’’ But
after the six-pocket tables had been succeeded by the four-pocket, the ‘‘ hazards’’
disappeared, and now these have given place to carom tables exclusively ; and
though we still retain the four balls, the rapid increase in the popularity of the
French three-ball carom game is such as will no doubt eventually do away with
all other forms of play, especially for experts in the game. With four balls on the
table it must be a mere tyro in the knowledge of the game who could not rapidly
run up a score ; while with but three balls to make caroms with, the chances of a
successful run are decreased one fourth, and the field for scientific calculation is
extended in proportion. .In fact, what with the introduction of smaller tables, and
more lively cushions, the four-ball carom game may be said to have become a
method of play unworthy the attention of a really first-class billiard-player. It
may do well enough for young players, but the only play for experts is the French
game.

Playing billiards is an art which requires practical experience for its most suc-
cessful teacher. No amount of intellectual study of the theory of the game will
alone suffice to impart a knowledge of the game, as it will in chess. Study the
212 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

laws of force and the calculations of the angles as you may, without the lessons
of practical experience in the mechanism of the game, you can never become a
player. In fact, an hour’s teaching at the hands of an expert, who shows you
practically how to “‘ follow,”’ ‘‘ draw,’’ or ‘‘ English’’ the ball, will do more to post
you up ina knowledge of billiard-playing than a month’s study of the most lucid
treatise on the game. In other words, in learning to play the game, let your
practice with your cue more than keep pace with your book study of the theoreti-.
cal application of the laws of force, or otherwise your progress will necessarily be



slow. In beginning to acquirea knowledge of billiards, remember first to learn to
command your cue, then obtain command of your cue-ball, leaving the object ball
to be the last point of your progress. Billiard-playing.is an art which requires
certain special faculties to excel in it almost as much as music or painting ; but in
all alike does it require thorough control of temper and command of nerve, with-
out both of which no man can ever become a thorough player.

As the three-ball carom game is that most in vogue now, we present below the
latest code of rules governing the game.

The three-ball carom game is {as the name indicates) played with three balls—
two white and one red. The billiard-table has three spots in a line, dividing the
BILLIARDS. 213

table lengthwise, running from the centre of the head cushion to the centre of the
foot cushion ; one of those spots, cutting the line in two equal parts, is called the
centre spot, and the other two are situated half way beween the centre spot and the
head and foot cushions.

The spot at the head of the table is called the whzte spot and the one at the
foot of the table the red spot. The centre spot is only used when a ball, forced off
the table, finds both white and red spots occupied. Therefore, should the white
ball forced off the table have its spot occupied, it would be placed on the red spot,
or on the white spot if it be the red ball that is forced off the table.

In beginning the game the red ball and one white are placed on the respective
spots ; the other white remains in hand, and is placed near the white spot previous
to the opening stroke in the game. The player can take any position within six



inches of the white spot on a line parallel or nearly parallel with the head cushion,
but he must strike the red ball first before a count can be effected.
In playing the game the following rules should be observed :

RULES.

1. The game is begun by stringing for the lead ; the player who brings his ball nearest to the
cushion at the head of the table winning the choice of balls and the right to play first, as in the
American game. Should the player fail to count, his opponent then makes the next play, aiming at
will at either ball on the table.

2. A carom consists in hitting both object balls with the cue-ball in a fair and unobjectionable
way ; each will count owe for the player. A penalty of ove shall also be counted against the player for
€very miss occurring during the game.

3. A ball forced off the table is put back on its proper spot. Should the player’s ball jump off the
table after counting, the count is good ; the ball is spotted, and the player plays from the spot.
214 ~- SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

4. If in playing a shot the cue is not withdrawn from the cue-ball before the cue-ball comes in
contact with the object-ball, the shot is foul, the player loses his count, and his hand is out.

§. If the balls are disturbed accidentally through the medium of any agency other than the player
himself, they must be replaced and the player allowed to proceed.

6. If in the act of playing the player disturbs any ball other than his own, he cannot make a count-
_ ing stroke, but he may play for safety. Should he disturb a ball after having played successfully, he
loses his count on the shot ; his hand is out, and the ball so disturbed is placed back as near as possi-
ble in the position which it formerly occupied on the table, the other balls remaining where they stop.

7. Should a player touch his own ball with the cue or otherwise, previous to playing, it is foul;
the player loses one, and cannot play for safety. It sometimes happens that the player, after having
touched his ball, gives a second stroke ; then the balls remain where they stop, or are replaced as near ~
as possible in their former position, at the option of his opponent.

8. When the cue-ball is very near another, the player shall not play without warning his adversary
that they do not touch, and giving him sufficient time to satisfy himself on that point.

g. When the cue-ball is in contact with another, the balls are spotted, and the player plays with the
ball in hand.

- 10. Playing with the wrong ball is foul. However, should the player using the wrong ball play
more than one shot with it, he shall be entitled to his score just the same as if he had played with his
own ; as soon as his hand is out, the white balls must change places, and the game proceed as usual.

tr. In all the games for the champion. cue the crotch is debarred. The object balls shall be con-
sidered crotched whenever the centres of both lie within a four and a half inch square at either corner
df the table.

The ‘‘ cushion carom’’ game is now a fashionable variation of billiards. It
varies from the three-ball carom game only to the extent of the rule requiring the
cue-ball to touch the cushion once before a carom is effected. In case, however,
of playing a direct carom the cue-ball then touches the cushion and once more
caroms on either object ball a count is effected. There is still another variation,
known as the banking carom game, which requires that the cue-ball must touch
the cushion before a carom can be made. This
is the most difficult of all the carom games.
There are, of course, the professional carom
games known as the “‘ balk line,’’ etc. But we
have nothing to do with those. The science of
billiards and the full strength of play consists in
playing the balls so as to leave them in a favor-
able position for another count. A imastery of this part of billiard-playing is.
essential in becoming an expert player.

The first step in learning to play billiards is to secure a good rest for the cue
on your hand, which is laid on the table, as shown in the appended cut.

When the correct position of the hand is attained, then learn to slide your cue
forward and backward on your hand, until you can acquire the habit of making a


BILLIARDS. 215

perfect stroke without varying from a straight line. Next comes the striking of
the cue-ball, and this should be practised until you can make the ball return from
the cushion to the point of your cue. _ This preliminary practice is as essential in
learning to play billiards as is the practice of the scales in pianoforte-playing, as
it is simply training the muscles of your arm and hand to implicitly obey the men-
tal directions in their use. When the player has obtained a certain degree of con-
trol of his cue and of the cue-ball, he must then study up the rules governing the
peculiar forces which are employed in giving a special bias to the cue-ball.

If the ball is watched carefully after it has struck the cushion, it will be found -
to rebound from the cushion at an exactly equal angle to the one at which it was —
struck. In other words, ‘‘the angle of reflexion is equal to the angle of in-
cidence.’’ This is the first and most important rule of billiards, and one that
should never be forgotten. The variation of the strength and direction of the
stroke will be found to materially affect this law, and enables the skilled player to
make those formidable and seemingly impossible strokes which secure him his
victory. This peculiarity of the angles is best illustrated by placing another ball
at a little distance before the player, which we will call the object ball. If we
place them in a line with one of the marked places on the cushion, and strike the
first ball fair in the centre, and cause it to strike the object ball full, it will strike
the marked spot, and rebound at the same angle as the first ball would have done.

For the purposes of play the object ball is divided thus :



4. Quarter Ball, 5. Eighth Ball. 6, Very fine Ball,

The half ball is the most important in practice, as by it the natural angle is
made—an angle that is of the greatest importance at billiards, though each have
their particular uses, which the young player should endeavor to understand. He
will find that the balls diverge at different angles, more or less acute, according as
the object ball is struck ‘‘full’’ or ‘‘ fine ;’’ the fine ball being precisely the re-
verse of the three quarter ball.

For more complete instructions in the game, we refer you to the work on
modern billiards published by the Collender Company of New York.
BAGATELLE.

HIS parlor game affords an opportunity for aspecies of billiard-playing which
those who are not practised in billiards can fully enjoy, without any very
great degree of skill in the game. Indeed, it is a point in favor of bagatelle that a
beginner does not necessarily make that exhibition of himself the first time he
plays as he would at billiards. The element of chance enters so largely into the
game, that often the veriest beginner in the party will make the largest score.

The form of a bagatelle-table is shown opposite.

The tables vary considerably in size, the smallest being about five feet long by
‘one and a half wide, and the largest twelve feet long by three feet wide. The
latter are seldom used now, the smaller size being best fitted for parlor use. Nine
balls are used in the game—viz., four red, four white, and one black ball. A cue
‘Or a mace can be used in the game, the latter being best for novices, while billiard-
players can, of course, use the cue to the best advantage. The game begins by
placing the black ball on the spot in front of the nine cups, marked 1 in the dia-
gram. The first player then places his ball on the spot at the lower end of the
table marked 2. This done the player strives to hit the black ball with the white
one, and if he misses doing so his ball is taken off the table. The object in view
on striking the black ball is to send it forward so that it may fall into one or other
of the holes.or cups, together with the ball which struck it. Each cup is num-
bered from one to nine, and each hole the balls falls into counts so many points
toward the game.

The English game of bagatelle may be played by any number of persons, the
order of precedence being settled by each striking a ball up the board, the party
Scoring the highest point leading. In this game thirty-one points makes a game.
In the American game it is sixty-one points. The first player in the English game
plays all the nine balls in succession. In the American game only two or four
play as a general rule, and each take turn in playing one ball, and they score all
they make until a ball fails to fall into one or other of the cups or holes. Holing
the black ball makes the count double, so that if the black ball is driven into the
nine hole eighteen is scored.

The object of the player at starting should be to strike the black ball SO as to
BAGATELLE. 217

send it into or near some hole that is marked high. Of course, the centre hole,
being marked nine, would be the best ; but then it is very difficult, at the first
shot especially, to put the black into the nine, and in attempting it there is con-
siderable danger of knocking it into the ome, the lowest marked hole of all.
Moderate players, therefore, are recommended at Starting to aim to hit the black
ball rather on the right-hand side, so as to send it in the direction of the next:
highest-marked hole—viz., the eight. Theeffect of this stroke is very often to send
the black ball into the eight, and at the same time the ball played with—which of -
course rebounds in the opposite direction—into the seven, thus making twenty-
three in one stroke. It is obviously very bad play to hit the black ball on the left-
hand side, as, should the black be sent into the seven and the white ball into the
eight, only twenty-two instead of twenty-three would be scored ; and it is evident,
from the symmetry of the table, that one stroke is just as easy to be made as the
other. The black ball being once hit, it is not necessary that any ball should be
hit previous to scoring ; when, therefore, the black ball has been holed at starting,
it is the best play to simply try for the remaining holes in their order of merit.
But, as we have said before, the nine is a difficult one to obtain ; beginners, there-
fore, should try for the seven and eight, if they are vacant, before playing for the
nine. .
The dotted lines on the diagram show how each of the principal holes can be
obtained, and it will be observed in each case that the cushion is struck first. To
commence with the easiest—viz., seven and eight. The dotted lines show the
direction of the ball; but what will be found to be the greatest difficulty is the
strength. If the stroke be played too hard the ball will not go into the hole; and
if the stroke be played too slowly the ball has a tendency to fall under the
cushion. This latter is, asa matter of course, the fault of the table or board, but
as it is almost universal, even in large boards well levelled, we think it desirable
to mention it. The stroke requires a happy medium between running right over
the hole and not reaching the hole at all; that nothing but practice will give.


THE GAME OF CHESS.

HATEVER we Americans take hold of in the way of recreative exercise,
whether of a mental or physical character, we seldom rest content until
we can excel “‘ all creation”’’ as its special exemplars.. If we cannot do this collec-
tively, we manage to succeed individually ; and if we do not always maintain the
prestige of success, we can at least point to having at one time held the honors in
a contest with all the world. The rapidity, too, with which we arrive at the point
of excellence aimed at is also a national characteristic, the most striking illustra-
tion of this peculiarity being the brilliant achievements of our American interna-
tional rifle team. But we have in Paul Morphy’s brief but dazzling career in chess
history an example of our national ability to excel and to do it rapidly, which is
equally striking, while this latter instance also illustrates another national char-
acteristic, and that is our tendency to go into things of this kind with a rush, and
to achieve our victory on the waves of a public furore. While the royal game of
chess has been practically known in republican America for the past century, it
was not until some twenty-five years ago that we began to realize the fact that it
was a game admirably suited to our “‘ calculating”’ and ‘‘ reckoning”’ people ; and
then we rushed into chess with characteristic impetuosity, and we did not rest
content until we had placed an American chess player on the pedestal of the
world's championship in the game. Of course ‘this was done in the excitement of
a public chess furore, the period known as ‘‘ the Morphy excitement’’ being one
which marked the permanent establishment of chess as one of our national pas-
times ; not one which, like baseball, ‘‘is native and to the manner born,’’ buta
game which no nationality can call its own, it being cosmopolitan—the grand
game of the entire civilized world.

Chess stands alone as the only game in which the element of chance finds no
place for itself. In this does the game present its most attractive feature asa
means of mental recreation. This, in fact, is its stronghold. It is the weakness
of all games in which chance prevails, that there are times, in the course of a con-
test, when the utmost skill of an expert player is offset by a lucky stroke of fort-
une, as in the game of whist, for instance, when the possession of a full hand of
trumps upsets the most skilful calculations of an opponent. But in chess there is
THE GAME OF CHESS, 219

really no loophole of chance through which an inferior player can escape from
defeat at the hands of a master in chess strategy. The absence of the element of
chance from the game, too, takes from it the very foundation of that spirit of
gambling now so potent in the field of public sports. In this special respect chess
may be said to possess a moral quality which necessarily gives it a marked superi-
ority over every other game in vogue. It is this special attribute which doubtless
led the Quakers to make chess the exception to those games which they prohibit in
their family circles. A very able writer in the New York Evening Post says: ‘‘ Of
the value of chess as a mental discipline there can scarcely be two opinions ; and
it is probable that in most cases the persqns who say that the game is too ‘ deep’
for them, or that they have ‘ no patience for it,’ or that it is ‘ too much like work,”
are the very individuals to whom chess would do most good ; or, in other words,
these persons (whose self-abasement is sometimes really meant to convey self-
praise) are often deficient in precisely those qualities that chess would help them
to attain. If they are so shallow as to find’ chess too deep, its practice should
serve as a remedy ; if they lack patience, chess will do much toward its inculca-
tion ; and if they are so indolent as to loathe mental exertion, chess, worthily
followed, will teach them to love such exertion. It is not worth while for ordinary
persons to strive to make of themselves Philidors or Morphys, even if it were
possible for them to do so; but there is no pursuit in the nature of pastime that
has so many uses and so few drawbacks as the game of chess, and in this lies a
sufficing reason why a knowledge of it should be encouraged and cherished.’'

‘““ For women, especially, chess has a value that no other mere amusement can
be said to share with it. It demands the exercise of faculties wherein the feminine
mind is commonly little trained, but which are obviously of great moment in the
game of life. Combination, insight, habitual prudence, the exact and judicious
disposition and expenditure of resources, the fortitude that can resist glittering
temptation, the daring that can disregard small or immediate loss for a great and
future gain, serenity alike in good or ill fortune—all these and more are among
the inestimable qualities that the pursuit of chess engenders and strengthens, and
which commend it beyond all other games as a mental and moral educator.’’

LEARNING TO PLAY CHESS.

The first lesson in learning to play chess is to become familiar with the
powers of the various pieces on the board, how each piece moves, what Squares it
commands, and how it captures an opposing piece.

The chess-board contains sixty-four squares, of which thirty-two are white
and thirty-two black. | When the board is placed in position to receive the pieces,
220 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

a white square should be in the right-hand corner. On the first row, or ‘‘ rank,”’
of squares are placed the eight pieces, and on the second row the eight pawns.
The sixteen chessmen are, properly speaking, all pieces, but technically there are
but eight ‘‘ pieces’’—viz., the king, the queen, and their respective bishops,
knights, and castles, or ‘‘ rooks.’’ The other eight are the pawns. When the
board and men are properly placed in readiness for play, the pieces stand as shown
in the appended diagram.











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The bishop, knight, and castle on the right of the king are known as the king’s
pieces ; and those on the left of the queen as the queen’s pieces. Each pawn be-
longs to the piece in front of which it stands,

THE KING.

The king is the only piece on the chess-board which cannot be taken or capt-
ured as every other piece on the board can. When the king is attacked as the
other pieces are, he is then said to be ‘‘ in check ;’? and when thus in ‘“ check,’’
either the piece that checks him must be taken, or the king must be moved to a
Square to avoid the check, or a piece must be interposed between the king and the
checking piece. When neither of these three moves can be made, and the check
cannot, therefore, be avoided, the king is then ‘‘ checkmated,”’ and the game ends,
THE GAME OF CHESS. 225

the party whose king is checkmated losing the game. When, however, the king
is not in check, but yet cannot move without going into check, and there is no
other piece of his on the board which can be moved, and it is his turn to move, he
is then in the position called ‘‘ stalemate,’’ and the game must be declared drawn.
The king’s power to move is limited to any one Square immediately adjoining
the square he occupies. He, therefore, has the power to make eight different
moves, as will be seen by the appended diagram, in which the king occupies the
centre square of nine different squares, and can, therefore, move to any one of the

eight adjoining squares.

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A peculiarity of the move of the king and his power of attack is, that he can
attack any piece on the board—except the queen—without being in a position of
being attacked by the opposing piece. This is illustrated in the appended dia-
gram, in which the black king is seen attacking a white bishop, a knight, and
castle without himself being attacked in return by either.

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THE QUEEN.

The powers of the queen in moving combine those of every other piece on the
chess-board except the knight. She can move not only the same as the king and
the pawns, but also similarly to the castles and bishops. Placed on either of the
222 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

four centre squares of the board, with all the other pieces off, the queen commands
a total of twenty-seven squares, she having the privilege of moving backward or
forward, to the right or the left, or diagonally, on either the black or the white
squares. Placed on one of the white centre squares, the appended diagram will
show the squares the queen commands, exclusive, of course, of the one occupied.
The figures show the squares the queen can move to.

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The queen—as with all the pieces—is of course at liberty to move to either

one or more of the unoccupied squares which she commands, and should they be
occupied she can take the piece occupying any one of them.



THE BISHOPS.

The two bishops move diagonally on the board, the one always moving on
the black squares, and the other on the white. They each command thirteen
squares when placed on either of the four centre squares of the board, as will be
seen by the first diagram on following page.

THE KNIGHT.

The move of the knight is an exceptional one, inasmuch as it can move as no
other piece on the board can, and that is over either its own or the opposing
pieces. Inone way the king, the queen, and the castle move exactly alike—that is,
as far as one move forward or backward, or to the right or the left, is concerned.
The queen and the bishops too have the power of moving diagonally alike. But
no piece can jump over other pieces to make its move, as the knight does. Then,
THE GAME OF CHESS. 223

too, the knight, in giving check, cannot have its check avoided by the interposi-
tion of another piece, as is the case with a check from the queen, the castle, or the
bishop. The move of the pawn is exceptional in one respect, and that is in its

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power to take a piece sideways ; whereas in moving, without taking a piece, it can
only move forward. In this latter move, however, it moves similarly to the move
of the king, queen, and castle. In the case of the knight’s move, however, it is

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entirely exceptional, Placing the knight in the centre of a series of twenty-five

Squares, it will be found that it commands eight squares, as numbered in the »
above diagram.
224 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Placing the knight in the corner square of a series of nine squares, it will be
seen that it can be made to occupy every other square—except the centre one—by
simply moving it according to the squares numbered from 1 to 7, as shown in the
appended diagram. Singularly enough, in this case it can take every piece sur-
rounding the king, but cannot touch the ast square in the centre.

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In the above diagram the knight first moves from where it stands to square
marked 1, then to square marked 2, and so on until all the squares have been suc-
cessively occupied except the central one.

THE CASTLES.

Like the bishops and the knights, the castles have but one particular way of
moving. While the bishops only move diagonally, the castles only move ‘‘ on the
square’’—that is, they can move to the right, or the left, or backward and forward,

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but not diagonally, like the bishops. Placed on any one of the four centre squares
- of the board, the castle will be found to command fourteen squares, as shown in
the above diagram.







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THE GAME OF CHESS. 226

A peculiarity of the castle’s power is, that it is‘the only piece, except the |
queen, with which the king without other pieces can give checkmate.

THE PAWNS.

The eight pawns possess more varied powers than any other of the six
different pieces on the chess-board. In the first place, they have the option of
moving one or two squares forward when they make their first move. Secondly,
they capture an opposing piece differently from the way they make their forward
move. Thirdly, they possess the power of being transformed into any other piece
of their own color on reaching the eighth square of the column or “ file’’ they
stand on; and lastly, they can capture an opposing pawn while the latter, in
advancing two squares on its first move, passes a square which the pawn it
passes commands. A single pawn, in its home position, commands two squares
only, for the purpose of capture, and two additional squares for forward moves—
viz., the two squares forward of its own, to the right and the left, for capture, and
the two directly in front of it, on its own “‘ file,’’ for moving. .

The diagram below illustrates this. The Figures 1 and 2 show the forward
moves, and 3 and 4 the moves made in capturing an opposing pawn or piece.




“i

After making the first move a pawn can only advance one square at a time.
When a pawn reaches its eighth square it must be transformed at once into any
other piece on the board.

THE RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES.

There is really no fixed value attached to each piece on the chess-board, as the
varied positions which occur in a game so change the power and influence of the
pieces that what is a strong piece in one part of a contest becomes a comparatively |
226 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

weak one in another, and vice versa. The queen ranks, of course, as the highest
in value, being the most powerful piece on the board. The castles rank next to
the queen, yet they are comparatively of little value in the early part of a game
. compared to the bishops or knights. Bishops take precedence of knights in
rank, though in the long run and in end games where pawns are brought into play,
the knights are the most valuable of the two, inasmuch as the bishops are useless
in attacking or defending pawns which are not on squares of their own color,
while knights are very strong in both defence and attack in end games in which
pawns occupy a prominent place; moreover, a check from a knight cannot be
avoided, as that of either of the other pieces can, by the interposition of another
piece. Pawns, when in their home positions, are, of course, the least valuable
pieces on the board ; and yet they can be transformed into queens if they can
reach their eighth square without capture. The nearer they reach their ultimate
destination—the eighth square—the more valuable they become.

PLAYING A GAME.

After mastering a knowledge of the relative value and powers of.all the pieces
on the board, the next thing to be done is to learn to play a game. Before begin-
ning a game, however, it would be well to read over the code of rules governing
the game ; and the first rule to be acted upon is that which requires the player
touching a piece to move it, the second rule in importance being that which
makes the move complete the moment the hand holding the piece leaves it. The
loose observance of these two rules by the generality of young players is not
only a source of considerable annoyance, but it is a great bar to improvement in
acquiring the art of chess analysis, which is the basis of skilful chess-playing. -

When the pieces are placed in their regular positions before you, and you are
required to make the first move in the game, make the move not simply because
you are told that it is the correct one to make, but for the reason that you plainly
perceive that it is the best ; otherwise you will be playing your teacher’s game, and
not your own, and your progress in a practical knowledge of chess will be con-
sequently very slow. It iscustomary to play the king’s pawn first, and to advance
it two squares on its first move. The reason for this is that the moving of the
king’s pawn allows an opening for more moves by the queen than that of the
queen’s pawn does, as shown by the appended diagram.

It will be seen that the queen now commands four squares, the bishop five,
and the king one. Replace the king’s pawn, and move the queen's pawn two
Squares, and it will be seen that the queen only commands two squares, while the
bishop and king command the same as before, Of course, the moving of any of
the other three pawns on each side of the king and queen still further restricts the
THE GAME OF CHESS. 227

openings for the pieces. The first move having been made, the choice of the
second depends largely upon the character of the particular ‘‘ opening’’ you pro-
pose to select. The ‘‘ openings’’ referred to consist of a regular series of estab-
lished moves in attack and defence, which a complete examination of all the
variety of moves connected with them, by careful analysis, have shown to be the
very best that can be made. These are familiarly known as the king’s knight’s
and king’s bishop’s openings and ‘‘ gambits’’—viz., the sacrifice of a pawn or even
a piece for an attacking position—the latter being known as the ‘‘ Scotch”
gambit, the ‘‘ Muzio,’’ the ‘‘ Allgaier,’’ the ‘‘ Evans,’’ the ‘“‘ Ruy Lopez,’’ the
‘‘ Giuoco Piano,”’ the ‘‘ Cunningham,” etc’, etc. These ‘‘ book openings,’’ as they
are called, are calculated to relieve the beginner from the rather painful fatigue of
‘learning the art of skilful attack and defence in the early part of a contest by

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costly experience only; but in themselves they do not make a player. They
facilitate progress in a full knowledge of the art, but the player must, after all,
depend upon his own resources for success. To excel in the game, something far
more important than a perfect knowledge of the ‘‘ book openings’’ is required, and
that something is the power of mental analysis, the ability to lay out a special
plan of attack after you have secured the advantage the special ‘‘ opening’’ may
have afforded. In beginning to play chess the student will find his progress more
rapid by playing a large number of short games at first, than by an effort to play
his first games carefully and correctly. The biunders of his first experience will in
themselves teach him what to avoid. The variety of moves in chess, almost infi-
nite as they are, are apt to daunt one’s perseverance until they have been made
somewhat familiar by constant repetition. A guiding rule of play, after making

4
228 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

the opening move, is to have a special object in view in every subsequent move
you make, either in the form of direct attack, or in defence of either a direct or
expected attack by your adversary. Never make a move for the childish reason
that you ‘‘ do not know what else to play.’’ It would require more space than is
at command in this work to go through the moves of a special game calculated to
aid a beginner in learning the preliminary moves of an ordinary game. Suffice it
to say, that if he has gone through the preceding pages, reading them carefully,
and remembering well what he has read, he will be pretty well prepared for a
course of study of some special treatise on the intricacies of the game.

"YOUD' AD “OD —

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CHESS NOTATION.

There are two methods of chess notation familiar to the world of chess-players,
one of which is known as the English system and the other as the German. The
former is, of course, most familiar to American chess-players, but the latter is
generally regarded as the best in use. The English system of notation gives to
each piece on the first row, or ‘‘ rank,’’ of squares its special name, as the king’s
bishop, the king’s knight, and the king’s castle, or the queen’s bishop, knight, and
castle, the pawns being called after the piece in front of which each pawn stands,
as the king’s pawn, queen’s pawn, etc. The eight ‘‘ files’’—the vertical rows of
Squares—are numbered from 1 to 8, and each of the eight pieces on the first row
THE GAME OF CHESS. 229

of squar€s has its distinct file of squares—the first square being ‘known as the
king’s square, the second as king’s second, and so on to the eighth square, each
piece having its own squares from the first to the eighth. Thus, if it be desired to
indicate the first move in a game, in which the pawn in front of the king is moved
two squares, instead of writing down the words ‘‘ pawn to king’s fourth square,’’
the letters and figures used in abbreviation are k. p. tok. 4, or p. to k. 4, which
means king’s pawn to king’s fourth, and pawn to king’s fourth. In the English
system of notation the board is supposed to be marked as in the diagram on -pre-

ceding page. .
It will be seen that in this system each square is numbered twice, and each

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time differently. Thus, what is king’s square on the white side, is king’s eighth
square on the black side. The German system is far more simple than. this, be-
sides which it is better suited for such a cosmopolitan game as chess, inasmuch |
as in the German system the method is applicable to every language, whereas that
of the English is only adapted for English-speaking people. The German nota-
tion names the squares of its ‘‘ ranks’’ by letters of the alphabet from A to H, while.
it numbers its file squares by figures from 1 to 8, all the figures counting from but |
one side of the board—viz., the white. Thus, what is the white king’s second
Square is also the second square—in number—of the black king, and so on with
230 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

every other one of the eight pieces, the figures of the files and the lette#s of the
ranks counting but one way, as shown in the diagram on preceding page.

THE STUDY OF PROBLEMS.

Nothing aids a young chess-player in acquiring the art of mental analysis of
the moves in the game more than the solving of chess problems from printed
diagrams, by which he is forced to make the moves, in studying out the solution,
mentally, and without the assistance he would derive from moving pieces placed
on the board. By making imaginary moves in studying the position from the
diagram, he is obliged to analyze every position involved in the problem, and
therein lies the value of the study. -Besides benefiting by this valuable practice
in analysis, he also derives an advantage for actual play in match games, and by
remembering the intricate positions of the problems he will frequently find fitting
opportunities for bringing the positions into active operation in a game. By
way of illustration, we give below several comparatively easy problems, in which
white forces checkmate in two moves. Every problem should be solved from the
diagram, without the use of the board or pieces. In all these problems white
moves first.

Cc
1 L
1 a



In the above problem it will be seen that the black king in the corner has but
one move, and were the knight to be moved next to the king, so as to command the
two black squares in the corner, the result would be ‘‘ stalemate’? and a drawn
game. By checking with the bishop first, and obliging the king to move to the
black square, the knight is given the opportunity to mate by the check following
the bishop’s check. The following little two-move problem illustrates ‘‘ check by
discovery,’’ a very effective strategic movement in a game. The young student
Should endeavor to solve each problem before reading the appended explanatory
paragraph.

It will be seen that the black king has two moves at command—viz., on each |
THE GAME OF CHESS. 231

of the black squares adjoining the corner square where he stands. By moving
the white king to the black square on his left, the black king is given check by dis-
covery by the white bishop, and he is thereby forced to move to the black square



on his left. By moving the white pawn forward the black king is again checked
by discovery, this time by the bishop on the black square ; and as the pawn pre-
vents the king moving to the white square on his left, the result is checkmate.
Below is a two-move problem involving closer study in its solution.
BLACK,

A
sips
aBe ‘. we |

a ae

The player, in solving the above problem, should first ascertain what moves
the black king has at command, and a glance will show him that, as the pieces
stand, the king has but one move he can make, and that is his queen’s bishop’s
pawn. Itis, however, white’s move, and he must so move as to make the move
of black’s pawn imperative. To do this he mentally moves his queen to white













232 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

king’s seventh square, and he thereby obliges black to move the pawn. He then
moves his queen to the black square next to the white king on the right, and gives
mate on the move.

The following is a very interesting little chess puzzle, which will thoroughly
test the student’s ability in analytical study to discover how it is done without
using the board and pieces. The puzzle is to move the five pieces—the pawns
are immovable—so that the king can reach the corner square, left vacant, without
moving on the centre square. All the pieces must be moved legally.



The appended two-move problem by the editor, if solved from the diagram,
will show marked vrogress in learning the game.

BLACK.

Bs

aa
eae
a8 8

WHITE.
White to play and mate in two moves.



In the study of this problem, the first thing to be considered is whether, in
case the first move of white is not a check, the white king can be checked. If so,
then the first move of white must be acheck. It will be seen that both the white
THE GAME OF CHESS. 233

rook and the white bishop are open to capture by the opposing bishops ; conse-
quently a double check will be necessary on the part of white in making the first °
move, This double check is available in two ways: first, by moving the knight to
white king’s fifth square, and secondly by moving it to queen’s knight’s eight
square. If the former move is made, the black king has but one move to make in
reply, and that is to his queen’s knight’s second square. But when the white
bishop checks the king at queen’s bishop’s sixth square, the black king escapes
by going to his queen’s rook’s third square By making the first double check,
however, by the move of the knight to the eighth square, the check of the bishop
which follows makes checkmate, as the knight then prevents the king’s move to
rook’s third, and the rook itself stops its capture at the knight.

THE RULES OF THE GAME.

The best code of rules of chess extant are the rules—with explanatory paragraphs—contained in
‘* Staunton’s Chess Praxis,’’ published in London. The appended code of rules will, however, suffice
for the purposes of this work. The American Chess Congress of 1880 adopted a special code of laws to
govern chess tournaments in this country, but the laws of chess given below govern ordinary chess-
playing. The best rules in vogue are very badly placed, and in some instances as badly worded, there
being ample room for improvement, especially in the classification of each rule.

LAWS OF CHESS,

1. The chess-board must be so placed that each player has a white corner square on his right hand.
If wrongly placed, and four moves on each side have not been played, either party may insist upon re- .
commencing the game.

2. If any of the pieces be played upon wrong squares, or any of them omitted to be placed, the’
error may be amended, provided four moves on each side have not been played.

3. If you undertake to give odds, and neglect to remove the piece or pawn you purpose giving
from the board, you may take it off ere four moves are played. However, if the fault is not rectified
in time, you must play the game out, and if you give checkmate, the game can be accounted only as
drawn.

4. If no odds are given, lots must be drawn for first move ; after the first game the moves are taken
alternately. Drawn games not being reckoned as games, the player who began the drawn game, there-
fore, begins the next. If you give odds, you may take which colored men you like, but in playing
even, lots should be drawn for choice of men.

5. The player giving the odds of a piece may give it from what side he pleases, though if a pawn
is given, it is the king’s bishop’s pawn, and he has a right to take the first move.

6. If a player touches a man, when it is his turn to move, he must play it, unless at the instant he —
says J’adoube, a French phrase, signifying, ‘(I arrange or replace ;’’ but should a piece by chance be
overturned or displaced, the party to whom it belongs may replace it.

7. If a player touches one of his antagonist’s men without saying /’adoude, he must take that
piece, if possible, or play his king, at the option of his opponent. But if the piece cannot be taken,
nor the king moved without his going into check, then no penalty can be exacted.
234 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

8. So long as a player 4o/ds the man which he has touched, he may play him where he pleases ;
but the instant he quits his hold, he completes the move, and cannot recall it.

g Ifa player moves a piece belonging to his opponent, he may be compelled to take it, if it can
be taken, to replace it and move his king, or else to leave it where he played it.

10. If a player captures one of his opponent’s pieces with one of his own that cannot take it, with-
out committing @ false move, his opponent may insist either upon his taking such piece with one which
can legally take it, or to play the piece he touched.

11. If a player takes one of his own pieces with another, his opponent may insist upon his moving
either of them. |

12. If a player makes a false move, such as giving the queen the move of a knight, etc., his antago-
nist may compel him either to let the piece remain where he played it, to put it in its right move, or to
replace it where it originally stood, and then to play the king instead.

13. If a player moves twice in succession, the opposing party may, if he chooses, insist upon the
second move remaining.

14. A pawn advancing two squares may be captured by one of the opposite pawns en passant.

15. The king may not be castled if he has been moved, or if he is in check, or if, when ‘castling,
either of the squares he must go upon be in check, or if the rook with which he endeavors to castle has
been moved. If, however, a player castles in any of these cases, it is at his antagonist’s option to
allow the move to remain, or the pieces to be replaced, or insist upon his playing his king or rook. A
piece cannot be taken when castling. A player giving the odds of the rook may castle on that side,
as if the rook were on the board. ,

16. If a player touches a piece or pawn, which he cannot move without leaving his king in check,
his opponent may request him to move the king ; if the king, however, cannot be moved, the mistake
occasions no penalty.

17. If a player gives check, and fails to warn his adversary of it by saying ‘“‘ check,” his opponent
is not obliged to notice it, but may go on without paying attention to the check. If, after one or more
moves, the king should be still in check, and the error is then discovered, the whole of the subsequent
moves must be put back, and the king moved out of check, or a piece interposed.

18. If a player finds that his king is in check, and that it has been so during two or more moves,
without his knowing how it originated, he must recall his last move, and liberate his king. But if it
is found out how the check occurred, then all the moves made after the check happened should be
recalled, and the check attended to.

19. If a player says ‘‘ cheek” without giving check in reality, and if it is his opponent, through
that saying, has moved his king or any other piece, he may withdraw his last move, provided he finds
that his king is 2o¢ in check previous to his antagonist’s moving.

20. If a pawn reaches its eighth square, or the opposite end of the board, it may be replaced by a
queen, rook, or any other piece the player chooses ; this law holds good if the player has not losta
piece, so that he may have two queens, three rooks, etc., on the board at once.

21. If a player toward the finish of a game possesses a superiority of numbers, he must give check-
mate in fifty moves, or the game is reckoned drawn ; as, for instance, if he has a king, a bishop, and
a knight opposed to a king only, he should checkmate in fifty moves on each side at most, to com-
mence from the time his antagonist gives him notice ; otherwise he must suffer it to be a drawn game.
If a player agrees to check with a particular piece or pawn, or on a particular square, or engages to make
his adversary checkmate or stalemate him, he is not restricted to any number of moves.

22. Stalemate is a drawn game.
THE GAME OF CHESS. 235

23. No penalty can be inflicted upon an adversary for making false moves, unless you take notice
of such mistakes before you move or touch a piece.

24. Disputes upon situations respecting which there is nolaw should be referred to a third party,
whose decision must be esteemed conclusive and without appeal.

TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN CHESS.

Castling is a movement of the king and either of the rooks, which can be made only once in a game
by each party, under certain limitations. This move is thus performed: In castling with the king’s
rook, place the king upon the king’s knight’s square and the king’s rook on the king’s bishop's
square ; and when castling with the queen’s rook, play the king to the queen’s bishop’s square and
the queen’s rook to the queen’s square. In either case the king passes over two squares, and the rook
is brought over and placed on the adjoining square.

Check: —When the king is attacked he is in check—that is, when he is in such a position that, were
he any other piece, he would be taken. But as a king at chess can never be taken, he is said to be zz
check.. There are three sorts of checks—a simple check, a double check, and a check by discovery.
The first is when the king is attacked by the piece that is moved ; the second is when two pieces give
check at once ; and the third takes place when, from the moving a piece away, a check is open from
another piece ; for instance, put your king on his own square and your opponent’s queen on her king’s
second square ; let there be no other piece on the squares on that file, and place your opponent’s
queen’s bishop on his king’s third square ; you will then readily perceive that this bishop hinders his
queen from checking you ; but when he moves his bishop to another square, he discovers check from the
queen. A check can only be prevented by moving the king, or interposing a piece between, or else by
taking the piece which gives the check.

Perpetual check is a continual alternation of checks, in which the king avoids one check only to fall
into another. ‘

Checkmate.—The king is said to be checkmated when he can neither move out of check, capture the
‘piece which checks, or interpose any piece to protect himself. The player checkmated, of course, loses
the game.

Stalemate.—A king is stalemated when all the men of the set to which he belongs are either off the
board, or so opposed that they cannot move, and he himself in such a situation that, though not act,
ually in check, he cannot move without going into check. Stalemate is a drawn game.

Fool’s mate.—This checkmate happens to beginners, and is the shortest which can possibly occur,
being given in two moves, thus :

BLACK. WHITE,
1 K. B. P. one square. 1 K. P. two squares.
2 K. Kt. P. two squares. 2 Q. to K. R. fifth square, checkmating.

Scholar's mate also occurs to beginners, and is thus played :

WHITE, BLACK,
1 K. P. two squares. K. P. two squares.
2K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square.
3 Q. to K.R. fifth square. QO. P. one square.
4 Q. takes K. B. P. and checkmates.

Doubled pawn is a pawn which has passed from its original file to another, through capturing an
opposing piece, and which, consequently, stands on the same file as another of its own color.
236 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Passed pawn.—A pawn is said to be passed when there is no opposing power to hinder its progress
to the queenly dignity.

To queen a pawn is a term applied to a pawn which has reached the last row of squares, and for
‘which you may demand a queen, or any other piece.

Minor piece is applied to the bishops and knights.

J adoube is a French phrase, denoting ‘‘I replace” or ‘‘I adjust,’’ and it can only be used as
an excuse for touching a piece where it is palpable that the piece was not touched with the intent
of playing it. :

Ln passant.— Taking en passant is, when at the pawn’s first starting it is played two squares at.
once, and passes over a square threatened by a pawn of your adversary’s, who has the privilege of tak-
ing it, as if it had only moved one square. .

Lo gain the exchange.—lf a player gains a rook for a minor piece, he is considered to have gained
- the exchange.

Drawn game happens when neither player can give checkmate, and which may occur in several
ways, thus ; When there are not men enough on the buard to checkmate ; when both players continue
making the same moves ; when there are enough men on the board, but the players know not how to
checkmate in fifty moves; when perpetual check is maintained on the antagonist king ; when each
party has a small and equal number of powerful pieces ; and when either king is stalemated.

En prise.—A piece or pawn which can be taken by another is termed en prise of that piece,
unless it is moved.

Gambit is an opening, in which the bishop’s pawn is given up for an attacking position. As we
give examples of several gambits in the next section—that upon ‘‘ opening the game’’—we refer our
readers to them for further elucidation.

'
DOUBLE CHESS.

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BLACK.

THe game of double chess differs very materially from the single game, not
only in regard to the enlarged board and the double sets of men with which it is

In the single game the

antagonists face each other, but in the double game the partners are face to face

played, but also in regard to the character of the moves.

and their opponents on their right and left ; and, consequently, each party has to ~

defend himself or attack his opponent on the flank instead of in the front.

Then,

again, it is impossible to lay down any special moves as ‘‘ openings,’’ as in the
238 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

single game, for after the first two moves have been made on either side the
variety of moves is so infinite that no two games ever bear the least resemblance
to each other. Moreover, for the reason that the game on each side is in the hands
of two players whose play together must be in thorough accord, double chess can-
not claim the scientific features of the single game, with its regular analyzed
“‘openings’’ and established ‘‘ gambits.’’ But for general interest and exciting
amusement the double game rivals, if it does not surpass, the single game. The
general rules of play, as regards the powers of the pieces and their special method
of moving, are the same in the double game as in the single; the exceptions are in
the moving from right to left, and also in the fact that the pieces and pawns of the
two partners have no antagonistic influence over each other, they working
together for the common object of checkmating their adversaries. In the moves
of the pawns also, they are limited to one square at a time from their very first
move. Then, too, the pawn, to become a queen, must move diagonally toward
the rear of the enemy’s field of squares, and this can only be done by the capture
of opposing pawns or pieces. When they reach the end squares of the partner’s
field they remain there as pawns, and then begin to move back again. By this
rule the pawn is kept always on the move from one end of the board to the other,
and return. Should pawns belonging to partners happen to meet en route, they
are allowed to jump over each other. To end the game requires that both
partners should be checkmated—one player only being mated simply throwing his
pieces out of play, they remaining in the position each occupied when the mate
was effected—the player whose pieces are in play being left to finish the game
alone. The dead pieces in question, however, may be used by the unmated
partner to shelter his own pieces from attack. Then, too, there is another excep-
tionable rule, which admits of the unmated player’s releasing his mated partner
from the checkmate, by capturing the pieces which hold him mated, besides
which, the enemy can at any time release his checkmated opponent if he finds it to
his advantage to do so in order to ultimately effect the double mate. It will be
readily seen, therefore, that double chess, while in a great measure being only a
variation of the original single game, is at the same time a game having specially
distinct features, and these of such a character as to offer a greatly enlarged field
for strategic play, besides greater opportunities for exciting and complicated
Situations.

By way of illustrating the opening moves of a game, we here present the
moves of the first four rounds in a contest.
DOUBLE CHESS. 239

EXAMPLES IN OPENING.

First round: Black king’s pawn to king's third ; green, do; white, do; red, |
do.

Second round: Black bishop takes red bishop; green queen takes black
queen ; white queen takes red queen, and red king takes green queen.

Third round: Black king takes green queen; green moves queen’s pawn
one ; white king’s knight’s pawn one; red king’s knight to king’s square.

Fourth round: Bishop takes knight’s pawn.

Should green check black king third round, he will lose his bishop. Should
he take white’s bishop, black will retreat without breaking square, as that would
liberate red’s castle. He will thus save his partner a pawn.

A variation of the same opening will be for black, second round, to play his
knight to bishop’s third, thence to castle four. If this Opening is not seen
through and frustrated before four moves, green loses his queen. But red can
easily frustrate the design, or green king’s bishop’s knight to bishop’s third will
suffice.

Theoretical knowledge in double chess is, of course, of value, but practically
it will be found more advantageous to play a straightforward game than to in-
dulge in any scheme calculated for a great number of moves ahead. It is of the
last importance that your partner should know what you are about, and aid you
in your plans, else, despite your brilliant play, your airy fabric may vanish.
Therefore, by all means, choose such moves as will most readily lead him to
divine your method of attack, bearing in mind that it is more important he should
know it than that your adversaries should remain in ignorance of it.

Inasmuch as the attack is invariably made on the right-hand adversary, and
that there is danger that you may be held in check by one foe while the other sweeps
away your pieces, it is obvious that your left-hand defence must be of double
strength to prevent this result being obtained. Your knights in the early stage of
the game will be found of value in this respect, and your bishops and queen
should, as far as possible, be kept in readiness to assist your partner, while he
will be ready to aid you in a similar manner. Get out your castles as speedily as
possible, even if you sacrifice a pawn in doing so, as they are of more importance
in this game than ia single chess, and are not nearly so well protected in their.
original positions. Your queen is of far more value than in single chess, and to.
capture her the sacrifice of a castle and bishop is not too great. Great care must |
be exercised in her movements. Calculate well, ere you place ‘her in position,
that you cannot be checked in two moves, or you lose her to a certainty.
240 . ‘SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

The relative value of the pieces in double chess is shown in the following

scale : '

Queen ; , ; ,
Castles . '. , . | , | . . .
Red bishop
White ‘“ . . , ;
Knights at beginning of game.

. ** the end . .
Pawns . . . .

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Io

ou tl We il
ss NW Ap wo DH

RULES AND PENALTIES.

1. Absolute silence must be maintained. Should a player give vent to an exclamation of vexation
when his partner is about to move a piece, the adversaries may claim a pawn from any of his squares
which does not expose him to check.

2. A player checkmated cannot indicate to his partner how to obtain his release.

- No piece can be moved which will discover check to a player or his partner.

No player can release his antagonist from checkmate by taking any of his pieces.
. Any player may call attention to the fact that his partner’s queen is in check.
But his own being in check, he may not direct attention to that.

A king is not in check by any of his partner’s pieces.

- A pawn can only be taken by a pawn or by king or queen.

g- A player putting his hand on a piece must play it. If he remove his hand, the move must be
considered as completed.

ro. Adversaries’ kings cannot stand next each other on adjoining squares.

11. Should a player play out of his turn, both his antagonists may play out of theirs, and they are
allowed to ask each other which of them is desirous of moving first.

12. No piece can be removed from the board unless legally captured.

13. A pawncan only move one square at atime, and not two squares first move, as in single
chess.

14. The game is only won when both partners are checkmated. Should it be relinquished before
such an event, it is to be considered drawn.

5. A player cannot move his checkmated partner’s pieces.

16, Antagonistic pawns cannot leap over one another.

17. A player cannot take a piece while his king is in check, except to release himself from check.

18. A king cannot move out of check, if by so doing he exposes his pattner’s king to check.

1g. With kings and one piece only remaining, or with pawns only, the game is drawn.


DRAUGHTS.

me. game of draughts ranks next in importance to chess as a scientific game.
It is governed entirely by calculation, and he who, by study and practice,
becomes a good player at it, has really effected something more; for he has
schooled his intellect in a system of logical discipline, and accustomed himself to
find recreation in a rational and interesting study.

It is played, on a board exactly like a chess-board, by two players. The
board is placed so that a double corner is at the right hand of the player. The
following is a representation of the board and men:



In order to describe the moves easily we give a representation of a board with
the squares numbered off, and beginners would find it much to their interest to
thus number the corners of the squares on the board itself, as by such a plan they
can learn the moves far more readily than they otherwise could.
| 242 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR ‘AMERICAN BOYS.

When the men are all arranged in due order, the right of first move should be
decided by lot, as should also the choice of men. The men, however, should be
exchanged every game, so that each player may alternately use the white and black
men; and the first move of each game should be taken alternately also. Ere
showing how a game is opened, it is necessary to describe the mode in which the
men move.

The men can only progress forward diagonally, one square at a time, on the
white squares; but if any of them can gain the last row of squares, then such
pieces are termed kings, and:they may be moved backward as well as forward, of
course still keeping on the diagonals. The men take in the direction in which
they move, by passing over any opposing piece into the vacant white square be-
hind him ; for it must be understood that no other pieces than those which are
left unsupported—that is, those which have a vacant white square behind them,
are liable to be captured. If, however, several men are left unsupported, they are
likely to be all taken by one move, as, for instance, if there are three white men
on the squares 10, 18, and 26, a black man on 7 may take the whole of them ata
time, by leaping first into square 14, then into 23, and then into 30. The
three captured men must then be removed from the board; and the victorious
piece, having attained to the last row of squares on his opponent’s ground, must
be dubbed or crowned a ‘‘ king’’—that is, another piece of the same color, which
may have been taken in the earlier stages of the game, must be put upon him.

The game is won when one player has captured or blockaded the men belong-
ing to his antagonist in such a manner that he has either no piece left to play
with or no space in which to move those men he has. But when the parties are so
equally skilled that when each have lost many men, and, consequently, neither one
nor the other can gain any great victory, then the game should be given up as
drawn. In order to prevent any unnecessary delay in such cases, it has been
settled that the person who is the strongest should be compelled to finish the
game in a given number of moves. If, for example, there are two black kings
with one black man, or three black kings to two white ones on the board, and
the player of the white perceiving that his opponent, although unable to win, con-
\tinues to prolong the game with obstinacy, he has the privilege of insisting that
the game shall either be finished or given up when forty moves shall have been
made by each player : if two kings are matched against one, then the number of
moves must not exceed twenty, the moves being, of course, reckoned from the
notice given. As a complete game is usually played in a quarter of an hour, it is
expected that no player hesitates for more than three minutes when about making
a move ; if he does so, his opponent may require him to proceed, and if he pauses
‘for five minutes longer, then he is considered to have lost the game.
DRAUGHTS. “© 243

LAWS OF THE GAME.

1. The first move of every game must be taken by each player, alternately, whether the last was
won or drawn ; but the first move of the first game of each sitting must be decided by lot.

2. The choice of men for the first game at the beginning of the sitting is also to be decided by lot,
but they must be changed every game, so that each player may have the white and black men alter-
nately.

3. The men may be properly adjusted on the squares in any part of the game, but if, after they are
so placed, whichever player, when it is his turn to move, touches a man, he must play it somewhere,
if practicable ; and if the man has been so far removed from his square as to be visibly over the angle
separating the squares, and thence indicative of a move, such move must be completed.

4. Pointing over the board, or employing any action likely to interrupt your antagonist or hinder
his full view of the board, is not permitted.

5. When several men are em prise, or threatened by the same man at the same time in opposite
directions—that is, two one way and one the other, the player whose turn it is to move may take which
he pleases ; and as it would be impossible for him to take all the men both ways, no penalty can be
exacted for the omission.

6. In the event of standing the ‘‘ huff,” it is at the opponent's option either to take the man or
insist that the adverse party take his man omitted by the ‘‘ huff.”

7. When a game has been prolonged to a tiresome degree, and only a few pieces remain on the
board, without, however, any chance of the players giving up, the stronger party may be required to
win the game in a certain number of moves—suppose forty moves for each player, or consider it as a
drawn game—the moves, of course, being counted from the notice given. If two kings are opposed to
one king, the moves not to exceed twenty for each player. When the odds of the drawn game are
given, the game should be continued to a more advanced state than in other cases, and when the situa-
tions become so equal that neither party can gain the advantage, then he who gives the draw must
either drive his opponent from his strong position, or be adjudged to have lost the game.

8. Not more than three minutes are allowed for considering a move, and if a longer time is taken
by each player, his opponent may request him to proceed ; if he pauses five minutes further time after
such notice, he ioses the game.

g. In the event of a false move being made, such as moving out of your turn, or moving a com-
mon man backward as though he were a king, the man must be moved to some square, according to
‘law 3, but with this addition, that it shall be moved to wherever the adversary may dictate, consistent
with the rules of the game; or if he so pleases, the false move may be allowed to stand, as best suits
his plan.

10. During a game, neither party can quit the room without the consent of his opponent, otherwise
he forfeits the game.

11. If a dispute occurs between the two players, it should be referred toa third party, whose
decision is to be considered final, in all cases in which the laws of the game do not offer any explana-
tion ; and any player who does not submit to the rules laid down, or abide by the decision of the said
third party, is to be adjudged to have lost the game to his adversary.

12. Bystanders must abstain from all remarks during the progress of a game, neither may they
advise or interrupt either of the players.
244 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

We add a couple of practice problems, which will materially assist the learner in acquiring a
knowledge of the intricacies of the game.

BLACK,



WHITE, WHITE,
Black to move and win. White to move and win.
SOLUTION. SOLUTION.

BLACK. WHITE. WHITE. BLACK.
I....27 to 24 20 to 27 I....12 to 8 4 to II
2....25 ‘* 22 18 ‘* 25 2....10 ‘' 15 Ir ‘‘ 18
3.... 2 “ 6 Ir “ 2 3....14 “* 27 5 “ g
4..0. I‘ 5 2“ g 4....21 “ 17 White wins.
Bowes 5 ** 32 Black wins.
DOMINOES.

OMINOES is a game of modern invention, and though far inferior to
draughts, and immeasurably below chess in point of intricacy, still it requires
much attention and practice to make a skilful player. But there is no game—ex-
cept one of cards—which is better adapted for the amusement of a miscellaneous
party of people than that of dominoes. The ordinary box or set of dominoes con-
tains twenty-eight pieces, and is termed a set of double-sixes. In other words, it
contains every combination of two different numbers at the two ends, from double-
blank to double-sixes. These are capable, in play, of an infinite extension and
combination, but are subject to certain rules of calculation, the key to which is
given. The best dominoes are made of oblong pieces of ivory, with ebony backs,
divided across the centre into two equal squares. Each square is marked with a
certain number of dots, or figs, as they are termed, thus:

Double-Blank. Blank-Five. Five-Six.

In play, the dominoes are laid on the table face downward, and then are mixed
up or shuffled together, after which each player draws seven dominoes, or less, ac-



cording to the game played, and he then proceeds to arrange them so as to geta


246 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

view of each face at a glance, either by setting them up on edge, as shown in the
appended cut, or by placing them in domino frames, as shown in the following
cut. By assorting the dominoes, the value of the hand may be seen at a glance.



The usual plan of sorting is to arrange all the higher pips to the right hand, and
the lower ones and blanks to the left.. Thus, the double-six would be on the
extreme right, as shown, and the double-blank on the left.

The regular game of dominoes is. played by two persons, with an ordinary box
of double-sixes. The players sit opposite. to each other, and the dominoes, after
being well shuffled, lie on the table between them, with their backs alone visible.
Each player takes seven dominoes, which he looks at and sorts, as before men-
tioned. The remaining fourteen dominoes are moved onone side. The player who
has the highest double domino has the lead. Suppose it is six-five, the second
player having five-three, which is responded to with double-threes, and the second
player follows with three-blank, leaving the position as follows ;



The various games which are played now are the ‘‘ block game,’’ the “ draw,’”
“‘ muggins,’”’ or ‘‘ fives,’ ‘‘ matadore,’’ ‘ rounce,’’ with other varieties. The
feature of the block game is that the first player, to get rid of all his pieces, counts
DOMINOES. | 247

not only all the points.on his own pieces, but on those of his opponent. In case
neither can play before either can claim ‘‘ domino,’’ then the player having the
fewest points takes the lead in counting. _ One of the most interesting of the games
is that of “‘fives.’’ In this game five pieces are drawn, and the party having the
double-blank leads, and after that the highest double. If six-four or double-five
be led it counts ten ; if. four-ace, trey-deuce, or five-blank, it counts five. In set-
ting, the player who can set a piece that will make the two ends count five, or any
multiple thereof, adds that number to his score. Thus: five-deuce being led, and.
five-trey being set to it, the trey at one end is added to the two at the other, and
counts five to the one who led the five-trey. |



If six-trey or double-trey be now played it counts nothing, because the sum of
the two ends is only eight, which is not a multiple of five; but if four-deuce, or



double-deuce be now played, the one who plays it will count ten, for that is the
sum of the enyis.



We will suppose the game now goes on, and the six-trey is next added. The
next player sets the double-six. Then, if the player next in turn sets four-trey it
would count him 15, or if double-four, 20. If one cannot play in his turn he



draws until he can ; but, unlike the draw game, he must play when he has drawn
one that will match. He who plays out first calts out ‘‘ muggins,’’ and, as in the
draw game, adds the spots in his opponent’s hand to his own score; and the same
rule prevails in case of a block. But in counting it is always by the multiple of 5.
The score is 100 up, if two are playing.
248 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

THE MATADORE GAME

is on an entirely different principle. You do not fit the same numbers together,
as in other games at dominoes, but you must add a number which, when joined to
one already there, makes seven. The double-blank, the four-tray, six-one, and
five-deuce are termed matadores, and can be played at any stage, and either end
turned outward at will, for your opponent to play to. Three dominoes only are
taken at the outset, and if one of the players cannot ‘‘go,’’ he must draw until
he can do so, unless the number of dominoes left on the board is reduced to two,
The game is played 30, 50, or 100 up, and the winner counts to his score his oppo-
nent’s pips.

ALL THREES

as a capital game for boys, and exercises the players in the four rules of arithmetic.
It is played similarly to the all fives, only 3 is the multiple instead of 5; thus,
3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 points count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively.

Noe
a
BACKGAMMON.

ACKGAMMON is played by two persons, on a board divided into sections,
and figured with twenty-four points of different colors, placed alternately.
Here is the board, with the men arranged for the game:

BLACK,

Black’s Home, or Inner
Table. Black’s Outer Table.
7 8 g 10 II 12

ee hed ed ae fe Gi
5



7 8 9 10 Ir 12
White’s Home, orInner |
Table. White's Outer Table.

WHITE.

The very first thing is to ‘‘set the board,’’ which is done according to the
scheme shown in the diagram, in which for easy reference the points on either side
are numbered from1to12. The player using the black men is seated at the upper
side of the table, and the one with the white men at the lower. In the case sup-
posed, it is the object of the player to bring all his men ‘‘ home’’—that is, into his
own inner table. He who first succeeds in moving or ‘‘ bearing’’ his men off the
250 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

board wins the game. In arranging the board, two men are placed upon the ace-
point in the adversary’s inner table, five upon the sixth point of his outer table
(twelve in the diagram), five upon the sixth point in your own inner table, and
three upon the cinque point in your outer table (eight in the diagram).. Your
adversary places his men in the tables in a precisely corresponding manner.

The moves of the men are made in accordance with the numbers thrown by
two dice, with which, in a box, each, player is. provided, in addition to fifteen
draughtsmen.

_ To further explain the mof#f of the game. It is the object of the player to get
all his men into his inner compartment or ‘‘ home,”’ and to remove them from the
board in accordance with the numbers indicated by the successive throws of the
dice, before his adversary can accomplish the same end, after he has succeeded in
removing his men into his own ‘‘ home.”’

TECHNICAL TERMS OF THE GAME.

The terms used for the numbers on the dice are: I, ace; 2, deuce ; 3, trots, or
trey ; 4, guatre ; 5, cingue; 6, six. |

Doublets—Two dice with the faces bearing the same number of pips, as two
aces, two sixes, etc. -

ffit.—To remove all your men before your adversary has done so.

Blot.—A single man upon a point.

Home.—Your inner table. | |

Gammon.—Two points won out of the three constituting the game.

Backgammon.—The entire game won.

Men.—The draughts used in the game.

Making points.—Winning hits.

Getting home.—Bringing your men from your opponent’s tables into your own.

Lo enter, is to place your man again on the board after he has been excluded
by reason of a point being already full.

Bar.—The division between the boxes,

Bar-point.—That next the bar.

The direction in which your men move is from the adverse inner table over
the bar, through the adversary’s outer table.
BACKGAMMON, . | | 251

HOW THE GAME IS PLAYED.

The first most advantageous throw of the dice is of aces, as it blocks the six- .
point in your outer table, and secures the cinque-point in your inner table ; so
that your adversary’s two men upon your ace-point cannot escape with his throw- |
ing either from five or six. This throw is, therefore, often asked and given be- _
tween players of unequal skill, by way of odds.

If doublets are thrown, or similar numbers on each die, double the number of
points are reckoned. Thus, if two cinques be thrown, twenty points are counted.

The points on the board are counted from one to six in each of the four com-
partments respectively, each player commencing from the point in the table oppo-
site to him.

Two men can be advanced at once, one for each number thrown on the dice ;
or one man may be moved forward as many points as the numbers on the dice
amount to taken together.

When any point is covered by two of an opponent’s men, the player cannot
put any of his upon that point ; but if one only be there, which constitutes what is
called ‘‘ a blot,’’ that man may be removed and placed on the centre ledge of the
board, and the point occupied. This man must be ‘‘ entered’’ on any vacant point
in the ‘‘home’’ section of the tables belonging to the opponent of the player
whose man has been taken up, provided the number turned up on either die corre-
sponds with that point, and must then be brought round from the commencement,
like the men on the ace-points in either table.

To win a ‘‘ hit’’ is to remove all your men from the table before your adversary
has removed his; this counts one. To win a ‘‘gammon,’’ which counts two, is
to remove all your men before your adversary has brought all of his ‘‘ home ;”’
and if your men are entirely removed while your antagonist has one remaining in
your home section of the tables, you win a ‘‘ backgammon,” which counts three.

For the choice of the first play each player throws a single die. ‘* He who
throws the highest number wins, and may, if he choose, adopt and play the joint
number of the preliminary throw. If he reject, then the first step is made by his
throwing both the dice, and moving any one of his men to an open point at the
distance indicated by one of the dice, and then moving another man (or the same
man farther on, if he think proper) to another open point indicated by the number
of the second die. This completes his move; his adversary then foilows in a
similar manner, and so on alternately to the end of the game. Thus, double aces
(which count as four) would entitle you (say white) to move two men from 8 w. to
252 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

7 w., and two from 6 w. to 5 w., which covers the bar-point (7), and also covers the
cinque-point in your inner table; and then, should your next throw be five and
six, you would play the five from 12 b. to 8 w., and so cover the blot before left ;
and you would play the six from 12 b. to your bar-point. Pairs count double ;
thus, sixes entitle you to move four men, each six points forward, and you may
either move four together—say, from 12 b. to 7 w., or two together—as, say, two
from 1 b. to your adversary’s bar-point (7), and two from 12 b, to 7 w. (your own
bar-point), or singly—as, say, a single man from 1 b. to 1 w. in your own inner
table, presuming that your adversary had ceased to occupy it.’’
PARCHEESI,

Pees is a favorite game in India, and an eager player will carry rolled
round in his turban the cloth which serves as a board, so as to be ready for a
game at any moment. These cloths, when embroidered with the diagram in col-.
ored silk, are quite artistic objects. |

The English officials in India frequently engage in the game with the natives,
and a story is told of a noted official personage who, when he paid his native ser-
vants their wages, would sit down with them to a match at parcheesi, and some-.
times win his money back. In London they sell board and pieces for what they
profess to be the game, but these really belong to the modified form of it, knowm
in India as ché pur, in which, instead of cowries, stick-dice numbered on the four
long sides are thrown, these Indian dice being in England replaced by common
cubical ones. This shows the change from lots to dice in games of the backgam-
mon sort, and it is curious to notice how clearly the new rules for counting by the-
dice are modelled on the old rules for throws of cowries. The game, as played



in America, has a regular card-board field, as shown in the appended cut. The
rules for play are as follows :

RULES OF THE GAME.

The game car be played by two, three, or four persons, each player having one die, a dice cup,,
and four pieces which may be called men, the pieces of each player being of a different celor to those:
of the other players, so that they may be quickly distinguished while playing.
254 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

The players will sit opposite each other.

Each player will place his four pieces on the square, and within the circle, at his right hand,
marked “a ’’ in diagram ; then any player may commence the game by throwing his die ; the players
throw in succession until five is thrown ; the player throwing that number enters one piece on the
Space and on the small circle at his right hand marked “ a,’’ which is called the ‘‘ entering space”’ of
the player.

The players throw in succession, whether they enter or not.

After a player has entered a piece, he can then count forward according to his throws, and his
piece in the direction of the line (see diagram) until he brings it round to the red space opposite him,
which is called his home path, and up to the home path until he can move it into the centre part of the
doard, which is ‘‘ home.’’

The player who first gets his four men home wins the game.

When counting, the spaces between the lines, and not the lines, are counted ; for instance, if a
piece be on the space marked “ a,’’ and three be thrown, count forward three spaces, and place the
piece on “‘ 4 ,”’ if the player then throws two, place the piece on “‘¢,’’ and so on.

While a piece rests on a space in which there is a small circle it cannot be captured. These spaces
are called the “safety points ;” but if any player throws a number which would count to a space not
having a circle, and on which there is the piece of an opponent, he can capture the Piece, leave his in
place of it, and return it to 1ts owner, who must again enter it in the usual manner.

If two pieces of a color rest on the same space, it is called a blockade, and cannot be passed by
any player, even though they may be his own pieces, while it remains uzbroken. If he cannot move
without passing 425 own blockade, he must break it or lose his move.

No player can. place a piece on a ‘‘ safety point,” neither can he enter a piece on his ‘‘ entering
space’’ while the piece of his opponent is on them.

If any player throws six he counts forward twelve, and he is entitled to a second throw ; if his
second throw be six, he again counts forward twelve, and is entitled to a third throw ; if the third
throw be six, he must take off the piece he has nearest ‘‘ home” and enter it again in the usual manner.

A player is not obliged to capture the piece of an opponent.

When a piece is on the ‘‘ home path” it cannot be counted ‘‘ home” until a number is thrown
which would count ‘‘ home’ as a space.

When counting, the space on which a piece rests is not counted.

Only one piece can be moved at a time, but either of the four can be moved at discretion of the
player.

Each player can have only one throw, except when six is thrown.

A player having all his pieces near home should be followed up, and, if possible, captured and
sent back again to be re-entered.
RING TOSS.

HIS isa light pastime for the summer lawn or for the parlor in the winter
time. The game is played with a target post and a number of light rings or
small hooks, ranging from five to ten inches in diameter. The game is to toss the
rings so as to fall on the target post. The smaller the rings the higher the count.



For the large rings one point is scored ; for the next size smaller two points, and
for the smallest size three points ; fifty points being a full game. The distance
on a lawn which the player stands from the target post is twenty-five feet. In the

parlor it is fifteen feet.
JACK STRAWS.

“Ts is a table game played in-doors, and it requires a steady hand to play it.
A number of small sticks, like matches, together witha number of others cut
into various forms, such as a spade, a spear, an arrow, a shepherd’s crook, a gun,
a bat, etc., each of which are numbered from five to fifty, one of the figures having
the profile of a man’s face and known as the hundred, are bunched together in the
hand, and then allowed to fall and spread out on the table. Lots are then drawn
to decide the rotation of the players. The first player takes his stick, with a crook
at the end of it—a bent pin will answer—and strives to select from the bunch the
stick having the highest figure on it. In doing this he must only move the stick
he tries to pick out. If he moves any other he loses his turn. The plain sticks
count one each, and the figured sticks various numbers. When all have been
gathered in, the party having the highest number of points wins the game. The
appended cut illustrates the game,


THIRTY-ONE.

TS is anew and amusing game of calculation, adapted for two persons. It
is somewhat on the plan of the celebrated “fifteen puzzle,” which attained
such popularity a year or soago. The game consists of playing the figured blocks
so that the column added up makes just thirty-one. Suppose A and B are con-
testants. A plays first by sliding the six block over to the right-hand side. Then
B plays block No. 2. This makes eight. A then plays four, making the total
twelve, B following by playing six, making eighteen total. Now comes the
calculation which decides the contest, If A plays six, making twenty-four, he
Wins, as no matter which figure B now plays A must make thirty-one in the suc-
ceeding count. The board is in form as follows: .



DESCRIPTION OF THE CONTEST.

There are two contestants.
The object of each contestant is to gain thirty-one or nearer thirty-one than his
opponent, wzthout going over that number.


258 | SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

Put all the blocks on one side of the box, either the right or left, and then
move any one of them you wish to the other side. Each player moves, alternately,
one block ata time. Add together the numbers on all the blocks moved (those moved
by yourself and those moved by your opponent), until one or the other gains
thirty-one or nearer thirty-one than his opponent. The player reaching, by his
individual block, either of these points, wins.

N. B.—You must not go over thirty-one.
FOX AND GEESE.

IFTEEN ordinary draughtsmen compose the flock of geese. The fox may
either be two draughtsmen placed one upon another, or any small object
which may be at hand. The game is playéd on a board marked as shown in the



annexed engraving. The fox is placed in the middle of the board, and the geese
on the points on one side of it, as shown in the illustration. The game is to con-
fine the fox to some spot on the board, so that there shall be either the edge of the
board or else two rows of men round him. When the fox cannot escape, the game
is done, and the player of the geese wins ; but when one of the geese is left ona
point next to that occupied by the fox, and is not supported by another goose be-
hind, or by the edge of the board, the fox can take it, and by jumping over its
head to the next space, he may, perhaps, escape the persecutions of some of the
others, as all the geese are compelled to move forward toward the end of the board
that was unoccupied at the commencement of the game. The fox is allowed to
move either backward or forward. Neither fox nor goose must be moved more
than one space at atime. If the fox neglects to take when he has a chance, he is
huffed, and one of the captured geese is restored to the back of the board. The
fox should avoid getting into the lower square of the board if possible, as he will
find it difficult to extricate himself from a position which can be so easily block-
aded. ;

There is another method of playing fox and geese on a chessboard ; namely,
260 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

with four white men, representing the geese, and one black one, representing the
fox. |
The geese are ranged on the four white squares nearest one player, and the



fox may be placed where his owner pleases. The best place for him is that marked
in the diagram, as he can manceuvre in a very puzzling way.

The geese can only move forward, and the fox moves either way. The object
of the geese is to pen up the fox so that he cannot move, and the fox has to break
through.

If the game is properly played, the geese must win, the secret being to keep
them all in line as much as possible. The fox tries to prevent this plan from being
followed up ; and if he can succeed in doubling the geese, or getting one to stand
before another, he is nearly sure to pass through them.
MORRICE.

M ORRICE ought certainly to find a place among games of skill, although it

ranks far below chess or draughts. The morrice-board shown in the
annexed engraving may be constructed either of wood or pasteboard. The men
may be ordinary draughtsmen, and in playing the game nine of each color are re-
quired. The players place their men on the board one at a time, and when they
have played them all they move them along the lines on the board one space at a
time. The illustration shows a game commenced, black having played first—the



figures indicate the order in which the men were put down by the two players. In
placing the men on the board, and in moving them about when they have all been
put down, each player endeavors to get three of his color in a straight line, as he
is then entitled to remove one of his opponent’s men from the board. In the
game we have illustrated, black, by his fifth move, forms the first row of three,
and he may take off a white man before his opponent plays. He would, as a
matter of course, take off either the third or fourth white man to prevent his oppo-
nent forming a complete row. The game continues until one of the players has
forfeited all his men but two, when he loses the game, as it is impossible for him
to gain a row, while his adversary, having three or more men, may do so easily.
KNUCKLE-BONES.

HIS game is played with five little bones from a sheep’s trotter. One player
tosses up the knuckle-bones, sometimes one at a time, sometimes all to-
gether, and catches them either in the palm or on the back of his hand, according to
certain rules. Should he fail to perform one of the tricks properly, he must hand
the bones to his opponent, who attempts to go through the same series of ma-
noeuvres with them. When the first player regains the bones through the unskilful
play of his adversary, he once more attempts the feat he failed to accomplish
before, and if he succeeds he tries to pass through the subsequent stages of the
game. The player who first arrives at the end of the regulated series of tricks wins
the game.

In the absence of the bones little iron ‘‘ Jacks’’ are used, which are to be
obtained at any toy store. Marbles, too, are often used as material, when it is
desired to make the game more difficult.

The game is an excellent one for exercising and developing that perfect
sympathy between the eye and the hand which is certain to be of great service in
after life, in some way or other.

RULES OF THE GAME.

1. Beginnings.—The five bones are gathered in the palm of the hand and thrown up, any
number being caught on the back of the hand ; they are then tossed up again, and caught in the palm.
One is selected, thrown into the air, and one at a time the remainder picked up, while the one thrown
is in the air. This must be caught and again thrown for the next bone. The bone thrown up is
called the “dab,’’ and must be caught c/ear, without touching any part of the person but the right
hand, under all circumstances of the game.

2. Ones.—The five bones are thrown on to the table, the dab selected is thrown up, and the re-
mainder are taken up, one by one, without touching any other bone.

3. Twos.—The same again, but two taken up for each throw ot the dab.

4. Threes.—Three picked up, and then one.

5. Fours.— Four picked up.

In twos, threes, and fours, it is permitted by consent of the adversary to push the selected bones
KNUCKLE-BONES. | 263

together while the dab is in the air. The touching of any other than the selected bones, or the failure
to pick up the proper number, forfeits the turn.

6. Short spans.—Two bones are placed on the table, each side of the left hand, one pair close to
the thumb, the other pair at the tip of the little finger. Each pair must be taken up separately, without
any pushing together.

7. Long spans.—A bone is placed at the extremities of the thumb and little finger, stretched dut to
the widest. Another pair is put in the same way about six inches farther on the table. These pairs
must be taken up without any touching together ; any bone displaced may be put back again ¢hree
times ; failure on the third trial forfeits the turn. ,

8. Creek mouse.—The five bones are tossed from the palm, and any number caught on the back of
the hand ; all but one are shaken off , the remainder are then gathered into the palm, without disturb-
ing the one on the back, which is then tossed and caught in the palm with the others.

g. Second Creek mouse.—The five bones are tossed from the palm as before, and one is retained on

the back. The remainder are taken, one between each finger and thumb; the one on the back is then
tossed and caught in the extended palm.
} 10. Bridges..—The hand is laid on the back on the table; the bones held between the fingers are
then dropped in a row on the table. An arch is formed with the first finger and thumb of the left hand
at about six inches from the left-hand bone of the four. They are then one by one pushed through this —
bridge ; when all are through the left hand is removed, and the four are taken up at one sweep. No
touching together is allowed.

11. Cracks.—The bones are thrown on the table, and the four picked up one by one; the dab in
falling and being caught to make a distinct crack on the one picked up.

12. Wo cracks,—Same as before, but the dab must be caught without touching the other bone.
The slightest sound forfeits the turn.

13. Lachanges.—The four bones are laid at the corners of a square, a full span on each side. The
first bone is picked up from the lower right-hand corner, and at the next throw is exchanged for the
one above. This is exchanged for the one at the top left-hand corner, this for the lower left, and that
is placed at the point of starting. The bones are then taken up in diagonal pairs.

14. Lverlastings.—The whole of the bones are tossed from the palm and any number caught on
the back. These are tossed from the back and caught in the palm, and any that have fallen in the
first toss have to be picked up while the whole of the others are in the air, so that at one moment there
may be four dabs and one to pick up. This task, as the name implies, approaches the everlasting.
SOLITAIRE.

HIS isa French game well adapted for the amusement of invalids confined

to the house, who simply want something to lessen the tedium of their in-

door position. The appended diagram shows the form of the board, the figures

showing how the puzzle is solved. The game consists of removing all the pegs

from the board, under the rule of capture as observed in draughts; that is, when

taken off the board the peg removed must first have been jumped over by another

peg. For instance, in beginning the game, peg No. 1 jumps over peg No. 2 and

is placed in the centre hole. Then peg No. 3 jumps over No. 4 and is placed in

the hole previously occupied by No. 2, and so on. The player should strive to
solve the puzzle without consulting the diagram.

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FORFEITS.

A® games of forfeits are specially adapted to amuse a mixed party of girls and
boys, we distinguish them from the boisterous sports in which those of the
softer sex cannot participate. When a player in any of the following games fails
to accomplish certain tasks, he has to pay a forfeit to the person who volunteers
to hold the office of forfeit-keeper. In redeeming their forfeits, the players incur
certain penances which cannot be performed with spirit without the assistance of
young ladies. Asa general rule a game of forfeits is continued until each player
has pledged three articles, but this arrangement may be modified according to cir-
cumstances.

THE FOUR ELEMENTS.

The party being seated in a circle, the player who has been chosen to com-
mence the game takes a knotted handkerchief, and throws it suddenly into an-
other’s lap, calling out at the same time either ‘‘ Earth !’’ ‘‘ Water!” ‘‘ Air!’ or
Fire?’ If ‘* Earth !” be called out, the player into whose lap the handkerchief
has fallen must name some guadruped before the other can count ten ; if ‘‘ Water !”
he must namea fish, if “‘ Air!’ a dird; and if ‘‘ Fire!’’ he must remain silent.
Should the player name a wrong animal, or speak when he ought to be silent, he
must pay a forfeit and take a turn at throwing the handkerchief; but should he
perform his task properly he must throw the handkerchief back to the first player.
Those who have never joined in this simple game can have no idea of the absurd
errors into which the different players fall when summoned unawares to namea
particular kind of animal.

THE FAMILY COACH.

The chief player in this amusing game must possess the faculty of inventing a
long story, as well as a tolerably good memory. This player gives to each of the
others the name of some person or thing to be mentioned in the’story he is about
266 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

to relate. For example, he may call one ‘‘ the coachman,’’ another ‘‘ the whip,”
another ‘‘ the inn,’’ another the ‘‘old gentleman,’’ another the ‘“‘ footman,”’ an-
' other ‘‘ the luggage,’’ and so on until he has named all the persons engaged in the
game, The story-teller now takes his stand in the centre of the room and com-
mences his narrative ; in the course of which he takes care to mention all the
names given to the players. When the name of a player is mentioned he must
immediately rise from his seat, turn round, and sit down again, or else pay a for-
_ feit for his inattention, and whenever ‘‘ the family coach’’ is named a@// the players:
must rise simultaneously. In the following example of a story the names given to
the different players are printed‘in italics: ‘‘ An old gentleman dreading an attack
of the gout resolved to pay a visit to the hot wells of Bath; he therefore sum-
moned his coachman and ordered him to prepare THE FAMILY COACH (all the players
rise, turn round, and sit down again). The coachman, not liking the prospect of so
long a journey, tried to persuade the old gentleman that THE FAMILY COACH was out
of repair, that the /eader was almost blind, and that he (the coachman) could not
drive without a new whif. The old gentleman stormed and swore upon hearing
these paltry excuses, and ordered the coachman out of the room, while the “tile dog
sprang from under his master’s chair and flew at the calves of the offender, who
was forced to make a precipitate exit. Early the next morning THE FAMILY COACH
belonging to the old gentleman stopped at an zuma on the Bath road, much to the
surprise of the /andlord, who had never seen such a lumbering conveyance before.

THE FAMILY COACH contained the old gentleman, the old lady (his wife), and the /ttle
dog that had made such a furious attack on the poor coachman’s legs. The landlord
called the landlady, who came bustling out of the zmz to welcome the old gentleman
and old lady. The fovotman jumped down from behind THE FAMILY COACH and

helped the old gentleman and the old Jady to alight, while the Joots and chambermaid
belonging to the zzz busied themselves with the /uggage. The Uitle dog trotted

after the old Jady, but just as it was going into the zzz the coachman gave it a cut

with his whip. The “ttle dog howled, upon which the o/d gentleman turned round,

and, seeing the coachman with his whip raised, he seized him by the throat. The

Jootman came to the assistance of his friend the coachman, and the ostler belonging

to the zvm took the side of the old gentleman. The landlord, landlady, chambermaid,

boots, cook, stable-boy, barmaid, and all the other inmates of the zm, rushed into the

road to see what was the matter, and their cries, joined to the yells of the Zt#le dog

and the screams of the old lady, so frightened the leader, the white horse, and the

brown mare, that they ran away with THE FAMILY COACH.’’ Of course this tale

might have been continued to any length, but the specimen we have given will be

sufficient to give the story-teller some idea of what is expected from him to keep

up the fun of the game.
FORFEITS. . 267 ©

MY LADY'S TOILET.

This game of forfeits is suited for a large party of boys and girls. Each player
chooses the name of some article belonging to a lady’s toilet, such as ‘‘ mirror,’’
‘‘brush,”’ ‘‘ hair-pin,’’ ‘‘ scent-bottle,’? and soon. One of the players then takes
a wooden trencher, or any other circular object that is not liable to be broken, and
twirls it round in the centre of the room, naming at the same time some toilet
article, upon which the player, who bears the name of such article, starts from his
seat and endeavors to catch the trencher before it falls, failing to do which he pays
a forfeit and takes the spinner’s place. The person who spins the trencher gen-
erally prefaces the name of the article with some such sentence as ‘* My lady is
going out for a walk and wants her scent-bottle.’’ When the word “toilet’’ is
called out by the trencher-spinner, all the players change their seats, and as the
spinner takes care to secure a place, one player necessarily finds himself without
one, and has to pay a forfeit and twirl the trencher. If a player can catch the
trencher before it falls he has no forfeit to pay, but he takes the spinner’s place,
just as though he had failed to accomplish this feat.

THE HUNTSMAN.

This game is one of the liveliest for the winter's evenings that can be imag-
ined ; it may be played by six, eight, or more persons, and, in fact, by any num-
ber above four. One of the players is styled the ‘‘ huntsman,’’ and the others
must be called after the different parts of the dress or accoutrements of a sports-
man; thus, one is the coat, another the hat, while the shot, shot-belt, powder,
powder -flask, dog, and gun, and every other appurtenance belonging to a hunts-
man, has its representative. As many chairs as there are players, excluding the
‘‘huntsman,’’ should next be ranged in two rows, back to back, and all the
players must then seat themselves; all being thus prepared, the ‘‘ huntsman’’
walks round the sitters ‘and calls out the assumed name of one of them, as, for
instance, ‘‘Gun!’’ that player immediately gets up and takes hold of the coat-
skirts of the ‘‘ huntsman,’’ who continues his walk, and calls out all the others,
one by one; each must take hold of the skirts of the player before him, and when
they are all summoned, the huntsman sets off running round the chairs as fast as
he can, the other players holding on and running after him. When he has been
round two or three times, he calls, or rather shouts out, ‘‘ Bang !’’ and immedi-
268 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

ately sits down on one of the chairs, leaving his followers to scramble to the other
seats as they best can. Of course, one must be excluded, there being one chair
less than the number when the huntsman sits down, and the player so left out
must pay a forfeit. The game is continued until all have paid three forfeits, when
they are cried, and the punishments or penances declared. The huntsman is not
changed throughout the game, unless he gets tired of his post.

THE GAME OF THE KEY.

This game may be played by any number of persons, who should all, except
one, seat themselves on chairs placed in a circle, and he should take his station in
the centre of the ring. All the sitters must next take hold, with their left hands,
of the right wrists of the persons sitting on their left, being careful not to obstruct
the grasp by holding the hands. When all have in this manner joined hands, they
should begin moving them from left to right, making a circular motion, and
touching each other’s hands, as if for the purpose of taking something from them.
The player in the centre then presents a key to one of the sitters, and turns his
back, so as to allow it to be privately passed to another, who hands it to a third,
and so it is handed round the ring from one player to the other with all imagina-
ble celerity, which task is exceedingly easy to accomplish, on account of the con-
tinued motion of the hands of all the players. It is the office of the player in the
centre, after allowing time for the key to be passed on to the third or fourth
player, to watch its progress narrowly, and to endeavor to seize it in its passage.
If he succeeds in his attempt, the person in whose hand it is found, after paying a
forfeit, must take his place in the centre, and give and hunt the key in his turn ;
should the seeker fail in discovering the key in his first attempt, he must continue
his search until he succeeds. When a player has paid three forfeits he is out.

ACTING RHYMES.

The players being seated in a circle, one of them gives a simple word, to
which each has to find a rhyme that can be expressed by some movement, grimace,
or inarticulate sound. Let us suppose that six persons are engaged in this pas-
time, and that the first player proposes the word dat ; the second player stands up
and rubs his shoes on the carpet to signify that he is using a mat; the third player
FORFEITS. 269

now commences to purr or mew like a ca¢ ; the fourth makes a low bow and raises
an imaginary fat from his head ; the fifth, if sufficiently active, scampers about
the room on all fours like a va¢ ; the sixth goes through certain antics supposed to
pertain to the Irish character, by which he tries to intimate that he is Pat ; and
the first player, who is bound to find a rhyme to his own word, lies on his back
and stretches out his hands so as to be perfectly fa¢. If any player speaks while
acting his rhyme, if he fails to make his actions intelligible, or if he cannot find a
rhyme to the given word, he must pay a forfeit. The players take it by turns to
propose a word, which should never consist of more than one syllable.

POST.

This exciting game may be played by an unlimited number, and is particu-
larly adapted fora large party. One of the players, called ‘‘ the postman,” has
his eyes bandaged as in blindman’s-buff, another volunteers to fill the office of
‘* postmaster-general,’’ and all the rest seat themselves round the room. At the
commencement of the game the postmaster assigns to each player the name of a
town, and if the players are numerous, he writes the names given to them ona
slip of paper, in case his memory should fail him. These preliminaries having
been arranged, the blind postman is placed in the centre of the room, and the
postmaster-general retires to some snug corner whence he can overlook the other
players. When this important functionary calls out the names of two towns, thus,
‘‘ London to Halifax,’’ the players who bear these names must immediately change
seats, and as they run from one side of the room to another, the postman tries to
capture them. If the postman can succeed in catching one of the players, or if he
can manage to sit down on an empty chair, the player that is caught or excluded
from his place becomes postman. The. postmaster-general is not changed
throughout the game unless he gets tired of his office. When a player remains
seated after his name has been called he must pay a forfeit, or if the game is
played without forfeits he must go to the bottom of the class, which is represented
by a particular chair, and to make room for him all the players who were formerly
below him shift their places.

THE TWO HATS.

This game, although only two persons are engaged in it at a time, furnishes
much amusement from the contradictory nature of its words and actions. The
rules relative to it are as follows: If three mistakes are made by the person who
270 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

responds to the inquiries of the player who brings the hats round, and whom for
distinction’s sake we will call the questioner, he must pay three forfeits, and is out
of the game ; when the questioner desires the respondent to be seated, the latter
must.stand up ; when he begs him to put his hat on, he must take it off ; when he
requests him to stand, he must sit ; and in every point, the respondent must take
especial care to do always the very reverse of what the questioner wishes him.
The questioner may sit down, stand up, put his hat on, or take it off, without
desiring the respondent to do so, or giving him the least intimation of his inten-
tion ; the latter must, therefore, be always on his guard, so as to act in a contrary
way in an instant, else he incurs a forfeit. These rules being settled, the game is
simply this : one player places a hat on his head, takes another in his hand, and
gives it to one of the company ; he then begins conversing with him, endeavoring
both by words and actions to puzzle him as much as he can, so as to cause him to
pay a forfeit. We will give a slight specimen of a dialogue, describing the accom-
panying movements of the hats, in which A. is the questioner, B. the respondent :

A. (taking his hat of.) A very beautiful evening, sir.

B. (putting his hat on.) Yes, indeed, a most lovely one. © |

A. (putting his hat on, and sitting down, B. instantly taking his off and getting up.)

Pray be seated, sir ; I really cannot think of sitting while you stand (gets up and B
sits down). Have you been out of town this year? (takes off his hat.)

B. (putting his on.) I have not yet, but I think I shall before (A sits down, B
gets up) the beauty of the season has entirely passed away, venture a few miles out
of town. :

A. (putting his hat on.) | beg ten thousand pardons, you are standing while I
am sitting ; pardon me, your hat is on, you must pay a forfeit.

It generally happens, that before the dialogue has been carried thus far, the
respondent has incurred three forfeits, and is, of course, out ; the questioner then
goes in succession to the others, and the same scene is repeated by each ; the con-
versation, it is almost needless to add, should be varied as much as possible, and
the more nonsensical the better.

HOW? WHERE? AND WHEN?

One of the players is sent out of the room, while the others fix upon a subject
which may be anything to which the three questions, ‘‘ How do you like it ?”
“* Where do you like it?’ and ‘‘ When do you like it?” will apply. When the
subject has been decided upon, the out-player is summoned. He now puts the
first question to the nearest player, who returns him a puzzling answer ; he then
_ FORFEITS. 275:

passes to the-next, and repeats the same question ; then to’the next, and so on,-
until he has made the round of the room. If none of the answers enable him to:
guess the subject, he tries each player with the second question, and if the answers
to this leave him still in the dark, he solicits a reply from each to the third and
last question. Should the player fail to guess the subject after asking the three
questions, he pays a forfeit and takes another turn outside, but should he succeed
in guessing it during his rounds, the player last questioned must pay a forfeit and
go out of the room in his place. The in-players should always endeavor to hit
upon some word that has two or three meanings for a subject, as such a word
reriders the answers extremely confusing.. For instance, if /ack be the subject .
decided on, one of the players may say in answer to the first query, that he likes
t “‘ fried,’’ referring to the fish called the Jack ; in answer to the second, that he
likes it ‘‘ before the kitchen fire,’’ referring now to-a roasting-jack ; and in answer
to the third, that he likes it when he is ‘‘ dressing,” now regarding the subject as
a boot-jack. .

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All the games contained in the foregoing section end with crying the forfeits
incurred. The person who volunteers to impose the penances on the dif-
ferent players lays his head in the forfeit- -keeper’ s lap so that his eyes may be
covered. The keeper holds up one article at a time, saying, ‘‘ Here’s a pretty
thing, a very pretty thing! What is to be done to the owner of this very pretty
thing?’ The forfeit-crier asks whether the article belongs to a lady or gentle-
man, and having been enlightened on this point, he proceeds to impose a suitable
penance on the unfortunate owner of ‘‘ the very pretty thing’ in question. We
subjoin a few penances, some of which could scarcely be surpassed either for
272 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

elegance or humor ; to these a number of new ones may be added by any youth
who possesses the faculty of invention.

THE BOUQUET.

The owner of the forfeit must compare each lady to a flower, and explain the
points of resemblance. Thus he may liken one lady to a rose, on account of her
blushes ; another to a snowdrop, because she hangs her head so modestly ; and
another to a lily, because she is tall and fair. The penance gives the person who
incurs it a capital opportunity for passing some very pretty compliments.

WIT, BEAUTY, AND LOVE.

This is a very old-fashioned penance, but it always affords amusement,
especially when it falls to the share of a bashful youth. To redeem his forfeit,
the player has to bow to the wittiest, kneel to the prettiest, and kiss the one he
loves best. We need scarcely add that the player must pick out three of the op-
posite sex.

THE FOUR CORNERS.

To laugh in one corner of the room, sing in another, cry in another, and
dance in another, is a penance that may be imposed on a player of either sex.

THE POKER FEAT.

The owner of the forfeit is ordered to bite an inch off the poker. This seem-
ingly impossible feat is performed by holding the poker about an inch off, or dis-
tant from, the mouth, and then biting the air.

THE DISCONSOLATE LOVER.

The player, who may either be a lady or gentleman, goes out of the room, and
after sighing deeply, says in a loud voice, ‘“‘I sigh!’ The other players call
out, “* Who for ?’’ to which question the disconsolate lover replies by naming one
of the opposite sex, who must also go outside. The second player now sighs for
a third ; the third for a fourth; and so on until the room is cleared. We need
not inform our readers that the different players take care to salute each other
after having sighed so deeply.
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PLAY-GROUND . AMUSEMENTS.

LEAP-FROG.

Tus game will be best understood by supposing that eight boys are playing
at it. Seven of them stand in a row, about eighteen feet apart, with their sides
to the leapers, hands on their knees, body doubled, and head bent down, as shown
in Fig. 1. The eighth player then takes a short run, and placing his hands on



the back of the first player, leaps over him, then over the second, and in like
manner over all the other players, one after the other, and when he has done so,
he places himself down in the line, in the proper position, and at a proper distance
from the last player ; the first over whom he jumped rises immediately he has.
passed, and follows him over the second, third, etc., who all rise in succession,
and leap in their turns; and after they have successively jumped over the last
players, they place themselves down in the line, as before described ; the game
continues during pleasure. Some players stand with their backs to the leapers,
as in Fig. 2, instead of their sides ; the mode is quite optional, although in some
places it is usual to compel those who can jump over the head, to do so.
PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS. 275

HIDE AND SEEK.

There are several variations of this game, the simplest form being that called,

WHOOP.

In this game one player takes his station at a spot called the ‘“‘ home,’’ while
the others go to seek out various hiding-places ; when all are ready, one of them
—the most distant from home—callsout ‘‘ Whoop!’ on which the player at
‘‘home’’ goes in search of the hiders, and endeavors to touch one of them as
they run -back to ‘‘ home ;’’ if he can do so, the one caught takes his place at the
‘‘home,’’ while he joins the out-players.

Te ee

I SPY THE WOLF.

66

This: game differs from ‘‘ whoop ”’ only in the rule that hiders have to touch
the seekers, instead of being touched by them. When the outplayers have con-
cealed themselves, one cries ‘‘ Whoop !’’ and the seekers immediately leave home —
to look for them. When one of the hiders is discovered, the finder shouts out,
‘‘T spy the wolf,’’ and he and his companions rush back. home, to escape being
touched. If the hiders catch a certain number of the. seekers before they can re-
turn home, they hide again ; if not, the seekers take their turn.

93

JINGLE-RING.

This lively blindfold game for the lawn should be played on a grass-plot -
encircled with a roped boundary. The players rarely exceed ten. All of these,
except one of the most active, who is the “‘ jingler,’’ have their eyes blindfolded
with handkerchiefs. The jingler holds a small bell in his hand, which he is
obliged to keep ringing incessantly so long as the play continues, which is com-
monly about twenty minutes. The business of the jingler is to elude the pursuit
of his blindfolded companions, -who follow him by the sound of the bell, in all
directions, and sometimes oblige him to exert his utmost abilities to effect his
escape, which must be done within the boundaries of the rope, for the laws of the
sport forbid him to pass beyond it. If he be caught i in the time allotted for the
continuance of the game, the person who caught him wins the match : if, on the:
contrary, they: are not able to take him he is proclaimed the winnér. |
276 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

SEE-SAW.

For this amusement a stout plank should be laid across a log or a low wall ;
it must be very nicely balanced if the players are of the same weight, but if one is
heayier than the other, the end on which he intends to sit should be the shortest.
Two players then take their seats on the plank, one at each end, while a third
stations himself on the middle of it, as represented in the illustration ; the name
of this player is Jack 0’ both Sides. As the players by turns make slight springs
from their toes, they are each alternately elevated and depressed, and it is the
duty of Jack to assist these movements by bearing all his weight on the foot, on
the highest end of the plank, beyond the centre of the log or wall on which it



rests ; this will be best understood by referring to the illustration ; thus, A is the
log across which the plank is laid; on the plank two players, B, C, take their
seats ; Dis “‘ Jack.’’ It will be seen that his left foot is beyond the centre of the
trunk A, on the highest end of the board, and consequently his weight being added
to that of B will depress that end of the plank, and the end on which C sits must,
of course, rise; ‘‘ Jack’’ then bears on his right foot, and C in turn descends ;
and thus the game continues during pleasure, ‘‘ Jack’’ bearing alternately on
each side.

FOLLOW MY LEADER.

A bold, active boy should be selected as leader, and all the other players must
range themselves in a line behind him ; he commences the game by jumping,
running, hopping, or getting over any obstacle that may present itself, and then
PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS. 277

continues on his course, scrambling over everything, and varying his actions as
much as possible ; all his followers must, according to the rules of the game, do
exactly as he does. If he j jumps over a ditch, they must clear it; if over a gate,
they must do that also; and in everything follow or imitate him as closely as
possible. If any one of ‘them fails in performing the tasks, he must take his place
behind all the rest, until some other player makes a blunder, and in his turn goes
last. The game is continued during the leader’s pleasure.

BULL IN THE RING. .

This active game can be played by any number of boys, and commences by
tneir joining hands and forming a ring, having inclosed some boy in the middle,
who is the bull. It is the bull’s part to make a rush, break through the ring, and
escape, and the part of the boys who form the ring to hold their hands so fast
together that he cannot break their hold. Before making a rush the bull must
cry ‘‘ boo”’ to give warning, so that the boys may grasp their hands more tightly.
The whole ring generally replies to the bull’s challenge by crying ‘‘ boo’’ all
together. When the bull breaks through the ring he is pursued until captured,
and the boy who seizes him first is ‘* bull’’ when they return. A good ‘ bull’?
will lead them a pretty dance, clearing hedges and ditches, and if he gets back
and touches some mark agreed upon, near to where he broke through the ring,
he is ‘‘ bull’ again, |

~ WINDING THE CLOCK.

In this amusing sport the players join hands, and extend their arms to their °
full extent. One of the outside players remains stationary, and the others run
round him as fast as they can, which proceeding is called ‘‘ winding the clock.”
In this manner the straight line becomes a confused spiral, and all the players
get huddled together in a most laughable manner, ,

DRAWING THE OVEN.

Several players seat themselves on the ground, in a line, one behind the other,
and clasp each other round the waist ; two players then take hold of the foremost
sitter by both his hands, as represented above, and endeavor to detach him from
the line by pulling away vigorously. When they have succeeded in doing this,
278 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

they take hold of the second sitter in the same manner, and so continue ‘‘ drawing |
the oven,”’ until they have drawn all the players from the ground.



TOM TIDDLER’S GROUND.

This is a very favorite game with young boys. A large base is formed by
drawing a line across the playground, and one boy, called ‘‘ Tom Tiddler,’’ takes
his station within it, while the others run in, crying out, ‘‘ Here am Ion Tom
Tiddler’s ground.”” If Tom Tiddler can touch any boy while he is on his ground,
the boy so touched takes his place as the guardian of the ground.

TIP-CAT.

This game is played with a light stick and a piece of wood called a
cat’’ in form as shown in the appended cut. When the cat is laid upon the



ground, the player with his stick tips it at one end by a smart stroke, which causes
it to rise in the air with a rotary motion, high enough for him to strike it as it
' falls, in the same manner as he would a ball. The cat should not exceed five
inches in length or an inch and a half in diameter, and should be made of light
wood. The game is played by two boys who toss for innings. Before playing, a —
PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS. 279

small ring is marked out on the ground, and at about twelve feet distencea boundary
line is drawn. The first player stands close to the ring, and is provided with
a stick about two feet long; his opponent stands at the bounds and pitches
the cat at the ring. Should the cat alight in the ring the first player is out;
should it fall on the line he is allowed one “#, but should it fall anywhere out-
side the ring he is entitled to take three #s. If the first player be not pitched
out, he now proceeds to “‘ tip the cat,’’ that is, he taps one end of it with his stick
and as it jumps in the air, he endeavors to strike it as far as possible. When he
has taken his tips he roughly estimates the distance he has struck the cat, and
offers his opponent a certain number of jumps. If the outplayer starting from
the point where the cat lies, can reach the ring in the right number of jumps, he
puts the first player out, but if he cannot accomplish the task, his opponent
counts the number as so many toward the game, which may be fifty or a hundred .
according to agreement. If the out-player can catch the cat as it is flying he puts
hisopponent out. The in-player having taken his tips, may also guess at the prob-
able number of lengths of his stick between the cat and the ring and calls out the
number ; if, on measurement, by means of the stick, the distance is found to
exceed the number called, he is out; if, on the contrary, it is within, he scores
the number toward his game.

THROWING STICKS.

This is a game played with short sticks which are thrown at a stick fixed in
the ground, on which is laid the prize to be competed for. The stationary stick
is placed in the centre of a hole made in the ground in the form of a bowl, about
six inches deep. The players consist of the keeper and the throwers. The
keeper places on the top of the stick some article, such as an apple or orange,
and the throwers endeavor to knock it off, by throwing at it with short thick
sticks, or batons ; whoever succeeds in doing this claims the prize, whenever it
falls without the hole. . The thrower will soon find in his play, that to hit the
stick is of little importance, as from the perpendicular line of gravity which the
apple or orange will take in its descent, it is almost certain to fall into the hole.
The aim, therefore, should be to strike the object from the stick.

HOP SCOTCH.

This is an excellent game to teach boys to hop well. The essentials of the
game are a piece of level ground or an even pavement on which to mark out the
lines of the field of play, which is formed as in the following diagram.

)
280 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

When the field is marked out, the players who are to compete each try to toss
their “‘ tile’’—a piece of flat stone or wood—into the half circle at the top of the field.
. The one who succeeds leads off in the game, the others following in turn. The
player who can manage to pitch into the half circle. takes the first innings, and if
two or more pitch in, they are “‘ ties,’’ and must pitch again, The winner begins,
' standing at ‘‘ home,’’ by thrownig his piece of tile into the division marked 1;

He

he then hops into the space, and kicks the tile out to ‘‘ home ;’’ he next throws
the tile into 2, hops into 1, then into 2, and kicks it out as before; he repeats this
through the several numbers till he comes to 8, which is called a resting-bed ; he
is here permitted, after hopping through the previous seven spaces, to put his
feet in the beds marked 6 and 7, and rest himself; but he must of course resume
hopping before he kicks the tile out ; he then passes through the beds 9g, 10, 11, as
before directed ; 12 is another resting-bed, in which he may put down both feet,
and when he comes to the half circle he must kick the tile out with such force as
to send it through all the other beds at one kick ; it is not necessary to send the
tile out so forcibly from any of the other beds, the players being allowed to use
as many kicks as they please. The other rules of the game are the following :
If the player throws the tile into the wrong number, or if it rests on one of the |
chalked lines, either when he has endeavored to pitch it into a bed, or when he is
kicking it out, he loses his innings; he loses his innings also if he places both
feet down in any other than a resting-bed, or if he, in hopping out, puts his foot
on a line, or kicks the tile over the side lines A, B.

DUCK AND DRAKE.

This lively game requires at least three players, but its interest is considerably
increased when there are six oreight. A large stone called ‘‘the base’’ having a
tolerably flat top, is placed on the ground, and ‘‘home’’ is marked off about twelve
PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS. | 28r

feet from it. Each player being provided with a stone called a duck about double
the size of a base-ball, the game is commenced by pitching for “drake "—that is,
by all standing at the home and throwing their stones or ducks in succession at the
base. The player whose duck falls or rolls farthest from it becomes “‘drake’’and
must’ place his stone on the top of the base. The other players are allowed to take
up their ducks and go to the home unmolested while “drake ” is placing his stone
down; they then throw their ducks, one after the other, at it, and endeavor to’ ~
knock it off the base. Drake must replace his stone whenever it is knocked off,
and the throwers must pick up their ducks and endeavor to run home while he is
so engaged. Should the duck remain on after four or five have thrown at it,
the stones must rest where they fell, until some player more skilful than the others .

knocks off the duck, and so gives the throwers a chance of getting home. If: .

drake can touch one of the throwers as he is running home with his duck in his
hand, the one so touched becomes drake. When the duck is knocked off by —
"any player, it must be instantly replaced, as duck cannot touch any one while it is.
off the base. When a thrower’s duck falls and lies before the base ‘drake may
touch him if he can, even before he picks up his duck. When drake succeeds in
touching a thrower, he must run to the base and quickly remove his duck; if he
has time, he should. tap the base twice with his duck, and call out, “double duck !”.
as he may then walk home without fear of being touched by the boy whom he
has just made drake. Should all the players have thrown without being able to
knock the duck off, it is frequently proposed by some of them to take either a ~
“heeler,” a “sling,” or a “jump” toward home, in-order that they may have a.
chance of reaching it. Drake may refuse or assent to these proposals at his.
option. The ‘‘heeler” is performed by the player kicking his duck backward
toward home; the “sling ’’ by placing the duck on the middle of the right foot,
and slinging it as far in the direction of home as possible ; and the “jump’’ by
placing the duck between the feet, and holding it in that manner while a jump is .
taken, the jumper letting the stone go as he alights, so that it may roll forward,
If the duck is so far from home that one sling, jump, or heeler will not suffice, two.
or more of each may be taken, provided of course that drake allows them. If the
player does not get his duck home in the number of’ slings, jumps, or heelers
agreed on, he becomes drake. Duck and drake is one of the liveliest -of games,
but we must caution boys against playing roughly or carelessly at it, as they may.
through negligence do one another much harm, on account of the weight of the -

stones and the force with which they must be thrown.
282 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

THE GAME OF TAG.

Any number of boys can play at this popular game. One of the players
volunteers to be ‘‘tag’’ or else he is chosen to fill that office by lot. Tag then
endeavors to touch one of his playmates as they run in all directions to avoid
him. When a player is touched he becomes ‘“ tag,’’ and in his turn strives to
touch one of the others. When ‘‘tag:’’ succeeds in touching another, he cries
“‘no tag ’’which signifies that the player so touched must not touch the player
who touched him, until he has chased and touched somebody else.

TOUCH-WOOD AND TOUCH-IRON.

These games are founded on the above. When the boys pursued by tag can
touch either wood or iron they are safe, the rule being that he must touch them
as they run from one piece of wood or iron to another.

CROSS TAG.

In this game ‘‘ tag’’ chases one player until another runs across his path,
between him and the boy pursued, upon which tag must immediately run after
the one who crossed, until some other crossing between them must in his turn be
followed ; in this way the game continues until one is touched, who takes the
office of tag and gives chase to the others.

BOUND HANDS.

This is a very spirited game, and is peculiarly adapted for wintry weather.
It is played by two parties, one—the inners—being called ‘‘ Jacks,’’ and the other
—the outers—‘‘ Johnnies.’’ A line should be made on the ground at about four
feet from a wall, and running parallel with it ; within this bound one of the players
takes his station with his hands clasped together, and, after calling out,
** Johnnies look out,’’ he jumps out, runs after, and strives to overtake and touch
one of the others, without dividing his hands ; if he is successful in his attempt,
they both return to the bounds, where they join hands, and, after repeating the
PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS. 283

‘ warning,’’ rush out again, and each endeavors to touch an opponent ; if they
can achieve this, they all return and join hands as before. When they sally forth
again, the outside players only try to touch, and of course every one they touch
returns to “‘ bounds” with them, and joins in the line. Whenever an outplayer
is touched, the Jacks let go their hands and scamper back to ‘‘ bounds ’’ as fast as
their legs will carry them, as the out-players can demand to be carried home by
the Jacks if they can catch them when the line is broken. The out-players are
allowed to attack the line in the rear, in order to compel the poor widdies to let go
their hands. The game may be kept up until all the out-players are caught.
Sometimes the one who commences the game is allowed his liberty as soon as he
has caught four. As a matter of course, no out-player can be touched when the
line is broken. |

DROPPING THE HANDKERCHIEF.

A tolerably large ring should be formed by several boys standing in a circle
and joining hands ; another boy, who stands out, when all are ready walks round
outside the ring, drops a handkerchief behind one of the players, and immediately -
runs off ; he is instantly followed by the one behind whom he dropped the hand-
kerchief, and who must track him in all his windings in and out, under the arms
of the boys in the ring who elevate them for the purpose. Should the pursuer be
able to touch the pursued before the latter passes the spot where he dropped the
handkerchief, the former takes the handkerchief in his turn, and the latter joins
hands in the circle. If the pursued party escapes being touched, however, he
again takes the handkerchief and drops it behind another boy.

CAP-BALL.

This is the simplest game of ball known to the playground. It is played on
a space of ground which affords room for running out of reach of .a thrown -
ball. Selecting a ground near a wall, each boy playing in the game places his cap
on the ground close to the wall, and in such a manner that the ball can be
tossed into either cap readily. The ball used in the game should bea soft one
—a rubber air ball being the best—as otherwise injuries may occur, as the ball is
thrown hard at the players. A line being marked on the ground about fifteen. feet
from the. wall, one of the players takes his station. at it, and begins the game by
throwing the ball into one of the caps; the moment this is done all the boys run
away, excepting the one into whose cap the ball is thrown, who immediately runs
284 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

to take it out, and endeavors to strike one of the fugitives by throwing the ball at
him ; if he can do so, the one struck has a small stone placed in his cap, and has
to take his turn at pitching the ball. Should the thrower fail to hit one of the
‘boys as they are running away, a stone is put into his cap, and he has to pitch the
ball into the caps again. If a player fails to throw the ball into a cap, he also has
a stone placed in his cap, but continues throwing until he succeeds. When a
player gets three stones in his cap, he is out. When all the players but one have
been struck out, he is considered the winner, and the punishment of the losers
then commences ; one of them standing near the wall bounces the ball with all
his force so as to send it as far from the wall as he can, and next stands with his
back to the wall, stretching out his right arm, and placing the back of his hand
quite close to the wall, while the winner, standing where the ball fell, takes aim, .
and throws the ball at the said loser’s hand three times ; each of the losers like-
wise receives the same punishment from him.

HOLE-BALL.

This game differs from the above in there being as many holes dug in the ground
near a wall as there are players, which holes are made use of instead of hats or
caps. The holes are numbered, and each player is allotted one of them by chance.
The ball is bowled into the holes, not thrown. Should one of the runners-be
struck by the player, into whose number the ball has been bowled, he may, if he
can obtain the ball soon enough, strike another with it, and he in his turn may
strike a third ; in this way five or six may be struck in succession, until a miss
is made, when the one so missing loses a point and then becomes the bowler.
Sometimes one player volunteers to take the ball from another, and endeavors
to hit one who may be near him ; should he fail, however, he loses a point and
must take the consequences. When a player has lost one point he is called a
** fiver ;’* when he has lost two, a ‘‘ tenner ;’’ and when he has lost three, a ‘‘ fif-
teener.”’ A player stands out when he has lost four points. The losers are pun-
ished as in ‘‘ cap-ball.’’

We now take a step in advance, but not out of the circle of boys’ games, but
only into the arena of sports requiring more space than those of the school play-
ground. Besides which, the class of athletic sports we shall now describe will teach
boys to run well, to hop, to jump, and to exercise more of their muscles than in
the lesser games of the playground. ‘‘ Prisoners’ base’’ is a fine game for
running purposes; ‘‘leap-frog”’ aids jumping; ‘‘ hare and hounds’’ tests
endurance of fatigue. It should be borne in mind that, in entering upon athletic
PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS. | 285

training for the purposes of physical education only, the best results are only
attainable when recreative features are combined with the athletic exercise itself.
When there is some sport connected with it the fatigue incident to the exercise is
borne with patiently, and work becomes play. The desire to excel forms a
powerful incentive to every actual exertion when one is engaged in a game which
involves any special athletic exercise ; while the very same exercise, gone through
with in the mechanical method of the gymnastic school becomes wearisome, and
itself forms an obstacle to healthy progress.

SHINNEY.

This is a game played on the principle of foot-ball, with the difference that
the ball, instead of being kicked from goal to goal, is driven along the field by a
stick having a curve at the end like the handle of a walking-cane. Each player is.
provided with one of these sticks, which are made either of hickory, oak, or some
other tough wood, the ball played with being made of wood, or of yarn covered
with hard leather, its dimensions not exceeding two inches in diameter. The
game is played by any number of players, from three or four on a side to twenty-
five, the number of players being limited only by the extent of the field. It is
essential that the ground played on be tolerably smooth, a well-worn common
being the best ground. The goals consist of a line drawn at each end of the field,
bounded by two posts for each goal. This line ranges from ten to fifty feet
between the posts, according to the extent of the ground and the number of
players engaged ; the larger the field the wider the goals are. Sides being chosen,
and the choice of starting the ball being tossed for, the captain of the side winning
the toss places the ballon the ground in the centre of the field, and prepares
to strike it toward the opposite goal. While in the act of striking no opposing
player can approach the striker nearer than five paces distant. But after the ball
has been hit, or struck at twice without being hit, it becomes ‘‘ in play,’’ and can
be hit by any of the fielders on either side. Any intentional striking of a player
while striking at the ball puts: the offender out of the game until a goal is scored.>
The ball must not be handled after the opening of the game, nor must it bé
moved by the feet or by anything but the players’ stick. The winning of a goal
ends a game, and the best two goals won out of three games or the best three out. .
of five wins the match. The positions assigned to the players on each side are
given by the respective captains, who have entire control of their players... This
game is a fine sport for the fall and winter months, when too cold for the ordinary
field games of ball. :
iS)
Y
ON

SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

i
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o
Sy
wy



BASTE THE BEAR.

The players should toss up for the first bear, who kneels on the ground within
a circle marked out for the purpose; each bear may select his own master, whose
office it is to hold him by a rope, and use his utmost efforts to touch one of the other
players, as they try to thrash the bear with their handkerchiefs knotted and twisted
very tightly. If the bear's master can touch one of the assailants without dragging
the bear out of the ring, or letting go the rope, the boy touched becomes bear,
selects his keeper as before mentioned, and the sport is continued.




HE form of the kite and manner of flying it must be familiar to all our
readers. This favorite toy probably received its denomination from having
originally been made in the shape of the bird called the kite. The flying of paper
kites isa favorite pastime among the Chinese. Onacertain day they ‘hold a sort of
kite festival, and then people of all ages hasten to the hills to fly their kites, the
fanastic shapes and gaudy colors of which produce an extraordinary effect. Phil-
osophers have occasionally taken the kite out of the hands of the schoolboy, and have
applied it to useful and curious purposes. By means of a kite formed of a silk
handkerchief stretched over a wooden frame, Dr. Franklin drew down lightning
from the clouds, and demonstrated its identity with electricity. The paper kite has
been employed to convey a line over the capital of Pompey’s Pillar. While we do -
not expect our readers to perform any electrical or locomotive experiments with
their kites, we are quite sure that they may derive great amusement from these little
aerial machines, especially if they manufacture them with their own hands. There
is no pleasanter occupation for a summer’s day than watching the graceful flight of
a well-made kite.

HOW TO MAKE A KITE.

Paper kites may be made of many different shapes, but the most common kinds
are shown in the pictures: Fig. 1, made by crossing two sticks, is called a cross
kite ; Fig. 2, made with three sticks, isa house kite; and Fig. 3, made with one
straight stick and one bowed stick, a bow kite. The sticks must be first tied tightly
. 288 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

together, and a string is then put around the outside, in notches cut for it, to paste ©
the paper onto. A tail of paper or cloth is usually fastened to the bottom of the
kite, to give it steadiness when the wind blows strong.



FIG, I. FIG, 2. +. FIG. 3.

FLYING THE KITE.

We need not enter very minutely into the rules to be observed in flying a kite,
as every boy is acquainted with them. Unless there be a nice breeze stirring the
kite-flyer need not expect to have much sport, as nothing can be more vexatious
than attempting to fly a kite when there is not sufficient wind for the purpose. To
raise the kite in the first instance, the flyer will require the aid of another boy.
The owner of the kite having unwound a considerable length of string, now turns
his face toward the wind and prepares for a run, while his assistant holds the kite
by its lower extremity as high as he can from the ground. Ata given signal the
assistant lets the kite go, and if all circumstances be favorable it will soar upward
with great rapidity. With a well-constructed kite ina good breeze, the flyer need
not trouble himself to run very fast nor very far, as his kite will soon find its balance
and float quite steadily on the wind. The kite-flyer should be careful not to let out
string too fast. When a kite pitches it is a sign that it is built lop-side, or that its
. tail is not long enough.

MESSENGERS.

Some boys amuse themselves by sending messengers up to their kites when
they have let out all their string. A messenger is formed of a piece of paper three
or four inches square, in the centre of which a hole is made. The end of the string
KITES. 289

is passed through the hole, and the wind quickly drives the messenger up to the
kite. The kite-flyer should be careful not to send up too many messengers, lest they
weigh down the kite.



FANCY KITES.

In Japan one may often see in the air a whole menagerie at once, such as
horses, cows, dogs, monkeys, owls, hawks, bats, crows, fishes, and snakes, as well as
dragons, babies which cry, boys with their arms and legs spread out, hunters with
bows and arrows, and soldiers with battle axes and spears. Ingenious boys now
and then takea hint from the Chinese and Japanese, and so shape and paint their
kites that they resemble different animate and inanimate objects. The “ officer kite,”
which has the figure of a soldier painted on it,and the “ hawk-kite,” which rudely
represents a flying hawk, are common forms of fancy kites. A very funny effect
may be produced by painting a kite like a sailor, and attaching movable arms,
instead of the ordinary tassel wings, to the shoulders. All fancy kites should be
painted with the most glaring colors, and the figures on them drawn as coarsely as
possible, as they are intended to be seen at a great distance.


“TRE marbles now played with appear to be of modern invention, but we have
every reason to believe that the ancients had many games in which round,
_ watgr-worn pebbles, nuts, and other.small things that could be easily bowled along
were used'as marbles, There are many different kinds of marbles; those made of
agate are prized above every other sort, and indeed their pre-eminence is fully
justified by the exquisitely beautiful veining of some of them, and the rich and
_ harmonious coloring of others. AMeys are made of white marble striped and
clouded with red, and when this color predominates, they are called b/ood-alleys.
These marbles rank next in value to the agates. Taws or stoneys, of brown marble,
streaked with darker tones of the same color, form the third class; French taws of
Stained or colored marble the next; the gaudy Dutch marbles of glazed clay,
painted either yellow or green, and ornamented with stripes of a dark color, con-
stitute class the fifth, while the unpretending yellowish clay marbles, or commoneys,
form the very lowest class, and are held in little repute by those who can procure
the superior kinds. In many games with marbles, considerable skill is required.
To shoot, or fillip a taw with precision is no easy task; this operation is performed
by placing the taw upon the inside of the forefinger and propelling it with the nail
of the thumb. While a player is shooting his marble, his opponent can compel
him to kauckle-down—in other words, to touch the ground with the middle joint of
his fore-finger; this is to prevent unfair play. Marbles should always be carried
in a bag, and never in the pocket.

THREE HOLES.

Make three holes in the ground, four feet apart from each other, and draw a
line, about six feet from the first hole. The first player begins, standing at the
line, by shooting into the first hole; if he misses, the second player tries his
fortune, each shooting alternately as his opponent fails. A player may, after shoot-
ing his marble into a hole, aim at his opponents’s taw, if it is near, so as to strike
it away as faras he can; and if he can do so, he continues shooting into the holes as
before. The player who gets first into the last hole is the winner ; and it is to be
MARBLES. 291

done in the following manner: First hole—second hole—third hole—second, first
—second, third. The loser then placing his knuckles at the first hole, the winner
shoots as near the hole as possible, and fires three times at the said loser’s knuckles,
from the place where his marble rested.

BOUNCE EYE.

This game requires several players, who each put down a marble, and then
form them into a small ring; one player begins by holding a marble in his hand,
close to his eye, and letting it fall upon the ring; the marbles forced out of the
ring by the concussion become his property, and the other, players then try their
skill in turn; the players are termed “ bouncers.”

PICKING THE PLUMS.

A line is drawn on the ground, along which each player places a certain
number of marbles. At this line the players shoot their taws in turns from a given
point. The marbles knocked off the line become the property of the striker, and
the game continues until no marbles remain. The marbles should be. placed as
close together as possible without actually touching.

HANDERS.

For this game a hole, two or three inches in diameter, must be made in the
ground, near a wall, if possible. When two boys play they first decide upon the
number of marbles to be staked by each at every throw, and then proceed to pitch
the marbles into the hole, alternately, from a line at about three yards’ distance.
Let the number staked by each be four; the thrower will then have eight marbles,
which he must pitch at the hole all together. Should an even number of marbles
fall in the hole, the thrower wins them all; but should he be so unfortunate as to
hole an odd number, they become the property of his opponent. The players now
stake again, and continue the game until they are tired of speculation. When there
are more than two players the game must be slightly altered. Having arranged
the turns, the first player pitches the staked marbles at the hole, and keeps all that
fall in; the next player takes up those that remain, and throws them in the same .
292 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

manner, keeping those he pitches in; the others follow in turn. When all the
marbles are holed, the player whose turn it is to pitch becomes the first player of
the next game. :



RING-TAW.

Draw a circle, and let each player place as many marbles in it as may be
agreed on, and then make a line at a little distance off, from which the players are,
by turns, to shoot at the ring; this line is called the offing. If a player shoots a
marble out of the ring, he is entitled to shoot again before any of his companions.
When the players have fired once, they shoot from the place where their marbles
rested at the last fire, and not from the offing. Ifa marble is driven out of the
ring by a player, it is won ; but if his taw remains in the circle, he is out, and must
place a marble in it; and if he has knocked any marbles out of the ring before his
taw gets in, he must place them in likewise. It is a rule, also, that if one player’s
taw is struck by another's, the player whose taw is struck is out, and must give up
to the striker all the marbles he may have previously shot out of the ring.

INCREASE POUND

in most respects resembles ring-taw, the variations being, that if before a mar-
ble is shot out of the ring, one player’s taw is struck by another's (excepting his
partner’s), or, if his shot remains within the ring, he puts a shot in the pound, con-
tinues in the game, and shoots again from the offing before any of his companions.
If his taw is struck after one or more marbles have been driven out of the ring,
MARBLES. | : 293

if he has taken any shots himself, he gives them to the player who struck him, puts
ataw in the ring, and shoots from the offing, as before. If, however, he has not
won any marbles during the game, before his taw is struck, he is ‘ killed’”’ and put
out of the game ; he is likewise out if, after any shots have been struck out, his
taw gets within the pound; if it remains on the line, it is nothing, He then puts
the marbles (if he has won any) into the circle, adding one to them for the taw
struck, and shoots again from the offing. In case he cannot gain any shots after
his taw gets “‘ fat,”” as remaining in the ring is termed, he is killed, and out of the
rest of the game. When only one marble remains in the ring, the taw may con-
tinue inside it without being “fat.” Each player seldom puts more than one mar-
ble in the ring at the beginning of a game.

PYRAMID.

Let a player draw a circle on the ground, and then make a pyramid, either by
placing three marbles triangularly, and one on the top of them, or else with six
first, then four, and then one; the post of keeper of the pyramid ought to be taken
by every boy in succession. Before a player can shoot at this pyramid, he must
give a marble to the keeper ; and should he strike the pyramid with his taw, all the
marbles driven by the concussion beyond the circle belong to him.

ARCH BOARD, OR NINE HOLES.

Cut out of a piece of wood a rude resemblance of a bridge, and make nine
small arches in it, and number them thus:



The bowlers must endeavor, after giving the bridge-keeper a marble every time
they shoot, to fire through the holes; if any marble touches the sides of the arches, .
it becomes the property of the bridge-keeper; and, on the contrary, if it passes
through one of the arches, the owner of the bridge gives the number of marbles
marked over the arch to the bowler. In some parts of the country this game is
played 1 with iron bullets instead of marbles.
204 SPORTS AND PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS.

ODD OR EVEN.

* One player extends his closed hand containing some marbles, and asks his
opponent to guess whether their number is odd or even. Should he guess wrong,
he forfeits a marble, and his questioner tries him with another lot ; but should he
guess right, the first player must pay him a marble, and take a turn at guessing.

EGGS IN THE BUSH.

This game is a great improvement upon odd or even. Dick asks Tom to guess
the number of “eggs in the bush’’—that is, the number of marbles in his closed hand.
If Tom can guess the. right number he takesall; but if he is out in his reckoning
he pays Dick as many marbles as will make up or leave the exact number. Sup-
pose Dick has six marbles in his hand; now, if Tom should guess either four or
eight, he would have to forfeit two marbles to Dick, because four is two less and
eight is two more than the exact number. The players hold the “eggs in the
bush” alternately.

THE CONQUEROR.

In this game, one boy places a marble down ona smooth spot where it is either
hard earth or gravel; turf, through its being too soft, and pavement much too hard,
are both unsuitable; another boy then throws his marble, with all his force, at that
of the first player, endeavoring in this manner to split it; if he is unable to do so,
the first player takes up, and in his turn throws his taw at that of the second; and
so on alternately, each striving to split his antagonist’s taw. Good strong stone
marbles are the best in this game, and when a marble has been victorious in many
such games, it is only used against such as in like manner have proved themselves
worthy of the honor of contending for the superiority. Suppose two boys are play-
ing at this game, and that each of them have been victors in many former en-
counters with other opponents; if one of the taws break, the owner of it must hand
over to the conqueror all the marbles he may have won with that taw, and one also
for the taw so broken.


HE peg-top appears to be a modern invention, but the whip-top is of great
antiquity, it having been used in remote times by the Grecian boys ; it was
well known at Rome in the days of Virgil, and in England as early at least as the
fourteenth century, when its form was the same as it is now. Strutt, in his “Sports
and Pastimes of the People of England,” relates the following amusing anecdote
of Prince Henry, the eldest son of James I., which he met with in an old manu-
script at the British Museum: ‘The first time that the prince went to the town of
Stirling to meet the king, seeing a little without the gate of the town a stack of
corn in proportion not unlike to a top wherewith he used to play, he said to some
that were with him, ‘Lo, there is a goodly top!’ Whereupon one of them saying,
‘Why do you not play with it, then?’ he answered, ‘Set you it up for me, and I
will play with it.’ ”

WHIP-TOP.

To set the top up, twirl it quickly round with both hands, and begin to whip it
immediately it acquires a tolerably strong rotary motion, being careful not to strike
too hard at the first. A pliable eel-skin makes a far better whip for this sport than
one made of leather, but it must not be kept either very dry or very wet, as in the
former case it splits and cracks when used, and in the latter it becomes heavy and
unwieldy with moisture. The number of games with whip-tops is exceedingly lim-
ited, being only two—races, in which the boy who can whip his top to the great-
est distance in the shortest time is the winner; and encounters, in which the
players whip the top against each other till one of them falls,

SPANISH PEG-TOP,

_ The Spanish peg-top is made of mahogany; it is shaped somewhat like a
pear; instead of a sharp iron peg, it has a small rounded knob at the end. .

As it spins for a much longer time than the common English peg-top, and

does not require to be thrown with any degree of force in order to set

it up, it is extremely well adapted for playing. on flooring or pave-

ment.
296

SPORTS AND: PASTIMES FOR AMERICAN BOYS,

HUMMING-TOP.

Humming-tops’ can be purchased at any toy-
shop ; they are spun in the following manner: after
‘ placing the fork on the upright, and putting a piece
of string through the small hole in the latter, the
top should be twirled round until nearly all the
string is wound up on the upright; the fork should
then be taken in the left hand, the string pulled out
rapidly with the right, and the top in an instant is
set up.



PEG-TOP.

Peg-tops can be purchased at all toy-shops; those which have tolerably
long pegs are the best for “peg in the ring,’’ as they
describe a much larger circle when spinning, and are OF
more likely to swerve out of the ring than those with c
short pegs, which are generally “sleepers”’— that is, apt iN
to keep in one spot while spinning; the latter, however,
are exceedingly well adapted for “chipstone.” In wind-
ing the cord on the top, it is the best plan to pass it two
or three times round the peg before you commence wind-
ing it pn the body of the top. Tops made of box
wood are the hardest and best, but they are the most
expensive.

4

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PEG IN THE RING.

A circle of about three feet in diameter should be drawn on the ground, and
one player then begins the game by throwing or “pegging” his
top into the middle of the ring; and while it continues spin-
ning in there, the other players should “peg” their tops at it;
if, however, it gets out of the ring, the moment it ceases
spinning, and falls, the owner is at liberty to pick it up and
peg at any of those still spinning inside the circle. Should
any of the tops fall while in the ring, or any of the players be unable to set their


TOPS. 207

tops up, or not “ peg” them fully into the ring, they are reckoned “dead,” and .
must be placed in the circle for the others to “ peg” at; it often happens that five
or six ‘‘dead’” tops are thus in at one time, and that they are all driven out
by one cast, without either of them receiving injury; in this case, the players
begin the game again. If a player can succeed in splitting a top belonging to
one of his antagonists, he carries off the peg asatoken of victory. Sometimes
the rules of the game are so modified by previous arrangement that a player is al-
lowed to place a spare top in the ring instead of the one he is playing with. Peg
in the ring ought to be played on smooth, firm ground or gravel; pavement is
not at all adapted to it, as the force with which the tops are cast is liable,
on so hard a surface, to split them. |

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C ENTS:

PAGE.
INTRODUCTION. . ce cece ccc ccc c ccc cc ccc ceeee ec eeccces socccsecese cate e cece ee ec eeeeeeeseessese§ § Q
‘TRAINING FOR SPORTS... ..- cece eeccccececoee Cece ew wee ec ec ec eeceoeses wee ce eee pece ec cnce II
FAIR PLAY IN GAMES ..... ccc ccc ee cece cece cc ecececeneees eee econ nc esenescwere weesecceee 2
ATHLETIC GAMES.......... a 13
Tug Of War... .cc cece cece cc cece cece cect cee tenet eee cena eee e nee en eset sees seeeeeeces wee «TG
Prisoner’s Base........ cc cece cece reece ete vunee sacecee seecee chew ecw w ete acc caranceces 15
Steeplechase......... Peer cee tee eee eee a eet weet eee eee eee eee eee eee sees enenees 15
Hare and Hounds. ....... ccc ccc ccc cc cece weet ne eee e ete sense tess seeees cece ee ween 16
BALL GAMES. 0... ce ccc cece ee cece tte e ce ee eet eneeeesesees occ cee nee c cena cron ere essences 18
FUNQO.. cece cece cece cece eee cee ee ee ee eee eee eee eee eee wee ee ete nee e eens eens -
Two Old Cat...... ... ce cece wee c ee nee e cere eeces eee wee cece cence ec ee cscs eseee 18
Trap Ball... ccc ccc cect ccc ccc ce cece te ee eee cutee ee eee eeseserseee oe tereesee IQ
ATHLETIC FEATS. 0... cc cece cc cc tee cee en cece eens cee e eee ee eee teen eens tees sesteenesees 20
Palm Spring. 0.0... e cee reece eee ee cence sneteeeees a eee en ee ee sect eeereeees os 21
Trial of the Thumb 2. 06... 6. cece cc cece cece ccc n cece ee ete eee cececeetcceees eee ceeeaes ee 21
Finger Feat... 0... ccc cece cece cen ee eees eee cece eee ee ees cece were Meee cece a eecee 21
Prostrate and Perpendicular. ....... ccc ccc cee cee cette cence cect een c eas eenceueceres rr
Knuckle Downe... ccc ccc ccc ccc ccc ecto e ee eee ene e enna eran ee ee eee secesstaeseuccnees 22
Tantalus Trick. . 0... 2 ccc cc cece ccc cece eet e eee e tence ec eee e cess cece eeeeecsscceueee 22
The Triumph... ..... ccc ce cc ce cece ccc ee eects cnereccecs ‘wees ne ecccens eer ee ceee 22
Dot and Carry Two.. ........006. Deere emer ence seca sen ence ee ceerereeesssnesesenes ese. 22
Flying Book....... coc ee ween ee eee cere ene e eet e eee e ce eee eee e teen eee ceseenesees eoee 22
Lifting at Arm’s Length...............00. eee cece ween nce e eect eee ese eeneeees ssecsee 23
Breast to Mouth.......... ccc ccc cece cece cee cc cer eseceecees eee cece cee conse te scence eeees 23
Jumping through your Fingers ......... ccc cesses ec ecees ee cece es meee cane ese cenens eoese 23
Catch Penny. .........ccceeeeeececss cece e eee e ern eeeeeeeees ‘eeees eecees eecceceeceecee 23
The Turn Over.~... ccc cc cc cece een c cece tence ccc esnteeeencecceseees ee eeee eee eees ease 23
Long Reach........... ee te ce cc ec ee ec cee cece cere eee n esi ene Sec ece cece sec ceccccccesene 24
Stooping Stretch...... POR eee eee cere cece ee eee teens een snan cen enoecnenes cece cencesee 24
Feats with Chairs.............00. bee ce cece eneee seeceeeeescsene eee ec ences ee eceecees 24
Leap before you Look... 0... cc cece cece cence cence scesccceees ee evecces ere ere ee cece - 24
Tumble-Down Dick, ....... 0... ccceeeeeeee: cote eee e ence ence tececcc ces eccesectsseceece 28
Take a Chair from under you without Falling........ 0... cle c cece nccceccceces ae esecccees 25

Chairing the Leg........ cece cence ceeeees Cee eee e ewer enue nent ec acceens ee ceccceccssee 25
300 CONTENTS,

GYMNASTIC EXERCISES......0005 ccecccceccncccccccceccccesecsesccevcarsccctessssercssesses 26
Walking 2.0... cc ccc cece cess cccc cece cce cscs cece ces ccecccescccccccccncsssecs ‘eeeecseees 27
Running .......0ccccccccccccccccccacs cece cece erences eee ec ecccccccessees Deceeceseers - 27.
Jumping ........ ........ eeeees Seve c cee cee cceccccseasecenncenes weve cece cenccccccee 26
Dumb-Bells ........... coe ence ene cer ee esserssesececs cece cesses ceccees ccccceree aces 29

BasE BALL: |
Field, Diagram of....... ccc cece cto c ccc ce cece cect ev eeeeec cece canccccesesseesesres oe 32-33
Theory of the Game..........cccceeees cece cece cceees cece cc ec ec ceceees ese c cee ecesens 35
How to Play the Positions........... veeenceges oe ec ence cece meee eee e eee eee e tee ssneessses 36
Playing on the Ice... ccc cc cce cece cence cece cneccesccesen cossessnccssccrsececsserens Gh
Rules of the Game...... cccccucsccccccccccccccbecsenes dec ececee ccc ecccccccesccccesesess 46

C2IcKET :

How to Play Cricket .....ccccscccccc ccc sc cn cs cncccessssccenscsescsees ete ese cecceceeses 56
The Game for Boys.......ccccccscccccssc ccc e cnc en cece ee cceee cen eeenseseseeeses eons. 57
Rules of the Game ....... cece cree c cece eect eee ee ee eens en eee eeeteeseee etc cecene coee §9
The Regular Game........... .... gece ec ec cece eee cc eceeens eee eee eeeee ec eee nee . 60
How the Game is Played..... Cece eee ce eee near eeseeeeessens ec ce ec ctenceees esceccceeee O61
Field Positions........ ccc ccc cece e cece cnet ec eee ence eee ee eee e nese nese es eeneaeeneeees 62
The Three Depariments of the Game.......... ccc ccc ec cece cece eee eceeecence cone ceeeees 63
Amended Laws of Cricket........ cc cc ccc ccc s cece cce rere eeseceeens beens eee cece esens 75
Practice at the Net. ......ccccssevese tcc eee ec ee ecnnceces seco ucecceess Lace csecccncee 80

LACROSSE... .. ce cco cc cee cette tenet esac esse sesces ae cc cece cece eee e cee n cece rene eeseeeees 81
Field Positions,........ cece eee cc ce eee eet e eee cette tent cece ee ee ee aeeeeeecesensestesesece 82
Rules of the Game.......... cece cece cece cece eesee seseseee eee c cee cece eter os ececece 88
Score Sheet..... ween cece eee ee ee Cece eee eee tee t eee e eee tees ree ee meee tent ee aseteeees 96

FOOT-BALL........0.00ceees Cec ee ces semen een nesaereseens cee cet eeeeee cee ccc e see e ecw cees 97
Field Positions... .........ccccccccvcecccecccece eee eee ec eee eennees Cot ec ee cccencesaeece 99

LAWN TENNIS.,........s0cesceee cece cece a cece ence eee eeeseeesens Lesteeeenes wee ec ccc eeecens 110
Materials of the Game............ cece cccccecs cece cece ess meee eee sere eesacces ec eee III
Serving the Ball........ ec eceee ee wee eer ee eee ee cence ec esecesees ccc eee eee e eee wane III
Striking Out.........0200. cee cee Lecce eccees eee c cece cecnces weesees ecm c ccc cecccees eos. II2
The Fielder..... oe cece emcee ence eneseeeee er ceee occ cesene eee ceccecees cceccecccccccssee ITZ
Instructions to Scorers.......... eee ee ec eccceee eens eee c eee ce cece ee eeeceeece cece ceeeees 117
Rules of the Game...... ev ce cece cc ccesees Cee eeees vce c cece eres ccees cece ceses eeccccccesee 118

CROQUET... ccc ccccce ccccerecccereescccecscece eee cc cc esecesecces ec eeeee eco ce cece ener cece eee 123
The Strokes......... ... cece ccc eseece eet cece weet e cent ence sete eee ceseseneees eeceees 125
Terms used in Game......cceeseeses cece weees cece cece cece sec cceeeees occ ccescorece eoee 127

RACKETS...... eee ee ceeeees ea ces eee esece cece sers cece cece cceces ee ee cc ceecees eee eceees ese. 128

RINK-BALL..... @eeeoeeeoeeeeseee#e#ses @ @eoeeeevee ees on etenne eeeeoeesenaves7v e886 6 6 ese esos eeeeee 868806 @eseeeeeeee 137
BOwWLING...... eeeeoneeven8e 02028088 ,ee Cee teseesseee-seesaoeeeeseeeeereeeenseeseeseeeneeseseoeeee eee e 139
BATTLEDORE AND SHUTTLECOCK...... cere cece c cree e eee cece eee eee ee eee eeeeeeseesrees 141
CONTENTS. | 301

BADMINTON... ccc eee ce cec ec er sees sees eees ccc er nc cere ct ce cree eresesesessccesscnccstsscecce 142
ARCHERY ..ccccecececeees eben ee cneee I wees 143
5 ©] 5(0) 9 ¢ (conn eeee 147
SHUFFLEBOARD ......006 cece cc cs cect ceca ereeces veseeees eee lace ee dene s sees essa escces we» 149
BICYCLING .. cc ccc ccc ccc cece cc eee cere eee teen canes eee eeeeeeeeees cece eee ees vec er esas eeece . I5I
ROWING. 0. cc cece cee cece c ee cee en eee ce eee cece ee cec ees ecenceere eee c cc cere ee se ee ees esses 154
-Component Parts of Boats. ......c6..eee0. Cec eee e ccc eee econ ete cence esas eens sb eeaee 155
Management of the Oar....... Se enee ee cece ec ceweeee cece cece acne eect ee eens coe seweee 156
Sculling........ cence enero asecccces eee a cece ese cccgneceses Seem eee cece cece corte cenees 158
CANOES AND CANOEING... 6 cece cee soreceeee cceees eee ee rr sececeeeee I5Q
MINIATURE YACHTING... .. ev eeeeee cece ceeeesenoes ccc ce ee ceeeees eee e erence ceres veces cee 165 |
FISHING......ccescceccccecccecccees eeseeee eee te ew ec cc cn ccescces cece eet ec wees eceseees ee. 167
SWIMMING... 2.0 cc cee were ecceccces cree eeeeeee cee ee ce cnccesceeereeieceseeees occ cceceee 169
Entering the Water.......0c.ce cee cecscnees were meer econ meee cetee asec ccc c ene cenceesane 170
RIDING... 20... eee eens ae ee cece ee encnesccncs eee cease ce ccccns ee ee cect ce eee e een enerecesesees 172
Mounting... .... cc cce cece cence coc eecceeses essen eceneces coe ee cece ec eceeesees eee eeenene 172
Seat and Balance... .....csccccccccccccceccccccesccees eevee eeceece eee c cece eee ccs w ees 173
Trotting .......... sec c ere ec eee were ceeresece cree eee en reer cree ecereenee Be cneceseeesecace 175
Canter and Gallop. we ee cece cece ean enceceereccccnes ccc c mec ce ence cece ences cece reseees 176
Standing Leap ..........ccceccce cece eens cessecnes wes eeneces scence en ec eccees see ceeenace 177
Flying. ....... PTT TTT ere rere eee eee ee eee eee cca e cen censcerneces onc cc ence eees 177
SKATING...... Lace ceeeee ewe cecceces see e eee ceens “seen ce ween c ecco eee cone cee cece scenes 179
Learning to Skate..........-0. eee eeee eee cecereee cece eee cer eer t cones cele seveese 180
Figure of Eight............+. becca cecerece see se cece cece cece reeessecces woe cee ec ees woes 183
Figure of Three... 2... cee cec ccc cecrccrecons cece ccc oe ee ere cere ree necesccssesseseseses 103
Outside Edge Backward....... cence cc ceceees se ee cc crscccccceccces eee ene cence eeees weee 184
Back Cross-Roll... cc csc cece ccc cc cee cco e eee ee ec eee tee cee rere eee teeta eee eesns eee seneee 184
The Model Skate........... ccc cence cccece eee enaseccccceceee cece terete ee ence eeeeees 187
CURLING... 0. cee cece ec cne cece ee ennees wee ceneee wee ee eee eee. eevee cece eer c cece ceeeeeees 188
Curling Stones... ... cc cccceccesecccrcccccees ee ece cee recees cece cece ee ee tc ceeees cee eee 189
The Crampets........ccceceee cece cece nee cee c ese saceceseeseee es ceca s eres cc vececcceces Ig0
Playing the Points..... coe ca cess ec en cece cnccscences cece cceee ace c cece cc cece ce sceee Igol
Rules of the Game...... “See e ser enen cece ccc casesenstasenaes ‘eeeee ese cnersseeccessesacs « 195
IcE-BOATING....... ec eeee eee e cece ee esse cere erect cece ween ee eeseeescenes eee ceec cere see. 198
TOBOGGANING ......eeecees wesc cee cece ence Sone ence secs ecccccaeercecccstesecs eee e cece tencees 201
SNOWSHOEING....... cece ecees eae ee ences ccesceees cece eee ce cns eee cce esse cceseesseeseses 205
ROLLER-SKATING ,. ccc eceeccecccesess Ca wwe cc cee cee ec eee er ec ecee sees ee eeeeseseccccessesses 207
BILLIARDS ........4. “eeceesvccccece cee cee ce cece ec ee cece conse ms eee sees esenene wee ececeecees 220
Rules of the Game..seseceeeseeeeee Seco eee cece c cence cree econ sees es eeeccesesccccsnesss 213
BAGATELLE ...... ‘See ceee cent cece ee cece eee e ence tees rece ee cesec cscs ccscescsnsesesenssses 210 |
CHESS ..... 0. eee e evens bea eeceeneceeees ee eeees been cence ee eeceeeeeseeesceeeees Seeesecscecee 218
Learning to Play Chess ........cccccecceccccc rec cscc ect ecececesceseacserssscesseeesnes 219,
The King......... ce we ee erecensceecces cece ee reece cece eee eect cence eeecesecensseseees 220
The Queen... ....ccecee ceccese cere nsc ce reereser snes serene: senerees sees e sete nenecnss 221°
The Bishops...... meee e tee eee ee cece eset cence estan eee ee eee eens see eseeeeeeeentenes BLE
The Knight ......cccccssccccccccrcccscsscccccescccsseeseceseesessccssenesestenssessces BES
302 CONTENTS.

Cuess (continued ). PAGE.
The Castles........cccccccsscceseeee ote cesesenecoes ee cecsces cect encvocccecescess seccee 224
The Pawns........ccccccsccccccccccccscccccccsccccesecceces ee cceeee vee ceceeee ccc ecceees 225
Relative Value of the Pieces ........ccccccccccccccc cnc cccssceececcsecsceeussnsssns seuss 225
Playing a Game.....ccccccccccccccccce rs ccene tence ar ceases cesses seen seesseneseereeseses 226
Chess Notation .... ccc ccc ccc cc ccc cence t ec ece eee cere ee ee eee neta e eens esses ensseseenees 228

‘ Study of Problems...............ceceeseees see e ee ecw este eset cece anes cece seeeeeeetene 230
Rules of the Game............0:. cee cee eee tern cee erence ratte tenn nse esse eee weeeees 233

DOUBLE CHESS. .....c ccc cece c cece ccce eer ete e et ane nr asec eee e nese ec eeesessecesoees ee eeceees 237
Examples in Opening.........cccscc ese cece cece cece nae seec sees ee seee ee eeeseessecsseeres 239
Rules and Penalties........ ccc ccc ccc scree ec cence ence access cese cere cee ssceseeeee see » 240

DRAUGBTS, .. 2... cc ccc cece cc cece cee cee e serene eee e ee ene esses eeeecesnesens Seer e cee cereeccees « 241
Laws of the Game... ... cere cece creer te eee ee eee ccna eee e sees see ee en eeesenecesueseeee 243

DOMINOES... 0c. cc ccc ccec cc cece ee cece cee tenet eee eee ee eee eee ee eee eee eee eee seen ee see teens 245
Matadore Game... .....cccec ccc c cee c ccs eeeseccsees Lec ac eect ececescces pee cccccceseccees 248
All Threes...... ea cee wee merece een ee eee ee ee eeeneseee Lecce ceca cece eee ceseesenesessesece 248

BACKGAMMON.... cc cc ccc ccc cc cece cee ee ee teen eee eee eee een ee eee ee eee tutte cnet ene eeeeeeeene 249
Technical Terms of Game. ........002000 cccccvccccccccccccees Lec e er eee seteeceescsecee 250
How the Game is Played........ ccc cccsec cece cc cneenne cence teres eneseseee seeeees eons 251

PARCHEESI... 0... ccc cc ence cece ete e teen cette eet e eee ee eee ee Been eter cece tent eee ee neee eseee 253

RING TOSS............ a ccc ceecees oe 255

JACK STRAWS ......20.25 cece cece cc nceccences sas eenecccnccccences ee ee ec ee ec ee ee ree ceeees 256

THIRTY-ONE 20. ccc cece cece cree cece cc ecc esse eseseence bee e ec ee eee ee rec ees ce eect esos eeres 257

FOX AND GEESE... 0... ccc ccc cece ccc cent eee e eee teen eee eee eee ee ee eee eene eset anes ceeees 259

" MORRICE... 0... cee ee cece cece Cece cee cee tee eee ee ree eee eee ee eee eens ene e wees e ee eenees . 261

KNUCKLE-BONES.. 2... cc cece cc cccccccccrecs Lee ne ccc eceee Lecce cence cece cece esse ese tececeses 262

SOLITAIRE... 6. cece cece ccc cence cece cece cece ence eee e eee tena beet eee e eee eee eee eee aeeneee 264

FORFEITS... 0. cc ccc cc cette ccc cece cee ee eee eee eee ee eee te eee e eee eee eee eee ee erenes sane 265
The Four Elements.............ccceee ssc rec snc cesses eens e snes cece n rece ceescecceees 265
The Family Coach...... ese ceee beta cece eet e nee e eee ese eee eee ee ee eee ease eens eeeee 265
My Lady's Toilet ...... cece cece cece cece cc er eter ete seen eens sere eesee eee ereris we ecceee 267
The Huntsman ....... ccc ccc c cece cee es cece cece nese ce eee c cence cee ence sence eeeeeees 267
Game of the Key.........ccccce cece cece ene e etree see e sense ener enc esee sess sassseeceseres 268
Acting Rhymes...... cece eee te tthe eee ete e eee eee nee eee en ee ener ent ee eeeereees 268
POSt.. 0c ccc ccc ce ccc cee cee we ee ee eee ee ee eee e reer e nto eee essen tees tees seen eases esene 269
Two Hats... ccc ccc cc cc cc ccc ccc cee c cence ence teeter ence ee ee eee ee ee ee ee eee eeeeeeenees 269
How ? Where? and When?......cccccccccccccc cc cesses ssecsssccscecrcrecesceecsseseeses 270

PENANCES.... ccc ccc ccc ccc cece c cence cece eee cence ee tee eee tees ee ee eens ee ene een een seees 271
Bouquet... ccc ccc cece cess cece ce cc ee tee e tet e nese eee e asec ence eres enee eres eees ces eesees 272
Wit, Beauty, and Love ...... cee cee eee eee ee ee et eee eee ee eer eee ee eee ee eees een eeees 272

— Four Corners... . 2... ccc cect ccc esc e ccc n cece er cece secs cece es ee es en sees enescceceeesees 272.
The Poker Feat... 2... ccc cc ccc cece c esc cn cc ee - ce cee cerns voces eessesseesecceseecceses 272
Disconsolate Lover... ....csccseccccccccenccccscevecs cece cece ce cee tees ee erecesccceee 272

PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS....c.ccsccccccce cece cece ctceens sceeeeer eee see sera seessseroes 273

Leap-Frog.... ccc ccc c cect cece nce e tent ene cence ence ene erase ereenensanc nsec scree ese erees . 274.

Hide and Seek... 02... cece cece cece ence teeerececees cece ee cece ee teen eee e ease cence tcene 275
CONTENTS.

303,

PLAY-GROUND AMUSEMENTS (continued), PAGE.

Whoop............ Sec cc cee ee cevac cece evace Cee meee cee en rc nc ee ee ecereeccceesesesecees
I Spy the Wolf........ cee ce eens Cee cere cece rev cesevecrecs ccm eee ee ee eeesees ee eeeeevee
Jingle-Ring....... ccc cc cee cere ce une cc eenee sec c cre nescaee cee ee en ce eeee see e rece ergo cece

Follow My Leader............. eee w cece rece cen snceeces ees ceee eee eeee Coe e ee eecesesene
Bull in the Ring....... ccec ec erecceseccsece cece cece e wees ences occ c cca econ ee eteeesece
Winding the Clock.............. Sec c cnc cece aveees Coes en ec ere cence eee ccceneececceseees
Drawing the Oven .............0000. Pearce cece see e ce cnes eee eee ener cece cn cesneseens

Tip-Cat........ occ cee seceee Ce neem cer es cece ces nes eesssees eda ececsovcases occa nccveces
Throwing Sticks................ eee eee emcee nee e eee re ccna ee eee een seeeseces eae eesecuce:
Hop Scotch... ...... cc ccc eee c cence cc cacenccacs acca cece eccensene cee scene ec cee svescees
Duck and Drake............ cc cc ecw ccc cees cee cee e eee ee as ceecees eee eeneces bone seesces
Game of Tag... .. ccc cece cee cc cece ee ence een cceeeesscceniescneveceeece ccc ccc cececcecs
Touch-Wood and Touch-Iron............ Co cece ence rene essee oeseesees oe taro cece cesses
Cross Tag.......... pete sews cee cece r acer ec ee eters sseeens cece cece ce ceee cece cece eeee
Bound Hands...........cseccescescccccscecs Cece ew cneececeesess wobec cere ceecene ee eeeee
Dropping the Handkerchief .............cccccccecceceees Cece cee nec c ene secnseases eee
Cap Ball.......... wee e eee ees eee aeacesenceens as cece eens sec cceces re ccceeesces oreceas
Hole Ball..... ee tec cece cee cere cence cree eee eesecces occ c cee c eee ce ne ecceees wee ce cen
Shinney.........ceeeeee eee ete rece ce cece seseees cece cree rescence sccee sees o eee cece .
Baste the Bear...........ccceeeees cee eeeee coe seeee ec cc eee eee eee eeeeeee woe cennseaes

Flying Kites........ (EO eee eee ewe e cece een ences ceeeeeeseares see e eet eeecceacecens sacs
Messengers..........cceccccceee « vec ce ee ce aneees cece eee econ eens wees c cree ceees
Fancy Kites... .... cc. cece cece cece cect cece reece eee ee ccnseecseseee seescceseceseeees
MARBLES... 0. eee ccc eet cence tenet rece een e cere eseueeeeseee seecevcsesecesns ee eee eee
Three Holes........ccccceccececcnsccccecs ea sesecnne Coe cece ee cneceneeeee onsen ecccsenses
Bounce Eye..........6. eee wee e ween soccer anecencs veces Cee neevcccues eo ee cece ne ceee .
Picking the Plums..........ccecssescccecs eovcnese ¢ cessaenece eecevvece ecco eee ceases

Handers esoe toe e ewe eteoes eaten toereesenes 8 ®@eeeersroeveoen nen @esoeceneeeeeenteaentwteeeeeeenne ®eeseees ovens .

Ring-Taw.......ccccee ceccecccccccrcces cece ween e tenes cece eee ee es cceces eeeeeee
Increase Pound......cccsecececececes ee ccc meee ence tate teen ee. meee e a eee eee seeeseeaee
Pyramid........... cose nasce ssecesvees eee ecees eee ene cece cece ares enee eoeee eee esses
Arch-Board, or Nine Holes........ ccc cesecccccccccvecsccccecesascesececes sevesesssene
Odd or Even.......c cece escecaes ccc coscees Cece cece cree eco e eestor es ece trees cssencenes
Eggs in the Bush........c.cccecsccccee eer e emcee cc ene e eee eee teen es ese eases eeesene
The Conqueror........... reece eee ee cece ence eeesses ee ee eet ence cc ees sect ee srecene
TOPS....... cece cece cons co we erevcccens eee e eee e ere cece ee tne ess cereeences oo cence cccccceee
Whip-Top........ acer essence Seen ence cece teen ence cece teen en ee serene eee eee nete seen
Spanish Peg-Top. .....ccsccceccecccese ec cece eranee cece cece so ecw ance nccceuvecenness
Humming-Top.......cseseeeseas cece cree eeecas eee eee ewes eee cee merece res ceseeeene
Peg-Top......... cow ee ewes cee veer ces ee tce cence eee ceee wee e eens wee cere ces cennsccees
’ Peg in the Ring... .......ceeseces ees eeeceeees wees ve cece eres eens choco wate ccccerseces

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